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Singing for the Stars

Singing for the Stars

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Published by Joel Silberstein

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Published by: Joel Silberstein on Oct 30, 2011
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Sections

  • Exercise 1
  • Exercise 2
  • Exercise 3
  • Exercise 4
  • Exercise 5
  • Exercise 6
  • Exercise 7
  • Exercise 8
  • Exercise 9
  • Exercise 11
  • Exercise 12
  • Exercise 1.3
  • Exercise L4
  • Exercise 1.5
  • Exercise L6
  • Exercise L7
  • Exercise L8
  • Exercise L9
  • Exercise 20
  • Exercise 21
  • Exercise 22
  • Exercise 23
  • Exercise 24
  • Exercise 25
  • Exercise 26
  • Exercise 27
  • Exercise 28
  • Exercise 29
  • General Questions
  • Range Extension
  • Tone Development
  • Using Microphones
  • Singing Outdoors
  • Singing in Choir
  • Voice Competitions
  • The Aging Voice

f f i 4 F h t

I

Foreword

wide diversity of singing styles that exists in the world today demands a singing technique-a way of using your voice-that can be applied in the performance of all those styles. If a singing technique can't be applied to eaerystyle of singing, something is wrong with that technique. That's the premise we began with when Alfred Publishing Company's editors I discussedthe development of a totally new kind of book about singinS. We and wanted to do something that had never been done before-publish a book that actually taught people how to sing. But where would we find the author? There was only one PersonI knew of who could fill such a tall order-Seth Riggs, consideredby many to be the best and most successfulvoice teacherin the United States. He is certainly the busiest. No other teacher,past or present,has ever matched his phenomenal track record. His "Who's Who" of singers,actors,dancers,and entertainers students are a veritable throughout the world.* When you first meet Seth Riggs, you are overwhelmed by his dynamic personality, his flair for the outspoken, but most of all, his senseof purpose-his "mission" to clean up the messbeing made of singers' voices by voice teachersin schools,colleges,and private studios everywhere. The day I met with Seth about the possibility of putting his method in writing "Impossible,more people could benefit from his work, his initial reaction was, so you can't learn to sing from a book!" Well, I could understand his point of view. it's When Seth Riggs teaches, strictly on a one-to-onebasis. He quickly diagnosesa to singers'svocal problems and then prescribesspecific exercises correct those one not easily adapted to the printed page. problems. It's a very individual Process, But we decidedto give it a try. Ithad to be done. I proceededto do my researchand to observehim closely over a period of severalmonths, trying to find a general or systematicapproach to something that, there was no question about it, was working miracles! The first time I sat in on a lesson,I thought I had gone to singers'heaven! Seth had his students doing incredible things with their voices-things you would have thought only those with a great natural gift could do. In the weeks that followed, "star" clientele he has most of the students I observedweren't even part of the like stars. becomeso famous for. But they sounded Like so many others,thesesingers-young and old-had struggled un"voice teachers"to increasetheir range and for successfully years with other * SeeAppendix for a listing of his clienteleon pg. 138.

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vii

S/NG/NG FOR THE STARS

improve their tone quality. with Seth Riggs,however, the resultswere very different, and achievedin a very short time. You see,the Riggsmethod is application.Although he likes his studentsto understand basicprinciples the underlyinghis method, he feelsthat just telling you how your voice *orit doesnothing to help you sing. You have to know how to get it to workt Well, finally the "impossible"had beenaccomplished. The manuscript was complete,as well as an audio tape that actually demonstrates how to do the exercises usedin the training program. Yet, somethingwasn't right. oh, it was all there-the theory, the exercises, the facts. But that special all quality of the man you experience betweenthe actual momentsof instruction-his charisma,if you like-was missing. To remedythis, we includeda sectionentitled "The Author Speaks out," in which seth talks more informally about his method and responds very frankly (that is his way) to the controversialissues surroundingthe teachingof singing in this country and abroad. I am confidentthat readers this book will appreciate of and utilize its direct, no-nonsense approachto developinga workable vocal technique-to begin Singing For The Stars.

The Editor

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You should sing with a technique that allows you to just relax and concentrateon performing-which is what it's really all about. singers who never question "wisdom" of their teachers manipulate and strain their voices until one the "burned out.. or should use. easily produced voice you use. It doesn't matter whether you sing pop. Their secret is a technique called speech-leuelsinging. But it does take patience and the ability to follow instructions carefully.b tx . opera. Good luckl I wish you all the successin the world.Preface "Open "Place your throatl" the tone fonn'ardl" Oi. Jn. And although some may not sing as well as others." day they discover their voices are What most teachers never seem to understand is that you don't need to think about twenty different things every time you open your mouth. No matter if you sing high or low. all have achieved the ability to always sound confident and natural when they sing. anywayright? This author has worked successfullywith hundreds of singers. when you speak. and sound natural to your audience.g from your diaphragml" "Give "Keep your it more supportl" Sound familiar? tongue downl" The language of voice teachers and choir directors abounds in such confusing and dangerous clichds. With this book and the accompanying cassettetapes. And you don't need to study singing for more than a few weeks before you begin to experiencepositive results. rock. loud or soft. or musical theatre. and flexible voice over a range that you never dreamed possible. which allows you to sing with the same comfortable. actors. nothing feels different in your throat or mouth. Your tone and the words you sing always feel natural to you. clear. and dancers-top professionals-in all areas of musical performance and entertainment. Every day. you can now learn the same singing technique the pros use-one that will let you sing with a strong.

l e v e li n g i n g F e e l i n g n d S o u n d i n g a t u r a l 32 S a N L Singing ow Notes 32 H S i n g i n g i g hN o t e s 3 2 The Passage Areas of Your Range 33 t T A Singing hroughhe Passage reas 33 V o c a lC o r dT h i n n i n g 3 5 VocalCord Shortening 35 What to Remember 35 How To Get Your VoiceTo Work For You: The TrainingProcess 36 Developing Coordination-TheFirstStep 36 B u i l d i n g t r e n g t h .l e y e li n g i n g 2 8 S Your Speech-level A Foundation Vocal Freedom 29 For S p e e c h . Principles 13 How Your VoiceWorks:The Creationof VocalTone 13 V o c a lC o r dV i b r a t i o n W h e r eY o u r V o i c eB e g i n s 1 4 B r e a t hS u p p o r t 1 6 VocalCord Adjustment 23 R e s o n a n c e W h y Y o u r V o i c el s U n i q u e 2 5 Physical Sensations 26 W h a tT o R e m e m b e r 2 7 o H o w Y o u r V o i c eW o r k sB e s t :T h e N a t u r a T e c h n i o u e f l S p e e c h .A l l i n G o o dT i m e 3 7 S What To Remember 37 xi .Contents Foreword Preface ix vii About theAuthor Introduction How To Use This Book 11 Basr.

d*ttl ffis conftdence 40 44 46 48 52 54 58 60 62 64 66 70 72 1 Exercise Exercise 2 Exercise 3 Exercise 4 Exercise 5 Exercise 6 7 Exercise Exercise 8 Exercise 9 E xe rcise 10 E xe rcise 11 12 E xe rcise 13 E xe rcise Singing Qart:/ Toward Speech-Level 14 E xe rcise 15 E xe rcise E xe rcise 16 17 E xe rcise 18 E xe rcise E xe rcise 19 Exercise 20 Exercise 21 Exercise 22 Exercise 23 Exercise 24 Exercise 25 Exercise 26 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 75 xll .

tuuJ TechniqueMaintenance E xe rci se7 2 E xe rci se8 2 E xe rci se9 2 E xe rci se0 3 1 04 1 06 1 08 110 103 TheAuthor SpeaksOut 113 G e n e r aQ u e s t i o n s 1 1 3 l C l a s s i f y i nV o i c e s 11 3 g R a n g eE x t e n s i o n 1 1 4 T o n eD e v e l o p m e n t 1 1 6 U s i n gM i c r o p h o n e s 1 1 7 i S i n g i n g n D i f f e r e nS t y l e s 1 1 7 t Singing utdoors 118 O Choosing Teacher 118 a E x p l o i t i nS t u d e n V o i c e s 1 1 9 g t V o i c eS c i e n c e 1 1 9 Performers Teachers 121 as i Singingn Choir 121 Choir Directorsas VoiceTeachers 123 P o p u l a r u s i ca n d T r a d i t i o n a l e a c h i n g 1 2 3 M T Selecting usic 124 M i Singingn Foreign anguages 125 L Practicing 126 i S i n g i n gn R e h e a r s a l s 1 2 8 VoiceCompetitions 129 The YoungVoice 129 T h e A g i n gV o i c e 1 3 1 xill .

Hmlth and Carcof theSingefs Voire 132 YourPosture 133 BadHabits 134 Alcohol Drugs 134 and Using Smoking 135 Before Eating Singing 135 YourCords 135 Shocking Volume 135 UsingExcessive OtherFactors 136 lmitation OtherSingers 136 of 136 ThatDon'tWork Remedies 137 VocalRest Unnecessary and Fatigue 137 Emotional Stress Hormones 137 YourEnvironment 137 Appendix Glossary 138 142 149 Tapeand Compact DiscIndcx Cassette xiv .

producers. fohn Brownlee. Actor's Equity. AGMA. 1 . Matial Singhea Leo Thubman. and Keith Davis.Sandy Meisner. Grateful stars often give credit to this man whose unconventional methods allow them to use the main vehicle for their talent-their voice-to its maximum degree of efficiency and effectiveness. in front of thousands of fans. Robert Weede. However. who must often perform several shows a night-night after night! A great deal of money is always at stake. Bobby Lewis. Charles Wadsworth. And. and Luigi. Seth Riggs's vocal technique and the methods he uses to teach the technique were forged and tempered by the fierce demands placed on the world's top performers. and Louis Graveure. or a recording studio to help a Natalie Cole. SAG. so his clients' voices must be able to function easily. a man who has had much to do with the successand longevity of his vocal career. or a Michael JacksorySeth Riggs has helped many a star-and nervous producer---out of a jam.t " middle of his concert at the famous Forum in Los Angeles. The country singer was in Tahoeto open a show with his wife JessieColter and his voice was ailing. It is no wonder that whenever singers come to Los Angeles from other parts of the world. He was referring to Seth Riggs-his voice teacher. Hans Heintz. reached into all areasof the performing arts. superstar Stevie Wonder stopped the show to acknowledge. Whether he has to go on location to a movie set. Matt Mattox. AGVA.C. this isn't just an isolated case. a concert date. . He studied acting with Lee Strasberg. Recently he gave Waylon fennings a voice lessonby telephone. He joined his first professional union. as well as ACRA (the Association of Canadian Radio Artists). He studied voice with John Charles Thomas. and Frank Silvera and dancing with Peter Gennaro. a Jeremy Irons. He wasn't referring to his manager or record producer.Tito Schipa. Seth began his careerat the age of nine as a boy-soprano singing music of Bach and Handel at the Washington National Cathedral in Washingtory D. however. It was Jennings' first contact with Riggs. and did repertoire coaching with Pierre Bemac.Ir. he becamea member of all the performing unions: AFTRA. two years before completing his undergraduate degree.Aboat theAuthor . After that. Riggs was able to get the singer's voice in shape quickly with just a few special exercises. His later training.without strain. directors and fellow performers send them to seehis master vocal technician.

where most versatile school of vocal technique of our time' and music with $330in his pocket. which converts with a 20-foot stage. in the midst of pursuing his own singing career. Riggs replaced where he was in charge of teachersat the Banff Centre near Lake Lolise in Canada. and. Saltzberg.!"rr. singers talent lay in his ability to help others. so did teach their irincipal . Frankfurt. salzburg Mozart Festival Award. Government' He was also vocal technique for 33 opera singers for the canadian His diversity of studentsasked to work with 20 yon"s uJott from stratford' singersofpop. Associationof the teachingesiablishment. grants. scholarships. Riggs heaied west to Los Angeles. Next. He was kicked out of the National he taught' Rejectedby Teachersof singing and lost positions at the collegeswhere he has establishedthe the establishment. David Merrick results grew.aswellasactorsanddancershis technique' con"stantlyr"uffir*r the universality and practicality of of He draws over 1000new voice students Per year without advertising' mixture of musical theatre and pop these.CovJntbarden and other mafor opera houses throughout two international voice technique In the summer of 1982. altlh'oughSeth Riggs is best have won over a half of a television p"rroriuliti"s he il"orks with.he arrived ln l. 2 . Hamturg. the Frank sinatra National opera Award. Young Musicians wcN. who had been St{ley iut V"gut. Chicago's years. His first show business client was "belting" too hard-while singing and dancing in him by Allan carr).andmusicaltheater. He was Maclalne's and Hal Prince to Richard Rogers. br"gory Peck once asked Frank Sinatra sent him to seeseth Riggs' Mr' good voice teacher for his son Anthony-sinatra Geoffrey to study with sinatra also suggestedto Roger Moore that he send his son voice teacher' Seth.he discovered with him. have successful to Fulbright and Rotary Scholar:ships Europe' Se1tr1opera -pupils Staatsoper. no matter how well they worked.Tnrsencouragedhimtotaketeachingmore seriously. other teache* oith" merits of his teaching method.40 percent are opera. so wellrarty in his new career/seth's successwith his students became to study wiih him.a rented truck carrying his motorcycle Ann-Margret (sent to scores. inclide four NationaiMetropolitan Opera Awards.oPera. as his reputation for getting to recommend a his list of star clientele. but without were frowned on by Nonconventional methods. After taking a few lessons and consistently than they could were able to use their voices^*or" "g'nfitely usinganyconventionalapproach.Mr. La careerJsinging in lf4unich. and Foundation Awards. and for six seasonshe was a guest artist with the that his greatest Yet. and 60 percent a I to a 75-seatrecital hall students.ir. and But.Vienna.recording. He teachesirom his privite studio.and fellowships Winners. Jules styne.Alan Jay Lerner.e. And. These u*urd. Mr. his other students over the last ten million dollars in prizes. Europe' Scala. Rlggi is considered the entertainment world's top known for the stage. Rockefeller Foundation Grants. He tried to convince known that many singers left their teachers success. Bob Fosseand Gwen Verdon hired him to prepare also retained in New York by voice for the movie SweetCharity.screen.FORTHESTAHS S/NG/NG on He spent ten years in New York City' For three years he performed New York City Opera' Broadway.

is the man professionals turn to for results.seth Riggs.ABOUTTHEAUTHOR He lecturesand conductsMaster Classes vocal techniqueat collegesand on universities throughout the United Statesand Canada. Seth Riggs {** * # 'lx=' ^*.* ai'lata Kathleen Riggs EaelynHalus Associateocal V Instructor LosAngeles lohn Fluker Gospel StyleInstructor LosAngeles WendyWarshaw Associate Vocal Instructor LosAngeles 3 .whose studentshave won 90 Grammy awards. In the pragmatic world of show business. He also has assistedsome of the country's foremost doctors who specializein organic and functional disorders of the voice in vocal therapy (the elimination of vocal nodules. where time is money.polyps. Consider a man who believeshis best credits include being kicked out of a national singing association and severalcollegemusic facultiesfor encouraging pop and musical theatreteachingon an equal footing with opera.and you have seth Riggs. and various conditions of fibrosis).

and many other music professionals and celebrities the entertainment in field.Introduction hat do Michael Jacksonand Bernadette Petershave in common? They. . thesecelebrities how this method helned tell them use their voicesmost effectivelyand survive the vocal stresses live perforof mancesand long recordingsessions. Here. have endorsedthe author'smethod of vocal training as a key to their vocal success.

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rt:rr ct'lrncnSnrrl.lritl 6 .M. ttttd fiftr 5 i l l t .lt's n ottcsltlirectittrt I'zteneeded. ( { ' r n cottlr r .zitlg. it i | i i l g r r/ . Llmlttrto CsticLt. Ncrrc tlnl I'uL' Ie srnednbout taking high pitthes irt n cttnnecttti "lrcud" "chest" cottrLiiuntion.rcnge md confrol zLlas (t.tt. ! i l t t r . thc rttxt. ttegnrr luL)rkrLtith I to lfun. l t n . 1.4rrfr'/t's xer lhe years. ." [tottttrtt rtul?e I can stry ft'eshr nou. q lt L ' l i n tH o l m e s Sirtqer I-r. I Lliscttttered countctat{ my headt)oice.trcter lose ability to sirtgnt nt:lrly any I mq luxrr. .utr ttocnltrncksbt'ttt. 12 orrc day tutd4 A. sttd uheu it cotncs sittgittu.rttl ptiling irrl my t't'om ' "up. q c t t .Thnnky ou.'oicc.rls l. riy hnrlspoke to rne n tthoutScthRry. lnmes Ingranr Rc ording Arti st.. t n .f t t r.and Europt.r.rl A.t.(inlrr ltl. t t .lriq/l Cs lo q!1lttt. r i i . Sethtnught me t0 u-ctt lrcnrluoiccftr tnkc tlrcstmitt orL. to I't't olrm. U t r t ! ri i i r l a i l c e r rH o m b r e S o l o .c r l ... l Ittttrnttcltnntl ltelting too. crutkill vour uoice.t.M.l ltauestudid on aud ot'futith -ooice tenclrcrs the in LLS.s . Shryer c l.l don't lnue to prill ttoicclikt l hsuein the 1tast. q t t t i r t ' r r t r r l i ut.ithltetter qualityand more corrtrol.'? r r n i s1 t t : . v s t l ift tl r o t t l . n o lulio lgtesias .1. Sinct beginnittguocal strLdrl ruith Seth Rrrggs.SING/NG FOR THE SIAFS nyittg rlor. The neutpower. t n I L ' r r / r ' l l r ' r { .tl1 l t Ltll t i p r 'i1tt t t u s l n . l t / r t l i r r q r r r i r i . engineer. I'ttr a ytinnist. bcciltseit lttLys longcr sttstttirtittg n Irnlllr for rrrrt . For tltc first time in rnq aocal " Iift ." I hegttn sirrq lt'rror.hard.gs.ruithin singlip|rfarrnrury a i.rs 11l11t'1t'.

INTHODUCTION

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I 14 old. to withSeth when was years began study and alt octaues suened the"breaks'" roday,y;;:';::;:i,3r',,1t

of Recently hadthepleasure playingthe title rolein a BBC I d singing. of lactiinilmeMikado and thnt the rol.e Tnyo in Fiddler. roles, breaking-into-singing but he explains these notexactly are that a haue aocal In mmtion until theyhadbeen it completed. anycase,I 't'or knowledge of about a decent now,whichwasbrought by singing aoice works singing.I thankSethRiggs thistraining t'or for

S/NG/NG FOR THE SIAFS

hen I write s song,I needa uocalrangettnd corrtrol

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Sofar, there lnue been uocal no limitations mein my for work. Withlhispnrtinilarapproach singing, canadapt to I my aoice sirrg to God's praises a Gospel in style, singa romantic

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Ircnhebelieues your uocal in abilityheis relentless in making sureyou neucr back awayfromyourt'ull potmtial-instilling cont'idence truc giftof a great is lhe teacher. Becsuse SethRiggs, meeting uocal of I'm any challenge euer I'ue wartted to-relaxcdandhauing much so fun.

