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Principles of Dog Training

Principles of Dog Training

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PRINCIPLES

OF

DOG TRAINING
ORIGINALLY

"DOG PATHS TO SUCCESS"
BY
W.
C.

PERCY

("Kit Killbird")

CAREFULLY REVISED AND EXTENDED
BY

"ASHMONT"

BOSTON
J.

LOEING THAYER
1886

T(..'>H.i

Vd J-

,,(.»-

t4...x.j

Copyright,

1886,

C"

/pr~

^^

J-

Frank Perry, M.D.

F^3

Electrotyped by
C.
J.

Peters and Son, Boston.

PKEFACE.

The
cess,"

basis of this handboolc

is

"Dog

Patlis to Suc-

a work on dog

training, whicli

appeared a few
C. Percy, well

years since, from the pen of Mr.

W.
as "

known
The

to

American sportsmen

Kit

Killbird."

merits of the book found immediate recognition,
sale
tlie

and a rapid
Appreciating

of

tlie

entire
for

edition
it,

followed.

great

demand

which remained

unsujiplied, the copyright

was purchased by me from

the author.

After a thorough revision of the text,

and with some important additions, the work, under a

new and more euphonious
the amateur dog
trainer,

title, is

now submitted
it

to

for of

whom
the

is

designed.

No

inconsiderable portion

first

edition

was
its

deemed extraneous, and therefore omitted.
practical points of

All

importance have, liowever, been

given special prominence in these pages, and the sys-

tem
same

of

training herein

advocated

is

distinctly the
in his original

as that presented

by Mr. Percy

work.

"ASHMONT."
Boston, November,
1886.

3

CONTENTS.
CI-IAPTEK

I.

— HOW

TO HANDLE A DOG.

The

which are most essential in a trainer — The spikfe collar a cruel instrument, which should never be used on young dogs The age at which the education of a pup may commence — Preparatory measures, and the earliest elforts to instruct
qualities


7

CHAPTER
A
"to fetch"

11.— FIRST LESSONS IN RETRIEVING.

natural prompting, which

is developed early How to teach a pup importance of patience A practice which should he persisted in until the pupil is a year old or more

— The

— —


11

Opportunities favorable for instruction

CHAPTER

III.—

"HEED," ''HIE ON."
actual lesson

At the age of four months the

first

commences — How

he may soon learn to obey the commands to "heed" and *'bie on " The check-cord, and how it can he made useful — The manner of teaching "to heel"

.

.

.

,'

15

CHAPTER IV.— "CHARGE."
The
lesson difficult at continued practice
first,

a pup oif his point A discipline which tends to quicken perception and place a pup under more control . complete
.

— Calling

and

it

requires patience, firmness, and

19

CHAPTER

v.

— VALUE

OF VARIETY IN ROUTINE.

A form of
field

pup to hunt with his bead up and on the wind — The importance of yard-breaking — First lessons should not be delayed, as some advise, until a dog enters the
instruction which teaches a
23

CHAPTER
How
to teach a

VI.

— SOUND

OF THE GUN, POINTING RABBITS, ETC.

to love a gun conservative course recomto rabbits, cats, and fowls —Familiarize hira with all influences liable to prove distracting while being trained Teach him to bear the restraint of a chain

pup

—A

mended— Accustom him

27

5

CONTENTS.
CHAPTER Vn. -TAKING THE PUP AFIELD.
Training in company His first point A checlt-cord occasionally of An mucli assistance Give the pup at first undivided atlention Tlie piini.shment which he should indication vi great merit receive for disobedience in the tield

— —

.

33

CHAPTER

VIII.— THE USE OF

THE WHIP.

The sphere of its usefulness a limited one— Resort to it only when gentle means fail — Never call a dog to you and wliip hini, but always.go to him— Never allow him to break shut

37

CHAPTER

IX.

—GUN-SHYNESS AND

ITS CURE.

Physical and mental peculiarities are alike transmissible— Gun-shj*ness may be an inherent defect, but it is more often acquired Some of the many methods of cure ejuployed The treatment which promises the best results . .40

.

CHAPTER

X.

— THE SECRET OF SUCCESSFUL

TRAINING.

Nature lends every assistance — Shape the tendencies with which she endows the pnpil — I->irect by motions of the hand — The dog indued with the spirit of his master A wide-ranging dog of greater utility than a close ranger 46

CHAPTER XI.— QUARTERING, BACKING,

ETC.

Beating up game in an open field Backing and pointing contrasted Some dogs back instinctively The discipline others may need A iaidt for which the whip is the surest remedy Its application should be immediate

— —

— —

60

CHAPTER

XII.

-CARDINAL QUALITIES OP HUNTING DOGS.

Should retrieving be discouraged? — The affirmative theory scarcely sustained A dog constantly improves until six years old Tlie question of superiority between the pointer and setter The

— —

cocker spaniel, and some of his qualities

...

54

CHAPTER XIIL — CONCLUSION.
All
trainers — Most notiible characteristics training an art — A knowletlge of sire and ilam lends the trainer assistance — Parting advice to the amateur

men cannot be successful of those who are — Dog

a!)

PRINCIPLES OF DOG TRAINING.

CHAPTER
HOW
If, reader,

I.

TO HANDLE A DOG.
a-re

you

a novice in handling dogs,

are impatient, excitable, and easily angered, and

you do not

feel certain that

you can

restrain your

temper under circumstances more than ordinarily
trying, then I

would advise you not
of
a

to

undertake

the

management
are

well

bred

pup.

These

faults

grievous;
hurtful,

their

influence

upon him

would be

and not impossibly ruinous.

You

would, therefore, do better to procure for
in habit

your use a dog already broken, and fixed

and character.

The
trainer

first
is

and most

essential

attribute

in

a

a natural affection for his dog, and the

indispensable qualifications to ensure success are
patience and perseverance.

He may

unite temper

with these qualities, but must not display the
7

8

PumCIPLES OF DOG TRAIKING.
If

same.

he has

it

under subjection he
if

is

better
it.

qualified to succeed than

he were without

I

have always observed that men possessed of high
temper, able to restrain
resolution,
it,

have more will and

and are

less

likely to

abandon any

project or enterprise which they undertake.
per,

Temattri-

when under
a beastly

control,

becomes a nobler

bute, spirit; but
into
strips

when unrestrained it degenerates passion, deprives man of reason,
and places him on a level
standard he will in vain

him

of dignity,

with the brute whose

attempt to elevate.
I

would not advise you,

as

some authorities
These
of

have done, to procure a spike collar and attempt
to

teach your pupil everything at once.

men, denouncing the whip as an instrument
torture,

would substitute another doubly severe
and no more calculated
-

in its application,

to disa-

buse the mind of the tortured pupil of the instrumentality of his master in the punishment.

Though
begin

the education of sporting dogs should

in early

puppyhood,

my

experience warrants

me

in fixing the limit at the fourth

month.

Les-

sons begun

much

earlier

than

this, I

am

inclined

to think, beget timidity, unless great caution

on

HOW

TO HANDLE
is

A

DOG.

9

the part of the trainer

used, and I
in a

know

of

no weakness more objectionable
for the field or other purpose.

dog intended

Until the age mentioned, a pup should only

be petted, caressed, and fed by the hand of his
master.

He

should be accustomed to accompany

him
at

in short walks

and rambles, and made
company.

to feel

home and easy

in his

He

should be

familiarized with the roads and paths leading to

and from the house, and accustomed
of strangers, different objects

to the sight

and animals about

the premises, in order to acquire a sufficient de-

gree of confidence and fearlessness to withstand

any distracting agency which may operate against
the efforts of the trainer
tion arrives.

when tlie hour The words " Come in "
is

of instruc-

or "

Come
or

here " should be used whenever occasion demands,
or

when he

approached with his

plate,

tidbit reserved for him.

These words he soon

learns to associate with something which

you

de-

sign for him, be

it

a kindly stroke or

a morsel

to eat, and, if repeated often, tlieir intent

and pur-

pose soon become fixed in his mind, and he learns
to

obey promptly.

