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Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Professional
Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks 2005
Paul M. Kurowski Ph.D., PEng.
SolidWorks
PUBLICATIONS
^
Design Generator, Inc.
Schroff Development Corporation
www.schroff.com
www.schroffeurope.com
Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Professional
Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks 2005
Paul M. Kurowski Ph.D., PEng.
ISBN: 1585032492
SDC
PUBLICATIONS
Schroff Development Corporation www.schroff.com
www.schroffcurope.com
General Library System University of Wisconsin  Madison 728 State Street Madison, Wl 537061494 U.S.A.
IrabematKs and/Disclaimer
SolidWorks and its family of products are registered trademarks of Dassault Systemes. COSMOS Works is registered trademarks of Structural Research & Analysis Corporation. Microsoft Windows and its family products are registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation. Every effort has been made to provide an accurate text. The author and the manufacturers shall not be held liable for any parts developed with this book or held responsible for any inaccuracies or errors that appear in the book.
Copyright © 2005 by Paul M. Kurowski
All rights reserved. This document may not be copied, photocopied, reproduced, transmitted, or translated in any form or for any purpose without trie express written consent ot the publisher, Schroff Development Corporation.
General Library System University of Wisconsin  Madison 728 State Street Madison, Wl 537061494 U.S.A.
Trademarks and Disclaimer
SolidWorks and its family of products are registered trademarks of Dassault Systemes. COSMOS Works is registered trademarks of Structural Research & Analysis Corporation. Microsoft Windows and its family products are registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation. Every effort has been made to provide an accurate text. The author and the manufacturers shall not be held liable for any parts developed with this book or held responsible for any inaccuracies or errors that appear in the book.
Copyright © 2005 by Paul M. Kurowski
All rights reserved. This document may not be copied, photocopied, reproduced, transmitted, or translated in any form or for any purpose without the express written consent of the publisher, Schroff Development Corporation.
professional organizations.— Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks KM 7m Acknowledgements Writing this book was a substantial effort that would not have been possible without the help and support of my professional colleagues and friends. His professional interests focus on Computer Aided Engineering methods used as design tools for faster and more effective product development processes where numerical models replace physical prototypes. the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Suchit Jain Maciej P. He has published many technical papers and taught professional development seminars for the Society of Automotive Engineers. Machine Design. Joseph Vera. 1 would like to thank: • • • SolidWorks Corporation Mathseed Expeditions Tutoring Javelin Technologies. SolidWorks Corporation. Paul is the President of Design Generator Inc.com or pkurowski@rogers.D. Kurowski John Carlan. Paul Kurowski can be contacted at www. and training in Computer Aided Engineering methods. Bill McEachern. Mechanics of Materials. a consulting firm with expertise in Product Development. and Ph. Paul is a member of the Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario and the Society of Automotive Engineers. About the Author Dr. Inc. Karen Zapata I would like to thank the students attending my training courses in Finite Element Analysis.. and the University of Western Ontario. the Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC). I thank my wife Elzbieta for her support and encouragement that made it possible to write this book. Dynamics of Machines and Solid Modeling for universities. the Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario.designgenerator. He completed postdoctoral work at Kyoto University. and Javelin Technologies.. Rand Worldwide. His teaching experience includes Finite Element Analysis. in Applied Mechanics from Warsaw Technical University. Paul Kurowski obtained his M. Design Analysis.TA o .com i . Ted Lee.Sc. and industries. for their questions and comments that helped to shape the unique approach this book takes.
Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks About the cover The image on the cover presents heal flux results in the microchip heat sink. u . Sec chapter 8 for details.
Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Table of contents Before You Start Notes on handson exercises Prerequisites Windows XP terminology 1 1: Introduction What is Finite Element Analysis? Who should use Finite Element Analysis? Objectives of FEA for Design Engineers What is COSMOSWorks? Fundamental steps in an FEA project Errors in FEA A closer look at finite elements What is calculated in FEA? How to interpret FEA results Units of measurements Using online help Limitations of COSMOSWorks Professional 3 2: Static analysis of a plate Using COSMOSWorks interface Linear static analysis with solid elements The influence of mesh density on displacement and stress results Controlling discretization errors by the convergence process Presenting FEA results in desired format Finding reaction forces 25 in .
Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks 3: Static analysis of an Lbracket Stress singularities Differences between modeling errors and discretization errors Using mesh controls Analysis in different SolidWorks configurations 61 4: Frequency analysis of a thin plate with shell elements Use of shell elements for analysis of thin walled structures Frequency analysis 75 5: Static analysis of a link Symmetry boundary conditions Defining restraints in a local coordinate system Preventing rigid body motions Limitations of small displacements theory 91 6: Frequency analysis of a tuning fork Frequency analysis with and without supports Rigid body modes The role of supports in frequency analysis 99 7: Thermal analysis of a pipeline component Steady state thermal analysis Analogies between structural and thermal analysis Analysis of temperature distribution and heat flux 105 8: Thermal analysis of a heat sink Analysis of an assembly Global and local Contact/Gaps conditions Steady state thermal analysis Transient thermal analysis Thermal resistance layer Use of section views in results plots 113 IV .
Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks 3: Static analysis of an Lbracket Stress singularities Differences between modeling errors and discretization errors Using mesh controls Analysis in different SolidWorks configurations 4: Frequency analysis of a thin plate with shell elements Use of shell elements for analysis of thin walled structures Frequency analysis 5: Static analysis of a link Symmetry boundary conditions Defining restraints in a local coordinate system Preventing rigid body motions Limitations of small displacements theory 6: Frequency analysis of a tuning fork Frequency analysis with and without supports Rigid body modes The role of supports in frequency analysis 7: Thermal analysis of a pipeline component Steady state thermal analysis Analogies between structural and thermal analysis Analysis of temperature distribution and heat flux 8: Thermal analysis of a heat sink Analysis of an assembly Global and local Contact/Gaps conditions Steady state thermal analysis Transient thermal analysis Thermal resistance layer Use of section views in results plots IV .
Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 9: Static analysis of a hanger Analysis of assembly Global and local Contact/Gaps conditions Hierarchy of Contact/Gaps conditions 127 10: Analysis of contact stress between two plates Assembly analysis with surface contact conditions Contact stress analysis Avoiding rigid body modes 139 11: Thermal stress analysis of a bimetal beam Thermal stress analysis of an assembly Use of various techniques in defining restraints Shear stress analysis 145 12: Buckling analysis of an Lbeam Buckling analysis Buckling load safety factor Stress safety factor 153 13: Design optimization of a plate in bending Structural optimization analysis Optimization goal Optimization constraints Design variables 157 14: Static analysis of a bracket using pelcments Pelements Padaptive solution method Comparison between helements and pelements 169 v .
Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks 15: Design sensitivity analysis Design sensitivity analysis using Design Scenario 179 16: Drop test of a coffee mug Drop test analysis Stress wave propagation Direct time integration solution 1S7 17: Miscellaneous topics Selecting the automesher Solvers and solvers options Displaying mesh in result plots Automatic reports E drawings Non uniform loads Bearing load Frequency analysis with prestress Large deformation analysis Shrink fit analysis Rigid connector Pin connector Bolt connector 195 18: Implementation of FEA into the design process FEA driven design process FEA project management FEA project checkpoints FEA report 219 19: Glossary of terms 227 20: Resources available to FEA User 235 VI .
you will notice that explanations and steps described in detail in earlier exercises are not repeated later. However. The functionality of COSMOS Works2005 depends on which software bundle is used. not all of the software functions are explained. In this book we cover the functionality of COSMOSWorks Professional 2005. We recommend that you study the exercises in the order presented in the text.coiu/. these should be treated as a "last resort" as we encourage you to complete exercises without this help. experience and understanding gained from problems in the previous exercises. we also provide exercises in readytomesh form. While you are guided through the specific exercises. Every exercise builds on the skills.schroffl. We encourage you to explore each exercise beyond its description by investigating other options. An exception to the above is chapter 18. and other ways to present results. This book is not intended to replace regular software manuals. As you go through the exercises. Functionality of different bundles is explained in the following table: COSMOSWorks Designer Linear static analysis of parts and assemblies with gap/contact COSMOSWorks Professional The features of COSMOSWorks Designer plus: Frequency analysis Buckling analysis Drop test analysis Thermal analysis COSMOSWorks Advanced Professional The features of COSMOSWorks Professional plus: Nonlinear analysis Fatigue analysis Dynamic analysis Composite analysis All exercises use SolidWorks models of parts or assemblies. You will soon discover that the same simple logic applies to all functions in COSMOSWorks software. Each subsequent exercise assumes familiarity with software functions discussed in previous exercises. which is the only chapter without handson exercises.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Before You Start Notes on handson exercises This book goes beyond a standard software manual because its unique approach concurrently introduces you to COSMOSWorks software and the fundamentals of Finite Element Analysis through handson exercises. other menu choices. which you can download from http://www. 1 . For your reference. Implementation ofFEA into the design process.
and invoke popup menus. and folder and icon names appear in italics except in illustrations captions. Selected menu items and COSMOSWorks commands appear in bold. Use the mouse to point to an object. and then click the left mouse button inside the popup menu or text box. Use this technique to modify the names of folders and icons in COSMOSWorks Manager. Move the mouse pointer to a new location. Press and hold the left mouse button down. Use the left mouse button to select a menu command. which use only italics. The mouse pointer is used to execute commands. Click the right mouse button. Release the left mouse button. A popup menu is displayed. Wait a second. select geometry. even though the actual file name may use a combination of small and capital letters. Drag Rightclick All SolidWorks files names appear in CAPITAL letters.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Prerequisites We assume that you have the following prerequisites: a • a An understanding of Mechanics of Materials Experience with parametric. Item Click Doubleclick Clickinside Self explanatory Self explanatory Description Click the left mouse button. solid modeling using SolidWorks software Familiarity with the Windows Operating System Windows XP terminology The mouse pointer plays a very important role in executing various commands and providing user feedback. We will use Windows terminology when referring to mousepointer actions. 2 .
However.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 1: Introduction What is Finite Element Analysis? Finite Element Analysis. FEA works with different levels of geometry idealization and provides results with the desired accuracy. the Boundary Element Method. and the Finite Volumes Method to mention just a few. such as vehicle crash dynamics. Design engineers use FEA during the product development process to analyze the designinprogress. we first need to explain what exactly distinguishes FEA performed by design engineers from "regular" FEA. hydro forming. soil mechanics. data bases. prototypes. You can use FEA to analyze any shape. spreadsheets. hand calculations. text books. When implemented into modern commercial software. 3 . FEA is used for solving problems in many engineering disciplines such as machine design. Other numerical methods include the Finite Difference Method. commonly called FEA. We will then highlight the most essential FEA characteristics for design engineers as opposed to those for analysts. FEA is used to solve problems ranging from very simple to very complex. acoustics. or air bag deployment. FEA for Design Engineers: another design tool For design engineers. Who should use Finite Element Analysis? As a powerful tool for engineering analysis. while other methods have been relegated to niche applications. electromagnetism. vibration. etc. FEA is widely used for solving structural. is a method of numerical analysis. specialized analysts implement FEA to solve very advanced problems. FEA is one of many design tools among CAD. both FEA theory and numerical problem formulation become completely transparent to users. due to its versatility and high numerical efficiency. However. At the other end of scale. that are all used in the design process. This book focuses on how design engineers use FEA as a design tool. and thermal problems. FEA has come to dominate the engineering analysis software market. Therefore. In mathematical terms. catalogs. In mechanical engineering. and many others. FEA is not the only available tool of numerical analysis. fluid dynamics. Time constraints and limited availability of product data call for many simplifications of the analysis models. FEA is a numerical technique used for solving field problems described by a set of partial differential equations.
the results must be reliable even when limited input is available. and are usually better handled either by a dedicated analyst or contracted out to specialized consultants. and how a CAD model is different from FEA model. type of products. FEA for Design Engineers: concurrent with the design process Since FEA is a design tool. This will be discussed in later chapters. Since CAD models are used for describing geometric information for FEA. company organization and culture. 4 . so a CAD model is the starting point for analysis. and since these results are used to make design decisions. it is essential to understand how to design in CAD in order to produce reliable FEA results. Analysis iterations must be performed fast. Limitations of FEA for Design Engineers As you can see. drive the design process. FEA used in the design environment must meet high requirements. A general consensus is that design engineers should handle relatively simple types of analysis. and many other tangible and intangible factors. An obvious question arises: would it be better to have a dedicated specialist perform FEA and let design engineers do what they do best . or better yet.design new products? The answer depends on the size of the business. but do it quickly and of course reliably.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks FEA for Design Engineers: based on CAD models Modern design is conducted using CAD tools. Analyses that are very complex and time consuming cannot be executed concurrently with the design process. it should be used concurrently with the design process. It should keep up with.
TRADITIONAL PRODUCT DESIGN PROCESS FEADRIVEN PRODUCT DESIGN PROCESS DESIGN It PROTOTYPING PROTOTYPING TESTING TESTING it PRODUCTION PRODUCTION Figure 11: Traditional and. In an FEAdriven product. With the use of FEA. design iterations are moved from the physical space of prototyping and testing into the virtual space of computer simulations (figure 11). The process in FEAdriven product development uses numerical models. rather than physical prototypes to drive development. FEAdrivcn product development Traditional product development needs prototypes to support design in progress. prototype. the prototype is no longer a part of the iterative design loop. 5 . test" into a streamlined process where prototypes are not used as design tools and are only needed for final design verification.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Objectives ofFEA for Design Engineers The ultimate objective of using the FEA as a design tool is to change the design process from repetitive cycles of "design.
COSMOSWorks has been specifically developed for Windows and takes full advantage this of deep integration between SolidWorks and Windows. featuredriven CAD system. Fundamental steps in an FEA project The starting point for any COSMOSWorks project is a SolidWorks model. In summary. etc. as is always the case with using any FEAbased analysis tool. Creating finite elements is commonly called meshing. SolidWorks is a solid. COSMOSWorks is tightly integrated with SolidWorks CAD software and uses SolidWorks for creating and editing model geometry. parametric. Next. heat flow. The commercial success of COSMOSWorks integrated with SolidWorks CAD software resulted in the acquisition of SRAC in 2001 by Dassault Systemes. loads and restraints are defined. As opposed to many other CAD systems that were originally developed in a UNIX environment and only later ported to Windows. In 2003. The elements are called "finite" to emphasize the fact that they are not infinitesimally small. we split the geometry into relatively small and simply shaped entities. material properties. but only reasonably small in comparison to the overall model size. such as the analysis of deformations. At this stage. 6 . SRAC was established in 1982 and since its inception has contributed to innovations that have had a significant impact on the evolution of FEA. which became the topselling analysis solution for SolidWorks Corporation. capable of solving problems commonly found in design engineering. SRAC operations merged with SolidWorks Corporation. stresses. When working with finite elements. It belongs to the family of engineering analysis software products developed by the Structural Research & Analysis Corporation (SRAC). one of the first SolidWorks Gold Products. although the history of the family of COSMOS FEA products dates back to 1982. the COSMOSWorks solver approximates the solution being sought (for example. In 1995 SRAC partnered with the SolidWorks Corporation and created COSMOSWorks. SolidWorks CAD was developed specifically for the Windows Operating System from the very beginning. which can be one part or an assembly. natural frequencies. COSMOSWorks addresses the needs of design engineers. deformations or stresses) by assembling the solutions for individual elements. parent of SolidWorks Corporation. representing the stateoftheart in the engineering analysis software.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks What is COSMOSWorks? COSMOSWorks is a commercial implementation of FEA. called finite elements.
logos. representing thin walls with surfaces Sometimes needed because for geometry to be meshable. Geometry of the model needs to be meshable into a correct and reasonably small element mesh. stresses.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks From the perspective of FEA software. chamfers. we can list the following FEA steps: • a • • Building the mathematical model Building the finite element model Solving the finite element model Analyzing the results The following subsections discuss these four steps. described below: Term Defeaturing Description The process of removing geometry features deemed insignificant for analysis. This necessity often requires modifications to the CAD geometry. that could be tolerated in the CAD model. it must satisfy much higher quality demands than those required for Solid Modeling. such as external fillets. From the perspective of FEA methodology. idealization and/or cleanup. temperature distribution. which can take the form of defeaturing. etc. This requirement of meshability has very important implications. A more aggressive exercise that may depart from solid CAD geometry by for example. To cleanup. multiple entities. etc. etc. which involves defining the model and then splitting it into finite elements Postprocessing for results analysis U Solution for computing wanted results J We will follow the above three steps every time we use COSMOSWorks. each application of FEA requires three steps: • Preprocessing of the FEA model. but would make subsequent meshing difficult or impossible Idealization Cleanup 7 . we can use CAD qualitycontrol tools to check for problems like sliver faces. such as displacements. Building the mathematical model The starting point to analysis with COSMOSWorks is a SolidWorks model. We need to ensure that the CAD geometry will indeed mesh and that the produced mesh will provide the correct solution of the data of interest.
successful meshing depends as much on the quality of geometry submitted for meshing as it does on the sophistication of the meshing tools implemented in the FEA software. (ir required) . Often. restraints material properties. definition of loads. Modification ot seometn. . .vvenovg teime material properties (these can also be imported from a SolidWorks model). geometry preparation may not be required at all. but the resulting mesh would be too large and consequently. . Loads . and definition of the type of analysis (e. correctly "as is".. Also. WaVvrvo rserjareA am^aVAe^utuoYNe\me%\\e& °eometxv .. and provide information on the type of analysis that we wish to perform.g. static) that we wish to perform. Geometry modifications allow for a simpler mesh and shorter computing times.. . This procedure completes the creation of the mathematical model (figure 12). . loads and restraints. the analysis would take too much time. FEA has not yet entered the picture.. Notice that the process of creating the mathematical model is not FEAspecific. . . Restraints * I! t t Material properties Type of analysis CAD geometry FEA geometry Figure 12: Building the mathematical model The process of creating a mathematical model consists of the modification of CAD geometry (here removing external fillets).Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks It is important to mention that we do not always simplify the CAD model with the sole objective of making it meshable.. we must simplify a model even though It would mesh.
Also. static) that we wish to perform. Often.. geometry preparation may not be required at all. restraints. but not yet meshed geometry. and definition of the type of analysis (e. but the resulting mesh would be too large and consequently. This procedure completes the creation of the mathematical model (figure 12). the analysis would take too much time. and provide information on the type of analysis that we wish to perform. material properties. FEA has not yet entered the picture. loads and restraints. successful meshing depends as much on the quality of geometry submitted for meshing as it does on the sophistication of the meshing tools implemented in the FEA software.g. Geometry modifications allow for a simpler mesh and shorter computing times. Notice that the process of creating the mathematical model is not FEAspecific. Modification of geometry *M Loads Restraints k * " MATHEI ATTCAL MOBEL "M: t t Material Type of 1 roperties analysis geometry FEA geometry Figure 12: Building the mathematical model The process of creating a mathematical model consists of the modification of CAD geometry (here removing external fillets). . Having prepared a meshable. we now define material properties (these can also be imported from a SolidWorks model). we must simplify a model even though it would mesh correctly "as is".Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks It is important to mention that we do not always simplify the CAD model with (he sole objective of making it meshable. definition of loads.
iiliS!"' FEA model FEA results Figure 13: Building the finite element model The mathematical model is discretized into a finite element model. more commonly known as meshing (figure 13). Proper interpretation of results requires that we understand all simplifications (and errors they introduce) in the first three steps: defining the mathematical model. Discretization Numerical solver I MATHEMATICAL MODEL I :. Analyzing the results Often the most difficult step of FEA is analyzing the results. meshing its geometry. 9 . we now use a solver provided in COSMOSWorks to produce the desired data of interest (figure 13). and solving. Solving the finite element model Having created the finite element model. This completes the preprocessing phase.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Building the finite element model The mathematical model now needs to be split into finite elements through a process of discretization.oads and restraints are also discretized and once the model has been meshed. the discretized loads and restraints are applied to the nodes of the finite element mesh. I . The FEA model is then solved with one of the numerical solvers available in COSMOSWorks.
only high quality elements should be used for an analysis of any importance. Solid elements The type of geometry that is most often used for analysis with COSMOSWorks is solid CAD geometry. However. the type of analysis. 10 . Meshing of this geometry is accomplished with tetrahedral solid elements. but are usually very low. in FEA tenninology it denotes the type of element. discretization of the mathematical model introduces discretization errors. commonly called "tets" in FEA jargon. In CAD terminology "solid" denotes the type of geometry: solid geometry (as opposed to surface or wire frame geometry). and solving introduces numerical errors. only discretization errors are specific to FEA. Formulation of a mathematical model introduces modeling errors (also called idealization errors). Before proceeding we need to clarify an important terminology issue. A closer look at finite elements Meshing splits continuous mathematical models into finite elements.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Errors in FEA The process illustrated in figures 12 and 13 introduces unavoidable errors. The difference between first and second order tetrahedral elements is illustrated in figure 14. Of these three types of errors. The user decides whether to use draft quality or high quality elements for meshing. or second order elements (high quality). and sometimes on our own preferences. Modeling errors affecting the mathematical model are introduced before FEA is utilized and can only be controlled by using correct modeling techniques. Solution errors caused by the accumulation of roundoff errors are difficult to control. COSMOSWorks offers two types of elements: tetrahedral solid elements (for meshing solid geometry) and shell elements (for meshing surface geometry). The tetrahedral solid elements in COSMOSWorks can either be first order elements (draft quality). as we will soon prove. The type of elements created by this process depends on the type of geometry meshed.
To make matters worse.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Alter deformation After deformation Before deformation Before deformation 2m order tetrahedral element 1* order tetrahedral element Figure 1 4: Differences between first and second order tetrahedral elements First and the second order tetrahedral elements are shown before and after deformation. straight edges. on faces. This situation imposes a very severe limitation on the capability of a mesh constructed with first order elements to model stress distribution of any real complexity. First order tetrahedral elements have four nodes. Therefore. are both constant in first order tetrahedral elements. straight edges and flat faces can not map properly to curvilinear geometry. and flat faces. strain and consequently stress. as illustrated in figure 15. Note that the deformed faces of the second order element may assume curvilinear shape while deformed faces of the first order element must remain fiat. and along edges. The linear (or first order) displacement field gives these elements their name: first order elements. strain is the first derivative of displacement. If you recall from the Mechanics of Materials. 11 . First order tetrahedral elements model the linear field of displacement inside their volume. These edges and faces remain straight and flat after the element has experienced deformation under the applied load.
along laces. and edges. these elements can map precisely to curved surfaces. flat faces approximate the face of the cylindrical hole. Notice the imprecise element mapping to the hole. Second order tetrahedral elements have ten nodes and model the second order (parabolic) displacement field and first order (linear) stress field in their volume. 12 .Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Figure 15: Failure of straight edges and flat faces to map to curvilinear geometry A detail of a mesh created with first order tetrahedral elements. Therefore. Even though these elements are more computationally demanding than first order elements. Figure 16: Mapping curved surfaces A detail is shown of a mesh created with second order tetrahedral Second order elements map well to curvilinear geometry. second order tetrahedral elements are used for the vast majority of analyses with COSMOSWorks. The edges and faces of second order tetrahedral elements before and after deformation can be curvilinear. as illustrated in figure I 6. elements.
While solid elements are created by meshing solid geometry.^ " ' A % X 1 \ 1 /A r k Figure 17: First order shell element This shell element mesh was created with first order elements. Similar to solid elements. shell elements are created by meshing surfaces. COSMOSWorks also offers shell elements. As demonstrated with solid elements. shell elements also come in draft and high quality with analogous consequences with respect to their ability to map to curvilinear geometry.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Shell elements Besides solid elements. the user must provide this information. Shell elements are primarily used for analyzing thinwalled structures. Notice the imprecise mapping of the mesh to curvilinear geometry. first order shell elements model the linear displacement field with constant strain and stress while second order shell elements model the second order (parabolic) displacement field and the first order strain and stress field. Since surface geometry does not carry information about thickness. as shown in figure 17 and figure 18. 1 . 13 .
parts produced by casting are meshed with solid elements. such as the plate shown in figure 19. Certain classes of shapes can be modeled using either solid or shell elements.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Figure 18: Second order shell element Shell element mesh created with second order elements. For example. Often the nature of the geometry dictates what type of element should be used for meshing. 14 . The actual choice depends on the particular requirements of analysis and sometimes on personal preferences. while a sheet metal structure is best meshed with shell elements. The type of elements used depends then on the objective of the analysis. which map correctly to curvilinear geometry. Figure 19: Plate modeled with solid elements (left) and shell elements The plate shown can be modeled with either solid elements (left) or shell elements (right).
The degrees of freedom (DOF) of a node in a finite element mesh define the ability of the node to perform translation or rotation. In COSMOSWorks. z displacements. In 15 . Second order element Parabolic (second order) displacement field Linear stress field ^3 Most commonly used element /A "*4 Figure 110: COSMOSWorks element library Four element types are available in the COSMOSWorks element library.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Figure 110. Both solid and shell first order elements should be avoided. while nodes of shell elements have six degrees of freedom. most often the x. The number of degrees of freedom that a node possesses depends on the type of element that the node belongs to. we only need to know three translational components of nodal displacement. Elements like a hexahedral solid. The vast majority of analyses use the second order tetrahedral element. This means that in order to describe transformation of a solid element from the original to the deformed shape. below. nodes of solid elements have three degrees of freedom. y. presents the basic library of elements in COSMOSWorks. quadrilateral shell or other shapes are not available in COSMOSWorks Triangular shell element 6 Degrees of Freedom per node Tetrahedral solid element 3 Degrees of Freedom per node First order element Linear displacement field Constant stress field I / / A \ 2 / / \ "•••• \ '.
Discussion of various failure criteria would be out of the scope of this book. which finds temperatures and heat flow. Here we will limit our discussion to outlining the differences between two commonly used stress measures: von Mises stress and the principal stress. nodal displacements are the primary unknowns. While displacement and frequency criteria are quite obvious and easy to establish. stress criteria are not. Let's assume that we need to conduct a stress analysis in order to ensure that stresses are within an acceptable range. which may include maximum acceptable deformation. maximum stress. In a thermal analysis. or lowest acceptable natural frequency. It is up to us to decide which stress measure to use for issuing a "pass" or "fail" verdict. then regardless of what type of element is used. The fact that there is only one unknown to be found for each node. [fa part breaks. there are three displacement components (or 3 degrees of freedom) per node that must be calculated. Any textbook on the Mechanics of Materials provides information on this topic. we need to know not only the translational components of nodal displacements. such as strains and stresses. we need to establish some criteria to interpret FEA results. makes thermal analysis less computationally intensive than structural analysis. shear stress. Consequently. 16 . But how do we decide if a design "passes" or "fails" and what does it take for alarms to go off? What exactly constitutes a failure? To answer these questions. are calculated based on the nodal displacements.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks the case of shell elements. Rigid restraints applied to shell elements require that all six degrees of freedom be constrained. If solid elements are used. In structural analysis. What is calculated in FEA ? Each degree of freedom of every node in a finite element mesh constitutes an unknown. or something else? COSMOSWorks can present stress results in any form we want. Since temperature is a scalar value (unlike the vector nature of displacements). maximum principal stress. All other results available in the thermal analysis are calculated based on temperature results. where we look at deformations and stresses. Everything else. rigid restraints applied to solid elements require only three degrees of freedom to be constrained. To judge stress results. we need to understand the mechanism of potential failure. there is only one unknown (temperature) to be found for each node. How to interpret FEA results Results of structural FEA are provided in the form of displacements and stresses. six displacement components (or 6 degrees of freedom) must be calculated. the primary unknowns are nodal temperatures. Interested readers can also refer to books listed in chapter 20. rather than three or six. With shell elements. but also the rotational displacement components. what stress measure best describes that failure? Is it von Mises stress.
