The OSI, or Open System Interconnection, model defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers. Control is passed from one layer to the next, starting at the application layer in one station, proceeding to the bottom layer, over the channel to the next station and back up the hierarchy. This layer supports application and end-user processes. Communication partners are identified, quality of service is identified, user authentication and privacy are considered, and any constraints on data syntax are identified. Everything at this layer is application-specific. This layer provides application services for file transfers, e-mail, and other network software services. Telnet and FTP are applications that exist entirely in the application level. Tiered application architectures are part of this layer.

Application (Layer 7)

This layer provides independence from differences in data representation (e.g., encryption) by translating from application to network format, and Presentation vice versa. The presentation layer works to transform data into the form (Layer 6) that the application layer can accept. This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network, providing freedom from compatibility problems. It is sometimes called the syntax layer. Session (Layer 5) Transport (Layer 4) Network (Layer 3) This layer establishes, manages and terminates connections between applications. The session layer sets up, coordinates, and terminates conversations, exchanges, and dialogues between the applications at each end. It deals with session and connection coordination. This layer provides transparent transfer of data between end systems, or hosts, and is responsible for end-to-end error recovery and flow control. It ensures complete data transfer. This layer provides switching and routing technologies, creating logical paths, known as virtual circuits, for transmitting data from node to node. Routing and forwarding are functions of this layer, as well as addressing, internetworking, error handling, congestion control and packet sequencing. At this layer, data packets are encoded and decoded into bits. It furnishes transmission protocol knowledge and management and handles errors in the physical layer, flow control and frame synchronization. The data link layer is divided into two sublayers: The Media Access Control (MAC) layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. The MAC sublayer controls how a computer on the network gains access to the data and permission to transmit it. The LLC layer controls frame synchronization, flow control and error checking. This layer conveys the bit stream - electrical impulse, light or radio signal -- through the network at the electrical and mechanical level. It provides the

Data Link (Layer 2)

Physical (Layer 1)

hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier, including defining cables, cards and physical aspects. Fast Ethernet, RS232, and ATM are protocols with physical layer components

To check the IP-address, use on the Start-menu the RUN-command to execute Windows95/98/ME = winipcfg To check the IP-address, use on the Start-menu the RUN-cmd to execute Windows 2000/NT/2003/XP... Enter at the command prompt enter ipconfig,

3 Hub, switch, what is difference
They look a lot alike: There is a row of RJ-45 jacks, sometimes called "ports." There may be some lights to tell you it's working. There will be some way to provide a electric power to it -- probably a "wall wart" transformer. The prices have even started to converge -- you can get a modest switch for little or no extra money vs. a similar hub. As you may have guessed, a hub is the simpler of the two. It simply connects all the devices on its "ports" together. A switch is a bit smarter; it understands when two devices (out of four, five, eight, sixteen, or even more) want to talk to each other, and gives them a switched connection.

What does "switched" mean?
A hub is like a CB radio, with devices constantly yelling "Breaker! Breaker!" and trying to talk around each other. A switched connection is like a private phone call. A switch is like a tiny telephone company that lets pairs of devices make direct connections. When you are using a switch, the only time you will see traffic from other devices is when it is (a) directed to the address of the machine you are using, or (b) when it is "broadcast" using your network's broadcast address (again, as discussed previously). So a switch is better, right? Well, for many purposes, yes. If you have six PC's, and you want to transfer some big files between two of them and still be able to use the other four for other things, a switch will make a big difference in performance. But if you want to install an intrusion detection device (or a network "sniffer") to learn about your

network, you won't see very much unless you use a hub. If you're a student trying to learn about network protocols or an administrator with security in your job description, putting a hub in the right place is the best way to do it.