Now, regarding

the effects of
close or

sights

and sounds upon puppies, no

even

10

PEINCIPLES OF DOG TRAINING.

casual observer of dogs has failed to notice the
difference

between the town and
is

the

country-

whelp.

The one

generally bold, fearless, and

indifferent to everything
is

around him

;

the other

wide awake to the approach of strangers, his
his

manner shrinking, and

ear pricked at every

unusual noise or sound.

The
to

latter,

however,

in the end, develops into the best fielder, because
of the easy
fields

and ready access

game which

the

near his

home

afford.

CHAPTER

11.

FIEST LESSONS IN EETKIEVING.
"

To

fetch "

is

the
I

very

first

lesson
all

which

should be taught.

hold that

propensities

and inclinations

of

a

dog which

tend

to

his

ultimate good, and especially those which assist
the trainer, should be assiduously cultivated, and
surely there are none earlier developed than this
desire to run

and fetch a

ball, a glove,

or other

object

thrown

for his pleasure.

Here

is

where a
fetch,"

pup

practically learns the
will

meaning of "

which he
game.

never forget when taken out on
it

This practice becomes, as
in

were, a habit,

and fixed habits
nature, the

man and

beast are second
its

power

of

which maintains

sway

through

life.

Some

trainers advise the deferring
;

of this branch of a pup's tuition
is

then,

when

it

commenced,

to use the spil^e collar as the first

means

of teaching

him

to

reti'ieve.

I

am

sur-

prised at their doing this before trying a simpler

and more pleasing

plan.

It
11

may answer very

well

12
for old,

PRINCIPLES OF DOG TRAINING.
hard-headed dogs, the education of which
neglected
;

has

been

then potent remedies are

required, but the application of this instrument
to

very young dogs

is

as cruel

and unwarrantable

a practice as advocates of the whip ever resorted
to.

I
I

know

that

I

antagonize

a

few trainers
collar

when

denounce the use of the spike
;

upon

young dogs

nevertheless,

I

am
I

entitled to a right

of opinion, especially

when

base

it

upon

per-

sonal experience.
Tlie use of sional breakers,

the spike

emanated with profesand educate dogs
is

who

train

for a
to at-

pecuniary consideration, and whose aim

tain the end in a given period or as short a time
as possible.

Their motives are any other than
af-

humane, and they are not influenced by that
fection
for
their

pupils

which

true

sportsmen

naturally possess.

Few
to

of us, in our respective

spheres, are sufficiently patient.

The owner

of a

dog who expects him

work from

a sense of

love and attachment, and follow up the course of
early impressions,

must be content
first-class
;

to

wait,

and

should not look for

execution before the

second season on game

before he can

become

a

thoroughly reliable hunter, in and out of sight.

PIEST LESSONS IN RETRIEVING. one fully qualified
still

13

in

every branch of the service,

another season of practice will be needed.
as teaching to "fetch " is unattended, or
is

Now,

should be, with acts of violence, a pup
sible to this

admis-

department of learning at the age of
if

three

months, and,
earlier.

well

grown and

healthy,
rolling a

even

Commence with him by

ball, or

throwing a glove, across the

floor.

You
him

must
to

sit

down,

in a position that will induce

return to you after he goes for the object.

When
if

he picks
so.

it

up, say " Fetch,"

and caress him
" Fetch,"

he does

Use no other word than
Continue

lest

you confuse him.
three

to exercise

him

twice a day in this manner, during your leisure

moments

;

in

weeks'

time

you

will

be

pleased* to see

how

well he obeys, and, at the

command
before

" Fetch," looks about in search, even
cast the ball or glove for him.

you have

Never

strike or cuff

him when he

refuses to
is

come

back, or stops to play with his ball, as
case.

often the
roll

The
his

little

rascal

will

probably

over,

gnaw

plaything, and

apparently taunt you

with this delay,
ing will

or, if fatigued,

no amount of urgbe patient and

move him.
him

You must
at this

considerate with

age,

remembering

14
that he

PEINCIPLES
is

OJ?

DOG TRAINING.

a mere pup, and not looking as far and
;

anxiously into the future as you are
this is a lesson

besides,
to "steal

which you are trying
must,
therefore,

upon him."

You
The

consult his

humor, and embrace opportunities when he presents them.
lesson
is

one which repetition
force of

develops into a habit, the

which

will

gather strength, and at maturity prove a most
essential acquirement.
It is

a discipline

which

should be persisted in while yard-breaking, and
until the pupil
is

a year old or more, being omit-

ted only occasionally for two or three weeks at a
time, as other lessons are

commenced.
of not having time to

Gf those who complain
devote to this exercise,
I

would
desire

ask,

what better
the

opportunity

could

you

than
is

long
save,

winter nights,

when everything
glow
of

quiet,

perhaps, the singing of the half-green chunk on
the
fire,

to the inviting

which the pup

is

more than pleased

to gain admittance.

At

just

such times and places, with an old stocking or a
slipper, has

been laid the foundation of

many

a

champion's bright career.

CHAPTER
"

III.

HEED "

— " HIE

ON."

Supposing your pup
is

to be four

months

old, it

high time to teach him one of his most impor:

tant lessons, viz.

to stand or point at the

comis

mand

"

Heed

" or

"To-ho."

The

latter

term

more commonly taught by English keepers, but
in the

I

prefer the former, and the majority of sportsmen

South are accustomed- to

it.

It

is

a

monoThis

syllable,

and

easily

spoken

,

it

is

a

more expres-

sive

word and,

therefore, to be preferred.

lesson

may

be begun with the aid of a piece of

beef or biscuit, or his plate of dinner, either of

which,

when placed
restrain

before your puppy, he will
to

naturally evince

an eagerness

obtain.

You
and
at

must

him by putting your open hand
;

under his throat
the same

firmly hold him back,

time say "

Heed."

Stroke him on the

back with the free hand, repeating the command,
" Heed," then release

him suddenly and say
15

"

Hie

on

!

"

After he has eaten bis morsel, put

down

16

PIUNCIPLES OF DOG TRAINING.

another, over which he will be as frantic as before,

and, finding himself again restrained, will

attempt to dodge his head under

your

wrist.

Hold him back

firmly, but kindly,

and repeat the

command
him

"

Heed

" several times, before releasing

to the order "

Hie on."

Repeat the lesson

frequently during the day, and always at mealtimes.
restraint

Never permit him

to

eat without this
in a

upon
"
''

his eagerness,
is

and

few days

you
"

will see that he

beginning to associate the

command
Hie on

Heed

" with the act of stopping,

and

with that of going forward.

Thesn,

in order to

make him obey

Avithout holding, tap

him

lightly

on the head when he appears too
In this way, he will

eager,

and say " Heed."
Continue

soon learn to stand and patiently wait the order

"Hie
days
;

on."
in
all

this

practice
will

for

several

probability,

you

then be able,

while several feet from your dog, to

make him

hold his position, and advance at the word of

command.

You must

be patient and forbearing

;

do not

attempt too much, or severelj^ test your pupil's

mental capacity.

Remember

to

give

but one

lesson at a time, for a term of days or weeks, in

"heed"
order to impress
it

— "HIE

ON."

17

indelibly on the mind.

Only
cord
is

when

that one

has

been well

learned should

another

be

commenced.

The

check

is

sometimes employed by the

trainer,
verj^

and

an

admirable auxiliary agent upon
subjects.
to

headstrong

When

required,
collar,

it

should be attached

the

neck or

and with the command dog should be jerked;
cord,

"Heed,"
or,

or "To-ho," the

by placing your foot on the end of the
be allowed to jerk himself.

the dog
jerk

Now, the

and command, coming together simultane-

ously, will be associated in his untutored mind,

and

to escape the one, he will be glad to

obey the

other.

As

I

have never had occasion
I

to use the
it

cord in this lesson,

would not recommend
your pup

excepting in extreme cases.

