System Dynamics
Fourth Edition
Katsuhiko Ogata
University of Minnesota

------PEARSON

Pnmticc

Hid I

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-PubUcation Data on me.

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ISBN D-13-1424b2-9
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Contents
PREFACE 1 INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM DYNAMICS vii

1

1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4
2

Introduction 1 Mathematical Modeling of Dynamic Systems 3 Analysis and Design of Dynamic Systems 5 Summary 6
8

THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

2-1 Introduction 8 2-2 Complex Numbers, Complex Variables, and Complex Functions 8 2-3 Laplace Transformation 14 2-4 Inverse Laplace Transformation 29 2-5 Solving Linear, TIlDe-Invariant Differential Equations 34 Example Problems and Solutions 36 Problems 49
3 MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

53

3-1 Introduction 53 3-2 Mechanical Elements 57 3-3 Mathematical Modeling of Simple Mechanical Systems 61 3-4 Work, Energy, and Power 73 Example Problems and Solutions 81 Problems 100

iii

iv

Contents

4

TRANSFER-FUNCTION APPROACH TO MODELING DYNAMIC SYSTEMS
4-1 Introduction 106 4-2 Block Diagrams 109 4-3 Partial-Fraction Expansion with MATLAB 112 4-4 Transient-Response Analysis with MATLAB 119 Example Problems and Solutions 135 Problems 162

106

5

STATE-SPACE APPROACH TO MODELING DYNAMIC SYSTEMS
Introduction 169 Transient-Response Analysis of Systems in State-Space Form with MATLAB 174 5-3 State-Space Modeling of Systems with No Input Derivatives 181 5-4 State-Space Modeling of Systems with Input Derivatives 187 5-5 "fransformation of Mathematical Models with MATLAB 202 Example Problems and Solutions 209 Problems 239 5-1 5-2

169

6

ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS AND ELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS
6-1 Introduction 251 6-2 Fundamentals of Electrical Circuits 254 6-3 Mathematical Modeling of Electrical Systems 261 6-4 Analogous Systems 270 6-5 Mathematical Modeling of Electromechanical Systems 274 6-6 Mathematical Modeling of Operational-Amplifier Systems 281 Example Problems and Solutions 288 Problems 312

251

7

FLUID SYSTEMS AND THERMAL SYSTEMS
7-1 Introduction 323 7-2 Mathematical Modeling of Liquid-Level Systems 324 7-3 Mathematical Modeling of Pneumatic Systems 332 7-4 Linearization of Nonlinear Systems 337 7-5 Mathematical Modeling of Hydraulic Systems 340 7-6 Mathematical Modeling of Thermal Systems 348 Example Problems and Solutions 352 Problems 375

323

Contents

v

B

TIME-DOMAIN ANALYSIS OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS
8-1 Introduction 383 8-2 Transient-Response Analysis of First-Order Systems 384 8-3 Transient-Response Analysis of Second-Order Systems 388 8-4 Transient-Response Analysis of Higher Order Systems 399 8-5 Solution of the State Equation 400 Example Problems and Solutions 409 Problems 424

383

9

FREQUENCY-DOMAIN ANALYSIS OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS
9-1 Introduction 431 9-2 Sinusoidal Transfer Function 432 9-3 Vibrations in Rotating Mechanical Systems 438 9-4 Vibration Isolation 441 9-5 Dynamic Vibration Absorbers 447 9-6 Free Vibrations in Multi-Degrees-of-Freedom Systems 453 Example Problems and Solutions 458 Problems 484

431

10

TIME-DOMAIN ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF CONTROL SYSTEMS

491

10-1 Introduction 491 10-2 Block Diagrams and Their Simplification 494 10-3 Automatic Controllers 501 10-4 Thansient-Response Analysis 506 10-5 Thansient-Response Specifications 513 10-6 Improving Transient-Response and Steady-State Characteristics 522 10-7 Stability Analysis 538 10-8 Root-Locus Analysis 545 10-9 Root-Locus Plots with MATLAB 562 10-10 Thning Rules for PID Controllers 566 Example Problems and Solutions 576 Problems 600

11

FREQUENCY-DOMAIN ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF CONTROL SYSTEMS
11-1 11-2 11-3 11-4 Introduction 608 Bode Diagram Representation of the Frequency Response 609 Plotting Bode Diagrams with MATLAB 629 Nyquist Plots and the Nyquist Stability Criterion 630

60B

11-5 Drawing Nyquist Plots with MATLAB 640 11-6 Design of Control Systems in the Frequency Domain Example Problems and Solutions 668 Problems 690
APPENDIX A APPENDIXB APPENDIXC APPENDIXD REFERENCES INDEX
SYSTEMS OF UNITS CONVERSION TABLES VECTOR-MATRIX ALGEBRA INTRODUCTION TO MATLAB

643

695
700 705 720

757 759

Preface
A course in system dynamics that deals with mathematical modeling and response analyses of dynamic systems is required in most mechanical and other engineering curricula. This book is written as a textbook for such a course. It is written at the junior level and presents a comprehensive treatment of modeling and analyses of dynamic systems and an introduction to control systems. Prerequisites for studying this book are first courses in linear algebra, introductory differential equations, introductory vector-matrix analysis, mechanics, circuit analysis, and thermodynamics. Thermodynamics may be studied simultaneously. Main revisions made in this edition are to shift the state space approach to modeling dynamic systems to Chapter 5, right next to the transfer function approach to modeling dynamic systems, and to add numerous examples for modeling and response analyses of dynamic systems. All plottings of response curves are done with MATLAB. Detailed MATLAB programs are provided for MATLAB works presented in this book. This text is organized into 11 chapters and four appendixes. Chapter 1 presents an introduction to system dynamics. Chapter 2 deals with Laplace transforms of commonly encountered time functions and some theorems on Laplace transform that are useful in analyzing dynamic systems. Chapter 3 discusses details of mechanical elements and simple mechanical systems. This chapter includes introductory discussions of work, energy, and power. Chapter 4 discusses the transfer function approach to modeling dynamic systems. 'lransient responses of various mechanical systems are studied and MATLAB is used to obtain response curves. Chapter 5 presents state space modeling of dynamic systems. Numerous examples are considered. Responses of systems in the state space form are discussed in detail and response curves are obtained with MATLAB. Chapter 6 treats electrical systems and electromechanical systems. Here we included mechanical-electrical analogies and operational amplifier systems. Chapter 7
vii

viii

Preface

deals with mathematical modeling of fluid systems (such as liquid-level systems, pneumatic systems, and hydraulic systems) and thermal systems. A linearization technique for nonlinear systems is presented in this chapter. Chapter 8 deals with the time-domain analysis of dynamic systems. Transientresponse analysis of first-order systems, second-order systems, and higher order systems is discussed in detail. This chapter includes analytical solutions of state-space equations. Chapter 9 treats the frequency-domain analysis of dynamic systems. We first present the sinusoidal transfer function, followed by vibration analysis of mechanical systems and discussions on dynamic vibration absorbers. Then we discuss modes of vibration in two or more degrees-of-freedom systems. Chapter 10 presents the analysis and design of control systems in the time domain. After giving introductory materials on control systems, this chapter discusses transient-response analysis of control systems, followed by stability analysis, root-locus analysis, and design of control systems. Fmally, we conclude this chapter by giving tuning rules for PID controllers. Chapter 11 treats the analysis and design of control systems in the frequency domain. Bode diagrams, Nyquist plots, and the Nyquist stability criterion are discussed in detail. Several design problems using Bode diagrams are treated in detail. MATLAB is used to obtain Bode diagrams and Nyquist plots. Appendix A summarizes systems of units used in engineering analyses. Appendix B provides useful conversion tables. Appendix C reviews briefly a basic vector-matrix algebra. Appendix D gives introductory materials on MATLAB. If the reader has no prior experience with MATLAB, it is recommended that he/she study Appendix D before attempting to write MATLAB programs. Throughout the book, examples are presented at strategic points so that the reader will have a better understanding of the subject matter discussed. In addition, a number of solved problems (A problems) are provided at the end of each chapter, except Chapter 1. These problems constitute an integral part of the text. It is suggested that the reader study all these problems carefully to obtain a deeper understanding of the topics discussed. Many unsolved problems (B problems) are also provided for use as homework or quiz problems. An instructor using this text for hislher system dynamics course may obtain a complete solutions manual for B problems from the publisher. Most of the materials presented in this book have been class tested in courses in the field of system dynamics and control systems in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota over many years. If this book is used as a text for a quarter-length course (with approximately 30 lecture hours and 18 recitation hours), Chapters 1 through 7 may be covered. After studying these chapters, the student should be able to derive mathematical models for many dynamic systems with reasonable simplicity in the forms of transfer function or state-space equation. Also, he/she will be able to obtain computer solutions of system responses with MATLAB. If the book is used as a text for a semesterlength course (with approximately 40 lecture hours and 26 recitation hours), then the first nine chapters may be covered or, alternatively, the first seven chapters plus Chapters 10 and 11 may be covered. If the course devotes 50 to 60 hours to lectures, then the entire book may be covered in a semester.

Preface

ix

Fmally, I wish to acknowledge deep appreciation to the following professors who reviewed the third edition of this book prior to the preparation of this new edition: R. Gordon Kirk (Vrrginia Institute of Technology), Perry Y. Li (University of Minnesota), Sherif Noah (Texas A & M University), Mark L. Psiaki (Cornell University), and William Singhose (Georgia Institute of Technology). Their candid, insightful, and constructive comments are reflected in this new edition.
KATSUHIKO OGATA

Introduction to System Dynamics

1-1 INTRODUCTION

System dynamics deals with the mathematical modeling of dynamic systems and response analyses of such systems with a view toward understanding the dynamic nature of each system and improving the system's performance. Response analyses are frequently made through computer simulations of dynamic systems. Because many physical systems involve various types of components, a wide variety of different types of dynamic systems will be examined in this book. The analysis and design methods presented can be applied to mechanical, electrical, pneumatic, and hydraulic systems, as well as nonengineering systems, such as economic systems and biological systems. It is important that the mechanical engineering student be able to determine dynamic responses of such systems. We shall begin this chapter by defining several terms that must be understood in discussing system dynamics.
Systems. A system is a combination of components acting together to perform a specific objective. A component is a single functioning unit of a system. By no means limited to the realm of the physical phenomena, the concept of a system can be extended to abstract dynamic phenomena, such as those encountered in economics, transportation, population growth, and biology.
1

2

Introduction to System Dynamics

Chap. 1

A system is called dynamic if its present output depends on past input; if its current output depends only on current input, the system is known as static. The output of a static system remains constant if the input does not change. The output changes only when the input changes. In a dynamic system, the output changes with time if the system is not in a state of equilibrium. In this book, we are concerned mostly with dynamic systems.
Mathematical models. Any attempt to design a system must begin with a prediction of its performance before the system itself can be designed in detail or actually built. Such prediction is based on a mathematical description of the system's dynamic characteristics. This mathematical description is called a mathematical model. For many physical systems, useful mathematical models are described in terms of differential equations. Linear and nonlinear differential equations. Linear differential equations may be classified as linear, time-invariant differential equations and linear, timevarying differential equations. A linear, time-invariant differential equation is an equation in which a dependent variable and its derivatives appear as linear combinations. An example of such an equation is

- 2 + 5 - + lOx dt dt

d 2x

dx

=0

Since the coefficients of all terms are constant, a linear, time-invariant differential equation is also called a linear, constant-coefficient differential equation. In the case of a linear, time-varying differential equation, the dependent variable and its derivatives appear as linear combinations, but a coefficient or coefficients of terms may involve the independent variable. An example of this type of differential equation is

d2x - 2 + (1 - cos 2t)x
dt

= 0

It is important to remember that, in order to be linear, the equation must contain no powers or other functions or products of the dependent variables or its derivatives. A differential equation is called nonlinear if it is not linear. Two examples of nonlinear differential equations are

and

Sec. 1-2

Mathematical Modeling of Dynamic Systems

3

Linear systems and nonlinear systems. For linear systems, the equations that constitute the model are linear. In this book, we shall deal mostly with linear systems that can be represented by linear, time-invariant ordinary differential equations. The most important property of linear systems is that the principle of superposition is applicable. This principle states that the response produced by simultaneous applications of two different forcing functions or inputs is the sum of two individual responses. Consequently, for linear systems, the response to several inputs can be calculated by dealing with one input at a time and then adding the results. As a result of superposition, complicated solutions to linear differential equations can be derived as a sum of simple solutions. In an experimental investigation of a dynamic system, if cause and effect are proportional, thereby implying that the principle of superposition holds, the system can be considered linear. Although physical relationships are often represented by linear equations, in many instances the actual relationships may not be quite linear. In fact, a careful study of physical systems reveals that so-called linear systems are actually linear only within limited operating ranges. For instance, many hydraulic systems and pneumatic systems involve nonlinear relationships among their variables, but they are frequently represented by linear equations within limited operating ranges. For nonlinear systems, the most important characteristic is that the principle of superposition is not applicable. In general, procedures for finding the solutions of problems involving such systems are extremely complicated. Because of the mathematical difficulty involved, it is frequently necessary to linearize a nonlinear system near the operating condition. Once a nonlinear system is approximated by a linear mathematical model, a number of linear techniques may be used for analysis and design purposes. Continuous-time systems and discrete-time systems. Continuous-time systems are systems in which the signals involved are continuous in time. These systems may be described by differential equations. Discrete-time systems are systems in which one or more variables can change only at discrete instants of time. (These instants may specify the times at which some physical measurement is performed or the times at which the memory of a digital computer is read out.) Discrete-time systems that involve digital signals and, possibly, continuous-time signals as well may be described by difference equations after the appropriate discretization of the continuous-time signals. The materials presented in this text apply to continuous-time systems; discretetime systems are not discussed.
1-2 MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS

Mathematical modeling. Mathematical modeling involves descriptions of important system characteristics by sets of equations. By applying physical laws to a specific system, it may be possible to develop a mathematical model that describes the dynamics of the system. Such a model may include unknown parameters, which

4

Introduction to System Dynamics

Chap. 1

must then be evaluated through actual tests. Sometimes, however, the physical laws governing the behavior of a system are not completely defined, and formulating a mathematical model may be impossible. If so, an experimental modeling process can be used. In this process, the system is subjected to a set of known inputs, and its outputs are measured. Then a mathematical model is derived from the input-output relationships obtained.

Simplicity of mathematical model versus accuracy of results of analysis. In attempting to build a mathematical model, a compromise must be made between the simplicity of the model and the accuracy of the results of the analysis. It is important to note that the results obtained from the analysis are valid only to the extent that the model approximates a given physical system. In determining a reasonably simplified model, we must decide which physical variables and relationships are negligible and which are crucial to the accuracy of the model. To obtain a model in the form of linear differential equations, any distributed parameters and nonlinearities that may be present in the physical system must be ignored. If the effects that these ignored properties have on the response are small, then the results of the analysis of a mathematical model and the results of the experimental study of the physical system will be in good agreement. Whether any particular features are important may be obvious in some cases, but may, in other instances, require physical insight and intuition. Experience is an important factor in this connection. Usually, in solving a new problem, it is desirable first to build a simplified model to obtain a general idea about the solution. Afterward, a more detailed mathematical model can be built and used for a more complete analysis. Remarks on mathematical models. The engineer must always keep in mind that the model he or she is analyzing is an approximate mathematical description of the physical system; it is not the physical system itself In reality, no mathematical model can represent any physical component or system precisely. Approximations and assumptions are always involved. Such approximations and assumptions restrict the range of validity of the mathematical model. (The degree of approximation can be determined only by experiments.) So, in making a prediction about a system's performance, any approximations and assumptions involved in the model must be kept in mind. Mathematical modeling procedure. The procedure for obtaining a mathematical model for a system can be summarized as follows:
L Draw a schematic diagram of the system, and define variables. 2. Using physical laws, write equations for each component, combine them according to the system diagram, and obtain a mathematical model. 3. To verify the validity of the model, its predicted performance, obtained by solving the equations of the model, is compared with experimental results. (The question of the validity of any mathematical model can be answered only by experiment.) If the experimental results deviate from the prediction

By synthesis. Basic approach to system design. in such cases. analysis must start by developing a mathematical model for each component and combining all the models in order to build a model of the complete system. The engineer then compares these solutions and interprets and applies the results of his or her analysis to the basic task. Design procedures. 1-3 Analysis and Design of Dynamic Systems 5 to a great extent. A new model is then derived and a new prediction compared with experimental results. the design procedure is not straightforward and will require trial and error. the features of the components may not be precisely known. Once the latter model is obtained. System design refers to the process of finding a system that accomplishes a given task. and so on.Sec. The first step in analyzing a dynamic system is to derive its mathematical model. hydraulic. various analytical and computer techniques can be used to analyze it. the analysis may be formulated in such a way that system parameters in the model are varied to produce a number of solutions. the model must be modified. Synthesis. and the engineer can systematically determine the components necessary to realize the system's objective. 1-3 ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS This section briefly explains what is involved in the analysis and design of dynamic systems. no synthesis methods are currently applicable. The process is repeated until satisfactory agreement is obtained between the predictions and the experimental results. the system may be subject to many constraints or may be nonlinear. H should always be remembered that deriving a reasonable model for the complete system is the most important part of the entire analysis. Frequently. and then various mathematical techniques are used to synthesize a system having those characteristics. a synthesis of linear systems is possible. Theoretically. The basic approach to the design of any dynamic system necessarily involves trial-and-error procedures. of the performance of a system whose mathematical model is known. trial-and-error techniques are almost always needed. such a procedure is completely mathematical from the start to the end of the design process. In general. In practice. Analysis. Generally. Since any system is made up of components. Moreover. System analysis means the investigation. electrical. The manner in which analysis is carried out is independent of the type of physical system involved-mechanical. however. Thus. Design. under specified conditions. we mean the use of an explicit procedure to find a system that will perform in a specified way. the design of a system proceeds as follows: The engineer begins the design procedure knowing the specifications to be met and . Here the desired system characteristics are postulated at the outset. Once such a model is available.

We begin with Laplace transformation of simple time functions and then discuss inverse Laplace transformation. Outline of the text. This process of design and analysis is repeated until a satisfactory system is found. If the initial system configuration is not satisfactory. . the design of the prototype is complete. (Engineering specifications normally include statements on such factors as cost. The process continues until a satisfactory prototype is obtained. Chapter 5 examines the state-space approach to modeling dynamic systems. If not. 1-4 SUMMARY From the point of view of analysis. a successful engineer must be able to obtain a mathematical model of a given system and predict its performance. and ease of maintenance. Chapter 4 presents the transfer-function approach to modeling dynamic systems. for detailed analysis may reveal that certain requirements are impossible to meet. Chapter 7 deals with fluid systems. the latter of which involve design parameters. Various types of mechanical systems are considered. Note that the process of constructing a prototype is the reverse of mathematical modeling. Chapter 2 treats Laplace transforms. the engineer will apply any applicable synthesis techniques.) It is important to note that the specifications may be changed as the design progresses. Once the design problem is formulated in terms of a model. the engineer tests it to see whether it is satisfactory. Several useful theorems are derived. the prototype must be modified and retested. (The validity of a prediction depends to a great extent on the validity of the mathematical model used in making the prediction. If it is. the system must be redesigned and the corresponding analysis completed. the engineer simulates the model on a computer to test the effects of various inputs and disturbances on the behavior of the resulting system. Next. including operational-amplifier systems. Chapter 3 deals with basic accounts of mechanical systems. With the mathematical design completed. the engineer carries out a mathematical design that yields a solution to the mathematical version of the design problem. reliability. to build a mathematical model of the system. The prototype is a physical system that represents the mathematical model with reasonable accuracy. The chapter discusses various types of mechanical systems.6 Introduction to System Dynamics Chap. Then a prototype physical system can be constructed. weight. 1 the dynamics of the components. space. Chapter 6 treats electrical systems and electromechanical systems. The specification may be given in terms of both precise numerical values and vague qualitative descriptions. The objective of this book is to enable the reader (1) to build mathematical models that closely represent behaviors of physical systems and (2) to develop system responses to various inputs so that he or she can effectively analyze and design dynamic systems. Once the prototype has been built. the engineer must be able to carry out a thorough performance analysis of the system before a prototype is constructed. as well as other methods. Chapter 1 has presented an introduction to system dynamics.) From the design standpoint.

1-4 Summary 7 such as liquid-level systems. MATLAB is used for the solution of most computational problems. as well as thermal systems. Chapter 9 treats frequency-domain analyses of dynamic systems. Chapter 10 presents the basic theory of control systems. Also discussed are vibrations in multidegrees-of-freedom systems and modes of vibrations. including transientresponse analysis. Readers who have no previous knowledge of MATLAB may read Appendix D before solving any MATLAB problems presented in this text. The chapter begins with Bode diagrams and then presents the Nyquist stability criterion. . and lag-lead compensators. Among the topics discussed are vibrations of rotating mechanical systems and vibration isolation problems. Chapter 8 presents time-domain analyses of dynamic systems-specifically.Sec. pneumatic systems. and root-locus analysis and design. lag. stability analysis. The chapter also presents the analytical solution of the state equation. followed by detailed design procedures for lead. Throughout the book. Chapter 11 deals with the analysis and design of control systems in the frequency domain. Also discussed are tuning rules for PID controllers. A linearization technique for nonlinear systems is explored. and Appendix C gives a brief summary of vector-matrix algebra. and hydraulic systems. transient-response analyses of dynamic systems. Appendix B summarizes conversion tables. Appendix A treats systems of units. Appendix D presents introductory materials for MATLAB.

The remaining sections of this chapter are outlined as follows: Section 2-2 reviews complex numbers. complex variables. and complex functions. Section 2-4 deals with the inverse Laplace transformation. Finally. we present the subject at the beginning of this text so that the student can use the method throughout his or her study of system dynamics. Since the Laplace transform method must be studied in any system dynamics course. Also examined are some of the most important Laplace transform theorems that apply to linear systems analysis. Section 2-5 presents the Laplace transform approach to the solution of the linear.The Laplace Transform 2-1 INTRODUCTION The Laplace transform is one of the most important mathematical tools available for modeling and analyzing linear systems. COMPLEX VARIABLES. the section can be omitted entirely or used simply for personal reference. complex algebra. complex variables. S . AND COMPLEX FUNCTIONS This section reviews complex numbers. Since most of the material covered is generally included in the basic mathematics courses required of engineering students. and complex functions. Section 2-3 defines the Laplace transformation and gives Laplace transforms of several common functions of time. time-invariant differential equation. 2-2 COMPLEX NUMBERS.

respectively. Complex numbers. angle of z = 9 = tan-1l:'. (Note also that the real axis and the imaginary axis define the complex plane and that the combination of a real number and an imaginary number defines a point in that plane. or absolute value. we use x To convert complex numbers to rectangular form from polar. we can express all numbers in engineering calculations as z = x + jy where z is called a complex number and x and jy are its real and imaginary parts. A counterclockwise rotation is defined as the positive direction for the measurement of angles. 8 = tan-II The complex conjugate of z = x + j y is defined as Z = x . and Complex Functions 1m 9 o Re Figure 2-1 Complex plane representation of a complex number z. y = Izl sin 8 Izl = Vx 2 + y2. Note that both x and y are real and that j is the only imaginary quantity in the expression. of z is defined as the length of the directed line segment shown in Figure 2-1. Using the notation j = v=I. Complex conjugate. we employ x = IzI cos 8. magnitude of z = Izl = Vx 2 + j. The angle of z is the angle that the directed line segment makes with the positive real axis. x A complex number can be written in rectangular form or in polar form as follows: z = x + jy z = Izl(cos 9 + j sin 9) }rectangular fonns }polar forms z= z= Izl~ Izl eifJ In converting complex numbers to polar form from rectangular. Mathematically. The complex plane representation of z is shown in Figure 2-1. The magnitude.jy . both interpretations are useful. 2-2 Complex Numbers. Complex Variables.) A complex number z can be considered a point in the complex plane or a directed line segment to the point.Sec.

2 o Figure 2-2 Complex number z and its complex conjugate Z.10 The Laplace Transform 1m Chap.+ .. cos 8 and . respectively.. cos 8 Since =1 =8 - fi2 - 2! £t 86 +..+ -'.+ 5! 7! + . sm8 Thus.. The power series expansions of cos 8 and sin 8 are. 4'. Figure 2-2 shows both z and Z. 2. 3'. Using Euler's theorem.jsin8) Euler's theorem. Re The complex conjugate of z thus has the same real part as Z and an imaginary part that is the negative of the imaginary part of z. we can express the sine and cosine in complex form.+ 4! 6! 85 87 83 - 3! +. ( '8)2 ('8)3 ('8)4 it follows that cos 8 + j sin 8 = ejB This is known as Euler's theorem. Noting that e-jB is the complex conjugate of ei6 and that eiB = cos 8 + j sin 8 e-jB = cos 8 .sm 8 ' .. Note that z = x + jy = Izl il = Izi (cos 8 + j sin 8) z =x- jy = Izi /-8 = Izi (cas 8 .+ -'. = 1 + ('8) + -'.j sin 8 .

If a complex number is multiplied by a real number. w = u + jv then z= w if and only if x = u and y = v. So if two complex numbers are written z = Izl~.(u + jv) = (x . 1\vo complex numbers z and ware said to be equal if and only if their real parts are equal and their imaginary parts are equal. So if two complex numbers are written z = x + jy.v) Note that addition and subtraction can be done easily on the rectangular plane. multiplication of two complex numbers can be done easily. The magnitude of the product is the product of the two magnitudes. and division can be performed easily. and the angle of the product is the sum of the two angles. the result is a complex number whose real and imaginary parts are multiplied by that real number: az = a(x + jy) = ax + jay (a = real number) If two complex numbers appear in rectangular form and we want the product in rectangular form.u) + j(y . Complex Variables. Thus. 1\vo complex numbers in rectangular form can be added by adding the real parts and the imaginary parts separately: z +w = (x + jy) + (u + jv) = (x + u) + j(y + v) Subtraction. if two complex numbers are written P z= x + jy. If the complex numbers are written in a suitable form. w = u + jv + jxv + lyv then zw = (x + j y)( u + jv) = xu + j yu = (xu .yv) + j(xv + yu) In polar form. multiplication.e-j8 sm8 = 2j Complex algebra. operations like addition. Subtracting one complex number from another can be considered as adding the negative of the former: z . multiplication is accomplished by using the fact that = -1. then zw = w = Iwl~ Izllwl/8 + cP . 2-2 Complex Numbers. Equality of complex numbers.w = (x + jy) . and Complex Functions 11 we find that cos 8 = ej8 + e-j8 2 . Addition. subtraction. ej8 .Sec. Multiplication.

x + jy -z = .~ That is. For instance. if then jz = 1/90° Izl il = Izl/8 + 90° Figure 2-3 illustrates the multiplication of a complex number z by j. Division in rectangular form is inconvenient.jv) w u + jv xu + yv = u2 + v 2 (u + jv) (u + .. For example. +v 1m o Re o Re Figure 2-3 Multiplication of a complex number z by j..= (x + jy)(u .!2..xv J u2 + v 2 = (xu + yv)2 + j(yu 2 u .xv) ~--~--.. . It is important to note that multiplication by j is equivalent to counterclockwise rotation by 90°..yu . then = Iz Iil is divided by another complex z w Izi il Izi = Iwl L. the result consists of the quotient of the magnitudes and the difference of the angles. 2 Multiplication by J.12 The Laplace Transform Chap. if z = x + jy then jz = j(x + jy) = jx + py = -y + jx z = Izl il or.~--... but can be done by mUltiplying the denominator and numerator by the complex conjugate of the denominator. Figure 2-4 Division of a complex number z by j...jv) . Division. H a complex number z number w = Iw I il. = M 18 ... This procedure converts the denominator to a real number and thus simplifies division. noting that j = 1/90°.

Sec.5° It is important to note that j 1000 = -j 1000 Comments.12)112 = (9 / -45°)112 = 3 / -22. j = 1 /90° Powers and roots.P.12 - = (10 /-30°)3 = 1000 /-90° = 0 j2. we obtain zn = (Izl L.1}rpically. then -=--= z j x + jy j (x + jy)j jj =--=y-]X jx .y -1 .66 . (Note that both u and ware real. and Izwl = Izllwl Izi + Iwl Iz + wi #: Complex variable. Note that division by j is equivalent to clockwise rotation by 90°.jFyComplex functions commonly encountered in linear systems analysis are singlevalued functions of s and are uniquely determined for a given value of s. and Complex Functions 13 Division by j. and an imaginary part. a function of s. A complex number has a real part and an imaginary part. and the 1 angle 8 of F(s) is tan. both of which are constant. or z Izl L. or A complex function F(s). Multiplying z by itself n times. has a real part F(s) = Fx + jFy where Fx and Fy are real quantities.) Complex function.j5)3 (2. the complex number is called a complex variable.(FylFx )' The angle is measured counterclockwise from the positive real axis. 2-2 Complex Numbers. For example. that is. The complex conjugate of F(s) is pes) = Fx . Complex Variables. (8. In the Laplace transformation.)n = Izln / n8 Extracting the nth root of a complex number is equivalent to raising the number to the 1/nth power: For instance. we use the notation s to denote a complex variable. if z = x + jy. V . s = u + jw where u is the real part and jw is the imaginary part. If the real part or the imaginary part (or both) are variables. The magnitude of F(s) is Fi + F~. = Izl /8 - 90° Figure 2-4 illustrates the division of a complex number z by j.P.

. G(s) K *3 s it follows that G(s) possesses a triple zero (multiple zero of order 3) at s = 00.. The solution of the differential equation can then be found by using a Laplace transform table or the partial-fraction expansion technique.14 The Laplace Transform Chap.s(s + l)(s + 5)(s + 15)2 G(s) has zeros at s = -2 and s = -10.P2.. G(s) has the same number of poles as zeros.~----- K(s + ZI)(S + Z2) . s = -1. As an illustrative example.---.. . in solving the differential equation. (s + Pn) Points at which F(s) equals zero are called zeros. the initial conditions are automatically taken care of.. = s = a complex variable an operational symbol indicating that the quantity upon which it operates is to be transformed by the Laplace integral 1 00 e-st dt F(s) = Laplace transform off(t) . s = -15. s = -Zh S = -Z2. Since.. That is. time-invariant differential equations. G(s) has five zeros (s = -2. s = -10.. That is. [Note that F(s) may have additional zeros at infinity. If points at infinity are included. and s = -5. 2 such functions have the form F(s) - ---:.-. Its main advantage is that differentiation of the time function corresponds to multiplication of the transform by a complex variable s. and a double pole (multiple pole of order 2) at s = -15. the pole is called a simple pole... s = 00. see the illustrative example that follows. then s = -pis called a multiple pole of order k or repeated pole of order k. To summarize. (s + Zm) (s + PI)(S + P2) . 2-3 LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION The Laplace transform method is an operational method that can be used advantageously in solving linear. S = .1f k = 1. Another advantage of the Laplace transform method is that. and thus the differential equations in time become algebraic equations in s. s = -PI.. and both the particular solution and the complementary solution can be obtained simultaneously.. s = -15). Let us define /(t) = a time function such that /(t) = ° for t < 0 9!.] Points at which F(s) equals infinity are called poles. s = 00) and five poles (s = 0. s = . If the denominator of F(s) involves k-multiple factors (s + Pl. consider the complex function JC(s + 2)(s + 10) G(s) .. .-------~ . Note that G(s) becomes zero at s = 00.. simple poles at s = 0.. for large values of s. s = 00.. Laplace transformation.Pn are poles of F(s). s = -1.. s = -Zm are zeros of F(s). s = -5. .

and e-ct sin wt. sin wt.e[Ae-at ] = 00 o 1 Ae-ate-st dt = A 100 0 e-(a+s)t A dt = .e[fl(t) Exponential function.e[f2(t)] Consider the exponential function / (t) =0 = Ae-at for t < 0 for t ~ 0 where A and a are constants. te-ct . For functions like e-ct. for such functions as t. Such a signal can be physically generated. although er for 0 s t S 00 does not possess a Laplace transform. and t sin wt. then the Laplace transform of 11 (t) + h( t) is given by . In the case of functions that increase faster than the exponential function. since / (t) = er for only a limited time interval 0 S t !5 T and not for o S t S 00. The notation for inverse Laplace transformation is . Thus. + h(t)] = . it should be noted that.rl[F(s)] = /(t) Existence of Laplace transform. The Laplace transform of a function f(t) exists if the Laplace integral converges. If the limit of the function e-utl/(t) I approaches zero for u greater than u c and the limit approaches infinity for u less than u C' the value u c is called the abscissa 0/ convergence. the time function defined by /(t) = er =0 for 0 :s. The Laplace transform of this exponential function can be obtained as follows: . 2-3 Laplace Transformation 15 Then the Laplace transform off(t) is given by ~[f(t)] = F(s) = l"'e-n dt[f(t)] = l"'f(t)e-n dt The reverse process of finding the time function f(t) from the Laplace transform F(s) is called inverse Laplace trans/ormation. A function f(t) is said to be of exponential order if a real. such functions as il and ter do not possess Laplace transforms. T < t 00 does. Note that the signals that can be physically generated always have corresponding Laplace transforms. t :s. The integral will converge iff(t) is piecewise continuous in every finite interval in the range t > 0 and if I(t) is of exponential order as t approaches infinity. it is impossible to find suitable values of the abscissa of convergence.e[f1(t)] + .s+a .r1. positive constant u exists such that the function e-atl/(t) I approaches zero as t approaches infinity. the abscissa of convergence is equal to zero. Nevertheless. Consequently. If functions 11(t) and h(t) are both Laplace transformable. .Sec. T < for t < 0. the abscissa of convergence is equal to -c. It can be seen that.

a notation that will be used in this book. we use the formula for integration by parts: [budv = Uvl: . it can be proved by use of the theory of complex variables.[bVdU . Note that this is a special case of the exponential function Ae-at. Consider the step function f (t) = 0 = A for t < 0 fort> 0 where A is a constant. Its Laplace transform is given by . The unitstep function that occurs at t = to is frequently written l(t . 2 In performing this integration.16 The Laplace Transform Chap. The Laplace transform of the unit-step function that is defined by l(t) = 0 =1 for t < 0 for t > 0 is lis. The Laplace transform F(s} of any Laplace transformable functionf(t) obtained in this way is valid throughout the entire s plane. Consider the ramp function f(t) = 0 = At for t < 0 for t ~ 0 where A is a constant. or ~[l(t)] = ! s Physically.to). The step function is undefined at t = O. (Although we do not present a proof of this statement. we assume that the real part of s is greater than -a (the abscissa of convergence). Ramp function. where a = O.£[A] = 1 o 00 Ae-st dt = - A s The step function whose height is unity is called a unit-step function. a step function occurring at t = to corresponds to a constant signal suddenly applied to the system at time t equals to. except at the poles of F(s). The Laplace transform of this ramp function is !'eIAt] = A ["'te- Sf dt To evaluate the integral. ) Step function. so that the integral converges. The preceding step function whose height is A can thus be writtenA1(t}.

Let us obtain the Laplace transform of the translated function f(t . The Laplace transform of the sinusoidal function J(t) = 0 = A sin wt for t < 0 for t ~ 0 where A and ware constants.e[At] = A 1 10 -sl te-sr dt = A ( t ~ o -s 00 I 1 00 00 - 0 -Sf ~dt ) o-s = A fooe-sr dt = A s s2 Sinusoidal function. By definition.j sin wt we can write Hence.a) are shown in Figure 2-5. however. . the Laplace transform of A cos wt can be derived as follows: .a)l(t . it is not necessary to derive the Laplace transform of I(t) each time. Table 2-1 shows Laplace transforms of time functions that will frequently appear in linear systems analysis.Sec. [Note that v = e-SII( -s).a)t(1 . In Table 2-2.a)1(t . Once we know the method of obtaining the Laplace transform.a)l(t . The functionsf(t)l(t) and f(t .a).erA cos wt] = S As 2 +w 2 Comments.a) is ~1f(1 - a)t(t . Translated function. U = t and dv = e-st dt. the Laplace transform of J(t . ~[A • • sin wt] = --: (e Jwt .] Hence. 2-3 Laplace Transformation 17 In this case. Laplace transform tables can conveniently be used to find the transform of a given function f(t).oJ(1 . where a ~ O. the properties of Laplace transforms are given.e-Jwt)e-st dt 2J 0 Al A1 Aw =-------= 2j s . This function is zero for t < a.aV" dl . The Laplace transform of any Laplace transformable function f(t) can be found by multiplying f(t) by e-st and then integrating the product from t = 0 to t = 00.a)] = [.jw 2j s + jw s2 + w2 Al OO Similarly. is obtained as follows: Noting that ejw1 = cos wt + j sin wt and e-jwt = cos wt .

. .1 (n .2..b at - ae-bt ) ] . .ae-at ) b-a ~[1 + _1_(beab a. . ) e-at te-at 1 n-l -at (n .bt ..1)! t e tne-at (n = 1. ) sin wt 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 + w2 coswt sinh wt cosh wt S s2 + w2 w S2 .1)! tn (n=1.3. .2.at b-a e-at ) _ e-bt ) _1_(be.3. ) -1 sn .w2 1 s(s + a) 1 (s + a)(s + b) s (s + a)(s + b) 1 s(s + a)(s + b) !(1 a _1_ (e. 2 TABLE 2-1 Laplace Transform Pairs f(t) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Unit impulse cS{t) Unit step 1(t) F(s) 1 1 s 1 s2 t t n.2.(J)2 $ ..3. 2.... 3.. ) (n=1..18 The Laplace Transform Chap.n! sn+l -1s+a 1 (s + a)2 1 (s + a)n n! (s + a)n+l w $2 (n=1.

- 01 s+a (s + a)2 + -. .w w2) S(S2 + 3 .TABLE 2-1 (continued) r 1-- I f(t) I pes) ate 01) l - 18 19 '--- 1 a 2 (1 e 01 1 s(s + a)2 1 a 2 (at 1 + e-al ) 01 1 s2(s + a) 20 ~ e e sin wt cos wt - w (s + a)2 + .wt cos wt 2w I sin wI 1 - t cos wt 30 I _ 1 ~ _:I (cos WIt 1 cos i»2t) (s2 + wI)(s2 + ~) 31 L.w2 (s2 + ( 2)2 (WI ¢~) S 2 - 26 27 28 29 wt .2 - 23 1 cJ> = tan- 1YI.2w (s2 + w2)2 s (s2 + w2)2 s2 .... w2 n 2 s + 2. 2w (sin wt + wt cos wt) - S2 (s2 + (2)2 19 .w 2 s2(s2 + ( ) 3 ..wns + w2 n 22 _ Wn ~ e(wnt· n~ t smw 1-.wn s + w1) cJ> = tan-l 1 !l - 25 '- ' .2- _s S2 + 2.2 =e ~ (Wnl' ( n~ / -cJ» smw 1-.2 - cos wt .2 w2 n S(S2 + 2.. - 21 l.sin wt sin wt ..wn s + w2 n 1 24 _ 1 _e(wnt· ( n~ / +cJ» ~ smw 1-.

!..i(O±) n [ dn] = snp(s) .~sn-k f(O±) (k-l) 5 (k-l) dk.""[(I) dl exists a~O = F(s + a) 12 13 !:e[f(t .2 F(s) ds dn = (-l)n-F(s) n ds n 14 15 16 17 ~[tnf(t)] = 1. f£[7[(I)] = 1""F(S) ds if lim.f(O±) ~±[:tf(t) ] = !:e±[:~f(t)] = ~± dtnf(t) 4 s2p(s) .TABLE 2-2 Properties of Laplace Transforms 1 2 3 ~[Af(t)] :::: AF(s) ~[fl(t) ± 12(t)] :::: P1(s) ± F2(S) sF(s) .. .. f(t) exists I-ot ~[f(~)] = aF(as) 20 .2.a)l(t .a)] = e-asF(s) dP(s) !:e[tf(t)] = .sf(O±) .1 where f(t) :::: dtk-1f(t) 6 ~± [Jf(t)dt ] = -2 = - F(s) + s If[(I) dll/eD< s 7 8 ~± [f!f(t) dt dt ] F(s) + S If[(I) 2 dll/eD< Iff[(I) dl dll/eD< + S s ~±[/··· 1 f(t)(dt)n] = F(:) + k=l S n_ k+l s ± 1 [/···1 f(t)(dt)k ] I=O± 9 f£[!o'[(I) dl] = F~S) ["'[(I) dl = lim F(s) o s-O ~[e-a'f(t)] 10 11 if 1.ds 2 d ~[t2f(t)] = .3.

= ~(f(t)] = 1°Oj (tv" dl a~O . 2-3 Laplace Transformation f(1 .a. we can change the lower limit of integration from -a to O. A f(t) = to for 0 < t < to for t < 0.£1')e-st dt = l°Of (7) 1(T)e-S(T+a) dT -a Noting that f(T)1(7) = 0 for T < 0. we obtain 10 foof(t .£1')l(t .a)I(1 . to < t =0 where A and to are constants.a).Eff(t . where 7 = t .S(T+a> dT = f f (7) 1(T)e-S(T+a) dT 10 OO = ["'j(T)e-STe-as dT = e-as 1 00 j( T)e-ST dT = e-asp(s) P(s) Hence. l where °O -a f (T)l(T)e. By changing the independent variable from t to 7.DC) l(t . The pulse function here may be considered a step function of height Alto that begins at t = 0 and that is superimposed by a negative step function of height Alto . Pulse function.a)] = e-aSF(s) This last equation states that the translation of the time functionf(t)l(t) by a (where a ~ 0) corresponds to the multiplication of the transform F(s) bye-as.DC) 21 f(t) l(t) o Figure 2-S o DC Functionf(t)l(t) and translated function f(t . namely.Sec. Thus.a)l(t . Consider the pulse function shown in Figure 2-6.

-e-SI0 to) ] tos tos = -(1 . As the duration to approaches zero.e-S1o )] =hm 10-0 .tos dto d () =-=A As s . Note that the magnitude of the impulse is measured by its area. the height Alto approaches infinity.to) to to Then the Laplace transform off(t) is obtained as f(t) = -1(t) A A ~[J(t)l = ~[~ 1(t) ] .~[~ 1(t A = -A . Consider the impulse function f (t) = lim A to = 0 to-O for 0 < t < to for t < 0. the area under the impulse is equal to A. but the area under the impulse remains equal to A. From Equation (2-1).0 [~(1 tos dto . . It is a limiting case of the pulse function shown in Figure 2-6 as to approaches zero. Figure 2-7 Impulse function. 2 to 4_ 00 to o Figure 2-6 Pulse function. Since the height of the impulse function is Alto and the duration is to. The impulse function is a special limiting case of the pulse function. the Laplace transform of this impulse function is shown to be :Eff(t)] = lim .22 1(1) A The Laplace Transform Chap.e A _ stO) tos (2-1) Impulse function. to < t Figure 2-7 depicts the impulse function defined here.-1(t . beginning at t = to. 10. that is.e- sto )] ~[A(l .

The unit-impulse function occurring at t = to is usually denoted by eS(t . If f(t) is Laplace transformable and its Laplace transform is F(s). since ~[sin wt] = s +w 2 W 2 = F(s) and ~[cos wt] = s s +w 2 2 = G(s) . Multiplication of fIt) bye-at.to) at the point of discontinuity t = to.to) is integrated. however.) The impulse input supplies energy to the system in an infInitesimal time. where the magnitude of f(t) is sufficiently large so that f(t) dt is not negligible. The concept of the impulse function is highly useful in differentiating discontinuous-time functions. the magnitude of a pulse input to a system is very large and its duration very short compared with the system time constants. the Laplace transform of the impulse function is equal to the area under the impulse. The unit-impulse function eS(t . 2-3 Laplace Transformation 23 Thus. we can differentiate a function containing discontinuities.o d eS(t .to) = 0 eS(t .to) Conversely. the area or magnitude of the impulse is most important. the result is the unitstep function l(t . then the Laplace transform of e-at f(t) is obtained as ~[e"""f(l)l = [X> e-alf(t)e-st dl = F(s + a) (2-2) We see that the multiplication of f(t) bye-at has the effect of replacing s by (s + a) in the Laplace transform. (Note that.to) = dt l(t .Sec. giving impulses. if a force or torque input f(t) is applied to a system for a very short time duration 0 < t < to. (Note that a may be real or complex. the magnitudes of which are equal to the magnitude of each corresponding discontinuity. then this input can be considered an impulse input. or J. The impulse function whose area is equal to unity is called the unit-impulse function or the Dirac delta function.to). For instance. when we describe the impulse input.) The relationship given by Equation (2-2) is useful in finding the Laplace transforms of such functions as e-at sin wt and e-at cos wt.to) can be considered the derivative of the unit-step function l(t . With the concept of the impulse function.to). then we can approximate the pulse input by an impulse function. changing s to (s + a) is equivalent to mUltiplyingf(t) bye-at. which satisfies the following conditions: eS(t . If. For instance. but the exact shape of the impulse is usually immaterial. Conversely.to) = 00 for t to for t = to * J~ 6(1 - '0) dl =1 An impulse that has an infinite magnitude and zero duration is mathematical fiction and does not occur in physical systems. if the unit-impulse function eS(t .

2 it follows from Equation (2-2) that the Laplace transforms of e-at sin wt and e-at cos wt are given.st dt . In some cases.:£[:/(t)] = sF(s) . ifJtt) does not possess an impulse function at t = 0 (i. Then the lower limit of the Laplace integral must be clearly specified as to whether it is 0.and t = 0+). then [0+ [(t)e-st dt since [[(t)e..24 The Laplace Transform Chap. 0 for such a case. in such a case.:£+[f(t)] + IfJtt) involves an impulse function at t = 0. then !e+[f(t)] = !e_[f(t)] Differentiation theorem. if the function to be transformed is finite between t = 0. as illustrated in Figure 2-8.Jtt) possesses an impulse function at t = O.or 0+. respectively. the values of /(0+) and 1(0-) may be the same or different. Equation (2-3) is called the differentiation theorem.e. For a given function .f(t).f(t) has a discontinuity at t = 0.. we use the notations and . since the Laplace transforms ofJtt) differ for these two lower limits. evaluated at t = O.f(0) is the initial value of . because.:£_[f(t)] = ["'[(t)e-n dt = . by !e[e-al sin wt] = F(s and + a) = ----2 w (s + a)2 + w !e[e-al cos wt] s+a = G(s + a) = -----::(s + a)2 + w2 Comments on the lower limit of the Laplace integral. The distinction between 1(0+) and 1(0-) is important when. function/(t) is given by The Laplace transform of the derivative of a .f(t). dJtt)/dt will . If such a distinction of the lower limit of the Laplace integral is necessary.[(0) (2-3) where . Obviously.

/(0-) To prove the differentiation theorem.£ -/(t) 1 F(s) = s s dt It follows that ] ~[:t[(t) ] = sF(s) . we proceed as follows: Integrating the Laplace integral by parts gives 10 I(t)e.dt = I(t) ~s st roo -st I 00 0 .10 [d (:JO[ d ] dtl(t) ~s dt -sf Hence.t(t)] = sF(s) ~-[:. If 1(0+) ::F 1(0-).j(O) where 1(0) is the value of dl(t)ldt evaluated at t = O. we obtain the relationship ~[.[(0) Similarly. involve an impulse function at t modified to = O. 2-3 Laplace Transformation /(/) /(0 +) /(/) 25 Flgure 2-8 Step function and sine function indicating initial values at 1 = 0.Sec. 1(0) + -. define = g(t) .:[(t) ] = h(s) dtl(t) d s/(O) . Equation (2-3) must be ~+[:.t(t) ] = [(0+) sF(s) . for the second derivative of I(t). To derive this equation.and 1 = 0+.

df(t)ldt. or lim (oo[dd f(t)]e. d n. depending on whether we take . ) must be Laplace transformable.. the theorem is not applicable to such a function. The final-value theorem may be stated as follows: If f(t) and df(t)ldt are Laplace transformable. evaluated at t = O.f(t) will contain oscillating or exponentially increasing time functions.1(0)] = 1. we substitute t = 0+ or t = 0. then lim . ~fW) where f(O).26 The Laplace Transform Chap. Note that. then sF(s) has poles at s = ±jw. if f(t) is a sinusoidal function sin wt.t(/) ] .E_. . For instance.sl(O) . The final-value theorem relates the steady-state behavior off(t) to the behavior of sF(s) in the neighborhood of s = O. for Laplace transforms of derivatives of f(t) to exist. The final-value theorem does not apply to such cases. f(O). If all poles of sF(s) lie in the left half s plane. s.1(/) ] dl = 1(/) r = I( 00) . respectively. we obtain !'£[:/:t</)] = s"F(s) . The theorem.1(0) .1(0) = s-o sP(s) lim ._oof(t) exists.f(t)1 dt n. respectively..... Therefore.. but if sF(s) has poles on the imaginary axis or in the right half s plane. . 3. • (n-l) 1 Final-value theorem. . applies if and only if lim/-+oof(t) exists [which means thatf(t) settles down to a definite value as t --+ 00]. If the distinction between :£+ and .. . however. and lim/-+oo f(t) does not exist._oo f(t) exists. and if lim.r'/(O) . = lim [sP(s) s-o .. f(O) represent the values of f(t)._oo f( t) exists.£_ is necessary. dnf(t)ldrn (n = 1._00 f(t) = s-o sF(s) lim To prove the theorem.dt s-o}o t Since lims_oe-s.i(O) Similarly.s"-2j(0) . if all the initial values of f(t) and its derivatives are equal to zero.1. 2 Then !'£[:I:/(/)] = !'£[:lg(/) ] = s!'£[g(t)] = S!'£[:.£+ or . if lim. for the nth derivative of f(t). Note also that. then lim. . then the Laplace transform of the nth derivative off(t) is given by snF(s).into I(t).-+oo I (t) will not exist. 2.j(O) g(O) = l-P(s) .. . if P(s) is the Laplace transform of f(t). . then we obtain ['[:. dl(t)ldt. we let s approach zero in the equation for the Laplace transform of the derivative off(t). dn-1f(t)ldtn-1.. and lim..

The initial-value theorem is the counterpart of the final-value theorem. e-SI approaches zero. evaluated at t = o. then /(0+) = lim sF(s) s-OO To prove this theorem. I~ -1f(t) ~. as s approaches infinity. we use the equation for the ~+ transform of df(t)ldt: ~+[:. The theorem does not give the value of I(t) at exactly t = 0. s_oo lim [OO[dd /(t)]e-sl dt Jo+ t. Iff(t) is of exponential order.) Hence. the theorem is valid for the sinusoidal function.Sec. but rather gives it at a time slightly greater than zero. then the Laplace transform of J/(t) dt exists and is given by ~[fJet) dt] = F~S) + r~(o) J (2-4) where F(s) = ~[f(t)] and /-1(0) = /(t) dt. we are not limited as to the locations of the poles of sF(s). The integration theorem can be proven as follows: Integration by parts yields ~[JJet) dt ] = = f' [f Jet) dt ]e-" dt 00 [J Jet) dt] e~. we are able to find the value of f(t) at t = 0+ directly from the Laplace transform of /(t). Equation (2-4) is called the integration theorem. Using the initial-value theorem. 2-3 Laplace Transformation 27 from which it follows that /(00) = 1_00 /(t) = s-o sF(s) lim lim Initial-value theorem. since they enable us to predict the system behavior in the time domain without actually transforming functions in s back to time functions. (Note that we must use ~+ rather than ~_ for this condition. The initial-value theorem may be stated as follows: Iff(t) and df(t)/dt are both Laplace transformable and if lim s_ oo sF(s) exists./(0+)] =0 or /(0+) = s_oo sF(s) lim In applying the initial-value theorem. Note that the initial-value theorem and the final-value theorem provide a convenient check on the solution. Thus. = s-OO [sF(s) lim . Integration theorem. dt .t(t) ] = sF(s) - /(0+) For the time interval 0+ ~ t ~ 00.

Hence.dt =--+-s s 1-1(0) F(s) and the theorem is proven. 2 = !jl(t) dti s 1. The integration theorem can be modified slightly to deal with the definite integral off!. first note that (2-5) [f(t) dt = j f(t) dt . we must modify Equation (2-4) as follows: ~+[J f(t) dt] = F~S) + rl~o+) ~-[J f(t) dt] = F~S) + rl~O-) We see that integration in the time domain is converted into division in the s domain. so that we obtain . then rl(O+)~ / . evaluated at t = 0. the Laplace transform of the definite integral Jof(t) dt can be given by ~[[f(t) dt] = F~S) To prove Equation (2-5).t).28 The Laplace Transform Chap. Iff(t) is of exponential order. Note that. the Laplace transform of the integral off(t) is given by F(s)ls. rl(O) ] - ~[[f(t) dt] = ~[Jf(t) dt = ~[J f(t) dt] . and is a constant. if f(t) involves an impulse function at t = 0.£ff-l(O)] = 1-1(0) S ~[rl(O)l Referring to Equation (2-4) and noting that [-1(0) is a constant. So if f(t) involves an impulse function at t = 0.1(0-). If the initial value of the integral is zero..:0 +! S st roo Jo I(t)e.rl(O) where rl(O) is equal to Jf(t) dt.

F(s) frequently occurs in the form B(s) F(s) = A(s) where A(s) and B(s) are polynomials in s and the degree of B(s) is not higher than that of A (s). In this section. Whenever the time function is continuous.rt[F2(S)] + . we present the latter technique. Note. the time function f(t) and its Laplace transform F(s) have a one-to-one correspondence.fn(t) are the inverse Laplace transforms of F1(s). ..... . respectively. is broken up into components. ifJtt) involves an impulse function at t and the following distinction must be observed: = 0. + ."'. then . B(s)IA(s). For problems in systems analysis. The simplest of these methods are (1) to use tables of Laplace transforms to find the time function Jtt) corresponding to a given Laplace transform F(s) and (2) to use the partial-fraction expansion method. except possibly at points where the time function is discontinuous. then J/ 0+ f(t) dt ¢ J/ 0- f(t) dt... .rl[F(s)] = .e--l[Fn(s)] = ft(t) + h(t) + . consequently.h(t). + fn(t) where ft(t). We shall discuss the MATLAB approach to the partial-fraction expansion in Chapter 4. + Fn(s) and if the inverse Laplace transforms of Ft(s). that in applying the partial-fraction expansion technique in the search for the .. H F(s). or F(s) = Ft(s) + F2(S) + .Sec.. Several methods are available for finding inverse Laplace transforms. The advantage of the partial-fraction expansion approach is that the individual terms of F(s) resulting from the expansion into partial-fraction form are very simple functions of s. however. [Note that MATLAB is quite useful in obtaining the partial-fraction expansion of the ratio of two polynomials. F2(s).rt[Fl(S)] + . Fn(s). 2-4 Inverse Laplace Transformation 29 Note that.. ~{£ f(t) dt] = ~+~(t)] ~-[.Lf(t) dt] = ~-~(t)l 2-4 INVERSE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION The inverse Laplace transformation refers to the process of finding the time functionJtt) from the corresponding Laplace transform F(s). The inverse Laplace transform of F(s) thus obtained is unique.] Partial-fraction expansion method for finding inverse Laplace transforms. F2(S). the Laplace transform ofJtt). it is not necessary to refer to a Laplace transform table if we memorize several simple Laplace transform pairs. .. Fn(s) are readily available.

if PI and P2 are complex conjugates. In this case.. but for each complex Pi or Zi. Z2.A(s) s + PI S + P2 s + Pn (2-6) where ak( k = 1. + ane-Pllt t ::: 0 .Pk..... + .30 The Laplace Transform Chap.Pk' The value of ak can be found by multiplying both sides of Equation (2-6) by (s + Pk) and letting s = . there will occur the complex conjugate of Pi or Zi.. Here.. it is important that the highest power of s in A (s) be greater than the highest power of s in B(s) because if that is not the case. Only one of the conjugates.+ .. Consider F(s) written in the factored form B(s) K(s + Zt)(s + zz)'" (s + Zm) F(s) = A(s) = (s + Pt)(s + P2)'" (s + Pn) where Pt. . . the residue ak is found from ak B(s) = [(s + Pk) A() 1_ S S--Pk (2-7) Note that since f(t) is a real function of time. In the expansion of B(s)/A(s) into partial-fraction form.. . S + P2 ak an] + .. 2. The coefficient ak is called the residue at the pole at s = . the highest power of sin A(s) is assumed to be higher than that in B(s)..( s + Pk) s + Pk S + Pn S=-Pk = ak We see that all the expanded terms drop out. the roots of the denominator polynomial A(s) must be known in advance. 2 inverse Laplace transform of F(s) = B(s)/A(s). then the numerator B(s) must be divided by the denominator A(s) in order to produce a polynomial in s plus a remainder (a ratio of polynomials in s whose numerator is of lower degree than the denominator). see Example 2-2. because the other is known automatically. Since f(t) is obtained as f(t) = ~-I[F(s)] = ale-PIt + a2e-P2t + .) Partial-fraction expansion when F(s) involves distinct poles only.. F(s) can always be expanded into a sum of simple partial fractions. with the exception of ak' Thus.. B(s) at a2 an F(s) = .. That is.= . P2. + . al or a2. this method does not apply until the denominator polynomial has been factored. Zm are either real or complex quantities. .( s + Pk) + .. .. need be evaluated. giving = [_a_t_(S + Pk) + [ (S + Pk) B(S)] A(s) s=-p" s + PI ~(s + Pk) + . that is. (For details. n) are constants.+ . then the residues al and a2 are also complex conjugates... . Pn and ZI. respectively.

For example. since the degree of the numerator polynomial is higher than that of the denominator polynomial. The third term on the right-hand side of this last equation is F(s) in Example 2-1. then it is better not to factor the quadratic.:: 0- Comment. we must divide the numerator by the denominator: G(s) = s + 2 + (s + l)(s + 2) s+3 Note that the Laplace transform of the unit-impulse function ~(t) is unity and that the Laplace transform of dS(t)ldt is s..!!. So the inverse Laplace transform of G(s) is given as get) = .(s + l)(s + 2) s+3 The partial-fraction expansion of F(s) is F( ) s = (s + l)(s + 2) = s + 1 + s + 2 s+3 ] =[S+3] =2 (s + l)(s + 2) s=-1 s + 2 s=-1 s+3 ] (s + l)(s + 2) s=-2 s +3 al a2 where al and a2 are found by using Equation (2-7): a1 =[(s+1) a2 = [(S + 2) = [~] s+1 s=-2 = -1 Thus..-S(t) + dt 2~(t) + 2e-t - e-2t t . if F(s) is given as F(s) = s(s2 + as + b) pes) .:: 0 Example 2-2 Obtain the inverse Laplace transform of G + 5s 2 + 9s + 7 (s) = (s + l)(s + 2) S3 Here. 2-4 Inverse laplace Transformation 31 Example 2-1 Fmd the inverse Laplace transform of F(s) _ . f(t) = ~1[F(s)] = ~1[s = 2e-t - ! 1] + Tl[S ~12] e-2t t . in order to avoid complex numbers. If this quadratic expression has a pair of complex- conjugate roots.. s2 Consider a function F(s) that involves a quadratic factor + as + b in the denominator.Sec.

j2) The two roots of the denominator are complex conjugates.s2 + 2s + S =S It follows that 10 + 2(s + 1) (s + 1)2 + 22 2 +2 s+1 (s + 1)2 + 22 (s + 1)2 + 22 f(t) = . and if s2 + as + b = 0 has a pair of complex-conjugate roots.'i[e at cos Cdt] = s+a (s + a) + w 2 2 we can write the given F(s) as a sum of a damped sine and a damped cosine function: 2s + 12 F(s) . we shall use an example to show how to obtain the partial-fraction expansion of F(s).. rewritten as and _ . Noting that. Hence.32 The Laplace Transform Chap...[(S + = Se-1 sin 2t 1 1~2 + 22] + 2!C1[(S +S 1.. 2 where a ~ 0 and b > 0. and A-2-19.'i-I[F(s)] = SX. (See also Problems A-2-17 and A-2-19. Instead of discussing the general case.-+-b as (See Example 2-3 and Problems A-2-15.21+ 22 ] + 2e-1 cos 2t t ~ 0 Partial-fraction expansion when F(s) involves multiple poles.) Consider F (s) = s2 + 2s + 3 (s + 1)3 . A-2-16. then expand F(s) into the following partial-fraction expansion form: ds + e c F( s) = -. + 2s + S = (s + 1)2 + 22 and referring to the Laplace transforms of e-al sin wt and e-al cos Cdt.) ExampJe2-3 Find the inverse Laplace transform of F(s) = 2s + 12 s2 + 2s + 5 Notice that the denominator polynomial can be factored as s2 + 2s + S = (s + 1 + j2)(s + 1 . we expand F(s) into the sum of a damped sine and a damped cosine function. + -s2-+-.

b2. ~..(s + 1) + b1(s + 1)2 Then. differentiating both sides of Equation (2-8) with respect to s yields :s [(s + 1)3 !~:~] H we let s = -1 in Equation (2-9).Sec. ds 2 =1. 2-4 Inverse Laplace Transformation 33 The partial-fraction expansion of this F(s) involves three terms: F( s) = A(s) = (s + 1? + B(s) ~ ~ b1 S (s + 1)2 + +1 where b3. [(S + 1)3 A(s) s=-1 B(S)]} 3)] s=-1 = J. we find that Equation (2-8) gives (2-8) B (S)] [ (s + 1)3 A(s) s=-1 = ~ Also. [ d 2(s2 + 2s + 2. it can be seen that the values of ~. we have B(s) (s + 1)3 A(s) = ~ + b. then = ~ + 2bt(s + 1) = s=-1 (2-9) !£[(S + 1?B(S)] ds A(s) ~ Differentiating both sides of Equation (2-9) with respect to s. and b1 are found systematically as follows: ~ = [(s + 1)3!~:~ =2 L-I 3)] s=-1 = (s2 + 2s + 3)S=-1 ~ = {:s [(s + 1)3 !~:~ ]L-I = [~(S2 + 2s + ds = (2s + 2)s=-1 =0 b1= ~ 2! ds 2 2 {if.(2) = 1 . and b1 are determined as follows: Multiplying both sides of this last equation by (s + 1?. letting s = -1. we obtain ~[(S + 1)3 B (S)] 2 ds A(s) = 2b 1 From the preceding analysis.

time-invariant differential equations by the Laplace transform method.e[x(t)] = Xes) we obtain !e[x] = sX(s) . If all initial conditions are zero. two examples are used to demonstrate the solution of linear. time-invariant differential equations. and so on. time-invariant differential equations by the Laplace transform method. In the case of the Laplace transform method. or . 2 We thus obtain f(t) = ~-l[F(s)] = t 2e-t = _. however.34 The Laplace Transform Chap.x(O) !e[:i] = s2 Xes) . time-invariant differential equations. By taking the Laplace transform of each term in the given differential equation. then the Laplace transform of the differential equation is obtained simply by replacing dldt with s.x(O) . two steps are followed: 1.e-l[_1_] +1 S 0 2-5 SOLVING LINEAR. x(O) = a. The Laplace transform method yields the complete solution (complementary solution and particular solution) of linear. In the discussion that follows. d 21dt2 with s2.sx(O) .e-l[ (s +2 1)3 ] + :e+ 0 + e-t 2 + 1 )e-t (t t ~ 1[ 0 ] + (s + 1)2 . 2. we are concerned with the use of the Laplace transform method in solving linear. convert the differential equation into an algebraic equation in s and obtain the expression for the Laplace transform of the dependent variable by rearranging the algebraic equation. In solving linear. TIME-INVARIANT DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS In this section. x(O) = b where a and b are constants. The time solution of the differential equation is obtained by rmding the inverse Laplace transform of the dependent variable. Example 2-4 Find the solution x(t) of the differential equation :i + 3x + 2x = 0. this requirement is unnecessary because the initial conditions are automatically included in the Laplace transform of the differential equation. Writing the Laplace transform of x(t) as Xes). Classical methods for finding the complete solution of a differential equation require the evaluation of the integration constants from the initial conditions.

x(O) = 0. lime-Invariant Differential Equations 35 The Laplace transform of the given differential equation becomes [s2 X(s) ..as . x(O) = 0.-3 e 5 10 -I 2 1)2 + 22 ]_ ~. and X(O) = 0.Sec.. we see that the Laplace transform of the differential equation becomes S2 X(s) + 2sX(s) + 5X(s) Solving this equation for X(s).~. x(O) = 0 Noting that . 2-5 Solving Linear.x(O)] + 2X(s) [s2 X(s) .sx(O) .£[3] = 3/s.a] + 2X(s) or =0 Substituting the given initial conditions into the preceding equation yields =0 (S2 + 3s + 2)X(s) Solving this last equation for X(s).b] + 3[sX(s) .5 10 3 = .£-I[a + b] s+1 (a + b)e-2t = (20 + b)e-I s+2 t ~ 0 which is the solution of the given differential equation. we have = as + b + 3a X (s) = as + b + 3a = as + b + 3a = _2o_+_b _ _ _+_b a s2 + 3s + 2 (s + 1) (s + 2) s+1 s+2 The inverse Laplace transform of X(s) produces x(t) = ~-l[X(S)] = - ~-1[2a + b]_ . we obtain =- 3 s 3 X(s) = s(S2 + 2s + 5) =-. .£-l[X(s)) . Example 2-5 Find the solution x(t) of the differential equation x + 2X + 5x = 3. Notice that the initial conditions a and b appear in the solution.x(O)] + 3[sX(s) . Thus.- 31 5s 31 5s 3 s+2 5 s2 + 2s + 5 3 2 3 s +1 5(s+I)2+22 Hence.e-I cos 2t 3 5 t~O which is the solution of the given differential equation.£-1[ 5 S + 1 ] (s + 1)2 + 22 SID • 2t .£-1[!]_ ~~-1[ (s + s .x(t) has no undetermined constants. the inverse Laplace transform becomes x(t) = .

j4) 6+j3-j8+4 10 . Solution 2 + j1 (2 --= 3 + j4 (3 + j1)(3 + j4)(3 . obtain the magnitude and angle of this complex quantity.5 The magnitude and angle of this complex quantity are obtained as follows: magnitude = angle ~n)' + (~1)' = -115 215 & = ~ = 0. 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS Problem A-2-1 Obtain the real and imaginary parts of 2 + j1 3 + j4 Also.12 = -26. .565° Problem A-2-2 Find the Laplace transform of f(l) Solution Since =0 = te.j5 25 9 + 16 = 5" .e[te-3r ] = G(s + 3) = (s + 3)2 1 Problem A-2-3 What is the Laplace transform of f(t) = 0 = sin(wl 1<0 + 8) I == 0 where 8 is a constant? Solution Noting that sin(wt + 8) = sin wI cos 8 + cos wI sin 8 . we obtain F(s) = .447 = tan-1.. 5' nnagmary part .'5" 2 real part = - 2 Hence.1 .j4) .36 The Laplace Transform Chap.1 = -..3r 1<0 t ~ 0 1 ~[t] = G(s) =: - s2 referring to Equation (2-2).= -1 tan.

" " ' I 1 2a o a -.2 !e[l(t .f 2as a-O = lime a-O -as -2as -e a f(/} -..2a) a2 a2 a2 Then F(s) = !eff(t)) 1 2 1 = . t .2 2 s+w w cos 8 + s sin 8 s2 + w 2 s+w Problem A-2-4 Find the Laplace transform F(s) of the functionj(t) shown in Figure 2-9..!.2a)] a a a 1 1 1 1 .a)] + .2e-as + e-2as ) = Iim-a------a--O d Ql da ( s) ~ (1 d = lim 2se-as _ 2se-2a. we have 1 .Z 1 I Figure 2-9 Functionf(/}..-1(t ...2 !e[l(t .. s = cos 8-2 w ... find the limiting value of F(s) as a approaches zero.2e-as + e-2aS ) a2s As a approaches zero..2 !e[1(t)) .+ sm 8-2..2e-as limF(s) a-O = lim + -2as e a--O Qls .-1 -as +--e-2as 2 e =2 a s a2 s a2 s = ..a) + -1(t . .Example Problems and Solutions 37 we have !£[sin(wt + 8)] = cos 8 ~[sin wt] + sin 8 !e[cos wt] .(1 . Solution The functionj(t) can be written 1 2 1 [(t) = -1(t) . Also.

.j(I) can be written as 1(1) = fl(t) + /2(1) + /3(t) b b = -t ·1(t) .a) '1(1 a a I(t) b a) . Hence.b 'l(t . 2 = lim _d_a_ _ _ _ = lim -se-os + 2seo -0 d ( . 12(t).-(I . and /3(t) shown in Figure 2-11.E. and !J(t).38 The Laplace Transform Chap. (t-a) • l(t a a) -b Figure 2-11 Functions II(t). " 13(t) =-b· l(t .a) .a) Figure 2-10 Function f(t).e-as -e-2os) -(a) d 20 S 0-0 1 = -s + 2s = da s Problem A-2-S Obtain the Laplace transform of the functionj(t) shown in Figure 2-10. /2(t). f(t) o a b II(t) = b Ii t· l(t) o~ __ ~~ _____________ 12(t) = . Solution The given functionj(t) can be defined as follows: 1(1) = 0 b = -t a O<tSa a<t =0 Notice that j(t) can be considered a sum of the three functions 'I(t).

we obtain n = 1..!. n = 1. by defining If(l) = g(I).Sl ) dl F(s) d = .2.e-as . a ab -Ie-st dl + 100Oea st dl = ~(1 . then.!. . of course. except at poles of F(s)..-d ds Similarly. the result is . .a .:s G(s) = d2 d2 1 = (-1)2 ds2F (S) = ds2F (S) Repeating the same process..b!e-as 2 ai as s .3. Solution ~[lf(l)] = Jo {OO If(l)e-SI dl = .e-as ) 2 as - £e-as s Problem A-2-6 Prove that if the Laplace transform off(l) is F(s).3.-d J. ~[lf(I)] = - d ds F(s) d2 ~[12f(I)] = ds 2 F(s) and in general.d l b e-sl a -s 0 0 a -s e-as b e-sll a =b-+--s as -s 0 b e-as = b_. be obtained by performing the following Laplace integration: ~[f(I)] = b e-st la .£e-as as = ~(1 2 s The same F(s) can.1) -s as 2 =-1- o J.J._(e-as .OOf(t)eds 0 dl = .:sF(s) ~[12f(I)] = ~[lg(I)] = .:s[ .. ..~ .. .Example Problems and Solutions 39 Then the Laplace transform of f(1) becomes F(s) = ~.e-as ) .Jo Sl (OO f(l) ds (e.2.

Solution Note that roof(t) dl = s-O F(s) lim Jo roof(t) dt = . we have :£[f(t)] Problem A-2-8 = :£[t2 sin wt] = .) 1= [I(. we obtain lim . 2 Problem A-~7 Find the Laplace transform of f(t) Solution Since = 0 = t 2 sin wt t < 0 t20 ~[sin wt] = S 2 W + 2 Cd referring to Problem A-2-6.2 -2--2 = S d ds 2 [ w +w 1 -2w (2 + 6ws 2)3 s +w 3 2 Prove that if the Laplace transform off(t) is F(s). by applying the final-value theorem to this case.)e-" dt = [1(T)e-na dT = a Problem A-~9 1.) 1= aF(as) Solution If we define tla a>0 = 'T and as = SJ._00 ' l 0 f(t) dt = lim s-O F(s) sS or roo lim Jo f(t) dt = s-O F(s) .40 The Laplace Transform Chap.) = aF(as) 100f(t) dl assumes a definite value]. we have Since ftf(t) dt exists. then ~[/(. then 0 Prove that if f(t) is of exponential order and if fooof(/) dl exists [which means that Jo where F(s) = !e[f(/)].00/ (T)e-'" dT = aF(s.-ooJo dl lim tf(/) ~[[I(t) dt 1= F~S) Referring to Equation (2-5). then ~[f(.

T) dT] = /. If we substitute A = 1 .(I)*!2(t)] = Fl(S)F2(S) Thus.00['(1 .(1 .(1 .T) dT] Solution Noting that 1(t .T) dT] = Fl(S)F2(S) where FI(S) = :e[ft(t)] and F2(S) = :£[f2(1)].T) dT] dl = /.00"p.T)l(1 .T) dT A commonly used notation for the convolution is 11(1)*/2(1).h(l) = [fl(T)h(1 - T) dT = [11(1 - T)h(T) dT Show that if 11(t) and 12(1) are both Laplace transformable.T) = 0 for t < T.oof.ooe-'r[/.00f.(1) h(t) Solution Note that = h(t) = 0 =t = 1 .Example Problems and Solutions 41 Problem A-2-10 The convolution of two time functions is defmed by [fI(T)[.oofl(T)"(1 . Problem A-2-11 Determine the Laplace transform of 11(1)*12(1). the result is !e[[fl(T)"(1 .oofl(T).T into this last equation. which is defined as f.(T) dT /.e-' for t < 0 for 1 ~ 0 for 1 ~ 0 .T)l(1 T)e-" dl Changing the order of integration is valid here. we have !e[[fl(T)"(1 .. = !e[/.(I). then :£[/"/l(T)h(1 .T) dT] = /.T)l(1 . since II (t) and h( I) are both Laplace transformable.(TV" dT /. the Laplace transform of the convolution of two time functions is the product of their Laplace transforms.V'A d)' = FI(S)F2(S) or :£[f. where II(t) 1. giving convergent integrals.

.s! 1) =---+---s3 s2 S S+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 s2(s + 1) To verify that the expression after the rightmost equal sign is indeed the Laplace transform of the convolution integral. let us frrst integrate the convolution integral and then take the Laplace transform of the result. 2 The Laplace transform of the convolution integral is given by !£[fl(t)*!2(t)] = Fl(S)F2(S) = =-s3 :2 (.sr dt = ~ n=O 00 l<n+ nT l )T f(t)e. Problem A-2-12 Prove that if /(t) is a periodic function with period T.£[f(t)] = ~e-nTs 1Tf(" + nT)e-ST 0 =t . we obtain d" n=O . .nT.£[f(I)] Solution 00 1 = T f(t)e-" dl 0 1 _ e-Ts .sr dt By changing the independent variable from t to" 00 . We have fl(t)*!2(t) = 1'''[1 - e-('-T)] d" = [(I = T)(l T - e~) dT 1'(1 - le~ + Te~)dT Noting that we have Thus.42 The Laplace Transform Chap.e[J(t)] = 10 o f(t)e. then .

.. Hence. = J.s = ! [e-Ts .. f( l' + nT) = f( 1').2e-(1f2)Ts + 1] s = _ e-SII -s 0 -s Tf2 e-(lf2)Ts _ 1 e-Ts _ e-(lf2)Ts U Tf2 [T (-1 )e-SI dt JTf2 T ! s [1 . ..Tf2 e-sl dt + 0 = e.I .Example Problems and Solutions Since f(t) is a periodic function with period T.T f( 1')e-SI d1' 0 Noting that Le-nTs n=O CXl = 1 + e-Ts + e-2Ts + = 1 + e-TS (1 + e-Ts + e-2Ts + . ~[f(t)] = ~e-nTs CXl 43 J.--s . ) n=O = 1 + e-TS ( ~e-nTs) we obtain CXl 1 Le-nTs = ---=n=O 1 .Tf(t)e-" dt ~[f(t)] Problem A-2-13 = 01 -e -Ts What is the Laplace transform of the periodic function shown in Figure 2-12? Solution Note that Tf(t)e-SI dt o J.e-(1I2)Tsj2 f(t) 1 o -1 u Figure 2-12 Periodic function (square wave).e-Ts It follows that J..+ .

where the Laplace transform off(l) is given by F(s) = ~[f(I)] = s2 2s +s+1 +1 Solution Using the initial-value theorem.Tf{t )e-" dt s[1 + e-(ll2)T'1 s 4 Problem A-2-14 Find the initial value of df(I)/dl...tanh- J. Chap.-0+ lim /(1) = lim sF(s) = lim $-00 s(2s 2 s-oo S + 1) = +s+1 2 Since the ~+ transform of d/(I)ldl = g(l) is given by ~+[g(I)] = sF(s) .5)2 + (0.e-(II2)Ts 1 Ts .2 + s+1 1-0+ = s-OO lims[sF(s) .866 sin 0.s1 cos 0.= g(O+) t _ 2= S2 -s .866t and i(t) = _e-o·51 cos 0. c. = 2(s (s + 0. .866)2 = ~[2e-o.8661 + 2e-o·5IO.5) + 0.= .8661 i(o) = -1 + 0 Thus.. notice that F(s) Hence. = -1 Problem A-2-lS Obtain the inverse Laplace transform of F(s) = (s2 + 2as + a2) + b2 cs +d where a.44 The Laplace Transform Consequently. 51 cos 0./(0+)] To verify this result.866t] /(1) = 2e-o.. b./(0+) = s(2s + 1) s2 + s + 1 the initial value of df(t)/dt is obtained as d/(I) lim -d. and d are real and a is positive. 2 F(s) = (lis )[1 _ e-(ll2)T'l' 1 -e-Ts 1 -e-Ts 1 . we obtain .

we obtain from which it follows that Therefore. and sO terms on both sides of this last equation respectively. .ca b c(s + a) + . so we expand F(s) into the form where ah a2.Example Problems and Solutions 45 Solution Since F(s) can be written as F(s) _ c(s + a) + d .2 (s + 1)2 + 12 . and a3 are determined from 1 = at(s2 + 2s + 2) + (a2s + a3)s By comparing corresponding coefficients of the S2.ca e-al sin bt b Problem A-2-16 Fmd the inverse Laplace transform of 1 F(s) = -s(-s2=--+-2-s-+-2-) Solution Since S2 + 2s + 2 = (s + 1 + jl) (s + 1 .2: s2 + 2s + 2 11 1 1 1 s+1 11 1 s+2 ::: 2: -. F(s) ::: 2: -.2e -I sm I - • 1 2e -I cos I t~O .--~-"'7 (s + a)2 + b2 b (s + a)2 + b2 we obtain I(t) = ce-at cos bl +d . s.2 (s + 1)2 + 12 The inverse Laplace transform of F(s) is I() I ::: 1 1 2 .jl) it follows that F(s) involves a pair of complex-conjugate poles..ca (s + a)2 + b2 --~-"'7 d . .

+ 2: s + 1 + 18 s + 3 + ~e-t + 2.+ .25 3 9 Problem A-2-18 Fmd the inverse Laplace transform of ~0 F (s) = S4 + 2s3 + 3s 2 + 4s + 5 s(s + 1) Solution Since the numerator polynomial is of higher degree than the denominator polynomial.e . by dividing the numerator by the denominator until the remainder is a fraction.3t 2 18 t 25 1 5 1 5 1 The inverse Laplace transform of F(s) is f(t) = 10 t .s(s + 1) s s +1 2s + 51 at = .. 2 5(s + 2) F( s) = -S2-(s--=-+-I-)(-s":""'+-3-) Solution 5(s + 2) ~ bl at a2 F(s) = s2(s + l)(s + 3) = s2 + -.+ s + 1 + s + 3 where 5(s + 2) I 5 at = s2(s + 3) s=-t = 2: 5(s + 2) a2 = S2(S + 1) s=-3 I 5 = 18 ~ = (s + 1) (s + 3) bl 5(s + 2) 5(s I s=O =3 10 d[ = ds (s + l)(s + 3) s=O = 5(s + l)(s + 3) . we obtain F( s) = s + s + 2 + where 2 2s + 5 at a2 = S2 + s + 2 + .5(s + 2)(2s + 4) I (s + 1)2(s + 3)2 s=O 10 1 s2 - + 2) 1 = _ 25 9 Thus.a2 s + 1 s=o S = 5 = -3 = 2s + 51 s . -I . F(s) = 3 9" -..46 Problem A-2-17 Derive the inverse Laplace transform of The Laplace Transform Chap.

respectively.s2 S (s + 1)2 + 3 S2 +- The inverse Laplace transform of F(s) gives f(t) = 0.6 + 2a2 + c = 2 1. 0.28(s + 1) + (1..28.2 + 10a2)s + 6 s2(s2 + 2s + 10) (2-11) By equating corresponding coefficients in the numerators of Equations (2-10) and (2-11). we expand F(s) into the following partial-fraction form: at a2 bs + c s F() :=::-+-+---s2 S S2 + 2s + 10 The coefficient al can be obtained as al - _ 2s2 + 4s + s2 + 2s + 10 61 -.3e-1 Problem A-2-19 Obtain the inverse Laplace transform of d t t ~ 0- F (s) = 2s2 + 4s + 6 s2(s2 + 2s + 10) (2-10) Solution Since the quadratic term in the denominator involves a pair of complexconjugate roots.28 S b = -0..0.6t + 0. we obtain 0...84 + ---:----s2 + 2s + 10 -0.6 + 20 2 + c)s2 + (1. Hence.12/3) x 3 0.-2 .84 = -O.28.s s2 s s2 + 2s + 10 (a2 + b )s3 + (0.s s+1 The inverse Laplace transform of F(s) is d2 dt 5 3 f(t) = ~-t[F(s)] = -2eS(t) + -d eS(t) + 2eS(t) + 5 .. we obtain a2 + b = 0 0.0 6 s=O • Hence.Example Problems and Solutions It follows that 47 F(s) = s2 + s + 2 + ..28 ++ .28s + 0..6 0. c = 0.6 a2 bs + c F() = .2 + 10a2 :=: 4 from which we get a2 = 0.6 s F() = 0.28e-1 cos 3t + 1~2 e-1 sin 3t ...+ .+ .28 .