A router is fundamentally a device with two network interfaces. What goes between them is merely a matter of detail. You can even simulate this with only one NIC by creating a virtual interface that has a different address; but a good router will have two physical NICs, plus something to transfer packets between them. The "something" can be a Linux PC configured for IP forwarding; a Windows PC running a product such as Sybergen's Sygate Home Network; but if you're doing serious work, it will be a specialized chunk of hardware and software from a company such as Cisco. PCs aren't the best choice for this because processing an "interrupt" for each packet to be handled is a lot of work for a PC-class CPU. A good example of a router is a so-called cable modem. It is a actually a router, with one interface on the cable company's LAN, and the other on your home LAN. In my case, that means one connector is a cable TV connector (it's called an "F" connector; it is not the BNC connector used by "thinwire Ethernet"). The one I'm using offers a choice betwwen a standard RJ-45 and a USB connection on the PC side. Different cable companies handle things differently; in my case, when I set up the cable modem, it used DHCP to get a dynamic address from the cable company, and passed it along to my PC. Assuming you're using Windows 9x, you can configure your PC to "get an IP address automatically", reboot (of course), and then run a command called winipcfg to see what address the tiny DHCP server inside the cable modem has given you. In Windows 2000, pick Start, Run, cmd to get a command line window, then run ipconfig. If you want to share your cable connection with more than one PC, you will need another router. That can take different forms depending on your level of experience, your enthusiasm, and your budget. These are alternatives -- you only need one:

4 To install add on cards in personal computer:
In windows xp is plug and play.automatically dedect the driver.

Step1:For win 2000 1.Go to my computer. 2.Right click my computer 3.click properties 4.click the hardware tab 5.click the device manager 6 click action, scan for hardware changes 7.If any new hardware found .give the proper location for the device driver. OR step 2: 1 click start 2. settings 3. Control Panel 4.Add/Remove Hardware 5 If you want to un install the existing hard ware to uninstall or add new hardware select the device . 6. Give the driver location.

Steps: 1.Go to my computer. 2.Right click my computer 3.click properties

4.click the hardware tab 5.click the device manage 6.Check under network adapter. 7 There is no exclamation mark before the network card.

6.The tool in winxp/2000 can be used to verify the status of driver installation? Device Manager

7.Differentiate LAN ,WAN,MAN.?

local area network:
A local area network (LAN) is a group of computers and associated devices that share a common communications line or wireless link and typically share the resources of a single processor or server within a small geographic area (for example, within an office building). Usually, the server has applications and data storage that are shared in common by multiple computer users. A local area network may serve as few as two or three users (for example, in a home network) or as many as thousands of users (for example, in an FDDI network). Major local area network technologies are: Ethernet Token Ring FDDI Ethernet is by far the most commonly used LAN technology. A number of corporations use the Token Ring technology. FDDI is sometimes used as a backbone LAN interconnecting Ethernet or Token Ring LANs. Another LAN technology, ARCNET, once the most commonly installed LAN technology, is still used in the industrial automation industry. Typically, a suite of application programs can be kept on the LAN server. Users who need an application frequently can download it once

and then run it from their local hard disk. Users can order printing and other services as needed through applications run on the LAN server. A user can share files with others at the LAN server; read and write access is maintained by a LAN administrator. A LAN server may also be used as a Web server if safeguards are taken to secure internal applications and data from outside access. In some situations, a wireless LAN may be preferable to a wired LAN because it is cheaper to install and maintain.

wide area network:
A wide area network (WAN) is a geographically dispersed telecommunications network. The term distinguishes a broader telecommunication structure from a local area network (LAN). A wide area network may be privately owned or rented, but the term usually connotes the inclusion of public (shared user) networks. An intermediate form of network in terms of geography is a metropolitan area network (MAN).

Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs)
A Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is one of a number of types of networks (see also LAN and WAN). A MAN is a relatively new class of network, it serves a role similar to an ISP, but for corporate users with large LANs. There are three important features which discriminate MANs from LANs or WANs: 1. The network size falls intermediate between LANs and WANs. A MAN typically covers an area of between 5 and 50 km diameter. Many MANs cover an area the size of a city, although in some cases MANs may be as small as a group of buildings or as large as the North of Scotland. 2. A MAN (like a WAN) is not generally owned by a single organisation. The MAN, its communications links and equipment are generally owned by either a consortium of users or by a single network provider who sells the service to the users. This level of service provided to each user must therefore be negotiated with the MAN operator, and some performance guarantees are normally specified. 3. A MAN often acts as a high speed network to allow sharing of regional resources (similar to a large LAN). It is also frequently used to provide a shared connection to other networks using a link to a WAN. A typical use of MANs to provide shared access to a wide area network is shown in the figure below:

Use of MANs to provide regional networks which share the cost of access to a WAN

8. Which cable should I used to connect two computers directiy?

Cross over cable:
A direct cable connection is a link between the input/output (I/O) ports of two computers by using a single cable rather than a modem or other interfacing device. In most cases, you make a direct cable connection with a null modem cable. You can use a direct cable connection to transfer information between the computers to exchange files, access resources, and so on.

9.What are the steps to be Followed to make two computers communicate with each other? I
1 There should be Net work card in both computers. 2.Make sure that both the network card are installed properly 3.connect the pc using a cross over cable or a hub in between 4.Give the static ip address to both the computers 5.ping the computers from command prompt to check whether both computers communicate. 6. Enabling the file sharing in both the computers.

10. How to check the MAC address of a network card in windows os?
Go to command prompt and type ipconfig/all .It will show the physical address of the card which is the MAC address.

11. Static IP Address
A Static IP Address is a number assigned to a computer by an Internet Service Provider (ISP) to be its permanent address on the Internet. Static IP Addresses allow for Web hosting locally at home or the office and are used for remote access over the Internet. Static IP Addresses do not work with analog dial-up connections. Dynamic IP Address A Dynamic IP Address is a number or protocol used to connect to a network. As the name implies, dynamic addressing uses a different IP address each time a connection is verified via the Internet.

12. DNS
Domain Name Server- A system used to translate hostnames like USR.COM to a numeric Internet address. The DNS will also provide naming for clients as well as hosts.

13 MAC Address
The MAC (Media Access Control) address is your computer's hardware number on your local area network (LAN). When connected to the Internet from your computer, a correspondence table relates your IP address to your computer's physical (MAC) address on the LAN. IP Address All computers on the Internet use an IP address for identification purposes. The format of this address is three dots and four groups of numbers. There is a network number, host number, and a subnet address. i.e. 1.22.333.44

14. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
A Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is a protocol used for assigning dynamic IP addresses to a device on a network. DHCP simplifies network administration because the software keeps a log of IP addresses and in doing so, allows an administrator to add computers to a network without the hassle of manually assigning a unique IP address each time.

DNS Domain Name Server- A system used to translate hostnames like USR.COM to a numeric Internet address. The DNS will also provide naming for clients as well as hosts. WINS The Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) has been enhanced for the release of Windows® 2000 Server. The result is an easier-tomanage and more robust solution for mapping NetBIOS names to IP addresses on TCP/IP networks. Windows 2000 WINS includes server enhancements, additional client functions, and an improved management tool. WINS provides a distributed database for registering and querying dynamic computer name-to-IP address mapping in a routed network environment. This support for dynamic registering of NetBIOS computer names means that WINS can be used with DHCP services to provide easy configuration and administration of Windows-based TCP/IP networks. The WINS server solves the problems inherent in resolving NetBIOS names through IP broadcasts, and frees network administrators from the demands of updating static mapping files, such as LMHOST files. WINS, which is compliant with the NetBIOS Name Server (NBNS) RFCs (1001/1002), also automatically updates the WINS database when dynamic addressing through DHCP results in new IP addresses for computers that move between subnets. Neither the user nor the network administrator needs to make manual accommodations for such name resolutions. The new implementation of WINS provides a number of features including support for persistent connections, manual tombstoning, improved management tools, enhanced filtering and record searching, increased fault tolerance, and dynamic re-registration. This new generation of WINS services is designed to make many network management tasks much easier for network managers.

15.Is there any way to check if the network card is working fine with out connecting in to a net work?
Self ping: ping the ip address of the same machine.