(7z)2 + (CT= . a^.O . a z and six shear stresses TVV = TVY. 17 . av. rv Von Mises stress oeq.(Jx)2 ] + 3 * (jxy2 + Ty~2 + TJ ) or by three principal stresses (see the next paragraph) as: (Jeq = y 0 . ) 2 ] Note that von Mises stress is a nonnegative. Due to equilibrium requirements. steel) can be evaluated using von Mises stress. can be expressed either by six stress components as: (Jeq = A J O . G2) + « T 2 <T 3 ) 2 +(<T3 .and rTV = rVA. scalar value. the general 3D state of stress is characterized by six stress components: ax.. is a stress measure that accounts for all six stress components of a general 3D state of stress (figure 111). Figure 111: General state of stress represented by three normal stresses: o\. The magnitude of von Mises stress can be compared to material yield or to ultimate strength to calculate the yield strength or the ultimate strength safety factor. a. 5 * [((Jx . >. TX7 = T7X Two components of shear stress and one component of normal stress act on each side of an elementary cube. 5 * [ ( C r . TV7 = T7V. also known as Huber stress.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Von Mises stress Von Mises stress. Von Mises stress is commonly used to present results because structural safety for many engineering materials showing elastoplastic properties (for example..(Jy) + (0"v .
PI stress is used for evaluating stress results in parts made of brittle material whose safety is better related to PI than to von Mises stress 18 . and 03. Figure 112: General state of stress represented bv three principal stresses: a. o2.. and P3. shear stresses disappear and the state of stress is represented only by three principal stresses: o : . o. In COSMOSWorks. a.. $* O . principal stresses are denoted as PI. as shown in figure 112.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Principal stresses By properly adjusting the angular orientation of the stress cube in figure 111. P2.
in the English system. lb. The system of units in CAD models is not always consistent. for the user's convenience. in FEA all units must be consistent. International System (SI) Mass Length Time Force Mass density Temperature kg m s N kg/m °K J Metric (MKS) English (IPS) lb. The distinction between these two is quite clear in SI units: Mass density is expressed in [kg/m3]. However. Contrary to CAD models. the unit manager allows data entry in three different systems of units: SI. especially when defining mass and mass density. the choice of the system of units is dictated by what units are used in the CAD model. we may be asked to prepare data or interpret the results of other FEA software where we do not have the convenience of the unit manager. As COSMOSWorks users. while mass density can be expressed in [kg/m3]. However. s lb.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Units of measurements Internally. We can use any consistent system of units for FEA models. while specific gravity in [N/m3]./in. and English systems of units can be interchanged when entering data or analyzing results in COSMOSWorks. and they can lead to very serious errors.3]. expressed in [lb/in. However. Therefore. length can be expressed in [mm]. 19 . Results can be displayed using any of the three unit systems.3 °F kg cm s Kgf kg/cm °C Figure 113: Unit systems available in COSMOSWorks SI. we will make some general comments about the use of different systems of units in the preparation of input data for FEA models. where [lb] denotes either pound mass or pound force. both specific mass and specific gravity are . Figure 113 summarizes the available systems of units. Metric. Inconsistencies are easy to overlook. we are spared much confusion and trouble with systems of units. Metric. and English. but in practice. in. COSMOSWorks uses the International System of Units (SI). Experience indicates that units of mass density are often confused with units of specific gravity.
and [s]. and with the English (IPS) system of units. the unit of mass is defined as a mass which.794 x 10"9 tonne/mm3 English system (IPS) Unit of mass Unit of mass density Density of aluminum [in]. kilograms [kg] for mass and seconds [s] for time. and time in seconds [s]. all other units are easily derived from these basic units.000 kg or one metric ton. [s] tonne/mm3 2. [s] LB = slug/12 slug/12/in. [LB]. which is based on meters [m] for length. 20 .3 2. the unit of mass in a system using [mm] for length and [N] for force.614 xl0' 4 slug/12/in. This is critically important to remember when defining material properties in FEA software without a unit manager.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks In the SI system. [s] kg kg/m 2794 kg/m3 System of units derived from SI Unit of mass Unit of mass density Density of aluminum tonne [mm]. is equivalent to 1. In mechanical engineering. Consequently. will accelerate with a unit acceleration of 1 mm/s2. All other units must then be derived from these basic units: [mm]. 3 Figure 114: Mass densities of aluminum in the three systems of units Comparison of numerical values of mass densities of aluminum defined in the SI system of units with the system of units derivedfrom SI. when subjected to a unit force equal to IN. System SI Unit of mass Unit of mass density Density for aluminum [m]. [N]. length is commonly expressed in millimeters [mm]. [N]. mass density is expressed in metric tonnes [tonne/mm3]. force in Newtons [N]. Notice in figure 114 that an erroneous definition of mass density in [kg/m3] rather than in [tonne/mm3] results in mass density being one trillion (1012) times higher (figure 114). Consequently. [N]. Therefore.
21 .. f' SolidWorks Help Topics Quick Tips COSMOSWorks QuickTips SolidWorks API and AddIns Help Topics Moving from AutoCAD Introducing SoiidWorks Online Tutorial What's New Manual Interactive What's U&M Service Packs..Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Using online help COSMOSWorks features very extensive online Help and Tutorial functions. COSMOSWorks Help Topics COSMOSWorks Online Tutorial COSMOSWorks Service Facte. SolidWor <• t <^ I Customise Menu Figure 115: Accessing the online Help and Tutorial Online Help and Tutorial can be accessed from the main COSMOSWorks toolbar.. which can be accessed from the Help menu in the main COSMOSWorks tool bar (figure 115). SolidWorks Release Notes About..
meaning that stress is proportional to strain (figure 116).000 N. and the factor of safety is most often related to the yield stress. an absurdly high stress value. Linear material Whatever material we assign to the analyzed parts or assemblies. if stress reaches 800 MPa under a load of 1.000 MPa is of course. this material will be assumed as linear. Using a linear material model.000 MPa under a load of 10. 8. Material yielding is not modeled. in a linear model. then stress will reach 8. 22 .000 N. STRESS Linear material model used by COSMOSWorks Professional Linear ranee Nonlinear material model available in COSMOSWorks Advanced Professional STRAIN Figure 116: Linear material model assumed in COSMOSWorks In all materials used by COSMOSWorks Professional stress is linearly proportional to strain. deformations are small. For example.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Limitations of COSMOSWorks Professional We need to appreciate some important limitations of COSMOSWorks Professional: material is assumed as linear. the maximum stress magnitude is not limited to yield or to ultimate stress as it is in real life. the analysis limitations imposed by linear material seldom impede COSMOSWorks Professional users. Most analyzed structures experience stresses below the yield stress. and whether or not yield may in fact be taking place can only be established based on the stress magnitudes reported in results. and loads are static. Therefore.
000 N.000 MPa under a load of 10. and whether or not yield may in fact be taking place can only be established based on the stress magnitudes reported in results. Using a linear material model.000 N. and loads are static. Most analyzed structures experience stresses below the yield stress. if stress reaches 800 MPa under a load of 1. meaning that stress is proportional to strain (figure 116). then stress will reach 8. in a linear model. the analysis limitations imposed by linear material seldom impede COSMOSWorks Professional users. stress is linearly proportional to strain. Therefore.000 MPa is of course.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Limitations of COSMOSWorks Professional We need to appreciate some important limitations of COSMOSWorks Professional: material is assumed as linear. Linear material Whatever material we assign to the analyzed parts or assemblies. the maximum stress magnitude is not limited to yield or to ultimate stress as it is in real life. an absurdly high stress value. 72 . 8. this material will be assumed as linear. deformations are small. Material yielding is not modeled. STRESS Linear material model used by COSMOSWorks Professional Linear ranae Nonlinear material model available in COSMOSWorks Advanced Professional STRAIN . Figure 116: Linear material model assumed in COSMOSWorks In all materials used by COSMOSWorks Professional. and the factor of safety is most often related to the yield stress. For example.
Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks
Small deformations Any structure experiences deformation under load. The Small Deformations assumption requires that these deformations be "small". What exactly is a small defonnation? Often it is explained as a deformation that is small in relation to the overall size of the structure. For example, large deformations of a beam are shown in figure 117.
\
Shape before deformation
Shape after deformation
Figure 117: Beam experiencing large deformations in bending COSMOSWorks Professional assumes that deformations are small. If deformations are large, as shown in this illustration, these assumptions do not apply. Other COSMOS analysis tools, such as COSMOSWorks Advanced Professional must be used to analyze this structure. However, the magnitude of defonnation is not the deciding factor when classifying defonnation as "small" or "large". What really matters is whether or not the defonnation changes structural stiffness in a significant way. An analysis run with the assumption of small defonnations assumes that the structural stiffness remains the same throughout the deformation process. Large deformation analysis accounts for changes of stiffness caused by deformations. While the distinction between small and large deformations is quite obvious for the beam in figure 1 17, it is not at all obvious for a flat membrane under pressure in figure 118.
23
Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks
Figure 118: Flat membrane under pressure load. Bottom illustrations shows model in a radial cross section. Here is a classic case where the assumption of small deformation leads to erroneous results. Analysis of a flat membrane under pressure requires a large deformation analysis even though deformations are small in comparison to the size of membrane. For a Hat membrane, initially the only mechanism resisting the pressure load is bending stiffness. During the deformation process, the membrane additionally acquires membrane stiffness. In effect, the resultant stiffness changes significantly during deformation. This change in stiffness requires a large deformation analysis, using tools like COSMOSWorks Advanced Professional or COSMOSDesignSTAR.
Static loads
All loads, as well as restraints, are assumed not to change with time, meaning that dynamic loading conditions cannot be analyzed with COSMOSWorks Professional (the only exception is Drop Test analysis). This limitation implies that loads are applied slowly enough to ignore inertial effects. Dynamic analysis can be performed with COSMOSWorks Advanced Professional
24
Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks
2: Static analysis of a plate
Topics covered
a • • • • • Using COSMOSWorks interface Linear static analysis with solid elements The influence of mesh density on displacement and stress results Controlling discretization errors by the convergence process Presenting FEA results in desired format Finding reaction forces
Project description
A steel plate is supported and loaded, as shown in figure 21. We assume that the support is rigid (this is also called builtin support or fixed support) and that the 100,000 N tensile load is uniformly distributed along the end face, opposite to the supported face.
S*N,j :...
Fixed restraint applied to this face
:imS^:V:i?N.
:
M:>..
100,000 N tensile load uniformly distributed on this face
Figure 21: SolidWorks model of a rectangular plate with a hole We will perform displacement and stress analysis using meshes with different element sizes. Note that repetitive analysis with different meshes does not represent standard practice in FEA. We will repeat the analysis using different meshes only as a learning tool to gain more insight into how FEA works.
25
Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks
Procedure
In SolidWorks, open the model file called HOLLOW PLATE. Verify that COSMOSWorks is selected in the Addlns list. To start COSMOSWorks, select the COSMOSWorks Manager tab, as shown in figure 22.
] eOfawings 2005 I FestunsWorks j PhotoWorks J Save As PDF J SolidWorks 2D Emulate "OSMOSVorte ''005 design Anaiysis program by SoSdWorks Z:\COSMOS 2005 beta 2\cosworks.dll
V
%a
hollow plate ; j Parameters IcosMOSViwisl^!^}:
Figure 22: Addlns list and COSMOSWorks Manager tab Verify that COSMOSWorks is selected in the list of Addlns (left), and then select the COSMOSWorks Manager tab (right). To create an FEA model, solve it, and analyze the results, we will use a graphical interface. You can also do this by making the appropriate choices in the COSMOSWorks menu. To call up the menu, select COSMOSWorks from the main tool bar of SolidWorks (figure 23).
26
.. See Figure 24. let's review the Options window in COSMOSWorks (figure 24).. solving. We will use the second method.. and analyzing a model can be executed either from this menu or from the graphical interface in the COSMOSWorks Manager window... Mesh > • Plot Results List Results Result Tools • • • Design Scenario Optimization Fatigue Parameters. Loads/Restraint • Shell.. Before we create the FEA model. 27 . This window can be accessed from the COSMOSWorks main menu (figure 23). $ Help About COSMOSWorks Customize Menu Figure 23: COSMOSWorks menu All functions used for creating.. Import Motion Loads..Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Study.. Export. Launch COSMQSDesignSTAR Options.
28 .. Selecting the Units tab.. from the popup menu. displayed above. Figure 25 shows the required selections in the study definition window: the analysis type is Static. the Part icon is called hollow plate. Angulai velocity unite i Kek lad/sec Help Fjgure 24: COSMOSWorks Options window. rightclick the mouse on the Part icon in the COSMOSWorks Manager window and select Study. shown is Units tab 77?e COSMOSWorks Preferences window has several tabs. In this exercise. allows selection of units of measurement. We will use the SI system. the mesh type is Solid mesh. Creation of an FEA model always starts with the definition of a study. Please review other tabs before proceeding with the exercise. To define a study. as it is in the Solid Works Manager.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Results Genets! j Urite Plot teieiiel Load/Reslraint Export Mesh System of unite: tetigih unic: Tempeiatufe units. The study name is tensile load 01.
Cancel Figure 25: Study window To display the Study window (bottom).. COSMOSWorks automatically creates a study folder (named in this case tensile load 01) and places several subfolders in it (some of these subfolders are empty because their contents must by defined by the user).. 29 . In this exercise.. as shown in figure 26. Not all folders are used in each analysis. and the Mesh folder to create the finite element mesh..Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks hollow pi< !» «>? Parameter*: ornpare Test Data. rightclick the Part icon in the COSMOSWorks Manager window (top left). Part icon Rightclick Define Function Curves Options. and then from the popup menu (top right). select Study.. K y name tensile bad 01 \ Analysis type Static . the Load/Restraint folder to define loads and restraints. we will use the Solids folder to define and assign material properties. When a study is defined.
Therefore. You can assign material properties to the model either by: LI • Rightclicking the mouse on the Solids folder. which is located in the Solids folder.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks t hollow plate J  !  Parameters • ^ f tensile load 01 (Default) ^Solids : ^ hollow plate l"43 Load/Restraint • §§§ Design Scenario • ^ Mesh EbJReport Figure 26: Study folders COSMOSWorks automatically creates a study folder. Design Scenario. We are now ready to define the mathematical model. The first method assigns the same material properties to all components in the model. or Rightclicking the mouse on the hollow plate icon. This process generally consists of the following steps: • • • u Geometry preparation Material properties assignment Restraints application Load application In this case. the model geometry does not need any preparation (it is already very simple). which is automatically created prior to study definition. hollow plate). while the second method assigns material properties to one particular component (in this exercise. called tensile load 01. In this example there is no difference between the two methods. 30 . with the following sab folders: Solids. Mesh and Report folder. The Design Scenario and Report folders will not be used in this exercise. nor will the Parameters folder. there is only one component in the Solids folder. because we are working with a single part and not with an assembly. so we can start by assigning material properties. Load/Restraint.
?: AISI 4340 Steel. Notice that the Solids folder now shows a check mark and the name of the selected material to indicate that a material has successfully been assigned. ." AISI 4340 Steel. v . .. then Select Alloy Steel.y : <o\ isiobsiasfelih':* • ' . iUnits t i ' n " . . cbo! matsrisi source O Use Sofciwaks material CjOMom defined l&nch Properties . Linear Elastic Isotropic I SI O Getito! fbtaty <*r From library fifes : cosmos materials B B :. i**f : Description Value Elastic modulus :zi<*timm\. Select SI units under Properties tab (other units could be used as well). . . .. especially when working with an assembly consisting of parts with many different materials.l i : mmmmms' •mmmmz v:mm »^ .Constant ::. Curves Model Type.EonsSifs.B I S © S a a S E3 AISI4130Steel. AISI Type 316L AISI Type A2 Tc ASTMA38Stee. .Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Rightclick on the Solids folder and select Apply Material to All. you could define your own material by selecting Custom Defined material.:>':.KJ J/llgM \ Temp Dependency : Ite8ter>r:™:iitiii . r'.'.. Note that material assignment actually consists of two steps: • • Material selection (or material definition if custom material is used) Material assignment to either all solids in the model or to selected components (this makes a difference only if the assembly is analyzed) We should also notice that if a material has been defined for a SolidWorks part model. » . ::: Tensile strength Compressive strength Yield strength : Thermal expansion co Thermal conductivity Specific heat 460 •••:*•i.>! ! "r'. If needed. Assigning a material to the SolidWorks model is actually a preferred modeling technique.. Snsfenj.:. Tables S. material definition is automatically transferred to the COSMOSWorks model. C n> • &:#t«r*:. • • : • & . 31 . "" MA N/nT~2 kq/rn~3 N/nT\s NAr)A2 M/nT\2 /Kelvin W/jm. Units: : Category: Name.i.i Help Figure 27: Material window Select From library files in the Select material source area. This action opens the Material window shown in figure 27.: CastA!!qy Steel : Cast Carbon Ste Cast Stainless Si Chrome StsWes.r±..t. . Property NlKr" SHY DENS SIGXT SiSXC SIGYLD AlPX KX C . i . We will do this in later exercises. iSM'S:iPoksort's ratio Shea? modulus 3:IS98aS8s<tJTQ: Mass density moMim. • \. .
. Force.. Connectors.. rightclick the Load/Restraint folder in tensile load 01 study (figure 28). Bearing Load...... Centrifugal......... from the popup menu displayed in figure 28. Temperature.. j hollow plate *  Parameters q* tensile load 01 (Default) ^Solids i hollow plate (Alloy Steel*) Restraints.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks To display the popup menu that lists the options available for defining loads and restraints.. Option. Pressure. 32 . Remote Load.... Copy Figure 28: Popup menu for the Load/Restraint folder The arrows indicate the selections used in this exercise. Gravity. select Restraints. To define the restraints. This action opens the Restraint window shown in figure 29.
select Fixed as the w chart r „. . Nil C£for. .e W S „'ther c h ^ ^ ^ «f * S S ^ S ^ ^ 33 .Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks F«ed v f. fSV&w :* * •:•:•••• • • .„g u In the Restraint window.ow.. fo. . t t f •<» V Figure 29: Restraint window Fixed support applied to this face face You can rotate the model in order to selert tin P fo COSMOSWorks work the same as in SolidWorks. .Shw.
Note that the presence of supports in the model is manifested by both the restraint symbols (showing on the restrained face) and by the automatically created icon. The three principal directions of a spherical face define the directions of applied restraints. Note that Fixed restraints do not require any information on the direction along which restraints are applied. Immovable (No translations) Only translational degrees of freedom are constrained. On flat face On cylindrical face On spherical face Symmetry When a model is fully supported (as it is in our case). meaning it cannot move without experiencing deformation. Reference plane or axis This option restrains a face. You can specify the desired direction of restraint in relation to the selected reference plane or reference axis. This option is similar to On flat face. This option is similar to On flat face. Fixed and Immovable restraints have the same effect because solid elements do not have rotational degrees of freedom. Restraint1. If solid elements are used (like in this exercise). while rotational degrees of freedom remain unconstrained. edge. which are defined by the three principal directions of the flat face where restraints are being applied. 34 . while leaving the other directions free to move. we say that the model does not have any rigid body motions (term "rigid body modes" is also used). or vertex only in a certain direction. Translation in the direction normal to the face is restrained and rotations about axes aligned with the face are restrained. except that the three principal directions of a cylindrical face define the directions of restraints.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Restraint Type Fixed Definition Also called builtin or rigid support. or Rightclicking the restraint or load icon individually to display a popup menu and then selecting Hide from the popup menu. Similar to On flat face and On cylindrical face. in the Load/Restraint folder. all translational and all rotational degrees of freedom are restrained. This option provides restraints in selected directions. The display of the restraint and load symbols can be turned on and off by either: • • Using the Hide All and Show All commands in the popup menu shown in figure 28. It applies symmetry boundaiy conditions automatically to a flat face.
This action opens the Force window.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks We now define the load by selecting Force from the popup menu shown in figure 28. This illustration also shows symbols of applied restraint and load. select the Apply normal force button in order to load the model with 100.•) Apply rsiffoi forcr.I:J i i i l ! EdtcoiGf t!f IW * Figure 210: Force window TVze Force window displays the selectedface where tensile force is applied. Note that tensile force requires that the load magnitude be defined with a minus sign. In the Type area. «i (•. as shown in figure 210. (Per: entity) JJIGGOQO L.000 N of tensile force uniformly distributed over the end face. (figure 210). l: : : i::: :::. 35 .J ''•toriLirfiffflTffCiJstrJbutiij M j IT' Symbol s&ttsrQs .
36 . and vertexes using different methods. edge. Factors such as load magnitude and distribution are often known only approximately and must be assumed. significant idealization errors can be made when defining loads. but involves many assumptions. Apply normal force Apply torque Available for flat faces only. forces can be applied to faces. Before creating the Finite Element model. The definition of loads is done in a few quick menu selections. Therefore. this option applies load in the direction normal to the selected face. Therefore. edges. surface conditions. therefore. Used for cylindrical faces. this option applies torque about a reference axis using the Righthand Rule.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Generally. If you need to apply moment to solid elements. Try using the clickinside technique to rename Restraint1 and Force1 icons. Note that renaming using the clickinside technique works on all icons in the COSMOSWorks Manager. Shell elements have all six degrees of freedom (three translations and three rotations) per node and can take moment load. Solid elements have only three degrees of freedom (translations) per node and. cannot take moment load directly. The presence of load(s) is visualized by arrows symbolizing the load and by automatically created icons Force1 in the Load/Restraint folder. Note that moment can be applied only if shell elements are used. it must be represented with appropriately applied forces. etc. let's make a few observations about defining: • • • a Geometry Material properties Loads Restraints Geometry preparation is a welldefined step with few uncertainties. Material properties are most often selected from the material library and do not account for local defects. The mathematical model is now complete. Geometry that is simplified for analysis can be checked visually by comparing it with the original CAD model. which are reviewed below: Force Type Apply force/moment Definition This option applies force or moment to a face. or vertex in the direction defined by selected reference geometry (plane or axis). definition of material properties usually has more uncertainties than geometry preparation.
loads. In fact. A common error is overconstraining the model. preparing CAD geometry for FEA may take hours. 37 . material. material. it is easy enough to apply a fixed restraint without giving too much thought to the fact that a fixed restraint means a rigid support . loads and restraints is qualitatively shown in figure 211. The relative level of uncertainties in defining geometry. and restraints The level of uncertainty (or the risk or error) has no relation to time required for each step.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Defining restraints is where severe errors are most often made.a mathematical abstract. which results in an overly stiff structure that will underestimate deformations and stresses. while applying restraints takes onlv a few mouse clicks. so the message in figure 211 may be counterintuitive. For example. Geometry Material Loads Restraints Figure 211: Qualitative comparison of uncertainty in defining: geometry.
we will assume that material properties. verify under study Options. The difference between High and Draft mesh quality is that: • • Draft quality mesh uses first order elements High quality mesh uses second order elements Differences between first and second order elements were discussed in chapter 1. of loops: Slobal element see factor for each loop: Tolerance facte!foreach loop: ! eS ¥3 \3 jpg  p.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOS Works In all of the examples presented in this book. and supports are known with certainty and that the way they are defined in the model represents an acceptable idealization of real conditions.g OK Jj Cancel j Help Figure 212: Mesh tab in the Preferences window We use this window to verify that the choice of mesh quality is set to High. 38 . we need to point out that it is the responsibility of user of the FEA software to determine if all those idealized assumptions made during the creation of the mathematical model are indeed acceptable. Jacobian check: i 4 Points Q Automate transition O Smooth surface Automafc looping D Enable automatic looping foi solids No. However. Mesh tab (figure 212) that High mesh quality is selected. We are now ready to mesh the model but first. loads.
. ..^ f Restraint1 .. to open the Mesh window.. Apply Control. we will study the impact of mesh size on results. List Selected Probe <: Failure Diagnostics. i hollow plate %li Parameters • ^ fcensSSe toad 0 1 ( . In this exercise..Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Now.D e f a u l t .. and fine.% Solids : ^ h o l b w plate (Alloy Steel*) S~4§ Load/Restraint i .. This window offers a choice of element size and element size tolerance. Figure 214 shows the respective selection of meshing parameters to create the three meshes. select Create. We will solve the same problem using three different meshes: coarse.. Options. Create.. rightclick the Mesh folder to display the popup menu (Figure 213). Copy Figure 213: Mesh popup menu In the popup menu...) . Save A s .. 39 . medium (default). . J ^ Foree2 • B Design Scenario i^y Hide Mesh • Show Mesh Hide Ail Control Symbols Show All Control Symbols Print.
i—..^ „„. ^ J Figure 214: Three choices for mesh density from left to right: coarse.28622666 (Reset to default sizes ! mm tt 0.72 mm and the element size tolerance of 0. J „... is the default that COSMOSWorks proposes for meshing our model.. shown in the middle window in figure 214.. j : .meshing —* I Options. 40 . The 5. as explained in figure 215..Run an^ysfe after * .286 are established automatically based on the geometric features of the SolidWorks model. "lis j 0..8622666 *s Fine mm mm 1J. medium (default) and fine The medium mesh density. Mesh Parameters: Mesh Parameters: Mesh Parameters: Coarse j ^ A " c ine mm Coarse 'x Fine i mm Coarse H y j 2. The element size tolerance is the allowable variance of the actual element sizes in the mesh.H3U333 Sieset to default size: f sRun analysis after L "^meshing  Options.449066 fir °EE^EZ3 mm [Reset to default sizej j—>Run analysis after L J fogsJTJng j Options.72mm size is the characteristic element size in the mesh.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks u'J X. The element size of 5..
72 mm and the element size tolerance of 0.5724533 fig  2.. shown in the middle window in figure 214.H311333 [Reset to default sfeej ps Ron analysis after '' meshing  Options. is the default that COSMOSWorks proposes for meshing our model. [Reset to dtfai it size r~sRunanalysfe after ! —' meshing \ Options. The 5. Coarse *• Fine : mm Coarse JITI *» F ne mm mm Coarse •"• Fine I mm i mm \ 11.28622666 ! mm   1 H I0. Figure 214: Three choices for mesh density from left to right: coarse..Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks zJ zJ Mesh Parameters: Mesh Parameters: V Mesh Parameters.. ~^ (Reset to default s » t—i Run analysis af et '—' meshing j Options. as explained in figure 215. medium (default) and fine The medium mesh density..286 are established automatically based on the geometric features of the Solid Works model..72mm size is the characteristic element size in the mesh. w~~. 40 . The element size tolerance is the allowable variance of the actual element sizes in the mesh.. The element size of 5.„.449066 0..8622666 W \ 0.
the default mesh settings produce meshes that provide acceptable discretization errors.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Mesh density has a direct impact on the accuracy of results. the lower the discretization errors. while keeping solution times reasonably short. This is easier to illustrate with the 2D analogy of a circle circumscribed on a triangle (right). In the majority of analyses with COSMOSWorks. 41 . The smaller the elements. but the meshing and solving time take longer. Figure 215: Characteristic element size for a tetrahedral element The characteristic element size of a tetrahedral element is the diameter h of a circumscribed sphere (left).
Select Run to start the solution.. 42 . and click the green check mark button. to open Mesh window. The mesh will be displayed as shown in figure 216. 5 hollow plate §!« Parameters Run Design Scenario »*llsj i 1 Export.. solid tetrahedral elements You can control the mesh visibility by selecting Hide Mesh or Show Mesh from the popup menu shown in figure 212. set the slider all the way to the left (as illustrated in figure 214 left) to create a coarse mesh. Delete Details. Convergence Graph....... Properties. rightclick the tensile load 01 study folder. With the Mesh window open..Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Rightclick the Mesh icon again and select Create. This action displays a popup menu (figure 217).. Copy Save all plots as JPEG files •o %n Jb! F Figure 21 7: Popup menu for the Study icon Start the solution by rightclicking the tensile load 01 icon to display a popup menu. Figure 216: Coarse mesh created with second order. To start the solution.