-+s) . the inverse Laplace transform of F(s) is obtained as f(t) = Problem A-2-21 ~-l[F(s)] = ~(1 (J) . Aw 2 2 sm (J)t 2 2 cos wt a +w a +w t~O .s2 (J)2 ~0 Thus. we obtain X(s) = A(J) (s + a) (s2 + ( 2) Aw +-S b S+ a = a2 + (J)2 = ( (1 a .a2 + w2 s2 + (Ii The inverse Laplace transform of X(s) then gives x(t) = ~-l[X(S)] = (b + a AW)e +(J) 2 2 -aJ + Aa.x(O)] + aX(s) = A-. 2 F(s) Solution = -s(-s2-+-(J)2-) 1 F(s) S(s2 + c.a s+ AW) 1 Aa +a w Aw s b b + a2 + w2 s + a + a2 + w2 s2 + w2 . x(O) = b Laplace transforming both sides of this differential equation.s2s + w2) + . we have (J) [sX(s) .2 + (J)2 s or (s + a)X(s) = -2--2 + b s + (J) A(J) Solving this last equation for X(s).w 2 s2 + (J)2 = 1 =- 1(1 .i) (J)2 s 1 lIs = (J)2 ~ .48 Problem A-2-20 Derive the inverse Laplace transform of The Laplace Transform Chap.cos wt) t Obtain the solution of the differential equation x + ax Solution = A sin (J)t.

03(1 . b Figure 2-13 Function f(1).cos 2t) t < 0 t 2 0 t < 0 1 2 0 Problem 8-2-3 Obtain the Laplace transform of the function defined by f(t) = 0 = t 2e-or 1 <0 0 1~ Problem B-2-4 Obtain the Laplace transform of the function f(t) = 0 = cos 2w1 • cos 3(1)1 1 <0 2 t 0 Problem 8-2-5 What is the Laplace transform of the function f(1) shown in Figure 2-131 Problem 8-2-6 Obtain the Laplace transform of the pulse functionf(t) shown in Figure 2-14. f(t) f(1) c bl------~ ----- o a a+b o Figure 2-14 a Pulse function.Problems 49 PROBLEMS Problem 8-2-1 Derive the Laplace transform of the function f(t) = 0 = te-21 t < 0 t 2 0 Problem 8-2-2 Fmd the Laplace transforms of the following functions: (8) (b) ft(t) = 0 = 3sin(51 + 45°) h(t) = 0 = 0. .

a" a I 2.e(f(t)] as a approaches zero? Problem 8-2-8 Find the Laplace transform of the functionf(t) shown in Figure 2-16. Problem 8-2-9 Given 5($ + 2) F(s) = s(s + 1) obtain f( 00). Figure 2-16 Function f(t). 12 o 0 --:. 10 .s(s + 1)(s + 3) obtain f(O+). Show that x(O+) = slim [s2X(s) . oo .e[f(t)] as a approaches zero. Use the final-value theorem.. Problem 8-2-7 What is the Laplace transform of the functionf(t) shown in Figure 2-15? Also.. Also.. what is the limiting value of ..5 5 a I 12 -. 2 .sx(O+)] . find the limiting value of .50 f(t) The Laplace Transform f(t) Chap.... Problem 8-2-10 Given F(s)-----. 2(s + 2) Problem 8-2-11 Consider a function x(t). Use the initial-value theorem. Figure 2-15 Function f(1).

Problem B-2-13 What are the inverse Laplace transforms of the following functions? (a) (b) F (s) _ 1 - s+5 (s + l)(s + 3) F2( s) = -s(-s-+":-I-)(-s-=-+-2-) 3(s + 4) Problem B-2-14 Fmd the inverse Laplace transforms of the following functions: (0) qS ..(s + l)(s + 2)2 5s +2 Problem B-2-15 Find the inverse Laplace transform of F (s) = 2s2 + 4s + 5 s(s + 1) Problem B-2-16 Obtain the inverse Laplace transform of F(s) = s2 + 2s + 4 s2 Problem B-2-17 Obtain the inverse Laplace transform of F(s) _ s .- r'()_6s+3 s2 (b) F s _ 2( ) .Problems 51 Problem B-2-12 Derive the Laplace transform of the third derivative of f(t).(s + 1)2(s + 4) .s2 + 2s + 10 Problem B-2-18 Obtain the inverse Laplace transform of F(s) Problem B-2-19 = s2 + 2s + 5 S2(S + 1) Obtain the inverse Laplace transform of F(s) _ 2s + 10 .

x(O) =2 Obtain the solution x(t) of the differential equation x + x = sin 3t. Problem 8-2-23 x(O) = 5. x( 0) = 0. 2 Problem 8-2-21 Obtain the inverse Laplace transform of c _ F(s) = -(1 . Problem 8-2-24 x(O) = 0.e as) s2 - b _ -e as S where a> O. x(O) =0 Obtain the solution x(t) of the differential equation x + w~x = t. x(O) =0 . Problem 8-2-25 x(O) = 0.52 Problem 8-2-20 Derive the inverse Laplace transform of The Laplace Transform Chap. Problem 8-2-22 Find the solution x(t) of the differential equation x + 4x = 0. x(O) =0 Determine the solution x(t) of the differential equation 2x + 2x + x = 1.

We begin with a review of systems of units. conventional metric systems. Table 3-1 lists some units of measure from each of the International System. 53 . and British systems of units. Most engineering calculations in the United States are based on the International System (abbreviated SI)1 of units and the British engineering system (BES) of measurement. For additional details on systems of units. it differs from conventional metric absolute or metric gravitational systems of units. 8. The International System is a modified metric system. as such. Units used in describing the behaviors of electrical systems are given in Chapter 6. Details of mathematical modeling and response analyses of various mechanical systems are given in Chapters 4.Mechanical Systems 3-1 INTRODUCTION This chapter is an introductory account of mechanical systems.) The chief difference between "absolute" systems of units and "gravitational" systems of units lies in the choice of mass or force as a primary dimension. (The table presents only those units necessary to describe the behavior of mechanical systems. 5. In the IThis "backward" abbreviation is for the French Systeme International. and. refer to Appendix A. Systems of units. a clear understanding of which is necessary for the quantitative study of system dynamics. 7. and 9.

Conversely.7 cm/s2 = 32.54 TABLE 3-1 Systems of Units Mechanical Systems Chap. we know the weight w of a body. g = 9. resistance to starting and stopping. The value of g varies slightly from point to point on the earth's surface. and the magnitude of the force that the earth exerts on the body is called its weight. Yet its mass remains constant.ft s kg[ lb[ Energy kgrm kgrm s ft-Ib[ or Btu Power N-m w=s N-m w=s -s orhp ft-lb[ absolute systems (SI and the metric and British absolute systems).) Mass. so the body possesses inertia. the mass of a body is defined as the ratio of the magnitude of the force to that of acceleration. 3 ~ Quantity Length Mass TIme Force of units SI m kg s N kg-m =-s2 J = N-m Absolute systems Metric mks m kg s N kg-m =-s2 J = N-m Gravitational systems British ft lb s poundal lb-ft =-S2 ft-poundal ft-poundal s Metric engineering m kg s2 -rm s British engineering cgs em g s dyn g-cm =-s2 erg = dyn-cm dyn-cm s it Ibr s2 slug = . but not the mass m. Physically. In gravitational systems. For engineering purposes. but its mass remains constant.1 in. The mass of a body is the quantity of matter in it. force is a primary dimension and mass is a derived quantity. mass is chosen as a primary dimension and force is a derived quantity. In practical situations. (Thus. the weight of a body varies slightly at different points on the earth's surface.ls2 Far out in space. a body becomes weightless. As a result. mass is the property of a body that gives it inertia. the dimension of mass is force/acceleration. . that is.807 m1s2 = 980. A body is attracted by the earth. which is assumed to be constant. We calculate mass m from w m=g where g is the gravitational acceleration constant. in gravitational systems (metric engineering and British engineering systems) of units.174 ft/S2 = 386.

174 ftls2 g Force. in order to illustrate how to convert from one system to another. a pound force. act on a body. poundal. which will give a 1-g mass an acceleration of 1 cm/s2. A slug is a unit of mass such that. or 1 dyn = I g-Cm/S2 The force unit in the metric engineering (gravitational) system is kg" which is a primary dimension in the system. The units of force are the newton (N). mass. In examples and problems. or m = w = 32. mass. calculations are often made in SI units. Each system of units is consistent in that the unit of force accelerates the unit of mass 1 unit of length per second per second.Sec. lb. To move a body. g. dyne (dyn). the force unit is lb" a primary dimension in this system of units. at the earth's surface is 1 slug. Table 3-2 shows some convenient conversion factors among different systems of units.174 lbr = 1 slu g 32. for instance. In this book. if a mass of 1 slug is acted on by a 32. kg is used to denote a kilogram mass and kg. Similarly.807 N on its support. In SI units and the mks system (a metric absolute system) of units. or IN = 1 kg-m/s2 This implies that 9. the mass of a body weighing 32. it accelerates at 32. The mks units of force. and length are the newton (N). and BES units. a mass of 1 kg will produce a force of 9. and length are the same as the SI units. The cgs units for force.807 m/s2• Since the gravitational acceleration constant is g = 9. conventional metric units. but do not come into contact with it. and slug. slug. If mass is expressed in units of kilograms (or pounds). 3-1 Introduction 55 The units of mass are kg. Hence. The force unit in the cgs system (a metric absolute system) is the dyne.174-pound force. Force can be defined as the cause which tends to produce a change in motion of a body on which it acts.) . and those for the BES units are the pound force (lb. Contact forces are those which come into direct contact with a body. kgr s2/m. force must be applied to it.174Ib. kg" and lb. lb denotes a pound mass and lb. which is termed kilogram force (or pound force).807 m/s2. and meter (m). A special effort has been made in this book to familiarize the reader with the various systems of measurement. In other words. as shown in Table 3-1. a kilogram force. (Other detailed conversion tables are given in Appendix B.1\vo types of forces are capable of acting on a body: contact forces and field forces. and length are the dyne (dyn). a I-slug mass accelerates at 1 ftls2 (slug = Ibr s2/ft). in the British engineering system. we call it kilogram mass (or pound mass) to distinguish it from the unit of force. when acted on by a I-pound force.. and foot (ft).). the force unit is the newton. and centimeter (em).174 ftls2 (= g). mass. Similarly. The SI units of force. whereas field forces.807 N will give a 1-kg mass an acceleration of 9. kilogram mass (kg). Comments. One newton is the force that will give a 1-kg mass an acceleration of 1 m/s2. such as gravitational force and magnetic force. gram (g).

2046 lb 1 kg = 0.10197 kgrm 1 kgrm = 9.56 TABLE 3-2 Conversion Table Mechanical Systems Chap.389 X 10-4 keal 1 Btu = 778 ft-Ibf 1W 1 hp 1 hp = 2.488 kgr s2/m 1 slug-ft2 = 1.6720 slug 1 in. Section 3-2 treats mechanical elements.233 poundals 1 N = 0. 1 N = 7.1741b 1 slug = 1.818 X 10-3 hp X 10-3 hp = 745.031081bf 1 J = 0. = 0.54 em 1 ft = 0.7376 ft-Ib f 1m 1 J = 2.3557 N-m 1 keal = 4186 J 1 ft-lbf = 1. = 2. = 0.341 Outline of the chapter.1383 N lib.4536 kg. Section 3-4 reviews the concept of work.807 N-m 1 ft-lb f = 1.10197 kgr s2/m 1 slug = 14. 3 1 Length 2 3 4 5 Mass 6 7 8 9 Moment of inertia 10 11 12 13 14 Force 15 16 17 18 19 Energy 20 21 22 23 Power 24 25 = 100cm 1 ft = 12 in. 1 ft-Ibtls 1W = 1 J/s = 550 ft-lbfls = 1. 1 kg.174Ib-tt2 1 N = 105 dyn 1 N = 0.356 kg-m2 1 slug-ft2 = 0.7376 slug-ft2 1 kgr s2-m = 7.2046Ib. and power and then presents energy methods for deriving mathematical models of conservative systems (systems that do not dissipate energy).3048 m 1 lb = 0.233 s}ug-ft2 11b-ft2 = 0. Section 3-3 discusses mathematical modeling of mechanical systems and analyzes simple mechanical systems.594 kg 1 slug = 32. 1 m = 3.4536 kg 1 kgr s2/m = 9.285 X 10-3 Btu 1 kg. .10197 kg.4482 N lib.06852 slug 1 lb = 0.03108 slug-tt2 1 kg-m2 = 9.1383 kgr s2-m 1 slug-ft2 = 32. 1lbf = 32. energy. Section 3-1 has presented a review of systems of units necessary in the discussions of dynamics of mechanical systems.281 ft 1 kg = 2.807 kg 1 kg = 0. = 4.03108 slug 1 kgr s2/m = 0.2248 lb. 1 poundal = 0.807 N 1 poundal = 0.7W = 1.174 poundals 1 N-m = 1 J = 1 W-s 1 dyn-em = 1 erg = 10-7 J 1 N-m = 0.

when a force fis applied at the free end. (b) both ends of the spring are deflected. A linear spring is a mechanical element that can be deformed by an external force or torque such that the deformation is directly proportional to the force or torque applied to the element. (The forces at each /J---x-j p \ . . There are three types of basic elements in mechanical systems: inertia elements. . we consider translational motion only. we mean masses and moments of inertia. That is. Figure 3-1(b) shows the case where both ends (denoted by points P and Q) of the spring are deflected due to the forces f applied at each end. the spring is stretched. mertla (mass) = F = kx (3-1) where k is a proportionality constant called the spring constant. change in force N h . The elongation of the spring is x. The force that arises in the spring is proportional to x and is given by . /---x X'-! (b) -I Figure 3-1 (a) One end of the spring is deflected. Consider the spring shown in Figure 3-1(a).. and the other end is free. 3-2 Mechanical Elements 57 3-2 MECHANICAL ELEMENTS Any mechanical system consists of mechanical elements.. Here. (X is the natural length of the spring. Then. the spring is fixed at one end. spring elements. I ' --2 or kg c ange m acce eratIOn mls change in torque N-m inertia (moment of inertia) = .Sec. r . Suppose that the natural length of the spring is X. By inertia elements. Inertia may be defined as the change in force (torque) required to make a unit change in acceleration (angular acceleration). and damper elements.or kg-m2 change m angular acceleratlon rad/s2 Spring Elements. At point P.) .-_ _ 1 /A-----x+x~ (a) 1- X2~ Q P X+X1J + X. this spring force F acts opposite to the direction of the force f applied at point P. . The dimension of the spring constant k is force/displacement. . Inertia elements.

torques equal in magnitude. are applied to the ends of the spring. 3 end of the spring are on the same line and are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. therefore. but opposite in direction.X2. For linear springs. where one end is fixed and a torque T is applied to the other end. (b) a torque T is applied at one end. is applied at the other end. the spring torque acts in the direction opposite that of the applied torque at that end. The dimension of the torsional spring constant k is torque/angular displacement. For practical springs. and a torque T. The net elongation of the spring is x I . (Note that the displacements X + Xl and X2 of the ends of the spring are measured relative to the same frame of reference. . a point is reached at which the material will either break or yield. in the opposite direction. ~// C9 (a) C T (b) Flgure 3-2 (a) A torque T is applied at one end of torsional spring. a point is reached in which the force per unit displacement begins to change and the spring becomes a nonlinear spring.. Then the torque Tthat arises in the torsional spring is T = k8 (3-3) At the free end. Figure 3-3 shows the force-displacement characteristic curves for linear and nonlinear springs.) The natural length of the spring is X. the spring force F acts to the left. The angular displacement of the free end is 8. where angular displacement is measured in radians. the torque T acting in the torsional spring is (3-4) At each end. consider the torsional spring shown in Figure 3-2(a). If the spring is stretched farther. F acts to the right.58 Mechanical Systems Chap. this torque acts in the torsional spring in the direction opposite that of the applied torque T.) Next. At point Q. the spring constant k may be defined as follows: spring constant k (for translational spring) = change in displacement of spring e change in force N m ~~--+-r-r. The force acting in the spring is then (3-2) At point P. the assumption of linearity may be good only for relatively small net displacements. In this case. When a linear spring is stretched. For the torsional spring shown in Figure 3-2(b). and the other end is ftxed.

Figure 3-4(a) shows a schematic diagram of a translational damper. Any relative motion between the piston rod and the cylinder is resisted by oil (a) (b) Figure 3-4 (a) Translational damper. spring constant k (for torsional spring) =------------~----~--------- change in torque N-m change in angular displacement of spring rad Spring constants indicate stiffness. we assume that the damping effect of the spring is negligibly small. Thus. the inertia force due to acceleration of the spring is negligibly small compared with the spring force. Compliance or mechanical capacitance indicates the softness of a spring. All practical springs have inertia and damping. . however. In our analysis in this book. Also. a large value of k corresponds to a hard spring. Damper elements. (b) torsional (or rotational) damper. we assume that the effect of the mass of a spring is negligibly small. will have neither mass nor damping and will obey the linear force-displacement law as given by Equations (3-1) and (3-2) or the linear torque-angular displacement law as given by Equations (3-3) and (3-4). a small value of k to a soft spring. An ideal linear spring. in comparison to a practical spring.Sec. 3-2 F Mechanical Elements 59 Nonlinear spring o x Figure 3-3 Force-displacement characteristic curves for linear and nonlinear springs. The reciprocal of the spring constant k is called compliance or mechanical capacitance C. A damper is a mechanical element that dissipates energy in the form of heat instead of storing it. that is. or dashpot. C = 11k. It consists of a piston and an oil-filled cylinder. Practical spring versus ideal spring.

the torques 'T applied to the ends of the damper are of equal. whereas friction that does not is described as nonlinear. Square-law friction occurs when a solid body moves in a fluid medium. its effect on the dynamic behavior of a mechanical system is similar to that of an electrical resistor on the dynamic behavior of an electrical system. All practical dampers produce inertia and spring effects. Practical damper versus ideal damper. and obeys the linear force-velocity law or linear torque-angular velocity law as given by Equation (3-5) or Equation (3-6). Essentially. Nonlinear friction. In the damper. sliding friction. An ideal damper is massless and springless. The velocities of the ends of the damper are Xl and X2' Velocities Xl and X2 are taken relative to the same frame of reference. Friction that obeys a linear law is called linear friction. the damper absorbs energy. or r (3-6) where. The dimension of b is force/velocity.X2 and the proportionality constant b relating the damping force F to the velocity difference X is called the viscous friction coefficient or viscous friction constant. The dimension of b is torque/angular velocity. magnitude. Note that the initial positions of both ends of the damper do not appear in the equation. and. . we assume that these effects are negligible.60 Mechanical Systems Chap. respectively. we shall not discuss nonlinear friction any further. analogous to the translational case. Figure 3-5 shows a characteristic curve for square-law friction.8 and the proportio~ality con2 1 stant b relating the damping torque T to the angular velocity difference 8 is called the viscous friction coefficient or viscous friction constant. For the torsional damper shown in Figure 3-4(b). In Figure 3-4(a). however. or (3-5) where X = Xl . Examples of nonlinear friction include static friction. Consequently. as such. the forces f applied at the ends of the translational damper are on the same line and are of equal magnitude. and square-law friction. The damping tor~ue that arises in the damper is proportional to the angular velocity difference 81 . and the absorbed energy is dissipated as heat that flows away to the surroundings.X2 of the ends. In this book. the damping force F that arises in it is proportional to the velocity difference Xl . but opposite in direction. A damper is an element that provides resistance in mechanical motion. dissipates all energy. a damper is often referred to as a mechanical resistance element and the viscous friction coefficient as the mechanical resistance. 3 because oil must flow around the piston (or through orifices provided in the piston) from one side to the other. Note that the initial angular positions of both ends of the damper do not appear in the equation. The angular velocities of the ends are 81 and 82 and they are taken relative to the same frame of reference. 8 = 8 .82 of the ends. but opposite in direction. In this book.

Thus. or J lJJ. Newton's second law says that if a force is acting on a rigid body through the center of mass in a given direction.5. More on deriving mathematical models of various mechanical systems and response analyses is presented in Chapters 4. Rigid body. The third law concerns action and reaction and. for translational or linear motion. and is called angular momentum.Sec. or mv. If these internal deflections are negligibly small relative to the gross motion of the entire body. When any real body is accelerated. There are three well-known laws called Newton's laws. Newton's laws. we shall deal with the problem of deriving mathematical models of simple mechanical systems. For rotational motion. 3-3 Mathematical Modeling of Simple Mechanical Systems Force 61 Velocity Figure 3-S Characteristic curve for square-law friction. which concerns the conservation of momentum. Momentum is the product of mass m and velocity v. internal elastic deflections are always present. states that every action is always opposed by an equal reaction. For translational motion. in effect. the acceleration of the rigid body in the same . Newton's first law. 3-3 MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF SIMPLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS A mathematical model of any mechanical system can be developed by applying Newton's laws to the system. states that the total momentum of a mechanical system is constant in the absence of external forces. Newton's second law gives the force-acceleration relationship of a rigid translating body or the torque-angular acceleration relationship of a rigid rotating body. Newton's second law (for translational motion). a rigid body does not deform. In this section. the body is called a rigid body.8. momentum is the product of moment of inertia J and angular velocity lJJ. and 9.7.

Rotational motion is not defined by Equation (3-7).62 Mechanical Systems Chap.F is the sum of all forces acting on mass m through the center of mass in a given direction. The line of action of the force acting on a body must pass through the center of mass of the body. then ma= ~F (3-7) force = -mass where a is the resulting absolute acceleration in that direction. dyn-cm. The moment of inertia J of a rigid body about an axis is defined by J = J r dm 2 where dm is an element of mass. Table 3-3 gives the moments of inertia of rigid bodies with common shapes. kgrm. . Otherwise. such as N-m. Physically. . Torque or moment of force. acceleration or (mass) ( acceleration) = force Suppose that forces are acting on a body of mass m. The units of torque are force times length. we assume that the rotating body is perfectly rigid. If I. or moment of force. and integration is performed over the body.J is the moment of inertia of a body about that axis. Newton's second law (for rotational motion).T is the sum of all torques acting about a given axis. That is. rotational motion will also be involved. r is distance from the axis to dm. and lbrft. and a is the angular acceleration of the body. Torque. Torque is the product of a force and the perpendicular distance from a point of rotation to the line of action of the force. For a rigid body in pure rotation about a fixed axis. Moments of inertia. is defined as any cause that tends to produce a change in the rotational motion of a body on which it acts. In considering moments of inertia. the moment of inertia of a body is a measure of the resistance of the body to angular acceleration. 3 direction is directly proportional to the force acting on it and is inversely proportional to the mass of the body. Newton's second law states that (moment of inertia) (angular acceleration) or Ja = torque = ~T (3-8) where I.

The mass of this ring-shaped element is 2'TrrLp dr.. A' Figure 3-6 Homogeneous cylinder. 3-3 Mathematical Modeling of Simple Mechanical Systems 63 TABLE 3-3 Moments of Inertia t~R x ~ m x' t = mass of disk = ..!..2) Figure 3-6 shows a homogeneous cylinder of radius R and length L. where p is the density of the cylinder. The moment of inertia J of this cylinder about axis AA' can be obtained as follows: Consider a ringshaped mass element of infinitesimal width dr at radius r. dm = 2'Trr Lp dr A-+-H.mR2 2 Jx x (~L-j }x- m = mass of solid cylinder J x = .!.Sec. . Thus.mR2 2 x~1L-j }xExampJe3-1 m = mass of hollow cylinder Jx = tm(R2 + .

Mechanical Systems Chap. we obtain Moment of inertia about an axis other than the geometrical axis. where a homogeneous cylinder of mass m and radius R rolls on a flat surface. of the cylinder about its line of contact (axis xx') with the surface. r3 dr 0 0 2 'If' R dr = 2'ITLp J. Example 3-2 Consider the system shown in Figure 3-7. lx.R r22'1f'rLp 1 = !mR2 2 'lTLpR =-- 4 Since the entire mass m of the cylinder body is m = R2 Lp. The behavior determined by a forcing function is called a forced response. If the axes are parallel.c + mR2 = -mR2 + mR2 = -mR2 2 2 Forced response and natural response. After the response has become negligibly small. Sometimes it is necessary to calculate the moment of inertia of a homogeneous rigid body about an axis other than its geometrical axis. conditions are said to have reached a steady state. Find the moment of inertia.64 Consequently. The moment of inertia of the cylinder about axis CC' is lc = ZmR 1 2 The moment of inertia of the cylinder about axis xx' when mass m is considered concentrated at the center of gravity is mR2. Figure ~7 Homogeneous cylinder rolling on a flat surface. and that due to initial conditions (initial energy storages) is called a natural response. The period between the initiation of a response and the ending is referred to as the transient period. 3 1 = J. the moment of inertia lx of the cylinder about axis xx' is 1 x 1 3 = 1. . the calculation can be done easily. The moment of inertia about an axis that is a distance x from the geometrical axis passing through the center of gravity of the body is the sum of the moment of inertia about the geometrical axis and the moment of inertia about the new axis when the mass of the body is considered concentrated at the center of gravity. Thus.

that is. =~ b s +J (3-10) The denominator.w(O)] where n(s) + bn(s) = 0 = . is called the characteristic polynomial.e[w(t)]. J[sn(s) . Applying Newton's second law. we take the Laplace transform of Equation (3-9). The moment of inertia of the rotor about the axis of rotation is J. 3-3 Mathematical Modeling of Simple Mechanical Systems 65 F1gure 3-8 Rotor mounted in bearings. (Here.a(s) Hence. Ji» = -bw. Equation (3--8).Sec. we obtain the equation of motion. not the angular displacement. and s +- b J = 0 is called the characteristic equation. Rotational system. the output of the system is considered to be the angular velocity w. A schematic diagram of a rotor mounted in bearings is shown in Figure 3--8. Let us assume that at t = 0 the rotor is rotating at the angular velocity w(O) = woo We also assume that the friction in the bearings is viscous friction and that no external torque is applied to the rotor. Then the only torque acting on the rotor is the friction torque bw in the bearings. Simplifying. or w(O) = wo Jw + bw = 0 (3-9) Equation (3-9) is a mathematical model of the system.) To find w( t). s + (blJ). . we obtain (Js + b)n(s) = Jw(O) = Jwo .

368000 Figure 3-9 Curve of angular velocity w versus time t for the rotor system shown in Figure 3-8._----. as shown in Figure 3-9. the time constant Tis equal to Jib. Since the exponential factor e-(bIJ)r approaches zero as t increases without limit.368 In other words. is w(t) = woe-(blJ)1 The angular velocity decreases exponentially. I . When t = T. mathematically the response lasts forever. the value of the exponential factor is e-TIT = e-1 = 0. as shown in Figure 3-9.a(s). In dealing with such an exponentially decaying response. Here. or T = JIb.-_--. 3 0. the mass is suspended by the spring.8% of its initial value. when the time t in seconds is equal to the time constant. it is convenient to depict the response in terms of a time constant: that value of time which makes the exponent equal to -1. Spring-mass system. the expo- nential factor is reduced to approximately 36. t x Before mass m is attached to the spring Aftermassm is attached to the spring Figure 3-10 Spring-mass system. two ~ y=x+o T 1 1 " o = Static deflection m - 1 - _I _o~_--. . o T The inverse Laplace transform of . the solution of the differential equation given by Equation (3-9). Figure 3-10 depicts a system consisting of a mass and a spring. For this system. For the vertical motion.66 Mechanical Systems 00 Chap.

Sec. X(s) = x(O) sx(O) k + k s2 + s2 +- m m . suppose that the mass is pulled downward and then released with arbitrary initial conditions x(O) and X(O). then the term mg can be dropped from the equation of motion.) If the mass is pulled downward by an external force and then released. unless otherwise stated. by applying Newton's second law to this system. when writing equations of motion for systems involving the gravitational force. the mass will oscillate and the motion will be periodic. By taking the Laplace transforms of both sides of that equation. we measure the displacement of the mass from the eqUilibrium position in order to eliminate the term mg and simplify the mathematical model. we obtain the equation of motion my =L forces = -ky + mg = mg (3-11) or my + ky The gravitational force is opposed statically by the equilibrium spring deflection S. So. It is a natural response due to the initial condition. we have mx + k(x + S) = mg (3-12) Since the spring force kS and the gravitational force mg balance. the spring force acts upward and tends to pull the mass upward.x(O)] + kX(s) = 0 or (ms 2 + k)X(s) = mx(O) + msx(O) Hence. the positive direction of displacement y is defined downward. (We assume that the magnitude of the displacement is such that the spring remains a linear spring. let us solve Equation (3-13). (In the diagram. For the spring-mass system of Figure 3-10. Equa(3-13) =0 which is a mathematical model of the system. By substituting y = x + S into Equation (3-11) and noting that S = constant. In this case. If we measure the displacement from this equilibrium position. The gravitational force pulls the mass downward.) The periodic motion that is observed as the system is displaced from its static eqUilibrium position is called free vibration. we obtain m[s2X(s) . 3-3 Mathematical Modeling of Simple Mechanical Systems 67 forces are acting on the mass: the spring force ky and the gravitational force mg. In this book. Free vibration. To find the mathematical form of the periodic motion. or kS tion (3-12) simplifies to mx + kx = mg.sx(O) .

~ = Vkj.. it is denoted by In.J!. then. 3 This last equation may be rewritten so that the inverse Laplace transform of each term can be easily identified: X( ) s Noting that = "Vk x fm . If the natural frequency is measured in Hz or cps. by substituting these initial conditions into Equation (3-14). If it is measured in radians per second (rad/s). that is. (0) s2 + (Vkj. frequency I =T = 1. rad/s . In the present case of harmonic motion.t The period and frequency of simple harmonic motion can now be defined as follows: The period T is the time required for a periodic motion to repeat itself. or undamped natural frequency. t] = ~ klm)2 we obtain the inverse Laplace transform of X(s) as x(t) = ~X(O) sin . 21T Hz The natural frequency. the displacement of the mass would be given by x(t) = Xo cos . . If the initial conditions were given as x(O) = Xo and X(O) = 0.)2 + Vkj..J!. 1 Hz is 1 cps. is the frequency in the free vibration of a system having no damping..J!.)2 s :£[S1O vklmt] .t + x(O) cos ..J!.68 Mechanical Systems Chap. ~ s2 + (v klm)2 s2 + ( :£[cos Vkj. (0) X s2 + (Vkj. In the present case. and the standard unit of frequency is the hertz (Hz). period T = ~ seconds The frequency I of periodic motion is the number of cycles per second (cps).t (3-14) Periodic motion such as that described by Equation (3-14) is called simple harmonic motion. it is denoted by W n • In the present system. W n = 21T~ In = {k "V.

However. we attach a torsional spring with known spring constant k to the rigid body. Since the equation of motion for this system is iiJ + k8 or . such calculation may be difficult or even impossible.) The spring is then twisted slightly and released. The moment of inertia is then determined as l kT2 J=4". Next. = 0 () + -() J k = 0 the natural frequency is W n = f! 'Ii and the period of vibration is T = 21T = 2". 3-3 Mathematical Modeling of Simple Mechanical Systems 69 It is important to remember that. the square root of the coefficient of the x term is the natural frequency W n • This means that a mathematical model for the system shown in Figure 3-10 can be put in the form x + w~x = 0 wherewn = ~. and the period of the resulting simple harmonic motion is measured... k x+-x= 0 m where the coefficient of the x term is unity. for rigid bodies with complicated shapes or those consisting of materials of various densities.Sec. when Equation (3-13) is written in the form . (See Figure 3-11. Experimental determination of moment of inertia. calculated values may not be accurate. .2 Figure 3-11 Setup for the experimental determination of moment of inertia. w. The process is as follows: We mount a rigid body in frictionless bearings so that it can rotate freely about the axis of rotation around which the moment of inertia is to be determined. experimental determination of moments of inertia is preferable. In these instances. It is possible to calculate moments of inertia for homogeneous bodies having geometrically simple shapes. moreover.

or critically damped.) A critically damped system is a system in which the degree of damping is such that the resultant motion is on the borderline between the underdamped and overdamped cases. Figure 3-12 Spring-mass-<iamper system.) If the damping is heavy. for the vertical motion. Note that a typical viscous damping element is a damper or dashpot. Figure 3-12 is a schematic diagram of a spring-mass-damper system. the damping force. In the discussion that follows. if the spring constant k is known and the period T of the free vibration is measured. Regardless of whether a system is underdamped. So. Most physical systems involve some type of damping-viscous damping. then the mass m can be calculated from Spring-mass-damper system. which describes the motion of the system. three forces are acting on the mass: the spring force. we shall consider a simple mechanical system involving viscous damping. in the spring-mass system of Figure 3-10. the gravitational force will not enter into the equation of motion. the free vibration or free motion will diminish with time because of the presence of damper. and so on. by measuring the displacement x from the static eqUilibrium position. we obtain the equation of motion. As noted earlier. mx = ~ forces = -kx or hi mx + hi + kx = 0 (3-15) Equation (3-15). 3 Similarly. vibratory motion will not occur. In the system shown in Figure 3-12. Suppose that the mass is pulled downward and then released. Such damping not only slows the motion of (a part of) the system. overdamped. and the gravitational force. This free vibration is called transient motion. is a mathematical model of the system. (The system is then said to be overdamped. (The system is then said to be underdamped. x . if we measure the displacement of the mass from a static equilibrium position (so that the gravitational force is balanced by the eqUilibrium spring deflection). vibratory motion will occur. magnetic damping. but also causes the motion to stop eventually. If the damping is light.70 Mechanical Systems Chap.

This implies that the inverse Laplace transform of Xes) is a damped sinusoidal function. Then Equation (3-15) becomes O. we obtain [s2 Xes) .1 slug.x(O)] + 40X(s) = 0 Simplifying this last equation and noting that x(O) = Xo and x(O) = 0.lx + O.Sec. (A more complete analysis of this system for the underdamped. Hence. Suppose that m = 0. b = 0. and critically damped cases is given in Chapter 8.4x + 4x or =0 (3-16) x + 4x + 40x = 0 Let us obtain the motion x(t) when the mass is pulled downward at t = 0. and is released with zero velocity.sx(O) . we may rewrite Xes) in Equation (3-17) as a sum of the Laplace transforms of a damped sine function and a damped cosine function: X ( s) 2xo (s + 2)xo + --:----s2 + 4s + 40 s2 + 4s + 40 1 6 s +2 = 3" xo(s + 2)2 + 62 + xO(s + 2)2 + 62 = Noting that (s + 2) + 6 62 2 - _ cL e-21 sm 6] CD[ • t.) Taking the Laplace transform of Equation (3-16).4 lbrs/ft.) Let us solve Equation (3-15) for a particular case. we get (s2 + 4s + 4O)X(s) or = sxo + 4xo (3-17) (s + 4)xo X (s) = s2 + 4s + 40 The characteristic equation for the system s2 + 4s + 40 = 0 has a pair of complex-conjugate roots.x(O)] + 4[sX(s) . or x(O) = O. 3-3 Mathematical Modeling of Simple Mechanical Systems 71 Only the underdamped case is considered in our present analysis. and k = 4 lbtlft. s +2 2 ( s+2 ) +6 2 - _ :i[e -2t cos 6t] we can obtain the inverse Laplace transform of X(s) as x(t) = kxoe-2I sin 6t + xoe-2t cos 6t = e-2t(~ sin 61 + cos 61 )xo (3-18) . overdamped. so that x(O) = Xo. (We assume that the magnitude of the downward displacement is such that the system remains a linear system.

2 2.37 x = 0 x + 4i + 40x = 0 which is the same as Equation (3-16). Equation (3-15) becomes O.459x + 5.3048 kg.1488 kg. is the same as Equation (3-16).37 N/m Hence. Chap.4lb.448/0. 2.5953 kg. The numerical values in the preceding problem were stated in BES units.4lb.453610. The free vibration here is a damped sinusoidal vibration. SI units (refer to Tables 3-1 and 3-2): m = 0.-s/m = 0.4536/0.-s/ft = 0. as shown in Figure 3-13.953x or =0 x + 4i + 40x = 0 which.-s/ft = 0.953 kglm Therefore.5953i + 5. again. 3 Xo Figure 3-13 Free vibration of the spring-mass-damper system described by x + 4x + 40x = 0 with initial conditions x(O) = Xo and x(O) = O.459 kg b = O. Let us convert these values into units of other systems.3048 kgtlm = 5.5 t (sec) Equation (3-18) depicts the free vibration of the spring-mass-damper system with the given numerical values.1 slug = 0. .837i or + 58.837 N-s/m k = 4lbtlft = 4 X 4.4 X 4.3048 N-s/m = 5.3048 N/m = 58.1488x + 0.448/0. Comments.4 X 0. 1.-s/m k = 4lbtlft = 4 X 0.1 slug = 1.72 x Mechanical Systems. Metric engineering (gravitational) units (refer to Tables 3-1 and 3-2): m = 0. Equation (3-15) becomes 1.-s2/m b = O.

Force is measured in newtons and distance in meters. The work done in a mechanical system is the product of a force and the distance (or a torque and the angular displacement) through which the force is exerted.807 J = 0. SI units and mks (metric absolute) system of units. the differential equation (mathematical model) of the system remains the same. Power is work per unit time.Sec. or erg.285 X 10-3 Btu 1 Btu = 778 ft-Ib. ENERGY. and so forth. The concept of work makes no allowance for a time factor. Energy is found in many different forms and can be converted from one form into another. Energy. and Power 73 Note that as long as we use consistent units.3557 J = 1. the unit of work is the N-m. Work. We also discuss energy methods for deriving equations of motion or undamped natural frequencies of certain conservative systems. Thus. the system's energy decreases by the amount equal to the energy . AND POWER In this section. if a body is pushed with a horizontal force of F newtons along a horizontal floor for a distance of x meters. Hence. the work done in pushing the body is W = FxN-m Units of work. with both force and distance measured in the same direction. the unit of work is the dyn-cm. Different systems have different units of work. For instance. 3-4 WORK. = 1. an electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. and power. the unit of work is the ft-Ib" and 1 ft-Ib. energy can be defined as the capacity or ability to do work. When a time factor is considered. then work is a measure of accomplishment and energy is the ability to do work.10197 kgrm Energy. A system is said to possess energy when it can do work. cgs (metric absolute) system of units. Here. Note that 1J 1 kgrm = 9. force is measured in pounds and distance in feet. For instance.807 X 107 dyn-cm = 9. 3-4 Work. the concept of power must be introduced. metric engineering system is the kgrm. Note that 1 N-m = 1 joule = 1 J British engineering system of units. a battery converts chemical energy into electrical energy. When a system does mechanical work. If force is considered a measure of effort. energy. Note that 107 erg = 107 dyn-cm = 1 J The unit of work in the Metric engineering (gravitational) system of units. we discuss work. In a general way. In this system.

energy can be neither created nor destroyed. Potential energy is the work done by an external force.2" kxt Xl Note that the potential energy stored in a spring does not depend on whether it is compressed or stretched. 3 required for the work done. the potential energy U is equal to the net work done on the spring by the forces acting on its ends as it is compressed or stretched. This means that the increase in the total energy within a system is equal to the net energy input to the system. Btu. T = "2mv2. the total energy stored is U = x lx l F dx = 00 1 kx dx = . joule. change in potential energy AU = 2 8 182 1 T d8 = 6. In a mechanical system.) Once the body is released. Similarly. the potential energy U measured from some reference level is mg times the altitude h measured from the same reference level. only mass and spring elements can store potential energy. For a translational spring. kcal. and so on. According to the law of conservation of energy. The change in the potential energy stored in a system equals the work required to change the system's configuration. The lost potential energy is converted into kinetic energy. So if there is no energy input. whereas a moment of inertia J in pure rotation with angular velocity 8 .kx 2 2 H the initial and final values of x are Xl and change in potential energy AU = X2. or U = lhmgdX = mgh Notice that the body.74 Mechanical Systems Chap. (The weight is a force. whereas the energy that a body has as a result of its velocity is called kinetic energy. where x is the net displacement of the ends of the spring. then 1 ~ F dx = 1~ XI kx dx = 1 1 2" kx~ . for a torsional spring. Potential energy. For a body of mass m in the gravitational field of the earth. Only inertial elements can store kinetic energy in mechanical srstems. the potential energy decreases. newton-meter. 6. Potential energy is always measured with reference to some chosen level and is relative to that level. Since the spring force F is equal to kx. has the capacity to do work. since the weight mg of the body causes it to travel a distance h when released. there is no change in total energy of the system. Units of energy are the same as units for work. that is.2" ket 1 1 Kinetic energy. A mass m in pure translation with velocity v has kinetic energY. The energy that a body possesses because of its position is called potential energy. k8 d8 = 2" k8~ . if dropped. respectively.

Thus. Consider the damper shown in Figure 3-14. V(tl) = Vh and V(t2) = 'V2. The change in kinetic energy of a moment of inertia in pure rotation at angular velocity 8is change in kinetic energy AT = ~ J iPz . the change in kinetic energy T of a mass m moving in a straight line is change in kinetic energy = AT = AW = = 1 11 12 Fvdt = 112mirvdt = 1\ l X2 F dx = 112F d : 1\ x\ t dt 1~ VI mvdv = -mv2 . Power. The change in kinetic energy of the mass is equal to the work done on it by an applied force as the mass accelerates or decelerates.. Energy. 82 = 8(12)' Dissipated energy.~ J iff 81 = 8(tl). in which one end is fixed and the other end is moved from Xl to X2' The dissipated energy AW of the damper is equal to the net work done on it: The energy of the damper element is always dissipated. . regardless of the sign of x. and Power 75 has kinetic energy T = iJiP. dW power=P=dt /. and ~her~ J is the moment of inertia about the axis of rotation.mv l 121 2 2 2 where X(tl) = Xh X(t2) = X2. Power is the time rate of doing work. 3-4 Work. Notice that the kinetic energy stored in the mass does not depend on the sign of the velocity v.Sec.t-----X2----I ~-F1gure ~14 Damper. That is.

76

Mechanical Systems

Chap. 3

where dW denotes work done during time interval dt. The average power during a duration of t2 - tl seconds can be determined by measuring the work done in t2 - tl seconds, or average power

=

work done in

(t2

-

) d tl secon s

(t2 - (1)

seconds

In SI units or the mks (metric absolute) system of units, the work done is measured in newton-meters and the time in seconds. The unit of power is the newtonmeter per second, or watt: 1 N-mls

=1W

In the British engineering system of units, the work done is measured in ft-Ibt and the time in seconds. The unit of power is the ft-Ibls. The power 550 ft-Ibls is called 1 horsepower (hp). Thus, 1 hp

= 550 ft-Ibls = 33000 ft-Ihlmin = 745.7 W
1 kgrm/s = 9.807 W 1W

In the metric engineering system of units, the work done is measured in kgrm and the time in seconds. The unit of power is the kgrm/s, where

= 1 Jls = 0.10197 kgrm/s

Example 3-3 Find the power required to raise a body of mass 500 kg at a rate of 20 mlmin. Let us define displacement per second as x. Then 20 kg-m2 work done in 1 second = mgx = 500 x 9.807 x 60 ~ = 1635 N-m and ower = work done in 1 second P 1 second Thus, the power required is 1635 W.

= 1635 N-m
1s

= 1635 W

An energy method for deriving equations of motion. Earlier in this chapter, we presented Newton's method for deriving equations of motion of mechanical systems. Several other approaches for obtaining equations of motion are available, one of which is based on the law of conservation of energy. Here we derive such equations from the fact that the total energy of a system remains the same if no energy enters or leaves the system. In mechanical systems, friction dissipates energy as heat. Systems that do not involve friction are called conservative systems. Consider a conservative system in which the energy is in the form of kinetic or potential energy (or both). Since energy enters and leaves the conservative system in the form of mechanical work, we obtain

iJJ.(T + U)

= iJJ.W

Sec. 3-4

Work, Energy, and Power

77

Figure 3-15 Mechanical system.

where A(T + U) is the change in the total energy and AW is the net work done on the system by an external force. If no external energy enters the system, then

A(T + U)
which results in
T

=0

+U

= constant

If we assume no friction, then the mechanical system shown in Figure 3-15 can be considered conservative. The kinetic energy T and potential energy U are given by

T = !.mx 2

2'

U = !.kx2

2

Consequently, in the absence of any external energy input,
T

+ U = kmx2 + kkx2 = constant

The equation of motion for the system can be obtained by differentiating the total energy with respect to t:

:1 (T + U) = mix + kxx = (mx + kx)i = 0
Since i is not always zero, we have

mx + kx = 0
which is the equation of motion for the system. Let us look next at the mechanical system of Figure 3-16. Here, no damping is involved; therefore, the system is conservative. In this case, since the mass is suspended by a spring, the potential energy includes that due to the position of the mass element. At the eqUilibrium position, the potential energy of the system is
Uo = mgxo

+ "2 kS

1

2

where Xo is the equilibrium position of the mass element above an arbitrary datum line and S is the static deflection of the spring when the system is in the equilibrium position, or kS = mg. (For the definition of S, see Figure 3-10.)

78

Mechanical Systems

Chap. 3

Equilibrium__ position

---,
~

Xo
Datum line

x

1

Figure 3-16 Mechanical system.

The instantaneous potential energy U is the instantaneous potential energy of the weight of the mass element, plus the instantaneous elastic energy stored in the spring. Thus,

U

= mg(xo -

1 x) + 2k(~ + x)2

= mgxo - mgx

+ 2k~2 + k~x + 2kx2
1 (mg - k~)x + 2kx2

1

1

= mgxo + 2k~2 Since mg =
k~,

1

it follows that

1 2 U = Uo + 2kx
Note that the increase in the total potential energy of the system is due to the increase in the elastic energy of the spring that results from its deformation from the equilibrium position. Note also that, since Xo is the displacement measured from an arbitrary datum line, it is possible to choose the datum line such that Uo = O. Finally, note that an increase (decrease) in the potential energy is offset by a decrease (increase) in the kinetic energy. The kinetic energy of the system is T = ~ mx2• Since the total energy is constant, we obtain
T

+U

= kmx2

+ Uo + kkx2

= constant

By differentiating the total energy with respect to t and noting that Uo is a constant, we have

:t
or

(T + U)

= mix + kxi = 0

(mx + kx)x = 0

Sec. 3-4

Work, Energy, and Power

79

Since

xis not always zero, it follows that mx + kx = 0

This is the equation of motion for the system.
Example 3-4 Figure 3-17 shows a homogeneous cylinder of radius R and mass m that is free to rotate about its axis of rotation and that is connected to the wall through a spring. Assuming that the cylinder rolls on a rough surface without sliding, obtain the kinetic energy and potential energy of the system. Then derive the equations of motion from the fact that the total energy is constant. Assume that x and 0 are measured from respective equilibrium positions. The kinetic energy of the cylinder is the sum of the translational kinetic energy of the center of mass and the rotational kinetic energy about the axis of rotation:
1 . k· · energy = T = 2: mx 2 metlc 1 0 + 2: J'2

The potential energy of the system is due to the deflection of the spring: potential energy = U =

~ kx 2

Since the total energy T + U is constant in this conservation system (which means that the loss in potential energy equals the gain in kinetic energy), it follows that
T

+ U = !. mx 2 + !: J iJ2 + !: kx 2 = constant
2 2 2

(3-19)

The cylinder rolls without sliding, which means that x = RO. Rewriting Equation (3-19) and noting that the moment of inertia J is equal to ~mR2, we have

~ mx2 + ~ kx 2 =
3 ... 2:mxx + k ' xx
or

constant

Differentiating both sides of this last equation with respect to t yields
=

0

Flgure 3-17 Homogeneous cylinder connected to a wall through a spring.

80
Note that x is not always zero, so rrii

Mechanical Systems

Chap. 3

+ ~ kx must be identically zero. Therefore,

.. 2k mx+- x=O 3
or

.. 2k x+-x= 0 3m This equation describes the horizontal motion of the cylinder. For the rotational motion, we substitute x = RO to get 2k o =O 3m In either of the equations of motion, the natural frequency of vibration is the same, ClJn ;: Y2kl(3m) rad/s.

8+

An energy method for determining natural frequencies. The natural frequency of a conservative system can be obtained from a consideration of the kinetic energy and the potential energy of the system. Let us assume that we choose the datum line so that the potential energy at the equilibrium state is zero. Then, in such a conservative system, the maximum kinetic energy equals the maximum potential energy, or

Tmax

= Umax

Using this relationship, we are able to determine the natural frequency of a conservative system, as presented in Example 3-5.
ExampJe3-S Consider the system shown in Figure 3-18. The displacement x is measured from the eqUilibrium position. The kinetic energy of this system is
T

= .!mx2
2

If we choose the datum line so that the potential energy Vo at the eqUilibrium state is zero, then the potential energy of the system is given by
V

= .!kX2
2

Flgure 3-18 Conservative mechanical system.

x

Example Problems and Solutions

81

Let us assume that the system is vibrating about the equilibrium position. Then the displacement is given by

x = Asinwt
where A is the amplitude of vibration. Consequently,

T U

= .!.m,i2 = .!.mA2~l(cos wt)2
2 2 2

= .!.kx2 = .!.kA2(sin iJJt)2
2

Hence, the maximum values of T and U are given by

T.max = -mA2w2' 2
Since Tmax ::::: Umax , we have

112
Umax

= -2 kA

from which we get

EXAMPLE PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
Problem A-3-1 Calculate the moment of inertia about axis xx' of the hollow cylinder shown in Figure 3-19. Solution The moment of inertia about axis xx' of the solid cylinder of radius R is

1 2 JR = Zm}R
where

(p

= density)

The moment of inertia about axis xx' of the solid cylinder of radius r is
J.r

=.!.m2,2 2

x

X'

I---L---I

Flgure 3-19 Hollow cylinder.

82
where

Mechanical Systems

Chap. 3

m2

= 'TT',2Lp

Then the moment of inertia about axis xx' of the hollow cylinder shown in the figure is

J

= JR -

Jr

1 1 = 2. m)R2 - 2. m2'2

= k[('TT'R2LP)R 2 - ('TT',2Lp),2]
= k'TT'Lp (R4 - ,4)

1 = 2'TT'Lp (R2 + ,2) (R 2 The mass of the hollow cylinder is

,2)

m = 'TT'(R2 - ,2)Lp
Hence,

1 J = 2(R 2 + ,2)'TT'(R2 - ,2)Lp
1 = 2.m(R2

+ ,2)

(See the third item of Table 3-3.) Problem A-3-2 A rotating body whose mass is m is suspended by two vertical wires, each of length h, a distance 2a apart. The center of gravity is on the vertical line that passes through the midpoint between the points of attachment of the wires. (See Figure 3-20.) Assume that the body is turned through a small angle about the vertical axis through the center of gravity and is then released. Define the period of oscillation as T. Show that moment of inertia J of the body about the vertical axis that passes through the center of gravity is

J =

(~)2a2mg
2'TT' h

Solution Let us assume that, when the body rotates a small angle 8 from the equilibrium position, the force in each wire is F. Then, from Figure 3-20, the angle f/J that each wire makes with the vertical is small. Angles 8 and f/J are related by

a8
Thus,

= hf/J

Notice that the vertical component of force Fin each wire is equal to mg/2. The horizontal component of F is mgf/Jl2. The horizontal components of F of both wires produce a torque mgf/Ja to rotate the body. Thus, the equation of motion for the oscillation is

J8

..

= -mgf/Ja = -mg-

a28 h

Example Problems and Solutions

83

....- - 2 a

Flgure 3-20 Experimental setup for measuring the moment of inertia of a rotating body.

or

.. a2mg

8 + --8 Jh

=0

from which the period of the oscillation is found to be

T =

~a2mg
Jh

21T

Solving this last equation for J gives
} =

(l)2a mg
21T

2

h

Problem A-3-3 A brake is applied to a car traveling at a constant speed of 90 kmlh.lf the deceleration ex caused by the braking action is 5 mls2, find the time and distance before the car stops. Solution Note that 90 kmJh The equation of motion for the car is

= 25 mls

mx = -ma

84

Mechanical Systems

Chap. 3

where m is the mass of the car and x is the displacement of the car, measured from the point where the brake is first applied. Integrating this last equation, we have
X(/)

= -al + v(O)
1

and

X(/)

= - ia/2 + V(O)I + x(O)
11. Then

where x(O) = 0 and v(O) = 25 mls. Assume that the car stops at I = from

x(/d

= O. The value of 11 is determined = 0

x(tt) =
or
I}

-all

+ v(O)
25

= -a- = -5 = 5s
52 + 25 x 5

v(O)

The distance traveled before the car stops is

1 1 x(/d :: - -aIr + V(O)/} = - - x 5 2 2 :: 62.5 m
Problem A-3-4

X

Consider a homogeneous cylinder with radius 1 m. The mass of the cylinder is 100 kg. What will be the angular acceleration of the cylinder if it is acted on by an external torque of 10 N-m about its axis? Assume no friction in the system. Solution The moment of inertia is
J = -mR2

1

2

1 =-

2

X

100

X

12

= 50kg-m2

The equation of motion for this system is

/8

= T

where 8 is the angular acceleration. Therefore,
.. T lON-m 2 8= - = = 0.2 radls J 50 kg-m2

(Note that, in examining the units of this last equation, we see that the unit of 8 is not s-2, but rad/s2. This usage occurs because writing rad/s 2 indicates that the angle 8 is measured in radians. The radian is the ratio of a length of arc to the radius of a circle. That is, in radian measure, the angle is a pure number. In the algebraic handling of units, the radian is added as necessary.) Problem A-3-S Suppose that a disk is rotated at a constant speed of 100 radls and we wish to stop it in 2 min. Assuming that the moment of inertia J of the disk is 6 kg-m2, determine the torque T necessary to stop the rotation. Assume no friction in the system.

Example Problems and Solutions

85

Solution The necessary torque T must act so as to reduce the speed of the disk. Thus, the equation of motion is

Ii»

=

-T,

w(O)

=

100

Noting that the torque T is a constant and taking the Laplace transform of this last equation, we obtain

l[sfl(s) - w(O))

= --

T s

Substituting I = 6 and w(O) = 100 into this equation and solving for fl(s), we get

fl(s)

= 100
S

_

I...2
6s
-t
T 6

The inverse Laplace transform of fl(s) gives

wet)
At t

= 100 -

= 2 min:::

120 s, we want to stop, so w(120) must equal zero. Therefore, w(120) ::: 0

= 100 - 6"

T

X

120

Solving for T, we get
T

=-

600 120

= SN-m

Problem A-3-6
Obtain the equivalent spring constant for the system shown in Figure 3-21. Solution For the springs in parallel, the equivalent spring constant from
keq

is obtained

or

Figure 3-21 System consisting of two springs in parallel.

Problem A-~7
Fmd the equivalent spring constant for the system shown in Figure 3-22(a), and show that it can also be obtained graphically as in Figure 3-22(b). Solution For the springs in series, the force in each spring is the same. Thus,

kty

= F,

86

Mechanical Systems
y
x

Chap. 3

(a)

c

Figure 3-22 (a) System consisting of two springs in series; (b) diagram showing the equivalent spring constant.

A

p
(b)

B

Eliminating y from these two equations yields

k2( x - :.) = F
or

k 2x

k2 = F + -F
kl

= ---F kl

kl

+ k2

The equivalent spring constant for this case is then found to be
k
eq

=f=~=
x

kl + k2

-+-

1 kl

1

1 k2

For the graphical solution, notice that
AC AB PQ:::: PB'

from which it follows that

_
PB::::

"Ali.JiQ
AC '

AB·PQ AP=--.....;,.;;;.. BD

Since AP

+ PB :::: AB, we have

---=- +

AB·PQ BD

AB·PQ = AB AC

Example Problems and Solutions

87

or

=+==1
BD AC

PQ

PQ

Solving for PQ, we obtain
1

PQ =

1 AC

1

+

BD

So if lengths AC and BD represent the spring constants kl and k2' respectively, then length PQ represents the equivalent spring constant k eq . That is,
PQ

=

1
kl

1

1 = keq
k2

-+Problem A-3-8
In Figure 3-23, the simple pendulum shown consists of a sphere of mass m suspended by a string of negligible mass. Neglecting the elongation of the string, find a mathematical model of the pendulum. In addition, find the natural frequency of the system when 8 is small. Assume no friction.
Solution The gravitational force mg has the tangential component mg sin 8 and the normal component mg cos 8. The torque due to the tangential component is -mgl sin 8, so the equation of motion is

iii =
where
J = m1 2• Therefore,

-mgl sin 8

mP'8 + mgl sin 8

=0

For small 8, sin 8 ::i= 8, and the equation of motion simplifies to

..

8 + -8 = 0 I

g

mg

Figure 3-23 Simple pendulum.

88

Mechanical Systems

Chap. 3

This is a mathematical model of the system. The natural frequency is then obtained as
(J)

n

= '/i f!

Problem A-3-9 Consider the spring-loaded pendulum system shown in Figure 3-24. Assume that the spring force acting on the pendulum is zero when the pendulum is vertical (8 = 0). Assume also that the friction involved is negligible and the angle of oscillation, 8, is small. Obtain a mathematical model of the system. Solution 1\vo torques are acting on this system, one due to the gravitational force and the other due to the spring force. Applying Newton's second law, we find that the equation of motion for the system becomes

/8

= -mgt sin 8 - 2(ka sin 8) (a cos 8)

where J = m/ 2• Rewriting this last equation, we obtain

mp(j + mgt sin 8 + 2 ka 2 sin 8 cos 8
For small 8, we have sin 8 fied to

=

0

= 8 and cos 8 =

1. So the equation of motion can be simpli-

or

.8 + (8 + 2 - 8 ka 2 )

I

m/2

= 0

This is a mathematical model of the system. The natural frequency of the system is g ka 2 (J) = - + 2n I m/2

Figure ~24 Spring-loaded pendulum system.

mg

Example Problems and Solutions

89

Problem A-3-10 Consider the rolling motion of the ship shown in Figure 3-25. The force due to buoyan-

cy is -wand that due to gravity is w. These two forces produce a couple that causes
rolling motion of the ship. The point where the vertical line through the center of buoyancy, C, intersects the symmetrical line through the center of gravity, which is in the ship's centerline plane, is called the metacenter (point M). Define
R = distance of the metacenter to the center of gravity of the ship = MG J = moment of inertia of the ship about its longitudinal centroidal axis

Derive the equation of rolling motion of the ship when the roIling angle 8 is small. Solution From Figure 3-25, we obtain

iiJ
or

= -wR sin 8

iiJ + w R sin 8 =
For small 8, we have sin 8

0

* 8. Hence, the equation of rolling motion of the ship is
iiJ + wR8
= 0

The natural frequency of the rolling motion is v' wRIl. Note that the distance R( = MG) is considered positive when the couple of weight and buoyancy tends to rotate the ship toward the upright position. That is, R is positive if point M is above point G, and R is negative if point M is below point G.
-w

w

Figure 3-25 Rolling motion of a ship.

Problem A-3-11
In Figure 3-26, a homogeneous disk of radius R and mass m that can rotate about the center of mass of the disk is hung from the ceiling and is spring preloaded. (1\vo springs are connected by a wire that passes over a pulley as shown.) Each spring is prestretched by an amount x. Assuming that the disk is initially rotated by a small angle 8 and then released, obtain both a mathematical model of the system and the natural frequency of the system.

Solution If the disk is rotated by an angle 8 as shown in Figure 3-26, then the right spring is stretched by x + R8 and the left spring is stretched by x - R8. So, applying Newton's second law to the rotational motion of the disk gives

iiJ

= -k(x

+ R8)R + k(x - R8)R

90

Mechanical Systems

Chap. 3

(Prestretched)

Flgure 3-26 Spring-pulley system.

where the moment of inertia J is mR2. Simplifying the equation of motion, we have

!

.. 8

+ -8 = 0
m

4k

This is a mathematical model of the system. The natural frequency of the system is
lI)

n

=

\j-;;;

f4k

Problem A-3-U For the spring-mass-pulley system of Figure 3-27, the moment of inertia of the pulley about the axis of rotation is J and the radius is R. Assume that the system is initially at equilibrium. The gravitational force of mass m causes a static deflection of the spring such that k5 = mg. Assuming that the displacement x of mass m is measured from the eqUilibrium position, obtain a mathematical model of the system. In addition, find the natural frequency of the system. Solution Applying Newton's second law, we obtain, for mass m,

mx= -T

(3-20)

where T is the tension in the wire. (Note that since x is measured from the static equilibrium position the term mg does not enter into the equation.) For the rotational motion of the pulley,

iiJ iiJ
(J
or

= TR - kxR
kxR

(3-21)

If we eliminate the tension T from Equations (3-20) and (3-21), the result is

= -mxR -

(3-22)

Noting that x = R8, we can simplify Equation (3-22) to

+ mR2fiJ + kR 28 = 0
..
8

+

kR2
J + mR
28 = 0

Example Problems and Solutions 91 Figure 3-27 Spring-Mass-pulley system. This is a mathematical model of the system. Solution From Newton's second law. Derive a mathematical model of the system. Assume that the displacement x is small and the lever is rigid and massless. the rotational motion about pivot P is given by Fit . Figure 3-28 Lever system.(bx + kx)/2 = 0 11 12 or • bx + kx =-F which is a mathematical model of the system. for small displacement x. one end of the lever is connected to a spring and a damper. . The natural frequency is W n - ~ R2 J + mR2 Problem A-3-13 In the mechanical system of Figure 3-28. and a force F is applied to the other end of the lever.

the equation of motion becomes bi + kx = 0 t > 0 Taking the Laplace transform of this last equation.05 = 2000 N/m At t = 0.02 0. Solution Since the system is at rest before the force is abruptly released.05 m by a constant force of 100 N.04 0. so. The massless bar AA' is displaced 0. 3 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 3-29(a).x(O)] + kX(s) = 0 Substituting x(O) = 0. F is abruptly released. Suppose that the system is at rest before the force is abruptly released. The time-response curve when the force is abruptly released at t = 0 is shown in Figure 3-29(b). 6 10 (seconds) (b) 20 30 . we get Xes) = 0. Determine the numerical values of band k. for t > 0.03 0. the equation of motion is kx = F t s 0 Note that the effect of the force F is to give the initial condition x(O) = Since x(O) k F = 0. we have F 100 k == x(O) = 0.01 A' ~ o (a) Figure 3-29 (a) Mechanical system.05 k s+b x (m) F= lOON A t x 0.05 and solving the resulting equation for Xes). we have b[sX(s) . (b) response curve.92 Problem A-3-14 Mechanical Systems Chap.05 0.05 m.

1 s. Then. is x(t) = O. assume that the torque T applied to the rotor is of short duration. Hence. or £tJ(0-) = O. Assume that the amplitude of torque Tis 300 Nmls and that the duration of Tis 0. £tJ(O-) = 0 Let us define the impulsive torque of magnitude 1 N-m as a(t). we have 10[sfl(s) .05 x 0. b 2000 = 6 from which it follows that b Problem A-3-lS = 12. Solution The equation of motion for the system is Ji» + b£tJ = T.0184 m occurs at t = 6 s. x = 0. by substituting the given numerical values into this last equation. so that it can be considered an impulse input.368 = 0.0184m From Figure 3-29(b). that is. but large amplitude. at t = time constant = b12000 the response becomes X(2~) = 0.£tJ(O-)] + 2fl(s) = 30 m ~ ~ T ~ ~ Rotor .1 = 30 N-m. Given the numerical values J = 10kg-m2 and b = 2N-s/m find the response £tJ( t) of the system. w ~ ~ Figure 3-30 Mechanical rotating system. using the value of k 93 = 2000 just obtained. Assume also that initially the angular velocity is zero. the magnitude of the impulse input is 300 x 0.000 N-s/m In the rotating system shown in Figure 3-30.Example Problems and Solutions The inverse Laplace transform of X(s). we obtain 10i» + 2w = 30a(t) Taking the ~_ transform of this last equation. J ill b .OSe-(2000lb)t Since the solution is an exponential function. Show that the effect of an impulse input on a first-order system that is at rest is to generate a nonzero initial condition at t = 0+.

. we obtain 10[s!l(s) . the effect of the impulse input on a first-order system that is initially at rest is to generate a nonzero initial condition at t = 0+. From the preceding analysis. the system exhibits vibrations.w(O)] + 2!l(s) = 0 or !l(s) - 10w(0) 30 3 =--lOs + 2 lOs + 2 s + 0. determine the response x(t) of the system. Assuming that the displacement x of the masses is measured from the equilibrium position before mass m is placed on mass M. then the equation of motion becomes lOa. 3 or 30 3 !l(s) = lOs + 2 = -s-+-0. m M x Figure 3-31 Mechanical system.2 The inverse Laplace transform of !l( s) gives w(t) = 3e-o·21 which is identical to Equation (3-23). w(O) = 3 Taking the Laplace transform of this last equation. Assume that x(O) = 0 and X(O) = O. Determine also the static deflection c5-the deflection of the spring when the transient response died out. The angular velocity of the rotor is thus changed instantaneously from w(O-) = 0 to w(O+) = 3 radls.-2 The inverse Laplace transform of !l( s) is w(t) = 3e-o·21 (3-23) Note that w(O+) = 3 radls. When a mass m = 2 kg is gently placed on the top of mass M. That is. lithe system is subjected only to the initial condition w(O) = 3 radls and there is no external torque (T = 0). Problem A-3-16 A mass M = 8 kg is supported by a spring with spring constant k = 400 N/m and a damper with b = 40 N-s/m. + 2w = 0. we see that the response of a first-order system that is initially at rest to an impulse input is identical to the motion from the initial condition at t = 0+. as shown in Figure 3-31.94 Mechanical Systems Chap.

b. To obtain the response x(t). . s 2 6 _ s + 2 6 (s + 2)2 + 62 (s + 2)2 + 62 1 The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation gives x(t) = 0. and g = 9.4091 slug-ft/s2 .04904 ( 1 - ~e-21 sin 6t - e- 21 cos 6t) m This solution gives the up-and-down motion of the total mass (M + m). and k given in the SI system of units to BES units. Next. b = 40 N-s/m. k = 400 N/m. b. and k are given in the SI system of units.40911bf 32.174 ft/s 2 = 4.9614 s2X(s) + 4sX(s) + 40X(s) = .s Solving for X(s) yields X(s) = 1.9614 (s2 + 4s + 40)s 1. we find that lOx + 40i + 400x = 2 X 9. The system is at rest before t = 0. If we change the numerical values of M. The input to the system is a constant force mg that acts as a step input to the system.13704 slug x = 4. we shall solve the same problem using BES units.807 m/s1• Substituting the numerical values into the equation of motion.807 or x+ 4i + 40x = 1. m. and at t = 0+ the masses start to move up and down.13704 slug b = 40 N-s/m = 2.4063Ibf /ft mg = 0.9614(1 s+4 ) = ~ -.Example Problems and Solutions 95 Notice that the numerical values of M. The static deflection 8 is 0.04904 m. If the units are changed to BES units.9614 (3-24) Equation (3-24) is a mathematical model for the system when the units used are SI units. m. A mathematical model. we take the Laplace transform of Equation (3-24) and substitute the initial conditions x(O) = 0 and i(O) = 0 into the Laplace-transformed equation as follows: 1. we obtain M m k = 8 kg = 0.74063Ibr s/ft = 400 N/m = 27.s2 + 4s + 40 = 0 04904[! .54816 slug = 2 kg = 0. is (M + m)x + bi + kx = mg where M + m = 10 kg. or equation of motion. how does the mathematical model change? How will the solution be changed? Solution We shall first solve this problem using SI units.

obtain the natural frequency Wn of the system. Hence. Assume that the spring force acting on the pendulum is zero when the pendulum is vertical (8 = 0). the equation of motion of the system for small 8 is m12(j = mgl8 . (Note that 0. The torque due to the gravitational force is mgl8. Obtain a mathematical model of the system when the angle 8 is small. Problem A-3-17 Consider the spring-loaded inverted pendulum shown in Figure 3-32.04904 m. cos 6t) ft The static deflection 8 is 0. the left-hand side spring is stretched by h8 and the right-hand side spring is compressed by h8. Also. which means that the characteristic equation remains the same.2kh28 * Figure 3-32 Spring-loaded inverted pendulum. we notice that the left-hand sides of the equations are the same. from Figure 3-32. for small 8 such that sin 8 8 and cos 8 ~ 1. The moment of inertia of the pendulum is m12• Thus. .1609 (1 - ~e-2' sin 6t - e-2.4348 Chap. Then.4091 (3-25) Equation (3-25) is a mathematical model for the system.96 Mechanical Systems Then the equation of motion for the system becomes 0.6852:i which can be simplified to :i + 4i + 40x = 6. the results carry the same information. 3 + 2.) Notice that. the torque acting on the pendulum in the counterclockwise direction is 2kh28. * Solution Suppose that the inverted pendulum is given an initial angular displacement 8(0) and released with zero initial angular velocity. whenever consistent systems of units are used. that is. which acts in the clockwise direction. Assume also that the friction involved is negligible.4063x = 4.1609 ft. The solution of Equation (3-25) is x(t) = 0. Comparing Equations (3-24) and (3-25). when sin 8 8 and cos 8 =? 1.1609 ft = 0.74063i + 27.

and 8 as the displacement of mass m. 1 x x mg (a) (b) Figure 3-33 (a) Spring-mass-puUey system. Problem A-3-18 Consider the spring-mass-pulley system of Figure 3-33(a). If the mass m is pulled downward a short distance and released. R8 = x .Example Problems and Solutions or 97 8 + (2kJil mP -!) 8 / = 0 This is a mathematical model of the system for small 8. Obtain the natural frequency of the system by applying the law of conservation of energy. y. The undamped natural frequency of the system is Ct)n = If. starting with a small disturbance. measured respectively from their corresponding eqUilibrium positions. (b) diagram for figuring out potential energy of the system. the angle 8 increases and the pendulum will fall down or hit the vertical wall and stop. If 2kh2 > mgt. the torques acting in the system cause it to vibrate. the displacement of the pulley.y = y. it will vibrate. . The vibration will not occur. Solution Define x. then. and J = M R2. and the angle of rotation of the pulley. however. Note that x = 2y. 2kh2 < mgt.

.98 The kinetic energy of the system is Mechanical Systems Chap.xo) . the spring force kYa must balance with Mg + 2mg. + 2mg kY8Y and = Mgy + 2mgy = Mgy + mgx U = Vo + -ki = Vo + -kx2 2 8 1 1 where Vo is the potential energy at the equilibrium state. the potential energy is Vo = i krl + Mg{l .mgx 1 = Vo + iky2 + kY8Y . lk' + 8" M xx + 4" xx = 0 .xo ..x) + kY8Y + iky2 + Mg(/ . Applying the law of conservation of energy to this conservative system gives T + V = ~mx2 + :6Mx2 + Vo + ~kx2 = constant and differentiating this last equation with respect to t yields .Yo) . the instantaneous potential energy can be obtained as 1 V = ik(Y8 1 = ikY~ 1 + y)2 + Mg(l 1 Yo . or kY8 = Mg Therefore. At the equilibrium state.Mgy + mg(l..Yo) + mg{l .. When masses m and M are displaced by x and y. mxx 3 .y) + mg(l .mgx Again from Figure 3-33(b). respectively.xo) where Y8 is the static deflection of the spring due to the hanging masses M and m. 3 The potential energy V of the system can be obtained from Figure 3-33(b).Mgy .

where x = 0 and the velocity of mass m is maximum. the displacement can be written as x = A cos wt Since the mass of the spring is comparatively small. 2k x + Sm + 3M x The natural frequency of the system. the mass ms of the spring is small.Example Problems and Solutions 99 or [( m + ~ M + ~ kx ]X = 0 )X Since x is not always zero. Then the displacement of a point in the spring at a distance from the top is given by (g/l)A cos wt. we must have ( m + ~M or )X + ~kx = 0 = 0 . show that the inertia of the spring can be allowed for by adding one-third of its mass ms to the suspended mass m and then treating the spring as a massless spring. we can assume that the spring is stretched uniformly. The displacement x of the mass is measured from the static equilibrium position. compared with the suspended mass m. the velocity of the suspended mass is Aw and that of the spring at the distance g from the e x Figure 3-34 Spring-mass system. In free vibration. . but not negligibly small.. Solution Consider the free vibration of the system. In the mean position. therefore. is Wn = Jsm ~ 3M Problem A-~19 If. for the spring-mass system of Figure 3-34.

provided that ms is small compared with m.. h Figure 3-35 Experimental setup for measuring the moment of inertia of a rotating body. The maximum kinetic energy is Tm .100 Mechanical Systems Chap. if the spring were massless. Unknown moment of inertia Known moment of inertia . = i (Aw)2 m + f. we conclude that the inertia of the spring can be allowed for simply by adding one-third of mass ms to the suspended mass m and then treating the spring as a massless spring.~2) ~/3 ~(m + ~s)A2w2 Note that the mass of the spring does not affect the change in the potential energy of the system and that.'H~')(fAW)' dt = ~mA2w2 + ~(~s = )( A. Obtain the moment of inertia of the disk about the axis perpendicular to the disk and passing through its center. 3 top is (~Il)Aw. Problem 8-3-2 Figure 3-35 shows an experimental setup for measuring the moment of inertia of a rotating body. Suppose that the moment of inertia of a rotating body about axis AA' is known. Describe a method to determine the moment of inertia of any rotating body. the maximum kinetic energy would have been ~ mA2w 2• Therefore. using this experimental setup. PROBLEMS Problem 8-3-1 A homogeneous disk has a diameter of 1 m and mass of 100 kg.

Problems 101 Problem 8-3-3 A ball is dropped from a point 100 m above the ground with zero initial velocity. find the torque given to the flywheel. show that the equivalent spring constant keq can be graphically obtained as the length OC if lengths 0 A and 0 B represent k 1 and k2' respectively. If the angular velocity reduces to 20 radls in 15 s. Referring to Figure 3-36(b). How long will it take until the ball hits the ground? What is the velocity when the ball hits the ground? Problem 8-3-4 A flywheel of J = 50 kg-m2 initially standing still is subjected to a constant torque. . Problem B-3-7 Obtain the equivalent spring constant keq for the system shown in Figure 3-37. Problem 8-3-6 Consider the series-connected springs shown in Figure 3-36(a). Problem 8-3-S A brake is applied to a flywheel rotating at an angular velocity of 100 radls. / Figure 3-37 System consisting of three springs. find (a) the deceleration produced by the brake and (b) the total angle the flywheel rotates in the 15-s period. If the angular velocity reaches 20 Hz in 5 S. (b) diagram showing the equivalent spring constant. \ B (a) (b) FJgUre 3-36 (a) System consisting of two springs in series.

x y x y (a) (b) Figure 3-38 (a) Two dampers connected in parallel. x y Problem 8-3-10 Find the natural frequency of the system shown in Figure 3-40. x Figure 3-40 Mechanical system. The liquid partially fills the V-shaped glass tube. Problem 8-3-11 Consider the V-shaped manometer shown in Figure 3-41. Assuming that the total mass of the liquid in the tube is m. (b) two dampers connected in series. [ Figure 3-39 Damper system. Problem 8-3-9 Obtain the equivalent viscous-friction coefficient beq of the system shown in Figure 3-39. 3 Problem 8-3-8 Obtain the equivalent viscous-friction coefficient beq for each of the systems shown in Figure 3-38 (a) and (b). the .102 Mechanical Systems Chap.

and pivoted at point P. Problem B-3-15 Consider the system shown in Figure 3-45. total length of liquid in the tube is L. perfectly rigid. and that the spring constant k is 400 N/m. b = 4 N-s/m.] . and the viscosity of the liquid is negligible. The displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position. The input to the system is the angle OJ and the output is the angle 0 . [The displacement x(t) is measured from the equilibrium position. Assume that x(O) = 0. that the weight mg at the end of the rod is 5 N. what is the equation of motion of the liquid? Fmd the frequency of oscillation. ° J b Figure 3-43 Mechanical system. Assuming that x is small. where m = 2 kg. --~--------~ ------~ mg Figure 3-42 Mechanical system.Problems 103 Figure 3-41 V-shaped manometersystem. Problem 8-3-13 Obtain a mathematical model of the system shown in Figure 3--43. assume that the rod is massless.1 m and X(O) = O. Problem 8-3-14 Obtain a mathematical model for the system shown in Figure 3-44. find the natural frequency of the system. Problem 8-3-U In the mechanical system shown in Figure 3-42. and k = 20 N/m.

Also. Obtain a mathematical model of the system. R. 1\vo springs (denoted by k 2 ) are connected by a wire that passes over the small pulley as shown in the figure. obtain the motion of mass m when it is pulled down a short distance and then released. The displacement x of a hanging mass m is measured from the equilibrium position. and the moment of inertia of the pulley are M. Then find x(t) as a function of time t. The total moment of inertia of the pulleys is J. Assume that the displacement x of mass m is measured from the eqUilibrium position. Each of the two springs is prestretched by an amount y. are bolted together and act as one piece. The gravitational force mg causes static deflection of the spring such that k 18 = mg. Calculate the torque and power of the disk shaft. the radius. small and large. (The mass. Problem B-3-18 A disk of radius 0. Problem 8-3-16 By applying Newton's second law to the spring-mass-pulley system of Figure 3-33(a).5 m is subjected to a tangential force of 50 N at its periphery and is rotating at an angular velocity of 100 rad/s. Two pulleys.104 Mechanical Systems Chap. Figure 3-45 Mechanical system. Derive a mathematical model of the system. The mass m is connected to the spring k 1 by a wire wrapped around the large pulley. ) Problem 8-3-17 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 3~6. obtain the natural frequency of the system. 3 Figure 3-44 Mechanical system. respectively. . and J = ~ M R2.

(Include the effect of m in the expression of the natural frequency. using the energy method that equates the maximum kinetic energy Tmax and the maximum potential energy Umax • (Choose the potential energy at the equilibrium state to be zero. ) \ Figure 3-47 Pendulum system. but not negligible. . find the natural frequency of the pendulum when the angle 9 is small.) Problem 8-3-20 Assuming that mass m of the rod of the pendulum shown in Figure 3-47 is small.Problems 105 Figure 3-46 Mechanical system. obtain the natural frequency Wn of the system. compared with mass M. Problem 8-3-19 Referring to the spring-loaded inverted pendulum system shown in Figure 3-32.

We first define the transfer function and then introduce block diagrams. Since MATLAB plays an important role in obtaining computational solutions of transient response problems. In the field of system dynamics. we present the transfer-function approach to modeling and analyzing dynamic systems. time-invariant differential-equation system is defined as the ratio of the Laplace transform of the output (response function) to the Laplace transform of the input (driving function) under the assumption that all initial conditions are zero.Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems 4-1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter. or the weighting function. We begin this section by derming the transfer function and deriving the transfer function of a mechanical system. 106 . of the system. Then we discuss the impulse response function. ramp. Transfer Function. impulse. time-invariant differential equations. and others. The transfer function of a linear. transfer functions are frequently used to characterize the input--output relationships of components or systems that can be described by linear. we present a detailed introduction to writing MATLAB programs to obtain response curves for time-domain inputs such as the step.

Comments on the Transfer Function.. In this system. 2.. + bm-1s + bm aOs n + alS n. the output or response can be studied for various forms of inputs with a view toward understanding the nature of the system.1 + . it may be established experimentally by introducing known inputs and studying the output of the system. The applicability of the concept of the transfer function is limited to linear. the external force f(t) is the input and x is the output. 3. the transfer-function approach is used extensively in the analysis and design of such systems. The following list gives some important comments concerning the transfer function of a system described by a linear.) 4. If the transfer function of a system is known. (The transfer functions of many physically different systems can be identical. S. The transfer function includes the units necessary to relate the input to the output. however. in that it is an operational method of expressing the differential equation that relates the output variable to the input variable.. the system is called an nth-order system. + an-IY + anY = bo x + bi (m) (m-I) X + ... or .. . Still.e[mput] Y(S) = X(S) m I zero initial conditions = bos + bls m . . it does not provide any information concerning the physical structure of the system. as distinct from its physical description.-. If the transfer function of a system is unknown. + an-IS + an (4-1) By using the concept of a transfer function. If the highest power of s in the denominator of the transfer function is equal to n. it is possible to represent system dynamics by algebraic equations in s.. The displacement x of the mass m is measured from the eqUilibrium position. unrelated to the magnitude and nature of the input or driving function.. time-invariant differential equation: L The transfer function of a system is a mathematical model of that system. Once established. The transfer function is a property of a system itself.Sec.e[output] Transfer functIOn = G( s) = ---.~~ . time-invariant differential-equation systems. + bm-1x + bmx (n ~ m) where Y is the output of the system and x is the input.. 4-1 Introduction 107 Consider the linear time-invariant system defined by the differential equation (n) (n-I) aoY +aIY + . Example 4-1 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-1. The transfer function of this system is the ratio of the Laplace-transformed output to the Laplace-transformed input when all initial conditions are zero. a transfer function gives a full description of the dynamic characteristics of the system...1 + ..

