Death Kritik Index 1/3
Death Kritik Index 1/3.....................................................................................................................1 _______............................................................................................................................................3 **1NC’s...........................................................................................................................................3 Death K 1NC....................................................................................................................................4 Death K 1NC....................................................................................................................................5 Death K 1NC....................................................................................................................................6 Death K 1NC....................................................................................................................................7 Death K 1NC....................................................................................................................................8 Death K 1NC....................................................................................................................................9 Death K 1NC..................................................................................................................................10 Death K 1NC..................................................................................................................................11 Pure War 1NC................................................................................................................................12 Pure War 1NC................................................................................................................................13 ____________................................................................................................................................14 **Overviews..................................................................................................................................14 2NC Overview...............................................................................................................................15 2NC Pure War Overview...............................................................................................................16 2NR Overview...............................................................................................................................17 ______............................................................................................................................................18 **Links..........................................................................................................................................18 Link- Nuclear War.........................................................................................................................19 Link- Obsession.............................................................................................................................20 Link- Nuclear Death/Extinction.....................................................................................................21 Link- Hegemony............................................................................................................................22 Link—Opposition to Death............................................................................................................23 Link—Panic ..................................................................................................................................24 Link—Bukimi ...............................................................................................................................25 ___________..................................................................................................................................26 **Link Blocks................................................................................................................................26 AT: We Have Other Justifications.................................................................................................27 AT: Death Bad/Life Good ............................................................................................................28 ________........................................................................................................................................29 **Impacts.......................................................................................................................................29 Impact—Dignity............................................................................................................................30 Impact—Destroys All Resistance..................................................................................................31 Impact—Numbing.........................................................................................................................32 Impact—Consumerism..................................................................................................................33 Impact—Extermination .................................................................................................................34 _____________..............................................................................................................................35 **Impact Blocks............................................................................................................................35 AT: Nuclear/War/Death Imagery Good 1/2..................................................................................36 AT: Nuclear/War/Death Imagery Good 2/2..................................................................................37 AT: FoD Makes Life Meaningful..................................................................................................38 AT: Cold War Proves FoD Good...................................................................................................39 AT: Violence Good........................................................................................................................40




AT: Ketels......................................................................................................................................41 AT: Fear Key to Prevent Nuke War (Futterman) .........................................................................42 AT: Stopping Nuclear War Key 2 Solve FOD..............................................................................43 AT: FoD Key 2 Treat AIDS...........................................................................................................44 AT: FoD Fuel Peace Movements...................................................................................................45 AT: Denies Reality .......................................................................................................................46 AT: You Defend Extinction...........................................................................................................47 AT: How Does the Alt Change the World?...................................................................................48 AT: How Does the Alt Change the World?...................................................................................49 AT: You Ignore Suffering .............................................................................................................50 ___________..................................................................................................................................51 **Alternative..................................................................................................................................51 Alternative- Transpersonal Solvency.............................................................................................52 Alternative- Nuclear War Solvency...............................................................................................53 Alternative- Mortality Solvency....................................................................................................54 Alternative—Move Beyond Nuclear War ....................................................................................55 ________________........................................................................................................................56 **Alternative Blocks.....................................................................................................................56 AT: No Alternative/Causes Nihilism 1/2.......................................................................................57 AT: No Alternative/Causes Nihilism 2/2.......................................................................................58 AT: Alternative Doesn’t Solve Case..............................................................................................59 AT: Radical Alternative Destroys the Movement.........................................................................60 AT: Permutation 1/2......................................................................................................................61 AT: Permutation 2/2......................................................................................................................62 AT: Permutation 2NR....................................................................................................................63 AT: Permutation – Coalitions........................................................................................................64 ________________........................................................................................................................65 **Framework Blocks.....................................................................................................................65 Framework 2nc..............................................................................................................................66 AT: Fiat Good 2NC 1/2.................................................................................................................67 AT: Fiat Good 2NC 2/2.................................................................................................................68 AT: Fiat Good 2NR.......................................................................................................................69 ______________............................................................................................................................70 **Realism Blocks..........................................................................................................................70 AT: Realism Good 2NC 1/2..........................................................................................................71 AT: Realism Good 2NC 2/2..........................................................................................................72 AT: Realism Good 2NR.................................................................................................................73 AT: Threats Are Real ....................................................................................................................74 _____________..............................................................................................................................75 **Theory Blocks............................................................................................................................75 AT: Performative Contradiction – Other Positions.......................................................................76 AT: Performative Contradiction – Kritik’s Impact is Death.........................................................77 AT: PIKs Bad.................................................................................................................................78




_______ **1NC’s


Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law. From infomercials hawking return-to-youth products to antibiotics. if not all. If typhoid fever was eliminated. someday Alzheimer's disease will be beaten as well. the spectacle of catastrophe and annihilation has been with us from the beginning. Our fear of dying is so prevalent in every aspect of our lives that it is constantly repressed into the subconscious. one that involves beating death. Americans are fighting a new war on the western front. Cleveland State University Journal of Law and Health. The first is the rather pragmatic and mundane observation that killing someone who would otherwise kill you is a life-supporting action. which is in part fueled by our obsession with health and our fear of death. chemotherapy. will and scientific ingenuity: if smallpox could be conquered. Shepard Broad Law Center. your own government has [*17] clarified precisely who is friend and who is foe. considerable energy and passion is dedicated to avoiding death and its creeping.EVAZON CROSS-X. The medical part is the potent assumption that death is essentially an accident. Spring 1994 Humankind is different. Yet. This narrative has become dominant for several reasons." 48 Or. if nothing else. which. each of us is unwilling to accept a fate that points not only to extinction. it is distracted by the need to prolong and delay dying. society hopes that death will be conquered through a massive research effort. Why assume that your intended victim would otherwise be your assassin? Because. of warding off one's own death. 47 There are two separate but interdependent ideas here. The fight against aging shows up in many different ways in our society. Professor of Law at Nova Souteastern University. not accepting it with dignity. n68 <CONTINUES>A narrative of avoidance characterizes modern American society's view of death. transplants. Where do we turn? It is to promises of immortality. and the seeming insignificance of individual life appears to be confirmed by every earthquake or typhoon. Killing is a way of relieving one's feelings. & Health 95. Steven I." 49 -4- . through the death of the other one buys oneself free from the penalty of dying. The affirmative replicates this evangelism of fear through its constructions of violence. if I killed him with the approval of society: that is the purpose of war. but also to extinction with insignificance. Self-Determination. has spurred its avoidance. That is essentially the mission of biomedical research. And from where do we hear such promises? From religion. Friedland. but also from States that have deigned to represent God in his planetary political duties. The moral part is the belief that we have an unlimited obligation to combat death and lethal disease. "The death fear of the ego is lessened by the killing. far more complex idea. My enemy's death cannot be held against me. This idea. has served to obfuscate and distort the narrative of death. according to Otto Rank. the other medical. the Sacrifice.has become a rallying cry of the new heroism. smiles into the sun. is captured by Ernest Becker's paraphrase of Elias Canetti: "Each organism raises its head over a field of corpses. n66 Instead of recognizing the futility of this mission. then so can heart disease. and the rise of cryogenics. Louis Rene Beres. This fear of death. of life's experiences. perpetuating the drive towards immortality. because I am dimly aware that in killing him. to prevent him from killing me. it is no longer a source of anguish. of death as a zero-sum commodity. Fighting it at all costs - never giving up . and the removal of death from the personal realm have enhanced a fear of death that underlies much. n65 [*109] Rather than constructing a dialogue of death.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL Death K 1NC Contention One: Thanataphobia Our society is held in the grip of intense thanatophobia. International Law and Survival on Planet Earth. war and destruction. is that killing in general confers immunity from mortality. with enormous public support. Killing gives me a feeling of relief. correctable with enough money. I have killed death. conducts unrelenting wars against death. 46 and that cry out for "self-determination. Of course. 1995/1996 The demise of the belief in the good death has prompted the adoption of a new form of heroism. As a result. one against death itself.L. of course. and declares life good. Americans' desire for immortality that is propelled by continuous scientific discoveries. of the other. in turn. by every pestilence or epidemic. to be sure. The promise of extended longevity through the miracles of medicine. And why is such killing the ostensible protection of one's own life? An answer is offered by Eugene Ionesco as follows: I must kill my visible enemy. the one who is determined to take my life. medicine has become side-tracked. by every war or holocaust. The second." How do these States sustain the promise of immortality? One way is through the legitimization of the killing of other human beings. Americans choose to wage war against death. This obsession has two parts: one moral. 10 J. n64 As society strives for a health care system that works. of being killed. inexorable grip. n67 which. Professor of International Law at Purdue.

The nations of the world continue to defer to the primacy of Realpolitik. they can only ensure the very evil they have been invented to dispel. not states. animality decomposition and decay. to achieve immortality. they inevitably make life impossible. We demand the slaughter of our enemies as part of an impossible quest to destroy death itself. each state's uncertainty about the intentions of adversary states encourages growing membership in the nuclear club.EVAZON CROSS-X. humans turn to promises of immortality through absolute loyalty to political ideology. Why is an entire planet now in jeopardy? The usual answers are cast in terms of the language of world politics. but if we listen carefully we can hear the real music that will transform ourselves into purposeful beings and our states into purposeful communities. -5- . But as these wars could require millions to pass through fire. Insufficient resources and hopes are committed to arms control. Professor of International Law at Purdue. September 1st. 1999 Behind the play of nations and their wars lies the wish of individual citizens. temporal one. 3. humankind sees salvation in an endless display of holy wars disguised as the natural expression of global competition. No. This calls forth a terrible irony. They should find their true identity in personal virtue. they are also trivial. what animates competition between states." their ceaseless search for power is spawned by the primal terror of individuals. not in a blind loyalty to a state which promises immortality but leads them down the path to extinction. War itself is not the issue but rather the death drive behind it. It is not enough to have God on our side. States have become gods and must be desacralized if our terrible wars are to end. but even a short. Dreading. Although these answers are certainly correct.Kill to Save In a paradoxical attempt to rebel against death. should be viewed as sacred. And without the assurances of authentic world authority structures. It is what underlies this struggle. but it is their fate to create necropolis. International Journal on World Peace. more than anything else.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL Death K 1NC Subpoint A. I refer to the individual human being's all-consuming fear of death and to the corollary drive of individuals for immortality. that represents the authentic source of unconventional war and terrorism. The post-War polarity of East and West has been transformed into an era of exceedingly cruel ethnic conflicts. Individuals. While these excursions into organized barbarism are designed to reveal potency and overcome earthly limitations. As for states. The world is full of noise. which are always an expression of faith and which have always (even long before Hegel) regarded themselves as the "march of God in the world. Louis Rene Beres. Volume 16. The whole world contradicts not only eternal life. acting like a herd in denying their own finitude. The struggle for world power is always epiphenomenal.

only preventable by the massive destruction of the other. Paradoxically. The current death drive is not new as the gulag. as a result of war. it is ultra-conservative in that it aims to reproduce infinitely the status quo.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL Death K 1NC The process of securing life and developing means to destroy in order to save is part of a broader system of neoliberal violence. with its logic of insuperable efficiency of the market. This is how it was in the period of imperialist struggles. between 48 and 260 thousand civilians will die during the war and in the three months after (this is without there being civil war or a nuclear attack). humanity cant be saved by destroying itself. The last one trivializes democracy. If there is terrorism. and the African slaves. The last. the war will cost 100 billion dollars. a death drive. The first two periods involved the destruction of democracy. with the Holocaust. Sacrificial genocide arises from a totalitarian illusion manifested in the belief that there are no alternatives to the present-day reality. This is how it was in colonialism. instead. to the fact that total violence has not been employed to physically eradicate all terrorists and potential terrorists. This is how it was under Stalinism. which caused millions of deaths in two world wars and many other colonial wars. Prof at Univ of Coimbra. holocaust and genocide are all past examples of the lesson the United States federal government has apparently missed. Bad Subjects. and neoliberalism. catastrophic heroism. seen three versions of the end of history: Stalinism. and on the radical rejection of alternatives. This is a salvific and sacrificial destruction. hunger and death in the Third World. predominates. In its sacrificial genocide version. it is the outcome of market laws not having been fully applied. committed in the name of the need to radically materialize all the possibilities opened up by a given social and political reality over which it is supposed to have total power. At all these moments. -6- . to refer to the deaths. Nazism. the West has experienced three versions of this logic. is quite clear on two facts: according to reliable calculations by the NonGovernmental Organization MEDACT. of thousands of innocent civilians. Boaventura de Santos. with the Gulag. with the genocide of indigenous peoples. neoliberalism is a mixture of market radicalization. the idea of a looming collective suicide. It is above all appropriate to ask if the new illusion will not herald the radicalization and the ultimate perversion of the Western illusion: destroying all of humanity in the illusion of saving it. and that the problems and difficulties confronting it arise from failing to take its logic of development to ultimate consequences. During the last hundred years. in London. Its death drive takes a number of forms. from the idea of "discardable populations". One current manifestation of this combination resides in the fact that intensely strong public opinion. worldwide. enough to pay the health costs of the world's poorest countries for four years. with its logic of racial superiority. the broader the definition of the other and the efficacy of its destruction. and under Nazism.EVAZON CROSS-X. and. to the concept of "collateral damage". against the war is found to be incapable of halting the war machine set in motion by supposedly democratic rulers. with its logic of insuperable efficiency of the plan. and what its scope might be. rather. And now today. I have described this situation as a combination of political democracy and social fascism. a catastrophic heroism. the West has repeatedly been under the illusion that it should try to save humanity by destroying part of it. With the war against Iraq. If there is unemployment. April 2003. referring to citizens of the Third World not capable of being exploited as workers and consumers. This political logic is based on the supposition of total power and knowledge. Issue # 63 According to Franz Hinkelammert. neoconservatism and Christian fundamentalism. the more likely collective suicide becomes. therefore. it is fitting to ask whether what is in progress is a new genocidal and sacrificial illusion. this is not the result of market failures. this is how it is in neoliberalism. Inherent to it is the notion of the end of history. it is due. disarming it in the face of social actors sufficiently powerful to be able to privatize the state and international institutions in their favor. this is not due to the violence of the conditions that generate it. “Collective Suicide?”. with the collective sacrifice of the periphery and even the semiperiphery of the world system.

As we have attempted to demonstrate here. The greatest threat is not nuclear war – it is avoiding nuclear war only to fall prey to an eternity of counterfeit existence. more noise and more activity is an unconscious phobic overreaction to the absence. the loss of humanity’s openness for being is already occurring.” This controversial claim is comparable to the Christian teaching that it is better to forfeit the world than to lose one’s soul by losing one’s relation to God. though not immune to nostalgia. we should remember that. not Eros. The unleashing of vast quantities of energy in nuclear war would be equivalent to modernity’s slow-motion destruction of nature: unbounded destruction would equal limitless consumption. ironically. Loss of this relation would be even more dangerous than a nuclear war that might “bring about the complete annihilation of humanity and the destruction of the earth. His philosophy of the will represents. Yet Nietzsche's promotion of the superhuman individual who relentlessly pursues the mastery of time. Further. Contesting Earth’s Future: Radical Ecology and Postmodernity. As Norman O. This drive to constantly acquire and consume transforms the world into a materialist wasteland. then. it may be the individualized person's knowledge and fear of death. combined with the eclipse of being. Heidegger believed we would exist in a state of ontological damnation: hell on earth. life might once again emerge. it is Thanatos. which is consistent with the aim of providing material “happiness” for everyone by reducing nature to pure energy. the domination of death. 1994 Heidegger asserted that human self-assertion. silence and passivity of death which lurks within the uniquely temporal human psyche. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. The German writer is clearly at odds with the culture of unlimited consumption that was gestating in Europe in the latter part of the nineteenth century. September 1st. is absolutely critical in determining the prodigious hyperactivity of postmodemity. though it pushes death into the margins of cultural consciousness.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL Death K 1NC Subpoint B. in which Angkarn's aesthetic temporal philosophy. presents a more profound alterity to the increasingly pervasive market and productivity-centred global culture than does Nietzsche. Angkarn. [33] Appearances to the contrary. There is an important sense. If humanity avoided nuclear war only to survive as contented clever animals. forming the philosophical foundation for consumerism.EVAZON CROSS-X. and material acquisition. but it is far less likely that there will ever again occur an ontological clearing through which such life could manifest itself. and Frederic Maurel. masquerading as material paradise. that actually render the human so vulnerable to that seduction. that same psychological war plays a significant role in driving the irrational and exponential growth of a globalizing free market. unrestrained desire of a human conceived principally as producer-consumer. with mortality. Modernity’s background mood is horror in the face of nihilism. time-destroying freneticism). and the vain desire to defeat mortality through material self-aggrandis ement (or through mindnumbing. epitomizes that culture in which the individual is at war with time. Professor of Philosophy at Tulane. Zimmerman. So when Angkarn's "The Eye of Time" alludes to the seduction of humans by precious objects towards which they "rush to their deaths". which primarily drives the hyperactive consumer culture. Brown suggested some four decades ago in the United States in a book entitled Life Against Death. Michael E. among other things. a response to the will-less. the exaggerated and apparently limitless desire for more material wealth. 1999 It becomes particularly significant when we realize that the fear of death (thanatophobia). -7- .Materialism The Aff’s discourse of apocalyptic scenarios absent plan action motivates a desire for frenetic action. white noise. devoid of meaning. “Voyages Across the Web of Time. Marc Weeks. Nietzsche and Temporal Colonization. since modernity’s one-dimensional disclosure of entities virtually denies them any “being” at all. Heidegger apparently thought along these lines: it is possible that after a nuclear war. threatens the relation between being and human Dasein.

1978 Yet wars were never as bloody as they have been since the nineteenth century.Biopolitics The attempts to control. -8- .EVAZON CROSS-X. the power to warn and strike fear. entire populations are mobilized for the purpose of wholesale slaughter in the name of life necessity: massacres have become vital. causing so many to be killed. and the large-scale phenomena of population. manage. as the technology of wars has caused them to tend increasingly toward all-out destruction. at stake is the biological existence of a population. it is because power is situated and exercised at the level of life. It is as managers of life and survival. they are waged on behalf of the existence of everyone. the race. Wars are no longer waged in the name of a sovereign who must be defended. And through a turn that closes the circle. the species. and ensure safety of the population is based on the power of death and its underside. of bodies and the race. If genocide is indeed the dream of modern powers. and all things being equal.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL Death K 1NC Subpoint C. The atomic situation is now at the end point of this process: the power to expose a whole population to death is the underside of the power to guarantee an individual’s continued existence. But this formidable power of death – and this is perhaps what accounts for part of its force and the cynicism with which it has so greatly expanded its limits – now presents itself as the counterpart of a power that exerts a positive influence on life. that so many regimes have been able to wage so many wars. Michel Foucault. This form of control is the root of all 20th century atrocities as the sovereign sword has diminished in favor of the violence of the population. subjecting it to precise controls and comprehensive regulations. But the existence in question is no longer the juridical existence of sovereignty. this is not because of a recent return of the ancient right to kill. never before did regimes visit such holocausts on their own populations. The principle underlying the tactics of battle – that one has to be capable of killing in order to go on living – has become the principle that defines the strategy of states. The History of Sexuality – Volume One. the decision that initiates them and the one that terminates them are in fact increasingly informed by the naked question of survival.

