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Conodian Standa rd s Associoti


,odionStg'clgy$dilffi Desiondrawingssha|ldesignatethedesign.standardsused,aswe|lasmateria|orproductstandards depicted'

ffi.ur. i".f," memberiand details
iuppf...ntut material,


that the

Il*i::::":"1;[:9;:sffi 'fT"iJ*"J#[:tril1;J;;;;ussha'ibe'r'o*nondrawinssor or both'

-,-- ^, .k^^

shears, moments' r{rawinos. the ooverning loads, reactions,

ide the strength rmbers shall be ot act uPon bly exPected to liry limit states'

shall be specified on the magnitude of such camber for beams, girders, or trusses, lf camber is required the design drawings'


al elements
ical and

not alreadY

4. General Design Limit States I 4.1 Ultimate and Serviceability accort .' - -Lrr r-,a rretermined in accordance with recognized 4.1.L Method of Analysis ou determined
behaviour' 'n"'it* g"""fi; bti"d on assumptions of elastic r 4.r,2 ultimate Limit shall include l*31-::.,^

:abilitY of

engineertng the resultlng

load effect on urr methods of analysis


b members shall Provide

- -hih, with the load combinations ultimate limit states O.Ot" loads individually and the effect of the factored r^r l.rehlishind the value of "t load effect does not in ltem (a)' :he-la:i3red ,([i "3'-1:3."ans that for each load effect in u.iorounce with the appropriate clauses i""lii.tslv_t:t-,',::1'rr.tored resistanc., u, o.,lr',i.r-""4 TdLtercu exceed the corresponolng Standard' of this


##ffil cl;l*

{.1.3 Serviceability
on of members and
ral exPosures

Limit Statel

limit states shall includ-e -:e:-a6 o.Ut"t t* t"*iceability of the spectttt fi'lri.[iitr'i"g the vilue of the effect

d use.

are reliable' and

to 65"C;

load combinations individually and with the within the ,p..,#i; a"-"t" 4'3l1lf*"ans that for each load effect in ltem (a), the structural effect falls 6) confirming bY rationat Standard' approfiiui" ttuut"t of this iimits specified in the

4'1'4 Resistance Factors the appropriate

resistance factors,

to shall conform throughout

nri.t i"t


members and fastenings'

*, .i-g-',!Ji

I for all applicable limit sections of this standar<

Combinations Load Effects' and Load 4.2 Specified Loads'


cruu."a z

?1; . ::::11?lli;pll,ffi'J;,i:l

combinations to be


i,'#l:;'"*:,'l:*n*sil,:#x''i*n"*il:f *i:tl*'i'1f#try#il?:q'"irL"i'i"rffi structural Lo Code of Canada' 2005'

Fnuory 2005
$ePlaces P'

Enqineering Manual'



August 2001


2005 /uv t ) (Reploces P, 1 5, August


@ Canadian Stondords Associotnn

4.2.2 Other Structures Hffi5:1,:fl:lHlff::il'fliir'r"T#:l,i,iii]:11*,?,ll,.T.l,fied,
the appropriateness of the


Canodian StondaR

A 4.2.9

i::lnni;i;il;:j$.he.weisht "i;ir;;;;i, w,eig,r,t p#;;","; ,hT"r"""f "q;ori"n., to tntended use and Sll ia n:195.,:""f$t, 'il,ir"g occupanc,"1;#;;;'"1:5;i:,..., in crause 4.2 3 2; in.luJin!Gi;;: . cranes and the pressure ri,i"io, in conli;";;' of
,1iri*;i:ir",::,Ji"Ti.ll*-".!.1ns (e) w road due to wi1d, (D t-t - permanent,"ig.li"i".rrJi"i the effect of the importance factors in crause ;il;,"1rr," includins sroundwater; !g] I permanent effects caused Oy pr"itr"d, uno (h)
ice and associated rain, and arso incrudins the effect orthe

appricabre, and minimum specified varues of these be increased to account ro,. o/nu,ni.'"ffects where appricabre: D dead road or"" into the building t" 0".::lf1!o.p"rrun"niiy or construction incorporateo by the riembei, r".il*oi"g p"rmanenr a'owance for nonpermanent partiiions; partirions and ttre


Specified Loads Loads to be Considered Specified roads shalr incrldl-tlre fo.il";;;;;"*ver roads shat








* t;;i;; - road due to contraction T;



creep in component materiars, ",. mouement


;Jused by temperature changes, shrinkags moisture

0"" t" Jif;ui""l;r

4'2 Load


or combinations

The effect of princip Importance Factors

combinations in Tab unfavourable effect.

3.r, importance :p{EH!'itTiit,1"J."ilT::t-'ffiffi:T] l;.Y: Note: For further informatir "-""-"ononspecifiedroodsandimpoftoncefactors,seefheNationar


roads or crause




rmportance Factors
Importance factors for snow loads, Ig Importance

wind loads,


w, or E Loads
Importance facton for earthquake loads, I. Ultimate

Importance factors for Serriceability


limit state
1.0 1.15 1.25


Iimit state
0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9



0.8 1.0 1.15

Low Normal High


0.75 o.75 o.75 o.75


1.0 1.0 1.3










4.2.4 Load Combinations 4'2'4'r Load combinations for ultimate Limit states The effect of factored princip-al plus



A -

Delete, Deleter

4.3 Conditions 4.3.1 General
Council's Standard practi


rabre a.2.4.r ir.'"



roads shat


;;;il;; in with the ,iliil il;;hichaccordance the most road resurts in

Specified strengths an

factors in this clause a Note: Ihe basis for derA
principles described



p. I 6,

lonuory 2005
Augusi 2001)

lonuary 2005



7, August 2

4D Companion loads 0.3 1. August 2001) p. in accordance with the load The effect of principal plus companion loads shall be determined shall be that which results in the most combinationi in tabte +. **The componion load factor of 0.R"fer to cranes and the Pressure of eafth pressure (H).@ Conadion Stondords Associotlon te appropriateness of the Table 4.rinciptes described therein hovi oiso been used {o guide derivotions for other products General .ilding Code of Canada.1 Load Combinations for Ultimate Limit States Case Principal loads* 1.4.51t rum specified values of these of construction incorPorated permanent Partitions and enq ctors in Clause 4. 1 6.5 4. prestress (P).5St or 0.4. 2005.0 '1.2 Load moisture tlement.2. and service rooms' uding the effect of the in Clause 4.0D + 1.9D) + 1.0 1.25SS the Natio".0 for storoge occupancies.25Df or 0.0L + 1. N/A N/A N/A N/A 4.4W 4 5 (l. Deleted Deleted Deleted 4.4W z (1 .9D) + 1.5 4.0S 3 0'51 or 0'5S .2.2005.5L** or 0.0D* + 1. SlefertotheNational BuildingCodeof Canada.s Standard in this Stondard' p.3 (H) and Prestress (P). 1 7.25Df or 0.3.5SS or 0.+.l Bt.. IB Table 4.1 ry Ultimate ServiceabilitY limit state limit state 1.0W .4.4W 2 0. e 3 ( 4. in the Canodian Wood Note: Ihe bosis for derivatioril{iiriiia ttrengths for sown lumber riembers is described practice nelatinj Specified itrengths of Structural Members to Characteristic Structural Properties' Councl. for loads due to lotercl .0E {Theprincipatloodfoctorof|.0D* + 1.3. equipment oreos.4.1.55 . importance factors tional Building Code of W. for loods tRefer to the National Building Code of Canada. 2005' on extenor oreos.4W 'l 0.4. t" 0.2.5154* or for a live load (L) shall be increased to 1. or E Loads lmportance factors for earthquake loads.515** + 0.25Dt or 0.3. combinations for serviceability Limit states 2.3 Conditions and Factors Affecting Resistance Specified ates d in accordance with the load which results in the most factors in modification strengths and capacities for materials and fastenings shall be multiplied by the this ciause and the appropriate materials or fastening clauses.forloodsonexteriororeas' 4. . shrinkage.5S 0. /ater.2. itre applicable combination unfavourable effect. ond imposed deformotion (T)' for a dead lood (D) for soil' tRefei to rhe Nitioiral Building Code of Canada.51t or 0.2.25forliquids in tonks. 2005.0D* 1 '1.4 l.5foroliveload(L)moybereducedto|. ihe January 2005 (Replaces lonuory 2005 (Reploces p.4.2. August 2001 ) l7 .2 Load Comblnations for Serviceability Ltmit States Companion loads Principal loads Case .OD* + 1. or combinations Inges.