The next
there

step

is

to take

to a close

room, or to a secludeil spot in the yard, where
is

nothing to distract his attention from his
Call

lessons.

him

to you,

show

Jiim a piece of

beef or bread, and with a waft of your hand toss
it to

the right.
first

When
"Heed";
him

he rushes for
then,
after

it,

command
to

him

to

obe)'ing,
in the

" Hie on."

Call
left.

in

and try him
a

same
chip

way on

the

Then take

stone

or

18

PKINCIPLES OP DOG TBAINING.

(something not edible) and a piece of meat, and

throw one

to the right, the other to the left,
fall.

being
let

sure he sees them both

Hie him on, and
;

him take

his

choice of directions

and

if,

per-

chance, he should go to the corner opposite the

meat, he will draw blank, and then da'sh across
to the other to find his morsel.

This will teach
After

him

to

quarter and hunt up his game.

finding the meat, always whistle

him

to you.

now do well tn teach your pup to come "to heel" when called. You should also
will

You

begin to accustom him to remain at your side

during the daily walks whicli you take with him.
Instead of a chain, a stick about the length of a
cane, or a light cane
itself,

may

be used, and on

the end of this a snap should be fastened.

To

the ring of his collar this
this

may

be attached, and by
legs as

means he can be kept opposite your

you walk.
distances at

Apply
first,

this

restraint

for only

short

and when released bid him "hie

on."

After a short time, the attachment can be

dispensed with; you must then be certain that he
does not leave your side until you have signified

your consent by the same words

of

command.

CHAPTER
When you see that

IV.

"CHAKGE."
he has become quite stanch
will say, the

and obedient, and has reached, we
teach him to "

age of five or six months, you can then begin to

down

charge."

This lesson, like

every other,
patience
force
all

is

a little difficult at first,
is

but with

trouble

soon overcome.

Gently

your dog into the desired position, with
Say, at the same time, "

forepaws extended, and his head stretched out on
or between them.

Down

charge," or " Charge," as
the
or "

you

prefer,

and repeat

command

until he

is

relieved with " Hie up,"
rise

Hold up."

When

he attempts to
so,

before

being ordered to do
or press on his back,

tap him on the head,

and repeat the command.
first,

You must go
associate the

slowly at

until he begins to
his peculiar posture.

command with

After a time, as your pupil progresses, you may,

using good judgment, become more austere in

your manner, and force him
the word.
Practise

to

obey promptly at
in this

him frequently
19

way,

20

PEINCIPLES OF DOG TEAIlSriNG.

and repeat the instructions daily until they are
fully understood.

Now, when you have succeeded
dog "heed," "hie
on,''

in

making your

and "charge" promptly

(which are the most important branches of his
education), and have at intervals continued to
exercise

him with the glove or

ball,

there

is

in

order anotlier lesson, which goes further towards

bringing a young dog under control, and enabling

him

to distinguish
I

between the various commands,

than any that

have ever seen tried
This in the


it

viz.

:

calling

him

off his point.
i

field is

not neces-

sary or advisable
to give ear

but in the yard

teaches

him

and

attention,

and not confound one
a morsel a tempt-

command with
ing plate " heeds "
here."
of

another.

Now, supposing
is

of bread has been

thrown him, or there
over

dinner,

which he stands or

when

ordered,

and

you

say,

"

Come
sound
to

Having been accustomed

to

"hie on,"
first

he

will, of course, rusii

forward at the

of your voice, not

knowing that you wish him
lieretofore at this

"

come

in,"

when

juncture he

has been told to "hie on."
to cry "

You must be ready
;

Heed

" again,

and make him stop
here, sir,"

then
his

repeat the order, "

Come

and upon

"CHARGE."
first

21
tut,

motion forward, cry " Tut,
here, sir," repeating these

come

here.
to

Come
him
and

words rapidly
is

break up the chain of reasoning that
at the

binding

moment.
upon

When
coming

he turns his head to

look at you, snap your finger at him, stoop down,
insist

his

in.

As soon

as

he

obeys, pat

him and

let

him on

to his plate.

Only
act

two

or three trials are required to

make him

properly in this work.

The dog understands well
of "

enough the meaning
and

Come

here," but he

is

confused at your commanding him at such a time
place, so contrary to

what he has been accusperfected in this lesson,

tomed to.
it

As soon
no
little

as

he

is

will be

pleasure to observe

how
call

atten-

tively he awaits to

obey your different orders, never
After each
charge,"

mistaking one for another.
his point,

from
his

make him

"

down

with

face to the plate.
little

With
it

the expenditure

of

a

time and some

effort, this
;

exercise becomes

a very pleasing

one

thoroughly subdues the

pup's excessive eagerness, and places him under

more complete
I

control.
this

have broken braces in

manner, and

allowed them to approach within a foot of tempting bits of cooked meat, there to await the com-

22

PKINCIPLES OF DOG TRAINING.
either

mand,

" Hie

on," or "

Come
The

in,"

which

they had learned to

distinguish and obey with
sight of

great accuracy and precision.

two
each
to

dogs

charging

promptly together,

eying

other jealously, "hieing
order,
is

on" and "coming in"
elicit

one that would

the admiration of

the most indifferent spectator.

When

a child

is

made

to recite the first lessons in addition

which
one

he has committed to memory,


;

for instance,

and one are two, one and two are three, and so
on,

—-how

readily he answers, and smilingly re-

joices over his

accomplishment

but pray observe

his astonishment
is

and confusion when the question
in

put to him out of the order as given

his
is

book, or as he has been taught.

The

exercise

not unlike the one

I

have just recommended for
is

the canine pupil, and there
to rivet the attention

none which serves

more
I

firmly, or assists

him

more

to distinguish, as

said before, the signifi-

cance of the various commands without mistaking

one for another.

When

3'our

dog

is

perfectly

familiar with the preceding lessons, he should be
jjractised

in

various

ways

and

on

different

grounds, where the terms, the meaning of which
has been taught him, are applicable.

;

CHAPTER
VALUE OF VARIETY

V.
IN ROUTINE.
is

When

the exercises are varied, as

plain to

be seen, unusual experiences will be encountered.

Although the use

of the

same terms of command
is

already taught him will be needed, change
tary, relieving the

salu-

monotony

of the

young dog's
strength
follow-

routine,

and thereby conducing

to the

and vigor of

his reasoning powers.

The

ing practice has aided

me much

in perfecting

my

own dogs
follow
it.

;

I

would, therefore, advise others to

Take three

or four short stakes, or pieces of

picket lumber, about two and one-half feet long

sharpen one end, and drive them into the ground
to the

depth of six or eight inches
line,

;

they should

be in a

and about twenty

feet apart.

On

the top of each, nail a small piece of board or

plank about six or eight inches square, large
enough, at
least, to

hold a bit of meat or bread.

After you have arranged them, step off a short
23

24

PKINCIPLES OF DOG TRAINING.

distance, call the pup,
in

show him a piece of meat your hand; then make him "down charge,"
so while

and remain

you go forward and put

it

on the top of the nearest stake.
to him,

Now come

back

and hie

him

on,

making him heed,

or to-ho,

when within
is

a few feet of the stake.

After he
call

ordered on and allowed to take the meat,

him in;
remain
again.

then make him
in

"down
while

charge,"

and

that

position

you go forward

Walk down

the line and put your hand

on
of

all

the stakes, in the

manner
"
;

of children's play

"

Hide the Thimble

this

time leave the

meat on the

last stake in the

row.

When

jou.

return and hie your dog on, of course he will go
to

the
;

first

stake,

where he was so fortunate
prize,

before

but not finding his

after

nosing
to the

around the foot of the stake and mounting
on down the row, until he at

top again, he will dash off to the next stake, and
so
last discovers the

object of his search.

After you have exercised
for a

him
more

in this

manner

few days, you can add

stakes and place

them about promiscuously,
it

thereby prolonging his search and making
difficult

more

for

him

to

find

his

coveted

morsel.

