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For the era ill whicl th.. lived the B'y'zantin.es had a y '~I", 1.• h ·m' remarxa hIy . lOP' hi ucatecd a pipiroa.e.. to! pon· ti"' cs a:n.I d IS '. .:I, mil] tary S' ra t e',gy " U nlik mos t of their co 11.''''' efficiency was the best ... organized, best rained, temp oraries, 'they learn t very '. ar Iyin, thei If his tory best-equipped ,2ILD.,d. -, tigh st-paid in '[hie known tha t W' in 01" na ~ ba ,j~,,·;al' d""~"_not n--;' ecessa 'fe'l·"ly.:.-· ·w·- ,; n W'::'.·· ar ; d ", .,. 'W:· 0" ·'r-'ld·.' U and th ey frequently bought 0 £(' their enemies with treaties and bribes rather than squander mi.n and n!'(lte}~iet fun potentially fruitless. campaigns '.' ..]s ' t1 ough, even as early as, th e 6th, cen tury, th h'i~r rian Pro copius had shrewdly 19b1~:H.~r",.\d, t the o tha payment of tribute to one type of enemy e n,-, co, rs ged the aggression of another, still the overall success of this policy is well-tes ified 'by the Empi ~e" survival, despite its, limited '~n,cJ,np,ower 8 and frelqu,;f;nt in' ernal dissension, right up to I4,53,,, Besid 8, sine another aspect of Byzantin diplomacy was the :pla:ylli-n.g 0 fr of on :n'e!'ln'y against another - tile attraction of additioi al foes was 0: 111y rar ly a problem which. gold and honours, falsified 1 'tt' ers lor sponsored revolts could not solve andth .. "m.per,ors first-: lass in' elligence service, .he ···ffice •... • ,O!"'iiiif Bar.. u,1Il .a.... bari ans, 1~" kept h im. W,' 11 ;::a1'b"1If"'~~II!V't 01'['" current 'moods, and trends at all times, ,". ~, th e'. ..E'.... ,. .,.w, Ia .p. ". '.mpire's C'O",n' tern pora r'-~ ,~ did n . always und •.rstand th complex motives of'plot and ·· count er... plot,.. flattery and threat, which were , :d" ." essentia '-1. ,'1ngr,e uet ts 0 fB•',yz,am.1tln. POI1" '" an d most mcs, tended I~O re gard th di plomatic manoeuvres and skullduggery of the Iianperor and his ambassadors as underhand and .we-faced (which it was) wi t~ lout appreciating its true poli tico ... military value, c "he c'-,ad. pres>" that Byzantium has, received :rom historians and chroni clers OVI er 'It 11; las," 'Jl1.I'.c usand ye ars has done little ~JO enhanc its reputa tion. to tl i e -.,o~' t Wl1 re even tod a:y tortuous n and. underhand behaviour itssometimes described ,as,.Byzan tine' Bu _agai nst this backdrop of decei and in rrigue
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tl: .. re is 'one essential fact that mus no be e forgot en ~.' la'. such a policy of threat and bribery inev 'ita .bly pl.ir\.¥:u'p'posed ~,stron g me. ilitary.. estab ,,'JILJllI~ ... ..' " ~I'~!C-"hl¥~l U, ment, "he' Byzantine ar.my of ,.11" roth and, early I m centuries, at tili. height of .~.'~,th power and.
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Although the Byzantines clung tenaciously to their .oman heritag , in a, grea many respects (they ren conti n ued to". c·a·III II h m '~IG!!11 v·ea R· ,11';!IJm·'(11:() or .. · -. 1Il. Romans) ,ar~myorganiza ion 'was 110t on! . of them and as early as, th lat 16th or' early ,'tb cent u,nry~ when the '- mpier-or -'.'auric "s milii ary manual, the Strasegiam, appeared, hardly a vestige remained of the old Roman military S,YS'I_e.m" The organization which ,..... .aurice's work outlined remained practically' unchange d unti] at 1. ast . he late m: century oth and probab Y' U·P' until about a century la' er than tha . and it is repeat ed almost verbatim in, another mih ary manual . he: famous Taaica, written at the 'b,egilr},:nin.g~ f the roth century (c., '9OS) by Empe Tor o 'Leo ' I the ,,'.•Ise. he basic unit for bo th lea valry and infantry in -,eo:s day was' hi Oana()1! alt rnatively called in the earlier I: 'tr,ll,trdgi'cOrl a tagma or tlnlnmos (the latter a straight translat ~ "I-to Greek of the Latin nume0-11. rus).. " be .erm ha n don itself 'was, er ~,v,e!(l rom, tile' f '. ermar word fOf':81 banner, and b ars wi ness eo the foreign in"ft;ue'n,;c' prevalen in, the army as the time that this particular typ of unit evolved ill the 6th cent U:fJ' " In [antry banda consist ed of sixteen lochagkitti'.- eac h of six een men command ed by an officer called. a lo,cnaglzfJs or "fi~ieleader"; 11,-" 'was assisted by a de;karchos,-l.· ader of ten', a, pentarchos, leader of five', a tetrarchas, "1., ader of four - and an '()u/fagh()s~ .file closer '1.', a ch four Iochaghiai conS' _i tuted an ,alltl;gni'o'n or '.winglet '~tl es.e ,~ere usually paired Oif[. n h} avy infantry units three-quart rs of tbe men were spearmen called skutatfJi and onequar te Ir' we .w.~ archers.~I, - a:' he rch pres m a blv 11 organized as, a Slep'alnr,.te lochaghia within each allaghion o,r as a, 8 p'ar, t.·· aJJa,g'hioln .. Liig'ht infantry and 10 ill"tl.ards,m" In WQul,-I, ·not. l~,a"e ,11,a,d tll,e 'Spl~t Ie' -Wl-:e:n, sp .a'rm-fl, ~lnid,~tlrcl1.eI"s~ : co,nsis,t lO,n,g instead of on~y OD'e. tfioopl-.'t}rp'e ," it l1.atS even 'bi ~en s'L~.gg'es·_ed 'dJ.at lig:h.'t i,nfantry och,agbia'i :m'mg'ht 1 ,a\_'e ,oomp ..ised, IOn~,),.eight m.ll} rathl r 'than. sixJteen,. ,,-: th.e time 'when tl,e' "'Itl'at'egi'con 'Mas, writ en t c~R'valliry b,a:o,da had. bile. n s,u,bclivid,ccl in'~o tIlr ..•. hekat(fntat(;hitl~ e~ch oo·m.moanlded 'by a hekat(Jnta1'{;i~()s of wh,o:m fhe se.ni,or ,aJ~' as, ~I-(;oni(:l.,.~'n'8com:n1and ed ;and, 'Nas e:aU,ed ,~l1. illa,,:nes, th .. b:an.d 0 n_ comn.1,ancler-in both ilnfao'£ry ,and, ca:v:alry u,:ni!s,,~
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being call ed a" kames or coun _ B",' 'Leo_I -8, day ~ ., however, the 11,.ka' ion' archion had disappeared and " 1.' band on, was divided ins' ead into six allaghia (probably commanded by' officers call d. pt;ntekt)n,toJ~:cl~ai),. These were g',en,erally paired off as i11 the fun Iantry bandon and each pia ir was still commanded by a hekatentarchos (101'" k{j,nt(lJfcl~rJ.s)., 'Each ofthe six allaghia had fifty men, organized in five d6'karc.lti'ai of ten men each, com prising d ekarchos pentarchos, tetrarch 08,- ouraghos and six, men, On the battlefield ,_ e cava I-"y dekarchia h usually formed up in, two fillies five-deep with, the d ..karchos and P ntarchos in. the front rank followed by a rank. of Iancers, then two ranks 0'" arch ers, and finally the tetrarchos and ouraghos closing the files; all four officers were lancers. ',asi calm y _ tl ei by the b"egin'nin,g of th r oth century the standard infantry unit consisted of2'5t5. m. n (sixteen .imes sixteen) and file sta ndard cavalry uni 0:f300 (six times. fifty} but the manuals advise U' that unit "~r ength could "11 fact vary r between '2100 and, +00... hose in excess 0, official s·rength were apparently not usually 'taken "IT~O action and orobablv accounted for wounded ,1,11.'d sick m ..n and horses and raw recruits ~It se ms more proba le anyway tha units g,el1er,almy, , ook th field und 1"""', rath r than OV'eI"-" streng hv Standardbearers, musicians, and officers abov the 'rank of lochaghos and dekarchos do not ,a'ppe.ar to included in th ese fi zures. One of -mperor-ik.'epl:h,orolS -'(!5 works (ruled '963,~969) indicat '- that by the second ha f of th m century , be cavalry bandon could ill fact 'e oth only "rlfty' st ong, but this is quite ,.rrobably a slip '0:' the pe:fi and it Siems 'more likely that til,.. allaghion ' is m ant, , Iowever. it ';8, no imnossible .