•< :\\ v. The exact appearance of this window depends on what solver is being used as selected in Options under General tab (figure 24).8S8' ' f i"> ' : •": . Figure 2lc>: Solution outcome: completed or tailed 43 . "is. !'!.... v :• j I • M«fes . You can monitor the solution progress while the solution is running (figure 218). .(MB • :::? ..:.•:... ^ '. . :. i .•2083. '. A successful or failed solution is reported (figure 219) and must be acknowledged before proceeding to analysis of results.• x:^'BBZm0AM\ • '.. : . Figure 218: Solution Progress window The Solver reports solution progress while the solution is running../.. This window is specific to FFEPlns solver. which will be investigated in later chapters.Engineering Analysis with COSMOS Works The solution can be executed with different properties.....':'• '..
Displacement. Deformation and Design Check. COSMOSWorks automatically creates several new folders in the COSMOSWorks Manager window: • u • • • Stress Displacement Strain Deformation Design Check F. you can add more plots to each folder. 44 . If desired. Default stress plot is shown in figure 221. Fo display stress results. Strain.^Solids fl hoiiow plate (Alloy Steel*} ~ IS load/Restrain): 4 Force2 Igjf Restraint2 Design Scenario Mesh Report Stress * Jftai Displacement Strain Deformation H3 Design Check Figure 220: Automatically created Results folders One default plot of respective results is contained in each of the automatically created Results folders: Stress.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks With the solution completed.ach folder holds an automatically created plot with its respective type of result (figure 220). hollow piate ~ Parameters f tensile load 01 (Default) . doubleclick on Plotl icon in the Stress folder or rightclick it and select Show from a little popup menu.
. 8 25.8208+008 i .6136+007 "•Yield strength: 6.1.. 2. Chart Options.0818+003 ..4146+008 ... 2.2048+008 Figure 221: Stress plot displayed using default stress plot settings Von Mises stress results are shown by default in stress phi window. Iso Clipping..3558+008 . rightclick plot icon to display popup menu featuring different plot display options (figure 222).3438+008 .4736+008 SSe+008 . Chart Options and Settings.4e8 Pa... Animate. Settings.679e+008 ..) and the highest stress 347.2. th Stress Hide  iA SJiSjrj Edit Definition... Once stress plot is showing. Sectiorv Clipping.3e+007 •. 45 .5. which are all selectable from the popup menu in figure 222. Axes. 2. We will now examine how to modify the stress plot using Edit Definition.1498+008 388+008 i . Notice that results are shown in (Pa.3e8 Pa is below the material yield strength 620..Ulm*2) ^ ^ 3.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks von Mises (. Probe List Selected Figure 222: Popup menu with plot display options Any type ofplot can be modified using selections from this popup menu.
Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Select Edit Definition to open Stress Plot window.. In the Chart Options window. •• Deformed plot options •*• r~ Superimpose mode! on LJ the deformed shape i o .902 Color Options Figure 223: Stress Plot (invoked by Edit Definition. select Discrete in Fringe options and JVlesh in Boundary options. change units to MPa then close the window. V JL *J ' ZJ ^k Legend Options •j*3 Display legend Fringe options 1 Discrete Boundary options IMesh A »1 * i : l b \TON:von Mises stres P N/mro >{MPa' V: 0 Automatic: ZZi \^'Z I C : Dsfirted: 3*T Fringe {*) Node value* 0 Element values 13 Deformed Shape ©Automatic. change the range of displayed stress results from Automatic to Defined. Chart Options and Settings windows we use in this exercise to modify stress plot display.). In Settings. All these selections are shown in figure 223.. 46 .. and define the range as from 0 to 300 MPa. zs Display >&•• .* 1  300 [ j S h o w min annotation fln " Q Defined: if] Property ' 0 Show max annotation J7j Display plot details Chart Options •w •y 169.
ip: Siiil 4f fljlf i t f •III •?.S^M*v.:j llli S. Before you proceed.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks von Mises (N.0006+002 lli. strain. Itpiilfl .2508+002 ijil iip^U ?•$#'£ %Mkim^h m filfM'p^L J i t s&mg^* If V.500e+001 • 5.50O6+0O2 2.. . Element values (or nonaveraged stresses) can also be displayed by proper selection in the Stress Plot window. ?. please investigate other selections available from the popup menu in figure 222 We will now review the displacement. 1 SOe+002 v #.:.. :*•. See chapter 3 and the glossary of terms at the end of this book for more comments on node and element values of stress results.204e+Q02 Figure 224: Modified stress plot results The modified stress plot using selections shown in windows infigure223. All of these plots are created and modified in the same way. "$fMilfii . v ^ # 4&p%!.. 1. i l l IS*! fSsi§gf ^ilf pj^ilS 111 Ifitiij v ^•W IS ilia . 2.> life y t l Ifcl%#'' . 2. 2O0Oe+OO2 . Sample results are shown in: • • • Figure 225 (displacement) Figure 226 (strain) Figure 227 (deformation) 47 . Stress plots in figure 221 and 224 are both presented as node values.0006+001 H . 1 SOOe+002 .5008+001 ! i 0 0008+000 •Yisto strength: 8.2308+002 1 UOOe+002 . *M fsl 1• 'fff ft . i ' ^ l ^ l . also called averaged stresses. Node values are most often used to present stress results.tnm"2 (MPaTi 3. %s§* lil^f v ~i£&p iHllll ilii^Sx ll&ft:: r •. and deformation results.
from undeformed to deformed and modify the scale of deformation in the Displacement Plot window activated by rightclick plot icon. 48 . This plot shows the deformed shape in an exaggerated scale. Edit Definition. You can change the display .Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks URES (mm) Figure 225: Displacement results using Continuous fringe options Also try Discrete fringe option selectable in Settings from plot pop up menu.
called Design Check holds the Plotl.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks SllPi Figure 226: Strain results Strain results are shown using element values. Figure 227: Deformation results Note that deformed plots can also be created in all previous types of display if the deformed shape display is selected. Notice that strain is dimensionless. The last folder. 49 . which by default displays the distribution of the factor of safety based on von Mises stress. We will modify this plot to display areas where the factor of safety falls below 2.
326iy/mmA2(MPa> . i Material: i Alloy Steel* i Yield strength.3 N/mm'x2 (MPa) « «• Figure 228: Three windows show three steps in the Design Check plot definition Step one selects the failure criterion.' distribution f'~. *. V Stop 1 of 3 % I Max von Mises stress y I PVOKM&JS : . <1 [ Limit M/mrn'*. Areas below factor of •''safety Property Safety result Based on the maximum Factor of safety. step three selects what will he displayed in the plot (here we select areas below the factor of safety 2). !S20.422 Hfmor2 (MPa) iUltimate strength: i?23... i . from the popup menu to display the first of three Design Check windows.<e.78662 iMax stress result ivonMises stress: 1347. step 2 selects display units and sets the stress limit. 50 . step 2 and step 3 as shown in figure 228.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Rightclick Plotl icon and select Edit Definition. j Step 2 of 3 f] j N/mm'NS (MPs) Set stress limit: @ t o Yield strength O to Ultimate strength > to: *• Step 3 of 3 f. Follow step 1. Factor of safety *** distribution Nondimensional stress .
Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Figure 229: Red color (shown as light gray in this grayscale illustration) displays the areas where the factor of safety falls below 2 We have completed the analysis with a coarse mesh and now wish to see how a change in mesh density will affect the results. Therefore. 51 . we will repeat the analysis two more times using medium and fine density meshes respectively. medium. and fine) are shown in figure 230. We will use the settings shown in figure 213. All three meshes used in this exercise (coarse.
L i Ratio < 3 i Percentage of elements copy j 93.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Figure 230: Coarse. ....8 A *"* .*. To compare the results produced by different meshes..... and fine meshes We use the three meshes to study the effects of mesh density on the results. 1 1 list Selected Failure Diagnostics. Along with the maximum displacement and the maximum von Mises stress. Create.. . we need more information than is available in the plots. for each study we need to know: • • a The number of nodes in the mesh The number of elements in the mesh The number of degrees of freedom in the mesh The information on the number of nodes and number of elements can be found in Mesh Details (figure 231).j 208S l o t * "emenls 359 ? Mearom Aspect Ratio 3.*! \ Element: sfee 11. 52 . ... Options.. i Sfcjdj1 n<s« tensile load 01 {Default. Apply Control. C Figure 231: Meshing details window Right click on Mesh. Details. to activate Mesh Details window.4431 ram ol:sri... Save A s . medium. Details.. r %— ~ ii &l .6074 I Petcentags of elements >) ..572453 mm I Mesh quality High Hotei nodes ••<•> _ .1 Si i E \is Hide All Control Symbols Print.~ 0. Hide Mesh Show Mesh Show All Control Symbols .
Open it with a text editor (e. If more than one study has been executed. ©FFEPIu: Woik director C sCOSMOS lesults Report dnectoiy C:\C0SM0S reports A change rmde to the weak directory will teke efiect only on closing the model Current work directory: C:\C0SMQS tesute f~l Keep temporary database iiies Help Figure 231: COSMOSWorks database is located in Work directory specified under Results tab in Options window Any folder can be used for storing COSMOSWorks results files.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks The number of degrees of freedom can be found in one of COSMOS data base files located in Work directory folder specified in Options window under Results tab (figure 232).CWR. find thefilenamed hollow platetensile load 01 .ot sialic s:uC!s.g. Notepad) and verify that the number of degrees of freedom for tensile load 01 study equals 6267. Using Windows Explorer. all data base files are compressed into one file with the extension CWR. Detail!. 53 . soket . then there is one CWR file for each study. Note that the OUT file is available only while the model is opened in COSMOSWorks. Upon exiting from COSMOSWorks by deselecting COSMOSWorks from the list of addins or by closing SolidWorks model. In our case. the file is named hollow platetensile load 01.OUT. Compressing the entire data base into one file allows for a convenient backup of COSMOS results.
rightclick the model icon (hollow plate) and select Paste to invoke Define Study Name window.. you must acknowledge the warning message shown in figure 233. O K Cancel Figure 233: Remeshing deletes any existing results in the study 54 . \ Dsla.. Oefete Defcafe. mesh) can also be copied individually from one study to another. fcensfe load 02. w 5Sl!li!ii!Sli!ffiiillllllI SMyName. Run Design 5 :er •afio Export. Study. A study is copied complete with results and plot definitions.A study can be copied into another study in three steps as shown An alternative way to copy a study is to use Copy (CtrlC) and Paste (CtrlV) technique of the Windows operating system..it •• : §81 4=> I Save all pfots as JPEG f OK J  Cancel j Help j Figure 232:. Properties.. To create a new study we could just repeat the same steps as before but an easier way is to copy a study. Note that all definitions in a study (material. where the name of new study is defined in (figure 232). .. Convergence Sr a p b . . loads. i tensile k » d 0 2 So&Nwfks eorifsgurafentouse.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Now create and run two more studies: tensile load 02 with medium (default) element size and tensile load 03 with fine element size as shown in figure 213.. Copy Compare Test Oat Define Function C Options. Retneshsig wili dstete the resute for study. restraints. Before remeshing study tensile load 02 with the default element size mesh. rightclick the study folder and select Copy.. Next. To copy a study. Yet another way is to drop study folder tensile load 01 into hollow plate folder..
Straight lines connect the three points only to visually enhance the graph. dispi.1181 0.1180 0.1178 0.1177 0. mesh density coarse medium (default) fine max.1176 1000 10000 100000 1000000 number of degrees of freedom Figure 235: Maximum displacement magnitude Maximum displacement magnitude is plotted as a function of the number of degrees of freedom in the mode. Figures 235 and 236 show the maximum displacement and the maximum von Mises stress as functions of the number of degrees of freedom. von j Mises stress «umber of DOF [MPs] 347 368 378 6096 23601 239748 number of elements 953 3916 52329 number of nodes 2089 8052 80419 Figure 2.1177 'c CO S) E c <u I? ° p Q. The number of degrees of freedom is in turn a function of mesh density.1179 0. magnitude [mm] 0.34: Summary of results produced bv the three meshes Note that these results are based on the same problem. Differences in the results arise from the different mesh densities used. T5 3 +^ v 0.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks The summary of results produced by the three models is shown in figure 234.1181 max. The three points on the curve correspond to the three models solved. to T3 X £ 0.1180 0. 55 .1182 0.
With mesh refinement. Therefore. we can say that the artificial constraints imposed by element definition become less imposing with mesh refinement. and stresses are calculated based on displacement results. we will apply a prescribed displacement of 0. and larger number of elements make it possible to approximate the real displacement and stress field more accurately. If we continued with mesh refinement. Straight lines connect the three points only to visually enhance the graph. Differences between the solution of the FEA model and the mathematical model are due to discretization errors. In our case. because we selected second order elements. we would see that both the displacement and stress results converge to a finite value. which become less influential with mesh refinement. Having noticed that the maximum displacement increases with mesh refinement. the displacement field of each element was described by the second order polynomial function..118 mm to this face to see what stresses this causes. we can conclude that the model becomes "softer" when smaller elements are used. which diminish with mesh refinement. 380 T a. Rather than loading it with a 100.000 N force that has caused a 0. s a 370 V) as </> •2 360 o > 350 E £ x (0 3 340 1000 10000 100000 1000000 number of degrees of freedom Figure 236: Maximum von Mises stress Maximum von Mises stress is plotted as a function of the number of degrees of freedom in the model. stresses also increase with mesh refinement. This would be the solution of the mathematical model. The three points on the curve correspond to the three models solved. This effect stems from the artificial constraints imposed by element definition. Displacements are always the primary unknowns in FEA.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks . Therefore. 56 . while the displacement field in each element remains a second order. For this exercise.118 mm displacement of the loaded face. We will now repeat our analysis of the hollow plate by using prescribed displacements in place of a load. we will use only one mesh with default (medium) mesh density.
the builtfixed restraint to the leftside endface and mesh are all identical to the previous design study. select this face and define the displacement as shown in figure 237.118 ' mm f f^.000 N had been applied.118 mm is applied to the same face where the tensile load of 100.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Define the fourth study. What we need to do is delete the load (rightclick load icon and select Delete) and apply in its place prescribed displacement. 11! Symbol settings Figure 237: Restraint definition window The prescribed displacement of 0. While it is better to delete the load in order to keep the model clean. 57 . Note that once prescribed displacement is defined to the end face. which have been earlier applied to the same end face. To apply the prescribed displacement to the rightside endface. The definition of material properties. called prescribed displ. The easiest way is to copy the definitions from the tensile load 02 study. it overrides any load. The minus sign is necessary to obtain displacement in the tensile direction. the load has no effect if prescribed displacement is applied to the same entity and in the same direction. V 1 On flat fac I Show preview Iran stations m m 1 * j \ mm   mm j 0.
0.098441 10.080597 i 0. von Mises (Nj'mjriA2 (MPa)) iir Figure 239: Von Mises stress results Von Mises stress results with load applied as force are displayed on the left and Von Mises stress results with load applied as prescribed displacement are displayed on the right. 58 . 0.049221 I0.078753 n 10.059065 1.10829 10.039377 10.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Figures 238 and 239 compare displacement and stress results for both studies. and displacement results in the model with the prescribed displacement load are displayed on the right. You can change the fonnat in the Chart Options window (figure 223).068909 10.11813 10. Note the numerical format of results.029532 Figure 238: Comparison of displacement results Displacement results in the model with the force load are displayed on the left.
. while the prescribed displacement of 0.. 1 laving selected the face. which allows yon to open the Reaction Force window. the loaded face is allowed to deform... this face remains flat. Options. In this case. We conclude our analysis of the hollow plate by examining the reaction forces.. fte Reaction Force. it is the face where the fixed support was applied.. Copy Figure 240: Popup menu associated with the Displacement folder Rightclick the Displacement folder to display a popup menu. j.. In the prescribed displacement model.. 59 .Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Results produced by applying a force load and by applying a prescribed displacement load are very similar. Before accessing the reaction force results.118 mm applies to the entire face in the prescribed displacement model. If any result plot is still displayed. even though it experiences displacement as a whole. hide it now (rightclick the Plot icon and select Hide from popup window). Select Reaction Force. please select the face for which we wish to obtain the reaction force results. The reason for this discrepancy is that in the force load model. but not identical. Remote Load Interface Force. A popup menu appears (figure 240).. Also. rightclick the Displacement folder. it is only seen as a maximum displacement on one point in the force load model.
2344 99993 Component SumX: SumY: SumZ: Resultant: .0546 Update Help J Zlose Update Help Figure 241: Comparison of reaction force results Reaction forces are shown on the face where the builtin support is defined for the model with force loud (left) and for the model with prescribed displacement load (right).U USIcSCi Unite: j Newton Units: i Newton  Selected items •• 1 Faces Selected items 1 Face: Component SurnX: Sum Y: Sum 2: Resultant: Selection 99993 3.19102 1.2344 99993 Entire lodel 99993 3.28217 0. lected reference aeorristry . 60 .54321 0.9164 2.0286 5.0118E+005 Entire Model 0.0286 5. Selection 1.0118E+005 0.50385 1.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Figure 241 shows the Reaction Force results for both studies: with force load (left) and with prescribed displacement load (right).
Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 3: Static analysis of an Lbracket Topics covered • • • • Stress singularities Differences between modeling errors and discretization errors Using mesh controls Analysis in different SolidWorks configurations Project description An Lshaped bracket (in'a file called L BRACKET in SolidWorks) is supported and loaded as shown in figure 31.000 N load uniformly distributed over the end face Figure 31: Loads and supports applied to the LBRACKET model The geometry features an edge rounded by a fillet . Since the radius of the fillet is small compared to the overall size of the model. As we will soon prove.This fillet will be mistakenly suppressed leaving in its place a sharp reentrant corner.000 N bending load. suppressing the fillet is a bad mistake! Fixed support to the top Round edge 1. we decide to suppress it. The L BRACKET model has two configurations: round corner and sharp corner. In particular. Please change to sharp corner configuration. We wish to find the displacements and stresses caused by a 1. Material (Alloy steel) is 61 . we are interested in stresses in the corner where the 2mm round edge (fillet) is located.
The finite element mesh is shown in figure 32. the global element size is 4. accepting the default element size.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks applied to the SolidWorks model and is automatically transferred to COSMOSWorks Procedure Following the same steps as those described in chapter 2. 62 . mesh the model with second order tetrahedral elements. Figure 32: Finite element mesh created using the default setting of the automesher In this mesh.76 mm. please define the study called mesh 1. Next.
247 mm and the maximum von Mises stress is 68.5. In chapter 2. 51399e+0Q1 1rfliOl l l i ^367e*00. Having noticed that the stress concentration is near the sharp reentrant corner. Now we will investigate how using smaller elements affects the results.76mm. we will use a different technique.6S5e*G01 .Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks The displacement and stress results obtained in mesh I study are shown in figure 33. I e*001 l:lpS35e*001 (:. Notice that the name of active study is always shown in bold.269e*001 7038*0131 1 H . (wf'iv)) ^ ^ 6. 1 1376*00!   l S. In this exercise.?14e+0Q0 ^Yieid strength: 8::>04e+003 Figure 33: Displacements and von Mises stresses results produced using mesh 1 The maximum displacement is 0. we will refine the mesh locally in that area by applying mesh controls. Select the edge where mesh controls will be applied. . we did this by refining the mesh uniformly so that the entire model was meshed with elements of smaller size. Copy the meshl study into the mesh2 study. then rightclick the Mesh folder in mesh2 study (the folder is empty at this moment) to display the popup menu shown in figure 34.2.797e*GQ1 • I 6 2318*001 .MPa. Element size everywhere else will remain the same as it was before: 4. von Mises (IVmm"?.
64 .. Create.. Save As .. Note that it is also possible to open the Mesh Control window first and then select the desired entity or entities (here the reentrant edge) where mesh controls are to be applied.. Details..... list Selected Probe Failure Diagnostics.. which opens the Mesh Control window (figure 35).... Apply Control.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Hide Mesh Show Mesh Hide Ail Control Symbols Show All Control Symbols Print... Options.. Copy Figure 34: Mesh popup menu Select Apply Control.
 13 Show preview Control Parameters •*• Element size along the selected edge Low A : 2.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Selected . Please accept the default values of Mesh Control window. Having defined mesh control we can create a mesh with the same global element size as before (4. faces. Mesh control can also be applied to vertexes. but elements created along the selected edge will be 2. The element size along the selected edge is now controlled independently of the global element size.3818266 ' I mm Relative element size in adjacent layers of elements 1.5 J Number of element layers affected by the applied control Figure 35: Mesh Control window Mesh controls allow you to define the local element size on selected entities. or entire components of assemblies.76 mm).38 mm.11 i . The added mesh controls shows as Control1 icon in Mesh folder and can be edited using a popup menu displayed by rightclicking the control icon (figure 36). 65 .
The effect of mesh bias extends for three layers of elements adjacent to the edge as specified in Mesh Control definition window (figure35). Delete Details.. Figure 37: Mesh with applied controls (mesh bias) Mesh 2 is refined along the selected edge.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks j Mesh Hide Suppress Edit Definition.. Copy Figure 36: Popup menu for the Mesh icon The mesh with applied control (also called mesh bias) is shown in figure 37. 66 .
The number of digits shown in result plot is controlled using Chart Options (rightclick plot and select Chart Options).47697 mm and 74.S K i.S .19mm Study mesh 4: element size 0. mesh 4 and mesh 5 67 . I l.Engineering Analysis with COSMOS Works Maximum displacements and stress results obtained in study mesh 2 are 2. Now we will repeat the same exercise three more times using progressively smaller elements along the sharp reentrant edge (figure 38): • • • Study mesh 3: element size 1.1 MPa respectively.s Figure 38: Mesh Control windows in studies mesh 3.19 High tow 1 0.5 High low High J i.30mm Selected Entit Selected Entities Selected Entities 1 ill [ J Show preview tJShow preview Control Parameters O Shew preview Contra! Parameters Control Parameters Low • 1.60mm Study mesh 5: element size 0.
The difference between consecutive results increases proving that maximum stress result is divergent. MAXIMUM VON MISES STRESS mesh 1 mesh 2 mesh 3 mesh 4 mesh 5 Fieure 310: Summary of maximum stress results Each mesh refinement brings about an increase in the maximum stress.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks The summary of results of all five studies is shown in figures 39 and 310. the difference between consecutive results decreases. MAXIMUM DISPLACEMENT mesh 1 mesh 2 mesh 3 mesh 4 mesh 5 Figure 39: Summary of maximum displacement results While each mesh refinement brings about an increase in the maximum displacement. 68 .
Each subsequent mesh refinement produces higher stress results. Stress results in a sharp reentrant corner are completely dependent on mesh size: the smaller the element. which is done in by changing to round corner configuration in SolidWorks Configuration Manager. the maximum stress magnitude diverges. by reducing the global element size. Stress results behave quite differently than displacement results. If so. near the sharp reentrant. stress in the sharp reentrant corner is infinite. we can produce results showing any stress magnitude we want. either: • • Locally. Given enough time and patience. All that is necessary is to make the element size small enough! The reason for divergent stress results is not that the finite element model is incorrect.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks We could continue with this exercise of progressive mesh refinement. we would notice that displacement results converge to a finite value and that even the first mesh is good enough if we are looking only for displacements. Therefore. as we did in chapter 2. A mathematician would say that stress in the sharp reentrant corner is singular. According to the theory of elasticity. or Globally. the higher the stress. 69 . but that the finite element model is based on the wrong mathematical model. Instead of converging to a finite value. we must repeat this exercise after unsuppressing the fillet. as we have done here by means of mesh controls.
create and run two more studies: round corner no transition and round corner auto transition. Both studies should be identical except that Automatic transition option is not checked in round corner no transition study. we must select the Automatic transition option in the Options window under the Mesh tab (figure 312). 70 . To avoid this problem. The SolidWorks model can he changed to a configuration corresponding to given study by rightclick study icon and selecting Activate SW configuration.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Notice that after we return from the Configuration Manager window to the COSMOSWorks window. l !  Parameters + '/' mesh t (sharp edge) + ^mesh4(srwj + " mesh S (sharl Deete Copy "I Figure 311: Studies become inaccessible when the model configuration is changed to a configuration other than that corresponding to now greyedout studies. meshing with the default mesh settings will produce an abrupt change in element size between the fillet and the adjacent faces. %lhrarM i. all studies pertaining to the model in sharp corner configuration are not accessible. They can be accessed only if model configuration is changed back to sharp corner. Using the model of the L bracket in round edge configuration. Since the fillet is a small feature compared to the overall size of the model.
: loop: T oletance factoi iof each foop i 0.8 : 0.gr.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Result. § Smooth suiface f j Eriabie automatic fcopsig fw scSds Gtoba! element : 2& factor fot esc. Genera! ljrit< Ptci Export > Standard 0H. ^Bcobfan check 4 Points v £3 Automatic iKrs&bn ^ > r.8 Help J Figure 312: Meshing preferences with Automatic transition selected 71 .
without and with the Automatic transition option applied as obtained in studies round corner no transition and round corner auto transition. Please try this after completing this exercise.The reason for slightly different results is that meshing with Automatic transition option selected produces smaller elements in the bend area. A similar effect to that of refining the mesh by using Automatic transition option could be achieved by applying mesh control to the fillet face. right click the plot icon and select Edit Definition. The LBRACKET example is a good place to review the different ways of displaying stress results. 72 .Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Figure 313 shows von Mises stress results superimposed on the plot of the finite element mesh. Figure 313: Von Mises stress results in a model with a fillet using different meshes: no automatic transition (left) and automatic transition (right) Compare meshes and stress results created without (left) and with (right) the Automatic transition option . This will open the Stress Plot window. To select either node values or element values. Figure 314 shows the node values and element values of von Mises results produced in the study round corner auto transition.
we can say that if the element values of stress in adjacent elements are apart by several colors on the color chart. However.Engineering Analysis with COSMOS Works IllSt 1IIHI Figure 314: Von Mises stresses displayed as node values (left) and element values (right) As we explained in chapter 1. continuous stress results. is reported for each node. Strains and then stresses are calculated from the displacements' results. . examination of element values provides important feedback on the quality of the results. As a general guideline. Next. If one node belongs to more than one element (which is always the case unless it is a vertex node). This stress value is called an element value. then the stress results from all those elements sharing a given node are averaged and one stress value. we can locate mesh deficiencies without running a convergence analysis. This means that one stress value is calculated for the element. To decide how much is "too much" of a difference requires some experience. An alternate procedure to present stress results can also be used. Node values are used more often because they offer smoothed out. nodal displacements are computed first. If element values in two adjacent elements differ too much it indicates that the element size at this location is too large to properly model the stress gradient. those stresses are averaged inbetween themselves. stress results are extrapolated to all of the elements' nodes. Having obtained stresses in Gauss points. called Gauss points. Stresses are first calculated inside the element at certain locations. By examining the element values. then a more refined mesh should be used. called a node value.
one layer of solid elements might suffice but this would still require a rather large number of small solid elements. Generally it is recommended that two layers of second order tetrahedral elements be used across the thickness of a wall undergoing bending. Procedure Before defining the study. Instead of using solid elements. with the objective of finding stresses and the first few modes of vibration. consider that thin wall geometry would be difficult to mesh with solid elements. This will require running both static and frequency analyses. The study definition with the 75 . We will use the SolidWorks model.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 4: Frequency analysis of a thin plate with shell elements Topics covered _l • Use of shell elements for analysis of thin walled structures Frequency analysis Project description We will analyze a support bracket. Fixed restraint 20N load uniformly distributed over the face defined by split Figure 41: Support bracket Note that CAD model con la ins split line used by COSMOSWorks for load application. in our case of a flat model. called SUPPORT BRACKET with assigned material properties of AISI 304. shown in figure 41. we will use shell elements to mesh the surface located midplane in the bracket thickness.
jjP Midsurface Shell •• 0 support bracket ([SWJAISI304} Figure 43: Assignment of material properties Material properties are applied to shells if the shell elements are used in the study. 76 .Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks meshing option selected for the midplane shell elements is shown in figure 42.  OK  Figure 42: Study window and COSMOSWorks message The study support bracket defines the Mesh type as a Shell mesh using midsurfaces. # name: Ho study defined j COSMOSWorks 1 »\ _J j This option works only for simple thin parts. OH Carnoel Help Active * . There is no Solids folder. we select the face adjacent to the hole (figure 41) and apply a 20N normal force (figure 44). support bracket x~£ Parameters fl{f support bracket (Default) . Also shown is a notification that this option works only for simple geometries. Having created the study we notice that Solids folder does not exist in a study with shell elements. To apply loads. SolsdWorks is woriang to improve Shell Meshing for future updates. instead there is Midsurface Shell folder.
we need a fixed support to eliminate all six degrees of freedom because immovable support would only eliminate 3 degrees of freedom (translational). V PI SI Norma! Force/Torque (Per entity} JL 20 L_ ?*> < H m Distribution • Symbol settings Figure 44: Force window Support is applied to the end face. 77 . as shown in figure 41. This would cause an unintentional hinge in place of the intended rigid support. . Apply normal force O Apply torqye  Show preview lints *. leaving rotational degrees of freedom unsupported.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks » / TfpB . : Apply force/momerrt •. In our case. Since shell elements have six degrees of freedom. there is now a difference between applying fixed supports and immovable supports.
