Within a phylogeny, a grouping of taxa can be either monophyletic, polyphyletic as shown in Figure 7.9. paraphyletic, or

The more similar two taxa are, the more closely related they are likely to be.
Systematists recognize these three kinds of taxonomic groupings based on structural similarities, molecular data, and other criteria.



(paraphylstiC) D








(a) Figure 7.9(a)

Figure 7.9(b)

Figure 7.9(c)



taxon monophyletic an ancestral includes species and its all descendants.


A polyphyletic taxon consists of several evolutionary lines that do not share the same recent common ancestor. Biologists might have mistakenly classified the members of such a group together based on their morphology because these organisms share similar (analogous) features arising from convergent evolution. Systematists avoid constructing polyphyletic taxa, because they are unnatural and misrepresent evolutionary relationships. Such polyphyletic groupings are sometimes accepted temporarily until research provides additional data.




Monophyletic taxa are natural groupings, because they represent true evolutionary relationships and include all close relatives. Sister' taxa, or sister groups, share a more recent common ancestor with one another than either taxon does with any other group shown on a phylogenetic tree. In Figure 7.9(a), the sister taxa are taxa 0 and E; taxa G and H; as well as taxa J and K.

paraphyletic taxon contains a common ancestor and some, but not all, of its descendants.



Figure 7.9: Monophyletic, polyphyletic and paraphyletic taxa .





chimpanzees and humans. some taxonomists arbitrarily group orangutans.UNDERSTANDING With reference to Figure 7. sharks and whales could be classified in the same group because they have similar shape.10: (a) monophyletic group.10: THE 3 TYPES OF TAXA GROUPING (a) A monophyletic group consists of the most recent common ancestor and all of its descendants. their similarities reflect convergent evolution. All taxonomists accept monophyletic groups in their classifications. Taxonomists differ in their acceptance of paraphyletic groups. and chimpanzees into the paraphyletic family Pongidae. and habitats. (b) polyphyletic group & (c) paraphyletic group. not common ancestry. Other taxonomists do not use the family Pongidae in their classifications because gorillas and chimpanzees are more closely related to humans than to orangutans. For example. separate from humans. Para phyletic group (c) Figure 7. gorillas. . recent common ancestor and some of its descendants. For example. In this example. gorillas. taxonomists give the name "Apes" to the group consisting of orangutans. Monophyletic group (a) (b) A polyphyletic group contains descendants of two or more common ancestors and taxonomists do not assign taxa to polyphyletic groups. However. anatomical features. (b) (c) A para phyletic group consists of the most .

mom (a) On the basis of overall anatomical similarity (e. . In classical taxonomy. the presence or absence of specific skeletal elements or flower parts. The cladistics approach to systematics. and chimpanzees are more Closelyrelated to humans than theyare10 !ldrillaS..14.stemsfrornan ancestor that also gave rise loa species in another family (i.g. emphasizes recent common ancestry. teeth. bones and limp length.1 CLADISTICS There is a classical I traditional taxonomic view and a cladistic view of a phylogenyas shown in Figure 7. humans). rather than phenotypic similarities (anatomical ! morphological).7. TM filmily PongidM (the great apes) is not monophyletic (of one phylogeny). 7. Grouping species by their similarities and distinguishing groups by their differences would seem to be a fairly straightforward way of inferring their evolutionary relationships. In reconstructing phylogenies. as the basis for classification. however. . Pongidae The 'great apes' Chimpanzees Gorillas Orangutans f " re ~~ Ponginae Humans Chimpanzees Gorillas Orangutans A smaIf genetic difference Implies it ancestor' tecentcommon . A greater genetic difference . Unfortunately. chimpanzees. 1 1 . .we'll examine a widely used set of methods known as cladistics.14: A classic taxonomic view and a cladistic view of systematics.7. or the node of embryonic or larval development. Once that task is accomplished. aOd gorillas).7 RECONSTRUCTING PHYLOGENY USING SHARED CHARACTERS At its most basic level. the logic of predictingevolutionary relationshipsis simple.lt.. ancestors (Hominidae).. chimpanzees and \Jorlllasaremore ctosely related to humans than. In this section. apes 8('1 qrouped intoafamUy (Pongidae) that is separate from humans andtheir immediate '. because. we would say that any traits that have a genetic basis and that vary among the taxa involved can be assessed for similarity and help us reconstruct who evolved from whom. musculature). Naively. the phylogeny is constructed based mainly on anatomical! morphological similarities. and then look into processes that complicate phylogenetic inference. This classificatlonts monophyletic: the Hominidae iricludesall the spectesmat arise irom a common ancestor'. Let's first consider which types of similar characters are informative. values above).to' orangutans. Under tllis scheme there is no true family of great apes" The family Hominidae includes two subfamilies: Ponginaeand HOO1iniriae(humans. Figure 7. The most closely related taxa should have the most traits in common. Many types of characters could qualify: the sequence of nucleotides in a particular gene. biologists must choose a method of inferring phylogeny from these homologous characters. phylogenetic inference is anything but simple in practice. the first step is to distinguish homologous features from analogous features (since only the former reflect evolutionary history). which is phylogenetic systematics. This traditional classification' scheme ts now atodds with schemes derived after considering genetiqevidehce: .e. implies that twQgro(Jpsare ·distantly related • (b) Based on fheevidenc~ of 9Elfieticdifferences (0/'.

