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Density

Density (d) is mass per unit volume of a substance. It usually expressed as grams per cubic centimeter (g/cc).

Density = Mass Volume

Gram is defined as the mass of 1 cc of water at 4oC, so the density of water is 1 g/cc. According to USP, 1 mL may be used as the equivalent of 1 cc. Therefore, The density of water may be expressed as 1 g/mL.

The weight of 1 mL of mercury is 13.6 g, hence, its density is 13.6 g/mL

If 25.0g of olive oil are required for a prescription, what volume should be used? (Density of olive oil=0.910g/mL )

25.0g x

1 mL 0.910g

= 27.5 mL

Problems:

1. Calculate the weight of 120 ml of oil whose density is 0.9624g/ml. What will be the weight of 5 liter of that oil?

**2. What is the volume of 2.0 kg of glycerin if the density of
**

glycerin is 1.25g/ml? 3. Find out the volume in liter of an oil whose density is 0.75g/ml and the total weight of that oil is given 20.5 kg.

Specific gravity = Weight of substance Weight of equal volume of water Water is used as the standard for the specific gravity of liquid and solids. although sometimes air is used. expressed decimally. .Specific gravity Specific gravity is the ratio. The most useful standard for gases is hydrogen. of the weight of a substance to the weight of an equal volume of a substance chosen as a standard.

the standard temperature for specific gravity is 250C. Specific gravity= Weight of the substance Weight of an equal volume of water Because one milliliter of water weighs one gram: Number of grams of the substance Number of milliliters of the substance Specific gravity= . one milliliter of distilled water weighs one gram.Both substance should be at the same temperature or the temperature of each being definitely known. At 25ºC and 1 atmosphere of pressure. Therefore. the specific gravity of water is established as 1. According to USP.

9603 .Specific gravity of liquids 1.78 g Specific gravity of oil = 52.96ml of an oil weight 52.78g.96 ml of an oil weight 52. what is the specific gravity of the oil? Answer: 54.96(g) = 0. Known weight and volume: Calculating the specific gravity of a liquid when its weight and volume are known.78(g)/54. Problem: If 54.

27 . what is the specific gravity of the liquid? Answer: 1 pint = 473 ml Specific gravity of liquid = 601(g)/ 473(g) = 1.Problem: If a pint of a certain liquid weights 601g.

66 g = 49.29 g of water Specific gravity of liquid = 49.2. when filled with another liquid.56g – 23.90g / 49.56g. the container is filled and weighed first with water and then with liquid. Problem: A specific gravity bottle weighs 23. When filled with water.66g. What is the specific gravity of the liquid? Answer: 73.90 g of liquid 72.012 . it weights 72.95g. it weights 73.29 g =1.95g – 23.66 g = 49. Specific gravity bottle: To calculate the specific gravity of a liquid by means of a specific gravity bottle.

8.12g when immersed in an oil.57g when immersed in water. Calculate the specific gravity of the oil.64g in air.865 .3. Problem: A glass plummet weighs 12. and 9. Answer: 0. Displacement or plummet method: Calculating the specific gravity of a liquid determined by the displacement or plummet method is based on the Archimedes’ principle. Archimedes’ principle: A body immersed in a liquid displaces an amount of the liquid equal to its own volume and suffers an apparent loss in weight equal to the weight of the displaced liquid.

Problem: A piece of glass weighs 38.525g when immersed in water. Solids heavier than and insoluble in water: Weight of solid in air/weight of water that it displaces when immersed in it.568 .525g in air and 23.Specific gravity of solids 1. Specific gravity of glass = 38.525g = 15g of displaced water (weight of an equal volume of water).525g / 15g = 2. What is its specific gravity? Answer: 38.525g – 23.

55 .550g of displaced oil.858 x 6. Problem: A crystal of a chemical salt weighs 6. What is the specific gravity of the salt? Answer: 6.423) / 3.858.873g = 3.423g in air and 2. gr.550 = 1.873g when immersed in an oil having a specific gravity of 0. of oil / Sp. of displaced oil/ Wt. Wt. of salt= (0.423g–2. of salt in air = Sp. of salt Sp. Gr. Solids heavier than and soluble in water: The weights of equal volumes of any two substances are proportional to their specific gravities.2. Gr.

of glycerin / vol.8 Problem: Calculate Specific volume of a syrup. Water is standard for liquids and solids. Problem: If 25g of glycerin measure 20ml and 25g of water measure 25ml under the same conditions. of water = 20ml /25ml = 0. 91.85 . Answer: 0.16g. What is the specific volume of glycerin? Answer: The specific volume of the glycerin= vol.Specific volume Specific volume is defined as an abstract number (has no unit) representing the ratio of the volume of a substance to the volume of an equal weight of another substance taken as a standard in same temperature.0ml of which weigh 107.