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henthe" tracks" hot,sweetening arc and balance to consider, release still and dates pending, thcre precious is little timeto accommodatesrtist's an uocal indisposition.has lt been experience myriad my that problems as such

knowing, practical aocal technique. SethRiggs has an uncsnny abilityto prepare uocalists thatthere so is little timelostto theusual uocal problems. His assistance duringtheMichaelJackson World 1988 TourhaskeptMichael tunedup like Ferrari. a QuincyJones

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\-..17
inging iazz means a great many syncopated rhythms and a uide range of pitches. Ozserthe years I'd pirUia up some bai oocal habits u:hich began to cause uocal strain and fatigue. ln other words, I'd "trash" my ooice. By helping me take pressureoff mV chest range and getting into my head to begun Seth Riggscontributed a relaxation and, ultimately, a better longeuity for my caleer. coordination, Al Jarreau Recording Artist, Singer Los Angeles "utobble" eth was my 74th poice teacher.I came to him uith a minor third. and neuer singing aboue a high F. After a couple months, I was taell into my that I go into the Metropolitan Opera auditions. head uoice, and Seth suggested (Actuallv, he bet me $700 I could utin it.) I uas a pop singer and hadn't sung in In foreignlanRuag,es. fiue more months (seuenin aII), I uent into the'72 'Metipolitin iuditions. I came in second in the N.Y. finals, the only male finalist 2,000 applicants.)I sang operain Belgium, France,Germany. that Vear. (There u.tere seueral years. I enioyed singing opera, the big sounds, exItaly and lreland for tended ranles and precisecontrol, but I returned to my first loue-musical theatre. Seth is an old time BeI Canto feacher,perhaps the first to extend Bel Canto into pop and musical comedy styles. I knou his uocal approach works. Thomas McKinney Baritone New York City who haue been National P.S. There hatre been three more of your studenfs Metropolitan winners sincemy uitt in 1972. They are all singing in maior housesin Europe.

oict'conchnssist o.rott for filur rccommcrrdnl RiggsfrrtlrcTtrpjy. nppreciated the qunlitytcorkthaf SltirltvntrtlSctltpttl itrtul. I'tn aboti singing tltrytw)re. Pimrist Nrw York Citrl .qo 0 lo Sltirlcrl MncLnitre gttlrcruocnl to cltops slnptt ttta sweetcharity. t ocat if p.ThestuLlio meto stilr. tt'fcctit. Actrcsi LosAngeles ]tttr yL'nrs tu(nt.3tutg bet'orc."I bagan t'ilnt whtret\rc scriytt a calleti trrycharacter siir. workirrg tpirhsrtltis itritdir4q uocnr a for caordination whichprepares to meetall thtsechnllengt:s. like I'd to bcrearlq rchntcut'r hnppers. .1.I knozu haztr gtt fromntydeep nou.t Ctnrity tl'rcroltof Cy Coleman Crrnrpost'r.ry.It scents tnethnttlrcre ns to is alwcysso:ne.s a ilntfoft.ithss bcntrtiftrl to lhe a t. netter uty is as ['d tried "higtrcr ranges. BohFossi Grcrtt irr nrrd ve'rl.g. to rmtge the into highutithnochunge quality In skort. becttuse they singeierrly'iri tnntry kt'ysiuith ptttwer arrdcontroi.neru neu sound newdirectiort poTuilttr style. you d Itkey(tttrtnusi( strng. 'd Whoopi Goldberg Come. Ttir..tnest bc ms tlrc can d$troyL. me {(onn2Composc Si ncer. dccidd fhntshautns to use I shle n*icJteaer sttited ailian of thechar{lcier key for tlrc in thescene.don tnany leuals. Dnrrct'r Ac I rcss. Srl/r Wrlr I nrriued LosAngtlcs ssllfieuocal itt lo ktlls Shirlcy. r.btrl alnrt.c thc "preserrce.rruoicalr..roble grt in tlrc wn. aild the chnrt. I trit. qualityandcontral I catr.. sntSC. the aoice.r.' -o--'" netter. freedomto t'ind the best t'or tlte text.I like lltt. not neru(n$ in .singers. Msrain Hamlisch Cornposer.lintt.trti'prrcltrrri.itltrts mtrch strength. I figured thevruoultl probchly my uoice. -LosAnqeles ".'dt'ri r.I wantto get uoict'togtthcr my tt.s! n song we tlid front Leonnrd Bernsfuiris Mass. !. Nit dub sent ortly IuittLlt4tsiri{ur{' 07r1 dil ffiy sottqs.r cotntnunicalc textu.rop.oung singers. Thatnernt she cotid singin seuercl Llit'ferent I nlwnys keys. Pianist NezuYork Cittl I I 'ke all y.Hou. on io .ocnl sortndas possibfu. ttoice aslazu s bass. tlou usttnlly lmuenrt idenof ttou.cuer. or in nrusic.uenlwnqsttriovrd Sallr Riggs's.

with all your words clearly understood. you can apply this technique to any type of music. 1. When doing the exercises. You develop it by gradually conditioning it to work efficiently with a balanced coordination. Since you are not learning what to sing but rather how to sing. Speech-level singing is a way of using your voice that allows you to sing freely and clearly anywhere in your range. such as classical music or popular music? No. You can probably progress more easily and faster if you can find a teacher familiar with this method of teaching to guide you. you may not be able to arrange for a personal lesson with the author. Can anyone learn this technique?.How To UseThisBook C(lnlike the starswhoseendorsements appearat the front of this book. or do you need prior singing experience or musical training? This book has been designed to be used by singers at any level-from ner to advanced.please follow along with the material in the book and the accompanying tapes as my students and I demonstrate how each of begin- 11 . Otherwise. Is this book meant only for those studying a certain kind of music. But this book and accompanying tapes can be the next best thing to it. You can study either with or without a teacher. Can I study this book without a teacher? Yes. You don't develop your voice by pushing it to its limit. 4. any exercise can be overworked or misused to where it will do you more harm than good. 2. This book teachesa vocal technique based on speech-levelsinging. What are the precautions advised in learning this technique? As valuable as the exercisesin this book are for training your voice. Here are some guidelines and suggestionsto help you get the most out of this training program. 3. But you should pay special attention to the precautions advised. you should be able to study successfully on your own by following the instructions in this book and on the accompanying cassettetapes.

if you are working on your own." first metSethin thelate40safter WorldWar lI.you should follow your teacher's recommendations. was a In my late60s. Thank yor.afteryears frustration. You will then be able to progressmore quickly. confidently consistently and throughout operatic my repetoire. Seth. you find an if instruction unclear or have difficulty carrying it out. When you feel you understand As the material.and Conseraatory Baltimore.My passaggi noTtr to are intactand.to learnto singeasily my s that . 5. majorcareer neaer a was aaailable to flat me. you do the exercises. I hada gooduoice gettingthroughthe but "bridge" consistently always problem. whenI wastrying to learnto singat thePeabody in Maryland.at 72years age. 5. Do I need to study the "Basic Principles" before starting the practical exercises? That's really up to you. the "BasicPrinciples"sectionwill help you better understand how your voice works and how this method of voice training works. "passagio" I neaer the got right. Gaspari Vecchione Bqltimore.but I'aeaccomplished lit'e' dream. Don't worry about memorizingevery detail. In my confusion.A glossaryhas beenprovided at the end of the book to make it easierto locatedefinitionsof unfamiliar words. It is important that you do eachexercise correctlybeforeyou proceedto the next. you may find some answersin the two sections "Health at the end of the book-"The Author Speaks Out" and and Care of the Singer's Voice. go back and study more closelythe text or illustration that applies. If you are working with a teacher. of my aoice assteady a rockthroughout range is as my bass-baritone E low from to thetenorhighA. However.MD 12 . If you have personalquestions about your training or career.go on to the exercises. studying undertheGI bill.S/NG/NGFOR THESTAFS the exercises shouldbe done.I traaeled LosAngeles ot' to and began studywith Seth. Are there any guidelinesfor doing the practical exercises? Theseare suppliedon the tapesand in the accompanying text.r. is.or how to take the best care of your voice.

how you will get it to work for you. How Your Voice Works: The Creation of Vocal Tone There are two factors involved in making vocal tone-aocal and resonance. we should first go over somebasic principlesabout how your voice works. Resonance That tone is then modifiedand as it Vocalcords travels through the spaces above your vocal cordsbefore your Ieaving Exhaled air Let's examinethesefactors more closelv. how it works best. Vocal cord vibration Theair you exhale from your lungs workswith your vocalcords to create initial an tone. and then finally. 13 . 2. cord uibration 1.BasicPrinciples Before you begin your training program.

S/NG/NG FOR THE STARS Vocal cord vibrationwhere your voice begins Locatedat the top of your windpipe (trachea-pronouncedtr6y-key-uh) is a group of cartilages.is your larynx (pronounced las in cat] -rinks). attachedfrom front to 16 back. of The location of your vocal cords Larynx Topview Vocalcords (open for breathing) Trachea (windpipe) Esophagus (passageway to yourstomach) Epiglottis Vocalcords (inside larynx) Trachea (windpipe- passageway to yourlungs) Larynx Side view Larynx Front view 14 . are the main muscles your larynx-your vocal cords. ligaments.and muscles that functionsas a single unit. This unit known commonly as your voicebox. Insideyour larynx.

air'pressure builds up below them. the cords are blown apart.oututard. air cordsopen Waveof compressed air Once the air pressureis released.8AS/C PRINCIPLES If your vocal cords are closed (or almost closed) at the same time you exhale. cordsclosed vEw Vocal Cords Trachea When the air pressurebecomestoo great for your vocal cords to hold back. The suddenreleaseof air pushesthe air moleculesabove your cords together and. creatinga wave of compressed molecules-a sound u)alJe.your vocal cords spring back to their closed(or almost closed)position. 15 .

Its primary . now let's examinevocal cord vibration as it relatesto the more d"tn".without any'conscious function'is to supply your body with the life substance.oxygen. To do this.di^s.eq.lr S/NG/NGFOR THESTAFS As your vocal cords come back together again and again. carbon dioxide.ordr-opetates automatically.rit"-et tt of ln" singer'svoice. your respiratory system-which you use to send air to your v effort. picked up by the listener'sear. 16 . Breath support Normally. we must consider breathsu/poi and pocal cord adiustment. Inhalation beginswhen too much carbon dioxide builds up inside body. they are of blown apart again and again-creating a series sound u)Aoes'which is This processis called ztibration. and eliminate the waste product. But.

tlt t t lo n y .4lrt Ltr ights. l i o r l si|lr ' n k i i t li f .. t/ .'ii' ) . t t M t t L l >).. (l i t i ' r ' ( .ta c n r o l t si r r n r . * . . I iuishI hsd mtttrl()us.()trcr.. Lt){ts Irtruc the gilt.--yt.It's great ta ttoctrl hnlcrritittnttledgenble poittt of oieu to prLttccl 1/L)ur afid t10urt)acalhealtk. ' . .:.qos.Thank Scth. j . neithtr re(ts()tt the cnse tltnt tht top af my rnnge(ntrortgotlrcr thirtgs)iL. ' .nuLl thttlI iustntav't strttngenough justdidrt't lifting zue .( ' ( ' r/s { ' o. Fcrf{n'mnnce t s e r r t n i l r t lIea f c r s ' \ 6 1 i .-tr lrnLtt: besecweuocallrlto to .rrk Cilrl * + . \ . ":t':::":'tt:t':)' :. *. htsitles for r I t t n . nF r... ' r ' \ r ' t t 'Y r r r k i i t T C r. i i r t i r r s 1 {t r ? i rnnge. / .I cnrl5i17g thc liglt to C nnd E flrttnltoae in ofi euul line zttitltotrt strctin.i l a i : t t t t tt l t l u ' t t r o s t t l t : r t n t r l i ttr. Wutt I smrgtlrc lend rttlt i n Phantom of the Opr. i . Nort. q r r i Jttt t v s c l I r t grwrd cgninstztttctrl tocnlhl Ltrtd nbuse and t'atigue. ' s .& t tltis titne of nrv lile I'm iinnlltlgetflrg ntq uoirc togrtht'r.tck.i ' . ' . Duin Alltty 4 . 5 i r r { .ra.. rgli sltousn u.triticCitt. r 7 1t.. ztoice *citiniq.. ThnnkGoil.t t t t t r ..r'l" I : r l t i t l r i d t . : r$ i 1 1 g p r \. Tltut zttttlI didtil lnle on Lt to hreak intot'nlxtto nhrtac cartsin point./ . \ t:l it. 'rl.zttitlr Brttadzuay s slrazu.W. l l Thueis itospokantlialLtgrrc tlrcrcore 2'f ' lttnts htt "bclted ofhnrtlsinging. Tlrc Pluntturt. ' t l t n i q t rn r r dy t r c o r t n l t i l i l v t o . /lrls |he fechnityra reallqctunethrorrylt nte. ' l c r t tr r t r r s i t '!otlt n l t r . . "e . t::: Tftfr ol n SelhlittsLttlpt:ti cstahlislt solidt'oundatiotr rne : t n l i t r ' l t t t i t l i l r ' . . !.jisqsa ' ta:.eak n or fotrrtcanslu'tuts u.eakitt Los Vegnsor Aii." 'hl. t r r n /r / t r t l [ ' t t t r c. n ! l t t t B r a n L l t L . l t i g l r t t l on t i ittutrrl.incltttling high n middle. SetltRrggs t h tl .tts Sethtnught trrc deTtLtrdent tht rel(asrof nry middleuoitt. Singerssre nlrtaVs :'iunrclys"ndnritlt cottt'idence. . tlou RobcrGuillsume t ACTOT LosArtgtles to or 21ftrlecrs had tlrcgrcnt oprportunity l plny the lettLl rolc iruEvita nt the Aktin u T l t . I thnt sirtgirtg high C's urd nboztttLtss like hnrltliuurls tltttu. .. l i. t i r t ' i .. ".but yttttt"ould nunihilttte unlcss ryour grnre rte youkttoiuztlmt tioil re doirrg..:.riirgdiruted musknllq lttl sonrrcne.

Result Air fills your lungs.This crebtesa vacuum inside your chestcavity. as the outsideair rushesin to fill the vacuum. while your rib muscles lift your ribcage. Brain Signal from brain Exhalationbeginsas soon as inhalation has taken place. 2. enlarging your chestcavity at the bottom. Signal Your brain signals your breathing musclesthat your body needsoxygen. 3. Action Your diaphragm -your main breathing muscle -descends (flattens).S/NG/NG FOR THE SIABS lnhalation:Normal 1. 18 . enlarging your chest cavity at the sides.

Brain Signal from brain I -l J In singing and speaking. as long as it doesn't interfere with your body's requirements for life support. you can regulate inhalation. The diaphragm returns to itsup positionand yourribcagecomes down. Result Air is squeezed out ofyour lungs. 3. 19 .8AS/C PRINCIPLES Exhalation: Normal 1. Action Yourdiaphragm and muscles rib relax. This allows yourlungs to shrink back. however.Signal Yourbrain signals yourbreathing muscles your that bodyneedsto get ridof carbon dioxide. 2.

Result Air fills your lungs.FORTHESIABS S/NG/NG lnhalatlon:Slnging 1. 20 . without any resistance. Action Sameas normal inhalation. 3. Be sure your chest "comfortremains ably high" (see p. Signal Your brain signals your breathing musclesthat you need a suPPlYof air to make sound. vrG5t be Chestshould "comfortably high'l RibMuscles i qiu"g*-l You can also regulate exhalation. 2.132) and that your abdominal (stomach)muscles are relaxed to let your diaphragm descendeasilY. except you regulafehow much air you need and at what rate you will take it ih.

Yourabdominal push your muscles (in diaphragm a of state flexible tension) steadily up andslowly against yourlungs. To be able to regulate the amount air you of send your vocal to you must be cords. Brain Air Signal from brain ryil Rib MusclesI Diaphragm -J 21 . Action Not the same as normal exhalation.Your rib muscles. continue keep to yourribcage (thus yourlungs) expanded. able control to yourrate of exhalation. therefore. while your muscles abdominal take over control. 2. 3. Result Air is releasedto yourvocal cords as needed.BAS/CPRINCIPLES Exhalation: Singing 1. Singing Yourbrain signals yourbreathing that you muscles need send air to to yourvocal cords.

unlessyou have poor postureor a and take shallow breaths.You do not have to uork at breathingcorrectly.There will be a mutual and simultaneous tion of the proper amount of air with the proper adjustmentof your vocal cords. Imbalance equals Effort and Stlain Air 22 .Nor do tendencyto raiseyour chestand shoulders your breathingmuscles. You know you have proper breath support when there is a balance coordinabetweenair and muscle. and abdominal die-uh-fram). Your diaphragm muscles already strong enoughfor your needsas a singer.When we say you can regulateit. so will using too much air. only cause V'ery little air is required to produce a good tone. when you sing. the more air you sendthem. There is no need to consciouslyexert tension in those muscles. the amount of air you use need only be enough to support the vibration of your vocal cords-no more. holding back (or at leasttrying to hold back) any amount of air you send their way. And.Balanceeguars Support Breathingfor singing is a very relaxed process. Even for a loud tone.If you try to directly control your breathing muscleswhen you sing. we only mean you allout it to happenso that inhalation and exhalation are done in a way that best suitsyour musicalneeds. the tighter your cords have to get to hold it back.your diaphragm is able to move freely and be regulatedby your abdominal musclesautomatically. the extra tension in your body will your vocal cords to overtense-to jam up. you needto do any specialexercises strengthen to (pronounced rib muscles. no less-so that your tone is produced without any effort or strain. are If you maintain good posturewhen you sing. and are carefulnot to let your chest "collapse" as you exhale. Justas trying to control your breathingmuscles directly will causeyour vocal cords to jam up. your cords are instinctivelycommittedto That's because.

assisted the other musclesof your larynx. in musclesof larynx Larynx Muscles Larynx (voicebox) Larynx Muscles Trachea (windpipe) . adiust with your breath flow to createthe pitch and intensity of your tone. we are actually talking about the combined efforts of all the muscles your larynx that influencetheir activity. your vocal cords.8AS/C PRINCIPLES Vocal cord adiustment by As your exhaledair reachesyour vocal cords. When we talk about the action of your vocal cords.

your vocal cords (offering more resistance) take longer to blow open but then closeagain almost immediately.Air pressure. How pitch applies to your voice lntensity(force oI vibration) Definition Intensity is the force of each sound wave on the ear.The relative degrees loudnessare called dynamics.little air escapes point where. is the more air pressureand vocal cord resistance neededto produce that tone.which is determined the tensionin your by vibrate cords. Because therefore.however. It is measuredin units of of loudnesscalled decibels. the more quickly they will return to their closedposition once they are blown apart. your vocal cords balanceagainstthe air pressure they help The kind of tensionthat can lead to vocal cord strain. is createdwhen you use the musclesoutside your larynx to pull on and tighten around your larynx to control the pitch and intensity of your tone. or how frequently. need more air when you sing loudly than when You don't necessarily your vocal cords stay closed you sing softly-just more air pressure. the force of the air released much greater.The human ear has a rangeof 20 to 20. by which is determined how long your vocal cords can hold back the mounting air pressurebefore they finally blow open. They are two different things. When we talk about vocal cord tension. is createdby the interactionof the muscles from your lungs. How intensity applies to your voice 24 . longer in louder tones. to the because ear is more sensitive higher Pitch also affectsloudness frequencies. your vocal cords (open and close). open sooner In softer tones. Vocal cord tension. The more tensionthere is in your vocal cords. on the other hand. when it finally doesblow your a chanceto build up to the (and thus the soundwave) is vocal cords open.has unused.S/NG/NG FOR THE SIARS Pitch (lrequencyof vibratlon) Definition Pitch is the frequency of completedvibration cyclesin a given tone. The louder the tone. we don't meanthe type of tensionthat resultsin vocal cord strain. the higher the pitch. In louder tones. The greater the frequencyof vibration.your vocal cords (offeringlessresistance) and stay open longer in eachvibration. by Pitch is determined how often.000hertz. It is in measured hertz (cyclesper second). by Intensity is determinedby the force of the air released your vocal cords.which you shouldn'tfeel if you are singingcorwithin your larynx as rectly.