... Hence a clade is a monophyletic grouping......._ _ _ _-..•.... consisting of three species (A.17. Using this methodology... _ ... _ _--_ .. species D..17: A monophyletic group is clade.Recall phylogenetic trees...... each of which includes an ancestral species and all of its descendants (Figure 7._HWACHONG INSTITUTION 12011 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I DIVERSITY & EVOLUTION IFoo WK __ __ __ _ 112 ... This tree shows the proposed relationships between various bird species.. Branch points.. common ancestry is the primary criterion used to classify organisms.._.17)....... A phylogenetic tree inferred by synapomorphies (shared derived characters) is called a cladogram._.. Figure 7. ... nodes indicate Cladogenesis: Species A diverged into species A aod B.. The analysis of how species may be grouped into clades is called cladistics....or when a speciesdiverged into 2 or more different species.•.•..•. In the approach to systematics called cladistics. B species that Were derived {tom the ancestor._--_.. A monophyletic group consists of an ancestral species and all of its descendants...._.. The relative lengths of branches in cladograms have no special significance... also called a monophyletic group... C) and their common ancestor).. Group I.._... _ ..........•. B.. is a clade. Group I ~ ~ Figure 7.. Species are grouped into clades derived from a common ancestor.. as shown in Figure 7......_-_..14{b) and Figure 7. _....•. _ •••.. biologists place species into groups called clades.16: A hypothetical representation of a phylogenetic tree... __ _-_....

