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Final Dessert at Ion 29 June 2010-Revisada 1 P.M.

Final Dessert at Ion 29 June 2010-Revisada 1 P.M.

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Influence of Test Equipment and Working Conditions on the Coefficient of Friction Values

PhD DISSERTATION Demófilo Maldonado Cortés MSc Eng
University of Monterrey (UDEM) Mechanical Engineering Faculty San Pedro Garza García, México

Supervisor: Prof Marian Szczerek PhD DSc Eng
Instytut Technologii Eksploatacji - Państowowy Instytut Badawczy (ITeE-PIB) Radom, Poland

Cracow University of Technology, 29th of June, 2010

1

INDEX
1. Introduction

2. Thesis and Purpose of Work 3. Originality of the Work
a. Objective and approach b. Tribological Tests

4. Results of the Research 5. Taguchi Analysis
a. Approach for coefficient of friction

6. Verification Tests
a. Best and worst cases b. Reproducibility and Repeatability

7. Summary and Conclusions 8. Acknowledges

2

1. Introduction
Reproducibility and repeatability are still problems to solve in tribological science, specifically in coefficient of friction (COF) and wear results obtained from tribotesters.

Coefficient of friction from 0,1 to 1,2 for steel-TiN

Tests

Those results evidence a lack of test parameters controlling in order to achieve a good reproducibility and repeatability of coefficient of friction values. 3

COF

6 0. USA: McGraw-Hill Determining the Coefficient of Friction – Succeed in Physical Science.57 0. Coefficient of Friction Bibliographic Entry Technical Physics .1. Materials Steel on Steel Steel on Steel (dry) Steel on Steel Steel on Steel (dry) Static friction 0. 4 .7 Kinetic friction 0. Introduction There are plenty of papers and reports that shown how different are the tribological test conditions in terms of standardization and scatter results of coefficient of friction in dry conditions.09 0. Wiley Encarta Encyclopedia 2004 CRC Handbook of Physical Quantities College Physics.7 0.74 0.6 0.4 Steel on steel (dry) Source: The Physics Factbook™ Despite of that.USA.4th Edition.6 0. the existing literature concerning coefficient of friction values does not specify enough information in order to trust in the presented results.15 0.

temperature.2. as well as the geometry and configuration of the friction elements and the surrounding atmosphere. 5 . velocity. Thesis and Purpose of Work Thesis: The coefficient of dry friction is influenced by materials but it is also affected by operating conditions such as load.

6 .2. Thesis and Purpose of Work Purpose of Work: To acknowledge the influence of operating conditions (controlled and uncontrolled inputs) and test equipment on the coefficient of friction values and suggest improvements for the tribotest methods.

taking into account usually controlled and uncontrolled inputs of a tribotesting system.Objective and approach Define a test method for a operating conditions (controlled inputs) in order to reduce scatter of coefficient of friction on ball-on-disk tribological tests. Examination of typical model friction couple: ball-on-disk. 7 .

Objective and approach 8 .

• steel disk (AISI 52100) – steel ball • steel disk (AISI 52100) – ceramic ball (Al203) • coated steel disk (CrN) – ceramic ball (Al203) (S/S) (S/C) (P/C) Materials Sliding track radius 10mm for T-11. Ball Diameter Load direction 10mm. T-10 and T-11 vertical and horizontal for T-10.1m/s.Tribological Tests Parameters Controlled Input Characteristics 35%.000 meters. 9 . 0.2m/s and 0. 50% and 80% 5N. and 18mm for T-10.3m/s. 10N and 15N. Humidity Load Speed Sliding distance 0. 1.

Humidity (%) Load (N) 10 Velocity (m/s) 0.1 0.2 Coated steel disk and ceramic ball (P/C).2 0.3 0.2 10 .Tribological Tests Parameters MATERIALS Steel disk and steel ball (S/S).1 G2 MATERIALS Additional one test of each was performed in order to measure acceleration of vibration.3 0.2 0.2 0. 50 10 15 0. 50 80 35 15 5 15 0. Humidity (%) Load (N) Velocity (m/s) 35 5 0.1 50 80 35 10 15 10 0.3 5 G3 Coated disk and ceramic ball (P/C).1 0.3 G1 Steel disk and ceramic ball (S/C). 50 80 5 10 0.