while damping or even eliminating others. refers to the highest ones. or chestrigiiter. The part of your range where qualities of both head and chest overlap is called your middle uoice.while your headuoice. the sensations you feel are not the result of vocal cord vibrationlthey are the result of resonance.8AS/C PRINCIPLES Although your vocal cords continually adjust to meet the pitch and dynamic (the degreeof intensity or loudness)requirementsfor each note you sing. The interconnected spacesabove your larynx-including the surface condition of the walls which define those spaces-reinforce and augment sound waves of certain frequencies. it goes through a process of transformation. or middli register. we simply refer to all vocal cord adjustmentsin terms of the physicil sensations they produce in the singer. or-head register. Yottr resonance Soft palate Resonance soaces (wheretone is transformed) Vocalcords (where tone begins) Trachea 25 .chestooice. Resonancewhyyour voice unique is Between the time your tone leaves your vocal cords and the time it exits your mouth. Yet. This process is called resonance. refersto the lowest tonesin your range. Youl.

at times.is what the listeneractually hears. as we have already mentioned. is the in creation of physical sensations the singer. Chest Voice Lowesttones feel like they travel out of your mouln. however. it feelslike it goesout the back of your head-thus the term headaoice. Physicalsensations ol the singer's voice MiddleVoice of A blend chestand lt's headsensations.SING/NG FOR THE SIAFS Physical sensations A by-product of resonanceactivity. Low tones feel like they are in your throat and mouth and. finally. in themiddle. can even be felt in your chest-thus the term chestuoice. As you sing higher. 26 . HeadVoice tones feellike Highest theytravelout the backof yourhead. you experience have nothing to do with But the physicalsensations can sensations do.What these use help guide you in the correctand consistent of your voice. your voice (if you are singingcorrectly) feelslike it leavesyour throat and mouth and goesmore and more behind your soft palateuntil. There will be more about this in the training program itself.

through the spaces Each person has a different resonancesystemthat makes his Or her own which are a by-product of resonance voice unique. Resonance. unique sizeand shapeof your own resonance perconhas a voice should work independently.theseproblemscan be avoidedwith good singingtechnique. above your vocal cords before leaving your mouth.The air you exhalefrom your lungs works with your vocal cords to createthe pitch and intensifyof your initial tone. Yet.BAS/C PRINCIPLES the Vocal cord vibration determines initial quality of your tone. Both vocal cord vibration and resonance the ability of the other to do its job. Vocal cord tsibration. Breathing for singing is a very relaxed processin which very little air is requiredto producea good tone. 27 . Physicalsensations. system. use activity. The two factors involved in creatingvocal tone are: 1. The initial tone is modified and amplified as it travels 2. can help guide you in the correctand consistent of your voice. problemswith one always affect Fortunately. but the final quality-the quality that makesyour voice resonancedetermines is That difference due mainly to the sound different from anyone else's.

voice production using the muscles outside your larynx is a hopelessbattle in which both your tone and your words become the casualties. And. as well as open the throat wider when it needs to get oxygen into the lungs quickly. Many of these muscles are involved in the production of speech sounds. increase intensity. and alter the relationship (and the over-all condition) of the resonance spacesabove your larynx. Muscles the body normally uses to chew and swallow food. and their interference in the tone-making process inevitably disrupts the word-making process as well. It's hard to form vowels and make consonants when the muscles controlling the movement of your tongue and jaw. stable position will your final tone contain a balance of top. are used to manipulate the larynx-forcing it up or down. 28 . Only when your larynx is in a relaxed. q: Wrong: Reaching highnotes for Right: Speechlevel Whenever you use your outer muscles to control your voice in any way. on low notes or Yet. only when your larynx is in a relaxed. The result is a labored and unbalanced sound. to create the pitch and intensity of your initial tone. for instance. Hence. becausethey are located outside the larynx. This is done to accomplish a difficult "improve" pitch. or the quality of one's tone. there's another important reason why your larynx must be kept free of outer-muscle interference. you prevent the free vibration of your vocal cords inside your larynx. and bottom harmonic qualities-like a good stereo system-so you never sound "splatty" "muddy" on high ones. middle.S/NG/NGFOR THE SIAFS How Your Voice Works Best: The Natural Technique of Speech-LevelSinging Most singers use excessivemuscular effort when they sing. We call these muscles the outer muscles. are also trying to control your tone. stable position can your vocal cords adjust easily with your breath flow. however.

BASICPRINCIPLES Yourspeech levela foundation for vocalfreedom Generally. position. Both your tone and words will feel natural and sound natural. when you speak in a quiet. That's because tone is not your primary concern-communication is. or what we call a speech-leuel.when you speak. you can sing with the same easily produced voice you use-or should be using. Nothing will feel any different in your throat or mouth. This is the ideal vocal condition or posture with which to sing. your larynx is allowed to rest in a relatively stable. Therefore. If you can learn to initiate and maintain your tone with this comfortable speech-leuelposture when you sing. your outer muscles do not interfere with the functioning of your larynx. comfortable manner. "sing like you But be carefull Speech-levelsinging doesn't mean speakt" 29 .

sound Words Larynx forced WRONG: up." Result: to distorted aredifficult produce." is Tone "bright" Result: clearandare easyto produce. and Words sound 30 . and"full. is and Tone "strident" "brittle. Swallowing muscres may also be squeezing arounoyour throatand rarynx. Larynxis forced up.S/NG/NGFOR THE SIAFS Singing High Tones production RIGHT:Speech-level Larynx stays relaxed at speech level.

8AS/C PRINCIPLES Low Tones Singing production RIGHT: Speech-level Larynx stays relaxed at level. speech Result:Tone Wordssoundclear and are easyto produce. love I "fqll.Muscles may also be squeezrng arounoyour throatand rarynx." is "bright"and you- Larynxis forced down. 31 . tove you- Result:Toneis "dark"and "throaty." to and Words sound distorted aredifficult produce. WRONG: Larynxforceddown.

thus your vocal are relaxedin the vibration process.You should never try to make it do anything. it should be whatever resultsnaturalposture. the lowest note in your rangeshould be the lousest posture. You should never try to make yout ly from that samespeech-level voice resonant. cords. 32 . and still maintain a relaxed speechlevelposture. or do anything in your throat or posture. rich. or what we call connectedmanner. you only use a limited pitch and dynamic range of tones. up through the highestnotes of your head voice-in a smooth.your vocal cords must be able to achieve of greater degrees tension. In order to meet your needsfor the higher pitch and greater dynamic levels often required in singing. to achievea "deep. when you need to sing a higher tone. But. note To begin with. to relax as well. be resonant"quality. Singing high notes It doesn't take a genius to know that a singer'sbiggestproblem. that's the kind of help you don't will volunteer their muscles wantt Any outer muscleparticipation in the vibration processwill only level. An exampleof the latter would mouth that alters your speech-level "creating more space"in your throat or mouth. Increasedcord tension is what enablesyour cords to hold back that extra bit of air pressurebefore they finally blow open. As you free your upper range.. help.is singinghigh notes.when your outer muscles they allow your larynx.we will be most concernedabout extendingyour range upward. howevef.S/NG/NG FOR THE SIARS When you talk. Increasedcord tension is what brings your cords back together more quickly each time they are blown apart.Therefore. when you needto sing a louder tone. As far your speech-level you can sing easily while still maintaining as the resonancequality of your voice. so it doesn't require a great deal of cord tension to create those tones. even. Singing low notes The lower part of your range is never a problem as long as you are careful not to pressdown with your larynx in an effort to scrapethe bottom of your range to get your lowest notes. causeyou vocal problemsby pulling you off your speech Speech-level singing-feeling and sounding natural You should be able to sing through your entire range-from the lowest notes of your chestvoice. If your vocal cords and the other musclesin your larynx are unable to you can be sure that your outer provide the requiredtensionthemselves. at least from a vocal standpoint. your lower range will also increasebecause.

ways between when you approach them the right way. *You "Intensity" don't need a lot of air to sing loudly (see on page 24).. they pull on and tighten around the outside of your tension larynx in an effort to stretch your vocal cords to get the necessary for the pitch or dynamic level you require. 33 . They are placeswhere the voice iams up. The key is to do lessin order to do more.* are lesslikely to interferebecause you use Your outer muscles uill interferein the aibration process uhenezter insideyour larynx are more air than your oocal cords and the other muscles able to handle. zphere areas Singing through the passage (if Your first passage areais the most critical. refer to theseareasas passage areas. We.there is a better and much easierway to tensionswithout disrupting stretch your vocal cordi to achievethe necessary your tone-making processor your word-making process.you quickly encounterareaswhere muscularand/or resonance activity make it difficult to negotiatesmooth transitions betweenvocal cord adjustments. however. as we have said. But. you make it possiblefor the muscles inside your larynx to stretch your vocal cords by themselves.That's because. To be specific. the lessair you should use.When you reducethe amount of air you sendto your vocal cords. they becomepassage you are comingfrom and whereyou want to go in your aocal range.BAS/CPRINCIPLES areasof your range The passage As you sing higher into your range. stretching your cords in this manner causesyour entire singing mechanism-tone and words-to jam upl Fortunately. Your outer muscles there isn't as much air to hold back. It's where your outer muscles they haven't done so already) are most likely to enter into the adiustment process.When they do. the higher you sing. suddenly shifts in quality. or even breaks-things that can discouragesomeonefrom ever exploring the full potential of his/her voice.Most singersknow theseareas all too well.

nppro"imate I Ranses Performance { .S/NG/NG FOR THE SIAFS The PassageArcas: Women -Rppro*itut" I Performance { Ranges t The Passage Areas:Men .--f-i---l- Baritone Bass-----. There are individuals whose ranges extend beyond.are approximate ranges. but they are exceptions.t i Tenor-i t *These. . .

BAS/CPRINCIPLES Vocal cord thinning When your vocal cords are stretched. That's because they are more flexible the closer they get to where they attach to the inside front of your larynx (where your Adam's apple is). your cords are able to thin without disrupting your tone or words. Eventually you come to think of your chest. middle. middle. this shortening can take place at your speech level. Also. This also means. you become less aware of your passageareas." length of your cords begins to Let me explain why and how it happens.. the back ends of your cords stay together. letting you produce all your words easily and clearly. and air breaks through that point first. If. your vocal cords are able to more easily balance with your breath flow. like the initial thinning. Balanced in quality. Even in your lowest tones. and head voices as a single uoice-connected in the way it's produced and connected in qualityl "natural" Speech-levelsinging is a technique in which your voice is: '1. however. no matter where in your range you sing. You will be able to extend your range far beyond what most singers can only dream about. increasing the frequency of vibration which continues to raise the pitch of your tone. Vocal cord shortening Then. with less and less of the front part opening and closing. your vocal cords open frorn front to back and close from back to front. you free your wordmaking process as well. when you free your tone-making process. they begin to thin. When you don't allow the muscles outside your larynx-your outer muscles-to interfere with your tone-making process. Produced tuithout effort. 2. As your vocal cords begin to thin and shorten automatically when you sing. 35 . something very interesting takes place when your vocal cords reach the point where they can't thin (be stretched) any farther-the vibrating "shorten. you can continue to sing easily through the rest of your passageareas with your tone and word production intact. however. When the thinning takes place at your speechlevel. the less cord "weight" there is for your exhaled air to move. And the thinner your cords get. Your vocal cords never open all at once and then close all at once when they vibrate. and bottom harmonic qualities. A relaxed and stable larynx results in a stable resonance system in which your voice always contains an appropriate balance of top. If you continue to use less and less air past the point where your cords have thinned as far as possible. that they open and close much faster.

and in your soft "wrong" palate. That's not important. or'do anything to it. You must first eliminate any outer muscle activity that interferes with your tone. however. free your ability to produce words easily and clearly. of Never work around these tensions by doing things like changing the position of your tongueand jaw. don't feel you have to sing them loudly. This will free your tone and. raisingyour soft palate. Everything else will take care of itself. These tensions are caused when the muscles (your outer "right" muscles (the muscles muscles) are reluctant to give up control to the your larynx) in producing tone. these tensions will disappear. in the back of your mouth.a condition in which your voice works without your having to f about it. Developing coordination-the first step Coordination of your voice at your speech level must be developed before you can begin to build strength in your voice. you will memorize the physical sensationsyou experiencein your voice as you do each exercisecorrectly. You only createother tensions. by relaxingyour outer muscles thin and then shorten for higher notes to insure that your outer muscles relaxed. If you try to sing too loudly (using too much air) too soon. singing. vocal cord Thesethings are all by-productsof speech-level or adjustments. Once you have successfully your neuromuscular systemto acceptyour voice'sfunctioning at your speech level. your outer muscles will give up their pulling and tightening reflexes. in your neck. Coordination and strength most easily developed by doing special exercises. As you do the exercises.They happenautomaticallywhen you condition your larynx not to and by allowing your vocal cordsto move. As you do the exercisesin the training program following this section.S/NG/NGFOR THESIABS How to Get Your Voice to Work for The Training Process Training your voice. means learning to the in and strengthen muscles your larynx so you can sing with speechJevel posture over a wide pitch and dynamic range.You don't control your voice directly by working on or thinking about breath support. 36 . or changingthe pronunciationof your words. making more spacein your throat. has been programmed by years of poor singing habits to activate every muscle it can to help you control your voice. Have patience. Justfollow the instructionsin the training reprogrammed program and do the exercises. resonance. Your body's neuromuscular system. as you may have guessed. It will attempt to resist any changes in muscular coordination you try to make. You will then be able to sing release. consequently. For a while you may feel tension in the muscles under your jaw.

Seth Riggs. is oneof the mostoutstandingtreatises aoiceproductionaaailable on today.I erome Hines. Riggs'sbookis usedby many of our studentsand teachers zaithoutstanding results. Voice training: 'J-. Once you have conditioned your outer muscles not to participate in the production of your tone. This allows you to sing louder "outside" without your vocal cords needing any muscular assistance.Renato of oi "singing Bellini. Deuelops coordination. This frees your tone and. Mr.) ) for ThomasHayward Tenor Professor Voiceand Opera of Dallas Building strength Don't be concerned about building a strong voice right away. Sincemy tenure at Southern Methodist Unioersity. with a clear. I wasa member theMetropolitan Operafor 14 yearsas oneof their of Ieadingtenorsandfor the last 28 yearshaaeserued Artist Teacher as at Southern MethodistUniaersita Dallas. consequently.Seth one themost is of outstanding teachers aoice thezaorld of in today. His book. SethRiggs thepast20 had ot' with for years. of course. EdnaForsythe and DeIIaHayward. The ability to -all in good time increase the loudness of your tone will come by itself.Texas.with all the inept teachers arehelpingto bring about that thedeclineof the OperaticVoice. your vocal cords gradually develop their own independent strength. 2. TheyaII stressed thnt and speakinglspeaking singing" is oneot'the mostimportantfunctions of the and gifted singer. This is discussed throughoutSethRiggs'sbook.and I can only giae thehighestpraise Mr. your vocal cords will be able to hold back more and more air in the vibration process.teaching majority of thepop singersthat areamongthe woild's most the famous. in in Eaelyn Lear. RamonV inay and. 37 . eventually providing you all the dynamic (loudness) flexibility you'll need.haue thepleasure associating Mr. after the coordination of your vocal muscles has been established.as well as tainnersot'theMetropolitanOperaAuditions in New York City. Once the "crutch" of depending on your outer muscles to help keep your vocal cords balanced with your breath flow is gone. haoe in I studied aoice usith some thegreatestteachers thepast including Frank La Forge. and easily produced tone throughout your entire range. In the meantime-or at any time. His understanding the natural deuelopment the singing aoiceis of ot' much needed today. SethRiggs. connected. your vocal cords will develop their own independent strength. The first step in training your voice how to function at your speech level.Singing for the Stars. Little by little. your ability to produce words easily and clearly. is to condition your vocal cords to adjust with your breath flow without interference from your outer muscles. for that matter-you should sing only as loudly as you are able to stay on your speech level.zue haaehadsome the mostoutstanding of teachers the world giaing Master Classes aoiceincluding LiIy Pons. Builds strength.

If you follow instructions. As valuable as the exercisesin this book are for training your voice. Try to eliminate any surrounding noise. don't slouch or lean on one leg. We have used a variety of different voices to demonstrate the exercises. Singers who have not yet achieved confidence in their instrument will often develop a nervous tension-a fear of failing to make a good sound. These exercisesreally work. if necessary. lose your connection from chest to head voice. It is important that you do each exercisecorrectly before you proceed to the next. and by doing any stretching or other exercisesthat promote blood circulation and eliminate nervous tensisn. you will accomplish your goal. As you practice the exercisesbe sure you: 1. any exercisecan be overworked or misused to where it will do you more harm than good. You don't develop your voice by pushing it to its limit. Practice in as quiet an environment as possible. however. There are ways to minimize this and other tensions. Stand comfortably so you don't place stress on any part of your body. 2 . Do not if continue the exercises you feel your voice is being damaged even slightly. creating a vicious cycle of fear and anxiety. It is this fear. The exercisesin this book will work best if you are relaxed-mentally as well as physically. Keep a positive mental attitude. It'is not necessary go as high as the piano. IMPORTANT: You must stop doing any exercise whenever you begin to lose your speechlevelposture. Maintain good physical posture.by deep breathing. For example. 38 . which in turn exerts more tension (the wrong kind of tension) in and around your larynx.PracticalExercises Caution Pleasefollow along with the material in the book and the accompanying cassettetapes as my students and I demonstrate how each of the exercises should be done. or feel any strain or effort in production. which makes you more tense. Stay relaxed. and so on.Our purpose in using them is not to give you vocal models to copy but rather to demonstratehow each exerciseshould be practiced. 3 . 4. You develop it by gradually conditioning it to work efficiently with a balanced coordination. Seepage 132. to Seea doctor before proceeding. that sets up even more tension throughout your body. Induce relaxation.

shifting in quality. some.Building Confidence 1r ou will I begin your voice training by developing the confidence that it is possible to increaseyour vocal range to its full potential and to sing from the bottom to the top of your range without your voice jamming up. Just keep in mind that ail the exercisesin this first part of the training program are only temporary devices to help you begin the process of freeing your voice and keeping it connected through your passage areas. but that's part of what makes them work. or to demonstratean important concept. You can rest assuredthat how you sing theseexercises does not represent the way you will sound by the end of the training program. on the other hand. are designedto deliberately activate certain musclesin order to deactivateothers. Some of the exercisesare designed to directly bypass your neuromuscular reflexes--they won't work unlessyour outer musclesare completely relaxed. or breaking. - 5rr -J 39 . They may sound somewhat peculiar to you.

. In the lower part of your range. ar. the better.r. into your h"ud t'oicl. Don't worry too much about pitch accuracyat first. (Listento tape. Whai you feel are the iound spaces' activating thoseresonance Notes: 40 . of and freedomof your lips. your of transference resonancesensation.ki. while. Justrelax your lips as well as the rest of your of The slower you can control the vibration speed face and throat muscles.. Instructions: listen to tape so Placeyour fingertipson your cheeks that you pick up the weight of yo.Iet your lips "bubble"as Then.S/NG/NG FOR THE SIABS Exercise1. This keepsthe musclesrelaxed so you don't feel you have to use a lot of air to move them' "UH" sound. as well as the maintenance a connected are what's most imPortant.You push the skin in that far. The relaxation tone. tone will appear to go straight out of your mouth.) you must get used to the In Exerciset and in all your exercises. "disconnecting"suddenly into a without Try to do the entire exercise lighter production. yorrrlor. (listento tape). frorr. Feelwhere your teeth come together..et the air do ihe work. using an looselyand as evenly as they can as you sing the exercise' i. your lips." will appear to go more and more behind waves from your vocal cords Vorrr'r"ft palate. as you sing higtrer.ut d your lips.