It would be an improvement in the human condition. with the subject of death replacing the subject of sex as the forbidden topic on life's agenda. and making for better deaths would help alleviate the horrors of the late twentieth-century-deathwatch. the less fear we have about something. and something to aspire to. Fuchsberg Law Center at Touro College. But for the people in power. This duty runs not only to the dying person. may consider the mention of sexual activity or birth to violate a taboo. Professor of Law and Medical Ethics at the Jacob D. n196 But taboos can also be what Levi-Strauss called "linguistic prohibitions.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL Death K 1NC Contention Two: Hope The repression of mortality is sustained in political reality by a series of linguistic prohibitions and taboos concerning the subject of death. who design death spaces -. n194 or against eating certain foods. and begins the deconstruction of the deathwatch. Much like a formal legal system. this is not a very ambitious claim. n201 By referring to the subject of death.who have jurisdiction over the human body. [Continues] If we could shatter the silence that surrounds the subject of death. Simply put." n197 In a given culture. the negative offers a different approach: Text: Vote negative to shatter the silence surrounding death through an absolute rejection of the Affirmative’s fantasies of immortality in order to embrace hope in the uncertain present. then the subject can be openly spoken of. If that risk is of no threat to the speaker. if the appearance of death does not rattle our bones. The reasoning goes something like this: If the predominant attitude toward death in a culture is one of fear. and in particular to one's own death.have a duty to confront the taboo. and taboos come in many different forms. Once again. one runs the risk of conjuring up death's appearance. gender paraphrased There is also a direct relationship between our attitude toward death and its status as a taboo subject. n202 In breaking the taboo. certain words or subjects may be forbidden to be spoken of in public discourse. the less likely we are to talk about it. confronting the taboo must be more than just an aspiration. then death becomes the subject of a linguistic prohibition -. n200 There are risks in violating a taboo. In this instance. November 1992. a benefit for us all. While the Affirmative builds the walls of fear ever higher. the more likely we are to talk about it. A taboo is something forbidden. the speaker endangers himself [themselves] by making himself [them self] vulnerable to the evil that prompted the taboo. Those people who orchestrate the deaths of others -. n195 or touching certain sacred or [*108] profane objects or persons. our informal.a taboo. for example. then there is no reason for silence on the subject. Someone with Victorian sensibilities. 77 Minnesota Law Review 1.EVAZON CROSS-X. -9- . we might be able to confront the taboo. The duty of those who judge is to relentlessly tear down the taboo surrounding death at every turn – a Negative ballot signifies an important political stance. Louise Harmon. The converse is true as well: the more fear we have about something. n199 His explanation for the linguistic prohibition on the subject of death is the same as mine: People no longer have a system of belief that includes spiritual immortality. but also to those who gather around him. Confronting the taboo would make for better deaths. traditional codes of conduct often [*110] carry sanctions for the breaking of unwritten rules. n198 Geoffrey Gorer has theorized that there has been a shift in prudery during the last century. [*115] who judge death talk. They may be proscriptions against certain behaviors.

we can only be paralysed as you suggest. students will learn them You cannot have true thinking without feeling . they are hopeless'.EVAZON CROSS-X. and often will. so choose wisely. because it implies the fact that the very description of the system itself can change. in cooperation with each other or at cross-purposes. But it implies a closed definition. p. Hope: New Philosophies for Change. I think. It does not promise anything.at school many ideas we try to transmit are dead. We are asking you to seek hope in an uncertain present rather than try to avoid impending disaster. and Mary Zournazi. rather than on projecting success or failure. 211-212 Yes . They induce `events'. because in every situation there are any number of levels of organisation and tendencies in play. Whitehead himself made the distinction between dead ideas and ideas which are alive . takes it into account. It is thus a static notion. the only thing which can be understood. feeling and thinking are closely connected. I think hope is itself an event. they oblige me to feel and think in a new way.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL Death K 1NC We must separate hope from solvency claims and calculability. Possibility is connected to what can throw the dice and have a succession of nine and six . In the best case. Otherwise we endlessly look to the future or toward some utopian dream of a better society or life. should ~ have this experience.and what that means is that true thinking is about transforming yourself. I mean it does enable a kind of hope. but no-one has the right to say `I know how things are. that's `hopeless'. The way all the elements interrelate is so complex that it isn't necessarily comprehensible in one go. The question of which next step to take is a lot less intimidating than how to reach a far-off goal in a distant future where all our problems will finally be solved. For me. the term `event' may have many meanings . and instead embrace a personal stance of hope. and you must just be grateful as long as you are able to hope or to think. one way or another. p.the one I retain emphasises the difference an event makes between the past. right..D in Cultural Theory. This uncertainty can actually be empowering once you realise that it gives you a margin of manoeuvrability and you focus on that. 245-247 I think probability is often associated with the idea of chance . So in critical practices. 2002. It is an open threshold . Again. and the future which. Such a future may. or what we participate in. or with ideas. to borrow a phrase from science. Brian Massumi. And you cannot tell someone else that he or she and then forget about them.so do you mean something else here. to think and feel. include telling the past in such a way this creates the possibility of hope and the creativity to think and feel in life? You have written about the importance of the capacity to feel that it seems to explain the event.and you can calculate the probability of this particular succession. to try and see. which made it possible but which cannot explain it. Again. a Philosopher and Ph. is never a closed door. They are devoid of any importance because they do not force you to think and feel. / am wondering about that . You are only ever in the present in passing.10 - . You may speak of chance when you calculate the chance for something to happen. Associate Professor of Communications at the Université de Montréal. and no matter what. New York: Routledge. It gives you the feeling that there is always an opening to experiment. is a matter of hope. . and then it is probability. The best political stance is to reject calculations of probability and policy outcomes. explained and amply justified is despair. You may not reach the end of the trail but at least there's a next step. and hope the one for whom what I produced were dead ideas will encounter other opportunities. As a teacher I can only celebrate with a student the fact that I `felt' it was happening for him or her. but which is forced by encounters which make me think and feel.the capacity to feel and what that capacity enables. Hope: New Philosophies for Change. and that there needs to be a certain tenderness in understanding different traditions of thought (for instance. you Probability is very interesting for all the people who spend time describing systems they can define. If you look at it that way you don’t have to feel boxed in by it. you expect will come. Predictability and the uncertainty of hope are mutually exclusive. rationally. but their connection refers to experience as something which is not first `my' experience. The present's `boundary condition'. in revisiting thinkers like Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud). And you cannot calculate that. New York: Routledge. It may be encounters with things or with people. Yes. The philosopher Henri Bergson is the one who best described this `retroactive power' of what happens. and if we see pessimism as the natural flow from this.D in Cultural Theory. For instance. an uncertainty about where you might be able to go. This hope is an unknown quality. Professor of Philosophy at the Université Libre de Bruxelles. not simply an encounter with chance? The word `chance' has many meanings. through a set of variables which will remain invariant. but the behaviour of which they are unable to predict. This brings a sense of potential to the situation. There's always a sort of vagueness surrounding the situation. I think so. which can only leave us disappointed.a threshold of potential. no matter what its horrors. It's utopian thinking. I call possibility what cannot be calculated a priori.the idea of hope in the present is vital . I call `events'. Isabelle Stengers. and what you might be able to do once you exit that particular context.. because you can’t predict the outcome? Yes. But the very fact that we can be transformed by what we encounter. and Mary Zournazi. 2002. Philosopher and Ph. for me. When I read Whitehead I do not just examine his ideas.

But again. I do think. and Mary Zournazi. which are all mechanisms for holding oneself separate and being in a position to judge or deride. It's liberating.D in Cultural Theory. His artistic practice was all about intensifying bodily potential. the virtuosity of the ritual becomes more important than the reality hidden behind it. 340 Yes. empirical . rather than theory. Increasingly. Hope: New Philosophies for Change. Their thought process not only constitutes reality. So it's about taking joy in that process. The idea is that lived intensity is self-affirming. and I guess it's about having a kind of faith in the world which is simply the hope that it continue. Thus power gradually draws closer to ideology than it does to reality: it draws its strength from theory and becomes entirely dependent on it. But. where he says that what we need is to be able to find a way to `believe in the world' again. The Post-Development Reader. Ethical.11 - . and that's your reality. Reality does not shape theory. it's not a belief in the sense of a set of propositions to adhere to or a set of principles or moral dictates. serving power.. on the other hand. though. It's an ethical statement . but rather the reverse. It doesn't need a god or judge or head of state to tell it that it has value. or in words that burst apart and lose their conventional meaning. 1997. Just like good for Nietzsche is not the opposite of evil. Artaud himself was destroyed by it.it's a desire for more life. it's an empirical kind of belief. its assuming of a posture that intensifies its powers of existence. joy for Spinoza (or `gaiety' in Nietzsche's vocabulary) is not the opposite of unhappy.and creative. Philosopher and Ph.EVAZON CROSS-X. power begins to serve ideology. trying to get outside or underneath the categories of language and affective containment by those categories. it can even be very painful. It then appears that theory itself. which is the same thing as our belonging to each other. That can be an experience that overcomes you. or a better world of the future. one that on certain levels (chiefly inside the power structure) may have even greater weight than reality as such. The criticism calls into question the ideology that forms a basis for their action. and not some perfect world beyond. ideology becomes at the same time an increasingly important component of power. he ended up mad. and so did Nietzsche. President of the Czech Republic. it is not a hope that has a particular content or end point . p. That's what Deleuze is saying belief is about. There is a phrase of Deleuze's that I like very much. an ethic of joy and the cultivation of joy is an affirmation of life . p. even a small thing can become amplified and can have a global effect which is life-affirming . and there is a relation between this ethics. or rather ideology.what are the affirmations of joy and hope? Well.. Associate Professor of Communications at the Université de Montréal. The moment of joy is the co-presence of those potentials. If we take Spinoza and Nietzsche seriously. New York: Routledge. What are your thoughts on this ethical relationship in everyday existence? And in intellectual practice . and live that so intensely together that there is no room to doubt the reality of it. In the sense of what you are saying. go with it. and not the other way around. It is as though ideology has appropriated power from power. a belief in the world. wherever it leads. and it's your participation that makes it real. What it means.which is where we are coming from . it acquires a peculiar but very real strength. hope and the idea of joy. that the practice of joy does imply some form of belief. What it is saying is that we have to live our immersion in the world. as though it had become dictator itself. Brian Massumi. It's on a different axis. but from their locus as concepts in the ideological context. a pillar providing it with both excusatory legitimacy and an inner coherence.or an anti-theological statement. an assuming by the body of its potentials. It becomes reality itself albeit a reality altogether self-contained. So it is not just simple opposition between happy and unhappy or pleasant or unpleasant. it is a being in the world. The significance of phenomena no longer derives from the phenomena themselves. This inevitable leads. It's not a belief that's `about' being in the world.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL Death K 1NC Embrace the current world. as we have seen. because your participation in this world is part of a global becoming. DO NOT link this joy of the present to a solution for future based on our fear of death or all hope is lost. ritual itself. a babble of becoming. warts and all. for example. 2002. It can't be a total scepticism or nihilism or cynicism. the status quo. 241242 Yes. for all its faults. but is more important than the action itself. or for more to life. I think. Take Antonin Artaud. What I think Spinoza and Nietzsche are getting at is joy as affirmation. Vaclav Havel. really experience our belonging to this world. in the context of a bodily becoming. to a paradoxical result. of course. Because it's all about being in this world. I think that joy is not the same thing as happiness. . trying to pack vast potentials for movement and meaning in a single gesture. for that matter. and as it gradually loses touch with reality. becoming like a scream of possibility. the body bursting out through an opening in expression. ideology itself. It's not at all a theological statement . it's the only reality you have. live it out. is accept the embeddedness. makes decisions that affect people. but at the same time the charge of that potential can become unbearable and can actually destroy. As this aspect grows in importance. to find the joy in it. Joy can be very disruptive .

EVAZON CROSS-X. who saw the first explosion at the World Trade Center as she rode down Fifth Avenue in a bus after her session with me. 2 We as psychoanalysts can—and increasingly must—explore the impact of this concept on our practice. our visions of the psychoanalytic endeavor arise out of the social defense of the culture within which we live and work (I have referred to this as "community character. In this paper. was the tiny. And whatever our individual differences. Julia Kristeva makes a similar note about our contemporary situation. It allows us to look at how this all-encompassing state appears in psychoanalytic treatment and to observe its influence through the analysis of transference/countertransference dynamics. and on the growing number of patients who live with the inability to repress or dissociate their experience and awareness of the pure war condition. As Virilio and Lotringer see it. 3 Such continual reminders of death and destruction affect us all. and neighbors. it is not the technological capacity for destruction (that is. television.12 - .. Virilio and Lotringer gave the name "pure war"to the psychological condition that results when people know that they live in a world where the possibility for absolute destruction (e.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL Pure War 1NC The 1AC is a fantasy of pure war – universal destruction that threatens us at every turn – this turns us into ‘pure warriors’ who endlessly rehearse our own deaths – ultimately this leaves us unable to confront cruelty in our everyday lives Mark B. nuclear holocaust) exists. The tragedy at the World Trade Center in New York City has given us a bitter but important opportunity to study the effects of the pure war condition on individuals. a perpetual state of preparation for absolute destruction and for personal.." cf. The case of Joyce. Borg Jr. social. "The recourse to atomic weapons seems to prove that horror. in a pure war situation the primary task is simply to sustain the dream of psychic survival. in Virilio and Lotringer 15). and beneath these clouds. I will explore how it manifests itself in society. What is the role of the analyst treating patients who live with an ever-threatening sense of the pure war lying just below the surface of our cultural veneer? At the end of the First World War. because the definition of pure war culture is that there is no escape. in a field of force of destructive torrents and explosions. [End Page 57] Continues… . The realization of a patient's worst fears in actual catastrophic events has always been a profound enough psychotherapeutic challenge. 03 “Psychoanalytic Pure War: interactions with the post-apocalyptic unconscious”. and most specifically in the psychoanalytic treatment of one patient whose dynamics highlight significant aspects of the pure war state.g." Walter Benjamin observed that "nothing [after the war] remained unchanged but the clouds. we perceive ourselves as already dead? Whatever our individual differences. however. they also become the stuff of endless repetitions and dramatizations on radio. at some level. How does treatment happen when. These days. Once people believe in the external possibility—at least those people whose defenses cannot handle the weight of the dread that pure war imposes—pure war becomes an internal condition. as if he too were acknowledging this same fragility and uncontainability. family.can rage absolutely" (232).. exemplifies this task. the existence of nuclear armaments) that imposes the dread characteristic of a pure war psychology but the belief systems that this capacity sets up. for example. the first "total war. and Internet. questia Paul Virilio and Sylvere Lotringer's concept of "pure war"refers to the potential of a culture to destroy itself completely (12). Psychological survival requires that a way be found (at least unconsciously) to escape inevitable destruction —it requires a way out—but this enforces an irresolvable paradox.. And. in character. The pure war condition has been brought grimly to consciousness. Borg 350). Journal of Psychoanalysis. practicing psychoanalyst and community/organizational consultant working in New York City. catastrophic events not only threaten friends. the French politician Georges Clemenceau commented in the context of World War I that "war is too serious to be confined to the military" (qtd. and cultural death. fragile human body"(84).

without knowing it. but we no longer have the means of recognizing it" (42). who wrote over 2400 years ago and yet is often considered the originator of modern warfare. and begin her life anew. . the more psychologically impoverished a culture (or a person) will be." the place where she would break free from the deathly institutionalized aspects of her self.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL Pure War 1NC Continued… The Pure Warrior The philosophy (or practice) of "pure warriors. This means that when the members of a culture must be on guard on all fronts. [and that at that point] the essential task to be carried out is to help inmates to make their transition from social death to physical death" (Miller and Gwynne 74). although to survive psychically we distract ourselves from such frightening stimuli as widespread terrorist activities and other events that demonstrate our pure war status. Joyce was one of those who lived on the border of life and death. "society is defining them as socially dead. in cultures that enact a perpetual preparation for war—the notion of peace is itself a defensive fantasy. She manifested the state of perpetual preparation that is the hallmark of pure war culture and of the insufficiently defended pure warrior. We have all been drafted. According to Virilio and Lotringer.13 - . said in The Art of War. The more defenses are induced and enacted. Against this backdrop. and also a constant awareness of the nearness of death in all its various forms.War happens everywhere. And Sun Tsu. that when people are institutionalized (as she had been on numerous occasions). Virilio and Lotringer state that "war exists in its preparation" (53). In pure war cultures—that is. We can see this scattering and scarcity of resources occurring already in the United States as billions of dollars are shunted from social services to war efforts and homeland security.. Joyce sought psychoanalysis as a "new world. the resources of that culture are necessarily scattered and taxed." that is. Pure war obliterates the distinction between soldier and citizen. for instance. "All of us are already civilian soldiers. and materials for shelter may be scarce in the general population because they are shunted off to the military. of people who are preoccupied with the pure war condition of their society.. Her search for a "new world" included the possibility of a world that was not a pure war world—a prelapsarian Eden.EVAZON CROSS-X. "Preparation everywhere means lack everywhere" (44). In war-torn nations. resources like food. She understood quite well. she could not escape awareness of that dread dichotomy that most of us are at great pains to dissociate. clothing. the hoarding of psychological resources and the constant alert status of the defense system are outcomes of existence in a pure war culture. Similarly. is based on the perpetual failure within them of the dissociation and repression that allow others to function in a situation that is otherwise completely overwhelming.

COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL ____________ **Overviews .EVAZON CROSS-X.14 - .

Our alternative offers a different approach.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL 2NC Overview The 1AC represents the status quo as doomed to widespread death absent plan action. Negates the Value to Life. we must confront that repression with hope through a rejection of the Aff’s fantasies of immortality. individuals try to define themselves though material acquisition. extend our Havel evidence . Bioplitical Control. Research Fellow at the School of Politics at the University of Nottingham. fear of death drives individuals to absolute obedience to the State they see as capable of ‘protecting them’.the judge’s duty is to decide between competing frameworks. especially when a new order (a new reoccupation of traditional politics) is stabilized and attempts to make invisible this lack in the Other (Zizek. if democracy is an ethically grounded form of political life which does not cease to call itself into question by asking of its legitimacy. They demand continuous destruction of the Other. This duty is a truly and radically democratic one. Additionally. then these communities are philosophical (Critchley. Lacan and the Political. 1993: 1-2). The repression of death goes hand in hand with the senseless drive to constantly accumulate and self-preserve. 3 Impacts: 1. so does the affirmative keep actual change at bay and promote violence on the subjects of their affirmative. This mentality dooms us to an eternity of counterfeit existence which outweighs extinction. Our Friedland and Beres evidence indicate that the motivation for their desire to preserve life is a fantasy of immortality sustained by the repression of death’s inevitability. As far a political praxis is concerned our ethical duty can only be to attempt the institutionalization of this lack within political reality.Within both the framework of fiat and discursive performance.15 - . This rejection not only avoids all the links – it also presents the only way possible to solve the Affirmative. ensuring destruction of all life on Earth. The implication of this form of biopower is constant comparison and subjugation through all means of violence and extermination.The panopticon is most applicable in this situation. 1999 If there is a duty for critical intellectuals today it is to occupy all the time the space of this hole. 2. and adopt whichever framework best exposes the repressed fantasmatic constructions. if legitimate communities are those that call themselves into question. 3.just as guards maintain control of their subjects through fear of punishment.EVAZON CROSS-X. Yannis Stavrakakis. Kill to Save. in an externalization of the weakness they perceive in themselves and to cover up death.rather than utilize discourses based on the repression of death.In an attempt to create permanent meaning in a temporary world. It is also an ethical duty that marks the philosophical dimensions of democracy. The need to talk about saving lives to cover up the silence and passivity of death that lurks beyond their conscious thought contributes to the repression of death in society. 1992: 239). . As Bernasconi and Critchley point out.

03 “Psychoanalytic pure war: interactions with the post-apocalyptic unconscious”. . they share their deaths with us. and they examined the repetition/enactment of these processes in the transference. practicing psychoanalyst and community/organizational consultant working in New York City. and Sullivan each described facets of the pure war condition.the same fear of death that is sought to give security is the same condition that necessitates violence as there is no escape from danger in a pure war culture as defenses eg. war planning and destruction is not benign but rather a psychological defense mechanism.we must move away from these obsessive pleas Mark B." Patients like Joyce end up in our offices when such reassurance becomes impossible. splitting. institutions. dissociation. Journal of Psychoanalysis. which are formed initially and maintained afterward in cultural as well as familial contexts.EVAZON CROSS-X. reaction to it may be observed in all forms of psychological defense: sublimation.a world in which constant images of violence and war force entire social bodies to live in constant fear and trepidation knowing that with the flick of a switch or turn of a button. A person's attitude toward his or her environment (of which one representation is the analyst) is inevitably made up of transferential appraisals. the harbingers of pure war.Even if the affirmatives representations are well intentioned. etc.16 - . repression. the frame of peace could be shattered. As we share our lives with them. Of course.the affirmatives depiction of war. The specters with whom we share our (internal) lives perpetually threaten to retaliate.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL 2NC Pure War Overview Extend our original piece of Borg evidence from the 1nc. Borg Jr. "See? Everything's really OK after all. especially in debate. the constant process.. pulling away the covers under which we keep our own internalized and dissociated personal visions of total annihilation. obsessivecompulsive behaviors. However. Winnicott. Nuclear bombs and arms are constantly built up to kill to save AND. this internal condition’s paradox is quite evident. Each one of these processes addresses the underlying terror of the pure war perception by communicating the message. to the degree that pure war is an internal condition.one of annihilation. questia From their individual viewpoints. of image after image in constant loops and repetitions is an attempt to avoid the ultimate end of our fear of death. Freud. They outlined the processes by which it may be translated into patterns of interaction with the environment (individuals. therefore.). These representations are part of the “pure war” culture Virilio coined. and so on.

