You are on page 1of 12

BRAIN FINGERPRINTING TECHNOLOGY

By:
G. Swetha Arjun college of technology and sciences 2/4 ECE

B. Samuel Kumar Arjun college of technology and sciences 2/4 ECE

ABSTRACT Brain Fingerprinting is a new computerbased technology to identify the perpetrator of a crime accurately and scientifically by measuring brain-wave responses to crimerelevant words or pictures presented on a computer screen. Brain fingerprinting technology is based on finding that the brain generates a unique brain wave pattern when a person encounters a familiar stimulus. Use of functional magnetic resonance imaging in lie detection derives from studies suggesting that persons asked to lie show different patterns of brain activity than they do when being truthful. Issues related to the use of such evidence in courts are discussed. It concludes that neither approach is currently supported by enough data regarding its accuracy in detecting deception to warrant use in court. In the field of criminology, a new lie detector has been developed in the United States of America. This is called “brain fingerprinting”. This invention is supposed to be the best lie detector available as on date and is said to detect even smooth criminals who pass the polygraph test (the conventional lie detector test) with satisfaction. The new method employs brain waves, which are useful in detecting whether the person subjected to the test, remembers finer details of the crime. Even if

the

person

willingly

suppresses

the

necessary information, the brain wave is sure to trap him. Brain Fingerprinting has proven 100% accurate in over 120 tests, including tests on FBI agents, tests for a US intelligence agency and for the US Navy, and tests on real-life situations including felony crimes.

CONTENTS • • • • • • • • Introduction Definition Need for study Theory Applications Advantages/disadvantages Conclusion References/bibliography

INTRODUCTION Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial proposed investigative technique that measures recognition of familiar stimuli by measuring electrical brain wave responses to words, phrases, or pictures that are presented on a computer screen. Brain fingerprinting was invented by Lawrence Farwell. The theory is that the suspect's reaction to the details of an event or activity will reflect if the suspect had prior knowledge of the event or activity. This test uses what Farwell calls the MERMER ("Memory and Encoding Related Electroencephalographic Multifaceted Response")

DEFINITION Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses brainreading techniques to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject’s brain. It does this by measuring electrical brainwave responses to words, phrases, or pictures that are presented on a computer screen. Brain fingerprinting was invented by Lawrence Farwell. The brain’s processing of known information, such as the details of a crime stored in the brain, is revealed by a specific pattern in the EEG Brain (electroencephalograph).

Fingerprinting testing depends only on brain information processing and responses to specific stimuli. It does not depend on the emotional response of the subject and is not subject to control or manipulation by the person being tested. NEED FOR STUDY The Brain Fingerprinting testing system detects information directly on the basis of the electrophysiological manifestations of information with Analysis). depends processing MERA Brain only brain activity, measured non-invasively from the scalp (Multifaceted Response testing brain information Electroencephalographic on

response to detect familiarity reaction. One of the applications is lie detection. Dr. Lawrence developed, A. Farwell and has invented, the proven, patented

technique of Farwell Brain Fingerprinting, which is a new computer-based technology to identify the perpetrator of a crime accurately and scientifically by measuring brain-wave responses to crime-relevant words or pictures presented on a computer screen. Farwell Brain Fingerprinting has proven 100% accurate in over 120 tests, including tests on FBI agents, tests for a US intelligence agency and for the US Navy, and tests on real-life situations including actual crimes.

Fingerprinting

processing and responses to specific stimuli. It does not depend on the emotional response of the subject and is not subject to control or manipulation by the person being tested. Brain Fingerprinting is to detect the P300 as a response to stimuli related to the crime or other investigations. THEORY The technique uses the well known fact that an electrical signal known as P300 is emitted from an individual's brain beginning approximately 300 milliseconds after it is confronted with a stimulus of special significance. For example a rare vs. a common stimulus or a stimulus the subject is asked to count. The application of this in brain fingerprinting is to detect the P300 as a response to stimuli related to the crime or other investigated situation. For example a murder weapon, victim's face, or knowledge of the internal workings of a terrorist cell, because it is based on EEG signals, the system does not require the subject to issue verbal responses to questions or stimuli. The person to be tested wears a special headband with electronic sensors that measure the EEG from several locations on the scalp. The subject views stimuli consisting of words, phrases, or pictures presented on a computer screen. Stimuli are of three types: 1) “Irrelevant” stimuli that are irrelevant to the investigated situation and to the test subject, 2) “Target” stimuli that are relevant to the investigated situation and are known to the subject, and 3) “Probe” stimuli that are relevant to the investigated situation and that the subject denies knowing. Probes contain information that is known only to the perpetrator and investigators and not to the general public or to an innocent suspect

who was not at the scene of the crime. Before the test, the scientist identifies the targets to the subject, and makes sure that he/she knows these relevant stimuli. The scientist also makes sure that the subject does not know the probes for any reason unrelated to the crime, and that the subject denies knowing the probes. The subject is told why the probes are significant but is not told which items are the probes and which are irrelevant. Since brain fingerprinting uses cognitive brain responses, brain fingerprinting does not depend on the emotions of the subject, nor is it affected by emotional responses. Brain fingerprinting is fundamentally different from the polygraph (lie-detector), which measures emotionbased physiological signals such as heart rate, sweating, and blood pressure.