L.2.3 Service Where materials or clauses.c/.3.2 Load Duration Factor. Note: the permanent load See the Conc 4. 19. 4.0.5S + L. or the factor may be calculated as Ps. wood sl CSA Standard O80 completed before t locally in accordan 4.00 Untreated wood in when moisture trat permanent loading. and dead loads in combination with all of the above.1 Gener treatment factor.7 Latera The effect of widt resistance is sPecil / -\ Ko = 1.N/csA-o86-01 @ Conodian Standards Associotion @ Conadian Standard: 4.15 When conditions c structures.4.2. Where wood is im1 determined in accr tabulated in the a1 4. Kt.15. such as those in buildings for storage of bulk materials.2 Load Duration Factor Except as specified in Clause 4. Loads due to fixed machinery should be considered to be permanent.8.0. of 4.3. wheel on bridges. 4. as well as imoact loads.3.3. and formwork.3. Such loads include those usually occurring in tanks or bins containing fluids or granular material.4 Combined Loads When the total specified load is made up of loads acting for different durations. 8. live loads due to occupancy.2. Examples include dead loads or dead loads plus live loads of such character that they are imposed on the member for as long a period of time as the dead loads themselves. 4.1 Net i The net section. but not exceeding 1 . ln no case shall tl t8 lanuary 2005 (Replaces p.3.1 Specified Strengths and Capacities The specified strengths and capacities given in this Standard are based on the standard-term duration the specified loads.2.50 los l 9l -lP. The appropriate load duration factor shall be taken into account for each load combination.3.0 .6 Size Fa Where size influen the size factor. Ka 4.3. Ko. daPPin 4.os D Ps = = = specified dead load sPecified standard-term load based on 5 and L loads acting alone or in combination S.3.3.3. Note: See Clouse A' Note: Durofion of load moy require professionol judgment by the designer. August 2001) 1 lanuory 2005 (Replaces P.4 Firel 0. the design shall be based on the most severe combination. 5 + 0.3.a Reduc 4.5 System Specified strength and 13.4.3 Untrt 10 mm air space a Standard term 1. K Except as permitte( Table 4. falsework. Permanent loads 4.2 Lim.3. factor may be used. loads on retaining walls subjected to lateral pressure such as earth.2.3. where S is determined using an importance factor equal to earthquake loads. in accordance with Table 4. Examples include snow loads. or 0.3 Permanent Load Factor For standard-term loads where D is greater than the specified standard-term load.3"8.51.2 Prese Explanatory notes Short-term loading means that condition of loading where the duration of the specified loads is not expected to last more than Z days continuously or cumulatively throughout the life of the structure.2. member. but is less than 1.4.3. Explanatory notes in this tabte provide guidance to designers about the types of loads and load combinations for which each modification foctor should be opplied. 4.4. Au1 .3. 4. c grooving.4.3:4 Preserl 4.2. Standard term means that condition of loading where the duration of specified loads exceeds that of short-term loading.2 Load Duration Factor.J " where ' o.65 Permanent duration means that condition of loading under which a member is subiected to more or less continuous specified load.3. and floor loads where the specified load may be expected to be continuously applied. capacities shall be r 4.4.2. Examples include wind loads. Ko Duration of loading Short term KD 4. the specified strengths and capacities shall be multiplied by a load duration factor.

4..3. and 13'4'4'6' load.3.5 SYstem and13.4. the design shall be based I be taken into account for 43.4 Fire-Retardant Treatment Where chemicals' Kt shall be wood is impregnated with fire-retardant or other strength-red.^--:-t -^-^. \tory notes in this table ich eoch modificotion fador 4. Series' foiafiv ln accordance with the CSA Standard O80 4.i..3.4PreservativeandFire-RetardantTreatmentFactor'K1 all be multiplied bY a load 4.4.. in the appropriate materials 4.1 General Except as multiplied by the permitted in clause 4...uii L" iitecteO in calculating the strength grooving.-ir.. wood should b" p.3 Service Condition Factor.a. .8.1 Net Section member. 1 9. the size factor.. lds.u results of appropriate tabulated in the appropriate clause' A 4." *itn tf.2 Preservative Treatment Whenconditionsconducivetodecayorotherdeteriorationare|ike|ytooccurinthecaseofpermanentof the w*h preservative in aciordance with the requirements structures.3.5 for odditionot informotion on system factors. r.. Kt Where materials or fastenings are used capacities shall be murtiprieX"{'ir" ittit" and . dapping. KH. iioi".0. falsework. notching. 1 8. K1 The effect support on the factored bending moment of width-to-depth ratios and of the degree of lateral 5'5'4'2 and 6'5'6'4' resistance is specified in Clauses 4..Co n a dio n Ston da rd s Associotion @ Canodion Stondords Association . loads on uch as earth. to occupancy.3. as specified strengths may be specified in clauses 5'4'4' 6'4'3' 13'2'4'4' materials.s.5.. ons. 13.1. and rg where the duration ding.t"" K. Any method or soil shall not be in direct contact with masonry' concrete' tttuiuiitinut"s transfer of moisture' e'g'' a minimum of l0mmairspacearoundu.3.c. Loads due to permanent. .T.. the Permanent load 4. August 2001 ) t9 .2 Limitation fn no case shall the net section be less than 75o/o of the gross section' Jonuary 2005 (Replaces lanuary 2005 (Reptoces P. 4. Where size influences tne spe-citea strengths s.3. obtained by deducting from the capacity of a rf.4.4. Factor.rn by boring' gross section the area of all material removed section.8 Reduction in combination factor equal to The net 1 in Cross-Section 4.1 . and floor loads r be continuouslY aPPlied. in service conditions other than dry' specified strengths t""diiion factor' K" in the appropriate materials or fastenlng standard-term duration of clause5. Ks multiplied by a system factor.sha||beconsideredadequateprotection. lf possible.4. ilor.9.. or otheimeanr. K2 of members."aied be >ading where the duration nore than 7 days life of the structure.2.3 Untreated Wood of Untreated wood in permanent structures when moisture transfer can occur.9...^r r-. August 2001 ) P. plus live loads of such ber for as long a Period of ds include those usually r granular material.4.5:8.9.6 Size Factor.5.6.3..4.6. A e A4. all boring.corOun.ucing testior shall nof exceed the value of Kt determined in u. in accorlance with Cliuses Note: See the Coiodian Wood Council's Commentary' the specified-strenqths shall be multiplied by 6. 4.. and other fabrication should standard og0 series.r. Engineering Design in Wood 4. loading under which a rus specified load. rr. shall be treated Fabrication that is carried olt after pressure treatment comoleted before treatment. Ps. :e .7 lateral StabilitY Factor. but is less than cSA grooving. cutting."'no".specified strengths and capacities shall be or fastenings clause' il..4.3. wheel loads fith all of the above.'13'4'4'5.3.3.inuwa|l.

In lieu of a more accurate 'l evaluation of acceptable deflection limits. etc) = total uniformly distributed load. 20. August 2001) lonuary 2005 . kN/m2 4.2 Materials 5. snow. which refle is stronl 5.2 Elastic Deflection The elastic deflection of structural members under the load combinations for serviceability limit states shall not exceed 1/1 80 of the span.2 Canadian purPoses.1. the dt Table 5.3 US Lumbr Note: See Ctouse A4.1. fastenings such as nails. secondary w beams. Additional information can be found in the commentory on NBC 2005 Structural Commentaries (Part 4). mm.5.2. lag screws. an upper limit ol 136O of the span shall be imposed on the elastic deflection due to permanent loads.5. the additional deflection due to live. Canadia Table 5.5 for information on floor vibrotion. Where concentrically braced heavy timber space frames or moment-resisting wood space frames are used to provide seismic resistance.2 for odditional informotion on deflection of o wood frome system under stotic loads' 4.5.5. 5.l General = E(KseKr) Design in accordance wit accordance with the NLC CSA Standard CAN/CSA-( wnere stamp of an association o E = specified modulus of elasticity.4 Pondlng Roof framing systems shall be investigated by rational analysis ponding conditions unless to ensure adequate performance under (a) the roof surface is provided with sufficient slope toward points of free drainage to prevent accumulation of rain water.1.L Scope Design tables.c/. of all the components of the system (decking.5. bolts. Deflection under the load combinations for serviceability limit states shall be limited to avoid damage to structural elements or attached nonstructural elements.1 Modulus of Elasticity The modulus of elasticity for stiffness calculations. For members having cambers equalling at least dead load deflection. Note: Ihe designer 4.2. or glulam rivets as specified in Clause 10 shall be detailed to provide ductile connections. 4.5 Serviceability Requirements 4.3 Permanent Deformation Structural members that support permanent loads in excess of 5oo/o ol the load combinations for serviceability limit states shall be designed to limit permanent deformation. MPa Ksr = service condition factor Kr = treatment factor Note: A list of oPProved age 5. and r the requirements of CSA I 4. or (b) for a simply supported system subjected to a uniformly distributed load.N/csA-o86-01 @ Canodion Stondards Associotion @ Conodian Stondards Associt 4.1 ldentificati S.5 Vibration Special consideration shall be given to structures subjected to vibration to ensure that such vibration is acceptable for the use of the structure. primary beams. For US commercial sPecit Dimension Lumber. the following condition satisfied: is 'A <65 where EA = sum of deflections due to this load. Eo shall be taken as Es 5.l. ln this Standard. Note: Sp/it rings ond shear plates ore not generolly considered to provide ductile connections.4 Reslstance to Seisrnic Loads The factored resistance required for seismic loading may be obtained by the use of shearwalls and diaphragms (Clause 9).3.5. serviceabitity criteria for deflections and vibrations in the User's Cuide - 20 Jonuory 2005 (Replaces p.2.5. data. Sawn Lumbr 5. Notd: See Clouse A4. and wind loads shall not exceed 1/1 80 of the span.2.

