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# TURBOMACHINERY BASICS

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR JAN. 28, 2004 JONGSIK OH

JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea.com ojsturbo@ korea.com

Turbomachinery Basics
Centrifugal Compressors

WHAT ARE TURBOMACHINES ?
Rotating dynamic machines with energy transfer due to changes of angular momentum
Torque on fluid = Rate of change of angular momentum
Angular momentum = Moment of momentum = Tangential force x Distance = Momentum flow x Distance = mCθr &
JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea.com ojsturbo@ korea.com Turbomachinery Basics
Centrifugal Compressors

m Power P = Tω & = m(U 2Cθ 2 − U1Cθ1 ) Unit : Watt (Specific) Enthalpy h = CP T (for ideal gas) J N.com Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors RELAVANT UNIT & Torque T = m(Cθ 2r2 − Cθ1r1 ) Unit : N.K kg kg 2 kg m 2 m s2 =  m    kg  s Power JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea.com P= kg  m  kg J J = =W   = s  s s kg s Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors .com ojsturbo@ korea.m J ×K = = = kg.com ojsturbo@ korea.EULER EQUATION C2 U 2 = r2 ω Cm 2 Cθ2 W2 & Torque T = m(Cθ 2r2 − Cθ1r1 ) Power C1 C m1 P = Tω & = m(U 2Cθ 2 − U1Cθ1 ) W1 C θ1 U 1 = r1 ω JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea.

C θ1 = 0 JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea.PREWHIRL OR PREROTATION W1 C m1 C1 α 1 U = r ω 1 1 C 1 = C m 1 .com ojsturbo@ korea.com Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors C θ1 PART-LOAD CONTROL JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea.com ojsturbo@ korea.com Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors .

SLIP FACTOR W2 W2b β 2b β2 C2 b Cθ2 α 2α 2b C m 2 C θ 2b U 2 = r2 ω W1 r2 U 1 = r1 ω ζ≡ r1 Cθ 2 Cθ 2b JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea.com Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors .com Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors IMPELLER EXIT BLADE ANGLE JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea.com ojsturbo@ korea.com ojsturbo@ korea.

JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea. 1 I ≡ h O. (b) Rothalpy = const.com ojsturbo@ korea.com Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors Stationary Vane Region 1 (h O ≡ h + C 2 ) 2 h O2 − h O1 = U 2Cθ 2 − U 1Cθ1 (a) Total enthalpy = const.com Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors γ −1 ROTHALPY & TOTAL ENTHALPY Adiabatic machines along streamlines Rotating Blade Region (a) Total enthalpy ≠ const.EFFICIENCY Isentropic Efficiency ηC ≡ Isentropic Work Re al Work h 2' − h1 = h 2 − h1 = T2' − T1 T2 − T1 γ −1 for ideal gases  p2  γ   −1 p  for ideal gases = 1 T2 −1 T1  p2  γ   −1 p  for ideal gases where ηP is the polytropic efficiency =  1  γ −1  p 2  γηp Independent of overall pressure ratios   −1 p   1 JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea.com ojsturbo@ korea. h O2 − h O1 = 0 .rel − U 2 2 1 2 1 2 =h+ W − U 2 2 = const.

com ojsturbo@ korea.ENERGY TRANSFER 3 0 1 2 JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea.com Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors 1/ 2 H : ft (for U.com ojsturbo@ korea.S.) . JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea.com Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors SPECIFIC SPEED Machine Operation Parameter • Operation speed at which machine produces a unit head rise per unit flow rate • Independent of machine SIZE  Q   3  NQ1 / 2  ND  = NS ≡ 3/ 4 H3/ 4  gH   2 2 N D  where N : rpm. Q : ft 3 /s.

JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea.com ojsturbo@ korea.com Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea.com ojsturbo@ korea.com Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors .

NS = NQ 1 / 2 (gH ) 3 / 4 H :m (Balje) where N : rad/s.com Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors VANED DIFFUSER JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea. Q : m 3 /s.com ojsturbo@ korea.com Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors .com ojsturbo@ korea. JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea.

com ojsturbo@ korea.com ojsturbo@ korea.com Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors LSD (Low Solidity Diffuser) JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea.com Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors .VANED DIFFUSER JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea.

com Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors VOLUTE/SCROLL JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea.AXIAL VANED DIFFUSER JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea.com ojsturbo@ korea.com Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors .com ojsturbo@ korea.

com Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors .com ojsturbo@ korea.com ojsturbo@ korea.PERFORMANCE MAP JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea.com Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors PERFORMANCE MAP JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea.

15 p O1 101325  =0   where & N(rpm). O2 .15 Dimensional Analysis & f(D.com ojsturbo@ korea.15 JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea.15 & = p O1 101325 N N = CORRECTED TO1 288.  p O1 TO1 D 2p O1 RTO1  p & T m TO1 N f  O 2 . T(K). RTO ) = 0 p & T m RTO1 ND f  O 2 . .com Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors .com IMPELLER INCIDENCE surge choke • Note : Angles measured from meridional reference for axial-flow cascade tests • Note : When angles from tangential reference. negative incidence in choke JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea. p O . m(kg/s). O2 . p(Pa) Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors & m TO1 m CORRECTED 288.com ojsturbo@ korea.CORRECTED CONDITIONS N CORRECTED ≡ N TO1 288. m. .  p O1 TO1 p O1 TO1   =0   & m CORRECTED ≡ & m TO1 288. N.

com Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors .com Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors SPLITTER BLADES JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea.com ojsturbo@ korea.DIFFUSER INCIDENCE JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea.com ojsturbo@ korea.

com ojsturbo@ korea.com ojsturbo@ korea.SPLITTER BLADES JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea.com Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors .com Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors IMPELLER BLADE GEOMETRY JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea.

com Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors .com ojsturbo@ korea.com ojsturbo@ korea.com Turbomachinery Basics Centrifugal Compressors IMPELLER CFD JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea.SOME ANGLES JongSik Oh ojsturbo@korea.

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