When

he seems confused, encourage him with

VALUE OF VARIETY
the words "

IN ROUTINE.
this teaches

25

Hunt

for

it

"

;

him

to

range and feel close witli his
In this exercise,
tlie
;

seiisitive nose.

dog should and
if

always be
is

thrown

off to

windward

the meat that
tlie

used to tempt him bus been placed on
for a

coals

minute or

so,

he will not give up the search

as long as he sniffs the enticing odor. of yard-training to bring a
is

No method

better calculated than this one

dog

to

hunt with

his

head up, on the

Avind, instead of

on the ground, and to effect a
carriage.
all

stylish

and attractive
it

Let

be borne in mind that

of the fore-

going instructions are intended for
puppies, as a

young dogs

or

primary course of learning, comas yard-breaking,

monly known

and they should

be instilled with a view of relieving the master
or sportsman of
in the
field.

much work on the pup's d^but Remember that he should be drilled
is

under them until he
for

taken to the outer world

work and

business.

Kind treatment

is

the

rule,

and mild measures should be adopted from
first;

the

with firmness, patience, and perseveis

rance, success

assured.

Endeavor

to

impress

iipon your

dog the
;

fact that

you

are his master

and not he yours

that you are his friend, and,

26

PRINCIPLES OF DOG TRAINING.
to supply his wants,

though ever ready

and

re-

ward him

for his

good deeds, you are equally

resolved to punish his transgressions.

Some authors on breaking
taking him into the
instructions, assuring
field

advise

if

the

shooting season finds your pup six months old

without any previous
train-

you that the work of
the
I

ing can be

accomplished with half

labor

necessary in the yard, or out of season.

most

emphatically differ from them on this point, and
think that the want of practical knowledge which

such advice evinces

is

glaringly apparent.

I

do

not deny that a dog can be broken in the

field

without any previous
that yard-breaking
is

preparation, nor contend

absolutely necessary to

make
les-

a fielder.

I

do know, however, that

first

sons in the field are attended with innumerable
difficulties,

and

I

would advise you

to defer enter-

ing there, for a
sake, delaying

month
he

at least, for
is

your pup's

until

familiar with a

few
to

signs

and

commands,

which

are

intended

govern his actions when on game.

CHAPTER
SOUND OV THE GUN.

VI.

— POINTING
to give

BABBITS, ETC.
first

We
months

will

now

return for a time to the
life,

of pup's

emphasis to several

points of infinite importance, the consideration of

which we have reserved

to avoid confusion.

At

a very early age he should be accustomed to, and,
in fact, taught to welcome, the

sound of the gun.
is

If this essential in his training

neglected until
field,

the time

when he should

enter the

deplo-

rable results very often follow.
a

Not infrequently
ter-

dog

is

rendered absolutely worthless by the
experienced when a gun
is

rible fright

first fired

over or near him.

In

fact, a

pup should,
to every

in as

much

as possible, be

accustomed

unusual

sound.

But

if

he

can stand without flinching

while a gun
is

is

fired within a

few feet of him,

it

unlikely that other soands will

cause him exces-

sive fright.

Almost every
his

trainer

has methods
his

peculiarly
to the

own by which he accustoms
27

pups

28

PRINCIPLES OF DOG TRAINING.
All of value that are applied
life

sound of the gun.

at the early period of

are,

however, based on
a

the same

principle.

They teach
its

pup

to love a

gun, by associating with
cial pleasure.

discharge some espe-

The primary measures which you
if

use are unimportant; a drum,

you have one, or

an old

tin pan, or

an empty box, will do,

— somefirst

thing which,

when

struck with a stick, will emit

a sharp, quick sound.

This you should at

keep

at a distance

from the pup's kennel or pen.
call

When
as
is

taking his food to him, whistle or

him

your wont, and

at the

same time give a
it

stroke on whatever you have selected, be
or pan,

drum

and then rapidly approach and feed him.
this

Pursue
stroke,
I

method, giving each day a heavier
after a time,

and then,

move

the instru-

ment which you employ nearer
ing the distance gradualh'.
associate the sounds with

his kennel, lessen-

He

will in this

way
also

your coming, and

with his food or his liberty, and, in time, no din

which you can make, even
him.

in his pen, will

unnerve
it

Quite the reverse: he will gladly endure

for the pleasure

which he

is

certain will follow.
it

This

much

accomplished,

will

be well for you

now

to use a

gun

or pistol.

Instead of the old

SOUND OP THE GUN,
and familiar sound,
cap at a distance,
let

ETC.

29

him hear you explode a
j^ou call to him.

when

Follow

the same methods of procedure as before, and

each day bring the sound nearer, until at last the

snapping of a cap over his head will
him.

fail to startle

Now, instead
It

of

a

cap,

use
fii-st,

a

charge of
finally a
is
it

powdler.

should be light at
If,

and

full charge.

in the

same way advised, he

gradually accustomed to the sound of the gun,
will

have no terrors for him

;

on the contrary, he
it.

will learn to

love and welcome

During the employment

of this system,

it

will

be well to occasionally seek the aid of an
ant,

assist-

who
is

will fire while

you are with the pup, and
him.
If

are
fear

closely watching
iioted,

any evidence
the

of

you must

lay aside

gun and

return to the

first

method advised, and again pass
have recommended
if

through the different stages of the exercise.
This course which
conservative one.
I
is

a

True, in some instances,
first,

the

gun
ally

is

used from the

and the pup

is

gradu-

accustomed

to its sound, possibly the result
It

will be the same.

might not be
or
less

as well,

how-

ever, for

there

is

more

danger in the

method

;

while in the slower and

more tedious

30

PRINCIPLES OF DOG TEAINING.
is

process which I advised, success
assured,

almost fully

and no

risk incurred.
is

While your pup
peculiarity
setter

still

young, there
correction.

is

one

which

will will

need

Any
cats

or pointer

naturally

chase

or

rabbits,

and

in the

course
this.

of his education
It

he

must be broken from
cult to soon teach

ought not be

diffi-

him not

to exhibit the objecits

tionable trait.
cat;
if

Almost every household has

not,

it

would be well
he

to bring one

up with
ac-

the pup,

that

may become thoroughly
come
in

quainted with her kind before he enters the
otherwise, they will
attention.
for a share

field;

of his

He

should also be made familiar with

rabbits, or he will be as likely to point, if

not

chase, them, as he

would higher game. .A pair
and
for

can easily be

obtained,

them quarters
they can
so well

should be built near his pen, and connecting with
it

by a small opening.

Through

this

pass at will, and in a short time

become

acquainted he will be utterly indifferent to them.

For the

same

obvious

reasons
If

you

should

accustom your pup to fowls.
them,
it

you do not keep
up a brood of

will be of

no

little

advantage for you to

secure a pair;

when

possible, bring

THE CHAIN.
chickens with him.
If

31

he

is

introduced to them

while yet young, and attempts to chase and worry

them, he

is

likely to soon encounter the

mother
prove
little

and receive from her a rebuke which
effectual
;

will

and ever

after

he will treat her

ones with greater consideration.

In pursuance of this plan which
lined,
it

we have

out-

will

be advisable for you ±o try and

anticipate

every contingency.

While yet he

is

very young, you should familiarize
in as

your pup,

much

as possible, with the distracting influis

ences which he

likely

to

encounter after his

education has actually commenced.

There yet remains one point which, although
seemingly
trifling, still

deserves

mention.

It' is

the need to habituate
chain.

him

to the restraint of the

The

earlier this is

done the better

;

for
as
it

the difficulty increases with delay.
is

As soon

apparent that he

is

capable of understanding,

fasten a light chain to his collar, and then follow
for a short time as he

moves about, being

careful

not to resist him.

In a few days he will become
to
it,

somewhat accustomed
must be very

and you can then

begin to control his movements.
slight
at
first,

The

restraint

however, and he

32

PEINCIPLES OF DOG TKAINING.

should be coaxed, not forced, to follow you. not prolong the lesson, but
ally,

Do
like

let

him

learn gradu-

and he

will soon trot along

by your side

an old dog.

You must now accustom him
straint,

to

greater
it

re-

and

until he
to

is

taught to bear

patiently

you
him.
his

will

need

be firm in your conduct with
first

Chain him up, and remain at
fears

quieting

and lightening
caresses.

his

hardship by kind

words and

Wlien he no longer strug-

gles, uncliain

and

set

him

free.

