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# Performance of Transmission Line

Line Parameters-Part 2
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Distributed and Lumped Parameters
Transmission line with
uniformly distributed line
parameters (R, L, C, G)
Small section ∆x
I(x)
z ∆x
y ∆x
V(x) V(x+ ∆x)
I(x+ ∆x)
V
s
I
s
V
r
I
r
 z = Series impedance /unit
length/phase
 y = Shunt admittance / unit
length/phase
 l = Length of transmission line
 Z = Total series impedance/
phase
 Y = Total shunt impedance/
phase
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Transmission Line Models
 Short line : Length less than 80 km.
 Lumped parameter model
 Medium line: Length between 80 km to 250 km.
 Shunt admittance needs to be considered
 Lumped parameter model
 Nominal π model
 Nominal T model
 Long line: Length longer than 250 km.
 Distributed parameter model
 Shunt admittance effect is important
 Equivalent π or T equivalent can be derived

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ABCD Parameters of Transmission Line
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

R
R
S
S
I
V
D C
B A
I
V
Matrix Format
D A
=
= ÷ 1
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Short Transmission Line
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

R
R
S
S
I
V Z
I
V
1 0
1
Matrix Format
A=1, B=Z, C=0, D=1
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system/ui/Course_home-2.htm
Regulation of Short Transmission Line
I=I
R
=I
S
V
S
V
R
IR

IX

IZ

ϕ

( ) ( )
2 2
sin cos X I V R I V V
R R S
+ + + = | |
| | | | sin 2 sin sin 2 cos
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
X I V X I V R I V R I V V
R R R R S
+ + + + + =
( )
2 2 2 2
sin 2 sin 2 X R I IX V IR V V V
R R R S
+ + + + = | |
( )
2
2 2 2
sin 2 sin 2
1
R R R
R S
V
X R I
V
IX
V
IR
V V
+
+ + + =
| |
Small quantity
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Regulation of Short Transmission Line
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
R R
R S
V
IX
V
IR
V V
| | sin 2 sin 2
1
.......
16 8 2
1
4 ) ! )( 2 1 (
)! 2 ( ) 1 (
1
3 2
0
2
+ + ÷ + =
÷
÷
= +
¿
·
=
x x x
n n
n
x
n
n
n
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
R R
R S
V
IX
V
IR
V V
| | sin sin
1
| | sin sin IX IR V V
R S
+ + =
R R
R
R S
V
X I
V
R I
V
V V
| | sin sin
Regulation
Regulation
+ =
÷
=
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Medium Transmission Line
 Medium transmission lines are modelled with lumped

 Nominal π Representation
 Nominal T Representation

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Nominal π Representation
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Nominal π Representation
Therefore A, B, C, D parameters
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Nominal T Representation
M M R R M
YV I I
Z
V V = + = and
2
I
M
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + =
R R R R R S
I I
Z
V Y
Z
I
Z
V V
2 2 2
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Nominal T Representation
Therefore A, B, C, D parameters
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Long Line Model
Ax ÷ 0
Ax ÷ 0
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Long Line Model
And
Again differentiating with respect to x
Solution of the
differential Eqn.
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Long Line Model
Differentiating with respect to x
We know that
Therefore
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Long Line Model
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Long Line Model
At x = 0.
V = V
R
and I = I
R

And
Solving for A
1
and A
2
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Long Line Model
R
l l
R
l l
C
S
R
l l
C R
l l
S
I
e e
V
e e
Z
I
I
e e
Z V
e e
V
|
|
.
|

\
| +
+
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
2 2
1
2 2
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
We are interested in terminal conditions: x = l we have V = V
s

and I = I
S

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Long Line Model
R
l l
R
l l
C
S
R
l l
C R
l l
S
I
e e
V
e e
Z
I
I
e e
Z V
e e
V
|
|
.
|

\
| +
+
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
2 2
1
2 2
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
R R
C
S
R C R S
I l V l
Z
I
I l Z V l V
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
cosh sinh
1
sinh cosh
+ =
+ =
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system/ui/Course_home-2.htm
Long Line Model
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
R R
C
S
R C R S
I l V l
Z
I
I l Z V l V
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
cosh sinh
1
sinh cosh
+ =
+ =
The ABCD parameters of the long transmission line