PART BUILDING ONE: CONFIDENCE ( L i pr o l l ) Approximate starting pitch: T-rar io' T"tar Soprano Practicelog: Datestarted Dateaccomolished = Alto Tenor Bass 41 .

When this happens. your outer muscles will activate thus stopping the movement of your and tongue. +' / t l/)\ \ 42 .S/NG/NGFOR THESIARS ExerciseSuggestions(L-4) If you use too much air or anticipate the higher notes in Exercises1 th 4. returning to your standing position at its pletion. Your concern about singing the higher notes will be lessened the oncoming floor will make you think you're going "down" instead of " You can use this bending technique whenever you find yourself "tightening" "reaching" for notes. bend forward as you approach the top notes of the problem exercise.

lgot into a part where had to sing.lo and behold.ee L f get into my high aoiceproperly. aoice and and.t'irst lesson. I Acting taokoaerand.It is still deaeloping. eaenflirtedwith used singwhenlwas never anylneto helpme theidea singing a liaing. in Theproducers "passaggio.butknow chest whenI sing. I thinklwas tenor. 43 .butI could of find for Problem note(s) sung at thisooint." through the beganto learnhow to makethe t'rommy "where going" I'm I into thehead aoice." "transition.) ) Armand Assante Actor LosAngeles a I to akid. Thsnkuou Seth.Iwaswell into my head called Seth.

the object is to keep the tone connected as you sing into your head voice. (Iisten to tape). Remember.S/NG/NGFOR THESIABS Exercise2 Instructions: listen to tape "[JH" sound as you Let your tongue lightly flutter as you make the same made in Exercise1.' 44 . The notes are the same. lVotes.

PARTONE:BUILDINGCONFIDENCE (Tonguerill) t Approximate starting pitch: -rTfia) io' F Soprano Practicelog: Datestarted Dateaccomplished o Alto Tenor 45 .

This helps to keep you from reaching. covering a wider area of your range morc skips between the notes quickly. (Listen to tape. 46 .FORTHESTARS S/NG/NG Exercise3 Ingtructions: listcn to tepe the The instructions for Exercise3 are the same as for Exercisel-only are larger. EaChnote should be done clearly and cleanly. whenever you sing from one note to another note ie higher in pitch. Your cords must be free enough to adjust to the wider skips. Exercise L gave you a running start. to approach the second note as if you were going to that sing the same pitch as or lozner than the one you are corning from. because the notcs were closer together. Don't slide from one note to the next. In Exercise3 the interfering outer muscles must let go even more. so to speak.) Sornetimesit helps.

.when oaer3'lz octaaes. beganto join into the nn extremely rest of rny aocalrange. t' * l. we continuedto work. tricked into my "chest" connecting as high area. (Liproll) r I i.ee T L old. ) ) exiemely lout io extremely ShaniceWilson Singer LosAngeles r L {. I signedwith my t'irst major labelat age11. From that days. Tiank you Seth.zohich.These and earlyage.I alwnysaocalized performed I'ae neoerhad to fear high notes. starting pitch: Approximate 4_ T--U T-to a t U Soprano Practice log: Datestarted Dateaccomplished Alto Tenor Bass 47 . singershauebegunto usestratospheric high notes. Besides when utas years I ll to first began studysinging me Seth and"head" coordination.

Again. lVotes.S/NG/NGFOR THESIAFS Exercise4 Instructions: listen to tape The instructions for Exercise4 are the same as for Exercise2. 48 . only the notes and rhythms are different.

BUILDING CONFIDENCE PARTONE: ) (Tongue trill) starting Pitch: Approximate t- 4 i a1A-- TFr-- zr- L _ o T - d u Soprano Practice log: Datestarted Dateaccomplished Alto Tenor Bass 49 .

making it possiblefor them to go into the shortened condition necessary sing high pitches. The lip rolls and tongue trills. it's important that you get to expertence concept of cord thinning and shortening at the cord the level-even if it meansactivatinga few unwantedouter muscles do itl We to will do this in Exereises through 1-L. A raised larynx will stretch.You don't want to use a this teehniquewhen you sing. rely on the closing of your lips and tongue to lrclp counteract any excess pressureyou may be using. and that you are using just the right amount of air to support their vibration. 50 . Developingthe coordinationthat allows your cords to thin and shortenat your speech level (usingjust the muscles of your larynx to do the work) takestime. This is not yet speech-level tone production. it will in(it's dicate that you aren't gripping your larynx with your outer muscles hard to roll your lips or trill your tonguewhen the muscles controlling them are aleo trlnng to control your larynx to make pitch).your motivation can run out beforeyou get to that point. you are only using these to musclestemporarily.You must quickly abandontheseexer5 cisesas soon as they seruetheir purpose! Exercises and 5 are called high larynx exercises. So. iust to demonstrate concept. beforeyou go any farther in the program. Unfortunately. air Therefore. however. coordination of air and rnusclecan't yet be said to be taking place solely at the cord level. and thus thin your vocal cords. 6) Once you can do the lip rolls and tongue trills with little effort.S/NGINGFOR THESTAAS ExerciseSuggestions(5.But again. It will also indicate that your cords are thinning and their vibrating length is "shortening"as you sing higher. 5 They use the muscles above your larynx to pull it up.

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It will be nasal enoughwith Don't iam the "n" sound. the exaggerationof the Also. be careful not to reach up in chestvoice.' 52 .FORTHESTAFS S/NG/NG 5 Exercise Instructions: listen to tape "nay nay" sound into your nose. l\lofes.

Q Q (rr. Rltt Muk Rydell/Mutht Landu/Morth Actors Studio West Los Angeles Approxlmate startlngpltch: -at i . _ _ f.e Soprano log: Practlce Date started aJf.) / classes. Actors Studio West b most appreciatioe of hb Wl and lack of intimidation for actors uhm approaching the act of singing. Riggs teachesa technique that doesn't detract from the basic qulitv of the actors' spokm sowtd.e Alto Tenor Bass Dateaccomplished 53 .

' 54 . IUotes.\ FORTHESIARS S/NG/NG Exercise6 Instructions: listen to tape The instructions for Exercise6 are the sameas for ExerciseS-the notes and rhythms are different.

= ( Soprano Practlce log: Datestarted Dateaccomplished t E i =u Tenor 55 .PART ONE: BUILDING CONFIDENCE nay nay nay nay nay nay nay nay nay nay nay nay startlngpltch: Approxlmate +I.

the low-larynx exercisesactually help deactivate your tendency to use your highJarynx muscles. but it's closer to speechJevelposture than the high-larynx coordination. 56 . however. the feeling of thinning and shortening-if the exerciies are done correctly-is similar to the high-larynx thinniig and shortening. They make good warm-up exercises. Yet. In fact. They also get your cords to thin and shorten.S/NG/NGFOR THESIAFS (7-lT) ExerciseSuggestions Lout-larynx exercises(Exercises7 through 11) use the muscles below your larynx to pull it down. they do it with your larynx in a low position. if you operuse either the high-larynx or the low-larynx exercises. Your cords will still thin and shorten as you sing higher. ExercisesL through 4.there is the danger that you will lock into one or the other of those extreme vocal postures. Just remember. That is. As you sing into your head voice. producing all your pitches off your speech levell So again. you should discontinue Exercises5 through 11. it's different enough so that you have to work through the connection all over again. but this time without any assistancefrom the high-laryni muscles. once you get yourself through the passageareas with a connected tone. It's lower than actual speech lerrel. can continue to be used. Yet. you will experiencea connected production of tone from chest into head voice.

w 57 ..

The sound (7-b through 7-d) and the sound (7-e) are "Mum" much more difficult to sing than the sound because of the motion of your tongue. and deactivating the high larynx muscles. And. In Exercise7-b through 7-e. Only take them as high as is comfortable.S/NG/NGFOR THESIAFS Exercise7 Instructions: listen to tape As you do 7-a through 7-e. make "Mum" sure you continue to say as you sing higher. because you neper want to force your larynx down when you sing. don't take the exerciseas high as you did "G" "K" with 7-a. with the sound going behind it more and more as you sing higher. (lrsf en to tape.' 58 . "imposition" You will discard this low larynx by the time you get to Part Two of the program. When you do 7-a. "imposition" But this is only temporary.) This little cry slightly imposes your larynx down by activating the low larynx muscles. You want to cancel the tendency of your larynx to rise as you sing higher-the opposite of what you did in Exercises5 and 6. just as you never want to force it up. make sure your soft palate stays very relaxed. l\lotes. Don't go to "Mam"-that would mean your larynx is starting to come up. put a little "cry" in your voice-but don't overdo it.

)) as PriscillaBaskeruille Aida Aida-M et ropolitan Opera Fung@1991. Approximate Soprano Practicelog: Datestarted Dateaccomplished Alto Tenor Bass 59 .000 miles Although wassome . certain of au)ayyoucalled I called 'we or and were I 3. etc. Throughyour wonderfultechnique uponwhicht0grour.you you taught butI had me reminded of things once me forgotten. gee.etc. go. builda firm foundation dit'ficulty in there mewhen wasexperiencing I Thankyou being for for passagesmusic. the . koo. "enormous problems" no mlre. etc." on able solue to whatseemed meto be enormous to phone. guh. etc.Afterall.utantedto takethis momentto thankyou t'or helpingmy dreambecsme and teaching wnsableto I a reality. " problems Then. Aida ls noutalkin thepark. were those Suddenly You'reagem. Drawingby Selene by Used Permission Piscilln Baskeruille Soprnno New York City ( a )m u m (b) guh (c) so (d) gee (e) koo mum guh go gee koo mum. etc.

S/NG/NGFOR THE SIARS Exercise8 Instructions: listen to tape The instructions for Exercise8 are the same as they were for exercise7only the notes and rhythms are different. l\lotes: 60 .

pitch: starting Approximate _0_ a-r-- 0 t-J U l -l- a v U Soprano Practice log: Datestarted Dateaccomplished Tenor Bass ) 61 . (b) guh guh guh.PARTONE:BUILDINGCONFIDENCE (a) mummummum. (e) koo koo koo.etc. etc. (d) gee gee gee. etc.etc.etc. (c) go go go.

singing As you get into the upper part of your range. "hootier" or more "hollow" soundingyou The higher you go. 62 . (Listento tape. the should get to keep from grabbing. you must sing eachvowel with the samepronunciationyou would useif you were "Oh" sound incorrectly. use a slightly imposedlarynx as you do the exercise.let your jaw drop just slightly to give the sound more space-but don't grab with it.Iust try to stay connected to of the exercise the end of it. it will speakingit. You've got to keep your larynx slightly imposedto keep it from raising. For example.Don't worry if your tone soundsbreathy from the beginning or weak on the higher pitches.if you do the "splat" as you take it higher.)You may want to think of "Oh" through "Oo" lips.S/NG/NGFOR THE SIAFS Exercise9 Instructions: listen to tape As before. Even though you are imposingyour larynx down slightly.

Seth Riggsgaue me the technique and personal ability to L guide myself oocally and guard against oocal abuse and fatigue') ) Derin Altay Actress. i u -:'T YFT-ar = - 't' Soprano Alto Tenor Practicelog: Datestarted Dateaccomplished 63 . .la ap 'a'f.. + or 2/z years I had the great opportunity to play the role of Eaita on broadtoay..Singer New York City (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Oo oh Uh Ee Ah starting pitch: Approximate -^?FTa.

Illotcc: ) 64 .S/NG/NGFOR THESTAFS Excrdgc 10 krbucdm: lletca to tapc Thc instructions for Exercise10 are the same as they were for Exercise9only the notee and rhythms are differmt.

CONFIDENCE PART ANE:tsUILDtNG (a) Oo (b) oh (c) Uh (e) Ah (oEe starthg pltch: Approxlmate + i l i l o o o a o o Tenor Soprano log: Practlce Date started Dateaccomplished Bass 65 .

You must continue to connect your chest voice into your head voice. (Lbten to tape. But.' 00 . don't releaseso much that you disconnect into falsetto. You have to let go of the pressure of one pitch so your cords can re-tune to the next one. as before. The obiect of the larger skips between the notes is to increaseyour ability to releasethe tone.l IYoles.S'NG'NGFOR THESIAFS Exercise 11 lnstrucdons: listen to tape Still keep your tone a little breathy.

) ) Carcl Burnett Actress.Singer Hautaii ! (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Oo oh Uh Ee Ah ) Approxlmate startlngpltch: Soprano Practlcelog: Datestarted Dateaccomplished Tenor Bass 67 .e C 'zte "belter" been a aII my life. f WhenSethconnected middleaoice.I wasableto drop the wearof 20 L my yearsof hard singing. I didn't eaenthink I hada headuoice.

Falsetto. intensity Equal capability Chest Head(connected) ----t'"1"1'ntensity capability --> (disconnec Farsetto Same resonance areasactivated 68 . to increase except for occasional special vocal effects. Becauseof this. you may have to start with the "disconnected"condition of cord vibration.FORTHESrABS S/A/G/NG ExerciseSuggestions "muscled Occasionally. falsettovoice. usually calledfalsetto. lets you The disconnected higher part of your range without the experience freedom of singing in the strain. But. This. and the fact that it is impossible uoice (thus the term intensity past a certainpoint.If you have alreadyachieved 12 a connectionin your tone. however.an individual'svoice is so up" that it is very difficult to get the cords to thin and shorten enough to achievea connected prescribedso far fail sound from chest into head voice. unlike your head voice. falsettocannot blend with your chest "disconnected"). is easier for untrained voice to sing. makesfalsettoimpracticalto use. you may skip Exercises and L3. and proceed to Part Two. like the connected head voice. When the exercises to accomplishthe task. it can be useful in leading you into the preferred connected condition of head voice.

.

"Gee" sound. Remember. As you come down into your chest voice. It's not as easy When you do L2-b. Come down gently so you don't "fall" into it.' 70 . be careful. Then try to bring in your chest voice more firmly each time you do the exercise. and don't fall into it (listen to tape). try to make the transition as smooth as possible.You want to replace your falsetto production.S/NG/NGFOR THESIABS Exercise12 Instructions: listen to tape Start with a falsetto sound. till you feel it start to take-don't grab it in (listen to tape). with the "Wee" to start it as high as the sound becauseof the activity of the tongue. don't panic when you feel the chest voice come in. As you do the exercise. Come in lightly. you may feel you are making your falsetto stronger-but you're not. Falsetto production merely gets you to relax in the higher part of your range so you can work on your head voice. with head voice (which can). Notes. wh.ich can't blend.

"belter. Seth'stechnique makes easy. alongcomes the lJ role of Charity ln Sweet Charity t'or the LosAngelesand New York reaiaals.etc. Approximate starting pitch: -i---sl-- trTr-u a + ) Alto Tenor Soprano Practicelog: Datestarted Dateaccomolished Bass 71 .) ) it DebbieAllen Director. gee. "gospel get my chops"in shape.In the middleof our work." "get "high Charity wasa but now I can't wnit to dotan" with that gospel"soundand style.Singer LosAngeles (a) Wee wee (b) Gee gee wee gee Wee Gee wee gee wee gee wee.Actress.eo n ' t MCA Records suggested work with Seth Riggsin order to I \ ometime ago. etc.

don't take the "Wee" sound in 13-a. go into your head voice and then back into chest voice.S/NG/NGFOR THESTAFS Exercise1. Note: 72 . you may want to try Exercises5 through 11 again. again. Once you can make a smooth transition from head to chest and chest to head voice. "Gee" sound in 13-b as high as you do the And.3 Instructions: listen to tape You will now start in chest voice.

Approximate starting pitch: Soprano Practicelog: Datestarted Dateaccomolished Alto Tenor Bass 73 . (b) Gee gee gee.etc. etc.PARTONE:BUILDINGCONFIDENCE (a) Wee wee wee.

LosAngeles . At'teryearsof in all kindsof conditions. with nofalsetto. to t'rom me period.l." sing purer aowels thehigherpitches on without strain. I now hauea t'irm graspon the "connection" R&8. use It .I hen I was 13 yearsold.the soprano uras now a man'sconnected aoice head with no boy strain.began"to a lot ofi'throat began hurt thequalityof my aoice.I. "pure belling"and knowingthat I won't getcaughtin chest morepower.*. my uoice and eaenly usedto be. Marilyn Singer LosAngeles alwayssung a kind of baritone-tenlrrange. Thankyou Seth.What old.w.V.as-19 o!d. stylingwith much in my middle.Oaertheyears.ars ftrst came -Seth to an E flat aboae tenorhigh C..l to t'oundI washauingto work harder produce higherpitches. Quincy lonessuggested work with Seth "boy whileI made change my soprano" my adult aoice.Now that I'ue begunto usemore" heqd the I aoice.Weco_nnected uoice my up ye.I canleaninto a gospel.Produce. Sethgaaemean alternatiue to so " cdrdination and i'm bick'inti aotalhealth.N. Campbell Singer LosAngeles to when. I as pursued singing a career.the "head" uoicewasa stickyproblem. 'ue Geoffrey Singer.E. T. Always. lohnnyGill Singer Los Angeles "chest" 'ae into the been singingsinceI wasa child. I graael"t'or"et'fect.Workingwith Seth me and madethe two-show-a-night engagement LasVegas pleasure in a instead a of fatiguingjob. Mostpeople adaised agiinst siudying uoiie duing this dilt'ficult my but. My new aocal technique keeps t'resher giuesme moreendurance. what a relief . whenI came on out Sethnot only knewhow to balance unruly uoice theolhersideat 75 years waseasy together.

This sound needs very little air and cord to work. that permitted your vocal cords to maintain a connection through your passageareas and. you have done exercisesthat let you experiencesinging with a connected tone over a wide range of pitches. in so doing. without much concern about the overall quality of that tone or the way in which you achievedit. allowing you to sing even your lowest notes more easily. Also. We will now proceed with exercisesthat condition your voice to work only at your speech level. the "edge" will assistyou in maintaining a connectedtone through exercises your passageareas-but this time. so you will experiencea blending of resonancequalities. This means from this point on we will only use exercisesthat bypass your neuromuscular reflexes completely. became a psychological assist becauseit gave you confidence that you could accomplish that connection. Each exercise served as a mechanical assist. - t -- 75 . We will "edge" basically use what we call an unfinished or sound. in a way that directly leads you into singing with a speech-levelposture. your vocal cords will begin to relax. Like the exercises used in Part One.TowardSpeech-Level Singing tjo fur. Your larynx won't raise or lower very much as your vocal cords make their adjustments.

(Listen to tape. 76 .) Be careful not to break into falsetto. Starting in chest voice. you have to keep it connected.S/NG/NGFOR THESTAFS ExerciseL4 Instructions: listen to tape This is the first time in your program you are going to be doing an exercise that gives you the feeling of where speechJevel sound is made. just below your break area.) IVotes. (Listen to tape. make a sound (with your lips closed) like a squeaky door hinge and inflect into your head voice.