. (a) (b) Four descendant populations. each with unique derived traits <. descendant lineages as shown in Figure 7. natural selection..-. .ucmp. These changed traits are synapomorphies that identify the populations belonging to the twe independent...edu/education/events/carlson2. in mammals. and genetic drift but they share traits inherited from their common ancestor... Synapomorphies are nested. Each acquires unique traits by mutation. When genetic isolation occurs and species begin evolving independently.. each with unique derived traits Two descendant " Ancestral population populations...... Thus.''''-. the hierarchy described by synapomorphies also describes the hierarchy of branching events.. and genetic drift.---""-"--. an evolutionary novelty unique to a particular clade..20 on page 115.. As a result. but only at a deeper branch point that distinguishes all vertebrates from other animals... The process called speciation starts when two populations become genetically isolated. Example: with reference to Figure 7... or synapomorphies.. natural selection... synapomorphies create a nested hierarchy..-...berkeley. meaning that gene flow is reduced or absent.. Two ideas are key to understanding analyzing synapornorphies: why evolutionary relationships can be inferred by - ...-...... As you move through time and trace a tree from its root to its tips..eacnwith unique derived traits Ancestral population Two descendant Figure 7. Synapomorphies identify evolutionary branch points. The novel traits that evolve are referred to as shared derived characters.html ._"""""""""--"".. populations.19: Synapomorphies arise in ancestral populations.'''. and genetic drift..'''''.""""'''-' ... some of their homologous traits change as a result of mutation..SHARED DERIVED CHARACIERS When two populations become separated and begin to evolve independently.-. Each successive monophyletic group can be identified by synapomorphies that arose in its ancestors. Shared derived characters originate in a recent common ancestor and are present in its descendants.19(a).. hair is a character shared by all .' .''"'--''''''''''''''-"---''..- .''-'''-... Systematists use shared derived characters to identify points where groups diverged from one another (see Figure 7...m.- ~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION 12011 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I DIVERSITY & EVOLUTION I Foo WK 114 .... 2.. Note that a backbone can also qualify as a shared derived character.''''''''''-''''. and are passed on to descendants..-......... each branching event adds one or more shared. derived traits as shown in Figure 7...-. selection.. some of the homologous traits in each population undergo changes due to mutation..'''''--".. a backbone is considered a shared ancestral character because it was present in the ancestor common to all vertebrates... hair is considered a shared derived character.. Among vertebrates. (b) As you go up a tree.' ".'-''"".-. 1.. Check out: http://www.....19(b). Species that share derived characters form a CLADE.19). mammals but not found in their ancestors.(a) Speciation leads to the creation of two independent populations.

By comparing members of the ingroup to each other and to the outgroup. and gene sequences. Analyzing the distribution of these derived characters can provide insight into vertebrate phylogeny.. it should be possible to determine the clade in which each shared derived character first appeared and to use that information to infer evolutionary relationships. however.f) cr: UJ Hinged jaws Four walking legs Amniotic (sh~lIed) egg Salamander ~ 0 Turt!e 0 0 0 ~ oc v ~ ~ :c: lV Hair Leopard (b) Phylogenetic tree. ~~ " ~ ~ Shared derived characters are unique to particular clades. embryonic development. • It A suitable outgroupcan be determined based on evidence from morphology. ~ u_ Q. An appropriate outgroup for our example is the lancelet. paleontology. We will use Figure 7. • • .20(b).m_ ~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION I 2011 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I DIVERSITY & EVOLUTION I Foo WK _ _ __ _ . For example. salamander. IDa.. we can translate the data . => ruo C::J (outgroupl'". and lamprey (a jawless aquatic vertebrate): e As a basis of comparison. we can determine which characters were derived at the various branch points of vertebrate evolution. "E t 1'2 QJ >. we need to select an outgroup. An outgroup is a species or group of species from an evolutionary lineage that is known to have diverged before the lineage that includes all the species we are studying (the ingroup). A 0 indicates that a character is absent. a 1 indicates that a character is present Figure 7. Now note that hinged jaws are a character absent in lampreys but present in other members of the ingroup. Unlike the vertebrates. Because all features of organisms arose at some point in the history of life. al/ of the vertebrates in the ingroup have backbones: this character was present in the ancestral vertebrate.OGENY USING SHARED DERIVED CHARACTERS -.. Proceeding in this way.20: Constructing a phylogenetic tree. but not in the outgroup. -n_ . tuna.ln our table of characters into a phylogenetic tree as shown in Figure 7.. 115 .20 to see how this analysis is done using the example of five vertebrates i. C . C -0 ~s 0 0 0 0 E .3 '" g- lamprey ~ Vertebral column (backbone) I. (a) Character table.f) III .J ~ '" m E ""i\i I.INFERRING PHYl.. the lancelet does not have a backbone. TAXA Lancelet Q.e. a small animal that lives in mudflats and (like vertebrates) is a member of the phylum Chordata. a leopard.. turtle. this character helps us to identify an early branch point in the vertebrate clade.