Percent weight-in-volume (W/V): W/V or Weight/Volume percent is defined as the number of grams in 100 milliliters of solution or liquid preparation. Example: A 10 percent (w/v) potassium chloride (KCl) elixir would contain 10 grams of potassium chloride in every 100 milliliters of KCl elixir. and percentage means “rate per hundred”.Percentage Calculations The term percent and its corresponding sign (%) mean “by the hundred” or “in a hundred”. .

Example: A 5 percent (w/w) boric acid ointment would contain 5 grams of boric acid in each 100 grams of boric acid ointment. . Percent weight-in-weight (W/W) W/W percent or Weight/Weight percent is defined as the number of grams in 100 grams of a solid preparation.Percent volume-in-volume (V/V) V/V percent or Volume/Volume percent is defined as the number of milliliters in every 100 ml of solution or liquid preparation. Example: A 70% (v/v) alcoholic solution would contain 70 milliliters of alcohol in every 100 ml of solution.

1 % = 1g of solute 100 g of solution Volume/Volume = mL of solute 100 mL 1%= 1 mL of solute 100 mL Weight/Volume = grams of solute 100 mL 1 % = 1 g of solute 100 mL .Drug Concentrations Expressed As Percent(%) Example: Weight/Weight = grams of solute 100 g of prep.

This is especially true if the amount required is so small that it cannot be accurately weighed on a torsion balance. and compound the entire product.Dilution and concentration Pharmacy personnel will often go to a stock solution to obtain the amount of active ingredient that is needed to make a preparation. The use of stock preparations is an important aspect of pharmacy. It is easier to measure an amount of stock solution than to set up a balance. weigh the ingredients. .

Formula: W C = W1 C1 (1) W = Weight of stock preparation (2) C = Concentration of stock preparation (3) W1 = Weight of desired preparation (4) C1 = Concentration of desired preparation . b.Formulas: a. c. Formula: V C = V1 C1 (1) V = Volume of stock preparation (2) C = Concentration of stock preparation (3) V1 = Volume of desired preparation (4) C1 = Concentration of desired preparation d. Concentrations must be expressed in the same units. Volumes and weights must be expressed in the same units.

what percent (w/v) of sucrose will it contain? Answer: Let the volume of syrup 100ml. so we will have 85ml 85ml/100ml=65%/X% X%= 76. 100ml syrup evaporated to 85% of its volume.47% or 76% (answer) .Problem: If a syrup containing 65% (w/v) of sucrose is evaporated to 85% of its volume.

5ml .5 ml So water (answer) should be added (1182.5-473)ml= 709.Problem: How many milliliters of water should be added to a pint of a 5% (w/v) solution of boric acid to make a 2% (w/v) solution? Answer: 1pint = 473 ml Therefore. 2%/5% = 473ml/ Xml X= 1182.

Problem: How many milliliters of a 1:200 silver nitrate solution would be needed to make 2000 ml of a 1:4000 solution? Answer: V C = V1 C1 (X) ( 1/200 ) = (2000 ml) ( 1/4000 ) (X) (4000/200)=(2000ml) (4000/4000) 20 X = 2000 ml X = 100 ml (answer) .

4 X = 1.Problem: How many milliliters of a 2% stock solution of potassium permanganate (KMn04) would be needed to compound 120 ml 0.02%) 2 X = 2.2 ml (answer) .2% solution of potassium permanganate ? Answer V C = V1 C1 (X) (2%) = (120 ml) (.

57grams (answer) .Problem: How many grams of 14% zinc oxide ointment can be made from one pound of 20% zinc oxide ointment? Answer: 1 pound = 454 gm W C = W1 C1 (X) (14%) = (454 g) (20%) 14 X = 9080 X = 648.

000/100)=(4000 ml)(2000/2000) 200 X = 4000 ml X = 20 ml (answer) .Problem: How many milliliters of 10% povidone-iodine solution would be needed to make 4 liters of a 1:2000 povidone-iodine solution? Answer: V C = V1 C1 (X) (10%) = (4 L) ( 1/2000 ) Change 4 liters to milliliters Change 10% to a ratio by placing the 10 over 100. (X) (10/100) = (4000 ml) ( 1/2000 ) (X)(20.