Sawn Lumber 'le use of shearwalls and lrames or moment-resisting 5.n'0" i:'fr#:i:ih:li:ulrl:r.il th" Groding Rule for accordance with the N-ationol in combination equivalents species le load combinations for on. which I for serviceabilitY limit states ling at least dead load deflection.tne Table 5.1 5. In lieu of a more accurate span shall be imPosed on the adequate Performance under re drainage load. 20.2..:"". designer is strongly advised to checkovoilability of species' grode' and sizes before specifying' lbe limited to avoid damage to system 5.3.llf.'l.2. August 2001) lonuory 2005 .:H::i. and 1 4 1' oi csR standard cAN/csA-o lumber complying with 5 apply only to structural . red 1/1 80 of the sPan.1.p".}.3 US Lumber DimensionLumber.Y'" Desiqn tables.'l"ttl'o'i[. data.2. under static loads' . ir. bolts..J**::l*1.iii..1.1.i!':.'*'"'" siven i.2 Materials ldentificatioil of Lumber ili.ombinations srld:d-]n For us commer.#.:1::. methods specified in!u.i:!::"'3#::'.2. the to Prevent following condition is rf the sYstem (decking. connections.#.. secondary l to ensure that such vibration is on con be found in the commentary i05 structural Commentaries (Part 4)' n 204 (Replaces lonuory 2005 P.s 5. ilA Note: A list of oPProvea ogr ii.il:.T**hthisstandard:rj""9f:'. Rlt[?tii.1] Accreditotion Boord' conodion Lumber Standards moy be obtained rrom the i.". lag screws.l'l"::.f.350-.ft1.1 ScoPe or as nails.'""fff?ffi"t$":''"?i[ 0ry1."ru Table in I r--:- 5.@ Canodian Stondords Associotion 5."Til.s:.. nections.1.iur jeiign data may u" o"t"rrni..ili.2.il.accordineto'?'"']:'-::lyinations for general destgn to'iuinitions should be used retreJs'#*etin9 prattice.

5. for ioAU. 5. limiting dimensions.1.P. Lodgepole Pine.2. Alpine Fir Any Canadian species graded in accordance with Northern Species North Species the NLCA rules Notes: on botonicol nomes and Nomes of species in this Tobte ore stondatd commerciol names. it may be possible to group it in one of the puryoses of ossigning specified strengths.2 Species Combinations combinations Douglas Fir-Larch Hem-Fir Spruce-Pine-Fir identification D Fir-L (N) Hem-Fir (N) S.. oll dimension lumber throughout conado and the united Stotes is groded to uniform requirements.| lists categories.2 Lumber Grades and Categorles 5. Additional informotion other common names is given in CSA Standord CAN/CSA-O|41 ' in this (21 The NLGAStandard-Grading Rules for Canadian Lumber contoins mony species designotions not shown species combinotions.1 Visually Stress-Graded Lumber Table Lumber. specified in the August 2001 2l . Balsam Fir. o uniform set of grode.luti"nut Grading Rules for Dimension Lumber. (l) t Table 5. however.2.1.2.'.descriptions and all other requiremeits for softwood dimension tumber that form o required port of softwood lumber grading rules in the lJnited states.2. tn" species con be ideniified.2. design data are .F included in the combination Douglas Fir. Western Larch Pacific Coast Hemlock.3 Lumber Species Equivalents US combination Hem-Fir Canadian combination Douglas Fir-Larch Douglas Fir-Larch Hem-Fir Southern Pine Spruce-Pine-Fir iote: Ihe NICA Standard Grading Rule for Canadian Lumbe/ incorporotes tle f. lack Pine. and structural grades forw^hich NLGA Stondord Groding Rules for Conadian asiigneO in this Standara. ii'et" gtid"t ur.Table 5. Thus. Amabilis Fir Spruce (all species except Coast Sitka Spruce).2.2.

Species D Fir-L Noti: I .3.2. No.2. identification Gt 5. No.1{ (b) light framing grades in Table 5. (o) (b) Tabuloted vo 286 mm lorger t dry seruice condh (c) standard-term dt 5.2.j 22 August 2001 January 2005 (Reploces p.2.2. No.1B.3.1C. Standard Stud Select Structural Light Framing Stud 38 to 89 38 to 89 38 to 89 38 to 89 38 to 89 38 or more 38 to 89 14 or more Select Commercial Structural Light Framing Structural loists and Planks Beam and Stringer Post and Timber No. 1.2 Select Structural Exceeds smaller dimension by 5'l or 38 to 89 less No.2 The specified stren< grade equivalents: mm mm Decklng grade Construction. Grade category {.1.3..7' Visual Grades and Their Dimensions Smallerdimension.cAN/CSA-OS6-01 @ Conodion Stondards Associotion @ Conodion Stondord.3.4 Remanufactured Lumber accordance with Clause Visually Stress-Graded Lumber The specified strengths (MPa) for visually stress-graded lumber are tabulated as follows: (a) siructural ioist ind plank. Table 5.2. Largerdimension. and stud grade categories of lumber in Table 5. Nr 5.i{t of accredited ogencies moy be obtained from the Canodian Lumber Stondords Accreditotion Board. 2. Nr Nr Dimension lumber and timbers that are resawn or otherwise remanufactured shall be regraded in S-P-F -r{ s5 Nr When mixed grades are used. Commercial 140 or more Specifir Joir 5.3. 5. No.2 Select. and (d) post and timber grade categories of lumber in Table 5. stamped in accordance with NLCA Special ss Nr Nt S5 Hem-Fir 5. (.2 Machir not grade-depende Select Structural No. Note'. the specified strength shall be that of the grade having the lowest value. 1 3 5. 2. 1.3. Oeurn and stlinger grade categories of lumber in Table 5.1.d identified by the grade stamp of a grading agency accredited for grading by mechanical means. 23.3..2. .1D.3 Specified Strengths 5.3 Finger-Joined Lumber gradeDesign data s[ecified in this Standard apply to finger-joined lum-ber that has been produced and Product Standard SPS 1. structural iight framing.2 Machine Stress-Rated (MSR) and Machlne Evaluated Lumber (MEL) Design data specified in this Standard apply to lumber graded and grade-stamped in accordance with NLG[ Special'product Standard SPS 2. No.1 . Exceeds smaller dimension 3 The specified strenr strengths (MPa) fot 1'l4 or more 1 Select Structural by more than 14 or more 51 No. No.5 Mixed Grades Northern s5 N. Augr .