Tribological Tests Equipment 11 .

Tribological Tests Vibration measurement arrangement T-10 Horizontal 1 2 1 1 T-10 Vertical T-11 Vertical 2 2 2 2 LOAD LOAD 2 LOAD 1 Contact point 2 Transducer 12 .

Tribological Tests Vibration Measurement 13 .

20 0.00 Tests S/S 0.80 COF from 0. Results of the Research Results of COF values (all tests made by the author) 1.4.657 14 Material Combination Scatter of COF Total scatter of all 229 tests: 0.861 0.60 0.540 S/C 0.20 0.00 0.713 P/C 0. .123 0.204 0.1 to 1.990 0.2 (Santner) 0.40 0.867.663 Coefficient of Friction 1.277 0.

7 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.2 0. Results of the Research Coefficient of friction and wear values for all tests Coefficient of Friction 0.1 0 COF Wear COF and wear values obtained from tests made by the author (group 1).15 0.2 0. 15 Wear (mm3) .8 0.4.25 0.05 0 T10HT11VT10V S/S S/C P/C TESTER MATERIAL 35 50 80 5 10 15 0.9 0.3 HUMIDITY % LOAD (N) SPEED (m/s) 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.

7 .1 m/s 5N 0.3 m/s 15N 0. Coefficient of Friction 160 0.3 m/s 5N 0.3 0.3 m/s 5N 0.2 m/s 15N 0.4.3 m/s 15N 0.3 m/s 10N 0.8 180 Aceleration of Vibration (g) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 5N 0.2 m/s 5N 0.2 0.2 m/s 0.5 0.3 m/s 15N 0.1 m/s 10N 0.1 m/s 15N 0.2 m/s 10N 0.1 m/s 15N 0.1 m/s 5N 0.1 m/s 5N 0.6 0.1 m/s 15N 0.2 m/s 15N 0.1 m/s 10N 0.2 m/s 10N 0.1 0 35%H 50%H 80%H 80%H 35%H 50%H 50%H 80%H 35%H 35%H 50%H 80%H 80%H 35%H 50%H 50%H 80%H 35%H 35%H 50%H 80%H 80%H 35%H 50%H 50%H 80%H 35%H steel / steel steel / ceramic T10 Horizontal coating / ceramic steel / steel steel / ceramic T10 Vertical coating / ceramic steel / steel steel / ceramic T11 Vertical coating / ceramic VARIABLES Ap-p (g) COF 16 Acceleration of vibration and COF (results in all tribotesters.1 m/s 10N 0.3 m/s 10N 0.3 m/s 10N 0.4 0. Results of the Research Coefficient of friction and acceleration of vibration (g) 0.3 m/s 5N 0.2 m/s 15N 0.2 m/s 5N 0.2 m/s 10N 0. group 2).

Results of the Research Acceleration of vibration and COF (results in all tribotesters. group 2). 17 .4.

Results of the Research Coefficient of Friction and Acceleration of Vibration (g) 140.0 0.0 T10H T10V T11V T10H T10V T11V T10H T10V T11V Coated/Ceramic (P/C) Steel/Ceramic (S/C) Steel/Steel (S/S) Ap-p (g) COF 18 Acceleration of vibration and COF sorted by couple materials (group 2). Coefficient of Friction 100.6 120.0 Acceleration of Vibration (g) 0.1 0 20.4 60.0 0.0 .3 40.0 0.0 0.5 80.8 0.2 0.0 0.4.7 0.

20 0.277 0.123 0.867.204 0.80 COF from 0.713 P/C 0.60 0. .2 (Santner) 0.00 0. Results of the Research Results of COF values (all tests made by the author) 1.861 0.663 Coefficient of Friction 1.4.1 to 1.657 19 Material Combination Scatter of COF Total scatter of all 229 tests: 0.990 0.00 Tests S/S 0.20 0.40 0.540 S/C 0.