108

Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems

Chap. 4

Figure 4-1 Mechanical system.

x

The equation of motion for the system is

mx + bi + kx = f(t)
Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of this equation and assuming that all initial conditions are zero yields (ms 2 + bs + k)X(s) = F(s) where X(s) = !:e[x(t)) and F(s) = !£(f(t)]. From Equation (4-1), the transfer function for the system is X(s) 1 F (s) = ms2 + bs + k

Impulse-Response Function.

The transfer function of a linear, time-invariant

system is

Y(s) G(s) = X(s)
where X(s) is the Laplace transform of the input and Y(s) is the Laplace transform of the output and where we assume that all initial conditions involved are zero. It follows that the output Y(s) can be written as the product of G(s) and X(s), or

Yes) = G(s)X(s)

(4-2)

Now, consider the output (response) of the system to a unit-impulse input when the initial conditions are zero. Since the Laplace transform of the unit-impulse function is unity, or X (s) = 1, the Laplace transform of the output of the system is

Yes) = G(s)

(4-3)

The inverse Laplace transform of the output given by Equation (4-3) yields the impulse response of the system. The inverse Laplace transform of G(s), or

;e -l[G(s)]

= g(t)

is called the impulse-response function, or the weighting function, of the system. The impulse-response function g(t) is thus the response of a linear system to a unit-impulse input when the initial conditions are zero. The Laplace transform of g(t) gives the transfer function. Therefore, the transfer function and impulse-response

Sec. 4-2

Block Diagrams

109

function of a linear, time-invariant system contain the same information about the system dynamics. It is hence possible to obtain complete information about the dynamic characteristics of a system by exciting it with an impulse input and measuring the response. (In practice, a large pulse input with a very short duration compared with the significant time constants of the system may be considered an impulse.)

Outline of the Chapter. Section 4-1 has presented the concept of the transfer function and impulse-response function. Section 4-2 discusses the block diagram. Section 4-3 sets forth the MATLAB approach to the partial-fraction expansion of a ratio of two polynomials, B(s)IA(s). Section 4-4 details the MATLAB approach to the transient response analysis of transfer-function systems. 4-2 BLOCK DIAGRAMS Block diagrams of dynamic systems. A block diagram of a dynamic system is a pictorial representation of the functions performed by each component of the system and of the flow of signals within the system. Such a diagram depicts the interrelationships that exist among the various components. Differing from a purely abstract mathematical representation, a block diagram has the advantage of indicating the signal flows of the actual system more realistically. In a block diagram, all system variables are linked to each other through functional blocks. The functional block, or simply block, is a symbol for the mathematical operation on the input signal to the block that produces the output. The transfer functions of the components are usually entered in the corresponding blocks, which are connected by arrows to indicate the direction of the flow of signals. Note that a signal can pass only in the direction of the arrows. Thus, a block diagram of a dynamic system explicitly shows a unilateral property. Figure 4-2 shows an element of a block diagram. The arrowhead pointing toward the block indicates the input to the block, and the arrowhead leading away from the block represents the output of the block. As mentioned, such arrows represent signals. Note that the dimension of the output signal from a block is the dimension of the input signal multiplied by the dimension of the transfer function in the block. The advantages of the block diagram representation of a system lie in the fact that it is easy to form the overall block diagram for the entire system merely by connecting the blocks of the components according to the signal flow and that it is possible to evaluate the contribution of each component to the overall performance of the system. In general, the functional operation of a system can be visualized more readily by examining a block diagram of the system than by examining the physical system itself. A block diagram contains information concerning dynamic behavior, but it

Transfer function
G(s)

Figure 4-2 Element of a block diagram.

110

Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems

Chap. 4

does not include any information about the physical construction of the system. Consequently, many dissimilar and unrelated systems can be represented by the same block diagram. Note that in a block diagram the main source of energy is not explicitly shown and that the block diagram of a given system is not unique. A number of different block diagrams can be drawn for a system, depending on the point of view of the analysis. (See Example 4-2.) Summing point. Figure 4-3 shows a circle with a cross, the symbol that stands for a summing operation. The plus or minus sign at each arrowhead indicates whether the associated signal is to be added or subtracted. It is important that the quantities being added or subtracted have the same dimensions and the same units. Branch point. A branch point is a point from which the signal from a block goes concurrently to other blocks or summing points. Block diagram of a closed-loop system. Figure 4-4 is a block diagram of a closed-loop system. The output C(s) is fed back to the summing point, where it is compared with the input R(s). The closed-loop nature of the system is indicated clearly by the figure. The output C(s) of the block is obtained by multiplying the transfer function G(s) by the input to the block, E(s). Any linear system can be represented by a block diagram consisting of blocks, summing points, and branch points. When the output is fed back to the summing point for comparison with the input, it is necessary to convert the form of the output signal to that of the input signal. This conversion is accomplished by the feedback element whose transfer function is H(s), as shown in Figure 4-5. Another important role of the feedback element is to modify the output before it is compared with the input. In the figure, the feedback signal that is fed back to the summing point for comparison with the input is B(s) = H(s)C(s).
a

Figure 4-3 Summing point.

· l._____
b
Branch point

~

a-b

R(s)

!

C(s)

Figure 4-4 Block diagram of a closedloop system.

Sec. 4-2
R(s)

Block Diagrams
C(s)

111

B(s)

Flgure ~s Block diagram of a closed-loop system with feedback element.

Simplifying complex block diagrams and obtaining overall transfer functions from such block diagrams are discussed in Chapter 5.
ExampJe4-2 Consider again the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-1. The transfer function of this system (see Example 4-1) is
X(s) 1 F( s) = ms 2 + bs + k

(4-4)

A block diagram representation of the system is shown in Figure 4-6(a). Notice that Equation (4-4) can be written as
(ms 2 + bs + k)X(s) = F(s)
F(s)
(a)
(mr

(4-5)
Xes) .,

+ bs) Xes)

Xes)

k~------'"
(b)

F(s)

Xes)

'--_ _ _

~

.Ii.
m
(c)

~

_____....

Figure 4-6 Block diagrams of the system shown in Figure 4-1. (a) Block diagram based on Equation (4-4); (b) block diagram based on Equation (4-6); (c) block diagram based on Equation (4-7).

112

Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Rewriting the latter equation as

Chap. 4

(ms 2 + bs)X(s)

= F(s) - kX(s)

(4-6)

we can obtain a different block diagram for the same system, as shown in Figure 4-6(b). Equation (4-5) can also be rewritten as

F(s) - [kX(s) + bsX(s)] = ms2X(s)
or
1 k b

-F(s) - -X(s) - -sX(s) = s2X(s) m m m

(4-7)

A block diagram for the system based on Equation (4-7) is shown in Figure 4-6(c). Figures 4-6(a), (b), and (c) are thus block diagrams for the same system-that shown in Figure 4-1. (Many different block diagrams are possible for any given system.)

4-3 PARTIAL-FRACTION EXPANSION WITH MATLAB

We begin this section, with an examination of the partial-fraction expansion of the transfer function B(s)/A(s) with MATLAB. Then we discuss how to obtain the system response analytically. Computational solutions (response curves) for the system responses to time-domain inputs are given in Section 4-4.

MATLAB representation of transfer functions. The transfer function of a system is represented by two arrays of numbers. For example, consider a system defined by

Y(s) U (s)

=

25 s2 + 4s + 25

This system is represented as two arrays, each containing the coefficients of the polynomials in decreasing powers of s as follows:
nurn = [25] den = [1 4 25J

Partial-fraction expansion with MATLAB. MATLAB allows us to obtain the partial-fraction expansion of the ratio of two polynomials,

B(s) A(s)

=

num b(l)sh + b(2)sh-l + + b(h) den = a(l)sn + a(2)sn-l + ... + a(n)

where a(l) :I: 0, some of a(i) and b(j) may be zero, and num and den are row vectors that specify the coefficients of the numerator and denominator of B(s)/A(s). That is,
nurn = [b(1) den = [a(1) b(2) a(2) b(h)} a(n)]

Sec. 4-3

Partial-Fraction Expansion with MATLAB

113

The command
[r,p,k] = residue(nurn,den)

finds the residues, poles, and direct terms of a partial-fraction expansion of the ratio of the two polynomials B(s) and A(s). The partial-fraction expansion of B(s)/A(s) is given by -

B(s) r(l) r(2) = k(s) + + + A(s) s - p(l) s - p(2)

+-~-

r(n)

s - p(n)

As an example, consider the function

B(s) s4 + 8s3 + 16~ + 9s + 6 -- = --------A(s) s3 + 6s 2 + lIs + 6
For this function,
nurn den

= [1

= [1

8 16 9 6] 6 11 6)

Entering the command
[r,p,k]

= residue(num,den)

as shown in MATLAB Program 4-1, we obtain the residues (r), poles (P), and direct terms (k).

MATLAR Program 4-1

» num = [1 8 16 9 6); » den = [1 6 11 6]; » [r,p,k] = residue(num,den)
r=

-6.0000 -4.0000 3.0000
p=

-3.0000 -2.0000 -1.0000
k=

2

114

Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems

Chap. 4

MATLAB Program 4-1 is the MATLAB representation of the partial-fraction expansion of B(s)/A(s):

B(s) A(s)

S4

+ 8s3 + 16s2 + 9s + 6

= s3 + 6s2 + 11s + 6 = s + 2 + _-_6_ + _-_4_ + _3_
s+3 s+2 s+l

Note that MATLAB first divides the numerator by the denominator and produces a polynomial in s (denoted as row vector k) plus a remainder (a ratio of polynomials in s, where the numerator is of lower degree than the denominator). Then MATLAB expands this remainder into partial fractions and returns the residues as column vector r and the pole locations as column vector p. The command
[num,den) = residue(r,p,k)

where r, p, and k are outputs in MATLAB Program 4-1, converts the partial-fraction expansion back to the polynomial ratio B(s)/A(s), as shown in MATLAB Program 4-2.
MATLAB Program 4-2 » r = [-6 -4 3); »p=[-3 -2 -1); » k = [1 2); » [nurn, den) = residue(r,p,k) nurn

=
8
16

9

6

den =

6
Example 4-3

11

6

Consider the spring-mass-dashpot system mounted on a massless cart as shown in Figure 4-7. A dashpot is a device that provides viscous friction, or damping. It consists of a piston and oil-filled cylinder. Any relative motion between the piston rod and the cylinder is resisted by the oil because the oil must flow around the piston (or through orifices provided in the piston) from one side of the piston to the other. The dashpot essentially absorbs energy, which is dissipated as heat. The dashpot, also called a damper, does not store any kinetic or potential energy. Let us obtain a mathematical model of this system by assuming that both the cart and the spring-mass-dashpot system on it are standing still for t < O. In this system, u(t) is the displacement of the cart and the input to the system. The displacement y(t) of the mass relative to the ground is the output. Also, m denotes the mass, b denotes the viscous friction coefficient, and k denotes the spring constant. We assume that the friction force of the dashpot is proportional to y - it and that the spring is linear; that is, the spring force is proportional to y - u. After a mathematical model of the system is obtained, we determine the output y(t) analytically when m = 10 kg, b = 20 N-s/m, and k = 100 N/m. The input is assumed to be a unit-step input.

Sec. 4-3

Partial-Fraction Expansion with MATLAB

115

Figure 4-7 Spring-mass-dashpot system mounted on a cart.

For translational systems, Newton's second law states that

ma= ~F
where m is a mass, a is the acceleration of the mass, and I.F is the sum of the forces acting on the mass in the direction of the acceleration. Applying Newton's second law to the present system and noting that the cart is massless, we obtain

d y m - = -b(d 2 dt
or

2

Y dU) - key - u) - dt dt

m dt 2 + b"dt + ky = b"dt + ku
The latter equation represents a mathematical model of the system under consideration. Taking the Laplace transform of the equation, assuming zero initial conditions, gives

d 2y

dy

du

(ms 2 + bs + k)Y(s) = (bs + k)U(s)
Taking the ratio of Y(s) to U(s), we find the transfer function of the system to be Transfer function

= U(s) =

Yes)

bs
2

+k

ms + bs + k

(4-8)

Next, we shall obtain an analytical solution of the response to the unit-step input. Substituting the given numerical values into Equation (4-8) gives

yes) 20s + 100 U(s) = 10s2 + 20s + 100
Since the input u is a unit-step function,

2s + 10 S2 + 2s + 10

U(s)
Then the output Y(s) becomes

=-

1 s

yes) =

2s + 10 ! = 2s + 10 s2 + 2s + 10 s s3 + 2S2 + lOs

116

Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems

Chap. 4

To obtain the inverse Laplace transform of Y(s), we need to expand Y(s) into partial fractions. Applying MATLAB and noting that num and den of the system are num = [2 den = [1

10] 2 10

0]

we may use the residue command

[r,p,k] = residue(num,den)
to find the residues (r), poles (p),and direct term (k) as shown in MATLAB Program 4-3. MATLAB Program 4-3 is the MATLAB representation of the partial-fraction expansion of Y(s):
Y(s) =

-0.5 - jO.1667 -0.5 + jO.I667 + s+l-j3 s+l+j3

+-

1 s

MATLAB Program 4-3
»num = [2 10]; » den = [1 2 10 0]; » [r,p,k] residue(num,den)

=

r=
-0.5000 - 0.1667i -0.5000 + 0.1667i 1.0000

p=
-1 .0000 + 3.000Oi -1.0000 - 3.000Oi

o
k=
[]

Since Y(s) involves complex-conjugate poles, it is convenient to combine two complexconjugate terms into one as follows:

----- + S + 1 - j3
Then Y(s) can be expanded as
1 Y(s) = -; - (s

-0.5 - jO.1667

-0.5 + jO.1667 -s = ----""7 s + 1 + j3 (s + 1)2 + 32

s

1
s

+ 1)2 + 32 S + 1 - 1 (s + 1)2 + 32

- - S

1

s+l 1 3 + -----""7 (s + 1)2 + 32 3 (s + 1)2 + 32

Sec. 4-3

Partial-Fraction Expansion with MATLAB

117

The inverse Laplace transform of Y(s) is obtained as

y(t) = 1 - e-t cos 3t

+ ~e-t sin 3t

where y(t) is measured in meters and t in seconds. This equation is an analytical solution to the problem. Note that a plot of y(t) versus t can be obtained easily with MATLAB from the information on num, den, and u(t) without using the partial-fraction expansion. (See Example 4-5.)

ExampJe4-4
Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-8. The system is at rest initially. The displacements x and yare measured from their respective equilibrium positions. Assuming that p(t) is a step force input and the displacement x(t) is the output, obtain the transfer function of the system. Then, assuming that m = 0.1 kg, b2 = 0.4 N-s/m, kl = 6 N/m, k2 = 4 N/m, and p(t) is a step force of magnitude 10 N, obtain an analytical solution x(t). The equations of motion for the system are

mx + k1x

+ k 2(x

- y) = p k 2(x - y) = ~y

Laplace transforming these two equations, assuming zero initial conditions, we obtain (ms 2 + kl + k2)X(S) = k2Y(S) + P(s) (4-9) k2X(S) = (k2 + b2s)Y(s) (4-10) Solving Equation (4-10) for Y(s) and substituting the result into Equation (4-9), we get k 2 (m~ + kl + k2)X(s) = k 2 b X(s) + P(s) 2 + 2s or [(ms 2 + kl + k2)(k2 + ~s) - k2~X(S) = (k2 + ~s)P(s) from which we obtain the transfer function

X(s) P(s) =

m~s3 + mk2s2 +

~s

+ k2 (k 1 +

k2)~S + klk2

(4-11)

p

x

Figure 4-8 Mechanical system.

118

Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems

Chap. 4

Substituting the given numerical values for m, kh k2' and b2 into Equation (4-11), we have X(s) P( s) = 0.04s3
S3

O.4s + 4 + 0.4s2 + 4s + 24 lOs + 100 + 10s2 + 100s + 600

(4-12)

Since P{s) is a step force of magnitude 10 N,

10 P(s) = s
Then, from Equation (4--12),X{s) can be written as X(s) _ - s3

lOs + 100 10 + 10s2 + 100s + 600 s

To find an analytical solution, we need to expand X{s) into partial fractions. For this purpose, we may use MATLAB Program 4-4, which produces the residues, poles, and direct term.

MATLAB Program

~

» num = [100 1000}; »den = [1 10 100 600 0]; » [r,p,k] = residue(num, den)
r=

-0.6845 + 0.2233i -0.6845 - 0.2233i -0.2977 1.6667

p=
-1.2898 + 8.8991 i -1.2898 - 8.8991 i -7.4204

o

k=
[)

On the basis of the MATLAB output, X(s) can be written as X (s) = s

-0.6845 + jO.2233 -0.6845 - jO.2233 + 1.2898 - j8.8991 + s + 1.2898 + j8.8991 -0.2977 1.6667 + +-s + 7.4204 s -1.3690(s + 1.2898) - 3.9743 0.2977 1.6667 -----.,;...---~---+-2 (s + 1.2898)2 + 8.8991 S + 7.4204 s

Sec. 4-4

Transient-Response Analysis with MATLAB

119

The inverse Laplace transform of X(s) gives

x(t) = -1.3690e-1.2898t cos(8.8991t) - O.4466e-1. 2898t sin(8.8991t) - O.2977e-7.42041 + 1.6667
where x(t) is measured in meters and time 1 in seconds. This is the analytical solution to the problem. [For the response curvex(/) versus I, see Example 4-6.]

From the preceding examples, we have seen that once the transfer function X(s)/U(s) = G(s) of a system is obtained, the response of the system to any input can be determined by taking the inverse Laplace transform of Xes), or
~-l[X(s)]

= ;e-l[G(s)U(s)]

Fmding the inverse Laplace transform of G(s) U(s) may be time consuming if the transfer function G(s) of the system is complicated, even though the input U(s) may be a simple function of time. Unless, for some reason, an analytical solution is needed, we should use a computer to get a numerical solution. Throughout this book, we use MATLAB to obtain numerical solutions to many problems. Obtaining numerical solutions and presenting them in the form of response curves is the subject discussed in the next section.

4-4 TRANSIENT·RESPONSE ANALYSIS WITH MATLAB
This section presents the MATLAB approach to obtaining system responses when the inputs are time-domain inputs such as the step, impUlse, and ramp functions. The system response to the frequency-domain input (e.g., a sinusoidal input) is presented in Chapters 9 and 11.

MATLAB representation of transfer-function systems. Figure 4-9 shows a block with a transfer function. Such a block represents a system or an element of a system. To simplify our presentation, we shall call the block with a transfer function a system. MATLAB uses sys to represent such a system. The statement

sys = tf(num, den)
represents the system. For example, consider the system
--=----X (s ) s2 + 4s + 25

(4-13)

Yes)

2s + 25

----~·~I__G_(_s)_=_n_~_~ ~----~.__

Figure 4-9 Block diagram of transferfunction system.

120

Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems

Chap. 4

This system can be represented as two arrays, each containing the coefficients of the polynomials in decreasing powers of s as follows:
nurn = [2 den [1

=

251

4

25]

Entering MATLAB Program 4-5 into a computer produces the transfer function of the system.
MATLAB Program 4-5

» num = [2 25]; » den = [1 4 251; » sys =tf(num,den)
Transfer function: 2 s + 25

sl\2 + 4 s + 25
In this book, we shall use Equation (4-13) to represent the transfer function system.

Step response. If num and den (the numerator and denominator of a transfer function) are known, we may define the system by
sys = tf(num,den)

Then, a command such as
step(sys) or step(num,den)

will generate a plot of a unit-step response and will display a response curve on the screen. The computation interval at and the time span of the response are determined by MATLAB. If we wish MATLAB to compute the response every at seconds and plot the response curve for 0 :S t ::::;; T (where T is an integer multiple of at), we enter the statement t
step(sys, t)

= 0: at: T;
or step(nurn,den,t)

in the program and use the command

where t is the user-specified time. If step commands have left-hand arguments, such as
y

=step(sys,t)

or

y

=step(nurn,den,t)
=step(num,den,t)

and
ly,t] = step(sys,t)

or

[y,t1

MATLAB produces the unit-step response of the system, but displays no plot on the screen. It is necessary to use a plot command to see response curves. The next two examples demonstrate the use of step commands.

Sec. 4-4
Example 4-5

Transient-Response Analysis with MATLAB

121

Consider again the spring-mass-dashpot system mounted on a cart as shown in Figure 4-7. (See Example 4-3.) The transfer function of the system is

Y(s) U (s)

bs + k

= ms2 + bs + k

Assuming that m = 10 kg, b = 20 N-s/m, k = 100 N/m, and the input u(t) is a unitstep input (a step input of 1 m), obtain the response curve y(t). Substituting the given numerical values into the transfer function, we have

Y(s) 20$ + 100 U(s) = 10s2 + 20s + 100

2s + 10 s2 + 2s + 10

MATLAB Program 4-6 will produce the unit-step response y(t). The resulting unitstep response curve is shown in Figure 4-10.

MATLAB Program 4-6

»nurn = [2 10]; »den = [1 2 10]; » sys = tf(nurn,den); » step(sys) » grid
In this plot, the duration of the response is automatically determined by MATLAB. The title and axis labels are also automatically determined by MATLAB. If we wish to compute and plot the curve every 0.01 sec over the interval o s t S 8, we need to enter the following statement in the MATLAB program:
t

= 0:0.01 :8;

1.5

r----,r---~--__.,..-----r----r---...,

Step Response

II)

"0

Q.

.~

~

0.5

2

3 Tune (sec)

4

5

6

Figure 4-10 Unit-step response curve.

122

Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems

Chap. 4

Also, if we wish to change the title and axis labels, we enter the desired title and desired labels as shown in MATLAB Program 4-7.

MATLAB Program 4-7

» t = 0:0.01 :8; »nurn = [2 10J; »den=[1 2 10]; » sys = tf(num,den); >> step (sys, t) » grid »title('Unit-Step Response', 'Fontsize',20') » xlabe/{'t', 'Fontsize',20') » ylabel ('Output yl, 'Fontsize ',20')
Note that if we did not enter the desired title and desired axis labels in the program, the title, x-axis label, and y-axis label on the plot would have been "Step Response", "Tune (sec)", and "Amplitude", respectively. (This statement applies to MATLAB version 6 and not to versions 3,4, and 5.) When we enter the desired title and axis labels as shown in MATLAB Program 4-7, MATLAB erases the predetermined title and axis labels, except "(sec)" in the x-axis label, and replaces them with the ones we have specified. If the font sizes are too small, they can be made larger. For example, entering

'Fontsize ',20
in the title, xlabel, and ylabel variables as shown in MATLAB Program 4-7 results in that size text appearing in those places. Figure 4-11 is a plot of the response curve obtained with MATLAB Program 4-7.

Unit-Step Response
1.5
..---r---~-~---r---"--..---r-----'

o

~ ..... ::s 0.. ..... ::s

0.5

Figure 4-11 Unit-step response curve. Font sizes for title, xlabel, and ylabel are enlarged.

1

2

345

6

7

8

t (sec)

kl = 6 N/m. we shall demonstrate the use of the commands y = step(sys.x(t) and y(t) can be obtained from Equations (4-18) and (4-19) with the use of a step command.: s3 + 10s2 + 100s + 600 -------- (4-16) and Y(s) 4 P(s) = 0. Substituting the numerical values for m.y) . Then Equations (4-16) and (4-17) can be written as X(s) 100s + 1000 U(s) = S3 + 10s2 + 100s + 600 and (4-18) Y(s) 1000 U(s) = s3 + 10s2 + 100s + 600 (4-19) Since u(t) is a unit-step input. k2 :. t) and plot(t.4 N-s/m.: 0.) The transfer function X(s)IP(s) was found to be X(s) P(s) = ~s + k2 m~s3 + mk2s2 + (k 1 + k2)~S + klk2 (4-14) The transfer function Y(s)IX(s) is obtained from Equation (4-10): Y(s) k2 X(s) = ~s + k2 Hence. and p(t) is a step force of magnitude 10 N.1 kg.: 4 N/m. (Step commands assume that the input is the unit-step input. 4-4 Transient-Response Analysis with MATLAB 123 Example 4-6 Consider again the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-8.4s 2 + 4s + 24 lOs + 100 :.Sec. we obtain X(s) O. obtain the responses x(t) and y(t).04s3 + O.4s + 4 P( s) = 0.4i + 4s + 24 100 S3 + 10s2 + 100s + 600 (4-17) Since p(t) is a step force of magnitude 10 N. (See Example 4-4. ~ :. where u(t) is a unit-step input of magnitude 1 N. kh and k2 into the transfer functions given by Equations (4-14) and (4-15). we may define p(t) = 10u(t). ~. Y(s) Y(s) X(s) P(s) = X(s) P(s) = k2 ~s3 + mk2s2 + (k 1 + k2)~S + klk2 (4-15) Assuming that m = 0.04s3 + 0.) In this example.

lx(t)l) » text(0. »yl = step(sysl . » y2 =step(sys2.7.5 2 2.2.5 . we use the command text(O.5 o Figure 4-U Step-response curves x(t) and y(t).5 t (sec) 3 3. 1 0.'x(t)') Impulse response. » numl = [100 1000].2. »den =[1 10 100 600). Writing text on the graph. MATLAR Program 4-8 » t = 0:0. 1. » plot(t.124 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Unit-Step Responses Chap.8. we may need to write text on the graph to distinguish the curves.5 5 MATLAB Program 4-8 produces the responses x(t) and y(t) of the system on one diagram.t).den).07.. 4 3 2.2.07.. » num2 = [1000).3S.01 :5.den).'y(t)') The response curves x(t} and y(t} are shown in Figure 4-12.t.t).8) on the graph.--r-----~~-----~-----. L-~ _____~~_____~_____~~_____~_____~~~ o 0.-~-----~-----~~~ . to write the text 'x(t}' horizontally.y2) » grid » title ('Unit-Step Responses l) » xlabel ('t (sec)') » ylabel ex(t) and y(t)l) » text(0.::: '"0 2 .5 1 1.5 .07. When we plot two or more curves on one diagram. beginning at the point (0.y1.8.5 4 4. » sysl = tf(num1 . For example. The unit-impulse response of a dynamic system defined in the form of the transfer function may be obtained by use of one of the following .2. » sys2 = tf(num2.

Mathematically. such an impulse input can be expressed by an impulse function. if the actual input lasts for a short time (at s) but has a large amplitude (h). Area not negligible x x 1 h 0 ~~ 41 0 (a) (b) Figure 4-13 Impulse inputs.den) impulse(sys) or impulse(num. In handling impulse functions. it can be approximated by an impulse function. an impUlse of amplitude 2h and duration atl2 can be considered the same as an impulse of amplitUde hand duration at. Impulse input.den.Sec. as shown in Figure 4-13(a). The impulse response of a mechanical system can be observed when the system is subjected to a very large force for a very short time. its actual shape is immaterial. which is useful in determining the impulse responses of mechanical systems. as shown in Figure 4-13(b). The impulse input is usually denoted by a vertical arrow. The impulse function is a mathematical function without any actual physical counterpart. Before discussing computational solutions of problems involving impulse inputs. such as y = impulse(sys). when the mass of a spring-mass-dashpot system is hit by a hammer or a bullet. We next briefly discuss a review of the law of conservation of momentum. only the magnitude (or area) of the function is important.t) [y.tl = impulse(num.t) or y impulse(num. If the command has a lefthand argument. for instance.tl = impulse (sys. 4-4 Transient-Response Analysis with MATLAB 125 MATLAB commands: impulse(num. However.t) = The command impuIse(sys) will generate a plot of the unit-impulse response and will display the impulse-response curve on the screen. In other words. we present some necessary background material.t) impulse(sys. to indicate that it has a very short duration and a very large height. It is then necessary to use a plot command to see the response curve on the screen. so that the area (hat) in a time plot is not negligible.den.den) y = impulse(sys) or or [y. no plot is shown on the screen. as long as at approaches zero and hat is finite. .

the angular momentum of a body remains unchanged.) . and sense. F = ma = m dt = dt (mv) Pdt dv d Hence. frictionless surface. where J is the moment of inertia of a body and Cd is the angular velocity of the body. the velocity of the wood block before the impact. In the absence of an external torque. If the mass ml of the bullet is 0. This principle is the law of conservation of angular momentum. is equal to 600 mls and 'V2. the total momentum of a system remains unchanged by any action that may take place within the system. In the absence of any external force. we have momentum before impact = mivi + m2~ where Vi' the velocity of the bullet before the impact. Thus. Equation (4-20) becomes d(mv) = 0 or mv = constant Thus. provided that no external force is acting on the system. what is the velocity of the wood block after the bullet is embedded in it? Assume that the wood block has a mass m2 of 50 kg. (1)zd(mv) = m~ - mVl (4-21) where VI = V(tl) and'V2 = V(t2)' Equation (4-21) states that a change in momentum equals the time integral of force between t = tl and t = t2' Momentum is a vector quantity. 4 Law of conservation of momentum. Also. Consequently. According to Newton's second law. no external force is acting on the system. direction. we have j'I '2 p dt = lv. This principle is called the law of conservation of momentum.02 kg and the velocity is 600 mls. momentum after impact = (ml + m2)v VI where V is the velocity of the wood block after the bullet is embedded. with magnitude. The angular momentum of a rotating system is J Cd. If we consider the bullet and wood block as constituting a system. (Velocities and V are in the same direction. its total momentum remains unchanged. The direction of the change in momentum is the direction of the force. The momentum of a mass m moving at a velocity v is mv.126 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. Example 4-7 A bullet is fired horizontally into a wood block resting on a horizontal. = d(mv) (4-20) Integrating both sides of Equation (4-20). is equal to zero.

v(O-) = 800 mls k = 2500N/m.). and v(O.1 Since the change in the velocity of the bullet occurs instantaneously. . Assume that when the bullet hits the block. k. there is a sudden change in the velocity of the bullet. the block and the bullet move as a combined mass M + m. As a result. b = 100 N-s/m.] From Figure 4-1S(b}. is equal to [Note that is positive.and that the initial velocity of the bullet is v(O-). the magnitude of which is equal to the rate of change of momentum of the bullet. Example 4-8 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-14. the impulse force F(t) is in the positive direction of x.) For t > 0. The input to the system in this case can be considered an impulse. the wood block after the bullet is embedded will move at the velocity of 0. m.Sec. Suppose that the bullet is shot at t = 0.02 + SO)v = 0. [See Figure 4-1S(a). -mv F{t) x = -mv = A 6. The displacement x of the block is measured from the equilibrium position before the bullet hits it.02 X 600 or X 0 = (0. Assuming the following numerical values for M. an impulse force. At the instant the bullet hits the block. A bullet of mass m is shot into a block of mass M (where M lB> m). we obtain 0. it becomes embedded there. The equation of motion for the system is v v (M + m):i + bi + kx = F(t) (4-22) where F(t}. has the form of an impulse.t 8{t) k . Determine the response (displacement x) of the block after it is hit by the bullet.01 kg. (Note that is negative. since the bullet is assumed to be embedded in it.--c::::> v(o-) m M Figure 4-14 Mechanical system subjected to an impulse input. b. the velocity of the bullet becomes the same as that of the block. 4-4 Transient-Response Analysis with MATLAB 127 The law of conservation of momentum states that mtVI + m2~ + SO v = (ml + m2)v Substituting the given numerical values into this last equation.24m1s Hence. the impulse force can be written as -mv. draw a curve x(t) versus t: M = SO kg. m = 0.24 mls in the same direction as the original velocity VI of the bullet.

4 ------l v(O-) v(O+) o I1t (a) o Figure 4-15 (a) Change in velocity of the bullet when it hits the block.mv(O+) (4-23) The momentum of the bullet is changed from mv(O.mi(O+ )]8(t) Taking the ~ _ transform of both sides of this last equation.) to mv(O+ ).x(O-)] + kX(s) = mv(O-) .sx(O-) . (b) change in acceleration of the bullet when it hits the block.128 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems v Chap. Since v(O+) = x(O+) = initial velocity of combined mass M + m A At = mv(O-) .mx(O+) we can write Equation (4-23) as Then Equation (4-22) becomes (M + m)x + bi + kx = F(t) = [mv(O-) . Thus. -A (b) where A At is the magnitude of the impulse input. we see that (M + m)[s2 Xes) .mx(O+) .x(O-)] + b[sX(s) . Joor fO+ A At 8(t) dt = -m Jo- fO+ vdt A At = mv(O-) .

.(M + m). we have mv(O-) . 'This is the response to the impulse input [mv(O-) . b.mx(O+ )]8(t).02285 x(t) 6.. Use the same numerical values for M. The response Xes) was obtained in Example 4-8. noting that x(O-) = 0 and x(O-) = 0. 4-4 Transient-Response Analysis with MATLAB 129 Also. Substituting the given numerical values into Equation (4-25)..mx(O+) = (M + m)x(O+) or x(O+) = M So Equation (4-24) becomes = 2m v(O-) x (s) (M + m)x(O+) = (M + m )S2 + bs + k 1 (M+m)mv(O-) (4-25) (M + m)s2 + bs + k M + 2m The inverse Laplace transform of Equation (4-25) gives the impulse response x(t).[mv(O-) . k.9993 (s + 0. as given by Equation (4-25). obtain the impulse response of the system shown in Figure 4-14 with MATLAB.mx(O+) M+m from which we get mv(O-) . and v(O-) as in Example 4-8..01s2 + 100s + 2500 50. Example 4-9 Referring to Example 4-8...9998)2 + (6. we apply the initial-value theorem: x(O+) = lim x(t) = lim s[sX(s)] 1-0+ $-00 (4-24) = lim . Note that the magnitude of the impulse input is mv(O-) .9984 50.mx(O+) Xes) . the response x(t) is a damped sinusoidal motion.Sec. + bs + k To determine the value of x(O+).02285e-o·99981 sin 6.9993t Thus.01 x 800 s = 50.9993)2 Taking the inverse Laplace transform of this last equation yields = 0.01 x 0.mx(O+) = (M + m)x(O+) = m(M + m) M + 2m v(O-) . we obtain X( ) 1 50..mx(O+)] $-00 (M + m)s2 + bs + k mv(O-) .01s2 + 100s + 2500 = 0. m.02 7.

..99846(1) )(s) 1 F (s) = (M + m )s2 + bs + k so that (4-26) To find the response of the system to F(t) (which is an impulse input whose magnitude is not unity). The impulse response obtained is shown in Figure 4-16.01 kg.. .015 0. m = 0... and v(O-) = 800 mls.:.. MATLAB Program 4-9 produces the response of the system subjected to the impulse input F(t).9984].005 Figure 4-16 Impulse-response -0.01s2 + 100s + 2500 If we defme nurn = [7...01 ~ ~ III tU 0. b = 100 N-s/m.den) irnpulse(sys) 2500]. then the command will produce the unit-impulse response of the system defined by Equation (4-27).02 . which is the same as the response of the system of Equation (4-26) to the impulse input F(t) = 7.99846(t). 4 Impulse Response of System Shown in Figure 4-14 0.005 C III c- 0 r. 2 3 t (sec) 4 5 6 Hence. 0.9984 6(t) The system equation is (M + m):i + bi + kx = F(t) = 7.130 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.9984 50.)6(t) = 7.r----.015 0 curve of the system shown in Figure 4-14 with M = 50 kg.01 100 sys = tf(nurn.( tU O -0. we modify Equation (4-26) to the following form: X(s) :f[6(t)] = (M 1 m(M + m).01 -0.----r-----r---. den = [50.. + bs + k + m) v(O-) M + 2m (4-27) 7. k = 2500 N/m. the impulse input can be written as F(t) = m(M + m) M + 2m v(O.-----r--.

an example of how t is specified is t = 0: 0.t) and [y.. (The response time span and the time increment are stated in t. Note also that. The next example plots the unit-ramp response curve with the use of the Isim command lsi m(sys..den. by using lsim commands.u.t] = Isim(num.sys2.y). . u. » den = [50.01 » sys tf(num. and any other time functions that we can generate with MATLAB. .t) produces the response of the system to the input u.01: 10).u. No plot is drawn. Obtaining response to arbitrary input.t) plots the responses of systems sysl. If the initial conditions are nonzero..u.den). Ramp response. The command Isim produces the response of linear. » impulse (sys) » grid »title ('Impulse Response of System Shown in Figure 4-141) » xlabel('t ') » ylabel('Response X(t)l) = 100 2500). If the initial conditions of the system are zero. If the initial conditions of the system are zero. Here. then Isim(sys.t) or Isim(num. . then any of the commands y = Isim(sys. t) where u = t.. it is necessary to use the command plot(t. sys2.t) or [y.u. acceleration inputs.u. u is the input and t represents the times at which responses to u are to be computed. we are able to obtain the response of the system to ramp inputs. use the state-space approach presented in Section 5-2. on a single diagram. Note that the command Isim(sysl.den. .u.9984). To plot the response curve. 4-4 Transient-Response Analysis with MATLAB 131 MATlAR Program 4-9 » num = [7.t] =ISim(sys.den.u.Sec.t) returns the output response y. time-invariant systems to arbitrary inputs.t) or y = Isim(num.

'u') ... » sys = tf(num.5 4 Example 4-10 Consider once again the system shown in Figure 4-7. » t = 0:0.. k == 100 N/m. ~ ..5 1. :.u...u.t) The transfer function of the system.8. MATlAR Program 4-10 » xlabel('t ' ) »num = [2 10]. .. 4 4....) Assume that m == 10 kg.01 :4. . ...15.8... The reSUlting response curve y(t) versus t and the input ramp function u(t) versus t are shown in FIgure 4-17......5 0. where ex = 1. the displacement u increases linearly.5 4 '::' r---r--~---r----r---r--r---~---. and u(t) is a unit-ramp input-that is...5 0- 8 Figure 4-17 Plots of unit-ramp response curve yet) and input ramp function u(t). b = 20 N-s/m.5 3 3. » Isim(sys. »u = t..25. (See Example 4-3.5 "0 C ~ 3 :l I.5 0..' y ') » text(0.. or u = at....s 2.O...132 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Unit-Ramp Response Chap.. 1 0. derived in Example 4-3. den). 2 '>: E 1. .5 2 t (sec) 2.. is Y(s) 2s + 10 U(s) == s2 + 2s + 10 MATLAB Program 4-10 produces the unit-ramp response.O. »den=[l 2 10]. ii 3. We shall obtain the unit-ramp response using the command Isim(sys....t) » grid » title('Unit-Ramp Response ') » ylabel('Output yet) and Input u(t) = tl} » text(0.

5 4 Flgure 4-18 Plots of unit-ramp response curve y(t) and input ramp function u(t).. 4 ! -::::c. » plot(t..5 1.0.----.t. .t. » u = t.s 2. » sys tf(nurn. c:: ii 3.] In some cases it is desired to plot multiple curves on one graph.5 :.5 3 3. » t = 0:0.den).u) » grid » title{'Unit-Rarnp Response ') » xlabel{'t (sec)') » ylabelCOutput y(t) and Input u(t) » text(0.yn) MATLAB Program 4-11 uses the command plot(t.O. c.Sec.yl.8. for example. MATLAR Program 4-11 »nurn = [2 101.85.5 .y.y. o 1 0. »den = [1 2 10).5 2 t (sec) 2.t) produces plots ofbothy(t) versus t and u(t) versus I. This can be done by using a plot command with mUltiple arguments.u) to plot a curve y(t) versus t and a line u(t) versus t. plot(t. t.) .5 3 = .15.5 0.t).u.'u ' ) = =tl) Unit-Ramp Response 4.----.. 1. Iyl) » text(0.---r----r----. .25. (Plots are obtained with the use of the command plot(t. The resulting plots are shown in Figure 4-18.u).y2.. 4-4 Transient-Response Analysis with MATLAB 133 [Note that the command lsim(sys.u.-----r-----r"---.t.01 :4. » y = Isirn(sys. t. ~ 2 :.y.5 '0 .

s2 + bs + k O.. The plot is shown in Figure 4-20.05 mls.... and k = 2 N/m.35s 1 s2 + 3s + 2 s Hence.ls2 + 0. Obtain the motion of the mass subjected to the initial condition.x(O)] + kX(s) m[s2X(s) .) The system equation is mx + bi + kx = 0 with the initial conditions x(O) the system equation gives = 0..is + 0. x .sx(O) . Flgure ~19 Mechanical system. Example 4-11 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-19.134 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap..05 mls.x(O)] =0 or (ms2 + bs + k)X(s) = mx(O)s + mx(O) + bx(O) Solving this last equation for X(s) and substituting the given numerical values into x(O) and x(O). the motion of the mass m is the unit-step response of the following system: G( s) = 0.1 m and X(O) = 0.-----m.1 m and X(O) = 0..35 s2 + 3s + 2 This equation can be written as X () s = 0.... where m = 1 kg.. The next example obtains the response of a transfer-function system subjected to an initial condition. b = 3 N-s/m. (Assume no external forcing function...35s S2 + 3s + 2 MATLAB Program 4-12 produces a plot of the motion of the mass when the system is subjected to the initial condition.is2 + 0.-. 4 Response to initial condition (transfer-function approach). The Laplace transform of + b[sX(s) . we obtain mx(O)s + mx(O) + bx(O) X(s) . Assume that the displacement x of mass m is measured from the equilibrium position and that at t:::: 0 the mass m is pulled downward such that x(O) = 0..

den = [1 3 2]..Example Problems and Solutions Response of System Subjected to Initial Condition 0. The diagram shows the control of only the yaw angle 8. The jets are turned on for a certain length of time. ..Response to initial condition ------------» » % System response to initial condition is converted to a » % unit-step response by modifying the numerator polynomial..den). . step(sys) grid title('Response of System Subjected to Initial Condition') xlabe/('t') ylabel('Output x(t)') = = EXAMPLE PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS Problem A-4-1 Consider the satellite attitude control system depicted in Figure 4-21. .. 0.r .) Small jets apply reaction forces to rotate the satellite body into the desired attitude....08 135 S 0 :...r . there are controls about three axes..06 ~ t 0.r .12 . .... so the torque can be written as T(t). The two skew symmetrically placed jets denoted by A and B operate in pairs. The moment of inertia about the axis of rotation at the center of mass is 1.. 0.02 0 0 1 2 I 3 (sec) 4 5 6 Flgure 4-20 Response of system subjected to initial condition. sys tf(num. (In the actual system. .1 0.35 0]..1 0. » » » » » » » » » num [0. . . Assume that each jet thrust is FI2 and a torque T = FI is applied to the system.. MATLAB Program 4-12 » % -----------...04 0...

..'~8 ____\. Displacements Xi and Xo are measured from their respective equilibrium positions.xo) = bzxo Taking the :£ _ transform of this equation and noting that x. Derive the transfer function of the system wherein Xi is the input and Xo is the output.136 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.( s) is = (bls + kl + bzs)Xo(s) b1s + kl (4-28) Xo(s) X.2 T(s) Js Problem A-4-2 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-22. The transfer function of the system is thus 8(s) 1 Transfer function = .) Solution Applying Newton's second law to this system and noting that there is no friction in the environment of the satellite.x. Assume that xo(O-) = O.= . Solution The equation of motion for the system is bl(.(S) The transfer function Xo( s)/ X. - xo) + kl(Xi . Then obtain the response Xo (t) when input Xi (t) is a step displacement of magnitude Xi occurring at t = O. and the angular displacement 6{ t) of the satellite is the output. (bls + kl)X.>0--\ ' ________ Reference Obtain the transfer function of this system by assuming that the torque T(t) is the input.(O-) we have = 0 and xo(O-) = 0. F 2 '.(s) = (bl + b2 )s + kl . we have Jd 6 == T dt 2 Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of this last equation and assuming that all initial conditions are zero yields 2 1S2@(S) = T(s) where @(s) = ~[6(t)] and T(s) = ~[T(t)]. 4 Figure 4-21 Schematic diagram of a satellite attitude control system. (We consider the motion only in the plane of the page.

b = 10 N-s/m. The response xo( t) when the input x. At t = 0. _~ s + [k}/(b 1 hI + b S 2 z + b2») }x. a unit-step displacement input is applied to point A. First we have X (s) o = (hI bis + kl Xi + hz)s + k} s = {._hz hz __ b + I e-klll(bl+b2>]X. H m = 1 kg. The displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position.( t) is a step displacement of magnitude Xi occurring at t = 0 can be obtained from Equation (4-28). I Notice that xo(O+) = [bl/(b l + hz)]Xi• Problem A-4-3 The mechanical system shown in Figure 4-23 is initially at rest. Assume that the system remains linear throughout the response period. I Then the inverse Laplace transform of Xo(s) gives x (t) o = [1 . find the response x(t) as well as the values of x(O+ ).Example Problems and Solutions 137 Figure 4-22 Mechanical system. and x( 00).!. i(O+ ). Solution The equation of motion for the system is mx + b(x or y) + kx = 0 m'i + bi + kx = by ( U~t-step) Input x y b m t----oA Figure 4-23 system. Mechanical . and k = 50 N/m.

we get X(s) . Assume that the system is initially at rest [xo(O-) = 0 and y(O-) = 0]. x(O+) = 10. and k2 are as follows: b l = SN-slm.. + bs + k)X(s) = bsY(s) X(s) bs Y (s) = ms2 + bs Since the input y is a unit step. k2 = 10N/m Figure 4-24 Mechanical system.138 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.= -2. x(O+ ). and x( 00) are found from the preceding equation and are x(O+) = 0. kJ. bz = 20 N-s/m. b. bs X(s) = ms + bs + 2 1 b . x(O-) = 0. Problem A-4-4 Find the transfer function Xo(s)IXj(s) of the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-24. the mass m returns to the original position as time elapses. and k into this last equation. Obtain the response xo(t) when the input Xj(t) is a step displacement of magnitude X j occurring at t = O. and y(O-) = 0. Y(s) +k = lis. Consequently. kl = SN/m. 4 Noting that x(O-) = 0. we take the ~_ transform of this last equation and obtain (ms 2 Thus. The numerical values of bh hz.k s ms + bs + k Substituting the given numerical values for m. x(oo) =0 Thus. Assume also that Xj and Xo are measured from their respective equilibrium positions.s2 + lOs + 50 10 = (s + 5f + S2 10 The inverse Laplace transform of X(s) is x(t) = 2e-51 sin St The values of x(O+ ). .

sY{s)] = k2Y(S) If we eliminate Y(s) from the last two equations.sY(s)] hz[sXo{s) .xo) + kt(Xi .(s) becomes (:: s + 1) (~ s + 1) Substitution of the given numerical values into the transfer function yields Xo(s) (s + 1)(2s + 1) X.6247e-3. )x. we find that Xo(t) == (0.5s + 0. bt[sX.(s) == (s + 1)(15 + 1) + 4s For an input Xi( I) S2 + 1.1492 + -.5s + 0.5 Xi s2 + 3. the response xo( t) can be obtained as follows: Since Xo(s) == s2 + 1.6247e-o.6247 1 == ( s + 3.. Problem A-4-S Obtain the transfer function X{s)/U{s) of the system shown in Figure 4-25. we get = 0.Xo(s)] == b2[sXo(s) .xj .5 = X.(O-) xo(O-) == 0 and y(O-) = 0. where u is the force input. 1(I).5 s 0. the transfer function X()(s)/X.5s + 0. Notice that xo(O+) == X.3508t .s + 0.Xo) = b2(xo . . The displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position.5 s2 + 3.3508 .j) hz(xo .(s) . with the initial conditions x.j) = k 2y Taking the . x Figure 4-25 Mechanical system..5s + 0.Example Problems and Solutions Solution The equations of motion for the mechanical system are 139 bt(.0.£ _ transform of these two equations.(s) .sXo(s)] + kt[X.l 492t + l)X.6247 0.

As the car moves along the road. we obtain ms2Xes) = -k2X(S) .b}2s2]X(S) = (bls + kl)V(S) from which we get the transfer function X(s)/V(s) as Xes) V(s) = mbl~ + mkls2 + bl(k l + k2)S + klk2 bls + kl Problem A-4-6 Figure 4-26(a) shows a schematic diagram of an automobile suspension system. y Center of mass • Auto body u (a) (b) Figure 4-26 (a) Automobile suspension system. whose motion consists of a translational motion of the center of mass and a rotational motion about the center of mass. 4 Solution The equations of motion for the system are mx b1(x - = -k2x - ~(x .y) +u y) = k1y Laplace transforming these two equations and assuming initial conditions equal to zero. the vertical displacements at the tires excite the automobile suspension system. Mathematical modeling of the complete system is quite complicated.blsY(s) = kIY(S) Eliminating Yes) from the last two equations yields (ms2 + bIs + k2)X(s) = bIs b bls IS + } k Xes) + U(s) Simplifying. . we obtain [(ms 2 + bIs + k2)(b}s + k}) .140 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. (b) simplified suspension system.~sX(s) + b1sY(s) + U(s) blsX(s) .

ml and kl represent the wheel mass and tire stiffness. (Consider the motion of the body only in the vertical direction.Example Problems and Solutions 141 A highly simplified version of the suspension system is shown in Figure 4-26(b).x) . the transfer function Y (s )IU (s) is Problem A-4-7 Obtain the transfer function Y(s)/U(s) of the system shown in Figure 4-27. The vertical motion u at point P is the input.i) + kt(u . (Similar to the system of Problem A-4-6.bey . respectively.i) m2Y = -k2(y y x u F1gure 4-27 Suspension system. this system is also a simplified version of an automobile or motorcycle suspension system. Assuming that the motion u at point P is the input to the system and the vertical motion y of the body is the output.) The displacement y is measured from the eqUilibrium position in the absence of the input u.x) . we get mtx = k2(y . In Figure 4-27. .x) + b(Y .) Assume that the displacements x and yare measured from their respective equilibrium positions in the absence of the input u.u) =0 my + by + ky = bit + ku Taking the Laplace transform of this last equation. obtain the transfer function Y(s)/U(s). Solution The equation of motion for the system shown in Figure 4-26(b) is my + bey or it) + key . we obtain (ms 2 + bs + k)Y(s) = (bs + k)U(s) Yes) bs + k U (s) = mil + bs + k Hence. Solution Applying Newton's second law to the system. assuming zero initial conditions.

we obtain [mls 2 + bs + (k l + k2)]X(S) = (bs + k2)Y(S) + k1U(s) [m2s2 + bs + k2]Y(S) = (bs + k2)X(S) Eliminating X(s) from the last two equations.1852 + 1)2 . we have Chap.0000 k= [] From the results of the program.1934 + s+4 s+1 +--~ (s 1. p. we have 2 (mls + bs + kl + k 2) which yields m2. » [r.0000 -4.0000 -1. k] = residue(num. assuming zero initial conditions.den) r= 5.2675 -2.0741 -0. + bs + k2 b k Y(s) = (bs + k2)Y(S) + klU(s) s+ 2 Y(s) U(s) ProblemA~ kl(bs + k 2) = mlm2s4 + (ml + m2)bs3 + [k1m2 + (ml + m2)k2]s2 + k1bs + klk2 Expand the function B(s) A(s) 3s3 + 5s2 + lOs + 40 = s4 + 16s3 + 69s 2 + 94s + 40 into partial fractions with MATLAB. 4 mIx + bi + (k 1 + k 2)x = by + k 2y + k1u m2Y + by + k 2y = bi + k2x Taking the Laplace transforms of these two equations. Solution A MATLAB program for obtaining the partial-fraction expansion is given in MATLAB Program 4-13. » den = [1 16 69 94 40].1934 1.1852 p= -10.0000 -1. MATLAR Program 4-13 »num = [3 5 10 40].2675 + 10 -2. we get the following expression: --=--+ s B(s) A(s) 5.142 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Hence.0741 -0.

Assume that m = 1 kg.j2){s + 1 + j2) s+2 1 = +-s2 + 2s + 5 s + 1 0. plot a response curve with the use of MATLAB.jO.5 . » den = [1 3 7 5].2. Obtain the response of the system when 10 N of force (a step input) is applied to the mass m.2S)(s + 1 + j2) + (0.j2 s + 1 + j2 s+1 (0.0000 + 2. Solution A MATLAB program for obtaining the partial-fraction expansion is shown in MATLAB Program 4-14.2S + 0. we get the following expression: --= B( s) A(s) + jO. The system is initially at rest. . Also. » [r.jO.5000 . p. because the degree of the numerator is lower than that of the denominator.2500i 0. MATLAR Program 4-14 » nurn = [2 5 7]. k] =residue(nurn.den) r= 0. b = 12 N-s/m.0000 k= [] From the MATLAB output. and k = 100 N/m.5 . because the row vector k is zero.5 + jO.2S 1 +-s + 1 . and the displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position.0000 p= -1 . Problem A-4-9 Expand the function B{s) 2s2 + Ss + 7 A( s) = s3 + 3s2 + 7s + 5 into partial fractions with MATLAB.5000 + 0.0000 .0000i -1. Problem A-4-10 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-28.2500i 1.0000i -1 .0.2S)(s + 1 = (s + 1 .j2) +-s+1 1 Note that. there is no constant term in this partial-fraction expansion.Example Problems and Solutions 143 Note that the row vector k is zero.5 .

sys = tf(nurn.s(S2 + 12s + 100) 0...6) (s + 6)2 + 82 "8 8 The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation gives x(t) = 0. 4 P (10 N offorce) x Figure 4-28 Mechanical system.den).(s + 6)2 + 82 - (0.1 O. den = [1 12 100].0. we obtain X(s) _ 10 .le-61 cos 8t .075e-61 sin 8t The response exhibits damped vibration. MATLAB Program 4-15 » » » » » » » » » t = 0:0.01 :2.2 S s2 + 12s + 100 0. nurn = [10]. we get 10 Taking the Laplace transform of this last equation and substituting the initial conditions [x(O) = 0 and X(O) = 0] yields 10 (s2 + 12s + 100)X(s) = - s Solving for X(s).ts + 1. Solution The equation of motion for the system is mx + bi + kx = x + 12i + 100x = P Substituting the numerical values into this last equation. A MATLAB program to plot the response curve is given in MATLAB Program 4-15.1 0.1 .1(s + 6) = --. step(sys.t) grid title ('Step Response ' ) xlabelCt ' ) ylabelCOutput X(t)l) / .144 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. The resulting response curve is shown in Figure 4-29.0.

Assume that the system is initially at rest.08 0.1 m.8 I 1 1.. ~ = 1 N-sfm. where bi = 0.r----r--r--.---. Obtain the response xo(t) when x.04 0...1 Step Response r-----"T-"""T""-. kl = 1 N/m.06 0.12 0..8 2 Figure 4-29 Step response of mechanical system..2 (sec) 1. Solution From Problem A-4-4.(s) is Xo(s) --=--~---""'---- Xj(S) (!: + 1 + 1) )(~ (!: + 1 + 1) + ~ )(~ s s s S S Figure 4-30 Mechanical system. 145 ~ 0.5 N-s/m.2 0.. Problem A-4-11 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-30.{t) is a step input of magnitude 0...4 0.-----.02 -= -= 0 Q.. .4 1. The displacements Xi and Xo are measured from their respective equilibrium positions.6 1.. and k2 = 2 N/m.6 0..Example Problems and Solutions 0.---r--. 0. the transfer function Xo(s)/X.

Xo(s) = S2 + 4s + 4 0.1 =-.085 0.075 0.Ss + 1) + s 0.4) / (sA2 + 8s + 4)') Step Response of (o. [x_o.t).07 0. » num = [0.4s + 0. 2 4 6 t (sec) 8 10 12 . » » » » » » » » den = [1 8 4]. 4 Substitution of the given numerical values yields Xo(s) (O.06 0. we have X.4)/(.02:12.095 0.4 0. plot(t.1 0.Ss + 1) -.146 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.09 0.(s) 0.2Ss2 + 2s + 1 s2+4s+4 s2+8s+4 Since x.4s + 0.1s 2 + O. sys = tf(num.x_o) grid title('Step Response of (0.25s2 + s + 1 0. + 8s + 4) 0.l)l(t).1 sA2 xlabel{'t (sec)') ylabel('x_o(t)') + O.05 0 Figure 4-31 Step response of system shown in Figure 4-30.08 1 -::- 0. which is shown in Figure 4-31.1 S2 + 8s + 4 S 0.Ss + l)(O.W + 0.(t) = (O.065 0.4 1 s2+8s+4 s MATLAB Program 4-16 is used to obtain the step response.4s + 0.= -------Xj(s) (O.Ss + l)(O. MATLAR Program 4-16 » t = 0:0. Hence.1 0.den).4].055 0.t] = step(sys.

num = [0.06 0. Note that = 0. plot(t.4) / (s1\2 + 8s + 4)1) xlabelCt (sec)l) ylabeICx_o(t)l) text (1.Example Problems and Solutions 147 Figure 4-31 shows the response curve from t ::: 0+ to t = 12. MATLAB Program 4-17 » » » » » » » » » » » » 0. we may add the axis command xo(O+) v = [-2 12 -0. . shown in the region -2 s x s 12.1.4]. tJ = step(sys.02:12. axis(v) to the program. [x_o.4)/(.1 sl\2 + O.') = Step Response of (0. using the subplot command.12].1 0. The plot of the response curve produced by MATLAB Program 4-17 is shown in Figure 4-32.4 0. 0. axis(v) grid titieCStep Response of (0.1 0.4s + 0. -0.12.007. Then plot each curve in a separate diagram. -2 o 2 4 t 6 (sec) 8 10 12 Figure 4-32 Step response of system.02 0.x_o) v [-2 12 -0.den). Problem A-4-12 Plot the unit-step response curves of the two systems defined by the transfer functions Jr(s) 25 U (s) = s2 + 5s + 25 and Y(s) 5s + 25 U (s) = s2 + 5s + 25 in one diagram.4s + 0.12 0.04 0. 'These two lines are manually drawn.1. -0.08 0.02 0 -0.s2 + O. sys = tf(num. den = [1 8 4].t).02 s y s 0.02 t = 0:0.5.s2 + 8s + 4) S ~ : : : : : These two\lines are manually drawn. Then the xy domain of the plot becomes -2 S x S 12.1. If we wish to plot the curve from xo(O-) = 0 to xo(12) = 0.12. as shown in MATLAB Program 4-17.02 S Y S 0.12].02 0.

5 3 Problem A-4-13 Consider the system shown in Figure 4-35. 'y') 1. the system equation becomes m'i + kx = 8(t) . MATLAB Program 4-18 » » » » » » » » » » » » t = 0:0. t1 =step(sys2..148 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.05:3. t) = step(sys1.t.8 S ~ o .. MATLAB Program 4-19 uses the subplot command to plot two curves in two subwindows.25.4 . [x. 1. plot(t. 4 Solution MATLAB Program 4-18 produces the unit-step response curves of the two systems.---__ Unit-Step Responses 1. 0.3.5 t (sec) 2 2.t.15.y.25. 'x'} text(1. The system is initially at rest. Multiple curves on one diagram can be split into multiple windows with the use of the sUbplot command..t). Can it be stopped by another such impulsive force? Solution When the mass m is set into motion by a unit-impulse force. [1 5 25]).l.. sys2 =tf([5 25)... Figure 4-34 shows the resulting plot.5 1.t). one curve per subwindow.2 Figure 4-33 1\vo unit-step response curves shown in one diagram..y.x. 0.. The curves are shown in Figure 4-33.--____r-------r-----r-----r---.6 S:.4 0... sys1 = tf([25].:: "0 1 ~ 0. 0. Suppose that the cart is set into motion by an impulsive force whose strength is unity.2 -=:- '. [y. [1 5 25]).'o') grid title('Unit-Step Responses') xlabel{'t (sec)') ylabel('Outputs x(t) and y(t)') text(1.

. grid » title('Unit-Step Response') » xlabel('t (sec)') » ylabel('Output yet)') 1. tl =step(sys1 .T). » sys2 = tf([5 25). .8 :. 1.t).2 ~.. Unit-Step Response 1. » [x.. »sys1 = tf([25].··········· 0. plot(t.r------.4 r-----. x(O-) = 0 . grid » title('Unit-Step Response') » xlabel('t (sec)') » ylabel('Output x(t)') » subplot(122).T). x(O-) = 0.Example Problems and Solutions 149 MATlAR Program 4-19 » t = 0:0.. [1 5 25]). 1 2 t (sec) 3 1 t 2 (sec) 3 x Impulsive force 6(t) m Figure 4-35 Mechanical system.4 0. one in each subwindow. Then. Figure 4-34 Plots of two unit-step response curves in two subwindows. [1 5 25])..:::- -...r------..r-----. tl = step(sys2.2 1 ... plot(t.::: 0.t).x).2 1--1-········. . » [y. the equation for the system when the two impulse forces are given is mx + kx = cS(t) + AcS(t ..y).4 0. » subplot(121). SO0.6 0.r-----. We define another impulse force to stop the motion as AcS(t ..4 1.. where A is the undetermined magnitude of the impulse force and t = T is the undetermined instant that this impulse is to be given to the system to stop the motion.05:3.....2 Unit-Step Response r-----.

we obtain = 1 + Ae-sT sT X(s) = + Aems 2 + k ms 2 + k 1 1 =-----+----~S2+. At t = 0. the motion of the mass m can be stopped by another impulse force. v(O+) = -v(O-). 4 (ms 2 + k)X(s) Solving for X(s). Figure 4-37(a) shows a sudden change in the velocity of the ball. such as Problem A-4-14 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-36. The equation of motion for the system is M'i + bi + kx = F(t) (4-29) . Note that iJ(O+) is negative. T=~ ~' Thus. the magnitude of which is equal to the change in momentum of the steel ball.. the ball bounces back with velocity v(O+). iJ has the form of an impulse.015 kg. m m The inverse Laplace transform of X(s) is ~ A ~e-ST x(t) = ~Sin~t + ~ [Sin~(t - T)] 1(t .. Assume that the system is initially at rest. Since the impact is assumed to be perfectly elastic. as shown in Figure 4-37(b). b = 2 N-s/m. Suppose that a person drops a steel ball of mass m onto the center of mass M from a height d and catches the ball on the fust bounce. plot the response curve with MATLAB. The ball hits mass M at t = O. and d = 1. At t = 0.150 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems The :£ _ transform of this last equation with x(O-) = 0 and x(O-) = 0 gives Chap.Assume that the initial velocity of the ball is v(O-). then x(t) must be identically zero for t ~ T. Define the downward velocity to be positive. m = 0.!!. a condition we can achieve if we choose A = 1. ~ s2+.!!. Assuming that M = 1 kg. The displacement x of mass M is measured from the equilibrium position before the ball hits it.T) If the motion of the mass m is to be stopped at t = T. the ball hits mass M. Assume that the impact is perfectly elastic. The initial conditions are x(O-) = 0 and i(O-) = O.45 m. Since the change in velocity of the ball occurs instantaneously. Solution The input to the system can be taken to be an impulse. Obtain the motion of mass M for 0 < t. k = 50 N/m.

is equal to -mv. where F(t). the impulse force can be written as F(t) F(t) = A !!it 8(t) !!it 8(t) = where A !!it is the magnitude of the impulse input. v (a) o v(O+) -~--- (b) fl. =A -mv .Example Problems and Solutions 151 k x Figure 4-36 Mechanical system subjected to an impulse input. the impulse force F(t) is in the positive direction of x. [Note that -mv is positive.t o -A Figure 4-37 (a) Sudden change in the velocity v of steel ball. Thus. (b) plot of v versus t. an impulse force.] From Figure 4--37(b).

4 Joor rO+ A at 8(t)dt = -m Lv 0+ dt Aat = mv(O-) . the response of the mass M is a damped sinusoidal motion. .807 X 1. Equation (4-30) can be written as A at = 2mv(0-) Then Equation (4-29) becomes M'i Taking the + bi + kx = F(t) = 2mv(0-) 8(t) = 2mv(0-) :e _transforms of both sides of this last equation. we obtain X () 5 = ----:-------- 2 X 0.i(O-)] Noting that x(O-) = 0 and i(O-) = 0. we have (MS2 + bs + k)X(s) Solving for X(s).15999 7 (5 + 1)2 + 72 The inverse Laplace transform of X(5) gives x(t) = 0.02286e-1 sin 7t m Thus. The resulting curve is shown in Figure 4-38.mv(O+) (4-30) The momentum of the steel ball is changed from mv( 0-) (downward at t = 0-) to mv(O+) (upward at t = 0+). Since v(O+) = -v(O-).15999 52 + 2s + 50 7 0. we obtain 2mv(0-) X (s) = M s2 + bs + k Since the velocity of the steel ball after falling a distance dis V2id.45 S2 + 25 + 50 0. we have v(O-) It follows that = V2id X (5 ) = M 52 + bs 2mV2id +k (4-31) Substituting the given numerical values into Equation (4-31).x(O-)] + kX(s) = 2mv(0-) M[S2 X(s) .sx(O-) .152 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems from which we can get Chap. we get + b[5X(S) . A MATLAB program to produce the response curve is given in MATLAB Program 4-20.015V2 x 9.

01 S 0 :. Solution From Figure 4-41. Under normal operating conditions. » impulse(sys) » grid »title('lmpulse Response of Mechanical System ') » xlabelCt') » ylabelCOutput X(t)l) Impulse Response of Mechanical System 0. Define the force that acts on the pendulum at the instant the car stops suddenly as F(t). Problem A-4-lS Figure 4-39 shows a mechanism used for a safety seat belt system. the passenger is restrained in place. The equation for the pendulum system is ml28 = F(t)l cos 8 - mgl sin 8 (4-32) We linearize this nonlinear equation by assuming that the angle 8 is small. the moment of inertia of the pendulum about the pivot is J = mP.05 m. the resulting linearized equation will give an .005 0 -0. ~ 0. assume that the car is moving at a speed of 10 mls before a sudden stop.02 0.015 0 1 2 t 3 (sec) 4 5 6 Figure 4-38 Response of mass M subjected to impulse input. the pendulum is subjected to an impulsive torque that causes it to swing forward and also causes the bar to engage the ratchet. locking the reel and safety belt.3 s.. However. Thus. The angle of rotation of the pendulum is 8 rad.15999]. Referring to Figure 4-40.015 0. Then the torque that acts on the pendulum due to the force F(t) is F(t)l cos 8. The pendulum length is 0. Q. :.den).Example Problems and Solutions MATLAB Program 4-20 153 » num = [0. Find the time needed for the pendulum to swing forward by 20°. » sys = tf(num.005 -0.01 -0. The stopping time At is 0. the reel rotates freely and it is possible to let out more slack in the belt. (Although 8 = 20° is not quite small. if the car decelerates rapidly in a collision or sudden stop. » den = [1 2 50]. allowing the passenger to move forward even with the belt fastened.

154 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Seat belt Chap. v(o-) (b) ~Autobody Figure 4-40 Pendulum attached to auto body. (b) emergency condition.. x ------f-----. (a) Normal operating condition. mg l . 4 ® Pendulum (a) Ratchet Figure ~39 Mechanism used for a safety seat belt system.. Figure 4-41 Pendulum system..

cos 141t) Simplifying yields cos 14tl = 0.05 m.3)] or . Equation (4-33) may be written as ml8 + mg8 g = 33.0326 s .e The inverse Laplace transform of 6( s) gives = 3.) Approximating cos 8 =P 1 and sin 8 =P 8.l(t .0.3 s.l(t .3m[1(t) .8972 and the solution is tl = 0.3 sec.l(t .3 . 8 = 200 = 0.3) .mglB or ml8 + mg8 = F(t) (4-33) Since the velocity of the car at t = 0.0.[cos 14(t . F(t) may be given by F(t) = m'i = 33.3955(1 . we seek to solve the following equation for 1}: 0.0.0.3)]I(t .3.cos 14t) . we can write Equation (4-32) as m/28 = F(t)1 .3955{1(t . the average deceleration is 33. this last equation becomes 8 + 196.0 .14 196.3.e- O3S .3) = 0 for 0 :S t < 0.is 10 mls and the car stops in 0.3491 rad..Example Problems and Solutions 155 approximate solution.3)] Since I = 0. Now assume that at t = tt.l(t .3m[1(t) . tentatively assuming that I} occurs before t = 0.14) S2 666 (1 _ e. 8 + [8 = -1-[I(t) 33. ) (4-34) where we used the initial conditions that 8(0-) = 0 and 8(0-) = O.14 s) .3)] Taking 9'" _ transforms of both sides of the preceding equation.3 rnIs2 acts on the pendulum mass for 0. - . Then.148 = (s2 666[1(t) .3.0. Solving Equation (4-34) for 6( s) yields 6(s) = s(s2 + 196.14)6(s) = 666(.3)] Then.0. we obtain + 196. 8(t) 1 + 196.3 mls2• Under the assumption that a constant acceleration of magnitude 33.3s) = ( -.3)} (4-35) Note that l(t .3s ) 666 (1 -0.3955(1 .0.0.3491 = 3.

x) » grid » ylabel('Output X(t)l) » subplot (212). we define u1 u2 < t. t :s. » u = [ul u2]. » ul =0. as shown in Figure 4-42(b). t :s. depending on which interval u is in. Then the input force u(t) for 0 :S t :S 30 can be given by the MATLAB array u = [ul u2] MATLAR Program 4-21 » t =0:0.02:10].02:0.02: 10] = 0*[10. Att = 10+. axis (v) » grid » xlabelCt (sec)') » ylabel('lnput Force u(t) newton ') . » sys = tf(nurn. 4 Since tl = 0. 10 for 10 <t :s. » x = Isirn(sys.02:30] for 0 :s.156 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. in MATLAB. The force u(t) applied to the cart is increased linearly from 0 to 5 N for the period o :s.5*[0:0.plot(t. The cart has the mass of m kg. the transfer function of the system is Jr(s) 1 1 U(s) = ms2 = 100s2 The input u(t) is a ramp function for 0 :s. 30 where u is either u1 or u2. Solution The equation of motion for the system is mx = u Hence. The cart is at rest for t < 0. » u2 = 0*[10.3. The terms involving l(t . obtain the displacement x(t) of the cart for 0 :s. and the displacement x is measured from the rest position. Assume that the wheels have negligible masses and there is no friction involved in the system.3) in Equation (4-35) do not affect the value of t l' It thus takes approximately 33 milliseconds for the pendulum to swing 20°. » subplot(211 ). U ::: 5 N. t :s.0326 < 0.u.den). t :s. Problem A-4-16 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-42(a). as shown in = 0. plot(t.u) »v = [0 30 -1 6]. (At t = 10. »nurn = [1].t).5*[0: 0.02:30]. 30 with MATLAB.02:0. our assumption was correct.0.02:30. 10. den = [100 0 0].) Thus. or u(t) =0 for 10 < t Assuming that m = 100 kg. the force u(t) is disengaged. 10 and is zero for 10 Figure 4-42(b).

The resulting wave is shown in Figure 4-45. .Example Problems and Solutions 157 MATLAB Program 4-21 produces the response curve. The curves of x(t) versus t and the input force u(t) versus t are shown in Figure 4-43. 5 4 3 2 1 o ~----~~----~------~------~------~----~ 6 ~------~----~------~------~------~----~ 5 4 3 2 1 o 5 10 15 t (sec) 20 25 30 Figure 4-43 Response curve x(t) versus t and input curve u(t) versus t. Solution There are many ways to generate the given triangular wave. generate a triangular wave as shown in Figure 4-44.e- :. we present one simple way to do so. Problem A-4-17 Using MATLAB. 6 ~----~~----~------~------~------~----~ S >< O . (b) force u(t) applied to the cart. In MATLAB Program 4-22. x u(t) 5N o (a) Flgore 4-42 10 20 (b) 30 (a) Mechanical system.

u2 = [0.5:1].5:-1]. axis(v) grid title('Triangular Wave I) xlabelCt (sec)') ylabelCOisplacement U(t)l) u Figure 4-44 Triangular wave.u) v = [-2 10 -1.5 8 cc e -1 -1. u3 = [-0.5 -2 0 2 t 4 (sec) 6 8 10 Flgure4-45 1fiangular wave generated with MATLAB.5]. u = [u1 u2 u3]. en ~ -0.5 0 0. u1 = [0:0.5:0.158 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. plot(t. 1.5 1 Triangular Wave 'S' C ~ ~ 0.5 1.5:0].5:-0. 4 MATLAB Program 4-22 » » » » » » » » » » » t = 0:1:8. .

Assume that the displacement U of point P is the input to the system.02:8]. t ::. y U 1 o U -1 (a) (b) Figure 4-46 (a) Spring-mass-dashpot system. Obtain the response Y(/) of the mass m. assume that m ::: 100 kg. The displacement y is measured from the equilibrium position in the absence of the input u(t). The response curve Y(/) versus 1 and the input curve U(/) versus 1 are shown in Figure 4-47. u1 = [0:0.98:0. B. we obtain Y(s) U(s) 400s + BOO = loos2 + 400s + BOO +B s2 + 4s + B 4s The input U(/) is a triangular wave for 0 ::. (For the generation of a triangular wave.02:1].02:0. as shown in Figure 4-46(b). . and then defining u = [u1 u2 u3 u4] MATLAB Program 4-23 produces the response Y(/) of the system. u4 = 0*[4. the transfer function of the system is Y(s) bs + k 2 + bs + k U (s) = ms Substituting the given numerical values for m. 4 and is zero for 4 < 1 ::. in MATLAB. and k = BooN/m. Assume also that the input u(t) is a small bump.Example Problems and Solutions 159 Problem A-4-18 Consider the spring-mass-dashpot system shown in Figure 4-46(a). b. the input U(/) can be generated by first defining. u2 = [0. b = 400 N-s/m.02:-1). (b) input U(/) versus I.02:0). To obtain the response curve.) As in Problem A-4-17. see Problem A-4-17. u3 = [-0.98:-0. and k into this transfer function. Solution From Problem A-4-6.

» sys = tf(num. cU 0 Figure 4-47 Response of spring-mass-dashpot system subjected to the input shown in Figure 4-46(b). :.e..72. »u2 = [0.05.u) » grid »titieCResponse of Spring-Mass-Dashpot System and Input U(t)l) » xlabel('t (sec)') » ylabel('Output y(t) and Input U(t)I) >> text(2 .98:-0.t)..5 0 '>: :. 4 » t = 0:0..5 . >> den = [1 4 8].5 mls [i.---r---. "0 = = c.02:0.---r----r---. . » u = [u1 u2 u3 u4]. Assume that m = 1 kg and k = 9 N/m. -0. X(O) = 0.. -1 -1.98:0.e.02:0). x(O) = 0..1. Obtain the response curve x(t) versus t with MATLAB..y. 1 S ::s ~ :.. Iyl) » text(1.den)..02:8]..t.5 0 2 345 t (sec) 6 7 8 Problem A-4-19 Consider the spring-mass system shown in Figure 4-48. The system is initially at rest... » u1 = [0:0. lUi) Response of Spring-Mass-Dashpot System and Input u(t) 1.02:8.2.. Assume that at t = 0 the mass is pulled downward by 0.. » plot(t. » u3 = [-0.1) and released with the initial velocity of 0.-----..---. » num = [4 8]. » y = Isim(sys..0.02:1]. 0.5].0.160 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems MATLAR Program 4-23 Chap. » u4 = 0*[4.---.02:-1). The displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position.u.5 c.1 m [i.

x(O). » sys = tf(nurn.den).5s .001 :4.t). k. we have S2X(S) -O.SX(O) . and X(O) into this last equation.0.ls + 0.5s s2 + 9 MATLAB Program 4-24 produces the response curve x(t) versus t.4]. The curve is shown in Figure 4-49.5 0].1s + 0.4 0. we obtain m[s2X(s) .Example Problems and Solutions 161 x Flgure 4-48 Spring-mass system. we get =0 Xes) = O.ls2 + 0. MATlAR Program 4-24 » t = 0:0.x) » v = [-1 4 -0. » plot(t. the response X{I) can be obtained as the unit-step response of G(s) = 0.5 + 9X(s) Solving for X(s).5 s2 + 9 = 0. » den = [1 0 9].! s2 + 9 s 2 Hence.X(O)] = -kX(s) Substituting the given numerical values for m.ls . » x =step(sys. » num = [0.1 0. Solution The equation of motion for the system is mx = -kx Taking the Laplace transform of the preceding equation. axis(v) » grid » title ('Response of System Subjected to Initial Condition I) » » xlabelCt (sec)') ylabel('x(t) meter ' ) .

-0..5 mls. Assume that xo(O-) = O.---'-_-'--_.5 1 1.....5 4 PROBLEMS Problem 8-4-1 Find the transfer function Xo( s)/X. Figure 4-50 Mechanical system. ..' ..4 0.. .1 0 -0. 4 Response of System Subjected to Initial Condition >:( ~ . e 0. 1 -1 -0.1 _ . Problem B-4-2 Derive the transfer function Xo( s)/X j ( s) ofthe mechanical system shown in Figure 4-51.._ .162 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems 0..1 -0.1 m and X(O) = 0... Obtain the displacement xo( t) when the input x..5 t (sec) 2 2.5 0 0.5 3 3. The displacements Xi and Xo are measured from their respective equilibrium positions.2 S G) Chap.( t) is a step displacement of magnitude Xi occurring at t = O.4 '----'-_--'-_-'-----11.3 0. . Obtain the response xo(t) when the input Xj(t) is the pulse o< t Assume that xo(O-) < tl elsewhere = O.3 Flgure 4-49 Response of spring-mass system subjected to the initial condition x(O) = 0.( s) of the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-50.. The displacements Xi and Xo are measured from their respective equilibrium positions..2 -0.

ProblemB+3 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-52. is the output of the system. Obtain the transfer function X(s)/U(s) of the system. obtain the transfer function X(s)/U(s). At t = 0. The displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position and is the output of the system. a force u is applied to the system. x (Output) Figure 4-52 Mechanical system. Assume that u(t) is the force applied to the cart and is the input to the system. Obtain the transfer function X(s)/U(s). measured from the equilibrium position. If u is the input to the system and x is the output. and the displacement x is measured from the eqUilibrium position.Problems 163 Figure 4-51 Mechanical system. Problem B-4-4 In the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-53. which is initially at rest. . the force u is the input to the system and the displacement x. x Figure 4-53 Mechanical system. Problem B-4-S The system shown in Figure 4-54 is initially at rest.

~---L----. or x(O-) = 0 and 8(0-) = O. No friction .x(t) is the input displacement and 8(t) is the output angular displacement. Assume that the masses involved are negligibly small and that all motions are restricted to be small. Show that this system is a differentiating element. 4 Figure 4-54 Mechanical system. therefore. Then obtain the response 8(/) when x(t) is a unit-step input. Problem B-t-7 In the system of Figure 4-56.164 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. Figure 4-55 Mechanical system. the system can be considered linear. The initial conditions for x and 8 are zeros. The displacement x is the output of the system and is measured from the equilibrium position. Obtain the transfer function X(s)/U(s). ---Figure 4-56 Mechanical system. Problem B-4-6 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-55. The input force u is given at t = O.. The system is at rest for t < O.

.05 m and x(O) = 1 mis. and k2 = 10 N/m. The system is initially at rest. generating the initial conditions x(O) = 0. obtain the partial-fraction expansion of B(s) Jl(s) Problem B-4-10 1 = s4 + s3 + 81s2 + 81s Using MATLAB. / x Figure 4-58 Mechanical system. Assume that u is the displacement of point P and x is the displacement of mass m. Plot the response curve x(t) versus t with MATLAB when the mass m is pulled slightly downward. Assume that m = 1 kg. obtain the partial-fraction expansion of B(s) 5(s + 2) Jl(s) = s5 + 5s 4 + 19s3 + 12s2 Problem B-4-11 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-58. and released at t = O. Draw four different block diagrams for the system. bi = 4 N-s/m. The displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position before m is pulled downward. Problem 8-4-9 Using MATLAB. The displacement x is measured from the eqUilibrium position when u = O. x u p Figure 4-57 Mechanical system. kl = 6 N/m.Problems 165 Problem B-4-8 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-57.

Plot the response curve x(t) versus t when m = 100 kg and b = 200 N-s/m. The displacements Xl and X2 are measured from their respective eqUilibrium positions before the input u is applied. Obtain the displacement X2(t) when u is a step force input of 2 N. The system is initially at rest. Determine the initial velocity of mass m. ~ = 10 N-s/m.166 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. Figure 4-59 Mechanical system. Find the response x(t) when the system is set into motion by an impulsive force whose strength is unity. and k2 = 20 N/m. 4 Problem B-4-12 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-59. Obtain the transfer function of the system. The system is initially at rest. What is the initial velocity X(O+) after the unit-impulse force is given to the cart? x Impulsive force O(t) m Figure 4-61 Mechanical system. Assume that b l = 1 N-s/m. Suppose that the system is initially at rest [x(O-) = 0. Problem B-4-14 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-61. Problem 8-4-13 Figure 4-60 shows a mechanical system that consists of a mass and a damper. kl = 4 N/m. . Plot the response curve X2( t) versus t with MATLAB. Then obtain an analytical solution x(t). x 0(1)- m Figure 4-60 Mechanical system. x(O-) = 0] and at t = 0 it is set into motion by a unit-impulse force.

x Figure 4-64 Mechanical system. At t = 0. . and that x(O-) = 1 mis. b = 20 N-s/m. Problem 11-4-17 Consider the system shown in Figure 4-64. and k = 50 N/m. b2 = 70 N-s/m. the cart is given initial conditions x(O) = Xo and x(O) = Vo' Obtain the output motion x(t). x Figure 4-63 Mechanical system. The system is at rest for t < O.Assuming that the spring constant k is 100 N/m. plot the response curve x(t) versus t when m = 10 kg. and k2 = 600 N/m. bI = 50 N-s/m.Problems Problem 11-4-15 167 The mechanical system shown in Figure 4-62 is initially at rest. Assume that the displacement x is the output of the system and is measured from the equilibrium position. At t = 0.1 m. The displacement x(t) is measured from the eqUilibrium position in the absence of the excitation force. we hit the mass with an impulsive force p(t) whose strength is 10 N. 6(1) Figure 4-62 Mechanical system. The displacement x of mass m is measured from the rest position. mass m is set into motion by an impulsive force whose strength is unity. Assume that m = 10 kg. Problem 11-4-16 A mass m of 1 kg is vibrating initially in the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-63. kI = 400 N/m. find the displacement x(t) as a function of time t. Using MATLAB. that x(O-) = 0. At t = 0.

bi = 120 N-slm. bz =80 N-s/m. 4 Problem B-4-18 Referring to Problem 8-4-17. and k2 = 300 N/m.168 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. assume that m = 100 kg. The initial conditions are x(O) = 0 m and x(O) = 0. . Obtain the response curve x(t) versus t with MATLAB.5 m/s. kl = 200 N/m.