•na,'1 the ~. l term bal! dot might hav e changed its meaning 'fuml '~he sixty~od,d, years since Leo h,avd writt-n., 0,'- 0 tWO:'OUfC,-S a]sol implly tl1_,at 'bi}' 'th -lat~. ro,'£lhl celm.tu,ry ,he: s.:m,aJlest infantnr;r 'unit :m:· 'y hav,e 'been t 1\1. r,at'h!e 'llar ,sixt'. 11, m ..·n, (wi_h, ,~U1, ,a:rlclller:: sp!arm,ell ratiol .of ,3:'7') , ·tho!u.g.ich ael 'p~u::n us.: ICIl'f(J.'no8;1tl/)hiawri ten, in, 'th,e I,at~,t 'qllart ir of 'till ' I m: ·th c, IlL ury': still '" o:Jilg".' ,~, ~~r.sto' ~l'il..)!'" ~e'n' -m' .. ~"In 10'1'> h" .m.. .''h"" ,.-.. a h."'gh. Ir le~\fel Ic,a,\laMry (an,d, :presum,ably
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urv Arab writer recorded that 'd. ematic troops r':" W f" paid only' once ev'[ery three r '.' rs, or In som a case every four, five or even six years; Oom taurine Porphyrogenitus says that thematic '~OO'P5 wer PlfP divided into ~o:urgliOUpS each paid once every our , 'a'--;;:, ~UI L at hi was ", h oldiIY·Z,BUl1· ine soldiers appear 'to' have be-en gen ..r,a Ily' ' r~~ .J[Ju.'l.,.',-o'!l,", ~, Y'\.,.', b t '1hla ex' 1 DC' IUl,~ _ IU.l_:.a:,_,(..~~ ~l pa~rr, --I e sou Fees In,d~ _ t har b elD a'l-~ practice', without enlightening 'us as to what the' '.d h ~ rca e . '/III J!l , c. (pi ovincial) tr-oops received one or ():n· and a hal .: normal practice was in his own. day, 'his ' ... eems to nomismaia ('g··.'[o~(jl coins weig' hing M /7Q' of'a P ound) per mean that th nna troops served for a fu.mm 'Y',t::,ar on. month th refore twelve to,eighteen nomisma a or a rota basis one "V' .ry thn e '0 sit years" so that a M /6,-, 14 of'a po und of gold, pierannum, n addition I' smal] oar' 0, .: regular troops 'was available at alI thema til,(; sole L Irs also had grants 10- land, which times. , :It rnativ ly it may Indicate a, S,U,PI'e. [947' Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus decreed plemen ary payment made at periodic training lor must be worth ar .m~. ~ two ~ .• ds 0:.'1:," gold (If - mspectron musters, least pioun .Ii .' JJi~l ta) lor. . '.:;--."'--.'. S···~.&··" '. . . (,>, nd, POSSl ,. Y"'. c. ..-"a . nomlsm,a_a.. m.p. M"1, eamen ann, [-,.ssibh In addition soldi as ry (~I"'V[ d ra tions during .' .,ur'.,. --.. .""" ta) Ie:, -"" mrantrym n. (.n.. ()UI,PO'UD!.;Sd ..-. ('" '8'8" .normsmata .. ~,O][ actix e service, and occasional special boun ires and l .2.,._,
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a shar of the spoils taken on campaign, while disabled In. n rl ceived a pensior ~,and widows of men killed in action some imes received cornpensation in he form of'a lump sum (five pounds 10' go,md in the 19'. h century] Rates ofpay or officers in eo ·· '-s,re~g~n, .. l were as, fol]O'W· '!I;,;L_"",k a rch.... ,rec '~I~v'Ad'-1 one P ound ," ·g,··,\if"j;,l-,d··· P.... ~1. er u ' ., '. ,,' .... ....~ _ annum (','2 nomismata}; pentekontarchai (commanders 'Of fifty) two pounds; kometes (bandon comm an lers) three pounds; fl th, -class s,trateg,rJi 'or 'generals', five pounds: fourth-clasa stra lego.~ (the naval commanders of'the ....••.. ibyrrhaiots, Samos and Aegean 'Pie,aghos ,.. hemes} ten, pounds ; ' hird-claas strategoi, '_ wen,'~ pounds: second-class s .rategoi Y' thirty pounds ,; and, first-class .trategoi, forty' pounds C2'),8ao nomismata) Salaries of hekaton ... .. ~ d t' ch tare h aes, motrarcr h.ai ann '.urmarc ta ~ ,81:[1- '1.110'1, '(I .... cord ~l:_·ed those '0' C'-' the ll.~ ,t, er ,r'"-'ab,·ab .-l·y' '!Il;'1"a'"-:-.!ng.· ~ .. nr r ¥" depending on 'what ,grad,!e of g'en,eral thr -ry served under, ~ hese salaries only apply '0 th ... ·as'-.,rn · Th rn S anyway, and officers of tl 'e'.cs,1t,ern, Themes probably receive d lower P1at,Y: drawn, from provincial ',:8l-Xf8 rather than coming directly from rbe Imperial 1~ easury,
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dubious; certainly the pictorial sources do not encourag e us. to believe' so, But there is,little doubt that the quality of such equipment as 'was issued was of a 'vlel.)!' 'high, standard, and it is WOi[' h q Doting titleshrewd observations of a' acolon I .. caurn nus e :hold er of various mili '31:ry P osts in the as er TIll m '""from his own Strategicoft ,0'"e", I 0'70:' 'Above 1~'l11.''I,: writes, 10i nsist that your horsemen have goo _, m,QU.D.'S. and complete and well-kept equipment, ,and saddle-girths and, boots, that fit, ::01' .>,OU can be sure that a horseman with a goold, horse, a smart uniform and, good quality weapons 'will, if he's brave ~become doubly so" or=if timid-vwi I tak: courag . and do his dt, Bu ifhe is, 'badly equipped with too big a saddle, 'boots that don" fit" and, a good ... ... for nothing horse, then Y'oU, can bejust as S:U'f1:: ~11Lat however brave he may 'be the only 'thing 'b, .will 'be thinking of is how 0' save his own skin, 'by taking I~ '.' I .' " .... ah" a', -'t the ,1IC:'r·<-,t 0-' 'p~'-';pi""'" tuni y,.' ') .', ,W"il
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'~'" are: amply provided with detailed information e on arms. and armour of this period b1y the various surviving military manuals and documents ; uid large numbers 0 ~ cont ':mpo;r;aryillustrations ..,~'f om thes .... is clear that t~hl three main forms of armour il in, 'USI' . 'W', r mail, scale and lame Iar, with lamellar predominating, :1 'lll.!".:i' arm our L ~_J ....,'..~