Create). V *Type I Fixed EjShow preview Symbol setthas Figure 45: Restraint window Note that fixed support rather than immovable support is selected. 78 . COSMOSWorks assigns shell thickness automatically. We do not explicitly define the shell thickness. based on the corresponding dimension of the solid CAD model. which in this case is 5mm. The model is now ready for meshing (rightclick Mesh folder.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks he Restraint window is shown in figure 45.
Tfifewnce*..Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks } Atl«B19t« : [ J Smooth* f./ The side where load is applied is meshed with bottoms of shell elements Figure 46: Shell element mesh In the shell element mesh. elements have been placed mid surface between the faces thai define the thin wall. Different colors distinguish between the top and bottom of the shell elements.f'. 79 .:. The bottom face color is specified in Options window under Mesh tab. £* I <C :c~£l.i:ace Enable »jfc^a&bopwS f> actor fc! < 11 ..
80 .^ plane 3 k +  + {!  Origin 8ase~ExtmdeThin CutExtrude2 CutExtrudeS < 23 Split Unel dot MidSurfacei Figure 47: Midsurface is an imported feature in the SolidWorks Manager 77ze surface that has been meshed with shell elements is automatically created and appears as an importedfeature in SolidWorks Manager. ^ support bracket j y Annotations + ^ Design Binder L  = AISI304 • . meaning that there are no elements on the same side showing tops and bottoms facing the same way. . which shows a rectangular plate undergoing bending. Try reversing the shell element orientation: select the face where you want to reverse the orientation.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks COSMOSWorks creates the midsurface where shell elements are placed. In a SolidWorks model this surface is an imported feature and is visible in the Feature Manager (figure 47). Review the mesh colors to ensure that the shell elements are properly aligned. Misaligned shell elements lead to the creation of erroneous plots like one shown in figure 49. rightclick the Mesh folder to display a popup menu and select Flip shell elements (figure 48).M Lighting « + m '• Solid Bodiesi 1) \ ^ plane 2 \.
44526+002 " 1e+G02 . 81 .S64ae+002 f 2 4697e+002 U7468+002 " " 5e+002 4e+0D2 * J  8 3933e+001 W 4 9423e+00l §K9.3403e+002 bottom l i t 4.2599e+002    . The difference between stress results on the top and bottom sides of shell elements in our exercise model is illustrated in figures 410 and 411. 2. This model is unrelated to our exercise. t5£Qe+D02 3.9'I37e+000 Figure 49: Misaligned shell elements and erroneous von Mises Stress plot resulting from this misalignment The misaligned shell element mesh (left) and erroneous von Mises Stress plot are the residt of shell element misalignment. von Mises (N/mmA2 CMPa) 4.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Figure 48: Popup menu for modifying shell element orientation Reverse shell element orientation with this menu choice.
41000 i/.1.1.) Oemem value? v I I I 6 7378*000 Ilx t4e*000 .1238*001 ":iW Ha j P i : 1st principal stres v • .3898+000 . X. ~"^%5 i l l 1 .982e+000 .3478*001 < ^ Figure 411: Minimum principle stressflP3)results for the top sides of the shell elements which is on the compressive side of the model Because of model orientation in figures 410 and 411.97S8004 ".. S. "'• _ 1.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Mode! name support bracket Stuey rams. .3698+000 . 8. we are looking at the bottom faces of the shell elements (consult figure 46). 82 .oioe+ooi >0D1 1.8SSe+000 .6'!4e+000 .347e+Q01 i 235e+001 . j I . support bracket Piot type: Static nodal stress (Bottom) Plot! Deformation scale: 61.123e+000 y k 6. 3rd principal Uifjirrin i fllPsi j Fringe § } Mode vsiu.es O lament values 4tup i.1238+000 2 6 tOOO .0l0e*00i . 2.491 e+000 %V ^ fj & : P3. 4.801 P1 CWfamA2 (MPa)) ^ ^ 1.975e004 Figure 410: Maximum principle stress (PI) results for the bottom sides of the shell elements which is on the tensile side of the model Model name: support bracket Study name: support bracket Plot type: Static nodal stress (Top) P3 top Deformation scale: 81. Still.3.801 P3 CWmrrr'2 (MPs)) ^ ^ 6.246e+000 jjj. 1. Display JA> '?. stress results in figure 411 are displayed for the top sides of the elements as if the shells were transparent. f l i .:x . r000 ?.8S9e*000 n W " Fringe £*>f<focfe values (.23S8+0O1 1 1 1 1..4 491e+000 3. ?.
Figure 413 shows the COSMOSWorks Manager window with both studies after solution. 83 . The same can be done with supports. This calculation requires us to set up and run a frequency analysis (figure 412).. i » > > 1 s. the structural analysis of the support bracket has been completed. Notice that although loads can be defined in a frequency study.1  ". . disregarding any effects of external loads. i ) t . <support bracket fr ' 'Frequency > >: ~ "> ~~ j 'IZHHHZ Delete She!! mesh using midsurfaces :CK3 Active s*udji name: support bracks! Figure 412: Study window showing two study definitions Two studies are defined: the support bracket study is a static analysis and the support bracket fr study is a frequency analysis. unless special options are activated (see chapter 17). which among analysts is often called modal analysis. they will have no effect because frequency analysis calculates natural frequencies and associated modes of vibration. You can copy the material definition from the static study to the frequency study by dropping the material definition icon into the corresponding icon in the frequency study. We will now proceed to calculate several natural frequencies for the same bracket.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Having obtained displacement and stress solutions (we have not reviewed displacement results). T * Properties i.i «' > .
84 . and Deformation folders are created in a Let's review the options of a frequency study (rightclick study icon.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks . The name of active studv is shown in bold. The Frequency window offers the choice of how many frequencies and associated modes of vibration will be calculated (figure 414).•• <fH Design Scenario ^ Mesh j y Report + foj Displacement i '^formation Figure 413: Two design studies defined and solved in the same model: the static (support bracket) studv and the frequencv (support bracket fr) study. Please accept the default number of five frequencies. support bracket ^ °  Parameters j^f support bracket (Default) + ($) Midsurface Shell t 4 § Load/Restraint ••••• m Design Scenario ^BMesh Hi Report + Jbi Stress + Dpj Displacement +  y Strain +  b ! Deformation Hi 'i» Desiqn Check i^V support bracket fr (Default) .j  P Midsurface Shell •• f support bracket ([SWjAISI 304) i • AS Load/Restraint . Note that only Displacement frequency analysis. Properties).
II ! : . : I ' . select Edit Definition) shown in figure 415.. By defaidt. Direct sp/s. the first five natural frequencies are calculated.. two results folders are automatically created: a Displacement folder and a Deformation folder. 85 .• :•••:. & FFEPIus I ! . Each folder holds one plot.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Options j Rsmaik \ £•3 Mumber oi frequencies: '? ! bwn! Heiiz I! ^!sr . This can be changed by proper selection in Displacement Plot or Deformed Shape Plot window (rightclick plot icon. OFFE I I OK  : Cancel \ \ Heip i Figure 414: Frequency window The Options tab in the Frequency window allows selecting properties of the frequency study. which by default shows results corresponding to the first mode.. When a frequency analysis is run.
86 . \*. f W 0.ES: Resultant displ < • fc (mm Of"* Fringe v y#fl "  ^J^:.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Display •*• ^ v .012 Property Figure 415: Displacement plot window The definition of the displacement plot in the Frequency analysis requires us to specify the mode to be displayed.» Defined. 114. t oo H2 J. Here we select the first mode (frequency ]15Hzj. (Hn UP.*: •* V 0 Deformed Shape O Automatic.
1158+003 .3986+003 . 2.49Se+002 5 36 e+002 s+002 0. 2. 1.000e+000 Figure 416: Displacements associated with Mode 1 Note that the iindeformed shape is superimposed on the deformed shape. 8.982&+003 . i. 87 . Even though the displacement plot (figure 416) does show displacement magnitude. Let us repeat this: Frequency analysis does not provide any quantitative information on displacements. Relative comparison of displacements between different modes is invalid.133e+003 . the displacement results have no quantitative importance in frequency analysis.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Figure 416 shows displacement results related to the first mode of vibration. 1.3. 2.699e+003 . as well as the associated frequency of vibration (figure 417). This plot shows the shape of deformation associated with the given mode of vibration.S49e+Q03 . !. This option is selected in the Settings of result plot. Displacement results are purely qualitative and can be used only for comparison of displacements within the same mode of vibration.832e+003 .2688+003 . More informative and less confusing is the defonnation plot.418e+003 . URES (mm) 3.
The best way to analyze the results of a frequency analysis is by examining the animated deformation plots.00539242 • '.73 Hi Deformation scale: 0. and then select Animate. To List Resonance Frequencies and List Mass Participation rightclick Deformation folder and make appropriate selection (figure 418) .04 Hz Deformation scale: 0. rightclick a plot icon to display an associated popup menu. While the undeformed shape appears as a solid. The image in figure 417 on the left illustrates the first mode of vibration with frequency 115 Hz. r N:.005885 Model name: support bracket Study name: support bracket fr Plot type: Frequency mode 2 Mode Shape: 2 Value 372.. and the image on the right shows the second mode with frequency 372 Hz.:0m:m. To animate any plot.. Figure 417: Deformation plot showing the shape of deformation (mode shape) and the frequency of vibration for a given mode Note that COSMOSWorks results plots can be viewed more than one at a time using split window technique.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Mocfst name: support bracket Study name: support bracket fr Plot type: Frequency Piotl Mode Shape: 1 Value = 114. the defonned shape is a surface because shell elements are used in this frequency study.
6 .43 ^ ^ FenodfSetondsl 0.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks S'S. <opy Pasts \ l Qose j j Save   Help  Fte<} Herte 11473 372.0087159 0.01 361.8553s012 0.001437 0.01 961. List Mass Participation..6 4198.0010401 1 : 4 Define.6833e020 SumX =3.41236013 3. 89 .8153e014 2. Click Help button in Mass Participation window for more information about modal mass participation.1671S011 SanV =0.0026373 0.18 2338.. Options.64472 Figure 41 8: The Summary of frequency analysis results for all calculated modes ol'xibration includes the list of modal frequencies and corresponding mass participation factors.< direction as&feoaT 8.19061 7.3185&020 4..43 1141.04 668.1289e017 3.3 Ftequencyl'Hertsi 114.3 6043.04 608.ii%*4'!7sf^ Study name: support bracket fr riem&ucMfiidn&oW 721...73 372.8154e014 V direction 04541 4. List Resonant Frequencies....
All rounded edges should be suppressed to simplify meshing.000 N at the central hole. It has assigned material properties of Chrome Stainless Steel. The other two holes are not loaded. The link is pinsupported at the two end holes and is loaded with 100. Pin support Pin support Load 100.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 5: Static analysis of a link Topics covered • • • • Symmetry boundary conditions Defining restraints in local coordinate system Preventing rigid body motions Limitations of small displacements theory Project description We need to calculate the displacements and stresses of a steel link shown in figure 51. 91 .000 N Figure 51: CAD model of the link Note that the supporting pins and the load pin are not present in the model. Please open part file LINK.
Finally.. Highlighted restraints are: a hole where the pin support is simulated and two faces in the plane of symmetry where symmetry boundary conditions are required The model is ready for the definition of supports .. as shown in figure 52 and open the Restraint window (figure 53). we are not interested in the contact stresses that will develop between pins and the link. conditions Svmmctry ^___ ^ I boundary conditions Figure 52: Half of the link with restraints explained. Also. only . 92 .the highlight of this exercise. Select the pin supported cylindrical face. To work with half of the model. The fillets have negligible structural effect and would unnecessarily complicate the mesh. . £ . please unsuppress the cut which is the last feature in the SolidWorks Feature Manager window. Our focus is on the deflections and stresses that will develop in the link. We can take advantage of this symmetry and analyze only half of the model and replace the other half with symmetry boundary conditions. and then conduct an assembly analysis. Removing geometry details deemed unnecessary for analysis is called defeaturing. Also suppress all the small fillets in the model. 1! In order to model pin support. . note a split face in the middle hole that defines the area where load will be applied. ' / / / JpP / . Geometry in FEAready form is shown in figure 52. so the analysis can be simplified by NOT modeling the pins. boundary . . we can simulate their effects by proper definition of restraints and load. . . Instead of modeling the pins. circumferential displacements are allowed on this cylindrical face. restraints and load are all symmetrical. Please move to COSMOSWorks and define a study as static analysis with solid elements. Figure 52 also explains what restraints and symmetry boundary conditions should be applied. notice that the link geometry.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOS Works Procedure One way to conduct this analysis would be to model both the link and all three pins. However.
circumferential. we can do this by restraining any point of the model. Notice that restraint directions are now associated with the cylindrical face directions (radial. z). To simulate the pin support that allows the link to rotate about the pin axis. rather than with global directions (x. It is simply convenient to apply the axial restraints to this cvlindrical face. 93 . y. and axial). Notice that while we must restrict the rigid body motion of the link in the direction defined by the pin axis. displacement the in axial direction needs to be restrained in order to avoid rigid body motions of the entire link along this direction. Furthermore. radial displacement needs to be restrained and circumferential displacement allowed.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Symbol settings Figure 53: Restraint window The Restraint definition window specifies the restraint type as On cylindrical face because a cylindrical face was selected prior to opening the Restraint window.
94 . The easiest way to define symmetry boundary conditions is to use Symmetry as a type of restraint. but outofplane displacements must be suppressed.000 N. where the load is applied is arbitrary. The symmetry boundary conditions impose the requirement that these two faces remain in the plane of symmetry when the link experiences deformation.000 N load to a portion of the cylindrical face. as shown in figure 55. The size of the area created with split line. Inplane displacements are allowed. It should be close to what we expect the contact area to be between the pin and the link. Figure 54: Definition of symmetry boundary conditions Recall from figure 51 that the link is loaded with 100. Since we are modeling half of the link.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks To simulate the entire link. we apply symmetry boundary conditions to the two faces located in the plane of symmetry. we must apply a 50. The definition of the symmetry boundary conditions is illustrated in figure 54.
000N force applied to the central hole The Top reference plane is used to determine the load direction.Pn^. £ltf* • 0 Desigr.)r^ /: gjihowpnA't * '£§ 6ase£*ude pes i. you may wish to review Mesh Details (figure 56). Q. and mesh the geometry using the default clement size. take advantage of SolidWorks flyout menu visible in COSMOSWorks window to select reference plane required in Force definition window. 95 . The last task of model preparation is meshing. Verify that the mesh preferences are set on high quality. Notice that the load is distributed uniformly. We are not trying to simulate a contact stress problem. and then select Create..8md<?) • 9 Apply force/moment O Apply norma) force O Apply torque y y. For more information on the mesh.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks When defining the load (figure 55). Rightclick the Mesh folder to display the related popup menu.^aiiwri! <?': Figure 55: 50. meaning that second order elements will be created...
This is best done by examining the animated displacements. (JRES (mm) r 1.788e002 .275e002 Figure 57: Comparison of the deformed and undeformed shapes Comparison of the deformed and undeformed shapes verifies the correctness of the restraints definition: link rotates around the imaginary pin andfaces in the plane of symmetry remain flat and perform only inplane translations.0306001 19. preferably with both undeformed and deformed shapes visible (figure 57).5468002 L 8. we first need to check if the pin support and boundary conditions have been applied properly.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Figure 56: Mesh Details window shown over the meshed model After solving the model. 96 . This includes checking whether the link can rotate around the pin and whether it behaves as a half of the whole link. 8.0328002 L 7.
3. 1. and reviewing the analysis results. minimum principal stresses. open the SolidWorks Manager. You will need to add load to the uncut model. including the maximum principal stresses.1838+001 .3288+001 1.t000 . Figure 59: COSMOSWorks notifies the user of changes in model geometry Any change in model geometry invalidates FEA results.0628+001 2. and return to COSMOSWorks. To do this. Examine the different stress components.429e+001 . corresponds to the 97 . Changes may also require modification of restraints and loads definitions. 2.609e+000 .267e. running the solution.3. P3 (N*nm"2 (MPa)) 1. we should notice that the link supported by two pins as modeled in this exercise. 5. and then proceed with meshing.this example. etc.5318+001 4. You will be prompted to acknowledge the change in the model and the boundary conditions (figure 59).8958+001 2. define support for the other pin. Before finishing the analysis of LINK. Current mesh and results may be invaW. review the stress results. Please repeat this exercise using the full model. the minimum principal stress (Pi) plot is shown.7888+001 3.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks To conclude this exercise.265e+001 Figure 58: Sample of stress results In. suppress the cut. AS the Load/Restraints willfasupdated automatically.S38e+00Q •:•• .4Q4e+000 •f 2. iiii1pfi3iSWllll~™a~3 #\ '' '' • Mode! has been chanced.
linear geometry analysis would be required to model support if both hinges were in fixed position. Refer to chapter 1 for a brief review of limitations of linear analysis. Non. 98 . This could be done using COSMOSWorks Advanced Professional. symbolically shown here by rollers under the left hinge. where one of the hinges is free to move horizontally. Nonlinear geometry analysis would be required if both hinges were infixed positions. r r : Figure 510: Our model corresponds to the situation where one hinge is floating. Since linear analysis does not account for changes in model stiffness during the deformation process.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks configuration shown in figure 510. linear analysis is unable to model membrane stresses that would have developed if both pins were in fixed position.
Please open the part file called TUNING FORK. While any structure has an infinite number of resonant frequencies and associated modes of vibration.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 6: Frequency analysis of a tuning fork Topics covered • • • Frequency analysis with and without supports Rigid body modes The role of supports in frequency analysis Project description Structures have preferred frequencies of vibration. This condition renders the geometry unsuitable for stress analysis. The model is shown in figure 61. Fixed restraint Figure 61: Tuning fork geometry Fixed restraint is applied to the surface of the ball. but still acceptable for frequency analysis. called mode of vibration. A quick inspection of the CAD geometry reveals a sharp reentrant edge. The only factor controlling the amplitude of vibration resonance is damping. A frequency analysis calculates these resonant frequencies and their associated modes of vibration. a structure will vibrate in a certain way. 99 . It has material properties already assigned (Chrome Stainless Steel). When excited with a resonant frequency. called resonant frequencies. only a few of the lowest modes are important in their response to a dynamic loading. A mode of vibration is the shape in which a structure will vibrate at a given natural frequency.
Finally. The automesher selects element size to satisfy the requirements of a stress analysis. Rema* Number <Jb fequf ttta 1 Kati J Oitec. 100 . . I He Figure 62: Frequency study definition (left) and study properties (right) The Options tab in the Frequency window allows for specifying the number of frequencies. Notice that as always. A frequency analysis is less demanding on the mesh. This approximates the situation when the tuning fork is held with two fingers.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Procedure Define Frequency study as shown in figure 62.e! >FFE iJFFEPte e. define fixed restraints to the ball surface.to be calculated in the frequency study. different solvers are available. as shown in figure 61.46 mm. We request that five frequencies be calculated using FFEPlus Solver which is the fastest of the three solvers available in COSMOSWorks. since this is a very simple model. we accept the mesh without making an attempt to simplify it. sp C<st":t. The meshed model is shown in figure 63. a less refined mesh is acceptable Nevertheless. 111 's^liiilll tuning fotk. Generally. mesh the model with a default element size of 1. Next. Solid me& MMiL j OplB = . i Car es! .
Print.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Figure 63: Meshed model of the tuning fork After the solution is complete. An Inactive plot can be displayed by doubleclicking the appropriate plot icon.. We will add three more plots to the Deformation folder. and mode 4.. If desired. Axes. Save As . COSMOSWorks creates two folders named Displacement and Deformation and places one plot in each folder... mode 3.. 101 . Animate. from where you can define more result plots.. Using clickinside technique. rename these plots to model. jpaj Deformation ^model 1%) mode? imodes Hide Edit Definition....... Copy Figure 64: ['our plots defined in Deformation folder The active plot (the one that is showing) can be modified using selections from the popup menu activated by rightclick the plot icon (left). Delete Copy ) Deformation \[^ mode i U% rnodeS Show Delete. and then clicking Show. Settings. mode3. mode4. corresponding to mode 2. which opens an associated popup menu. or rightclicking the plot icon to display the associated popup menu (right). you can define more result plots by rightclicking the Displacement or Deformation folder. mode2.
let's run the frequency analysis again. Here. which has a frequency of 440 Hz. rightclick the Deformation folder and select List Resonant Frequencies. we find that the highest calculated mode is mode 11 (figure 66) even though we asked that only five modes be calculated. Before explaining the reasons for this. We need to define a new frequency study. the lower A frequency of 440 Hz. we again specify that five modes be calculated (no change compared to previous study). which we will call tuning fork no supports. The easiest way is to copy the existing timing fork study and either delete or suppress the restraint (rightclick the restraint icon and make proper selection). is actually the fourth mode. Figure 65: First four modes of vibration and their associated frequencies As any musician will tell us. In the Options tab of the Frequency window in the tuning fork no supports study. 102 . which we were expecting to be the first mode.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks The deformation plot in the modal analysis shows the mode of vibration associated and corresponding natural frequency. the most common type of tuning fork produces a low A sound. this time without any restraints. After the solution is has been completed. The first four modes of vibration are presented in figure 65. However.
5 • > >nd le+032 le+032 1e+032 le+032 1e+032 1<s+032 0. it is elastic and there is always damping associated with elastic support that is not modeled here. it has six degrees of freedom as a rigid body: three translations and three rotations. Because the tuning fork is not supported.00081516 0. meaning the first mode requiring the fork to have elastic deformation is mode 7. These two modes are identical.17 675. After modes 1. but vibrations do not persist because the three modes are quickly damped by the very support that sustains them.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Study name: tuning fork no supports Mode Ni  2 11 {Bad 0 0 0 0 0 0 2768.:>: Figure 66: List Modes window The illustration has been modified in a graphic program to show all eleven modes without scrolling. which has a frequency of 440. 103 .8 4244.4 2772. This is because the support is never rigid as we have modeled. The support is needed to sustain these modes.19 1625.0022718 0. 10 11 :.1 10218 11009 17427 c • ' 0 0 0 0 0 0 440. Why? The first six modes of vibration correspond to rigid body modes. 2 and 3 have been damped out.2 Hz. the tuning fork vibrates the way it was designed to: in mode 4 (calculated in the analysis with supports) or mode 7 (calculated in the analysis without supports).00036068 1 1 3 4 5 8 7 8 3 1 I.6 1751. The first elastic mode of vibration. COSMOSWorks detects those rigid body modes and assigns them zero frequency (0 Hz).00057097 0. We also notice that the first six modes have the associated frequency 0 Hz. we notice that they all need the support in order to exist.0014811 0. This is close to what we were expecting to find as the fundamental mode of vibration for the tuning fork. Why did the frequency analysis with the restraint not produce the first mode with a frequency near to 440 Hz? If we closely examine the first three modes of vibration of the supported tuning fork.
The most direct analogies are summarized in figure 71. Numerous analogies exist between thermal and structural analyses. We will now examine a themial analysis. Static analysis provides results in the form of displacements. while frequency analysis provides results in the form of natural frequencies and associated modes of vibration. and stresses.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 7: Thermal analysis of a pipeline component Topics covered • • • Steady state thermal analysis Analogies between structural and thermal analysis Analysis of temperature distribution and heat flux Project description So far. 105 . strains. using the model CROSSING PIPES with Brass material properties already assigned. which both belong to the class of structural analyses. we have performed static analyses and frequency analyses. Structural Analysis Displacement [m] Strain [7] Stress [N/m2] Load [N] [N/m] [N/m ] [N/m ] Prescribed displacement 2 3 Thermal Analysis Temperature [K] Temperature gradient [K/m] Heat flux [W/m2] Heat source [W] [W/m] [W/m2] [W/m3] Prescribed temperature Figure 71: Selected analogies between structural and thermal analysis In this exercise. we will perform a simple thermal analysis of two pipes crossing.
As indicated in figure 71. we say that the model has adiabatic walls. heat can enter and leave the model only through the end faces with prescribed temperatures assigned. In thermodynamics jargon. Since no convection coefficients are defined on any faces. Our objective is to determine what temperature field will be established after the prescribed temperatures have been applied long enough for temperature field to stabilize itself. The first step is study definition. Procedure Temperatures to be applied to the model are shown in figure 72. Call this study crossing pipes and define it as shown in figure 73. applied to the endfaces as temperature boundary conditions.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Figure 72: CAD model of two crossing pipes Also shown are the prescribed temperatures. 106 . prescribed temperatures are analogous to prescribed displacements in structural analyses.
To define the prescribed temperature.. Mesh t ::Sold'8>«h. open the popup menu by rightclicking the Loads/Restraints folder and selecting Temperature. Radiation) and thermal loads (Heat Flux.... Convection.:: I\ lililllltliililllillllffl iiisiiaiaiiiii Acwe $!. Heat Flux.. crossing pipe* Figure 73: Definition of crossing pipes study The study definition for crossing pipes is a Thermal analysis type using a Solid mesh. Copy Figure 74: Popup menu related to a thermal analysis The popup menu lists the thermal boundary conditions (Temperature. Options..... Heat Power) available in a thermal analysis. Radiation. i crossing pipes ®lt Parameters ^ c r o s s i n g pipes (Default) fi% Solids i crossing pipes ([SW]8rass) Temperature. 107 .. Convection..(figure 74)...Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks . Heat Power..ud>i name..