State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems 5-1 INTRODUCTION The modern trend in dynamic systems is toward greater complexity. 169 . based on the concept of state. it has been in existence for a long time in the field of classical dynamics and in other fields. (More on the state-space analysis of dynamic systems is given in Chapter 8. due mainly to the twin requirements of complex tasks and high accuracy.) If the dynamic system is formulated in the state space. This chapter presents an introductory account of modeling dynamic systems in state space and analyzing simple dynamic systems with MATLAB. time-invariant systems in this chapter. What is new is the combination of the concept of state and the capability of high-speed solution of differential equations with the use of the digital computer. because the state-space formulation is developed precisely with such computer solution in mind. A very powerful approach to treating such systems is the state-space approach. it is very easy to simulate it on the computer and find the computer solution of the system's differential equations. by itself. the state-space approach can be applied to both linear and nonlinear systems and to both timeinvariant and time-varying systems. is not new. Complex systems may have multiple inputs and multiple outputs. Although we treat only linear. Such systems may be linear or nonlinear and may be time invariant or time varying. This concept.

If n state variables are needed to completely describe the behavior of a given system. and m output variables. .. then those n variables are a set of state variables. The state variables of a dynamic system are the variables making up the smallest set of variables that determines the state of the dynamic system.State vector. It is important to note that variables that do not represent physical quantities can be chosen as state variables. we usually choose the reference time to to be zero. State variables. xraxis. Then we shall present the outline of the chapter.. + annxn + bn1Ul + b n2U2 + + ClnXn + dllUl + d 12U2 + + C22 X2 + . If a system is linear and time invariant and if it is described by n state variables. we are concerned with three types of variables that are involved in the modeling of dynamic systems: input variables. Xn are needed to completely describe the behavior of a dynamic system (so that. State space. Any state can be represented by a point in the state space. xn-axis is called a state space. ••• . If at least n variables Xh X2. State-space equations. and state space. . once the input is given for t ~ to and the initial state at t = to is specified. A state vector is thus a vector that uniquely determines the system state x(t) for any time t ~ to.. together with knowledge of the input for t ~ to. once the state at t = to is given and the input u(t) for t ~ to is specified. State. . r input variables. and state variables.. As we shall see later.170 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. the state of a dynamic system at time t is uniquely determined by the state at time to and the input t ~ to and is independent of the state and input before to. statevector... completely determines the behavior of the system for any time t ~ to. + C2n X n + d21 U l + d 22U2 + and the output equation will have the form Yl = CllXl + C12 X 2 + C21 Xl Y2 = . except that the number of state variables is the same for any of the different state-space representations of the same system. Thus. In dealing with linear time-invariant systems. the state-space representation for a given system is not unique. the future state of the system is completely determined). In state-space analysis. The state of a dynamic system is the smallest set of variables (called state variables) such that knowledge of these variables at t = to. output variables. then those state variables can be considered the n components of a vector x called a state vector. + a2nx n + ~l Ul + bnU 2 + a12 x 2 Xn + a n2x 2 + .. 5 In what follows.. we shall first give definitions of state. then the state equation will have the form Xl = allxl + X2 = a2l Xl = anlxl + + alnxn + b ll U l + b 12U2 + + a22 x 2 + . The n-dimensional space whose coordinate axes consist of the Xl-axis. state variables.

D.) Equation (5-1) is called the state equation. = U bl2 ~ . some of which may be zero. Vectors x.) The elements of the state vector are the state variables. respectively. (In the figure. and D are called the state matrix. ~] =[::] . input matrix. 5-1 Introduction 171 where the coefficients aij' bij .) Figure 5-1 Block diagram of the linear. and Equation (5-2) is called the output equation. output matrix.] A block diagram representation of Equations (5-1) and (5-2) is shown in Figure 5-1. A = [au : . bnr lr U anI ann bn1 bn2 d l2 r y= [ Y2 ] Ym ~. respectively. double-line arrows are used to indicate that the signals are vector quantities. they are described by Equations (5-1) and (5-2). ] C~n C mn .Sec. If we use vector-matrix expressions. whenever we discuss state-space equations. Cij' and dij are constants. the input matrix B and input vector u are called the control matrix and control vector. and yare the state vector. these equations can be written as i = Ax + Du y=Cx+Du where (5-1) (5-2) x = [Xl] ~2 Xn .D [dU = dfl d22 dm2 do d ] dmr dml Matrices A. (If the system involves only one input variable. The elements of the input vector u are the input variables. [In this book. : . and direct transmission matrix. continuous-time system represented in state space. input vector.D [b a~ ~l . :' C = [CU C21 Cml C22 C2 m CI. . respectively. and output vector. afl al2 a22 an2 Cl2 a~] . (In control systems analysis and design.) The elements of the output vector yare the output variables. (The system may involve one or more output variables. u.u : . then u is a scalar. C.

Equations (5-4) and (5-5) can be written as ~1 'J [X2 = [0 1][ k b - Xl m . can be written as (5-8) u Figure 5-2 Mechanical system. (This means that the system involves two integrators.u k b 1 m m m (5-5) The output equation is y = Xl (5-6) In vector-matrix form. X2 or = X2 . Obtain a state-space representation of the system. we need two state variables to describe the system dynamics.) Thus.y(O). or define Then we obtain Xl . From the diagram. Equation (5-6). and u(t) ~ 0 completely determine the system behavior for t ~ 0.S Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-2.172 ExampJe5-1 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. the system equation is my + by + ky = u (5-3) This system is of second order.m J+ [ 1 X2 m 0] u (5-7) The output equation. The displacement y is measured from the equilibrium position in the absence of the external force. = X2 (5-4) X2=--XI--X2+. . Since y(O). = Y = -1 (k y m 1 . we choose y(t) and y(t) as state variables. and the external force u is the input to the system.. The displacement y of the mass is the output of the system.b') +-u y m Xl .

Equation (5-7) is a state equation. a system is represented by a state equation and an output equation. m . Section 5-3 discusses the state-space modeling of systems wherein derivative terms of the input function do not appear in the system differential equations. we can draw the block diagram shown in Figure 5-3. D =0 Note that Equation (5-3) can be modified to u k b. in which the dynamics of the system are described by the input and the output. In a state-space representation. Notice that the outputs of the integrators are state variables. but the internal structure is put in a black box... 5-1 Introduction u XI 173 =y Figure 5-3 Block diagram of the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-2.m Y . and Equation (5-8) is an output equation for the system. Equations (5-7) and (5-8) are in the standard form i Ax + Bu Y = ex + Du where = B= [II c= [1 0].mY=Y or On the basis of this last equation. In this representation. Section 5-2 gives a transient-response analysis of systems in state-space form with MATLAB.Sec. This fact indicates that the state-space representation is fundamentally different from the transferfunction representation. the internal structure of the system is described by a first-order vector-matrix differential equation. Outline of the chapter. Numerical response analysis is done with MATLAB. Section 5-1 has defined some terms that are necessary for the modeling of dynamic systems in state space and has derived a state-space model of a simple dynamic system. Section 5-4 presents two methods for obtaining state-space models of systems in which derivative .

t is the user-specified time. . it is necessary to use a plot command to see the response curves. Hence.x.t] = step(A. Section 5-5 treats the transformation of system models from transfer-function representation to state-space representation and vice versa. We first define the system with sys = ss(A.B. If the system involves multiple inputs and multiple outputs.C. Matrix x has as many columns as states and one row for each element in t. the MATLAB command step(sys) or step(A. the step commands produces a series of step response plots. ••• .C. Ym' Define .t) no plot is shown on the screen.C. [y. Next. one for each input and output combination of x=Ax+Bu y=Cx+Du (For details. consider a multiple-input-multiple-output system. Step response.D. see Example 5-2.B.. .C. The section also examines the transformation of one state-space representation to another. Note that when step commands have left-hand arguments.iu. respectively.) Transfer matrix. 5-2 TRANSIENT-RESPONSE ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMS IN STATE-SPACE FORM WITH MATLAB This section presents the MATLAB approach to obtaining transient-response curves of systems that are written in state-space form. The matrices y and x contain the output and state response of the system.t).B.B. (Matrix y has as many columns as outputs and one row for each element in t. such as y = step(sys..) Note also that the scalar iu is an index into the inputs of the system and specifies which input is to be used for the response.D) will generate plots of unit-step responses.t.x. 5 terms of the input function appear explicitly in the system differential equations.x] =step(sys.174 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.t). [y.iu).t) = step(A.D. The time vector is automatically determined when t is not explicitly included in the step commands.D) For a unit-step input. Assume that there are r inputs Uh U2. [y. u" and m outputs Yh Y2. evaluated at the computation time points t.

from Equation (5-11).A)-lB = [~ ~][s_:. ExampleS-2 Consider the following system: Xl] [X2 = [-1 6. the transfer matrix G(s) is an m X r matrix. we shall derive such an expression for reference purposes. we obtain (5-10) (5-11) + DU(s) (5-12) + DU(s) In deriving the transfer matrix. 175 The transfer matrix G(s) relates the output Y(s) to the input U(s). to follow.Sec.] Since the input vector u is r dimensional and the output vector y is m dimensional. For the system defined by i = Ax + Bu y=Cx+Du the transfer matrix G(s) is a matrix that relates Y(s) and U(s) through the formula Yes) = G(s)U(s) Taking Laplace transforms of the state-space equations..Ar1B + D]U(s) +D Upon comparing this last equation with Equation (5-10).x(O) = AX(s) Yes) = CX(s) we get Xes) = (sI - ArIBU(s) Substituting this equation into Equation (5-12) yields Yes) = [C(sI . we see that G(s) = C(sI . 5-2 Transient-Response Analysis of Systems .~ !rl~ ~] . Although it is not necessary to obtain the transfer-function expression for the system in order to obtain the unit-step response curves with MATLAB.A)-lB + D (5-9) [The derivation of Equation (5-9) is given in Example 5-2. Then.ArID The transfer matrix G(s) for the given system becomes G(s) = C(sI .. sX(s) . or Y(s) = G(s)U(s) where G(s) = C(sI .5 -1][XI] + [1 1][U1 ] 0 X2 1 0 U2 [~] = [~ ~t:] + [~ ~][::l Obtain the unit-step response curves. we assume that x(O) = O.

5 --= VI(s) s2 + S + 6. D) or sys = ss(A. Note that.5' Y2(s) s + 7.1 0]. The four transfer functions are Yt(S) S -1 UI(s) s2 + S + 6.D).5 S + 7.5 S2 + S + 6.5 Yt(S)] [ Y2(S) = s2 + S + 6.5 }2(s) U2(s) = s2 The four individual step-response curves can be plotted with the use of the command step (A.l ) and step(A.5 [ S2 + S + 6.C.5 6. four transfer functions can be defined.C.5 s] 6.176 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. step(sys) grid title('Unit-Step Responses ') xlabel('t') ylabel('Outputs ') To plot two step-response curves for the input Ul in one diagram and two stepresponse curves for the input U2 in another diagram.5 0]. B.5' --= --= U2(s) s2 Yt(s) S + S + 6.5 + s + 6.5 Hence. C = [1 0. D = [0 0. depending on which signals are considered as input and output.5 S2 + S + 6.0 0].D.0 1]. sys = ss(A.C.5 S + 1 1 1 [s -1 ][1 01] 1 = s2 + S + 6.5 6.6. we assume that signal U2 is zero. we may use the commands step(A.C.2) . shown in Figure 54.5 S 1 [U 1(S)] U2(s) Since this system involves two inputs and two outputs.5 6.B.B. and vice versa.D). 5 = S2 + S + 6. s-l [S-l s + 7. step(sys) MATLAB Program 5-1 produces four individual unit-step response curves.D. when considering the signal Ul as the input. MATLAB Program 5-1 » » » » » » » » » »A = [-1 -1. B = [1 1.B.B.C.

Sec.B.4 ..----.2 0.6... MATlAR Program 5-2 » % ----. 0.1 -0. u_2 = Unit-Step Input)') respectively. u_2 = 0)') » xlabel('t'). 0 ~ 0.1) » grid »titieCStep-Response Plots (u_' = Unit-Step Input..------.3 .--.. Then we plot response curves when » % the input is u2... we first plot step-response curves »0/0 when the input is u1..--'-_. ~ ~ 0. -0..5 1 :..1 0]. c... each consisting of two unit-step response curves...D.C.3 0.---'-_...D.C.L.0 0].------.+~~~"""'""'=--~---I -0..2 I---I.. Figures 5-5 and 5-6 show the two diagrams produced.--'--.5 0]. ylabel('Outputs') » » » » » step(A..0 1]. »D = [0 0.--...------. » step(A. MATLAB Program 5-2 does just that. ylabel('Outputs') = 0.-..In this program. » » B = [1 1.I o :.. 2 ~ 1.2) grid title('Step-Response Plots (u_1 xlabeICt').. »C = [1 0.. 5-2 Transient-Response Analysis of Systems ... ----»A = [-1 » -1 .4 L. .. Unit-Step Responses From: In(1) From: In(2) 177 e o :.-.L.B.5 2 4 6 8 10 12 t (sec) o 2 4 6 8 10 12 Figure 5-4 Unit-step response curves.1 0 -0.

2 2 1. 0.2 -0.2 :.1 0 -0. 0 (:) f-t :.3 -0 -.-4 0. 0 -0. Impulse response. ~ 0.1 0 -0. U2 == Unit-Step Input) 0. 0 ~ rIl 0. c. .5 2 4 6 8 10 12 t (sec) Figure S-S Unit-step response curves when Ul is the input and U2 = o.5 ~ 0.4 0. ~ :. :. 5 -. Step-Response Plots (Ul =0.3 -0. u2 = 0) Chap.5 2 4 6 t (sec) 8 10 12 Figure S-6 Unit-step response curves when U2 is the input and Ul = o.5 0 :. The unit-impulse response of a dynamic system defined in a state space may be obtained with the use of one of the following MATLAB commands: . 1.4 2 -.1 ~ !!3 0 ~ = E :.2 0.1 -0.3 0.178 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Step-Response Plots (Ul = Unit-Step Input.

y).t) produces the response of the system to an arbitrary input u with user-specified time t.C. impulse(A.t. the command Isim(sys.xo) Here. the command returns the output and state responses of the system and the time vector t. If MATLAB is invoked with the left-hand argument [y. D). [y.C.B.xo) where Xo is the initial state. The command lsim produces the response of linear time-invariant systems to arbitrary inputs. [y.x. impulse(sys).tl = Isim(sys.D).D.B. Response to initial condition.iu). then Isim(sys.t) The command impulse(sys) or impulse(A.t. 5-2 Transient-Response Analysis of Systems .x] = impulse(sys. it is the user-supplied time vector.u. . as in the case of [y.Sec.B.C. u is a vector consisting of zeros having length size(t). t).u. To plot the response curves. The matrices y and x contain the output and state responses of the system.t. [y.iu. To find the response to the initial condition Xo given to a system in a state-space form. Alternatively.x] = impulse(sys. If the initial conditions are nonzero in a state-space model.D).u.C.t. then that scalar specifies which input to use for the impulse response..D.t] = impulse(A.x. Matrix x has as many columns as state variables and one row for each element in t.t. [y.B..C. No plot is drawn. The command [y. which specifies the times at which the impulse response is to be computed.C. subject to the input u and the initial condition Xo. Note that if a command includes t.x].) Response to arbitrary input.x] = impulse(sys}.t. y = impulse(sys. [y. one for each input-output combination of the system i = Ax + Bu y=Cx+Du with the time vector automatically determined. 179 sys =ss(A. No plot is drawn on the screen.t). evaluated at the time points t. (Matrix y has as many columns as outputs and one row for each element in t.t).B. If the right-hand side of a command includes the scalar iu (an index into the inputs of the system). it is necessary to use the command plot(t.t] = impulse(A. If the initial conditions of the system in state-space form are zero. then u can be any input having length size(t).u.B.tl = Isim(sys.xo) returns the output response y.x. if we choose B = 0 and D = 0.t.D) produces a series of unit-impulse response plots. produces the response of the system. the following command may be used: [y.t] = impulse(A.

180 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. B = [~l. Example 5-3 Consider the system shown in Figure 5-7.C. initial(A. The system equation is mx + bi + kx = If we define the state variables as 0 Substituting the given numerical values for m. b. At t = 0. x(O) = 0. obtain the response curves x(t) versus t and i(t) versus twith MATLAB.t) Example 5-3 is illustrative.1 1 Using the command Figure ~7 Mechanical system. and k yields x + 3i + 2x = 0 and the output variables as then the state equation becomes The output equation is [~l = [~ ~l[::l + [~lu Thus. That is. .05 mls.t) D = [~].xo. There is no external input to this system.05 0.S Another way to obtain the response to the initial condition given to a system in a state-space form is to use the command initial(A.xo.C. A = [_~ _!].D. The system is at rest for t < O.05 mls. Assuming that m = 1 kg.1 m and is released with an initial velocity of 0. The displacement x is measured from the eqUilibrium position. and k = 2 N/m. Xo = [ 0. the mass is pulled downward by 0.B.1 m and i(O) = 0.D.B. Use the command initial. b = 3 N-s/m.

» B = [0. In each example. » D = [0.08 0.12 0. MATLAB Program 5-3 produces the response curves. we .06 0 1 2 c: ca ~ 3 t (sec) 4 5 6 Figure S-8 Response curves to initial condition. MATlAR Program 5-3 » t = 0:0. x. '0 N 0.[0. »y2 = [0 1] *yl.1. 5-3 State-Space Modeling of Systems with no Input Derivatives 181 we can obtain the responses x(t) = Yt(t) versus t and x(t) = Y2(t) versus t..02 -0..'y_21) 5-3 STATE-SPACE MODELING OF SYSTEMS WITH NO INPUT DERIVATIVES In this section. » plot(t.D.0].1 0.t). O.6.OS. which are shown in Figure 5--8. The systems used are limited to the case where derivatives of the input functions do not appear explicitly in the equations of motion.'y_11) »text(1.y2) » grid » title{'Response to Initial Condition ' ) » xlabel{'t (sec)') » ylabel(' y_1 and y_21) »text(1.B.0].02 0 -0.Sec.t. t] = initial(A.06 ::-.6.C.01 :6. » C = [1 0.026. -O.0 1].y1 .0. Response to Initial Condition 0. we present two examples of the modeling of dynamic systems in statespace form.-2 -3]. » [y. »y1 = [1 0] *yl.04 -0.04 0.OS]. »A = [0 1.

b = 20 N-s/m. given the numerical values of all of the variables and the details of the input functions. a unit-impulse force. The system equation is mx + bx + kx = u The response of such a system depends on the initial conditions and the forcing function u. we obtain and x Figure 5-9 Mechanical system. . At t = 0. The variables that provide the initial conditions qualify as state variables. X2 X2 = -1 (U m - kX - b') X = . which is the input to the system. The state equation then becomes Xl = . ExampleS-4 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-9.182 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. obtain the response curves x(t) versus t and x(t) versus t with MATLAB.-k Xl m - -b X2 m 1 + -u m For the output variables. we choose the variables that specify the initial conditions as state variables Xl and X2' Thus. and k = 100 N/m. The system is at rest for t < O. is applied to the mass.S first derive state-space models and then find the response curves with MATLAB. we choose Yl = X Yl = X Rewriting the state equation and output equation. Assuming that m = 5 kg. Hence. The displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position before the mass m is hit by the unit-impulse force.

MATLAB Program 5-4 » t = 0:0. » B = [0. » [y.01. b.05 -0. plot(t. grid » title('lmpulse Response') » ylabel{'x') »subplot(212).1 0. -20 -4]. » sys = ss(A.25 0.5 t (sec) 2 2.. »A = [0 1. » C = [1 0.2 0.y2).t).1 0 0. 5-3 State-Space Modeling of Systems with no Input Derivatives 183 Substituting the given numerical values for m.0 11. »y1 = [1 0] *y'.15 0.0.05 -0.B.03 0. plot(t. >> subplot(211).5 3 '0 ~ 0 .. t1 = impulse(sys. grid » xlabel('t (sec)'). = c = [~ ~].01 0 -0. Impulse Response 0. »D = [0. ylabel{'x dot') . »y2 = [0 11 *y'.C.Sec. Figure 5-10 Impulse-response curves.2].01 0. and k into the state space equations yields A [-2~ -!J.02 ~ 0. shown in Figure 5-10. D = [~] MATLAB Program ~ produces the impulse-response curves x(t) versus t and x( t) versus t.D).01 :3.5 1 1. y1 ).

b = 20 N-s/m.-+ X l ml = X4 . Z2(t) versus t. [The force f = au. At 0. hence.Also. Assuming that ml = 10 kg. k2 = 60 N/m. obtain the response curves Zl(t) versus t. . where u is a step force of 1 newton. and Z2 as state variables for the system and thus define Xl X2 = Zl = Zl Z2 X3 = X4 = Z2 Then Equation (5-13) can be rewritten as ----"-xl - kl + k2 ml -X2 b ml + -X3 + -X4 ml ml k2 b and Equation (5-14) can be rewritten as X4 = -Xl · ~ m2 + -b 2 X m2 - -X3 - ~ m2 -X4 b m2 1 + -au m2 The state equation now becomes Xl X2 · = X2 kl k2 = . Hence.b(Zt . 5 Example 5-5 Consider the mechanical system shown in Hgure 5-11. and Zl(t) . we choose Zit Zit Z2. and Z2(0).] The displacements Zl and Z2 are measured from the respective equilibrium positions of the carts before f is applied. The system is at rest for t < O. The initial conditions for this system are Zt (0). and a = 10. The equations of motion for this system are t = mlZI = -ktZ t - m2Z2 = -k2(Z2 - k 2(ZI .b(Z2 . Derive a state-space representation of the system. Z2(0). m2 = 20 kg.. the initial conditions of any system determine the response of the system. obtain Zl(oo) and Z2(oo).-X2 b ml + -X3 + -X4 ml ml k2 b X3 · X4 = -Xl ~ m2 + -b 2 X m2 - -X3 - ~ m2 -X4 b m2 1 + -au m2 Note that Zl and Z2 are the outputs of the system.Zt) + au (5-13) (5-14) In the absence of a forcing function.Z2(t) versus twith MATLAB.Z2) . a step force f of a newtons is applied to mass m2. the output equations are YI = Zt Y2 = Z2 Figure 5-11 Mechanical system. Zl (0).Z2) Zl) .184 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. kl = 30 N/m.

we substitute the given numerical values for mit m2. » y2 = [0 1J*yl.1 :200. 5-3 State-Space Modeling of Systems with no Input Derivatives 185 In terms of vector-matrix equations.B. Next. »A= [0 1 0 0. » B = [0.:] = X4 [-~ -~ ~ ~][::] [~ ]u 3 1 -3 -1 X4 (5-17) 0. grid » ylabel('Output Z_21) » subplot(313).zl).Z_21) . b.0.t) = step(sys. subplot(312). »y1 = [1 O)*yl. » C = [1 0 0 0.zl .5). The curves are shown in Figure 5-12. MATLAR Program 5-5 » t = 0:0. plot(t. plot(t. and Zl(t) . Z2(t) versus t.0.z2).C. c= [ 0 0 1 0' 1 0 0 0] D = [~] MATLAB Program 5-5 produces the response curves Zl(t) versus t.5 From Equations (5-17) and (5-16). The result is [ .] [~]u + + (5-16) Equations (5-15) and (5-16) represent the system in state-space form. »0 = [0. z_2 Versus t. we have = -9 [ 0 0 -2 1 6 0 0 0] 2 A 0 l' B = 3 1 -3 -1 [~ 0.Z2(t) versus t.Sec.Responses z_l Versus t. grid » xlabel('t (sec)I).z_2 Versus tl) » ylabel{'Output z_ll) » z2 = y2. we have 0 [~~] kl + k2 ml = 0 k2 m2 1 b ml 0 b m2 0 k2 ml 0 k2 m2 0 b ml 1 b m2 [~~] 0 0 o + -a u (5-15) m2 [~] = [~ 0 0 0 1 ~][~. grid » title{. » [y. plot(t. ylabel(' z_l . »zl = yl.O).t).z2).0.0).5 ].3 1 -3 -1].0 0 1 0). kh and k2 into Equation (5-15). subplot(311). » sys = ss(A.-9 -2 6 2. and z_l .0 0 0 1.

Zt( 00)] = au from which it follows that au Z2(00) .Zt(oo)] Hence. ..~. .186 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.. because all derivative terms must approach zero at steady state in the system.Zt(oo) = k2 =- 10 1 = 60 6 From Equation (5-13).~ . ...=kl 306 3 and Z2(00) = . 5 i 0: N o 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 iI II 160 180 200 ~ ~ . k2 60 1 1 Zt(oo) = -[Z2(00) . I' I' 1 I 200 -O.. we get k 2[Z2( 00) .. .~ · ~· · · · r ~~:!~~ -0.+ Zt(oo) 6 1 = - 1 2 .. . ... we set all derivatives of Zt and Z2 in Equations (5-13) and (5-14) equal to zero. o . Then. we have ktzt(oo) = k 2[Z2(00) .1 . from Equation (5-14).4~--~--~----~--~--~--~~--~--~--~~~ o 20 40 60 80 t (sec) 100 120 140 160 180 Figure 5-12 Step-response curves. .Zl(OO)] = .. . To obtain Zt ( 00) and Z2( 00). .. . .. . ...

b .-y +-u m m m If we choose the state variables then we get Xl . the variables that specify the initial conditions do not qualify as state variables. For example. j . we take up the case where the equations of motion of a system involve one or more derivatives of the input function. with the result obtained here. in formulating state-space representations of dynamic systems. m m m X2=--XI--X2+. The equation of motion for this system is my or = -ky - bey - it) . 5-4 State-Space Modeling of Systems with Input Derivatives 187 The final values of Zt(t) and Z2(t) obtained with MATLAB (see the response curves in Figure 5-12) agree. 5-4 STATE-SPACE MODELING OF SYSTEMS WITH INPUT DERIVATIVES In this section. consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-13. we constrain the input function to be any function of time of order up to the impulse function. The main problem in defining the state variables is that they must be chosen such that they will eliminate the derivatives of the input function u in the state equation. In such a case. k b. etc. Note that. but not any higher order impulse functions. of course. = X2 k b b.) \ Sec.U (5-18) The right-hand side of Equation (5-18) involves the derivative term it. y b u m \ Figure 5-13 Mechanical system. y = --y . d 28(t)/dt2 .. such as d8(t)/dt. The displacements y and u are measured from their respective equilibrium positions.

the choice of state variables becomes more complicated.(~)2u m m m u. u. We consider the case where the input function u is a scalar. We should choose the state variables such that the state equation will not include the derivative of u. k m b . suppose that u is the unit-impulse function 8(t). b X2 = Y --u m Then .-u m m m b b -(X2 + -u) m m = -~XI .m kJ ydt . The acceptable state equation Thus.188 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. b. Suppose that we try to eliminate the term involving from Equation (5-18). there are systematic methods for choosing state variables for a general case of equations of motion that involve derivatives of the input function u. X2 = Y --u m k = --y m = --Xl - .. (See Section 5-5. In what follows we shall present two systematic methods for eliminating derivatives of the input function from the state equations. (That is.) . 5 To explain why the right-hand side of the state equation should not involve the derivative of the input function u. b. which is not acceptable as a state variable.) State-space representation of dynamic systems in which derivatives of the input function appear in the system differential equations.. [-(iy} If equations of motion involve u. only one input function u is involved in the system. b . Then the integral of Equation (5-18) becomes X2 = . One possible way to accomplish this is to define Xl =Y . Fortunately.~X2 . etc. -y + -u . Note that MATLAB can also be used to obtain state-space representations of systems involving derivatives of the input function u. we have eliminated the term that involves can now be given by [~:] [_o! = _1!][::] + u. This means that X2(O) = 00.-b + -8(t) k y m m u Notice that X2 includes the term (kIm) cS(t).

.l + . for an arbitrary n = 1. we can simplify the preceding equation to Xl + alxl + a2x I = f3IU + (~ . we obtain Xl + f30il + al(xi + f3ou) + a2(xl + f3ou) = boil + blu + ~u Noting that f30 = bo and f31 = bl . 3...alf31 - a2f3o (5-29) From Equations (5-27) and (5-28). Consider the second-order system y + alY + a2Y = boil + bl U + ~u As a set of state variables.alf3o..f30u X2 = Xl . we obtain the state equation: [ Xl] = -a2 X2 [0 -al1][XI] + [f31]U x2 f32 (5-30) . 2. we have Xl = x2 + f3lu Substituting Equation (5-27) into Equation (5-26)..Sec.alf30 Then.a2f30)u (5-26) From Equation (5-22).. + bn-Iu + bnu (n) (n-l) (5-19) To apply the methods presented in this section. we have Y= Xl + f30u Substituting this last equation into Equation (5-20).. 5-4 State-Space Modeling of Systems with Input Derivatives 189 The differential equation of a system that involves derivatives of the input function has the general form (n) y + alY (n-l) + ..f3IU where f30 = bo f31 = bl .l + . + an-IS + an We examine two methods when n Problems A-5-12 and A-5-13. we obtain X2 (5-27) + f3lu + al(x2 + f3IU) + a2x I = f3IU + (~ - a2f30)u which can be simplified to (5-28) where f32 = ~ . + bn-ls + bn U(s) = sn + als n. . suppose that we choose Xl = Y . see (5-20) (5-21) (5-22) (5-23) (5-24) (5-25) Method 1.. + an-IY + anY = bou + blu + . = 2.. it is necessary that the system be written as a differential equation in the form of Equation (5-19) or its equivalent transfer function Yes) bos n + bls n . from Equation (5-21)..

+ bn-tu + bnu (n-l) the state equation and output equation can be given by Xl X2 Xn-t xn 0 0 0 -an 1 0 0 -an-l 0 1 0 -a n-2 0 0 1 -at Xl f31 f32 X2 + Xn-t Xn f3n-t f3n u and y = [1 0 o{~:l + f30u where f3o.S2 1 bos2 + bis + ~ = s2 + als + a2 Yes) _ 2 Z(s) .190 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.a3f3o f3n = bn .. f3b f32.alf30 f32 = ~ ...alf3n-1 . .a2f3o f33 = ~ . for the case of the nth-order differential-equation system y + at Y +.alf31 ."" f3n are determined from f30 = bo f31 = bt .bos (5-32) Equation (5-32) can be split into two equations as follows: + als + a2' + bis + ~ . Note that.a2f3I .an-If31 . which can be measured. then the state variable Xl is the output signal y. y + alY + a2Y = bou + biu + ~u or its equivalent transfer function Yes) lIes) Z(s) _ lIes) . and.. Note that if f30 = bo = 0. 5 From Equation (5-25).. the state variable X2 is the output velocity Yminus blu.atf32 . we get the output equation: y ot:] = [1 (n) + f30u (5-31) Equations (5-30) and (5-31) represent the system in a state space.anf30 Consider the second-order system Method 2.. + an-tY + anY (n-I) (n) = bo u + b l u + .. in this case.

. we obtain bo{ -a2 Xt ..at X2 + u) which can be rewritten as + btX2 + b2Xt at bO )X2 = Y Y = (b 2 - a2 bO)Xt + (b t - + bou (5-37) From Equations (5-35) and (5-36).I + . + an-tY + anY (n-t) (n) = bo u + bI u + ... we get Xt = X2 x2 = -a2 Xt .atX2 (5-35) then Equation (5-33) can be written as X2 = -a2Xt +u (5-36) and Equation (5-34) can be written as bOX2 + bt X2 + ~Xt = Y Substituting Equation (5-36) into this last equation...Sec. + bn-ts + bn sn + atSn-I + .. + bn-1u + bnu (n-t) or its equivalent transfer function --=---'---~-------- Yes) U(s) bos n + bIs n. respectively.atX2 + u These two equations can be combined into the vector-matrix differential equation (5-38) Equation (5-37) can be rewritten as (5-39) Equations (5-38) and (5-39) are the state equation and output equation. + an-Is + an . If the system equation is given by (n) Y + al Y + .. 5-4 State-Space Modeling of Systems with Input Derivatives 191 We then have z + alZ + a2Z = u boz + btZ + ~z = Y If we define Xl x2 (5-33) (5-34) =Z = Z . Note that the state variables Xl and X2 in this case may not correspond to any physical signals that can be measured.

U(/) is the displacement of the cart and is the input to the system. Assume that the cart is standing still for 1 < O. ExampJeS-6 Consider the spring-mass-dashpot system mounted on a cart as shown in Figure 5-14. the cart is moved at a constant speed. In this system. At t =: 0. or u = constant. 0 u (5-40) Xn-l Xn 0 -an-l 0 -a n -2 1 -al Xn-l Xn 1 and Xl X2 bl - albo] + bou Xn (5-41) Examples 5-6 and 5-7 illustrate the use of the preceding two analytical methods for obtaining state-space representations of a differential-equation system involving derivatives of the input signal.192 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. . 5 then the state equation and the output equation obtained with the use of Method 2 are given by Xl X2 0 0 = 1 0 0 1 0 0 Xl X2 0 0 + 0 -an . The displacement y of the mass is the output. (y is measured u y k m Figure 5-14 Spring-mass-dashpot system mounted on a cart.

obtain the response curve y(t) versus t with MATLAB.Sec. We assume that the entire system is a linear system.+ ky = b . k m m b. 5-4 State-Space Modeling of Systems with Input Derivatives 193 from the rest position and is relative to the ground. k = -u + -u m m with the standard form and identify a1 = . = X2 + {3IU = X2 + -u m b (5-44) (5-45) .k(y . We first compare the differential equation of the system. k = 100 N/m. we define Y . b denotes the viscous-friction coefficient.) In this system. Assuming that m = 10 kg. b bi =-. we have f30 = bo = = bl 0 = - f3I f32 .. FIrSt.dt m2 d 2y dt + b . we obtain Xl . b m a2 =-. and the input is a ramp function such that u = 1 mis. (5-24). we obtain d y mdt 2 or 2 = -b (d Y dt dy dt dU) . b -u m (5-43) From Equations (5-43) and (5-28).f30u - = y Xl - X2 . b = 20 N-s/m. Y + -y + -y . k m bo = 0.alf30 b m = ~ . m ~=- k m From Equations (5-23).. = Xl f3lu = . The transfer function is Y(s) bs + k 2 + bs + k U (s) = ms Method 1.alf31 Xl = a2f3o = ~ _ (!)2 From Equations (5-21) and (5-22). b. m denotes the mass of the small cart on the large cart (assume that the large cart is massless). we shall obtain the system equation. Applying Newton's second law. We shall obtain a state-space model of this system based on Method 1. Obtain a state-space representations of the system based on methods 1 and 2 just presented. and (5-29).+ ku du dt (5-42) Equation (5-42) is the differential equation (mathematical model) of the system.u) . and k is the spring constant.

The response curve y(t) versus t and the unit-ramp input are shown in Figure 5-15. »u =t. » Isim(sys.C. MATLAB Program 5-6 » % ----. ----» » t = 0:0. b.6].01 :4. »C = [1 0].25. Next. we get the output equation: [::l [_o! _l!][~:l [! -1!)} = + y = [1 O][~~l These two equations give a state-space representation of the system.8.85. »A = [0 1.15.t) » grid » titieCUnit-Ramp Response (Method 1)1) » xlabelCt l) » ylabel('Output y and Unit-Ramp Input ul) » text(0. »0 = 0. and k into the state equation.8. » 8 = [2. 0.-10 -2].O. we obtain and the output equation is MATLAB Program 5--6 produces the response y(t) of the system to the ramp input U = 1 mls. 5 y = Xl (5-46) Combining Equations (5-44) and (5-45) yields the state equation.O). Substituting the given numerical values for m. lUi) .The response y(t) is obtained by use of the »% state-space equation obtained by Method 1.u.lyl) » text(0.194 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems and the output equation is Chap. » sys = ss(A. we shall obtain the response curve y(t) versus t for the unit-ramp input U = 1 mls. and from Equation (5-46).

.5 4 ::! I. ..Sec. Substituting the given numerical values for m...5 1 1.- X 0 m b .5 '! :> :.. we get and the output equation is .X0 m k == k m b m from Equations (5-38) and (5-39).5 I 2 (sec) 2.. .r-----r------r-----r-----..5 4 Figure 5-15 Unit-ramp response obtained with the use of Method 1..... 195 4.s ~ 3 = 2.5 :. 5-4 State-Space Modeling of Systems with Input Derivatives Unit-Ramp Response (Method 1) ... 3. =' o 2 g... Method 2.5 0. . and k into the state equation....---r----r------r-----.5 B.5 3 3.. Since b2 bl - bo = 0 k a2bo = albo - = m b m .~ ..1 0. ·S "0 C ... 1. b. we obtain [::] = [_o! _l!J~J + [~]u !][~~] y = [~ The last two equations give another state-space representation of the same system...

0. 3. Notice that the response curve here is identical to that shown in Figure 5-15. »u = t. Assume that » .5 t 2 (sec) 2.S 1 0 -= . » Isim(sys. ----- » t =0:0. 1.t) » grid » titieCUnit-Ramp Response (Method 2)1) » xlabeICt') » ylabel('Output y and Unit-Ramp Input u l ) » text(0. » sys = ss(A.25. 8.0. lUi) ExampleS-7 Consider the front suspension system of a motorcycle.1]. »C = [10 2].D).01 :4.e::I 0.85.5 1 1.5 c ~ 3 ::s '! 2. Point P is the contact point with the ground.5 4 u Q.196 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.B. A simplified version is shown in Figure 5-17(a). The vertical displacement u of point P is the input to the system. MATlAR Program 5-7 » » % % ----- The response y(t) is obtained by use of the state-space equation obtained by Method 2.-10 -2].8. »A = [0 1.' y ') » text(0.5 4 Figure 5-16 Unit-ramp response obtained with the use of Method 2. » B = [0.u.5 ::> "'0 'a 2 c:: :. Unit-Ramp Response (Method 2) 4. »D =0.5 3 3. 5 MATLAB Program 5-7 produces the response y(t) to the unit-ramp input = 1 mis.C. The resulting response curve y(t) versus t and the unit-ramp input are shown in Figure 5-16. The displacements x and y are measured from their respective eqUilibrium positions before the input u is given to the system.15.5 0 0 0.

b..Sec. b l = 50 N-s/m. (These numerical values are chosen to simplify the computations involved. we obtain mh mIx .u) . kl = 50 N/m.(Y . bh and kl represent the front tire and shock absorber assembly and m2. and k2 = 200 N/m.k .. kit and k2' the equations of motion become lOx + SOx + SOx 100y + 100y + 200y which can be simplified to = SOu + SOu = 100x + 200x (S-47) (S-48) x + Sx + 5x = + Su y + y + 2y = x + 2x 5u Laplace transforming Equations (5-47) and (S-48). m2 = 100 kg.) Obtain a state-space representation of the system. Assume that ml = 10 kg.u) m2Y = -k2(y . we obtain (S2 + 5s + 5)X(s) = (5s + 5)U(s) (s2 + s + 2)Y(s) = (s + 2)X(s) Eliminating X(s) from these two equations. Plot the response curve y(t) versus t with MATLAB.. we get (s2 + 5s + 5)(s2 + s + 2)Y(s) = 5(s + l)(s + 2)U(s) . and k2 represent half of the body of the vehicle.x) mix = -k1(x which can be rewritten as m2Y + b1x + k1x = b1u + k1u + b. Assume also that the system is at rest for t < O. ~ = 100 N-s/m. assuming the zero initial conditions. Method 1. Applying Newton's second law to the system. Point P moves only in the vertical direction. b.. P is given a triangular bump input as shown in Figure 5-17(b)..bl(. (b) triangular bump input u.x) ..Y + k 2y = b2x + k 2x mh If we substitute the given numerical values for m2. At t = 0. 5-4 State-Space Modeling of Systems with Input Derivatives y 197 u x u P ~_-----l (a) (b) Figure 5-17 (a) Mechanical system. bit b.

15 X 0 .10 X 0 = 40 Thus.V + 12y + 15y + lOy = 5u Comparing this last equation with the standard fourth-order differential equation 'y' + al''v + a2Y + a3Y + a4Y = bo'ii' + bt'it' + ~u + b3u + b4u we find that at = 6.a3f31 .a2/31 . Xl a3 = 15. Next.atf33 .a3f30 = 15 - 6 X 5 = -15 Hence.yl + ISs + 10)Y(s) = (5s 2 + ISs + 10)U(s) + 15u + lOu (5-49) Equation (5-49) corresponds to the differential equation .at(3o = 0 (32 = ~ .15x2 . bi = 0. = X2 X2 = X3 + 5u X3 = X4 .6X4 + f34u where (34 = b4 .12x3 .12 X 5 .a4f30 = 10 + 6 X 15 .198 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems or (S4 Chap.a2/30 = 5 (33 =~Xt al(32 . y' + 6.a3 x 2 .a2 x 3 . bo = 0. 5 + 6~ + 12. we define the state variables as follows: = YX2 = Xl X3 = X2 X4 = X3 - (3ou 13IU 132U 133U where (30 = bo = 0 (3t = bt .at(3t .at X4 + f34 U = -10XI .12x3 .a2(32 .15u X4 = -a4x I . a2 = 12. X4 = -10XI .15x2 . b2 = 5.6X4 and the state equation and output equation become + 40u [~:l [~ ~ ! ~l[::l [-l~lu = + X4 -10 -15 -12 -6 X4 40 Y = [1 0 0 o{~~l ~ + .

u.B.-----r--. » plot(t.---.. » y = Isim(sys. » u4 = 0*[4..01 :16].01 :0. » u2 = [0.01 :-1].99:-0.y.0 0 0 1. The resulting response curve y(t) versus I. ~ c E5 -1 -1.Sec. fI.-10 »B = [0.5 0 2 4 6 8 t (sec) 10 12 14 16 Flgure 5-18 Response curve y(t) and triangular bump input U(I).5..t.D).0 0 1 0.5 .01 :16. » u3 = [-0. axis(v) » grid » title('Response to Triangular Bump (Method 1)1) » xlabel('t (sec)') »ylabel('Triangular Bump and Response') -15 -12 -6]. is shown in Figure 5--18. as well as the input u(t) versus t..5 1. 5-4 State-Space Modeling of Systems with Input Derivatives 199 MATLAB Program 5-8 produces the response Y(/) to the triangular bump input shown in Figure 5-17(b).01:1]. » ul = [0:0.-15.----r----r----.l ~ 0.5 0 -0.5 c ~ e I:Q ~ ~ c. » C = [1 0 0 0].t).99:0. Response to Triangular Bump (Method 1) 1. »A=[O 1 0 0.----r-----. C 0 C.40]. .01 :0]. = .. MATLAR Program 5-8 » t = 0:0. »0 = 0.u) »v = [0 16 -1.C.5].l ~ a:: "0 fI. » sys = ss(A. » u = [ul u2 u3 u4].

the transfer function of the system is given by yes) U(s) s4 5s2 + ISs + 10 + 6s 3 + 12s2 + ISs + 10 Figure 5-19 shows a block diagram in which the transfer function is split into two parts. bl = 0. ~ = Next. a3 = 15. 3 s -__t- Figure 5-19 Block diagram of Y(s)/U(s). we have Y(s) U(s) --~-l -s4""--+-6s-:--+-1-2=-s2-+-IS--+-1-0 ~--. we obtain Similarly. 5.. from the output equation given by Equation (5-41). noting that al = 6.. a2 = 12. From Equation (5-49). bo = 0..200 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. then Z(s) = U(s) 1 S4 + 6s 3 + 12s2 + ISs + 10 1 and Yes) 2 Z(s) = 5s + ISs + 10 from which we get al = bos + bls + b2s + b3s + b4 4 3 2 = 6. If we define the output of the first block as Z(s). and = 10..-t 5s2 + ISs + 10 . . a3 = 15. 5 Method 2... a2 = 12... we define the state variables as follows: Xl X2 X3 = Z = Xl = X2 = X3 a4 X4 From Equation (5-40).

»A=[O 1 0 0. » y = Isim(sys.y. E5 -1 -1.u) » v = [0 16 -1..5].99:-0. 5-4 or State-Space Modeling of Systems with Input Derivatives 201 y = [10 15 5 o{~il ~ + MATLAB Program 5-9 produces the response y(t) to the triangular bump input.) MATlAR Program 5-9 » t = 0:0. (This response curve is identical to that shown in Figure 5-19. 1.Sec. axis(v) » grid » title(IResponse to Triangular Bump (Method 2)1) » xlabelCt (sec)') » ylabel(ITriangular Bump and Response') Response to Triangular Bump (Method 2) .0 0 1 0. til CI) C 0 ~ "'0 C 0.01 :-1]. » C = [10 15 5 0].t)...01 :16.01 :16]. » u4 = 0*[4.--.5 1.--r---r---r---r---.u.5 0 2 4 6 8 t (sec) 10 12 14 16 Figure 5-20 Response y(t) to the triangular bump input u(t). . » plot(t.C.99:0. » u = [ul u2 u3 u4].1]. » 0 = 0. » sys = ss(A..r---.D).-10 » B = [0.5 CI) til Q.01 :0.B.0.. » u2 = [0..01 :0].01:1].. The response curve is shown in Figure 5-20.0 0 0 1. » u3 = [-0. co Q.5 co c co e = ~ .r----.. » ul = [0:0.0.t. -15 -12 -6}.5 0 co '3 -0.

. We shall begin our discussion with the transformation from transfer function to state space..den) Once we have this transfer-function expression. There are many (indeed. transfer function system Consider the . Note that the command can be used when the system equation involves one or more derivatives of the input function.. (In such a case. The MATLAB command gives one possible such representation. C. Let us write the transfer function Y(s}/U(s} as Y(s) U(s) numerator polynomial in s num = denominator polynomial in s = -d-en[A. infinitely many) state-space representations of the same system. Transformation from transfer function to state space. the MATLAB command will give a state-space representation. 0] = tf2ss(num.202 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. the transfer function of the system involves a numerator polynomial in s.) It is important to note that the state-space representation of any system is not unique.. 5 5-5 TRANSFORMATION OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS WITH MATLAB MATLAB is quite useful in transforming a system model from transfer function to state space and vice versa. one [Xl] = [ ° X2 X3 1 0 0 -160 1 -14 0][ XI] + [ 0] X2 X3 1 U -56 -14 Y = [1 0 O{::] + [Oju -56 0 Another is [~1]_[-14 1 X2 X3 -160][XI] + [1] o X2 X3 0 Y 1 o 0 0 U (5-51) = [0 1 O{::] + [Oju (5-52) . B.= ..-+ 160 -U(s) S3 + 14s2 + 56s is Y(s) s (5-50) Of the infinitely many possible state-space representations of this system.

) . C. For example.2. (For the case where the system has mUltiple inputs and multiple outputs. and D.iu) To obtain the Note that iu must be specified for systems with more than one input.O. B. MATLAB Program 5-10 will produce matrices A.den] = ss2tf(A. u3). % ----- Enter the following transformation command ----- [A.B. 2 implies u2. then either [num. 0] = tf2ss(num.C. H the system has only one input.den) -14 1 0 B= -56 0 1 160 o o 1 0 0 C= 0 0= o 0 Transformation from state space to transfer function. B. where 1 implies u1. den = [1 14 56 160].B. 0. 5-5 Transformation of Mathematical Models with MATLAB 203 MATLAB transforms the transfer function given by Equation (5-50) into the statespace representation given by Equations (5-51) and (5-52).C. and 3 implies u3. use the command [num. see Example 5-9. For the system considered here.Sec. B.C. MATLAB Program 5-10 » » » » » » » » » A= % % ----- Transforming transfer-function model to state-space model ----- num = [0 0 1 0]. or 3. 1) may be used. transfer function from state-space equations. C.den] = ss2tf(A. u2.D) or [num.den] = ss2tf(A. if the system has three inputs (u1. then iu must be either 1.

the command [NUM. » C = [1 0 0 0].iu) produces transfer functions for all outputs to each input.0000 5.0 0 0 1.D.B. namely.C.-15. (The numerator coefficients are returned to matrix NUM with as many rows as there are outputs. = 0 1 0.0000 15.B.den] = ss2tf(A.204 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.den] = ss2tf(A.C.0000 12. Y(s) U(s) MATLAB Program 5-11 = S4 + + 10 » » » % ----- % Transforming state-space model to transfer function model----- »A= [0 1 0 0.40].5.0000 1.Enter the following transformation command » » [num. When the system has more than one output.) Let the system be defined by .D) num= =0.0 »B [0.0000 15. »0 » » % ----.0000 10. 5 Example 5-8 Obtain the transfer function of the system defined by the following state-space equations: [~:l [~ ~ ~ ~l[::l [-l~lu = ~ -w -~ -u + -6 ~ ~ Y = [1 0 0 o{~~l + ~ 5s2 + 15s + 10 6s 3 + 12s2 + 15s MATLAB Program 5-11 produces the transfer function of the system.-10 -15 -12 -6].0000 Example 5-9 Consider a system with multiple inputs and multiple outputs. o den = 0 6.0000 10.

»B=[1 1. .0000 o 4.0000 5. Xm and vice versa. 1) NUM= o o den = 1.0 1].0000 -25. }2(s)/Ut (s). if x is a state vector.0000 4. and vice versa.) MATLAB Program 5-12 produces representations of the following four transfer functions: --= Yt(s) U1(s) Y2(s) Ut(s) s+4 s2+4s+25' -25 = s2 + 4s + 25' Yt(s) s+5 U2(s) s2 + 4s + 25 }2(s) s .0000 1. » [NUM. ••• . Thus.0000 25. » C = [1 0. and }2(s)/U2(s)."" X2 xn) xn) = X 2(Xh X2. Suppose that Xb X2. we assume that input U2 is zero.0000 NUM= 4. then xm i = Px . Xn are a set of state variables.0000 » [NUM.0000 1. Then we may take as another set of state variables any set of functions Xl = Xl(Xb X2. » D = [0 0."" provided that.B. for every set of values Xb X2' . there corresponds a unique set of values Xb X2.2) o den = o 1.0000 -25.0000 1.C.-25 -4].0000 Nonuniqueness of a set of state variables.0 1]. A set of state variables is not unique for a given system.B. Y1(S)/U2(s).den] = ss2tf(A.den] = ss2tf(A.D.0 0]. Four transfer functions are involved: Y1(S)/U1(s).Sec.C.25 --= U2(s) s2+4s+25 --= MATLAB Program 5-12 »A = [0 1.•.0000 25. 5-5 Transformation of Mathematical Models with MATLAB 205 This system involves two inputs and two outputs.D. ••• . (When considering input UJ.

-2. Then Equations (5-53) and (5-54) can be written as Pi = or APi + Du y=CPi+Du i = P-1APi + P-1Du y=CPi+Du (5-55) (5-56) Equations (5-55) and (5-56) represent another state-space model of the same system.AI = 0 6 A 11 -1 A+ 6 3 = A + 6A2 + 11A + 6 = (A + 1)(A + 2)(A + 3) = 0 The eigenvalues of A are the roots of the characteristic equation. or -1. 5 is also a state vector.) Different state vectors convey the same information about the system behavior. Consider. Transformation of a state-space model into another state-space model.AI = 0 X n matrix A (5-57) The eigenvalues are also called the characteristic roots. the matrix A = [ ~ -6 -1 1 o -11 The characteristic equation is A 0 IAI . . A state-space model i = Ax + Du y=Cx+Du (5-53) (5-54) can be transformed into another state-space model by transforming the state vector x into state vector i by means of the transformation x = pi where Pis nonsingular. provided that the matrix P is nonsingular. The eigenvalues of an n are the roots of the characteristic equation IAI .206 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. there are infinitely many state-space models for a given system. and -3. Since infinitely many n X n nonsingular matrices can be used as a transformation matrix P. Eigenvalues of an n x n matrix A. (Note that a square matrix P is nonsingular if the determinant Ipi is nonzero. for example.

Consider an n X n state matrix 0 0 1 0 0 -an-l 0 1 0 -a n-2 0 0 (5-58) A= 0 -an 1 -al We first consider the case where matrix A has distinct eigenvalues only. but matrix A can be transformed into a Jordan canonical form. then p-1AP becomes a diagonal matrix. This may be done by choosing an appropriate transformation matrix P.) Next. If the state vector x is transformed into another state vector z with the use of a transformation matrix P. ••• . and An are n distinct eigenvalues of A. For example.Sec. Diagonalization of state matrix A. (See Problem A-S-18 for details. consider the case where matrix A involves multiple eigenvalues. consider the 3 X 3 matrix 1 o . we shall discuss the diagonalization of a state matrix. In what follows. 5-5 Transformation of Mathematical Models with MATLAB 207 It is sometimes desirable to transform the state matrix into a diagonal matrix. diagonalization is not possible. In this case. or x = pz where 1 P= 1 1 An Al AI Aq-l A2 A~ A~ n A. or o (5-60) o Note that each column of the transformation matrix P in Equation (5-59) is an eigenvector of the matrix A given by Equation (5-58).1 n (5-59) Aq-l in which Ah A2 .

and Z3 by the transformation or x = pz (5-64) . 5 Assume that A has eigenvalues Ah Ah and A3. where A3. and -3. the trans- (5-61) will yield (5-62) This matrix is in Jordan canonical form. = -2. -2. where A1 formation x = Sz. In this case. A3 = -3 We shall show that Equation (5-63) is not the only possible state equation for the system. or Al = -1. Suppose we define a set of new state variables Zit Z2. Example 5-10 Consider a system with the state-space representation Xl] [0 0 [~2 = -6 X3 y = [1 0 or x =Ax + Bu y = Cx + Du where (5-63) A =~ [ -6 1 0 -11 -6 ~l B=Ul A2 C = [1 0 0]. D= 0 The eigenvalues of the state matrix A are -1.208 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems ¢ Chap.

substituting Equation (5-64) into Equation (5-63).5 -4 1.5 -4 1.:] (5-68) = [1 11{. we get i = p-1APz + P-1Bu or [i'] [3 !: -~ + [-~ = 2.5 -1 0.) EXAMPLE PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS Problem A-S-l Consider the pendulum system shown in Figure 5-21. the three separate state equations are uncoupled. Assuming angle 8 to be the output of the system. .5][0] Equation (5-67) is a state equation that describes the system defined by Equation (5-63).5 0. As is clearly seen from Equation (5-67).:] Notice that the transformation matrix P defined by Equation (5-65) changes the coefficient matrix of z into the diagonal matrix. (For a proof.Example Problems and Solutions 209 where p = [-~ -~ -!] ~][ -~1 -6 (5-65) Then.5 2. The output equation is modified to y = [1 0 o{ -~ -! -:][.5 -1 0. obtain a state-space representation of the system. Notice also that the diagonal elements of the matrix p-1AP in Equation (5-66) are identical to the three eigenvalues of A.5][ 0 0 -6 0 u 6 1 0 -11 -2 4 -~][~:] (5-67) 0. we obtain Pi = APz + Bu (5-66) 1 Premultiplying both sides of this last equation by P -I. see Problem A-S-20.

accordingly. If the angle 8 is limited to be small.210 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.. If we define and X2. For small angle 8. X2 X2 = -ism Xl g . completely describe the system dynamics. A state-space representation * * . to then we get Xl = . y = 8 = Xl A state-space representation of the system is . + -sin8 I g = 0 Xl This is a second-order system. mg l Solution The equation for the pendulum system is ml2e = -mgt sin 8 or 8 .) The output y is angle 8. (There is no input u to this system. gsmxl 1][XI] [XI]_ [~ 0 X2 ---- t X2 Xl Y = [1 O][~~] Note that the state equation just obtained is a nonlinear differential equation. then the system can be linearized. Thus. 5 Figure S-Zl Pendulum system. we have sin 8 = sin Xl Xl and (sin XI)!XI 1. we need two state variables.

b1X4 Also.b1X2 + k l X3 + blX4 + u k t X3 . The external force u(t) applied to mass m2 is the input to the system.y) = 0 Xl (5-69) (5-70) If we define the state variables X2 = X3 =Y Y =Z X4 = Z then. . from Equation (5-70). Solution Applying Newton's second law to this system. we get m2 x 2 = -(kl + k 2 )Xl .z) + k1(y . from Equation (5-69).z) + k 2y = u mlZ + b1(z . The displacements Y and z are measured from their respective equilibrium positions and are the outputs of the system. we obtain mlx4 = k1XI + bl X2 - Figure 5-22 Mechanical system. we obtain m2Y + blU .y) + kl(z .Example Problems and Solutions 211 of the linearized model is then given by [!:] [_Of ~ ]r~:] = Y = [1 O][~:] Problem A-S-2 Obtain a state-space representation of the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-22.

~l 0 1 0 X3 (5-72) X4 Equations (5-71) and (5-72) give a state-space representation of the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-22. we may take y(t}.212 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Hence. Problem A-S-3 Obtain a state-space representation of the system defined by (n) (n-l) at Y Y + +.. + an-I. .. Consequently. y(t). because higher order derivative terms are inaccurate due to the noise effects that are inherent in any practical system. . the state equation is 0 Chap. (n yl) (0). together with the input u(t} for t ~ 0. .. such a choice of state variables is quite convenient. . Practically..) Let us define y Xn = (II-I) Y . this choice of state variables may not be desirable.. if we define the output variables Yl = Y Y2 = z YI = Y2 = Xl X3 The output equation can now be put in the form [Yl] = 0 Y2 [1 0 0 o][. Y(O). (n l) (t) as a set of n state variables. Solution Since the initial conditions y(O). determines completely the future behavior of the system. . 5 [~. however.V + anY = u (5-73) where u is the input and Y is the output of the system.l then we have kl + k2 m2 0 1 hl m2 0 hI 0 kl m2 0 = kl ml ml kl ml 0 hI m2 1 hI ml [~~l +[ {2U (5-71) The outputs of the system are Y and as z. (Mathematically.

Note that the state-space representation of the transfer function of the system.•.Example Problems and Solutions Then Equation (5-73) can be written as 213 Xn-l Xn = = Xn -anXl . D = 1 .34375 ' Obtain the transfer function of this system. Y(s) 1 sn U(s) = + atSn-1 + .25] B = [ 0. Problem A-5-4 Consider a system described by the state equation i=Ax+Bu and output equation y = Cx + Du where -0.. C = [1 0]. + an-IS + an is also given by Equations (5-74) and (5-75). alxn +u (5-74) or i where = Ax + Bu 1 x= [j:J 0 0 A= 0 1 o o B= 1 0 0 -an-l o o o 1 0 -an 0 -a n -2 The output can be given by y = [1 0 or y where = Cx 0 0] (5-75) C = [1 Equation (5-74) is the state equation and Equation (5-75) is the output equation..

125 s2 + 1. and D as G(s) = C(sI . C. When both unit-impulse inputs Ul(l) and U2(/) are given at the same time 1 = 0.375s + 0.[s + 1.e.375s + 0.125 -0.. B.25(s + 1.125 -0. we assume that U2 = 0.125 Therefore.t) produces the impUlse-response curves for the four input-output combinations. the transfer function G(s) can be given in terms of matrices A.Dl).375 -1] s1] 1 . Solution The command sys = ss(A. the responses are Yt(t) = Yu(l) + Yzt(t) Yz(I) = Y12(1) + )22(1) . Ul and U2.) The resulting curves are shown in Figure 5-23..375s + 0.B..125 -0. find the outputs Yl and Yz when both inputs.C.) Next.375 s2 + 1..34375 + 1 Problem A-5-S Consider the following state equation and output equation: The system involves two inputs and two outputs. so there are four input-output combinations.125 8s 2 + 9s + 1 8s 2 + Us + 1 [1 0] 1][ -0.34375 = s2 + 1.375s + 0...25 ] s 0. impulse(sys. we assume that U2 = 0.A ) -t = . 5 Solution From Equation (5-9). and vice versa.AtlB + D Since sI .375) + 0.125s + 0. Ul = U2 = unit-impulse function occurring at the same time 1 = 0). the transfer function of the system is G() s = 1 [s + 1. (When Ul is a unit-impulse input.125 +1 s2 + 1. when Ul is a unit-impulse function.125 s + 1. are given at the same time (i. and vice versa.A we have ( sI =[ s 0..375 s2 + 1. (See MATLAB Program 5-13.214 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. Obtain the impulse-response curves of the four combinations.

6. »sys = ss(A.01:10.D). U2 = ~(t) when U1 = 0. » C = [1 0.0 1].1 0].) where Yll = Yl = Y2 when UI = 8(t). 1. -1. » D = [0 0. U2 = 8(t) Y12 >'21 = YI fu = Y2 . -= 0 3 2 N'-' ~ 1 0 ~ I (sec) o 2 4 6 8 10 Ul Figure 5-23 Unit-impulse response curves.Example Problems and Solutions 215 MATLAR Program 5-13 » t =0:0. U2 = 0 when Ul = 0.5 n ::l -1 Q. ylabel('Outputs ' ) » B = [1 »A= [-1 Impulse-Response Curves From:U(l) 1 From: U(2) ' -' 05 0 ~ ~ -0.0 0].B. » impulse(sys. The right column corresponds to Ul = 0 and U2 = unit-impulse input. U2 = 0 when Ul = 8(t).C.5 0].t) » grid » title{'lmpulse-Response Curves ') » xlabel{'t '). (The left column corresponds to = unit-impulse input and U2 = o.

:.01:10.:. » B = [1 1.5 6 4 2 ~ 0 -2 2 3 456 t (sec) 7 8 9 10 Figure 5-24 Response curves Yl (t) versus t and Y2( t) versus t when Ul (t) and U2( t) are given at the same time.y12+y22). » [y.5 0]. » y22 = [0 1]*y(:. » subplot(211).t. » D = [0 0. plot(t. MATLAB Program 5-14 » t = 0:0. » y11 = [1 O]*y(:.l )1.B. grid » xlabel('t (sec)I). » y21 = [1 0]*y(:. grid » title('lmpulse Response when Both u_1 and u_2 are given at t = 0 1) » ylabel(.y_1 1 ) » subplot(212). »C=[l 0. » sys = ss(A.5 >: 0 -0.6.:.l)'.C.5 -1 -1.216 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.2)'. [Both UI(t) and U2(t) are unit-impulse inputs occurring at t = 0.0 0].5 1 0.:. The resulting response curves are shown in Figure 5-24.] .0 1].1 0].2)'.t). » y12 = [0 l)*y(:.D).x] = impulse(sys. ylabelCy_21) Impulse Response when Both uland U2 are given at t =0 2 1. »A= [-1 -1. 5 MATLAB Program 5-14 produces the responses Yl(t) = Yn(t) + Y2t(t) and )2{t) = Y12(t) + )22{t). yll +y21). plot(t.

C. a> fI) "3 c.0121 0 X2 X3 u X4 0.1 0 1 0 -0.05 0 ~ E c. Solution To obtain the unit-step response of this system. . From the state equation.:J B 50 -0.2 0 Unit-Impulse Response 0.6 0.8 0. D) = [0 1 0 OJ*x' The initial conditions are zeros. The resulting unit-step response curve and unit-impulse curve are shown in Figure 5-25.15 0.5 0. x.05 ::s 0 0 E 10 20 30 t (sec) 40 50 60 70 Flgure 5-25 Unit-step response curve and unit-impulse response curve. S.4 0. the derivative of the output (y = xl) will give the unit-impulse response.2 1 0.4 ~ 50 ::s 0 = ~ 1. the following command may be used: [y. Unit-Step Response 1. we see that the derivative of y is x2 Hence. ~ '8 .04 ][x'] + [-0. t] Since the unit-impulse response is the derivative of the unit-step response. MATLAB Program 5-15 produces both the unit-step and unit-impulse responses.x2 versus t will give the unit-impulse response.01 1 0 0 -0.5 0 o 1 -1.008 Y = [1 0 0 o{~~l = step(A.Example Problems and Solutions 217 Problem A-S-6 Obtain the unit-step response and unit-impulse response of the following system with MATLAB: [i'] [ X2 _ X3 X4 0 0 0 -0.1 0.

for example. Assuming no friction. as shown in Figure 5-26.C. obtain the response curves Yl (t) versus t and )2( t) versus t with MATLAB. subplot(212). grid » title('Unit-Step Response') » ylabel('Output y') % % % % » » » » » » The unit-impulse response of the system is the same as the derivative of the unit-step response.) Hence.04. 0 1.01 -0. which is at rest for t < O. .)2) m2Y2 + k()2 .012. » C = [1 0 0 0].0. ylabel('Output to Unit-Impulse Input.0 0 » B = [0. derive a state-space representation of the system.Yl = x and plot the curve x(t) versus t. To plot the unitimpulse response curve.5].5 -1.0. The displacements Yl and )2 are the outputs of the system and are measured from their rest positions relative to the ground.0 0 1 0.y). (Note that x_l dot = x_2 in this system.x2).x.D).Yl) Xl = =0 =/ We choose the state variables for the system as follows: Yl X2 = Yl Yl ~f k Figure 5-26 Mechanical system. plot(t. x_2') Problem A-S-7 '!\vo masses ml and m2 are connected by a spring with spring constant k. obtain the relative motion between ml and m2' Define )2 .218 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. Assuming that ml = 40 kg.008]. grid » title('Unit-lmpulse Response') » xlabel('t (sec)I). enter. 5 MATLAR Program 5-15 »A = [0 1 0 0. and/is a step force input of magnitude of 10 N.-0.B. » » » % % To get the step response. k = 40 N/m. Then the equations of motion for the system are mlYl + k(Yl . Also. Assume that we are interested in the period 0 ~ t ~ 20. Solution Let us define a step force input of magnitude 1 N as u. » subplot(211). enter the following command: % » »x2 = [0 1 0 O]*x'. plot(t. m2 = 100 kg. the unit-impulse response of this system is given by ydot = x_2. »D =0.-0.t] =step(A.1 -0. the following command: » » [y.

plot(t.t. »A=[O 1 0 0. and x(t) versus t are shown in Figure 5-27. » subplot(311). grid »xlabel('t (sec)'). and k.y_1') -0. grid » ylabel('Output y_2') » subplot(313).0.:] + 0 1 0 X3 X4 Ou MATLAB Program 5-16 produces the outputs Yl and Y2 and the relative motion x( = Y2 .-1 0 1 0.1]. y1). » [y. »y1 = [1 O]*y'.-X3 k m2 + -1 f m2 Noting that f = lOu and substituting the given numerical values for mh m2.4 0].4 0 » B = [OiOiO.y1).y2 .Xl)' The resulting response curves Yl(t) versus t.D).0 0 1 0].Example Problems and Solutions 219 Then we obtain Xl X2 X3 X4 = X2 = .C. we obtain the state equation [~:] X3 X4 = [-~0 0 0 1 0]u ~ ~ ~][::] ~ 0.4 0 X3 X4 +[ 0.Y2(t) versus t. MATLAR Program 5-16 » t = 0:0.4 0 -0. = -k l X m2 .0.02:20. plot(t. » sys = ss(A.x] = step(sys. Notice that the vibration between ml and m2 continues forever.B.X l + -X3 ml ml . » y2 = [0 1J*y'.t). ylabel('x =y_2 ..0 0 0 1. grid »title('Step Response') » ylabel('Output y_1') » subplot(312).y2).Yl = X3 . »D = 0. plot(t. . » C = [1 0 0 0. k k = X4 .1 The output equation is [ Yl] = 0 Y2 [1 0 0 0][.

.. ...... .............. 5 ~ :: I' ' ' ' ' ' ! ' ' ' ' !~' . andx(I) versus t........~==±==i± ~ 0....... ::: 2 4 6 ~ ~ : : : ~ o 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 O'2~A~AiJF1 ~o. Solution Noting that the unit-ramp input is defined by u we may use the command U... Problem A-S-8 Obtain the unit-ramp response of the following system: [~~] = [ _~ -~... · .... :.... ···· . ·i-.:.... ... .... ........ The unit-ramp response curve and the unit-ramp input are shown in Figure S-28.. t .~] + [~]u y = [1 0][.... !. .... : . ·..15 . ·...4 ][.. ·....220 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap...... ~ 01 .. : ...... ·i ...· ..... • .L .......... ~:uTur= :.. ·.:] + [O]u =t Isim(sys.. '" ..... ....... (0 ::. t) as shown in MATLAB ProgramS-17....... t) The system is initially at rest.. " .Y2(I) versus I.. ill (sec) o 2 4 6 8 U M M U W I Figure 5-27 Response curves Yt(l) versus I. . ~·" ...... ~ . ".

:.t) » » » » » » 18 16 grid title('Unit-Ramp Response') xlabeICt ' ) ylabel('Output yl) text(3.. (For an analytical solution.. -0..D).. -: o :..2..'u ') Unit-Ramp Response '-~~~--~--~---r--~--~--'-~ 14 12 . »D = 0.. 1. together with unitramp input.. At t = 0. 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 t (sec) Flgore 5-28 Plot of unit-ramp response curve. ".10 =' c.01 :18...... Assuming that the displacement x of the combined mass is measured from the equilibrium position before m is placed on M.:.... Then plot the response curve x(t) versus t..5.' y ') text(0. a mass m = 2 kg is gently placed on the top of mass M. » Isim(sys. obtain a state-space representation of the system.6..5...: . »C = [1 0]..Example Problems and Solutions 221 MArLAR Program 5-17 » t = 0:0..... Problem A-5-9 A mass M (where M = 8 kg) is supported by a spring (where k = 400 N/m) and a damper (where b = 40 N-s/m).u..C. » u = t. as shown in Figure 5-29.. » sys = ss(A....3. causing the system to exhibit vibrations...1].-1 » 8 = [0.8.. »A = [0 1..0..4]...) Solution The equation of motion for the system is (M + m)x + bi + kx = mg (0 < t) . see Problem A-3-16...

shown in Figure 5-30. derive a state-space representation of the system. obtain the steady-state values of Zh Z2. and tis a step force input of magnitude 10 N.807 x + 4x + 40x = 1.ZI(t) versus I.9614 N.049035 m. Z2( I) versus t. . and Z2 as state variables. b = 20 N-s/m. k = 60 N/m. Choosing Zit Z2. m2 = 20 kg. and Z2(t) .4X2 The state equation is + 1. Assuming that ml = 10 kg.96l4u and the output equation is y = [1 O][.ZI' zt. m. Notice that the static deflection x( 00) = y( 00) y( 6(0) is 0.ZI(t) versus t. and Z2 . Then we have x + 4x + 40x = 1. Z2(t) . Let us define a step force input of magnitude 1 N as u. and g = 9.807 rnls2 into this last equation.9614 The input here is a step force of magnitude 1. b. * Problem A-5-10 Consider the system shown in Figure 5-31. plot the response curves Zl (I) versus t. we obtain lOx + or 40x + 400x = 2 X 9.9614u If we now choose state variables then we obtain Xl == X2 X2 = -40XI . The displacements ZI and Z2 are measured from their respective equilibrium positions relative to the ground. The system is at rest for t < O. k.S M x Figure 5-29 Mechanical system. Substituting the given numerical values for M.~l + Ou MATLAB Program 5-18 produces the response curve y( t) [= x( t)] versus t.222 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems m Chap. Also.

9614]. :. 0 0.01 1 2 3 t (sec) 4 5 6 Figure ~30 Step~response curve.77i>17.:.D).04 c. » y(600) ans = 0. b -t-f 77. plot(t.04903515818520 Step Response 0.77?77J77J7.t).-40 » B = [0.777. ylabel{'Output y') » » format long.03 0.t7fi~~77h~.Example Problems and Solutions 223 MATlAR Program 5-18 » t = 0:0.~'?h.1.01 :6. 0.07 0.y) grid title('Step Response') xlabel{'t (sec)').t] == step(sys.05 ::. -4). » » 0= 0.B. » » » » » sys == ss(A. . [y. » A = [0 1. Figure ~31 Mechanical system..06 0.C. » C = [1 0).02 0.

at steady state the value of Z2(t) . The resulting curves are shown in Figure 5-32.X2) m2x4 = -k(X3 .X l m2 + -X2 m2 b . k X4 = .-X4 m2 m2 k b + -/ m2 1 Let us define Zl and Z2 as the system outputs.Zl(t) approaches a constant value.224 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.Xl) . or Zl(oo) - Zl = Z2(oo) = a Also.Xl) + b(X4 . Then Y1 = Zl Y2 = Xl = Z2 = X3 After substitution of the given numerical values and / = lOu (where u is a step force input of magnitude 1 N occurring at t = 0).Zl) + / Xl (5-76) (5-77) Since we chose state variables as = Zl X2 = ZI X3 = Z2 X4 = Z2 Equations (5-76) and (5-77) can be written as mlx2 = k(X3 .Zl) + b(Z2 . and Z2 . = .Zt versus t.X2) +/ We thus have Xl = X2 X2 - .-X3 .b(X4 . the state equation becomes The output equation is MATLAB Program 5-19 produces the response curves Zl versus t. or .Zl) . Z2 versus t. 5 Solution The equations of motion for the system are mizi = k(Z2 .Zl) m2z2 = -k(Z2 .-k l X ml -X2 ml b + -X3 + -X4 ml ml k b X3 = X4 . Z2 versus t. Note that at steady state Zl(t) and Z2(t) approach a constant value.b(Z2 .

06 N 0. 40 30 N 0.01 :15. plot(t. ylabel('z_2dot .0].07 0.04 0.3 1 -3 -1]. » sys =ss(A.t. grid » xlabel('t (sec)I). » subplot(221). grid » xlabeH't (sec)I).x4 .x] = step(sys. -= -= 0 20 10 0 5 t (sec) 10 15 5 I (sec) 10 15 0.0 0 0 » B = [0. grid » xlabelCt (sec)I). »A= [0 1 0 0. -= -= 0 ~ 40 30 N 20 10 0 Q.x3). plot(t.C.5]. »x4 = [0 0 0 lJ*x'.xl). 0 5 I (sec) 10 -0. plot(t. »C = [1 0 0 0. » D= [0.06 N I 0. grid » xlabelCt (sec)I).D). » xl = [1 0 0 OJ*XI.0.x3 .02 0 . » [y.-6 -2 6 2. -= -= 0 ~ ~ 0 0. ylabel('Output z_2 .05 I N ~ 0. ylabelCOutput Z_21) » subplot(223). .z_l dot ' ) 1.04 0.08 '0 "0 0. ylabelCOutput z_ll) » subplot(222). plot(t. » x2 = [0 1 0 OJ*XI. » x3 = [0 0 1 OJ*XI. and Z2 Zt versus I.z_ll) » subplot(224). t).03 0. Z2 versus It Z2 - Zt versus I.Example Problems and Solutions 225 MATlAB Program 5-19 » t = 0:0.02 0.x2).xl).0.0.1 0.02 15 0 5 I (sec) - 10 15 F1gure5-3Z Response curves ZI versus I.B.01 0 Q.0 0 0]..

226 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems The steady-state value of Z2(/) . we obtain or Y + --y .Zt(oo)} + b[Z2(00) .b[Z2(00) .u -u 11 + h 11 + h (5-78) . The system is initially at rest. 5 Z2(00) . Equation (5-77) becomes = k(3 + b X 0 m2Z2(00) or = -k[Z2(00) 20a .:- I 30 10 30 1 3 and lOa 1 1 1 (3=-=-x-=60 6 3 18 Thus.y) = hy Rewriting.Z1(00)) . Solution The equation of motion for the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-33 is II(u .b x 0 +I f = -k(3 Hence.:-=-.ZI(oo)] + .ZI(oo)] or lOa Also.Zl(OO) For I = 00. lOa = 60(3 20a = -60(3 + I from which we get a. + .y) + kt(u . The displacement y is measured from the rest position before the input u is given. kt II + h kl = . Problem A-S-U Obtain two state-space representations of the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-33 where u is the input displacement and y is the output displacement. or Chap. =0 Equation (5-76) becomes mIZI(oo) = k[Z2(oo) .11..Zt(/) is zero.

x + .II + 12 U klh U (II + 12)2 Then the state equation can be obtained from Equation (5-78) as follows: x == . we have (5-81) yes) bas + b t U(s) = s + al . based on Methods 1 and 2 presented in Section 5-4. kl II + h (5-80) The output equation is 11 y=x+--u 11 + 12 Equations (5-80) and (5-81) give a state-space representation of the system. Method 1.al/3o = (II + 12)2 11 Define the state variable x by X == Y - f30u = Y . Method 2..Example Problems and Solutions 227 y Figure 5-33 Mechanical system. From Equation (5-79). First calculate f30 and f31: {3t == b1 .. Comparing this last equation with y + aIY = boit + btU we get kl al (5-79) == II + 12' II bo == II + 12' We shall obtain two state-space representations of the system.

It + 12 (5-85) Substituting Equation (5-84) into Equation (5-85)..f3t U = Xt .f31U .f3t U f30u .f32 U . = ---x kl II +12 and Equation (5-83) becomes or y=--x+--x kl 11 + h II. for the differential-equation system 'y + alY + a2Y + a3Y = bo'u' + btU + ~u + b3u (5-87) state and output equations can be given.228 If we define State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.f32 u = X2 . 5 Z(s) 1 U(s) = s + aI' then we get . respectively. we define the state variable x by x=Z Then Equation (5-82) can be written as x= or X -alx +U +U (5-84) . Problem A-5-U Show that. by (5-88) and (5-89) where the state variables are defined by Xt =Y Y- X2 = X3 = Y- f30u f30u . we get y =:: ktf2 X (fl + 12)2 +~u /1 + 12 (5-86) Equations (5-84) and (5-86) give a state-space representation of the system.= bos Z(s) Y(s) + bt z + alZ = u boz + btZ = Y (5-82) (5-83) Next.

Qt/32 Xl Q2/30 Q2/31 . Note that the derivation presented here can be easily extended to the general case of an nth-order system.Q2/30)U + (~ ./3o'u' . respectively.Q3(Y .v + QIY + Q2Y + a3Y = bo'u' + blu + ~u + b3u or Y(s) bos3 + b1s2 + b2s + b3 U(s) = s3 + QIS2 + Q2S + a3 state and output equations may be given. /32.Q2 X 2 . we have = X2 + /31 u + /32 u X2 = X3 (5-90) (5-91) To derive the equation for X3' we note that './32u = -QI X 3 . (5-91)./31U) .Y .v = Since -alY .Ql/3t /33 = b3 .Q2/3t U ./32U) ./3I U .Q3/30)U = -a)x3 .V - Hence.Q3 X I + (~ ./3ou .Q2Y ./32U = (-alY ./31 .Ql/30)U + (~ .a3xI + /33u = '.Q3/30)U = -a1 x 3 .Q2 X 2 ../3o'u' ./32 U = -at(Y .Ql/30 /32 = ~ .a2/3t ./3I U . and 229 /33 are defined by /30 = bo /31 = b t . we get (5-92) Combining Equations (5-90)./31U .Q3/30 Solution From the definition of the state variables X2 and X3.Ql/32u ./3ou . /31./3o)'u' + (b l .Q3Y + bo'it' + btU + b2u + b3u we have X3 /3o'u' .Ql/32 . we obtain Equation (5-88).Q3 X I + (bo ./3ou) . by 1 o .Q2 X 2 . from the definition of state variable Xh we get the output equation given by Equation (5-89).a2/3ou . for the system . /30.Q2/31 . and (5-92) into a vector-matrix differential equation.Example Problems and Solutions The constants. Also.at/3ou .Ql/31 U ./32 .a2(./3t U .Q3Y) + bo'u' + btU + ~u + b3u .Q2Y .Ql/31 . Problem A-5-13 Show that.al/32 .Q3/3ou + bo'u' + blu + ~u + b3u .