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n arly square) laced 'i ogether in rows b)! threading leath r thongs through punched holes, 'the rows then beii g laced to each oth r overlapping upwards (unlike scale arID.O! ir which overlaps downwarc s) '. - l=,e l· imellae were most commonly b -~ h dO.-] '-1 ~., , ~ '1' l.IIOn- but eatt ier am...nom a so teature promm nt y '. .l '-1 '-I h 111. the sources, .1" e resu tmg corsctet. c iaracu risnc ,..',f" B':,·i"yzan'. tine m,m.l.l.ary equipment, was caueo a ., ... '\; I'~ Ied . o me '..'~ ,Ll ' ,anto"z {\ a :n,am'e deri .' 1 ,(: l ii" il " fi.,'~'b,'.' r ,er.~:ve(;l l(fonl theL.ati n lc.t~vana1t'tU$ " : 1, .' ~ d 1. -1'~1]1 '-1 a I. eavny ..equllp':p' ,'" •.a'V'j3L:ry,ma:n, ) "usu:a,.,Y sieeveiess , or short ... s,}>,'VI d and reaching only to the waist, come kn -",1 E gth lamellar corselets with long' sleeves are to be found n ill [I th cen tury manuscripts, but these were are, f d h~ l S"'" s,t,'"f an,. 80m,ew,a _ lnJH"-,,(!Xmlbl ". S at cor _, ellng . sele s, '\. here 'hey occur iii the' illustrative sources (~u.1J:I the Y' are :1110' . al ws ys easy' ',0, disting .ish from I '. .d mar I' owmg to tile arnsnc te ch l.. que utr~ill" ...... d)i [,-Ci ~1. i izea tOI cover. only the torso and are inv riablysl veless, '..ai] corselets (called _2!:Jzbai or' lorikia, cf .atin lorictl) are: rare-st 0" all tl ley are usually depicted '~I,~ . ". 11.··, o~' h ,', d it! .... le...',.'fS ,r'f~G h.'_lng -, .·' '"- .. lltlnee'-',1.en,o[, a.n,· _ Irleq -'- . ·~11 . ~ ave ,.~ uentty
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'One other elite unit has yet to be discussed-ethe f~iJri1.ous\-~,aran,g" n G'u,af1d, th e oruy,)[yzan, ti 111f; a regim nt hat most peopk know' by name :ir fascination derives chiefiy from 'he i congrui -y of finding such, men-s-a warband of lusty, hard ... drinking barbarian I~J (' win b .·..ags' fig'h- lriil'ng hard -~L .K some sources call them :~) from the far :········.··~)rth of Europe-s-se r'" ing .g'-' reat --- pero "':r---f~By zan t- ium rn o '~a~. the hrist Incarna e, amids th :pomJl and splendour of the dazzling courts and sparkling palaces of .he Holy ity of -,onstal: tinople, Anecdotes and S .ories of their exploits abound in the Icelandic sagas of the rsth- 3th centuries but th ,glamorous r p'u,..ation tha t tl y h2[\11 ~ so':m!how at ract d ov ..'r the las t thousand years does, not app ar '~JO b entirely deserved :" 0'0,: modern authority goes so far a's to describe them a's 'prized for their abi ity tOI ac' ,as t[lugS, and d,IS,P ra"d,oie~:(] 1,1[. ir n,- ~Ql' "') :aran,gians,-, us:e~l b!y '.,he R,ussi.ans. anld,~ th,ro'ug:h, them,. th,e Byzanti,nes. to d,escrib Sca'n,d'~navi,a'Ils. p'rob\a'b y deri\ld from tlle '. 't' -'or,s.e 'wo,rd, VI&W', m,~aniLg 'p e.dg~: uSled 'til) d'es,cribe ,8" '"an,d, of m" n SIW aring' l,oyaill t" to Oit=,e :at'n,Q'! :her';, Ob~l'T"illg a oOimm,on Icode' ,·.·f(~on'!duct-8"n!d sh"a:ritng' out pi[oll'Cs :_:adrl" amlongst tllltlemseillv,es,; ,al, in ,all .at "t" f :..... ' k t" ~t j~h ~ '~I g'oo!_~,_escr.lp'i~lOn,(If: ',:,.i·_ng' aC'Jl'VI.-U-eS ,]In '(,.~,elr rOj[cs Jl··· d- d'I
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later. in. 860 following an ..abortive attack on the c ity by' 0' her : candinavians settled in I, USB~a, a treaty ,ti.p'- rla .~ d U-· !I' ' he fi~ time that th -... :mp,eflo:r e 51' should receiv ·21, military 1 'Y from these 'Rus" as rh Y wier,' called, -, hough this treaty may never ~- ve b n hot cured, sim ilar treaties of 9 I r, 9,45 a and 97 probabl were ':, 700 Rus took part in. a. yzantine at ack OIl I.r te in. i9:1:X:- 6[2[9 in another attack [of 9, '9. '[US auxiliar ies fought against the Arabs a t the Ba ttle of Hadath In 9.55" and '.wo Rus hoi ,s, a: tend ed [at B,' zantine fleet s en against I 1-(1 'I~ in '96!8~ : one of ,1" 8,' 'bar. Ids" however, Icons,' .itu te d, r gular units in perman nt Byzantine -mplov tIll fi instance OiL the lar er apparently occurring O'111y in 988. wh m .mperor Basil received as many as 6.1000 'men fi om, Prince ..... ladimir of Kiev, These ',. ecellent fight rs' were .im:m.,e[di.ateIy established as mperor's bodyguard, largely because as PS, ...lli 'U~S 'P'u' s it .. sil knew the treacherous dispoa sition of '[H,.'" mar S ',~whom he COUIill d. 110' :rU8' ; '111/ inferenc that far greater trust could be placec in the' ~o'Y'alty·of h. "Ia~ran.g:.~:an;ss borne O'-U,' b'Y ,All'na i
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the , mperon and tlu pro ection oftheir persons as a imily radition, a kind of sacred trust and it h.. ritance handed down from, generation ,to[ genera in this allegiance th e'_ preser 'e. in violate and will neve - 'brook the s ightest hint of'b trayal '. N, that the," '.:.: ere always all sweetness and light, and 'nor- was their loyalty always above suspicion " ·~.'llile 10fficer in. 'tt be Guard in IO'4.2; an. the future- orwegian king arald Hardraada was accused ..of'having rnisappropria ed Imperial taxes and he is clammed. in the sagas tOI have hims 'f blinded ,,'-: mperor ,:..... . ichae] V and kidnapped tIl,. r.mpress Zo "os niece Maria, Michael ".'; ~too, was, 3J tacked by ··..:·.2l!,r,an,gianguardsmen, and ·"11 .1°7'9 ,... . 'band '0'1" lrunken Varangians on duty funthe palace a tacked ye - ano ther =: m.p er.-or,~il ceph OliOS III Botaniates, and tried . 0 kiillillih im .uch lat [r ,~ n 120· '\~h: t. the army of '[he ··o·u.rf·'h. Crusade 'was, batt ring at the walls of onstaminople W'If! I. ven find 'the '_.aranaians only agreeing . o fight 'or a new . .mperor [on condition that ~1.·' laid them at :8!'O, p •xorbitant rate, 'making t11 f very acuteness of' ~h,' danger an, opp •. tunity for driving a board bargs ..'in' r a}, a contem porary SU ccmctt y 'P,ut ,]1' " ~ ot that th ir usual salary was exactly poorvThe .••.. I 2'04 episod e also supplies us wlth the informarion that the Varangians r c ived hizh p:ay,. wel] above that of other mercenary troops, .. 'h Y S,i ,C1n':1to have received as much as ' ,e'11 fifteen nomismata p r to month COlle and two ... irds 10 ':WO' and a half tl pounds of g'oilld l?r annum) as well a,' special [~r;atuitites,,- a large share of the booty taken on campaign, and possibly the right to participate in a sort of ri ual plu ndering [of the , mperor s private chambers ,QYrl his accessi on. if t~,e sagas are to be . believed ,',a,ralcl 'ardr', ada amassed a vas,' treasure in th ~sway .0 great [ahoard 'that :0 0 on,' in, northern Europe had ev.·.. s.··· th like of it in one .r ..n man 's possession be fori, " :Towards '~11.e end. of t11- rth c m ury the co 'inposi It ion, 0:" the Gu ard b egan to chanzev The 'ill d but i WOUII.~. appear ld pomt is, stut mucn d b [a'ec ,Iut ae -( that in tl~,- firs fe',-_ decades fo lowing f e Norman :~Ol!.1q'u,es[t [~-,_·.n.gand in, 1066 an unknown number o of Anglo-Saxon and "'0,110'- "[anis~l '.migres began to take s· rvice under the Byzantin ." ,:.mperor ~ Cecaum 'DUS' '··t1~;ategi,()nof c" 07'.5-m: 078 a:opears tOI .. 'Oolltain. tile :firs[t OOD'I 'e~npolraryr1efere:n.ce 'tJo ' b [ m, .