Additionally. they conceded our consumerism implication.EVAZON CROSS-X. a necessary step to genocide and nuclear annihilation. . This means questions of desirability of the plans implementation take a backseat to concerns of justification. which turns case.this is impacted by our Zimmerman evidence. it is preferable to a world devoid of meaning. Even if they win the result of our alternative is nuclear war and extinction. which is comparative. The duty of the judge is a constant criticism of attempts to cover up the lack in the symbolic order. This also takes out any risk of their permutation. they conceded our Havel and Stavrakakis evidence.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL 2NR Overview We’ll do our impact analysis hereThe conceded Foucault evidence means their case impact can’t make any sense. they don’t have a credible counter-interpretation. they can’t assign an objective value to human life within their ethical system based on survivability.Ideology creates the reality we live in and is more important than the action itself. EVEN IF THEY WIN THEIR ARGUMENTS ABOUT REPRESENTATIONS BEING GOOD. No matter how much offense they win. This is the only evidence that speaks to the relative importance of action and theory. Also. That calculation makes humans an object. which makes it like a conceded topicality interpretation.17 - .


or religious genealogical files. 23-4). . 61.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL Link. As Lifton observed: "For. All modes of immortality. are now at the mercy of the state. we are faced with the prospect of being severed from virtually an of our symbolic paths to immortality" (b. the state. one's genetic continuity. and I believe everyone from about the age of six or seven in some measure does. the ultimate death fear has undoubtedly been the death of one's collectivity. questia Historically. whether they be of induction into some professional hall of fame. whether by pogrom or plague. Kearl.[sic] a phenomenon not only manmade [sic] but accomplished by the highest level of social structure.Nuclear War The avoidance of nuclear catastrophes represents the ultimate fear of death.19 - . shattering the strive for immortality Michael C.EVAZON CROSS-X. if we anticipate the possibility of nuclear weapons being used. one’s collectivity. Social Forces. Vol. The contemporary manifestation of this megadeath fear is a nuclear holocaust. 1983.

and our. he drew back. "especially in matters of love. But at a key point. encompassing all thoughts within a frame of how to avoid their own. of course. we understand both the imagery and the struggle to have to do with elements of life-power and "falling apart. In an important two-page sequence toward the end of the theoretical section he notes the patient's "quite peculiar attitude towards the question of death. 38 He recognizes that other obsessional neurotics behave similarly: "Their thoughts are unceasingly occupied with other people's length of life and possibility of death. This fear of death comes to encompass the entire politics of the viewer. remarked upon by a number of writers. . in the midst of an exchange concerning conscious and unconscious aspects of his obsessive ideas: "Such an occurrence." Causation is brought back to instinct: "For we must remember that in every neurosis we come upon the same suppressed instincts behind the symptoms. death imagery must always be secondary--in this case to the obsessive's inability to come to decisions. that of meaning.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL Link. and seemed to be on the brink of elevating that imagery to some conceptual significance. “Broken Connection: On Death and the Continuity of Life” All this takes us to an evolving concept of obsessional states that relates them to intolerance for and therefore preoccupation with "death." These others need not have experienced family death at an early age as the source of that death imagery." † Freud dealt more with death imagery in this case than in most of his writings. 39 . Freud's patient as much as told him so when he remarked to his analyst. individual. collective. Fenichel writes: "Orientation in time" is a typical reassuring measure. destruction. annihilation. along with other writings of Freud. did much to develop the image-triad of obsession-fecesdeath. he continued. this case. with the tendency for bowel training to become an arena of parent-child struggle." mentions his nickname and its significance. and emphasizes (in passages we have already quoted) the importance for the patient of the early death of his older sister and longstanding thoughts about his father's death. Many a fear of death means a fear of a state where the usual conceptions of time are invalid.20 - . anything dealing with unaccountable elements of human existence. avoiding death and emphasizing destruction. States in which the orientation in time becomes more difficult--dusk or long evenings in winter or even long days in summer--are feared by many compulsion neurotics. was thus only possible where a disintegration of the personality was already present" (and it was Freud himself who underlined that phrase). Professor of Psychiatry and Psychology at the Graduate School University Center." The primary significance of annihilation for obsessional neurosis becomes clear when we turn to our third principle. decay. Keeping in mind the association of feces and disintegration." 35 I would emphasize in obsessive states the lifelong inner terror of disintegration. Robert Jay Lifton. That trinity has much to do." 36 Moreover. . violence. . Instead. 1979. Actual death imagery and death equivalents come together around a troubled relationship with time." For Freud. "these neurotics need the help of the possibility of death chiefly in order that it may act as a solution of conflict they have left unsolved.EVAZON CROSS-X.Obsession The 1ac is obsessed with preserving life.

the ultimate nuclear pornography: the equation in our minds of death with extinction.Nuclear Death/Extinction Representations of death are the most cynical form of voyeurism. they are all merely a product of the same pornographic dealings with the fear factor that make the impacts possible." 18 He was referring to what he took to be the twentieth century replacement of sex by death as an underground sphere of conflict. new advantages. “Broken Connection: On Death and the Continuity of Life” Geoffrey Gorer was groping toward that distortion when he spoke of the "pornography of death. Professor of Psychiatry and Psychology at the Graduate School University Center. Our public depictions of violent death can be exploitative and repulsive in the extreme. everyday through renditions in various forms i. cases. and the eruption of previously taboo lurid private fantasy into public discourse in the form of extravagant mass media rendition of death and violence. But the source of the pornography--of our shared fantasies of runaway violence--may reside in the state of mind we have been discussing.e. As we move further along the aberrant sequence we find that specific nuclear relationships to totalism and victimization can be understood around imagery of "security" and "secrecy. We have been discussing various forms of dislocation in connection with impaired symbolic immortality.21 - . the identity of the meaninglessly doomed." We can consider these in their collective significance and then turn to individual psychological counterparts. and the equation of death with extinction. 1979. etc. . † But they are no more excessive than. all the time.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL Link.they serve to influence the masses on taboo subjects. Robert Jay Lifton. Gorer stresses a shift in prudery--the unmentionability of sex giving way to the unmentionability of natural death.EVAZON CROSS-X. perhaps appropriate to. Unfortunately.

are likely to move toward totalism in both foreign and domestic policies. Thus nations. 1979. Morgenthau.the 1ac’s presentation and sustenance of a strong. Hans J. forward deployment and coherent national security presents a move towards totalism in which fear is conquered. Secretary of War Henry Stimson not only suggested that the weapon brought about a new relationship of man to the universe but said: "It must be controlled if possible to make it an assurance of future peace rather than a menace to civilization. measures which may in turn enable him to believe his illusion of invulnerability. describes a dangerous American tendency toward globalism. for instance. But the more frequent national response resembles that of an individual who fends off his imagery of threatened annihilation by means of more aggressive and more total measures to assert his power. “Broken Connection: On Death and the Continuity of Life” And since the development of nuclear weapons. Professor of Psychiatry and Psychology at the Graduate School University Center. Even as he in effect rejected scientists' petitions against the dropping of the first atomic bomb without warning on a populated city.Hegemony Hegemony IS the drive towards immortality.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL Link. perhaps especially bomb-possessors. paving the way for a transcendence of mortality Robert Jay Lifton. This vulnerability was recognized very early by some of those originally closely associated with making the first atomic bomb.EVAZON CROSS-X.22 - . we may speak of a pervasive sense of vulnerability to annihilation." 21 The most constructive approach to that vulnerability would be to acknowledge it and work universally to overcome it." which he sees as isolationism "turned inside out": .

responded to this challenge collectively through symbolic exchanges with their dead and deities. Postmodern Culture 13. the dead. and they reciprocate by somehow honoring or benefiting the living. but rather only as a subtraction from life. in economic or military terms. but having erased the difference between the two. on the other hand. is that to consume is to live. Butterfield Department of English – University of Wisconsin 2002. Baudrillard's postmodern-primitive symbolic. But Americans are not "primitives"--we do not value death symbolically. and to expose the metaphysical prejudice at the heart of all such valuations. there was never any guarantee that others wouldn't take such theoretical "violence" to its literal ends. scarification and tattooing are just the benign counterparts of true terrorism. Most Christians believe in and employ this same mechanism when they pray to the resurrected Christ. can be seen in animistic practices such as voodoo. .COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL Link—Opposition to Death By contrast.S. fundamentalists of all sorts.1 The primitives. Americans will doubtless commemorate the deaths of those killed on 9/11 as long as our nation exists. Graffiti art. Their belief in the sign's transparency. in every ad campaign and marketing strategy. Our official holidays honoring the dead serve no other function than to encourage consumption. Unable to defeat the U. Capitalism's implicit promise. Baudrillard maintains. its symbolic singularity. they employ the rule of prestation in symbolic exchange with the gift of their own deaths. What the terrorists enacted on 9/11 was what Baudrillard would call a symbolic event of the first order. Literalists and extremists. then a symbolic sacrifice to a dead person is every bit as binding as a gift to a living person. His wager was that this would be done through aesthetic violence and not real violence. and we know the loved one is not really contained in the lock of hair. but even they do not believe that their symbolic gestures are anything but metaphors. but we know that our gifts to the dead are only symbolic. which takes ritual sacrifice and initiation to their extremes. which for us means imaginary. and the living would somehow honor and benefit them in the afterlife. the signifier and the signified. the Affirmative defines and defends life in opposition to death – death is the absence of life. find their logic foretold in Baudrillard's references to the primitives.EVAZON CROSS-X. We no longer believe in the one to one correspondence of signifier and signified. The obligation to return is placed upon the dead. and if the sign is what it stands for. where the enemy's hair is thought to contain his or her spirit. If the dead are only humans of a different nature. as if through accumulation we achieve mastery over the qualitative presence of death that haunts life. it is subtracted from the value of those who remain living – this way of understanding death as the end of consumptive utility underlies the value system of postmodern capital. We score up life against death as gain against loss. aimed to obliterate the difference in value between the imaginary and the real. and they were undeniably primitive in their belief that God.23 - .

so we map out the appropriate parameters of adulthood. can inspire a state of panic. we find ourselves in the business of selling and consuming panic of one sort or another. Kick Me: Adventures in Adolescence. if you will. This means government. local formats adhere to a national formula for what constitutes newsworthiness. Americans are strangely united by their isolation from one another. so we must honor our worst fears. but it also must instill in us the sense that America's illusory innocence could be our undoing. The current government encourages us to believe that no historical precursors exist to muddy the squeaky-clean innocence of America. and what should affect local populations." The individualization of panic disorder corresponds to the media-savvy militarization of American politics." The implication embodied in "United We Stand" is that we have some (un-American) Other to be united against. A suggestive correlation between the isolation of mental illness and political isolationism can be found in the rhetoric of "going it alone. Though post-9/11 panic no longer governs America in the same way it did in late 2001. Witness coverage of the scare of African killer bees a few years ago. the entertainment industry. treating its viewers like children in need of constant rules and warnings. If we don't act now. or news media need to regularly create new things to fear. an illness generally treated on an individual basis. Issue # 64. but local television news has largely become a venue that creates a catalogue of fears for citizens everywhere. Pulitzer Prize-winner Michael Chabon gave a lecture about how childhood adventuring has been radically curtailed by the lack of "wilderness" to explore. September 2003 Panic is our national pastime. followed by his realization that there's no place he feels comfortable having her ride it. This anxiety constitutes a sort of preemptive strike. Paul Feig's memoir. on the panic state. Local Fox News promises the viewer "Stories that Affect You. Television often plays on the prevalent anxieties of adolescence. but only as the harbinger of what may perhaps come again. recently featured in Bowling for Columbine.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL Link—Panic The Affirmative is the society of panic – WMD are everywhere and coming to get us – this is the mode of symbolic exchange by which the government creates a simulatenously passive docile citizenry to facilitate violence CAROLLO Assistant Professor of English 2003 Bad Subjects. The news media may not want panic attacks to actually occur. the government still uses the Trade Center bombings as a way to gain support for future military initiatives. however.24 - . In February 2003. as the awful truth of a phobia. In the course of one generation. The past may inspire panic attacks. describes how high school in America is defined by the possibility of panic attacks lurking around every corner. People feel uncomfortable leaving their children alone to explore their surroundings. the suggestion of a gun's potential is enough. As we get further away from cataclysmic events. Fear of public transportation means more and more privately owned cars on the road. covers a much broader band of the spectrum. As we regulate childhood. Chabon spoke of his daughter learning to ride a bicycle. In addition. The possibility of panic.EVAZON CROSS-X. then our worst fears may well be realized. their ability to inspire terror becomes attenuated. Awful things often do happen. Much of life centers on making sure we avoid being attacked. Get scared." but the news itself offers such in-depth detritus as exposés on the dangers of car airbags and "that Duluth prostitution ring we've been keeping you informed about. We locate panic at the extreme end of the anxiety spectrum. The collective dimensions of panic disorder. Whether the hand that rocks the cradle is the government wishing to sell a new military solution to the world's problems. The weapons don't need to be there. Just as we ritually lose our innocence." I'm not suggesting that danger doesn't exist. Hence the pandemic of global terrorism. the end result of what psychiatrist Robert L. DuPont refers to as the "what if?" of horrific possibility. The very possibility of weapons of mass destruction. The much-heralded individualist spirit of American society relies on nurturing a fear of other people. The rhetorical necessity of slogans such as "United We Stand" are countered by the ongoing national zeitgeist of "Leave Me and My Family Alone. mapped. A smoking gun does not need to be fired. . and regulated by the fears of adults. the wilderness of childhood has been planned. Fear of public spaces — where anyone can hang out — in turn supports the proliferation of private property and restricted access locations. Panic inspires pre-emptive attacks on whatever violates the sanctity of private life. but they like us to routinely consider the possibility that something awful might happen if we do not maintain a healthy level of anxiety — and keep watching the news for updates. Panic has dominion over the future. or an entertainment industry that wants us to believe that "a nation lost its innocence" after Pearl HarborTM. a phenomenon that sees 9/11 as a significant event in a never-ending continuum of potential danger. is the subject of this essay. Be alert. for example.

But at least it does not posit the seeming temporal impossibility of a pretraumatic stress syndrome. or exists. that a mass trauma exists over the use of nuclear weapons and the possibility of future nuclear wars. that inheres in awaiting an expected catastrophe others have experienced (for example. what I have called the conditional space of catastrophe that gave rise to feelings of bukimi in Hiroshima became a general characteristic of Cold War urban experience. fragmentation.4 (2000) 59-82 The people of Hiroshima who experienced bukimi had detected the opening up of the conditional space of catastrophe—conditional because. Sontag's observation allows that certain traumatic responses to the use of nuclear weapons might not have been limited to the survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki but rather shared by all who knew of nuclear weapons. the more attenuated national trauma experienced by non-hibakusha Japanese. One might also object that by compulsively repeating a particular scene of traumatic violence. their devastating effects. its survivors underwent a historically specific. its citizens strove to read the intention of the enemy in the signs that constituted that passing-over.EVAZON CROSS-X. in a far more explicit incarnation. had not yet occurred. the filmic spectacles of monster-suited men wrecking model cities likely did more to act out than to work through the trauma engendered by the past nuclear bombing of cities. In her 1965 essay "The Imagination of Disaster. in a sense. and particularly to early nuclear weapons. which is one of the oldest subjects of art. attempt to exorcise it" [461-63]. a different trauma. but that they became accustomed to a more overt and permanent variant of the uncanny frisson felt in Hiroshima before the bombing. but in the shadow of a future one. Such a suggestion may accord a secondary witness status to most of the Cold War world and thus erode distinctions between different degrees of witnessing and indeed between the survivor-witnesses and bystanders of a traumatic event. conventional aerial bombardment) while also repeating what must once have been their hopes to be exempted through some special dispensation. Hiroshima might finally have been spared rather than razed if conditions had been different on the day of the drop. it was not the future nuclear catastrophe that anachronistically "returned" to a moment before its occurrence. When that limit event occurred." In the course of discussing the "aesthetics of destruction" in Cold War science fiction films. forcing us to constanty reenact our trauma on others SAINT-AMOUR Assistant Professor of English – Pomona College 2000 Diacritics 30. say. Having noticed the passing-over of Hiroshima. however. and. is not that the inhabitants of Cold War cities exhibited post-traumatic symptoms akin to those of the atomic bomb survivors." Susan Sontag wrote suggestively that "Science fiction films are not about science. in a way. Nonetheless. or that induced by the possibility of a future nuclear war. had been returned from one of two futures: one culminating in the nonevent of preservation. its inaugural event might not be a future conditional nuclear holocaust but the completed events of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. They are about disaster. the explosion of the bomb. despite the signs that informed its citizens' sense of uncanniness. Sontag seems to have been among the first to posit what we might call the hysteron proteron of the nuclear condition: the literally preposterous phenomenon of traumatic symptoms—denial. To link the real devastation of Hiroshima to the potential devastation of Cold War [End Page 60] target cities may seem to do a violence to the specificity of the former. Most of the science fiction films bear witness to this trauma. The careful sparing of atomic bomb target cities from conventional bombing bespoke American military commanders' confidence in the destructive potential of the bomb and their desire to demonstrate that destructive power in the theater of relatively undamaged cities. unique traumatization. in relation to nuclear weapons. the other in the limit event of catastrophe. Surely if something repressed were returning in bukimi. to its status as event rather than eventuality. dissociation. But the traumatic cause of repression. if a mass traumatization existed. In other words. the compulsive repetition of extreme violence —that exist not in the wake of a past event.25 - . or hibakusha. Such a feeling of weird anticipation or uncanniness may have been allied to the symptom as return-of-the-repressed insofar as it arose from an experience not of singularity but of repetition—the repetition. particularly in Japanese films but not only there. In this. certainly. 60 . would become familiar to everyone living in a targeted city during the Cold War: the sense that the present survival and flourishing of the city were simultaneously underwritten and radically threatened by its identity as a nuclear target. But in the period of eerie suspension before the explosion. Similarly. Sontag's formulation does not adequately distinguish among the intense trauma of hibakusha.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL Link—Bukimi The Affirmative enacts bukimi – the performance of an uncanny certainty that one has been targeted for nuclear destruction – this process creates an unassimilable trauma that ultimately anesthetizes the subject. with its immediate effects. 2 In certain respects. as a structuring condition of everyday life. it must have been something anterior to the feeling of uncanniness. and the escalating likelihood of their use. My claim. repression. But one might want to stop short of claiming that the bukimi experienced by inhabitants of Hiroshima constituted a symptom in advance of its originary traumatic event. those who registered the nuclear uncanny in Hiroshima were also the first to experience a condition that. and the worldwide response to the looming specter of nuclear war. Those signs. Sontag ventures a traumatic referent for that aesthetics: "One gets the feeling. the kind of conditional traumatic space that registered as bukimi was unique to human-made devastation. and to the real suffering and annihilation of its victims.


Our link arguments indicate that valuing life as death deferred undermines other means of living life since it requires the annihilation of ALL that does not fit within the simulation of immortal life. Even if this argument is true. they should still lose regardless of other justifications of the plan. we’ll win that the fear of death makes all your other implications fall short.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: We Have Other Justifications 1. our criticism is a reason to reject the affirmative.EVAZON CROSS-X. Additionally. If they had said racism good and something else. 2.27 - . .