. and (5-95). From Equation (5-96). we obtain X3 = -a3Z . Note that the derivation presented here can be easily extended to the general case of an nth-order system. - a3bo : b. The system is initially at rest. The displacements u.z'.Qt X3) = (b3 - Q3bO)XI + (bz - a2bO)x2 + u] + b1X3 + ~X2 + ~XI + (bl .230 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. - a3bo : b.bo{~:] + bou which is the output equation.azZ ..al bO)X3 + bou (5-96) From Equations (5-93). we get y = [11. 1 a. and z are measured from their respective rest positions.azbo : b. Problem A-5-14 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-34. y = boo z' + bl Z + bzz + ~z = bOX3 + bl X 3 + bzX 2 + ~XI = boH -Q3 Xl - Q2 X2 . z' boo z' + bIZ + Now we define Xl + alZ + a2z + a3Z = u ~z + ~z = y = Z X2 X3 = Xl = X2 +u (5-93) (5-94) Then. . we obtain [ ~~] [~ ~ ~][:~] + [~]u = X3 -a3 -a2 -al X3 1 which is the state equation. noting that X3 = X2 = 'x't = .S and y = [11. y.bo{~:] + bou + bl s + ~s + b3 2 Solution Let us define ~(s) U(s) = S3 + aIs2 + a2s + a3' Y(s) 3 ~ (s) = bos Then we obtain .azbo : b. . - a. (5-94).alZ or (5-95) Also.

sZ(s)] . Solution The equations of motion for the system are bt(u .+12 = u (k 1+2. we get (bis + kd(~s + k2)U(S) = [(bls + kl)(~S + k2) + ~k2S]Y(S) The transfer function of the system then becomes Y(s) (bls + kl)(bls + k z) U(s) = (bts + kl)(~S + k2) + ~kzs :r + -.sY(s)] + kl[U(s) ~[sY(s) Eliminating Z(s) from the last two equations yields (bls + kl)U(s) = (blS + kl + b. obtain the transfer function Y(s)lU(s) of the system.z) ~(y ..y) = ~(y . assuming zero initial conditions.z) = k 2z .Y(s)] = ~[sY(s) .1+2+2.:2 Jy(S) k Multiplying both sides of this last equation by (~s + k2 ). The differential equation corresponding to Equation (5-97) is k k k y "+ k k "+ .s .y) + kt(u .b. we obtain b1[sU(s) .sZ(s)] = k2Z(S) Laplace transforming these two equations.Example Problems and Solutions 231 Figure 5-34 Mechanical system. Then obtain a state-space representation of the system. we shall obtain a state-space representation of the system. Assuming that u is the input and y is the output.) y -k .) u -u bl bl bl bl~ bl bz b1bz .2 (kl k2) klk2 b1 + bz s + b1bz (5-97) Next.+1k z y (k .

' k2 klk2 a2 = blbz k t k2 bo =l kl k2 bl = . y + aIY + a2Y = boii + btU + bzu we find that al = bl + .f3lU = XI + -u bl The state equation is given by Equation (5-30) as [Xl] = -a2 X2 or [0 -al ][XI] + [131] 1 X2 /32 U [xJ = [Xl . we define the state variables Xl and X2 as Xl = Y . 5 Comparing this equation with the standard second-order differential equation given by Equation (5-20). we have f30 = bo = 1 - /31 = bi f32 = aIf30 = -b l k2 bz . .2 b klk2 l +- kl blbz +2 k22 bl From Equations (5-21) and (5-22). The displacements Y and z are measured from their respective eqUilibrium positions. and k2 = 4 N/m.u . 0 klk2 blbz _(kl bl 1 + k2 + k2)] bz bl [xJ + Xl bl k2 klk2 kl kl u [ b 2 + bliJz + bt2 l -- 1 (5-98) The output equation is given by Equation (5-31) as Y = [1 or Y = [1 O][~~] + f30u O][~J + u (5-99) Equations (5-98) and (5-99) constitute a state-space representation of the system. obtain the transfer function Y(s)IU(s). kl k2 bz + b. Also.232 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. Considering that displacement y is the output. obtain a state-space representation of the system. Problem A-5-lS Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-35. k2 X2 = Xl . b = = 6 N/m.f30u = Y .alf3l - Q2/30 = .4 N-s/m. Assume that force u is the input to the system. in which m = 0. 0. kl . (5-24).+ bl hz' bz = b1bz From Equations (5-23). namely. and (5-29).1 kg.

namely. assuming zero initial conditions.z) k2(y . Next. kh and k2 into this last equation results in Y(s) U(s) = lOs + 100 ~ + lOr + loos + 600 (5-102) This is the transfer function of the system. Solution The equations of motion for the system are my + k1y + k2(y .Example Problems and Solutions 233 y Figure 5-35 Mechanical system. we obtain [ms 2 + (k + k2)]Y(S) = k2Z(S) + U(s) 1 k2Y(S) Y(s) U(s) = (k2 + bs)Z(s) Eliminating Z(s) from these two equations yields k2 + bs = mbs 3 + mk2s2 + (k} + k2)bs + klk2 m mb =---------3 k2 2 k} + k2 klk2 S 1 k2 -s+m + -s + b s +-mb Substituting numerical values for m. 'Y' + atY + a2Y + a3Y = bo'u' + btU + bzu + b3u we find that at = 10. we obtain . bo = 0. we shall obtain a state-space representation of the system using Method 1 presented in Section 5~. From Equation (5-102). a3 = 600 b3 bz = 10.Y' + lOy + 100y + 600y = lOu + 100u Comparing this equation with the standard third-order differential equation. b. = 100 .z) = u = bi (5-100) (5-101) Taking the Laplace transforms of Equations (5-100) and (5-101).

Qlf30 f32 = ~ .Q2f31 .Q3f3o = 100 - 10 X 10 =0 Then the state equation for the system becomes Xl] [ X2 X3 = [0 1 0 -600 0 -100 O][Xl] + 1 X2 -10 X3 [0] 10 0 U (5-103) and the output equation becomes y Problem A-5-16 Consider the system defined by = [1 0 o{:~] (5-104) Equations (5-103) and (5-104) give a state-space representation of the system.v + 6y + 11y + 6y = 6u Solution Frrst. we get --=--+--+-U(s) s+1 s+2 s+3 from which we obtain -6 3 -6 3 3 Yes) = . define Xl = Y . Y(s) U(s) = 6 S3 + 6s 2 + 11s + 6 Y(s) 3 6 (s + l)(s + 2)(s + 3) Next. 5 Referring to Problem A-S-12.f30u X2 = f3IU X3 = X2 . expanding this transfer function into partial fractions. rewrite Equation (5-105) in the form of a transfer function: (5-105) Obtain a state-space representation of the system by the partial-fraction expansion technique.234 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.. note that f33 = b3 - Qlf32 . '.Qlf31 =0 - Q2f3o = 10 Also.lU(s) + --2U(s) + --3U(s) s+ s+ s+ Let us define 3 (5-106) XI(s) X2(S) = --1 U(s) s+ = --2U(s) s+ 3 -6 X3(S) = --3U(s) s+ .f32 u Xl - where f31 f30 = bo = 0 = bi .

Example Problems and Solutions 235 Then.2) =0 and Thus.1 I o A-2 -1 1 = (A .AI = are A. Solution The eigenvalues.1)(A . (5-108). obtained from IAI . matrix A has two distinct eigenvalues. rewriting these three equations. we have sXI(s) = -Xl(S) + 3U(s) sX2(s) = -2X2(s) . If = [xu].6U(s) SX3(S) = -3X3(S) + 3U(s) The inverse Laplace transforms of the last three equations give Xl X2 = -Xl = -2x2 - + 3u 6u X3 = -3X3 + 3u (5-107) (5-108) (5-109) Since Equation (5-106) can be written as Y(s) we obtain Y = Xl(S) + X2(S) + X3(S) = Xl + X2 + X3 (5-110) Combining Equations (5-107). we get the following output equation: y = [1 11{~:] = [~ (5-112) Equations (5-111) and (5-112) constitute a state-space representation of the system given by Equation (5-105). respectively. (Note that this representation is the same as that obtained in Example 5-10.) Problem A-5-17 Show that the 2 x 2 matrix A ~] has two distinct eigenvalues and that the eigenvectors are linearly independent of each other. There are two eigenvectors Xl and X2 associated with we define Xl Al and A2. X21 . and (5-109) into a vector-matrix differential equation yields the following state equation: (5-111) From Equation (5-110).

we have [1-1 -1 ][xu] = [0] ° X21 ° 1. we have Ax2 or ° [~] = A2X2 Noting that.\2 = 2. the eigenvector associated with A2 = 2 may be selected as C2 where C2 ::. we obtain [2-1 -1 ° from which we get Xl2 X2 ][XI2] = X22 2 .2 [0] ° X22 = ° [C2] Thus.: is an arbitrary constant.2 and Xl which gives Xu = arbitrary constant Hence. 5 = 1. for the eigenvector X2.236 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems then the eigenvector Xl can be found from Axl = AIXI or Noting that Al Chap. Similarly.. eigenvector x I may be written as = [:::] = where CI ::. The two eigenvectors are therefore given by = [X12] ° x22 = and That eigenvectors Xl and X2 are linearly independent can be seen from the fact that the determinant of the matrix [Xl X2] is nonzero: I~ Problem A-5-18 Obtain the eigenvectors of the matrix 1 o -a~] .: is an arbitrary constant.

A3) a3 Assume also that Ah A2. - a2 x i2 - at x j3 = AjX i3 Hence.AI)(A .'2 -al Xj3 Xj3 X.'2 -a3x il Thus. we obtain o ][Xil] = Aj[XiI] 1 Xj2 x. (where a = scalar:¢:. because Equation (5-113) can be written as a(Axj) = a(AjXj) or A(axj) = Aj(axj) Thus. 0) is also an eigenvector. Solution The eigenvector Xj associated with an eigenvalue the equation Aj is a vector that satisfies Axj = AjXj which can be written as (5-113) 1 o Simplifying this last equation. the eigenvectors are (5-114) Note that if x/ is an eigenvector.'2 XiJ = = AjXil AjX. that is.A2)(A . then ax. and A3 are distinct. we obtain These are also a set of eigenvectors. by dividing the eigenvectors given by (5-114) by Xlh X2h and X3h respectively. and A3. .Example Problems and Solutions 237 Assume that the eigenvalues are Ah A2. IAI .AI = A 0 -1 A 0 -1 a2 A + ai 3 + aIA2 + a2 A + a3 =A = (A .

define AI D = [ ~ .a2Al . Show that if a transformation matrix P is defined by P = [.a2A2 . At then Solution First note that A2 A~ -a3 .238 Problem A-S-19 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.alA~ = A~ -a3 .a. and A3 are distinct eigenvalues of matrix A. they satisfy the characteristic equation..alAI = At -a3 .alA~ = A~ Consequently.a2 A3 . A2' and A3 are eigenvalues. Equation (5-115) can be written as (5-116) Next. 5 Consider a matrix 1 o Assume that AJ. A~ Since AJ. -a3 . + alAr + a2Ai + a3 = 0 Hence. or (5-115) At Thus. A2.a2A2 .

PROBLEMS Problem B-5-1 Obtain state-space representations of the mechanical systems shown in Figures 5-36(a) and (b). Problem B-5-2 For the spring-mass-pulley system of Figure 5-37. we must show that the characteristic polynomials IAI .p-lAPI are identical. we obtain IAI .A)PI = Ip-liIAI . we have AP=PD Thus. the moment of inertia of the pulley about the axis of rotation is J and the radius is R.AI and IAI .AI AI Thus. obtain a state-space representation of the system. Assume that the system is initially in equilibrium. we have proven that the eigenvalues of A are invariant under a linear transformation.p-lAPI = IAP-Ip .p-lAPI = Ip-lpllAI = IAI . The gravitational force of mass m causes a static deflection of the spring such that kS = mg. Since the determinant of a product is the product of the determinants. Solution To prove the invariance of the eigenvalues under a linear transformation.Ailpi = Ip-lllpllAI .Problems Then 239 (5-117) Comparing Equations (5-116) and (5-117).AI Noting that the product of the determinants Ip-II and Ipi is the determinant of the product Ip-lpl. . Assuming that the displacement y of mass m is measured from the equilibrium position. we obtain IAI . we have shown that AI p-lAP = D = Problem A-5-20 [ ~ Prove that the eigenvalues of a square matrix A are invariant under a linear transformation.p-IAPI = Ip-l('\1 . The external force u applied to mass m is the input and the displacement y is the output of the system.

'/ Problem 8-5-3 Obtain a state-space representation of the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-38. (b) Figure 5-37 Spring-mass-pulley system. . Problem 8-5-4 Obtain a state-space representation of the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-39. The displacements y and z are the outputs of the system. Assume that y and z are measured from their respective equilibrium positions.240 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. The force u(t) applied to mass ml is the input to the system. The displacements Yt and Y2 are measured from their respective equilibrium positions. 5 x (Output) k (a) x (Output) Figure 5-36 (a) and (b) Mechanical systems. where Ul and U2 are the inputs and Yt and Y2 are the outputs.

Problems U(I) 241 y Figure 5-38 Mechanical system. . Problem B-S-S Given the state equation Xl] [ ~2 = x3 and output equation [0 1O][XI] [1] 0 1 0 -3 1 3 X2 + 1 U X3 1 obtain the corresponding scalar differential equation in terms of y and u. Yl Y2 Figure 5-39 Mechanical system.

Problem 8-S-9 Consider the system i=Ax+Bu y = Cx + Du where A:::: [ ~ -600 1 o -100 -10 0] B=[~l 1 .242 Problem 8-5-6 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. D = 1 Obtain the transfer function of the system.S Consider the system defined by '. Obtain a state-space representation for the system. Problem 8-5-10 Consider the following system: Obtain the unit-step response curves with MATLAB. Problem 8-S-7 Consider the system described by [~~] = [-: =~ ][~~] + [~]u y = [1 O][~~] Obtain the transfer function of the system. . Problem B-S-8 Consider a system described by the state equation i = Ax + Bu + Du and the output equation y:::: Cx where B :::: [~]. C :::: [1 0 0]. C = [1 0]. D:::: 0 Obtain the transfer function of the system.v + 6y + 11y + 6y = 6u where y is the output and u is the input of the system.

j(O) = 1. At = 0.D. y = ex + Du where B x(O) = Xo = [~].y. b = 8 N-s/m. Problem 8-5-14 1 1 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-40(a). and k = 20 N/m.C.t). c= [1 0]. + 8y + 17j + lOy = 0 subjected to the initial condition y(O) = 2. Assume that m = 5 kg. Problem 8-5-13 Consider the system . [See Figure 5-40(b). Plot the response curve Y(I) versus 1 (where 0 < 1 < 10) with MATLAB.[initial condition]. The system is at rest for < o.] Derive a state-space representation of the system. D =0 Obtain the response to the initial condition Xo = [~] Use MATLAB command initial(A.5 (No external forcing function is present.) Obtain the response curve y(l) to the given initial condition with MATLAB.B. . Use command Isim.Problems Problem 8-5-11 243 Obtain the unit-step response curve and unit-impulse response curve of the following system with MATLAB: [ Problem 8-5-12 ~l] X2 - _ X3 [-5 1 0 -25 0 1 Y = [0 25 S{. y(O) = 0.:] + [Olu Consider the system defined by i = Ax + Bu. an input force U(I) = 1N =0 forO S I S 5 for 5 < 1 is given to the system. The displacement y is measured from the equilibrium position for 1 < O.

what is the subsequent motion y(t) of the bar AA'? The displacement y(t) is measured from the equilibrium position before the mass is placed on the bar AA'. Derive a state-space representation of the system. and plot the response curve y(t) versus t with MATLAB.2 m. Assume that m = 1 kg. Assume that at t = 0 mass m is placed on the massless bar AA'. Assume that m = 10 kg. Assume also that the system remains linear throughout the transient period. and the spring constant k = 40 N/m. The system is at rest for t < O.] Neglecting the mass of the spring-damper device. (b) input force u. 5 o (a) 5 10 (b) Figure S-4O (a) Mechanical system. Assume that the input and output are the displacements u and y.244 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. (b) vibration caused by placement of mass m on bar AA'. Plot the response curve y(t) versus t with MATLAB. measured from the rest positions. Problem 8-5-15 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-41 (a). b = 20 N-s/m. and k = 40 N/m. the viscous-friction coefficient b = 4 N-s/m. [See Figure 5-41(b). Problem 8-5-16 Consider the system shown in Figure 5-42. Obtain a state-space representation of the system. . The input u is a step displacement input of 0. respectively. A A' y t<O 1>0 (b) (a) Figure 5-41 (a) Mechanical device.

b = 20 N-s/m. Define Z2 .Zt = z. consider the system shown in Figure 5-31. Derive a state-space equation when z. and fis a step force input of magnitude 10 N. The displacements Zt and Z2 are measured from their respective equilibrium positions before the input force f = tN =0 (0 < t ~ 10) (10 < t) (a) f 10N o 10 (b) Figure S-43 (a) Mechanical system. The displacements Zl and Z2 are measured from their respective equilibrium positions relative to the ground. Zit and it are chosen as state variables. Problem B-5-18 Consider the system shown in Figure 5-43(a). Problem B-5-17 Referring to Problem A-S-I0. Assuming that mt = 10 kg. Z.Problems 245 y u b m Figure 5-42 Mechanical system. m2 = 20 kg. plot the response curves Zl(t) versus t. (b) input force f . The system is at rest for t < O. Z2(t) versus I. The system is at rest for t < O. k = 60 N/m. and z(t) versus t.

measured from the equilibrium position before u is given at t = 0. an-Ibn] u -an anb n 0 ? 1 -al (5-118) Xn bi - a1bo and output equation Xl X2 Y = [0 0 0 1] Xn-l Xn + bou (5-119) Problem 8-5-20 Consider the system defined by the following transfer function: Y(s) U(s) = 160(s S3 + 4) + 18s2 + 192s + 640 Using Methods 1 and 2 presented in Section 5-4. Problem 8-5-19 Consider the system equation given by (n) Y + alY (n-l) + ... Assume that ml Chap. Obtain a statespace representation of the system. m2 = 20 kg. 5 = 10 kg.. The displacements Yl and Y2 are measured from their respective equilibrium positions before the input force u is given at t = O. b = 20 N-s/m. derive the state equation [Xn ? Xl] = [0 0 ~ 0 0 0 o 0 -a.246 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems [see Figure 5-43(b») is given to the system. + bn-1u + bnu (n-l) By choosing appropriate state variables. Problem 8-5-21 Using the partial-fraction expansion approach. Then plot the response curves Zl(t) versus t. and k2 = 60 N/m. obtain two state-space representations of the system. The system is at rest for t < O.. . Z2(t) versus t. + an-I] + anY (n) = bou + btU + . Problem 8-5-23 Consider the system shown in Figure 5-45.n-l ][XI] + [bb.n1 --. k t = 30 N/m. The system is at rest for t < O. and derive a state-space representation of the system. Obtain a state-space representation of the system.Zt(t) versus t. is the output of the system. and Z2(t) . The force u is the input to the system and the displacement y. obtain a state-space representation for the following system: Y(s) 5 U(s) = (s + 1)2(s + 2) Problem 8-5-22 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-44.

Assuming that m} = 10 kg. and k2 = 20 N/m and that input force u is a constant force of 5 N.Y2(t) versus t with MATLAB. . measured Figure 5-46 Mechanical system. obtain the response of the system. b = 10 N-s/m. The displacement u is the input to the system. Problem B-5-24 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-46. m2 = 5 kg. Fagure S-45 Mechanical system. k} = 40 N/m. Plot the response curves Yt(t) versus t and .Problems 247 Figure S-44 Mechanical system. and the displacements y and z. The system is initially at rest.

Obtain a state-space representation of the system. and Z2(t) . Figure 5-47 Mechanical system. Problem B-S-27 Consider the system Y(s) 25s + 5 U (s) = s3 + 5s 2 + 25s + 5 Obtain a state-space representation of the system with MATLAB. are the outputs of the system. Figure 5-48 Mechanical system. The force u is the input to the system and the displacements Zt and Z2. The force u is the input to the system and the displacements Zt and Z2. 5 from their respective rest positions before the input displacement u is given to the system. m2 = 200 kg. kl = 50 N/m. are the outputs of the system. The input force u is a step force of magnitude 10 N. and k2= 100 N/m. The system is at rest for t < O. measured from their respective eqUilibrium positions before u is applied at t = 0. are the outputs of the system.248 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. b = 25 N-s/m. Problem B-S-26 Consider the system shown in Figure 5-48. . Obtain a state-space representation of the system. Assume that ml = 100 kg. The system is at rest for t < O. Problem B-S-25 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-47. Plot the response curves Zl(t) versus t.Zt(t) versus t. Problem B-S-28 Consider the system Y(s) s3 + 2s2 + 15s + 10 U (s) = S3 + 4s 2 + 8s + 10 Obtain a state-space representation of the system with MATLAB. measured from their respective equilibrium positions before u is applied at t = 0. Z2(t) versus t. Obtain a state-space representation of the system.

Problem 8-5-30 Obtain the transfer matrix of the system defined by [f~] U2 ~4 ~J[~~] [~ !J[::] = + [~] [~ ~ ~][~:J = Problem 8-5-31 Consider a 3 X 3 matrix having a triple eigenvalue of Al' Then anyone of the following Jordan canonical forms is possible: [~ That is. The first corresponds to the case where there exists only one linearly independent eigenvector. ~(S)/UI(S). and ~(S)/U2(S).) Obtain the transfer matrix (consisting of the preceding four transfer functions) of the system. This fact can be seen by denoting the first matrix by A and solving the following equation for x: [~ which can be rewritten as AtXl + X2 = AIXI At X2 + X3 = A\X2 AtX3 = A\X3 . Four transfer functions are involved: Yt(s)/UJ(s). [~ Each of the three matrices has the same characteristic equation (A . and vice versa.Al)3 = O. Yt(s)/U2(s).Problems 249 Problem 8-5-29 Consider the system defined by Xl] [X2 = [ -25 0 -4 X2 + [10 l][XI] 1] 1 U2 1][U [~] = [~ ~t:] + [~ ~][::] This system involves two inputs and two outputs. (When considering input Uh we assume that input U2 is zero.

5 which. Thus. . gives xl = arbitrary constant. two and three linearly independent eigenvectors. there is only one linearly independent eigenvector. in tum. x=GJ where a is a nonzero constant.250 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. respectively. Show that the second and third of the three matrices have. Hence.

where volt ohm=--ampere 251 .) Then we briefly discuss voltage and current sources. and inductance elements. capacitance. The unit of resistance is the ohm (n). Therefore. Electrical systems and mechanical systems (as well as other systems. because. because they can introduce energy into the circuit.Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems 6-1 INTRODUCTION This chapter is concerned with mathematical modeling and the response analysis of electrical systems and electromechanical systems. such as fluid systems) are very often described by analogous mathematical models. (These are active elements.) Fmally. we provide an outline of the chapter. although they can store or dissipate energy that is already present in the circuit. we present brief discussions on analogous systems in the chapter. In this section. The resistance R of a linear resistor is given by R = eR i where eR is the voltage across the resistor and i is the current through the resistor. they cannot introduce additional energy into the circuit. (These elements are passive elements. Resistance elements. we first review three types of basic elements of electrical systems: resistance.

so two metallic plates separated by a very thin dielectric material form a capacitor. Self-inductance is that property of a single coil that appears when the magnetic field set up by the current in the coilllnks to the coil itself. '!\vo conductors separated by a nonconducting medium form a capacitor. which is the ratio of the energy lost per cycle of ac voltage to the energy stored per cycle. eL L = dildt . the rate of change of flux is proportional to dildt. 6 Resistors do not store electric energy in any form. or simply inductance. we have or dec = l. If the circuit does not contain ferromagnetic elements (such as an iron core). The capacitance C is a measure of the quantity of charge that can be stored for a given voltage across the plates. a small-valued power factor is desirable. real capacitors exhibit various losses. that is. Inductance elements. The capacitance C of a capacitor can thus be given by C =!L ee where q is the quantity of charge stored and ee is the voltage across the capacitor. but instead dissipate it as heat. The inductive effects can be classified as self-inductance and mutual inductance. where farad = ampere-second 1 vo t dec i=Cdt = coulomb volt Note that. Self-inductance. Capacitance elements. an electromotive force is induced in the circuit. ee(t) = C 10 1 (t i dt + ee(O) Although a pure capacitor stores energy and can release all of it. The magnitude of the induced voltage is proportional to the rate of change of flux linking the circuit. is the proportionality constant between the induced voltage eL volts and the rate of change of current (or change in current per second) dildt amperes per second.idt C Therefore.252 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. L. Note that real resistors may not be linear and may also exhibit some capacitance and inductance effects. Thus. If a circuit lies in a time-varying magnetic field. These energy losses are indicated by a power factor. since i = dqldt and ee = qlC. The unit of capacitance is the farad (F).

Section 6-5 offers brief discussions of electromechanical systems. as well as to the current flowing through the second inductor. If two inductors are involved in an electrical circuit. Often the voltage is denoted by E. their mutual inductance Mis 1 henry. An electrical circuit has an inductance of 1 henry when a rate of change of 1 ampere per second will induce an emf of 1 volt: h enry volt ampere/second weber ampere The voltage eL across the inductor L is given by eL = Ldi" diL where iL is the current through the inductor. 6-1 Introduction 253 The unit of inductance is the henry (H). The energy loss due to the presence of resistance is indicated by the quality factor Q. which denotes the ratio of stored to dissipated energy. The complex-impedance approach is included. Figure 6-1(b) shows a voltage source that has a constant value for an indefinite time. A high value of Q generally means that the inductor contains small resistance. . When a change in current of 1 ampere per second in either of the two inductors induces an electromotive force of 1 volt in the other inductor. Section 6-2 reviews the fundamentals of electrical circuits that are presented in college physics courses. A voltage source is a device that causes a specified voltage to exist between two points in a circuit.) Voltage and current sources. Mutual inductance refers to the influence between inductors that results from the interaction of their fields. The voltage may be time varying or time invariant (for a sufficiently long time). they have considerable resistance. The current idt) can thus be given by idt) = ~lt eLdt + iL(O) Because most inductors are coils of wire. Section 6-4 discusses analogous systems. The second inductor is also influenced by the first in exactly the same manner. to distinguish it from self-inductance L. A current source causes a specified current to flow through a wire containing this source. Finally. Section 6-1 has presented introductory material. Figure 6-1(a) is a schematic diagram of a voltage source. whose magnetic field influences the first. Outline of the chapter. Section 6-6 treats operational-amplifier systems. Section 6-3 deals with mathematical modeling and the response analysis of electrical systems. (Note that it is customary to use the symbol M to denote mutual inductance. each may come under the influence of the magnetic field of the other inductor. Figure 6-1(c) is a schematic diagram of a current source.Sec. Then the voltage drop in the first inductor is related to the current flowing through the first inductor. A battery is an example of this type of voltage source.

Series circuits. we review Ohm's law. Ohm's law. and Kirchhoff's current and voltage laws. Ohm's law can be expressed as . e is the emf (volts). l =R e where i is the current (amperes). 6-2 FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS In this section. Figure 6-2 shows a simple series circuit. and R is the resistance (ohms). The combined resistance of series-connected resistors is the sum of the separate resistances. series and parallel circuits. .254 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. (c) current source. 6 e(t) Circuit E Circuit (a) (b) Circuit (c) Figure 6-1 (a) Voltage source. The voltage between points A and B is Figure 6-2 Series circuit. Ohm's law states that the current in a circuit is proportional to the total electromotive force (emf) acting in the circuit and inversely proportional to the total resistance of the circuit. (b) constant voltage source.

where Thus. 6-2 Fundamentals of Electrical Circuits 255 Figure 6-3 Parallel circuit. = Rl + R z + . -=-+-+R Rl R z R3 or 1 1 1 1 Resistance of combined series and parallel resistors. e R3 For the parallel circuit shown in Figure 6-3. The combined resistance is then given by R Parallel circuits. e e e e where R is the combined resistance. . The combined resistance between points Band Cis RBC = R2 + R3 R zR 3 . 11 e = R 1 ' IZ = R ' 2 Since i = i 1 + i2 + i3. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 6-4(a). it follows that 1=-+-+-=R1 R2 R3 R .Sec. Hence.

consider the circuit shown in Figure 6-4(c).256 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. and the two parallel pairs of resistances are connected in .S R2 A B C (a) A R} B C R} R} A (b) RBe R2 R4 B R3 Aa-1 R} A £R' ~B R3+ R4 R2 B (c) A Figure 6-4 Combined series and parallel resistors. The combined resistance R between points A and C is R = Rl + RBe = Rl + R 2 R2 R 3 R + 3 The circuit shown in Figure 6-4(b) can be considered a parallel circuit consisting of resistances (Rl + R2 ) and (R3 + R4)' So the combined resistance R between points A and B is or R = (RI + R2 )(R3 + R4) Rl + R2 + R3 + R4 Next. Rl and R3 are parallel and R2 and R4 are parallel. Here.

Here. as shown in Figure 6--6(b)] should be preceded by a plus sign. This law can also be stated as follows: The sum of the voltage drops is equal to the sum of the voltage rises around a loop. Redrawing this circuit as shown in Figure 6-4(c). R is the external resistance. Figure 6-7 shows a circuit that consists of a battery and an external resistance. In solving circuit problems that involve many electromotive forces. A drop in voltage [which occurs in going through a source of electromotive force from the positive to the negative terminal. we obtain RAP = RIR3 R1 + R3' R2R4 R pB R1 R3 = R2 + R4 R2R4 R As a result. therefore. Kirchhoffs current law (node law) states that the algebraic sum of all currents entering and leaving a node is zero. currents going away from a node should be preceded by a minus sign.i4 .i4 . As applied to Figure 6-5. Kirchhoff's current law (node law). the following rules should be observed: Currents going toward a node should be preceded by a plus sign. and so on.Sec. or in going through a resistance in opposition to the current flow. the following rules should be observed: A rise in voltage [which occurs in going through a source of electromotive force from the negative to the positive terminal. i.is =0 Kirchhoff's voltage law (loop law).) In applying the law to circuit problems. Kirchhoffs current law states that i1 + i2 + i3 . If we follow the loop in the clockwise direction Figure 6-5 Node. the combined resistance R becomes R = RAP + R pB = R1+ R3 + R2+ 4 Kirchhoff's laws. A node in an electrical circuit is a point where three or more wires are joined together. or in going through a resistance in the direction of the current flow. as shown in Figure 6--6(d)] should be preceded by a minus sign. E is the electromotive force. as shown in Figure 6--6(a). + i2 + i3 . inductances. resistances.&-2 Fundamentals of Electrical Circuits 257 series. and i is the current. (This law can also be stated as follows: The sum of all the currents entering a node is equal to the sum of all the currents leaving the same node. .i5 = o. capacitances. as shown in Figure 6-6 (c). it is often necessary to use Kirchhoff's laws. Kirchhoff's voltage law states that at any given instant of time the algebraic sum of the voltages around any loop in an electrical circuit is zero. of which there are two: the current law (node law) and the voltage law (loop law). In applying the law to circuit problems. r is the internal resistance of the battery.

.E2 .ir = 0 from which it follows that l=-- ... E} . (A ~ B ~ C ~ A) as shown.) . + eit + ec:t or =0 E . By assuming the direction of the current i as shown and following the loop clockwise as shown..iR . B ' .} + r2 + R (6-1) .. then we have e.. and R is the external resistance. (Note: Each circular arrow shows the direction one follows in analyzing the respective circuit...-.-----+-----..S (a) (c) E1e J E1e J eAB= +E (b) R:~ R:~ i i eAB= +Ri eAB= -E (d) eAB = -Ri Figure 6-6 Diagrams showing voltage rises and voltage drops in circuits.ir} = 0 or 1=---'---- . respectively.. where E} and r} (E2 and '2) are the electromotive force and internal resistance of battery 1 (battery 2). C Figure 6-7 Electrical circuit.. we obtain E} .iR ..E2 .258 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap.. E R+r A circuit consisting of two batteries and an external resistance appears in Figure 6-8(a).i'2 ...

both Kirchhoff's current law and voltage law may be applied. which means that the current i flows in the direction assumed. if we assume that the current flows to the right and if the value of i is calculated and found to be positive. we can assume the directions of currents as shown in the diagram. Let us find the current in each wire. Circuits with two or more loops. Note that the direction used to follow the loop is arbitrary.E2 + iT2 + iTt = ~ . in solving circuit problems. If the value of i is found to be negative. which means that the current i flows opposite to the assumed direction. then the current i actually flows to the right. Equation (6-2). the current i actually flows to the left. For circuits with two or more loops. however. Here. (Note that these directions are arbitrary and could differ from those shown i1 A i3 i2 E1 n E'n R2 R3 B Figure 6-9 Electrical circuit. (b) If we assume that the direction of the current i is reversed [Figure 6-8(b )]. That is. by following the loop clockwise. the direction used in following the loop can be clockwise or counterclockwise. For the circuits shown in Figure 6-8. . 6-2 Fundamentals of Electrical Circuits 259 (a) Figure 6-8 Electrical circuits. suppose that El > E2• Then Equation (6-1) gives i > 0. we obtain E} or i = + iR . just as the direction of current flow can be assumed to be arbitrary. The first step in writing the circuit equations is to define the directions of the currents in each wire.El Tl ° + T2 + R (6-2) Note that.Sec. the final result is the same in either case. which has two loops. yields i < 0. The second is to determine the directions that we follow in each loop. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 6-9. then.

6 in the diagram.) Then we obtain the following equations: At point A: For the left loop: For the right loop: il + i3 . Applying Kirchhoffs voltage law to the circuit results in the following equations: E1 .ilRI = 0 E2 . In this approach.R2( i2 . For instance.) Figure 6-10 Electrical circuit. we assume that clockwise cyclic currents i1 and i2 exist in the left and right loops.R1i1 = 0 E2 . in Figure 6-10.) Suppose that we follow the loops clockwise.R2{il .E2 R 3 .i3R2 = 0 Eliminating i2 from the preceding three equations and then solving for il and i 3 . (Again. we find that Hence.260 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap.E2 + i3R2 . 11 3 1 = RIR2 2 R2R3 + R3 R l + E (R + R ) .E2 . Solving for i1 and i2 gives For left loop: For right loop: .R3i2 . the directions could be either clockwise or counterclockwise.i2R3 .i2 = 0 El .i1 in Figure 6-10. of the circuit. we assume that a cyclic current exists in each loop. 12 = EIR2 + E2R1 RIR2 + R2 R 3 + R3 R l (By comparing the circuits shown in Figures 6-9 and 6-10.i2) . Writing equations for loops by using cyclic currents. respectively. verify that i3 in Figure 6-9 is equal to i2 . as is shown in the figure. .i 1) = 0 Note that the net current through resistance R2 is the difference between i1 and i2.

followed by derivations of mathematical models of electrical circuits. 6-3 Mathematical Modeling of Electrical Systems 261 6-3 MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS The first step in analyzing circuit problems is to obtain mathematical models for the circuits.) A mathematical model may consist of algebraic equations. Such a model may be obtained by applying one or both of Kirchhoff's laws to a given circuit.Ri = 0 dt or di L .Sec. Let us solve Equation (6-3) for the current i(t). (Although the terms circuit and network are sometimes used interchangeably. By arbitrarily choosing the direction of the current around the loop as shown in the figure. Then we review the concept of complex impedances. network implies a more complicated interconnection than circuit. i(O) = O. we have (Ls + R)/(s) E =- s E G L ( ) i R Figure 6-11 Electrical circuit. The variables of interest in the circuit analysis are voltages and currents at various points along the circuit. because the current in the inductor cannot change from zero to a finite value instantaneously. and similar ones. integrodifferential equations. we obtain L[sl(s) . Taking the Laplace transforms of both sides. In this section. Assume that the switch S is open for 1 < 0 and closed at 1 = O.+ R' E 1= dt (6-3) This is a mathematical model for the given circuit. we first present the mathematical modeling of electrical circuits and obtain solutions of simple circuit problems. . Thus. Example 6-1 Consider the circuit shown in Figure 6-11. Obtain a mathematical model for the circuit and obtain an equation for the current i(I).i(O)] + RI(s) = E s Noting that i(O) = 0. Note that at the instant switch S is closed the current i(O) is zero.L di . we obtain E . differential equations.

:: 0 ~ tl (6-6) is (6-7) the switch is opened. and (6-8) constitute a mathematical model for the system. the solution of Equation (6-5) is t ~ 0 (6-5) i(t) == E [1 R At t = tIt e-(RIL)/] tl > t . and find the current i(t) for t ~ O. . The equation for the circuit for t dt where the initial condition at t == di 1= L -+ R' 0 t} is given by i(tt> == E [1 - R e-(RIL)/I] (6-8) (Note that the instantaneous value of the current at the switching instant t == tl serves as the initial condition for the transient response for t .-------.(tl)] + RI(s) == 0 ...:: tl') Equations (6-5). .(0) = 0 tl > dt From Equation (6-4). Consider again the circuit shown in Figure 6-11. Now we shall obtain the solution of Equation (6-7) with the initial condition given by Equation (6-8).(1) Chap.. gives L[sJ(s) . Figure 6-12 Plot of i(t) versus I for the circuit shown in Figure 6-11 when switch S is closed at t = O.262 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems . The Laplace transform of Equation (6-7)..----0. The equation for the circuit is L di + Ri = E . it is closed at t = 0.s + (RlL) 1] (6-4) The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation gives i(t) == E [1 _ R ExampJe6-Z e-(RIL)t] A typical plot of i(t) versus t appears in Figure 6-12. Assume that switch S is open for t < 0. o Ii L or E I(s) == s(Ls + R) =R E [1 -. Obtain a mathematical model for the system. with t == tl the initial time. and is open again at t = tl > O. ....632 Ii E .S Ii ----.-J- E .. (6-7). .

(s). assuming zero initial conditions. Obtain the transfer function Eo(s)IE. Also. from Equations (6-6) and (6-10). dt (6-11) (6-12) =e Q The transfer-function model of the circuit can be obtained as follows: Taking the Laplace transfonns of Equations (6-11) and (6-12). we get 1 1 RI{s) + C-. The circuit consists of a resistance R(in ohms) and a capacitance C (in farads)../(s) = Ej(s) C-. - Figure 6-13 Plot of i(l) versus 1 for the circuit shown in Figure 6-12 when switch S is closed at t = 0 and opened at 1 = I). Applying Kirchhoffs voltage law to the system. 6-3 i(t) Mathematical Modeling of Electrical Systems 263 R E -------------::-~~~~~---­ (1.Sec.. or (Ls + R)/(s) = Li(td Hence.e-f/l)j .!.Ji C dt = e. the current i{t) for written 0 can be i{l) = E [1 R _ _ e-(RIL)/] 11 > t ?! 0 = E [1 R e-(RlL)/I]e-(RlL)(t-tt) A typical plot of i(l) versus I for this case is given in Figure 6-13. I(s) = Li(tl) Ls + R = E [1 R _ e-(RIL)t l ] 1 s + (RIL) (6-9) The inverse Laplace transform of Equation (6-9) gives i{t) = ~[1 R e-(RIL)tl]e-(RlL)(t-t d (6-10) 1 ?! Consequently. obtain a state-space representation of the system. /(s) = Eo{s) 1 1 . we obtain the following equations: Ri + iJi . Example 6-3 Consider the electrical circuit shown in Figure 6-14.

a resistance R (in ohms). the differential equation for the circuit is RCeo + eo = ej If we defIne the state variable and the input and output variables u = ej.264 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. from Equation (6-13). o~------------------~----o . note that. and a capacitance C (in farads). Also.. ) Figure 6-15 Electrical circuit. Applying Kirchhoffs voltage law to the system. Obtain the transfer function Eis)IE.!i L dt = e· I (6-14) (6-15) R e. A state-space model of the system may be obtained as follows: First. 6 Figure 6-14 RC circuit Assuming that the input is ei and the output is eo. Example 6-4 Consider the electrical circuit shown in Figure 6-15. J(s) + c-.!. The circuit consists of an inductance L (in henrys). 1 y = eo = x 1 then we obtain x=--x+-u RC RC y=x These two equations give a state-space representation of the system. J(s) 11) 1 RCs + 1 (6-13) This system is a first-order system. we obtain the following equations: L di dt + Ri + C .(s). obtain a state-space representation of the system. . the transfer function of the system is Eo(s) Ej(s) = ( R 11 c.

/(s) = E.(s) = C-. consider the system shown in Figure 6-16(a). Then the transfer function of the whole system becomes G(s) = )(l(S) = )(1(S))(2(S) = G1(S)G2(s) )(3(S) )(2(S))(3(S) . and the input and output variables we obtain [. 6-3 Mathematical Modeling of Electrical Systems 265 The transfer-function model of the circuit can be obtained as follows: Taking the Laplace transforms of Equations (6-14) and (6-15). note that. assuming zero initial conditions.(s) becomes 1 1 Eo(s) Eo(s) Ej(s) = Lcil 1 + RCs +1 (6-16) A state-space model of the system may be obtained as follows: FITSt. Transfer Functions of Nonloading Cascaded Elements. the output of the first ele- ment is not affected by connecting it to the second element.LC e. The transfer function of a system consisting of two nonloading cascaded elements can be obtained by eliminating the intermediate input and output. 1= [01 LC Xl X2 -- -- 1][ 1 [0] R Xl + 1 U L X2 - LC and These two equations give a mathematical model of the system in state space. by defining state variables 1 _ 1 LC eo . /(s) Then the transfer function Eo(s)/E. For example.Sec.. the differential equation for the system is . from Equation (6-16). +!i. we get 1 1 Ls/(s) + R/(s) + C-. + eo Leo Then. The transfer functions of the elements are )(2(S) )(3(S) and G2(s) = )(2(S) Gt(s) = )(l(S) If the input impedance of the second element is infinite.

266 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Xt(S) (a) Chap.. The transfer function of the whole system is thus the product of the transfer functions of the individual elements. The capacitances C l and C2 are not charged initially. This is shown in Figure 6-16(b). Assume that e. is the input and eo is the output. The equations for the system are ~lJ (it - i2) dt + Rtit = ei =0 (6-17) ~t J (i2 - ill dt + R2i2 + ~2 J i2dt (6-18) (6-19) ~2Ji2dt = eo ej Isolating amplifier (gainK) Figure 6-17 Electrical system. isolated by an amplifier as shown in Figure 6-17. in this case. The two simple RC circuits.(b) I Figure 6-16 (a) System consisting of two nonloading cascaded elements. Let us show that the second stage of the circuit (the R2C2 portion) produces a loading effect on the first stage (the RlCl portion). 6 • I Gt(S) G2(S) .. The insertion of an isolating amplifier between the circuits to obtain nonloading characteristics is frequently used in combining circuits. (b) an equivalent system. consider the system shown in Figure 6-17. Thus.. Consider the system shown in Figure 6-18.. Since amplifiers have very high input impedances. an isolation amplifier inserted between the two circuits justifies the nonloading assumption. .-.RlClS + 1 )(K)( 1 ) R2C2s + 1 K Transfer functions of cascaded elements... have negligible loading effects.. As an example.(s) . Eo(s) _ ( 1 E. and the transfer function of the entire circuit equals the product of the individual transfer functions. Many feedback systems have components that load each other.

assuming zero initial conditions. 6-3 Mathematical Modeling of Electrical Systems 267 Taking the Laplace transforms of Equations (6-17) through (6-19). When the second circuit is connected to the output of the first. if the transfer function of this system is obtained under the assumption of no loading. if two RC circuits are connected in cascade so that the output from the first circuit is the input to the second. a certain amount of power is withdrawn. we find the transfer function between Eo(s) and E. the overall transfer function is not the product of 1/(R1C1S + 1) and 1I(R2C2 s + 1). the two roots of the denominator of Equation (6-23) are real. Zl and Z2 represent complex impedances.Sec. without writing the differential equations.(s) to be Eo(s) E. we obtain (6-20) (6-21) (6--22) Eliminating II(S) from Equations (6--20) and (6-21) and writing E. which means that no power is being withdrawn at the output. Consider the system shown in Figure 6--19. Complex impedances.(s) in terms of 12(s). The reason for this is that. The degree of the loading effect determines the amount of modification of the transfer function. and thus the assumption of no loading is violated. we implicitly assume that the output is unloaded. The complex impedance . when we derive the transfer function for an isolated circuit. In other words. The analysis just presented shows that. respectively. then it is not valid. In deriving transfer functions for electrical circuits. however. Therefore. Since (RICI + R2C2 + RI C2)2 > 4R I CI R2C2.(s) = (RICIS 1 + 1)(R2C2S + 1) + RI C2S 1 RICIR2C2S2 + (RICI + R2C2 + R I C2)S + 1 (6-23) The term R1C2S in the denominator of the transfer function represents the interaction of two simple RC circuits. In this system. the load impedance is assumed to be infinite. we frequently find it convenient to write the Laplace-transformed equations directly.

or Ls.(s) = Zl(S)/(S) + 22(s)/(s) Z2(S) = Zl(S) + Z2(s) where /(s) is the Laplace transform of the current i(t) in the circuit. respectively. (Note that. If the two-terminal element is a resistance R. 6 Figure 6-19 Electrical circuit. then the complex impedance is given by R. or an inductance L. Figure 6-20 Electrical circuit. For the circuit shown in Figure 6-20.268 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. the impedance approach can be applied to obtain the transfer function of the electrical circuit. the total impedance is the sum of the individual complex impedances. respectively. so that Z(s) = E(s)II(s).) Remember that the impedance approach is valid only if the initial conditions involved are all zero. This approach greatly simplifies the derivation of transfer functions of electrical circuits. assume that the voltages ei and eo are the input and output of the circuit. Then the transfer function of this circuit can be obtained as Eo(s) 22(s)I(s) E. ~----------e----------~ Z(s) of a two-terminal circuit is the ratio of E(s). the Laplace transform of the current through the element. the Laplace transform of the voltage across the terminals. If complex impedances are connected in series. under the assumption that the initial conditions are zero. The transfer function of an electrical circuit can be obtained as a ratio of complex impedances. like resistances. Since the transfer function requires zero initial conditions. a capacitance C. The general relationship E(s) = Z(s)/(s) corresponds to Ohm's law for purely resistive circuits. . Deriving transfer functions of electrical circuits with the use of complex impedances. to /(s). lICs. impedances can be combined in series and in parallel.

Sec. In the system shown in Figure 6-23(b). 6-3 Mathematical Modeling of Electrical Systems 269 """""""'-t---r---O 01-----------""'---_0 For the circuit shown in Figure 6-21.(s) = Cs 1 Ls + R + Cs 1 = LCs2 + RCs + 1 Example 6-5 Consider the system shown in Figure 6-22.( s) by the complex-impedance approach. . which can be further modified to Figure 6-23 (b).) The circuit shown in Figure 6-22 can be redrawn as that shown in Figure 6-23(a). Noting that we obtain Figure 6-22 Electrical circuit. Zl Figure 6-21 Electrical circuit. the transfer function Eo( s )/Ei ( s) is Eo(s) E. Obtain the transfer function Eo( s)/E. the current I is divided into two currents I} and h. = Ls + R. 1 Z2=- 1 Cs Hence. (Capacitances C1 and C2 are not charged initially.

. [Notice that it is the same as that given by Equation (6-23). (b) equivalent circuit diagram.. Thus.(s) = Z1(Z2 + Z3 + Z4) + ~(Z3 + Z4) Substituting ZI = R. The solution of the equation describing one physical system can be directly applied to analogous systems in any other field. Z3 = R2.270 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems I Chap.] 6-4 ANALOGOUS SYSTEMS Systems that can be represented by the same mathematical model. analogous systems are described by the same differential or integrodifferential equations or transfer functions. and Z4 = 1I(C2s) into this last equation yields 1 1 Eo(s) = Ej(s) CIS C2s R{c~s + R2 + C~s) + ~s (R2 + C~s) 1 which is the transfer function of the system. Z2 = 1I(C1s). are called analogous systems. Observing that we get Eo(s) Z2Z4 E. but that are physically different. 6 Ej(s) Ej(s) (a) (b) Figure 6-23 (a) The circuit of Figure 6-22 shown in terms of impedances. The concept of analogous systems is useful in practice. for the following reasons: 1.

measured from the equilibrium position. The equation for the mechanical system is d 2x dx m-+ b-+ kx = P dt 2 dt (6-24) where x is the displacement of mass m. instead of building and studying a mechanical system (or a hydraulic system. much easier to deal with experimentally. pneumatic system. L p R e x J (b) c (a) Figure ~24 Analogous mechanical and electrical systems. Consider the mechanical system of Figure 6-24(a) and the electrical system of Figure 6-24(b). . Mechanical systems can be studied through their electrical analogs. Mechanical-electrical analogies. in general. There are two electrical analogies for mechanical systems: the force-voltage analogy and the force--current analogy. This section presents analogies between mechanical and electrical systems. Since one type of system may be easier to handle experimentally than another. or the like). which may be more easily constructed than models of the corresponding mechanical systems. this last equation becomes dq 1 d 2q L-+ R-+-q = e 2 dt dt C (6-25) Comparing Equations (6-24) and (6-25). Thus. we see that the differential equations for the two systems are of identical form. In the mechanical system p is the external force. Force-voltage analogy. and in the electrical system e is the voltage source.Sec. these two systems are analogous systems. 0. 6-4 Analogous Systems 271 2. we can build and study its electrical analog. The equation for the electrical system is di L -+ R' +lJ'dt=e Z l dt C In terms of the electric charge q. for electrical or electronic systems are.

lie Charge q Current i n The terms that occupy corresponding positions in the differential equations are called analogous quantities. . where is is the current source. iL iR ic C L R I e ~ (a) (b) Figure 6-25 Analogous mechanical and electrical systems. IJ L edt. The analogy here is called the force-voltage analogy (or mass-inductance analogy). a list of which appears in Table 6-1. Applying Kirchhoff's current law gives (6-27) where lL = . Force-current analogy. Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 6-25(a). measured from the eqUilibrium position.272 TABLE 6-1 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Force-Voltage Analogy Chap. lR e = R' i C = C de dt /. Another analogy between mechanical and electrical systems is based on the force-current analogy. 6 Mechanical Systems Force p (torque Mass m (moment of inertia 1) Viscous-friction coefficient b Spring constant k Displacement x (angular displacement 8) Velocity i (angular velocity 8) Electrical Systems Voltagee Inductance L Resistance R Reciprocal of capacitance. Consider next the electrical system shown in Figure 6-25 (b) . The system equation is m dt 2 d 2x + bdi + kx = p dx (6-26) where x is the displacement of mass m. where p is the external force. .

we find that the two systems are analogous. Analogy. The analogous quantities are listed in Table 6-2.e . is not limited to mechanical-electrical analogy. as d2y. 11L Magnetic flux linkage y. Such an analogous electrical circuit can be built physically or can be simulated on the digital computer. Systems having an identical transfer function (or identical mathematical model) are analogous systems. It proves particularly useful when a given physical system (mechanical. the mathematical response can be given a physical interpretation. The analogy here is called the force-current analogy (or mass-capacitance analogy). 6-4 Analogous Systems 273 ·1 I Thus. it can be divided into two or more subregions. 1 C dt 2 + R dt + L Y. since the mathematical models on which the analogies are based are only approximations to the dynamic characteristics of physical systems. and so on) is complicated. R dt S (6-28) Since the magnetic flux linkage y. Equation (6-27) can be written as I i- -1 L J d= l e dt + -e + C. the analogy may break down if the operating region of one system is very wide. 1 dy. Voltage e x . The concept of analogy is useful in applying well-known results in one field to another. TABLE 6-2 Force-Current Analogy Mechanical Systems Force p (torque 1) Mass m (moment of inertia 1) Viscous-friction coefficient b Spring constant k Displacement x (angular displacement 8) Velocity (angular velocity 8) Electrical Systems Current i Capacitance C Reciprocal of resistance. hydraulic. but includes any physical or nonphysical system. Analogies between two systems break down if the regions of operation are extended too far. For any given physical system. In other words. and analogous electrical systems can be built for each subregion. so that analyzing an analogous electrical circuit first is advantageous. (The transfer function is one of the simplest and most concise forms of mathematical models available today. pneumatic. Comments. even if the operating region of a given mechanical system is wide. = is (6-29) Comparing Equations (6-26) and (6-29).Sec. of course. 11R Reciprocal of inductance. Nevertheless. dt Equation (6-28) can be written in terms of y. is related to the voltage e by the equation -=e dy.) Analogous systems exhibit the same output in response to the same input.

(b) analogous electrical system. J (b) R eo Figure 6-26 (a) Mechanical system. we have Eo(s) E.274 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap.(s) RCs = Res + 1 Comparing the transfer functions obtained. 6 Example 6-(i Obtain the transfer functions of the systems shown in Figures 6-26(a) and (b). assuming zero initial conditions.xo) = kxo or bx. = kxo + bxo Taking the Laplace transform of this last equation. . (Note that both b/k and RC have the dimension of time and are time constants of the respective systems. There are many different . we obtain mathematical models of dc servomotors. we obtain bsXj(s) = (k + bs)Xo(s) Hence. To control the motion or speed of dc servomotors. we see that the two systems are analogous.(s) = bs + k = ~1 is + For the electrical system shown in Figure 6-26(b). the equation of motion is ~ I I b(x. the transfer function between Xo(s) and Xj(s) is b Xo(s) bs is X. For the mechanical system shown in Figure 6-26(a). and show that these systems are analogous. (a) 6-5 MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS In this section.) c 0 I e. we control the field current or armature current or we use a servodriver as a motor-driver combination.

we shall discuss only armature control of a dc servomotor and obtain its mathematical model in the form of a transfer function. Notice that if the sign of the current ia is reversed.N-m J = moment of inertia of the motor and load referred to the motor shaft. n La = armature inductance. N-mJradis The torque T developed by the motor is proportional to the product of the armature current ia and the air gap flux !/I.A ea = applied armature voltage. 6-5 Mathematical Modeling of Electromechanical Systems 275 types of servodrivers.Sec. The torque T can therefore be written as = KfifKtia where K 1 is a constant. V eb = back emf. In this system. A if = field current. For a constant field current. where the field current is held constant. which in tum is proportional to the field current. or !/I T = Kfif where Kf is a constant. if = constant Figure 6-27 Armature-controlled de servomotor. rad T = torque developed by the motor. which will result in a reversal of the direction of rotor rotation. Here. the flux becomes constant and the torque becomes directly proportional to the armature current. the sign of the torque T will be reversed. Consider the armature-controlled dc servomotor shown in Figure 6-27. Most are designed to control the speed of dc servomotors. . Ra = armature resistance. Armature control of dc servomotors. kg-m2 b = viscous-friction coefficient of the motor and load referred to the motor shaft. H ia = armature current. V 8 = angular displacement of the motor shaft. which improves the efficiency of operating servomotors. so T = Kia where K is a motor-torque constant. however.

then the transfer function given by Equation (6-36) reduces to K --=--------=------Rab + KKb) S( S B(s) K Raj (6-37) + Raj Notice that the term (Rab + KKb)/(RaJ) in Equation (6-37) corresponds to the damping term.276 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. The speed of an armature-controlled dc servomotor is controlled by the armature voltage ea' The differential equation for the armature circuit is dia . J -2+ b-= T = Kl dt dt a (6-32) Assuming that all initial conditions are zero and taking the Laplace transforms of Equations (6-30). the induced voltage eb is directly proportional to the angular velocity dO/dt. Equation (6-37) may be rewritten as B(s) Km Ea(s) = s(Tms + 1) (6-38) . we obtain the transfer function for the dc servomotor: (6-36) The inductance La in the armature circuit is usually small and may be neglected. and (6-35). 6 When the armature is rotating. a voltage proportional to the product of the flux and angular velocity is induced in the armature. hence. we obtain the following equations: KbSB(S) = Eb(S) (Las + Ra)IaCs) + Eb(S) = Ea(s) (Js + bs)B(s) = T(s) = KIa(s) 2 (6-33) (6-34) (6-35) Considering Ea( s) as the input and B( s) as the output and eliminating la( s) and Eb(S) from Equations (6-33). or (6-30) where eb is the back emf and Kb is a back-emf constant. (6-31). Lad! + Ra1a + eb = ea (6-31) The armature current produces the torque that is applied to the inertia and friction. For a constant flux. If La is neglected. the back emf increases the effective damping of the system. d 20 de . (6-34). Thus. and (6-32).

we have 'lWl = '2W2 '1 where WI and ~ are the angular velocities of gear 1 and gear 2. if the torque applied to the input shaft is Tl and the torque transmitted to the output shaft is T2. Here. or to obtain the most efficient power transfer by matching the driving member to the given load. Assuming that the stiffness of the shafts of the gear train is infmite. Since the transfer function involves the term 1/s. respectively. In other words. (Notice that the time constant Tm of the motor becomes smaller as the resistance Ra is reduced and the moment of inertia J is made smaller. and that the number of teeth on each gear is . to magnify torque. Gear trains are frequently used in mechanical systems to reduce speed. the gear train transmits the power unchanged. Therefore. -=-=W1 ~ nl '2 n2 If we neglect friction loss. then -='2 n2 '1 nl Because the surface speeds at the point of contact of the two gears must be identical.Sec. and the numbers of teeth on gear 1 and gear 2 are nl and n2. where Km = KI(Rab + KKb ) = motor gain constant Tm = RaJ1(Rab + KKb ) = motor time constant Equation (6-38) is the transfer function of the dc servomotor when the armature voltage ei t) is the input and the angular displacement 8( t) is the output. 6-5 Mathematical Modeling of Electromechanical Systems 277 Input Output Figure 6-28 Gear train system. this system possesses an integrating property. that there is neither backlash nor elastic deformation. then ExampJe6-7 Consider the system shown in Figure 6-29. Figure 6-28 illustrates a simple gear train system in which the gear train transmits motion and torque from the input member to the output member.) Gear train. a load is driven by a motor through the gear train. respectively. respectively. If the radii of gear 1 and gear 2 are '1 and '2.

Since the gear train transmits the power unchanged. the gear ratio reduces the speed in addition to magnifying the torque. The numbers of teeth on gear 1 and gear 2 are ni and n2.278 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Motor shaft (shaft 1) Gear 1 Chap. the following two equations can be derived: For the motor shaft (shaft 1). (6-40) where T2 is the torque transmitted to gear 2 and TL is the load torque. respectively. The inertia and viscous friction coefficient of each gear train component are denoted by lit and 12 . find the equivalent inertia and equivalent friction referred to the motor shaft (shaft 1) and those referred to the load shaft (shaft 2). and the angular velocities of shaft 1 and shaft 2 are and ~.S Input torque from motor Load torque TL Gear 2 Load shaft (shaft 2) Figure 6-29 Gear train system. By applying Newton's second law to this system. WI hI (6-39) where Tm is the torque developed by the motor and TI is the load torque on gear 1 due to the rest of the gear train. ~. we have TIWt = T2~ or Tt = T2 -W2 = T2 -nl Wl n2 If nI/n2 < 1. respectively. Eliminating TI and T2 from Equations (6-39) and (6-40) yields (6-41) Since W2 = (nI/n2)wh eliminating ClJ2 from Equation (6-41) gives [II + (::YJ2 ]WI + [hI + (::)2~ ]WI + (::) TL = Tm (6-42) . proportional to the radius of the gear. For the load shaft (shaft 2). respectively.

For speed-reducing gear trains. J 'a e. Similar comments apply to the equivalent friction of the gear train. Ra = armature resistance. the ratio nl/n2 is much smaller than unity. n ia = armature current. . Obtain the transfer function between the output 82 and the input ea. If nl1n2 ~ 1. The armature inductance is negligible and is not shown in the circuit. In the diagram. The equivalent inertia and equivalent viscous friction coefficient of the gear train referred to shaft 2 are 1 2eq = 12 + (::)2Ilt So the relationship between II eq and 12 eq is and that between bl eq and bz eq is bl eq = (:~) b2 eq 2 and Equation (6-42) can be modified to give 12eqWz + bzeqWz + TL = !Tm n ExampJe6-8 Consider the dc servomotor system shown in Figure 6-30. then the effect of 12 on the equivalent inertia II eq is negligible. the equivalent inertia and equivalent viscous friction coefficient of the gear train referred to shaft 1 are given by The effect of 12 on the equivalent inertia II cq is determined by the gear ratio nI1n2. In terms of the equivalent inertia II eq and equivalent viscous friction coefficient b 1 eq' Equation (6-42) can be simplified to give II eqWl + bi eqWI + nTL = Tn! where n = nlln2. 6-5 Mathematical Modeling of Electromechanical Systems 279 Thus. Figure 6-30 DC servomotor system.Sec. A '.

V 81 = angular displacement of the motor shaft. rad 82 = angular displacement of the load element. we obtain KKb ) ( Jt eqs2 + R. kg-m2 2 12 = moment of inertia of the load. The induced voltage angular velocity 81. rad T = torque developed by the motor. 6 ea = applied armature voltage. The equation for the armature circuit is (6-44) The equivalent moment of inertia of the motor rotor plus the load inertia referred to the motor shaft is 1 = 11 + (:~)212 1eq The armature current produces the torque that is applied to the equivalent moment of inertia eq. A Chap. (6-47). V eb = back emf.S n1 8z (s) = Ra Ea(s) KKb )n2 K . and (6-45). (6-44).280 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems if = field current. and (6-48).1otor torque constant. we obtain Eb(s) = KbS@t(s) RaIa(s) + Eb(s) = Ea(s) 1} eqs2@}(s) = KIa(s) (6-46) (6-47) (6-48) Eliminating Eb(s) and la(s) from Equations (6-46). Thus. 11 (6-45) Assuming that all initial conditions are zero and taking the Laplace transforms of Equations (6-43). N-m 1) = moment of inertia of the rotor of the motor.s @t(s) K = Ra Ea(s) Noting that @1(s)/@2(S) = n21nh we can write this last equation as ( J t eqS 2 + R. kg-m nl = number of teeth on gear 1 n2 = number of teeth on gear 2 The torque T developed by the dc servomotor is T = Kia where K is the I1. or d(h eb eb is proportional to the = KbTt (6-43) where Kb is the back-emf constant.

Operational amplifiers. (The differential gain K decreases with the frequency of the signal and becomes about unity for frequencies of 1 MHz to about 50 MHz. the input e2 to the plus terminal is not inverted. called the inverting and non inverting terminals. we briefly discuss operational amplifiers. In :: :_____b>>-------oo o o Figure ~31 Operational amplifier. the device is inherently unstable.) Note that the operational amplifier amplifies the difference in voltages el and e2' Such an amplifier is commonly called a differential amplifier. .Sec. We present several examples of operational-amplifier systems and obtain their mathematical models. We choose the ground as 0 volts and measure the input voltages el and e2 relative to the ground. To stabilize it. the input impedance is infinity and the output impedance is zero. There are two terminals on the input side. (The input el to the minus terminal of the amplifier is inverted. In other words. often called op-amps. Consider the operational amplifier shown in Figure 6-31. The magnitUde of K is approximately 105 to 106 for dc signals and ac signals with frequencies less than approximately 10 Hz. one with a minus sign and the other with a plus sign. respectively. it is necessary to have negative feedback from the output to the input (feedback from the output to the inverted input). They are used in filters in control systems and to amplify signals in sensor circuits. no current flows into the input terminals and the output voltage is not affected by the load connected to the output terminal. are important building blocks in modem electronic systems.) The total input to the amplifier is e2 .el) = -K(el . In the ideal operational amplifier.el' The ideal operational amplifier has the characteristic eo = K(e2 .e2) where the inputs el and e2 may be dc or ac signals and K is the differential gain or voltage gain. the transfer function ~(s)IEa(s) is given by ~(s) nl K n2 1 Ea( s) = { [ J Ra + :~ ()2 1 + KKb} s J2 S 6-6 MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF OPERATIONAL-AMPLIFIER SYSTEMS In this section. Since the gain of the operational amplifier is very high. 6-6 Mathematical Modeling of Operational-Amplifier Systems 281 Hence.

Ignoring the current flowing into the amplifier. an actual operational amplifier. Inverting amplifier.282 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap.e' eo .Rl - . a very small (almost negligible) current flows into an input terminal and the output cannot be loaded too much. however. we assume the voltage gain to be K » 1.-) ( -KRI -KR2 -R2 . eo = -Ke' Eliminating e' from Equations (6-49) and (6-50). Consider the operational-amplifier system shown in Figure 6-32. we make the assumption that the operational amplifiers are ideal. (6-49) Also. we obtain (6-50) or e o ei 1 1 1 .. Assume that the magnitudes of the resistances R1 and R2 are of comparable order.. we have -'--+ Rl e· .e' R2 =0 from which we get Thus.. In our analysis here. In the derivation. 6 Figure 6-32 Operational-amplifier system. Let us derme the voltage at the minus terminal as e'. Let us obtain the voltage ratio eolei.

-=---e. ej . eo R2 Rl 1 + R2 Rl 1+ K Since K » 1 + (R2IR 1 ). If we use the concept of an imaginary short. as the following analysis shows: Consider again the amplifier system shown in Figure 6-32. -eo or eo =- R2 Rl ej This is a mathematical model relating voltages eo and e.Sec. the current i1 must be equal to the current i2• Thus. can be obtained much more quickly than the way we just found it. or e' = O. the voltage at the minus terminal becomes equal to the voltage at the plus terminal.e' ll=~' i2 = --R2 e' . the voltage at the minus terminal and the voltage at the plus terminal become equal. From Equations (6-49) and (6-51) we have e' = Rl -+R2 1 1 -+Rl R2 e. we have (6-51) Equation (6-51) gives the relationship between the output voltage eo and the input voltage ej. --= Rl e.. when the output signal is fed back to the minus terminal. we have -=- e. .eo Since only a negligible current flows into the amplifier. eo =0 In an operational-amplifier circuit. and define .e' e' .eo R2 Because the output signal is fed back to the minus terminal. We obtained the same result as we got in the previous analysis [see Equation (6-51)]. the ratio eole. . 6-6 Mathematical Modeling of Operational-Amplifier Systems 283 Hence. Hence. This is called an imaginary short. but much more quickly.

eo = K(e2 . but are approximations that are sufficiently accurate.el) where K is infinite. 3. Hence. The input impedance is infinite. . The use of these three conditions simplifies the derivation of transfer functions of operational-amplifier systems. In designing active filters. we shall derive the characteristics of circuits consisting of operational amplifiers. we derive mathematical models of operational-amplifier systems. and capacitors. the output voltage eo is the differential input voltage (e2 . In the remaining part of this section.284 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. we construct the circuit such that the negative feedback appears in the operational amplifier like the system shown in Figure 6-32. resistors. Example 6-9 Consider the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-33. not exact. the differential input voltage becomes zero.el) multiplied by the differential gain K. then the circuit is a sign inverter. and we have Voltage at negative terminal = Voltage at positive terminal 2. 6 Note that the sign of the output voltage eo is the negative of that of the input voltage ei. That is. this operational amplifier is called an inverted amplifier. Obtain the relationship between eo and ej. In what follows. of course. The output impedance is zero. Obtaining mathematical models of physical operational-amplifier systems by means of equations for idealized operational-amplifier systems. The derived transfer functions are. From Figure 6-31. using the following three conditions that apply to idealized operationalamplifier systems: 1. e' i' Figure 6-33 Operational-amplifier circuit. As a result. If Rl = R 2.

or voltage e' (= e. I This operational-amplifier circuit is a noninverting circuit.Sec.e' Rz e3 .. . the voltage at the minus terminal and that at the plus terminal become equal.e' Noting that the current flowing into the amplifier is negligible. Thus. and the circuit is called a voltage follower. e' = 0. If we choose R} eo = e. then the output voltage eo is limited and the differential input voltage becomes zero. which is equal to [Rl/(Rl + Rz)]eo are equal. R} from which it follows that e = o (1 + Rl RZ)e. 6-6 Mathematical Modeling of Operational-Amplifier Systems 285 If the operational amplifier is an ideal one.e' R4 (6-52) Since the amplifier involves negative feedback.e' R3 eo . and e3' We define ll=~' • el - e' 13=~' . then Consider the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-34.) and voltage e". Thus. we have --+--+--+--=0 R) el - e' ez . Example 6-10 = 00. e3 . Obtain the relationship between the output eo and the inputs eh ez. and Equation (6-52) becomes el ez e3 eo -+-+-+-= 0 Rl Rz R3 R4 or Rl e} R2 R4 e2 e' R3 e3 eo Figure 6-34 Operational-amplifier circuit.

'2 = C dee' .e0 ) Rl dt Since the operational amplifier involves negative feedback.. obtain the transfer function for the system. then eo The circuit is an inverting adder.e0 + ___ R2 (6-53) e· . Letting e. e' Figure 6-35 First-order lag circuit using an operational amplifier.e' _. Hence. assuming a zero initial condition. = -(e1 + e2 + e3) Example 6-11 Consider the operational-amplifier system shown in Figure 6-35. we obtain !!. we have which can be written as Eo(s) Ej(s) =- R2 1 Rl R 2Cs + 1 (6-54) Equation (6-54) is the transfer function for the system. Substituting e' = 0 into Equation (6-53). Let us define .eo Noting that the current flowing into the amplifier is negligible.S If we choose R1 = R2 = R3 = R4. 'I = ej . Then obtain the response of the system to a step input of a small magnitude. we have i1 Hence.. e' = O.e' ~' . . '3 = ~ e' .(t) be the input and eo ( t) be the output of the system. which is a first-order lag system. = -c deo Rl dt _ !!2R2 Taking the Laplace transform of this last equation._ _ = C d(e' . = i2 + i3 e' .eo) dt ' .286 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. the voltage at the minus terminal and that at the plus terminal become equal.

The voltage at point A is eA = 2(e.e-II(R2C)] The output voltage reaches -(R2IRl)E volts as t increases to infinity.( t) is a step function of E volts. 6-6 Mathematical Modeling of Operational-Amplifier Systems 287 Next. we shall find the response of the system to a step input..Sec.(s) R2 + Cs 1 Cs = R Cs + 1 E. that is.(t) = 0 =E fort < 0 for t > 0 where we assume 0 < (R2IR 1)E < 10 V.E. Suppose that the input e.(s) 2 1 O--------------~--------------~O Figure 6-36 Operational-amplifier circuit. + eo) 1 The Laplace-transformed version of this last equation is EA(S) The voltage at point B is 1 = 2[E. e.(s) R2 1 E The inverse Laplace transform of Eo( s) gives eo(t) ::: - R~~ [1 . The output eo(t) can be determined from R2 1 Rl R2Cs + 1 E. . Example 6-12 Consider the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-36.1 . Obtain the transfer function Eo( s)/Ej ( s) of the circuit.(s) + Eo(s)] En(s) = .

6 Since the operational amplifier involves negative feedback. the voltages at points C and D are equal. R2 :::: R3 :::: 200 Rs:::: 1000 Figure 6-37 Electrical circuit. Thus. it may be removed from the circuit...288 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. and there is no current flowing through Rs. EA(S) and it follows that =: EB(S) or EXAMPLE PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS Problem A-6-1 Obtain the resistance between points A and B of the circuit shown in Figure 6-37. Since Rl = ~ = 10 nand R2 = R3 = 20 fi.. Because resistance Rs does not affect the value of the total resistance between points A and B. as shown in Figure 6-38(b}. ..----D Rl = R4 = 100.. the voltage at the minus terminal and that at the plus terminal become equal.. Solution This circuit is equivalent to the one shown in Figure 6-38(a)... Then -= RAB Rl 1 1 + 14 + 1 R2 + R3 =-+-=- 1 20 1 40 3 40 and RAB =: 3" = 13.3 n 40 Bo--'---JVvw\l\t--.

. + '2 ..Example Problems and Solutions Rl 289 (a) Ao--oor--Y\I\Ah-~ c (b) A -----. 12 12 = . ProblemA+2 Given the circuit of Figure 6-39.92 12V 400 400 100 500 Figure 6-39 Electrical circuit.= 0.376 A Ro 31.3' Solution The circuit can be redrawn as shown in Figure 6-40. calculate currents i lt i2. 'I = 31.= . and .92 n .2 flows is R = 100 + 1 1 1 + 50 10 = 158 n + 40 The combined resistance Ro as seen from the battery is 1 Ro or 1 1 = 40 + 158 Ro Consequently. >---oB D Figure 6-38 Equivalent circuits to the one shown in Figure 6-37.. The combined resistance R of the path in which current .

the resistance between points A and B.290 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. Solution We define the combined resistance between points A and BasRa. Now. 6 i2 it . let us separate the first three resistors from the rest. the combined resistance between points C and D is the same as Ro. [See Figure 6-42(a). . note that Then Problem A-6-3 Obtain the combined resistance between points A and B of the circuit shown in Figure 6-41.076 A To determine i3 . the removal of the first three resistors does not affect the combined resistance value. and Ro.2 ~> c~ 500 :: Figure 6-40 Equivalent circuit to the one shown in Figure 6-39.: ::- 400:= .300 A. which consists of an infinite number of resistors connected in the form of a ladder.- Noting that 4O. we obtain il = 0.] Since the circuit con~ sists of an infinite number of resistors. Therefore. i2 = 0. . Then the circuit shown in Figure 6-41 may be redrawn as shown in Figure 6-42(b). can be obtained as Ro = 2R + 1 1 -+R Ro RRo 1 = 2R + Ro + R R R R R Figure 6-41 Electrical circuit consisting of an infinite number of resistors connected in the form of a ladder.t = 158i2.> > :~ 1000 12V •• ~ i3 400.

and i3 for the circuit shown in Figure 6-43. we have 12 . we find that =0 Ro Ro = R = R ± V3R + Finally. we obtain V3R = 2..2RRo .10i1 .5i3 = 0 8 .5. neglecting the negative value for resistance. we get Rij . Solution Applying Kirchhoff's voltage law and current law to the circuit. .3 = 0 Ion 12V lsn 50 8V Figure 6-43 Electrical circuit.15. Rewriting.Example Problems and Solutions R 291 Ao---~NV----~~ R R (a) R R B~--~~----~----~ R (b) Figure 6-42 Equivalent circuits to the one shown in Figure 6-41.732R Problem A-+-4 Find currents i h i 2.2 .3 = 0 .2R2 Solving for Ro.1 + i2 .

What is the current i(t) for t > 01 Solution For t > 0. At t = 0. obtain a mathematical model. Problem A-6-S Given the circuit shown in Figure 6-44. the equation for the circuit is Ldt di + Rl = 0 .292 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. assume that. for I < 0. 13 ' = 55 A 52 Since all . II = 11 SA ' . the currents actually flow in the directions shown in the diagram.2 are cyclic currents.i 2) dt =E = (i2 - id dt ° L These two equations constitute a mathematical model for the circuit. switch S is connected to voltage source E. ' i(O) =E R Figure 6-4S Electrical circuit. 6 . Solution Applying Kirchhoffs voltage law gives R1i 1 + L ~: + R2i2 + J ~J ~ (il . S disconnects the voltage source and simultaneously short-circuits the coil. Problem A-6-6 In the circuit of Figure 6-45. Here. and the current in coil L is in a steady state. . E Figure 6-44 Electrical circuit. values are found to be positive. '2 = 55 12A . currents il and .

L dt 2 + Cq = 0 where q(O) = qo and q(O) = O.!i C 1 dt =0 or.(0)] + R/(s) = 0 or (Ls + R)/(s) Thus. we obtain L[s/(s) .28 radls = 1256 radls L Figure 6-46 Electrical circuit. . At t ::: 0. = dqldt into this last equation. Hence. Calculate the value of the inductance L that will make the oscillation occur at a frequency of 200 Hz. the current in the coil cannot be changed instantaneously. Solution The equation for the circuit for t > 0 is L di dt + .!. switch S is disconnected from the battery and simultaneously connected to inductor L. The frequency of oscillation is d 2q Wn=Hc Since 200 Hz = 200 cps = 200 x 6.(0-) = EIR. by substituting..] Taking the Laplace transform of the system equation. i(O+) = i(O-) = i(O) = EIR. Since inductance L stores energy. = Li(O) = LE R /(s) =R E Ls + R L The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation gives i(t) = E e-(RIL)r R Problem A-6-7 Consider the circuit shown in Figure 6-46. and assume that capacitor C is initially charged to qo. The capacitance has a value of 50 /LF.Example Problems and Solutions 293 [Note that there is a nonzero initial current .

L = 1 == 0. Solution Notice that.-:=-. 6 lIJn = 1256 = . i(O+) == i(O-) = Therefore. Hence.0127H 12562 X 50 X 10-6 Problem A-6-8 In Figure 6-47(a). for t < 0. we obtain L[sI(s) .--=-.i(O)] + RII(s) = E s i(t) L E Ri ----. the equation for the circuit for t RI + R2 ~ E = i(O) 0 is (6-55) di L dt + R' I' where =E i(O) = E Rl + R2 Taking the Laplace transforms of both sides of Equation (6-55).:.. the circuit resistance is Rl + R2• There is a nonzero initial current i(O-) = E Rl + R2 For t ~ 0. there is no instantaneous change in the current in the circuit when switch S is closed.294 we obtain Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. Fmd the current i(t) for t ~ O. (b) plot of i(t) versus t of the circuit when switch S is closed at t = O.. . suppose that switch S is open for t < 0 and that the system is in a steady state.f£ == ~ L X 501 X 10-6 Thus.----- E s o (a) Ri (b) L Figure 6-47 (a) Electrical circuit. Switch S is closed at t = O. the circuit resistance becomes R I' Because of the presence of inductance L.

+ E s R LE 1 + R 2 I(s) = (1 . Find the current i(t). there is an initial charge qo on the capacitor just before switch S is closed at t = O. we get (Ls + Rl)/(s) Hence.(t) = E + E L s(Ls + R t ) Rl + R2 Ls + Rl L) E L Ls + Rl + Rl + R2 Ls + Rl R2 Rl + R2 Ls + Rl L) e-(R1/L)I] Taking the inverse Laplace transform of this equation.(t) versus t is shown in Figure 6-47(b). E(1 = Rl . . Problem A-6-9 In the electrical circuit shown in Figure 6-48.. Rl [1 _Rl R2 R2 + A typical plot of . =. Solution The equation for the circuit when switch S is closed is Ri + ~jidt = + E Taking the Laplace transform of this last equation yields RI(s) + Since 1 l(s) ji(t) dtl s 1=0 C =- E s we obtain RI(s) + - 1 I(s) + qo s C =- E s Figure 6-48 Electrical circuit. = Rl E .. we obtain .Example Problems and Solutions 295 Substituting the initial condition i(O) into this last equation and simplifying.E.

.qo (E 1(s) = RCs + 1 = Ii - qo ) RC 1 s + RC 1 The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation gives . eR (a) .+ Cs Ls R l/(Cs) Ls R E(s) Z(s) = l(s) =---1 1 -+-+ C's Ls R 1 L R WW [.= E(s) .I. 6 RCsl{s) + l{s) + qo = CE Solving for l(s).296 or Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap.(t) in the circuit. From E(s) = Eds) + ER(S) + Ec(s) = ( Ls +R+ ~s)I(S) where l(s) is the Laplace transform of the current . =- E(s) E(s) E(s) ( 1 1 ) ++ .I. IJ C e r L R C ec (b) Figure 6-49 Electrical circuits. l(s) Consequently. the complex impedance is Z(s) =-. we have CE . Solution Consider the circuit shown in Figure 6-49(a).(I) = (E _~)e-rIRC R RC Problem A-6-10 Obtain the impedances of the circuits shown in Figures 6-49(a) and (b).= l(s) E(s) 1 Ls + R + Cs For the circuit shown in Figure 6-49(b) .+ ..

Assume that the initial charges in the capacitors C1 and C2 are zero. Inverse Laplace transforming Eo( s). R2C1Ei R2(C 1 + C2)S + 1 R2C1S E.] Solution With the complex-impedance method. the transfer function Eo(s)IE. ·l(t).I(C1 + C2 )· Cl o IJ--_--.5 C1 and RICI = 1 s. For the input ej(t) = E.(s) can be obtained as 1 Next. we get e (t) = o C1£. Assume also that the initial charges in the capacitors are zero. Problem A-6-U Derive the transfer function Eo(s)/E.(s) of the electrical circuit shown in Figure 6-50. .--Cl Figure 6-50 Electrical circuit. we have Eo(s) = R 2(C1 + C2 )s + 1 -.. we determine eo(t). occurring at t = O. Obtain the voltage eo(t) when the input voltage ej(t) is a step change of voltage E. Assume also that C2 = 1.t/[R2(C t +C2)] C1 + C2 from which it follows that eo(O+) = C1E. [Thus. eo(O-) = 0. 'e.(s) of the electrical circuit shown in Figure 6-51.Example Problems and Solutions 297 Problem A-6-11 Find the transfer function Eo(s)/E. The input voltage is a pulse signal given by ej(t) = 10 V =0 0:::t:::5 elsewhere Obtain the output eo(t). Assume that ej(O-) = O.

[10 .(1 . Solution The bridged T networks shown can both be represented by the network of Figure 6-54(a). o o Solution By the use of the complex-impedance method.5) Figure 6-52 shows a possible response curve eo(t) versus t.298 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. Problem A-6-13 Obtain the transfer functions Eo( s)1Ei ( s) of the bridged T networks shown in Figures 6-53(a) and (b).5 s + 1 For the given input ei(t). This network may be modified to that shown in Figure 6-54(b).6 e-o·4(1-5)] l(t . the transfer function Eo( S )1Ei ( s) can be obtained as 1 s+1 2. we have 10 E.6 e-O•41 ) . in which Hence. . which uses complex impedances.(s) = -.e-5s ) Thus. 6 Figure 6-51 Electrical circuit.5 s + 1 The inverse Laplace transform of Eo( s) gives eo(t) = (10 . the response Eo( s) can be given by Eo(s) = S + 1 10 (1 _ e-5s) 2.5 S + 1 s S = (10 _ 15 ) (1 _ e-5s) 2.