8 2.2 3. No.6 7. Parallel dicular to 8rain. No. No. 2 3/Stud 1/No. 3/Stud fb 16. 1.6 9.s 11. Engineering Design in Wood ions Grades Construction. No. No. 1. 2.2 4. parallel to grain.d Fi.4. and standard'term duration of lood' lated as follows: ategories of lumber in August 2001 Jonuory 2005 (Replaces P.3.2 The specified strengths (MPa) the following for plank decking shall be derived from Table 5'3'1A using grade equivalents: Decklng Select grade Equlvalent lumber grade Select Structural Commercial No.) . stttctTral !1stt lraqil&.0 7.2 Select Structural No. No.6 5.4 4.ill. identification D Fir-L f.6 5.2.0 't 4. August 2001 23 ) . 2 No.1 l2 10.r.P-F 2 3/Stud 1/No. h) 'ki dry service conditions.3 Select Structural for machine stress-rated lumber are SPecified strengths in shear are machine evaluated lumber ur" giu"n in lablg strengths (Mpa) for Table 5. 19. No.2 No.3 5..0 1.5 6. 4.@ Canodion Standards Associotion @ Canodian Stondords Associotion .7 6.1 A for the appropriate specles' noi g-rao"-oependent and shall be taken from Sll'l' No. No.3.2 3.O I has been Produced and gradeHem-Fir . Standard Stud Select Structural 5.6 17.s 7. Grade ss No. Commercial Table 5.8 7.1. fibre.2 3/Stud 16.O grade having the lowest value.0 4.1.6 14.5 10. 2 Select.k.0 1. 'andords Accreditation Board.and of Lumber (MPa) Grade'Categories Bending at extreme LongrCompression Perpen- Evaluated Lumber :-stamped in accordance with p of a Tension Modulus of elasticitY E Eos grading agency accredited Species tudinal shear. f.3 8. tured shall be regraded in S.0 11.3. 1/No..6 13.3.2 Machine Stress-Rated and Machine EvaluatedTable 5'3'2' The specified given in No. 3 Select Structural The specified strengths (MPa) Lumber 5. 23.1A and Modulus of Elasticity for Structural Specified Strengths stud "*-J. No.5 11.9 7.0 10.o 500 11 000 10 000 12 11 10 8 500 7 000 5 500 8 500 7 500 6 000 7 500 5S 'N6: No.6 16.8 7. 4. 3.5 000 000 o0o 10 500 9 s00 9 000 7 500 7 000 6 500 6 500 s 500 5 500 5 000 4 000 ing stondard conditions: (o) 286 mm lorger dimension.2 55 Northern ss No.0 ft 10. 1/No.5 to grain.Q 't4.0 2.

5. .S.9 9.3 8. (c) stondord-term durot 24 lonuory 2005 (Reploces p. 2 Noter: (l) Eeoms ond stringen greoter than the smaller (2'1 An opproximate va) (3) With sawn membet compression before appt service conditions sholl t (4) Beam and stringer 1 (5) Tobuloted volues ot (o) 343 mm larger dim (b) dry sewice conditior grain. modulus of elosticw shc Select Structural No. ss No. fb f" 13. Stand. Grade Const.5 000 5 000 000 6 000 9 000 5 500 9 000 5 500 I 000 5 000 6 500 4 000 6 000 3 500 identification D Fir-L ss No.6 2.5 3.0 '| to grain. August. No.3 16.O perpendicular parallel Tension f.7 7. (2.00.9 5. August 2001) lanuary 2005 (Reploces p. Const. ss No.2 13.1 10. ond K* sholl be determined Northern 'Specified strengths for I are subject to loads app.cAN/CSA-Og6-01 @ Conadion Stondords Association @ Conadion Stondards Table 5. Stand.1 14. Stand. No.5 1't. $ain. I or No.0 7.5 S-P-F 2.8 4. and (c) stondard-term duration of lood.9 13. 8. ss No.S.3 f" 16.5 3.5 2.9 4. Tobuloted volues ari based on the foltowing standard conditions: (a) 89 mm width (except for compression propertie5). No. 6.6 9.0 io grain. Const.Z. No.2.6. parallel identification D Fir-L Hem-Fir fibre.8 5tand.6 5.l rne_s129 laqor Kyfor light framing grades sholl be 1.0 15. (b) dry service conditions.t8 specified strepgthr and Modulus of Etasticity for Light Framing Grades (MPa) Appltcable to sizes 38 by 3g nim to siby 89 mm Bending at extreme Species Compression Longitudinal shear. f"p 1o 7. except that Kzc sholl be colcutated in occordonce with Clause 5. f.3.9 6. 24.2.2 3. Hem-Fir S-P-F in occordance with Ctouse i. 25.3 3. Modulus of elasticity Eos r0 000 9 10 5 500 Species 3. Northern Const.

..=.:'!^jffi..333 ill: No..*::[fl:a J:::t'.i Table 5'3'1C rvr"aou" of Elasttclty ar - Tension parallel to Srain' Modulus of elasticitv Eos ft 6.rs h. ii*i'i i.^ 12 1.:3'.X:.':r:ir"'#n\).mouutu""Y i.0 7 :: 3..5 2.0 ComPression Iension Bending Longi-.0 Modulus of elasticity ?= r=.:r.'.|i.Tt t.. Ausust 2oo1) .8 1.. 'nl:' r i. 3 2.:.Parallel PerPen::]fi. n/ot''J* . 5'2 6'3 2 o iz 9.::. the smatter dimel ot o'. core should be exerase' .ove o ond 51 mm dimension more thon f a"rn*.r*.'s:'-2:::::....'rrS..r dimension for tens-ion ond compression '. t"ol?'t stowtv.r.88 1.nn i'iii' 'n* .77 0.5 6 500 6 000 5 000 5 500 5 500 5 000 4 000 3 500 1s \i:.i :{.i.tot.'"...il..ii ii "i ai-in' Structural ore bosed on rcaos extre ror beoms ond stringen strenoii rcr aendins ot the apptiec): toods ns rocton : pfted bY th e rott ow "'... " i t* f" c f..2 0..l'r'i....t groded for continuity 'onani"" Beam ond.. Select to -':iiiil.0 .'. I ooo ooo lT s No. sown members mtcker ploce.eostf iZkirit"i".5 4.l"tin ^ strengths for wet than 89 mm thot (3) With stringe.7 7.i 8 8 0oo Z6oo 5 5oo 5 500 +ooo ffi*rsths subiect are T". compression of the outer nore no. or rigiditv mav be estimated i2\ en approximote volue .....t!3.90 iffffir.s porattet to 14\ oased on the. otherw$e. Y::.:.. 'in!i!.toiaoia iil't tobutoted volues.'ih' "u"^' 0. r' 10.:.2 'll 4.ir'. No.i'..ore bending and sneoL z>z hrger dimension for conditions: '@ stlnaora-rcrm durotion of lood' conditions.2 3. fibre.hoil !!-!tf.9 6...".. 70 * '. \11 1..6 3....ger Grades strengd:".9 '2 3's :'"A ...00 *f:.!r'nsted in this toble are no. '12. '^ 6 )u olcutoted in occordonce with Northern SS No.!. 3. taken before opprecioble seosoning (see clouse 5'5'3)' t..i.=. ond 25 (Reploces lanuary 2005 24. 1 orNo..following-sta:":S.:.=...6 'r.oe] liyes.l!. dicular P: ""iu1"r tudinal . August 2001) P. with a larger smaller dimension of at ..""" io grain' to stt"' shear.3 iitl ilgs 1 11.A..utio'.0 10 000 9 000 10 000 9 000 9 000 8 000 5 500 5 000 Species cgd" "iSJiiin.sui.A Conadion Stondards Association )r to 89 bY 89 Light Framing mn specified - (MPa) for Beam "J"Sttr.i fi..:i.1 '3333 i:33 'ti ooo t ii . . speciried ribre ond the No. :1.2 l.