For Marx this reality. Freud and Saussure were stuck in the second order. I suggest that his unspoken stand on the issue of justice concerning 9/11 would have to be what Nietzsche's would have been: that there is no justice. (Simulacra 6) Marx. it is its own pure simulacrum.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: Death Bad/Life Good That’s interesting. it has no relation to any reality whatsoever. The fact that 9/11 was arguably the most potent symbolic event since the crucifixion of Christ has inspired Baudrillard to dress up his old ideas about the symbolic and symbolic exchange. Baudrillard imagines that from within the fourth order. where all metaphysical distinctions of value have disappeared. Freudian and structuralist traditions. In "How the 'True' World Finally Became a Fable: The History of an Error." Nietzsche outlines in six concise steps the decline of western metaphysics and its belief in a "True world" of essences. Our claim is not that we deserve to die – but rather that we need to lay claim to the logic of death and terror so that we can respond to it Butterfield Department of English – University of Wisconsin 2002. Baudrillard wants to seduce us into following his script. as visualized by Baudrillard. But Baudrillard's history.1 Embedded in Jean Baudrillard's almost incomprehensible prose is the shocking assertion that terrorism is justifiable. This is because we live in profoundly mediated environments. where the critique of appearances was thought to yield a glimpse of a deeper reality." a bifurcating. that the threat of globalization. he claims. Instead he plays the provocateur by laying claim to the terrorists' logic. Our Friedland and Beres evidence indicates that this desire occurs due to a phobic overreaction to death’s passivity. and simulation have in common. Baudrillard's Symbolic and Death Baudrillard's theory of the symbolic serves as a response to what he saw as the metaphysical underpinnings of the Marxist. we must be sure to understand the script well so we can decide how to act on it. Here the spectacle continues to fascinate. In light of his past writings. which he outlines in his conceptions of the symbolic and symbolic exchange. Postmodern Culture 13. this metaphysical claim. 4) Average Harper's readers may be spared blame for not comprehending Baudrillard's theoretical prose. the hyperreal. Our Harmon evidence indicates that this allows us to engage in a rational discourse about death. justified the World Trade Center attack. and from here can only enter into the fourth order. But Baudrillard does not explicitly state this claim. true justice must end in its "self-overcoming" (Genealogy 73). and the more these codes are exchanged throughout the culture. but that. it seems. metaphysical projection of the mind which allows us to measure the worth of things. it masks the absence of a profound reality. Baudrillard explicitly states that "if we hope to understand anything we will need to get beyond Good and Evil" ("L'Esprit" 15). In the presentation of the 1AC. which was their greatest weapon. but irrelevant. but the point of "L'Esprit" is not that 9/11 was justifiable in any moral sense. To understand what he means by "symbolic dimension" and "strategic symbolism" in the quotation from "L'Esprit" above. wherein coded images are produced and exchanged far more than material goods. only forgiveness. which I see as an implicit conclusion to his thought. Baudrillard's four-part history of the image (commonly referred to as his four orders of simulation) closely mirrors Nietzsche's history of the "'True' World": it [the image] is the reflection of a profound reality.EVAZON CROSS-X. and only the strong can forgive. We don’t think that death is a good thing– that would be asinine. (Kelly et al. beyond the Imaginary world of appearances (Portable 485). let us consult the origins and uses of the concept of the symbolic in his earlier work. If. Hyperreality thus describes the extreme limit of fetishization. where we can act to avoid nuclear war without repressing death’s inevitability. The negative. accepts death’s inevitability and confronts the repression. has one more step to take before it completes its circle. He therefore relocates the law of value within his own Nietzsche-styled history of the "image"--a term used as a stand-in for all that the words representation. the Affirmative felt compelled to speak out about the necessity of preserving life. According to Baudrillard. the more erratically their values fluctuate. as Kellner would have it. but indifference is the attitude du jour (indifference having long been associated with the postmodern). as Nietzsche held. was found in the concept of use value. and for Saussure it was the signified (and ultimately the referent). All three. . reproduction. wherein re-presentation eclipses reality. on the other hand. We have since turned from the critique of appearances to the critique of meaning and of reality itself (the third order). until at last they can no longer be traced to their origins. for Freud it was the unconscious. there will emerge a type of postmodern primitivism (I propose to call it).28 - . any critical theory in the name of such projected "real" values ultimately reinforces the fetishized relations it criticizes. uphold the fetishization of the "law of value. it masks and denatures a profound reality. The law of value effectively produces "reality" in each system as both its effect and its alibi.


destroying everything in human beings which makes them worthy of survival? To put it more strongly. no rights. when that concern is allowed to reach an intensity which would ignore. if the price of survival is human degradation. 1973 The value of survival could not be so readily abused were it not for its evocative power.30 - . It is directed even at a legitimate concern for survival. We come here to the fundamental moral dilemma. including the right to life. Edward Callahan. The Vietnamese war has seen one of the greatest of the many absurdities tolerated in the name of survival: the destruction of villages in order to save them. But abused it has been. all manner of social and political evils have been committed against the rights of individuals.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL Impact—Dignity As long as the Affirmative works within a framework that subscribes to the fear of death. in the process. . to save it from destruction at the hands of its enemies. then there is no moral reason why an effort should be made to ensure that survival. Survival can become an obsession and a disease. The purported threat of communist domination has for over two decades fueled the drive of militarists for ever-larger defense budgets. For all these reasons. This policy was later upheld by the Supreme Court in Korematsu v. into detention camps. and if survival is the precondition for any and all human achievements. and if no other rights make much sense without the right to life-then how will it be possible to honor and act upon the need for survival without. It is easy of course to recognize the danger when survival is falsely and manipulatively invoked. no matter what the cost to other social needs. liberties or dignities which it is not ready to suppress. The potential tyranny of survival as a value is that it is capable. But my point goes deeper than that. Director of the Institute for Society. In the name of survival. native Japanese-Americans were herded. suppress or destroy other fundamental human rights and values. The alternative alone is capable of placing an absolute value on human rights. heedless of the most elementary human rights. During World War II. Under the banner of survival. Ethics. but only about the need to defend the fatherland. The survival of the Aryan race was one of the official legitimations of nazism. both biologically and psychologically. if not treated sanely. United States (1944) in the general context that a threat to national security can justify acts othwerwise blatantly unconstitutional. If. provoking a destructive single-mindedness that will stop at nothing. it is possible to counterpoise over against the need for survival a “tyranny of survival. the need for survival is basic to man. without due process of law. and Life Sciences. of wiping out all other values. The Tyranny of Survival.” There seems to be no imaginable evil which some group is not willing to inflict on another for the sake of survival.EVAZON CROSS-X. gross violations of human rights and dignity are inevitable. Dictators never talk about their aggressions. It would be a Pyrrhic victory to end all Pyrrhic victories. the government of South Africa imposes a ruthless apartheid.

Fear is both the justification that drives the disciplinary apparatus of the nation-state (police. resistance to racism. Fear of non-conformity. the adrenaline curve in the nervous system spikes in the first milliseconds. biopower. . fear of workers. pushing off and running away fast. or the collective adrenaline surges of crowds in protests (e. Do You Fear Fear?: Docile Bodies and Fear of the Other. ideological and religious differences. Prof @ A. June 2000 When bodies feel sudden fear. to name a few. fear of color. the Christian right. containment. torture. sex. The propagation and internalization of fear in the social body attempts to keep people docile.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL Impact—Destroys All Resistance As long as the Affirmative works within a framework that subscribes to the fear of death. The constant fear of death is what justifies some of the worst acts of violence in history. and migra shootings. anti-affirmative action policies. the WTO demonstrations).U. lynching.g. the denial of imperial guilt. fear of race. Bad Subjects Issue 50. the CIA. military. Unlike the spontaneity of an individual lashing out. NSA.S.31 - . INS. xenophobia. Fear drives the repression. patriarchy. the sustained proliferation and normalization of fear in the "nervous system" of the body politic has different effects. are threats to bourgeois. and afraid to challenge the status quo of racist. for example. fear of non-straight sex. & fellow @ UCSB. fear of subaltern rage. numb. Aldama. fear of uprising. abortion clinic bombers. police. colonialism. antigay violence. race. Arturo J. Fear drives the militarization of borders. capitalist. Bush's presidential campaign. fear of crime. fear of disease. patriarchal and neocolonial orders. fear of blood. fear of "illegals".EVAZON CROSS-X. fear of women. co-optation. silent. provoking a fight or flight response with varying intensities in the physiology of the individual. fear of desire. fear of touch. enslavement. schools) and the intended effects on the body politic. sexist and global capitalist orders in the United States and other Euro-western nation-states. California's Proposition 187. and capitalism will all be co-opted and will continue to form the basis for our actions. and annihilation of "unruly" subjects whose class.

In real psychological ways one must "know death" in order to live with free imagination. Professor of Psychiatry and Psychology at the Graduate School University Center. equates (with Böll) the artist's relationship to death with the priest's to his breviary. never ceases to be a many-sided. denied. and as an ever-present limitation that gives shape to existence and grounding to wisdom. † The reversal is perceived as "unnatural"--life becomes deathlike precisely because of the numbed negation of death. a continuous (and therefore "natural") potential of the organism. that of challenge and even muse. However that basic perception is resisted. A third meaning of death. But even in the absence of holocaust. All four meanings. Much of this book will concern this relationship between holocaust and individual-psychological struggles. it continues to underlie whatever additional constructs or gaps we call forth in our symbolizing activity. so does awareness. That symbolization depends upon a heightened awareness of the natural function of death as a counterpoint to life. A second perception of death is mimetic.EVAZON CROSS-X. 1979. discussed later in connection with imagery of extinction that haunts contemporary man. in fact. The relative importance of each of these meanings varies greatly. seemingly contradictory yet ultimately unitary psychological form. 3 The first and most fundamental is the perception of death as the end of life. right? Not really. It is also connected with early exposure to specific forms of the kind of imagery (school children subjected to drills as preparation for nuclear war) that brings about the equation of death and holocaust. or being frozen in some form of death terror as mentioned earlier. holocaust. Death is rendered formative by its very naturalness. and others as well. “Broken Connection: On Death and the Continuity of Life” From this unitary perspective there are a number of ways of symbolizing death. both necessary and highly dangerous. absurdity. as a form of organic and psychological destiny." or loss of vitality.32 - .constant representations of death becomes piecemeal building blocks in a larger construction of internal and external psychic numbing to death Robert Jay Lifton. as premature.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL Impact—Numbing As the desire to represent death increases. that of life imitating death: the idea of "death in life. for the human imagination. people can equate the end of the self with the end of everything." But this seemingly unnatural reversal is. But death. . One's individual death cannot be separated from the sense that (as Hiroshima survivors put it) "the whole world is dying. It is partly a product of our holocaust-dominated age. A fourth meaning is that of death as inseparable from disaster. part of the "natural history" of each of us. and only the dead possess "vitality. Where this latter tendency is present. irrespective of age and circumstances. unacceptable. are probably present in much of our death imagery." This perception is truly unnatural. especially around the issue of death as natural or unnatural. absurd. distanced by means of psychic numbing. one's own death is anticipated. of course.

in this cultural context of denial. 1975. In the modern context. and wealth endows immortality as it is passed on to one's heirs. or he spends his time shopping (or admiring and entertaining himself). New York. for Becker. in capitalism it is through the thrill of acquisition and the pursuit of wealth that human frailty is overcome. pp. is also related to the denial of death. and extraordinary technological achievement. traditional cultures creatively designed rituals to "deny" death. In this regard. the facts of death and suffering are inconsequential to their daily. and wealth have become the modern response to vulnerability and insecurity inherent in the human condition. dying. self-admiration and idolization. society continues to help him forget [E. we become hopelessly absorbed with ourselves.baywood. Narcissism. As a culture. Narcissism. As awareness (of our common human condition) calls for types of heroic dedication that his culture no longer provides for him. modern society has exploded onto a dangerous and irrational course.com According to Becker. which is the same thing. power. self-absorption does not allow for the possibility that one will no longer exist. the more oblivious we become. Becker takes this argument to its logical extreme. and these rituals enriched the life of the community. the white noise offered up by the affirmative’s adv’s serve to overcome the emptiness associated with mortality. Power accrues as wealth and possessions amass. greed. In this era of individualism. In this way. When one matters more than anything or anyone else. The Free Press. That is to say. the more unable we are to face up to the facts of death in our daily activities. Materialism is a prominent value in American life. and heroic use of science and technology have become prominent forces that shape daily life. David Wendell Moller. suffering. and the associated development of destructive capabilities. In the absence of meaning systems and rituals. . the social organization of modern life precipitates widespread oblivion and denial: Modern man is drinking and drugging himself out of awareness. In an age of individualism. another prominent fact of American cultural life. Up to a point. Although we know that death is an unavoidable reality. and death are pushed to the periphery of cultural experience. Professor of sociology at School of Liberal Arts. Thus. the death of oneself becomes increasingly inconceivable. 2000 “Fear and Denial of Death”.EVAZON CROSS-X.33 - . power. While the suffering and dying sit on the periphery of cultural integrity. Death is accordingly hidden and denied. Becker makes the argument that the evolution of capitalism as an economic and social system is a modern form of death denial. Individuals are seduced into believing the illusion that. ww. and generate an illusion of omnipotence and immorality. new patterns of death denial have emerged and have become dangerous and dehumanizing. narcissism facilitates the self-delusion that practically everyone else is expendable. Becker/ Escape From Evil. Thus. shallowness and emptiness have created a crisis of legitimacy. material gratification. the argument of Becker is remarkably similar to Moore and others who have made the case that one of the great afflictions of modern life is spiritual emptiness and soullessness. personal lives. except ourselves. 81-82]. self-seeking materialism.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL Impact—Consumerism The quest for immortality and the conquest of death is inescapable from the drive towards material acquisition. the stupidity and inhumanity of humanity lies in the nature of our social arrangements. and asserts that the dread of death and emptiness of life in the twentieth century have been responsible for cultivating unprecedented evil through the pursuit of greed. In this environment of self-glorification. the more we become oblivious to our inevitable fate. the deeper we plunge into narcissistic. They provide for a base of honor in our materialistic society.

we bifurcate our identities and begin a process of mourning over our own eventual deaths. (166) Violent. according to Baudrillard. death becomes interesting once again since willed death has a meaning" (165). "This entails a considerable difference in enjoyment: we trade with our dead in a kind of melancholy. When we posit death as the negation of life. White Noise.34 - . We become fascinated with death and because our society cannot integrate the rupture and violence of death by accepting the link between life and death. and that's the secret of hostage-taking. It therefore inspires insurrection. Butterfield Department of English – University of Wisconsin 2002. until they haunt our every moment. Political economy's inability to absorb the rupturing energy of death is thus compensated by the symbolic yield of the media catastrophe. the greater they become. it is not so much the dead but our own deaths. Because we devalue death and thereby the dead. in which death gains symbolic distinction and becomes more than simply "natural. bored as we are by the routine order of the system and the "natural" death it prescribes for us. Giving and receiving constitute one symbolic act (the symbolic act par excellence). Postmodern Culture 13. however. while the primitives live with their dead under the auspices of the ritual and the feast" (134-35). Ultimately. until "reason itself is pursued by the hope of a universal revolt against its own norms and privileges" (162). instead of dying stupidly working oneself to the ground. as in Don DeLillo's darkest comedy. that is. and yet. in our identification with both the killers and those who died. a process which lasts our whole lives. our negative doubles. we must endlessly simulate death. "Technical. of receiving death and of giving death. Baudrillard would suggest.1 When it comes to actually dealing with death and the dead. to an obsession with death that can be felt in the media fascination with catastrophes like 9/11. we view them only as a dreaded caste of unfortunates. which rids death of all the indifferent negativity it holds for us in the "natural" order of capital. that we insult by denying their value. Baudrillard would suggest. and we are all dreaming. but in events like 9/11. Natural death represents an unnegotiable negation of life and the tedious certainty of an unwanted end. even in public. Death "becomes the object of a perverse desire. This leads us.or herself). we nevertheless identify despite ourselves with both with the terrorists and their victims: We are all hostages. we ourselves are not so innocent. non natural and therefore willed (ultimately by the victim him. and not as continuing partners in exchange. In these events we experience an artificial death which fascinates us. The more we devalue our death-imagoes.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL Impact—Extermination The devaluation and rejection of the dead and death are merely the flipside of the fear of our OWN deaths – in devaluing the dead. . Desire invests the very separation of life and death" (147). artificial death is a symbolic event witnessed collectively. This is the role played by images of death – they feed our covert need to give and receive death. we are devaluing ourselves. we do so in private. Was 9/11 willed by the victims? Obviously not." We may not think we identify with the terrorists' superstitions about honor in the next life. As Baudrillard points out. The terrorist spectacle is an example of such a revolt.EVAZON CROSS-X.

35 - .COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL _____________ **Impact Blocks .EVAZON CROSS-X.

Brewster Smith. Nuclear weapons are the ultimate form of this as they are the only weapons capable of bringing the fear of collective annihilation to the everyone. 1989. Primitive psychotic defenses (i. But crucial. rather then the bureaucratic apparatus responsible for its production Marilyn S. In an effort to hide the threatening reality posed by nuclear weapons. Schwebel. and their threat of extinction of the human species. is the anxiety deriving from the sense that all forms of human associations are perhaps pointless because subject to sudden irrational ends. be it holy or nuclear wars.it instills notions of powerlessness and outrage at the Bomb itself. it is not entirely clear exactly what the nuclear threat actually means to children and adolescents. Professor of Psychiatry and Psychology at the Graduate School University Center. 1982. .. “American Psychology in the Quest for Nuclear Peace”. Escalona. concern has been directed toward the relationship between the imminence of nuclear death and a "live for now" attitude among children and adolescents. The roots of this meaninglessness are many. and Santos evidence—they have conceded a few arguments which circumvents most of their offenseA) The attempt to breed apathy and concern through death imagery is a blunder in and of itself. a central theme in modern art. massive projections. Second. Third. The logic of this globalized system of statesanctioned cruelty negates the value to life and justifies universal destruction and the worst acts of violence in history. theater. pose (see Wangh. War with such weapons is no longer heroic. 1974. Meaninglessness has become almost a stereotyped characterization of twentieth-century life. Jacobs and M.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: Nuclear/War/Death Imagery Good 1/2 First. there have not been enough reliable data to make definitive conclusions ( Mack and Snow. questia Segal ( 1986) regards the nuclear threat as an impetus for the distortion of language.EVAZON CROSS-X. The psychological implications of this formlessness are not fully clear. death from such weapons is without valor.36 - . They conceded this forms the basis for collective suicide with the only answer to problems is the massive destruction of the other. Prof of Politics and Sociology. These demands are not only funneled into the same system of violence the 1ac’s harms are rooted in but generate new imperial controls as this fear of death grants legitimacy to all state solutions. producing terror of a different kind than the normal fear of death. An analogue to this is the regressive dedifferentiation of structures within the human psyche which the threat of nuclear weapons. doubt about the future. However. Beardslee and Mack. extend our Friedland. 1986). leading to profound anxiety and other disturbances in psychological function. 1982.g. Boone. 1985). anger. Cultural life thus becomes still more formless.. In an attempt to rebel against death. we believe. everywhere. 1982. humans turn to immortality and promises of salvation through demands on the state. powerlessness. “Living and Dying”. Investigators have concluded that the threat of nuclear war has created in the minds of young people a sense of fear. and a sense of technology rushing out of control ( Mack and Snow. the most primitive layers of unconscious fantasy are mobilized. denial. the problem with nuclear imagery is not so much death but the meaningless rendered by a weapon without personality and a death without valor Robert Jay Lifton. Beres. and outrage. 1986). 1986). One of the areas most intensively investigated in the last several years concerns the impact of living with nuclear weapons on the minds of young people (e. the threat of extinction does not exist as such but rather is a distortion of the methods one represents with. No one form. fragmentation of ego functions) serve to render oblique the actual meanings of communication. no single meaning or style. and politics. Also.e. while there seem to be more life choices available. B) Representations of destruction and death must exist to pacify the masses. questia The ultimate threat posed by nuclear weapons is not only death but meaninglessness: an unknown death by an unimaginable weapon. appears to have any ultimate claim. fewer are inwardly compelling. and Eric Olsen. It is a terror of annihilation without symbolic survival.