. .Example Problems and Solutions 299 10 ::.:1 R2 c Rl eo (b) Figure 6-53 Bridged T networks.5 ~ -10 --------~~~--------- "" Figure 6-52 Response curve eo{t) versus t. 0 ej I c II : ..._----------- 4 O~----~----~~------------------~ .

~ = -. 6 (a) Ej(s) Figure 6-54 (a) Bridged Tnetwork in terms of complex impedances. we substitute ZI = R. for the bridged T network shown in Figure 6-S3(b). Z4 = - into Equation (6-56). (b) equivalent network.300 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. we substitute Z2 = Rh Z4 = R2 . Then we obtain the transfer function Eo(s) R2 + _1_ (R + R + ~) CIS Ej{s) == _1_(R CIS +R+ _1_) + R2 + R_1_ C2s C2s C2s RCI RC2s 2 RC}RC2S 2 1 Z} = Cs' + 2RC2s + 1 + (2RCz + RCt)s + 1 1 Z3 = Cs' Similarly. (b) Thus. 1 CIS Z3 = R. the transfer function of the network shown in Figure 6-54(a) is Eo(s) Z3 Z1 + Z2(ZI == E.{s) ~(ZI + Z3 + Z4) + Z3 + Z4) + Z1Z3 + Z1 Z4 1 C2s (6-56) For the bridged T network shown in Figure 6-53 ( a).

Assume that voltage ej is the input and voltage eo is the output of the circuit. Solution The transfer function for the system is RI C2 + (RtCls S + 1)(R2C2S + 1) RtCIR2C2S2 + (RICI + R2 2)S + 1 C (6-57) Hence. + Cs + ) 1 1 1 R2 ) 1 E. Then we obtain the transfer function 301 Eo(s) C.C. we have [RICtR2C2S2 + (RIC I + R2C2 + RI C2)S + 1]Eis) = [RICIR2C2S2 + (RIC I + R2C2)S + 1]E..( s) = (1 + Cs + R2 + Cs Cs + R2 Cs 1 RICR2CS2 + 2R ICs +1 Problem A-6-14 Consider the electrical circuit shown in Figure 6-55. .--oo Figure 6-55 Electrical circuit. Derive a state equation and an output equation.Example Problems and Solutions into Equation (6-56).(s) The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation gives Rt CI R2Cieo + (R1CI + R2C2 + RI C2)eo + eo = R1C1R2Ciej + (R1C I + R2C2)ej + ej Gi 0-0_ _ _ _ _ _ _ r L-. + Rt Cs 11 RI (1 C.

we have 130 = bo = 1 If we define state variables x I and X2 as Xl = Y . a2. and ~ as follows: 111 + -. bo.y+ 1 y+ U (_1_ + _l_)u + 1 + RIC I R2C2 R2C1 = R 1C I R2C2 U Y RICI R2C2 R1C1R2C2 (6-58) To derive a state equation and an output equation based on Method 1 given in Section 5~. bJ.+ -R 2C2 R2C1 1 a2==--R I CI R2C2 bo = 1 a1 = . and (5-29). we obtain " (1.f30u X2 = Xl - f3Iu then. from Equations (5-30) and (5-31).+ -1 + -1).- RICI bl =--+-R1C1R2C2 1 1 RICI 1 R2C2 ~ == From Equations (5-23). the state-space representation for the system can be given by [~~'] [0 = 1 _ __ _ __ _ _ 1 1 1_ RICI R2CZ R2C1 1 ][. 6 By dividing each term of the preceding equation by R I C I R2C2 and defining eo = yand ej = u.1] 2 R 1C1R2C2 . we first compare Equation (6-58) with the following standard secondorder equation: y + alY + a2Y = bou + blu + b2u We then identify aJ. (5-24).302 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap.

(6-59) di 1/'d L -+. Note that q(O) = i(O) = O. by substituting i = dqldt = q into this last equation. Solution The equation of motion for the mechanical system is mx + kx = 0 For the electrical system. The solution of Equation (6-59) with the initial condition x(O) = Xo. . Lq 1 + -q C = 0 (6-60) Since Equations (6-59) and (6-60) are of the same form. they satisfy the force-voltage analogy). . or x(O) . Assume that the displacement x in the mechanical system is measured from the equilibrium position and that mass m is released from the initial displacement x(O) = Xo with zero initial velocity. q(O) = 0 is q(t) = qo cos ~t L c x Figure 6-56 Analogous mechanical and electrical systems. Obtain x(t) and q(t).:: O. the two systems are analogous (i. x(O) = 0 is a simple harmonic motion given by x(t) = xocos~t Similarly..I t= 0 dt C or.e..Example Problems and Solutions 303 Problem A-6-lS Show that the mechanical and electrical systems illustrated in Figure 6-56 are analogous. the solution of Equation (6--60) with the initial condition q(O) = qo. Assume also that in the electrical system the capacitor has the initial charge q(O) = qo and that the switch is closed at t = O.

(Le. we see that the two systems are analogous.q2) = 0 lql I 2 R 2q2 + ~2 (q2 . In the mechanical system.ql) = 0 These two equations constitute a mathematical model for the electrical system. in terms of ql and q2.S Problem A-6-16 Obtain mathematical models for the systems shown in Figures 6-57(a) and (b). (a) Figure 6-57 Analogous mechanical and electrical systems. they satisfy the force-voltage analogy). and show that they are analogous systems.304 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. Comparing the two mathematical models. Solution For the mechanical system shown in Figure 6-57(a). For the electrical system shown in Figure 6-S7(b). the equations of motion are mlXI + btxI + klXI + k 2(XI bzX2 + k2(X2 - X2) Xl) = 0 = 0 These two equations constitute a mathematical model for the mechanical system.. the loop-voltage equations are LI ~: + ~2f(i1 - i2) dt + R1i l + R2i2 + ~lfildt = 0 id dt = 0 ~2 f (i2 - Let us write il = III and i2 = lI2' Then. the preceding two equations can be written '· 1 1( L lq) + R' + C ql + C ql . displacements Xl and X2 are measured from their respective equilibrium positions. (b) .

qI) + + ~2 (ql . Flgure ~S8 Mechanical system. Combining these two diagrams produces the desired analogous electrical system (Figure 6-60). Solution The equations of motion for the mechanical system are mtXl + blXl + klXl + ~(Xl m2 x + ~(X2 2 . from Equation (6-62). the equations for an analogous electrical system may be written Llql + Rlql + ~I ql + R2(ql Lzq2 .Xl) = 0 With the use of the force-voltage analogy. .X2) = 0 .i2) dt = 0 i l ) dt = 0 (6-61) (6-62) ~: + R2(i2 - ~21 (i2 - These two equations are loop-voltage equations.q2) qt) =0 =0 + R2(q2 ~2 (q2 - Substituting qI LI = il and q2 = i2 into the last two equations gives i2) il ) ~: + Rlil + ~1 IiI dt + R2(il Lz + + ~21 (il . obtain an electrical analog of the mechanical system shown in Figure 6-58. we obtain the diagram shown in Figure 6-59(a).Xl) + k2(Xl + k2(X2 .q2) . we obtain the one given in Figure 6-59(b).Example Problems and Solutions 305 Problem A+17 Using the force-voltage analogy. Similarly. From Equation (6-61). Assume that the displacements Xl and X2 are measured from their respective equilibrium positions.X2) .

Problem A-6-18 Figure 6-61 shows an inertia load driven by a de servomotor by means of pulleys and a belt. of the system with respect to the motor shaft axis.306 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. Pulley 2 Pulley 1 Load DC servomotor Figure 6-61 Inertia load driven by a de servomotor by means of pulleys and belt. Obtain the equivalent moment of intertia. 6 (a) (b) Figure 6-59 (a) Electrical circuit corresponding to Equation (6-61). Figure 6-60 Electrical system analogous to the mechanical system shown in Figure 6-58 (force-voltage analogy). Jeq. (b) electrical circuit corresponding to Equation (6-62). Assume that there is no slippage between the belt and the pulleys. .

this last equation can be written as (Jl + J. The system acts similarly to a gear train system. (11 + Jr)(lt + d (it + J2 )82 2 = Tm Since 82 = (d 1Id2)flt.)8 1 + d . Solution The given system uses a belt and two pulleys as a drive device. = Tm The equivalent moment of inertia of the system with respect to the motor shaft axis is thus given by . we obtain . or (6-63) where T} is the load torque on the motor shaft. and 82 is the angular displacement of pulley 2. we have = T2 (6-66) 81 d2 T2 =T1-=T182 d1 Then Equation (6-66) becomes (JL + 12 )82 = Tl d From Equations (6-65) and (6-67). 81 is the angular displacement of pulley 1. (6-65) (it + J2 )62 From Equations (6-63) and (6--64)..Example Problems and Solutions 307 Assume also that the diameters of pulleys 1 and 2 are d 1 and d2 . d2 t (6-67) . The moment of inertia of the rotor of the motor is J.. and that of the load element is JL. Note that (6-64) For the servomotor system. respectively.. the work done by the belt and pulley 1(TI 81 ) is equal to that done by the belt and pulley 2 (T282 ). For the load shaft. T2 is the torque transmitted to the load shaft. The moments of inertia of pulleys 1 and 2 are J1 and J2. d1 . or [(J. respectively. Since we assume no slippage between the belt and pulleys.) + (h + J2)(~:rlii.. (d 1)2 2 (JL + J2 )81 = Tm . (11 + Jr)61 + Tl = Tm where Tm is the torque developed by the motor. + J.. Neglect the moment of inertia of the belt.

Thus.Eo(s) Z2 Since the operational amplifier involves negative feedback. Problem A-6-20 Consider the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-63. Eis) ~(s) Ej(s) = .----4 B Figure &-62 Operational-amplifier circuit. Then EA(S) R} Ej(s) = 1 Cs + R} R}Cs R}Cs + 1 Define the voltage at point B as eB. Then R3 R1Cs R3 EA(S) = R1Cs + 1E. Hence. Obtain the transfer function of this circuit by the complex-impedance approach. the differential input voltage becomes zero.E'(s) Z} E'(s) .308 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap.(s) = R2 + R3 R1Cs R3 R1Cs + 1 c o 11----. E'(s) = O. we have Ej(s) .S Problem A-6-19 Obtain the transfer function Eo(s)/Ej(s) of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-62.(s) = EB(S) = R2 + R3 Eo(s) from which we obtain Eo(s) E. Solution Define the voltage at point A as eA. Solution For the circuit shown.Z}(s) .

the transfer function Eo(s)/E.( s) of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-64 by the complex-impedance approach.Example Problems and Solutions 309 1(s) E. . Accordingly. Solution The complex impedances for this circuit are and Z2(S) = 1 1 Cs+R2 From Problem A-'-20. Problem A-'-21 Obtain the transfer function Eo( s)/E. of course. ---------- c I Flgure 6-64 Operational-amplifier circuit.(s) obtained here is. the transfer function of the system is R2Cs + 1 Notice that the circuit considered here is the same as that discussed in Example 6-11.(s) Flgure 6-63 Operational-amplifier circuit. the same as the one obtained in that example.

. 6 Problem A-6-22 Obtain the transfer function Eo(s)/E. Solution We shall first obtain currents i1> i 2. The currents are (6-68) At node B. we get eA -deo = C2dt R2 Rewriting Equation (6-68). Then we shall use the node equation at nodes A and B. we have i4 = is. Thus. i3. we get (6-71) iz il R1 A i4 R2 ej C1 Figure 6-65 Operational. and no current flows into the amplifier. and is. we have (6-69) de A C1 dt + ( -1 + -1 + -1 ) eA Rl R2 R3 = Rl ej + -eo R3 (6-70) From Equation (6-69).310 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap.(s) of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-65. i 4. or eB = 0. amplifier circuit.

RIC1R2C2S2 + [R 2C2 + R IC2 + (R 1/R 3)R2C2]S + (RI/R3) Problem A-6-23 Obtain the transfer function Eo(s)/E.( S ) RI + R2 + R3 (-R2C2)sEo(s) . assuming zero initial conditions. Z2. Using the equation derived. Z3.(s) . and Z4. we have EA(S) EA(S) = E8(S) = Z + Z E.(s) = Z4Z2 .( s) of the op-amp circuit shown in Figure 6-36.Z3 Z 1]E. yields -C1C2R2s Eo(s) + 2 ( 1 1 1) 1 E. we find that E.Eo(s) Z4 or E.(s) = . Solution From Figure 6-66. we obtain [ Z4Z1 + Z4 Z 2 . obtain the transfer function Eo( s)/E.EA(S) Z3 EA(S) .(s) 2 (6-73) By substituting Equation (6-73) into Equation (6-72).Example Problems and Solutions 311 Laplace transforming this last equation.(S) Z4(ZI + Z2) Eo(s) E.Z4 Z 1 .R Eo(s) = 3 li: from which we get the transfer function Eo(s)/E.(s) - (1 + ~:)EA(S) = .~: Eo(s) = E8(S). ..(s): 1 Eo(s) E.Z3Z1 Z3(ZI + Z2) = _ Z3 Eo(s) Z4 from which we get the transfer function (6-74) ej Figure 6-66 Operational-amplifier circuit.(s) of the op-amp circuit shown in Figure 6-66 in terms of the complex impedances Z . or ZI 1 (6-72) Since the system involves negative feedback.

100 Problem B-6-3 In the circuit of Figure 6-69. PROBLEMS Problem 8-6-1 Three resistors Rh R2.. .. Obtain the resistance between points A and B... i becomes equal to 2io• Fmd the value of the resistance R.. B~------~~--~~~----~ Problem 8-6-2 Calculate the resistance between points A and B for the circuit shown in Figure 6-68.Rrc.. the same as that obtained in Example 6-12. The result is RIR2 . as a matter of course.7 Three resistors connected in a triangular shape. and R3 are connected in a triangular shape (Figure 6-67). C B~-~--~~~---~-. A 0--------_ Flgure 6-(. Z3 = Rh Z4 = Rl into Equation (6-74).. When switch S is closed. 6 To find the transfer function Eo( S )/Ei ( s) of the circuit shown in Figure 6-36.. 100 A O--. we substitute 1 Zl = Cs' Z2 = R 2. assume that a voltage E is applied between points A and B and that the current i is io when switch S is open.D Flgure 6-68 Electrical circuit.312 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap..:---~I\NW'v---~--. 1 R{~s + R2) which is.

.. Calculate cyclic currents i1 and i2 when switch S is closed at t = O.. Switch Sis then opened at t = O..Problems 313 lOon t-----oB 60n R I---------------E--------------~ Figure 6-69 Electrical circuit. Problem~ The circuit shown in Figure 6-72 is in a steady state with switch S closed. ProblemB+5 Consider the circuit shown in Figure 6-71. Problem B-6-4 Obtain a mathematical model of the circuit shown in Figure 6-70. .. s Figure 6-71 Electrical circuit. L e(t) c Figure 6-70 Electrical circuit. Assume that switch S is open for t < 0 and that capacitor C is initially charged so that the initial voltage q(O)/C = eo appears on the capacitor... Obtain i(t}..

Figure ~73 Electrical circuit.S Figure ~72 Electrical circuit..314 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. - Problem B-6-8 Obtain the transfer function Eo(s)/Ej(s) of the system shown in Figure 6-74. 1'1'1'1' . R e. . Figure ~74 Electrical circuit. Problem 8-6-9 Obtain the transfer function Eo(s)/Ej(s) of the circuit shown in Figure 6-75.{t) L c Figure ~75 Electrical circuit. Problem 8-6-7 Obtain the transfer function Eo(s)/Ej(s) of the circuit shown in Figure 6-73 .

Rl R2 ej ) ) C eo Figure 6-76 Electrical circuit. Problem 11-6-11 Determine the transfer function Eo(s)/Ej(s) of the circuit shown in Figure 6-77.- ' I . . Problem 8-6-12 Obtain the transfer function Eo(s)/Ej(s) of the circuit shown in Figure 6-78.---------.Problems 315 Problem 11-6-10 Obtain the transfer function Eo(s)/Ej(s) of the electrical circuit shown in Figure 6-76.-' Figure 6-77 Electrical circuit. Use the complex-impedance method. Zl r-----' O-~'-J I L ~~'------~-------Q I Figure 6-78 Electrical circuit. Zl ... Use the complex-impedance method.- c . . I e. L.

Then obtain a state equation for the system by choosing state variables Xh X2. . Assume that voltage ei is the input and voltage eo is the output of the system. respectively. Write equations for the circuit. 6 Obtain a state-space representation for the electrical circuit shown in Figure 6-79. and X3 as follows: Xl = ql = ql X3 = q2 X2 Figure 6-80 Electrical circuit. Problem 8-6-16 Derive the transfer function of the electrical circuit shown in Figure 6-82.316 Problem 8-6-13 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. Problem 8-6-15 Show that the mechanical system illustrated in Figure 6-81(a) is analogous to the electrical system depicted in Figure 6-81(b). Problem 8-6-14 In the circuit shown in Figure 6--80. Problem 8-6-17 Obtain a mechanical system analogous to the electrical system shown in Figure 6-83. define i l = ql and i2 = q2' where ql and q2 are charges in capacitors Cl and C2. Draw a schematic diagram of an analogous mechanical system. Figure 6-79 Electrical circuit.

5 X 10-2 V-s/rad . Assume that the input of the system is the applied armature voltage ea and the output is the load shaft position 82' Assume also the following numerical values for the constants: Ra = armature winding resistance = 0.Problems 317 C Xj 0 I ej Xo J (b) Cl R eo (a) Figure 6-81 (a) Mechanical system. Problem B-6-19 Consider the dc servomotor shown in Figure 6-85.2 n La = armature winding inductance = negligible Kb = back-emf constant = 5. where p(t) is the force input to the system. (b) analogous electrical system. The displacements Xl and X2 are measured from their respective equilibrium positions. Problem B-6-18 Determine an electrical system analogous to the mechanical system shown in Figure 6-84. Rl <>-----WIv----R2 ei eo C 0 2T 0 Flgure 6-82 Electrical circuit. Flgure 6-83 Electrical system.

if = constant Problem 8-6-20 Obtain the transfer function Eo( s)/E. Figure 6-8S DC servomotor. Problem 8-6-21 Obtain the transfer function Eo( s)/E. 6 K Jr br = h lO-slbrftlA moment of inertia of the rotor of the motor = 1 x 10-s lbr ft-s2 = viscous-friction coefficient of the rotor of the motor = negligible 2 = moment of inertia of the load = 4.( s) of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-87.4 X 10-3 Ibr ft-s = motor-torque constant = 6 x b L = viscous-friction coefficient of the load = 4 n = gear ratio = Nl/N2 = 0.1 x 10-2 lbr ftlradls Obtain the transfer function €h(s)/Ea(s).( s) of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-86.318 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. Figure 6-84 Mechanical system. .

Figure 6-88 Operational-amplifier circuit. .Problems 319 R Figure 6-86 Operational-amplifier circuit.( s) of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-88. Problem 8-6-24 Obtain the transfer function Eo( s)1E. Problem 8-6-23 Obtain a state-space representation of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-89. Problem 8-6-25 Obtain the transfer function Eo(s)IE.(s) of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-91. Problem 8-6-22 Obtain the transfer function Eo( s)1E.( s) of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-90. R Figure 6-87 Operational-amplifier circuit.

Problem B-6-26 Obtain the transfer function Eo(s)/E. Problem 8-6-28 Obtain the transfer function Eo( s)/E. 6 c Figure 6-89 Operational-amplifier circuit. . T Figure 6-91 Operational-amplifier circuit. I r1 Problem B-6-27 Obtain the transfer function Eo( s)/E.(s) of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-92.( s) of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-94.320 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. R C o----------------------------=±:~------------------~o Figure 6-90 Operational-amplifier circuit.( s) of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-93.

Problems 321 C Flgure 6-92 Operational-amplifier circuit. . obtain the transfer function Eo(s)/Ej(s) of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-96. Problem 8-6-29 Obtain the transfer function Eo(s)/Ej(s) of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-95. ej FIgure 6-94 Operational-amplifier circuit. Problem 8-6-30 Using the impedance approach. ej o~--------------------+-----------------------o C -1 : Flgure 6-93 Operational-amplifier circuit.

. ej Figure 6-96 Operational-amplifier circuit. Problem 8-6-31 Obtain the output voltage eo of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-97 in terms of the input voltages el and e2' Figure ~97 Operational-amplifier circuit. 6 Figure 6-95 Operational-amplifier circuit.322 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap.

Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems 7-1 INTRODUCTION As the most versatile medium for transmitting signals and power. In this chapter. 323 . fluids-liquids or gases-have wide usage in industry. Mathematical models of thermal systems normally involve partial differential equations. and the mathematical model can be made linear. Liquids and gases can be distinguished from each other by their relative incompressibilities and from the fact that a liquid may have a free surface whereas a gas expands to fill its vessel. we assume that thermal systems have lumped parameters. so that approximate mathematical models may be obtained in terms of ordinary differential equations or transfer functions. then the system can be linearized near the operating point. In the engineering field. However. Thermal systems generally have distributed parameters. Such simplified models provide fairly good approximations to actual systems near their normal operating points. Mathematical models of fluid systems obtained in this chapter are linearized models near normal operating points. if we assume that the operation of a nonlinear system is near a normal operating point. however. Mathematical models of fluid systems are generally nonlinear. the term hydraulic describes fluid systems that use liquids and pneumatic applies to those using air or gases.

0332 kgt'cm2 = 1. laminar flow.22Ibt'in. or other flow-restricting devices. it is important to know the dynamic behavior of such systems. gage pressure.9807 X lOS N/m2 = 0. and so on. however.2.7Ibt'in. Note that. Gage pressure refers to the pressure that is measured with respect to atmospheric pressure. Units of pressure. we shall briefly review units of pressure. Often. In this section.2 abs = 14.2 oN/m2 gage okgt'cm2 gage = 1. In the SI system. absolute pressure must be used. Note that 1Ibt'in.2 gage = 0 psig = 14. Note also that 760 mm Hg = 1.7 Ibt'in. 7 Since fluid systems inevitably involve pressure signals. Section 7-2 discusses liquid-level systems and obtains their mathematical models. and turbulent flow. The dynamic behavior can be predicted once mathematical models of the systems are known. the unit of pressure is N/m 2• The name pascal (abbreviated Pa) has been given to this unit. Section 7-4 presents a useful linearization method: Linearized models are obtained for nonlinear systems near their respective operating points.09807 MPa Gage pressure and absolute pressure. Section 7-1 has presented introductory material for the chapter. Section 7-6 discusses the mathematical modeling of thermal systems.92 in. Pressure is defined as force per unit area. The standard barometer reading at sea level is 760 mm of mercury at O°C (29. Finally.7 psia Outline of the chapter. The units of pressure include N/m2. We then derive mathematical models of liquid-level systems. kgt'cm2. pressure is expressed in gage pressure.0133 = 1. 7-2 MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF LIQUID-LEVEL SYSTEMS Industrial processes often involve systems consisting of liquid-filled tanks connected by pipes having orifices. Absolute pressure is the sum of the gage and barometer pressures. so 1 Pa = 1 N/m 2 = MPa) may be used in Kilopascals (103 Pa = kPa) and megapascals (106 Pa expressing hydraulic pressure.2 1 kgt'cm 2 = 6895 Pa = 14. in engineering measurement.324 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. We shall see . In theoretical calculations. and absolute pressure. Ibt'in.2 = 0. Section 7-5 deals with hydraulic systems and derives mathematical models of such systems. Section 7-3 treats pneumatic systems and derives·a mathematical model for a pressure system. of mercury at 32°F). It is the pressure indicated by a gage above atmospheric pressure. valves. we first review the Reynolds number.0332 kglcm2 abs oIbt'in.0133 X 105 N/m2 abs X 105 N/m2 = 14.

L 4pQ 11'f. In capillary tubes. surface tension. Industrial processes often involve the flow of liquids through connecting pipes and tanks. Figure 7-1(b) shows a velocity profile in a pipe for turbulent flow. for it depends on viscosity. flow in pipes of relatively large diameter may also result in laminar flow. the velocity profile in a pipe becomes parabolic. such as flow between spool and bore and between piston and cylinder. as shown in Figure 7-2.L where p is the mass density of the fluid. parallel-line motion of the fluid. Since the average velocity v for flow in a pipe is v=-=-A 11'D2 Q 4Q where Q is the volumetric flow rate. except in special cases.L is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid. the flow is called turbulent flow and is characterized by an irregular and eddylike motion of the fluid. the characteristic length is the inside pipe diameter. turbulent flow results. as shown in Figure 7-1(a). Reynolds number. f. viscosity. In many flow situations.) For laminar flow. and similar factors. it is possible to describe the dynamic characteristics of such systems in simple forms. The . bouyancy.Sec. In hydraulic control systems. The properties of such flow through small passages depend on the Reynolds number of flow involved in each situation. the flow is always laminar. a large Reynolds number indicates the dominance of inertia force and a small number the dominance of viscosity. For flow in pipes. there are many cases of flow through small passages. Resistance and capacitance of liquid-level systems. When inertia forces dominate. If velocities are kept very low or viscosities are very high. For a Reynolds number above 4000 (R > 4000). The dimensionless ratio of inertia force to viscous force is called the Reynolds number. (Note that laminar flow is temperature sensitive. 7-2 Mathematical Modeling of Liquid-Level Systems 325 that.LD Laminar flow and turbulent flow. fluid flows in many important situations are dominated by either inertia or viscosity of the fluid. In general. Otherwise. by introducing the concept of resistance and capacitance. the flow is usually turbulent. The forces that affect fluid flow are due to gravity. the forces resulting from fluid inertia and viscosity are most significant. Consider the flow through a short pipe with a valve connecting two tanks. v is the average velocity of flow. flow in a pipe is laminar if the cross section of the passage is comparatively small or the pipe length is relatively long. flow is laminar. fluid inertia. Flow dominated by viscosity forces is called laminar flow and is characterized by a smooth. the Reynolds number for flow in pipes can be given by R = pvD = f. and D is a characteristic length. A is the area of the pipe and D is the inside diameter of the pipe. The Reynolds number R is given by R = pvD f. Thus. In fact. For a Reynolds number below 2000 (R < 2000).

3 change in flow rate m /s Since the relationship between the flow rate and the level difference differs for laminar flow and turbulent flow. the relationship between the steady-state flow rate and the steadystate head at the level of the restriction is given by Q= K/H where Q = steady-state liquid flow rate. -Q resistance R for liquid flow in such a pipe or restriction is defined as the change in the level difference (the difference of the liquid levels of the two tanks) necessary to cause a unit change in flow rate. m 2/s H = steady-state head. Turbulent flow in pipe (b) 1 Figure 7-2 1\vo tanks connected by a short pipe with a valve.) ~ '? Figure 7-1 (a) Velocity profile for laminar flow.!) .!) ~ ~ i I ~ ~ (.!) . (The laminar-flow resistance of the flow in a capillary tube is given by the Hagen-Poiseuille formula.. If the flow through the valve is laminar.) . the liquid spouts through the load valve in the side of the tank. that is. Consider the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-3(a). m3/s K/ = constant. the resistance RJ is dH 1 H R/=-=-=- dQ KJ Q The laminar-flow resistance is constant and is analogous to the electrical resistance. change in level difference m R= . we shall consider both cases in what follows..326 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap.!) ~ /. 7 Laminar flow in pipe (a) '-.. In this system.. see Problem A-7-1. m For laminar flow. (b) velocity profile for turbulent flow.

7-2 Mathematical Modeling of Liquid-Level Systems Head 327 Control valve ~I~ Load valve L-~--+---~~DK~=--' H Flow rate . .b. m2. however. (b) curve of head versus flow rate.:: . R _ 2H t Q (7-2) The value of the turbulent-flow resistance Rt depends on the flow rate and the head. may be considered constant if the changes in head and flow rate are small. m3/s Kt = constant. we obtain dQ=~dH 2YH Consequently.. m The resistance R t for turbulent flow is obtained from dH Rt = dQ From Equation (7-1). If the flow through the restriction is turbulent. Q q (a) (b) Figure 7-3 (a) Liquid-level system. The value of Rt . the steady-state flow rate is given by Q = KtYH (7-1) where Q = steady-state liquid flow rate. we have -=--= dQ Kt dH 2YH 2YHYH = 2H Q Q Thus. \ ReslStance R Capacitance C -H Slope = 2!! :.Sec.5/s H = steady-state head.

the potential may be either pressure (N/m2) or head (m). the relationship between Q and H is given by Q= 2H Rt In many practical cases. or change in current per second]. and the change in flow rate per second may be the volumetric liquid-flow acceleration (m3/s2). inertia. or head. Then the slope of the curve at point P is given by h 2H R .change in flow rate per second m /s2 mS . In the figure. Then the resistance may be determined by plotting the curve of head versus flow rate based on experimental data and measuring the slope of the curve at the operating condition. the slope of this tangent line is 2H IQ.) Thus. inertia. the resistance Rt is the slope of the curve at the operating point. then. Applying the preceding general definition of inertance.328 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. tubes. the capacitance is constant for any head. or Inertance (inertia or inductance) change in potential change in flow rate (velocity or current) per second For the inertia effect of liquid flow in pipes. and similar devices. sIope 0 f curve at pomt P = = Q = t q The capacitance C of a tank is defined to be the change in quantity of stored liquid necessary to cause a unit change in the potential. An example of such a plot is shown in Figure 7-3(b). The capacitance of the tank is equal to its cross-sectional area. velocity. from Equation (7-2). or inductance to liquid flow gives Inertance I = N/m2 N-s2 change in pressure -3. The tangent line to the curve at point P intersects the ordinate at the point (Head = -H). Now define a small deviation of the head from the steady-state value as hand the corresponding small change in the flow rate as q. or current [change in flow rate per second. Since the resistance Rt at the operating point P"is given by 2HIQ. the value of the constant K t in Equation (7-1) is not known. C = change in liquid stored m3 2 . change in velocity per second (acceleration).or . Inertance. (The potential is the quantity that indicates the energy level of the system. 7 If the changes in the head and flow rate from their respective steady-state values are small. If this is constant. Thus. and inductance refer to the change in potential required to make a unit rate of change in flow rate. The terms inertance. -orm change m head m Note that the capacity (m3) and the capacitance (m2 ) are different. point P is the steady-state operating point.

.or . only resistance and capacitance are important. m3/s qo = small deviation of outflow rate from its steady-state value. m = steady-state flow rate (before any change has occurred). valves. Instead. because it is negligible. Such liquid-flow inertance becomes important only in special cases. we defined hand qo as small deviations from steadystate head and steady-state outflow rate. Note that this vibration or wave propagation results from inertance-capacitance effects of hydraulic circuits-comparable to free vibration in a mechanical spring-mass system or free oscillation in an electrical LC circuit. In the mathematical modeling of liquid-level systems. Mathematical modeling of liquid-level systems. see Problem A-7-2. . For instance. we assume that the liquid outflow from the valve is turbulent. dH = h. m3/s qi = small deviation of inflow rate from its steady-state value. In the present system.Sec. m3/s = small The change in the liquid stored in the tank during dt seconds is equal to the net inflow to the tank during the same dt seconds. Let us now obtain a mathematical model of the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-3(a). which results from both the inertia effects and the elastic or capacitance effects of water flow in pipes.2 3/s2 change in flow rate per second m m (For the computation of inertance. Thus. if the changes in head and flow rate are small during the period of operation considered). Let us define H h Q = steady-state head (before any change has occurred). respectively. we do not take inertance into consideration. we characterize liquid-level systems in terms of resistance and capacitance. then the resistance R may be considered constant during the entire period of operation. so (7-3) where C is the capacitance of the tank. However. such as water hammer. and the effects of liquid-flow inertance may be negligible. a mathematical model can easily be found in terms of resistance and capacitance. In the present analysis.. and so on. it plays a dominant role in vibration transmitted through water. 7-2 Mathematical Modeling of Liquid-Level Systems 329 or Inertance I = change in head m s2 . Note that if the operating condition varies little (i.) Inertia elements in mechanical systems and inductance elements in electrical systems are important in describing system dynamics. m deviation of head from its steady-state value. in deriving mathematical models of liquid-filled tanks connected by pipes with orifices.e. If the operating condition as to the head and flow rate varies little for the period considered.

provided that changes in the head and flow rate from their respective steady-state values are small. qo Substituting qo = hlR into Equation (7-3). the electrical system shown R k b Figure 7-4 Systems analogous to the liquidlevel system shown in Figure 7-3(a). a mathematical model is RC. Hence. a mathematical model is o --+ x k dt 0 = x· I (7-7) Equations (7-5). (7-6). (b) mechanical system. 7 and the resistance R may be written as R = dH dQ =!!.+ h dt dh = Rq· I (7-4) Note that RC has the dimension of time and is the time constant of the system. they are analogous. Substituting h = Rqo into Equation (7-4) gives dqo RC dt + qo = q.330 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. and (7-7) are of the same form. rather than h (the change in head). (7-5) which is also a linearized mathematical model for the system. (a) Electrical system. The liquid-level system considered here is analogous to the electrical system shown in figure 7-4(a). thus. the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-3(a). . is considered the system output.. then another mathematical model may be obtained.1t is also analogous to the mechanical system shown in Figure 7-4(b). If qo (the change in the outflow rate).. Such a linearized mathematical model is valid. we obtain dh h C dt = q. Equation (7-4) is a linearized mathematical model for the system when h is considered the system output.R or RC. Analogous systems. o (a) (b) . For the electrical system.+ e0 dt b dx deo = e· I (7-6) For the mechanical system.

H2 Rl +--Rl hi . [Note that there are many other electrical and mechanical systems that are analogous to the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-3(a). and the mechanical system shown in Figure 7-4(b) are analogous systems.q2 (7-12) . Then.h2 = ql Rl dh l C1dt = q .(H2 + h2) RI HI . at steady state.] Liquid-level system with interaction.) If the variations of the variables from their respective steady-state values are small. - Q = HI .H2 Rl (7-8) After small changes have occurred. using the symbols as defined in Figure 7-5.Sec. we can obtain the following four equations for the system: ql = hI . In this system. (Note that the transfer function for such a case is not the product of two individual first-order transfer functions. the two tanks interact.h2 Substituting Equation (7-8) into this last equation.h2 Rl In the analysis that follows. 7-2 Mathematical Modeling of Liquid-Level Systems 331 Tank! Tank 2 figure 7-5 Liquid-level system with interaction. Hence. we have Q + ql = = - HI + hi .ql (7-9) (7-10) (7-11) -h2 = q2 R2 dh2 C2 dt = ql . we obtain hi . the resistance R I stays constant. we assume that variations of the variables from their respective steady-state values are small. in Figure 7-4(a). Consider the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-5.

) Before we derive a mathematical model of a pneumatic system.02 28.0 18. we derive a mathematical model of a pneumatic system in terms of resistance and capacitance.218 0.0 32. For instance.0 287 4121 297 260 462 Rgas Specific heat. other gases can be used as well. kcal/kgK or Btu/lb OR ft-Ib"lb OR 53.444 Cv Specific heat ratio.) 7-3 MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS Pneumatic systems are fluid systems that use air as the medium for transmitting signals and power. Fmally. then. see Problem A-7-13.40 1.240 3.0332 kglcm2 abs = 14.7 psia 273 K = 32°P = 492°R TABLE 7-1 Properties of Gases Gas constant Gas Molecular weight N-mlkgK Air Hydrogen (H 2) Nitrogen (N2) Oxygen (02 ) Water vapor(H20) 29.156 0. In our discussions of pneumatic systems here. like liquid-level systems. Then we define the resistance and capacitance of pneumatic systems. we assume that the flow condition is subsonic. abs = 14. and various types of pneumatic controllers are found in industry.7Iblin. Some physical properties of air and other gases at standard pressure and temperature are shown in Table 7-l.332 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. we examine some physical properties of air and other gases.40 0. The result is Q2(S) 1 (7-13) Q(s) = RlClR2C2S2 + (RICl + R2C2 + R2Ct )s + 1 (See Problem A-7-5 for the derivation of this transfer function.40 1.8 cp 0. Standard pressure p and temperature t are defined as p t = 1.42 0.2 48.41 1. Physical properties of air and other gases. (For numerical values of the velocity of sound. pneumatic circuits that convert the energy of compressed air into mechanical energy enjoy wide usage.248 0. the transfer function of the system can be obtained by eliminating qh hh and h2 from Equations (7-9) through (7-12). c/cv 1.) Pneumatic systems are used extensively in the automation of production machinery and in the field of automatic controllers.33 0.40 1.0133 = O°C = x lOS N/m2 abs 2 = 1.334 .3 766 55.177 0.171 2.0 2. If the speed of air in the pneumatic system is below the velocity of sound.3 85. 7 If q is considered the input and q2 the output. such pneumatic systems can be described in terms of resistance and capacitance. (Although the most common fluid in these systems is air.

A theoretical determination of the value of the airflow resistance R is very time consuming. it can be easily determined from a plot of Slope = R Capacitance C (a) o (b) q F1gure 7-6 (a) Pneumatic system. the airflow rate through the restriction becomes proportional to V Pi . valves.. and specific weight 'Y of air at standard pressure and temperature are p = 1. H the pressure upstream changes to P + Pi. or . where Po is also a small quantity compared with P.resistance R = . Experimentally. (b) curve of pressure difference versus flow rate.Sec. change in differential pressure N/m2 N-s . change m mass flow rate kg/s kg-m2 Therefore. Many industrial processes and pneumatic controllers involve the flow of air (or some other gas) through connected pipelines and pressure vessels. Under the condition that the flow is subsonic. then the pressure downstream (the pressure in the vessel) changes to P + Po. orifices. however.Assume that at steady state the pressure in the system is P. . specific volume v. resistance R can be expressed as R = d(l1p) dq where d ( 11 p) is a change in the differential pressure and dq is a change in the mass flow rate.or . Airflow resistance in pipes.68 N/m3 Resistance and capacitance of pneumatic systems.Po' Such a pneumatic system may be characterized in terms of a resistance and a capacitance.293 kg/m3 v = 0. and Ipi » Ipil. Ipi » IPol.7733 m3Jkg 'Y = 12. where Pi is a small quantity compared with P. 7-3 Mathematical Modeling of Pneumatic Systems 333 The density p. and any other flow-restricting devices can be defined as the change in differential pressure (existing between upstream and downstream of a flow-restricting device) (N/m2) required to make a unit change in the mass flow rate (kg/s). Consider the pneumatic system shown in Figure 7--6(a).

N/m2 V = volume of vessel.= -T = R . kg p = absolute pressure of air (or other gas).334 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. N-mlkg K T = absolute temperature of air. we have pv = . K If the change of state of air is between isothermal and adiabatic. as shown in Figure 7-6(b). Notice that the airflow resistance R is not constant. m3/kg M = molecular weight of air per mole. but varies with the change in the operating condition. or . then the expansion process can be expressed as polytropic and can be given by n p where n = polytropic exponent p = constant (7-16) Since dpldp can be obtained from Equation (7-16) as dp dp p = np . m 3 p = mass density of air (or other gas). T p p R M atr (7-15) where p = absolute pressure of air. change in mass of air (or gas) kg kg-m2 capacitance C = . N/m2 v = specific volume of air.. For a pneumatic pressure vessel.2 change in pressure N/m N which may be expressed as c= where dm =V dp ~ dp dp N/m2 (7-14) m = mass of air (or other gas) in vessel. kglkg-mole R = universal gas constant. For air. 7 the pressure difference Ap versus flow rate q by calculating the slope of the curve at a given operating condition. N-mIkg-mole K Rair = gas constant of air. capacitance can be defined as the change in the mass of air (kg) [or other gas (kg)] in the vessel required to make a unit change in pressure (N/m2). kglm3 Such a capacitance C may be calculated with the use of the perfect-gas law.or .

H 2. rather than air. From the preceding analysis. we have dp 1 -=-dp nRairT (7-17) Then./ ( Sec. 7-3 Mathematical Modeling of Pneumatic Systems 335 by substituting Equation (7-15) into this last equation. The capacitance C is found by substituting V = 2 m 3. the capacitance C of a vessel is C=_V_~ nRairT N/m2 (7-18) Note that if a gas other than air is used in a pressure vessel. what is the capacitance? Assume that the temperature of the gas is 50°C and that the expansion process is isothermal. Rair = 287 N-mlkg K.50 X 10-6 kg-m /N 1 into C = nRH2T = 1 x V Mathematical modeling of a pneumatic system. The pneumatic pressure system shown in Figure 7-7(a) consists of a pressure vessel and connecting pipe with . T = 273 + 50 = 323 K. The gas constant for hydrogen is RH2 = 4121 N-mlkg K Substituting V = 2 m3. and n = 1 into Equation (7-18) as follows: C Example 7-2 = n~T = 1 x 28~ x 323 = 2.0 to 1. RHz Equation (7-19).2) for gases in uninsulated metal vessels. the nature of the gas (air. or n = 1. The value of the polytropic exponent n is approximately constant (n = 1.kg-m /N 5 2 In Example 7-1. is used to fill the same pressure vessel. but depends on the expansion process involved. from Equations (7-14) and (7-17). or n = 1. and n = 2 2 4121 X 323 = 1. if hydrogen (H2 ). T = 273 + 50 == 323 K. the capacitance C is given by C= V nRgasT N/m2 ~ (7-19) where Rgas is the gas constant for the particular gas involved. N2. and so on) and the temperature of the gas in the vessel.16 x 10. we have = 4121 N-mlkg K. it is clear that the capacitance of a pressure vessel is not constant. Example 7-1 Fmd the capacitance C of a 2-m3 pressure vessel that contains air at 50°c' Assume that the expansion and compression of air occur slowly and that there is sufficient time for heat to transfer to and from the vessel so that the expansion process may be considered isothermal.

the capacitance of the pressure vessel can be written C = dm dpo or Cdpo = dm This last equation states that the capacitance C times the pressure change dpo (during dt seconds) is equal to dm. Assume also that the flow is subsonic for the entire range of operation of the system. Assume that the system operates in such a way that the average flow through the valve is zero (i. kg = mass flow rate.Po q From Equation (7-14). hence. Now. N/m2 Pi Po V m q N/m2 = small change in air pressure in vessel. the resistance R is not constant. kgls = small change in inflow pressure. N/m2 = volume of vessel. a valve. for the present system. Cdpo = qdt .. then this system may be considered linear.e. the normal operating condition corresponds to Pi . As noted earlier. the average resistance of the valve may be written as R = Pi . We define P = steady-state pressure of the system. or q dt. the change in mass.Po = 0. 7 Pressure difference Capacitance C P+Po q Mass flow rate (a) (b) Figure 7-7 (a) Pneumatic pressure system.336 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. If we assume only small deviations in the variables from their respective steady-state values. (b) curve of pressure difference versus mass flow rate. m 3 = mass of air in vessel. dm. From Figure 7-7(b). q = 0). Hence. Let us obtain a mathematical model of this pneumatic pressure system. is equal to the mass flow during dt seconds. we shall use an average resistance in the region of its operation. the change in the mass of air in the vessel (during dt seconds).

z = If the variation x . then Equation (7-21) can be expanded into a Taylor series about this point as follows: Z = 1 d 2f 2 f(x) = [(x) + dx (x . Note that the pneumatic pressure system considered here is analogous to the electrical system shown in Figure 7-4(a) and the mechanical system shown in Figure 7-4(b).x) a = (7-23) dfl x=x dx Equation (7-23) indicates that z . we can neglect the higher order terms in x-x.Po)IR into this last equation.x) + .It is also analogous to the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-3(a). z zwhere z = a(x . x = x. that is. z = z. The process of linearizing nonlinear systems is important. d 2fldx 2. for by linearizing nonlinear equations. z). Consider a nonlinear system whose input is x and output is z. it is possible to apply numerous linear analysis methods that will produce information on the behavior of those systems. the variables must deviate only slightly from the operating condition. Equation (7-20) is a mathematical model for the system shown in Figure 7-7(a). the derivatives dfldx. The relationship between z and x may be written z= f(x) (7-21) If the normal operating condition corresponds to a point (x.x is small. The equation is a linear mathematical model for the nonlinear system given by Equation (7-21) near the operating point x = x. z .is proportional to x-x. Linearization of z = f(x) about a point (x. z).) I I I Sec.. Noting that = f(x). ••• are evaluated at the operating point. we can write Equation (7-22) as z. The linearization procedure presented here is based on the expansion of the nonlinear function into a Taylor series about the operating point and the retention of only the linear term. 7-4 Linearization of Nonlinear Systems 337 Substituting q = (Pi . Because we neglect higher order terms of the Taylor series expansion. we present a linearization technique that is applicable to many nonlinear systems. we have Cd Rewriting yields Po = Pi .Po dt R dpo RCTt + Po = Pi (7-20) where RC has the dimension of time and is the time constant of the system. 7-4 LINEARIZATION OF NONLINEAR SYSTEMS In this section.x) + 2! dx 2 (x . df (7-22) Here. these neglected terms must be small enough..

Y ~ 12. we find that a linear mathematical model of this nonlinear system near the operating point x = x. Noting that Z = i(x.y) + ( P-iy)2 + -(y ] 2! ax2 ax ay ay2 where the partial derivatives are evaluated at the operating point. Near this point. 7 Linearization of z f(x. the procedure does not apply. y = y.z = a( x . y.10 s y s 12. y = y. Y = 11. Find the error if the linearized equation is used to calculate the value of z when x = 5 and y = 10. Y = 11. Then Equation (7-24) becomes z = i(x. Otherwise. choose x = 6.7. Since the region considered is given by 5 ~ x ~ 7.338 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. Z = 66.x)2 + 2--(x . z). the deviations of the variables from the operating condition must be sufficiently small. ExampJe7-3 Linearize the nonlinear equation z = xy in the region 5 =::.x) + ai (y . z).y) b= ail x=x. Expanding the nonlinear equation into a Taylor series about the point x = x.x) + b(y .y=y iJy It is important to remember that in the present linearization procedure. y.y) . or = z = i(x. y) + [ai (x . we expand Equation (7-24) into a Taylor series about that point. Let us obtain a linearized equation for the nonlinear equation near a point x = 6. Next. x = x.y) (7-24) To obtain a linear mathematical model for this nonlinear system about an operating point (x.y)] ax ay 2 ili + -1 [a i -(x . consider a nonlinear system whose output z is a function of two inputs x and y.x)(y . z = z is zwhere z = a(x - x) + b(y . y). x =::. z = z and neglecting the higher order terms. 10 =::. Then z = xy = 66. y) about a point (x. y = y. z = Z. the higher order terms may be neglected. we have z.

Assume that the flow is turbulent. where C is the capacitance of the tank. f( H. Hence. In terms of per- Consider the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-8. the outflow rate is Qo = (1. 7-4 Linearization of Nonlinear Systems 339 where a = a(xy) I ax = y = 11 a(xy) b=-=x=6 ay x=X. Let us define dt = CQ. (2). where h and q. ..= Q.66 or = 11(x z= 6) + 6(y . H = H + h and Q.. and the head is H = H. For this system. Q.66 = 55 + 60 - 66 = 49 49 The exact value of z is z centage. - dH 1 -C- KYH = f(H. the value of z given by the linearized equation is z = 11x + 6y .. ExampJe7-4 = xy = 50.y=y Hence.66 When x = 5 and y = 10. Then Q. the inflow rate is = Q. the error is 2%. The error is thus 50 - = 1. Q.-- U H=il+h Figure 7-8 Liquid-level system.. That is. At steady-state operation.11) llx + 6y .K v H dt I 4 dH r. Q) = O. t .) (7-25) Assume that the system operates near the steady-state condition (H. = Q + q. dH Idt = O. At steady state.I .y=y z .Q 0 = Q. we have C . are small quantities (either positive or negative)./ I I Sec.= Q +qj ----Yrk. the linearized equation is I x=x.

In many machine tool applications.Q) qj.-Q) aQj (7-26) f(H. dt RC C I or RC dh dt +h = Rq· I which is the linearized equation for the liquid-level system and is the same as Equation (7-4). 7 \.! t 340 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap.f(H . fast starting.Q) = 0 :~IH. we obtain the linearized equation dH .= -(H . accuracy.Q = . and similar operations occurs because of such factors as dependability.) 7-5 MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS The widespread use of hydraulic circuitry in machine tool applications. and simplicity of operation. stopping.= .Q = ~ Then Equation (7-26) can be written as dr = Since H . the traverse and feed cycles required are best handled by hydraulic circuits.c in which we used the resistance R defined by R=~ Also. aircraft control systems.. a high horsepower-to-weight ratio.H) + C(Qj . Q).H.2C~ = - In 2C~ Q =- ~H = . Using the linearization technique just presented.Q. These cycles-in which the piston advances rapidly on the work stroke until the work is contacted. and then retracts rapidly at the end of the . ~l.. Let us linearize Equation (7-25) near the operating point (H. advances slowly under pressure while the work is done. for instance. Equation (7-27) can be written as (7-27) Q= dh 1 1 .h +-q.Q.. flexibility.Q) af H) dt 'aH where + -af (Q j . and reversal with smoothness and precision... (See Section 7-2.H.H = h and Qj - dH 1 1 RC (H .

the operating pressure in hydraulic systems is somewhere between 106 N/m2 (1 MPa) and 35 X 106 N/m2 (35 MPa) (approximately between 10 kgtlcm2 and 350 kglcm2. The BES units of dynamic viscosity are Ibr s/fi2 and slug/ft-s. The use of a clean. high-pressure phase of a cycle. The centipoise (cP) is one-hundredth of a poise.) Such an unloading valve is designed for the rapid discharge of hydraulic fluid at near atmospheric pressure after permitting the buildup of pressure to a preset value. because they give good lubrication for the moving parts of a system and are almost imcompressible. is a measure of the internal friction or the resistance of the fluid to flow. We then model a hydraulic servo. Vzscosity. we obtain the transfer function of the hydraulic servo. The small-capacity. a hydraulic fluid must minimize the wear of moving parts by providing satisfactory lubrication. The properties of hydraulic fluids have an important effect on the performance of hydraulic systems. high-pressure pump supplies hydraulic fluid for the compression stroke. Properties of hydraulic fluids. we first present some properties of hydraulic fluids and then introduce general concepts of hydraulic systems. The cgs unit of dynamic viscosity is the poise (P) (dyn-s/cm2 or g/cm-s). The SI units of dynamic viscosity are N-s/m 2 and kglm-s. It is the ratio of the shearing stress to the rate of shear deformation of the fluid. the most important property of a hydraulic fluid. petroleum-based oils with proper additives are the most commonly used hydraulic fluids. In hydraulic systems. Generally. (The unloading valve unloads whatever is delivered by the large-capacity. 2). In this section. Since this is a nonlinear device. we derive a mathematical model of a hydraulic damper. viscosity. The viscosity of a liquid decreases with temperature. or absolute. we linearize the nonlinear equation describing the dynamics of the hydraulic servo by using the linearization technique presented in Section 7-4. An unloading valve maintains high pressure while the low-pressure pump is unloaded to the reservoir. low-pressure pump during the small-capacity. the weight and size of the hydraulic unit can be made smaller by increasing the supply pressure. The resistance of a fluid to the relative motion of its parts is called dynamic. and high viscosity implies sluggish operation.2 and 5000 Iblin. the operating pressure may go up to 70 X 106 N/m2 (70 MPa. and valves. as well as by ambient and operating temperatures. For the same power requirement. which is approximately 700 kglcm2 or 10. low-pressure pump is used only during the rapid advance and return of the cylinder. low-pressure pump and one small-capacity. allowable viscosities are limited by the operating characteristics of the pump.1 N-s/m2 . Fmally.9 N-s/m2 = 100 cP = 0.9 kglm-s = 47. 7-5 Mathematical Modeling of Hydraulic Systems 341 slow tool feed stroke-are easily handled by the use of two pumps (one large-capacity.( Sec. high-pressure pump) and flow control devices. high-quality oil is required for satisfactory operation of the hydraulic system. The SI unit is 10 times larger than the poise. In practice. Besides serving as a powertransmitting medium. In some special applications. Afterward. or approximately between 145 Iblin. Note that 1 sluglft-s 1P = 1lbr s/ft2 = 47. Low viscosity means an increase in leakage losses. motor. The large-capacity. 2).000 Iblin.

are fundamentally the same. For operating temperatures above 70°C. Moreover. 2. Note also that the operating temperature of the hydraulic system should be kept between 30 and 60°C. Hydraulic circuits. the kinematic viscosity is about 5 to 100 centistokes (5 X 10-6 to 100 X 10-6 m2/s). Some additional remarks on hydraulic fluids are as follows: 1. Figure 7-10 shows a hydraulic servomotor consisting of a spool valve and a power cylinder and piston. Hydraulic circuits are capable of producing many different combinations of motion and force. these systems permit a rapid and accurate positioning of loads. Assume that the spool valve is .2 Ib/ft3 = 1. fluid having a viscosity that is relatively less sensitive to temperature changes must be used. If the system operates over a wide temperature range.0001 m2/s For hydraulic oils at normal operating conditions. 7 The kinematic viscosity v is the dynamic viscosity IL divided by the mass density p. and one-hundredth of a stoke is called a centistoke (cSt). regardless of the application.or v=- IL p For petroleum-based oils. Hydraulic servomotor. however. and water-oil emulsions. High-pressure hydraulic systems enable very large forces to be derived. especially at high operating temperatures. Premium-grade fluids usually contain inhibitors to slow down oxidation. valves. The BES unit of kinematic viscosity is fills.59 slug/ft3 The SI unit of kinematic viscosity is m 2/s. heat. and so on. In changing from the stoke to the poise. Oxidation of hydraulic fluid is caused by air. and an actuator or actuators to convert hydraulic energy into mechanical energy to do the work. Petroleum oils tend to become thin as the temperature increases and thick as the temperature decreases. Such circuits involve four basic components: a reservoir to hold the hydraulic fluid. multiply by the mass density in g/cm3. the cgs unit of kinematic viscosity is the stoke(St) (cm2/s). the mass density is approximately p = 820 kg/m3 = 51. so a large hydraulic force is established to move a load.342 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. Figure 7-9 shows a simple circuit that involves a reservoir. All. The operating life of a hydraulic fluid depends on its oxidation resistance. and contamination. fire-resistant fluids should be used. Note that any hydraulic fluid combines with air to a certain extent. a pump or pumps to force the fluid through the circuit. oxidation is accelerated. The valve admits hydraulic fluid under high pressure into a power cylinder that contains a large piston. synthetic oil.764 ft2/s (BES unit of kinematic viscosity) 1 St = 100 cSt = 0. For hydraulic systems located near high-temperature sources. Note that 1 m2/s (SI unit of kinematic viscosity) = 10. a pump. These fluids are available in several general types. a hydraulic cylinder. such as water-glycol. valves to control fluid pressure and flow.

o-----~--~--~--~-----o y ___ 0-------:=----- Figure 7-10 Hydraulic servomotor. and that the orifice coefficient and the pressure drop across the orifice are constant and independent of the valve position. the hydraulic fluid is incompressible. 7-5 Mathematical Modeling of Hydraulic Systems 343 Hydraulic cylinder Electric Directional control valve Figure 7-9 Hydraulic circuit. the inertia force of . Po Ps Po t 1 t X---. symmetrical and has zero overlapping. that the valve orifice areas are proportional to the valve displacement x.( Sec. Assume also the following: The supply pressure is Ps' the return pressure Po in the return line is small and can be neglected.

/p . Ap = 0.£p 2 X = I(x. Ap) Using the linearization technique discussed in Section 7-4.Ap=Ap Ap x~0 = 0.Ap) (7-28) where a b Near the origin (x where I = al I = at ax aAp = C x:::i.PI X = C. we obtain the linearized equation near the operating point x = X.A P 'V 2 2VzVPs C =- x=i. Equation (7-28) becomes ql = KIx . .x where we assumed that Po = 0 and C is a proportionality constant. The flow rates through the valve orifices are given by qI = cVPs .PI X q2 = cVP2 - POX = C-v'P.I 344 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. q1 = (it to be ql - fil = a(x + b(Ap . Noting that ql = q2.Ap 2 The flow rate ql to the right side of the power piston is ql = CYPs .P2 Then PI and P2 can be written PI = Ps + Ap 2 P2= Ps . ql = 0). Ap = Ap.PI = P2 Let us define the pressure difference across the power piston as Ap = P1 . 7 \ the power piston and the load reactive forces are negligible compared with the hydraulic force developed by the power piston. ql = KIx (7-29) This is a linearized model of the spool valve near the origin.v s .K 2 Ap Hence. we have Ps . and the leakage flow around the spool valve from the supply pressure side to the return pressure side is negligible. Ap=Ap Ips . Let us derive a linearized mathematical model of the spool valve near the origin.x) .

p (kg/m 3 ). Since port 2 is connected to the drain port. gives Aps Yes) = KIX(S) or Yes) Kl K Xes) = Aps = --. Dash pots. As given by Equation (7-29). The operation of this hydraulic servomotor is as follows: If input x moves the pilot valve to the right. the oil will flow through the resistance R. Suppose that the inertia force involved is negligible. 2). the oil flowing out from the power cylinder into the drain is at low pressure. (7-32) where K = Kl/(Ap). In obtaining a mathematical model of the hydraulic servomotor shown in Figure 7-10. ql (kg/s). the oil flow rate ql is proportional to the pilot valve displacement x. The resulting difference in pressure on both sides of the power piston will cause it to move to the left. or (7-31) where Kl is a proportionality constant. the hydraulic servomotor shown in Figure 7-10 acts as an integral controller. assuming a zero initial condition. Then the force acting on the piston must balance . The dashpot (also called a damper) shown in Figure 7-11(a) acts as a differentiating element. From Equations (7-30) and (7-31).I ( Sec. however. we obtain dy Ap dt = K1x The Laplace transform of this last equation. 7-5 Mathematical Modeling of Hydraulic Systems 345 Mathematical model of hydraulic servomotor. (7-30) As given by Equation (7-29). Because of the spring force. the oil flow rate is proportional to the pilot valve displacement.2) and P2 (lbt'in. Thus. Suppose that we introduce a step displacement into the piston position x. times dt (s) is equal to the power piston displacement dy (m) times the piston area A (m2) times the density of the oil. The curves of x versus t and y versus tare shown in Figure 7-11(b). Then the displacement y becomes momentarily equal to x. we assume that the hydraulic fluid is incompressible and that the inertia force of the power piston and load is negligible compared with the hydraulic force at the power piston. We define the pressures existing on the right-hand side and left-hand side of the piston as PI (Ibt'in. Let us derive the transfer function between the displacement y and the displacement x. port 1 is uncovered. That is. We also assume that the pilot valve is a zero-lapped valve. The oil flowing into the power cylinder is at high pressure. the oil on the left-hand side of the power piston is returned to the drain. and the cylinder will come back to the original position. respectively. Note that the rate of flow of oil. and high-pressure oil enters the righthand side of the power piston.

dt . where A = piston area.lb/in.z-Ib. Ibtlin. in.dt = Ap = or dx dy q PI . 3.Pz RAp ky = RAzp -=-+-dt dt RAzp ky Taking the Laplace transforms of both sides of this last equation. the spring force.I 346 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap.Z k = spring constant. or p = constant. we obtain q dt = Ap(dx . 7 \ --~ x (a) y q R (b) Figure 7-11 (a) Dashpot. we obtain sX(s) = sY(s) + -z-Y(s) k RAp . The flow rate q through the restriction. Thus.dy) (7-33) where p = (We assume that the fluid is incompressible. is given by q= PI . assuming zero initial conditions. lbrs/in.Pz R where R is the resistance to flow at the restriction. in IbIs.) Equation (7-33) can be rewritten as dx dy density. (b) step change in x and the corresponding change in y plotted against t. Since the flow through the restriction during dt seconds must equal the change in the mass of oil to the left of the piston during the same dt seconds.

Advantages and disadvantages of hydraulic systems.) ! Sec. which is equivalent to the system of Figure 7-11(a). Since hydraulic systems are used frequently in industry. and reversals of speed. Comments. we find the viscous-friction coefficient b to be equal to RA2p or b = RA2p Note that the resistance R depends on the viscosity of oil. since T = RA2p/k in Equation (7-34) and T = blk in Equation (7-35). Notice that. 3. we frequently treated the spring-dashpot system as shown in Figure 7-12. . 7-5 Mathematical Modeling of Hydraulic Systems 347 The transfer function of the system thus becomes Y(s) s X(s) Let us define RA2plk = T. stops. A mathematical model of the system shown in Figure 7-12 is b(x . x y Figure 7-12 Spring-dashpot system. Some of the advantages to using hydraulic systems rather than electrical systems are as follows: L Hydraulic fluid acts as a lubricant. in what follows we shall list the advantages and disadvantages of using hydraulic systems over comparable electrical systems. with fast starts.y) or Y(s) bs b k = ky -s b k X(s) = bs + k -s + 1 Ts Ts + 1 (7-35) where b/k is the time constant T. 2. Comparatively small hydraulic actuators can develop large forces or torques. Then Y(s) = k s+-RA2p Ts X(s) = Ts + 1 (7-34) In earlier chapters. Hydraulic actuators have a higher speed of response. in addition to carrying away heat generated in the system to a convenient heat exchanger.

Thermal systems may be analyzed in terms of resistance and capacitance. drops in speed when loads are applied are small. Hydraulic power is not readily available. 4. Contaminated oil may cause failure in the proper functioning of a hydraulic system. 3.163 Wh = 1055 J = 778 ft-IbJ . and stalled conditions without damage. 7 4.389 1 X 10-4 kcal = 9. the system tends to be messy. we shall assume that a thermal system can be represented by a lumped-parameter model. let us review units of heat. 7-6 MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THERMAL SYSTEMS Thermal systems involve the transfer of heat from one substance to another. some unstable phenomena may appear or disappear. 5. If a hydraulic circuit is not designed properly. 7. Hydraulic actuators can be operated under continuous. intermittent. Because it is difficult to maintain a hydraulic system that is free from leaks. (For precise analysis.860 Wh = 1. to simplify the analysis. 6. 2. 6. however. Before we derive mathematical models of thermal systems. Other units of heat commonly used in engineering calculations are the kilocalorie (kcal) and Btu (British thermal unit). Fire and explosion hazards exist. Because of low leakages in hydraulic actuators. As a result of the nonlinear and other complex characteristics involved. the design of sophisticated hydraulic systems is quite involved. The following conversions are applicable: 1J 1 kcal 1 Btu = 1 N-m = 2. Heat is energy transferred from one body to another because of a temperature difference. Units of heat. and that substances characterized by heat capacitance have negligible resistance to heat flow. reversing. Several disadvantages. however. distributed-parameter models must be used. tend to limit the use of hydraulic systems: 1. compared with electric power.480 X 10-4 Btu = 4186 J = 0. The SI unit of heat is the joule (J).348 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. depending on the operating condition of the circuit. Hydraulic circuits have generally poor damping characteristics. 5. The availability of both linear and rotary actuators lends flexibility to design. although the thermal capacitance and thermal resistance may not be represented accurately as lumped parameters. since they are usually distributed throughout the substance.) Here. The cost of a hydraulic system may be higher than that of a comparable electrical system performing a similar function. that substances characterized by resistance to heat flow have negligible heat capacitance. unless fire-resistant fluids are used.

The Btu can be considered as the energy required to raise 1 pound of water 1 degree Fahrenheit at some arbitrarily chosen temperature. radiation heat transfer is appreciable only if the temperature of the emitter is very high compared with that of the receiver. we shall be concerned with systems that involve just conduction and convection. The thermal . the thermal resistance for either conduction or convection is constant.5 to IS.SoC. The thermal resistance R for heat transfer between two substances may be defined as follows: R= change in temperature difference °C -change in heat flow rate kcalls Thus. In this section. kcalls °C The coefficient K is given by K = kA I1X for conduction for convection = HA where k = thermal conductivity. (These units give roughly the same values as those previously defined. Heat can flow from one substance to another in three different ways: conduction. and radiation. kcallm2 soC Thermal resistance and thermal capacitance.I Sec.) Heat transfer by conduction. kcalls 118 = temperature difference. q = KJ18 where q = heat flow rate. For conduction or convection heat transfer. m H = convection coefficient. kcallm soC A = area normal to heat flow. convection and radiation. the thermal resistance for conduction or convection heat transfer is given by R = d(118) = ~ dq K Since the thermal conductivity and convection coefficients are almost constant. 7-6 Mathematical Modeling of Thermal Systems 349 From an engineering point of view. convection. °C K = coefficient. the kilocalorie can be considered to be that amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water from 14. m2 I1X = thickness of conductor. Most thermal processes in process control systems do not involve radiation heat transfer and may be described in terms of thermal resistance and thermal capacitance.

the thermal capacitance is the product of the specific heat and the mass of the material. thereby raising its temperature by dB. .walled mercury thermometer system shown in Figure 7-13. kg e == specific heat of substance. where Bb is the bath temperature (which may be constant or changing). Therefore. glass. kcaUkg °C Mathematical modeling of a thermal system: thermometer system. This heat is stored in the thermal capacitance C of the thermometer. thermal capacitance can also be written as C = me where m = mass of substance considered. Consider the thin. the heat balance equation is C d8 == q dt Since the thermal resistance may be written (7-36) R == d(A8) == AB dq q Thermometer / e+8 Bath Figure 7-13 Thin. A mathematical model for this thermal system can be derived by considering heat balance as follows: The heat entering the thermometer during dt seconds is q dt. glass-walled mercury thermometer system. satisfying the condition that B( 0) == o. so that 8 is the change in the temperature of the thermometer. 7 I \ capacitance C is defined by C== change in heat stored kcal change in temperature °C Accordingly.350 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. measured from the am· bient temperature @. The dynamics of this thermometer system can be char· acterlzed in terms of a thermal resistance R (OC/kcalls) that resists the heat flow and a thermal capacitance C (kcall°C) that stores heat. Thus. Assume that the thermometer is at a uniform temperature @°C (ambient tempera· ture) and that at t == 0 it is immersed in a bath of temperature @ + Bb °C. where q (kcaUs) is the heat flow rate to the thermometer. Let us denote the instantaneous thermometer temperature by @ + 8°C.

and at the same time.. which is analogous to the electrical system shown in Figure 7-4(a). + 8. kcaYoC H = steady-state heat input. To derive a mathematical model for the system. Then the outlet air temperature will be changed from 8 0 to 8 0 + 80 . kcal/kg °C R = thermal resistance. kg c = specific heat of air. . Consequently. °C 8 0 = steady-state temperature of outlet air. °C slkcal C = thermal capacitance of air contained in the heating chamber == M c. the liquid-level system depicted in Figure 7-3(a).- R where B + 8b is the bath temperature and B + 8 is the thermometer temperature.. Assuming small deviations from steady-state operation. we can rewrite Equation (7-36) as CdB dt or = 8b - 8 R dB RC dt + 8 = 8b where RC is the time constant. kgls M == mass of air contained in the heating chamber. as q= (@ + 8b ) - (@ + 8) R 8 . 7-6 Mathematical Modeling of Thermal Systems 351 the heat flow rate q may be given. the mechanical system of Figure 7-4(b). kcaVs Let us assume that the heat input is suddenly changed from H to H + h. -----------+-------+--~ Figure 7-14 Air-heating system.i \ Sec. let us derive a mathematical model for the system. let us define 8. We shall also assume that the heat loss to the surroundings and the heat capacitance of the metal parts of the heater are negligible.. == steady-state temperature of inlet air. °C G == mass flow rate of air through the heating chamber. and the pneumatic pressure system shown in Figure 7-7(a).8 =b. to @. Example7-S Consider the air-heating system shown in Figure 7-14. the inlet air temperature is suddenly changed from @. This is a mathematical model of the thermometer system. in terms of R.. il + h t Heater -.

= h + Gc( Bj dt Noting that Bo ) 1 Gc=R we obtain 0 C . Since . For laminar flow.H 2 ) m are proportional.I 352 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems The equation describing the system behavior is Chap. Here. Equation (7-38) is also a mathematical model of the system. but one in which the Laplace transform of the output 8 0 (s) is given as a sum of the responses to the inputs H(s) and 8.(s) (7-38) Equation (7-37) is a mathematical model of the system.(J ) dt R'O d8 1 or (7-37) Taking the Laplace transforms of both sides of this last equation and substituting the initial condition 80 (0) = 0 yields 8 0 (s) = RCs + 1 H(s) + R 1 RCs + 18. 7 \ C dBo :.(s).H2 ) 2 dQ slm .Bo)] dt or dBo c. the flow rate Q m3/s and differential head (HI . EXAMPLE PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS ProblemA-7-1 Liquid flow resistance depends on the flow condition. we consider the laminar-flow resistance. or where K is a proportionality constant.. . either laminar or turbulent. [h + Gc(Bj .= h + -(8.3 change m flow rate m /s _ d(Hl . change in differential head m resIstance R = .

The liquid-flow inertance is the potential difference (either pressure difference or head difference) between two sections in the pipe required to cause a unit rate of change in flow rate (a unit volumetric flow acceleration). m = diameter of pipe. Solution Substituting numerical values into Equation (7-39). Suppose that the cross-sectional area of a pipe is constant and equal to A m 2 and that the pressure difference between two sections in the pipe is flp N/m2• Then the . In considering laminar flow through a cylindrical pipe. m2/s L = length of pipe.s/m2 4 dQ g'TJ'D (7-39) h Figure 7-15 Flow of water through a capillary tube.15 X 104 s/m2 9.H 2 ) m and the flow rate Q m3/s is given by the Hagen-Poiseuille formula where v = kinematic viscosity.807 X 3. Now consider the flow of water through a capillary tube as shown in Figure 7-15. the relationship between the differential head h (= HI . The kinetic viscosity v of water at 20°C is 1.. we obtain R = 128 X 1. Assuming that the temperature of the water is 20°C and that the flow is laminar.004 X 10-6 m2/s.14 X (3 X 10-3 )4 6 Problem A-7-2 Consider a liquid flow in a pipe.H2) = .X 1 = 5. m R D So the laminar-flow resistance R for liquid flow through cylindrical pipes is given by 128vL = -dh = .I I I / Example Problems and Solutions 353 the laminar-flow resistance can be given by R = d(Bt .004 X 10. fmd the resistance R of the capillary tube.!s/m2 dQ K Note that the laminar flow resistance is constant.

5s2/m 2 10-3 X 9.= Ilhpg pL dQ A dt or ~ dQ Ag dt = Ilh Consequently. 7 force A IIp will accelerate the liquid between the two sections. noting that IIp ::: Ilhpg. or dv M dt = A IIp where M kg is the mass of liquid in the pipe between the two sections and v mls is the velocity of liquid flow.. Note that the mass M is equal to pAL. we can rewrite the preceding equation as .807 m2 m . then. we see that Equation (7-40) becomes . Solution The liquid-flow inertance is or I = L = Ag 1 X 15 m s2 .354 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap.= 1529.. the last equation can be written dv pAL dt = A IIp Noting that Av m 3/s is the volumetric flow rate and defining Q = Av m3/s. where Ilh is the differential head. then the liquid-flow inertance I is obtained as If head (m) is chosen as a measure of potential. Assuming that the differential head between two sections is 1 m. where p kglm3 is the density and L m is the distance between the two sections considered. compute the volumetric water flow acceleration dQldt.. Therefore.-dt = IIp A pL dQ (7-40) If pressure (N/m2) is chosen as a measure of potential. the liquid-flow inertance I is obtained as Ilh L s2 1=--=-dQldt Ag m2 Now consider water flow through a pipe whose cross-sectional area is 1 x 10-3 m2 and in which two sections are 15 m apart. Compute the inertance 1.

Assume that the outflow rate Q m3/s through the outflow valve is related to the head H m by Q = KYH = 0.11 0 2.1529. Integrating both sides of this last equation. we 1 Qi- 1.OIVH 2 Vii = -0.25 H (-0. when the inflow rate Qi is 0. r.25m The equation for the system for t > 0 is -CdH = Qdt or -.Jt=-C= Consequently.015 m3/s.125 . Thus. so there is no inflow for t ~ o. = V dH /.. At t = 0 the inflow valve is closed. The capacitance of the tank is 2 m2• Solution When the head is stationary. the head Ho at t = 0 is obtained from 0.015 or = 0.005tl H Capacitance C Figure 7-16 Liquid-level system.125 m at 1 = 11.005 dt Assume that H have = 1. Find the time necessary to empty the tank to half the original head.01 Viio Ho = 2.I I I 1 Example Problems and Solutions 355 For a differential head of 1 m between two sections that are 15 m apart. the volumetric water flow acceleration is dt . the inflow rate equals the outflow rate.01 Vii Assume also that.I Problem A-7-3 dQ _ Ah _ Ah _ 1 _ 3 2 LIAg .O. the head stays constant.OO0654m Is Consider the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-16..005) d1 = -0.5 . dH dH Q -O. .

or H = 1.5 X 10-4 m3/s. we see that 4 X 10-4 = or K = 4 X 10-4 So if the steady-state flow rate is changed to 4.25 = -0.2\1'2.02m2 o (a) (b) Figure 7-17 (a) Liquid-level system.7 s.266m Head m Ii + h c= O.125 tl . from the curve given in Figure 7-17 (b).02 m 2• Solution The flow rate through the outflow valve can be assumed to be Q=KYH Next. . Problem A-7-4 Consider the liquid-level system of Figure 7-17(a).5 X 10-4 m3/s. Determine the average resistance R of the outflow valve. The capacitance C of the tank is 0. (b) curve of head versus flow rate. 7 2YH 1 or = 2V1.125 \ \ Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. Assume that at steady state the liquid flow rate is 4 X 10-4 m3/s and the steady-state head is 1 m.005tl 2. determine the change in head as a function of time.I 356 It follows that 1.7 Thus. At t = 0. the time necessary to empty the tank to half the original head is 175.25 = 175. then the new steady-state head can be obtained from KVi. Also. The curve of head versus flow rate is shown in Figure 7-17(b). the inflow valve is opened further and the inflow rate is changed to 4.

4s + 1)H(s) = . Thus. .266 s or H(s) = s(106.02 m2 .I Example Problems and Solutions This means that the change in head is 1.5 X 10-4 4 106.4 ) m This equation gives the change in head as a function of time.m /s into this 4 3 = 0.4) 1 1 The inverse Laplace transform of H(s) gives h(t) = 0. C = 0.4s + 1) = 0.% R=% h it follows that or dh RC dt + h = Rq· I Substituting R = 0. The average resistance R R dB =.%) dt where qj and qo are the changes in the inflow rate and outflow rate of the tank.532 X 104 X 0.266 m. Cdt = Since dh qj .s + (11106.e-tl106 .532 X 104s/m2 (4.5 X 10. respectively. and qj last equation yields 0.266 0. we have C dh = (qj .532 X 104 51m2.266 . .02 dh + h dt or = 0. with the initial condition h(O) = 0.1 = 0. and h is the change in the head.= dQ 1.4) X 10-4 Noting that the change in the liquid stored in the tank during dt seconds is equal to the net flow into the tank during the same dt seconds.1 of the outflow valve is then 357 = 0.5 . we obtain (106.- 0.532 X 10 X 0.266 Taking Laplace transforms of both sides of this last equation.47t + h dh = 0.266 [1 -.266 .266(1 .

. we have ql = hi . 7 For the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-18. The resistance of the valve between the tanks is R 1 and that of the outflow valve is R2• Assuming that q is the input and q2 the output.s + ~JH'(S) = Q(s) + ~. respectively. where q is small. respectively. The capacitances of tank 1 and tank 2 are C 1 and C2. (7-41) For tank 2. The corresponding changes in the heads (h I and h2) and changes in flow rates (qi and q2) are assumed to be small as well.h2 Rl dhi CIT! = q . the steady-state flow rate through the tanks is Q and the steady-state heads of tank 1 and tank 2 are HI and H 2. we get Therefore. derive the transfer function for the system. the inflow rate is changed from Q to Q + q. under the initial conditions hI (0) = 0 and h2(0) = 0. we obtain (c. C dh2 + h2 + h2 2 dt Rl R2 = !!. At t = 0. Solution For tank 1.ql Hence.! Rl (7-42) Taking Laplace transforms of both sides of Equations (7-41) and (7-42).358 Problem A-7-S Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. H2(S) (7-43) (7-44) Q+q-~ Tank 1 Tank 2 Figure 7-18 Liquid-level system.

)s + 1 which is Equation (7-13).)R2Q2(S) Rl R2 = Q(s) + R2 Q2(S) RICIS + 1 Rl RICIS + 1 which can be simplified to [(C2R2s + I)(R ICl S + 1) + R2C1S)Q2(S) Thus.. we have Tank 2 Q+q-~ Tank 1 "-.' . where q is small. The capacitances of tanks 1 and 2 are CI and C2.. the flow rate between the tanks is zero.. Figure 7-19 Liquid-level system_ . we get C S+ ( 2 ~ + -l. the inflow rate is changed from Qto Q + q.. the inflow rate and outflow rate are both Q.S RICIS + 1 Substituting this last equation into Equation (7-44) yields Cs+ ( 2 ~ + ~)H2(S) RI R2 = 1 RIQ(S) + H2(S) RI RICIS + 1 Since H2(S) = R2Q2(S).. Solution For tank 1. At steady state. At t = 0. Problem A-7-6 Consider the liquid-level system of Figure 7-19. respectively_ The resistance of the valve between the tanks is Rl and that of the outflow valve is R2Derive the transfer function for the system when q is the input and h2 is the output. The resulting changes in the heads (hI and h2) and flow rates (ql and q2) are assumed to be small as well..Example Problems and Solutions 359 From Equation (7-43). the transfer function Q2( s)/Q( s) can be given by Q2(S) Q(s) 1 = Q(s) = R1C}R2C2s2 + (RIC I + R2C2 + R2C. and the heads of tank 1 and tank 2 are both H. we have (R}CIs + I)Hl(S) = RIQ(S) + H2(S) or RIQ(S) + H2(s) HI () = .

'2 are the inputs.ql) dt (7-48) Figure 7-20 LiqUid-level system. we have h2 dh2 dq d2 RI C1R2C2 dt 2 + (R1CI + R2C2 + R2CI )Tt + h2 = R1C1R2 dt (7-47) The transfer function H2(s)/Q(s) is then obtained from Equation (7-47) and is H2(s) Q(s) Problem A-7-7 Consider the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-20. 7 Consequently. we get where It follows that dh2 R2C2Tt + RI h2 + h2 R2 = R2q + RI hI + R2q R2 (7-46) Eliminating hI from Equations (7-45) and (7-46). Solution The equations for the system are R1C1R2s + R2 = RICIR2C2S2 + (RIC I + R2C2 + R2Ctls + 1 C1 dh 1 = (qil .'2. hh h2' qh and % are considered small. Obtain a state-space representation of the system when hi and h2 are the outputs and qil and q. In the system. The quantities qih q. QI and Q2 are steady-state inflow rates and H1 and H2 are steady·state heads. (7-45) For tank 2. .360 where Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap.

= 1 RIC l I Xl + RICI Xl + C 1 UI 1 1 Xl - (1 + 1) Rie Z RzCz X2 + C2 U2 1 In standard vector-matrix representation.C1 q. we have which is the state equation.l _ hI . Problem A-7-8 Obtain a mechanical analog of the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-21 when q is the input and qz the output. Xl 1 = .%) dt (7-50) (7-51) Using Equation (7-49) to eliminate ql from Equation (7-48) results in dh l _ ~ ( dt .R2 (7-53) input variables UI Uz = qil = qil and output variables YI = hI = Y2 :::: hl = Xl Xl then Equations (7-52) and (7-53) can be written as . and which is the output equation.RIC X2 .h2) Rl (7-52) Using Equations (7-49) and (7-51) to eliminate ql and qo from Equation (7-50) gives dt = C2 If we define state variables dh z 1 (hI RI h2 + qiZ h2) .h2 RI = qi (7-49) C2 dh2 = (ql h2 R2 =% + qi2 .Example Problems and Solutions 361 hI . .

q2 h2 qz=- R2 Analogous quantities in a mechanical-liquid-level analogy are shown in Table 7-2.) Using the analogous quantities shown in the table.F2 F2 = k 2X 2 TABLE 7-2 Mechanical-Liquid-Level Analogy Mechanical Systems F(force) x (displacement) x (velocity) b (viscous-friction coefficient) k (spring constant) Liquid-Level Systems q (flow rate) ~ (head) h (time change of head) C (capacitance) ~ (reciprocal of resistance) .Xz) (7-58) (7-59) (7-60) (7-61) !Jzxz = Fl .362 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. Solution The equations for the liquid-level system are (7-54) qi = hI . 7 Tank! Tank 2 iit + hI L--L~~~~==L--L~__~==~~=Q+q2 1 ~+~ t - Figure 7-21 Liquid-level system. Equations (7-54) through (7-57) can be modified to b1Xl PI =F = kl(Xl Fl . (Note that other mechanical-liquid-level analogies are possible as well.hz R} (7-55) (7-56) (7-57) dh z CzTt = qi .