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introduction of this system it ~iH:;1 .msi far more I and ' .. nstantine IV o and ev in"~ of' h.· . ~:,o8os,-notably in a description of probable tha C •.onstans s . "'b'l b fi" ~:iII.... ,. ismng t,-I! r rst memes in the Battle of'Durazzo In I 08: 1:, where th inference :i1s were responsm c, esta bli '[1....,. Anatolia '·0 defend th .. mpire's eastern frontier thar these 'I: 'n,g,l"'shmen formed part of the Varangian •..••. uard, _I: 'owever though there certainly 'were against Arab incursions, By 'the roth century most themes .... rie come Englishmen in the 'Gu,ard trom c. II081 ~they at first remained a minority Iement and many sources of manded by military governors called strategoi, or res 11JJD.1~ . the I sth century continue ,to speak of the Guard as g,e.nerals ("t'll.f'\'U· gh ,~:iII....~. Jpsikio n - 'heme had ~,TIL~:O' .··m· a being comprised of 'Danes' and, c, ...•..• orthmen', Axe- and the Optimaton 131 domestikos), each of whom full-ti "'1" " d " 'ItS armed Danes are' recorded accompanying Alexius I h ac hi ,Q'1%Hl nu -nme, personal '1 military retinue 0'f ,;iiI., .., ;, d f Sp(l.U;~ln1(n), orgamzec m units O~·· TOO men comin Anatolia in I098~ for instance. and only at few' years la er S,aKO 'G,r,amm~l'lcu;s describes ,hO'W 'men manded b o:ffic rs called kmtarc/ztl.:i spatkari'(J1um; h rne ,:",./..,.-, of Jl;S reunue , tneme _0 aeme of the Danish [i.e, DI,d, Norse) tongue occupy the t-"( '...size 0, this retii T vaneo'd'- from theme t, the ',-_ b we,I ...now, ,,~'. " .' - on source th .".tth e retinue .- f' me " .. ' ' .. nom .. _IU,I~, tnat .. " , .ti ','"( 0, first place", 'h . - .·='~SlI0n heme comp:r.l,f)!tc. d- s:mx .. ,-'he Byzantine sour(;les, refer 'tIO the .. .arangians as strategos 0:f t· if T:,'ilia r, ak '.' T-h· • J;.,..,~t·A'iI!".r'h:'1~~1~ (i e two band a] In d·d ition the "axe-bearing barbarians' or "the axe-bearing ,. d b Jill: :iIL, " "d ~••!Jln;gtnem as, -'t, age 'w'I'"0. strategos was assis ·.·'f t1 ', CIVIC om cia -11;S-'~J..ue L hh [l,r G,uall d_.~ sometimes I ,eS,Cf1.b" ... ,I' ,_"." 1i1, /:' fina .,:i ....JII, . ", :' ~ hang their SI'N01~d from thei r right shoulders' (a J:-J'rotonotastss responsn b ,JJl,f l., orn"an,Cll,a "1. anmmis- s .' h1i1d' " e Imcludmg me soroiers pa.. ) me ilr,aetfJf tor y iIl.'L. curious description referring tO the use of rhom ... tration ('. ~ d dm r: '=,' 'r" . _.' .. ,.. _R~,!!' ~~~~, phaiai}; the term, Tauro-Scythians is also som ,.. law and all, inistr 'a tio 'D-, nd the ".!,:._j'"j'<5!""'~i~'nl~tj~,r' ,eo.;~ times used. The commander of the Varangians was similarly sometimes called, "the leader of th . axe -bearing Guard', but his propler title 'w.a.·. .... oltlutnJ)S or tIll} Acoly Ie-~ ,':~"ollower', undoub edly k a. reference tOI his constant proximi ty· to ' 11 Emperor, Both 'hie and other Varangian officers 'were usually of Scandinavian (or English) origin Iike their men, accompanied b,y 'B,yzantine interpreters so that there was 'no Ianguag problem (th!o,ug:h,it is apparent f:rom various anecdotes ilia) m,a~;n.y Guardsmen themselves learnt Greek), "l.·e: still h,2L'V the 'names of several of the Varangians' commanders, such as, Ragnvald, a S'WI 'I'e of '[hie' 1: I th cen tury who, Ion his memc rial ston "" is, J' I described as 'leader of the war-troop in the land of ...• th...Greeks"; Harald Hardraada W'hO', though not .. '.heA,·oolyte:,~ held a senior rank in the Gu,a:rtl c. 'I 0351'~' 1044 and commanded about ~IOOI men; and, Nampites, Acolyte in. the ]J>08 o!8., probably a Sea ndinavian nickname meaning ter of Corpses or 'Bird of Prey', '-'" .• ,"11' ;
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ted on. armoured or half-armoured horses so the balance were p'I"es;u,ma bly less well qui pped and of lower qual it '.'"' ertainly i- seems ttl) have been. preferable '_0' summon. first-class soldiers, fllOlll a '1, .•. igh·bo·uF.in,g' heme t II an em erg ncy r ..t her than to, rel y on one O\ ..n second .. as too:ps ~" ,.0 also -ch states that without d rawi 11:'.~more than ,4-000' men from each he sastern }l"iil' 1""""~~ could pu ~o·'OIOiOi h orsemen in. e field which would still leave a heal hy reserve to fa 1 'black on, In addition 'hi re 'W re also thematic infantry, ar.:IOllr:whom li tle informa ion i" availabl ., 1'_ is possibl ..··tha it th. 'yo did not receive land grants Iik ~ t- e eavalry rut '\1\1 ere mn.s,'tead] recrui tee by con1! 1d scrip ion, . lll0Ugl1. some must JJl.2l 'e b beer e;m,pll ~ fj._. on a morr P rmanent basis, The: Tectica seems '£0 'implyth It,' sing e theme could mus er ,818 many as 2· .ooo infantry, who would .113'Ve presumably 'been divi led into firs' andsecond classes like the cavalry, Many 0,' these would have been light troops,
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milit ary service), '0, dismiss and execu te gen rals and 'to cut off the pay' and maintenance grants OJ[l which thema tic soldiers ,r ved. Constantine I"j for 'I n-Al0'-, O! sh 1,' sta 'n 'C~';f,:I!, ·w,:" ..h 0: ". ru ~ Ll ,UTl- I .. 5~.5-:-' enti rely d i and ed 'IL,r..; .. '.. " u.ll!lw the army ofth.. important fron ~,. theme of b ria ... r :P' rhaps 5,-000 men, and converted its obligations from military service '() th . paym .. t O,f'I.3lX, an •..we m l frequently read in th. sources ol'i:' othe th matic armies in want of th eir pay and d prived of 'el, ,provisions which 'N r usually supplied 'to them ~ It was such m..asun 8 as, 'h So, tog" h, r with th dreadful squandering of manpow r ". hie] the civil wars involved and th steady elimination 0"
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J .ough Byzs ntin armies had nearly always included consid rable contingents of .In,'rcenaries in their ranks this particular P,'·riod saw a rapid increase in, their numbers, as a result of th declining strength of the thematic armies, ,_.s '[hie' struggle between bureaucrats and generals dragged 00- m '0·- r"C'and m ore m ercena 1""\1 II!.. , :'0-·1""'.... came to _"."e' tro n~ ,·_:_v employed it" place of'understrength lO,N ... uality 0:1'"' q disband ed- ,m_.~,.1~ f:]"j"~;,1i"'" un ... em Bv .i N····: _ lll' ' ikephoros JIL r.;:'! reign ., most if 'not all might cavalry consisted. of ,-,siati c horse-archers and by the mid- M I th cen ury' more than half the men in most Byzanrine armies were m er cen ari !~c of d 11"V~'If!'CI nic 0 )i"; ':"'~ 0(:1 rig- -~I ", ~i·~~l 'OS' of these mercenary soldiers were supplied by' various 'Turkish peoples, amongst whom the Patzinaks took pride of place but m,an)" other ,n,a tions were also represented, .i: rankish chroniclers of the First Crusade' frequently refer to '[he :m,a:n,y' mercenary' types in Alexius I s armies particularly the .- ataiuaks, Cumans, Uzes and Turks", One anon .. ymous chronicler recorded tha .. in 1096 there were in .