5 't2. to grain. with a larger dimension notlmore thon 51 mm greoter thon the smaller dimension.1 2000Fb.5 1. (2) Posts ond timbers groded to beom ond stringer rules moy be assigned beom and stringer strength. (21 Tobulated volues The size foctor K2 accordonce with Clou: 26 Jonuory 2005 Jonuary 2005 (Reploces p.58 . The following MSR gra qualificotion ond daily 1400Fb-'t. August 2001) (Replaces p.7 23. 2 5-P-F 11.5 5. (51 Tobuloted values are based on the following standord conditions: (a) 343 mm lorger dimension for bending ond shear.5 21.9 39.7 *Compression perpenc 10 300 MPa or highet Table 5.9E 1 21 .2 7.3E .1 5. An approximote volue for modulus of rigidity moy be estimated at 0.78 32.8 7.5 10.2 Noter: 'r2000 8000 10 500 6 500 9 500 5 000 10 000 7 000 9 000 5 000 8 000 5 s00 8 500 6 000 7 500 5 000 6 500 4 500 I 000 5 500 7 000 5 000 6 000 4 000 Grade 1200Fb-1 . shear.9 8.3E . to grain. Hem-Fir SS No.0 225OFb-1.0 13.3 10.5E . 27.cAN/CSA-O86-01 @ Canadian Stondards Association @ Canadian Standard: Table 5.6 10.1E 270OF|-2.8E 32.4 s5 No. (4.7 9. No. to gnin.1.5 No.'l 28.6 225oFb-'t.9 No.1 4. With sawn memberc thicker thon 89 mm thot season slowly.7 36.6 4.0 350Fb-1. 26.1 41.1 No. Species identification Grade fb fu fD Fir-L ss '| 1 Machlne at Modulus of Specifi Bend extre elasticity En.4 2400F|-2.4E .8E 23.2 1.6 34.9 6.7E .6E 29.065 times the modulus of elasticity. l No.4 7.1A for the o.3 2.3 43.8 12.9 26.3E 3000Fb-2.8 7.2 3O. 2 Northern SS 9.4E 32. ond (c) stondard-term duration of lood. 2 8.Tension extreme tudinal Parallel dicular parallel fibre.3 13.68 .2E 1 fibre fb 17.2 23.o 1 No.3 1600Fb-1 1550Fb-1 1800Fb-1 .8 6.0 6.7 7.3E 145OFb-1 1500Fb-1 1650Fb-1 1800Fb-1 1950Fb-1 2100Fb-1 225OF6-'1 . Augu: .5 13.4E .2 6.O l2.OE 2550Fb-2.0 8. otherwise.292 mm lorger dimension for tension and compression parollelto grain.2E 285OFb-2.2E 20.4 9.7 4. (b) dry service conditions.1D Specified Strengths and Modulus of Elasticity for Post and Tirnber Grades (Mpa) Compression Bending at LongiPerpen.1 3.3 5.8E .0 3.6 240OF6-1 34.6 z-b 7.7 5.4 (l) (ll Posts and timbers have o smaller dimension of ot leost 114 mm. tThe tension design vr oppropriote level of qu Notej: (1.0 2. care should be exercised to ovoid overloading in compression before oppreciable seasoning of the outer fibre has taken ptoce.9 26. compression strengthsior wet seNice conditions sholl be used. 9.

8 8 500 6 000 7.3E 145oFb-1.3 5.6 18.6 18.9 23.6E 1 2t.6 19.3.3 11.:.6 8 000 5 500 7.1 E 2700Fb-2.:*.2E 1600Fb-1 .3 to 184 mm >184 mmT fc 15. 26.3E 3000Fb-2. E fibre.3E to grain. 1. except that Kz.7E 32.6 19.9 18.5 5.5 6. August 2001 ) lonuory (Reptoces 2005 p.38 1800Fb-1 . 27.4 26.3 5.8 36.7 11 ...6 19.7 23.8 'r0 000 7 000 7. elasticity Eos E f.1 9 500 6 000 3.6 6 500 4 500 2.1 29.andKrriscolculotedinoccordoncewithClouseS'5'6'2'2' :'::.0 10.K.1 't1.3 2250Fb-1.3 5.6E 2250Fb-1 20.4E 1650Fb:'.00.3 23.s 6..2 15.0 8 000 5 500 2.9 39.': .'l Toble 5.7 10 500 6 500 8.5 pnsion not more than of elasticity. 12 000 8 000 10. ' modulus of elasticity.0 7 000 5 000 5.6 14.6 14.0 24..'.9 26. .5 6.4E 165oFb-l.o is determined in (Reploces lonuary 2005 p.6 21 .4 9.conespondingstrengths."1 2't.1 25.8E 32. provided the lumber IThe tension design values for nirroi widths os specified in NLCA SPs 2' quotificarri-o.3 17.5 2l .7 43.5 21 . fb 1200Fb-1.2E 2850Fb-2.3 5.. s*'.:.O 8 300 9 700 9 000 10 300 11 000 11 700 12 400 12 400 9.7 19.3 5.4 9.3 21 .5E 2000Fb-1 .2 23.4 7 500 5 000 5. 5'l mm Thefot|owingMsRgradesprovideamodulusofetasticitywithhigher.4 14.. fr Compression Parallel Perpendicular parallel Modulus of to grain..2 30.8E 2250Fb-1.5 6.9 9 000 6 000 6.@ Canodion Stondords Associotion @Canadion Standards Associotion Engineering Design in Wood Lasticity a) Table 5.3 5.0 10.5 20.5 6.6 7.3 6. K7.T'5.:.6 21 .6 19. is given in Tlbt: \2\ The size factor Kzfor MlR lumber shalt be accordoncewithClause5.9 17.. 89 to grain..6 34.4 13..4E 28.A 7 8 300 9 000 9 000 9 740 10 300 11 000 11 700 12 400 6.7 8.1 17.1 950Fb-1 .0E 2550Fb-2.* 5.2 Specified Strengtls lnd-Mo-{ulus of Elasticity for Machine (MPa) Machine stress-fa:ted Grades 38 mm Thick by Alt widths Bending at extreme Tension Modulus Tension parallel to 8rain.9 22.5 20.9E 2400Fb-2.ia aoiy quatity controtiesting for tension sirength' oppropriate level of tumber taken rrom .5 For these MSR grodes.6 5.'.0 10. ZE 21 00Fb-1 . ore reqylred' auoiiicatioiona aiily quolity control for tensile strength 1400Fb-1 tringer strength.5 13100 13800 14 500 15 200 15 900 16 500 19.2E 1350Fb-1.9 20.[o'ins vLtues ror visuattv stress'sraded Notes: (7\Tabutatedvaluesarebasedonstondord-termdurationofloadanddryserviceConditions.3 6 000 4 000 2.:.3 5.0 l500Fb-1.7 14.1 16.1 17.6 'nsion and compression parallel to . August 2001 ) 27 .1 5...5.4 19.'.5 21 .1 .4 32.1 A for the appropriote qroup' is subiect to the moy be ossigned to these sizes..5E 1800Fb-1.3 5.6 23.3 22.7 19.4 19.1 41 .3 6. ised to ovoid overlooding in compression strengths for wet ..5 6.5 18..3 5.: ::#.7 17.9 26.'.3..

o 34.3 5.1 Case l Note: Cose I apptiis components.3 Treatment Facton K1 The specified strength of lumber shall be multiplied by a treatment factor.rpi""o by a service condition factor. Kr. Cose 2 opplies t Iumber framing membet applied to single-membt on analysis of portial cot tro^ 5.. Compression Specified strengths members spaced nt load may be multip 17.4. K.4. inSee Clouses3.. shall be as givr Kz. 6.4 Modification Factors 5.4.!:!'*fr. strength capacities shall be based on the and stiffness documeni"Jr"r"-n tests that-srrait account the effects of srrarr meet iil"-..'il !i^b! Notes: ...3 6. for that Kz..l!* 5."q.rp.3 6.1 17. Note: Some specified streno by a size factor.4. of load and dry service conditions.* lfi:?n:t3"-*fl. \)^!!:^''::with clouse 5. E 2A3 at t. i.. ii. rafters Specified strengths I requirements of Clar 5.d.zai::. Kp :["r::T1ji:1rr:rensth of tumber snarr ue muiiptied by a toad duration factor.4.''.2 M-13 M-r1 M-12 911d" M-10 fb ffil:*" :f"..3.ililii ror Machine Tension * ft 5.i.:i s.4.3 5.... 28 (Replaces p. (Mpa) ss---"rhi. ond qluet the framing detaiE do (l) Taburated volues ore based on stondord-term duration r1. .nuli-.".a 16'9 21..4.: t 3 t e ro.5 Size Fact. esponding volues for visuolly stress-grjded W tuibu ti*c.u.i'."o.3. lanuory 2005 28. occordance K2.1 11 1i3 s... as siven in 5.2 Service Condition Factor..o 33.3 For lumber in built-ug fastened or glued tog the system factor.4..3 34..."-"nts or crause 3 3 2 manuracturing moieriats Canadian w*'a tiiiri'tll. "r"sticity *iriio..4.i':'. 5.1 26. M-1s M-r8 M-re M-21 M-22 M-23 M-24 M-2s M-26 M-14 26...n.r .3 6.'.l 14'9 1s.4..1 2o'2 22.cAN/CSA-O86_01 @ Canadian Stondards Associotion @ Canadion Standora strength-s -specified Er.::::i::.5 provided that the fo joists.nun. .s s..5. K*.5 6s tieippipi'tr" grorp.1 K. .1 23.o 2e. and thot K7 is siven in robte s.ury iriir*il"iriinf' to.4..s.5 (b) the sheathing or that provided by 2 ir Note: centres elsewhere.z to 11 't1 10 "t2 e 2s.lrilo.1$* ijs'fr.7 i.2 (a) the Case 2 .cty rzfoy\lt tumn"i.7 3s. l3.7.o e's m f.4.5..3.e may be determine ...8 40.i.i . 5.2 The size factor.i i. thickness.i . for accordance with Claus 5.1 Load Duration Factor. Ku as given in 5.5..1 strength of rumber shat be rrr.4.6 3oo 4oo l1 ooo l3loo 't17oo 12 4oo 13 loo ls 2oo 7oo 7oo 3oo ooo e. August 2001) August 2001 .3 K' as given in Tabre 5. 5.!.is latrrioiiiinZrroroonce with ctorse s.. or with 17 underlayment or wit ..2 treated with fire-retardant or other strength-reducing chemicals.4. is determined in xr.3 s.:T.. K.4. 5.rlt ? 12'1 ". .4 System 5.. K. oaaitionot"riliXllfosr.on "ra For lumber The size factor.S +ff..4.s 6.1 3e.0.aluated LumbEr Grades Bending "'. 5."fii:il1'1.