At standard pressure and temperature (1. at standard pressure and temperature.7 psia = 14. the volume occupied by 2 kg of hydrogen. For instance. 22.0133 x lOS N/m2 abs. To obtain the universal gas constant in BES units.4 = 8314 N-mlkg-mole K T 273 5 This is the universal gas constant in SI units.0133 x 105 N/m 2 abs and 273 K. we substitute p = 14. we obtain v= 22. 1 mole occupies the same volume if measured under the same conditions of pressure and temperature. we obtain bIXl + kt(Xl . 1 kg mole of any gas is found to occupy 22.4 m3/kg-mole.4 m3 (or lib mole of any gas is found to occupy 359 rt3).7 x 144 Iblft2 abs.7 T 144 X 359 = 1545 ft-Ibfllb-mole OR 492 = 1.985 Btullb-mole OR X Figure 7-ZZ Mechanical analog of the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-21. v = 359 ft3Ilb-mole. For 1 mole of gas. Fmd the value of the universal gas constant in S1 and BES units. 273 K into Equation (7-62). we can obtain an analogous mechanical system as shown in Figure 7-22. or 28 kg of nitrogen is the same.X2) = F ~X2 + k 2X2 = kt(Xl . and T = R= pv = 1. because 1 mole of any gas contains the same number of molecules.Example Problems and Solutions 363 Rewriting Equations (7-58) through (7-61). . Thus. we find it convenient to work in molar quantities. Problem A-7-C) In dealing with gas systems.4 m3• This volume is called the molal volume and is denoted by v. pv= RT (7-62) The value of R is the same for all gases under alI conditions.X2) On the basis of the last two equations.7 psia and 492°R). 32 kg of oxygen. Solution Substituting p = 1. and T = 492°R into Equation (7-62). or 14. The constant R is the universal gas constant.0133 X 10 x 22. R = pv = 14.

Assume that the expansion process is isothermal (n = 1). and that the vessel has a capacity of 0. the pressure of the air in the vessel rises from P to P + Po. the inlet pressure is suddenly changed from P to P + Ph where Pi is a step change with a magnitude equal to 2 X 10" N/m2• This change causes the air to flow into the vessel until the pressure equalizes.1 m3• Solution The average resistance of the valve is R = -q = 1 X ap 2 X 104 10-4 =2 X 108 N-slkg-m2 The capacitance of the vessel is C .19 X 10- 6dpo + Po = 2 dt Capacitance C ~/ P+Po q(kgls) Figure 7-23 Pneumatic pressure system.1 _ -6 2 . and Pi into this last equation. dpo RCTt + Po = Pi X 104 Substituting the values of R.1 X 287 X 293 . At t = 0. Determine Po as a function of time. . C.364 Problem A-7-10 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. 7 Referring to the pneumatic pressure system shown in Figure 7-23. assume that the system is at steady state for t < 0 and that the steady-state pressure of the system is P = 5 X lOS N/m2 abs.19 X 10 kg-m IN A mathematical model for this system is obtained from C dpo = qdt where q=-=-- ap R Pi .nRairT .1. Assume that the initial flow rate is q(O) = 1 X 10-4 kg/so As air flows into the vessel.Po R Thus._v_ _ 0. that the temperature of the entire system is constant at T = 293 K. we have 2 X 108 X 1.

respectively. Therefore.807 = 70. find the specific volume and specific weight of the compressed air. Determine the specific volume v of a mixture that consists of 100 m 3 of oxygen. Solution The pressure and temperature are P = (5 + 1. The molecular weights of (molecular) oxygen and water vapor are 32 and 18. That is. with the initial condition Po(O) = 0.3 = 0.Example Problems and Solutions 365 or 238dt dpo + 1'0 n = 2 X 104 (7-63) Taking Laplace transforms of both sides of Equation (7-63). we get (238s + I)Po(s) = 2 X 104 ! or 2 X 104 Po(s) = s(238s + 1) = 2 X 104(! _ s s 1 ) s + 0. Find the mass of air in the tank.140m3/kg The specific weight 'Y is 'Y = n.= m 14. the mass of 5 = pV = 6.0133 X 105 N/m2 abs and 294 K. Also. compared with the weight of one oxygen atom. respectively.3 ~ 9.0133) X lOS N/m2 abs T = 273 + 20 = 293 K From Table 7-1. the gas constant of air is Rair the compressed air is m = 287 N-mlkg K.1 N/m3 Problem A-7-12 The molecular weight of a pure substance is the weight of one molecule of the substance. and 20 m3 of water vapor when the pressure and temperature 5m are 1.0042 .3 kg V 2 v = .e-o·00421 ) The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation is Po{t) = 2 X 104(1 which gives Po{ t) as a function of time. . ProblemA-7-11 Air is compressed into a tank of volume 2 m3• The compressed air pressure is 5 X 105 N/m2 gage and the temperature is 20°C. the molecular weight of carbon dioxide (C02) is 12 + (16 X 2) = 44. = 14. which is taken to be 16. 3 of carbon dioxide.0133 RairT The specific volume v is 10 X 2 287 X 293 X = 14..

The speed e of propagation of a sound wave is given by c=~ Show that the speed e of sound can also be given by e = VkRT where k = ratio of specific heats. 7 Solution The mean molecular weight of the mixture is M = Thus. for air. {Qp:::: fliP = VkRT For a given gas. 366 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. we obtain e = -Vd.24 X 1. (32 X ~~) + ( 44 X 1~) + (18 X 1~) = 30.0133 X 105 Problem A-7-13 Sound is a longitudinal wave phenomenon representing the propagation of compressional waves in an elastic medium. dp dp p =-. the process can be considered isentropic. the values of k and R are constant.. kp Since p = pRT.! I .40 X .1 mls = 1235 kmlh = 1126 ftls = 768 miIh VkRairT = V1. So the speed of sound in a gas is a function only of the absolute temperature of the gas. k = 1. Noting that.40 Rair = 287 N-mlkg K we find the speed of sound to be e :::: 287 X 293 = 343.798 m3/kg 30. Solution Since the pressure and temperature changes due to the passage of a sound wave are negligible. elev R = gas constant T = absolute temperature Fmd the speed of sound in air when the temperature is 293 K. Then .24 = v ::: - RT Mp 8314 X 294 = 0.= constant pk Therefore. -V--.

Note that the straight-line approximation of the cubic curve is valid near the point (2.Example Problems and Solutions 367 Problem A-7-14 Fmd a linearized equation for z = 0. 10 s Y s 12.2 = 4.3. Y = 10. choose x = 6.4x3 and its linear approximation at point x = 2 andz = 3. Solution Since the region considered is given by 5 s x s 7. Solution The Thylor series expansion of f(x) about the point (2.2). Z = 3.3.10 s y s 12.2) 5 4 3 2 1 o 1 2 3 4 x Figure 7-24 Nonlinear curve z = 0.2X21 = 4.4x3 = f(x) about a point x = 2.8( x 6 z .2. neglecting the higher order terms. Let us obtain a linearized equation for the nonlinear equation near a point x = 6.2) 3 and the linear equation given by Figure 7-24 depicts a nonlinear curve z = 0. Z = 726. Problem A-7-lS Linearize the nonlinear equation z = xl in the region 5 S x S 7.4x 3. Y = 11. Then z = xy2 = 726.2 Equation (7-64).3.2).8 (x . Y = 11. . is zwhere z = a(x = x) a= dx dfl x=2 1.8 x=2 So the linear approximation of the given nonlinear equation is (7-64) .2. z- = 4. Find the error if the linearized equation is used to calculate the value of z when x = 5.

-(y . the linearized equation is z .I%. y) + at (x _ x) + at (y _ y) + ax ay Thus. Solution Let us choose x = 100.11) 1452 or z = 121x + 132y - When x == 5.= y2 = 121 ax x::::x. and a b = :~L.y) .1452 = 605 + 1320 .- .1452 = 473 The exact value of z is z = xl = 500.00. z = zand neglecting the higher order terms. Y = 50."".473 = 27.z = a( x .4%. The error is thus 500 .. a linearized equation for the system is z . the error is 5. The given function z into a Taylor series as follows: z=- = xly can be expanded x z= - y = t(x.y.50) 50 50 25 .. t(x. Y = y.45 s y s 55.x) + bey . 7 x = :i. y = 10.368 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap..y::::y b = a(xl) = 2xy = 132 a ay x::::x. we have z ..L. In terms of percentage. 100 1 1 = -(x .2 Loo.y = a( x where:i x = .100) .5O = . the value of z given by the linearized equation is z == 121x + 132y . Y= 50.5O = z.y.y) = 100.so = -~ Hence.x) + bey .726 = 121(x . Problem A-7-16 Linearize the nonlinear equation x Y in the region defined by 90 s x :s 110.y=y I I Hence.Y.y) where Expanding the nonlinear equation into a Taylor series about the point a(xl) =.6) + 132(y .~Y-5O = 5~ = :.

Example Problems and Solutions or 369 x .i.P2 is 5 X 106 N/m2.50z + 100 = 0 This is a linearized equation for the nonlinear system in the given region.000 N 6F = 15. Problem A-7-17 A six-pulley hoist is shown in Figure 7-25. Solution The hydraulic force on the piston is A(PI . Neglect the friction force in the system. .P2) = 30 X 10-4 X 5 X 106 = 15. we obtain Figure 7-25 Six-pulley hoist. If the piston area A is 30 X 10-4 m2 and the pressure difference PI . Since the tension is the same on the entire length of the cable.OOON Note that in this system the piston pulls six cables.2y . find the mass m of the maximum load that can be pulled up.

port I will be uncovered and high-pressure oil will flow through that port into the right-hand side of the power piston. The left-hand side of the pilot valve is joined to the left-hand side of the power piston by a link ABC.9 kg 15. forcing it to the left. This force should be equal to mg. point C acts as a fixed point. . Hence. in moving to the left. This link is a floating link rather than one moving about a fixed pivot. and the displacement of point B due to the motion of the power piston is yal( 0 + b). F=mg or m = 9..807 X 6 = 254.. that is. Therefore. will carry the feedback link ABC with it. As the power piston moves to the left. This action continues until the pilot valve again covers ports I and II. point A acts as a fixed point.a + b Yes) Oil under 0 K (7--66) Xes) = 0 + b E(s) b (7-67) A a y -- lOf----:~-- Figure 7-26 Hydraulic system. the displacement of point B is ebl( 0 + b). The system is a hydraulic controller. thereby moving the pilot valve to the left. Solution At the moment point A is moved to the right. the transfer function between displacement y and displacement xis given by Yes) Xes) Equation (7--65) can be rewritten as =-. The power piston.370 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. 7 where F is the tension in the cable and also is the lifting force. Derive the transfer function Y(s)IE(s).-- o+b o+b (7--65) From Equation (7-32). the net displacement x of point B is eb ya x = -.=-_-I r . The system operates in the following way: If input e moves the pilot valve to the right.000 ProblemA-7-18 Consider the hydraulic system shown in Figure 7-26. ""'---'.

= steady-state temperature of inflowing liquid.--Y(s) K a+b a+b or s b a sa ) b ( . IKa/[s(a can be simplified to + b)]1 ~ 1.Y(s) = --£(s) K a+b a+b Hence.+ .II Example Problems and Solutions Eliminating X{s) from Equations (7-66) and (7-67). Equation (7-68) Y(s) £(s) =!!. Thus. kcal/kg °C Cold liquid ~-----'~"'77'"r7'-r7""7'"""r~ Figure 7-27 Thermal system. Assume that the tank is insulated to eliminate heat loss to the surrounding air. kg c = specific heat of liquid. Let us define e.) Problem A-7-19 Consider the thermal system shown in Figure 7-27. The hydraulic system shown in Figure 7-26 acts as a proportional controller. This gain can be adjusted by effectively changing the lever ratio bla. the gain of which is Kp. Thus. Assume also that there is no heat storage in the insulation and that the liquid in the tank is perfectly mixed so that it is at a uniform temperature. . we obtain 371 . °C eo = steady-state temperature of outflowing liquid. a single temperature is used to describe both the temperature of the liquid in the tank and that of the outflowing liquid.Y{s) = --£(s) . bK + b)s Y(s) (a £(s) = 1 + aK (a + b)s (7-68) Under normal operations of the system. = a K P Thus the transfer function between y and e becomes a constant.. (The adjusting mechanism is not shown in the diagram. kgls M = mass of liquid in tank. °C G = steady-state liquid flow rate.

+ 81 dt = h· I h0 = Rh· I Next. (This approach is valid for any linear system. Obtain a differential equation in 8. from @o to @o + 81· For this case. In the current example problem. and the temperature of the outflowing liquid will be changed from @o to @o + 82• The differential equation for this case is d82 C .+ 82 = 8· dt I where we used the relationship ho = Ge82. while the liquid flow rate is kept constant..372 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap..l. kcall°C H = steady-state heat input rate.) We shall first consider the change in the temperature of the outflowing liquid when the heat input rate is changed. consider the change in the temperature of the outflowing liquid when the temperature of the inflowing liquid is changed. In Example 7-5. we considered two inputs at the same time in deriving the system equation there. Define 8 as the change in the temperature of the outflowing liquid when both the heat input rate and inflow liquid temperature are changed. kcalls Suppose that the system is subjected to changes in both the heat input rate and the temperature of the inflow liquid. Solution The system is subjected to two inputs.= Ge8· . °C slkcal C = thermal capacitance. 7 R = thermal resistance.h 0 dt I which may be rewritten RC. to 8 j + 8j while the heat input rate H and the liquid flow rate G are kept constant. d82 . we consider the two inputs independently. is small. ho Ge The differential equation for the system is d8 1 Cdt which may be rewritten as d8 1 RC. The heat outflow rate will then change gradually from H to H + ho. then the heat outflow rate will be changed from H ~ H + ho. ho = Ge8 1 C= Me R=~=. If the temperature of the inflowing liquid is suddenly changed from 8. Assume that the temperature of the inflowing liquid is kept constant and that the heat input rate to the system (the heat supplied by the heater) is suddenly changed from H to H + hi' where h. The temperature of the outflowing liquid will also change.

K-sII C :::: thermal capacitance.) It is further assumed that the flow rate of liquid into and out of the tank is constant and that the inflow temperature is For t < 0.+ (J dt Problem A-7-20 = (J. it is assumed that the tank is insulated to eliminate heat loss to the surrounding air. that there is no heat storage in the insulation. kg R = thermal resistance. J/kg-K M = mass of liquid in the tank. (J°C.-'77)z/ liquid R c (a) (b) Figure 7-28 (a) Thermal system.where 8(s) = !f[(J(t)] and H(s) = !f[h(t)]. ate. and that the liquid in the tank is perfectly mixed so that it is at a uniform temperature. the total change (J in the temperature of the outflowing liquid is the sum of the two individual changes. Solution Define G = liquid flow rate. or (J = (Jl + (J2. h lIs. At t = 0. (Thus. Determine the transfer function 8( s)1H (s ). This change causes the outflow liquid temperature to change from @o to @o + (J°C. Thus. is the output and that the change in the heat input. the system is at steady state and the heater supplies heat at constant at the rate H J/s. the heat input rate is changed from H to H + h J/s. kgls c = specific heat of liquid. JIK ho = change in heat added to outflowing liquid. Suppose that the change in temperature.Example Problems and Solutions 373 Since the present thermal system is subjected to changes in both the temperature of the inflow liquid and the heat input rate. a single temperature can be used to denote both the temperature of the liquid in the tank and that of the outflowing liquid. Jls Then C =Mc Hot V77. . (b) analogous electrical system. Show that the thermal system is analogous to the electrical system of Figure 7-28(b). is the input to the system. + Rh· I I In the thermal system shown in Figure 7-28(a). where voltage eo is the output and current i is the input. we obtain d(J RC.:m.

+ 8 dt and the transfer function is = Rh R 8(s) H(s) = RCs + 1 For the electrical circuit shown in Figure 7-28(b).374 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Note that H Chap. respectively.ho ) dt or 8 d8 C. d8 RC.= h . assuming a zero initial condition.It(s) into the preceding equation. we have 1 Rlt(s) = Cs [/(s) . 7 = Gc(8o = Gc(Bo @j) H + ho + 8 . define the currents through resistance R and capacitance C as il and i2.) So we have ho = Gc8 Note also that 8 1 R=-=ho Gc The heat balance equation is C d8 = (h . Then the equation for the circuit becomes Ri} = ~/ 1 i2 dt = eo The Laplace transform of this last equation.It(s)] or Rlt(s) = RCs + 1/(s) == Eo(s) The transfer function Eo( s)// (s) is R Eo(s) R /(s) = RCs +1 . is RII(S) = Cs 12(s) = Eo(s) Substituting 12(s) = I(s) .B.dt R Thus.

Problem 8-7-2 In the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-29. obtain the resistance R/ of the capillary tube. Assume that the outflow rate Q m 3/s and head H m are related by Q = O. m D = diameter of pipe. and the inflow rate is 0.Problems 375 Comparing the transfer function of the thermal system with that of the electrical system. The kinematic viscosity v of water at a temperature of 20°C is 1.t = 0 -L4--L-~J:=. The inflow valve opening is changed at t = 0...05 m3/s for t 2: O.Q C=2m2 Figure 7-29 Liquid-level system.. . we find the analogy apparent.sm r 1 t----y---+..5-m level. m 2/s L = length of pipe.004 X 10-6 m 2/s. Determine the time needed to fill the tank to a 2.dh _ 128vL I 2 m R I . m Thus. the head is kept at 1 m for t < O.02vR The capacitance of the tank is 2 m 2 • 2. Assuming that the temperature of the water is 20°C and that the flow is laminar. Assume that the length L of the capillary tube is 2 m and the diameter is 4 mm. the relationship between the differential head h m and flow rate Q m3/s is given by the Hagen-Poiseuille formula h where = 128vL Q g'fl'D4 v = kinematic viscosity. PROBLEMS Problem 8-7-1 For laminar flow through a cylindrical pipe.'-. the laminar-flow resistance R/ for the liquid flow through cylindrical pipes is given by .s4 dQ g'fl'D Now consider the flow of water through a capillary tube.

2.376 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. Problem 8-7-4 Consider the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-31. Q+q-~ Tank! Tank 2 Figure 7-30 Liquid-level system. !!. the inflow rate is changed from Q to Q + q.3. At steady state. Tank 2 Tank 3 Tank 1 Figure 7-31 Liquid-level system. the inflow rate is changed from Q to Q + qi' Assuming that hit h2' and h3 are small changes.(s). . The capacitances of tanks 1 and 2 are C I and C2. At t = 0. where HI == H 2• At t == 0. respectively. and 3 are HIt H 2. 7 Problem B-7-3 At steady state. where q is small. respectively. obtain the transfer function Qo(s)/Q. and the heads of tanks 1 and 2 are HI and H 2. The resistance of the outflow valve of tank 1 is Rl and that of tank 2 is R2• Obtain the transfer function for the system when q is the input and q2 the output. and respectively. The resulting changes in the heads (hi and h2) and flow rates (qt and q2) are assumed to be small as well. the flow rate throughout the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-30 is Q. the inflow rate and outflow rate ar~oth Q and the heads of tanks 1.

What will be the head at t = 60 s? Figure 7-32 Conical water tank system. Suppose that the head is 2 m at t = O. in kgjlcm2. Problem 8-7-8 Air is compressed into a tank of volume 10 m3• The pressure is 7 X 105 N/m2 gage and the temperature is 20°C. The flow through the valve is turbulent and is related to the head H by Q= 3 O. If the temperature of the compressed air is raised to 40°C.Problems 377 Problem 8-7-5 Consider the conical water tank system shown in Figure 7-32. Problem 8-7-7 Obtain an electrical analog of the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-21 when q is the input and q2 the output. what is the gage pressure of air in the tank in N/m2. respectively. where Pi is small. Fmd the mass of air in the tank.2? Problem 8-7-9 For the pneumatic system shown in Figure 7-33. Assuming that the capacitance of the bellows is C and the resistance of the valve is R. obtain the transfer function relating x and Pi' .oosVn where Q is the flow rate measured in m /s and H is in meters. and in Ibt'in. assume that the steady-state values of the air pressure and the displacement of the bellows are P and X. Problem 8-7-6 Obtain an electrical analog of the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-30. This change will cause the displacement of the bellows to change a small amount x. Assume also that the input pressure is changed from P to P + Pi.

Problem B-7-11 Figure 7-35 shows a toggle joint. Determine the steady-state pressure P2 in the vessel after the inlet valve is fully opened.5 X 105 N/m2 gage. the outlet valve is fully opened to the atmosphere.. and the pressure P2 in the vessel is atmospheric pressure. the inlet valve is closed. the inlet valve is fully opened... 7 x+x c --+- .. For t < 0...e. Show that F = 22R 12 ..... The inlet pipe is connected to a pressure source that supplies air at a constant pressure Ph where PI = 0.378 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap.. Inlet valve Outlet valve P3 Atmospheric pressure Figure 7-34 Pneumatic pressure system.V "... At t = 0.. Assume that the expansion process is isothermal (n = 1) and that the temperature of the entire system stays constant. ji + Po Figure 7-33 Pneumatic system.-.. assuming that the inlet and outlet valves are identical (i. Problem B-7-10 Consider the pneumatic pressure system shown in Figure 7-34.. both valves have identical flow characteristics).

3. x A ~F N Figure 7-36 Pneumatic system. show that the area A of the piston must not be smaller than mg sin(6 + a) (PI .p. = 0. Problem 8-7-13 In the system of Figure 7-37. The frictional force is assumed to be p. If m = 1000 kg.P2 = 5 X lOS N/m2. If the load is to be moved.Problems R 379 t . Problem 8-7-12 Consider the pneumatic system shown in Figure 7-36.N = p. mg acts in the direction opposite to the intended direction of motion. 1 . p. Note that the frictional force p. The load consists of a mass m and friction.mg. and a is the angle of inclination of the plane. find the minimum area of the piston needed if the load is to be moved. R Figure 7-35 Toggle joint.P2)cos6 where 6 = tan. a mass m is to be pushed upward along the inclined plane by the pneumatic cylinder. and PI . The friction force ILN is acting opposite to the direction of motion or intended motion.

Fmd the displacement y of the output when the displacement of the power piston is x. which. 4 s Y so 6. Problem 8-7-14 The system shown in Figure 7-38 consists of a power cylinder and a rack-and-pinion mechanism to drive the load.1YH = f{H) about the operating point H = 4. causes pinion B to rotate on rack A. Q :: 0. Problem 8-7-16 Fmd a linearized equation of about the point x :: 2.2.:: mg cosoc Figure 7-37 Pneumatic system. y D Figure 7-38 Pneumatic system.380 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. in turn. Z = 20. 7 x mg N. . Power piston D moves rack C. Problem 8-7-15 Obtain a linear approximation of Q = 0. Problem 8-7-17 Linearize the nonlinear equation Z = x 2 + 2xy + 5y2 in the region defined by 10 s x s 12.

tot---::----II--. Assume that angles 8 and q. Show that. find the distance X2 m traveled by the piston on the right-hand side when the one on the left-hand side is moved by Xl m... there is a corresponding (steady-state) elevator angle q. The input to the system is the deflection angle 8 of the control lever.. Problem B-7-19 Figure 7-40 is a schematic diagram of an aircraft elevator control system. find the force P2 acting on the right-hand-side piston. Examine Figure 7-39.--=-- Figure 7-40 Aircraft elevator control system. Figure 7-39 Hydraulic system. .Problems 381 Problem 8-7-18 Pascal's law states that the pressure at any point in a static liquid is the same in every direction and exerts equal force on equal areas.. If a force of Pl is applied to the left-hand·side piston. Also. Oil under a I \. are relatively small. and the output is the elevator angle q. for each angle 8 of the controllever..

382 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. 7 Problem 8-7-20 Consider the thermal system shown in Figure 7-41. and the liquid inflow rate G kgls is also kept constant. respectively. The steady-state heat flow rates from tanks 1 and 2 are the same. Q kcal/s. where U is small. At t = 0. the system is at steady state. The temperature of the inflow liquid is kept constant. Tank 2 . Tankl~ \ Figure 7-41 Thermal system. For t < 0. respectively. wherein the heat input from the heater is U kcal/s and the temperature of the liquid in tank 2 is 8 2°C. This change will cause the temperature of the liquid in tank 2 to change from @2 to @2 + 82• Taking the change in the heat input from the heater to be the input to the system and the change in the temperature of the liquid in tank 2 to be the output. Assume that the thermal capacitances of tanks 1 and 2 are C1 kcal/°C and C2 kcal/oC. and that the specific heat of the liquid is c kcal/kgOC. obtain the transfer function ~ (s)JU(s). the heat input is changed from U to U + u. The changes in heat flow rates from tanks 1 and 2 are qh and Q2.

The com- () (8-1) .Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems 8-1 INTRODUCTION This chapter deals primarily with the transient-response analysis of dynamic systems and obtains analytical solutions giving the responses.geneous differential equ~tion. (n) x + al x + (n-l) al. or ramp function. . _ parts: the complementarY ~olntiO.on (t) depends on so)utJ xp . The particular to zero and solving the ass~: functional form of the input function pet). where the coefficientsbl Q2. tis ••• . ~ • functi' + an-IX + anx . x{t) is the dependent variable. (The method can be extended to obtain an analytical solution for any time-domain input. t and the articular solution x p( t). :c~) uating th~ right-hand side of Equation .(8-1) plementaIY solution le(t) 1S~o:d hJm. impulse. . (8-1) has a complete solution x(t) composed of two The differential equa Ion.) Natural and forced responses. a. on.P t a are constants. the indepe~dent v~a e. d pet) IS the mput . for instance. The chapter also derives an analytical solution of the state equation when the input is a step. Consider a system defined by a differential equation.

r:nollleter iI!ld q (kcaJ/s) . Section 8-3 begins with the transient-response analysis of secondorder systems subjected to initial conditions only. the system is said to be in a steady state. we consider a thermal system (a thin. a study of this type of behavior will reveal characteristics that will be useful in predicting the forced response as well. The basic '!Ie . Essentially. 8-2 TRANSIENT-RESPONSE ANALYSIS OF FIRST-ORDER SYSTEMS From time to time in Chapters 2 through 7. Section 8-4 treats higher order systems. Then we point out that the mathematical results obtained can be applied to any physical or nonphysical system having the same mathematical model.384 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. 8 If the complementary solution xc(t) approaches zero or a constant value as time t approaches infinity and if limt_ooX p( t) is a bounded function of time. " . engineers call the complementary solution xC< t) and the particular solution x p( t) the natural and forced responses. The beat~ut~~.:. equatIon for the heat balance for this system is s system m Section 7-6. e IDS antaneous thermometer temperaing the condition 8(0) = O. or 8b is constant.) Let us define th . t ture ase + BOC. Section 8-1 has presented introductory material. glass-walled mercury then:nometer system ~own in Figure 8-1. Customarily. Although the natural behavior of a system is not itself a response to any external or input function. he response fJ( t) when the bath presented a mathematical model of -fbi . Step response of first-order system. Transient response and steady-state response. Section 8-2 deals with the transient-response analysis of first-order systems subjected to step and ramp inputs. Section 8-5 presents an analytical solution of the state-space equation. For the thin. we mean the way in which the system output behaves as t approaches infinity. Transient response refers to the process generated in going from the initial state to the final state. [Note that 8' th h . We shall find the system's response to step and ramp inputs. respectively.I. Outline of the chapter.(8bisthedifferencebetweenthetemperatureofthebathand t e ambIent temperature. A discussion of the transient response of such systems to step inputs then follows. Finally. this section is a systematic review of the transient response analysis of first-order systems. By steady-state response. In the current section.JISWee ~ha::l~~~e thermometer temperature satisfytemperature is constant. The transient response of a dynamic system often exhibits damped vibrations before reaching a steady state. IS DIn terms of C d8 ::: qdt C.lve . glass-walled mercury thermometer system) as an example of a first-order system.~ere beat Input to the thermomctc. \' CIlIS) can be g. assume that the thermometer is at the ambIent ~mperature eoc and that at t = 0 it is immersed in a water bath of temPheratur~ @+Oboe. Both the natural and forced responses of a dynamic system consist of two parts: the transient response and the steady-state response. (kcal/oc) is the thermal capacitaeof (8-2) . we analyzed the transient response of several first-order systems.

Sec. FIrst.T + Te. note that Substituting this equation into Equation (8-5).trI) t ~0 The error e(t) between the actual bath temperature and the indicated thermometer temperature is e(t) = rt .-. 8-2 Transient-Response Analysis of First-Order Systems 387 Let us derive the ramp response 8{t). or e{oo) = rT The ramp input rt and response 8(t) versus t are shown in Figure 8-3.8{t) = rT{l . e-trr approaches zero. + s + (liT) T T] (8-7) The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation gives 8(t) = ret . The smaller the time constant T. The error in following the ramp input is equal to rT for sufficiently large t. Thus.trr ) As t approaches infinity. the error e(t) approaches rT. the smaller is the steady-state error in following the ramp input. we find that B( s) = Ts + 1 s2 = r 1 r [1 s2 .e. . the preceding results for step and ramp responses can be applied to any systems having the mathematical model (8-8) 9(t) o Figure 8-3 Ramp response curve for the first-order system. Since the mathematical analysis does not depend on the physical structure of the system. Comments.

The mathematical model of the system is x(O) and released with an initial velocity x(O).388 where lime-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. for a step input Xi(t) = r 'l(t).sx(O) .T + Te-t/T) Table Many physical systems have the mathematical model given by Equation 8-1 shows several such exhibit the same response to the same input function. systems. We first discuss the free vibration of a spring-mass system and then treat the free vibration of a spring-mass-dashpot system. All analogous systems (8-8). The results obtained can be applied to the response of any analogous systems. (8-8) will exhibit the following response: xo(t) = any system described by (1 . let us take Laplace transforms of both sides: m[s2X(s) .x(O)] + kX(s) = 0 which can be rewritten as (ms2 + k)X(s) = m[sx(O) + x(O)] .e-t/T)r Similarly. we shall not present the details of such a response here. which are analogous. Since the step response of the sec­ ond-order system is discussed fully in Chapter 10. Instead. We shall obtain the response of the system when the mass is displaced Free vibration without damping. any system described by Equation will exhibit the following response [see Equation (8-7)]: Xi(t) = (8-8) xo(t) = r(t . 8-3 TRANSIENT-RESPONSE ANALYSIS OF SECOND-ORDER SYSTEMS Let us next consider the transient-response analysis of second-order systems such as a spring-mass system and a spring-mass-dashpot system. for a ramp input rt ·l(t). in Figure 8-4. To solve this differ­ ential equation. The dis­ mx + kx = 0 The solution of the preceding equation gives the response x(t). Consider the spring-mass system shown downward by a distance placement X is measured from the equilibrium position . we shall treat only illustrative examples of the step responses of second-order systems with and without damping. 8 T = time constant of the system Xi = input or forcing function Xo = output or response function From Equation Equation (8-6).

.....i • R ----'I 1 P+Po I RC ... ---..... Solving for X(s) yields X (s ) = .)2 .:...) 2 � +--. sx(O) + x(O) S2 + (kIm) = -- x(O) v7d....�-..: x(O)s s2 + (v7d..+ dpo dt p0 = p.Sec.-. 8-3 Transient-Response Analysis of Second-Order Systems TABLE 8-1 Model of the Form T( dxo/dt) Examples of Physical Systems Having a Mathematical = 389 + Xo XI _ P+Pi 7 .. s2 + (v7d.

) x x(O) O�----�� ________ �________�____� Figure 8-S Free-vibration curve. If. there is a continual loss of energy in the system. a spring. and a dashpot. x The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation gives x(t) = X(O) � J!. then the motion x(t) is a simple cosine function: x(t) = x(O) cos J!. for example. . The mechanical system shown in Figure 8-6 consists of a mass. A typical free-vibration curve is shown in Figure 8-5. so that X(O) = 0. If the mass is pulled downward and released. the mass is released with zero velocity. The amplitude of the resulting motion will decrease with each cycle at a rate that depends on the amount of viscous damping. (Since the damping force opposes motion. although in some cases it may be negligibly small. it will vibrate freely. sin t + x(o) cos J!. t The response x(t) consists of a sine and a cosine function and depends on the values of the initial conditions x(O) and x(O). t Free vibration with viscous damping.390 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. 8 Figure � Spring-mass system. Damping is always present in actu­ al mechanical systems.

. thus causing the amplitude of the harmonic motion to multiplicative factor. Ullderdlllllped (0 < t. ( � ) (8-14) e-{rIJ"r as a decrease with time.' Next. and smaller as time increases.. cos w"VI .�)' - w" _ � V 1 ._ (w..sx(O) .(- + x(O) (s (w.-1 V -" e'(w"..('1 w"_ V ( + x(O)e'(w". fad/s X(I) If the initial velocity is zero. in the present case.392 (8-10) gives elise [s'X(s) .X(s) = 0 (s + 2(w. we have X(s) = 1.x(O)] +w. the damping introduces the term ..+ 2twns +W.I I + (8-11 ) or Xes) = + (w"x(O) + � O)== ---. 8 2(w.)x(0) + x(O) .. Equation (8-12) simplifies to sin wdl + cos Wdl - ) (8-13) ' t (l ) = ' . + (w"_ � .sin Wd I +tan ' I _ _ ?..) ..)' +(w. s. we define Then the response X(I) is given by Wd = W II �= damped natural frequency.('I 1. < 1).t(O) -( ". + Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems The Laplace transform of Equation Chap..t(O)] sin wdl + Wd 1 .�)x�(� =_ � (s � (s +?w.� The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation gives X(I) _ � (w"x(O) + .t(O) = x(o)e'(W"{ (O) x or h ( 0.) w. 1l1is factor is a decreasing exponential and becomes smaller Notice that. or = e'(W'''{[hX(O) +2.[sX(s) .(' X(I) = x(O)cos w'lt} (8-12) .(. V 1 .t(O)] Solving for Xes)..' _ r::---7i e w stnw"v1 .

411lk 2m If the damping coefficient b is small. I f the damping coefficient b is increased further. the overdamped case (� > 1 ) . If the damping coefficient b is increased. 11. the roots of the char­ acteristic equation are complex conjugates. In solving Equation (8-9) for the response X(I). the two roots are real and distinct. we shall use Equation (8-10) as the system equation and derive the response X(I) for three cases: the underdamped case (0 < � < 1). When the damping has reached this value (b 2 v.ww\- w�x = 0 (8-10) . + where the displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position. 8-3 Transient-Response Analysis of Second-Order Systems / 391 x Figure 8--6 Spring-rnass-dashpol system. and the critically damped case (t = 1). rad/s = damping ratio actual damping value ./. it is convenient to define = w" = t and rewrite Equation (8-9) as follows: = (k \/ 7. so that b' > 4mk.. The response is the sum of two decaying exponentials. a point will be reached at which b' = 411lk.Sec.. 111e characteristic of the natural response of a second-order system like this one is determined by the roots of the characteristic equation I11S' + bs + b.t + kx = k = 0 (8-9) 0 The two roots of this equation are s = -b ± Vb' .. and the system is said to be underdamped. 111e system is then said to be crilically damped. The natural response is then an expo­ nentially decaying sinusoid. the two roots of the characteristic equation become real and equal. .e mathematical model of this system is 111:'. x + 2. critical dampmg value + b In what follows. ). . so that b' < 4111k. and the system is said to be overdamp ed . = undamped natural frequency.

this last equation simplifies to Ts 1 + 1 8b(s) (8-5) Note that. we first take the Laplace transform (8-4): T[s8(s) .8 q = -­ R 8b . 8-2 Transient-Response Analysis of First-Order Systems 385 Bath Figure 8-1 Thin.8(0)] + 8(s) = 8 b(s) 8 (s) = Since 8(0) = 0. glass-walled mercury thermometer system. the thermal resistance R (OC/kcaVs) as 8b . Equation ( 8-5) becomes 8 ( s) = Ts + The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation gives 8b [1 1] 1 -.Sec. = -.8 R (8-3) Substituting Equation (8-3) into Equation ( 8-2) . Equation thermometer system. . we obtain C d8 = dt or where T = RC = time constant. we have Hence.+ 8 = 8b dt (8-4) is a mathematical model of the (8-4) To obtain the step response of this system. for 8b = constant.s + (liT) 8b 8(t) = (1 e-tIT)8b 1 (8-6) . of Equation d8 T.

the response reaches 86. Figure 8-2 shows that in one time constant the exponential response curve has gone from zero to 63.2% of its total change. a reasonable estimate of the response time is the length of time that the response curve needs to reach the 2 % line of the final value.2% of the total change. Consider again the thermometer system shown in Figure 8-1. The slope of the response curve 8(1) decreases monotonically from 8. 8 6(t) Figure 8-2 Step response curve for the first-order system. Another important property of the exponential response curve is that the slope of the tangent line at 1 = 0 is 8. In practice. o T 2T 3T 4T 5T -t The response curve 8(t) versus t is shown in Figure 8-2.5% of the total change. for t � 4T.386 lime-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Slope 6 =" Chap.2. So. for t � 0.. heat is added to the bath and the bath temperature changes lin­ early at the rate of rOC/s. the steady state is reached mathematically only after an infinite time. Assume that. This fact can readily be seen by substituting e-1 0. d8 dt 1=0 1 _ 8b T e-1rr l _ 8b 1=0 T .368 into the equation. Equation (8-6) states that.) One important characteristic of such an exponential response curve is that at t = T the value of 8(1) is 0. and 99..6328b. or the response 8(t) has reached 63. the response remains within 2% of the final value. 98. since = The response would reach the final value at 1 = T if it maintained its initial speed.1T at t = 0 to zero at 1 = 00. how­ ever. both the bath temperature and the thermometer temperature are in a steady state at the ambient temperature 8°C and that. or four time constants. that is. the response 8(t) is zero and that it finally becomes 8b' (There is no steady­ state error. 4T. respectively.3% of the total change.1 T . Ramp response of first-order system. initially. As can be seen from Equation (8-6). In two time constants. and 5 T. At 1 = 3T . the response 8(1) reaches 95. for t < 0.

1 + [ [«( ( (+ V (2 - - 1 )x(O) _ .� b= TIle inverse Laplace transform of X(s) gives the following response: V V X(I) = ae-l(w"+w" !'-I)I + be-l!w"-w" ('-I)I = ...t(O) 2w.= = w.". (s+ w.'.) I n the critically damped case. (The response does not exhibit any vibration. aU systems have a damping ratio greater or less than unity.... Here..)x(O)+ w"x(O) +.== --0 = 2w.)x(0)+ 0) « X(s) = ' 2 + 2wlls+ w� S t (s + w.)X('0 + x(O:.)2 .Case 2..= = = s+(wn+WII� I S + {WI-W/l� a ( ('--S_+ 2 w . (O) x(O) = -S +WI/ + 1lle inverse Laplace transform of this last equation gives X(I) = x(O)e-W"I + [w"x(O)+ .� t + wlI Vl'=l)I � Case 3.. Notice that both terms on the right-hand side of this last equation decrease expo­ nentially.'-'-'. (s+2w..)'-.t(O) 2w.) � =: . The motion of the mass in this case is a gradual creeping back to the equi­ librium position.= � .t(O) -". = .V-'-I) e W"w.. and ( = 1 rarely occurs in practice.� . Overdamped (� > 1). the damping ratio ( is equal to unity.�) b a = H+ �)x(O) 2� .t(O) ([ + �)x(O) + .... Nevertheless. Critically damped (� = 1).. «0) 2� + �)x(O) 2� + 2w..� ]-I( ]-I( e w" . .-.'-.! . but it is the fastest among such nonvibratory motions. be written .�)(s+(w" .---. (O)j te-W"I (s + w"f w"x(O) + . 8-3 Transient-Response Analysis of Second-Order Systems 393 _ _ x (s) = _ _ (s+(w" + = where + ------. So the two roots of the characteristic equation are the same and are equal to the negative of the natural frequency w" Equation (8-11) can.� 2V(2 . the two roots of the characteristic equa­ tion are real. therefore.! _ _ '. the case ( = 1 is useful as a mathematical reference.. In reality. so Equation (8-1 1 ) can be written Sec.

and I. at time t = (\ we measure the amplitude Xh and at time I = 11 + ( 11 . x" e-{w. can be measured directly from crossing points on the zero axis.) The period of oscillation. from Equation (8-12). 8 \>1 Figure 8-7 Typical response curves of Ihe spring-mass-dashpol system.{n I ) T Figure 8-8 Decaying oscillation. as shown in Figure 8-8. a record of decaying or damped oscillations..-. Since the decay in amplitude from one cycle to the next may be represented as the ratio of the exponential multiplying fac­ tors at times I. we measure amplitudes.(I[+T) e-{wllt[ _ 1 = . The response X(I) is similar to that found for the overdamped case. (Such an oscillation may be recorded by giving the system any convenient initial conditions. and overdamped) with initial conditions x(O) * 0 and . Note that it is necessary to choose 11 large enough so that x"lx. The mass. To determine the damping ratio.r(O) = o. from the rate of decay of the oscillation. such as that shown in Figure 8-8. Figure 8-7 shows the response x(l) versus I for the three cases (underdamped.w"T _ = e (u. To determine the damping ratio and damped natural frequency of a system experimentally. will return to the equilibrium position without vibration. . e(IJ-I). + T. I t is sometimes necessary to determine the damping ratios and damped natural frequencies of recorders and other instruments.) of Dynamic Systems Chap. we obtain.394 Time-Domain Analysis xC. when displaced and released.l)T we measure the amplitude x". is not near unity. that is. critically damped.. T. is needed. Experimental determination of damping ratio. Similarly.

11 1 In- d = � . b. 1 ::i In xI! 2 (8-15) (8-10).". Note that this equation is valid only for the system described by Equation Example 8-1 I n the system shown in Figure 8-6. the solu� tion can be written as x(t) = x(o)e-tw. 8-3 Transient-Response Analysis of Second-Order Systems 395 logarithmic decrement = In -::\: '2 calculated.1 The frequency actually observed in the vibration is the damped natural frequency w(/: w" = w. -':(0) is given as zero.".05 and i(O) = O.o"". from Equation (8-13).95 radls sin w"t + cos w"t ) . So. The mass is displaced 0.===:= =i===.1=== -. Thus.05 m and released without initial velocity.-:---::.) Find the frequency observed in the vibration. assume that 111 = 1 kg. vI .i: + kx = 0 Substituting the numerical values for m. the undamped natural frequency Wit and the damping ratio {are respectively found to be = :i + h + 1 00x = 0 ( = 0.' (h om = 9.�- 2.2 1 In- 11 - .(Xl) n-l and x" are measured and the logarithmic decrement is = -= � = 'wI! -w Xl --(Xl) -1 = logarithmic decre­ �w"T 2.".. The equation of motion for the system is k 11IX + b. 1 [_ ( ) ] -n + 4. and k into this equation gives where the initial conditions are x(O) 0. the damping ratio � is found from Once the amplitudes Xl or 1 -.Sec. and = 100 N/m. b = 2 N-s/m. (The displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position. � = 10\11 - In the present analysis.� X'I = Inx" 21T� � � = (Xn) Xl .. find the amplitude four cycles later. The logarithm of the ratio of succeeding amplitudes is called the ment. I n addition. From the system equation.

/ The time constant T of these exponential curves is li«(wn).396 lime-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. 8 It follows that at 1 = nT. the amplitude four cycles later becomes 3) x(4T ) = x(O)e-<·. defined by XIi) 15 = 4T =- CWn 4 T= .·..IIIIOII'lIo.T x = 0. where T = 27T/Wd. . -------j Figure 8-9 Typical response curve of the system shown in Figure 8-6 and its envelope exponentials./. The fact that the response curve X(I) is tangent to the exponential curves enables us to estimate the response time of a second-order system such as that shown in Figure 8-6 in terms of the settling time I.05 0.00402 m Estimate of response time..6 = = x(O)e-.. The mass of the mechanical system shown in Figure 8-6 is displaced x(O) and released without initial velocity. rewritten thus: A typical response curve is shown in Figure 8-9. The response is given by Equation (8-14).0804 0.05e-2. Note that such a response curve is tangent to the envelope exponentials ±[x(O)/�le-'w. x(nT) Consequently.52 = 0..-L---.. 'T = x(O)e-(o.!. o 31 " �w" 41" I-----.

b . for t > ls.J 'k b -�x () /: In () _u /: Figure 8-10 Mechanical system.-.."1 '-=-.e equation of motion for the system is lII:r + b. b k s.i: + kx = /I = Sec. the response curve remains within 2% of the final value or 2% of the total change.-' -.. . 11. S . as well as the results derived. since. + 2�Wll5 + WII w. force /I = a '1(1) [where a is a constant and 1(1) is a step force of magnitude 1 newton] is applied to the mass m.+ -s +III m Let us define ? Then X(s) . ) (8-16) J"".. Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 8-10. Assume that the system is at rest for 1 < O.j -( a = -= z y"k. 111e displacement x is measured from the equilibrium posi­ tion before the input force /I is applied. Comments. At 1 = 0.'£[1(1)] = illS ' 1 + bs + k = ----. . can be applied to any analogous systems having mathematical models of the form of Equation (8-10). Assume that the system is underdamped. 8-3 Transient-Response Analysis of Second-Order Systems 397 Q'l(l) The transfer function for the system is X(s) U(s) Hence X( S ) ..The settling time Is can be considered an approximale response time of the system. The preceding analysis. . IJIW.. . Step-response of second-order system.'£[1(1)] =.= a ms + bs + k Q m .

! b. (The response curve shown corresponds to the case where { 0. Figure 8-11 Step response of second­ order system. an exact response curve can be plotted easily with MATLAB.. The general shape of the response curve is shown in Figure 8-11.wI!)2 + w� .� r-----�----�--_.(s + (w. ---.. . IIIW.s2 + 2(w"s + w� s + (w" II (w" = mw..(s + . 8 Hence. . X(s) where Wd :::: w� S2 + 2(w"s + W2! S I s + 2(w" 1 1/ :::: mw� -. and a are given. and w" rnd/s. k..398 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation gives X(I) (8-17) The response starts from x(O) = 0 and reaches x( 00 ) = II/(mw�).) =1 = 5 r 10 15 (sec) .)2 + w� -2 I11Wn II = ( ( [1 1) ) 1 w.�. If the numerical values of m. Note that Equation (8-17) is an analytical solution for the step response of the system. -'(I) a -.

+ 2: -.] Next. If an analytical expression for the transient response is desired. . s j=1 S + Pi k=1 S" + 2�kWkS + wk 5 a +2:'i=1 S + Pi II (l. then X(s) will have multiple-pole terms. is the residue of the pole at s = . then it is necessary to expand X(s)/U(s) into partial (ractions. . . is X(f) = a + Laje -P. The transient response of this system to any given time-domain input can be obtained easily by a computer simulation. bk(s + ?kwd + CkWk V1 a q . X(f) = a + 2:aje-Pi j=l q i=\ + " for t === 0 f 2:bke-l./ or. (Use MATLAB command residue for the partial-fraction expansion. [If the system involves multiple poles. From Equation (8-19). 8-4 Transient-Response Analysis of Higher Order Systems 399 8-4 TRANSIENT-RESPONSE ANALYSIS OF HIGHER ORDER SYSTEMS Consider an nth-order ( n .+2: . then.n + 0jS 1 -1 + ..:: 3) dynamic system defined by --= X( s ) where In :s. Equation (8-19) can be rewritten as aj . A pair of complex-conjugate poles yields a second­ order term in s.').Sec.. (8-19) - d (q + 2r = n) (8-20) where we assume that all poles of X(s) are distinct._ I S + a/1 (8-18) where a. for a unit-step input U( s ) = lis. + (i . If all poles of the denominator polynomi­ als are real and distinct. [If some of the poles of X(s-) are multiple poles. then X(s) must have multiple-pole terms.) Unit-step response of higher order systems.w" k=l . Since the factored form of the higher order characteristic equation consists of first-order and second-order terms. we see that the response of a higher order system is composed of a number of terms involving the simple functions found in the responses of first-order and second-order systems. consider the case where the poles of X(s) consist of real poles and pairs of complex-conjugate poles. X(s) = . . the inverse Laplace transform of X(s).p.:: 0 . + bn 1s + bl! 1 . Equation (8-18) can be wri tten as X(s) = U (s) boslll + b\sm-l + . cos Wk � for f . Let us examine the re­ sponse of the system to a unit-step input. from Equation (8-20). n. the un it-step response X(f).] From this last equation.

. + k bklk-I If the assumed solution is the true solution.400 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems e ha p..a bo + + . Hence. .. A-8-14. The steady-state output is then x( 00) = a. Substituting this assumed solution into Equation ( 8-2 1 ). .. . . + bk lk + . then the exponential terms [including those terms multiplied by I. After we obtain the general solution. . or X(O) = bo . 12. that occur when X(s) involves multi­ ple poles] and the damped exponential terms in X(I) will approach zero as the time I increases. . etc. and A-8-1S. Equation ( 8-23) must hold for any I. we may assume a solution of the form 2 x(r) = bo + bll + b21 + . [If the poles of X(s) involve multiple poles. then X(I) must have the corresponding mUltiple-pole term& 1 If all poles of X(s) lie in the left-half s-plane. and ramp response. (For details of analytical expressions for the step response.. = a(bo + bll . 8 Thus. ) (8-23) The value of bo is determined by substituting I = 0 into Equation (8-22). impulse response. b212 + . + bkrk + . equating the coefficients of equal powers of I. Before we solve vector-matrix differential equations.) Solution of homogeneous state equations. let us review the solution of the scalar differential equation x = ax In solving this equation. see Problems A-8-13. 8-5 SOLUTION OF THE STATE EQUATION In this section. we shall derive the analytical expression for the step response. the response curve of a higher order system is the sum of a number of expo­ nential curves and damped sinusoidal curves. we shall obtain the general solution of the linear time·invariant state equation. we obtain bl + 2 b2r + (8-21) (8-22) 3 b31 2 + . we find that bl = abo 1 1 2 b2 = a bl = ia bo i 1 1 3 b3 ="3ab2 = a bo 3 X2 1 k bk=k. We first consider the homogeneous case and then the nonhomogeneous case..

Thus. + kb. + t + k! 2! .. = k! A: 1 .!c 2 2 at + 2! + -. Substituting this assumed solution into Equation (8-24).t' + . )X(O) .. we assume that the solution is i n the form of a vec­ tor power series in t. . + b.I + ..Sec..!c ' ' a t k! + .t ' + . . we obtain bl + 2b2 t + 3b3t2 = + = = 11 X 11 n-vector constant matrix . the solution can be written as x(t) = = e"'x(O ) x = (1 + at + -. + b. Equation (8-26) must hold for all t... ) If the assumed solution is the true solution.. we call it the matrix exponential and write ( I + At + -.t ' .. 8-5 Solution of the State Equation 401 Hence.. Because of its similarity to the infinite power series for a scalar exponential.bo = bo The multiterm expression in parentheses on the right-hand side of this last equation is an n X n matrix.. (8-26) A(bo + bit + b 2t2 + . we find that .!cA' ' A t + . or (8-25) x(t) = bo + bit + b2t2 + . b Substituting t = 0 into Equation (8-25) yields x(O) Thus. the solution x(t) can be written as x(t) = . ) X(O) (8-24) We shall now solve the vector-matrix differential equation Ax where x A B y analogy with the scaJar case. .. .!c 2 2 -. equating the coefficients of like powers of t on both sides of Equation (8-26)...

I)! I + At + -- A'I' 2! The matrix exponential has the property that e A(t+s) = + .) Because of the convergence of the infinite series Aklklk!. It can be proved that the matrix exponential A e I = of an /I X /I matrix A converges absolutely for all finite I. the series can be differentiated term by term to give k'O k! Ak[k 2:-00 2:�.k � . + = [ Aklk-1 + (k .k)! + -(I m=o m! 2: 00 - 1 A'/(l s)m = then cAle-AI eA(t+s) = "..om! 00 00 1 . A (k I)! _ ..Itks m-k k. (Hence. if AB if AB #' BA BA .. computer calcula­ tions for evaluating the elements of eAI by using the series expansion can easily be carried au!. ) NI. L.'. Matrix exponential.. " " m.' eA t eA( r-t) = I = H e (A+Il)t = eAte I. 8 In terms of the matrix exponential..O".L tksm-k k!(m . the solution of Equation (8-24) can be written as (8-27) Since the matrix exponential is very important in the state-space analysis of linear systems.ok!(m ...0 .. Since the inverse of eAI always exists. 2:-k=O k! il eAreAS = eAIA = AeAI h=O h! e A Ie S · A Then Thus. 00 + Ak-1tk-1 + . (A+R)I '* At Ul e e e .. the inverse of eA I is e-A1. eAI is nonsingular.. we examine its properties next. J J This can be proved as follows: e At A' e = 00 Let k + It = m. It is very important to remember that = = In particular. (00 Aktk )( 2:--.k)! A e .402 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems ehap.. if s = =""N 00 k..L -I\:..

2AB2 3 .+ + 2! 2! 3! 2B. BA . we obtain where X(s) = X[x]. Let us first consider the scalar case: x = ax Taking the Laplace transform of Equation ( 8-28). .+ 2! 3! 2! 3! 2t 2 ..) = e'''x(O) TI..e foregoing approach to the solution of the homogeneous scalar differential equation can be extended to the homogeneous state equation Taking the Laplace transForm of both sides of Equation ( 8-30). e(A+U)1 _ The difference between e(A+B)f and eAteBt vanishes if A and B commute.2A2B .. note that e(A+B)1 = (A + B) 2. Laplace transform approach to the solution of homogeneous state equations.3 I ( + (A + B). + ..3 eAte"1 = I + At +-. + 'I o. 8-5 Solution of the State Equation 403 To prove this.) ( 8-30) Premultiplying both sides of this last equation by (sl .A rl. we obtain where X(s) = ( 8-28) ( 8-29) X[x]. Solving Equation (8-29) for X(s) gives X(s) = x(O = (s .+ 3! 2! A2.AB eAteUI = 12 2! BA2 + ABA + B2A + BAB ..) = Ax(. 1+ B. (A + B) 3 .+-. sX(s) .. )( = - - - + -- 2! + -- 2! +--+ 3! Hence.A)X(s) = x(O ) i(. Hence. + + AB.3 A AB B3.+ . + . " + .ar'x(O) s-a sX(s) - x(O) = aX(s) ) The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation produces the solution: x(. we obtain X(s) = (sl .Ar'x(O) . 82(2 A3.Sec.3 2..2 B3.3 A3.2 B2. .+-. + -.x(O) = AX(s) (sl .3 A I + (A + B).

e . State-transition matrix.l[(sl . and (8-34). .rion matrix.) From Equations (8-31) and (8-32).I) From Equation (8-34). Hence..Atl � .l[(sl .+ . the unique matrix <t>(I) is called the stale­ tralls.404 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.+ .Atl gives .A tl]x(O) Note that I A A2 (sl . state equation We can write the solution of the homogeneous x � Ax (8-33) (8-34) I as X(I) � <t>(I)X(O ) <t>(0) where <t>(I) is an 11 X 11 matrix and is the unique solution of <i>(I) � A<t>(I). 8 The inverse Laplace transform of Xes) gives the solution X(I) � . the solution of Equation (8-30) is X(I) � + .e. . the inverse Laplace transform of (sl .Atl] � I + AI A212 �13 + 3! 2! (The inverse Laplace transform of a matrix is the matrix consisting of the inverse Laplace transforms of all of the elements of the matrix. From Equations (8-27). . 53 S S2 + (8-31) Hence. we see that the solution of Equation (8-33) is simply a trans­ formation of the initial condition. we obtain <t>(I) " � . � To verify this.+ .. � eM (8-32) eAlx(O) The importance of Equation (8-32) lies in the fact that it provides a conve­ nient means for finding the closed solution of the matrix exponential. TIlis matrix contains all the information about the free motions of the system defined by Equation (8-33). (8-32). note that X(O) = <t>(O)x(O) � x(O) A<t>(I)x(O) A X(I) and X(I) � <i>(I)X(O) =e � � We thus confirm that Equation (8-34) is the solution of Equation (8-33).e-l[(sl .Atl] -AI e Note that <t>-l (l) � � <t>( .

we obtain the inverse of the state-transition matrix as follows: .Sec.For this system. -- -2 +-- 2 -- -] + -- 2 <1>(1) = '" e = . l(r).A ) is given by (sJ - I A - ) -([s+ ls)I(s + 2) [s+-2 �] ((ss+l)-2((ss+2) ++ ]I)):((Ss+2) +2) +l) [21 s+1-s+21_ s+"] s+2 5+1 s+2 s+2 5+1 _ 3 = + 3 (5 (s + 2) 1 1 = Hence. The state-transition matrix is given by <1>(1) = Since e '" = .e'l(sJ - Af'l s the inverse o[ +3 -I] (sl . 8-5 EX311l1)lc 8-2 Solution of the State Equation 405 Obtain the state-transition matrix <1>(1) of the following system: Obtain also the inverse of the state-transition matrix. q.e 'f(sJ Af'l Noting that ¢-I(f) = ct>(-r).

and the second term is the response to the input U(I).406 Time�Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.r .) dT or ( 8-36) .Ax(r) = = Writing Equation (8-35) as and premultiplying both sides of this equation bye-AI. we obtain e-AI[x(l) . ({ d [e-atx(I)] = e-atbfl(l) Integrating this equation between 0 and t gives x(O) + l'e-a'bfl(T) dT or TIle first term on the right-hand side is the response to the initial condition. 8 Solution of nonhomogeneous state equations.A X(I)] e-Alx(l) BU(I) d -[e-Alx(I) ] = e-AIBu(l) dl + Integrating the preceding equation between 0 and t gives = x(O) l'e-AcBU(. we obtain e-'Tic(l) .aX(I)] e-atx(t) = .ax = bll = -. We shall begin by con­ sidering the scalar case .r = ax + bit Let us rewrite this equation as Multiplying both sides of the latter equation bye-at. Let us now consider the nonhomogeneous state equation defined by x = A x + Bu (8-35) where x = II-vector u = r-vector A = 11 X n constant matrix B = II X r constant matrix X(I) .

Laplace transform approach to the solution of nonhomogeneous state equations. the solution of Equation (8-35). we have assumed the initial time to be zero.x(O) (51 . however.Sec.. we obtain Using the relationship given by Equation (8-32) yields X(s) = X[e"']x(O) + X[eA'] BU(s) x(t) = = AX(s) + + BU(s) X(s) = (sl .T)Bu(T) dT (8-37) = Ax + Bu can also be obtained by the Laplace transform approach.Af'BU(s) The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation can be obtained with the use of the convolution integral as follows: eA'x(O) + l'eA('-'lBU(T) dT Solution in terms of xlt. Equation (8-36) can also be written as where <I>(t) = eA'. The solution x(t) is clearly the sum of a term consisting of the transition of the initial state and a term arising from the input vector. The solution of the nonhomogeneous state equation x 8-5 Solution of the State Equation 407 x(t) = <I>(t)x(O) + l<l>(t .. If. Equation (8-36) or Equation (8-37) is the solution of Equation (8-35). _0 2 _1 = 3 ][ ] [ ] .\2 �' + O " 1 u(t) 1(/) B= [�] .A)X(s) = x(O) BU(s) Premultiplying both sides of the foregoing equation by (51 .I(f) is the uni l-slCp function occurring at 1 = O. then Equation (8-36). [ ] [ .. must be modified to x(t) Example 3--3 = eA('-'olx(/o) + l'eA('-'lBU(T) dT '0 (8-38) Obtain the time response of the system X2 = where l. or For this system. the initial time is given by to instead of 0.Af'.Af'x(O) + (51 . Thus far. The Laplace transform of this last equation yields or sX(s) ..

1 1 e'" = I + At+ -AT + .S TIle state·transition matrix was obtained in Example 8-2 as The response to the unit-step input is then obtained as e-('-') . Consider the system described by where matrix is nonsingular.-...AI+ -AT . A2t3 ..(O) io -2e-('-') 2 e-2(.-. In the special case where the initial stale is zero.I)n From Equation (8-37). or simplified to x(O) = the solution x(t} can be Analytical solution for step response of system in state-space form.) '(I) = e'''.408 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.A/'+ 2! 3! ')j 33 we have \ . the response x(t) is X(I) = x(t) when the input 11 x(t) =eA'x(O)+ l'e""-')nll(7) dT =e"' x(O)+ e"'[l'e-'\'I(T) dT]n e"'x(O)+ eA'[l'(I .) -e-('-') 2 e-2(.AT + . )n 2! 3! = = Since .e-2(.At2+ 2.) 2e-('-') .e-2(....-..!A2T2 .2.+B1I eA'x(O)+ A-I(eA' . 1 e-' = I .-.-A/'+ 2! 3! 'J? j 33 .) + f'[ + + ][0] Itj dT 1 or 0. )cIT]n eA'x(O)+ e"'(It . Let us show that the response is a unit-step function 1(1) can be given by A x =A.

1 2! + 2! 1 kr . . .I)B = e"'x(O) + e"'A-I(1 . .=0 � -. = eA<x(O) + A-I(eA' .. 3! = -A-I(e-A' .. Assume that there is an initial charge qo on the capacitor just before switch S is closed at I = O.e -A') B (8-39) EXAMPLE PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS Problem A-8-1 Consider the electrical circuit shown in Figure 8-12. Find the current .-A " 1 3! 1 3! 33 ) I + X(I) More on analytical solutions [or responses of systems in state-space form is given in Problems A-8-13.kt3 .-A3t3 + . and A-8-1S.-At2 2! + . A-8-14. we get = A-I(I .I) Therefore.. £ Figure 8-12 Electrical circuit.!i(l) dll � £ .At -A 2t 2 .(r).e-A<) = -A -I = -A I _ ( ( -At + I . Solution The equation for the circuit when switch S is closed is Ri + I Taking the Laplace transform of this last equation yields Z.Example Problems and Solutions 1 1 409 It .!i dl 5 RI(5) + 1(5) + C .

= 100 - 6' T we want to stop. we get fl(s) = - The inverse Laplace transform of the latter equation gives --. find the constant torque T necessary to stop the rotation. Thus. Solution The necessary torque T must act so as to reduce the speed of the disk. under the condition that the torque T is a constant. we get - x 120 600 = 5N-m 120 .410 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.'10 /(s) = IICs + I = (R E _ + '10 = CE - '10 IIC ) I s +­ IIC I The inverse Laplace transform of this equation gives the current i(t): i(l) Problem A--8-2 = (5. Therefore. or w{ 120) must equal zero. II � e-"RC IIC ) Suppose that a disk is rotated at a constant speed of 100 Tad/s and we wish to stop it in 2 min. w( 120) = 0 T = = 100 - 6 T Solving for T. Assuming that the moment of inertia j of the disk is 6 kg. = -- T s T 6s- AI f = 2 min = W(I) 120 S. 8 Since we obtain II/(s) + C or IICs/(s) + /(s) Solving for I(s). we have I /(s) + '10 s =- E s CE . we obtain = J[sfl(s) 6 and w(O) - w(O)] 100 s Substituting J = 100 into this equation and solving for fl(s). the equation of motion is Jw =-T = 1 00 w(O) Taking the Laplace transform of this last equation.m2 .

(CI +1 + C.(s) = Next. .: + . eo (O ..(s) Using the complex·impedance method.) + C. we obtain the transfer function as I Eo(s) E. ::. .) zero.(CI + C. 1 we have E.c --. Obtain the voltage eo(t) when the input voltage ei(t) is a step change of voltage Ej occurring at t = 0 [ej(O-) = 0). Problem A-8--4 Derive the transfer function Eo(s)/E.: _ ( II:R' ) _ _C.(I) = = Obtain the output ea(r).) = Solution Eo(s)/E.). .(I) = Eo(s) _ - CIS .)s + 1 Then. The input voltage is a pulse signal given by e. inverse Laplace transforming Eo(5). Since eo(O-) = 0.I(CI + C.Example Problems and Solutions 411 Problem A-8--3 Find the transfer function Eo(s)/E._ 1 + (IIR. Figure 8-13 Electrical circuit.(s) of the electrical circuit shown in Figure 8-13. Assume that the initial charges in the capacitors C1 and C2 are zero.(s) of the electrical circuit shown in Figure 8-14. ' s c: !. we gCI from which we see that e.(O+) change in co(t) at I = O. 0 E. C.'J (I). we determine eo(I).S E.. there is a sudden " R. For the input e. = CIE. Assume that the initial charges in the capacitors are 0.CIs R. elsewhere o :$ I $ IJ .)S R2CtEj R. [Th us. s R.

412 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. C2 + C. we have Thus.II ) A mass 111 is attached to a string that is under tension T in the mechanical system of Figure 8 1 6( a) We assume that tension Tis to remain constant for small displacement x. find the natural frequency of the vertical motion of mass m. the transfer function Eo(5)/EI(S) can be obtained as 1 For the given input ej(t). What is the displacement x(r) when the mass is given initial conditions x(O) Xo and X(O) O? . Solution By using the complex-impedance method.(C. e-<t-II)lfRI(CI+CzH } eo( t) versus t. } £j O l ( I . (The displacement x is that of mass m perpendicular to the string.+C. the response £0(5) can be given by The inverse Laplace transform of EQ(s) gives e (r) = o Figure 8-15 shows a possible response curve Problem A-8-S - {I . e-"IR. the vertical component of the force due to tension is -T sin 81 T sin O2 - . 8 F igure 8-14 Electrical circuit.{I _ C. = = Solution From Figure 8-16(b). C1 + Cz I c.)I E.) Neglecting gravity.

T sin 02 = -T.--. Figure 8-16 (a) Mechanical vibratory system: (b) diagram showing tension forces. b x x x m:i = -T si n Ol .(I) 413 E.+_ � -. For sm al l x.� -. (a) I*! � I (I - (b) IJ .. _�--�-------- o � -. ��� -.-..-. angles 01 and O2 are small.. (1......-- I'I �" ..-..-./..-. and = - x n The equation of motion for the system when x is small is sm (h = tan (h = . bI) + x = 0 .T n b IIlX + T or .------- Figure �15 Response curve eo(l) versus t (solid curve).- '...Example Problems and Solutions e.-.

Xl It follows that = + From Equations (8-40) and (8-41).« 0) x(t) Problem A-3-{j = J: G �) + Xo cos Wilt � O.(0) � O. m. - k(x[ .1. derive the equation of motion. find Xl (f) and X2 ( t ) when the external force f is constant. = Solution The equations of motion are m l xl 11l2:Y:2 Rewriting yields = = -k(xJ .) is given by Two masses 1111 and f1l2 are connected by a spring with spring constant k.x d = m J : 11I1111 2i k(m] + nI2)x = m rf (8-42) Let us define WI' Then Equation (8-42) becomes 2 = k(m] + 1112) m 1 nl2 :r + lU. and .(O) � 0. Assuming no friction.X2) -k(x2 .<. the natural frequency of the vertical motion of the mass is w" � When the initial conditions are x(O) � x" and .:id + k(x.414 Time·Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.X! 111 1 Mechanical system. X1(O) = 0.'X f r.:" IJIlnl2(:t2 If we define . VV' k '--' X1 Figure 8-17 \ 0 f1l2 f .X2) Xt ) 0 f (8-40) (8-41) kml ) (X2 . the solution x(. x. . 8 Hence.Xl ) + f = � nlj:Y:. we obtain + (km2 + + x .'2 . Assume that x](O) 0. In addition. then this last equation simplifies to . as shown in Figure 8-17.

)X(s) or Th :! � L "'25 X(.(0) � 0. we get and Thus. (1 . :£ I l (f) ] � U(s ) a 9.(f) � X(f) + x. mf 5 52 I w2 � mfw2 (Is . we have .cos k (m m.. rewritten thus: w� X(s) = mw� 52 + 2{wlIs + w� If we define mw� .(f ) � m [ ml ml + 1112 2 k(m] + 1112)2 = + The step response of a second-order system may be described by w� Y(s) U(s) 52 2(wns + w� To see this.cos Wilt ) " f = = Since f is a constant. (8-45) a .Example Problems and Solutions 415 Takiry.= = (s' + w... substituting the initial conditions x(O) 0 and X(O) O. ( I .cos w f ) Now we shall determine -.(f) Problem A-&-7 (8-43) and (8-44) into this last equation and simplifying yields [2 fmT [ I . the Laplace transform of this last equation. we find that kf f1I j :r\ kx 11l2W. we can easily integrate the right-hand side of this last equation. From Equations (8-40 ) and (8-43)..(O) � 0 and -'..X(s) � Y(s). and noting that/is a constant.+ X. refer to Equation (8-16)..) f ] .) � 2 s . Noting that x. + (8-44) X.--) 52 + w2 -- inverse Laplace transform of X(s) gives X(f) � -- + 11 -- 2 fJ tI (8-43) nl2W.(f). and the solution x2(t ) is obtained from Substituting Equations J k(m j + m2 ) m lm2 r] . [1(t)] .

y(:. Then.6 2 5.t)... and WI!" Obtain unit-step response curves of the system defined by Equation (8-46) for the following three cases: 1.5..61 . MATLAB Program 8-1 will produce the unit-step response curves as shown in Figure 8-18." Define w. Case 2 : (. MATlAB Program 8-1 » » » » » a = [1 4 1 6]. y(:. � 0. we use a "for loop.416 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems then Equation (8-45) can be written as The Chap. t 0:0.7. response to reach 2 % of the final value depends on . 1 . 0. b = [0. '0'. ' 2 ' ) text(0. 1 . 1 . y = zeros(l 01 . end p[ot(t. (8-47) . for i = 1 :3.i) = step(num.(:. a and b each have three elements as follows: a = [l b = [0.l ). Solution 2lw. (he slep response of a second-order sys(em may be described by U(s) � Y(s) ' S1 + _�WIIS + w� 1r w . ' 1 ') text(2 .93.6] In writing a MATLAB program.2).28. 2.y(:. num = [0 0 a ti lt .t. � 0.3]. W/1 W/I = 1 3. 8 Y(s) U (s) s2 + 2{wlls + w� w.t. Case I : {.6 2 4 1 6[ 5. '-') grid tit[e('Unit-Step Response Curves for Three Cases') x[abe[('t (sec)') y[abe[('Outputs') text(4.).1 : 1 0. Case 3: r. den = [1 b(i) ali)].'x'.5. '3') = » » » » » » » » Problem A-8-8 As mentioned in Problem A-8-7.3). = WI) = 4 =2 a and Using vectors a and b. (8-46) maximum overshoot in the step response depends on { and the lime taken for the .! = b.35. � 0.den.3.8.

on the unit-step response of the second-order system if it is defined by Equation (8-48). = 0.0.] Problem A-8-9 Obtain eAI.6.� � 0 o ... 0...8.g 0. where I. Figure 8-19 is a two-dimensional plot of the unit-step response curves for the specified values of [.2 S 0- � � = _ .0 . 0 c a.. but the x-axis and y-axis are interchanged. (8-48 ) This normalized equation involves only one parameter: {.. where Solution Since s +2 - 1 1 . Figure 8-20 is a three-dimensional plot obtained with the use of the com­ mand "mesh(y')".2. we get a similar three­ dimensional plot.:'. 3 4 I This equation involves two parameters: { and Ww If we normalize the system equation by defining I = ( l/w/I)' and writing the system equation in terms of T.4 1.6 0.. . . Obtain the unit-step response curves of the system defined by Equation (8-48).� � . then Equation (8-47) may be modified to Y(s) U(s) s' + 21.Example Problems and Solutions 1.� � � _ _ 417 Unit-Step Response Curves for Three Cases 0 0 0·· · ." .4.. 0. It is easy to see the effect of .8 0 0. � 3 O � � � __ � � � __ -L __ -L L. Solution MATLAB Program 8-2 obtains two-dimensional and three-dimensional plots. o o 2 2 . 0 ..4 0. . 0. Write a MATLAB program that uses a "for loop" to obtain the two-dimensional and three-dimensional plots of the system output. 0. and 1. [Note that if we use the command "mesh(y)".. .2 . .s + 1 1 (sec) 5 6 7 8 9 10 F igure S-18 Unit-step response curves for three cases. 0 o o o o o o o 'b o o . .

t). 1 .6 1.8') text(3. 1 .2 3 .93. 1 :6.2 ') text(3.0') % To draw a three-dimensional plot. 0:0. 10 ° 1 1.0. enter the command mesh(y').den.0. 2 4 I (sec) 6 8 10 12 .8.6') text(3. for n .418 MATLAS Program 8-2 » » "Time-Doma i n Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. end p lot(t. ' \zeta . mesh(y') title(. 7.5. 8 » » » » » » » » » » » » » » » » » » » t . 0') text(3. ' 1 .4 Two-Dimensional Plot of Unit-Step Response Curves " 0. num .2 den . rn 2 1.4 0.2 : 1 2.x. n). 1 1.52.05. 0. step(num. 2 *( n .y) grid title('Two-Di mensional Plot of Unit-Step Response Curves') xlabel('t (sec)') ylabel('Outputs') text(3 .1 )*0. 1 .Three-Dimensional Plot of Unit-Step Response Curves') xlabel( 'Computation "Time Points') ylabel('n I\zeta . '0.2 Figure 8-.2 ( n .tl . 1 .6 :.4') text(3. '0.2 =. 11 ly(1 :61 . '0. '0.8 0.8 1 .l9 Two-dimensional plot of unit­ step response curves.1 ) 1 ' ) zlabel('Outputs') 1.1 0 0.

2) s+2 1 1 - A Solution Since - = sl A= [� 0 s [� 2 o 0 o s-2 o s-2 - ) ) ] .I ) and the incremental computation lime is 0. 0. • Q.2(1/ .2(" III = - Computation Time Points (sl Hence.Example Problems and Solutions Three-Dimensional Plot of Unit-Step Response Curves 419 2 1. Problem A-S--I O Obtain eAl. (In the plol. 0 :.5 0 6 70 Figure 8-20 Three-dimensional plot ofunil-slcp response curves.5 :.] C it follows that = " [( 0. 0.2 s. where - A t! I s(s + 2) [s + 2 0 �1 = [1 ! s(s .

we have From Equation (8-36). we get = e"'x(O) + l'eA1 -'lBII ( r) dr ' x(t) = i = eA1 l e-A.2) 3 ( 5 . o Problem A-8-11 Obtain the response of the system when the input /l is a unit-step function. B d'T l 'eA1' . Assume that x(O) Solution = O.A) � = (5 - 1 -2 5 I 2) 3 [ (5 . From Problem A-8-9.2) 2 0 0 (5 .420 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.2) ( 5 .2 )2 5-2 0 X 0 1 ( 5 .2 )2 2) (See Appendix C to obtain the inverse of a 3 3 matrix.) Hence. Since x(O) = 0 x( t ) and lI(t) = I (t).'lB l (7) dr . 8 we have (rl .2) 2 0 ( 5 .2) 2 1 5-2 0 1 (5 (5 � ] .

51 sin 0.0.Sf) 2e-o·51 sin 0. 0 X2 0 (O)] = 0 ] [XI [ ° x. s 1 ] s s· + s + 0.-I[(sl .51 ..5 [ (s + 0.51) .Example Problems and Solutions 421 Thus.51 1 _ e-o.5.x <P(r) = eAI can be obtained as follows: l <1>(1) e'" = 9...-I [ ( sl .51 + sin 0.5! ] Hence.A).5.5 ] The state transition matri.51 sin 0.51 + sin 0.(cos 0.5 (s + 0.51 -O.5)' + 0.Ar l = ' Since s + 1 ( sl _ A rl = [ [ = we have Since x(O) = 0 s + 0.5 .sin D.5 ] e-o·sl sin 0.5' + -0.5 1 -0.5/ X2 . we get { [e.5' s + 0.5)' + 0.t5t(COS 0. Problem A-8-12 Obtain the response Y(I) of the system [tl ] = [ .5/ . (COS 0. the output Y(I} is given by Y(I ) = [I [X OI I ] = X l = e-O. ]11.5 ] s + 1 <1>(1) = eA' = 9.5 .(O) [l O where u(!) is the unit-step input occurring at ( = 0.5' 1 -I 0 .sin 0 .5 e-0..0.1 )8 and 11 ( 1 ) = 1 (1).I I = X(I) = e"'x (O) + A-I(e A' .5)' + 0.51) + 1 -e-{J -2 1 ][0.51) e ] = [ e-0.51 sin 0.(cos 0.1 1 Xl Y= 05 -O.5' (s + 0..5)' 0 . A =[ -I -0.5 X ] [ I ] + [ .5/ .5 (s + 0. referring to Equation (8-39).1 = .5 + 0.1)8 = A-I (eA' . or 1 t: ] 1 1(1) ° = Solution 1(1) For Ihis system.

I((II)] k. I X(I) II. 8 Problem Consider the system defined by A-8-13 where u x = Ax + Bu (8-49) Obtain the response of the system to the input u whose r components are step func­ tions of variolls magnitudes. = k ' l (t) given at = e"'x(O) + l'e "(I-'l Bk = 0 is = If This is the analytical expression of the step response of the system defined by Equal. then this last equation can be simplified to give = e"'x(O) + e"'[-(KI)(e-'" . or x = state vector (n-vector) u = input vector (r-vector) A = II constant matrix B = II X constant matrix X 1/ r I= u = w8(1) . 2! 3! - + -- - Consider the system defined by = Ax + Uo where Obtain the response of the system to the input u whose r components are impulse func· lions or various magnitudes occuring at 0. Problem A is nonsingular.on (8-49). or x = state vector (n-vector) = input vector (r-vector) A = 11 X n constant matrix B = II X r constant matrix 11 = Solution The response to the step input u [II ] [kk"l '.1)]Bk = e"'x(O) + A-I(e'" .422 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.I)Bk A-8-14 x X(I) e"'x(O) + e'" ( II Ar2 A21) . I:' = = k' I(I) ' 1 (1) d.

then this last equation can be simplified to X ( I) � e"'x(O ) � e"'x(O) ( + 3A' 4AJ _ I ' _ _ I' 5! 4! 1 + The latter equation gives the response to the ramp input VI.AI)Bv . e"I<-')B7 V dT =0 is = eA1x(O) = + eAl lle-AT'T d'TBv I 2A eAt _(2 _ _ I' 2 3! + e'\/x(O) If A is nonsingular. the solution of the given state equation is Substituting to = 0. + [K'(e'" . Problem A-8-15 eA1x(O-) + + eA1Bw [eA1 '-')BO(T)W dT Consider the system defined by where x = A'-I( + Bu Obtain the response of the system to the input tions of various magnitudes.I) .into this solution.A-'ljBv ( A-')(e '" - . we obtain X(I) � e"'x(O-) X(I) � eA1'-" )X(lo) + ' 1 e"I<-')BU(T) dT " + [e A1'-')BU(T) dT The solution of the stale equation when the impulse input w 5(1) is given at ! = 0 is X( I ) � e"'x(O-) = This last equation gives the response to the impulse input w S(/). where v is a vector whose components are magnitudes of ramp functions applied at The response to the ramp input VI given at ( X(I) � e'''x(O) + + Solution ' 1. or u = vt A = II X 1/ constant matrix B = " x r constant matrix u = x = state vector (n-vector) input vector (r-vector) u whose r components are ramp func­ I � O. Solution From Equation (8-38).Example Problems and Solutions 423 where w is a vector whose components are the magnitudes of r impulse functions applied at I � O.

424 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. R. Assume that capacitor C is initially uncharged and that inductance L carries no initial current. Then obtain the response eo(t) when the input ei (r) is a step function of magnitude Ej. Problem B-8-2 Consider the electrical system shown in Figure 8-22. Assume that the capacitor is initially uncharged. Find the voltage Figure S-21 Electrical system. ' I {I) Assume that the initial charge in the capacitor is zero. What is the current i(/) for I > O? Figure 8-22 Electrical system. switch S is closed at eQ (t). o C' T e o 0 . 8 PROBLEMS Problem B-8-1 In the electrical system of Figure 8-21.{I) = £. t = O. or e. Figure 8-23 Electrical circuit. The voltage source E is suddenly connected by means of switch 5 at 1 = O. Problem B-8-3 Derive the transfer function Eo(s)/E.(5) of the electrical circuit shown in Figure 8-23.

1l1C displacement xu(t) is measured from the rest position before the input Xi(t) is given. =0 0 < I < I. Problem B--3-5 Derive the transfer function Xo(s)/Xj(s) of the mechanical system shown in Figure 8-25.(/) is a pulse signal given by Assume that xo(O-) = O. Assume that -"0(0-) = O. The displacement xo(r) is measured from the equilibrium position before the input xi(r) is given.(s) of (he electrical circuit shown in Figure 8-26. Obtain the displacement xo(t) when the input Xj(c) is a step displacement of magnitude Xi occurring at 1 = O. elsewhere .Problems Problem B-8-4 425 Find the transfer function Xo(s)/Xj(s) of the mechanical system shown in Figure 8-24. Figure 8-24 Mechanical system.(I) = E. Problem B-lHi Find the transfer function Eo(5)/E. xj(r) = Xi = 0 0 < t < 1] elsewhere Figure 8-25 Mechanical system.\'"0 (/) when the input X. Then obtain the response . Suppose that the input ej(t) is a pulse signal given by e.