Repeat the lesson

two or thiee limes
the
this
still

a day, leaving

him alone

after

fijst

t-\^o

or three days.
:

You must observe
Resist his

rule,

namely

never release him while he

struggles and tugs at his chain.
appeals,
quiet.

piteous

and

only free

him when he

becomes

He

will soon

learn that strug-

gling and howling are purposeless, and that complete submission to your wishes
is

the only course

cpeu to him.

We will
we
pup
left
it,

now

return and take up the trail where

and introduce our rapidly maturing
duties for which he

to the

was being pre-

pared when

we

digressed to give

you these hints

on early management.

;

CHAPTER

VII.

TAKING THE PUP AFIELD.
Yoii are fortunate
if

the

game season

finds

your dog at the age of seven or eight months,

and he has learned the lessons which we have
already assigned
field
;

you can now take him
less pleasing
is

to the

while they are yet fresh in his mind.

The

change will be no
the scent which

than bewildering

emitted from the grouse and

quail will tickle his nose more than the morsels
of

meat did

his palate,

and he

will

awake
If

to a
is

world of new sensations and delights.

he

a

well bred puppy, in good health and courageous,

he will at

first

probably be wild, and unmindful

of everything said or done.
at once, or restrain his dash

Do

not repress him

and range, but permit

him

to

run

riot for

an hour or two, when he will

come down

to his

work.

This eagerness

is

not

objectionable in a youngster.

It is indicative of

physical vigor and good breeding, and, to a certain

extent,

is

evidence that he
33

possesses

the

!

34

PEINCIPLES OF DOG TRAINING.
It is advisable to take

essential qualities.

with

you,

when

convenient, a good
will be apt to

old

steady dog;

your young one

watch and follow

after he has tired a little.

You must now
stand or point
;

be on the qui vive for his
it

first

and when

OQCurs, or he

shows

signs of game, caution
"

him with the command

Heed," uttered in a low, prolonged tone.
covey,

Apto

proach and flush the
bring

and endeavor
If

down one

bird at least.

pup rushes

after

the scattering brood,
or get angry.

you must not be surprised
that this
is

Remember

the prey

he

is
;

bred to pursue, and one on which yoix threw he has not as yet been taught not to pursue
it

him
it

when

is

trying to escape.
if

You must

cry

"Down

charge," and

he does not obey, go to

him, get him by the collar, and bring him back to
the spot where he pointed, and there

"charge" while you

reload.

Then

cast

make him him off Dead
it;

in the direction of the fallen bird, saying, "
!

seek dead " repeating these Avords until he finds

then say, " Fetch, fetch

!

"

If

he should not pick

up the bird

at

first,

and fetch prompt!}', do not
it,

allow him to nose or mouth
yourself,

but take
it
;

it

up

and apparently make much of

stroke

TAKING THE PUP AFIELD.

35

down
enjoy
rally

the feathers, and allow him to smell and
it

while in your hand.
it

Though he

natu-

wants
it

himself, he will soon learn, as he

watches
that you
It
is,

go into the game-bag after every shot,
it also,

want

and intend
if

to claim

it.

of course, well to drop,

possible, a bird

with each shot, so as to associate in the dog's

mind
eted

the shooting with the possession of the cov;

game

yet the killing of birds

now must
For

be a

secondary consideration, and your whole attention

should be given to your pupil.
it
is

this

reason

well to have a companion to shoot

and mark down game, while you have an eye
exclusively to the pup.
If

he

is

wayward and

perverse, I would suggest the

use of a small,

strong cord, about twenty feet long; this should

be
to

attached

to

his

collar.

When

he

comes

a point, approach him from behind

and get

hold of or put your foot on the same, and caution

him with "Heed."

Your comrade

will

now

flush

the birds, and pup in breaking shot will be jerked
heels over head, perhaps, to the tune of "

Down
to

charge."
to bring

It will require

but a few such lessons

him

to a sense of duty, to teach

him

drop on the discharge of the gun.

Whenever

a

36
bird
is

PRINCIPLES OF DOG TRAINING.
killed, after

you have reloaded throw your
dead game
bj^

dog

oif in the direction of

a motion

of your hand, saying, as before, "

Dead

seek," or

"Seek dead."
him
later
to " fetch "
if

Continue on each occasion to urge
;

this he will surely

do sooner or

he has been well trained in the yard.
or bird to

Always approach the marked covey

leeward, in order to give your dog everj^ advantage of the scent, and to avoid blunders which he
will

be apt to

make running down wind on
if

his

game.

In the course of time,
fall

hunted

regulai-ly,

he will soon learn to
hold well up on
that your dog
it

down wind

himself,

and
note

in the search.
this,

When you

does

you can congratulate

yourself upon the possession of a valuable hunter,

and one which

will only require

work

to bring

him near

perfection.

After using the cord for a
it

few days, you can take
trial

off

and give the pup a
be on the
alert, for

without

it.

You must

very likely, upon the

first flush,

feeling no check,
If

he will imagine that you wanted him to go. he does so after the

command

" Charge,"

you
how-

must catch him and use the
ever, at
first.

lash, sparingly,

CHAPTER
THE
«

VIII.

XTSE

OF THE WHIP.

A FEW words
of
its

regarding the whip.
is

The sphere
necessary.

usefulness

a limited one, but for positive

acts of disobedience

and wilfulness

it is

An

agent of good in the hands of a cool, resolute
it

man,

becomes malignant when wielded on
It is not the

tlie

impulse of a brutal mind.

whip that
at

has ruined so man}^ dogs, but the
handle.

man

the

The

field is the place that calls for the
first

most correction during the
sons on game.

and second

sea-

Then, as a

rule, the
to,

most gentle

means should be resorted

and those which

have been employed in the yard should be applied.

When, however,
there
is

severe

punishment

is

needed,

nothing which can suppl}^ the place of

the whip,

and

it

should be used when a dog

breaks shot, breaks his point, or wilfully disobeys.

The sportsman should always go prepared with
one that
is

strong and

pliant, short,

and

easily

carried in the pocket.

The dog should never be
37

38

PEINCIPLES OP DOG TRAINING.
it

threatened with

when about

to be punished,

but should be taken firmly by the collar with the
left

hand, his head held well

doAVJi,

and with the
the

right

hand the

lash

laid

on.

Then

whip

should be slipped back into the pocket before the

dog

is

let up.

He

painfull}' realizes the punish-

ment received

for his offence,

and because he does

not see the instrument used, he will be even more
careful in his

movements,

lest

he again invites
experieirce.

such

a

woful

and

unaccountable

Never

call a

dog

to 3rou

and whip him.

Alwa3^s

go to him, or he will ever afterwards, when called,

have

his

doubts as to what awaits him
or a caress.
is

— whether
hand,

the rawhide

On

the

other

when

a

dog

whipped

at the place

where he
glad to

does wrong, he will ever after be

onl}^ too

run to you when he

is

called, to

keep you from

going to him.

Let

it

be remembered that the foregoing pre-

cautions

and

rigid

discipline

are

applicable

to

pups of very headstrong and perverse natures.

Those that are timid should be handled very
differently.

They should be encouraged by reassuring words and your spirited manner while in the
field.

Animals are very quick

to catch the habits

THE USE OF THE WHIP.
and
peculiarities of the associates with

39

whom

they

are in daily contact.
too, in disposition

Strains differ very widely,

and temperament.

Some

are

predisposed
age, are
less
;

to

point stanchly at a very

early

exceedingly tractable, and, withal, fear
I

while others are almost unmanageable.
I

once owned a strain of pointers which,

have

heard sportsmen

say,

the

master deserved no

credit for his training, for they were so very intel-

ligent that only a few lessons were

needed to

prepare them for the

field.

Continue

your

pup's education in

the

way
to

which

I

was pointing out when we digressed

discuss the question of punishment.

Make him

now
first

"

down

charge " on every shot, or stand until

ordered on.