Since each of four faces has a different prescribed temperature. Use the default global element size to create the mesh shown in figure 77.i: '"' Symbol settings *r 1 Figure 75: Temperature window Note that the units are in degrees Celsius.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Figure 75 shows the Temperature window for the face where a temperature of 100°C is applied. To ensure that fillets are meshed with elements with low turn angles (it is important for heat flux calculations for a concave face of element not to cover more than a 45 degree angle). ••V £j) Temperature [_J Show preview Temperature I I I 100 Variation with time )i ll«. The next step is meshing the model. we need to assign temperatures in four separate steps. 108 . define mesh control as shown in figure 76.
Use the default global element size to create the mesh shown in figure 77. Since each of four faces has a different prescribed temperature. To ensure that fillets are meshed with elements with low turn angles (it is important for heat flux calculations for a concave face of element not to cover more than a 45 degree angle). Type •*• L J Show preview Temperature I t i 100 ic •*• v Variation with time H Symbol settings Fiaurc 75: temperature window Note that the units are in degrees Celsius. The next step is meshing the model. we need to assign temperatures in four separate steps. 108 . define mesh control as shown in figure 76.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Figure 75 shows the Temperature window for the face where a temperature of 100°C is applied.
ro! P a s Low High A? 2E •mm \^i % I'Kl % L:. Figure 77: Finite element mesh of crossing pipes model created with the default global element size and mesh control applied to both fillets. We need to create one more plot showing heat flux. we notice that only one folder called Thermal has been created (figure 78). 109 . .Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Seeded tribes CT3II :lilllillllllli Corf. This folder called Thermal.„. has one plot in it.. it shows the temperature distribution.. By default.5mm on both fillets. Syrfibdisevtjriss Figure 76: Mesh Control window specifies element size 2. After solving the model.
3.sjS***'' ">:rr:s:' (Csisius) ^ ^ 4.000e+00'l Figure 79: Thermal Plot window defining temperature plot and the corresponding plot 110 . 1 3i:'e+002 H i i S. . : : .y\  Celsius i Fringe '•••!'•  Hfflli * IMGOe+002 I 3*r+0l  . j y Thermal (yj temperature [fiteheat flux Figure 78: COSMOSWorks Manager window and the single Thermal folder The COSMOSWorks Manager window shows only one results folder.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks crossing pipes J l l Parameters C%I crossing pipes (Default) .9338+002 . . 2.0006+002 H 2?33e+002 'w+QG2 .: 'lip Mesh Q Control! j y Report '.^ Solids " \ ^ crossing pipes ([SW]Brass~) B kk Load/Restraint  100C § BfJC § 2S0C  400C S Design Scenario . . 1 . . • ' • ^•'"•. ' " " " . .SS7etG02 Display I TEMP: Temperature .gg?e*002 1 1 1 1 . called Thermal. 2.8GGe*0£& . Notice that we have renamed the prescribed temperature icons and plots in Thermal folder to give them more descriptive names.200e+Gt)2 .iS.
2 4ftfe»ijos •: 1 .843s*CC5 5 449&+00S Dispi •.'m'2) 5.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks HRJ^N (W. ' Figure 710: Thermal Plot window defining heat flux plot and the corresponding plot 111 .4.ssos*t« 1 4SS**G05 1 DO'i e*C0S .4S13+0GS HFlUXM: Resultant h>: * 111 5 4726*005 : S**005 :W/m''"i ]::::::::::::::::: i Fringe •*! I ^^IlilSilSI^Bllffi^SSfil^SlSlliSllliS ( l. 4.SSSe*005 .
Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 8: Thermal analysis of a heat sink Topics covered • • • a • a Analysis of an assembly Global and local Contact/Gaps conditions Steady state thermal analysis Transient thermal analysis Thermal resistance layer Use of section views in results plots Project description In this exercise. Please open the assembly file named HEAT SINK (figure 81). 113 . However. we continue with thermal analysis. this time we will analyze an assembly rather than a single part. Microchip Vertex for probing results Radiator Figure 81: CAD model of a radiator assembly The CAD model of a radiator assembly consists of two components: aluminum radiator and a ceramic microchip.
for example. This is because material has been assigned to parts which are assembly components: Ceramic Porcelain material to the microchip and Aluminum Alloy 1060 to the radiator. Before proceeding. Our first objective is to determine the temperature and heat flux of the assembly in steady state conditions. shown in figure 82. called Contact/Gaps. We assume that the microchip is isolated. This will require transient thermal analysis. This will require steady state thermal analysis. then each square meter of the surface dissipates 250W of heat. The second objective is to study the temperature in the assembly as a function of time in a transient process when the assembly is initially at room temperature and power is turned on at time t=0. Rightclick the Contact/Gaps icon to open the popup menu. Heat is dissipated to the environment by convection through all exposed faces of the radiator.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Analysis of an assembly allows assignment of different material properties to each assembly component. This rather high value of convection coefficient corresponds to forced convection caused. The ambient temperature is 27°C (300K). Heat flowing from the microchip to the radiator encounters thermal resistance on the boundary between microchip and radiator. thermal resistance layer must be defined on the interface between these two components. meaning it can not dissipate heat to ambient air. by a cooling fan. The ceramic insert generates a heat power of 25 W and the aluminum radiator dissipates this heat. Therefore. contains two icons corresponding to the two assembly components with material properties already assigned. This means that if the difference of temperature between the face of the radiator and the surrounding air is IK. we need to investigate a new icon. meaning after enough time has passed for temperatures to stabilize. which is found in the COSMOSWorks Manager window. 114 . visible in figure 82. Procedure In COSMOSWorks and create a study called heat sink steady state. Notice that the Solids folder. The convection coefficient (also called the film coefficient) is assumed to be 250W/m7K in this model.
O Mode to rcssfe Figure 82: Contact/Gaps icon in the COSMOSWorks Manager When an assembly is analyzed.. Rightclick Contact/Gaps icon (left) and select Set Global Contact (middle) to display Global Contact window (right) The default setting for the Contact/Gaps conditions is Touching Faces: Bonded.001Km2/W (this value is usually obtained by testing). .l ( . select contacting faces and enter Distributed Thermal Resistance as 0. I I  "'. Even though this is what we need.' w*!r«?«Si. Select Surface as contact type. This can only be done as local Contact/Gaps condition. Rightclick Contact/Gaps folder and select Define Contact Set to open Contact Set window shown in figure 83. Referring to figure 83.<% Solids ^microchip1 ([S'#]Cerar«c Porcelain) ^ r a * * o r .. Define Contact for Components.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks •jjjc! Parameters <^S heat sink (Default) ... we still have to define local Contact Set for contacting faces because we need to define a thermal resistance between the contacting faces...' i?) 8or«ted ".. the COSMOSWorks Manager window always includes a Contact/Gaps icon. meaning that assembly components are merged.[ S W ] 1 0 6 0 Alloy) 4 J Load/Restraint 1 Design Scenario 1 Mesh Set Global Contact. Note that only Surface contact condition allows the definition of thermal resistance. Define Contact Set.
00J Friction. to open the Heat Power window (figure 84).^)iw ^ Face<l> Face <2> Figure 83: Defining thermal resistance between microchip and radiator Modeling thermal resistance between contacting faces requires that contact between these two faces is defined as Surface. V:f^\ m mm O fata! A:'<§) Distributed 0. Next. This contact condition overrides the global contact condition which we left at default settings as Bonded. 116 . To do this select the microchip from the Solids folder and rightclick the Load/Restraint folder to open the popup menu. : {Kn.. Next select Heat Power..Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks w. we specify the heat power generated in the microchip.
. . Heat Flux... Convection... Options. From this menu.. Radiation. Heat Power.... Notice that microchip1 appears in the Selected Entity filed and the heat power is applied to the entire volume of the selected component. Copy Show All > Selected grtlties IJX^IIllllII *w m £j Show preview Heal power (Per Entity) : SI *1i 25 Thermostat (Transient) Symbol settings Figure 84: Popup menu associated with the Load/Restraint folder Rightclick the Load/Restraint folder to open a popup menu.... select Heat Power to open Heat Power definition window.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks  heat sink ®il Parameters iheat sink (Default) 1 Solids 5 microchip1 ([SW]Cerarnic Porcelain) imtor1 ([5WJ1Q6Q Alloy) Hide All stgn ice \ Contact/^* <^g Mesh  Q Report Temperature.
~* ^ : ^ .K5 Bu$. fit .s... Kelvin Figure 85: Convection window Use this window to specify convection coefficient. Temper ature If : 3M Symbol settings . .Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks So far we have assigned material properties to each component as well as defined the heat source and thennal resistance layer.*. • M^. Enter 250 W/nr/K as the value of convection coefficient for all selected faces and define the ambient temperature as 300K as bulk (ambient) temperature. 118 . to open the Convection window (figure 85). Select all faces of the radiator including the bottom one. O s N o w preview Units fcl SI Convection Coefficient.S0 x *• SBi '•• W/(ftv" 2.. In order for heat to flow.. we must also establish a mechanism for the heat to escape the model.ss>~. Selected Entities f j f. Rightclick the Load/Restraint folder to open a popup menu (already shown in figure 84) and select Convection. This is accomplished by defining convection coefficients. and Bulk Temperature (ambient temperature).
imm ^ 12. Also. see the book cover. f ~ l Show preview Con iel Parameters J*. y\*j Selected Entities ff) l l l l l l l l l . For accurate heat flux results apply mesh control to all six fillets as shown in figure 86.5 7s.i 3 Figure 86: Mesh control applied to rounds in Radiator Now mesh the assembly with default global element size to produce mesh as shown in figure 87. \ Component signtficar ce \ Low High \ . 119 .4619062 "b I 1.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks The last step before solving is creating the mesh.
Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Figure 87: Exploded view of the meshed assembly The exploded view of the meshed model is created using the SolidWorks Configuration Manager. define two plots: temperature and heat flux. The required choices are shown in figure 88. Once the solution is ready. Display Display :  TEMP: Temperature I Celsius i Fringe g§ m HFIU 't n mi h* } Fringe Figure 88: Thermal Plot definition window for temperature distribution plot (left) and heat flux plot (right) 120 .
then construct section plot of heat flux.i'. To show the temperature distribution plot. From SolidWorks Feature Manager select Right reference plane."'frss^sink Therms: Ploi3 "" Temp (Celsius) J55555BS.. COSMOSWorks offers a multitude of options for sections plots which are easier to practice than to explain. In addition to section clipping. name. 121 . This creates the section plot shown in figure 89. use exploded view to produce heat flux plot similar to one shown in figure 810. the cutting surface is flat and aligned with the first reference plane in SolidWorks Feature Manager.334e+0Oi •in cngm <%(f)racr»lcr<l> :^: < p Mates in heat sink : • S B Annotations : . ShowcontciyD vths : 03imtutportion^ the model : * :j : R sset  Section clipping on / off Figure 89: Section plot of temperature distribution in the assembly The illustration has been modified in a graphics program to show the entire Section window and a portion of the exposed SolidWorks Feature Manager window.. rightclick plot icon and select Section Clipping from the popup menu. Please experiment with different options in Section window. 3. click COSMOSWorks tab to expose SolidWorks Feature Manager while still keeping Section window open. Normally this would require scrolling. Here we describe the procedure of creating a flat section result plot using one of SolidWorks default reference planes (any reference plane can be used). By default. Mode. Note that this procedure is required because SolidWorks flyout menu us not available for result plots. ?.307e+001 6:SSC«*001 fa 2^ eKiGi .321 e+OCl 7.C^sign Binder 1 % J *£ [^ J^'" OptfefK Bstan section pi sns O H o t jn section only : . To select another cutting plane.8t4e*G01 . 5 73"*e*0Gi I 5 2S0e+DO1 „4 ??3e+0&i * _4 2?e&*00l M^.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Both temperature and heat flux result plots are much more informative if presented using section views.
s«acfi oniy Show eontewr o Yihe lifKut portion of me ^jgxofctde^ef: \ Reset  Sppi f *m Figure 810: Section plot of heat flux in the assembly The legend was modified in Chart Option to show heat flux in the range 0 20000 W/m2.« t 6S7<M»4 .1833stOC4 mm 11 l0. We now proceed with transient thermal analysis.'i03 < j j .>3e*00<l >e*004 „ 5 nnnft+004 I I I 3. To accomplish that enter 600 as Total time and 60 as Time increment.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks £f I Study nasTie/ heat sink ste&rfy state : } Tiftre step: fi V \i i HFIuxtl C>.SGOe+004 1 .I 333e*OCC< H . 1 . 122 .. Select Transient analysis (Steady State is the default option). This completes the steady state thermal analysis of the heat sink assembly. Please copy study heat sink steady state into study heat sink transient. Rightclick study heat sink transient folder and select Properties to open window shown in figure 811. Our objective is to monitor the temperature changes every 60 seconds during the first 600 seconds with particular attention to the vertex location shown in figure 81.333&+0C3 6.06") H.6e7e*0G3 5OOne+!. 1 S676KK3 Shew section plane lj*Aon.'«nA2) ^^20)08.
} bmzi sparse • FFE SFFEMus I Advanced Options. We assume that both components have the same initial temperature 27°C. ) Cancel Figure 811: Transient thermal analysis is specified in thermal study Options Analysis will be carried on for 600 seconds with results reported every 60 seconds. Select Initial Temperature and enter 27°C..Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks SoSdWorks model swr Conhgyf alien name Flow jtesatson no. Rightclick Load/Restraint folder in heat sink transient study and select Temperature to open window shown in figure 812.. 123 . Transient thermal analysis requires that the initial temperature of the model be specified.
Display the temperature plot for the last step (step number 10) by rightclicking plot icon.3^'i 17828+001 s.J .Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks S heat sink fJ*J Annotations : : L.2468+001 Figure 813: Temperature distribution after 600 seconds since the heat power has been turned on. it is assumed that the full power is turned on at time t=0 when assembly is at the initial 124 . i:iiiiililli '§f I i^f Show preview Terisperature 11 r Symbol settings c Figure 812: Initial Temperature specified for both assembly components Assembly components can be selectedfrom the SolidWorks flyout menu.2508+001 s.7528+001 S . ! ^j i^fels ~4# Design Binder i " l & Lighting " "NX Front " ^ X Top •<$<: Right } Initial temperature >Teriipecatufe " *+ Origin [Jl.2S0e+OO1 m"fringe i.74?e+001 S. Since we have not specified heat power as function of time. selecting Edit Definition and setting Plot Step to 10 (figure 813) rs«*ooi '.7878+001 ' 2SSe+001 TEMP: T e?r<P8i. Now run the analysis and display the temperature distribution plot.7S7e*001 i .
display the mesh.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks temperature 27°C. we proceed as follows: make sure the plot in figure 813 is still showing. Probing opens the window shown in figure 814. and rightclick its icon in COSMOSWorks Manager and select Probe. To probe temperature in the location shown in figure 81. Notice that this result is very close to the result of steady state thermal analysis meaning that after 600 seconds. To see the temperature history in selected locations of the model. Figure 814: Temperature probed in the location shown in figure 81 Select Response in the Probe window to display a graph showing the temperature at the probed location as a function of time (figure 815). For the exact location where we want to probe results. 125 . Figure 813 shows temperature distribution after 600 seconds. select (leftclick) this location with the cursor. the temperature of assembly has almost stabilized. then probe the node that has been placed coincidently with the vertex created by the spilt lines.
. ' „ Figure 815: Temperature as a function of time in the probed location To produce a response graph (here temperature as a function of time).Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks " topontt Graph File Options Help Study r Ploi 333231 • / ' . „ .0G 600. you may probe temperature from any of the 10 performed steps. : : : I»: 2? 2680.00 i. ) J 168.1 Time (sec) «2. i . . . " " B 29 /: / / / 1 . 126 .00 ' <1 . ~s ir^rE^^z^Tl .00 76. i ^__w. . . .00 384. A quick examination of the graph in figure 815 proves that after 600 seconds the model has almost achieved steady state temperature.
but first we need to review different options available for defining the interactions between assembly components (we have touched on this topic in the previous exercise). shown in figure 82 and repeated in figure 91 for easy reference.affects one component Local condition . distinguishes between global. Global conditions Touching Faces. (as well as in component and local conditions) is that touching faces are bonded. The differences between different Contact/Gaps conditions are as follows: u • • Global condition .Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 9: Static analysis of a hanger Topics covered Q Static analysis of assembly • Global and local Contact/Gaps conditions Project description In this exercise we will investigate the structural analysis of assemblies. and local Contact/Gaps conditions.. component.. . The default choice in global conditions. opened by rightclicking the Contact/Gaps icon folder in COSMOSWorks Manager window.. Define Contact far Components.: *£} Bonded Set Global Contact.affects only the two specified faces (must belong to different components of an assembly) 127 . Define Contact S e t . Let's look more closely at the popup menu that opens when you rightclick the Contact/Gaps icon. 0 Mods to node1 Local conditions Component conditions Figure 91: Popup menu associated with the Contact/Gaps icon The popup menu.affects all faces in an assembly Component condition .
frequency. then an assembly behaves as a part. frequency. The nodes associated with the two parts on the common areas are coincident but different. This option is available for static. and buckling) and thermal studies. GLOBAL Option Touching Faces: Bonded Description Touching areas of different components are bonded.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks A description of the available options in Global. Component and Local Contact/Gap conditions is given in the following tables. Touching Faces: Node to Node 128 . nonlinear. For thennal studies. Touching Faces: Free The meshcr will treat parts as disjointed bodies. This option is available for structural (static. Using this option can save solution time if the applied loads do not cause interference. For static studies. there is no heat flow due to conduction through touching faces. the loads can cause interference between parts. and thermal studies. a gap element between two nodes prevents part interference but allows the two nodes to move away from each other. Bonded areas behave as if they were welded. The mesher will create compatible meshes at areas common to parts. and buckling) and thennal studies. For static studies. The program creates gap elements connecting each two coincident nodes. This option is available for structural (static. If touching faces are left as Bonded and Global conditions are not overridden by Component or Local conditions.
This option is available for structural (static. Using this option can save solution time if the applied loads do not cause interference. The mesher will treat the selected components as disjointed from the rest of the assembly. the program prevents heat flow due to conduction through common part areas. nonlinear. frequency. For thermal studies. For static studies. and buckling) and thermal studies. and buckling) and thermal studies. The program creates a gap element connecting each two coincident nodes. Touching Faces: Free Touching Faces: Node to Node 129 .Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks COMPONENT Option Touching Faces: Bonded Description The mesher will bond common areas of the selected components at their interface with all other components. The mesher will create compatible meshes at areas of the selected components that are common to other components. nonlinear. For static studies. the loads can cause interference between parts. This option is available for static. and thermal studies. This option is available for structural (static. a gap element between two nodes prevents part interference but allows the two nodes to move away from each other. frequency. The nodes associated with the two parts on the common areas are coincident but different.
a nodetosurface gap element prevents interference but allows the node to move away from the target faces. The faces may or may not be cylindrical but should be partially or fully interfering. This option is available for static and thermal studies. frequency. Surface contact is available for static and thermal studies. For thermal problems. and buckling) and thermal studies. The mesher will create compatible meshes at areas common to source and target faces. The nodes associated with the two parts on common areas are coincident but different. Bonded areas behave as if they were welded. Select source entities (faces. The mesher will treat the source and target faces as disjointed. The program creates a nodetosurface gap element for each node on the source entities. The surface associated with each gap element is defined by all the target faces. This option is available for structural (static. Shrink fit The program creates a shrink fit condition between the source and target faces. and vertices) from a component and target faces from a different component. For static studies. frequency. the loads can cause interference between parts. For static studies. The program creates a gap element connecting each two coincident nodes. For static and nonlinear studies. and buckling) and thermal studies. For thennal studies. Using this option can save solution time if the applied loads do not cause interference.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks LOCAL Option Bonded Description The mesher will bond common areas of the source and target faces. Surface contact is more general than nodetonode contact. Free Node to Node Surface 130 . a gap element between two nodes prevents interference but allows the two nodes to move away from each other. you can specify thermal contact resistance between source and target faces. edges. This option is available for structural (static. the program prevents heat flow due to conduction through common source and target areas.
the faces just have to share some common area. Free. The hierarchy of Global. and Local Contact/Gaps conditions is shown in figure 92. It can only be applied to faces that are identical in curvature. The faces can but don't have to touch initially but are expected to come in contact once the load has been 131 . Component. Next. i / / \ \ COMPONENT Figure 92: Hierarchy of Contact/Gaps conditions In the hierarchy of Contact/Gap conditions. hence the name Node to Node. even if the faces are not of the same size. Surface contact may be specified between two faces of different shapes and can only be specified as a local condition.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks An assembly always needs to be remeshed after editing any contact option. A LOCAL £ . and Shrink fit. Node to Node. we can locally override this condition and define local conditions for one (or more) pair(s) as Touching Faces: Node to Node. using Global Contact/Gaps conditions. local conditions override both Component and Global conditions. Node to Node conditions can be specified between two: • _l • Flat faces Cylindrical faces of the same radius Spherical faces of the same radius With these options. Surface. We will now discuss the important distinction between Node to Node and Surface conditions. Local Contact/Gaps conditions can be specified as Bonded. Component conditions override Global conditions. A Node to Node condition can be specified both globally and locally. we can request that all faces be bonded. Global Contact/Gaps conditions can be overridden by Component and/or Local conditions. For example. the mesh on both faces in the area where they touch each other is created in such a manner that there is node to node correspondence (nodes are coincident) on both touching surfaces.
\ Node to Node  CM m Face < 1 > I ace Figure 93: The contact between a spherical punch and a plate (left) is defined as a Surface contact.. 132 . They are just expected to come in contact under the load. •0') m f i Type' T?v ••. but less numerically efficient than the Node to Node contact.. ?.?•>. Surface contact is more general. but that would unnecessarily complicate the model.. Faces in Surface contact condition don 7 have to touch initially.. The difference between Node to Node and Surface conditions is illustrated in figure 93. I'he contact between a Hat end punch and a plate (right) is defined as a Node to Node contact. Any Node to Node contact could be defined as a Surface condition. The mesh on both surfaces is not identical.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks applied to model. so there is no node to node correspondence.
000 N bending load (down) Figure 94: Hanger assembly The hanger assembly consists of three parts (compare with figure 96). Fixed support 1. A 1.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Procedure Open the assembly part file HANGER (figure 94). and support is applied to the back of vertical flat. Material (AISI 304) has already been assigned to all assembly components and will be automatically transferred to COSMOSWorks.000 N load is applied to the split face. 133 .
meaning that there is no interaction between faces. then by default all touching faces are bonded. shown in figure 96.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks If you do not modify the Contact/Gaps parameters. A sample result is shown in figure 95. However. One of the three pairs of touching faces will be defined using local condition Free. The faces. due to stress singularities in the sharp reentrant corners. and the FEA model will behave as one part. will be able to either come apart or "penetrate" each other with no consequences. it is not statable for analysis stresses in those sharp reentrant corners. but locally we override them by defining a local Contact/Gaps condition. Now. Figure 95: Displacement results for a model with all touching faces bonded Notice that the hanger assembly model is adequate for analysis of displacements. We leave the global conditions set to Touching Faces: bonded. 134 . we will modify the Contact/Gaps conditions on selected touching faces.
135 . Figure 97: COSMOSWorks prompt when Contact/Gaps conditions change Any change in Contact/Gaps conditions requires remeshing. If we wish to keep the earlier results. Remeshing will delete the previous results. as shown in figure 98. there is no interaction between them. Every time Contact/Gaps conditions are changed COSMOSWorks prompts you to remesh (figure 97). Once local or component Contact/Gaps conditions have been defined. an icon is placed in the Contact/Gaps folder.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Figure 96: Touching Faces: Free When faces 1 and 2 are locally defined as Free. we need to define local Contact/Gaps conditions in a new study. Note that exploded view of the hanger makes it possible to define local Contact/Gaps conditions.
is best demonstrated by showing displacement results (figure 99). The Contact/Gaps folder holds definitions of local Contact/Gaps The lack of interference between faces in a pair locally defined as Free. Figure 99: Displacement results in a pair defined as Free The plot on the left shows results for load directed downwards and the plot on the right has the load direction reversed. in order to open the Contact Pair window (figure 910).Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks  Contact/Gaps (Global: Bonded) JgL Contact Set. To change the local condition. From the popup menu select Edit definition. rightclick the Contact Pairl icon in the Contact/Gaps folder (figure 98)..i (F Figure 98: Contact/Gaps folder conditions. which opens a popup menu. 136 . Let's now change the local contact conditions between faces shown in figure 96 from Free to Node to node..
Node to Node conditions (as well as Surface conditions). Mode to Node Figure 910: Contact pair window The Contact set window allows yon to create or edit local Contact/Gaps conditions. show that the two faces defined as Node to Node now slide when a downward load is applied (left) and separate when the load is applied upward (right). In the Contact Set window. Notice that the solution now requires much more time to run because the contact constraints must be resolved (figure 911). Nodss' 105^ %SB Figure 911: Iterative solution for the hanger assembly using a Node to Node condition A Node to Node condition requires an iterative solution to solve contact constraints and takes significantly longer to complete than a linear solution. The displacement results. i. displayed in figure 912. change the local condition to Node to Node.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Type. and run the solution once again. 137 . represent nonlinear problems and require an iterative solution. Remesh the model when prompted.
left) Only a portion of face 1 contacts face 2. While the mesh is adequate for the analysis of displacements. 138 . Closer examination of the displacement results for the sliding faces (figure 913) shows that the sliding faces partially separate. /> Figure 913: Partial separation of the sliding faces (figure 912. The mesh in the contact area is too coarse to allow for the analysis of contact stresses.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Figure 912: Displacement results for two locally defined Node to Node faces The two faces in the pair defined locally as Node to Node slide (left) or separate (right) depending on the load direction. the mesh is not sufficiently refined for the analysis of the contact stresses that develop between the two sliding faces.
The material for both parts is Nylon 6/10 and has already been assigned to the part. The model (figure 101). consists of two identical plates that touch each other on their curved outside surface. This analysis requires the Surface type of contact conditions. Please open assembly file TWO PLATES. l.OOONloadin negative y direction Restraints in x and z directions Rigid support Surface contact condition between two cylindrical faces Figure 101: Two plates with their cylindrical surfaces in contact Preparation of the model for analysis requires restraining the loaded part to prevent rigid body motion and. Our objective is to find the distribution of von Mises stress and the maximum contact stresses that develop in the model under a 1.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 10: Analysis of contact stresses between two plates Topics covered u a • Assembly analysis with surface contact conditions Contact stress analysis Avoiding rigid body modes Project description We will perforin one more contact stress analysis. 139 . make it free to move in the direction of the load. at the same time.000 N of compressive load. This can be accomplished by restraining the loaded face in both inplane direction while leaving the normal direction (the direction in which load is applied) unrestrained (figure 102).
The restraints shown in figure 102 are required to prevent rigid body motion. 140 .Finite Element Analysis with COSMOS Works Figure 102: Restraint windows Restraints are conveniently applied to the loaded face using SolidWorks Top reference plane as a reference to determine restrained directions. because the analyzed contact is frictionless.
It is the responsibility of the user to make sure that there are enough elements in the contact area to properly model the distribution of contact stresses. Adequate mesh density in the contact area is of paramount importance in any contact stress analysis.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks We are now ready to mesh the assembly model. In this exercise we adjust global element size as shown in figure 103. •*• \ J$Ss£ ' » '"iH&U^ Coarse ''' Fine Wsm Figure 103: Assembly meshed with global element size 1.5mm 141 . Mesh Parameters.