20 .The OA produces a set of well-balanced (minimum experimental runs) tests. which are functions of desired output that serve as objective functions for optimizations. S/N = Eta = -10 * log10 [(1/n) *  (yi2)] .The Taguchi Method is based on orthogonal array (OA) experiments. . Taguchi Analysis The Approach .5.The ratio depends on the quality of the product/process to be optimized.Taguchi´s method uses the statistical measure of performance called Signal-to-Noise ratios (S/N).The parameter level combination that maximizes the appropriate S/N ratio is the optimal setting. The three categories of S/N ratios are: •Lower-the-better •Higher-the better •Nominal-the-best . .

3 0. 15 21 0. Selection of the appropriate levels that each factor may hold within the tests (3 levels each).2 4.3 0.2 80 5 35 time and efforts in conducting experiments. to Tribotester Material S/S H% 35 N 5 m/s 0.1 0.2 0.1 5 5 0. Almost 9 time less effort.1 0. 3. 5.3 0.1 0. 6.2 80 35 S/C 50 35 10 5 5 5 5 0. Conduction of the tests design (27 test instead of 229 test).3 0.3 0.2 0. 2.3 0. Taguchi Analysis The Method 1.1 50 80 10 15 10 0.3 0.3 S/C 50 .2 15 15 P/C P/C 50 35 80 15 0.3 0.2 80 50 35 50 80 35 10 5 10 15 10 15 0.5.1 S/S P/C 50 50 35 10 5 15 0. Selection of the orthogonal array determine the number of tests to run.1 S/S T11V The greatest advantage of this method is the optimization of0. T10H or T11V or T10V T10V 80 80 35 35 15 10 5 10 0.3 Tribotester T10H Material S/C H% 50 80 35 35 N m/s 15 0.1 0. Analyzing the results .1 0. 7.2 0.2 0.2 P/C 50 5 0. Selection of the factors that are affecting the results. Verification tests of the experimental.2 0.3 S/C S/S 50 80 50 15 15 10 0.2 0.3 0. Prediction of the optimum performance and influence of factors.1 0.

1 m/s and P/C: 0. S/C: 50% and P/C: 80% S/S.8g and 10g (Acceleration = Ap-p) 22 RH P v D1 D SC G M Ra H Vibr Relative air humidity Load Sliding speed Sliding distance Environment of spatial configuration Tribosystem spatial configuration Tribosystem geometry Counter body material Body roughness Body hardness Tribosystem vibrations . S/C and P/C: 10 N S/S: 0.045 µm 58 to 63 HRC Keep levels between 4.1 m/s 1. S/C: 0. 10 mm ball Ceramic (Al203) or steel 0.Approach for COF identification Controlled Input T K Tribotester Kind of motion T-10 Sliding S/S: 35%.000 meters Non lubricated Vertical Ball-on-disk.2 m/s.

5N.2 0. 50%H. 0.4 Series1 Series2 1 0. T10V WORST CASE OF COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION P/C. T11V Test 1 Test 2 Coefficient fo Friction 1 0.4 0.2 Worst case 1.3 m/s. 10X 23 .6 Test 3 Test 4 Test 5 Series3 0.8 0.2 0 TIME 0 TIME Optical Microscopy Image.8 0. 0.1m/S. 10n. Verification Tests Best case Coefficient of Friction 1.2 BEST CASES OF COEFFICIENT OF FRICTIOIN S/C.6. 50%h.6 0.

1 1. Verification Tests Optical Microscopy Image.5 1.5 4 3.4 1. 10n.5 2 1.09 mm Pt = 4.3 1.5 1 0.3 0.7 0.5 4 3.8 0.4 0.5 0.5 1 0.5 0 0 0.5 2 1. 10X Best case 3D Profilometer Image µm 7 6.2 BEST CASES OF COEFFICIENT OF FRICTIOIN S/C.1m/S.5 6 5.2 0.6 0 TIME 0.6.6 1.8 0. 0.5 0 Series1 Series2 2D Profilometer Image Dlugosc = 2.9 1 1.4 2. T10V 1 0.2 µm 5 4.8 1.9 2 mm 24 .7 1. 50%h.5 3 Coefficient of Friction 1.39 µm Skala = 5 µm Atomic Force Microscopy Image 50μm x 50μm Series3 0.5 3 2.5 5 4.1 0.6 0.2 1.