16 IP Address
All computers on the Internet use an IP address for identification purposes. The format of this address is three dots and four groups of numbers. There is a network number, host number, and a subnet address. i.e. 1.22.333.44
o o

Components of an ip address:
Network Identifier (Network ID): A certain number of bits, starting from the left-most bit, is used to identify the network where the host or other network interface is located. This is also sometimes called the network prefix or even just the prefix. Host Identifier (Host ID): The remainder of the bits are used to identify the host on the network.


17 What are the three main class of ip addresses used.?
Class A, Class B, Class C.

18.What is a private ip address?
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved the following three blocks of the IP address space for private internets (local networks): - - - Also, IP addresses in the range of - are reserved for Automatic Private IP Addressing. These IP's should not be used on the Internet. I usually use,, etc. and a subnet mask of when assigning static IP addresses to computers on a small Local Area Networks (LANs). If a DHCP server is also on the LAN it's scope (range of IP addresses that it can assign to computers on the LAN set to obtain their IP addresses automatically) should be adjusted so it does not interfere with locally assigned static IP addresses.

19. How can check the connectivity between two computers?
Use the ping command.

20. DNS
Domain Name Server- A system used to translate hostnames like USR.COM to a numeric Internet address. The DNS will also provide naming for clients as well as hosts.

21. What are the two types of resolution in Dns?
Forward lookup-> Provides name to ip address translation Reverse lookup-> Provides ip address to name translation.

22 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

A Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is a protocol used for assigning dynamic IP addresses to a device on a network. DHCP simplifies network administration because the software keeps a log of IP addresses and in doing so, allows an administrator to add computers to a network without the hassle of manually assigning a unique IP address each time.

23 Can I have a static ip address for an particular computer in a dhcp based network? What are my option?
Yes you can . You have two option. 1. Set a static ip for the network adapter. 2. Add an address reservation to the MAC address for the net work adapter in the DHCPserver. 24 Can you give me an example of devices opersating in physical data link and network data layers? Physical-A hub or a repeter, Data link – A switch Network – A router

25 What devise is used to connect two different subnets?

26 What is NAT?
When you have a dynamic IP address from this block of internal IP addresses, and you request information from the Internet, your internal address really doesn't mean much outside of your ISP's network. It would be like calling someone in another country and saying "Call me back at 123456." Without an area code, this information is useless. (Actually, the Internet takes this one step further: if you use one of these reserved internal IP addresses to make your request, most routers handling Internet traffic will completely ignore, or "drop" the message.) In order for this traffic to get through, these addresses need to be translated from the internal IP address to a valid IP address. When a response is received, your ISP "remembers" where it came from and sends it back to you. This also helps secure your network by hiding the true IP addresses of your computers. What is DNS? When your computer needs to locate another computer on the Internet, it contacts a Domain Name Server (DNS) to find out the IP address, so the two computers can communicate directly. If that DNS server doesn't know, it contacts other DNS servers until the IP address is located. The address is passed back down to your computer, and it uses the correct IP address to communicate directly. Wireless networking operates on many of the same principles as conventional networking.

Hardware details:
RAM Random Access Memory. Memory that is available for use when the modem is turned on, but that clears of all information when the power is turned off. The modem's RAM holds the current operational settings, a flow control buffer, and a command buffer. Hub A hub is a place where data arrives from one or more directions and is forwarded out in one or more other directions. A hub - sometimes called a switch - is typically defined as the location where data comes together. A switch (if distinguished from a hub) is a networking tool designed to determine how and where data is forwarded from the place where data comes together.