. extend our Foucault evidence from the C subpoint. cases. Through extending the fear of death to grander and larger schemes ie. B) This proves our argument that they are the constant mobilization for war..37 - . the affirmative seeks to replicate the logic of the Herd mentality in which crises are viewed solely in terms of populations rather then individuality. Foucault and Santos say this thinking produces a kill to save mentality which destroys all humanity in the illusion of saving it.EVAZON CROSS-X. crushing the possibility for death to be viewed in its mortality.2 arguments A) The problem with war and death is not so much the actions themselves but the ideologies behind them. The idea that we should threaten death is the underside of the attempt to ensure continued survival.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: Nuclear/War/Death Imagery Good 2/2 Finally. New advantages. etc.

an enlightened creed whose prescriptions for disciplined will are essential for international stability. I have always enjoyed flying and was fine on another flight two weeks later. Fearing death destroys all meaning to life. The fear of death makes us docile bodies. A momentary lapse in my conviction of the wish not to die would prove fatal. Professor of International Law at Purdue. not only cripples life. Rather than recognize the beauty of life. I remember a deep sense of having been found out. I knew the 'right' answer to the only question on the test. Louis Rene Beres. Nora Connor.EVAZON CROSS-X. it also creates entire fields of premature corpses. The Abyss and You: A Brief Anatomy of Fear. Self-Determination.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: FoD Makes Life Meaningful 1. deepening ideology and suppressing criticism. significantly. a field of premature corpses. to fewer untimely deaths? One answer lies in the ethics of Epicurus. The boarding and takeoff found me only slightly out of sorts. Somehow I was responsible for the fate of the vehicle and I felt it as a test. an irritating whining noise near the gate was troubling me. Spring 1994 Fear of death. There was surely a conversation taking place within my head. I have never felt more intensely. my eyes alternately bulged and screwed themselves shut and I was compelled to remain utterly still except for the sweat and tears flying off me. viscerally afraid.38 - . Our argument is not that life has no meaning but that the motivation for surviving should not be to prevent our extinction. This fear of death serves as the ultimate conservative one. caught in some sense. 3. Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law. a way that would point to a new and dignified polity of private selves and. as well as on subsequent flights. . indicated how hard I was trying not to want to die. I was successful because nothing happened to the airplane. The grip of my fingernails. 2. forcing us to constantly look over our shoulder fearing anything that could be a potential threat. we were all going down the second I decided I didn't mind living or dying. The justifications you use for the action you think you are partaking in are like we shouldn’t jump off the bridge because I wanted to get a new cell phone. International Law and Survival on Planet Earth. But how can we be reminded of our mortality in a productive way. but was it my answer? Apparently by whatever standard not wanting to die can be measured. several of which were torn by the end of the trip. to summarize. Bad Subjects Issue #50. June 2000 About three years ago I spent the entirety of a three-hour flight convinced it was up to me to prevent the plane from plummeting down out of the sky and sending all its passengers to a noisy and fiery death. and challenged to really choose to make my innermost will a reality. An absolutely devouring sense of certainty and hysteria surged within and around me. I can't now say for sure if it was a conversation between myself and some other. I descended. As the plane climbed. our ideological motivation for survival is built around the walls of consumerism. I think I might once have managed to convince the flight attendant that I did not require attention. or between myself and myself.

By treating the Soviet Union as a pernicious society. Although superpower competition had always been explained in learned journals and popular magazines as a purely secular expression of the struggle for power. It follows that ideology in most states has become theology.even in the most democratic of societies-represents not dissent but "blasphemy. and that opposition to particular policies-. inasmuch as the US has had no difficulty including in the "free world" several dozen other states whose respect for human dignity was always substantially worse than that of the former USSR. Our leaders could sustain an anti-Soviet theology only because it satisfied the particular cravings of people. 1999 Consider the desolate metaphysics of our time. mysticism and desperation. Professor of International Law at Purdue. Americans affirmed that they belonged to an elite. no standards of excellence that had to be met. its real origins must be found in an entirely different region--a region defined by myth. There were no special requirements for membership in this elite." Why. No. did America hate the Soviet Union? Because that country was a despotism? This is hardly likely.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: Cold War Proves FoD Good Not true Louis Rene Beres." we have nonetheless finalized the transfer of sanctity to governments. then. one that was based on goodness.39 - .EVAZON CROSS-X. only citizenship in the United States. September 1st. The problem is always one of individuals. The answer lies elsewhere. International Journal on World Peace. Living in what Camus called an "unsacrosanct moment in history. . Volume 16. it can be discovered in a population that saw such hatred as the sacred obligation of a properly God-fearing population to oppose the forces of darkness. 3. More precisely.

Violence can never constitute an effective act of resistance to violence. Susanne Kappeler. Associate Prof @ Al-Akhawayn University.we have 3 different disads to this argument.40 - . Instead. . however well-meaning. though we glibly speak of ‘survival’. most of us most of the time are not in such situations.EVAZON CROSS-X. reaffirm the principle of violence and make us directly complicit with the violence we seek to prevent. acts of violence. but it necessarily affirms the principle of violence. we would have ample opportunity in situations of no such threat to challenge the legitimacy of violence and to practise alternatives — above all by deciding not to use violence ourselves. 258 Resistance to violence however cannot consist of violence. 1995. The Will to Violence: The Politics of Personal Behavior. While in extremity and under the threat of our lives we may not have any means other than violence to secure our survival. Their assertion that violence is critical to prevent further violence is EXACTLY the type of logic that justifies wholesale slaughter of entire populations. Rather. This is answered on the overview.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: Violence Good This links to our criticism. whatever else it may achieve. And it adds new victims to the world — victims of our own making. invert the roles of violator and victim. not to mention more violent perpetrators. Violence may change the direction of violence. whose ranks we have decided to join. pg.

Our alternative is in no way the French philosophical nihilism that she criticizes. I dare you to find me ONE warrant in that article for any of the ridiculous claims she makes. as long as the justification didn’t utilize the survivalist framework we critique.this evidence isn’t offense against our criticism.41 - . Also KETTELS IS DUMB and possibly a nazi.EVAZON CROSS-X. The kritik does not preclude plan action.we’re criticizing certain justifications for action presented in the 1AC – do NOT let the affirmative paint our kritik as a generic statism or capitalism argument. . Not responsive.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: Ketels 1. the plan could still be advocated or passed. Under the framework of the alternative. 2. We don’t preclude action.

Where it explodes. and the next after that. The temporal bomb. The moment we begin to believe that the only way to prevent nuclear war is to constantly fear it. Nuclear annihilation has already occurred— the bomb is merely a metaphor now. Vote negative to stop fearing and start living. 34-5 Look at the two great events: [the advent of] nuclear power and revolution. Our link evidence is on point saying that thought process is what justifies nuclear policy and redemptive violence in order to prevent the threat of nuclear war. Jean Baudrillard. do not panic. The aff criminalizes the symptoms while they spread the disease. What more do you want? Everything has already been wiped off the map. the bomb that immobilizes things in eerie retrogression. This argument is cyclical. vaporized. Even if we prevent a nuclear war now. (IF THEY READ FUTTERMAN) Their Futterman evidence says “only catastrophe forces people to take the wider view. they are there. the bomb is only a metaphor now. “The Anorexic Ruins. 2. Nevertheless. 3. but what should one do? No future. It is utterly pointless to hope for the one or fear the other since both have already occurred. everything is suddenly blown into the past. Our alternative is the only option for any long term solvency and to give life meaning. and the greater the bomb’s capacity. enlightenment and intelligence reign. Everything has already become nuclear. the argument Futterman is making is that nothing is worth starting a nuclear war over because the horror outweighs.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: Fear Key to Prevent Nuke War (Futterman) 1. We are already experiencing or soon will experience the perfection of the societal. This evidence is also mistagged. undermined. the further into the past they go. That is the real bomb. It is useless to dream: the clash has gently taken place everywhere. is the bomb that is not content to strew things in space but would strew them in time. born or stillborn.EVAZON CROSS-X. The heavens have come down to earth. changed. The explosion has already occurred. nuclear war becomes inevitable. Everything has already been liberated. done.” We’ll win that constant fear of annihilation makes life not worth living. everything living is projected into the past as though things had been over-hastily plunged into a dimension in which the only meaning they acquire is that wrested from time by a final revolution. Look around: this explosion has already occurred.the fear of nuclear war is what CAUSES nuclear war. 1989. We sense the fatal taste of material paradise. the one no one speaks about. some weird French guy. The last bomb. that constant fear will only replicate when the next threat arises.42 - . Imagination reigns.” Looking Back on the End of the World. faraway. It drives one to despair. In an amnesic world like ours. what more do you want? It is useless to hope: things are there. . Everything is there.

2.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: Stopping Nuclear War Key 2 Solve FOD 1. They can’t solve this argument. We’ve done MULTIPLE things in the past to prevent nuclear war and we’ve still been on the “brink” for the last 50 years. post cold war there should never have been a threat of nuclear war. The affirmative can never completely eliminate the possibility of war. Fear of death cant stop fear of death. Don’t let them spin this as stopping nuclear war solves the entirety of our fear of death. This argument assumes fear of death in terms of the fear of death from nuclear war. 3. not our fear of death rooted in our subconscious. Functionally this argument is that we should stop nuclear war so we aren’t afraid of dying from nuclear war.43 - . There’s only a chance our alternative can solve. If this argument was true. History disproves this argument. which makes no sense.EVAZON CROSS-X. .

Our alternative wouldn’t reject any sort of AIDS research or treatment. They can’t win our ethic of hope and joy would prevent people from treating aids. however. .44 - . Our alternative.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: FoD Key 2 Treat AIDS This argument is a joke.EVAZON CROSS-X. Our argument is that AIDS victims should get treatment. WOULD reject the idea that AIDS should be treated to prevent terrorism and for national security purposes. but still not live their lives in constant fear of death.

3.45 - .COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: FoD Fuel Peace Movements 1. We internal link turn this argument. The Nuclear Freeze proves your movements will fail. they would be trumped by the destruction that follows. . It’s on the overview. This is empirically denied and non unique. If your argument is true. 2.even if social peace movements would occur.the fear of death is prevalent in the status quo. That act has been use to justify the worst acts of violence in history and destruction of the Other in order to prevent the threat of war. It also takes out the solvency to this argument.EVAZON CROSS-X. your representations prove these peace movements aren’t working. Our Beres and Santos evidence indicate that the fear of death drives individuals to absolute obedience to the state in demand for immortality. then social peace movements would have and should be propping up countlessly.

Norris's warnings as to the dangers of dissociating theory from praxis are. Nevertheless. it may be possible to read The Gulf War Did Not Take Place as if it were a science fiction novel (qtd. Adopting a poststructuralist approach to such political encounters may well bring with it the danger that no new pragmatic basis for justice and truth will emerge. Moreover.better strategically to play with apt critiques of the powerful new forces unleashed by cyberwar than to hold positions with antiquated tactics and nostalgic unities. Attacking the "frivolous" exercise of making the Gulf War into a pretext for arcane disputes about the "politics of theory. he acknowledged the dangers of such an approach in a postscriptum: To demonstrate the impossibility of war just at the moment when it must take place. At times his writing exhibits a very black reductio ad absurdum humour: So you say this was a clean. James Der Derian. Rather.18 In an extended sexual metaphor. as he did just a few weeks before the UN deadline expired. of course. In stating. but do not be duped. The logic of deterrence (the sustained denial of the possibility of war) has come to supplant the actuality of war. It is this argument that provoked a book-length response from Christopher Norris. minimalist war with little "collateral damage"? Why stop there-war? what war? (Patton 7). But it would have been even more stupid not to seize the opportunity. and precluding any form of ethico-political accountability that depends upon a notion of the "real" (194). we do not have the means. (Baudrillard.19 Baudrillard also appears to be aware of these criticisms. and to that end re-immerse the war and all information in the virtuality from whence they come. He has subsequently suggested that in time and with a little imagination.EVAZON CROSS-X. however.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: Denies Reality Our argument doesn’t deny the possibility of dealing with reality – it merely refuses to contest the war on its own terms and instead engages the question of how images of violence are politically constituted CHESTERMAN Oxford 1998 Postmodern Culture But Baudrillard goes much further than this. argues that such an approach may be more effective than that presented by the modernist school of criticism. important." Baudrillard plays upon his own belief that writing should be less a representation of reality than its transfiguration (Patton 6).46 - . there is a need to interrogate the very notion of truth qua simulacrum itself. it is necessary to resist the probability of the image (26-7. in Gane 203). The Gulf War 28) In pursuing such a "fatal strategy. The prevailing tone is ironic. do not seek to re-establish the truth. violence can only take place as a sterilised simulation of itself. (178) . the tone of Baudrillard's essays is far from equivocal.. . Be more virtual than events themselves. Be meteorologically sensitive to stupidity. Baudrillard's position is more properly seen as denoting a profound and abiding suspicion of a "reality" whose primary referent is the simulations of American war games. Turn deterrence back against itself. For the challenge that Baudrillard presents is not the rejection of political purchase. 66). Der Derian states that theorists who attempted to construct a critical and universal counter-memory were easily isolated as anti-American and dismissed as utopian (177). that the proposed war would not take place. by contrast. its credibility or degree of reality" (The Gulf War 67). but a rigorous resistance to the acceptance of the virtual as or in place of the real: Resist the probability of any image or information whatever. when the signs of its occurrence are accumulating. But his reading of Baudrillard's scepticism as demonstrative of moral and political nihilism (194) assumes an opponent of straw. Assuming a position for or against the war denies inquiry into "the very probability of the war. veridical knowledge and its semblance" (12).16 He argues that Baudrillard's essays constitute a definitive exposure of the political bankruptcy of postmodern scholarship and "the depth of ideological complicity that exists between such forms of extreme anti-realist or irrationalist doctrine and the crisis of moral and political nerve" that presently afflicts Western intellectuals (27). he argues. (Baudrillard. is a stupid gamble. Nevertheless.. He argues that more than simply questioning the nature of this war and the media's complicity in its exposition." he links such theoretical exercises to a prevailing mood of "cynical acquiescence" that fails to contest the official version of events (29). The Gulf War 66-67) Norris reads this reference to "stupidity" as denying any "operative difference between truth and falsehood. the military--which thrives on particular forms of male sexuality--is emasculated by its dependence on virtual pornography.

the bloody acts of actual violence his theory accounts for. and in his post-9/11 "L'Esprit du Terrorisme. But while Baudrillard's tone at the end of "L'Esprit du Terrorisme" can certainly be called apathetic--"there is no solution to this extreme situation--certainly not war"--he does not suggest that there are no forces in the universe capable of mounting at least a challenge to the system and its sponsors (18). Baudrillard wrote that systemic nihilism and the mass media are to blame for the postmodern human condition. involving the real deaths of real people. terrorists and hostages was a major theme in Baudrillard's work on the symbolic and symbolic exchange. The terrorist acts of 9/11. or in real terms. the terms Baudrillard would obviously prefer. our collective fascination with things like car crashes. were destined to be absorbed by the system's own narrative. Jean Baudrillard has been the prophet of the postmodern media spectacle.. As in Symbolic Exchange and Death (1976) and Simulacra and Simulations (1981). including what denies it." he is characteristically ambivalent in relation to "real" terrorism. Baudrillard again suggests that terrorism is one such force. into indifference. and that it functions according to the rule of symbolic exchange." "melancholy. and the other moment is one of profound pessimism: "The system. to follow the scenario scripted in the theory" (178). as his theory predicted. a revolution of symbolic exchange against the system." but not. he ascribes apathy and inertia to the universe. which attacked Baudrillard's theory as "an imaginary construct which tries to seduce the world to become as theory wants it to be. a praxis that includes theoretical and aesthetic "terrorism." he has taken it upon himself to decipher terrorism's symbolic message. that is. Terrorism can be carried out in theoretical/aesthetic terms. He does so in the wake of such scathing critiques as Douglas Kellner's Jean Baudrillard: From Marxism to Postmodernism and Beyond (1989).has the power to pour everything. . a misfortune Baudrillard warns against. Imploding into entropy. In the 1970s and 80s. Baudrillard's theory of postmodernity is a political as well as an intellectual failure: Losing critical energy and growing apathetic himself. One moment of his thought is the utopian dream of radicality and reversal." In Simulacra and Simulations (1981). the hyperreal event. Baudrillard attributes implosion and entropy to the experience of (post) modernity. Baudrillard's scripts and scenarios have always been concerned with the implosion of the global capitalist system.." and "indifference. Postmodern Culture 13." Against the system and its passive nihilism.1 From Princess Diana to 9/11. Baudrillard proffers his own brand of what might be termed active nihilism.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: You Defend Extinction Our argument isn’t a defense of terrorism or a defense of the SQ – it comes to understand the symbolic order that gives the spectacle of suffering its power – this theoretical critque enables an effective praxis Butterfield Department of English – University of Wisconsin 2002. which he describes as a combination of "fascination. since the real is always in question. (180) To be sure.EVAZON CROSS-X. neutralized by the very mass media they sought to exploit. and perhaps also because ambivalence is Baudrillard's own brand of theoretical terrorism (Simulacra 163).47 - . in the end. Did Baudrillard seduce 9/11 into being--is he terrorism's theoretical guru?--or did he merely anticipate and describe in advance the event's profound seductiveness? To Kellner and other critics.2 Though he states clearly "I am a terrorist and nihilist in theory as the others are with their weapons. dead celebrities.