3 5.'-t9*lumber with I aole )'.o.5 5.n. accordance K.ir" s's'7 's' J"ierm-ineo in accordance with clause Kr.s'z ond 5'4'5'3 for exceptions' r factor.l.n1on 2 ! .4.i:'r::!.2.3. 1 oppties rain. moieriots ond processes.ot meet the requirements of Clouse 5'4'4'2' 5.s.o may ol A"t"lti""i in accoi-dance with except.. August lanuory 2005 2001) 29 August 2001 .4.ornot ai .. rafters..4.3 6.. or r. or with r z unl."* ti'"i'it6t ply*.3 5..!. evaluated lumber shall be '00' except for machine stress-rated rumbgr and machine and in accordance with clause 5'5'6'2'2' il. a.tated Case 2 sYstem factors ore to De lumber froming memDers section properties bosed ina .bination with panel covering such thickness.6. toru .2 Case 5.2.t."i1.5 Size Factor.?:."a that Kru shall u" us giuenii i..4.t-cl*i. and 300 nails at 150 mm cenii"i ut that provided by 2 in . specified strengths or gtued togeth.* fcp ond glued-lominiitii ti*Orri.i:f":':.5. Perpendicular to grain. 28. to systems of'ctosety spaced.3 6. suUfli. shall uL .4 SYstem Factor.ti'i'iiiiii"ion with ougmented opptied to singte-member sriiri'pr"p*tirl {'{iiit tt oi partiot composite iction between tumber ond sheothing' i.iat"J" iGtheJwith as luin6. for *ght framing grades shat be 1 .veniionot ioist and rofter systems ite'froming detoii do . Kr. as given in Table 5'4."irr.i^!:11':!:^'trusses' composite building t* *i* Note: Cbse conpanents. strength and stiffness ie into account the effects e 7 of requirements of Clause 3.tfuv*"nt or with wood finish flooring. shall be calculated in Clause 5'5'7 '5' f.5 'MEL lumber with E grode of ilty stress-graded lumber token from or studs meeting the used in a system of solid ioists' rafters' Specified strengths for sawn lumber factor for Case 2 given in Table 5'4'4' UV rpouirements of Clause 5. s b ori'i-iiiii.'#:t:iT ffi..4.@ Conadian Stondards Association @Canadion Stondords Assodoilon Fnoineerino Design in Wood tv for Machine d wiatns (MPa) rpression LlleI 5.'l..l*ar.':. osB of minimum 9'5 mm (a) the ioists.1 may be multiplied are met: piluiO..9. K.T .l.5 6. in accordance s.l.3 5. Ks 5. L3'.l*.3 5.2.5 6.2.3 5.. 5.4.f.5 5. that Kr. vary with member size and shall be multiplied :tor.3 6.tln Zi tyttut factor for Case 1 qiven in Table 5'4'4' load may be multiplied Uyih" irn-:.nd equivalent to io tfre members to provide a minimum stiffness (b) thelheathing o.4.5 6.t3'l."lriiiriit to 1 may atso-oppity where some co..r. Kr. Case L Specified essentially paralle' a system consisting of three or more strengths for sawn lumber members in thit they mutually support the applied urranged upurt O members spaced no. Ku as given in f.. fasrened in ilft.and K2. KD.# rn] given in Table 5'4'4' tictor....i'riqrired sheothing oid fastenings' Tobu.^::. See the (Reploces p.u.00.t J. as given in strengths of visually :.3."d nlrt"i K. r.Y.11"r nditions. ii attached mm edges of sheathing panels. 'l . als.5...2.ventt?'it-lt9!'::I::::::::"'.J trtut the following additional conditions waferboard' or. that are more individual members of the same depth in buirt-up beams consisting of two-or may be multiplied by will defleci as i unit..f.r'il'ini.t..k. 5. fij. 5 with Clause . svstems such as con...:o.4.structurit 'Case .4.. Kkp is determined i.+')' by a size factor.

00 1.69 o. and potes of least dimension 89 mm or less 0.7 t.40 1.4.00 r. for (a) modulus of elasticitv (b) other properties Fire-retardant-treated lumber 5.67 64 l.0 337 to 343 0.4 4 lSee Clouse 5.94 Size Fr Ks Ksa Ksu Property Bending at extreme fibre Longitudinal shear Compression parallel to grain Compression perpendicular to Tension parallel to grain Modulus of elasticity Dry service conditions r.00 wet service conditions 1.3-9 38to64 t 1.do 1.85 5.4 System Factor.4.5 Strength and 5.00 'r.00 0. piling.5.2 Service Condition Factors.91 Larger Smaller dir Kk Kkp Ks.5 140 I.00 1.00 1. K.00 r. for effects of fire- 5.1 286 to 292 1.4.4 184 to 191 1. Wet service conditions: sawn lumber.bo N/A N/A l.o0 1.? 235 to 24'l 1.t0 N/A l.oo conditio^ oppi/iri1-i c"i") relotionship to strength ond s lumber and timbers are given For specified strength in Visually Case 1* (2) Built-up beams 't.4 Bending Mo 5.3 Treatment Factor.g5 / o.5.10 r. dimension (mm) .96 0.- 30 August 2001 August 2001 .00 orain Bending ar Kzo Kz'.2.2.2 o.00 0.67 0.10 5.t0 1. K1 Product Untreated lumber lumber Preservative-treated.84 o.4.5 contains desig Preservative-treated.00 1.75 See Clouse 5. K.00 1.10 Bending Longitudinal shear Compression parallel to qrain Tension parallel to grain Ail orner l.00 Sizes rounded to the neo graded 1.2 for N/A = ne1 aop!'co61" rS-ee 1. unincised 1. Over 89 mm 1./ 1 1 1 t.1 Except as provided in Clar dimension) of lumber sha retardant treatment. Noter: (71 ln developing specified st 2t MSn 1.7 1.10 1.4. = $F6SK.00 5. incised lumber ot thickness 89 mm or less.2 Sizes 0.6K.5.L General Clause 5.5.4. I v r.L General The factored bending mor M.84 0.40 1.90 o.cAN/CSA-O86_01 @ Canodion Stondords Asso Table 387 or laroer O 8 't't4 89 I | I 1 n Dry service conditions 1.00 Tabte S. unless regrade( deflection and shear calcu Eeom and stringer grc properties Clause 5.00 1.2 Table 5.10 1.10 1. Case In coniunction with Table conditions.20 1.5.3 Continuity Note: Beam and stringer grades resistance.