_ ._.-----Kangil.foQ ""_'---Rabbit Pigeon Duck Chicken L. The position is probally functionally wI}' significant SlaG chains marked by red ilOOI'l5 interact with the heme group.... A Valme Turtle Rattlesnake Tuna Samil1 cyntllia (moth) Screwworm fly SaccharDmyces (bakef.23: A phylogeny based on amino acid sequences of the cytochrome C molecule.. 30 25 L.QnCQ 1 5U Ttl 20 25 30 Number of aminoacids in different organisms at thl! position shown I 3 4 ~ 2 I 2 3 ~ I 4 l 2... ....Saccharomyc€s(baker's.cytochrOll1l!c molecule Q... ...--------Samia fly QrgaOism ~nthfa(moth) ... III Arginine !£l Threomne I· J:i! Glycine !Hydrophobic side chains: 1.----Turtle '-------------Rattlesnake Ancestral L_~ L__ . ---"- .l Leucine M Methionine Phenylalanine Y Tyrosine \V ._-- ..... Position in SQqu......._----' ......... yeast) .v..s Yeast) Candida krIJsef{yeast) Kangaroo Chicken Pigeon Duck Alanine Tlyptophall Neurospora ~r"S5a {mold) (Il) Human Monkey .F S Glutamicacld Basic side chains: II Histfdinelill 'I Proline Cysteine Rabbit ! Isoleucine . 10 5 Candida Immii{yeast) 20 15 Average minimal suhstitutions o • Figure 7..1a) Tim nlJlTlber 1 irrucates an invariant position in the ...-.---------------------~------Nellrosp(}fa Cf(WiCl{mQtd) r------------------....-. 2...01. 2 1 l I J 2 1 h5 H r 13 1 Human Monkey Horse Donkey Pig Dog -I Acidic IU Aspartic acidC!l siuo"Chains: OthGr: :~ Glutamine Asparagine ·IGlysine lSl Serine .... I 3 3 t • I 3 1 32.... all the organisms have the same amino add in this position)..--~--------Tuna _f--------Screwworm L...---Dog Horse Donkey 1----Plg ...

P TRACK EVOl. The linear relationship between the number of sequence changes and the time since divergence is linear. When comparing homologous genes between species.all organisms. neutral mutations accumulate over evolutionary time. we must rely on an important assumption about how change occurs at the molecular level... The explanation for this phenomenon is that the gene sequences of the species accumulate independent mutations after they. When we extend molecular phylogenies beyond the fossil record. . These mutations do not have an effect on the evolutionary fitness of an organism. Such a relationship indicates that the observed rate of neutral . • • • Nucleotide differences in homologous genes between pairs of species o~====~==========~ Evolutionary lime since divergence of pairs of species (millions of years) Figure 7.. they can act as a molecular clock to measure evolutionary time. meaning that they are not acted upon l)y natural selection... MOLECULAR CLOCKS • The molecular clock measures the number of mutations.MOI.ECUl.. and detrimental mutations are likely to be eliminated from a population by natural selection. including those for which there is no fossil record. These mutations are neutral mutations.24: A molecular clock. . however. The number of sequence differences is higher when two species share a common ancestor in the very distant past than if pairs of species share more recent common ancestors.AR Cl.UTIONARY TIME • One of the long-term goals of evolutionary biology is to understand the relationships among .24: • The y-axis is a measure of the number of nucleotide sequence differences in homologous genes between pairs of species. A large body of evidence supports the idea that much of the genetic variation observed inmoderrrspeciesis nue to the accumulation of neutral mutations. those species that diverged more recently tend to have fewer differences than do those whose common ancestor occurred in the very distant past. According to the concept of a molecular clock. . have diverged from each other. if neutral mutations occur at a relatively constant rate. which accumulate in the DNA sequence-of different species over time.OCKS REl. a longer period of time since their divergence allows for a greater accumulation of mutations. Evolutionary biologists can use this information to deduce how species evolve and to fix the date when two species diverged on the evolutionary tlmellne. From an evolutionary point of view... which makes their sequences more different.. With reference to Figure 7. The reasoning behind this concept is that favourable mutations are likely to be very rare. The x-axis plots the amount of time that has elapsed since a pair of species diver-ged from a-common ancestor.