finally covering the globe (164). In Lipstick Traces Marcus explains that as a memoir.ws/021/Activist. creating a block that puts the emphasis on this second fragment. an opportunity to reach a larger audience at a volatile point. Rather. In essence.EVAZON CROSS-X. And yet. or the détourned pages of the S. Whatever the subject or object of this memory or desire.htm However. I want to begin by invoking Debord's concept of the spectacle. it is also a unique example of enigmatic political commitment within the horizon of postmodernism. but the way in which this organizational principal is undercut. and the Situationist International http://www. I would like to look closely at both its first and final pages.a new. Activist Desire. merely intensified its efforts to present an alternative that. Consider that the Situationists were not simply in favor of a revolution that would shift power into the hands of the disenfranchised. film. to conduct terrorist raids on the particulars of those discourses and liberate the particulars of those works holds the potential of creating revolutionary sense and desire. they nonetheless animate the book. One of Jorn's lines carries the eyes from this fragment to another. as Adorno would approve. a convention the book doesn't impose) is a fragment of two sentences: "A memory of you? Yes. for the revolution to have succeeded in the S. Debord was negatively gesturing at the spectacle in the concept of détournement. It would be something like the maps of psychogeography. intelligible history. which reads "it is a subject profoundly soaked in alcohol. Ostensibly a history.. Certainly the S. by the fragments that are brought together presumably to tell that very story. for Memoires is a profoundly political work.reconstruction. As Debord puts this. the S.I. never content to carry on a single.I. which only select members of the S. had a slightly better chance to to find an audience that could hear what they had been advocating all along.htm <20> At best. in the middle of the page. The critique that animates this concept is one of cooption. Activist Desire. the ruling order discourses endlessly upon itself in an uninterrupted monologue of self-praise" (19).48 - . To follow its story one needed information Debord withheld -.I. It would be a constructed situation. given the social upheaval. in Adorno's sense. and the Situationist International http://www. Debord's book was also a prophesy. It would be something that no one had ever seen before. Without the realization of that world. The use of détournement shifts the emphasis to the nonidentic possibilities of the given collage elements." Though the reader knows. <28> The first line of Memoires (reading right to left.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: How Does the Alt Change the World? We don’t know what a world without spectacle would look like – but that’s the point BANASH University of Iowa 2002. Just as in the pre-1968 days. <25> To understand Memoires. the S. forced to absorb the instrumental meanings of this totalizing system. Criticizing the production of the spectacle is good – necessary prerequisite to reconstructing society BANASH University of Iowa 2002. it is to be taken in terms intoxication. shared by millions.I. Continues… . there is no indication of its original source. was advocating a revolution that operated totally outside the alienated forms of the spectacle. meanings that allowed one to both construct a critique and imagine a reinvented world.I. members of the S. though not in any readily instrumentalizable register.I. a literal. "situationist" civilization. but transform the processes of power itself. had no clear conception of how to effect such a change. Debord isn't so much taking on the prevalence of the image itself as he is the particular form of mediation images constitute.'s endorsement of the worker's occupation of the factories would seem to align their theory with a practical politics. Memoires remains for us something that "would be experienced not as things at all. As a history it must. from the title page.I. and to argue for its absolute relevance to our own moment. For Debord. individuals would have had to actualize a complete transformation.ws/021/Activist. that this sentence has been ripped out of its original context. both literally and metaphorically. and they could give no more than hints of what such a change might look like. top to bottom. since the collaged particulars are always outstripping their function. the events of 1968 provided the S. this fragment invokes the concepts of memory and desire without specific objects. being subsumed under those spectacular discourses. "by means of the spectacle. etc. Each individual subject is silenced. As anyone who has read The Society of the Spectacle will remember. rather it is a social relationship between people that is mediated by images" (12). But one also needed the ability to imagine a reinvented world. journal. Instead.. or its status as a founding text. I want.I. To produce new works of art within the traditional categories means playing by the rules. Cultural Criticism.'s terms. Debord states that "the spectacle is NOT a collection of images. intelligible meaning.I. advertisements. which is composed of fragments of the spectacle itself. had experienced in any form that could be articulated. it becomes a work that questions the immediate possibility of that project by presenting that history from the perspective of an unrealized Situationist future. <27> To take Debord's project in terms of Adorno. even thwarted. but they both highlight the tense relationships of form that animate the entire work. what is most interesting in the text is not its ostensible content. However. but they didn't fundamentally alter its role. On the other hand. Memoires is the creation of an autonomous artwork. As early as the Letterist International.reconstruction. fail. Though I don't have the space to execute a cover to cover reading of Memoires. Thus it is not identical with any subject. Cultural Criticism. <20> That the Situationists failed in 1968 is not surprising. The images (TV. they hoped for a revolution that would not only actualize a shift in power. The S.) are one-way identic communications that provide no possibility for a dialectical engagement or response." Jorn's line spreads out into a blob just above this fragment. The images that perfected separation and political impotence could now assume nonidentic meanings. As if this were not enough. but as possibilities" (166). was still calling for the development of alternative forms of subjectivity and social organization that would transform the very roots of how individuals constituted themselves as subjects within and against the spectacular society that had produced them." which never appeared. <26> If Debord had not so clearly formulated these concepts during the creation of Memoires. These pages are far more spar than many of the collages in the book. the spectacle is akin to Adorno's concept of the culture industry or Jameson's culturalized horizon.even the words "L'Internationale Lettriste.

and the fragments themselves always destabilize or overreach their identic roles in such a narration. of figures. How. Though the fragments may constitute recognizable figures at points. Resonating with this very play. the work of art becomes an appeal to subjects. this is not politics in the activist sense we have come to value through our fear of anything that might be labeled. However. <30> The emphasis on the right side of the page rests in the middle." Mirroring these three middle fragments. in red. If Memoires is more than a history. the endless discourse of the spectacle. <31> I would not say that this is the only possible. Underneath this fragment. It suggests that each fragment could be read in terms of its original context or colloquial meaning. would one translate this sense into an activist practice? Neither Memoires nor later Situationist writings or practices answer this question." associates the asubjective. the decisions themselves become interchangeable .the play of the fragments and lines invites multiple readings. However. that history slips in and out. I will. that. the fragment below. which permanently puts a pistol to men's heads. marks an alterian desire. Yet. of shadows. a marker of the traditional desire for wholeness and understanding that the book undercuts. The relative neglect of Memoires underscores the difficulty cultural critics have when the concepts of a work cannot be readily aligned with a political project. if only for a moment. However." This fragment. perhaps the desires of the text itself centrifugally creating a kind of critical mass. represent these events and explain the considerations. the color associated with the most intense collages of the text. this is a project that exists only as theory. they will do so only transiently. all the same. but it does so by creating the sense of a future that has not been realized. they all but suppress the moment of Memoires where theory is the only expression possible. but that these will shift into shadow or light. all that is certainly invoked in this statement. at the least." it is not the office of art to spotlight alternatives. . or even the speaker of the final line of the page. because it is itself nothing other than a deceleration by a subject of his own choice or failure to choose (304). In this it does rupture the discourse of the spectacle. but something that leads to the discord and dread of nonidentic becomings. As Adorno explains in his essay "Commitment. but to resist by its form alone the course of the world. In short. constitute different figures depending on how they are read. "full of discord and dread. quietist. reinscribing it within the spectacle. as soon as committed works of art do instigate decisions at their own level. calling into question the very possibility of it speaking to anyone intelligibly. a point where the reader could make sense in the mode this fragment suggests. Here. The beautiful language of traditional art. it is an ironic gesture at the failed totality of the work. but an intelligible choice already available to the extent that it is articulate? Memoires lives on because it is inarticulate." The "you" of this first fragment is wonderfully ambiguous. by the resonances the book creates as it is read. forces one to think from the perspective of a Situationist world that does not exist. or. and trailing off at the page's final deceleration: "Listen well. What is a practical political program. its form gestures at an alternative engagement with the materials of the spectacle. and this is precisely its success. it now enters into the play of light and shadow. If critics invoke the Debord of 1968 as an example of heroic activism. but the emphasis is not on these fragments. the left side of the page contains two other fragments: "people observe the thresholds of silence" and "this curious system of narrative. Again.EVAZON CROSS-X. to make it beautiful in Debord's sense requires that this statement shudder at the spectacle. "of lights. at the level of the aesthetic. <32> In Adorno's sense. however speciously. However. At best. even an oppositional program. it is this failure that constitutes Memoires as a political moment. . two fragments exist close to one another: "it is for you" over "full of discord and dread. but it has become a figure that slips in and out in the play of light and shadow. another line of Jorn's descends from this fragment. Like Adorno's committed work of art. But. there is the chance to imagine a world otherwise. this fact should not tempt us to label this a quietist work. more than that. as Jorn's lines begin at them as almost nothing and move toward the right half of the page. the mysterious Barbra of the fragment further up the page. In its original context no doubt it referred to a specific individual. In fact. To push Adorno's metaphor. the speaker or addressee of the first fragment." underscores the indeterminacy of the elements of the text. Looked at closely. and these pages are transformed by the pages that follow. its power and potential indexed by the silence of the critics. suggesting the reader of Memoires. as Marcus points out." which also gesture at the construction of the work itself. reading of the page -.I. This curious narrative is not something just different. nonidentic confusion of the speaker and referent of this ambiguous "you. In short Memoires does not present a totalizing climax. Literally. . exactly. Jorn's line takes this desire and holds it in tension with other fragments and their gestures towards the nonidentic. the curving lines invoke motions culminating in an amorphous shape. it is less than a political program. To reduce Memoires to an intelligible history as the founding moment of the S. the space created by a book like Memoires allows us to take the gun from our heads. and that possibility surely plays a role in developing the desire necessary to someday realize such a world. Rather. crossing others. within that moment. It isn't that history is not present. Memoires is political to the extent that it breaks up the monolithic discourse of the spectacle and its powers of identic thought.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: How Does the Alt Change the World? Continued… <29> The second line of Memoires. such a total organizing structure can only fail." This line gestures at the totality of the work as the literal history that Marcus reduces it to. <33> The final page of Memoires is composed of one fragment and a simple series of Jorn's painted lines. Such representations of it are less than attentive to the literal force field of antagonisms it creates. at the crossings of lines that accumulate into another shape. Memoires resists an easy translation into a practical choice. As the fragments enter into becomings with one another. it invokes a play of the identic and nonidentic.49 - . I would resist the temptation to reduce these fragments to an intelligible history. However. but the emphasis is not with this line. it creates a critical difference which questions the one-dimensional sense that coordinates our spectacular lives. or even the best. The fragment reads "I wanted to speak the beautiful language of my century. rife with irony. Rather. separates it from its active powers.

which is a leading edge of global popular culture. and distorted. substance abuse. Images of suffering are appropriated to appeal emotionally and morally both to global audiences and to local populations. domestic abuse. the HIV pandemic. a limiting experience in human conditions." as the French sociologist Luc Boltanski tellingly expresses it. Suffering.(1) It is also a master subject of our mediatized times. and even their capability to witness or offer testimony are now available for gaining market share.EVAZON CROSS-X. experience is being remade. Daedalus. those images have become an important part of the media. The existential appeal of human experiences. they are taken up into processes of global marketing and business competition. "though at a distance. . their potential to mobilize popular sentiment and collective action. and through this cultural representation of suffering. it is a defining quality.(2) This globalization of suffering is one of the more troubling signs of the cultural transformations of the current era: troubling because experience is being used as a commodity.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: You Ignore Suffering Commodifying suffering distorts is social meaning KLEINMAN AND KLEINMAN Professor and Research Associate . and the deep privations of destitution are everywhere. famine. thinned out. Images of victims of natural disasters.50 - . political conflict. Wntr 1996 v125 n1 p1(23) SUFFERING IS ONE OF THE EXISTENTIAL GROUNDS of human experience. is routinely appropriated in American popular culture. chronic illnesses of dozens of kinds. images of victims are commercialized. Indeed. As "infotainment" on the nightly news. Video cameras take us into the intimate details of pain and misfortune.Medical Anthropology and Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School 1996. forced migration. crime.

EVAZON CROSS-X.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL ___________ **Alternative .51 - .

One of the most striking consequences of various forms of transpersonal experiences is spontaneous emergence and development of deep humanitarian and ecological concerns. 17. 2001 “Consciousness evolution and planetary survival: psychological roots of human violence and greed: paper presented at the Thirteenth International Transpersonal Conference entitled Spirituality. Ireland” We seem to be involved in a dramatic race for time that has no precedent in the entire history of humanity. Ecology. Vol. It is obvious that a transformation of this kind would increase our chances for survival if it could occur on a sufficiently large scale. Differences among people now appear to be interesting and enriching rather than threatening. we might reach a level of consciousness evolution that will bring us to the point of deserving the name given to our species--homo sapiens.EVAZON CROSS-X. and Native Wisdom in Killarney. and ensuring survival Stanislav Grof. If we continue the old strategies which in their consequences are clearly extremely destructive and self-destructive.Transpersonal Solvency Our alternative of reconnecting with the individual of politics seeks to transcend psychological predispositions. and Native Wisdom in Killarney. it is unlikely that the human species will survive. if a sufficient number of people undergoes a process of deep inner transformation. It is based on an almost cellular awareness that the boundaries in the universe are arbitrary and that each of us is identical with the entire web of being. International Journal of Humanities and Peace. political conviction. However. International Journal of Humanities and Peace. . What is at stake is nothing less than the future of life on this planet. color. or religious belief. race. It is suddenly clear that we cannot do anything to nature without simultaneously doing it to ourselves. 2001 “Consciousness evolution and planetary survival: psychological roots of human violence and greed: paper presented at the Thirteenth International Transpersonal Conference entitled Spirituality. 17.52 - . Vol. People who connect to the transpersonal domain of their psyche tend to develop a new appreciation for existence and reverence for all life. Ecology. language. whether they are related to sex. What began as psychological probing of the unconscious psyche now automatically becomes a philosophical quest for the meaning of life and a journey of spiritual discovery. Ireland” These changes deepen and extend even farther when the process of experiential self-exploration reaches the transpersonal level. constituting a reconnection with everything. Our form of interpersonal and transpersonal connection is the only method for self actualization of violence and destruction Stanislav Grof.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL Alternative.

The task for psychology was seen as empowering the public and opinion leaders ( M. and commitment over the issue of nuclear war that occurred in the late seventies and early eighties was considered by many psychologists to hold promise for the only realistic role they could play in the prevention of nuclear war. Markey. 1984). 1985. Smith.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL Alternative. Jacobs and M. 1985). the dehumanization of the enemy. the role of national Stereotypes. Schofield and Pavelchak ( 1985) have suggested ways in which psychology can contribute toward the prevention of nuclear war through persuasive communication research. influencing public opinion through persuasive communication.. B. the role of mutual ignorance. 1984). involvement. using public opinion. and the idea of self-fulfilling prophecy. and politicians. “American Psychology in the Quest for Nuclear Peace”.53 - .. The dramatic change in opinion of the American electorate regarding the arms race from a strong anti-Communist sentiment to the belief that it is time to negotiate with the Soviets ( Yankelovich and Doble. i. a more effective political coalition must be built. and realistic alternatives to current policy must be formulated ( McFadden. an educational effort must be devised that is connected to people's lives. this area has gained importance as a means of gauging advocacy based interventions. the psychological aspects of the "window of vulnerability" theory.e. 1984) has been interpreted as being a psychological one (e. These authors also suggest that psychology might find a role in the development of materials concerning nuclear war to be used by educators.Nuclear War Solvency Only by breaking down taboos and representations of death imagery can the chances of nuclear war be lessened. questia Also related to psychology's role in public interest and advocacy is the attitude of citizens toward nuclear war as reflected in public opinion polls. The substantial increase in public concern.g. Thus. Brewster Smith. the public directly. He regards the following areas of psychology as potentially useful in influencing public opinion: the role of perception in international relations. . 1985) asserts that psychology should become involved in organizing public opinion through work with peace organizations. Similarly. Other writers recommend the transformation of the Democratic party to achieve political ends related to peace ( Burns. the question of the USSR must be coped with. Klineberg. Such research also has implications for fundamental decisions related to whether public information campaigns are useful interventions. He favors the international community of psychologists working together. 1984). 1989.EVAZON CROSS-X. Klineberg ( 1984. 1984. the effect on mental health of living with the nuclear threat.our public participation seeks to educate and influence Marilyn S. which might inform advocacy organizations that direct public information campaigns.

" 50 This. Detached from the falsehood that existence can conquer temporality. . but death is deprivation of sensation. . Professor of International Law at Purdue. not because it adds to it an infinite span of time. in the Spanish philosopher Unamuno's words. We must move past fantasies of immortality by accepting the meaningless of our own demise. so it is also memory that opens to us all an ideal immortality. then. he counsels: Become accustomed to the belief that death is nothing to us. the more we live in memory and idea. yet. Professor of International Law at Purdue. Death defines world politics because individuals wish to escape death. meaning and potentiality. For all good and evil consists in sensation.EVAZON CROSS-X. do we end these terrible wars? Most important. an [*19] "immortality in representation. The more we reflect. this very conviction and experience will have raised us. Spring 1994 But we are back at the beginning. each individual may experience an authentic notion of immortality.this itself changes the prospect of war Louis Rene Beres. in a way. is easier said than done because the human instinct that clings to life flees from death as the very prototype of evil. How may we be instructed to accept our own personal mortality? Epicurus had an answer. The ironies are staggering. 54 As it is memory that makes mortality an incontestable truth. perhaps. then. International Law and Survival on Planet Earth. we must first understand them as manifestations of humankind's unwillingness to accept personal death. Self-Determination. Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law.54 - . Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law. "to consider our mortal destiny without flinching. Such solipsistic boasts have been identified by George Santayana as follows: Continues… [*18] How. Self-Determination. but the connections persist and remain unexamined.Mortality Solvency The time has come to embrace our own mortality and break down the drive for immortality. lamentably. one that "quickens his or her numbered moments with a vision of what never dies." Through the acceptance of death. International Law and Survival on Planet Earth. 53 More than two thousand years later. above mortality. . without our knowing it. but because it takes away the craving for immortality. And therefore a right understanding that death is nothing to us makes the mortality of life enjoyable. the more convinced and penetrated we shall be by the experience of death. nature has revealed to us a truth utterly unimaginable to the unreflective creation . Spring 1994 It is time. ." an opportunity to accept the knowledge of natural death as an occasion to "live in the spirit. the truth of those moments and their inalienable values. each moment of life may become vastly more rich in joy. the truth of mortality. Santayana settled upon similar conclusions: In endowing us with memory. and because each singular individual is able to counter the observed fact of mortality with entire categories of exceptions." 55 . In his Letter to Menoeceus. shattering the frame sustaining immortality Louis Rene Beres. says Santayana.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL Alternative. .

the impact of the traumatic event is felt belatedly. But aren't such reversals and recursions either deliberate literary conceits or observations about the pathological temporality perceived by the trauma survivor. their seeming exemption from the distortive. [55-57] . and falls directly into the psyche. Traumatic neuroses. violence. Writing Trauma. insofar as the survivor trapped in acting out past scenes of traumatic violence and ethical impossibility (for example. more precisely. the field of trauma studies has oriented itself around memory work that restores a conventional temporal sequence and hierarchy by seeking to reduce the domination of the present by the past. among other things. would appear to make nonsense. such a hysteron proteron occurs with a marked frequency in fictional treatments of historical trauma.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL Alternative—Move Beyond Nuclear War Only moving beyond the fear of nuclear destruction can create the grounds for ethical action – the unassimilable and repetitive trauma of our own future deaths eliminates the possibility for responsibility SAINT-AMOUR Assistant Professor of English – Pomona College 2000 Diacritics 30. enacts just such a reversal of the conventional temporality in which symptoms point back to their origins in unassimilated past traumas. It seems to have bypassed perception and consciousness. traveling back through time as it were from the future. it is the future anterior. dominating the present rather than receding. in Zizek 55]. but constructed retroactively— the analysis produces the truth. Lacan asserts that the unconscious is made of "imaginary fixations which could not have been assimilated to the symbolic development" of the subject's history. [Writing 91..The orientation of analysis. the "will have been" that proleptically crystallizes a view of the past as seen from the vantage of the future.] the symptom as a "return of the repressed" is precisely such an effect which precedes its cause (its hidden kernel. how the singularity of a traumatic event can manifest itself in a perceived leveling of past and future into identical orientations of the symptom: time. then. too. its meaning). the traumatic past remains transgressively present as revenant. encryptive operations of the dreamwork. There. are inaugurated by experiences of shock or violence so extreme as to be unassimilable in their present tense. or. traumatic dreams and flashbacks that replay the repressed event or image differ from other dreams and fantasies in their literalness. the survivors of death camps who were forced to expose. and working through. interestingly. and when language functions to provide some measure of conscious control. persecute. critical distance. gestures. but not identical with. such that the traumatic event can seem to scatter the shrapnel of its symptoms evenly across the past and the future. qtd. exploit. as a result. repetition. the proper work of mourning should at least partially restore the pastness of the past and enable the survivor of trauma to reinvest in the present. remembering. Symptoms are meaningless traces. repeating in the present scenes or behavior whose origins are in past instances of unassimilated. and the repressed returns from a past to which it can be at least partially reaffixed through memory work. is not fundamentally toward the recuperation of a past traumatic event but rather toward a future in which the islanded traumatic symptom will have been encompassed within a retrospective sense." is one of the high sociopolitical stakes of working through. for the survivor. 3 Such anachronisms and time travels might powerfully suggest. will have been" [Lacan 158. and in working through the symptom we are precisely "bringing about the past"—we are producing the symbolic reality of the past. In Writing History. in other words. haunting.EVAZON CROSS-X. dreams.. Furthermore. 90] If a symptomatic effect can precede its traumatic cause. as it should. and often unassimilable. thanks to the symbolic progress which takes place in the analysis. In part because of its literal and insistent return. and if temporality and causality are reversed. possession.55 - . As a result. reinvesting in the present. or kill fellow prisoners on threat of their own deaths or the deaths of those they cherished) may be less capable of such agency in the present: When the past becomes accessible to recall in memory. excavated from the hidden depth of the past. of the temporal and causal assumptions [End Page 61] basic to current understandings of historical trauma. according to Freud. then what becomes of the goals of restoring the pastness of the past. however. LaCapra later makes explicit that "ethically responsible agency. something which. and reconstituting the trauma survivor as ethically responsible agent? What becomes of the ethical stakes of working through traumatic symptoms [End Page 62] if we imagine that at least some of those symptoms might precede trauma. it is "something which will be realized in the Symbolic. the process and the stakes of working through are not solipsistic but importantly social. especially the socially engaged memory work involved in working through. one has begun the arduous process of working over and through the trauma in a fashion that may never bring full transcendence of acting out (or being haunted by revenants and reliving the past in its shattering intensity) but which may enable processes of judgment and at least limited liability and ethically responsible agency. or even the merely possible future. into the past. of a repressed that returns from the future. as Geoffrey Hartman puts it. through symptoms that often include the return of repressed memories and the compulsive repetition of behavior. If working through has a tense. distancing oneself from haunting revenants. and being able to engage memory in more critically tested senses. long-forgotten traumatic events. rather than evidence that symptoms might "really" precede traumatic causes? Zizek's account of traumatic symptoms in The Sublime Object of Ideology. As Cathy Caruth and others have noted. that is. Dominick LaCapra asserts that "Through memory work. and perspective. is "registered rather than experienced. is spatialized.4 (2000) 59-82 The notion of a proleptic traumatic symptom. These processes are crucial for laying ghosts to rest. after a period of latency. including consideration for others. their meaning is not discovered. the signifying frame which gives the symptoms their symbolic place and meaning [. Zizek's discussion of the time travel of the symptom begins with Lacan's reference to a Norbert Wiener parable in the first Seminar. The traumatic event. here and now" [66]. to the present? To be sure. According to this model. Working largely from the Freudian lexicon of repression." where its "exceptional presence" is bound up with the fact that it has not been fully or conventionally experienced [537]. and fantasies associated with the traumatic event. The survivor who experiences this return often acts out the trauma. one is able to distinguish between past and present and to recognize something as having happened to one (or one's people) back then which is related to. Zizek continues: The Lacanian answer to the question: From where does the repressed return? is therefore. renewing an interest in life. paradoxically: From the future.