0 0. unleis re-graded along the full length of the member.0 184to191 235 ro 241 286to 292 317 to 343 387 or larqer 1.5.0 't.3.1C and 5.8 1. Standard sizes and lunber and timbers ore given in CSA Standord CAN/CSA-OI41 .00 64 89 1.00 1.9 0.0 1.3.5 All ' i.0 0.1D.3 1 1.1 1. piling.1 General The factored bending moment resistance.1 General Clause 5.eir ln devaoping specified strengths in this Standard.4.3 Beam 0 1 .do 1.3 1.0 See Clause 0.0 rwlce ions 5. and poles of limension n Table 5.0 1.0 1.00 't.5 Value comquted 1.0 1.5 Tension Compression Compression Bending and shear Km.0 1.67 1. 1.2 Sizes 5.7.2 1. M.t 5.00 0.1-8 Smaller dimension (mm) 38 '1.2 1.3 1.5. 5. Continuity may be considered whether the lumber is regraded or not' deflection and shear calculations Note: Eeom ond stringer grades listed in Toble 5. (21 Sizes rounded to the neorest millimetre are given in Toble A5'5.1 of fire- provided in Clause 5.9 1.o 114 perpendicular to grain Kz.9 1. AII All other properties Over 89 mm 1.2- Built-up beams 1.2.00 and stringer grades shall not be designed for continuity in determining requirements for bending in resistance. = oFbSKzbKL August 2001 August 2001 3l .5 Strength and Resistance 5. of sawn members shall be taken as M.'.2 1. hove been token into occount.7 dimension (mm) to 64 or 89 to 102 more All 1.4.4 1.Kzu Larger parallel to grain 'K.00 114 140 1. net dimensions of structural iehtionsnip ti stieigtn ond stiffiess.10 1.5.91 .p parallel to or less grain Kz.5.5 1.2 '| .1C ore not groded for continuity.5.6 1.5.9 0. Not$: (t) and th.4 using formulo in Clouse 5. variables of moisture content ond shrinkoge.3 1. green manufactured sizes may be used for all service conditions.0 1.1 1.1 !& l 1n 0.5.0 0.5 ^1.5 contains design data and methods that apply to sawn lumber of rectangular cross-section. the standard dry size rounded to the nearest millimetre (net dimension) of lumber shall be used.8 1.5. ContinuitY 5.2.-anadia n Sta nda rd s Association @ Conadian Stondards Association Engineering Design in Wood Size Factot.. Except as s.4 Bendlng Moment Resistance 5.5.7 1.2.5 5.2 In conjunction with Tables 5.2.Ka for Visually Stress-Graded Lumber rvice conditions: sawn r.6' .

.5.8). Lateral Stability Factor.5.e = fu(KoKnKsuKr) 0 h fr =0. K. see Clouse 5.2 Loads near Supports In the calculation of shear resistance the effect of all loads acting within a distance from a support equar to the depth of the member need not be taken into account..5.5.1 The lateral stability factor. Notches on the Tension Side at Supports The factored notch shear force resistance at a notch on the tension side at supports.2.5.2) 5.1D. the lenr (Clause 5. K'. 5.5.r t K' = lo'oo6dl t'ol -:-' ^ | \ \o where General The factored shear resistance. MPa Kzu = size factor in bending (Clause 5. s.2 For built-up beams consisting of two or more individual members of the same depth.5.'l may be based on the total width of the beam.aN/csA-086-01 where @ Canadion Stondards Associotion @ Conodion Standards Asso 0 where fb = specified strength in bending (Iables 5. and 5. mm2 Kzu = size factor in shear (Clause 5. = oF 'K. may be calculated in accordance with the requirements of Clause 6. or if both edges are held in line. Cor reentrant corner of a r notch can resist the fa 6 f" = f"(KoKHKs"Kr) = specified strength in shear (Clauses 5.5:1 if the compressive edge is held in line by direct connection of decking or joists spaced not more than 61 0 mm aparq 7. 5.70 for wet servi< A Kn = notch factor (Clal Note: Notches or abruPt( = llroSs cross-sectior 5. of sawn members shall be taken as 5.'l eight times the depth of the member.5.5. = depth of cross-se = 1-(d"/d) = dePth of notch n which must not t suPPort to Alternatively.5:'l it the compressive edge is held in line by direct connection of decking or joists spaced not more than 61 0 mm apart and adequate bridging or blocking is installed at intervals not exceeding ( l.3.5.4. provided that therhdividual members are fastened together securely at intervals not exceeding four times the depth. d 0 d. provided that the maximum depth-to-width ratio of the member does not exceed the following values: Fb =0.4. "3 where 2A_ ln the calculation of nt in the member at the I the member axis.9 K1 = f1(K6KsK51K1) = sPecified notch sh = 0.1 and 5.1A to 5.e Note: ForJoun members notched on the tension side ot supports.4 Notch Fa 4:1 5:1 The notch factor for me if no additional intermediate support is provided.6. the ratio in Clause 6.5.4. MPa An = net area of cross-section (Clause 4.4. may be taken as unity when lateral support is provided at points of bearing to prevent lateral displacement and rotation. shall be taken as F.4.5) Kr = lateral stability factor (Clause 5.5) Fu =0.5 Shear Resistance or equals the actua Note: Yoiues of K"t/d-' fo 5. 5.6.00 for dry servic = 0. 5.3.50 for all sawn r Ksr = seryice factor = 1. V.5. if the member is held in line by purlins or tie rods. Shear Ft v.2. 0 =e/d s = length of notch reent support. F. = oFfAKN 32 August 2001 August 2001 .

the associated applied force is the factored shear force member at the support.6.4) l{ote: Notches or abrupt changes of section will produce stress concentrations and should be ovoided. MPa fr Fr =0.5. the length of support may be taken as the lesser of minimum required bearing length (Clause 5.5.5. mm.5.4.@ Canadion Standards Associotion @ Conodion Standords Associotion En g i n 9e!!!g Pe sE!! v/ oo! wnere 0 5. For a continuous member the length of support equals the actual bearing length.5.5.5.e = fr(KoK"KyKr) A is = specified notch shear force resistance (Clause 5.n(*.5.5. For a member notched over an end support.7) or the actual bearing length. mm.50 for all sawn members Ky = service factor = 1.5 Shear Force at Notches the calculation of notch shear force resistance. F.4 Notch Factor The notch factor for members of rectangular cross-sections shall be determined as follows: ng or joists spaced not more *_ = [o*uo(.4. In in the stance from a support equal Jpports. support to reentrant corner of notch (Figure 5.5.5).5. Consideration of the notch shear force resistance concerns avoidance of fracture at a reentrant corner of a notch and does not negate the need to ensure that the residual cross-section at a notch can resist the factored shear force.4). MPa = 0.25d =e/d = length of notch measured parallel to the member axis..(*.3).5.4. The shear force is calculated using the component of the force normal to the member axis.00 for dry service = 0.5.. shall be taken as August 2001 August 2001 33 . 5.5. mmz provided at points of bearing Kr = notch factor (Clause 5.3. which must not exceed 0. rl e = depth of notch measured normal to the member axis in accordance with Figure 5.5. from the centre of the nearest rme depth.70 for wet service = gross cross-section area.))]- rg or joists spaced not more rt intervals not exceeding where d = depth of cross-section. mm q = l-(d"/d) d" 'Clause 6. the ratio in l{ote: rat the individual members ]th.).5. rdepth-to-width ratio of the 5. Volues of K*tff for selected combinations of q ond 4 ore given in Table 5.

6.30 0.o 18.(KDKHK5.2.4 Determination of Length and Depth of Notetr Table 5.0 17.5 9.7 17.9 29.5. 't6.4 1.6 6.91 20.95 43.0 41 . lQ.cAN/CSA-O86-01 @ Canodian Standards Association @ Conodian Standards Associot' 5.5 18.8 23.2 19.82E for MSR lumb = 0.9 11.2 15.8 10.8 16.80 2.5.36 8.60 0.72 1.9 Kc=11 r-x.6 ComPressive 5.7 '| 5.0 Noter: (1) q=1-dJd.8 5.29 9.8 28.8 17.9 10.'t 5 where 6 =0.6 25.00 1.2 SimPle Con 5.6 14.1s 7.1 19.90 1.8 10.Kg Flgure 5.8 f.6 42.7 20.8 15.1 21 .75 0.8 15.80 0.20 1.6.45 0.4.0 18. the compression members.79 5.0 13.75E for MEL lumb = as specified in Table 27.40 0.1 where d = dimension in diret L = length associated 0.40 1.9 20.5.1 'r 27.35 0.9 15.2 16.1 General Built-up rectangular comS 38 mm thickness ioined v 34 August 2001 Auaust 2001 .9 14.20 o.4 12.20 6.1 '| wnere Eos = 0.1 22.7 29.7 23.3 Spaced Co using the sPecified strengl Spaced comPression men 6.50 13. o exceed 50 and shall be take " or effective length assc memDer cc effective length ass member The factored compressive r P.60 1. in Table A5.42 5.8 't"t.9 19.9 12.70 8.4 15.0 't6.4 o. Cc.OO 17.1.9 18.5 25.5.3 Slendern The slenderness factor.1 Constant The slenderness ratio.2 Factored = QF6AK2.25 0.n=e/d (21 lnterpolotion moy be applied for intermediate volues of a and rt'.1 Values of Kp fi o.1 Effective Lt Unless noted otherwise.70 0.4 Built-uP C 5.5 18.39 8.3 26.7 24.6.5 39. = 6-3 (dL)4 < 1 '3 o.6.8 22.5 20. 5. 5.4 14.5 13.3 o.KT) = specified strength in t3 Kz. Fc = f.66 6.5 11.0 31 .^c^' I 0-ffi1 1 38.26 9.90 29.8 22.2 0.48 7.85 23.8 12.80 19.57 7.4 16.4 34.3 13.5. Re< 5.