Birds are often lying close after the

one

rises

on

the

wing.

They would be
if

flushed before you could reload,

your dog were

allowed to break' shot.

Besides

this, a

dog should

never be allowed to advance on game without a

word

or sign from his master.

If

such freedom
it

is

permitted under his eye, surely

will be
is

taken

when
sight.

his

back

is

turned, or the dog

out of his

CHAPTER

IX.

GUN-SHYNESS AND ITS CURE.

We shall be

obliged to linger at this point, and

briefly discuss the subject of gun-shyness,

which

has alwaj's been

one of exceeding interest for
that this peculiarity of

sportsmen.
disposition
cates, while
is

The theory
is

inheritable has found

many
it.

advo-

some have dissented from
it

There

no reason whatever whj'
;

should not be ac-

cepted as true
fixed

for there

is

a physiological law

and unalterable

that

both

physical and

mental peculiarities, be they imparted by inheritance, or acquired accidentally

by faulty manage-

ment

in early

life,

are alike transmissible.

While, then, gun-shyness in a pup
inherent defect, testimony
that
it is

may be an

is

not wanting to prove
to

by

far

more often due

incompetency,

or criminal neglect, on the part of the trainer.

No two

puppies are alike in disposition
is

;

every

gradation of courage

noted, not only in the

different breeds but also in the
40

same

litter.

One

GUN-SHYNESS AND
will

ITS CTJEE.

41
;

need

restraint,

and possibly the whip

while,

with another, only by the kindest treatment can
his timidity be overcome.
I

do not say that every pup wanting in courage

can by judicious management be regenerated and

made

fearless

;

I

do say, however, that as an unbe broken and
its

daunted

spirit

may

possessor
so,

become shrinking, cowardly, and worthless,
too,

may

a

timid pup, by

wise,

humane, and

thoughtful methods, acquire a courage which will
sustain
I

him through years

of usefulness.

have already advised you of the proper course

to pursue to

accustom your pup to the sound of

the gun.

Rarely will the result be disappointing,

and

if

failure does occur I can but feel that the

fault will be in its application rather than in the

system

itself.

It

may

be your misfortune, through

some reason
the

or other, to be,

when

the season opens,

unhappy possessor

of a gun-shy pup.

A

work
as to

of this character would scarcely be complete were
this

contingency unprovided
is

for,

and advice

management

herein given.
to a point
;

We
with

come now

where we are beset
is

many

difficulities

there

scarcely

any

subject which interests sportsmen, on which there

42
is

PRINCIPLES OF DOG TRAINING.
a greatei' diversity of opinion.

Witli

tliis

fact

those

who have

watclied the Icennel press for the

past ten years are familiar.

In articles on gun-

shyness which have appeared in the "American
Field "
defect
that
tinct
it is is

noted that while one claims that the
fatal

a

one,

another

is

equally sure

it is

curable.

One

writer considers two dis:

forms of gun-shyness, namely

natxiral, or

hereditary; and unnatural, or induced by circumstances,
theorj'

— the
is

former he deems incurable.
ingenious,

This
can
if

certainly

but

reason

scarcely sustain such a nicety

of distinction,

we

consider this fault of disposition only;
a

that

is, if

dog

is

simply terrorized by the sound of

the gun, and yet shows no lack of courage under

other conditions.

Here, again,
;

we

find ourselves
far the larg-

dealing with the improbable
est

for

by

proportion of gun-shy

dogs

are,
is

under

all

circumstances in which courage
bly deficient in that attribute.

needed, nota-

If a

young dog,
cowardly

nearing
nature,
into

maturity,
it

is

of

a

skulking,

will

be next to impossible to instil
in

him the quality
and,

which he

is

so essentially

lacking,

very

properly,

such

an

unforIf,

tunate should be condemned as incurable.

GUN-SHYNESS AND

ITS CURB.

43

however, he can encounter the ordinary experiences of
life

without

fear,

and the sound
fright,

of the

gun alone causes excessive

then there are

many

chances in his favor, and a cure may, under

judicious

management, be expected.
:

There
" I

is

truth in what one sportsman has said
a thousand times rather

would

own

a

gun-shy dog that

had plenty

of

nerve and

hunt in him

when

without a gun, than a timid one that was not
gun-shy."

A variety
many may be
in

of

methods

for the treatment of gun-

shyness have been recommended.

As

is

the case

physical distiirbances, a measure which
efficacious in

one

patient

may prove
Some
firing

valueless

when administered
fifty to

to another.
field

have advised taking a dog into the
one hundred and

and

two hundred shots near
This method

him
and

;

the object being to partially deafen him,
so diminish his sensitiveness.

scarcely

recommends

itself.

Over some young

dogs, those older
if

and well
they are

trained have a decided influence, and

taken out day after day together, the former being
securely held with a long cord so he cannot run,

and otherwise unnoticed, the

fault

may

be over-

44
come.

PEINCIPLES OF DOG TRAINING.
Generally this method
is

soon abandoned

as too sore a tax

upon the

trainer.

The treatment which promises
is

the best results

a modification of that course advised for accusto the

toming puppies

sound

of the gun.

Chain

your dog up and every time you feed him, stand

where he can see you, but
him, and then
fire.

at

some distance from
still

With

the

gun

in

your hand,
be well,

approach rapidly and feed him.

It will

while submitting him to this discipline, to give
less

than the usual quantity of food, that he
it.

may

be more anxious for

Fire the

gun every time
him

you

visit his

kennel, and always follow the explospecial pleasure for

sion with

some

— either a
it

dainty morsel to

eat, or his liberty.

Lessen the

distance from which

you

fire

each day, but do

very gradually.

Be

observing,
;

and watch the
slight

effect

of

this

treatment
necessary.

some

modifications

may

be

The course advised

necessitates

some

trouble, and, as in all branches of

dog training,
do not claim

patience will be indispensable.

I

that in every instance by following this system

you

will be successful;

but

I insist
it

that

it

will

prove effective

much

oftener than

will fail,

and

GUN-SHYNESS AND ITS
moreover
ises
trial
it is

CTTKB.

45

the one

among them

all

which promit

the best results.

If after giving

a fair

your

clog is still terrorized

by the gun, you
is

will

have good reason

to feel that the case

well

nigli hopeless.

Before leaving this subject, a word upon the

permanency
will tell

of the cure of gun-shyness.
fault,

Many

you that the

while seemingly over-

come,

is

yet liable to reappear.

This tendency,

of course,

may

exist for a time,
will be

and unusual care
to

and watchfulness

needed

combat

it.

In

time, however, the owner may

feel

reasonably

secure against the return of the trouble.

CHAPTER

X.

THE SECRET OF SUCCESSFUL TRAINING.

Having worked your dog
son,
as

for a part of the sea-

you should withdraw
to

his older

companion, so

not

engender a feeling

of

dependency.

Take him

into open, scant fields, with cover fur-

ther removed, in order to bring out his ranging
qualities,

which are

all

desirable,
I

and even

indis-

pensable, in a field dog.

hold that a well bred

dog

— one born

of trained parents,

and naturally

fascinated with the odor of

game

— will

perfect

himself in this brancli of service independently of
all

the rules which
is

man
this

can devise, providing, of

course, he

regularly worked.

Nature plays an

important part in

matter,

and

it

is

only

necessary to shape the tendencies with which she
has endowed your pupil.
It is well to

accustom

your dog

to the

motions of your hand, by which

you him

will indicate the direction in to go.

which you wish

When

he

is

ordered on, you should

always move in the same direction.
46

When

the

;

THE SECRET OF
game
is

STJCCESSFTJL TRAINING.

47
of

marked down, you have the advantage

your dog, and he should be induced or forced to
follow the course you direct.

At

other times, he

has the advantage over you, in an organ of sense

which enables him to discover where game
concealed.

is

On
ment

entering a field throw him off with a moveof

your hand
fit.

— to the right or
his

left,

as

you

may

see

On
Ware
;

approach to a fence, cry

" Heed," or "
his attention

fence,"

and whistle
off

to attract

then cast him

again with an-

other motion, and

move

in the

same direction
field is

continue to do this until the whole

drawn.