When of I ioined Prince.the decision keysrnasno longerup to me. Halleluiah! "break" much better quickly.) ) because Rosie Gaines Singer LosAngeles Mm Practicelog: Datestarted Dateaccomplished 77 ." "false" or change in without a noticeable chestinto my J-/ quality.e C of I ike mostnatural singers. Princehnd worked with Sethand hadsent SheilqE theretoo. As a pianisi I had no troublesetting the key to hidemy pribtem. had no knowledge how to getfrom my f "break.soI wassent to him also.but my style hasbecome mended Not only was the I had morenoteswith which to riff .

lower in the scale.6. *This doesn't include transitional tensions that take place as you change vowels and consonants.listen to the tape again to see if you have followed the instructionscorrectly.FORTHESTABS S/NG/NG Exercise1. your tone The stopping and starting of the tone keepsre-establishing at speechlevel so that you don't get off that level as you go through the exercise. with no tensionwhatsoeveroccurringwhen you do If the exercise.* there is any musculartension. Once you can maintain a connection all the way through Exercise 15. (Listento tape. Thesemuscles should always be soft. You don't want to overcompress the air so usejust enoughto keep the connectionas you sing higher. /-. /\. It only refers to sustained tones.) More doesn'tmeanbetter in this instance. sb' r<*.5 Instructions: listen to tape "edge" Using the samesqueaky door or sound you made in Exercise start L4. speechmuscle activity by feeling the musclesunder your jaw. 78 . go on to Exercise At this time you may want to start monitoring any 1. This time add a little "whimper" or "cry" to the sound to help keep the cords connected-but don't overdo it.

PART TWO: TOWARDSPEECH-LEYEL S/NG/NG Approximate starting pitch: ar o Soprano ar io' Alto Tenor Bass Practicelog: Datestarted Dateaccomplished 79 .

except you are reducing the number times you stop the sound to re-establish your tone at speech level.' 80 . lVotes.S/NG/NG FOR THE STARS ExerciseL6 Instructions: listen to tape Exercise16 is the same as Exercise15.

. fluctuating gets when that recording to shape.a e q/l y in one u.I'tte applicationof a raith my own personal that confidence I can pull it together practicalaocalwarm-up.Singing seems be the last thing to consider..It shouldn'tbethat way. ableto maintain alwaysbeen started. Thankyou Seth. all theactiaities must weighandbalance our wildly in time to get your uoice enough thereis neaer business. but.snd becool! ) ) y ) MauiceWhite Earth. Wind and Fire LosAngeles Approximate starting pitch: 4_ IF'--IE-O o A io' Soprano Practicelog: Datestarted Dateaccomplished Alto Tenor Bass 81 .

You should feel as if you are using just a little pieceof the cordsthe insideedges. Keep ing under your jaw with your finger to make sure the swallowing muscles aren't tightening up. If too much air pressure starts to build.S/NG/NGFOR THESIAFS ExerciseL7 Instructions: listen to tape This time you will take the edgesound straight through. should Remember. only establishing your speechlevel at the beginning of the exercise. your voice will get stuck and you will start to "squeeze" tone. you can involve more and As more air and cord as long as your outer muscles don't interfere. you shouldn'tfeel any build-up of air pressure. It stay even all the way up and all the way down. 82 . you learn to do it better.

PARTTWO:TOWARD SPEECH-LEYEL S/NG/NG Approximate rting pitch: sta --'\-y A -*-ict 0 IU rtF- IITTa) a) Soprano Practice log: Alto Tenor Bass Datestarted Dateaccomplished 83 .

or too much breath pressure (which demands to much cord tension).S/I/G/NG FOR THE SIABS ExerciseL8 Instructions: listen to tape Still using the same edge sound-however. not as much-sustain the top note of the exercise. When you get to the top note. There is a danger of producing a straight sound if you use too much cord tension (which demands too much breath pressure). 84 . be sure you don't prevent a natural "pinched" vibrato from occurring.

andthenshiftingintoa "boy I for "thing" Scott Gimes Actor. Likemost children.l discoaered thereroqsno needto that sing in tw"o aoices I itarted to usei blendand connection the lrrororrrr. wasbelting all I wasworth.Iam easinginto my adult aoiceznitha balance without that dnrn crackingwhich usually comes and with puberty.t U Soprano Practicelog: Datestarted Dateaccomplished Alto Tenor Bass 85 . .nnd znas fatiguing. I did this kind of aocal years.ee L f soprano" the soft singing. Singer LosAngeles Approximate starting pitch: _0__ t--U . Nout. control.) ) began singing Broadway on when waseightyears I old. for for seaernl WhenI beganto study with SethRiggs. of This gaueme morepozoer.as my aoiceis less beginningto bronden nnd deepen.r-- O Q.

When you feel that your vocal cords have started to relax. 86 .Eventually you will reach a point of balance where your vocal cords can function efficiently of and independently of your outer muscleswithout the assistance the edge device. Therefore.let your vocal corfs relax more by subtituting more air for the little edge sound. Notes. gradually allowing more air and more cord to become involved in the vibration process. it's time to begin eliminating the edge sound.S/NG/NGFOR THE SIARS Exercise L9 Instructions: listen to tape Your neuromuscular system should now be convinced that your vocal cords can function without any interference from your outer muscles. Take care not to disconnectthe tone. Each time you do the following exercise. go on to Exercise20.

PARTTWO: TOWARDSPEECH-LEYEL S/NG/NG Approximate io' Soprano Practicelog: Date started Dateaccomolished Tenor Bass 87 .

As you sustain the top note of the exercise. relax your cords by making your tone a little breathier. fust stay on your speech level and work on coordinating each vowel from "home base. If your throat begins to tighten when you open to any of the vowel' sounds.this time starting with the vowel sounds. go on to Exercise 21".S/NGINGFOB THESIAFS Exercise20 Instructions: listen to tape Start with as little of the edge sound as you need to hold the connection. Rememberto check the musclesunder your iatu for tension. don't blast more air through. Instead. That is. open your lips slightly to form each vowel sound. Don't be concerned that some vowels will be easier to sing than others." that When you have successfully completed Exercise2Q. Notes: 88 . don't make it so breathy that you lose the connection in your tone or have to enlist your outer musclesto force the connection to continue.

) ) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Mm Mm Mm Mm Mm Oo oh Uh Ee Ah Approximate starting pitch: -t--t- d f. which for in theatre wellastheextended as range demands ot' t'unctions musical Angela Blasi Lyric Soprano Munich operahouse La Scala CooentGarden Vienna Staatsopera Deutsche Recording Artist Grammophon international operatic literature.e Soprano c/fte Alto Tenor Bass Practicelog: Datestarted Dateaccomolished 89 .eC f l- thankSeth introducing to a superb me aocal technique.

The lower tones will sound a lot brighter and stronger to you. your higher tones will have a softer. However. When you stay on your speech level. Instructions: listen to tape Starting with each vowel.S/NG/NG FOR THE SIARS /: Exercise21. "splat" Make sure that the vowels don't alter or as you sing higher. what you feel isn't what the listener hears. 90 . less intense. feeling than will your lower tones. keep only the amount of edge sound you feel is necessaryto maintain the connection in your tone. The listener will hear a very free and clear sound when you sing into your head voice.

PARTTWO: TOWARDSPEECH-LEVEL S/NG/NG

(a) Oo

(b) oh ( c) U h
(d) Ee (e) Ah

Approximate starting pitch:

# #
o

a

)

Soprano Practicelog: Datestarted
Dateaccomolished

S/NG/NG FOR THE STABS

Exercise22
Instructions: listen to tape Practice Exercise until the edgesound, which originally led you into a 22 connected speech-level condition, is completelyeliminated.(Listento tape.) This may also be a good time for you to becomeaware of any excess
body movement you may be using when you sing. Such facial motions as frowning, raising your chin, and so forth can only invite the participation your outer muscles.

lUotes.'

92

aa \ \

graduated in I t'rom one of the maior conseraatories the l.lnited States. am L a tenor, but afterfour yearsof training I could not sing oaer the F# aboae middle C. I studiedzoith two major MetropolitanOperastars of the 1920s and '30s. After graduation,I interaiewed aocaltechnique tedchers acrossthe all United States.I decided study with Seth Riggs.After two years,I not only to had a complete tenor rangethrough Eb abor:e high C, but I could sing the La Boheme a wholestepup. ) ) aria James Wagner Lyric Tenor Munich

T I

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

Oo

oh
Uh Ee Ah

Approximatestarting pitch:

a
I'FT ^

4-

h

d Soorano

TF

d b o Alto

Tenor

Bass

Practicelog: Datestarted
Dateaccomplished

93

though. You also need to be able to maintain your speechlevel production when a vowel changes to another vowel during a sustained tone. Up to this point. be sure you don't overproduce your vowels in the'process. Keep the same position in your mouth for the second vowel as you for the first vowel moving your tongue and lips only slightly to change had pronunciation. you should be initiating and maintaining your tone with a relaxed speech-levelposture anywhere in your range. 94 . all the exercisesyou've done have featured only single vowel sounds. However.S/NG/NGFOR THE SIAFS Exercise23 Instructions: listen to tape By now.

PARTTWO: TOWARDSPEECH-LEVEI S/NG/NG (a) oo (b ) u h (c) Ee oh Ah Ay Ah (d ) o h starting pitch: Approximate 4_ tr----oa u o 6rr-- o Tenor Soprano Practicelog: Datestarted Dateaccomolished Bass 95 .

Alotes.S/NGINGFOR THE STABS Exercise24 Imtructions: listen to tape This exercisecontinuesthe sameidea as Exercise23. only the number of vowels has beenincreased. 96 .

but I needed "high -L some gospel" soundstpith no strain. nevn pouer and intensityfor my uoice. Seth shoued me hou to find and strengthenthosesounds.u range. Thank you Seth. Nou I am discooeringa tohole ne. sing.) ) June Polnter Singer LosAngeles (a) Oo (b) Ee (c) Oo (foot)- oh Oo Uh Ah Uh Ah Approximate starting pitch: r o - =T-o ? o Alto Soprano Practicelog: Datestarted Daleaccomolished Tenor Bass 97 .e e IT thought all I had to do in this businesswas sing. sing.

your main can begin a tone. which is usually the most difficult place you area.) Don't be too concerned if the muscles under your jaw activate a little.) Let your chest voice come in gently. They will begin to relax as you get more comfortable with the exercise. becauseyou get used to starting your tone in "spot. (Lr'sfento tape. with half in your mouth and half behind your soft palate. Accomplishing Exercises25 makes singing with speech-levelproduction in this part of your range easy. You must learn to accept the split activation of sound waves. stay on the thinner piece of cord so you don't drop suddenly into your chest coordination. by degrees." that "headier" side of the pitch with a As you do this exercise. lVotes: 98 . (Listen to tape. you are going to start in the middle of your first passage "break" area.S/NG/NGFOR THE SIARS Exercise25 Instructions: listen to tape In Exercise 25.

S/NG/NG PARTTWO:TOWARD SPEECH-LEVEL (a) Oo (b) Oo (c) Ee Uh oh Ay Oo Oo Ee Uh oh Ay Oo Oo Ee Uh oh Ay Approximate starting pitch: #o a 4_ tki ) Soprano Practicelog: Datestarted Dateaccomplished Alto Tenor Bass 99 .

l\lotes. you will take every vowel individually through your range until. you must pronounce each vowel exactly as you would if you were speaking it.' 100 . with each one. Nothing-absolutely nothing-should feel any different in your throat or mouth. Remember. you get the greatest amount of tone with the least amount of effort. Only then can you be sure you are singing with speech-levelproduction.S/NG/NGFOR THESIAFS Exercise26 Instructions: listen to tape In Exercise 26.

Thosetwo t'actsassistthoseof us who sing pop to belt too much.QQT ." but not damage aoiceor oocalenergyin my my concerts and recording. Seth got my larynx down and built a whole neutmiddleooicetoith which I can soundlike "chest. ) ) Daniela Romo Singer Mexico Citv (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Ah Ay Ee oh A (eat) Oo Oo (foot) Approximate starting pitch: ---TFT-TFI- U ( a ' r G Alto Soprano Tenor Bass Practicelog: Datestarted Dateaccomolished '101 . tendsto puII the larynx upwards.' n the Spanish-speaking countries. lzoith the shallout'ah' oowel.The Spanishlanguage.the Mariachi singersare the most t numerous.

additionto'making y o u ra 0 | c e .mich opera. stuiy uocaltechnique Wehadonly i'l' monthsta prepnrtfor.It always teqcher how describe theysangand caIIit ttocal neaer-was-beens) mastacademic 'pctlagogy.ree-year . nnd ie atanged to startsome s{tt and slso in onlessons'l Ibought thebook technique.Seth. tffi**oo'u Angeles Los hoak't phone put Wonder meon a counse! Steuie of couple vearsago.Sethsaid.tra.ct CBS Recards winner jtmior Star Search" and solid.Notu. hadheard hrmas s00nas to and came see ' 1 boughthis book nrofcssionals uears for bttt uocal *o\r. can't teacher. did thl cxercis.lestCoist hsssuc'h maraelous . extends alzuays your stylingeasy.let's Opeiaauditions.tne "Let'snot learnany neTo ttrc rebatance arens.Iquit the ^ Regional of semifinals theMetropolitanWester:n t?.'' 'i Thanks making for tn mYuotc bv trvingto singmorecorrectlv' dependabtlircs Seth. Luther Producer.1bt con. Seth's aocal 'lo o. enteyed u]\nontheWestCoast.-upt helpmerelieac t'atigue..la. me amuses that old operastarsfu-nd aaaiy$iein thearea.I a contract' Next..i. and layingcinderblockm ditches Thanktlou.' with u'ho.*!!: (unless some approachi.houscs Europenn at roles.uocallechnique aboutSethRiSgs's t'romindustry.k. his haae is .n same m7.This spccial resorl'to t'or t'alsetlo the and naailqble. LosAngeles and star singers repertoire with oII thebig retiredMetropolitan studied After two yeatsof not getting into the on coaches the WestCoast' suditions.I signed th.. I (ouer 2.1an . fletuto Zurich and won a two-year 'contract I'm singingmajorlyric and lyricospinto iuhere apera at theMr.tl0 studyfor a yrarl' ThenI catne hnLl competition furthcraocal t!e...zuenttoNewYorkCityandwonthet'inalstherealso. it e&sier. helped it in"applying to my songs his assistance more l'm that I'd foundin theexercise butldtng and power control ": '.tr1y1i. .000 singers competitiott the from I ol'd ones. in inuolued Seth's (whom " q. the50 statei.l am guestittg manyot'thet'inest aocaltechnique a It is excitingtiat the il.t effect)'.s repertoire become sessions technique 2essions'.i ilteyt'ailto tmderstand that if a youngsingerdoesn't sang.Se:l:li88l. I study' Soon bunnu uoice with Seii.thus aocal sing like theteacher he paitirulor aocalt'acilities.easy no the makes high notes approach producinil.iirtv ease' the m1in."-"'' "". Snnla Eduardo Villa Lyric Tenor Munich I I I I I = .I could still be digging Bnrbaro. I could.'ii.

singing an actual song often becomescomplicated when the inclusion of certain consonants. and musical requirements threaten to disrupt your speech-level technique. When this happens. You have done most of these already in some of the earlier exercises." However. flexible tone. Now we will do them with songs. 10 3 . becauseif you stay on your speechlevel. with a blend of both upper and lower resonancequalities.vowel combinations. clear. bad habits die hard. you should be "talk able to just on pitch. It shouldn't matter where in your range you start your tone.Technique Maintenonce ou should now have a free. there are several things you can do to help you keep your speech-level production intact. As such.

' 104 . This will that note.S/NG/NGFOR THESIABS Exercise27 Instructions: listen to tape Bend forward as you approachthe problem note(s)of the song. Notes. Remember to help you break your anxiety about accomplishing return to a standingposition at the completionof the note(s).

And it's 87 her prom .PARTTHREE:TECHNIQUE MAINTENANCE Annie Laurie (Traditional) ton braes c#. ly falls dew.

' 106 . that assistance Notes. only do this temporarily to is from your outer muscles unnecessary.S/NG/NGFOR THE SIABS Exercise28 Instructions: listen to tape "cry" in your voice to discourage outer-muscle activation. Use a little "remind" your neuromuscularsystem However.

has kept learned. One morning in 1967.' walked out in La do day. A E A E spied a young cow .boy wrapPed u p ln white lin . 107 . as Ff.) ) Ann-Margret Actress.Allan Cat calledto tell me he had found a that was efficientand quickly teacher who taught a technique oocaltechnique has me wqs Seth Riggs.The technique seraed well. Singer Los Angeles of The Streets Laredo(Traditional) As lG --------7 walked out the streetsof La do. dressed in white G E7 lin cold the clay.en.Qa and the rehearsal schedules between endof oneproiect to coordinate Trrrtry time to Ithe beginning anothercan behectic. all A rf.Thereneuerseems beenough of to prepareas well as you would like.The teacher me together oocallythroughmany difficult and trying situations.

" vowel for the temporary one. makes it easier to sing that note without activating your outer muscles. you can substitute the original "place. After you use that vowel to start the problem note. by its acoustical nature. keeping it in the same If the problem vowel is: a (as in "may") "cat" a (as in "let") eh (as in "sit") ih (as in ah (as in "father") uh (as in "mother") oo (as in "foot") Try: ee (as in "we") "let") eh (as in "sit") ih (as in "we") ee (as in uh (as in "mother") oo (as in "foot") oo (as in "toot") Notes: 108 .S/NG/NG FOR THE SIARS Exercise29 Instructions: listen to tape Sometimes it's hard to sing a certain note becausethe vowel you need to "anchored" sing it with stays to the lower part of your range. You can remedy this by starting with another vowel that.

ing Sun.leans they c al l A7 the Ris .PABT THREE:TECHNIQUE MAINTENANCE HouseOf The Rising Sun (Traditional) A7 There Em a house G New Or . It's 87 been the ruin of man-y .

you will avoid getting locked into any one part of your range. You may with songsyou aren't having any pareven want to do this occasionally ticular problem with. just to double check. Alotes: 110 . If you transpose the notes of your song higher.S/NG/NGFOR THE STARS Exercise30 Instructions: listen to tape Finally. and the problems that can arise from doing so. you can sing the pocal line higher than it's written.

we'rebounda- 'cross the Mis-sou 111 . way you rol .TECHNIQUE MAINTENANCE PARTTHREE: Shenandoah (Traditional ) Oh.| long to hear You. Shen-an-doah.way.lin' c Shen-an-doah.

if you remain sensitive to any excesspressure building up in your voice and do what's necessaryto releasethat pressure.S/NG/NGFOR THESIABS Generally speaking. 112 . though. you will always promote and maintain a natural speechJevel sound.

Assuming that your speaking voice is clear and unforced. singing is using your voice in a musical manner to communicate ideas and emotions to an audience. Technically. But although it's easy to understand. There's no great mystery involved. however. it takes time and patience to coordinate everything so that you can do it well. 113 . GeneralQuestions Questions and anstuers How do you define singing? Well. your singing voice should be based on the quality of that speaking voice. and in his many lectures and master classeson vocal technique. Is singing really that easy? Yes. existing range is the sole determining factor in placing a singer into a certain category. so you don't "reach .TheAuthor SpeaksOut The questions in the following section are the types of questions most frequently asked of the author during his private lessons. Too often. It's wrong to prematurely classify a voice before you really get to know what it can do. The most important factor to consider is the basic quality of the voice. singing is nothing more than sustained speech over a greater pitch and dynamic range. artistically speaking. You don't sing like you speak. easily produced vocal posture you have when you speak.rp" for high "press notes or down" for low ones. ClassifyingVoices Questions and ansuers How do you classify a singer's voice? I don'tl At least not right away. What is the key to singing well? The ability to always maintain a speech-levelproduction of tone-one that "connected" stays from one part of your range to another. but you need to keep the same comfortable.

on the average. but.S/NG/NGFOB THE SIAFS Range Extension Questions and anstoers What do you expect the performing range of singers to be once they have studied with you? Everyone has a different vocal ability. Basses should be able to sing: q---r--e from tt- n l to Baritones should be able to sing: Tenors should be able to sing: Middle C 114 I .

all voices should be able to maintain a connected. speechJevelproduction of tone throughout their entire range.THEAUTHORSPEAKS OUT Altos should be able to sing: M i d d l eC trom <t Mezzo-Sopranosshould be able to sing: I _{__i_ A Izf. 115 . I I M i d d l eC I a) io' from Sopranos should be able to sing: ffi a ^ I l . M i d d l eC from to And.