[24. The strong solution of ammonia contains 32.Solve the Problems: 1. The strength of real acetic acid is 33% (W/V). Prepare 200 ml of a solution of ammonia containing 4% by weight of ammonia. [20gm & 20ml up to 2 liter] .5% of ammonia W/W.62gm] 4. How many milliliters of a 3% hydrogen peroxide solution would be needed to make 120 ml of 1% hydrogen peroxide solution? How many milliliters of water should be added? [40ml & 80ml] 2. Prepare 400ml of a 5% solution and label with direction for preparing 2 liter quantities of a 1 in 2000 solution. [24. Using this. prepare 200ml of a solution of acetic acid containing 4% (W/V) of real acetic acid.2ml] 3.

The strength of dilute alcohol will be 45%.47 ml = 190 ml 190 ml of 95% alcohol is diluted with water to produce 400ml.Alcohol dilution: Problems: Prepare 400 ml of 45% alcohol from 95% alcohol. . Volume of stronger alcohol to be used= 400x45 95 = 189.

5% (V/V) alcohol to make 50% ( V/V) alcohol? [3550ml of water] 4. How many milliliters of ethyl alcohol (95%) and how many milliliters of distilled water must be combined to make two quarts of the 25% ethyl alcohol solution? (1 quart = 946 ml) .Solve the Problems: 1. 2.52] 3. Prepare 500 ml of 40% alcohol from 95% alcohol. [210. How many milliliters of water must be added to 5 gallons of 100% isopropyl alcohol to make a 70% dilute Isopropyl alcohol? (1 gallon= 3785 ml) 5. Prepare [378. How much water should be mixed with 5000 ml of 85. A 25% solution of ethyl alcohol may be used to bathe a small child for the purpose of cooling and reducing fever.95ml] 600 ml of 60% alcohol from 95% alcohol. How many milliliters of distilled water must be added to one gallon of 100% Isopropyl Alcohol to make a 70% alcohol? 6.

Compounding of same formula Problem: How many grams of zinc oxide are needed to make 240 grams of a 4% (w/w) zinc oxide ointment? Answer: IF 4 g ZnO = 100 g Oint 240 g Oint 100 X = 960 X = 9.6 g of zinc oxide (answer) THEN X g ZnO .

Problem: How many milliliters of a 5% (w/v) boric acid solution can be made from 20 grams of boric acid? Answer: (answer) Problem: How many milliliters of paraldehyde are needed to make 120 ml of a 10% (v/v) paraldehyde solution? Answer: 12ml .

Answer: 50mg 2x120 = .One percent Method: Problem: How many grams of ephedrine sulfate are needed to make 120 ml of a 2% (w/v) ephedrine sulfate solution? Answer: 1gm dissolved in 100ml = 1% w/v solution 2gm dissolved in 100ml = 2% w/v solution For 120ml solution the quantity of ephedrine sulfate required2. 100 (answer) Problem: Prepare 500 ml of a 2 in 4000 solution of potassium permanganate.4 gm of ephedrine sulfate needed.

02% ml Distilled water qsad 240 How many grams of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) are needed to compound the above prescription? Answer: 0.048 grams Problem: Prepare 150ml of 4% (W/V) potassium permanganate and label the directions for preparing 500ml of 1 in 2500 solution. .Problem: Rx KMnO4 0.

5 g of a chemical? ► Normal saline solution contains 0.9% W/V NaCl.25% (w/v) solution? .5 liters of normal saline? ► How many grams of strong silver protein (SSP) are required to make 250 ml of a 0.02% W/V solution can be made from 2. what is the percentage strength of the solution? ► How many milliliters of a 0. How many grams of sodium chloride should be used to make 1.Solve the Problems: ► If 5 g of a chemical is dissolved in enough water to make the preparation measure one liter.

If Beximco uses 3% overage then calculate the amount of RM of paracetamol to manufacture a batch of NAPA. Problem: Beximco uses raw material of paracetamol in which purity of paracetamol is 94% for manufacturing Napa tablet (500mg paracetamol).000 Tablets. . Usually companies use certain percent (within the specification limit) excess of active ingredient in their preparation. Calculate the amount of Raw Materials of Paracetamol to produce a batch of NAPA.OVERAGE: Overage means excess. The batch size of Napa is 50.