Make him
game
scent,
is

skirt

and closely trim hedges, where
;

often hid
it

the heavy cover

holds

the

and

does not reach him at a distance.

After two or three seasons' good work, a dog
learns from experience to note the grounds and

cover which are favorable to game, with as

much
his

accuracy as does his master
the sportsman
to let

;

and then

it

behooves

him have pretty much

own way on You
will

entering a

new

field

;

for he is

now

well taught, and requires
find

little

or no assistance.
of

that the

secret

success in
field

breaking a dog for service and the r61e of

48

PRINCIPLES OF DOG TRAINING.
is

companion

in following

him up

closely

and

encouraging him with your presence.

Let him

be assured by your actions and zeal that you are

thoroughly in earnest, and never under any

cir-

cumstances leave the

field to

return home, or go
notice, or
will

elsewhere, without giving
calling

him timely

him

in.

Then by your conduct he

be assured of your kindly intentions.

At

the

termination of every hunt, whistle him up, take
off

your game-bag, empty out the contents before

him, let him see
plished, and, while

what you have both accom-

you put the birds back one by
and make

one, use endearing terms to him, laugh

merry with him, appearing to be proud of your
success; he will catch the spirit, and be no less
pleased.

All of this

is

flattering

to

him, and,
it

though a
first,

youngster may

not understand
it.

at

an old one fully appreciates
old
pointers

I

have
have
it

owned
by
and

who on

occasions
joy,

seemed greatly overcome with
rolling over

evincing

and over, and jumping upon me
as

my

gun, showing

much

satisfaction

and

conceit as one can well imagine.

Mr. Edward Laverack, the famous old English
breeder, says
:

— "I

seldom use whip or whistle,

;

THE SECRET OP SUCCESSFUL TRAINING.
but allow
gacity in

49

my

clogs to use their

own

natural saI

making

their casts

and finding game.

have ever found those dogs which range wide
turn out the best.
It

does not follow because a
will

dog ranges wide that he

not range close.

Where game
here
tlie

is

plentiful,

a

wide-ranging

dog

must necessarily become

a close ranger, because
;

game

stops him

it

is

high courage and

anxiety to find game that causes him to range
wide. great

A
deal

wide-ranging
of

dog, too,

saves you

a

walking.

Every shooting

man

knows that he may
here

occasionally tramp over two

or three miles without coming across anything
it
is,

then, that a wide-ranging

dog

is

of

greater utility than a close ranger."

CHAPTER XL
QUABTEKING, BACKING, ETC.
Qtjabtbbing
and,
beautiful work.
a
is

a most desirable qualification,

when properly and
It is

well

done, constitutes

simply the movements of
over a
field,

dog on
as
it.

parallel

lines

cutting
all

it

up,
of

it

were,

and covering nearly
sportsman and

parts

The
in

following diagram will explain the
his

course both the

dog should
field.

pursue

beating up
lines
;

game

in

an open

The
dog
for

straight

represent

the

direction

the

should go

the diagonal lines

mark the course

the sportsman.

A

represents the point from which the dog
off in the direction of B,
I,

is

thrown

while the sportsin

man walks towards
sufficient

which point brings him

proximity to his dog when he reaches

the fence or boundary to call

him round on the
is

next parallel

line,
tliis,

C

D, and while the dog
I

working down

he walks from

to J,

and so
is

on, until the field is

drawn.
50

Of course a dog

yXJABTERING, BACKING, ETC.
not expected to describe perfectly straight

61
lines,

but

if

he even approximates them he will comall

mand

the

game

in the region through

which

ENTRANCE

he passes.

He
At

should always be cast

off

with a

motion of the hand, and the command " Hie
away."
the points where the straight and
it

diagonal lines approach each other, and where
is

supposed he will pass in front of you, the
"

words,

Hie away," " Hunt

for

it,"

or

other

familiar expressions of encouragement, should be

used, but in a low tone of voice, for fear of startling hidden game.

Backing
and
it is

is

another very necess.ary qualification,

simply the act of one dog in coming to a

52

PRINCIPLES OF DOG TRAINING.

stand the

moment he

sees another
of

on a point.

Although the attitudes
a back are
tionless
tinction.

dogs at a point and at
one, possibly,

simihir, — the

more mois

and

fixed than the other,

— there

a dis-

A

point
;

is

scent of

game

a back

when a dog stands at the is when he stands another
he disturb and flush the
is

dog and

in other

words, he realizes the situation,
lest

fears to

move

game which
think,
tion,
is

his brace-mate

holding.

This, I

acquired in most instances from associaI

although

have seen many young dogs back

instinctively, but they

were of strains the innate
which were very notable.

tractable

qualities

of

It so often

occurs that a youngster runs up by the

side of an older

dog on
it is

his point,

and stands
to

at

the scent, that

but reasonable

suppose

that in the course of time he learns to associate

the presence of

game with

the attitude of his

comrade
ally

;

he cautiously approaches, aud eventu-

backs him regardless of distance.

Now,

in

order to train a young dog which seems averse to
backing, or persists in rushing up to the scent,

my

plan

is

to

command him
If

softly to

"

heed "
I

which means that he must stop
he sees the dog pointing.

— when

he has

know been made to

QUARTERING, BACKING, ETC.
obey
this

53

command
Then
I

before, he will, of course, do

so now.

go before him in a cautious,
to
is

creeping posture,
actions that there

impress

him by
and

my own
This

game ahead, making him
I

keep his position until

flush

fire.

constant practice will ultimately bring him to a
sense of his duty.
this,
If,

on repeated occasions

like

your dog

persists in

running in and flushing

game

across the nose of his mate or companion,
in the
act,

you must catch him

and then thrash

him soundly.

Be

quick, that he

may know

the

cause of his punishment, and
in a short time he will
tion,

I will

warrant that
cau-

move up with more
in the end.

and prove a backer

CHAPTER

XII.

CARDINAL QXJALITLES OP HUNTING DOGS.

A POINT
way
at

is

least,

now reached where, in a rambling we may properly discuss certain
upon
treating.
It is be-

subjects which have an important bearing

the one lieved

which we have been

by some, possibly many, that the mouthing
power
impairs that nicety of nose

of a bird lessens, in a certain degree, the of

scent
is

;

that

it

which
close.

so essential

when game

is

scarce or lying

The advocates

of this theory, therefore,

discourage retrieving, and decline to teach their

dogs this accomplishment, which their opponents,

on the contrary, consider of very great importance.

At

least,

those

who

find

it

impossible to

keep more than one or a brace of dogs must consider in
ble,

them the

qualities of a retriever invaluaI

and we might say indispensable.
if

have

serious doubts

mouthing

affects the nose, since

there

are

so

many

instances

where dogs have

pointed game with their dead birds in the mouth.
54

CARDINAL QUALITIES OP HUNTING DOGS.
If

55

they can do this under these circumstances,
less pernicious

how much
if

must be the
after

influences,

any,

which

remain

birds

have

been

dropped from the mouth, and the dog has again
sought the wind.
considered
it
;

There

is

another factor to be

;

it

does not seem impossible (far from
lose

it is

more than probable) that a dog would

heart and run with less spirit were he restrained

on every occasion from

approaching the game
work, while an idler at
allowed the honor of
re-

which he sees

fall

to his
is

the heels of his master
trieving

what he was

in

no way instrumental in

securing.
It
is

believed that a dog constantly improves
years old.

until

six

As each

intervening year

passes, he feels
his

more keenly

his sense of
is

duty;

attachments become firmer, and he

more
his

deeply impressed with the fact that
actions
his

upon
field

master's

success

in

the

very

greatly depends.

In

considering

the

qualities
is,

which are

essential in a dog, a

good nose

of

course, first in importance.
it is

Endowed by

Nature,

to

him what genius

is

to the artist, the sculp-

tor.

All other qualities

may

be acquired, but this

must be inborn.