·onf:1tantino'pm'e~, in addition "0 Greks., 'Bulgars, .. lans Cumana Patzinaks, Italians s " .enet ia 'n"'I~ R' '0" "'m'" . 'alI' l" ':Ii1' nglishmen .m·····,ac··111 ,ii".i'C' -'I"~ ':lIln ll~ ,. 1. fitans, and ev en Turks and many gentiles, ,Jews and prose Iy' es, Cre ans Arabs and peoples of a I na ions'. and al though some of 11. se-vsuch as '~11,e' . enetians ,:;.maJ,'fitans and, Jlws-w'ere merchants or artisans mosi would undoul ,t dly have been serving in, the army" Oertainly 001: tingen S of 'most ofthese peoples and more besides w re present in the Byzantin army destroyed at Manzikert (se b elow ) ~,.: '[1,- ia Com 11.1 na refers to mercenarie inher fa;her's time as 'horsem n and ' 00' mel!",coming IOU'1 of all Iands'. , , ,any were supplied as self-con ined 'units under their own leaders and officers by 'he' Empire's satellite states and vassals" Such con ... tingents were referred 'to,as syrrt'fnac}z()i or allies, lik the old ":'oman sy,mmacniafi·i ..- he term w'.as used of Patzinaks Serbs Uzes and Russians during the rth c ntury,
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tl at [even at their ze nita in, th. gr. " and I [0[.- 1'1 n urir s ;. [.nID._·. .. larg st ·t11 ~ .m[ ..' 1.0-·. I' rais as many ~ e ._,O(c U firs t-: lass cs rvalry, su ch men maries were emp oyed in IC·O·" sider b1-·' num ... : , ;; t, hi - hIere 15,_000 'p -_'_'ZI'naJrtS, 'W(·. ' ..' ·lr d i .. In 09 __ 'W.,'!'I. 3 000 t· ormans i 1-C·'yzntin mplo, in the imme r· te po anzik rt era nd in I:' -~8 there were m various armi-s 2,000 Seljuk I'urks 6[-000 ,~.ans and 8,; 0010 .. ormans i~:l.addition to unknown l J umbers I)" II)a zm .s an' It lians, In, 1:-'!91 there - ...a, have been as man a,O,QOO •.••. umans : [,ghf'ng alonasid: . the Byzantin -' ;u ~_c__':. unium, :n.'-' ~.·_,ab[ly -11. 'r[·..'w[.. .r . dra .._ .· backs, hov 'ev'er" Th ..... Io ~'. alty of m 'lrc:~inaries "1',81." often questionab .~ PI:: rticularly tha 0,' ····r::.nklh ntingents, who had ,.. ...1 d or [_~n __ d OPII,- on 0 f' ' tr. If' own va ue=ano b .' m atea a -dl 0- ther : 'X·-· ' en siv induce e rits som ··'.'-l'"'m S·, ..roved ·necessau~y .. fore meflc!nary ..roopl would e fight s t all, .... .:~_ their pay W'>, not forth.coming _'- if (w ic - p'I rved ~,'o __to be tl : C ,I) mi. r- maries on had disto ssi ~.:ha its, like' eha ~gi g side halfway throus b a bat-t 0; campaign or looting friendly (BiyZ antine ) '[1- .rri to -- 1
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e:;tensive advance r.mperoe Romanus ''iorene had p['-,..p .-.d an offensiv . in the Seljuk rear, asse mbling a hug army •., .I:-z:-':'fum;[ some e :~.':hl"" miles from Mauzik t,. in spring 'II07]1[~ "he ac ua size of the army "s Id..batable; tW'Q sources claim 30o~o ·0 men- w1JiL [0 t-· cl: im 2:00 ooo, 4oo~oOO a -d 61 [-OQ. ':, --1:[, hev of. de a even ,going 00, far as to say it wa on million strone ,! Exazzerations aside . howevr r. all '.hie sources ag ee that i was an abnormally large .rmy, ·.. he M2;' h. century .,. oslem ehroni ,1.-- Irn id .:.... :. tin has lef us wi tho de tai s ofi ts j~ . osr rp lit m comp sition, recording in addition ·.1-0 Byzan t ~ [S . i.: In.'.ingen ts of .-. ussian .. ~~. azara, I s~ h Alans [ Uzes, umans, [Georgians, Armenians and .ranks (who a~p[ear ·.O[ have b ..[ n chi ... y •. ormans _ a, d G ermans) ,.' Iattl ew of Edessa [idds Crimean
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necessarv to operaf the sieg ..... ngines which c· [I, . tituted ,a major par oe the baggage-train of ··mp,ir'lt . principal rec ruiting 'thousands' of wagons. At till most, then, it seems · ,jI.'t,. :racncai .'. d ,eno· 'IIWI!H~: probable that onlv -om' or -,~. er cent of '11·'h _ p g!. disbandrm n atic ..rmies, ws in 'I e _rmv " -tual.·· consis ted •If combatants, of, ,hom hands o' the .•.. ik ' 'urks by 1 067',' This 1(-,0·· ... was el] onl a fraction W',,\ Byzantine and very' . ew of fo ' lOW' d by almo '.'. o·mtinuous Tur,kish in. -.ur~~Jions thos.' .r[~gulars; thl.. rlemaind.er werle s[f:(..mingly pO·::lr in,to 'Ul' -'nator[-I'n h~,~_lrtland;softh - . :'mpir ..and it in q·ualliity. "~l~i~ained; imm-equipp1ed and ille OI·.~O'us that ,t.n d.i·,ciplinled tl- [-m:tic tE'i:IP-':, their !IOW [';-'j ··n·, _rd :~n~ 'Ie co[uld only[~:'u [... "'6111_ . defen[d:-cl 'b'y tho . beill'.: a [dir: c' ..: onsquenc . of:he:r _nn,in,·· .: [o~·0 of reooD[qu,e8', ofth(, Io,·:"-,·,-·m[en.ian' ..'ITi.o[:ri:es~ 111107,1 the m.ili ary ·,~ta .1~'_·,'hm[e-n. " b:, Romanu,.- anti-· _ miH~tar-y p[r d ·ce.so[.fs. ·n. ad.di i~)n som·, of 'dle ther[e Icaml a'n, op[:por ..UIIlity 't)O a,c!1:lllf'v[e. this" ' -a];~l~' that y. {Ir ,_., Sel"uk Suillta --~ .. 'p / -Ia.n m.' 'rOe:llary .m·. m,.Dl ts w[ere so unruly th.a -thl- ... .:..,.a·, ('t -_.,n m m.· n.-[ 'c__.!l'ou.nl_ain '.,n') had, t ll't ': if' ev[,~11 a pdn ,chd ._ tli ~with the ..al_ rman ~:;yi. '.-.~·h 1.--,·: in·ntfuon of[~izing F,a':~mid,·hel,d foUo· :-,ilag lootin·:_· inc:den'ts; it pl1oy.,d n··-" .. , 1_0 eal] the' ri.·st o:fth[~:,arm.}' w ar.ms 'bl .:f.Of[· . th ... GI.C__·m:an. . >amas,cu,s :pri.lor 'CO launching a'n atta,ck on 'gypt. : n. -r ·'u.'EI' I·e a,' ta·'k.ed. i!H~,\,.eIaJ..·l[yz...ntin.f', ..:h[el!d 'towns, , mutiny c.ou~d role put dlown !, .·.-'n .::f his .Ii u.I[.-n:· n.·~' ,::::fsin, whl:.S[f own I w'as onl·. afle~ the h[. ,in ~ of .a'·-_ while in,g ble£! re . leppo, th,' 'I Pi ~. ·-la:. .r[o_i.'ed ·~_.~'i:it"'-··· ine u!d.-d th ' captur:·· ,f 'he £0'" rc·ses of [ n'ampd tie n.ews of --.[ [ an.-us,1 advan.c-· on ..·rmenia~ o : ;_ n,~iker _ and .::_g·'s, d Iring ,Jan.u,a .. .. ., flins r y
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Immediately he abandoned his P anned move 0,:0 Jamascus and. withdrew towards Mosul, so rapidly that his ".rmy was, scattered far and wide, marry of his untrustworthy Iraqi auxiliaries taking the oppor unity EO desert, In addition the Seljuks lost large numbers, of horses crossing the Euphrates. In. fact, to a Byz,a(ntmn.'C' observer in Syria, Alp Arslan's retrea gave the impression of a veritable rout, and it was probably this information which finally convinced Romanus that be should Iaunch a fullscale attack rather than merely contenting hims If • with partially restoring the old ..,_rn1.'e:nia,nfrontier : d, .Jii' nces ~ 1~,11'1. fore in June or ,]'uly, in, preparation for his general advance into ':.'aspurakan, he divided his aJr,m.y in, rwo, sending out a larg , force of'Fran .ish and 'Iurkish auxi iaries under the Norman com .. "'" mand er Roussel d e Bailleul tOI lay' was e the region round ',''anzikert and Akhlat, ..... dvised of the Byzantine D1.O:Vem ents by refugees from. this area, Alp Arslan now set 'OU,f' nor" awards from ':/1 osul to intercep Romanus sending ahead one of his most distinguis ',1 officers ("So'un,daq the urk' th sources call him.) with. ,abo'UlS,OOO men to reinforce ~,khla'_,. The Sultan himself 'was accompanied ,al first only by' :bis' ,000 personal mamluks, l~i~· scattered army having failed, to reassemble. and the seriousness 'of the situation did no . permit him the tim, necessary to return 100 the heart of his own territory funthe ,-:':ast to sather fresh troops ,":nstead i he summoned them to join him on the march, ,';nd . recruited in. addition some 10,0'00 local K urdish tribesmen. ,', h '.' b b-11 c. d by R omanus m ,_1;8 turn h d prooaory got wmd b nao now of Alp Arslan's approach ~ h..