Difficulties that arise when using the molecular clock: 1. ··~ .against the dates of evolutionary branch points that are known from the fossil record. • Such graphs can then be used to estimate the dates of evolutionary cannot be discerned from the fossil record.25: ... These include: .•. nucleotide. some genes evolve a million times faster than others . and • variation in mutation rates between different species.•.. .for example.. 2..m. ." episodes that 90 .. . While actual data sometimes show a relatively linear relationship over a defined time period...25: A molecular clock for mammals.••" .. of 4. .-. We can calibrate the molecular clock of a gene that has a reliable average rate of evolution by graphing the number of genetic differences .•.·········'··· ·... some portions of the genome appear to have evolved in irregular fits and starts that are not at all clocklike. . Of course.Q .•. or amino acid differences . the rate of the clock may vary greatly from one gene to another. Even those genes that seem to have reliable molecular clocks are accurate only in the statistical sense of showing a fairly smooth average rate of change..'_ "" . . . Furthermore.. Over time.•.j Figure 7. 3.. 122 .. a linear relationship predicts that a pair of species that has 2J nucleotide differences in a given gene sequence would have a common ancestor that is roughly twice as old as that shared by a pair of species showing 10 nucleotide differences. 2 E 60 E ~ z ffi 30 30 60 90 Divergence time (millions of years) 120 A . even among genes that ev?lve in a clock-like manner......'" " . The three green data points represent pnrnate species. ·········'··.. the same gene may evolve at different rates in different groups organisms.. <11 'the presence of mutations that are acted upon by natural selection i. c: . ··. - . The number of accumulated mutations in seven proteins increased over time in a consistent manner for most mammal species. .. there may still be chance deviations above and below that average rate. codon. . no gene marks time with complete precision.mutations remains constant over millions of years. making it necessary to calibrate and use molecular clocks with care. . evolutionary biologists do not believe that molecular clocks are perfectly linear over very long periods of time. ·"--·-'c· -t--··-·-·- .. The divergencetime for each data point was based on fossil evidence. differences in the generation times of the species being analyzed.. whose-J)roieins appear to have evolved more slowly than those of other mammals. With reference to Figure 7.•. . For example.e. Several factors can contribute to the non-linearity of molecular clocks. In fact... . Finally..._ ~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION f 2011 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY f DIVERSITY & EVOLUTION I Foo WK ___ " .. mutations are not all neutral. .

The numerous data points in the upper right-hand comer of this graph are based on DNA sequences for a specific H IV gene in blood samples collected from patients at cfdferent known times. it evolves quickly. Phylogenetic analysis shows that HIV. HIV's genetic material is made of RNA. . the virus that causes AIDS. The most widespread strain in humans is HIV-1 M. and like other RNA viruses. If we-project the relatively constant rate at which changes occurred in this gene in the 1980s a1d 1990s back in time. including one sample from 1959. the researchers concluded that the HIV-1 M strain first spread to humans during the 1930s.26). we intersect the x-axis of the graph in the 1930s. (The viruses do not cause any AIDS-like diseases in nonhuman hosts. To pinpoint the earliest HIV-1 M infection. The multiple origins of HIV are reflected in the variety of strains (genetic types) of the virus. the researchers compared samples .© For your information © APPLYING A MOLECULAR CLOCK: THE ORIGIN OF HIV Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico used a molecular clock to date the origin of HIV infection in humans.) When did HIV jump to humans? There is no simple answer. 1920 1940 Year 1960 1980 2000 Figure 7. A comparison of gene sequences showed that the virus has evolved in a clocklike fashion since 1959 (Figure 7. By extrapolating from their molecular clock.of the virus from various times during the epidemic.26: Dating the origin of HIV-1 M with a molecular clock. is descended from viruses that infect chimpanzees and other primates. because the virus has spread to humans more than once.