1 Constant Rectangular Cross-Section The shall not members of constant rectangular section slenderness ratio.2 SimPle ComPression Members 5. P.3 Spaced Compression Memfrers the requirements shall be designed in accordance with Spaced compretrion t"rnbo-.5.5'3'2.^c-' ] ' Kc=11'0.Jrt.0 31 .7 20. C.2 18. Ku. n". the effective length l-... of simple coirpression 50 and shall be taken as the greater or exceed ^ - effective length associated with width member width effective " - length associatqd with depth member dePth Parallet to Grain 5.6 .1 Effective Length Unless in Table to Grain of be used in determininq the slenderness ratio noted otherwise.2.t'tp".9 38.'r"nouo A5.6.8 =l*[jl*'[*ng.5.5.1Atos.K6 Yotch wnere q l =0.and5'3'3)'MPa ir.nincompressionpararertoerain(rabtes5.5.7 r-x. shall be determined as follows: 39.5.on.0 5.4 34. "tiit "i 35 August 2001 August 2001 . lQ.3sffirK..2 Factored Compressive Resistancebe taken as The P. using the specified of Clause 45'5'5'3 .4 Built-up Compression Members 5. Kc The slenderness factor.8 22.2.5 42.75E for MEL lumber = 29.5.82E for MSR lumber '= 0.8 42. grain.4.2.5. for compression members.6 36. or Uolts anJ split ring connectors' 38 mm thickness ioined tlitf.'l 16.. shall factored compressive resistanie paraliel to = QFsAK2.8 37.4 "t4.5.6 Compressive Resistnnce Parallel 5.6. General Built-up rectangula.il.O 41 .5."ngiht und adiustmerit factors for sawn lumber' 5.l wnere I E* = 0.9s 43.3 Slenderness Factor.6. ---.5. = 6'3 (dL)-''3 < 1'3 where or width)' mm J = dimension in direction of buckling (depth member dimension' mm with = length associated | o.6.6..pression members shall consist of two The factored compressive O"lL.5.6.= K"L shall compr"tiion members are given ireciive G.6.t.3.9 5.1D.f.3.6 2s.6.ifi"a graded lumber in faUtes S'f 't A to 5'3'1 D for visually 27.--lj"__l 5.1 . to five individual members of at least co.Conodion Stondards Associotion @Conodian Standards Association Enoineerinq Desiqn in Wood l 5.

The factored compressive resistance of the built-up compression member may be taken as the greater of the values calculated according to Clause 5. provided that the following requirements are satisfied: (a) spacing of nails along the member length shall not exceed six times the thickness of the thinnest piece.3 Bolted Built-up Compression Members The factored compressive resistance of a built-up compression member fastened together by minimum 1 /4 in diameter bolts may be taken as 7 5o/o of the compressive strength of a solid member of equivalent gross cross-sectional dimensions designed according to Clause 5. s. there shall be at least two rows of nails across the member width. and spacing perpendicular to the member length shall not exceed 20 times the nail diameter. 5. provided-that the following requirements are satisfied: (a) spacing of bolr along the member length shall not exceed six times the thickness of the thinnest piece. (a) the spliced columns: (b) the minimum overall (c) the spliced columns: centres in the direction p (d) minimum lamination (e) maximum laminatiot s.2to 5.1 using the overoll dimensions of the composite member or the dimensions of the individuol pieces. and (c) when the individual pieces of the built-up member are wider than three times their thickness. provided that the minimum values of end distance.5.6. grade.6.5.5. edge distance. i (a) 4oo/o of the factored (b) 100o/o of the factore< region.4. (b) all nails shall penetrate through at least 3/4 of the thickness of the last individual piece. and nails shall be driven alternately from either face of the built-up member along the length. 5.6.4 shall be taken as the combinect factored compressive strength of the individual pieces considered as independent members. 36 August 2001 Jonuary 2005 (Replaces p.2.6.2. the factored compressive resistance of built-up compression members not meeting the requirements of Clauses and spacing for fastenings conform to the appropriate requirements in Clause 10 and the maximum value of end distance does not exceed 1'2 times the minimum value.4. as in light frame construction. as appropriate.5.6. @ Conadian Stondords Association @ Conodion Stondords Asso< Note: S/endernesr rotior ore colculoted according to Clouse 5.2 to 5. August 20( . the dimension of the stud normal to the sheathing may be used in calculating the slenderness ratio.6. 5.5 Stud Walls When stud walls are adequately sheathed on at least one side. or the combined factored resistance of the individual pieces taken as independent members. may be omitted for buckling in the strong axis of the laminations.4"6 Strong Axis Buckling The strength reduction factors given in Clauses 5.5.2 The factored bending ret of the same size.6. resistance of built-up compression members may be evaluated in accordance with Clauses 5.3.1 Spliced nail-laminated bt designed for axial loads a accordance with Clauses met: 5. R.2 Nailed Built-up Compression Members The factored compressive resistance of a built-up compression member fastened together with nails or spikes may be taken as 600/o of the compressive strength of a solid member of equivalent gross crosssectional dimensions designed according to Clause 5.4.2. there shall be at least tvvo rows of bolts across the member width.4. or 5. ano (b) when the individual pieces of the built-up member are wider than three times their thickness. and spacing perpendicular to the member length shall not exceed 'l O times the bolt diameter.5 Spliced B 5.5 Built-up Compression Members as Simple Compression Menrbers Except for spaced compression members. The factored compressivr determined using Clause compression member of Note: Sprtrng of built-up n wherever possible.2.6. 5.6.4 Split-Ring-Connected Built-up Compression Members The factored compressive resistance of a built-up compression member fastened together at intervals not exceeding six times the thickness of the thinnest piece by minimum 1/2 in diameter bolts and 2-1 12in split-ring connectors may be calculated as having 80o/o of the compressive strength of a solid member of equivafent gross cross-sectional dimensions designed according to Clause to 5.

6.2 based on an fr. lanuory 2005 August 2001 (Replaces p. ance 5.5.5.hall be taken as the rendent members.6. tnere on Members at intervals not bolts and 2-'l /2 in rstrength of a solid member of stened together r diameter 5.6. the the slenderness ratio.6. there members factored bending resistance shall be determined using Clause 5. provided met: nail-laminated built-up columns that are constructed in accordance with Figure 5.2. or ken as independent members. to for fastenings r value of end distance does not ce of the built-up compression :o Clause 5. or purlins spaced at a maximum of 600 centres in the direction perpendicular to the wide face of the laminations. shall be 1200 mm.O.5. and ee times their thickness. 5.e of an unspliced built-up beam in the splice region.5. R. and 'ee times their thickness.6. : Compression of built-up compression nce .6. mm on tne spliceO columns shall be briced by sheathing. 5. R.3 stened together by minimum The f a solid member of equivalent ovided that the following :he thickness shall be factored compressive resistance in the direction parallel to the wide face of the laminations for a simple determined using Clause (d) minimum lamination size shall be 38 mm thick by 14O mm wide.6.10 based on equivalent same size. grade. with nails penetrating all three members.5.4. may be to the wide face of the laminations in that the following additional conditions are erall dimensions of the composite rstened together with nails or rer of equivalent gross crosst the following requirements are :he thickness (a) the spliced columns shall consist of three members.@ Conadian Standords Associotion with Clauses 5. using (a) 41Voof the ia"ctored bend'ing resistan. and spacing designed for axial loads and bending loads applied parallel acco'rdance with Clauses 5. L.2 ana S.5. and outside of the splice i6l r OO"z" of the factored bendiig resistance of an unspliced built-up beam region. and nails the length."ibro of the thinnest wherever possible. (b) the minimum overall splice length.2. 10 times the bolt diameter.S. significontly reduies their stiffness and bending resistonce.6 Spliced 5.5.2 The of the 20 times the nail diameter.6. 37. value equal to 600/o of the value compression member of the same species and grade. and iij iei maximum lamination size shall be 38 mm thick by 184 mm wide' of the thinnest s. Spliced Built-up Compressive Members nce.t. August 2001) 37 .5. combined be omitted for buckling in the ame construction. and should be avoided xati: splicing of buitt-up .5. and species. t individual piece.

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