Those pitches are well within the technical ability of a great many more people than you'd think. What do you say? Many singers assume that the reason their tone gets "muddy" is because their articulation is wrong. but still tone. Correct breathin g is a byproduct of good technique-just like one's resonance quality is a by-product. in order to make my tone clearer. is all you get is well-articulated. they change or overdo their articulation. You should never work directly at developing your breathing. You don't need to overdo your articulation if you maintain a speech-levelproduction of tone. everything. When you use a speech-levelapproach to singing. My teacher says I must overdo my articulation when I sing. for that matterl It should be a blend of the top." "muddy". middle. They may not sustain those notes constantly. This way they will always have a reserve of notes beyond the usual range requirements of any song they sing. stable speech-level position. allowing your vocal cords to adjust freely with your breath flow.S/NG/NGFOR THESIABS Aren't those extremely high notes for voices in those classifications? They shouldn't be if the larynx stays resting in a relaxed. stable position. Consequently. You indirectly develop the proper breath support for your tone as you condition your larynx not to move and your outer muscles to relax. and bottom resonance qualities that results when the singer's larynx remains in a relaxed. when you overdo your articulation becauseyour tone "muddy. However. But the importance of breathing in singing has been overemphasized by voice teachersfor too long a time. Tone Development Questions and ansrDers How do you determine what the tone quality of a singer's voice should be? Again. 116 . happensautomatically. I don'tl A singer's tone should be determined by his or her own individual vocal anatomy and not a predetermined ideal held by a teacher-or the student. What about breathing? Doesn't correct breathing play an important part in your ability to produce good tone? Of course. including how much air you use to move your cords. but they should be able to sing them with good technique.

we use a form of humming in some of our own exercises. producing a desired result." which causesyour voice to up. You are just hearing the vibrations in your head. Imagery that evokes a positive muscular response in one individual's voice may evoke a negative response in your voice. It doesn't give you an accurateaccount of how you sound. implies the usage of air Using Microphones Questions and anstners Why should I bother so much about my tone quality if I'm going to be singing with a microphone? Electronic amplification and alteration of your voice have an important place in the communication and entertainment media. on the other "jam "blast. Does cupping my ear help me hear my voice better? No. When you adjust your voice to 117 . What is the difference between projection and shouting? Projection is the acousticalphenomenon that occurs when you produce your tone with an efficient balance of air and muscle. I prefer to use exercisesthat have a definite cause and effect relationship. Is humming beneficial to developing tone? Well. Singing in Different Styles Questions and ansuers Do you have to change your tone production when you perform different moods and stvles? No! Most differences in singing styles are built into the music itself-the sequenceof notes and certain conventions of singing that are popular during a particular place and time in history. it dependson hotu you hum. rather than relying on the nebulous descriptionsof someoneelse'spersonal experience. can discourage many of the tone-manufacturing devices that singers think they need to make sound. but they must not be thought to replace healthy and efficient vocal production. if done correctly. Humming." hand.THEAUTHORSPEAKS OUT What about using imagery to develop your tone? Vocal imagery doesn't always work. Shouting. In fact.

there will be slight differences in your deliuery. That is not teaching you how to sing. they can be consistentin their ability to sing "enclosure" no matter what the or lack of it. You just get a lot of practice following a piano." If you are thinking about what you are singing. ask for a simple demonstration of the teacher's own abilityespeciallyhis/her ability to negotiate their own passage areas." you run the risk of interfering with your accomplish certain tonal speech-leveltone production. which is very dangerous to your vocal health. Before studying with a teacher. "colored Your voice can. If you don't feel your voice improving in the areas of tone production and easily attainable range extension within a few weeks. you'd better find another teacher-fastl Many teachersgive their students the same vocal problems which killed their own careers and made them teachers. be by your mind. you are very limited to the material you can do. or whether he/she is primarily a voice coach-one who shows you tahat to sing. Furthermore." from your diaphragm" and "open your mouth. the voice technique teacheris the most important. when the teacher'smethodology consists mainly of using "give "sing terms such as it more support. however. Singing Outdoors Questions and anszuers Do you have to modify your production when you sing outdoois? Not really. however." you know you are in the wrong company. you must be able to discern whether or not a teacheris primarily a voice technique teacher-one who shows you hou to sing. and memorizing the notes of a song. not in your basic production." who bang away at a so-called voice teachers are just vocal piano while you follow along. because without the technical ability to sing flexibly and clearly in all parts of your range. Of the two types. Choosinga Teacher Questions and anstoers How does one select a voice teacher? First of all. In this way. Singers should always use resonance sensation to govern their tone production. For the initiated.S/NG/NGFOR THESIAFS "ideals. Many "cheerleaders.Audition the teacher! 118 . a good voice technique teacher is hard to find.

if they do. Also. any time you associate 119 ." out of notes for knowledge of the voice. some students aren't fortunate enough to "training" received by these teachers. He/she used for vocal should at least know how to play all the scalesand exercises However. they take bows for their students'own natural abilities." You see. and. as you have already indicated in your question. be careful of the teacher who substitutes the plunking training. Few teachers. If a teacherunderstandsgood singing technique. But. can show you how. Exploiting Student Voices Questions and ansrDers Many singers seem to have more trouble with their voices after they have been studying voice for a few years. "Sing this note.sound. Voice Science Questions and anszoers How about teachers who say they teach the "scientific" method of singing? Many teachers in recent history have fallen victim to what has been er"voice roneously termed science. and at any age.but nevernever-at the exclusion of a thorough knowledge of the voice. he/she can teach either sex.however. Should a voice teacher know how to play piano? He or she should have as much piano facility as possible.THEAUTHORSPEAKS OUT Is there anything else to look for in choosing a teacher? Yes. teachers often exploit the talent of their students. the teacherdoesn't know what he or she is doing. Why is this? In high schools and colleges. Anybody can say. he/she hasn't been able to communicate that knowledge to the student. It is unfortunate that piano skill often implies that a teacherhas a more comprehensiveknowledge of the voice than he/she really has. as well as in private voice studios. A voice teachershould only try to develop the vocal freedom that will bring out the specialcharacter of your own voice. Be wary of any voice teacherwho just teacheshis or her own sex. be careful of teacherswho try to make you sound like they do or like they think you should. Actually. Without really teaching anything. Students come away from survive the their voice lessons thinking they are stupid when they can't seem to do what the teacherasks them to do. Teachingsongs is no substitutefor uocal technique. or just the opposite sex.

according to scientific principles. In singing. Many voice teachersbuild their reputations around the successfulsinging of one or two students. But those principles can be abused by those who aren't "scientists" able to apply them. Imposing any kind of posture on a voice creates tension that can hinder the freedom of cord vibration." "wooden". and the part of his "dark." "throaty. and a lowered tongue? Yes. who are anxious to grab onto anything that offers them hope of understanding what has unfortunately become a very confusing subject. nent physical damage can result. Prominent voice have attempted for years to translate scientific findings into a useable vocal technique. Shouldn't singers sing with an open throat.S/NG/NGFOR THESIARS "science. range where he did sing always sounded and Then how does the "scientific" method work? There are many variations. But that's all they are-obseraations. The foremost vocal "scientist" I ever knew couldn't even sing in his head voice. without knowing that those students would have sounded good uithout that teacher. all have in common the manipulation "open of the muscles in and around the larynx by telling students to your "lower your throat" and tongue. which is extremely dangerous. 120 . Science. But I've heard a few singers who studied with teachers who use those methods. That's very attractive to both teachersand students." etc. Some even go so far as to manually force the larynx into position. is not only knowledge derived from observation. that skill can only be developed through special exerciseswhich balance your vocal coordination so that speechJevel tone production is possible. becauseperrna. but that type of vocal posture is a result of good technique. Why did they sound good? It's very hard to know whether or not a singer already had a natural affinity for good vocal technique before his/her study with a teacher. disrupt the balance of tone and make speaking words sound unnatural as well-even if what the teacher asks for "free" sounds like a way to the voice. They have made some remarkable observations as to what happens to voices during the process of singing. Other people then go to that teacher becauseof the way those students sound. as does everything else. but the skill resulting from that knowledge.however. However." something with the word it automatically assumesan aura of truth. not the cause of it. Of course your voice works.

pronounce words the same way. choral directors sometimeswant you to modify your tone (changethe way you sing) in order to blend with the other singers in the group. but unless their own voices are balanced. but the degree of individual vocal expression put forth' If you're going to 121 . This is vocal death to a singer of lesservocal ability and almost as bad for even a superior voice. you should always use the same vocal technique. and begin and end together.A lot of people. a star's teaching method consistsof a description of his or her own vocal ability. everyone must sing with the same volume. It doesn't matter how many degreesa teacherhas. or how successful he/she has been as a performer. Vocal stars can be excellentfor teaching repertoire and stagetechniques.easy manner. However. This may be okay for those singerswho have developeda solid vocal technique. However. all right-but at what cost? A singer should never compromise technique. but only in matters of dynamics (within reason). Singing in Choir Questions and anstners Should your vocal technique be the same for choral (ensemble)singing as it is for solo singing? Yes. they should be avoided. and they know how to get the same balance in the voices of their students. but dangerousfor those-the majority-who haven't. diction. correct speech-level Then how is a person able to blend with other singers and still use correct technique? In order to blend with other singers.OUT THEAUTHORSPEAKS Performers as Teachers Questions and anstners Is it better to study with someone who has experienced successas a performer? Not necessarily. no attempt "darken" "brighten" the tone. have "star" performers have a wonderful ability to teach the mistaken notion that vocal technique. It's not the vocal technique itself that should be modified or restrained. Singers should or should ever be made to always maintain a clear tone with a normal speechJike depth. whether you sing solo or in a group. and many educational institutions. That is. You blend. however. "breaks" or sudden changesof tone quality-again. A teacherneeds to know how to get each of his students to sing through their range in a connected. you must give your interpretive powers to the director. speech-level without any singing. and phrasing. More often than not.

It is a natural function of a free voice. and you have your middle register. right at that high B-flat is a critical passagearea in her voice.It's impossibleto get a large group of singersto have the same number of undulations in their voices at the same time." stick out-that would destroy the concept of What about vibrato management? Now that's an interestingcombination of words! Management implies that you're going to have to "manage" or "manipulate" your voice . but is definitely what you call a middle sound. just to as with the other passageareas in your voice. Well. If you are singing in an "pounding ensemble and go away" up to A or B-flat. it's also very dangerousto try to take the vibrato "flat" out-to sing straight. I can guarantee that you're going to ruin your high C and your D and E-flat in solo voice.SINGLIKETHE SIARS have good ensemble. You have your head "super-head. and then a which comes in around B-flat. It's a big deal if a soprano sings past an A or B-flat in most choral music." voice. nobody can be sticking out. right at the top of their chest register. The same goes for tenors. that's very dangerous. where she goes into a sort of overdrive. by keeping your voice balanced up to that point. A singer shouldn't want to "ensemble. Are you saying that choral singing can be dangerous for the solo voice? It can be. How about women's voices? The same thing is true for women. The basses never have to go any higher than maybe a D or an E natural at the most. You have your chest register. 122 . But. Most choral singers tend to belt out notes in their chest voice. Consequently. Yet. Choral music is usually written so that each vocal part has a limited range. This is death for the solo singer.to do something to it. Choral directors really shouldn't be messingaround in this area. Is there a reason for the limited range development of choral singers? Yes. you see. which is in the head. To do so. your cords must be pulled so tightly that there's no undulation in them at all. which in a man's voice begins around D or E natural. They never have to sing through their main passaSearea. if the director isn't careful. sounds. "super-head" You could call the area above that passagearea a voice. whose part rarely goes above an A or B-flat. there's no effort to develop the upper part of their range. But you have prepare for it early. A relaxed vibrato should exist whenever you dwell on a note long enough for vibrato to take place. without ever going into head voice as they sing higher.

which prevents him from him to encourages ever exploring the head voice area of his range. Singerswith wide ranges shouldn't be as rare as they are. and ear training." without any real knowledge of forward. That includes following a conductor's direction. However. sight singing. It's not all good. Even if you have a good voice. they will pass along the same poor vocal technique they were "place "support the tone further the tone. using terms like "sing from your diaphragm. Aside from the development of musicianship. When you go to school to study to be a choir director-either undergraduate. But that doesn't mean there is anything wrong with the music. He keeps singing louder and louder to be able to hear himself. then transfer what you learn to singing. most choir directors will meet hundreds of singersevery week. just like 123 . They will also give voice lessonson the side. though. This "grip" with his outer muscles. the music department will figure that you don't need to have a solo voice. A solo singer can hear himself during solos." or what those things actually mean. Yet. Carelesssinging simply discouragesthe upper range development of those voices." taught. there is very little you can transfer from what you get out of choral singing into solo singing.or graduate-you are generally given the poorest voice teacherson the staff. you could learn the same things as an instrumentalist. Popular Music and Traditional Teaching Questions and ansrDers Why has the attitude toward popular music been so negative in school? One reason for the furrowed brows when mentioning popular music in some institutions is that many singers who record and make these songs popular have had no training at all. Is choral or ensemble singing any good for the solo singer? It's good for general musicianship. when they conduct. Choir Directors as Voice Teachers Questions and anstuers Why aren't more choir directors good voice teachers? It has to do with the system that trains them. A lot of it is marvelous. Inevitably. but a singer in a group finds it almost impossible to do so. unless the director knows what he is doing in terms of vocal technique. A singer has to be able to hear his own voice well enough to be able to progress through his passageareas in a balanced manner.OUT THEAUTHORSPEAKS So this problem applies to all voices? Yes.

Most pop singing has one thing in common. it's on a conversational level. This is the same ideal that people listen for in any type of good singing.S/NG/NGFOR THE SfA. Just becausea teacher encouragesyou "sing to out. jazz. Selecting Music Questions and ansuers When a singer first begins to study vocal technique. rock. posture. implying that any singing that isn't opera. Tone quality and phrasing is determined by the singer. Then what should they teach. Opera and other forms of traditional styles are not always that way. It's a totally different thing. but you must still be able to go into your head voice without leaving your speech level. Another rarely admitted reason for the lack of attention to popular music is that most teachers. Although basic vocal technique is. Select songs that are more melodic. or should be. etc-which may be barely tolerated in the "classical" idiom. or lieder is a prostitution of the vocal art. singing songs is not vocal technique. with no hard-fast criterion for judging the successfulperformance of a song in that style. the same for all types of music. Often a teacher will avoid his lack of ability in this area by saying that the student should "right learn the way" first. Most students and teacherswho sing opera base their modern idea of operatic tone on a concept of a"woofy.qS music written in any style is not all good. if they can't teach those things? Vocal technique! Just vocal techniquel Teachers shouldn't substitute the peripheral aspectsof style interpretation for basic vocal technique. breathing. As I've said already. and then sing the songs they want later. which is dangerous to the health and longevity of the voice. tone color. the stylistic requirements for popular music are beyond their own background as teachers. quite simply. Their usual methodology-badgering students about diction. and gospel. what type of material should he sing? You should avoid any material that puts a great demand on your voice from a dynamics standpoint. not those that "punch" "dramatic" need or require a dynamic level." overproduced sound. does not apply at all to popular styles such as country. blues. Traditional styles just happen to have had more time to screen out the bad material. speechJevel manner that lets you understand their words all the way through their ranges. Interpretation of popular music is a very personal matter." or gives you hints on how to interpret what you sing. What is interesting is that the best opera singers (of yesterday and today) sing in a clear. does 124 . can't teach it.

the style or idiom often gets in the way of their understanding the words. someoneis someonesings sure to notice-but not if it's sung in a foreign language. Singing in Foreign Languages Questions and anstuers Should beginning voice students sing in foreign languages? I believe singing in foreign languages gives a singer too much opportunity to sing incorrectly. 125 . so nobody is ever required to learn anything which would enable them to go out and earn a buck.THEAUTHORSPEAKS OUT not mean you are learning vocal technique. If "Mary Had a Little Lamb" in a garbled manner. Even when it does. whv? We've lived in the shadow of Western European-based art forms for so long that one is not considered learned or educated in the art of singing unless he or she can sing these forms of music in the original languages. You have to have so much French. The best way to tell if a singer is singing correctly is to hear whether he or she is singing in a clear and unmanufactured manner. A person should not sing in a foreign a tendency to language unless he can sing in his own first. Without good vocal technique. You cannot earn money doing the art song repertoire that you learned in school. or Italian literature memorized or you can't be graduated. Is that the only reason? No. Colleges and universities must meet certain standards in order to become accredited. No one is interestedbecause. promoting the same vocal literature they had to learn in school. It's really a ludicrous situation.where there can be "overproduce" tone. Their students are usually being supported by their parents and the teachers are being supported by the school. the subject matter doesn't relate to them. even if they understood the lyrics. Style and interpretation are no substitute for vocal technique. Then why are so many songs in foreign languages required in schools? One reason is that teachers in collegesand universities create work for themselves by encouraging recitals and concerts. German. style and interpretation are greatly restricted. Very few people are able to tell if a foreign language is being sung correctly. outside of school.