··despatched ,tt body of (allegedly) 20,000 men, appar n ,ttl ' ·.·uman. y or possibl: ,R issian heavy cavalry 'under a G orgi.an officer, ,Jioseph 'T archaniotes, '.o the aid of thr . :.ranks and Turks now approaching ,~~'.' khlat, :ml blilll,g th, '.matt -1f' tOF1ce 'to, set i ]; a elfu,p :s,a,' ~y b e£OITle Ii'h.e to'\\'l1.~ n, th,e m.e-anthn'e 'th' r In.aind, '1: of tl~e army slllcc!essfully r,etook '>fa'nzik.f'l ,after th,e bri. fest of s~.leges ~ 'wa~ ,only then 'tll,a,'~,h.e Byza~ntilr]s, "first 'b>, ':am .' t aw',arf1f that pa:rt ,of the S,cljiuk. 'll,elie.f force l1ad a,C'~u,aJly,atCrivrd, ill ,t11 a'[ea~, KU"' iQ,n ' -'le mO!rnilflg 'of m6 .,-,.ugUS[ Sou'R!da'qn.lco,unt'e:r1d ,a'nd de:ffi"a"'cd ia large ibt,aLg,itng p'a'rty ~ R.lom,anus :i'mm~diateiy des ... p,a'tchd ione of his Igenlera s:~ ,:Ii'ke'p,:horos B:ry Ilnius
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(undoubtedly . he same man. who later becameDux ofDyrrachium and rebelled against ...····'ilch.ael · '\ll) 00, de-al wi' n Soundaq but he 'was repulsed. and had tOI bl(r: reinforc d by' a. seconc detachment under Basilakes, strategos of the . 'heodosiopolis Theme, , -i,g'h,t 0" numbers 11'OW' forced Soundaq to withdraw 'f,The'h,.ir this, wi hdrawal 'was, a feitg,n,ed flight or not will never 'be known; but the pursuing Byzan in S~, caution thrown '10 the wind, were caught in a sudden !COU11t r ... attack in which Basilakes himself was captured, '.,o,g -ther 'w~itb his star dard and Bryennius 'was wounded, :t the 8al11' tim If' Tarchaniotes and Roussel de '.-i':ailleu1.;, also having suff red 'hi avy losses in engagements with Soundaq and reo iving D,e!:WS that AmPI Arslan himself had now arrived 'JJO'I pull d out of'Akhla : and withdrew as, far as, . ·······'elil, ene, B,y 'he tim .Romanusha "', arshalled the 'bulk of m his army Soundaq's force '~:11. true Seljuk S' yle was nowhere '[0 be found.So the army riff umed '.0 camp (a contingent of' floyal' citizens recruited in > .anzikert taking the epportur mty to desert), and a a anxiou night was passed undr r "the eyes and arrows of'. 11' .Seljuks who, joined, 'by lpArslan and .. his main army '00\\1 se up 'tt'h, ir own camp only ,.I, rL_.II..Jh ....~ a.., Q"'" three miles, awa Yet. the Sultan' 9, army, as Romanus' scouts :W'U8'[ now have ,~.nfo:r,med, him, was considerably smaller than thai ofthe i·yza;ntin .8". . "he owest recorded estimate is m 2:,000" while Ibn al-Athir says 15"ooo} 'bill' the higher '6gu,res of 30"OOOI~40' 000 or possibly more S: .. \ rn more probable, B,U'~" ,81'£ 'til,' sante time, the Byzantine . rmy 'was its If 'DOW' consid rably smaller than itt had been at th outset IDf the campaign: .he detachments o!: Roussel and Tarchaniotes had no' ~,..,. turned, ther had been .'~" .. ki .. ,.,h S d casuatnes m uhIe skirrmshies wit· Sounc aq=rea '1'1 .y battles in their iOWl1 righ .-,allld, .' fled his massive army i had, b.·.'.n ne'cessary for Romanus to, sleDd ,QiU: -arg't! number,-, frr-'for,agin,g p;a-""'£ifg~_ ven as far oW ,as 0, orgia, '0, g',ather 'pro!visio:[ s,,, In. "jIC", th.e Byzantine army 11ad app,arll~n'tly 'been reduced tJo o,nl'y I O(ll()iOO~, ,and of'i he~r m~u1y'must ll,av'be 'n
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_.:',ext 'mo,rnjn,g an ,em'bassy was Sif'n'£b'YAlp ,A_rs .an with an !j)'I. ,:er' of p'e'ac, 'wh.i,ch was 5.jcor-fu~~y ~ejectted~sin,ce 'il', woul,d bit 6:n.a:nciatIly' impossible "iO raIs,e' s'u.ch,an ,army ,again for a IOlng time to ,come', R'o,ma11'Ur~j. h,ad lit I' Ic'l ioice: b'ut t,o fO,fO- ,a decisi.,re

solution there and then, Besides he had the utmost confidence in, the size, if'not the qua ity, of nis army and in his O'VV'0, abilitx to achiev e a. signal victorv .. '-urth 1", he suspected that the Sultan 1.ad only now realiz -:~d e still con sid fable numerical superiori ty the B'YZatlTtmn,es enjoyed and intended the p' ac ofiTr mer y as a delaying tac 11" c '1\1], ile reinf ·'rc,',. ., m mts WI re surnmoned. Admittedly a dela.. might also, have been 0,:0 the y side 0" the Byzantines-vit would have g'iv'en Tarch aniotes Roussel d e Bailleul and at ],1 ast som.. e 0 the foraging detachrnen ts tim e to return" s U.. at the same tin» delay would also give the a:rmy~ discourag ... by the inauspicious handling of the ' campaign to dat and distrustful of the ,...•. .menian and Furkish conting nts in its midst, the 'O,PP'O,ll" ,. 'n" 11 d tumty to sin . to an all-time '~I· in, moraie anc to' JIlO'W' b 'DO.1n,· v', "n more undisciplined than it already was, ln, addition, more mercenaries might mutiny lor desert. Logically therefore a delay which would probably stelethe Byzantines stronger in numbers but dangerously 10w ,in moral,', and the Seliuks greatly increased in 'bo-thnumbers and confidenc ..'( could noi conn mplated, .t is hardly surprising, then, hat. despit advice to th contrary from his :m,any generals, Romanus decided tha he would '~ a h ' commit ~- ',w1.'e.r,my I_I b _,81.'CIJ"e" .r '.' d Ie 'was (i;as',~
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of returning, and as~t happened nei her had Roussel, he only action of 'the day saw the archers ,O~, tk·. ,. Byzantine army marching IOU:, th,. ,ir fortified es mp and 'successfully driving of' Alp , .... nIan, ~Si ski.rmish!t:;r,swith b.ea' y l08(39", D'e'taiis of th, B'2I"tI of -,aLn'zik,e~t "tseillf ,are u,nc],ear' ;Bl'nd '..r'e .soim,·.ti:mles eon tr,a,d'ji tom"y si[},ce of . ,an '[hi. so!urces Ot ill'y' o,ne (th, Histo.r£a of ;·······tl al",3Lts)
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'was writ ten by an eye... win ISS but it is eel' .ain tha Ion the morning of M9 ,~~~ Romanu •..• W UPI his igust 1: army il the' customary two Hin· g"., Th first consisted 'thre .divisions-cthe right ofthe thematic troops 0,' - Kappadocia, Armeniakon and Charsianon plus " z mere naries under A yat lies, (stra egos of the Kappadocia . 'hem •• th .....• ):' -..mtre of he central ,~. stern, -Fhemes ,BlJl ~ the '. gmata under '-, omtaLnus, a hims ell; a nd th e Ief , of the V\ es[ern, Til em s, , h!I"~" ,', " ..ge "'"',= ~r wr t P tzm .1_:Jl ancd loth -a .' k ,I~r- a UXnL1laf'1 s, e under , m,k .p;hOr\OSirYi nnius, The second, 0 reserve line was under tl .- command 0'" ·-,'-=dronikos Dukas, a nephew of the previous Emperor and therefore no friend of Romanus=-a factor which :"as, going to pr-ov',f' • cisiv, :. it ~(as, ,compr'i.se!d,of IGerm: Ijtl'n alnd:- No'rm'-' an ml ... &'!if'\C)n.;~lryh ,'a:",1"\1 K"'?II 'ua'" _ 1Y"\r_" J' J th,e n!jJ[,~jolrity ,of th,e' fl1"clu:rntes (no',: m If) ,and tIl eir co:nttirJigents.) ffi ••:m U1- ,East rn bor,d, ..rlands" and a i