EVAZON CROSS-X.56 - .COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL ________________ **Alternative Blocks .

Power is coincident with capital as social selection and probabilistic control (Deleuze 1990). it is deterrence. disorder is the motor of control. the plan could still be advocated or passed. a politics of hope. Looking at the world as door that can close only boxes us in a world of horror and disempowerment. Massumi and Zournazi say that only by separating hope from our fear of death and calculability of life can we empower ourselves. Deterrence is the perpetual co-functioning of the past and future of power: the empty present of watching and weighing with an eye to avert. On that side. 160-pound sled. a life spent. inches from the runway. the evanescence of consumptive production.500-foot altitude. death. 2.57 - . http://www. three blizzards . It turns the everyday self into an active nihilist. . 25-minute flight before landing. The affirmative’s methodology alleviates specific symptoms with a treatment whose side effects make the disease of capitalist bio-power even worse. Santos says the belief that there is no alternative forms the basis for genocidal fascism. On the other side.com Power mechanisms can also be defined. 2002. Deterrence by nature determines nothing (but potential: the potential for the multiform disaster of human existence). They have conceded that our alternative embraces a different type of politics.. between the virtual and the actual--is the same intensive and extensive terrain saturated by the capitalist relation. This frenetic activity destroys the possibility for truly progressive action. The kritik does not preclude plan action – we’re criticizing certain justifications for action presented in the 1AC – do NOT let the affirmative paint our kritik as a generic statism or capitalism argument. There. aged 52. They give a life-form content. Brian Massumi. The in-between of the subject-form and the self. Our Friedland and Beres evidence warrants that the manifestations of the Aff’s repression of death is a culture that desires to create meaningless action to prevent a confrontation with death. Under the framework of the alternative. It is the avoidance of the accident on the basis of its past occurrence. perhaps more fundamentally. It is power turned toward the event: in other words. 5. biopower. Cycles of violence and exploitation are perpetuated in the name of their inevitability – the ultimate conclusion to the affirmative’s logic is the suicidal destruction of the world. 2.EVAZON CROSS-X. in which case they are statistical and probabilistic: analyze and quantify the event as it happened. 4. One side of it faces the subject-form.textz. the virtual. Power under late capitalism is a two-sided coin. Associate Professor of Communications at the Université de Montréal. conditioned to respond to crisis again and again. The past tense in the Timex ad went along with a fixation on numbers: 85-foot fall. They may seize upon the futurity of the future-past. Or they may seize upon its dimension of anteriority. Everywhere You Want to Be: An Introduction to Fear. A power word for prediction is deterrence. A self is selected (produced and consumed). They bring specificity to the general condition of possibility of deterrence by applying it to a particular found body.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: No Alternative/Causes Nihilism 1/2 1. 3. 27 days and 345 miles. by the temporal mode in which they operate. of the generic identity and specific identity--the come and go between deterrence and discipline/biopower/testing. power is determining. discipline. Mechanisms of surveillance and of statistical probabilization buckle into prediction. And destiny in the final analysis is only the necessity of chance: the inevitability of the event. and testing give disaster a face. rather than reject it.. as long as the justification didn’t utilize the survivalist framework we critique. But in this postequilibrium world of deterrence in which the accident is always about to happen and already has. Uncertainty about the future allows us to embrace maneuverability of our future and bring a sense of potential to the situation. as it approaches the subject-form. Power is capitalization expressed as a destiny. in which case they can be characterized as strategies of surveillance: on the look-out for the event.

Ljubljana. one follows a direct call to act. constantly speaking about change and progressive action as a replacement for actual action. Claiming not to be nihilist merely because they speak out on behalf of action. but to question the hegemonic ideological coordinates.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: No Alternative/Causes Nihilism 2/2 6. but even supported by the media. 1997 One is therefore tempted to turn around Marx's thesis 11: the first task today is precisely NOT to succumb to the temptation to act.it will be an act WITHIN the hegemonic ideological coordinates: those who "really want to do something to help people" get involved in (undoubtedly honorable) exploits like Medecins sans frontiere. Slavoj Zizek. Prof Philosophy @ U.lacan. to directly intervene and change things (which then inevitably ends in a cul de sac of debilitating impossibility: "what can one do against the global capital?"). etc. but to PREVENT from something really happening. really changing. This kind of activity provides the perfect example of interpassivity: of doing things not to achieve something. denouncing and boycotting companies which do not respect ecological conditions or which use child labor) . politically correct. Repeating Lenin.com/replenin. this act will not be performed in an empty space .58 - . globally. Turn – Interpassivity – The plan doesn’t actually get done if the judge votes Aff. www. today. the Affirmative participates in interpassive action. All the frenetic humanitarian. feminist and anti-racist campaigns. things will remain the same!” .. activity fits the formula of "Let's go on changing something all the time so that.EVAZON CROSS-X. which are all not only tolerated. even if they seemingly enter the economic territory (say. If.they are tolerated and supported as long as they do not get too close to a certain limit. Greenpeace.

Our alternative of rejecting these fear based calculations and embracing hope allows for an ethic of love and joy towards difference. the plan could still be advocated or passed. and Foucault evidence. Under the framework of the alternative. rather. Our ethic is a straight turn to their case because fear calculates difference in attempts to destroy otherness. 2. we can prevent atrocities. which restores value to life through freeing us of the shackles of the ascetic ideal. Zimmerman. which is impacted by our Santos. as long as the justification didn’t utilize the survivalist framework we critique.EVAZON CROSS-X. express our unconditional hope for the future. . Our argument is that by refusing to engage in calculability games and. The kritik does not preclude plan action – we’re criticizing certain justifications for action presented in the 1AC – do NOT let the affirmative paint our kritik as a generic statism or capitalism argument.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: Alternative Doesn’t Solve Case 1.59 - .

chilling out and having faith that we won’t blow up if we talk about something meaningful seems pretty damn easy to me. Under the framework of the alternative. Our alternative isn’t that radical.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: Radical Alternative Destroys the Movement 1. as long as the justification didn’t utilize the survivalist framework we critique. 2. action could still be advocated or plans passed. They haven’t proven an internal link to this argument. . The kritik does not preclude action – we’re criticizing certain justifications for action presented in the 1AC – do NOT let the affirmative paint our kritik as a generic statism or capitalism argument...EVAZON CROSS-X.60 - .

. to draw the analogies with the social field. it would be self-defeating. The problem is that all this schema is based on the elimination of the first moment. The result is that this fantasmatic conception of politics ends up imposing its demands on the psychoanalytic part of the argumentation. that in fact this political promise is legitimized by the conclusions of psychoanalytic political theory. Since utopian or quasi-utopian constructions function through identification it is legitimate. to engage itself in utopian or quasi-utopian fantasy construction. deconstruction forms. (Beardsworth. if not absurd. from politics in the traditional sense. Yannis Stavrakakis. <He Continues. according to Collier. which we didn’t. which is a voting issue for fairness and education. 1999 Since. in the ‘local sense of politics’ in Beardsworth’s terminology: In its affirmative refusal to advocate a politics. but that’s only true if we make a defensive link argument. our alternative has the judge reject the affirmative to shatter the silence surrounding death in order to tear down the taboo. Research Fellow at the School of Politics at the University of Nottingham. identifactory politics. which is not the same as saying that psychoanalysis is apolitical: in fact.the Affirmative’s presentation is dangerous PRECISELY because fantasies of immortality have so much appeal. want to believe they will live forever. But this coexistence is nothing new. at the same time. The centrality of political dislocation is always repressed in favor of the second moment. as argued in the previous chapter. however. the text of your “do both” permutation still has the judge vote negative in addition to advocating plan. but alienating. then Lacan’s theory is. Is it really possible and consistent to point to the lack in the Other and. . They will make the argument that they can kick advantages. my emphasis). allowing them to spike out of links. the moment of impossibility is only acknowledged in order to be eliminated. it becomes political precisely by being critical of traditional politics. It could be argued of course that Homer’s vision of psychoanalytic politics does not foreclose the recognition of the impossibility of the social but that in his schema this recognition and the promise to eliminate it (as part of a quasi-utopian regulative principle) go side by side. rejecting cure or happiness as possible goals’. the radicality and political importance of the lacanian critique depends on its ability to keep its distance from the fantasmatic politics. the ultimate consequence of Homer’s argumentation is the following: the absorption of Lacanian political theory by radical quasi-utopianism will offer left-wing radicalism the hegemonic appeal entailed in the articulation of one more signifier (‘psychoanalysis’) in this signifying chain. and not get out lines crossed’ (Collier. Advocating the alternative in any way stops them from advocating their discourse. the irreducibility of the real within the social. In fact. an account of why all political projects fail. the political is located beyond the utopian or quasi-utopian sedimentations of political reality. the latter part is necessarily deformed: if it is not recognized in its radical constitutivity. People. I think. the perm severs. a combination of psychic repression and confrontation can only deform the disruptive aspects. Fourth. which makes the discussion more educational. Second. constitutes the starting point for almost every political if presented against the background of this ‘disorder’ the final harmonious ‘order’ promised by a utopian fantasy acquires hegemonic force.’Let us go to Freud and Klein for our psychotherapy [Lacan is of course excluded] and to Marx and the environmental sciences for our politics. Only irrelevance of lacanian theory for radical politics since this articulation presupposes the repression of all the political insights implicit in Lacan’s reading and highlighted in this book. deconstruction in fact generalizes what is meant by the political well beyond the local sense of politics. obviously. Surprisingly enough this is almost identical with Homer’s conclusion: Lacanian theory is OK as an analytical tool but let us go back to Marx for our ideological seminar and our utopian catechism! It is clear that from a Lacanian point of view it . normalizing capitalist damage.-loses all its power. Collier’s argument is that since It is capitalism that shatters our wholeness and disempowers us (as if without capitalism we would be on the road to utopia. Lacan located the end of analysis beyond identification. Sticking teams to texts is key to check abusive rebuttal clarifications to spike out of block responses. precisely because alienation is so deep for Lacan that nothing can be done to eliminate it (‘Lacan is deeply pessimistic. after unmasking the crucial but alienating character of traditional. ‘reoccupy’ their ground? This rationale underlying the Lacanian position is not far away from what Beardsworth articulates as a political reading of Derrida. nearly anyone would choose the fantasmatic construction over its transversal – only the alternative alone can possibly cause change. of an antagonism that cross-cuts the social field. Lacan and the Political. firstly. the lack in the Other. and increases good text writing. but psychoanalytic political theory has nothing to gain beyond its own deformation. If analysis resists the ‘reoccupation’ of the traditional strategy of identification – although it recognizes its crucial. At least this is the strategy that Lacan follows on similar occasions. the impossibility of society. The conclusion is predictable: . When presented with the choice. Utopian fantasy can sound appealing only if presented as the final solution to the problem that constitutes its starting point.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: Permutation 1/2 First. In that sense. . psychological theory in general has no political implications whatsoever. Thus. Something not entirely surprising since.61 - . Third. This recognition of the ‘impossibility of society’. The success of the alternative is dependent on its ability to avoid fantasmatic politics. exactly because. it doesn’t sound like a very good deal. Thus Lacan has nothing to offer radical politics. In that sense. to attempt to fill it in a quasi-utopian move? Such a question can also be posed in ethical or even strategic terms. The alleged irrelevance of Lacan for radical politics is also the argument put forward by Collier in a recent article in Radical Philosophy. In this sense it becomes a radical ‘critique’ of institutions. capitalism occupies the structural position of the antichrist in this sort of leftist preaching). fantasmatic. Since the projection of any decision has ethical implications. For Beardsworth. of the recognition of impossibility. in fact. Lacanian political theory aims at bringing to the fore again and again. deconstruction also refuses to implicate itself in traditional politics. the same lack that utopian fantasy attempts to mask. the utopian promise. making the affirmative a moving target. 1998 41-3).> What I want to suggest is that in Homer’s schema psychoanalytic politics ‘reoccupies’ the ground of traditional fantasmatic politics. role in the formation of subjectivity – why should psychoanalytic politics. more than anything. Faced with the alienating dimension of every identification.EVAZON CROSS-X. articulating Lacanian theory with fantasmatic politics is equivalent to affirming the ideology. Well. 1996: 19) is necessary to resist all such reoccupations of traditional fantasmatic politics Similarly.

It does so by changing -. The thanatophobic mode of thought they subscribe to not only creates the reality we live in – it is also independently more important than the action taken itself. “Voyages Across the Web of Time. political and economic domains.deepening ideology. extend the 1NC Havel evidence. in elaborating his theory of "fast capitalism" observes that an obsession. B. However. while we would not defend the kind of nostalgia Angkarn does indeed occasionally indulge in. suppressing critique.the permutation is essentially conservative politics as it gives into the West’s current war on death. The permutation’s attempt to coopt the radical potential of our alternative is just another piece of the road towards immortality." [12] The French philosopher of postmodemity Jean Baudrillard has likewise discerned a paradoxically conservative effect in the culture of speed. This means the permutation can never engage in the act of affirmation of life because linking our hope and joy for the present to a solution for the future based on our fear of death destroys the disruptiveness of our ethic. 1999 Angkarn is referring here to a repetition of sounds. become peculiarly complex in the context of a globalizing free market that imposes a seemingly ineluctable momentum.the permutation inevitably collapses upon itself as the same types of representations of violence and fear that promote the herd mentality and state centric thought are advanced in the permutation. for example. it is readily conceptualized as an inertia or resistance to change. they’re conceding our distinction and hierarchy between ideology and action which means they can’t win the permutation. The permutation is incapable of transcending a politics of fear because fear opposes difference. which has undergone the transition from agrarian to technological free market more gradually and yet no less profoundly. . constituting the same neurotic pleas that undermine progress away from current ideologies Marc Weeks. Ben Agger.its fundamentally a concession to demands on the state and the sacrilization of mortality. the dynamic versus the static. Stengers. Angkarn. [11] Recent problematics of time and movement in the West. Massumi. an intoxication with rapid movement and transformation for its own sake may actually undermine progress by rendering considered resistance impossible: "My problem is how the world stays the same. Seventh.62 - . it appears that the question of time and its relationship to progress has. and Zournazi say predictability and the uncertainty of hope are mutually exclusive. particularly in a culture such as Thailand's. and Frederic Maurel. Both pieces of Beres evidence. C. a cyclicity which may or may not impede progression. September 1st. When this structural metaphor is transferred to contemporary social. moronizing everyday life.It doesn’t solveA. Nietzsche and Temporal Colonization. acutely conscious of its dramatic shift from rural cycles to the linearity of "progressive" urban development. Sixth. increasingly force analysis outside the dichotomy of present versus past tense. like everything else. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies.The permutation is fundamentally a plea for “just one more” try at representation.The Obsession Disad. of "movement for movement's sake". Our friedland evidence.EVAZON CROSS-X.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: Permutation 2/2 Fifth.

which is unpredictable. offers to fill in the holes with fantasmatic demands continuing the west’s war against mortality. It only feeds into the West’s war on death.Advocating the alternative in any way necessarily stops them from advocating the plan.The Stavrakakis evidence. exposing people to the holes in ideology. Extend the #3. . b. Beres says the perm will collapse on it self. Linking hope and joy to our fear of death destroys the disruptiveness of our ethic.that is a voting issue for fairness and education. As per the text of their permutation.They conceded ALL of our reasons why the perm can’t solve a. Friedland says the perm co-opts our alternative. Massumi. Their representations only promote the herd mentality and state centric thought that is functionally a concession to demands for immortality. Stengers. This means we still win the round in the world of their permutation. you’d do the plan and VOTE NEGATIVE to reject the affirmative to shatter the silence surrounding death. The portrayal of our ability to avoid death makes the comfort of illusory order all the more desirable. The Number Five. The perm allows the Aff to present a total lack of order. allowing them to spike out of all our offense mid-round. It’s also infinitely regressive with no limit on how much we can sever. but at that crucial moment of confrontation and anxiety.EVAZON CROSS-X. c. For them to win the perm they gotta win they don’t link. The perm can’t transcend fear because fear and hope are dichotomous by nature. the theory argument. and Zournazi say predictability and hope are mutually exclusive. The obsessive action we criticize is most effective when combined with a disturbing kernel of the Real that it can cover up.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: Permutation 2NR (ONLY IF YOU HAVE TIME) Extend our number 1.makes them a moving target. The Number Four.63 - .

EVAZON CROSS-X. 1998 When one is dealing with a universal structuring principle. solving the rightist takeover their evidence refers to and avert extinction through biopolitical control. the permanent unemployed) are the symptom of the late capitalist universal system. precisely – it is possible to apply this principle to all its potential elements. Obviously those who oppose the fear of death aren’t going to be joining forces with those who support it. rather. The purpose of a coalition is to work through traditional structures of political power to influence legislation. and so on) will be united in a common ‘chain of equivalences’? The necessary failure here is structural: it is not simply that. is sustained by the ‘repression’ of the key role of economic struggle. is an element which – although the non-realization of the universal principle it appears to hinge on contingent circumstances – has to remain an exception. the universal system itself would disintegrate. to the tacit acceptance of capitalist economic relations and liberal-democratic politics as the unquestioned framework of our social life. one always automatically assumes that – in principle. at some utopian moment to come.f rom the benefits of liberal-democratic affluent society? Today’s ‘exceptions’ (the homeless. Slavoj Zizek. an element within civil society that negates its universal principle. but. because of the empirical complexity of the situation. however. and ignoring the supposed benefits of representative politics. Professor of Philosophy at the University of Ljubljana. sometimes even for generations. the ecological struggle. . or simple economic bad luck: the inherent structural dynamic of civil society necessarily gives rise to a class which is excluded from its benefits (work. Turn – The attempt to unite different groups together into a harmonic coalition is predicated on a set of fantasies. The Plague Of Fantasies. elites will create loopholes to bypass it. And is not an analogous utopianism at work in the notion of a ‘rainbow coalition’: in the idea that. its symptom. for the rights of ethnic and religious minorities. The ideas of harmony through difference and cooperation through liberal-democratic structures not only ensure the structural failure of any coalition – they also are the supplement to an abandonment of the fight against liberal-democratic consumerism itself. with their continuously shifting displacements and condensations. that occurrences of ‘wrong’ enchainments are grounded in the very structuring principle if today’s progressive politics of establishing ‘chains of equivalences’: the very domain of the multitude of particular struggles. The Leftist politics of the ‘chains of equivalences’ among the plurality of struggles is strictly correlative to the abandonment of the analysis of capitalism as a global economic system – that is. the enchainment of the fight for African-American ethnic identity with patriarchal and homophobic attitudes). and the media will spin it as anti-patriotic. the point of suspension of the universal principle: if the universal principle were to apply also to this point. does not mean we reject all Leftist politics different from ourselves. the ghettoized. the permanent reminder of how the immanent logic of late capitalism works: the proper capitalist utopia is that through appropriate measures (affirmative action and other forms of state intervention for progressive liberals. . at least – abolished. Hegel demonstrates how the growing class of ‘rabble [Pobel]’ in modern civil society is not an accidental result of social mismanagement . Do we not witness the same phenomenon in today’s growth of an underclass which is excluded. However. the feminist struggle. so that the principle’s empirical non-realization is merely a matter of contingent circumstances. . There argument assumes a completely different forum. inadequate government measures. however. that ‘wrong’ chains of equivalences will always occur (say. In the paragraphs on civil society in his Philosophy of Right. personal dignity. Only by reconstructing debate as a site of micropolitical resistance. this ‘exception’ could be – in the long term and in principle. 2. and therefore also exempt from the duties toward society.We could have brought my dog in to tell you that. the return to self-care and family values for conservatives).64 - .COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: Permutation – Coalitions 1. a kind of ‘non-Reason inherent in Reason itself – in short. etc. all progressive struggles (for gay and lesbian rights. 3. That. this form of political participation is obsolete in a post-modern world – politicians will ignore the demand. A symptom. can we reclaim the political sphere.) – a class deprived of elementary human rights. all particular progressive fights will never be united. that is.