.--.--.. Most vertebrates.Ancestral g!obln gene Duplication of anoostra! gene Mutation In both copIes Further {fuplfcations and mutations W~ 'i'''..--.-.-------~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION I 2011 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I DIVERSITY & EVOLUTION I Foo WK -.-..-. which was duplicated and diverged into a-globin and p-globin ancestral genes about 450-500 million years ago. .m.--. Such beneficial mutations are favoured and are maintained in the population by natural selection. Repeating the duplication of the haemoglobin and divergence of the two copies.-..o. GenedupAOIUonl-+ ..-.---. fetal globins have a higher oxygen affinity than adult globins . Subsequent separation of these two genes probably occurred by transposition involving a mobile DNA element.-. • Some mutations may enhance the function of the protein product in a way that could be advantageous to the organism at a particular stage of life or in a specific tissue type.--. .-.-.---. --:c-~myogloblr.-. Each of these .-...a difference that allows the fetus to extract oxygen more effectively from the mother... (b) Some gene copies gain by chance mutations that result in their loss of ability to produce a functional gene product and are inactivated. becoming non-functional pseudogenes.---. .alobin gene family ()n chromo$!>ffie Figure 7. e.--. gives the a and P proteins.----. As the gene duplicates diverge: (a) Differences between the gene copies give rise to related proteins with slightly different functional properties.-_ .. • For example.-.>and fl'haemoglobin 5.-. or expressed specifically at different stages of development or in different tissues.-.--. one globin lamprey. eventually yielding the current family members.-. optimised to perform different but related functions. Selective elimination of definitely deleterious mutations and random fixation of neutral or very slightly deleterious alleles by genetic drift occur far more frequently in evolution than Darwinian natural selection of advantageous mutants • .-.125 ..--.--. as shown in the exampleof"i¥obinllene family.--.-. and the copies then diverged from each other in sequence as random mutations accumulated independently in the gene copies over many generations.---. myoglobin and haemoglobin< _.and Gene dlJplklltimr2 fl-haemoglobins Invertebrates.-. genes was later duplicated several times.-.29: Gene duplication. myoglobin and haEmoglobin.--.t 'II!"t «~ ('(lWl) «-Globin gone family on (:hromosome16 <11' '''Y 'II!tl 11 a p p.---.--..28: All globin genes are derived from a single ancestral gene. Figure 7..

o iii E ru Common ancestor of hippos and whales Common ancestor of artlodactyls and cetaceans Figure 7. [1] (b) Explain what can be concluded about the degree of homology between the particular DNA sequence present in the whale. [2J . Such phylogenetic trees can be derived from differences in a given DNA nucleotide sequence.Figure 7.30 With referenceto Figure 7.30: (a) Identify the animal that is the most closely related to whale.30 depicts a phylogenetictree based on molecular data for whales and selected artiodactyla. hippo and camel.

142 . and Eukarya (eukaryotes) (Figure A7). Many blctcqtsts classify organfsms in categories called kingdoms. Biologists have inferred. n d .. Bacteria (which corresponds to kingdom Bacteria). Jlt -:- HWA CHONG INSTITUTION 12011 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I DIVERSITY & EVOLUTION I Foo WK _ __ " _ _ '" -. or even assigning them separate domains (d).. DETERMINING THE MAJOR BRANCHES IN THE TREE OF LIFE The earliest classification systems recognized only two kingdoms of living things: animals and plants (Figure AGa). based on fundamental molecular differences among the bacteria. . photosynthetic protists as animals. they added kingdoms in recognition of fundamental differences discovered among organisms (Figure ASb).Most systematists use a level of classification above the kingdom. and eukaryotes. they too were considered plants. Figure A7: shows the six-kingdom system of classification.o. But as biologists discovered microorganisms and learned more about other organisms. called a domain. They classify organisms in three domains: Arehaea (which corresponds to kingdom Archaea). archaea.. (a) Linneaus popularized a two.Appendix 5 .i i (a) A fw. when bacteria were described. (b) Whittaker in 1969 proposed a five-kingdom system that soon became widely accepted. (c) Woese has championed splitting the bacteria into two kingdoms for a total of six kingdoms. ingdom k approach. and the non.kingdom system-c-Lirmaeua Figure A6: Different approaches to classifying livil1g organisms. that the three domains are the three main branches of the tree of life. Viruses are a special case and are not classified in any of the three domains. in which the fungi and the photosynthetic protists were classified as plants. Most biologists now use a six-kingdom system first proposed by Carl Woese of the University of Illinois (Figure AGe).