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larg part 0' th He aereia, No tro ops at all were I ,.' tOI g iard ' ae c,amp'" heir advance a ::r08S {he 'plain of' M anzikert toward the Seljuk camp which could :not hav started 11 'H well a t r midday wa vir ually unopposed xcept for skirmishes en th .xtreme flanks, wh f" the Byzantin commanders lrJ1US't heve k pt a wary •.'y: 0:1 their own Turkish auxiliarie following th desertior .amis"], zea "', ~ k! k ., m particularly sino h ft anxs '1iacz d any security ., ie 'J1C open " But the bulk. of the eljuk a r.111Y' retired stea ,- Iy befor 'h m in f ign d, flight drawing the :JByzantin,e-,' on until in the late afl' er a,OO'D or ",arly evening th 'y. cam- to the abandon d Seliuk camp si tp;. ,,- ,t :1' his p.•..'n'"t R'·._".m-,. a,jO'ul,fji 10.·' h ~v d 0,:. ub t, d , u_~ . ~,_._. ' 0" ' '~"'_~ u .' ' the 'wisdom of advancing further and fearing a Seljuk attack 0,] I ] is OI\1\H1 camp undefended in his rear', he' gave the ord r to fl tire, turning the Imperia] standard towards tbe r ar. But '~h order was misund. rstood, In the failing •. ·' light only the centre turned as, 0 dered while th flanks hesitated, app.are:n.'1 ~y eonfus ..,dlO Simul ... taneousl- a :rU:01.0U r swept th roush rh r serve lin ,
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treacherously pu t about by E ukas hims mf," ha t th Emperor had been killed, ·,f\~a'ching from the heigh ~snear by - the incredi ileus llij uks saw in the chaos on the plain below them the opportunity '(hey had belen awaiting .. ,-".~ that 'mom..nt, with the Byzantines 'first mine disorgai ized an " faci llg in every di ection with gap' '-".t""'. nits centre and flanks.z lp .. rslan led M s 0000 .resh Selj uk cavalry to the ch arg ,'" Almost immediately a rou ensued as the ···yzantin'es panicked, believing hemselves be .... rayed b,y either the ~····rm,e:nial1:~ r the army's o 'urkish auxiliar ies; in fact the Armenians w re th first to Bee tile field and practically all got away whih by contrast the majority of the ze and natzmaks , :f\· mamend 1oyaJJ. to t ie en d-' '=,: e r gnt '.' 1,....... ,; ,- ing of the ',yz2llth e arm,'y soon Iisinu grated"
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bl. ,- .- gradual desertion of t '.. ,ppadoc ", ~n, though the left, despite being CU,' 10'rom the .emre an 'Y tacked in fiankandrear.onlv broke aft :r a hard .:.ght, - ukas blithely disregard'. ~ d fd' In,g ][lJl d une I '11,.i,m,~ _'o_l,---r O~"'1'h e I. I,:,pr-" - "',. -Jl, '~ n ed 'd re ..: V' Iim ,_.·whi 11 mi ,,:h'l ill have sa led th ' da '=~Iaid, alreadv withc ra _':~, from the 6._1d I ~h h-" ., t1 wit iout comrmttmg ~,'E, -.'. en, B enruu - anomer 1',[ ,:'yzantio hi to -j :~_,,~.I I: tater '_Ia'd_' "the rea ,gu,~ rd wi .h' .d imm ",r iatel '1'. ',,'nly the C,] re stood, 'vl1J.ere Romanus fought on.wound d and with his "Olrs, , shot '1under him until.wJI..'he' , as re -C',,'lZa-s r ogni \d_yb -- h~' ans' u-1: I.I.':----::WI :" - ,,:: '~n _ ~_:'.lI ,I ,1< Iu the ',:,arangian I-'ur, S:':-I_I'\l'f' d ro md 1 im and ' ' .. UU 11 ,lit:' captur 'd. b :1.~·iI I~ k-, . JlaV( ... 1:,][: r~'11th, ,Jl~rst' U ,_e l'IY !·o di tha a' zantin - moeror l iad ver b n .21., /[ n pl"SQrn'~ 1'"b v Mosl ·,-I··.·~ The L;_-,_ lew ,<.' zan ine I nits sti . 1- old ing .log. ' Q"-"If' gave ': R. at tl1.fus,~. and a. close and '·1 ' pursuit •.' 'the scattere ,ann,' continued thr .·IU,g -, IU'." tl, nigh ·;n . _ n"1-'.I~~' .' had mcesaid that tth ._' rm'y i" " bod y ,. hat_') ..d' " h~_- the h ad.' is ~o t _, !. '~ .... v: . ,i:t -:/ 'L" . d '.'a··.:il'·" t.- a~n-d th p 'e utio 1,1 d marked t ie end of vza -tine mili ;Iry greatness
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debacl . could only be' paid for by :~Ivying cash rrom his family and frier ds and by .,·r,pr, . priating cl. tIt',e._ •. possessions .: 'his was really the nadir of Byzan tin.. l' ,'. d .. 'h" I' d or_unes, a,n:_. thoug ... · IX1US aCll-v .. se,era ..lli u notable vicn I.r.iesin. the latter part 0,' his r -ign (sucl inak d .as ov ... ~he Patzmai s at L Ie\,u.niO·,u.m In .I 09 ~.. ,an, . r =1: .'-1 th .' '-1 k h uomenon m I I. I, .) .--}-. ',. -. '6" t ne '0\ fer"~ . 'e J U.S a-t ,....::'} ..,.. '.' ~:', Ith hOi ." m "Iii rtarv r ev..var 'at too kId ace under rns auspices ~ ,P was of brief duration 0.111 y ~Though the army held its own und r his su co .sors JO!11 I I and ....... el 'anu succumbina to eonsiderabl 'rankish influence during the reign 0,. the latt r, it n ver reall .... ' re (:0· rered from .he disas er of anzikert a defea ~ destroy d€" b ·'1 'w'1.' c h d : iorev er me E mptre s credibiln" y as .:' ,~world supe r... power and. drama ically marked the end of Byzantine military S iprema cy ~
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" ,4 Skut'Cl,tos ,Qc'(;ortiing to IotA ICt::n."htry military manuals , he arms and armour isted in the various military manuals of this .. ,' ,aprobably r ..prese'n '~h.,;ideal -.. rather '[han the norm that a soldie ~could )rp' cr '0' encounter during active service, 'Quit, . probab y i was b 2lJ) 10'0, the equipment ofthe guard regiments that wer 'bias d '!11 onstantincpl "' Body armour of skutatoi consisted, of mail corsele or horn or iron, klibanion, th.. ough Leo 'VI's Tactica states that such armour 'was, often only worn by the first two ranks (skutatoi generally forming u,p eight or sixteen ranks deep), those without substituting :. u-. b a:rnbak ion This wa 1m padded and ;IW·" _""_ 11Ll ._" ,(.jjl~L~ ul,'~l~_l .. quilted corselet 'with, hood and eighteen-inch slee _eS;1 _"s name d ern ing from til e , -.ra bic word r P'tJJ11DUck meaning cotton, from, which it was largely manufactured. Leo also mentions that some skutatoi might in addition wear epi orikia, a similar typlf' OfOO.fSCJ.C' 0. ...•. their mail o~ lamellar a mour, The r leather harness of breaststrap and sh oulder-pieces S]10ltVn here is not mentioned in the manuals at all 'but appears in, the vast majority ofpietorial sources, worn mainly by foot-soldiers but also frequently by horsemen ,··· ional armour comprised greaves" vam.. .ddi br 'a-" CiiI"Ii'lil' a',_",,,'(.~ 1,jD; h o· l'U' no' .-t,} nr -;l, .. "Jilt' a'a;j':lii·o~' lIl'II,d· 'iII-:h a' ,t 0' "n· Jl." ~Iy. ·~a, front a:nd rear r,arlks w'er,e t,o h.ave gtle.aves, whiI,e tlle mu:ch, ,earlliie.r Stra,tegic{)1J records, ,greav,es be,ing 'w'Oirn I,y' jus,t th,e fro:n.' lw'ol ran'ks" H'owIEver~, m.an'u,a]is of 'I'he- ],a'",e'f 10' h lei I1tUry sJe,-'m, to. ~:mplyth,at gr,eavifS l'a,d becom'e s'tan,dard s.kuta' oli eq,uipm,ent, as, too. "f'" d h,a,':' a m,am·'ill, 00]1":" Tb,e ,sk'utat,os,-'s m,a~:n,we,a:p,on, ·was, ,the 'tw'elv,·.... '~O ' fo'urtee:n-foot kontarmt'ln, ..mad,e oflig_-":: tV\looid with a so(:keteJd b,la-ide l--'as,t eig'ht .n in.ches long., In 'ba' tL" itt was thrus at cava~rymen ;3l'nd hur'lied, a;~ :in·cll· ·l""ym.· n~ A ·6.w car.ried l,ea,,.y ja,,-el],ns callred 'mlen:8!'ulia in plac' of thJ~ ill0n,g' ~lpear; these w'ere