Also, unlike polygraph testing, it does not attempt to determine whether or not the subject is lying or telling the truth. Rather, it measures the subject’s brain response to relevant words, phrases, or pictures to detect whether or not the relevant information is stored in the subject’s brain. By comparing the responses to the different types of stimuli, the brain fingerprinting system mathematically computes a determination of “information determination. present” This or “information is absent” and a statistical confidence for the determination mathematically computed, and does not involve the subjective judgment of the scientist. There are four phases of Brain

Fingerprinting testing. In fingerprinting and DNA fingerprinting, evidence recognized and collected at the crime scene, and preserved properly until a suspect is apprehended, is scientifically compared with evidence on the person of the suspect to detect a match that would place the suspect at the crime scene. Brain Fingerprinting works similarly, except that the evidence collected both at the crime scene and on the person of the suspect is informational evidence rather than physical evidence. There are four stages to Brain

Fingerprinting, which are similar to the steps in fingerprinting and DNA fingerprinting: 1. Brain Fingerprinting Crime Scene

details of the crime are not stored in the brain of the suspect. A Suspect is tested by looking at three kinds of information represented by Different colored lines:

Evidence Collection; 2. Brain Fingerprinting Brain Evidence Collection; 3. Brain Fingerprinting Computer Evidence Analysis; and 4. Brain Fingerprinting Scientific Result. In the Crime Scene Evidence Collection, an expert in Brain Fingerprinting examines the crime scene and other evidence connected with the crime to identify details of the crime that would be known only to the perpetrator. The expert then conducts the Brain Evidence Collection in order to determine whether or not the evidence from the crime scene matches evidence stored in the brain of the suspect. In the Computer Evidence Analysis, the Brain Fingerprinting system makes a mathematical determination as to whether or not this specific evidence is stored in the brain, and computes a statistical confidence for that determination. This determination and statistical confidence constitute the Scientific Result of Brain Fingerprinting: either "information present" ("guilty") – the details of the crime are stored in the brain of the suspect – or "information absent" ("innocent") – the

Information is absent
-----Red: information the suspect is expected to know -----Green: suspect -----Blue: information of the crime that only perpetrator would know information not known to

A critical task of the criminal justice system is to determine who has committed a crime. The key difference between a guilty party and an innocent suspect is that the perpetrator of the crime has a record of the crime stored in their brain, and the innocent suspect does not. Brain Fingerprinting testing does not prove guilt or innocence. That is the role of a judge and jury. This exciting technology gives the judge and jury

Information is present
-----Red: information the suspect is expected to know -----Green: suspect -----Blue: information of the crime that only perpetrator would know information not known to

new, scientifically valid evidence to help them arrive at their decision. DNA evidence and fingerprints are available in only about 1% of major crimes. It is estimated that Brain Fingerprinting testing will apply in approximately 60 to 70% of these major crimes. represents Brain a Fingerprinting new paradigm testing in law

enforcement. It is a technology that has been researched and tested for more than 20 years APPLICATIONS • • • • • Criminal justice Counterterrorism Applications Security Testing Medical Applications Advertising Applications and has now been admitted as scientific evidence in court. General knowledge gained from a newspaper or television does not interfere with Brain Fingerprinting testing. A suspect is tested for details of the crime that only the perpetrator and investigators would know, but that have not been publicly released.

Counterterrorism Applications Criminal justice

Brain specific training

Fingerprinting information, and

technology such as

can

Help to determine if an individual is in a leadership role within a terrorist organization.

determine the presence or absence of terrorist associations.

Security Testing Brain Fingerprinting technology can play a significant role in Security Testing when investigators know specific details of a crime, training or group affiliation. It can also determine if a person has specific "classified" or confidential information stored in their brain.

It helps in fighting against the following terrorist activities: • Determining who has participated in terrorist indirectly. • Identifying trained terrorist with potential to commit future terrorist acts. • Help to identify people who have knowledge or training in banking, finance or communications and who are associated with terrorist teams and acts. activities directly or

Typical applications include • • • • • • Visa applications Polygraph false-positive Corporate security Insurance fraud Security Clearances Computer hacking.

with early diagnosis, the progression

of Alzheimer's symptoms can often be delayed through medications and dietary and lifestyle Changes. • Using the very precise functioning technology, with this measurements of cognitive available

pharmaceutical companies will be able to determine more quickly the effects of their new medications and potentially speed FDA

Medical applications Research has now demonstrated that

approval. • The non-invasive nature of P300/MERMER testing technology and the simplicity of its administration will allow primary care physicians to monitor the progress of their patients in their own offices and adjust treatments accordingly.

analysis of the P300 brainwave can show dementia onset and progression. MERMER technology, developed and patented by Brain Fingerprinting Laboratories, includes the P300 brainwave and extends it, providing a more sensitive measure than the P300 alone.

An accurate, inexpensive and easy to test will for Alzheimer’s the and improve healthcare

administer dementia

process dramatically, and help improve the quality of life for millions of people. Advertising Applications

There is a new technology that allows us to measure scientifically if specific information, like a product brand, is retained in a person’s memory. Brain Fingerprinting testing adds a whole new dimension to the methods of measuring advertising

effectiveness, going well beyond subjective surveys and focus groups. The implications for the advertising Industry are very exciting.

Identify terrorists, members of gangs, criminal and intelligence information.

Discover criminal espionage and terrorist plots.

Provide cost effective approaches to investigations.

Identify accomplices.

ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES There are many advantages of Brain Fingerprinting. According to Farwell, this new development can: • Identify criminals quickly and scientifically. •

Exonerate the innocent. Provide investigators and

accused with an instant result.

CONCLUSION Brain Fingerprinting is a revolutionary new scientific technology for solving crimes, identifying perpetrators, and exonerating innocent suspects, with a record of 100% accuracy in research with US government agencies, actual criminal cases, and other applications. The technology fulfills an urgent need for governments, law enforcement agencies, corporations,

investigators, crime victims, and falsely accused innocent suspects.

REFERENCES/BIBLIOGRAPHY
• •

www.brainwavescience.com www.scribd.com/doc/37122802/brai n-fingerprinting-ppt