09 mm Pt = 2.6.8 0. 0.35 µm Skala = 5 µm TIME 25 .7 0.2 1.2 0 µm 5 4.6 1.6 0.5 4 3.9 1 1. T11V Coefficient fo Friction 1 2.2 WORST CASE OF COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION P/C.5 6 5.5 5 4.5 0.2 0.5 3 2. 5N.5 2 1. Verification Tests Optical Microscopy Image.5 1.8 0. 50%H.4 0.5 1 0.3 1.8 1.5 3 1.1 0.4 1.4 0.3 m/s.5 4 3.7 1.6 2D Profilometer Image Atomic Force Microscopy Image 50μm x 50μm Test 3 Test 4 Test 5 0.3 0.1 1.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Test 1 Test 2 0. 10X Worst case 3D Profilometer Image µm 7 6.9 2 mm Dlugosc = 2.5 0 0 0.

19 0. Verification Tests Reproducibility and Repeatability Source of Data ASTM G-99 DIN 50324 and ASTM G-99 Preliminary tests made by this author Best cases of the optimization process made by the author Worst cases of the optimizacion process made by the autor COF Scatter 0.04 0.07 Improvement % 41% 78% 62% In all cases.11 0.11 0.6. the results of repeatability were much better in all results made by the author ND = No data Reproducibility Repeatability 26 . including the worst scenario.

6.867 0.100 0.071 27 . Verification Tests Scatter of COF Approach Data compiled by Santner Preliminary tests made by the author Tests made by the author with optimization process 1.

load and humidity of the surrounding air.The author proved there is very important to adopt a Taguchi approach to optimize the inputs that are needed for the definition of a tests method in order to reduce scatter of coefficient of friction. Summary and Conclusions -Coefficient of friction values and the scatter of it depend on the speed.7.It is possible to design tribotesters and make rigorous test procedures that allow achieving low scatter results of coefficient of friction and wear. . 28 . because of different rigidity (stiffness) characterized by vibration has different influence on the coefficient of friction results as well. the biggest influence the kind (or dynamic feature) of tribotester. -The each type of tribotesters. -In case of COF results. .

good quality of input variables control and good quality of tribotester equipment.7. Summary and Conclusions Having a standardized method (using Taguchi approach). it´s possible to achieve low scatter and then. get a considerable improving in repeatability and reproducibility values of coefficient of friction. 29 .

There is now a big opportunity to accomplish the VAMAS TWA # 1 objective and improve the reproducibility and comparability of wear tests by developing internationally agreed test methodologies for characterisation of wear behaviour of advanced materials. 30 .Future Work The proposed new approach for tribotesting make it possible to compare tribocharacteristics on a friction pair between different research centers in frame of a round robin using different tribotesters as well.

advices and facilities.8.National Research Institute (ITeE-PIB) for all your technical support. Thanks to the Scientific Board of Krakow University of Technology for your recommendations and support during this time. Acknowledges Thanks to all colleagues from the Tribology department of the Institute for Sustainable Technologies . 31 .

29th of June. Poland Cracow University of Technology. 2010 32 .Influence of Test Equipment and Working Conditions on the Coefficient of Friction Values PhD DISSERTATION Demófilo Maldonado Cortés MSc Eng University of Monterrey (UDEM) Mechanical Engineering Faculty San Pedro Garza García.Państowowy Instytut Badawczy (ITeE-PIB) Radom. México Supervisor: Prof Marian Szczerek PhD DSc Eng Instytut Technologii Eksploatacji .

no matter the quantity of parameters and levels involved. Scientific added value Triboscientifics has the possibility to apply the new approach to many different tribosystems. 33 .Technical added value Now the design engineers has the possibility to obtain reliable values of COF useful for the mechanical design of machine elements.

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