What is a good dynamic level to practice? Mezzo forte (medium loud) at the loudest. you must proceed to eliminate it. with a slightly lighter approach maybe. once you've established that it exists. However. or nothing else but popular musicl A voice teacher must try to impress upon his pupils. there is no inordinate pressure either up or down one's range. You must move quickly into the extreme ranges to ensure that you don't get locked in to any one part of your range. allowing you to sing at a speech level. but giving you no concept of how to get into you head voice. and to then have your neuromuscular system live with that balance. Singing in just the middle of your range keeps you anchored to your chest voice. Practicing Questions and ansuers How soon in my training program can I expect to sing high notes easily? Immediately. The intensity. you should only sing as loudly as you are able to maintain your balance with a steady. easy manner throughout their entire range-and be able to sing anything! Students must be given repertoire in all areas of vocal music. 126 . You must expose the "break" area (the most critical passage area in your voice) right away. you must never forget tohy you practice exercises. and you should begin training your voice with that in mind right from the start.You do so to set up the correct balance between your exhaled air and your vocal cords. since in our approach there is no strain involved in the production of tone anywhere in one's range. traditional andpopular. This business of working on your middle range first is nonsense. What about teacherswho say you should build your middle range before you try to extend it up or down? That is a very popular. that they sing in an uncluttered.S/NG/NGFOR THE SIARS What can be done to change the situation? Teachers should stop putting themselvesin ivory towers and acting as if there were nothing else but opera. nothing else but musical theatre. With our speech-levelapproach to vocal technique. or loudness. A// your tones should be easily produced. actually insist. As far as volume goes. of that tone will come once the muscular coordination to produce pitches freely is established. yet self-defeatingphilosophy. Then. normal vibrato.

if you keep your voice balanced. do absolutely nothing to condition your larynx to function independently from your outer muscles. Performance is the culmination of your vocal conditioning to meet the artistic demands you place on your voice for the purpose of communicating and projecting ideas and emotional experiencesto your listener. An exerciseshould help you connect your voice throughout your range-to negotiate the passageareas. How much should I practice? You should practice as much as you perform. you may be able to temporarily muscle your tone. at your speechlevel. Your larynx should already exhibit a good deal of independencefrom your outer muscles before you begin to use pure vowel "grip" "squeeze" with your outer and sounds.How do you explain this? Who's to know if you are doing the other exerciseswith the proper balance in your voice? If just scaleswere all it took to establish a balanced voice. compared to other books that contain vocal exercises. or to somehow fix it. You could just sing scalesall day. to try to make that note beautiful.THEAUTHORSPEAKS OUT There doesn't seem to be a great deal of variation in the types of exercises that you use. It doesn't do you any good to plow through an exerciseat a fast speed. Exercisesshould not be done quickly until you are able to sing each note clearly at a moderate speed. 127 . you will just musclesas you sing higher. so that any temporary diversion from good technique can be recognized easily and corrected quickly. Should I practice agility and velocity exercises? Yes. The important thing isn't uhat you sing when you exercise. They are not the same thing. Of course. you wouldn't need a voice teacher. Otherwise. You will have done nothing to train your voice. Regular vocal practice keeps your voice aligned for efficient coordination. even more. Otherwise. it's hou you sing it. but all you are really doing is reinforcing the same bad habits that got your voice into the strained condition it was previously in. your neuromuscular system activates those muscles. but only when they can be done accurately with balanced tone production. As soon as you senseyou are going to have trouble singing a note. Almost any exercisecan be used. Exercisesthat require you to sing pure vowels before you have developed the coordination to sing them correctly. you only touch the notes so briefly that strained production is not detected.

work on blend. that could interefere with the physical sensationsyou use to judge your vocal coordination. In rehearsals. three days apart to start. Preferably.all wise singers satsetheir voices-not in the sensethat you only have just so much to give. though. You should only study regularly with a teacher until you are able to apply your technique to your songs. this can take as little as one or two lessons. but to keep your voice relaxed during a potentially stressful situation. Singing in Rehearsals Questions and anszners Should you sing differently in rehearsal than you do in performance? Yes. may have his or her technique checked by a teacher once or twice a week. you should do what is "marking" your music-singing lightly or even dropping the high called notes down an octave. or someone learning correct technique for the first time. 128 .. Another pair of ears can be very valuable. fatigue. Depending upon the teacher and the student. Such a schedule should continue until the singer begins to grasp the fundamentals of the new technique. and everything else.S/NG/NGFOB THE STABS When should I not practice singing? Whenever you are indisposed with such things as a head cold. Therefore. check pitches. Rehearsalsby nature are very demanding on a voice. you should have time alone to make mistakes and work them out for yourself. especially when learning something new. It's stop-and-go as you learn notes. until all the notes are learned and you know what's expected of you. Eventually you can wean yourself from your teacher. I would say a minimum of two lessonsa week. for example. all you need is an occasional check-up. your neuromuscular system will be much more cooperative in helping you sing the right notes with the proper technique. Then. A teacher shouldn't lead you by the hand every day unless you are "crashing" both on certain problems that need to be solved quickly because of professional commitments. etc. How often should I have a voice lesson? That depends upon your ability and the demands of the particular music you are singing. A professional opera singer. This makes it very easy to fall back into old habits. For a beginner. Once you know where you are going with your voice.

These young voices will become fuller (rounded out). in male voices. the involvement with reading music and rhythm is invaluable. It has been my experience that most judges aren't good enough to have pupils in the very conteststhey are called upon to judge. Then. if care is taken to keep strain absent. and quality. competition in groups of older voices or participation in school musicalswhich require belting. one must be careful.THEAUTHONSPEAKS OUT Voice Competitions Questions and anstuers What do you think about vocal competitions? Competitions can provide scholarships. Naturally. 129 . It is both embarrasingand bothersome. with all instruments. Thus. viola or cello is good to learn. as the voice becomesmore responsivewith age. the already activated musicianshipsupports and enhancesthe overall musical ability. lyric singersare passedover in favor "blasters" of who are headed toward vocal ruin. say under fifteen years of age? For both boys and girls. and also an occasionalbeginning contract for performers. seemsto be the main criteria of the judges." bobbing back and forth within an octave range for a period of time. It gives "vibratoed" the youngster a feeling of long. however. That is. power. It can happen dramatically (overnight in "cracking some cases). Piano and guitar are also very good as they will help in the later study of harmony and be useful as a means of self-accompaniment. many of the world's best singershave never won a competition. And it is possible to maintain that marvelous start if those handling that voice are careful not to require any heauy singing. not a balanced vocal technique. Decibel (volume) level. basic musicianshipshould begin as soon as possible.or hang in a limbo. In girls. bowed lines. The Young Voice Questions and ansTzers How do you teach young voices. and indeed (if the young boy has experienced some success with a beautiful soprano voice) a horrifying experience. the change from boy soprano to the beginningsof the adult male voice can be traumatic. it is not uncommon to find youngstersaround ten years old who can vocalize easily from low G and A to E-flat above high C and above. and a quality of tone which is indeed similar to the singing voice.some prestigeand national attention. continuous. Yet. There is no promise that his voice will return in any consistentstate of well-being. without loss of range. A stringed instrument such as violin. As far as actual voice training goes.

he should sing baritone. It is extremely rare to find any children's vocal performance workshop which is knowledgeableenough to encourageproper balancein the young voices. taking the low notes up an octave.9S S/NG/NG ihis is a difficult period to live through.leaoe teacher. leaoe teqcher.lf the the musclesunder the chin reach down and tense as the pitch rises. Occasionally there is a boy soprano voice that deepensslightly and moves into tenor or male alto." which everyone strives for as the maturation processcontinues. It is therefore complete lunacy on the part of a choir director to ask a boy to dig for low G's or even A's in an effort to sing the bass line in an ensemble. It is interesting-and there are always exceptions that disprove the rule-that most boy first sopranos drop to bass or baritone. trying to sing adult ranges or yelling shows like "Annie. with their undevelopedvoices and lack of maturity to make decisions. Just because the boy soprano has been forced to temporarily retreat from singing high tones.lf woman has all the a 130 .and set vocal keys whlch contribute to a youngster's vocal growth and understanding. with no apparent "change" or drastic reaction. when this happens. leave teacher. unlessyou have knowledgeable and patient vocal guidance from an expert voice technique teacher. and the boy second sopranosmove into tenor. It has been my experiencethat all young voices are subject to the same vocal principles as adult voices.FOB THESTA. Actually. it is assumedthat he is going to be a bass.The youngster must be monitored regularly to insure that he is keeping his voice coordination as balanced as possiblethrough the change.If the student's voice has a wobble or a tremolo. should the vocal line become too difficult to sing comfortably." which can have disastrouseffects on the eventual balanceof the "midrange.lf the the student's voice has no vibrato. Do you believe in student loyalties? Absolutely-loyalty to themselvesand their voices. There seems to be numerous children's singing and performance workshops in most cities. Children are allowed and encouraged to "belt" their brains out.are the easiestprey to poor voice teacherswho use "performance "shill" workshops" as a to acquire vocal clientele. or down an octave. "grab" onto any There is always the danger that a young singer will "grind part of the coming mature voice and begin to away" in an effort to retrive some of the vocal control he enjoyed before the maturation process began. any opinions? Children.

or power. quality. Otherwise. that is. There should never be loyalty to a teacher who doesn't produce improvement within a short time. as well as other signs of labored singing. leaue teacher. if you haven't relied on raw physical effort to sing.If the chest voice and no connected head voice. over a period of time. 131 . the extra muscles you've used to build your vocal technique will break down. that student should never have been encouraged to continue in the first place. The above situations are what I call student loyalty. loyalty to common sense. The Aging Voice Questions and anstuers Is it natural for your voice to get weaker as you get older? No. Not if you sing with a balanced speechJevel technique.THE AUTHOA SPEAKS OUI the the man has head voice and no connected chest voice. That's when the wobble starts to appear. Your voice should only get better as you get older. Ieaoe teacher. There will be no loss of range. If the pupil's vocal talent is poor.

These musclescan get tired.Heahh and Care of the Singer'sVoice Your voice is not something isolated from the rest of your body. As a singer. and be aware of any other factors that may affect the well-being of your voice. but also helps to keep your body fit. or the musclesin your larynx. you should maintain a daily program that not only condiyour voice. for both your health and physical appearance. your body must always be functioning at its maximum level of efficiency. weak. To give your voice the best opportunity to function for at its maximum level of efficiency. and well tions nourished. and out of condition from lack of generalphysical exerciseand/or poor nutritional maintenance. Singing involves the coordination of many muscles-whether it's the musclesof breathing. avoid bad vocal habits. rested.You must also use good posture. 132 . The overall health of your body is always the primary consideration good vocal health.

until they reach out into every part of your body. becauseabnormal pressure is placed on your nerves as they pass through the openings in your spine. /> 133 . The nerves for every limb and organ in your body are connected to your brain by this one network. The function of your nerves is to pass along signals from your brain to other parts of your body. including your larynx. Poor posture inhibits not only the physical movement of your breathing muscles. This main nerve cable branchesout into smaller nerves. When your body is not aligned correctly. which runs through the center of your spine. which affects the air supply to your vocal cords. these signals become weakened or interrupted.HEALTHAND CAREOF THE SiNGEB'SVOICE Your Posture Your spine contains your body's primary network of nerves-the spinal cord. and then into still smaller nerves. but also the nerve signals from your brain.

is composed of living tissue. can disrupt your neuromuscular system. one under the other. which makes it susceptible to injury and abuse. Using alcohol and drugs Stimulants and depressants. chest (always high" so you can get a fuller and quicker supply of air). helping you to create specific moods. you can abuse your voice without even realizing you are doing so. However. Things you do can directly or indirectly affect the healthy functioning of your voice. Often. You shouldn't stand rigidly. They can be just as harmful as using poor singing technique.S/NG/NGFOR THESTABS "comfortably Your head. and pelvis should be supported by your spine in such a way that they align themselves. reducing the ability of your vocal cords to function as you would normally expect them to. Your posture can work against you if you concentrateon it too much. until you have developed and feel confident with your basic vocal technique. 134 . Bad Habits Your larynx. you should avoid any type of extreme posture when you sing. Modifications in your basic posture can be very effective in the performance of certain styles of music. like any other organ of your body. but comfortably prepared to sing.whether or not prescribed by a physician.

After a meal. forced throat-clearing. This inhibits your mental alertnessand the vocal coordination you require during a rehearsal or performance. sneezing. because the body's energiesare directed toward digestion. Using excessive volume When you can't hear yourself sing-or talk for that matter-there is a tendency to overcompensate by using more muscle to control your larynx. making vibration very difficult and allowing air to escapeunused. A "battle" soon begins to take place between your vocal muscles (in muscular your larynx) and your outer muscles to resist the escalating air pressure. 135 . your body tends to slow down. smoking dries out the mucous lining of your vocal cords. Without this natural lubrication. Shocking your cords Excessivecoughing. This leads to hoarsenessand added tensions that cause the muscles in and around your larynx to become sore and painful. Eating before singing It is suggestedthat you don't eat before you sing. the excessmucous that secretesonto your vocal cords can interfere with the vibration process itself . the edges of your cords can swell. and starting your tone with a sudden burst of air can strain or even damage the delicate muscle tissueof your vocal cords. Also.VOICE HEALTHAND CAREOF THES/NGEB'S Smoking Besidescontaining chemicals that can cause muscle and nerve problems. And it doesn't matter whether it's vour smoke or someoneelse's. which in turn requires that you use more air to move your cords.

S/NG/NGFOB THESIARS

Other Factors
Imitation of other singers
Often singers try to imitate the voice or singing style of a famous entertainer or other person they admire. A sound that's appropriate for one person's voice, however, is not necessarily good for another's. When you try to adopt vocal qualities that your own vocal equipment is not designed to handle, you only abuse your voice.

Remediesthat don't work

Sprays, lozenges,hot tea, etc., do not help you sing better. They only soothe irritated membranes when you have a sore or irritated throat. Most of them have no effect on the vocal cords themselves,becauseyour vocal cords are located below the point where most of these preparations can reach. But even when they do reach your vocal cords, these "remedies" do nothing to correct the problems that put your voice in the condition that prompted their use.

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HEALTHAND CAREOF THE S/NGER'S VOICE

Unnecessary vocal rest

It isn't natural for your voice to become hoarse or tired with normal (optimal) usage. However, if you abuse your voice, either through poor vocal technique or anything else, it will not work its best for you. When you find that your voice becomeshoarse, weak, or too painful to use, vocal rest may eliminate these symptoms temporarily. But don't think all you need is vocal rest. Eventually the problems will return unless you eliminate the cause-vocal abuse.

Emotional stress and fatigue

When you are tired or your body is under emotional stress, your neuromuscular system can't function properly. Under such conditions, you run the risk of overexerting your vocal muscles and using the muscles outside your larynx for assistance.

Hormones

For women, natural changesin your body's chemistry, during pregnancy, menopause, and even menstrual cycles, will cause your body's tissuesto thicken-even your vocal cords. Be careful at these times, becauseyour cords will not respond or move as quickly as they do when they are thinner.

Your environment

There are a great variety of environmental factors that can affect your voice (not to mention your general health). Dust, fumes, smog, smoke, or any foreign substancesyou come into contact with can affect the muscular tissue of your vocal cords directly, or indirectly by affecting your neuromuscular system.

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APPENDIX
Therapy Technique SethRiggsVocal and

Stage,Screenand TelevisionPerconalities
Current and former students of Seth Riggs:
Bryan Adams Donnie Ray Albert Edward Albert Muhammad Ali Marcus Allen Loni Anderson Edward Andrews fulie Andrews Luci Arnaz Armand Assante Jim Bailey Philip Bailey Anne Bancroft Kim Basinger Tony Basil Priscilla Baskerville Alan Bates Brian Bedford George Benson Angela Blasi Michael Bolton Debbie Boone Pat Boone Tom Bosley kacy Bregman Eileen Brennan Didi Bridgewater Carol Burnett Levar Burton Tevin.Campbell Didi Canova Irene Cara Belinda Carlisle Vicki Carr David Cassidy George Chakiris Richard Chamberlain Stockard Channing Cher Stanley Clark fames Coburn Natalie Cole Gary Collins William Conrad Rita Coolidge Tom Cruise MacCauley Culkin Tim Curry Tony Curtis |ohn Davidson Billy Davis )r. Pamela Dawber SusanDey Patty Duke Sandy Duncan Nancy Dussault Emanuel Richard Eastham Lisa Eichorn Lola Falana Sherilyn Fenn George Firth Jane Fonda Steve Forrest Connie Francis Rosie Gaines Peter Gallagher Terri Garr BenGazzara Marla Gibbs fohnny Gill Sharon Gless Andrew Gold \tVhoopi Goldberg Leslie Gore Kathryn Grayson Melanie Griffith Robert Guillaume Gene Hackman Lani Hall Monty Hall fonnie Halliday George Hamilton Dorian Harewood Harper Jessica Barbara Harris Greg Harrison Lisa Hartman Goldie Hawn Howard Hewitt Clint Holmes Linda Hopkins Thb Hunter Ron Husman ]ames Ingram Jeremy Irons JanetJackson Joe]ackson La Toya Jackson Marlon Jackson Michael Jackson Randy Jackson ReebieJackson Tito fackson Sonny |ames Al jarreau Anne jefferies Waylon Jennings Ann Jillian Don Johnson StaceyKeach Sally Kellerman Lynn Kellogg Paula Kelly Nicole Kidman Val Kilmer FlorenceLa Rue Piper Laurie Eloise Laws Emmanuel Lewis Anne Lockhart Heather Locklear Lorna Luft Madonna George Maharis Steven Torme March Ann-Margret Cheech Marin Martika Marrero SteveMartin Mireille Mattheiu Les McCann Marilyn McCoo Shirley Maclaine Geraldine McEwan Ed McMahon Barbara McNair Bette Midler Liza Minelli Manuel Mijaris Mary Anne Mobley Shirley Murdock Eddie Murphy Don Murray Jan Murray Leslie Nielson Olivia Newton-John Nick Nolte Sinead O'Conner Pete Onorati Ceci Peniston Monica P6ge Donna Pescoe BernadettePeters CassandraPeterson (Elvira) fune Pointer

138

Wind & Fire Philip Bailey Verdine White Maurice White Eurythmics Annie Lennox Chicago Peter Cetera Bill Champlain JasonScheff Bob Dylan Carolyn Dennis Helena Springs joAnne Flarriss Fleetwood Mac Billy Burnett Supremes Cindy Birdsong Linda Laurence joanne Turrell Mary Wilson Marvin Gaye |ohnny Simon Florence Lyle Ray Charles Madeline Quebec Lionel Ritchie FlorenceLyle Shalimar Howard Hewitt Toto Brian DuPlessis Red Hot Chili Peppers Anthony Kaedis Aerosmith joe Porter Mozart Adam 139 .Screen Ruth Pointer JanePowell Prince Anthony Quinn Bonnie fkitt Molly Ringwald Lionel Ritchie Chita Rivera Jimmy Rodgers Daniella Romo John Rubinstein Telly Savalas John Saxon William Shallert Cybil Shepherd Talia Shire ReneeSimard Helen Slater David Soul Dusty Springfield Rick Springfield Robert Stack Sylvester Stallone Frank Stallone Connie Stevens Sharon Stone Bo Svenson Toni Tenille Tiffany Lilli Tomlin Liz Torres Tina Turner Tracy Ullman Brenda Vaccaro Frankie Valli joan Van Ark Gino Vanelli Sylvie Vartan Ben Vereen Eduardo Villa JamesWagner fessicaWalters RachelWard Leslie Anne Warren Ted Wass Jody Watley Patrick Wayne Carl Weathers Raquel Welch Maurice \tVhite DenieceWilliams Lenny Williams Paul Williams Fred Williamson Angela Winbush Paul Winfield Stevie Wonder Syreeta Wright Ren Woods PiaZadora Groups Kiss Paul Stanley Stevie Wonder Ben Bridges Greg Phillinganes Ray Pound Hank Redd Mike Sembella Nathan Watts Lou Rawls Judy |ames Yvonne Wright Earth.APPENDIX and TelevisionPerconalities(continued) Stage.

1984 (Olympic) Lawrence Dale Evita. New York Company Ted Wass Diana Canova Can Can. 1974 Patricia Wynant Leslie Easterbrook Festival. Georgia Brown Pirates of Penzance. 198'J. 1981 Ron Husmann Sophisticated Ladies. 1974 Lynn Cole Adcock Michael Kermoyan Peter Kavoian Aleko Korallis Macbeth. 1981. New York Company Derin Altay Little Johnny Jones David Cassidy . 1972 Ioel Parks Richard Balin No. 1975 Leslie Easterbrook Charles Bergman Ron Husman Odyssey. Nanette..1975 Charles Bergman Purlie.1930-81 Cynthia Hunt Angela Blasi Sharon Scott Harold Clausing Derin Altay Vincent Pirillo Deena Su Cilmore Evan Richards Bruce Senesak Julia Hannibal Let's Call The ll'hole Thing Gershwin.S/NG/NGFOR THESIARS BroadwayShows Rothchilds. \976 Carolyn Dennis Kutee Charles Harris Marcie Thomas Fiddler on the Roof. 7972 Jani Eckhard Steve Ward Don Shrump Karen Yarmat Marvelee Cariaga Cyrano de Bergerac Richard Chamberlain (Cyrano) Leslie Easterbrook Gone With the Wind Leslie Anne Warren (Scarlett) Udana Powers (Melanie) Larrie Miles Gigi.1979 Priscilla Baskerville King and I. \979 Robert Vega Michael Kermoyan Cho Yung Kim Lauretta Giles Tempest. 1982 Los Angeles Company Richard Orbach Daryl Yaeger Deborah Hahn Joe Farris Kevin Blair Bob Amarante Kevin Blair Iillian Walke Jaymi Marshall Royal Opera. 1975 Helen Gelzer Dennis Williams The Lltiz.. National Company. 1975 Leslie Easterbrook How To Succeed In Business. 1973 Cherie Davis Leslie Easterbrook King and l. No. \975 Martin Vidnovic Linda Vidnovic Bob Slater Suzanne Sponsler Gerron Douglas lltonderful Town. 1980 Jubilant Sykes Larry Ceder Barnum. 1978 Gregg Harrison Leslie Easterbrook Pamela Cordova Roger Case Timbuktu. 1979 Priscilla Baskerville (LA. New York Company. 1973 Gordon de Vol Udana Powers Janis Eckhard Oliver. 1982 Hinton Battle Dee Dee Bridgewater Lauretta Giles Chorus Line. 1974 Leslie Easterbrook Eric Silyu Steve Ward 140 Camelot. 1972 Bill Biskup Dennis Atkesson Michael Mitchell Iason Holt JeannieMoore Sound of Music. Stacy Keach (Barnum) Georgia Brown & Friends.) Evita. Los Angeles Company Pam Dawber (Mabel) They're Playing our Song. Co.