Stanchness

and

tractability

56

PRINCIPLES OF DOG TRAINING.
be said to
qualities

may
three

come next on the

list,

and these
cardinal

may
of

be considered
desirable

the
is

virtues.

Scarcely less

endurance,

which some breeds

dogs naturally possess in a
;

greater degree than others

all

in

good health
ac-

and physically well developed may, however,
quire
it

under a judicious system of training.

Style and dash are to a very great extent gifts by
inheritance.

The same may be
true,
as in

said of speed

and

range, which are yet largely propagated by culti-

vation

;

the former,

it

is

is

not as requisite

in the setter

and pointer
dogs.

some other breeds

of sporting

We

have already discussed
its

retrieving

and estimated

value.

The question
and
setter
is

of superiority between the pointer

one on which
it

sportsmen are at

variance, and

doubtless will ever remain unsetIt

tled excepting in individual minds.
fairly

may

be

said

that

there

is

but

little

to

choose
consider

between the two
that the pointer

for field
is

work.

Some

the setter's equal under all
is,

conditions; the latter

however, better
in

fitted for

low countries, abounding

lakes and marshes,

and he

is,

I

think, less sensitive to cold.

In the
of

upland, hilly, and

undulating

portions

the

CARDINAL QUALITIES OP HUNTING DOGS.

57

South, the winter season finds the fields an inter-

minable waste of
well

cockle-burs.

These are too

known

to

every sportsman to require any
slightest

description.

The

brush
;

is

sufficient to
are, there-

detach them from
fore, a

their stems

they

source of exceeding annoyance to setters,
as they do in their long hair,

becoming entangled

from which they are only removed with the greatest difficulty.

Not infrequently these dogs, on
and attempt
to pull out the

a hot trail, will stop

pests from their coats with their teeth.

In such

countries the pointer

is

but slightly inconveni-

enced, and he needs but a brush through the bush
or stiff cover to remove the burs
if

they have

attached themselves to him.
Setters and pointers have ever seemed to divide

the honors, and there

is

one breed of dogs, hardy

workers
little is

— the

cocker spaniels

— of

which very

generally known.

Oftentimes the briers
pointei",

and bushes

are so thick, the size of the

or his reluctance to enter, or the thick long hair
of the setter,
is

the cause of a light, or empty,
conditions, the cocker
is

game-bag.
invaluable.

Under such

Never over twelve inches high,
easily penetrate

lithe

and ambitious, he can

and pass

58

PRINCIPLES OF DOG TEAINING.
is

through cover which to the larger dog
ble.

impassais

The

assertion

that

this

breed of dogs
is

unfitted to endure the fatigue of hunting

dis-

proved by those who own them.
strong,

Quick,

alert,

and handsome

little

animals are the genu-

ine cockers, and, withal, as intelligent, affectionate,

and tractable dogs

as are bred.

This
is

is

the

testimony of their admirers, and there
to feel that
it is

no reason

an exaggeration.

CHAPTER

XIII.

CONCLUSION.
"

The

little

handful of things that
in the field

I

know

"

have been pulled up
parable dogs,

behind incomof

made
I

so

by the same methods

teaching which
chapters.
value,

have suggested in the foregoing
their
to the

Long experience has taught me
justified

and

my recommending them

reader.
plicity.

I trust that

he will recognize their sim-

All

men

are not equally

endowed by Nature
that there
a

with the qualities essential to a successful trainer.

Truth sustains the
are
certain
all

satirist

who wrote

men who

could never train

dog
life-

with

the instruction and experience of a

time; and there are others

who cannot handle
it

a

dog without ruining

it,

even after

is

trained.
is

Some

train their dogs in a
;

way

that

almost
tell

inexplicable

they themselves
attain

can scarcely

you how they

the desired result.

Such

men

are invariably very quiet, unobtrusive,
59

and

60

PEINCIPLES OP DOa TRAINING.

self-reliant.

They

are also closely observant, great

lovers of Nature's works,

and possess a keen

relish

for the pleasures of the field.

Dog
an
art.

training

may

not improperly be considered
it

To

practise

successfully, a great degree

of patience, and at least an ordinary
intelligence, are
to learn,

amount

of

demanded.

Some pups
little

are quick

and are

easily controlled; with these, the

trainer

has comparatively

or

no trouble.

There are many, however, more or

less

wayward

and perverse, which

will sorely tax his patience,

and, to succeed witli them, he
tact,

must use great

perseverance,

and firmness.
pupil's
sire

A

thorough

knowledge of the
peculiarities,

and

dam, their

temperament,

qualifications, etc., will

materially aid a trainer in his
I

work

of instruction.

have purposely omitted advice as to the care

of dogs, such as feeding, exercise, kenneling, etc.

Those subjects are fully treated

of in

works de-

voted to general management, and need not be
herein considered.
It will be necessarj- for

you

to

teach your pup decorum, that he must
familiar with strangers; possibly, too,

not be

you may be
These

obliged to
trifling

overcome

his fear

of

water.

matters have not been dwelt upon, as they

CONCLUSION.

61

will naturally suggest themselves to the intelligent

student, and certainly none other ought to under-

take the tuition of a pup.

In conclusion, the earnest hope
in the

is

expressed that,
will

duty he assumes, the amateur trainer
assist

study Nature, and endeavor to

her

;

that

he will try

to interpret rightly her

promptings,

and seek
attempt to

to

educate his pupil by guiding and
tendencies,

shaping his instinctive
fix

rather than

by force the principles he would

have him acquire.

STANDARD WORKS
BY

J.

FEAI^K PERET, M.D.

(Harv.),

WIDELY KNOWN BY THE NOM DE PLUME OF "ASHMOKT."

DOGS:
THEIR MANAGEMENT AND TREATMENT IN DISEASE.
This, the -writer's first publication, has been revieweri in all Englishspeaking countries, and is universally acknowledged the standard work on the subject, and an indispensable guide to the owners of valuable dogs. It is not confined to canine diseases alone, but gives full directions as to

management

in health.

Price,

$2.00.

A FRIEND
This
us
is

IN NEED:

A HOUSEHOLD GUIDE IN HEALTH AND IN DISEASE.
a careful treatise which should find a place in every home. It tonuiintain good health, jind, when ill, how to tletermine from wha*, disease we sutler, and how to cure the same. In that same painstaking way which characterizes all his efforts, Dr. Perry has carefully treated every branch of the subject. He has discussed the causes of the difi'erent diseases, clearly described their symptoms, and, in advising treatment, he has introduced prescriptions, and given the most minute directions for the administration of medicine, nursing, the preparation of
tells

how to live

which pertain to the care Tho^e who are familiar with the author's other works can feel assured that this is equally as valuable a treatise on all which relates to the health and the diseases of man. It contains 475 pages, is in large, clear type, and is elegantly bound.
invalids' food, and, in fact, for all the duties

of the sick.

Pkice,

$3.00.

These Avorks for sale by on receipt of price, by
J.

all

the principal booksellers, or sent, postpaid,

lORING THAYER, 186 Tremont

Street, Boston, Mass.

ASHMONT KENNELS
THOWGPBED
EH&LlStl |Il08TIFFS<

TJiis is IJie

most noted Kennel of

the breed in

:^m.erica.

II was here that the largest pair of Mastijfs

on record were bred.

Weight of

slSHMOJ^T J{ERO, when
old,

thirteen

and one-half months
his litter sister,

190 pounds; that of

LOR'NA

DO ONE,

2d, at the

same

age,

165 pounds.

'Puppies oul of the most noted dogs of the

day always for

sale.

Mdress,

ASHMONT KENNELS,
1101

TREMONT STREET, BOSTON, MASS,

THE SPORTSMAN'S JOURNAIi.
THIRTY-TWO PAGES
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Travel and Emigration, of any THE AMERICAN FIELD is conse-

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UNEXCELLED.

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to the fact that it

reaches and

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read by liberal buyers

of all classes of general merchandise, it is one of the very best advertising mediums in America.

For sale by

all

Newsdealers

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Llie

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States,

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Europe.

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10
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way can so much small an expenditure?

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less

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communications,
CO,,

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