1 gram per 100 gram. 1 part in 102. Parts per hundred denotes the amount of a given substance in a total amount of 100 regardless of the units of measure as long as they are the same.g."PARTS-PER" NOTATION The parts-per notation is used in some areas of science and engineering because it does not require conversion from weights or volumes to more chemically relevant units such as normality or molarity. e. . It is the ratio of the amount of the substance of interest to the amount of that substance plus the amount of the substance it is in. It describes the amount of one substance in another.

e. Problem: Calculate the quantity of Sodium Fluoride (NaF) required for the preparation of 500ml of 2 ppm NaF aqueous solution.000. 1 milligram per gram.g. 1 milligram per kilogram.g.001 gm . Parts per million ('ppm') denotes the amount of a given substance in a total amount of 1. 1 part in 103.Parts per thousand denotes the amount of a given substance in a total amount of 1000 regardless of the units of measure as long as they are the same. or 1 gram per kilogram.000 regardless of the units of measure used as long as they are the same.0. Answer. e. 1 part in 106.

means science. That means it is a branch of medical science which deals with doses or quantity of drugs which can be administered to produce the required pharmacological actions.CALCULATION OF DOSES Posology: The word posology derived from Greek word ‘posos’. meaning how much and ‘logos’. . The term dose refers to the amount of medication that a patient must take at one time to produce the optimum therapeutic effect.

According to age: a) Young’s formula: Child's dose = Child's age in years Child's age in years + 12 years X Adult dose The above formula is used for calculating the doses for children under 12 years of age. Answer: 65mg .Calculation of child dose: I. Calculate the dosage for a 3-year-old child. Problem: The adult maintenance dose of a drug is 325 mg.

Answer: 10mg . Calculate the dosage for a 2½ year-old child. Problem: If the adult dose is 60mg and the age of the child is 6 years. what will be child’s dose? Answer: 18mg c) Fried's rule: Child's dose = Child's age in months 150 months X Adult dose Problem: The adult dose of an antihistamine is 50 mg.b) Dilling’s formula: Child's dose = Child's age in years 20 X Adult dose Because of easy and quicker calculations. Usually used for infant’s dose calculation. Dilling’s formula is considered better.

Calculate the dosage for a child weighing 50 pounds. Answer: 33. 150 lbs X Adult dose Problem: The adult dose of Doxycycline is 100 mg. .II. According to body weight: Clark's Rule: Child's dose = Child's weight in lbs. Hence. According to body surface area: Child's dose = Surface area of child Surface area of adult X Adult dose The average body surface area for an adult = 1.3 mg III.73m2.

5 mg Normality: In chemistry. when the adult dose of a drug is 50 mg.Child's dose = Surface area of child 1.57 m2. Answer: 16. Normality = Gram equivalents Liters solution . it is equal to the number of gram equivalents of a solute per liter of solution.73m2 X Adult dose Problem: Calculate the dosage for a child that has a body surface area of 0. normality is a measure of concentration. It is denoted by N.

e.30x10) gm = 53 gm Normality of the solution is 1 ..30 gm Na2CO3 Therefore.30 gm of Na2CO3 was dissolved in water and the volume made to 100ml. Calculate the normality of the solution. 1000 ml solution contains (5. Answer: Molecular weight of Na2CO3= 106 The equivalent weight of Na2CO3 is half the molecule weight. i.Gram equivalents = Atomic weight or molecular weight Valence Problem: 5. 106/2= 53 100 ml solution contains 5.

Molarity = Moles solute Liters solution Problem: 58.44 grams of NaCl dissolved in exactly 2 L of solution. It is denoted by M. What would be the molarity of the solution? Answer: Molecular weight of NaCl is 58.44 grams/mol =1mol .Molarity: It defined as the presence of number of moles of solute in 1000ml or 1 litre of solution.44 grams 58.44 grams/mol 58.

(not solution) It is denoted by m.Then.28 M Molality: Molality denotes the number of moles of a given substance per kilogram of solvent.0 grams of KBr dissolved in 750. dividing 1. Molarity = Moles solute Kg Solvent . Answer: 0. Molecular weight of KBr is 119 grams/mol.500 mol/L (or 0.00 mol by 2.00 L gives 0.0 mL. Problem: Calculate the molarity of 25.500 M).

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