' Options tit !™ TTfi! v . The maximum contact stress reported is 144 MPa The plot presents Contact pressure defined in Stress Plot window (left). 142 . Mode! n&m? two cylinders Study nsme: surface contact Plot type: Static nodal siiess Ptot2 ^ • . Contact ptessure P N/mny : (MPs) . J} Display '>/'• • lj •*• «.C: ° > Match coforchaH: . (Mode values }Ssnqte cob. Contact pressure plot uses Vector type of display which can be modified using Vector plot options window (middle). f b 1CP. Figure 104: Contact stress results for the coarse mesh presented using an exploded view.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks A contact stress results plot complete with windows used to define it is shown in figure 104.
1 201e+002 1 "t82e+002 .6166+001 ?8e+001 " . The same mesh it may prove too coarse when analyzing more rigid materials. :: . please further investigate the effects of mesh refinement and type of material (such as steel or aluminum) on contact stress. 143 . Model name: t w o cylinders Stuffy name: surface contact Plot type: Static nodal stress Plot! Deformation scale: 1 von Mises (M'rt»ffi*2 (MPall ^ ^ 1.441e+002 216*002 I I II: IF.2286+001 :rfy Figure 105: Von Mises stress results presented using exploded view We leave it to the reader to decide if this stress level is acceptable for Nylon 6/10 material which yield stress is 139 MPa.9. 4.195+001 i. Note that our mesh is adequate for modeling contact stresses between two Nylon parts because low modulus of elasticity of Nylon makes the contact area quite large. :.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Von Mises stresses are shown in figure 105. 1. Before concluding this exercise.822e+001 236+001 25e+001 H .021 e+001 .
Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks
11: Thermal stress analysis of a bimetal beam
Topics covered
• • • Thermal stress analysis Use of various techniques in defining restraints Shear stress analysis
Project description
The temperature of the bimetal beam, shown in figure 111, increases uniformly from the initial 298K to 600K. We need to find how much the beam will deform.
Procedure
Please open the assembly file BIMETAL. Note that the assembly consists of two instances of the same parts. For this reason material can not be assigned to the SolidWorks part. We must assign it in COSMOSWorks to components of Solids folder.
\
\
L
Titanium Ti10V2Fe3Al
\
Aluminum 1060
\
X
\N:
Figure 111: Himetal beam consisting of bonded titanium and aluminum strips. The bimetal beam will deform when heated because of the different thermal expansion ratios of titanium and aluminum
145
Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks
To account for thennal effects, we still define the study as Static, but in the Properties of this study, under Flow/Thermal Effects we select the option Include thermal effects (figure 112).
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Figure 112: Static study window, where we request that thermal effects be included. This window is also used to define the reference temperature at zero strain; here: 298K Before proceeding, let's take this opportunity to review all thermal options available in the study window. Thermal Option Input temperature
Definition
Use if prescribed temperatures will be defined in the Load/Restraint folder of the study to calculate thermal stresses. This is our case. Use if temperature results are available from previously conducted thermal study. Use if temperature results are available from previously conducted COSMOSFloWorks study
Temperature from thermal study Temperature from COSMOSFloWorks
Now assign the material properties of titanium and aluminum to the assembly components as shown in figure 111.
146
Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Restraints in this model will be applied in the least '"invasive'" manner, just enough to prevent rigid body modes while minimizing their interference with thermal expansion. Restraints are explained in figures 1 13 and I 14.
Figure 1 13: Restraint applied to cylindrical face of the hole in aluminum part. Only circumferential translations are restrained. This still leaves one unrestrained rigid bodv motion in v direction. Notice that restrain/ symbol size has been increased using Symbol settings. Model is shown in exploded view.
147
Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks
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Figure 114: Restraint applied to one vertex in direction normal to Top reference plane to remove the rigid body motion in v direction. Notice that restraint symbol size has been increased using Symbol settings. Model is shown in exploded view. To apply temperature load rightclick Load/Restraint folder and select Temperature to open Temperature window. From the flyout menu select both assembly components and enter temperature 600K which means that assembly temperature will be increased by 302K from the initial 298K. Definition of temperature load is explained in figure 115.
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Figure 115: Temperature 600K is applied to both assembly components which are most conveniently selected from the Solid Works flyout menu.
148
1.3748+000 _ 3. Displacement results are shown in figure 116.7.SSOe+000 . 3.121e+000 .507e+000 .3346002 Figure 116: Displacement results for the bimetal beam Due to the different thermal expansion ratios of titanium and aluminum.4.1.3.1 . 2.7476+000 .1346+000 . 149 .2548+000 .887ft001 H11.6018001 .Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Mesh the model with default element size which creates the total of 4 layers of elements. 3. 2 8278+000 . thermal strains develop and deform the bimetal beam in a pattern that resembles bending.000e+000 .4948+000 . von Mises stress results are shown in figure 117 URES (mm) ^ ^ 4.
Considering assembly orientation in the global coordinate system. Therefore. Please refer to figure 118 for explanation of normal and shear stress directions (this figure is identical to figure 111). 1. J'U'e+OOl 2.7976+002 +002 . The stress cube is aligned with the global coordinate system. Figure 118: Stress cube explaining convention used in defining directions of stress components. 150 . Aluminum and titanium components are bonded.034e+002 _7732e+001 :... it may be interesting to review shear stresses on the boundary between these two parts. we need to display TZX shear stress (TZX is the stress component selectable in the Stress Plot window).2886+002 .0S2e+002 . 2.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks von Mises CN.0706+002 I J "" *1Se+002 502 5066+002 . 1.5638+000 Figure 117: Von Mises stress results for the bimetal beam Thermal stresses do not follow the stress pattern typical for bending.'mm"2 (W'aY 3.7028+001 1. 1.
b o u r .1756*001 .' **": •*. The maximum shear stress is located at the free ends of the bimetal beam.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Displaying shear stress in X direction on the bonded faces requires stress plot specifying TXZ or TZX.5926+001 »3e+001 n 11 •i^t ^lliih.1. This is the default.3.f}/mm^£tMP3f .3388+000 2.300e+0Q1 . This indicates that bonding failure (if any) will start in these locations. •"mm lis .0798+002 S * ^ % X A':T::CO tesulte acres? • : .4.OOSe+OOl 8. 5. S. 151 . 5 • f t 8.9518+001 598*001 308+001 '— name view orientation I l l 1. and is not selected here.242e*001 Property GfodudetftN*fes$.0??e+00! Figure 119: Shear stresses TXZ Note that the stress plot for assembly offers the option of averaging stress residts across boundary of the parts. *•! m ^% xt\ Deformed Shape .(these two shear stress components are equal due to symmetry of shear stress) as shown in figure 119. m^ \ . Fringe (*)Mode values Osisri^rtvaiuss ?••?:] ff§3l* III 3. i^jMj TauKZ (t#nm A 2 (MPs)) ^9 TX2: Shear ifi 2 dc.7178+001 HI®. d 3 r / f q r parts : . *m ..
Finite Element Analysis with COSMOS Works NOTES: 152 .
153 . Figure 131: Lbeam geometry A perforated angle is compressed by a 40. Procedure Open the assembly file L BEAM. The beam and endplates material is alloy steel with yield strength of 620 MPa. Our goal is to calculate the factor of safety related to the yield stress and factor of safety related to buckling.000 N load.000 N force uniformly distributed over the endplate.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 12: Buckling analysis of an Lbeam Topics covered a • a Buckling analysis Buckling load safety factor Stress safety factor Project description An Lshaped perforated beam is compressed with a 40. The material has already been assigned to the assembly components. as shown in figure 121.
Deformation scale: 8. 154 . Model name: i beam Study name: stress s PM type: Static no*. Figure 122 identifies the location of the highest stress.> Figure 122: Location of the maximum von Mises stress is close to the loaded endplate Plot displays the location of the maximum stress and uses floating format to display numerical values.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Before we run a buckling analysis. The results of static analysis show the maximum stress below the yield strength 640MPa. von Mises (»»n"2 (MPs)) 534 jppy l^v* / 111490 26 7 ii h 223 178 ' "^ •gr "*. let's first obtain the results of a static analysis based on the load and restraint shown in figure 121. Both are selected in Chart Options.
This is because of a possibility of buckling occurring. Figure 134 shows two studies: the already completed stress analysis (static analysis) and buckling analysis that we are now starting. COSMOSWorks automatically creates two Results folders: Displacement and Deformation. Even though displacement results are available. 155 . In most practical cases. we limit this analysis to calculating the first buckling mode. The deformation plots are much more informative (figure 124) and do not include confusing information on the magnitude of displacement. Defining a buckling study requires specifying the number of desired buckling modes. just like in frequency analysis. Here we ask for only one buckling mode When defining a buckling study. where properties are defined for a buckling study. figure 123: Definition of a buckling study (left) and the Buckling window. the magnitude of displacement results is meaningless. the first buckling mode determines the safety of the analyzed structure. Therefore. Once the buckling analysis has been completed. we need to decide how many buckling modes should be calculated. We still need to calculate the safety factor for a buckling load and this requires running a buckling analysis. In a buckling analysis. they do not provide much useful infomiation.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks As is always the case with slender members under compressive load. This is a close analogy to the number of modes in a frequency analysis. Please copy loads and restraints from the stress analysis study to buckling analysis study. the factor of safety related to material yield stress may not be sufficient to describe the structure's safety.
With this in mind. shown in the deformation plot. In our case. This plot shows the buckled shape along with the undeformed model. It also lists the buckling factor. provides information on how many times the load magnitude would need to be increased in order for buckling to actually take place.800 N. This condition means that the beam will buckle before it develops stresses equal to the yield strength.87*40.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Modfrl riatrie: J ttesun Sftotte S'hspe : 1 Load Fsotot . Our conclusion is that buckling is the deciding mode of failure. loads. meaning that it does not account for the alwayspresent imperfections in model geometry. the real buckling load may be significantly lower than the calculated 34. It should be pointed out that the calculated value of the buckling load is nonconservative. Notice that the calculated buckling load safety factor is actually lower than the previously calculated safety factor related to material yield strength. the magnitude of load causing buckling is 0.800N. and supports.000N = 34. Therefore.5o5 Figure 124: Deformation plot 77ze deformation plot provides visual information on the shape of the buckled structure. The buckling load factor.0JS7116 Deformation se&e: 33. here equal to 0. The buckling load factor can be also called the buckling load safety factor. materials.000N. 156 . Also notice that high stress affects the beam only locally.87. while buckling is global. buckling will take place because the actual load is 40.
Fixed support s. We suspect that the plate is overdesigned and wish to find out if material can be saved by enlarging the diameter of the hole. Because of certain design considerations. design variables.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 13: Design optimization of a plate in bending Topics covered L) O • • Structural optimization analysis Optimization goal Optimization constraints Design variables Project description A rectangular plate is subjected to a 500 N bending load resisted by builtin support (figure 131). We explain these terms before proceeding. The model is shown in its initial configuration. we know that the highest von Mises stress should not exceed 500 MPa anywhere in the plate. before optimization As with every design optimization problem. from previous experience with similar structures. the diameter cannot exceed 40 mm. and constraints. 157 . / Bendine load 500 N Fimirc 131: Rectangular plate with a round hole is bent by a 500 N load. this one is defined by the optimization goal. Also.
which must not exceed 500 MPa. Constraints in optimization exercises are also called limits. Other examples of optimization goal are to maximize stiffness. Von Mises stress results are presented in figure 134. but there is no limit on the number of design variables. and figure 133 shows the mesh created with the default element size. Design variable Constraints Limits on the maximum deflection or the minimum natural frequency are examples of constraints. this is the hole diameter. For simplicity. the constraint is the maximum von Mises stress. it is necessary to determine the stresses in the plate "as is". which requires running a static study. Static study is a prerequisite to the subsequent optimization study. In this example. Before starting the design optimization exercise that will result in changing the diameter of the hole. Figure 132 shows the model's dimensions before optimization. The optimization goal is often called the optimization objective or optimization criterion. Notice that the mesh has two layers of second order elements across the member in bending. this exercise has only one design variable. In this exercise. as is recommended for bending problems. Procedure Please open and review part file PLATE IN BENDING. It comes with defined material Alloy steel). maximize the first natural frequency. The entity that we wish to modify is a design variable.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Term Optimization goal Definition Our objective is to minimize the mass. The range for the diameter is from its initial 20mm to a maximum of 40mm. etc. 158 .
Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Figure 132: Model dimensions before optimization Figure 133: Mesh of the model before optimization 159 .
2. j optimisation Optimization Dstete Active study rwvie. The optimization study is defined as any other study except that mesh type does not need to be defined since the optimization study must use the same type of mesh as the prerequisite static study (figure 135).01576+001 .0212e+002 . pie tequisite static Figure 135: Optimization study and static study The optimization study called optimization.7973e+002 .34946+002 . 160 . is defined after the static study called pre requisite static. 1. 6.6930e+002 2. 9.7764e+001 53726+001 ?979e+001 I _ j 5.1255e+002 fir . 1.8608e001 Figure 134: Von Mises stresses in the model before optimization Stress results (figure 134) show the maximum von Mises stress of 269 MPa at the edge of the hole. This is below the allowable 500MPa.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks von Mises [M*nm"2 (MPa)) s'" ^ ^ 2.57346+002 1.24516+002 . 1.4691e+002 l i t 2. so we can proceed with the optimization exercise by increasing the diameter of the hole.
The maximum number of design cycles is defined in the Optimization window. i plate in bending €•!» Parameters + ct* pre requisite static (~Def aulfc) 5 f » optimization (Default) . COSMOSWorks automatically creates three folders specific to an optimization study (figure 136): _l Objective • • Design Variables Constraints An optimization study requires that all these folders be defined. you can select the number of iterative cycles (figure 137). Design Variables.Report Fiuure 136: Design optimization study contains three automatically created folders: Objective. and Constraints. Design optimization is an iterative process. 161 .Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks When the optimization study is defined.. .•—iff Objective f H Design Variables f3j Constraints . and from there. which is opened by rightclicking the Optimization study.
162 . rightclick the Objective folder (figure 136). which is to minimize the mass. To open this window. The optimization goal is defined in the Objective window.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOS Works Figure 137: Optimization window The maximum allowed number of design cycles in an optimization study is 20 by default. For this exercise. we accept the default optimization goal.
shown in figure 139. To define the design variable. rightclick the Design Variable folder to open the Design Variable window. first select the dimension. Responsei i. Note that it may not be possible to reach the diameter of 40 mm if. which will be modified by this design variable./Max .Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Mir. during the process of increasing the diameter. as to minimize mass To define the design variable.: B e c o m e ! Volume I Ffequency ! Suckling Available M> tnyefgenee fcolessnce: I 1 Help Figure 138: Optimization goal defined in the Objective window. 163 . The allowed variation of the hole diameter is from 20 mm to 40 mm. the maximum stress exceeds 500 MPa. You can display the dimensions by selecting Show Feature Dimensions in Annotations folder in the SolidWorks Manager.
y^^yyyy^ *J Figure 139: Design Variable window The allowed range of the hole diameter is specified as from 20 mm (value before optimization) to 40 mm. :20 1 : Upper bound MO Convergence tolerance:: 1 OK Cancel Cancel Update \ X I J of Range Help He •yy:yy^^yyyy^^^yyyyy. rightclick the Constraints folder to open the Constraint window. to define the constraints.. initial Value : I o w a Bo. shown in figure 1310. Upper E tt. : Lower bound: i Upper bound: ! Tolerance: N. . 1 Lower bound.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Design Variable Units . Stud. • Mams: iight@SkeJdi3#p!ate in bending.'rwo 3n 16 500 11 M NAwh'*2(MP*)  N/mm'~2MPaJ : I XofBange OK [ Cancel j He Figure 1310: Constraint window The maximum allowed stress is defined as von Mises stress equal to 500 MPa..y.Part • initial value:. Normal stiessj 1 si principal} j P2: Normal stress! 2nd principal) IP3.y^^yyy!y. . Norrrsai ritessi 3idpfincipaH Help Units. 164 . Finally.dd. which is the maximum allowed hole diameter.^^^yyyyyyyy. i Study name i Type Component iTVZ: Shear st?essY2 plane j  PI.
JH Parameters + df pre requisite static (Default) . supports. COSMOSWorks creates several result folders. which are shown in figure 1311. The following folders are automatically created once design optimization completes: • • • Design Cycle Result Design History Graph Design Local Trend Graph To view the optimized model. To view the original model for comparison. The necessary information is transferred from the prerequisite static study defined in the Constraint window (figure 1310). and constraint(s). When the solution is complete.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Notice that loads.j y Design Local Trend Graph 1111**1 Figure 1311: COSMOSWorks results folders in Optimization study. ^p plate in bending . Having defined the optimization goal.•. and materials are not defined anywhere in the optimization study. we are ready to run the optimization study. b : Design Cycle Result ^ j  Initial Design  f  Final Design ~ j b j Design History Graph iWotl . 165 . design variable(s). doubleclick the Initial Design icon in the Design Cycle Result folder (figure 1311). doubleclick the Final Design icon in the Design Cycle Result folder.f 9 optimization (Default) i"fff Objective .l f( Design Variables ! U Constraints j y Report .
the diameter of the hole is 36. we need to review the plots in the prerequisite static study. If desired.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Figure 1312: Model after optimization In the optimized model. 166 9 . To open the Design Cycle Result window rightclick the Design Cycle Result folder and select the desired iteration number (figure 1313). the results of which have been updated to account for the new model geometry. we can display the model configuration in any step of the iterative design optimization process. Figure 1313: Design Cycle Result window To examine displacements or stresses in the optimized model.39 mm.
3368+002 2.003e<002 » 5boe+002 .A^ von ttfces (N/miri'<2 ( * a j ) ^ ^ S.1846*001 U t 8528001 —•Yield strength: 6.24821 .4 1698*002 . The history of the optimization process can be reviewed by examining plots in the Design History Graph folder and in the Design Local Trend Graph folder. 1.7S2e+O02 . '• Convsrgencs Pk« of Design Vsriabfef 40 3020 . 10+ 0 4 1 fi Figure 1315: Graph showing changes in the design variable during the iterative optimization process.#:.4. 2.085e+002 ie+002 i S " . An example is shown in figure 1315.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Mode! name: piste in bending Study name: pre requisite static Plot type: Static riodai stress Plot! Deltsrmation scale 4.3 MPa.319e*0Q2 !:. This value is within the requested 1% accuracy of stress constraint.204e+002 Figure 1314: Von Mises stresses in the optimized model Note that the maximum stress is 500. 25Q2e*002 .3.2S2e*002 8.. 167 .3S2e+O0i ^. 3.
000 N is uniformly distributed on the cylindrical face. Please open part file BRACKF. loads. We need to find the location and the magnitude of the maximum von Mises stress. A bending load of 10. Fixed support v Bending load 10. shown in figure 141.T.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 14: Static analysis of a bracket using pelements Topics covered • pelements Q pAdaptive solution method • Comparison between helements and pelements Project description A hollow cantilever bracket.000 N Figure 141: Hollow cantilever bracket under a bending load Due to the symmetry of the bracket geometry. but decide against it because the work involved would not save time overall. Another reason for not simplifying the geometry is that you are encouraged to use the same geometry later to perform a frequency analysis which requires the full model geometry. 169 . and supports. we could simplify the geometry further by cutting it in half. The part material is AIS1 304. is supported along the backside.
We need to find the location and the magnitude of the maximum von Mises stress. ! Bending load 10.000 N Figure 141: Hollow cantilever bracket under a bending load Due to the symmetry of the bracket geometry. 169 . shown in figure 141. Please open part file BRACKET. we could simplify the geometry further by cutting it in half. The part material is A1S1 304.000 N is uniformly distributed on the cylindrical face. is supported along the backside. and supports. Another reason for not simplifying the geometry is that you are encouraged to use the same geometry later to perform a frequency analysis which requires the full model geometry. loads.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 14: Static analysis of a bracket using pelements Topics covered • • • pelements pAdaptive solution method Comparison between helements and pelements Project description A hollow cantilever bracket. but decide against it because the work involved would not save time overall. A bending load of 10.
However. while second order elements model a parabolic (second order) displacement and linear stress distribution. This option is available only for static analysis using solid elements. recall that first order elements model a linear (or first order) displacement and constant stress distribution. we will solve this problem using a different type of finite elements. called pelements. We also said that first order elements should be avoided. we said that COSMOSWorks can use either first order element also called draft quality or second order element called high quality. You can access these higher order elements. Besides first and second order elements. in chapter 1. We now have to amend the above statements.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks The presented problem is a straightforward structural analysis and hardly seems to deserve a place towards the end of this book. we need to explain what pelements are. Furthermore. If you recall. COSMOSWorks can work with elements up to the 5th order. (called pelements) if Use pAdaptive for solution is selected in the Study window under the Adaptive tab (figure 142). we will use this problem to introduce a whole new concept in FEA. 170 . Before we begin.
Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks E J Use pAdsplsve iot solution pAdaptive options Stop when. Risking some oversimplification we may say that the pAdaptive solution runs in iterations. Looping continues until the change in Total Strain Energy between the two consecutive iterations is less than 1%. Total SliwEnetgy v charge is 1 %oitets Zormoie Update eferoents with relative $ii$m Energy error of \2 Starting porder Maximum potdet 5 Z . which means that all elements are first defined as second order elements. For the pAdaptive solution we use the settings as shown in this illustration. then looping will stop when the elements reach the 5" order. as specified in the pAdaptive options area. The Maximum no. automatically during the iterative solution process without our intervention. which also continues until the change in the selected result is no longer significant. The highest order available is the 5 n order. Referring to figure 142. If this requirement is not satisfied. The pAdaptive solution process is analogous to the iterative process of mesh refinement. and can be upgraded "on the fly". "* : ~ Maxima no d loop:: 4 Camel Figure 142: Adaptive tab in the Static window The selection "Use pAdaptive for solution " made in Adaptive tab in the Static window. of loops is set to 4. that is. Please investigate other available options in pAdaptive options fields shown in figure 142. Elements used in pAdaptive solutions do not have a fixed order. activates the use ofpAdaptive solution method. These types of elements with upgradeable order are called pelements. Let's pause for a moment and explain some terminology: 171 . called loops. the Starting porder is set to 2. and with each new loop the order of elements is upgraded. this will be 4th loop. The highest order to be used is defined by Maximum porder.
Because the polynomial order experiences changes. While the mesh is refined. Adaptive means that not necessarily all pelements need to be upgraded during the solution process. Procedure First solve the model using second order solid tetrahedral helcments. but to better capture stresses. in the pAdaptive options area. The element order is defined by the order of polynomial functions that describe the displacement field in the element. The iterative process that we are discussing now does not involve mesh refinement. While the mesh remains unchanged. Use the default element size. Automatic transition and Mesh Control are seldom combined in one mesh. and the elements used in this process are called helements. Indeed. the characteristic element size. as you can see in figure 142. they cannot be upgraded to a higher order. becomes smaller. or driven by the results of consecutive iterations. h. therefore. 172 . and the upgradeable elements used in this process are called pelements. meaning that only those elements not satisfying the above criterion will be upgraded (please investigate other criteria). the element order changes from the 2nd all the way to 5tn or less if the convergence criterion (here the change in Total Strain Energy) is satisfied sooner. that element upgrading is "Adaptive". Once created. Note that helements retain their order. This size is manipulated during the mesh refinement process. the field in Update elements with relative Strain Energy error of % or more is set to 2. apply Mesh Control to both fillets (figure 143) while deselecting Automatic transition in the Options window under the Mesh tab. The helement mesh is shown in figure 144 and the von Miscs stress results in fleure 145. the process is called pconvergence process. We say.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOS Works Please refer to figure 214 which explains that h denotes the characteristic element size. Therefore the mesh refinement process that we conducted in chapters 2 and 3 is called the hconvergence process.
38668985 iReset to default steel f~Ruri analysis after —meshirig mm Low Options.. applied to both fillets. The Mesh Control window (right) displays the mesh controls.3668935 % t. « : ^ (rnm High v 3.S Figure 143: Mesh window (left) and Mesh Control window (right) used to create an helement mesh The Mesh window (left) displays the Mesh Parameters. 173 .. ij Selected Entitles f l ill 1111111:11 Coarse ' Fine mm O Show preview Control Parameters lis 0.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks ) Mesh Parameters.
08fc+0D2 Figure 145: Von Mises stress results obtained using helements The maximum stress is 79..30?e+001 197.] : ..3228+001 308*001 —•YieW strength: 2.96+001 .971 e+001 ™ _ 7. Please specify global element size 20mm.""T llllpL.8518+001 :.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Figure 154: helement mesh of second order solid elements .".71 MPa. Please use all defaults for padaptive study definition as shown infigure142.98?e+001 P». select Use pAdaptive for solution.315e+0D1 . we can manage with a very coarse mesh. do not use Automatic Transition or Mesh Control. 174 .'. Now. Considering that padaptive solution will be used. Mesh intended for analysis with p elements is shown in figure 146. Restraints and Loads can be copied from the previous study.. create a new study identical the one we just finished. Before meshing we make one observation. except that in the study window under the Adaptive tab.:  van Mises (NtamA2 (MPa)) 7.
There would not be enough elements to capture the complex stress field along the fillets. we produce the stress plot shown in figure 147. even this coarse mesh will deliver accurate results. Indeed.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks / ^ ""•H" < v wS vi^ Figure 146: Mesh for use with pAdaptive solution The mesh shown in figure 146 would not be acceptable for use with helements. which is equivalent to refinement of an helement mesh. However. if we use higher order elements. 175 . having solved the study with pelements.
3S2e*0Q1 .4576+001 .. from where you can specify what information to display on the graph (figure 148..8916002 Yield strength: 2. 2.7146+001 li. 4. left) where you can select Convergence Graph. we can display the stress result. as shown in figure 147. very close to the 79. S .1358+901 . rightclick the study folder to open a popup window (figure 148. We can also access the history of the iterative solution..7476+001 .7806+001 . To do this..Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks von Mises (N/mm*2 (MPs)) mi 8.. Once the pAdaptive solution is ready.8. 6.068e+002 Figure 147: Von Mises stress results obtained using pelements The maximum stress is 81. 4 OS36+001 . 176 .3S9e*001 . right).71 MPa obtained previously when using helements.4246+001 m > • .813e*000 111.3.03Se+001 1. .35 MPa. The Convergence Graph window opens.1028+001 .2.
I I 1 1 Dptkm L J ^ Change t^ rjfobaj ciiteibn f~l Toiaf sUa. We are interested in the accuracy of the maximum von Mises stress.n eteiqy D Degiae. select the Maximum von Mises stress to be graphed throughout all performed iterations (figure 149).. 177 . where you can select options for the convergence graph.. Therefore.. . of fisedran (OOFi [ 3 Maximum iesjian* displacement 1 i^j Maximum von Mises stress ^vcoilpiow 55.TE:r.:cs L™2L~J I Cancel JI H»J> i Figure 148: Popup window used to define the Convergence Graph window To display the Convergence Graph window. Convergence Grap^.. The Convergence Graph window (right) appears.. which opens a popup window (left). • • • . select Convergence Graph.. In the popup menu. rightclick the p elements study icon. < • • • .Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Run Run Design Scenar o £>:Dort. : .
the pAdaptive solution method is reserved for special cases where. the graph in figure 149 shows the convergence of the maximum von Mises stress.00 1. readers are encouraged to repeat some of previous exercises using pAdaptive solution method. For this reason. the automesher in is tuned to meet the requirements of an helement mesh. Therefore. " 74000000 ] . \ ] ••••! • ' . 178 .00 Figure 149: Graph showing maximum von Mises stress calculated in each loop of a vAdaptive solution process This graph also shows that four iterations were required to converge within 1% of Total Strain Energy as specified in figure 142. • y : i y • : .y \ 72000000 — • • > ^ > . : \ J/"**' . the convergence process.20 2.• . • •': .80 2. and discretization error. > >r. For this reason. The shape of the curve (convex) indicates that convergence is taking place... ' 70000000*—*——* ' ••• '' ' •' •' " •' • — ~ < • 1. The pAdaptive solution method is much more computationally demanding and significantly more timeconsuming. .. Which solution method is better: the "regular" method using helements or the pAdaptive solution method presented in this chapter? Experience indicates that second order helements offer the best combination of accuracy and computational simplicity. : : : . leading to better understanding of element order. 78000000  78000000 » g > : . ' . ' . the solution accuracy must be known explicitly.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks 80000000+ _. . y ' «<*• •{•*< • •> .40 1. Note that while the convergence process was controlled by Total Strain Energy. The pAdaptive solution is also a great learning tool. .60 3.
instead the pin support is modeled by restraints applied to cylindrical faces of both lugs as shown in figure 153. 179 .000N uniformly distributed load (500N to each split face) and supported by two pins placed in lugs which are initially spaced out at 200mm (figure 151) We wish to investigate the beam deflection at locations 1 and 2 (figure 151) while the distance between the lugs changes from 60mm to 340mm (figure 152).. Please open part file BEAM WITH LUGS.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 15: Design sensitivity analysis Topics covered • Design sensitivity analysis using Design Scenario Project description A beam is loaded with 1. The model has material 1060 Alloy already assigned. as shown in figure 152.. Beam with lugs in the initial configuration The numbered vertexes on the beam are where we need to determine deflection. 500N 500N 1 Hinge support " "" ^._ / Hinge support ——^ 4 Figure 151. The pins themselves are not modeled. white the position of the lugs is changed.
..Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Er—•> 7"~~~.•—• :—•:/ \ " ~ g t ! liSl'i Q Show preview Iran sistions jrnm <* i V :::• :i \ §1 &..~~. Onlv circumferential translations are allowed on cylindrical faces of both lugs.. is modeled by using the On cylindrical face restraint type.~~. Type i On cylindrical face »'. which provide hinge support for the lugs. i mm Ill ! mm  ~<..••:•••. crt>' V'j \0 1 Figure 152: Model shown in the two extreme configurations The distance between two lugs is controlled by the dimension in Sketch2 in the SolidWorks model. 180 .~~~™™^ Figure 153: The presence of pins.
the distance defining the position of the hole is defined as a Parameter. Define loads and restraints as always. Doing this requires that the model dimensions are visible.C^5 log distance (~f>efauit~) S %Sofcfc •••••?% plate two lugs ([SW]1060 Alloy) S .. In the Filter option. The easiest way to display the dimensions is to rightclick the Annotations folder in the SolidWorks Manager window. This opens the associated popup menu from which we select Show Feature Dimensions. 181 . COSMOSWorks offers an easier way to accomplish our objective by implementing Design Scenario. With dimensions showing we can select the desired dimension. to open the Parameters window (figure 155 top). A Design Scenario is often called a sensitivity study as it investigates the sensitivity of the selected system responses (here beam deflections) to changes in certain parameters defining the model (here the distance between two lugs). and is automatically changed in desired intervals.«% Mesh j y Report + jbj Stress * Ebj Displacement * &i Strain + fiji Deformation * &j Design Check * Ey Design Scenario Results Figure 154: Parameters and Design Scenario folders Parameters and Design Scenario folders are created automatically but are used only when a Design Scenario is run... bottom). Using Design Scenario. In the Parameters window. Notice that the Parameters folder is created before any study is defined. select Add. The results of the design scenario can then be plotted using COSMOSWorks tools. This allows for an easy analysis of all configurations in one automated step. We want to select the dimension that will be undergoing changes.4 J toad/Restraint ^ Restraint1 J L Force1 ! f p Design Scenario [.. this would require running 8 analyses and a rather tedious compiling of all results.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Procedure If we proceeded by changing the distance from 60 mm to 340 mm in 40mm intervals. > > «% plate with lugs i *  Parameters . select Model dimensions. Rightclick the Parameters folder and select Edit/Define. which opens the Add Parameters window (figure 155..
Because more than one parameter can be defined in the Define Scenarios tab.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Naifie TypB lugs_cL. Express. Rightclick the Design Scenario folder to open a popup menu and select Edit/define. we can now define the Design Scenario. value . "200"" : Cutrenf. lug_distance is the parameter defining the distance between two lugs Having defined the parameter... User defined va. Ursft mm . 182 .. the parameter must be checked as active (figure 156). : Comment! 200 " D5@Ste. Type: User defined value: Model dimension: Cancel Help Figure 155: Parameters window (top) and Edit Parameter window (bottom) In this exercise.. the number of scenarios is 8.„ Name: Comment (optional): Fite. Since we wish to change the distance between the lugs from 60 mm to 340 mm in 40mm intervals. length/Di.
Figure 156: Define Scenarios tab in the Design Scenario window. Each one of 8 scenarios is distinguished by the particular value of the distance between the lugs characterized by parameter lugjdistance. 183 . which appears at the top of this window. The name and lug distance.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks eftm Scenarios s Rest* Locations \ M i n e design scenario •to. is the study name. of scenarios: j g Parameters i Unit* Eliugs_<iistanc« mm :i:i^: i User Defined 200 Se'l S?j 60 100 11 I •Run o p t i o n s — " © All scenarios © One scenario 03 Stop and prompt with error messages when a scenario fails. we need to inform COSMOSWorks what needs to be reported in these 8 steps. To complete the definition of the Design Scenario. Select the Result Locations tab in the Design Scenario window (figure 156) to access the screen shown in figure 157.
from which select Define Graph. The location must be a vertex. Figure 159 shows the Graph window and the corresponding graph with maximum global displacement. open the associated popup menu and select Run Design Scenario. Figure 158 presents the Graph window and the corresponding graph showing displacements in locations 1 and 2. up to 25 vertices for response graph. Here Vertex<l> and Vertex <2> correspond to pints 1 and 2 in figure 151. in addition to the other result folders. Notice that results stored in all the other result folders pertain to the geometry from the last step performed in the Design Scenario. To run the design scenario. Meshing is not required prior to executing the Design Scenario.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Define Scenarios Result Locations Define resit!. COSMOSWorks creates a Design Scenario Results folder. Since only vertexes are allowed as locations in the design scenario definition. The graphs summarizing the results of all configurations analyzed in Design Scenario are defined by rightclicking the Design Scenario Results folder. rightclick the study folder. 184 . As the parameter is modified by the Design Scenario. results for selected locations are recorded. Once the run completes. locatem Choose. This opens the associated popup menu. If desired. it is now clear why split lines were added to the examined model geometry. defined locations can be renamed by rightclicking the item and selecting Rename from the associated popup menu. Selected tecafertR lilllillllSllll )elete all locations and clear summary OK Cancel j Help Figure 157: Result Locations tab in the Design Scenario window.
The options offer ample opportunities to manipulate graph display (figure 1510).":'::Sfi3pf»T £ 0. Vertex. 185 . You are encouraged to investigate the other options in the 2D Chart Control Properties window.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Frie Oatms rtcb S i u d y n a m e : luq d i s t a n c e hVe. Note that the minimum displacement occurs for lug distance close to 220mm. : Single ResyHor Muibie Uc M 100 HO !80 220 260 J00 .•mm.40 Vertex l > •(. I I > ti > ( ! < <.> : i i 3tap!'f. 60 108 140 ISP 220 260 300 3* Figure 159: Graph definition window and corresponding graph showing global maximum displacement in the model.8 • ^vafebte location^' . 033671 Vertex 2 > Figure 158: Graph definition window and corresponding graph showing displacement in the locations 1 and 2 shown in figure 151. 2 > Gtaph L o c a t e : I : 1 „:.8 1 0. The parameter increment would have to be further refined to determine this minimum value more precisely..
You may wish to use the same model to run Design Scenario in frequency analysis to find the distance between lugs that maximizes the first natural frequency. 186 .Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks ':X Legend ConUol ChartArea Ayes Ill PloWrea ChsrtGroups >>\<$S •" ChartStvtes AlarmZones Tiles Genera!  Border ] Interior J About J D Instated 0 l*DoutoteBttffered OK Cancel Help Figure 1510: 2D Chart Control Properties window The graph options allow customized graph display.
We will simulate the impact using COSMOSWorks Drop Test analysis. '"•••m Figure 161: Mutx landing square on a rigid floor Procedure Please open the part file called MUG.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 16: Drop test of a coffee mug Topics covered • a a Drop test analysis Stress wave propagation Direct time integration solution Project description A porcelain mug is dropped from the height of 200mm and lands flat on a horizontal. Create study Drop 200 ms specifying Drop Test as analysis type and Solid mesh as mesh type (only solid mesh is available in Drop Test analysis). which are used to define the analvsis. 187 . Examine the SolidWorks model and notice the split lines added to mug geometry and move into COSMOSWorks. It has ceramic porcelain material properties already assigned. COSMOSWorks creates two folders in Drop Test study: Setup and Results Option (figure 162). flat rigid floor (figure 161).
Plane option in Drop Test Setup window. Plans Figure 163: Drop Test Setup window Select Drop height and From the lowest point and enter 200mm as the drop height.81m/s2. Adjust the direction as shown in figure 163.! tt 00 Gravity _ S. please experiment with different Target Orientation using Parallel to Ref.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks :  K Parameters i '^ drop 200 ms (Crefautt) . .'.'' (*? From fewest point *<h . O From cen&oid •• ••. From the flyout SolidWorks menu (not shown in figure 163). Spsci © P r o p height 0 Velocity at impact HeioN.Sefap and Result Options folders in Drop Test study. select Top Plane to define the line of action of the gravitational acceleration. Target Orierttatiofs ^ 1 Normal togrsvity O P * * I to Ref.^Solids ^ coffee mug ([SW]Ceramie Porcelain) h  j Setup U^ 1 Result Options Figure 162: . After completing the exercise. Enter the magnitude of gravitational acceleration as 9. Rightclick Setup folder and select Define/Edit to open Drop Test Setup window shown in figure 163. 188 . Finally. select Normal to gravity as Target Orientation.
'~**^ Sdufcion time after impact ¥) \ 200 Save Results •*  mictosec Figure 164: Result Options window A section view is usedfor a more convenient display of vertices locations. Because the impact time is very short. If a solution is going to take more than 60 minutes a message shown in figure 165 is displayed. To monitor what happens to the mug during the first 200 microseconds after first impact. enter 200 as Solution time after impact. This overwrites the default solution time based on the time that it takes for the elastic wave to travel through the model. we now define the results options. a longer solution time requires a longer time to run the analysis. While there is no limit on Solution time after impact. Sufficiently long solution time needs to be specified to analyze multiple rebounds. Vertices are defined by split lines.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Having defined all required entries in Drop Test Setup window. 189 . Rightclick Result Options folder and select Define/Edit to open Result Options window (figure 164). it is measured in microseconds. The maximum deformation or stress may occur during the first impact or later when the model is rebounding. '•*»*>? ~'Hik**r '.
COSMOSWorks creates the following result folders: Stress. Rightclick the Response folder and select Edit Definition to open the Time History Graph window (figure 166).) is equal to the number of plots times the number of graph steps per plot. of graph steps per plot field. Deformation and Response. Accepting the default 20 as the No. In Save Results area of Result Options window. If we accept the default 20 results then the total number of data points for each graph (displacement. of graph steps per plot completes Results Options window definition. The solution time is divided into twenty five intervals and full results (available as plots) are saved only for those intervals. Displacement. Strain. The Drop Test study is ready to run. 190 . Results pertaining to time points "inbetween" plots are saved only for selected points (here two vertices). Note that full results are saved for 25 plots spaced out evenly over a 200 microseconds time period. select the two vertices shown in figure 164. Results for these two vertices will be available in time history plots. of plots. In the last entry in the Results Options window we define how many of these partial results are saved. Upon completion of solution. stress etc.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks ilSIIIlEi ^ W f l ^ f l ^ l l l l Estimated executiort time 03: 13:15 Woufcf you ike to change the solution time and rerun the analysis? Yes J Figure 165: Long analysis time must be acknowledged before proceeding with Drop Test study solution. accept the default 0 (microseconds) meaning that results will be saved immediately after the first impact. Note that the number of graph steps per plot is not equal to the number of actual time steps. This is done in No. Time steps are selected internally by the solver and may vary as required for the stability of the numerical solution. accept the default 25 for the No. Also. In the vertices field of Result Options window.
Axis i (*) Stress O Displacement lk U 1 I Pi: 1st principal stres v  j N/mmA2 (MPa) Figure 166: lime History Graph window Select Vertex I and Vertex 2 in Predefined Locations. This creates plots of the first principal stress in these two locations as a function of time (figure 167). then select 1st principal stress in MPa to be plotted.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Response i Predefined locations X axis: Time (microsec) Y. 191 .
Based on the review of Time History Graph we find that the highest von Mises stress occur at time of 44 microseconds (move cursor over the plot to find this time value). In the Stress Plot window select the time step that is closest to 44 microseconds (this is step 6). 192 .39 233.31 .15 Time (ffiictosec.0? :. : 160. 120. Rightclick the Stress folder to open the Stress Plot window._ 139. Also shown are 2D Chart Control Properties. Please create a von Mises stress plot approximately corresponding to this time point.31 Figure 167: Time History Graph window showing von Mises stress as function of time. Please explore other possibilities available in this window.23 . Stress results are shown in figure 168. The Time History Graph has been modified using selections under ChartStyle/LineStyle (line color and thickness) and ChartStyle/SymholStyle (removal of symbols).Finite Element Analysis with COSMOS Works j 5OOOQO0O1 : 40.' 80.
?i::e+002 1. Maximum principle stress is used because is better characterizes brittle ceramic porcelain material .?60e+001 El „* S .3226001 1.vj\ f*i rf»i : < f > d j .9908 Microseconds Detormstion scale: 238.*~SSP*K3^^*^ "" ' ^ P1 (NjhimA2 (tvlpa)) 1 . Mode! name: mug Stgtfy name: diop 200 ms Rot type: Piotl Plot step: S tiras: 4? .541e+002 1. Drop Test analysis uses a numerically intensive but stable direct time integration method.4S7S+001 1 .3?1 e+002 J . If a long enough solution time is used for the analysis you will see the mug bouncing off the floor and hitting it in different locations.2008+002 1. 3.>#••. It is best used to compare the severity of impact for different drop scenarios.' \PU 1st principal stres . repeat the study using a longer solution time.38© . Also.0298+002 8.6548*001 3. Drop Test analysis takes into consideration inertial effects but no damping. Will the mug Break? Drop Test analysis does not directly provide pass/fail results.4?ii Figure 168: Maximum principle stress results for time step 6 corresponding to 48 microseconds.3808*001 fin • O Defined.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Ms? . please animate stress plot. The Drop Test is an analysis intended to model the dynamic impact force of a very short durations. For example. comparing the ultimate strength of ceramic porcelain (172MPa) with the maximum principal stress stresses with (171MPa) indicates that damage to the mug case is very likely especially that mug will never land perfectly flat on the floor.5378+001 % O'Hfe^snt values 6. To see the mug bouncing off the floor and stress wave propagating in the model.8808*001 5J73e+fl01 f% 47. 193 ..9908fflffcosee DePwnied Shape .*. (*>AutoroaUc. :fe[s?. this is where damage is most likely to occur.
but useful and interesting modeling techniques and types of analyses. even when you try various element sizes. It uses the VoronoiDelaunay meshing technique and is faster than the alternate automesher. The Alternate mesher ignores mesh control and automatic transition settings. in this chapter we provide a variety of topics that have not yet been addressed in previous exercises along with a sample of less frequently used.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 17: Miscellaneous topics Topics covered a • a • • • a • • a a • a Selecting the automesher Solvers and solvers options Displaying mesh in result plots Automatic reports E drawings Non uniform loads Bearing load Frequency analysis with prestress Large deformation analysis Shrink fit analysis Rigid connector Pin connector Bolt connector The analysis capabilities of COSMOSWorks go far beyond those we have discussed so far. To aid this effort. Readers are now sufficiently familiarized with this software to explore options and topics we have not covered. The Alternate automesher uses the Advancing Front meshing technique and should be used only when the Standard automesher fails. 195 . The Standard automesher is the preferred choice. Selecting the automesher You can select the Standard or Alternate automesher in the Preferences window under the Mesh tab (figure 215).
The aspect ratio of a regular tetrahedron is assumed as 1. an equilateral triangle is the ideal shape for a shell element. The aspect ratio of a perfect tetrahedral element is used as the basis for calculating the aspect ratios of other elements. While the automesher tries to create elements with aspect ratios close to 1. Figure 171: Tetrahedral element shapes A tetrahedral element in the ideal shape (top) has as aspect ration of 1. the nature of geometry makes it sometimes impossible to avoid high aspect ratios (figure 172). The further the shape departs from its ideal shape. Analogously. "Spiky" and "flat" elements shown in this illustration (bottom) have excessively high aspect ratios. Too high of an aspect ratio causes element degeneration and negatively affects the quality of the results provided by this element. 196 .Finite Element Analysis with COSMOS Works Mesh quality The ideal shape of a tetrahedral element is a regular tetrahedron. the higher the aspect ratio becomes (figure 171).
A failure diagnostic can be used to spot problem areas if meshing fails. To run a failure diagnostic.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Figure 172: Mesh of an elliptical fillet Meshing an elliptical fillet creates highly distorted elements near the tangent edges. a solution is assumed with each iteration and the associated errors are evaluated. Direct methods solve the equations using exact numerical techniques. The iterations continue until the errors become acceptable. which opens the associated popup window. and select Failure Diagnostic . There are two classes of solution methods: direct and iterative. If mesh degeneration is only local.. a problem is represented by a set of algebraic equations that must be solved simultaneously. then even global results cannot be trusted. rightclick the Mesh icon. Three solvers in combination with three solver options are available in COSMOSWorks (figure 173). It is important to note that meshing difficult geometries may sometimes result in degenerated elements without any warning. Solvers and solvers options In finite element analysis. If degeneration affects large portions of the mesh. then we can simply not look at results (especially the stress results) produced by those degenerated elements.. With the iterative method. while iterative methods solve the equations using approximate techniques. but not all solvers are available for all types of 197 ..
Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks analyses and not all options are active with each solver. The fastest solver for most types of analyses is FFEPlus. 198 . I OK M Cancel Help Figure 1 73: Solver and Solver options available in COSMOSWorks.
Computer resources. The following factors help you choose the proper solver: Size of the problem.000 DOFs or less). Klement type. While all solvers are efficient for small problems (25. then iterative solvers are less accurate than direct methods. For example. and inertial relief options are not available if you choose the FFE solver. the solution progress can be very slow.000. The direct solver is recommended in such cases. Analysis options. all solvers give comparable results if the required options are supported. When this situation occurs. FFEPlus is faster in solving problems with degrees of freedom over 100. soft spring. For example.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks COSMOSWorks offers the following choices: • • • Direct Sparse solver FFE (iterative) FFEPlus (iterative) In general. The direct sparse solver in particular becomes faster with more memory available on your computer. In such cases. In general. then the solver uses disk space to store and retrieve temporary data. 199 . you get a message saying that the solution is going out of core and the solution progress slows down. Material properties. It becomes more efficient as the problem gets larger. I f a solver requires more memory than available on the computer. the program switches automatically to FFEPlus or the Direct Sparse solver. If the amount of data to be written to the disk is very large. When the moduli of elasticity of the materials used in a model are very different (like Steel and Nylon). there can be big differences in performance (speed and memory usage) in solving larger problems. the inplane effect. contact problems and thick shell formulation are not supported by the FFE solver.
In a frequency analysis. Because of numerical inaccuracies. the balanced load will report a nonzero resultant.. i. Several options are available in an assembly analysis when solving contact problems. use this option to account for changes in structural stiffness due to the effect of stress stiffening (when stresses are predominantly tensile) or stress softening (when stresses are predominantly compressive). Insufficient restraints can then be detected by animating the displacement results. but no restraints. Surface. or Shrink Fit. as shown in figure 173. when Contact/Gaps conditions are defined as Node to Node. Those options are defined in the study properties. Inertial relief Use this option if a model is loaded with a balanced load. use this option to run a prestress frequency analysis Use soft springs to stabilize the model Use this option primarily to locate problems with restraints that result in rigid body motion. 200 . the problem can be rerun with this option selected (checked). If the solver runs without this option selected and reports that the model is insufficiently constrained (an error message appears). This option can then be used to restore model equilibrium.e. identify the modes with zero frequency (these correspond to rigid body modes). An alternative to using this option is to run a frequency analysis.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Three solver options are available: Option Use in plane effect Purpose In a static analysis. and animate them to determine in which direction the model is insufficiently constrained.
A readable display of mesh (figure 174) requires increasing the brightness of Ambient light.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks The three options are described as follows: Option Include friction Ignore clearance for surface contact Purpose If selected (checked). use this option. and with the brightness adjusted for the displaying mesh (right). 201 . I'igure 1 74: Mesh display in default Ambient light (left) and adjusted Ambient light (right) A finite element mesh is displayed with ambient light brightness suitable for a CAD model (left). When in doubt. Use this option to ignore the initial clearance that may exist between surfaces in contact. especially a highdensity mesh. defined in SolidWorks Manager in the Lighting folder. Use this option if contacting surfaces need significant displacement before contact is made. "Significant" means that linear or angular displacements are significant in comparison with the size of the contacting surfaces. Large displacement contact Displaying mesh in result plots The default brightness of Ambient light. but note that it is quite computationally intensive. friction between contacted surfaces is considered. is usually too dark to display mesh. The contacting surfaces start interacting immediately without first canceling out the gap.
After a solution completes. •% bracket xll Parameters S C^ h elements (Default) B ^ J i Solids ^hollow bracket ([SWjAISI 304) . rightclick the Report folder (figure 175) and open the Report window (figure 176). A report can be created only after analysis has been completed. Force1 §§ Design Scenario it ^jpMesh '+: ihj Report + ifej Stress t jjjj Displacement ft §B s t r d i n ft St) Deformation ft [&) Design Check t JS* P elements (Default) Figure 1 75: Report folder A Report folder may contain several reports.Restraint1 J:.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Automatic reports COSMOSWorks provides automated report creation. J Load/Restraint g4. 202 .
FteintormaiJCrt ^Materials y l o a d'ty. Note that the model uses meters for the unit of length. The pressure magnitude expressed in [N/m2] follows the equation p = 10.000A:. presented in the SolidWorks part file called NON UNIFORM LOAD. The eDrawing fonnat offers a very convenient way of communicating results of an analysis to users who do not have COSMOSWorks. E drawings Each results plot can be saved in various graphic formats.pg  Title: SUess anai^sis of bracked Brows*  \ Author. loads. We will illustrate this with an example of hydrostatic pressure acting on the walls of a 1. . loads with nonuniform distribution can be easily defined.95m deep tank. Nonuniform loads Although all the examples to this point have used uniformly distributed force or pressure. ^ Date: MstchlO 2005 .htm O Automatically update all plots in JPEG files Q Print version M Show report on OK OK Cancel I LiifiL*. restraints. Figure 176: Report window Rightclick the Report folder to open this window and specify desired report components.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks '3i?5i«g8 for ^Cover Page v> Introduction iil/jDesofiption V.Restraint information hglStudy Property y Stress Results jylSttain Results jVjDispiaeeroent Results • Deformation Results ViOesign Check Results Design Scenario Results ^Conclusion ^Appends Cover Page Logo File: C:\logos\DG logo. PaufM Kusowski \ Company: Design Generator Inc. etc. as well as in SolidWorks eDrawing format. with x being the distance from the top of tank (where the coordinate system csl is located). The report contains all plots from the result folders that were selected (checked) in the Report window (figure 176) along with information on mesh. Report trie name bracke!h elements1.
Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks The pressure definition requires selecting the coordinate system and the face where pressure is to be applied.000 Pa Figure 177: A water tank loaded with hydrostatic pressure requires linearly distributed pressure This illustration uses a section view. The formula governing pressure distribution can then be entered in.s Normal to selected fsce I) Use reference c (5J Show previe Pressure Vaiue UliV 1 i hi/m [vj Nonuniform Distribute) * • i ' H csl Equation coefficients 1 + I 1000 lm Reference coordinate system 100. Pressure Type KJ . 204 . Note that the vector lengths correspond to pressure magnitudes that vary with x coordinates ofcsl coordinate system.«. as shown in figure 178.
This definition requires a coordinate system on which the zaxis is aligned with the axis of the cylindrical face. 205 . Figure 1 78: 10. As seen in figure 178. the size of contact must be assumed (guessed) as indicated by the split face. See the part file BEARING LOAD for details.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Bearing load A bearing load can be used to approximate contact pressure applied to a cylindrical face without modeling a contact problem.000 N resultant force applied as bearing load to a split face The pressure distribution follows the sine function.
j£j Number of ffeque <£*DHecf:2p3fse j gjUseinpbnssfcst Q u a e soil spmg to iabifes fwtieS .... Options Fisma* ^™ \i: IHette 1i . Direct sparse is the only solver supporting this option.. Stress stiffenmg is the increase in structural stiffness due to tensile loads... . We will illustrate this concept with the example of a helicopter blade.: Figure 179: Frequency window in no preload study (left) and preload study (right) When the" Use inplane effects " option is selected. the option Use in plane effect has been selected in the Frequency window ofpreload study (figure 179).*  Hsip . In order to account for preload in a frequency analysis...Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Frequency analysis with prestress A frequency analysis of rotating machinery most often must account for stress stiffening. 206 . Please refer to part file ROTOR which comes with assigned material properties and two defined COSMOSWorks studies: no preload and preload. OH : OWPte l_£E„ 11 >.
I fpm rpm'"2 i fk 0 Symbol setting j h 111 1 tfl i Edit c o b . An axis or a cylindrical face is required as a reference to define centrifugal load. W J Mt J a Selected Reference.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Centrifugal load has been defined as shown in figure 1710. Centrifugal force is applied to the model. Figure 1710: Centrifugal load window with centrifugal force defined. Please review the restraint. simulating rotation about the axis of the cylindrical face. @ Show preview CerArffugal force. . which is the same in both studies.  rP„. .. Notice that units are in RPM and that angular acceleration can also be defined if desired. 207 .
64372 0.45 47.S742 Ffequencji{Hertz 1.2919 8. 208 .a) 3.7322 8.5333 7. 5.7313 3. :: FrecwenciifRad'sdcV 23.457 23. 6 and higher. As shown in figure 1711.215 Fnsquency(Hert. The same applies to modes number 4. 0.64365 0.459 52.544 Close Help  Siuctji name: pfeioad Modefte.'Ra<i/sec] 3.5489 i Periodf Seconds 0.5331 1.7317 3.12038 Save Help Figure 1711: List Modes windows in study without preload (top) and with preload (bottom) Note that modes number 1.6755 47.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Solve both studies and compare frequency results (figure 1711) of without and with prestress effect. 8tud>> name: no preload • Mode No.3083 PeiiodfSeconds.5391 1.13247 2 3 4 5 9. In the first mode the frequency increases by 240% and in the second mode by 10%.121 52.6745 3. 2 and 3 refer to the same physical mode but due to discretization error.458 23.26794 0.26736 0.64974 0. the solver assigns slightly different frequencies to each blade.26737 0. : Frequenoi.1206 0. the presence of preload very significantly increases the frequency of vibration.
visible relative rotations or translations may have to be considered as large.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks The opposite effect would be observed if. then the Large displacement option must be selected in the properties window of the Static study (1712). Notice that even though the clip is just one part. Global Contact/Gaps conditions are left at the default setting: Touching faces: Bonded. we examine the analysis of the assembly of CLIP (figure 1713). igrote clearance So! surface contact Large Jispiecemen' > Direct spas* FFE FFFPtus r] Use inplane effect Q Use soft spring to standee model [^] Use inertia! relief j OK j : Cancel i [ Help Figure 1712: Large displacement option checked in Static analysis window. the lower will be the first natural frequency. try conducting a frequency analysis of a beam under a compressive load. we had to split it into two parts and make an assembly because the contacting faces must belong to different parts. The higher the compressive load. We need to explain when the displacement should be classified as "large". The magnitude of the compressive load that causes the first natural frequency to drop to 0 (zero) is the buckling load. defined in contact pair. This is where frequency and buckling analyses meet! Large deformation analysis If two surfaces. experience large displacement before contacting each other. hypothetically. 209 . To illustrate nonlinear contact. Local Contact/gaps conditions between two surfaces likely to come in contact are defined as: Surface. For more practice. the rotor blades were subjected to compressive load. While there is no set rule.