sentation of the domains Sacterla.-. Archaebacteria are a diverse group including the methanogens and extreme thermophiles.----. ---.-. The large number of unicellular eukaryotes is arbitrarily grouped into a single kingdom called. consist of prokaryotic organisms.-"':'" HWA CHONG INSTITUTION I 2011 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I DIVERSITY & EVOLUTION I Foo WK 143 .-..---------. Archaea.. --. and differ from the other bacteria. Type of <ell ·Coniplexity Type of nutritlon Prokaryotic Unicellular Autotrophic or heterotrophic Sometimes by flagella Asexual usual unlcetlutar usual Photosynthetic or heterotrophic by various Sometimes by flagella (or cilia) Various No Multicellular usual Heterotrophic saprotrophs Nonmotile Haploid No Multicellular Photosynthetic Multicellular Heterotrophic ingestion by Motility lifecycie' Nonmotile Alternation of generations Yes Motile by contractile fibers Dlploid Yes . Archaebacteria and Eubacterla. and Anlmalia.'15 Thethree domains of life..---. plants manufacture it.In this system. -. Animalia and Plantae.----.-. four kingdoms consist of eukaryotic organisms. Figure 20. Fun!:!.. Plants are mainly stationary. The kingdom Fungi contains multicellular forms and single-celled yeasts.----. The remaining two kingdoms.-_. animals are mainly motile. contain only organisms that are multicellular during most of their life cycle.-.---.. Animals ingest their food. This pictorial rep.-..-_.-.-. This kingdom includes the algae. Each of these kingdoms probably evolved from a different single-celled ancestor. but some have motile sperm.--..---. which are vastly different from all other living things.. Fundamental differences divide these three kingdoms. and EukalYa Inchrdes an example for each of the four kingdoms in the domain Euk"lYa: Protista. and fungi digest it by means of secreted extracellular enzymes. The two most familiar kingdoms.:: IrlternaLprotection ohygote No B!-.-...• .Plantae. --.-.-.-.. which are thought to have multicellular ancestors.-. members of the kingdom Eubacteria.. all of which are unicellular during parts of their life cycle..Protista. fungi have no motile cells.

e o 65 144 206 248 2".-. .-.. - 146 ...5 billion years ago--Prokaryolic cells first appear Figure A 11: The geological timescale and an overview of the history of life on Earth ..i~~~~p~~~..5 biilion years aqc=-Fossns of primitive cyanobacteria + 3..".-.m.Appendix 8 DIAGRAMMATIC REPRESENTATION OF HISTORY OF LIFE of Years ago MHlions . .::Sheneda~i..0 bimon years ago~Eukaryotlc cotls first appear + 3.. . +590 million years ago-BHatera! invertebrate animals firs! app~ar +2.~.--.--.'.~I..-...I - DIVERSITY - & EVOLUTION / Foo WK ."'. UJ 5 UJ f i. ---.fil 354 411 44:1 400 543 years ago--Cambrian explosion creates diverse animal life miUlon years ag.5-2.'--'..'.--.''''''---'''-...-~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION 12011 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY -- -.8-3.": _..

HWA_ CHONG _INSTITUTION / 2011 JC2___ BIOLOGY I DIVERSITY_ & EVOLUTION I Foo WK _.5-2.__ .YJO +2..CW 3.s 6~ 144 2M 248 .__.-------- * 3.800 of primitive cyanobacteria .8-3._.-_ __ _ _._ _ .Appendix 8 DIAGRAMMATIC REPRESENTATION OF HISTORY OF LIFE II) Mntions of Years ago {) t: 0 UJ lG W i.. .._-_~ _- 146 .. j j ..?!)O 3~ 411 44:\ 400 543 1..5 bi!Uofl years aqo=-Fosstts $.5 billion years aqo=-Prokaryotic cells first appear 4.550 Figure A 11: The geological timescale and an overview of the history of life on Earth ....0 bllHon years ago-'Eukary~tic cess first appear 3... H2 _ _.100 + 3.m.

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