________________ **Framework Blocks

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Framework 2nc
They have conceded our last piece of evidence in the 1nc, our Havel evidence, which damns them. The affirmatives method of thought process, methodology and ideology is ripe with implications all its own. Contemporary ideology has come to replace the power of the sword as ideology provides power its legitimacy and coherence. In short, ideology IS reality, more important then action itself. This framework for the debate of evaluating claims based on representations serves to test the affirmative’s truth claims by subjecting them to both negative and positive claims, serving to shape policy implications, not the other way around. Frameworks Institute, 03, http://www.frameworksinstitute.org/strategicanalysis/index.shtml
Quite simply, framing refers to the subtle selection of certain aspects of an issue in order to cue a specific response; as researchers have shown, the way an issue is framed explains who is responsible, and suggests potential solutions conveyed by images, stereotypes, messengers, and metaphors. The advantage of strategic frame analysis is that it allows the research to document and deconstruct the frames currently in the public consciousness and to understand their impact on public policy preferences. Additionally, it allows us to test and validate, through different disciplines, both the negative frames and the potential positive reframes that can further an issue's salience. Finally, the effectiveness of the recommendations we make can be demonstrated; while we hope we are "creative" in our approach to communications, our findings are rooted in the social and cognitive sciences. We can explain what works and why it works, and demonstrate this across the research.

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AT: Fiat Good 2NC 1/2
1. Not responsive- we are impact turning the fundamental justifications for the plan TO BE passed. You would still vote neg as a policy maker because their policy has a bad impact calculus. 2. Counter Interpretation- The affirmative should have to defend the justifications for the 1AC before we evaluate fiat. A. This solves all their judge intervention arguments- our criticism interplays with the 1AC. B. It’s best for education, giving us all knowledge we can use in day-to-day operations and is the only way to prevent government atrocities from being committed through fantasmatic policymaking. Extend Stavrakakis 3. External predictability – the word resolved is on the left side of the colon, means we the debaters must stand resolved and the reasons why are to be justified. No reason it has to be policymaking. 4. Education – A. They do not teach a THING about real policymaking. Congressional bills aren’t 2 sentences long without funding recommendations. B. Policymaking skills can be learned under our interpretation equally well. The issues pertinent now won’t be pertinent by the time we might have positions in office. However, the way we think, act, and align ourselves politically will have actual value in terms of policy making and read world. C. An unfair debate about important issues is still better than an absurd well-played game. We’ll win the race to the middle. 5. Turn- Defending the Status Quo forces us to defend things like racism and sexismanother predictable framework is necessary for negative ground. 6. Our interpretation increases affirmative ground equally to negative ground- affirmatives can be run such that they have impacts in our framework. 7. Even if they win fiat is good– A. Still evaluate our impacts – The plan’s result in a perpetuation of status quo harms. If we win our link argument, we’ll win their impacts replicate. B. Still endorse our alternative– even within the framework of policymaking you can vote negative for your own symbolic death. We read solvency evidence saying that allots space for hope.

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it requires that we look anew at traditional participatory activities and evaluate their performative potential. Winter. enables innovation in deliberation.68 - . The failure to reconceptualize political participation as resistance furthers an illusion of democratic control that obscures the techniques of disciplinary power and their role in global strategies of domination. and more meaningful. although much more humble opportunities for citizens to "take part" in their own "governance. and locations for political action." Accepting the idea of participation as resistance has two broad implications that fundamentally transform the participation debate. 1997 Performative resistance recognizes disciplinary power. (ONLY READ IF YOU HAVE TIME) 9. Habermas. it is possible. Our Santos evidence indicates this logic lies at the root of the case harms and negates the value to life. fundamentally missing the real. Turn – Biopower Utilizing fiat denies the possibility for debate to be used as an instrument of micro political resistance. Second. and postmodern participation. Consequently. enables action in the face of that power.EVAZON CROSS-X. and thus allows us to see the world of political action differently.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: Fiat Good 2NC 2/2 8. it widens the parameters of participation to include a host of new actors. . activities. Kulynych. Jessica J. First. and therefore allows us to see a much broader range of political actions. The framework links to our criticism – The drive to save traditional debate from the radicals who threaten it IS the logic of Western colonization and extermination of the Other. ensuring alienation of citizens from the political sphere and guaranteeing biopolitical control. which is impacted by our Foucault evidence. Polity. to conceptualize contemporary participation as a performative rather than a representative action. A performative concept redirects our attention away from the normal apparatus of government and economy. “Performing politics: Foucault.

They concede affs can be run with impacts in our framework. solves narratives and judge intervention arguments. Our kritik proves the plan is a perpetuation of the status quo harms and their impacts will only replicate in the future. which would open up space for hope and joy in the present. you can still vote negative as an acceptance of your own symbolic death. Counterfeit existence outweighs fairness and ground. This allows ethical claims to be ignored and negates the value to life. AND Our interpretation only forces you to defend your 1AC.it forces us to defend racism and sexism. 3.even if we lose our counter interpretation. Defending the Status Quo destroys negative ground. means debaters must stand resolved and the reasons why are to be justified.the aff should defend their justifications. we open equal ground for the affirmative and negative. The kritik proves that how we frame a policy proposal is as important as the policy itself. 2. There’s no speaker points to dock in out rounds. solves policymaking because we allow for a world of uniqueness based policy debate too.69 - . Our interpretation is the most inclusive. Stavrakakis says that our inclusion is key to stand up against the government and prevent governmental atrocities from being committed through fantasmic policymaking.EVAZON CROSS-X. Political issues change. They have no offense1.we’ll still win. Additionally. Santos says the drive to save “traditional debate” from the radicals justifies WESTERN COLONIZATION and EXTERMINATION of the other.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: Fiat Good 2NR Go to the bottom of the fiat debate first. The plan is useless without knowing how to achieve it without destroying meaning. Absent our alternative. The only argument they can go for is fairness but they concede that our interpretation is more externally predictable because the word resolved is on the left side of the colon. Our criticism gives you knowledge you can use now and in the future in terms of policymaking and real world. 4. 3. Our interpretation just fiat plus. Go to the counter interpretation. . so they have to win inclusion of anything else is bad to win. Our interpretation is inclusive of theirs. 2. so we’ll win the race to the middle. Here’s our Offense1.

COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL ______________ **Realism Blocks .EVAZON CROSS-X.70 - .

Detached from the falsehood that existence can conquer temporality. every person and action could potentially do harm to us. upon a covenant with all other individuals to treat the political as a secular realm of unalterably mundane limits. Some left groups have tried to explain men s sexual violence as the result of class oppression. For all good and evil consists in sensation. a "religious" myth. these ‘explanations’ ignore the fact that not everyone experiencing the same oppression uses violence. Intl Journal on World Peace. Santayana settled upon similar conclusions: In endowing us with memory. Freed from their unwillingness to accept the finitude of life. above mortality. says Santayana. he counsels: Become accustomed to the belief that death is nothing to us. meaning and potentiality. there is nevertheless a growing tendency. the unequal power relations which enable it to take place. In his letter to Menoeceus. an "immortality in representation." one that "quickens his numbered moments with a vision of what never dies. Volume 16. as well as other political critiques. The Will to Violence: The Politics of Personal Behavior. but as the actions of people in relation to other people and beings or things. the truth of mortality. 3. perhaps. all conflicts in the 20th century rely on this process. That is." an opportunity to accept the knowledge of natural death as By accepting death. in a way. How may we be instructed to accept our own personal mortality? Epicurus had an answer. an occasion to "live in the spirit. They overlook. do we end these terrible wars? Most important. It begs the question. Even though we would probably not underwrite these propositions in their crass form.. even if this decision was made in circumstances of limited choice. while a crucial factor in the present context is ignored. has analysed the preconditions of violence. With such an agreement. The ironies are staggering. that is. that these circumstances do not ‘cause’ violent behavior. Prefer the specificity of our evidence. Our kritik takes out the ability to engage in these wars. Our Beres. The ostensible aim of these arguments may be to draw attention to the pervasive and structural violence of classism and racism. No. in particular. then. we must first understand them as manifestations of humankind's unwillingness to accept personal death. However. 1995. the turn has no impact. the more convinced and penetrated we shall be by the experience of death. freelance writer. (Compare the question.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: Realism Good 2NC 1/2 1. Even politically oppositional groups are not immune to this mainstream sociologizing. in other words. while some Black theoreticians have explained the violence of Black men as the result of racist oppression. author. but the method of explanation remains the same. Death defines world politics because individuals wish to escape death. implying in turn that circumstances virtually dictate certain forms of behaviour. that the perpetrator has decided to violate. 4.if we reorient violence as a behavior then it is quite likely that we can avert realism itself. under the pressure of mainstream science and a sociological perspective which increasingly dominates our thinking. the more we live in memory and idea." . Over time. Law at Purdue. and teacher in England. The fear of death negates the value to life because we would constantly have to look over our shoulders. they actively contribute to it. 3. Louis Rene Beres. each individual may experience an authentic notion of immortality.. this does not automatically make it an adequate or sufficient practice for political analysis. human action which may be analysed. and the rationale of war between states severely impaired. each moment of life becomes vastly more rich in joy. without our knowing it. Underlying is a behaviourist model which prefers to see human action as the exclusive product of circumstances. not because it adds to it an infinite span of time. every polis could become a cosmopolis. and the "realism" of power struggles between states could be revealed for what it has always been. yet. it is becoming standard to argue as if it were these power relations which cause the violence. the relevant factors are sought in the distant past and in other contexts of action. While consideration of mitigating circumstances has its rightful place in a court of law trying (and defending) an offender. As it is memory that makes mortality an incontestable truth. This card’s on fire. Prof of I. not just in social science. 2. More than two thousand years later. this very conviction and experience will have raised us.The more we reflect. but death is deprivation of sensation. September 1st. pg. 2-3 Violence is perceived as a phenomenon for science to research and for politics to get a grip on. 1999 How. to explain violent behavior by its circumstances. Feminist critique.. the truth of those moments and their inalienable values. Our alternative solves realism and restors the value to life.71 - . the passion for "victory" would be greatly abridged. Their focus on structural violence wholly misses the point . nature has revealed to us a truth utterly unimaginable to the unreflective creation. Although such oppression is a very real part of an agent’s life context. then. What is missing is an analysis of violence as action — not just as acts of violence. an understanding which is rapidly solidifying in the scientific model of a ‘cycle of violence’. individuals could finally agree upon a descralization of states. namely the agent’s decision to act as he did. ‘What is considered to be part of the circumstances (and by whom)?’ Thus in the case of sexual offenders. ‘Does pornography cause violence?’) The circumstances identified may differ according to the politics of the explainers. there is a routine search — on the part of the tabloid press or the professionals of violence — for experiences of violence in the offender’s own past. but the connections persist and remain unexamined. Susanne Kappeler. But we are back at the beginning. Consequently. yet they not only fail to combat such inequality. but because it takes away the craving for immortality. or the cause of its effects. ignoring the personal decision of the agent to act. so it is also memory that opens to us all an ideal immortaliy. And therefore a right understanding that death is nothing to us makes the mortality of life enjoyable..EVAZON CROSS-X. Santos and Foucault evidence outline that wars can ONLY be waged based on the process we are describing.. But violence is not a phenomenon: it is the behavior of people.

COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: Realism Good 2NC 2/2 5.EVAZON CROSS-X. In a world of our alternative. If we win the framework debate it become a non-issue because it is not a representation we employ ie it requires policy level action to have an impact.72 - . Cycles of violence and exploitation are perpetuated in the name of their inevitability – the ultimate conclusion to the negative’s logic is the suicidal destruction of the world. Our alternative is not to abandon the state. 6. Santos says the belief that there is no alternative to realism forms the basis for genocidal fascism. They just won’t wage wars. There’s no link.their argument assumes some kind of political or policy action in order to merit and impact. . states would still exist and would be able to pursue their own interests.

read the rest) Additionally.here is where we’ll win. (If you have time. justifies statesanctioned cruelty and destruction of the other to save oneself. Our alternative transforms realism. YOU GOT NOTHIN. Negates the value to life. b) Also realism forms the basis for neo-liberal violence. Beres says that only when we abandon our fear of death. Reorienting behavior averts the bad parts of realism. Extend our Beres evidence from the 2NC. can we build bridges of understanding that make the realist power struggles between states unnecessary.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: Realism Good 2NR Our Kappeler evidence is DAMNING for them. They concede our alternative doesn’t abandon the state.73 - . all conflicts in the 20th century rely on this process. just not wage wars. .EVAZON CROSS-X. The status quo realism makes life meaningless. States can still exist and would be able to pursue their own interests. our evidence is more on point than there’s. Our kritik takes out the ability to engage in these wars. They concede wars can ONLY be waged based on the process we are describing. Extend Santosa) Their argument is what allows for genocidal fascism to be perpetuated through the belief in its inevitability. they haven’t got a single answer to this evidence.it indicates that violence is personal rather than institutional and realism and any other structural institution cannot force people to fight.

Writing Security. Danger is not an objective condition. In other words. the category of risk is a category of the understanding. nuclear-tipped ICBMs are not mere figments of our imagination.51 That security might be. for the technology of risk in insurance. according to this logic. but rather the operation of a schema of rationality distinguished by the calculus of probabilities.EVAZON CROSS-X. . 1998. consider the manner in which the insurance industry assesses risk. more accurately. it all depends on how one analyzes the danger. It [sic] is not a thing that exists independently of those to whom it may become a threat.but irrelevant. socially constructed does not mean that there are not to be found real.. insurance is a technology of risk the principal function of which is not compensation or reparation. No interpretation is universally true Ronnie D Lipschutz. necessary. But enemies often imagine their Others into being. “Nothing is a risk in itself. 2. danger (or. material conditions that help to create particular interpretations of threats. To the extent that each acts on these projections. Professor of Politics at UC Santa Cruz. . This is interesting. except when interpreted as such. In this respect. anything can be a risk.” In other words. In insurance. There is no objective condition of danger David Campbell. As Kant might have put it. To illustrate this. considers the event. professor of international politics at the university of Newcastle. or unproblematic relation to the action or event from which it is said to derive. or that such conditions are irrelevant to either the creation or undermining of the assumptions underlying security policy. 3. Also we’ll win that even if threats were real. therefore.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: Threats Are Real 1. but their targeting is a function of what we imagine their possessors might do to us (I return to this point in chapter 4). Danger bears no essential. but a specific mode of treatment of certain events capable of happening to a group of individuals. threats to each other acquire a material character. In Francois Ewald’s formulation. 1-2 Danger is not an objective condition. pg. Nothing is intrinsically more dangerous for insurance technology than anything else. After Authority 2000 p. danger is an effect of interpretation. their relationship is intersubjective. there is no risk in reality But on the other hand. risk) is “neither an event nor a general kind of event occurring in reality. if you didn’t fear them.”2 In these terms.74 - . they wouldn’t be a threat. We’re not running threat construction. via the projections of their worst fears onto the Other (as the United States did with Japan in the late 1980s and with China in the 1990s). it cannot be given in sensibility or intuition.

COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL _____________ **Theory Blocks .EVAZON CROSS-X.75 - .

6.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: Performative Contradiction – Other Positions 1. then the kritik links to both equally and you vote negative on presumption. This answers their multiple contradictory worlds and strategic skew arguments. or conceded the other position didn’t link to the kritik and impact turned it. This only means we can’t go for both in the 2NR. . but rejecting the case means you do lose. rejecting the disad doesn’t mean we lose. 5. concede one of the two and see if you win. There is no abuse – you could’ve just cross-applied our kritik to the position you think it linked to. If your performative contradiction argument is true. If we win the impact to the K we win it’s educational to debate it. there is zero impact to our performance being tainted. 2. and then link turned the K. No impact to contradiction. it just proves we gave you extra ground and you failed to use it strategically. 3.we cant say that the affs impact calculus is both death good and death bad and ctiticize both. Vote for the alternative. 4. this is merely a critical disad with an alternative – don’t hold us to a higher standard than you would a counterplan with politics net benefit. We aren’t performing anything. If you grant us the disad.EVAZON CROSS-X. We only advocate ONE gateway argument off ONE link. If you think it is a double turn.This is the definition of a gateway argument: the aff has to prove their impact calculus is a good one before we can continue. then the judge rejects the disad along with the Aff case.76 - . Unfortunately for you. not for the team that read it. If you grant us the kritik. These gateway arguments NEED to be conditional statements—otherwise these types of arguments wouldn’t be read because the time trade off isn’t fair between the aff and the neg.

We don’t have to win that no evidence we read links to our alternative – just that it is preferable to the plan. The negative. Using death prevention as a justification for state action creates a framework that makes perpetual war inevitable. Even if they win that both teams link to the Weeks and Maurel evidence equally. on the other hand. it isn’t a reason to reject us. .EVAZON CROSS-X.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: Performative Contradiction – Kritik’s Impact is Death 1. C. The Beres evidence is still a net benefit to the alternative. In the presentation of the 1AC. B. accepts death’s inevitability and confronts the repression. the Affirmative felt compelled to speak out about the necessity of preserving life. 2. You wouldn’t reject a counterplan with a politics net benefit because it linked to federalism as much as the plan.77 - . Our Weeks and Maurel evidence indicates that this desire occurs due to a phobic overreaction to death’s passivity. because it is specific to state action in the name of preventing death. You obviously weren’t paying much attention to the 1NC. where we can act to avoid nuclear war without repressing death’s inevitability. Our Harmon evidence indicates that this allows us to engage in a rational discourse about death. We don’t think that death is a good thing – that’d be asinine.

The net benefit i. C. Ground – The aff gets the entirety of their defense of the 1AC advantages as offense against us. which is fiat. We have a text that advocates NONE of your plan. our criticism impact turns your affirmative. right? Defend it! B. You said preserving death was good for a reason. and we’ll stick to it throughout the whole round. We can concede the endpoint of the plan but criticize the way that you get there. And it is legitimate. which proves that it’s predictable and viable. critical questions will almost never be examined. PIKS are Sweet A. Education – If the aff gets to use the plan as offense.we don’t rely on the PIC to win the round. Our framework for the round is that only justifications are important. We aren’t advocating your plan – we just think it’s irrelevant. Under our framework for the round. which makes all of our fiat good answers offense. If you win your framework for the round.COM FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK JAIPAUL AT: PIKs Bad 1. If you somehow let them pin us with this. The alternative is not a PIK.e.EVAZON CROSS-X. 2. .78 - . so obviously plan good arguments aren’t offense for you. the judge doesn’t decide based on whose plan is better. And there’s literature on the net benefit. then we can not possibly claim your plan as offense.


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