Bluetooth Bluetooth is a computing and telecommunications industry specification that describes how mobile phones, computers, and personal digital assistants (PDAs) such as a PalmPilot - can easily interconnect with each other. This technology is used with home and business phones as well as computers via a wireless connection. Buffer A memory area used as temporary storage during input and output operations. An example is the modem's command buffer. Another is the Transmit Data flow control buffer used for flow control and to store copies of transmitted frames until they are positively acknowledged by the receiving modem. Client A computer that connects to a server which exchanges information Dedicated Line A user-installed telephone line used to connect a specified number of computers or terminals within a limited area, for example, one building. The line is a cable rather than a public-access telephone line. The communications channel may also be referred to as nonswitched because calls do not go through telephone company switching equipment. Digital Signals Discrete, uniform signals. In this manual, the term refers to the binary digits 0 and 1 Domain A subsection of the internet of an IP address which is most commonly used to refer to a group of computers whose hostnames share a common suffix: the domain name. The primary domains are: .COM, .ORG, .NET, .MIL. firewall A system set up to monitor and block certain types of traffic between a network or networks and the internet. This is mainly set up for security reasons, to prohibit unauthorized access of confidential information. Gateway A system by which two incompatible networks or applications can communicate with each other. Modem The word modem is actually an acronym for modulate and demodulate. A modem is a serial device that modulates the computer’s digital data into analog signals compatible with the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) to communicate over an analog telephone line and demodulates analog signals into digital data to communicate with the computer. USB Universal Serial Bus - Specification for increasing serial bus throughput.

Networking Essentials Notes
Network Architectures
• • • • • • •

Baseband signaling. Linear or star-bus topology. Usually transmits at 10 Mbps with 100 Mbps possible. Uses CSMA/CD for traffic regulation. IEEE specification 802.3. Uses thicknet, thinnet or UTP cabling Media is passive => it draws power from the computer

Ethernet Frames
Ethernet breaks data into frames. A frame can be from 64 to 1,518 bytes long in total. The ethernet frame itself takes up 18 bytes, so the actual data can be from 46 to 1,500 bytes.
• • • •

Preamble: marks the start of a frame. Destination and Source: addressing information. Type: Identifies network layer protocol. CRC: error checking data.

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Ethernet Topologies 10 Mbps Topologies
o o o o o o

(10 = 10 Mbps; Base= Baseband; T = Twisted Pair) 10 Mbps, baseband over UTP. Usually wired in a physical star with a hub or multiport repeater. Internally it uses a bus signaling system like other Ethernet configurations Maximum segment length 100 meters (328 feet). Minimum between computers 2.5 meters (8 feet). 1024 nodes maximum on the LAN

o o o

Category 3, 4 or 5 UTP. RJ-45 connectors, 4 twisted pair. Coaxial or Fiber backbone for larger LAN's

10BaseT UTP NETWORK LAYOUT Limitations
• •

maximum segment length of 100 Meters Hub to Hub or repeater to repeater links limited to 100 Meters

• • •

star topology 4 repeater/5 segment rule of 10Base5 is retained only two nodes per segment are allowed

• •

RJ-45 Connectors Category 3 UTP minimum, preferably Category 5

o o o o o o o

(10 = 10 Mbps; Base= Baseband; 2 = 2x 100 meters) 10 Mbps, baseband over thinnet. Uses bus topology. Maximum segment length 185 meters (607 feet). Minimum between computers 0.5 meters (20 inches). Maximum of 30 computers per segment. Obeys 5-4-3 rule: Five segments, joined by four repeaters, 3 populated giving a total length of 925 meters (3035 feet).

Physical Bus Cable Limits 10Base2 THIN ETHERNET NETWORK LAYOUT Limitations
• • • • •

maximum number of trunk segments = 5 maximum trunk segment length = 607 feet (185 meters) maximum network trunk cable = 3035 feet (925 meters) maximum number of stations on a trunk segment = 30 minimum distance between T connectors = 1.5 feet (0.5 meters)

• • •

each end of the trunk segment is terminated in 50-ohms one of the terminators is grounded connector splices are kept to a minimum

• • •

BNC-T type connectors RG58-AU 50-ohm cable, 0.2" Note that you can't mix RG58 /AU and RG58 /U cable on the same network.