Note two studies: one with the Large deformation option selected and the other without. mm. Figure 174: Correct displacement results produced with the Large displacement option selected (left) and incorrect displacement results produced without Large displacement option (right) Note that the element size is much too large in the contact area to produce meaningful contact stress results (figure 1715).Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Load 100N Only this small face is assumed to" be able to come in contact with the corresponding small face on the other arm of the clip Figure 1713: The Clip is modeled as an assembly because contacting faces must belong to different parts Split lines in the SolidWorks model define small faces in contact. and then compare the displacement results obtained from these two studies (figures 1714). The smaller size of the contacting faces speeds up the solution time. 210 . Please review the CLIP assembly for details of loads and restraints definition.
Free. The definition of the shrink fit condition is shown in figure 1716. 4% •%f\ tfJS :i Figure 1716: Cylindrical face<2> has larger diameter than cylindrical face <1>. Note that the contact condition does not include friction. 211 . Please open the SolidWorks model SHRINK FIT. Solving the model with Shrink Fit contact condition eliminates this interference. Please review this model for definitions of restraints. Node to Node. supports and contact conditions. . Exploded view must be used to select the interfering faces.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Figure 1715: Large element size in the contact area prevents meaningful analysis of contact stresses Shrink fit analysis Shrink fit is another type of Contact/Gaps condition that complements Bonded. therefore the inside cylindrical face of the pressed in component has been restrained in circumferential and axial directions to prevent rigid body motions. We use it to analyze stresses developed as a result of an interference (press fit) between two assembly components. and Surface conditions.
20Se+002 J0S8e+Q02 .6.0856+001 5546+001 . 1.0228+001 !.3606+002 rx • .9.0446+001 001 1 Figure 1717: Contact pressure caused bv the shrink fit Note very high contact stress magnitude indicates that plastic will lake place in the presence of this press fit. 1.0006+000 deformation 212 .8138+002 : W". 3.S11e+001 0.511e+002 .Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks A sample result of analysis with Shrink Fit condition is shown in figure 1717. 662e+002 !. CP (NAnm*2 (MPs)) ^ ^ 1.
Axial and/or rotational pin stiffness can be defined. Spring. COSMOSWorks offers four types of connectors: Rigid. Two options are available: No Translation. Faces connected by a rigid link do not translate or rotate in relation to each other Connects a face of a component to a face of another component by defining total stiffness or stiffness per area. Their use is briefly explained in the following table: TYPE OF CONNECTOR Rigid FUNCTION Defines a rigid link between the selected faces. Both normal and shear stiffness can be specified. Spring Pin A pin connects cylindrical faces of two components. Specifies a pin that prevents relative rotation between the two cylindrical faces. Elastic support is used to simulate elastic foundations and shock absorbers. Elastic support Defines an elastic foundation between the selected faces of a part or assembly and the ground. You can specify a compressive or tensile preload for the spring connector. Elastic support is the only type of connector that can be defined both for part and assembly 213 . The faces do not have to be planar. Specifies a pin that prevents relative axial translation between the two cylindrical faces. No Rotation. A total or a distributed spring stiffness may be defined in a normal and tangential direction to the affected face. Elastic Support and Bolt. Pin.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Connectors Connectors are modeling tools used in defining connections between assembly components. The springs are introduced in the common area of the projection of one of the faces onto the other. The two faces must be planar and parallel to each other.
Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks
TYPF. OF CONNECTOR Bolt
FUNCTION Defines a bolt connector between two components. The bolt connector accounts for bolt preload and contact between the two components connected by bolt. Configurations with and without a nut are available
Connector definition is called by rightclicking the Load/Restraints folder and selecting Connectors (figure 1718). Hide All Show All Restraints,,. Pressure,.. Force,,, Gravity,,. Centrifugal,,, Remote Load... Bearing Load,,, Connectors,,. Temperature,., Options,..
Fiuure 1718: Connectors arc called from the same pop up menu as restraints and loads.
214
Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks
We will review the use of Rigid and Pin connectors using a model in the assembly file CRANE. This model comes with one already defined Rigid connector and three Pin connectors. The Rigid connector is shown in figure 1719.
Figure 1719: Rigid connector rigidly connects two faces. Rigid connector definition does not distinguish between source and target face.
215
Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks
One of the Pin connectors is shown in figure 1720.
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Figure 1720 The Pin connector connects the middle face on one component to two faces of the other component Pin connector requires that theface(s) on one component are specified as a source and faces on the other component are specified as a target. Hence, there are two selection fields in Pin connector definition window. Section view is used for clarity. Note that torsional stiffness of Pin connector shown in figure 1720 is specified as 0 (this is default value). This means that Pin connectors allow for rotation between the two components. All degrees of freedom on the selected faces are coupled (must be the same) except for circumferential translations which are disjoined.
216
Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks
To review the Bolt connector, open the assembly file FLANGE, which comes with six bolt connectors already defined. Please rightclick one of Bolt Connector icons and select Edit Definition to open Connectors windows (figure 1721).
x::.i,„<K;m,AM^:: ¥**j M, ,1 S .1 Material
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between these two faces
Figure 1721 One of six bolt connectors in the FLANGE assembly model. This illustration has been modified in a graphic program to show all entries in Connectors windows. Normally this would require scrolling. Definition of Bolt Connector offers several options. In this example we model the bolt with a nut. Bolt is made out of AISI 1045 material, has no tight fit, a bolt diameter is 10mm. Bolt is preloaded with an axial force 30,000N. All entries are shown in figure 1721.
217
Finite Element Analysis with CQSMOSWorks
NOTES:
218
This way. Only after performing a sufficient number of iterations do we switch to CAD geometry by adding all manufacturing specific features. 219 .Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 18: Implementation of FEA into the design process Topics covered • • • • FEA driven design process FEA project management FEA project checkpoints FEA report We have already stated that FEA should be implemented early in the design process and be executed concurrently with design activities in order to help make more efficient design decisions. and the second time when implementing results. the interfacing effort is reduced to just one switch from FEA to CAD geometry as illustrated in figure 181. This concurrent CADFEA process is illustrated in figure 181. the interface line is crossed twice: the first time when modifying CAD geometry to make it suitable for analysis with FEA. Notice that design begins in CAD geometry and FEA begins in FEAspecific geometry. This significant interfacing effort can be avoided if the new design is started and iterated in FEAspecific geometry. Every time FEA is used.
Providing answers to the following questions may help to decide if FEA is worthwhile: • • • • Can I use previous test results or previous FEA results? Is this a standard design.„. in which case so no analysis is necessary? Are loads. Interfacing between the two geometries requires substantial effort and is prone to error.. supports. Therefore. and material properties known well enough to make FEA worthwhile? Would a simplified analytical model do? 220 . FEA is expensive to conduct and consumes significant company resources to produce results. The steps in an FEA project that require the involvement of management are marked with an asterisk (*).Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks =ULLY FEATURED CAD GEOMETRY CAD DESIGN ! FEA GEOMETRY FULLY FEATURED CAD GEOMETRY SIMPLIFIED FEA GEOMETRY FEA __ n FEA •0CAD DESIGN * 3§^ J2^ T r Jl FEA Jt CAD DESIGN FEA „„. Do I really need FEA? * This is the most fundamental question to address before any analysis starts. Let's discuss the steps in an FEA project from a managerial point of view..« I _. each application should be well justified. FEA <Ljr~ CAD DESIGN Figure 181: Concurrent CADFEA product development processes deft) and FEA driven product development process (right) CADFEA design process is developed in CADspecific geometry while FEA analysis is conducted in FEAspecific geometry. CADFEA interfacing efforts can be significantly reduced if the differences between CAD geometry and FEA geometry are recognized and the design process starts with FEAspecific geometry.
g. gauge. Is this project: • • A standard analysis of a new product from an established product line? The last check of a productionready new design before final testing? Q A quick check of design inprogress to assist the designer? • • • An aid to an R&D project (particular detail of a design. R&D project)? A simplified analysis (e.g. The following is a list of questions that may help in defining the scope of analysis. The following list of questions may help in answering this question: • • • • How fast do I need to produce results? Do I have enough time and resources inhouse to do complete a FEA before design decisions must be made? Is inhouse expertise available? Do I have software that my customer wants me to use? Establish the scope of the analysis* Having decided on the need to conduct FEA. Consultants usually produce results faster while analysis performed in house is conducive to establishing company expertise leading to longterm savings... we need to decide what type of analysis is required. only a part of the structure) to help making a design decision? 221 .)? A conceptual analysis to support a design at an early stage of development (e.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks • • Does my customer demand FEA? Do I have enough time to implement the results of the FEA? Should the analysis be done in house or should it be contracted out? * Conducting analysis inhouse versus using an outside consultant has advantages and disadvantages. fixture etc.
which depending on the software used. discretization also affects loads and supports. Create a Finite Element model and solve it The Finite Element model is created by discretization. We need to decide on acceptable simplifications and idealizations to geometry. or meshing. but it still require input. of a mathematical model. load cases. Therefore. the FEA model must now be prepared. the modeling approach should minimize project cost and duration. etc. safety factors) How will I know whether the results can be trusted? Establish a costeffective modeling approach and define the mathematical model accordingly Having established the scope of analysis. This decision may involve simplification of CAD geometry by defeaturing. or idealization by using shell representations. This critical review includes: a Verification of assumptions and assessment of results (an iterative step that may require several analysis loops to debug the model and to establish confidence in the results) Study of the overall mode of deformations and animation of deflection to verify if the supports have been defined properly Check for Rigid Body Motions • • 222 . The goal is to produce a meshable geometry properly representing the analyzed problem. Meshing and solving are both a largely automated step. The best model is of course the simplest one that provides the required results with acceptable accuracy. Although meshing implies that only geometry is discretized. How should I analyze results? (applicable evaluation criteria.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Other questions to consider are: • • • • Is it possible to perform a comparative analysis? What is the estimated number of model iterations. but should account for the essential characteristics of the analyzed object. may include: • Element type(s) to be used Q Default element size and size tolerance a • • Definition of mesh controls Automesher type to be used Solver type to be used Review results FEA results must be critically reviewed prior to using them for making design decisions.
• • • • • Present deformation results Present modal frequencies and associated modes of vibration (if applicable) Present stress results and corresponding factors of safety Consider modifications to the analyzed structure to eliminate excessive stresses and to improve material utilization and manufacturability Discuss results. The correctness of FEA results cannot be established by only reviewing the analysis of the results. and repeat iterations until an acceptable solution is found Produce report* • • Produce report summarizing the activities performed. on the objective of the analysis. A list of progress checkpoints may help a manager stay in the loop and improve communication with the person performing the analysis.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks • • • • a • Check for overall stress levels (order of magnitude) using analytical methods in order to verify applied loads Check for reaction forces and compare them with free body diagrams Review of discretization errors Analysis of stress concentrations and the ability of the mesh to model them properly Review of results in difficulttomodel locations. including assumptions and conclusions Append the completed report with a backup of relevant electronic data FEA project management requires the involvement of the manager during project execution. high stress gradients. of course. 223 . etc. Several checkpoints are suggested in figure 182. Investigation of the impact of element distortions on the data of interest Analyze results* The exact execution of this step depends. such as thin walls.
Investigation of the impact of element distortions on the data of interest Analyze results* The exact execution of this step depends. 223 . The correctness of FEA results cannot be established by only reviewing the analysis of the results. and repeat iterations until an acceptable solution is found Produce report* • a Produce report summarizing the activities performed.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks a • • • • • Check for overall stress levels (order of magnitude) using analytical methods in order to verify applied loads Check for reaction forces and compare them with free body diagrams Review of discretization errors Analysis of stress concentrations and the ability of the mesh to model them properly Review of results in difficulttomodel locations. A list of progress checkpoints may help a manager stay in the loop and improve communication with the person performing the analysis. high stress gradients. on the objective of the analysis. Several checkpoints are suggested in figure 182. etc. such as thin walls. • • • • • Present deformation results Present modal frequencies and associated modes of vibration (if applicable) Present stress results and corresponding factors of safety Consider modifications to the analyzed structure to eliminate excessive stresses and to improve material utilization and manufacturability Discuss results. of course. including assumptions and conclusions Append the completed report with a backup of relevant electronic data FEA project management requires the involvement of the manager during project execution.
Here are the major sections of a typical FEA report and their contents.? GEOMETRY.? RESULTS Figure 182: Checkpoints in an FEA project Using the proposed checkpoints. MODELING APPROACH O. Even though each FEA project is unique. the project is allowed to proceed only after the manager/supervisor has approved each step. RESTRAINTS O. LOADS.K.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks DO YOU REALLY NEED FEA? O.K. the structure of an FEA report follows similar patterns.? O. 224 .K.K.
von Mises). results and conclusions. Introduction Geometry. etc.g. Description of the problem: Why did the project require FEA? What kind of FEA? (static. software used (including software release). number of elements. type of automesher used Justification of why this particular mesh is adequate to model the data of interest Analysis of results Presentation of displacement and stress results. solids. essential assumptions.) What were the data of interest? Description and justification of any defeaturing and/or idealization of geometry Justification of the modeling approach (e. including load diagrams Discussion of any simplifications and assumptions. max.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Section Executive Summary Content Objective of the project. etc. part number. principal. contact stress. etc. global element size. Material Loads Restraints Mesh Description of the type of elements..g. Discussion of errors in the results Discussion of the applicability of the safety factors in use 225 . information on where project backup is stored. number of DOF. shells) Description of material properties Description of loads and supports. project number. any mesh control applied. vibration analysis. including plots and animations Justification of the type of stress used to present results (e.
Followup After completion of tests. Significant time should be allowed to prepare project documentation. necessary modifications. fatigue life test) Recommendations on future similar designs Project documentation Full documentation of design.g. straingauge test.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Conclusions Recommendations regarding structural integrity. report on test with test results appended Presentation of correlation between analysis results and test results Presentation of corrective action taken in case correlation is unsatisfactory (may involve revised model and/or tests) 226 .. design drawings. FEA model explanations. further studies needed Recommendations for testing procedure (e. and computer backups Note that building inhouse expertise requires very good documentation of the project besides the project report itself.
In COSMOSWorks this applies to studies where the pAdaptive solution has been selected. but difficult to use on more "spread out" shapes. An alternative to the TEA method of solving field problems. An adiabatic wall is one with no convection or radiation conditions defined. these are measures (e. Term Adiabatic Definition An adiabatic wall is where there is no heat going in or out.g. Computer Aided Design Removing and/or repairing geometric features that would prevent the mesher from creating the mesh or would result in an incorrect mesh. any calculated result can be used as a convergence criterion. where only the boundary of the solution domain needs to be discretized.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 19: Glossary The following glossary provides definitions of terms used in this book. The following convergence criteria can be used in COSMOSWorks: Total Strain Energy.. stresses or displacements) that cannot be exceeded during the process of optimization. it is perfectly isolated. Convergence criterion is a condition that must be satisfied in order for the convergence process to stop. Technically. Used in an optimization study. Very efficient for analyzing compact 3D shapes. Boundary Element Method CAD Cleanup Constraints Convergence criterion 227 . A typical constraint would be the maximum allowed stress magnitude. RMS Resultant Displacement. and RMS von Mises stress.
Defeaturing Defeaturing is the process of removing (or suppressing) geometric features in CAD geometry in order to simplify the finite element mesh or make meshing possible.e. A convergence process can be preformed as hconvergence or pconvergence. Sometimes. A pconvergence analysis is done automatically in an iterative solution until the userspecified convergence criterion is satisfied.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Term Convergence process Definition This is a process of systematic changes in the mesh in order to see how the data of interest change with the choice of the mesh and (hopefully) prove that the data of interest are not significantly dependent on the choice of discretization. element order is upgraded from one solution pass to the next. An hconvergence analysis is performed by the user who runs the solution. refines the mesh. compares results.. In this case. by using mesh controls to refine the mesh locally. and then rerun the iterative pconvergence solution. the desired accuracy cannot be achieved even with the highest available pelement order. which changes from one iteration to the next. by refining mesh everywhere in the model. An hconvergence analysis takes its name from the element characteristic. i. the user has to refine the pelement mesh manually in a fashion similar to traditional hconvergence. An hconvergence process is done by refining the mesh. A pconvergence analysis is done automatically. A pconvergence analysis. this is an automated analysis of sensitivity of selected results to changes of selected parameters defining the model. Design scenario 228 . does not affect element size. Reduction of element size can be done globally. This is called a ph convergence analysis. In COSMOSWorks. which stays the same throughout the entire convergence analysis process. performed in programs supporting pelements. by reducing the element size in the mesh and comparing the results before and after mesh refinement. or locally. Instead. dimension h. etc.
dimension) that we wish to change within a defined range in order to achieve the specified optimization goal. Discretization Discretization error Element stress Element value Finite Difference Method Finite Element Finite Volumes Method Frequency analysis 229 .g. However. The Finite Difference Method is generally less efficient for solving structural and thermal problems. but the solution takes more time. where the solution domain is discretized into a grid. Element stresses produce a discontinuous stress distribution in the model. the lower the discretization error. similar to the Finite Difference Method. This is an alternative to the FEA method of solving a field problem. This refers to stresses at nodes of a given element that are averaged amongst themselves (but not with stresses reported by other elements) and one value is assigned to the entire element. See Element stress. This is an alternative to the FEA method of solving field problem. Also called modal analysis. a frequency analysis calculates the natural frequencies of a structure as the associated modes (shapes) of vibration. Finite elements are the building blocks of a mesh.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Term Design variable Definition Used in an optimization study. defined by position of their nodes and by functions approximating distribution of sought after quantities. This type of error affects FEA results because FEA works on an assembly of discrete elements (mesh) rather than on a continuous structure. such as displacements or temperatures. this is a parameter (e. Modal analysis does not calculate displacements or stresses. loads and restraints are also discretized. but is often used in fluid dynamics problems. The finer the finite element mesh. A visible effect of discretization is the finite element mesh. This defines the process of splitting up a continuous mathematical model into discrete "pieces" called elements.
Later. loads and restraints. material properties. As a result of meshing. This is a feature of COSMOSWorks that determines which geometric entities prevented meshing when meshing fails. See Frequency analysis. material properties. comes from the element characteristic dimension h. This refers to the process of discretizing the model geometry. loads. See Idealization error. Itelement. by virtue of averaging produce continuous stress distributions in the model. Nodal stresses are "smoothed out" and. and restraints all are idealized in models submitted to FEA. The name. the originally continuous geometry is represented by an assembly of finite elements.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Term Gaussian points Definition These points are locations in the element where stresses are first calculated. which is reduced in consecutive mesh refinements. etc. helement Idealization Idealization error Linear material Mesh diagnostic Meshing Modal analysis Modeling error Nodal stresses 230 .) before and after refinement. An helement is a fine element for which the order does not change during solution. Idealization may involve geometry. Geometry. These stresses are calculated at nodes by averaging stresses at a node as reported by all elements sharing that node. these stress results can be extrapolated to nodes. Convergence analysis of the model using faelements is done by refining the mesh and comparing results (like deflection. This refers to making simplified assumptions in the process of creating a mathematical model of an analyzed structure. stress. This is a type of material where stress is a linear function of strain. This type of error results from the fact that analysis is conducted on an idealized model and not on a reallife object.
RMS stress) becomes less than the requested accuracy. Pelements are elements that do not have predefined order. This refers to an option available for static analysis with solid elements only. the optimization goal is the objective of an optimization analysis. The value of numerical errors is usually very low. but is timeconsuming and therefore impractical for large models. Solution of a pelement model requires several iterations while element order is upgraded until the difference in userspecified measures (e. Preload may be important in a static or frequency analysis if it significantly changes structure stiffness. total strain energy.. you could choose to minimize mass or maximize frequency. comes from the porder of polynomial functions (e. A padaptive solution provides results with narrowly specified accuracy. Also called an optimization objective or an optimization criterion. Preload is a load that modifies the stiffness of a structure. defining the displacement field in an element) which are gradually upgraded during the iterative solution.g. For example in an optimization study.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Node value Numerical error See Nodal stresses. The name pelement.g. Optimization goal pelement pAdaptive solution Preload 231 . The accumulated rounding off of numbers causes this type of error by the numerical solver in the solution process.. COSMOSWorks uses pelements for an iterative solution. If the pAdaptive solution is selected (in the properties window of a static study).
A structure with no supports has six rigid body modes. General 3D state of stress can be presented either by six stress components (normal stresses and shear stresses) expressed in an arbitrary coordinate system or by three principal stresses and three angles defining the cube orientation in relation to that coordinate system. RMS stress may be used as a convergence criterion if the padaptive solution method is used. In the case of a fully supported structure. If a structure is not fully supported. Triangular shell elements have three comer nodes. it can move as a rigid body without any deformation. Each node of a shell element has 6 degrees of freedom. Rigid body mode or Rigid body motion RMS stress Root Mean Square stress. making the total number of nodes equal to six. This refers to a mode of vibration with zero frequency found in structures that are not fully restrained or not restrained at all. 232 . Quadrilateral shell elements are not available in COSMOSWorks. The shell element that is used in COSMOSWorks is a triangular shell element. If this is a second order triangular element. it also has midside nodes. This name comes from the fact that it is the square root of the mean of the squares from stress values in the model.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Principal stress Principal stress is the stress component that acts on the size of an imaginary stress cube in the absence of shear stresses. Rigid body mode is the ability to move without elastic deformation. Shell elements are intended for meshing surfaces. Sensitivity study Shell element See Design scenario. the only way it can move under load is to deform its shape.
SRAC © 2003 Structural Research & Analysis Corp. Each node of a tetrahedral element has 3 degrees of freedom. SRAC are the creators of the family of COSMOS products. Stiffness characterizes structural response to an applied load. What matters. Symmetry boundary conditions are very useful for reducing model size if model geometry. However. If used as a second order element (high quality in COSMOSWorks terminology) it also has midside nodes.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Small Deformations assumption Analysis based on small deformations assumes that deformations caused by loads are small enough to not significantly change structure stiffness. and restraints. the magnitude of displacements itself is not the deciding factor in determining whether or not those deformations are indeed small or not. Phone: 8004697287.com Steady state thermal analysis Structural stiffness Steady state thermal analysis assumes that heat flow has stabilized and no longer changes with time. Symmetry boundary conditions Tetrahedral solid element Thermal analysis 233 . A tetrahedral element has four triangular faces and four corner nodes. load. +13102072800 Email: info@srac. Analysis based on this assumption of small deformations is also called linear geometry analysis or small displacement analysis.. material properties. The model can then be cut in half and symmetry boundary conditions are applied to simulate the "missing half. These refer to displacement conditions defined on a flat model boundary allowing only for inplane displacement and restricting any outofplane displacement components. is whether or not those deformations significantly change the stiffness of the analyzed structure. Thermal analysis finds temperature distribution and heat flow in a structure. making then the total number of nodes equal to 10. Structural stiffness is a function of shape. and supports are all symmetric. This is a type of element used for meshing volumes of 3D models.
such as steel. See Tensile strength. This refers to the maximum stretching that can be allowed in a model before plastic deformation takes place. It calculates temperature distribution and heat flow changes over time as a result of time dependent thermal loads and thermal boundary conditions. Von Mises stress. is a very convenient and popular way of presenting FEA results because it is a scalar. failure will take place (the part will break). Ultimate strength is usually much higher than tensile strength. nonnegative value and because the magnitude of von Mises stress can be used to determine safety factors for materials exhibiting elastoplastic properties. This is a stress measure that takes into consideration all six stresscomponents of a 3D state of stress.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks Transient thermal analysis Transient thermal analysis is an option in a thermal analysis. also called Huber stress. Tensile strength Ultimate strength Von Mises stress Yield strength 234 . If the ultimate strength is exceeded. This refers to the maximum stress that may occur in a structure.
org) Figure 201 "Finite Element Analysis for Design Engineers" book 235 . but are not limited to: • • • • • • Engineering textbooks Software manuals Engineering j ournal s Professional development courses FEA users' groups and email exploders Government organizations Readers of this book may wish to review the book "Finite Element Analysis for Design Engineers" which expands on topics we discussed in "Finite Element analysis with COSMOSWorks" book. Sources include.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 20: Resources Available to FEA User Many sources of FEA expertise are available to users.sae. "Finite Element Analysis for Design Engineers" is available through the Society of Automotive Engineers ("www.
1994. NAFEMS has published many FEA handbooks like: • • • • A Finite Element Primer A Finite Element Dynamics Primer Guidelines to Finite Element Practice Background to Benchmarks The full list of these excellent publications can be found on www . More information on FEA related courses offered by the SAE can be found on www. Zienkiewicz O... One of leading organizations in this field is the National Agency for Finite Element Methods and Standards. Marcel Dekker. 1989. • Adams V.. "The Finite Element Method". various levels of importance of analysis.. Taylor R.fl^D^DETDfiMa Finite Element Analysis with COSMOS Works B89090290842A Engineering literature offers a large selection of FEArelated books.. "Finite Element Modeling in Engineering Practice".nafems. better know by its acronym NAFEMS. 1998.sae. Askenazi A. a few of which are listed here.org With so many applications for FEA. Inc. attempts have been made to standardize FEA practices and create a governing body overlooking FEA standards and practices. "Finite Elements: Their Design and Performance". 1994. West Virginia University Printing Services. Onword Press. Macneal R. McGrawHill Book Company.org 236 . "Building Better Products with Finite Element Analysis". and various FEA software. "Finite Element Analysis". Szabo B. 1991. Babuska I. • • • c Several professional organizations like the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) offer professional development courses in the field of the Finite Element Analysis. It was founded in the United Kingdom in 1983 with a specific objective "To promote the safe and reliable use of finite element and related technology". Spyrakos C. John Wiley & Sons. Inc.
PEng.com . Schroff Development Corporation www. PS SolidWorks PUBLICATIONS 2^ Design Generator.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Professional Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks 2005 Paul M. Inc..D.schroff.schroffeurope.com www. Kurowski Ph.
schroff.com . FEA and Engineering Graph ics Books SDC publishes books for these software packages: CAD 3D Studio VIZ Autodesk VIZ Architectural Desktop AutoCAD AutoCAD LT CAM CNC Workshop GibbsCAM Mastercam Pro/MANUFACTURING Inventor Land Desktop Mechanical Desktop Autodesk Revit CATIA lDEAS IronCAD Microstation SilverScreen Solid Edge Pro/ENGINEER Pro/INTRALINK Pro/SHEETMETAL SolidWorks thinkdesign FEA ALGOR ANSYS lDEAS Pro/MECHANICA All books from SDC Publications are available through our online bookstore.com www.com ISBN: 1585032492 PUBLICATIONS Schroff Development Corporation www.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks P Finite Element Analysis with COSM BTDWIDSMS b89090290842a SDC PUBLICATIONS CAD. CAM.schroffeurope.schroff. Free Shipping • No Sales Tax www.
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