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~nercena'lJ c. ,:.',5[0 ,. of tIl' .•... candina vians : us ra '1- .. ~:r,', ..• ~ .flu :n . d 11 ' t . ~J.ati ,': neigh . bours .I'his nn~n . r III ::L'anc' ". !L ,,' ,III> ... '. ~~~ , ears ,II,e b' e ..ched '.. hi t line tu"[j, .hara . c: isti I ' . :f f, uob blv 6- oris ii : anothe ::·i.~' ir it opt d b I'm Rui was th . ta to h.. n f hi. hanc S .' 11d, .' rms a trpl to I he shoulder. Boots and a ·10 ak clap. d at the ..,11[0 ['lid r compl ted '1_- or cosn - e .::~ rt V\fllr mail 10 md arn'l[ ompri .''.. '~p,c'lr 1"·.,' .• word and
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chrome sketch ~ Rectangul ar shields of th ~ type s persisted ~ID1,R ussi a fa "man y ,e,en to' 'ies. . .n app1earanc- the Rus '~r r" "tall as, date palms' with red or blond hair and ruddy complexions, _<' ost \v -re bearded tho ~l[g,h some affec ed only drooping Turkish-style moustaches. Prince .-,Jf.-eK' ."vya'tosl[a.v [0 . I > 1,:' eVI"",n, sha e [_,l!..,~, t, .' ·1 T"ur rkisl s_,;a' ed m:l]1!$[ ,~leac. , ','. :S'il'" ~
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"he most distinctive feature of 'lh.· Varangian's I. quipmi nt ",'as undeniably :J.. is axe, which ap'plears to ha ve b •. n retained in preference to tl e rhom ,_ e phaia more usually carried by :Byzan.tin guards ... m D"" Psellus, how ver, claims that . very varangian 'without excep ion' was armed with shield and rhomphaiav ta one-edged sword of 11 avy iron 'wl ich they carry suspended from the right shoul .. , d r' (perhs ps meaning it \\1,;3l-S[ sloped across the .ri,g' at shoulder when no' in 'U::H:;)" hough ,11: two ... handed axe- 'was heir main weapon spears and swords are also mentioned iI" the SO'LlrOeS~ t is clear from the sagas thatmany men k '. th ~'iir' IO"Wl sword '~ when 'ilPh- e""1.-' e. itered the r iU.. ... ··,'uar,d" anc since' heir axes '_00 were Iairlycer ainly brough from horne we hall,' leas e t[o dou ,t just how much 0 th. ir equipment (a>" opposed to uniforms) v·ss actually official B'yzanline issu .. ~ ::"08', proba ;ly ,8" mixture of Scandinavian and Byzantine gear was in ,I ee th latter probably becoming predominant th longer a man stayed in the iGu,;ald as his own equipment wore out, V\'e know from Anna Comnena that Varangians
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time, fun which role '+\1" find them do'gg"ng the 'unruly' march. of the . is Crusad through the Empire's Europ1ea:n provinces .. Like all ,". iatic peoples their main weapon was s the composi te 'bow" bu javelins, spear, sabre and hand -ax "were also carri d as. well as. a lasso used, to, en' angle .nemy horses and riders in close combat" For defence a small circular shield ofosi ..rs, 'wood, or hide was carried. Body armour of Iamellar con- and. sword ... scabbard, .... hors back ne would also '1. g: ruction could ,a150 be worn dep ..nding on the carryjavelins, lasso and probably one or t'NO spare social status, of the ~ earer ; C:' ieftains a aid their bows, and, quivers The mace was. a so' a popular ,.'f;'t"' nues for instance, were normally ar.w.n oured .' 'w'apon"T1TI{)U,r 'was mainly of lamellar (;0.11'" S' -. uction 'btl t 11 ']f"ea captured mail corselet is being HI "',,:elj~ztk1nerC,eR;(JJY late 1'Ith c.entury WOIf'n und r the topcoat. I\ ost Seljuks, however Surprisingly Ijuk Turks did no appear in wer unarmoured and would have carried for ,B-y,zantin,.' service until after 'heir victory over protection only I 'he small shield, . 'his. like their Romanus at :,.... . anziker when between 1071 clothes appears -10,"1 ave been brightly coloured, and I 08 F. succ essive Emperors an d generals, desp erat 'for roops, rather shortsigh edly in. tro- l-I2. } .'j' 1talc- ~Io1'nan mercenaries late 11lh century duced large numbers 0,' -,'them into, .' na olia, mos From :I 03,8 onwards, under such 1..- aders as -.erv ~ .' "f' wmc 'bl r'l",,- ,- soon...over) all" 'T, h ey. 'W·J e first ...-1",,-" Frankopoulos, Robert Crispin and Roussel .'. ' ..'-"'",' .,. 0.. - '~,~ 'Llley " ... - -;:-'..._: .' ,,18 C ass soldiers of a rather :6, rce and savage disposition-> Bailleul bands of Norman adventurers had flocked 'ferocious beasts covered in, blood is the way one to take service with the Emperor, though it soor . .'. -,men~,an ·'1 . .' r" .. . 1 -'. "-, t ,_;l..lS un,,"," i.L ..',-;. ... ,~ , .. clescm.l b eo, 'I:]l,eln., ".... to} :". time 1a-:~'1 -B"'~' 1-1 y.z, IJ'" b carne apparei t tha th ir main ambition "vas ',0 tines employed them exclusively as ligh cavalry carve ou their own Ii tle Normandy in the heart of , or,se ... rchers. a .,-,11a,', Iia ," '}... T- man, a ch' ~~., wears the 0harac ensue ms nettam t seems almost superfluous to describe their arms wide-ski rted topcoat which 11.ad a flap c 31.1ed a and equipmen here, but 1'11f' lexiad '011,'. ains a l muqallab passing diagonally across the ches from, good, description which deserves to, be quoted ': A~ right to left; {his, 'was, tied by tapes under the arm "K··· ' ·····,f:lIltl·' armour, ,··,nn.a says.- 'consists 0: a tunic 0'f 'consists of and, down the left side, From th belt, which is in erwoven iron rings linked one with another ; the made of silver plaques, hang ntisbowcase quiver iron is of good quality -, and be ing arrowproof
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aU~d sDurcc'ufwrrro:rm :don on the unjfoili'in'lls~ ~l[Is~gni~, ailed 'PlPear,ancJe ofrthc' worWdj1':NI, fighting :m.:croII o:f[p3,' I[ 8.li'nId pr'c, ent. The' M'e".-a~'-A"ns ilfirl,!;s cover subjeet _::lj, dlverse as the ,~D1"p~l"'ru~l, Roman;" nn~, the poleeaie ~'~:rs ~nd (ierma:n air/borne "'roo,s in ai PQPUm~:r' 4s.,.pa~ f(H'Jt13i.t ~[[]c~lu:,liWnl:SO~f1e 40 pboiUog;raph', ltd diagr9l.lil~ and. ~i~~ (uU~olour pl tie.
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lV' ',RR.JO!,R :Defin.ilt:i ve 'ana~y":1- of 1[" e :ar:mour e ~_:P;()n& tactics and moct:lv8!'dcon of he fi.~JJ;~,~g :m!en of his"ory. Efl~h t'n4-:Pr.li,!f.'C book co;nt:ilwQS CU,[;[1'!i\1my. , :and expolihi!dl a:rU ork of "~le wa!:rll!"~O:r.-;s "'\1~pOnS ~'IIndarmettr,
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