o o o o

o o o o o o o

(10 = 10 Mbps; Base= Baseband; 5 = 5 x 100 meters) 10 Mbps, baseband over thicknet. Also called Standard Ethernet Designed to support a backbone for a large department or building. Transceivers attach to the thicknet cable and the cable AUI connector plugs into a repeater . The branching segments of thinnet plug into the repeater and connect to the computers on the network. Uses bus topology. Maximum segment length 500 meters. Minimum between transceivers 2.5 meters (8 feet) 100 computers per segment, 300 per network. Obeys 5-4-3 rule: maximum distance can be extended to 2500 meters (8200 ft) using 4 repeaters and 3 populated segments. Transceiver is attached to main segment with a vampire tap. DIX or AUI connector is used to attach the transceiver to the network card. Maximum computer to transceiver distance is 50 meters. This distance is not included in the 5-4-3 calculation.

10Base-5 Summary
Maximum segment length
• •

500m (1640 ft)

Speed Maximum taps Maximum segments Maximum repeaters Maximum segment with nodes

Typically used as backbone to connect Thinnetbased network. 10 Mbps 100
• • • •

5 4 3 Due to attenuation, only 3 of 5 segments can

actually contain network connection. Other 2 segments can be used to connect the network over long distance. Maximum nodes 100 per segment Maximum nodes 300 for network Minimum distance 2.5m (8 ft) between nodes Maximum overall length with 2.5 km repeaters Maximum AUI 50m drop cable length

1. 10Base-F? o (10 = 10 Mbps; Base= Baseband; FL =fibre optic) o Allows long cable runs between repeaters, like between buildings o Maximum segment length 2000 meters. o 10BaseFL - Used for linking computers in a LAN environment. o 10BaseFP - Used for linking computers with passive hubs from maximum cable distance up to 500m o 10BaseFB - Used as a backbone between hubs. o Baseband signal over a fiber-optic cable. o Need concentrator (fiber-optic hub) ® Star wired (star topology) . Either active or passive o Long distance. o Very expensive. Difficult to install. Maximum Maximum Maximum Maximum Maximum Maximum
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segment length - 2000m segments- 1024 segment with nodes- 1024 nodes per segment- 1 nodes per network- 1024 hubs in a chain- 4

100 Mbps Topologies

100VG-AnyLAN (IEEE 802.12)

o o o o o o o o o o


100 Mbps data rate. Star topology over Category 3, 4 and 5 UTP. Uses demand priority access. Combines element of traditional Ethernet and Token Ring and supports Ethernet and token ring packets. Faster than Ethernet Demand priority access method => two priority levels, low and high Intelligent hubs can filter individually addressed frames for enhanced privacy. Expensive Uses RJ-45. Cable - require 4 pairs wire  Categories 3, 4 UTP- 100m  Category 5 UTP - 150m  Fiber-optic- 2000m Uses star topology and defines how child hub can be connected to a parent hub to extend the network.

Minimum length between nodes - 2.5m Maximum segments- 1024 Maximum nodes per segment- 1 Maximum nodes for network- 1024

100BaseT? (Fast Ethernet) o Uses CSMA/CD on a star-wired bus. o There are 3 specifications:  100BaseT4: Uses pair category 3, 4 or 5 UTP.  100BaseTX: Uses 2-pair category 5 UTP or STP.  100BaseFX: Uses 2-strand fiber-optic.

Ethernet Frame types
Ethernet 802.2 - NetWare 3.12 and 4.x - IEEE 802.3 standard compliance. Includes field in Ethernet 802.3 and LLC (Logical Link Control) Ethernet 802.3 - NetWare 3.11 and before Includes CRC Ethernet SNAP (SubNetwork Address Protocol) - AppleTalk

Ethernet II - TCP/IP

• •

Can be performed with bridges or routers. Reduces traffic on network segments to increase performance.