APPENDIX Film-Vocal Consultant New York. Netp York Liza Minelli SuteetCharity Shirley Maclaine CoolWorld Kim Basinger Wild at Heart Nicholas Cage Penniesfrom Heazten Steve Martin Bernadette Peters ldol Maker Ray Sharkey Peter Gallagher Victor Victorta Lesley Anne Warren RhinestoneCowboy Sylvester Stallone Sluggers Wife Rebeccade Mornay Ruby Sherilyn Fenn Newsies Ann-Margret Christian Bale For the Boys JamesCaan Songwfiter Lesley Anne Warren Mambo Kings Armand Assante Tommy Tina Turner Ann-Margret Color Purple Margaret Avery Rae Dawn Chong The Doors Val Kilmer Rondhouse BenGazzara Swizzle Loni Anderson Dickkacy Madonna The MarryingMan Kim Basinger losephineBaker Story Carol Dennis (Voice for Josephine Baker) I'll Do Anything Nick Nolte Tracey Ullman SisterAct Whoopi Goldberg Boys on the Side Whoopi Goldberg 141 .

which causesyou to lose the continuity (connection)of tone production. Chest Register The term traditionally assignedto the lowest part of your potential range. Seebreak. Air Flow The amount of air you send to your vocal cords. Breath Flow Seeair flow. Not noticeablein everyone. if your cords are allowed to gradually "shorten" thin and then their vibrating length with a corresponding gradual decreasein air flow." Alto Low female voice. least noticeable in women. Balance Occurs when air flow and cord tension produce tone with the least amount of effort from your speech level. Breath Support The amount of air your vocal cords need to vibrate efficiently. connected manner from your chest voice through your head voice. Generally implies the correct amount of air needed to coordinate with the proper vocal cord tension. Air Blast Excessiveair flow which either overpowers your vocal cords or causesthem to overtighten in resistance. Excessive air "air flow is called blast. allowing you to sing in an easy.Glossary Adam's Apple Common term used to describe the part of the larynx (voicebox) which protrudes from the front of the neck. Belting Using excessiveair flow (air blast) and vocal cord tension in an attempt to sing louder. Blasting See belting. however. It should be a byproduct of speech-levelsinging. This can be avoided. Cause and Effect Exercises Exercisesdone in such a manner that the desired vocal coordination is achieved directly as a result. Break Area An area in your vocal range where your voice is most likely to break. It should never be controlled directly. Baritone Male voice located between bass and tenor in range and tone quality. Bass Low male voice. Break A sudden shift in your tone caused when excessiveair flow overcomes cord tension. so excessiveair pressure or muscle tension never gets a chance to build up. Compression Caused when air pressure builds up against your 142 .

g. Direct Control The attempt to control your breathing and/or vocal musclesby consciouslytensing those muscles or any muscles that may affect them. Falsetto A type of vocal production that.). d. lets you experiencethe freedom of singing in the higher part of your range without strain. ExcessiveMuscular Effort The primary cause of all vocal trouble. and the fact that it is impossible to increase sound intensity past a certain point. Consonant A speechsound produced as the result of a temporary partial or complete constriction of air flow (b. or not enough air flow (see breath support) is provided the cords. However. Edge Sound A term used to "unfinished" describe the type of sound that involves the vibration of just the inner edges of your vocal cords. Epiglottis The leaflike cartilage that separatesthe functioning of your esophagus(channel to the stomach) from the functioning of your trachea (channel to the lungs). 143 . Its main function is to initiate inhalation by contracting (flattening). etc. thus enlarging the chest cavity so your lungs can fill with air.etc. When air flow is balanced with proper cord tension. Used as a device for re-balancing an incorrectly produced voice so that speech-level production of tone can be possible. except for occasional special vocal effects.). you do not feel any pressure. This. Occurs when one tries to control his or her voice with the wrong muscles. unlike head voice. falsetto cannot blend (connect) with your chest voice. f . a device (a of note or sequence notes sung in a certain manner) used to condition and/or strengthenyour vocal muscles to work with the proper air flow in a speech-levelmanner. A certain amount is neededin order to blow the cords open to produce sound waves. Exercise In singing. you feel a pressure build-up in the voice (in the throat and soft palate areas. But. There"disconfore it is referred to as a nected" type of tone production. like head voice. An incorrect way to sing. Diaphragm The large dome-shaped your chest and muscle that separates stomach cavities. so there is a consistency "break" or of production with no producsudden change in your tone tion or quality. Connected Tone Tone that is produced evenly from chest through head voice. makes falsetto production impractical to use. Esophagus The food channel to your stomach. so the full bulk of the cords is not activated.-when too much compression is allowed to build up becauseof too much cord tension.Seedirect control.GLOSSABY closed or nearly closed vocal cords.

S/NG/NGFOR THESIARS

Flexible Tone The result of a balanced vocal coordination which allows you to move easily from the pitch and intensity of one tone to the pitch and intensity of another tone. Forced Larynx A condition in which the muscles outside your larynx (muscles primarily used by your body for chewing and swallowing food) pull your larynx up or down when creating tone. However, this is the wrong way to produce tone. Seehigh larynx, low larynx. Free Tone Tone that is produced as a result of speech-levelsinging, where your vocal cords work with your air flow to produce tone without interference from vour outer muscles. Free Voice See free tone.

it upward in an attempt to tighten (stretch) your cords by force. Indirect Control The type of control you develop after conditioning your voice to work properly. Larynx The organ at the top of your trachea (windpipe), made up of cartilages, ligaments, and muscles.Inside, attached from front to back, are your vocal cords. Certain muscles of your larynx affect the tension of your vocal cords as they work with the air from your lungs in producing vocal sound. Functions best when in a relaxed, position. speech-level Low Larynx A term often used in"relaxed" terchangeably with or "stable" larynx, in which case it is a by-product of speechJevel singing. Sometimes, however, it refers to the condition in which the muscles below your larynx are used to pull the larynx downward in an attempt to increase resonance space. This should be avoided, except when done as an exerciseto counteract a highJarynx condition. You should always sing with a speech-level coordination and accept what you get as being the true tone quality for your voice. See forced larynx, high larynx. Manipulation Consciously or unconsciously using your outer musclesto control the tension of your vocal cords in your larynx and/or the shape of your resonance areas, instead of allowing your larynx to function on its own. Also

Full Tone As loud as a person can sing without creating an imbalance between air flow and vocal cord tension. Also refers to a tone that has a balanced resonancequality. Full Voice See full tone.

Head Register The term traditionally assigned to the highest part of your potential range. Head Tone Head Voice See head register. See head register.

High Larynx A condition in which the muscles above your larynx pull

144

GLOSSAFY

refers to the techniques used by some teachersto supposedlyget their students to free their voices. The latter is not only dangerous (i.e., pulling down on the larynx by hand or grabbing the tongue)-it doesn't work! See direct control. Mezzo Soprano Female voice located between alto and soprano in range and tone quality. Middle Register The potential blend area between your chest voice and head voice. Middle Voice Seemiddle register.

Repertoire The songs a singer is prepared to sing publicly. Resonance The reinforcement of initial cord tone in the cavities above the larynx. A secondary vibration factor. Should be a byproduct of speechJevel singing. ResonanceAreas Any of the areas (cavities) above the larynx which reinforce the tone originally produced by the vocal cords. "shortenShortening Refers to the ing" of vibrating length that occurs once the cords have thinned to their maximum degree. The cords do not actually shorten in length-instead, less of the overall cord length is involved in opening and closing. Soprano High female voice. Sound Wave A wave of compressed air molecules releasedfrom your vocal cords during the'vibrating process and received by the ear of the listener. Seevocal cord vibration. Speech-LevelPosture. level singing. See speech-

Natural Singer An individual who has acquired a balance throughout his or her entire range or singing area without formal voice training. Passage Area An area in your range where muscular adjustment and/or resonanceactivity make it especially difficult to negotiate a balance between air flow and vocal cord adjustment. Men have about three such areas in their range, whereas women have as many as five or six. Range The extremes of pitches-upper and lower-you can sing. Your practice range is generally greater than your performance range, however. Notes sung in performance range should always be balanced and feel very comfortable. Seerelease. Release A condition in which your voice works easily without your having to think about it.

Speech-Level Production. speech-levelsinging.

See

Speech-LevelSinging Generally, when you speak in a quiet, comfortable manner, the outer musclesdo not interfere with the functioning of your larynx. That's becausetone is not your main concern-communication is. Therefore, your larynx is

145

S/NG/NGFOR THESIARS

allowed to rest in a relatively stable, posior what we call a speech-leuel, tion. This is the ideal vocal condition or posture with which to sing. Super Head The area beginning around B-flat in the 4th passagearea of the women's range (seechart on page 34). There is a sensationof go"overdrive" ing into an beyond regular head voice-an additional feeling of release. The next areas of releaseare in the 5th and 6th passaSe areas. Support Seebreath support.

to make your vowels and consonants without risking strain to your cords, producing a forced tone with limited range, or encouraging a "break" in the vibration pattern of the cords. Seebreak, breath support. Technique The way in which one produces vocal sound. Tenor Highest male voice.

Support the Tone A phrase used by many voice teachers and choir directors, along with similar "give phrases,i.e., it more support," "sing and with your diaphragm." Such direction, however, implies that the singer do things that are extremely dangerous to the voice, like using direct, effortful control or excessiveair flow. True breath support only exists when there is a balance of air flow with cord tension. You can have a tremendous supply of air and still not sing well. To produce sound waves, your cords merely need to resist your air flow until just enough air pressure builds up underneath to blow them apart. If you use too much air, however, your cords are obliged to increase their tension, which is certain to enlist the help of the muscles outside your larynx-your outer muscles.And, if your outer muscles are holding your larynx (thus your cords) in a certain tension to stabilizeyour tone, you are not free

Thinning What happens to your cords when they are stretched.The best way-and the only safe way-for them to be stretched, though, is by allowing the muscles of your larynx to do the work, without assistance from any other muscles. This way, your larynx can remain in a relaxed and stable (speech-level) position. The result is a lighter, yet balanced sound that allows you to sing higher more easily. The self-containedstretching activity in the larynx also frees the musclesthat control your tongue, jaw, etc. (which otherwise pull on your larynx from the outside to stretch your cords) to form vowels and consonants.This, and the "shortening" that takes place when the cords have thinned as far as possible, prevents a "jammed up" vocal condition. Timbre The quality of your voice that results from the resonance reinforcement of the tone initially produced in your larynx. Best and most consistentwhen it is the result of speech-levelproduction, which stabilizesyour resonancesystem.

Some adjustments are more efficient than others for producing tone in different parts of your range. the skill to be acquired is speechJevel singing technique. you must be careful to never think in terms of cord adjustment-just be concerned with keeping the tone connected from a speech level. Caused bY the normal relaxation and contraction of the vocal muscles as they are activated by alternating nerve im"energy" to the pulses. When the air pressure becomes too great. If and closing your vocal cords are closed (or almost closed) at the same time you exhale. but regular fluctuation in your tone. the cords are blown apart. The openirqg Vocal Cord Vibration of your vocal cords. Once the air pressure is released. Vocal Imagery The descriptions some teachersuse to conveY the physical sensationsone should feel "mental pictures" one should or the "images" see when singing. Vocal Cord Adiustment What your vocal cords must do to work 147 . These supposedly translate into the vocal coordination needed to sing correctly. The frequency and force of the sound waves determines. Gives an tone during the vibration process. All adiustments should take place automatically. Tone Quality Trachea lungs. However. affects the pitch and intensity of your tone. See timbre. respectively. Their change in thickness and vibrating length. In the case of singing. See cause and effect exercises. Vocal Cords Two muscular folds that connect from the inside front to the inside back of your larynx. Not the same thing as a tremolo or a wobble. which are caused by the instability of one's outer muscles when trying to use those muscles to control tone. See thinning and shortening. Opposite of using direct cause and effect exercisesthat are quicker and more accurate in training a singer. due to adjustment in tension. intensitY and resonance quality (see timbre) of your vocal sound.GLOSSAFY Tone The overall term used to describe the pitch. air pressure builds up below them. Vibration tion. Vibrato A slight. your vocal cords spring back to their closed (or almost closed) position. the pitch and intensity of your tone. creating a wave of compressedair molecules-a sound wave. See vocal cord vibra- efficiently with your breath flow to create the pitch and intensity of your tone. The sudden release of air pushes the air molecules above your cords together and outward. The air channel to your Training The process of acquiring a skill through a course of study.

). The result of each alteration is a recognizable "oh.S/NG/NG FOR THE SIARS Vocal Muscles All the muscles of your larynx. Vowel A specific resonance structure through which a tone is sustained. which determines how the resonance cavities will reinforce certain frequencies of the initial cord tone. Voice Break See break. that control the tensions of the cords as they coordinate with your breath flow." etc. Produced primarily by 148 . including the vocal cords. altering the size and shape of the mouth cavity and changing the position of the tongue. Windpipe See trachea." "ee." sound ("ah.

... .....25 Instruction ....... .10 Instruction .......27 Practice......28 Exercise9 62(s6) Exercise4 Exercise5 52(s0) Exercise10 Instruction..29 64 (56) ExampIe ...... ..... ....... ... . ....9 Practice... .... .. ....... .... .... Whenever you want to listen to or practice a particular exercise. .... 1 5 ..... ... ..... Return your tape deck's counter to zero at the start of each side......... ..... ....... ...27 Practice.1. ...However......33 Practice.... ....... .. ..4 Instruction .... ... ... Practice.............. .... .24 Practice..... . ..and the location of your practice range within each exercise.... .........8 46 (42) Example..Tapeand CompectDisc Index Cassette Cassette Tapes Tape 1.2 Example...... ... 7 2 .... Side 1 Side 2 Introduction and Exercises1-4 Exercises 5-11 Exercises 72-79 Exercises 20-30 and Closing Comments Note to cassette users: It may be helpful to use your tape deck's counter while working with thesecassettes............ 6 . ... ........11 48 (42) E x a m p l e...... .22 Exercise7 sB(56) Exercise2 44 (42) ExerciseB Exercise3 Instruction .. ........ ....... CDI Introduction Exercise1 Tiack Page (andsupplemental information) Track Page (andsupplemental information) .............. .... sincetape deck counters vary..........79 Instruction......32 66 (56) Example . ..30 Practice....4 E x a m p l e..7 38 40 (42) Exercise6 Instruction ...............23 60 (56) Example. ...you can fast-forward or rewind the tape to that number.. That way............... ........ ........13 Instruction ....... P r a c t i c e ....3 Practice.......5 E x a m p l e.17 54 (50) ExampIe . ... you will need to createyour own index.. .. .. ... .... 7 6 Instruction........18 Practice...... ........... .. ............ ......20 Example .... ..............26 Example ... you can list on the CD chart below the counter numbers for the location of each exercise. ... .. ...1 Instruction ... . Side 1 Side 2 Tape2. ... Practice.31 Exercise11 Instruction....34 149 ..

....................5 Example Practice......13 Exercise17 Instruction ...............40 26 Instruction......15 .....12 Practice.......... 92 Exercise22 Instruction ........'37 Practice.............'..................... Exercise18 Instruction ....43 104 106 108 110 ...................... Exercise25 Instruction... 90 Exercise21 Instruction ..........'......'.4 13 Instruction Exercise ..................................39 Practice.............S/NG/NGFOR THE SIARS CD2 Tlack Page 70 Track Page ......26 Example.........................41 100 Exercise Example.............18 Practice......28 Practice....32 .........34 Practice..........................11 Example.17 Example........23 8B ExampIe...29 Example..........25 Practice.......30 Practice..........'27 ..............................-.....19 Exercise19 Instruction .......'.............2 Example Practice................1 Exercise 12 Instruction ......33 Example ...14 82 Example.............................35 96 Exercise Example.....................................6 14 Exercise 15 Instruction ...1'6 Practice.'.10 Exercise16 Instruction ......22 Practice....... 24 Instruction....24 .20 86 Example.36 ..42 Practice........9 Practice......8 Exercise Example...........38 98 Example.........3 72 ..31 94 Exercise23 Instruction ..................27 .......'.... Exercise 20 Instruction .............................

Arranger "By helping me take pressure off my chest range and getting into my head coordination. Singer still experimentuith many different uocal styles and qualities. use great teacheris able to direct a singer totoard a healthier. Seth Riggs'method of voice training is the proven one. Singer ear. I need a oocal range and control that allous me complete freedom to express my feelings. No matter what style of music you sing. and ztocal production haoe improued greatly and I belieue that Seth's techBette Midler nique is responsible." Stevie Wonder freedom RecordingArtist." Baritone I urite a song." "My "Laying "Seth "A "Today I Singer. Seth Riggs is the man professionals turn to for results.M. pop." Composer.M. &2 Compact Standard Discs: 3379-Book BN 2455 ond 2200Book 2 Cosselles il. und 33i9Book 2CDs StahdarilEfitioriG. Singer has helped me establish a solid foundation of uocal technique. a better longeuity for my career..Pianist Riggshas an uncanny ablity to prepareoocalistsso that there k little time lost to the usualoocal problems.Actress the is an old time Bel Cantr: teacher." OuincyJones Producer.A. Seth roorks my uoice ozserthree octaoes. more extensioe of his uoice usithout losing that specialquality that sets him apart. the next. poTt)er. Singer "When "Seth they sing euenly in many keys toith potuer aluays enjoyed Seth Riggs'singers. RecordingArtist. one day and 4 A.because Marvin Hamlisch and control." Deniece Williams Composer. Seth Riggs contributed a relaxation and. perLtaps first to extendBel Cqnto into pop and Thomas McKinney musical comedy styles. 1 neuer lose my ability to sing at nearly fames Ingram anu hour. and the muscular to do that is the result of my uork uith Seth. Singer "I'oe "Seth The same singing technique the pros use is now available to you.n the world of show business where time is money. Since beginning uocal study uith Seth Rrggs. 2200-Book2 Casseftes: & ueruxe Z5J5-uoox lassenes: Euruorft &Z rlition(ffi. His assbtanceon my albums ET and Thriller confirmed my confidencein his approach" Michael fackson Producer.." Actress. ultimately.. . can kill your uoice. Singer doton oocal tracks bettoeen 12 A." Al fateau Recording Artist. opera or musical theatre. rock. clear and flexible voice over a range that you never dreamed possible. You will learn how to sing with a strong. gospel.." Recording Artist. Seth Riggsis such a teacher. so I can meet any aocal Bernadette Peters challenge squarely and uith confidence.

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