Token Ring
• • • • • • • • • • •

IEEE 802.5 specification. Star wired ring topology (logical ring) Uses token passing access method. Can have higher transmission speeds than Ethernet It has larger frames than Ethernet => more can get transferred over the wire in any given time. Uses IBM STP Types 1, 2 and 3 cabling. (Can be UTP) Transmits at 4 and 16 Mbps. (16 Mbps cards will slow down to 4 Mbps if put on that kind of network, but the 4 Mbps cards can't speed up. Baseband transmission Data travels in one direction only Each computer acts as a unidirectional repeater Deterministic method of cable access. Computers cannot use the cable unless they have the token. Therefore, computers can't force their way onto the network like CSMA/CD (Ethernet) First computer online is assigned to monitor network activity.

Token Ring Components
• • • • • •

• • •

Multistation Access Units (MAU's) Multistation Access Units (MSAU's) Smart Multistation Access Units (SMAU's) Computers attach directly to the MSAU in a physical star to form a logical ring. Each MSAU has 10 connection ports ==> can support 8 clients with 2 ports for ring in and ring out. Each ring can have as many as 33 MSAU's o 70 computers with UTP o 260 computers with STP. Up to 12 MSAU's can connect to each other The MSAU can sense if a computer is down and then disconnect it from the ring => built-in fault tolerance Cabling o Most token ring systems use IBM type 3 cabling. o STP or UTP to a hub, IBM type 1,2,3 cable  Type 1: 101m from MSAU to PC


STP: 100m from MSAU to PC UTP: 45m from MSAU to PC Type 3: 150 feet from MSAU to PC Token ring networks are well suited to fiber optic cable: data travels in only one direction in it.
  

Here are some limitations of Token Ring:
• • • • •

The maximum number of workstations is 260 on Type 1 or fiber optic cable at 16 Mbps. The maximum number of workstations is 72 on Type 3 cable at 4 Mbps. The distance between MSAUs (Multistation Access Units) is 100 meters (Type 1 cabling) to 45 meters (Type 2 cabling). Each ring can have up to 33 MSAUs. Maximum distance of the ring is 4 kilometers with fiber optic cable.

Token Ring and Ethernet Comparison Token Ring
• • • • •

can have higher transmission speeds than Ethernet supports more computers on a single segment (up to 260) more expensive than Ethernet harder to install than Ethernet is more fault tolerant because of the beaconing process

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local talk o CSMA/CA access method o 3 things happen when devices attached 1. device assigns itself an address randomly 2. device broadcasts the address to see if it's used 3. if not, the device will use it the next time it's online again o bus or tree o STP o max. 32 devices Apple share o file server on an AppleTalk network o divided into zones EtherTalk o 802.3 o allows protocols to run on ethernet coaxial cable TokenTalk

o o

802.5 allows Macintosh to connect to token ring network

• •

• • • • •

IEEE 802.4 specification - almost Cable o Uses RG-62 (93 ohm) (most common)or o RG-59 (75ohm) coaxial cable. o Can also use UTP. Uses token passing on a star-bus topology. Token moves from computer to computer in numerical order. Transmits at 2.5 Mbps. ArcNet plus - 20 Mbps connected by cable to hub o 93 ohm RG-62 A/U - 610m max., star o 93 ohm RG-62 A/U - 305m max., bus <= notice less distance on hub o RJ-11, RJ-45 UTP - max. 244m on star or bus Hubs can be o Passive => merely relay signal o Active => regenerate and relay signal o Smart => add diagnostic features, such as reconfiguration detection

Here are some limitations of ARCNet:
• • • • • • • •

Bus segment length for coaxial cable is a maximum of 1000 feet, with a limit of 8 workstations per coaxial segment. Bus segment length for twisted pair is a maximum of 400 feet, with a limit of 10 workstations per twisted-pair segment. There is a maximum of 255 workstations per network. Workstations can be located up to 600 feet from the active hub. The maximum distance from passive hubs to active hubs is 100 feet; the maximum distance between two active hubs is 2000 feet. The maximum distance allowed between workstations is 20,000 feet. There can be no more than four workstations on a passive hub, no more than 100 feet from a hub. Passive hubs cannot be connected to other passive hubs.

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