� x .0S) X 100 = 25% maximum overshoot corre­ sponds to I � 0. At f = 0. a mass of 2 kg is added to the 20-kg mass. Chap. as Figure 8-27(b) shows. Determine the spring constant k and the viscous­ friction coefficient b. C.5RJ. The displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position for I < O. Problem 8-8-8 A mass of20 kg is supported by a spring and damper as shown in Figure 8--28(a). Figure 8--26 Electrical circuit. Determine the viscous-friction coefficient b of the system if III � 1 kg and k 500 N/m.. C2 = Ch and R I CI also that the initial charges in the capacitors are zero.4. C'T eo = Problem 8-8-7 Obtain the output co(r). 8 e. 1 s. J Problem 8-8-9 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 8-29. The sys­ tem is at rest for I < O. Assume A free vibration of the mechanical system shown in Figure 8-27(a) indicates that the amplitude of vibration decreases 10 25% of the value at t = to after four consecutive cycles of motion. rNote that (0.02/0. (b) portion of a frcc-vibration curve. Derive the equations of motion for the system. The pen­ dulum "'2 is supported by mass "' I . It is at rest for 1 < O. The angular displacement () is measured from the vertical axis passing through the pivot of the pendulum. R. Assume that R2 = 1 . (a) (b) Figure 8--27 (a) Mechanical system.426 Time-Doma i n Analysis of Dynamic Systems R. . The system vibrates as shown in Figure 8-2S(b). which vibrates because of an elastic connection.

. � � 0. find the displacement x(t) as a function of time t. Assuming that the spring constant k is 100 N/m and that x(O-) 0. Mass m = 1 kg is vibrating initially in the mechanical system shown in Figure 8-30. The displacement X(/} is measured from the equilibrium position in the absence of an excitation force. x I \ e Figure 8--29 Mechanical system. Assume also that IIll = 10 kg. 8(0) = 0 rad. k = 250 N/m. and { = 1 m. . and e (O) = 0 rad/s. At 1 = O. obtain the motion of the pendulum. = k x Figure 8-30 Mechanical system.« 0-) = 1 mis.Problems 427 2 kg o x j" k � '� __ __ __ __ __ __ .1 m.1 m and . 1112 = 1 kg.08 m I __ _ (a) (b) Figure 8-28 (a) Mechanical system: (b) step-response curve. we hit the mass with an impulsive force pet) whose strength is 10 N. Problem 8-8-10 Assuming the initial conditions to be x(O) = 0.« 0) = 0 mis.

� 4 N/m. Assume that k. Problem B-S--13 Consider the electrical circuit shown in Figure 8-33. 10 N-s/m. Problem B-S--U () () Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 8-32. k. is set into motion by an impulsive force whose strength is unity. Find the response x(t) and the initial velocity of mass m. � � I b. h. TIle sys­ tem. 20 N/m. 8 Figure 8-31 shows a mechanical system that consists of a mass and a damper. II � � Figure 8-32 Mechanical system.5 MO .5 fLF. � 1 N-s/m. Obtain the displacement xl(r) when 1/ is a step force input of 2 N. initially at rest. R. Plot the response curve x2 (r) versus ( with MATLAB. -x 8(1) � m Figure 8-31 Mechanical system. Obtain the response eo{t) when a step input ej(t) = 5 V is applied to the system. The displacements X l and X2 are measured from their respec­ tive equilibrium positions before the input u is given. Plot the response curve eoCt ) versus [ with MATLAB. Assume that R. Assume also that the capacitors are not charged initially. � Problem B-S--14 Consider a second-order system defined by Yes ) U(s ) s' + s + .1 fLF.428 Problem B-S--ll Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. C1 � 0. 0. The system is at rest for 1 < O. and C. � 0. and b. � I MO.

c.0.Problems 429 e./ Consider a second-order system defined by Obtain the unit-impulse response curves of the system for { = 0. B= = 0 [�l . [ 0 -6 �l._ _ _ c__T---<o ' . 0. Plot the six response curves in a two-dimensional diagram and a three-dimensional diagram.8.2.4. where A= 2 [ . where A = Problem B-8-18 [� -) 1 Consider the system defined by where x = Ax + Bu.s + 1 Obtain eAt . Problem B-8-16 = 1 s' + 2. x(O) A = Obtain the response X(/) analytically when II i s a unit-step function.L Y(s) U(s) eo Figure 8-33 Electrical circuit. Problem B-8-15 1 '].0. Obtain the response y(/) when the input 1/(1) is a unit acceleration input [l/(I) = Obtain the response curve with MATLAB. 0. 0. o_ _ _ >. and 1. .-�l 2 -) "I -3 o Problem B-8-17 Obtain eAt .6.

.430 Problem 8-8-19 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. Problem 8-8-20 " = [". x{O) = B= and Obtain the response XCI) analyticaIly. ] [ ". = : ' I {t ) ) · ) (t ) [� : ] ] 0 For the system of Problem 8-8-19. 8 Consider the system defined by where x = Ax + Bu. obtain the response curves xd1) versus I and x2(r) versus t with MATLAB.

time-invariant dynamic system.Freq uency-Doma in Analysis of Dynamic Systems 9-1 INTRODUCTION Responses of linear. Section 9-6 analyzes free vibrations in multi-degrees-of-freedom systems and discusses modes of vibration. Section 9-2 begins with forced vibrations of mechanical systems and then derives the sinusoidal transfer function for the linear. First we define the sinusoidal transfer function and explain its use i n the steady-state sinusoidal response. and examine dynamic vibration absorbers. Finally. In this regard. Section 9-5 presents a way to reduce vibrations caused by rotating unbalance and treats a dynamic vibra­ tion absorber commonly used in industries. Section 9-4 examines vibration isolation problems that arise in rotating mechanical systems. we deal with vibrations in multi-degrees-of­ freedom systems. Outline of the chapter. Section 9-1 gives introductory material. time-invariant systems to sinusoidal inputs are the major sub­ ject of this chapter. Section 9-3 treats vi­ brations in rotating mechanical systems. present some vibration isolation problems. 431 . transmissibility for force excitation and that for motion excitation are discussed. Then we treat vibrations in rotating mechanical systems.

the solution X(I) can be written as X(I) = complementary solution + particular solution / In P . time-invariant system when the input is a sinusoid. (We shall pre­ sent detailed discussions of frequency response in Chapter 1 1 . or x + -x = . time-invariant system. the equation of motion for the system becomes m�t + kx = . P sin wI (9-1) k Figure 9-1 Spring-mass system.sm wt m k Note that the solution of this equation consists of the vibration at its own natural frequency (the complementary solution) and that at the forcing frequency (the par­ ticular solution). The steady-state output differs from the input only in the amplitude and phase angle.432 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. For all frequencies from zero to in­ finity. the system will tend to vibrate at its own natural frequency. As a result. The term frequency response refers to the steady­ state response of a system to a sinusoidal input. the frequency-response characteristics of a system can be completely described by the output-input amplitude ratio and the phase angle between the out­ put and input sinusoids.) Forced vibration without damping. that portion of motion not sustained by the sinu­ soidal input will gradually die out. Let us find the response of the system when it is initially at rest. x . Thus. Thus. we vary the frequency of the input signal over a wide range and study the resulting response.. In general. the amplitude ratio and the phase angle depend on the input frequency. If we measure the displacement x from the equilibrium position. 9 9-2 SINUSOIDAL TRANSFER FUNCTION When a sinusoidal input is applied to a linear. Frequency response. Figure 9-1 illustrates a spring-mass system in which the mass is subjected to a sinusoidal input force P sin wt. the response at steady state is sinusoidal at the same frequency as the input. In this method of systems analysis. the output-input amplitude ratio and the phase angle between the output and input sinusoids are the only two parameters needed to predict the steady-state output of a linear. as well as follow the frequency of the input. In the presence of damping.

if w is below resonance. this vibration becomes 1800 out of phase.1 ) under the condition that the sys­ tem is initially at rest. The first term is the complementary solution (the nat­ ural frequency vibration does not decay in this system). 2 SJIl wI Sin \ -I + k . As the frequency w is further increased and becomes equal to the natural frequency of the system (i.----0. + .).) As w continues to increase past resonance. Taking the Laplace transform of Equation (9.mwP . When only the steady-state solution (the particular solution) is wanted.] Let us examine Equation (9-2).11lw The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation gives X(I) = - p.mw2..IIlW2 becomes negative and assumes increasingly larger values.. w = w" V"k/. If w is above resonance.1 ) and using the initial conditions x(O) 0 and . and the amplit ude of vibration will increase without bound.. (When the sinusoidal input is applied at the natural frequency and in phase with tbe motion-that is.mw2 52 + w2 k .jk V"k/.e. the use of the sinusoidal transfer function simplifies the solution.: --0:­ X (s) = m 52 + w2 52 + (kim) = w P -P w y. the amplitudes of vibration (at the natural frequency and at the forcing frequency) approach zero from the negative side.mw2 '" k . TIlat is. the denominator k . the amplitude of the vibration at the natural frequency vklm approaches zero and the amplitude of the vibration at the forcing frequency w approaches Plk. In other words.ic(O) = 0. Therefore.. As the forcing frequency w approaches zero. the sinusoidal transfer function C(jw) . The sillllsoidal tral1sfer flll1Cliol1 is defined as the transfer function C(s) in which 5 is replaced by jw. that part o[ the vibration at the forcing frequency (particular solution) is in phase with the forcing sinusoid. 9-2 Sinusoidal Transfer Function 433 Now we shall obtain the solution of Equation (9. TIle sinusoidal transfer function is discussed in detail later in this section. the denominator k .mw2 of the solution becomes smaller and the amplitudes become larger.. Plk is the static deflection. we obtain = Solving for Xes) yields 1 P w -'.. the denominator k . and the second term is the particular solution.. = Sinusoidal transfer function. At resonance. [Note that if we need only a steady-state solution (particular solution) of a stable system. starting at negative infinity when w = w.. becomes zero. Pw v. " (9-2) This is the complete solution.ik .. resonance occurs.Sec. ' s 2 + (kim) + k . in the same direction as the velocity-the input force is actually doing work on the system and is adding energy to it that will appear as an increase in amplitudes.. approaching negative infinity. This value Plk is the deflection of the mass that would result if the force P were applied steadily (at zero frequency). As the frequency w increases from zero.

) ( s + s. Deriving steady-state output caused by sinusoidal input. We shall show how the frequency-response characteristics of a stable system can be derived directly from the sinusoidal transfer function.(i = 1 . respectively.+ -. b. time-invariant system G(s) shown in Figure 9-2.434 Frequency·Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. 2 . In the discussion that follows. time-invariant systems under steady-state conditions-that is. 9 can simplify the solution. that is. then the partial-fraction expansion of Equa­ tion (9-3) yields Pw Xes) = G(s) . .+ --. are negative. The inverse Laplace transform of Equation (9-4) gives X(/) ae-jw/ + aejwl + bl e-SII + bz e -S21 + . The steady-state response of a stable linear system to a sinu­ soidal input does not depend on the initial conditions. we shall consider the behav­ ior of stable linear.jw S + s[ S + 52 + where 0 and b.. . after the initial transients bave died out. so they can be ignored. ) ' " ( s + z". . s· + w b. linlC·inva ri a nl system. ) ( s + z. For the linear. . .+ s + jw S .) ' " (s + s.+ -. . 111e input p(l) is sinusoidal and is given by p(l) = P sin wI We shall show that the output X(I) at steady state is given by where IG(jw) 1 and cP are the magnitude and angle of G(jw). respectively. respectively.) The Laplace-transformed output Xes) is Xes) = G(s)P(s) (9-3) where pes) is the Laplace transform of the input p(I). + bil e -slit = -­ S + SII b" (9-4) p(l) = P sin WI P(s) Figure 9-2 Line a r. the input and output are denoted by p(l) and X(I). 11) are constants and a is the complex conjugate of o. the real parts of the -s.) (s + s . a o = --. G(s) x(t) X(s) . . If G(s) has only distinct poles. Let us limit our discussion to stable systems. G (s) '----'''' '----'---''''­ -'-'-'-' X(I) = IG(jw) I P sin(wl + <1» K (s + z . Suppose that the transfer function G(s) can be written as a ratio of two poly­ nomials in s. We shall see that sinusoidal inputs produce sinusoidal outputs in the steady state. For such systems. with the amplitude and phase angle at each frequency w determined by the magnitude and angle of G(jw).

Sj is negative for a stable system. approach zero as ( approaches infinity. then xCt) will involve such terms as t"e-S. . . = iC(jw ) i e-N a = .. . If C(s) involves k multiple poles Sj.. I (where h = 0.1 approach zero.C( -jw) · 2] P = iC(jw)i (cos <I> + j sin <1» iC (jw) i cos <I> + jic(j. -S2 .) Referring to Figure 9-3. the steady-state response thus becomes x(t) ae-fw. -s" have negative real parts. as I approaches infinity. k .Sec.s [ . . . CUw) o G( -jw) Figure 9-3 Complex function and its complex conjugate. e-S2'. . . where the constants a and ii can be evaluated from Equation (9-4): a = ::.u) isin <I> iC(jw ) i ej� (Note that IC(jw) It follows that = C( -jw) = iC( -jw ) le-j� lei� = <1>. e-s. the terms e-SI'. . we can write C(jw) = C.1 ) . Regardless of whether the system involves multiple poles. the terms ( he-sl. all terms on the right­ hand side of this last equation.. except the first two. . 9-2 Sinusoidal Transfer Function • • • • 435 For a stable system. . 1 . + nejw/ ( 9-5 ) • . Since the real part of the .: C(s) s2 + 2 Pw ii = C(s) (Note that a is the complex conjugate of a. + jCy = = Pw (S s + w2 W 2(S + jw) jW)! ! s=-jw s =jw = = P C(jw) 2J . . Thus. i C(jw) i e-i� ii = : � iC(jw) iei� -J jw . since .) Similarly. drop out at steady state.

sinusoid to the input sinusoid P(jw) _ imaginary part of G(jw) X (jw) P[f. . But the amplitude and phase angle of the output will. Note that the sinusoidal transfer [unction G(jw) is a complex quantity that can be represented by the magnitude and phase angle with the frequency w as a parameter. To characterize a linear system completely by its frequency-response curves.e. that is. If a pole is at the origin and/or poles of G(s) lie on the jw-axis (any poles on the jw-axis.l G(s) . have a sinusoidal output of the same fre­ quency as the input. in general. if all poles of G(s) lie in the left half s-plane. s. the output's amplitude is given by the product of the amplitude of the input and i G(jw ) i .436 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. There is no steady state for such an unstable system.e. whereas the phase angle diners from that of the input by the amount </> � /G(jw). Equation (9-6) is valid only if G(s) � X(s)IP(s) is a stable system. then the system is unstable and the response grows indefinitely. the steady-state response characteristics of a linear system to a sinusoidal input can be found directly from G(jw). [ 1 .. � tan l real part of G(jw) phase shih of the output sinusoid _ .. On the basis of the preceding analysis. we must specify both the amplitUde ratio and the phase angle as a function of the frequency w. We see that a stable linear system subjected to a sinusoidal input will. In fact.+ w2 Note that if one or more poles of G(s) lie in the right half s-plane. s. the output X(I) may be obtained by taking the inverse Laplace transform of the equation X es) � G( s) P( s ) or X(I) � � G(s) Pw . iG( Jw) i - 2j � iG(jw ) i Psin(wr + </» � Xsin(wl + </» ei( wt+c/J) _ e -j(wt+d1) (9-6) . we are able to derive the following important result: For sinusoidal inputs. except that at the origin. must occur as a pair of complex conjugates). Comments. the ratio of X (jw) to P(jw).+ w- .with respect to the input sinusoid 1_ /G(jw) � [ (9-7 ) 1 (9-8) Thus. differ from the input's. 9 Then Equation (9-5) can be wrillen as X( I ) � i G(jw) i p where X � iG(jw ) i p and </> � /G(jw). _I X (jw) amplitude ratio of the output .. at steady state.l [x(s)] � Pw .

is (ms' + bs + k ) X (s) / = + I sin(wl . The phase angle is 0° at w = 0 and approaches -900 as w increases indefinitely. for small w. what is the steady-state output X(/)? Substituting jw for s in C(s) yields = Ts 1+ I C( ' ) I }W Tjw + 1 The output-input amplitude ratio is whereas the phase angle cf> is So. assuming zero initial conditions. we see that. Example 9-2 Suppose that a sinusoidal force p(t) = P sin wr is applied to the mechanical system shown in Figure 9-4. for the input p(l) = ICUw ) 1 <I> = = � -tan.Sec. For large w. The equation of motion for the system is m:i + b. Assuming that the displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position. Gnd the sleady·slale output. the amplitude of the output is small and almost inversely proportional to w. 9-2 Sinusoidal Transfer Function 437 Example 9-1 Consider the transfer·function system )((s) pes) = C(s) For the sinusoidal input p(t) = P sin we. the steady-state output X(I) can be found as VT'w' X( I) = P From this equation.tan. x .I Tw P sin wI.I Tw) (9-9) pes) pet) = P sin WI Figure � Mechnnical system. the amplitude of the output x(t) is almost equal to the amplitude of the input.t + kx = p(l) The Laplace transform of this equation.

. we can use the sinusoidal trans­ fer function to obtain the steady-state solution.= Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. transmit forces to foundations. = -IIlW' From Equation (9-61_ the stead -state output x(/1 can be written x(/1 = IG(jw ) l p sin (wI + </» where y + bjw + k (k . 2t.11' cb = -tan-I I + (2\w/w.w/w" where XS1 = Plk is the static deflection. in general. undesirable because it may cause parts to break down. Writing the amplitude of x(I) as X. and so on.tan-I 1 .tan-1 ( k ..)]' + (2t.(w'/w.1 .438 where X(s) = :£ lx(I)1 and P(s) = :£ lp(/)].(w-/w.I1lW2 ) 2 + b2w2 P sin WI . Since kIm = .nlW-) + /bw = -tan-I k -bw . 1 2{wlwn 9-3 VIBRATIONS IN ROTATING MECHANICAL SYSTEMS Vibration is.(w'/w.mw bw 2) 1 (9-10) .(w'/w..IIlw'l + jbw I and w </> = /G(j ) X(f) = 1 = /(k . 9 X(s) Since the input is a sinusoidal function pCt) = P sin wf. To reduce the amount of force transmitted 10 the foundation as a result of a machine's vibration (a technique .)' X x" is x" V(k . Sin w{ [ . I'1lW· . therefore. The sinusoidal transfer function is X(�I P(s) G(s) = 1 illS' + bs + k P(jwl = G{jw) .) The transfer function between the displacement Xes) and the input force pes) is. we find that the amplitude ratio Xlxs1 is and the phase shift rI> V[ I .)' ') . (Note that the initial conditions do not affect the steady-state output and so can be taken to be zero.. Thus.v(l ) � W7t and blk = 2�/w/l! the equation for x(t) can be written V[ 1 . .. gen­ erate noise. obtained as .w/w.

For example. we obtain a = hm ut--+O tlr ._o ( 1l811l1). Similarly. then the horizontal component of the tension in the cord is the centripetal force acting to keep the rotating configuration.---1 A --. vibrations caused by the excitatory force result­ ing from unbalance are discussed.' - \ ' A8 Figure 9-5 (n) Point mass moving in a circular path: (b) velocity vector diagram. machines are usually mounted on vibration isolators that consist of springs and dampers. -- I llv l = hm �t -O r tlt . Such a force is called a celllriperal force. I VAII'M = w7 . TIle force lila acting toward the center of rotation is derived as follows: Noting that triangles OA B and APQ are similar. instruments are mounted on isolators. as shown in Figure 9-5(a). This means that the point mass must be sub· jected to a force that acts toward the center of rotation. 0-= . respectively. and force due to a rotating unbal· ance are described first. Suppose that a point mass III is moving in a circular path with a constant speed. In this section. I' I' 118 where I llvl and IVAI represent the magnitudes of velocity Ilv and velocity VA. (a) (b) . Vibration isolation is examined in Section 9-4. =. Observing that IVAI = wI' and w = lim". centrifugal force. the direction PQ becomes per· pendicular to the direction AP (the direction of the velocity vector at point A) if points A and B are close to each other.Sec. centripetal force. we have = known as force iso/arion) as much as possible. if a mass is attached to the end of a cord and is rotated at an angular speed w in a horizontal plane like a conical pendulum. point O. but the directions are different. Aftenvard. to reduce the amount of motion transmitted to a delicate instrument by the motion of its founda· tion (a technique called mOliol1 isolariol1). Referring to Figure 9-5(b). The mag­ nitudes of the velocities of the mass m at point A and point B are � same. 9-3 Vibrations in Rotating Mechanical Systems 439 Centripetal force and centrifugal force.

I11w2r sin wr. The verti­ cal component of this force. [Note that. Figure 9-6 shows an unbalanced machine resting on shock mounts. ] Let us assume that the total mass of the system is M. so that the unbalance force applied to the system is mw2. acts on the bearings and is thus transmitted to the foundation. sin wr. we arbitrarily choose Ihe time origin t = 0. we have (Ms' + bs + k)X(s) = P(s) . assuming zero initial conditions.. Here. The centrifugal force is the opposing inertia force that acts outward. S Total mass [ M Figure 9-6 Unbalanced machine resting on shock mounts. Then the unbalanced mass will produce a centrifugal force of magnitude mw 2. Ihereby possibly causing Ihe machine to vibrate excessively. Force inputs Ihat excite vibratory motion often arise from rotating unbalance. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of Equation (9-1 1 ). which includes the unbal­ anced mass IH. Its magnitude is also mw2r. a condition that arises when the mass center of a rotating rigid body and the center of rotation do not coincide.. Then the equation of motion for the system becomes Mx + b_t + kx p( r) where = = p(t) (9-1 1 ) IIIw2r sin wr is the force applied to the system. we consider only vertical motion and measure the vertical dis­ placemenl x from the equilibrium position in the absence of the forcing function. and the centripetal force is l11a = IIIw2r. for convenience. Vibration due to rotating unbalance. Assume that the rotor is ro­ tating at a constant speed w rad/s and that the unbalanced mass In is located a dis­ tance r from the center of rotation. This acceleration acts toward the center of rotation. even though Ihe rotating unbalance produces a horizontal component of force. In the present analysis.440 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. we limit the motion to the vertical direction only.

. if we divide the numerator and denominator of the amplitude and those of the phase angle by k and substitute kiM = w.) . the machine and the founda· lion are assumed rigid and the isolator is assumed massless. .)2 /IIw2rlk sin wI .Mw- ) '11[ 1 . In Figure 9-7(b). A typical vibration iso­ lator appears in Figure 9-8.. the steady-state output becomes X(I) = ( bw . 111e isolator reduces the vibration amplitude of the machine... k .) f + (2{wlw. the source of vibration is a vibrating motion of the foundation (motion excitation).w) j = 1 -Mw2 + bjw + k For the sinusoidal forcing function p(I).Mw- tan -I ) bw .=.. Figure 9-7(a) illustrates the case in which the source of vibration is a vibrating force originating within the machine (force excita­ lion). and blM = 2{w" into the result. ��� = = � � <= . 111e concept is illustrated in Figures 9-7(a) and (b).) In the analysis given here.1l1c function of a vibration isolator is to reduce the magnitude of force trans­ mitted from a machine to its foundation or to reduce the magnitude of motion transmitted from a vibratory foundation to a machine.l1lC isolator reduces the force transmitted to the foundation. SIn wt r 2 + b2w2 V(k . 9-4 Vibration Isolation X(s) P(s) 441 or Ms2 + bs + k 1 The sinusoidal transfer function is X(jw) P(jw) = G ( . The isolator essentially consists of a resilient load-supporting means (such as a spring) and an energy·dissipating means (such as a damper).. 1 Vibration isolation is a process by which vibratory effects are minimized or climi­ nated. the steady-state output is obtained from Equation (9-6) as X(I) = Xsin(wl + cp) = IG(jw)lmw2r sin wl _ tan-I _ I n w2r ..Sec. k . The system consists of a rigid body representing a machine connected to a foundalion by an isolator that consists of a spring and a damper. (In a simple vibration isolator.tan-I 9-4 VIBRATION ISOLATION Thus. the steady-state output is a sinusoidal motion whose amplitude becomes large when the damping ratio { is small and the forcing frequency w is close to the natural frequency Ww [ 2{wlw" 1 - (w2/w.(w2/w. a single element like syn­ thetic rubber can perform the functions of both the load-supporting means and the energy-dissipating means.Mw2 ) ( In this last equation.

} Vibration isolator Transmissibility. For the system shown in Figure 9-6. (a) Force excitation: (b) motion excitation. the source of vibration is a vibrating force resulting from the unbalance of the ma­ chine.442 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Force Chap.= F. Lf the source of vibration is a vibratory motion of the foundation (motion excitation). Transmissibility for force excitation. transmissibility is the ratio of the amplitude of the force transmitted to the foundation to the ampli­ tude of the excitatory force. Transmissibility is a measure of the reduction of a trans­ mitted force or of motion afforded by an isolator. Figure 9-8 Vibration isolator. Let us find the transmissibility of this system in terms of the damping ratio ? and the frequency ratio {3 = wlww . If the source of vibration is a vi­ brating force due to the unbalance of the machine (force excitation). TIle transmissibility in this case is the force amplitude ratio and is given by transmissibility = TR = . Fo amplitude of the transmitted force amplitude of the excItatory force . S t� Machine Machine Isolator I I 000 VV Motion t Force (a) (b) � 0 1'\ 1'\ / \T V MOltOn Figure 9-7 Vibration isolation. transmissibility is the ratio of the vibration ampli­ tude of the machine to the vibration amplitude of the foundation.

Hence. sin(wl + cf» = (9-13) Taking the Laplace transforms of Equations (9-12) and (9-13)..i: + kx where M is the total mass of the machine including the unbalance mass m.(w2Iw..Sec. and F(s) X(s) P(s) F(s) X(s) = bs + k ) X (s) (bs + k ) X (s) = Ms2 + 1 = P(s) F(s) 9: (f(I)]. 9-4 Vibration Isolation 443 The excitatory force (in the vertical direction) is caused by the unbalanced mass of the machine and is p(l) = mw'r sin wI = Fo sin wI The equation of motion for the system is Equation (9-1 1 ) .. we - = + (kiM) -w' + (bIM )jw + (kiM) = 1 from which it follows that where {3 I F( jw) P(jw) = w/ww I = V[1 VI 1 + j(2(wlw.. bs + k -- bs + k Eliminating X(s) from the last two equations yields -= F(s) P(s) -+ F(s) X(s) X(s) P(s) -- = - bs + k Ms2 + bs + k (bIM)jw . assuming zero initial conditions.{32)2 + (2({3 ) ' .) + j(2(wlwn ) (2(wlw. )2 + VI + (2(f3 )2 V (l .) ' = .-- The sinusoidal transfer function is thus F(jw) P(jw) - Substituting kiM have = . bjw k - + bjw = + k w.. rewritten here for convenience: M:i = + b. or /(1) b. The force /(1) transmitted to the foundation is the sum of the damper and spring forces.' and blM F(jw) P(jw) 2(w" into this last equation and simplifying.) (w'lw.Mw2 ----.i: = p(l) (9-12) + kx = F. gives (MS2 + where X(s) = 9: [X (I)]. P(s) = 9: [p( I ) ] ...)1' + (2(wlw.

since I p(jw)1 = Fo = mw'r. We see that all of the curves pass through a critical point where TR = 1 and f3 = v'2. for f3 < v'2. the amplitude of the force transmitted to the foundation is F. increasing damping improves the vibration isola· tion.V-Y�. as the damping ratio ? increases.2 0.l ) . regardless of the value of the damping ratio r Figure 9-9 shows some curves of transmissibility versus f3 ( = wlw.8 1. ( � 0 . 9 Noting that the amplitude of the excitatory force is Fo = I p(jw) 1 and that the amplitude of the transmitted force is F. = 1 F(jw) I. For f3 < v'2.6 Figure 9-9 Curves of transmissibility TR versus f3( =: wlw. 0.4 1.}.4 o ) II \ � j..0. we obtain the transmissibility: TR =.444 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.. Therefore. as ( increases.f3')' + (2{f3)' mw'r V1 + (2(f3)' (9-15) 7 TR 5 3 .6 1. I F(jw)1 I p(jw)1 (9-14) From Equation (9-14).= Fo F. . the transmissibility at resonance decreas­ es.2 1. For f3 > v'2.5 . or w < v'2 w" (the forcing frequency w is smaller than v'2 times the undamped natural frequency W. 0. For f3 > v'2. or w > v'2 w'" increasing damping adversely affects the vibra­ tion isolation. however..) .v ( .2 I k " / (�O I I r-- 1 0. Note that. = I F(jw)1 '11( 1 . we see that the transmissibility depends on both f3 and r When f3 = v'2. the transmissibility increases. 1 6 I . the transmissibility is equal to unity.8 .

Sec.:' 'V( I .S) IIIw'rVI + (2?{3)' V( 1 . Figure 9-10(b) is a schematic diagram of an automobile suspension system. k = 6000 N/m. As the car moves along the road. 9-4 Vibration Isolation 445 Example 9-3 In the system shown in Figure 9-6.75 X 0 .00 5 ) ( 16 ) ' ( 0..) (a) Center of mass Auto body (b) Figure 9-10 (a) Automobile system: (b) schematic diagram of an automobile suspcnsion systcm. and w = 16 fad/s. (As a related problem.75 and we find that f3 = w/w. W/I = 20 rad/s.2) sin 161 Consequently.2 m. the vertical displacements at the tires act as motion excitation to the automobile suspension system. b = 450 N-s/m. Figure 9-10(a) shows an automobile sys­ tem.. We shall derive the transmissibility for the motion excitation system. A complete analysis of the slispension system would be very in­ volved. what is the force transmitted to the foun­ dation? The equation of motion for the system is 15:. r = 0.O. 75 x O..005 kg.319 N. see Problem B-9-13.-:.319 N --. The motion of this system consists of a translational motion of the center of mass and a rotational motion about the ccnter of mass. = 0. if M = 15 kg.� � ' ==.8. . . From Equation (9-15). we have F. � '� � :=:= :=:. S ) + ( 2 x 0. + 450.r = 16/20 = 0.-' 0":" :-: e -c . = The force transmitted to the foundation is sinusoidal with an amplitude 0(0. � =c . m = 0.2 ) Vl + ( 2 x 0. = 0. A highly simplified version appears in Figure 9-1 1 . .=-= "" "' (0 . S ) ' -'.f3' ) ' + (2!:f3) ' Automobile suspension system.005 ) ( 1 6) ' (0.< + 6000x = (0. Let us analyze this sim­ ple model when the motion input is sinusoidal.

i: . Figure 9-U Mechanical system. The motion 1'(1) at point A is the input to tbe system. 9 Figure 9-11 Simplified version of the automo­ bile suspension system of Figure 9-10.jJ) + k ( x . 1l1e displacement X(I) is measured from the equilibrium position in the ab­ sence of input p(I). + kp The Laplace transform of this last equation. X(s) P(s) 1lle sinusoidal transfer function is X(jw) P(jw) = = = (bs + k ) P(s) bs + k ms2 + bs + k bjw + k -mw2 + bjw + k A >----. We assume that 1'(1) is sinusoidal. I n the mechanical system shown in Figure 9-12. or 1'(1) = P sin wI.0 + b. the vertical motion X(I) of the body is the output.446 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. gives (l/1s2 + bs + k ) X (s) Hence. Transmissibility for motion excitation. The equation of motion for the system is Ill:" + b(. assuming zero initial conditions. p(r) = P sin Wf .¥ + kx = bi. the motion of the body is in the vertical direction only.1') = a or 111:.

VI + (2 x 0. '-::---:--:: --:-:---' '--:c-'o-­ =- amplitude of the output displacement amplitude of the input displacement I X (jw) 1 I p (jw) 1 = TR Noting that kIm = w� and hIm 2{w". This sec­ lion discusses a way to reduce vibrations near a specified operating frequency that is . the damping coefficient of the isolator is vcry small «( = Om).500 N/m .01 x 4)' = 0. = ' = "'= = = � � � ".69% of the vibra­ tory motion of the base of the isolator.4 ' ) + (2 x 0.{3 ' )' + (2(/3 ) ' VI + ( 2(13)' The isolator thus reduces the vibratory motion of the rigid body to 6. = -:-r: = ==:.=:.o:. = � =. by TR where {3 = = = V 2 w2 + k2 b � k . and the effective spring constant of the isolator is 12.= 4 5 WII Substituting ( = 0. V(I . Assume that the mass of the rigid body is 500 kg. we have TR = ---r.) of the system is WI! so = /2.Sec.c === � =. we see that the transmissibility is given.(3 2 ) 2 + ( 2({3f (9-16) Example 9-4 A rigid body is mounted on an isolator to reduce vibratory effects. because the machine might break down or might transmit too much vibration to the surrounding machines. in terms of the damping ratio ( and the undamped natural frequency w". ==<' � V( 1 . The transmissibility TR in this case is the displacement amplitude ratio and is given by TR TI1US.01 and {3 = 4 into Equation (9-16).0669 9-5 DYNAMIC VIBRATION ABSORBERS If a mechanical system operates near a critical frequency.= . VI + ( 2({3 )2 V( 1 . Find the per­ centage of motion transmitted to the body if the frequ e ncy of the motion excitation of the base of the isolator is 20 fad/so 1l1C undamped natural frequency W.IIIw2 � b 2w2 C:== �f + . the amplitude of vibration increases to a degree that cannot be tolerated. = =:=i V( wlw".01 x 4) ' . The input amplitude is 1 P(jw) I. TIlis equation is identical to Equation (9-14). 9-5 Dynamic Vibration Absorbers 447 The steady-state output x(t) has the amplitude I X (jw ) l .500 500 =5 rad/s 20 w {3 = .

I n real-life situations.. whereas a rigid body in space has six degrees of freedom-three translational and three rotational.. The geometrical description of such motions can become complicated. the critical frequency) of the system by the use of a dynamic vibration absorber. Basically. One of the two new critical fre­ quencies will be well below the original critical frequency w" and the other will be well above w. only one coordinate may be necessary to specify the motion of the system. and parts of the system may have con­ straints on where they can move. Therefore. the addition of the dynamic vibration absorber increases the number of degrees of freedom to two and thereby increases the number of critical frequencies to two.448 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. The number of degrees of freedom that a mechanical system possesses is the minimum number of independent coordinates required to specify the positions of all of the elemcnts of the systcm. the system has a one degree of freedom. the motion of a mechanical system may be simultaneously translational and rotational in three-dimensional space. neither the number of masses nor any other obvious quantity will always lead to a correct assessment of the number of degrees of freedom.. operation at the given frequency (near w.e. . Thus.(number of equations of constraint) EXUIIlI)lc 9-5 Let us find the degrees of freedom of each of the systems shown in Figure 9-13. we shall discuss systems with two or more degrees of freedom. (a) We begin with the system shown in Figure 9-13(a). if only one in­ dependent coordinate is needed to completely specify the geometric location of the mass of a system in space.) is possible. For instance. in general. 9 close to the natural frequency (i. only one coordinate x is required to define the location of the mass at any time. The term used to describe the minimum number of independent coordinates required to specify this motion is degrees offreedom. a rigid body rotating on an axis has one degree of freedom. the dynamic vibration absorber adds one degree of freedom to the system. more than one coordinate is necessary to describe the motion of complicated systems. Before we present vibration absorbers. Mechanical systems with two or more degrees of freedom. This means that it is possible to shif1 the critical frequencies from the operating frequency. I f the original system is a one-degree-of-freedom system (meaning that the system has only one critical frequency w. For some simple systems. but the fundamental physical laws still apply. It is important to note that. Thus. In terms of the number of equations of motion and the number of constraints. However. Degrees of freedom. ) . we have number of degrees of free dom = ( numb!. r of equations of motion) . If the mass m is constrained to move vertically. the system shown in Figure 9-13(a) has one degree of freedom.

9-5 Dynamic Vibration Absorbers 449 k. The equations of mOl ion 111:\:1 + k\ xj + k2 (x\ . then the equations of motion are degrees of freedom �2-0 � 2 m:t my = where T is the tension in the wire.X2 ) 0 k2 (x. y). The constraint equation for this system is = -T sin 8 mg . the pendulum is constrained to move in a circular path. The most convenient coordinate . e x Figure 9-13 Mechanical systems. Consequently.x.Sec. the most convenient coordinate system may not be a rectangular one. consider the pendulum system shown in Figure 9-13(c).t. namely. the number of equations of motion is two. In the pendulum system of Figure 9-13(c). consider the system shown in Figure 9-13(b). There is no equation of constraint. degree of freedom (b) here are = = 0 1 -0 = = ext.. This system has one equation of motion.t + kx and no equation of constraint. (c) Finally. If we define the coordinates of the pendulum mass as (x. Therefore. (a) y • (c) 11Ig T t We can verify this statement by counting the number of equations of motion and the number of equations of constraint. Thus. so the number of equations of motion is two. m:i + b. so degree of freedom �2-1 � 1 Note that when physical constraints are present.) � b. .T eas e The number of equations of constraint is one.

The unbalanced rotor is represented by mass M. the configuration of the system can be specified by one coordinate. In many situations. ml-O = -mgl sin () . y and polar coordinates 8. .) Be­ cause of this force excitation. Vibratory forces may be caused by an unbalanced mass of the rotor. The excitatory force is p(l) = P sin wI. 0 Dynamic vibration absorber. one of the natural frequencies is set above the operating frequency.. where P = IIlw2r. which includes the unbalanced mass. since f is constant. 9 system here would be a polar coordinate system. the equation of motion becomes . III is the unbalanced mass and r is the distance of the unbalanced mass from the center of rotation. sin 0 = x = I sin e. Let us assume that the machine is supported by a spring and a damper as shown in Figure 9-14(a). Consequently. rotating machines (such as turbines and compressors) cause vibrations and transmit large vibratory forces to the machines' foundations. y = / cos O or Note that. If the machine operates at nearly constant speed. Note that only vertical motions are discussed. If the mass of the rotor of a rotating machine is unbalanced. the other below it. this is a one-degree-of-freedom system. a device called a dynamic vibrariol1 absorber can be attached to it to eliminate the large transmitted force. 1 (where I is a constant) are related by In terms of the polar coordinate system. Our discussion here focuses on a simple dynamic vibration absorber that will reduce the vertical force transmitted to the foundation. O. The rectangular coordi­ nates x. a sinusoidal force of amplitude mw2rVk 2 + b2w2 . and is rotating at frequency w. the entire system becomes a two-degrees­ of-freedom system with two natural frequencies.. If the excitatory frequency w is equal to or nearly equal to the un­ damped natural frequency of the rotating machine on its mounts. When a vibration absorber is added to a one-degree-of-freedom vibratory system. Reducing vibrations by means of a dynamic vibration absorber. lllcn the only coordinate that is needed is the angle 8 through which the pendulum has swung. To reduce or nearly eliminate the transmitted force. the machine transmits a large vibratory force to its foundation. g 0 + . then resonance occurs and large forces are transmitted to the foundation. This device is usually in the form of a spring-mass system tuned to have a natural fre­ quency equal to the operating frequency w. (Here.450 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.

we obtain + b. In such a case.)Y(s) .(x lII"y + k.(y - - y) = p(r) = P sin wr x) 0 = ( MS2 + bs + k + k.. (a) (b) is transmitted to the foundation..lchinc with a dynamic vibration absorber.Sec.. the machine is subjected to excessive vibration. and the transmitted force becomes extremely large.k"Y(s) = P(s) (lII"s2 + k. a dynamic vibration absorber consisting of a mass (III. then resonance occurs. we assume that b is very small and that the nat· ural frequency \/kiM is very close to the excitation frequency w.] If the viscous damping coefficient b is small and the natural frequency VkiM of the system is equal to the excitation frequency.. The equations of motion for the system of Figure 9-14(b) arc M:. I n the analysis which follows..) and a spring (k. assuming zero initial conditions.k"X(s) = 0 Eliminating Y(s) from these equations yields pe s) . [To obtain this amplitude.)X(s) .) may be added to the machine as shown in Figure 9-14(b). Taking the Laplace transforms of the last two equations. the displacements of mass M and mass 111(1) respectively. where x and y. substitute (3 = wlw" = wlVklM and � = bl(2VklVi) into Equation (9-15)..t + kx + k. 9-5 Dynamic Vibration Absorbers 451 p( /) = P sin W( y Figure 9-14 (a) Machine supported by a spring and damper: (b) m. to reduce the transmitted force. are measured from the respective equilibrium positions of these masses in the absence of excita­ tion force p(r).

) ( -//laW' + ka} ..� _ -c.k� _ _ _ _ � k_ _ _ -. and the forced vibration at steady state can be represented by the preceding equation..k � � _ _ " laW'_ _ ___ + - If the viscous damping coefficient b is negligibly small. the effect of the dynamic vibration absorber is to produce a spring force kaY that cancels the excitation force p(t}. we may substitute 0 into this last equation.I1I(1W2 0 X(jw} Y(jw} P(jw} X(jw} ka ( . then I X(jw } 1 = 0 and the force transmitted to the foundation is zero.s2 _ -.Mw'}( k(/ .J = In examining Equation (9-1 7). note that if the vis­ cous damping coefficient b is negligibly small.( Ms' + bs + k + ka) (lIIaS' + ka) .k� [Note that.lIIaW'} ( k + ka .k' (I = �:�(%:< //l aw'} _ k� I I I P(jw} 1 (9-17) ka .en X(jw} P(jw} � � ( .. -. _ + -.k' a (9-18) . in the actual system.. observe that if ili a and ka are chosen such that or k"llll" = w'.Mw' + k + k(/ } ( -IIIIIW' + k (I ) . 11._ k . (Without this device. the system would be in near resonance. In general. To see this point. such a dynamic vibration absorber is used only when the natural frequency Vk!M of the original system is very close to the excitation frequency w. it is possible to eliminate the force transmitted to the foundation. then Y(jw} P(jw} = I I ( k + ka _ IIIw'r(k" .) Physically.Mw' + k + k. _ _ a � ( .III (jw') . -a � _ .Mw' + bjw + k + ka ) ( -l1IaW' + ka) . So if the natural frequency Vk"lllla of the dynamic vibration absorber is made equal to the excitation frequency w.J 111e force}(t} transmitted to the foundation is f(l} = kx + bi � kx The amplitude of this transmitted force is k I x (jw) I . where I X(jw } 1 = = [Note that I p(jw} 1 P = I1Iw'r._ " I. free vibrations eventually die out due to damping (even though it may be negligibly small).452 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap_ 9 It (allows that X(s) P(s} X(jw} P(jw} b = The sinusoidal transfer function is = _ _ = _ .

ese two frequencies are the natural frequencies of the two-degrees-of-freedorn system and can be found from the characteristic equation for the sinusoidal transfer function Y(jw)IP(jw) given by Equation (9-18): = = � sin(wt . we treat free vibrations of a two-degrees-of-freedolll system in detail. and the phase angle lags 180' from that of the excitation force (mass III" is vibrating in phase opposition to the excitation force). Note that the addition of viscous damping in parallel with the absorber spring k(j relieves excessive vibrations at the two natural frequencies. which illustrates the two-degrees-of-freedom .1 80') k(l 1-:. TI. It can also be shown that there will now be two frequencies at which mass M will be in resonance. We have shown that the addition of a dynamic vibration absorber will reduce the vibration of a machine and the force transmitted to the foundation to zero when the machine is excited by an unbalanced mass at a frequency w.) Two-degrees-of-freedom system .. with the result that the spring force kaY and the excitation force pe t) cancel each other and mass M stays stationary. k" .Sec. W.. 2 I I (j The two values of frequency.Sin wI - ( k + ka . and w" that satisfy this last equation are the natural frcquencies of the system with a dynamic vibration absorber. 9-6 FREE VIBRATIONS IN MULTI-DEGREES-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEMS In this section. That is. when b is negligibly small. 9-6 Free Vibrations in Multi-Degrees-of-Freedom Systems = 453 If 1110 and ka are chosen so that kll 11ltlW2.Mw') (k/I . very large amplitudes at the two resonance frequencies may be reduced to smaller values.1 ( /-:J P Sin wt + P . A /ll'o-degrees-oFfreedolll system re­ quires two independent coordinates to specify the system's configuration. Figures 9-15(a) and (b) show the curves of amplitude I X (jw)1 versus frequency w for the systems depicted in Figures 9-14(a) and (b).k' = 0 i = 1./1/IIw') . respectively. we find that = Y(jw) P(jw ) ka -k� = - 1 k" Consequently. (Discussions of free vibrations of a three-degrees-of-freedom system arc given in Problem A-9-15. The magnitude of this force is equal to that of the excitation force. Considcr the mechanical system shown in Figure 9-16. we shall discuss vibrations that may occur in multi-degrees-of-[reedoll1 systems. yet) = = This means that the spring kfl transmits a force koY P sin w( to mass M. Ln particular.

454 IXUW)I 5 4 3 2 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.. Figure 9-16 Mechanical system with two degrees of freedom.. nl2 l--'lMIIr-r-.J!k j fi w Figure 9-15 (a) Curve of amplitude \'crsus frequency for the system of Figure 9-1-'(<1): (b) curve of amplitude versus frequency for the system of Figure 9-14(b). S o 2.J!k /J (b) 3 .. k3 .J!k /J (a) w IXUw)1 4 3 5 2 o 2 .

kZ(X2 . 9-6 k Free Vibrations in M u lti-Degrees-of-Freedom Systems x.k A ) sin wi = 0 = = A sin wt . Consider the me­ chanical system shown in Figure 9-17.k3X2 .xd = = Rearranging terms yields 1111\1 + k l x l + k. 7. we have 1111:"1 I1lz:tz = = -klxl . -mAw' + 2kA . Let us derive a mathematical model of this system.x. + k. We assume that the masses move without friction. To find the natural frequen­ cies of the free vibration.IIIB. + k3X.] Free vibrations in two-degrees-of-freedom system.n � � n7 � � n7 � n7 zn � n7.) 111 . Thus. The equations of motion for the system of Figure 9-17 can be obtained by substituting 111 1 = 111 .� XI Sec. [Free vibra­ tions of the mechanical system described by Equations (9-19) and (9-20) are dis­ cussed in Problem A-9-14. ) .kB) sin wi = 0 ( .. the quantities i n parentheses must be equal to zero. + 2kx.1 9 ) (9-20) These two equations represent a mathematical model of the system.(xi . ."' + 2kB . case. the resulting equations are ( -mAw' + 2kA . Applying Newton's second law to mass 1111 and mass "'2.(xi . 455 � 7.\"2 = B sin wt .I'll 0 0 (9. yielding 111:"1 + 2kxI .x. = k3 = k into Equations (9-]9) and (9-20). Since these equations must be satisfied at all times and since sin wi cannot be zero at all times.(x.kx.k. III:". we assume that the motion is harmonic.:". 0 -mBw' + 2kB .k A = 0 .n � n7 7n 111 k III k Figure 9-17 Mechanical system with two degrees of freedom.kXI = = 0 0 (9-21) (9-22) Let us examine the frec vibration of this system. . 111at is.kB . we assume that Xl Then :tl If the preceding expressions are substituted into Equations (9-21) and (9-22). which is a special case of the system given in Figure 9-16. . = III and kl = k.Aw2 sin wI.

or 2k . we have If we substitute w' kim (first mode) into either Equation (9-26) or (9-27). frol11 Equation (9-23).e = 0 + I or k ? w' .mw')A . the first representing the first natural frequency WI (first mode) and the second representing the second natural frequency w.I1lW' 2k . we obtain A B 2 k .mw2 -k .456 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. w2 has two values. A -= 1 B = A B (9-27) .kB = 0 -kA + (2k .. from Equation (9-24). It should be remembered that in the one-degree-of-freedom system only one natural frequency exists. we ha ve (2k .II1W' -k 1 This determinantal equation determines the natural frequencies of the system and can be rewritten as (2k . the determinant of the coefficients of Equa­ tions (9-23) and (9-24) must be equal to zero.0 2 k .4-wm k' 3.mw')' . (second mode): W2 = f3k \j -. 9 Rearranging terms. Note that.= 0 2 n1 (9-25) Equation (9-25) can be factored as or = - k 3k w2 w2 = In m' Consequently. whereas the two-degrees-of-freedom system has two natural frequencies.mw')B = 0 (9-23) (9-24) For constants A and B to be nonzero.. we obtain.mw' k k (9-26) Also. in both cases.

If we substitute w' have 3klm (second mode) into either Equation (9-26) or (9-27). the ratio AlB may not be equal to l or .(0) .I . at the frequency w.(s) . I n this case.] At the second natural frequency w" the amplitude ratio becomes . = k.. and one with amplitude B.(s) II/[s' X.. the amplitude ratio becomes equal to 1 or .(s) .1:. (See Problem A-9-14.(s) = . the two masses must vibrate at the same frequency. that is. [See Figure 9-18(a). or A = B (the first mode of vibration).n � n7 � � n7. we A .1 . the amplitude ratio becomes unity. � n7.n � � � (b) = mm k k Figure 9-18 (a) First mode of vibra­ tion: (b) second mode of vibration. For example. at the frequency w.) For arbitrary initial conditions.) Note that it is possible to excite only one of the two modes by properly setting the initial conditions.(0)] + 2kX.sx.� �-- 457 � k mm (n) --� � � .1:. consists of the sum of two harmonic components: one with amplitude 8. taking the Laplace transforms of Equations (9-2 1 ) and ( 9-22).5X.1 when the masses vibrate at a natural frequency. we have 11/[5' X.kX. = k3.kX.= -1 B I f the system vibrates at either of its two natural frequencies. the vibration of 11/.. so the motions are opposite in phase. [See Figure 9-18(b).(O) . we need only the characteristic equation.- k k /. at the lowest natural frequency w. in the present problem.7. (0 ) ] + 2kX. or A = -B (the second mode of vibration).(s) = 0 0 . (See Problem A-9-16. The reason for this is that we assumed that 1111 = n/2 and k. That i� the vibration of 1111 may consist of the sum of two components: a harmonic motion with amplitude A I at the frequency W I and a hamlOnic motion with amplitude A . From the first equation for the amplitude ratio NB.(5) . the motions are in phase. at the fre­ quency w. which means that both masses move the same amount in the same direction. 9-6 Free Vibrations i n M ulti-Degrees-of-Freedom Systems � . Without such assumptions. two modes of vibration may occur simultaneously.Sec. k � n7.] In the pre­ sent system.. � � � 7. To rind the natural frequencies of the system. Comments.

however. 9 Eliminating X (S) from the last two equations. P . k p(r) =P sin wr x Figure 9-l9 Mechanical system. I f free vibration takes place at any one of the system's natural frequencies. we obtain 2 [SXI(O) + '<1(0)]( s2 + k k2 s' + 4-s2 + 3 m 1112 �) + � [SX2(0) + '<2(0)] = The characteristic equation for the system is = k e s' + 4-s2 + 3m 11/2 . and the amplitude of any mass will bear a fixed value relative to the amplitude of any other mass. all the n masses will vibrate at that frequency.TIlen the resultant vibration may appear quite complicated and may seem to be a random vibration. may vibrate with more than one natural frequency. Many-degrees-of-freedom system. an n-degrees-of-freedom system (such as that consisting of II masses and II + 1 springs) has n natural fre­ = 0 quencies. although it is not. Generally. the characteristic equation can be rewritten as w . The displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position before the excitation force is applied. 111e advantage of the method using the assumed harmonic solution is that one can easily visualize the mode of vibration by the sign of the amplitude ratio NB. 111 0 If we substitute s jw.4-w2 + k 31'11 2 k2 which is exactly the same as Equation (9-25). . The system.458 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. EXAMPLE PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS Problem A-9-1 Assuming that the mechanical system shown in Figure 9-19 is at rest before the excita­ tion force p(f) = si n w( is appli ed derive the complete solution x(t) and the steady­ state solution xss(t).

k.Example Problems and Solutions 459 Solution The equation of motion for the system is niX + bi + kx = P sin w( Noting that x(O) � 0 and itO) � 0.w) We can expand X(s) as c � m + 52 -as + d ') + 2{wlls + Wn ) By simple calculations.. and i: � bl(2v...( w2'1 . + bs + k)X(s) P. where w" � .W2 ) 1 2 " S2 + w- s + 2[wns + w2! I 2 The inverse Laplace transform of Xes) gives .+ w� or � X(s) Pw ' --�2-�-­ s. s.. X [ -2{WIIS + ( wI2! .. X( s Pw ( as + .. + . we find that a = (w� w2 ) 2 + 4{2w.. s..w2 w� w2 - _ Hence..W.1) + 2[2wI! .illS + hs + k 1 Pw 1 . . we find that the Laplace transfoml of this equation is (IIW ..+ w..k)..W2) + 2[wn (S + [W..

P 1 o.tan. and k into this last equation. what is the steady-state output x(r)? The dis­ placement x is measured from the equilibrium position before the input p(/) is applied. at steady Chap. we obtain X(s) I'(s) .c= "" -.w� ).s2 + bs + 2k = = P sin wr where X(s) = 9: [x(r)] and I'(s) = 9: [p(r)]. the terms involving e-(wnt approach zero.IIIW ) + b wbw . Substituting the given numerical values for 111.k .460 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems At steady state state. 9 ( ( ( ) ) ) Problem A-9-2 Solution Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 9-20. b. If m = 10 kg. b = 30 N-s/m. Pw . k = 500 N/m. Thus.2{w" COS Wf W m[(wn . .t + 2kx = p(r) X(s) I'(s) = "... " W (k . = G (s) = lOs' + 30s + 1000 I Then the sinusoidal transfer function becomes G ( } w) 10(jw)' + 30jw + 1000 per) = P sin WI . ' 2 Sln Wl .w' .mw· Y(k - (r -+ 00 ) . =mw2)2 + b2w2 " sin WI . . " 1.+ 4{ WnW ] Pw k .= = = == . P = 10 N.IIIW' sin w( . -"50S(t) = w.. and w = 2 rad/s. The equation of motion for the system is The transfer function of the system is mx + b.b cos wI 2 2 1. r k Figure 9-20 Mechanical system.

= = Y ' 960 -tan-I I 10 N. Assume that the mass moves without friction.0624) = 0. under the initial conditions x(O) and itO) = 0. At t a force applied Using the Laplace transform method.. m r. or and .All. determine xCt) for O.0.« 0) O. for P = !S!JJJJ. k 100 N/m. the stcady·state output = Hence.0010396 x(t) = 0. the steady-state output is :6� + 60' = -0. and w = 5 fadis. . III Problem A-9-3 Consider Figure 9-21.)X(s) = ----. x + w.x = . is " ( s- = 0 w + w.0624 rad = 0...0.010396 sin(2t .40) + j60 I G(j2) 1 Thus. '" U U p(l) = P sin w % Figure 9-21 Spring-mass system.. .0624) = mass.x k . + w p � � '%. .. this last equation can be written P.Example Problems and Solutions 461 x{t) is given by x{t) = Xsin { wt + <!» = I G ( jw ) I P sin [wt + �l For w 2 Tadls..sm wr = The equation of motion for the system is 111:\: + kx = = = = ( 2: 11/ The Laplace transform of the preceding equation.. P = 50 N. we obtain I G('? ) From Equation (9--6). J- ( 1000 . Find the solution x(t) when 1 kg.0010396 X IO sin(2t .shown inp(l) P sin wt issystem isto Ihe at rest. The initially x O) 0 the spring-mass systemO. SoluHoll ( = III = P sin wf By defining w" VJJ.

we find that WI1 = -y-. (s. 1 ' _ 1 t w2 .. the transfer function between I(s) and £.Sin wI ' ) - W" w . P . In addition..... = v'lOci/l = 10 fad/so Plm = 50 N/kg. S2 + w2 . .+ w-) 2 w � w2 s2 +1 w'Z /I 11 From the given numerical values.w.(s) becomes ( LS R �S ) / (S) + + = £. + w. is applied to the input ter­ minals and voltage eo appears at the output terminals..5.)(s..w.. 9 Consequently."3 sm 1 0t + '3 SlIl 5r m . assume that voltage e. we have x t ) = . assuming zero initial conditions.462 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. is di L. Sin Will ) ( 2 ' Problem A-9-4 In the electrical circuit of Figure 9-22. Substituting these numerical values into the equation for x(t).. 1 ( m w..Ri I J C + i tit = e· ' Hence. and wlw/l = 5/10 = 0. assume that the input is sinusoidal and is given by ej(l ) = £j sin wf What is the steady-state current jet)? Solution Applying KirchhofPs voltage law to the circuit yields dt + + - Then the Laplace transform of this last equation.(s) /( s) £.( s) = Ls + R (1/Cs) LCs2 RCs + L Cs + " R c eu Figure 9-22 Eleclric<l1 circuit. X(s) = = III Pw P "W . TIle inverse Laplace transform of this last equation is x( r ) = ( 21 ' ..

Determine the values of b and k.. is applied. per) = bi + kx TIlC transfer function is X(s) P(s) Hence. .LCw' + RCjw + I Ei UW ) Therefore..= G (jw) = ----:..-.r(t) is found to be 0. -. LCw' ) Problem A-9-5 Solution The equation of motion for the system is Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 9-23. where P = 1 N and w = 2 radls.­ -::-c '-::-:: ---.--'-' c:.. the sinusoidal transfer [unction is XUw) PUw) TIle amplitude ratio is = (1(1) bs + k bjw + k I X Uw) PUw) 1 so p(l) = P sin Wt b x Figure 9-23 Mechanical system. the steady·state current i(t) is [see Equation (9-6)J i(t) = I G Uw) I Ei sin[wt + /G(jw)J CEjw Sin wr + 900 Y{l LCw')' + (RCw)' - -:-. If the forcing frequency is changed to w = to Tad/s.:= =: 2T :=" "" CEi. . Y{ l - LCw')' + ( RCw)' ( ( wt - tan -I _ tao-I I - RCw . the steady-state amplitude of .Example Problems and Solutions 463 The sinusoidal transfer function is Cjw J Uw) .05 m. LCw' I Rew - ) .02 m. the steady-state amplitude of XCI} is found to be 0. = :=i = '=" cos . If the excitation force P sin wI.

02 m..68 N!m In the mechanical system shown in Figure 9-24. Hence.. the amplitude of X(I) is 0.677 N-s!m = k' = 312. =<= � Vb' x 2' + k' = Chap.464 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems From the problem statement. assume that the input and output are the displacements p and x.57 k Problem A-9-6 17. P sin wI = sin 101. What is the output X(I) at steady state? Assume that the system remains linear throughout the operating period. Solution The equation of motion for the system is 111:< or + b(x . if p(l) Therefore. = P sin wI 1 0.. respectively. z .p) m:i + b.05 m. 9 sin 21.05 or I f p(l) = = --. we obtain 96b' = 2100 or (9-29) b Also.x '" b - r p{t) = P sin rut Figure 9-24 Mechanical system. 4b' + k' = 400 (9-28) or 1OOb' + k' = 2500 From Equations (9-28) and (9-29). then the amplitude of X(I) is 0. + kx = + kx bi) = 0 k . The displacement x is measured from the equi· librium position. Suppose that p(r) = P sin wr. or = 4.t . = =.

for small w the output leads the input by almost 900..!(.I k -bw 2 ) mw V(k . in obtaining equations. however small.1 k . _ Thus..= tan.{xi . X(j ) I P(jw) 1 W ¢ = and w p rg'w. Problem A-9-7 l - 0° w Find the steady-state displacements XI(/) and X].X l ) + k2 (X2 X l ) = 0 Since bl and b2 are negligibly small.mw )] varies from to 1800 as w increases from zero to infin­ ity. let us substitute b l 0 and b2 0 into the equa­ tions of motion.mw· bw . Then = = = mixi + klxl + k.) 11I2X2 + k2(X2 .tl + klxl + lr.x. bl b2 b! b2 bl b2 Solution The equations of motion for the system are X + m ixi + bl.tl . So.Example Problems and Solutions Hence.tan0 k= Ip(jw) I P. and for large the output Noting that = = = lags the input by almost 90'.(f) of the mechanical system shown are positive. Assume that the viscous damping coefficients and but negligibly small. the transfer function between X(s) and P(s) is X{s) bs P{s) ms' + bs + k = 465 Then the sinusoidal transfer function is X(jw) bjw P(jw) -mw' + bjw + k bw bw mwz bw 900 . Since and are positive. the system is stable =i= 0 and and Equation (9-6) can be used to find the steady-state solution. [This means that. we may assume that *" O. the output is obtained as X{I) IX(jw)1 sin{wl + ¢) Pbw 2 )2 + b2w2 Sin( wl + 900 tao. I The displacements X I and Xl are measured from the respective equilibrium positions in the absence of the excitation forcc.tl . in Figure 9-25..1ao.XI ) = = = p{/) 0 .X2) p(t) P sin wI f1l2 l + b2(.X2) k2(xi .mw 2 The angle an I [ bwl ( k . I I .

.m. . 9 Figure 9-25 Mechanical system.(s) .kl Since the system is basically stable.IIIIW')(k.) .nl2W2 P(jw ) (kl + k.(s) � k. Taking the Laplace transforms of these two equations.X. In so doing. )XI(s) .k.kl and X.(jw)I are obtained from the sinusoidal transfer functions X1(jW) k2 ."" w') .XI(s) � 0 from which it follows that and Xl(S) = X. XI(S) 111252 k2 + + Thus.k.(jw)1 and Ix. we have (mis' + kl + k.(jw) k.S' + k. the amplitudes I x . XI(jW) k. the steady-state solution Xl (t) is 111252 k2 P(s) (mis' + kl + k.)(III. .(s) � P(s) (Ill. Equation (9.S' + k. assuming zero initial conditions.w' (0 � 0' or 180') .)X.466 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.6) can be applied.

(jw)IP(jw) and IX.. mw-r mg w. the period i s a function o f the angle O. masses Ill! and nil move in the same direction if w < Y and in the opposite direction if w > Vk1lml.Example Problems and Solutions The steady-state solution x2 ( f ) is 467 x2(1) = I X2(jw)1 sin wi [ X..(jw)X. That is. ( jw ) P (jw ) ] 0' 180'. and the horizolltal compo­ nent of S balances with the centrifugal force mw'1r Hence. but mass /Ill moves sinusoidally... the vertical component of the ten­ sion S in the cord balances with the gravitational force mg. the period T is Note that.(jw)IP(jw) are eilher or Conse­ quently. Problem A-9-8 Find the period of a conical pendulum in which a ball of mass m revolves about a fixed vertical axis at a con slant speed.(jw) + P(. . . 1800 ( k. from geometry. If w = v'k1/m1.) ] X. the motions of masses "' l and 1112 are either in phase or out of phase with kzlm2 the excitation.(jw) X. since II = I T = -. as shown in Figure 9-26. = {li 2"Yg A IIlg Figure 9-26 Conical pendulum. r II " or = - g Therefore.. 2rr cos O . NOle lhal lhe angles IX. Solution As the ball stands out at a constant angle. mass 111 1 stays still.

) Hence.468 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.807 X 50 = gr v' 8 = 19. as shown in Figure 9-27. we find that (800/60) ' 0. TIle horizontal force F mg tan 0 must provide the necessary centripetal [orce mv2lr. (Note that F can be supplied by friction if the surface is suffi­ ciently rough.3626 tan 8 = 9. = ") m­ v2 r mg tan O or tan 0 = u' m­ r = ­ or Substituting the given numerical values into this last equation.93" Figure 9-27 Boy riding a bicycle around a circular palh. the boy must reduce his speed if he is to avoid slipping. Determine the angle of inclination 0 needed to maintain a steady·state circular motion. F and R. 9 Problem A-9-9 A boy riding a bicycle with a constant speed of 800 m/min around a horizontal cireu· lar path of radius r = 50 m leans inward at angle () with the vertical. Solution TIle centripetal force that is necessary for a circular motion is mw-r = The gravitational force mg can be resolved into two component forces. mg R . If it is not. as shown in Figure 9-27.

Example Problems and Sol utions Problem In rotating systems. yields w2(e + r) = w�r e X' x' (a) (b) Figure 9-28 (a) Rotating system in which the angular speed is lower than the critical speed.J. large vibrations may develop as a result of resonance effects.. ·What is the critical speed of the system? Solution From Figure 9-28(a). . G. the centrifugal force acting on the shaft is I1lw2 (e This force balances with the restoring force of the elastic shaft. The distance between points R and 0 is r. kr. . which is pl aced midway between bearings. the cen� ler of mass of the disk. and R. Assume that the equivalent spring constant of the elastic shaft is k. In Figure 9-28(a). and that between points 0 and G is e.. if shafts rotate at critical speeds. Solving for . (9-30) v. so that the restoring force due to the elastic shaft is kr. respectively. The geometrical center of the disk. So or where WI! = A-9-10 469 + r). and the center of rotation are denoted by points 0. Assume that the disk is not pe rfectl y symmetrical and thaI there is an eccentricity e from the center of the disk... (b) rotating system in which the anglllar speed is higher than the criti­ cal speed. a disk of mass m is mounted on an elastic shaft whose mass is negligible compared with that of the disk.

or y(t) = Y sin In the seismograph. a device used to measure ground displacement during earthquakes. we have == - - == e For w > Will the deflection r decreases and approaches e with increasing For w � Wm the center of gravity of the disk moves toward the line and in this case the disk does not whirl. 1l1C critical speed of the shaft is thus Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. we measure the relative displacement between x and y. w. Define the displacement of the mass III relative to the case as z. is approximately sinusoidal. but the deflected shaft whirls about the center of gravity. the center of gravity G will be situated as shown in Figure 9-28(b). in the case of eaTlhquakes. The deflection increases until Equation (9-30) no longer holds. or wI. G.470 The deflection tends to increase rapidly as w approaches W/l" At W Wm resonance occurs. the displacement of the case relative to ineTlial space by y. 9 r r == At speeds higher than critical. y (Input = y) . The displacement y is the input to the system and. X X'. and the centrifugal force becomes mw\ r e) This force balances with the restoring force of the elastic shaft kr: hence.y Case (Output � : ) Figure 9-29 Seismograph. TIle displace­ ment x is measured from the equilibrium position when y = O. Problem A-9-11 Figure 9-29 is a schematic diagram of a seismograph. The displacement of mass III relative to inertial space is denoted by x. Z = x . mw2(r e) kr Solving for r and noting that kIm w�.

A glance at Equation (9-32) tells us that we can do so easily if (3 � in which case Equation (9-32) reduces to -w' + 2. /3' -. and blm = 2Cwn into this last equation gives w' -- 2(jw) Y(jw) where (3 = wlwnIn the seismograph. The transfer function between Z(5) and Yes) is = (ill S' + bs + k)2(s) -ms'Y(s) 2(s) Y(s) The sinusoidal transfer function is 2 (jw) Substituting kIm = = ms2 + bs + k = Y(jw) = .Example Problems and Solutions 471 Show that the seismograph measures and records the displacement of its case y accu./3' + j2. The sys­ tem configuration is basically the same as that of the seismograph.. = 0 (9-3 1 ) Equation (9-3 1 ) becomes = 0 -my Taking the Laplace transform o f this last equation and assuming zero initial conditions. (Choose a relatively large mass and a spring as soft as the elastic and stalic deflection limits allow.w"jw + w.y) = In terms of the relative displacement z i) + bz + kz x - Y.' 1 .= . Solution The equation of motion for the seismograph is III:' + bU III(Y + or mz + bi: + kz = y) + k(x .. we find that Note that the input to the system is the displacement y and that the output is the rela­ tive displacement z... but their essential difference lies in the choice of the undamped natural frequency WI! = Yk/.. where WI! = Yk/. To produce the condition W � Wm we choose the undamped natural frequency WI! as low as possible./3 /3 ' (9-32) 1..-.1 Y(jw) ' /3 ' Problem A-9-U The seismograph measures and records the displacement of its case y accurately if (3 � I or W � WI/' In fact. we want to determine the input displacement yet) accurately by measuring the relative displacement Z(I). A schematic diagram of a translational accelerometer is given in Figure 9-30..) Then the seismograph will measure and record the displace­ ments of all frequencies well above the undamped natural frequency Win which is very low.= .. Let us . rately if w � w".w' _ ----:­ bjw -IIIW' + . and the motion of the case can be seen as a relative motion between the mass and the case. -c __ _ . 2(jw) . for W � WI/! mass m tends to remain fixed in space.+ k __ w...

The output is the displacement of the mass III relative to the case.) Show that if the undamped natural frequency w" is sufficiently high compared with the frequencies of the input.= x-y (Output = z) Figure 9-30 Translational accelerometer. then the displacement z can be made nearly propor­ tional to y.y) =0 or i) + bi + k z = 0 II lZ + bi. 111e input to the translational accelerometer is the acceleration y.r . and thus its Laplace transform is s2y (s) 1 is 2(s) s2y(s) From Equation (9-33). then Z(s) s2y(s) w� = -11/ - IIIs2 + bs + k I (9-33) . this last equation becomes II/(Y + niX + b(. (We measure <lnd record the relative displacement z. not the absolute displacement x. + kz = -my 1l1e Laplace transform of the preceding equation. In terms of the relative displacement Z. or z = x . y (Input = y) Solution The equation of motion for the system is denote the displacement of mass III relative to inertial space by x and that of the case relative to inertial space by y. we see that if [he undamped natural frequency WI! is suff iciently high compared with the frequencies of the input.y) + k(x . assuming zero initial conditions. gives (II/S' + bs + k)Z(s) = -I/lS'Y ( s) The transfer function between output 2(5) and input s2y(S) [the input is the accelera· tion y.472 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. The displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position when y = 0. 9 .y.

since the values of b and bll are positive. the system is stable. and both x and y are measured from the respective equilibrium positions.i.y) = p(/) = mw2r sin wI \ I1II/Y + b(. in the accelerometer. (Note that. the displacement z is nearly proportional to )i.. When the dynamic vibration absorber is added to the rotating machine as shown in Figure 9-31.y ) = p(/) I1II/Y + kl/(Y .:) + kl/(Y . Since b =i= 0 and b" =i= 0.i. with the result that the machine vibrates violently and a large vibra­ tory force is transmilted to the foundation.(Y . Therefore. but negligibly small. Design a dynamic vibration absorber to reduce the vibration. we choose the undamped natural frequency Wn = ViJiij to be sufficiently high. An unbalanced mass III loca ted a distance r from the centcr of the rotor is exciting vibrations at a frequency w that is very close to the natural frequency WI! of the system. however small.x) = 0 .x) = 0 where x and y are the displacements of mass M and mass 111m respectively. A rotating machine with a mass of 100 kg and mounted on an isolator rotates at a can· stant speed of 10 Hz. the last two equations may be simplified to tv/i + kx + kl/(x . Assume that the values of b (the viscous­ friction coefficient of the isolator) and bu (the viscous·friction coefficient of the dynamic vibration absorber) are positive. Determine also the higher natural frequency of the system.) Solution llle equations of motion for the system are tv/: : + h.. Determine the mass mil and spring constant ka of the dynamic vibration absorber such that the lower natural frequency is 20% off the operating frequency.p(t) 1 473 b } Dynamic vibration absorber = negligible } ROIating machine Moo"" Figure 9-31 Rotating machine with a dynamic vibration absorber.v ) + kl/(x . the steady-state displacements can be obtained with the use of the sinusoidal transfer function.: + kx + bl/(''\: . Problem A-9-13 Thus.Example Problems and Solutions M ([) k r--. the entire system will become a two·degrees·of-freedom system. Hence.

/ma = w2 i nto Equation (9-35). 9 \Vhen the viscous frictions are neglected.8 radls so .8 x 62.2025 . 62. [TIle denominator of Equation (9-34) is the characteristic polynomial. since the natural frequency W'I = to the operating frequency w = Ykjmm we can set ( 1 + " M k . we have wl l w!) k" 0 + k" = k k ww2 0.k" = 0 (9-35) -VkiM is very close Now: the lower natural frequency must be 20% off the operating frequency w.0.8 (1 _ )( _ _ Solving for k. V M = V -./k yields .: w = 62.2025 It follows that mil M = kll k = 0 .} We have i = 111(1 k " .= The two natural frequencies w\ and W2 (where WI < (2) of the entire system can be found from the characteristic equation.8 into this last equation.8- = 1.0'8') ( 1 . (9-34) To make this amplitude equal to zero.T W. we choose kll = ma w = Since the operating speed is 10 Hz. the system becomes the same as that shown in Figure 9-14(b) with b = O. this means that Substituting Wi = {k {k:. 2 or Note that in the present system.8') k k " k = 0.8 Wi = = Substituting wl/w = WI and kIM = k. we have w 1 3944 = 10 X 27T 62... we obtain k ( 1 + -" . 1l1crefore.-" = 0 k k 0.8w = 0. Since WI < W. i k )( 1 - " ka Wj III ' k ) . from Equation (9 1 7) we obtain the amplitude I X(jw) 1 afx(t) as: .474 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.

Assume that masses nI] and 111 2 move with­ out friction.. 1.0. and Problem A-9-14 I 1.24 radls = 8 Hz w.w.25".9 103 N/m the mass and spring constant of the dynamic vibration absorber are mn The25twoand kl/ frequenciesN/rn.5 radls 12. w w w/w. Figure 9-32 Mechanical system.8 62.8)'m" (62.25 62. = = k" (62.5625 w. wor Solving for 1.w2 )( 1 .and can be determined by substituting 20. k"lk 0.25) 79. . kg natural 79.w' ) . The displacements Xl and Xl are measured from the respective equilibrium positions.8w 0.25 kg � M = ffla k" 62.8 50.k = X = = X WI W2 or ( 1 + 0. we obtain w� -.2025 .8 78.8' = = we obtain 11lU5..2050 100 = 20.64.Example Problems and Solutions Since M 475 x = 100 kg.2025 into the equation k" wl wi k ( 1 + .9 103 respectively.) .-" = 0 i = 1. 9�32..2025 = 0 .0.)( 1 . we have Because m" = 0. = = = x = = = x = = Consider the two-degrees-of-freedom mechanical system shown in Figure Obtain the first and second modes of vibration. 1. 0.5 Hz W WI .8)'(20. . = 0.2 k w.5625 Therefore.64.

( . That is.. � 1. 9 Solution The equations of motion for the system arc ml Xj = -kjXl . assume that m J Xj + (kJ + k2)x\ . assume that the motion is har­ monic. k ' + k. + k3)B] sin wI � 0 Since these two equations must be satisfied at all times. . we get [( -m.A + (-m.476 Frequency-Doma i n Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.w' + k. or l -m � = 0 (9-38) (9-39) 0 which can be simplified to 1 w2 + kJ + k2 -k2 0 = 2 2 (-ml w + kl + k2)( -11l2W + k2 + k3) . the quantities in the brackets must be equal to zero. - ------.- k.kzB -k. + k. Thus.- k. - ------. the determinant of the coefficient matrix must be zero. + k3 nl2 k.. 11I1m2 .Xl) which can b e rewritten as To find the natural frequencies of the free vibration.X2) m2:r2 = -k3X2 . we obtain w' � 1.k� = or 4_ w Solving this last equation for w2. + k3 ' ) + k. we define w ." . X2 = (9-36) (9-37) B sin wt Then Substituting the harmonic solutions into Equations (9-36) and (9-37). -. + k3)B For constants A and B to be nonzero.k2(xj ..w' + k..w' + k.. ml + ) ± r7 � � ... k ' 2 ( + k.� . ( ( ..k2X2 = 0 nJl\:2 + ( k2 + k3)X2 .B] sin wI � 0 [-k.k..k2(X2 .k2Xl = 0 Xl = A sin wr.. and since sin wr cannot be zero at all times. + k3 ' ) 0 + k.m lw2 + k\ + k2)A .)A . + k3 nl2 ) )w2 Now.� + klk2 + k2k] + k3k] 11l1 nJ2 "4 1 k' + k . � . 1111 1112 _ :( l k ' + k.A + (-m. 2 ( ( k l + k2 111] + k2 + k3 1112 nl] + k..

from Equation (9-38). we obtain 477 A B A B k2 -mlw2 + kJ + k2 (9-40) Also.m2w� + k2 + k] k2 '\2 Also.z is the second mode of vibration. and x) are measured from their respective equilibrium positions.Example Problems and Solutions The vibration at frequency WI is the first mode of vibration and that at frequency W. . -m 2wy + k2 + k3 k2 (9-41) Substituting wi into Equations (9-40) and (9-41) and writing NB as A liBI yields Al BJ k2 -m]Wr + kJ + k2 Al Similarly. Thu� which means that in the first mode of vibration masses m I and 111 2 move in the same direction. We also assume that the masses move without friction. we get -m2w2 + k2 + k3 k. whereas in the second mode of vibration masses m I and nlz move in opposite directions. The displacements Xl> Xl. To simplify the analysis. Note that. Obtain the natural frequencies and the modes of vibration of the system. respectively. Figures 9-33(a) and (b) show the first and second modes of vibration.IB" we obtain A2 B2 Notice that -mw� + k2 k] + kz . we assume that all of the masses are equal and the four springs are identical. from Equation (9-39). Problem A-9-15 Figure 9-34 shows a three-degrees-of-freedom system. substituting wl into Equations (9-40) and (9-4 1 ) and writing NB as A.

478 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. and (9-44) become...x. (b) ..-- � -.. � k k k k % IIIX. + k ( x2 .. respectively. we assume that Xl X2 x) = = A sin wt B sin wi = C sin w( 0 0 a Then Equations (9-42).X2) + kX3 = 0 X2 ) = 0 which can be rewritten as nlX1 + 2kx 1 . (9-43). we assume that the motion is harmonic. . Solution The equations of motion for the system are mx} + kXJ + k(xJ - Figure 9-34 Mechanical system with three degrees of freedom..kX1 + 2kx2 ..xil + k( X2 . That is.kX3 Ill:!) = = 0 0 0 (9-42) (9-43) (9-44) kX2 + 2kx3 = To obtain the natural frequencies of the system.kC)sin wI � � � ( -IIIW'C .- (a) r.kX2 mXl . (-mw2A + 2kA . Figure 9-33 � k. 9 � k\ k2 k) :: -.k B + 2kC)sin wI ..kB)sin wI ( -lIIw'B .) � 0 m:t) + k(X3 .- � Z (a) First mode of vibration: (b) second mode of vibration.kA + 2kB .- .

B.Example Problems and Solutions 479 Since these three equations must be satisfied at all limes.) B . or . 0 -I mw2 2-k IIIW' -1 0 =0 Expanding this determinantal equation.4142 -. (9-47).(2 .-' )" ." the second mode of vibra­ tion is at w = 1.(2 .-) _ 0 IIlkW k k or from which we get mw2 = 2' k Thus.. .5858) . (9-45) and Firsr mode of vibration (mw'/k = 0.C = 0 k IIIW' ' (2k . and (9-47) must be zero.-) . and since sin wI cannot be zero at all times.76)4 \ -. W = 0.kB = 0 -kA + (2k .) -B + ( 2 . the quantities in parentheses must be equal to zero..IIIW' ) C = 0 (9-45) (9-46) (9-47) For constants A.kC = 0 -kB + (2k ." and the third mode of vibration is at w = 1.847Sv'kj. the [irst mode of vibration is at w = 0.7654 v'kj.) A . III {f ' W = 1. mw2-k -1 mw2-k -1 .-.C = 0 k mw..4142A = B B = 1. we have 1. we obtain 11 lW' (2 . and C to be nonzero..4142v'kj.� W = 1. III Hence..B = O k -.\ + ( 2 . the determinant of the coefficients of Equa­ tions (9-45). These three equations can be simplified to ' mw( 2 .4142C From Equations ..III w')A . That is. (9-46).8478 fk \j -.IIIw')B .

4142 : 1 (9-46).1. 9 Thus. we get Third mode of vibm/ion (mw'lk = O.480 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. we have Second mode of vibrarion (mw'/k B = O A = -C = 2)_ From Equations (9-45) and Hence. k k k k Figure 9-35 (a) First mode of vibration: (b) second mode of vibration..1 .4142 ).4142C Thus. the amplitude ratio becomes A : B : C = 1 : 0 : -1 Note that the second mass does not move.4142A = B B = -1.4142 : 1 Figure 9-35 depicts the three modes of vibration of the system. = 3. (c) third mode of vibration. � k k k k (a) % k k k k (b) r. because amplitude B (9-47). the amplitude ratio becomes A : B : C = 1 : 1. From Equations (9-45) and . (e) % . the amplitude ratio becomes A : B : C = 1 : .

x) = 0 x = A sin wI. [-w'8 + 10(8 . Then y = B sin wI y = -Bw2 sin wI If the preceding expressions are substituted into Equations (9-48) and (9-49).(y . (9-48) (9-49) Substituting the given numerical values into these two equations. assume that the motion is har­ monic.A ) = 0 k. Thus.l m. -O.y) + k. .8) + 4011 = 0 -w'8 + 10(8 . In the diagram. M = 2 kg. Determine the vibration when the initial conditions arc given by (a) x(O) = 0. Determine the natural frequen· cies and modes of vibration.Example Problems and Solutions Problem A-9-16 481 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 9-36. = 10 N/m. we obtain To find the natural frequencies of the free vibration. y(O) y(O) = = k.17808 m. we obtain [-2w' A + IO(A 8) + 4011] sin wI = 0 Since these equations must be satisfied at all times. assume that z:r + lO (x . Assume that 11/ = I kg.x) = 0 . :i = -Aw2 sin Wf. HO) = O mls y(O) = 0 mls Solution The equations of motion for the system arc M:i + k. y x Figure 9-36 Mechanical system with two degrees of freedom. the quantities in the brackets must be equal 10 zero.A)] sin wI = 0 + - -2w'A IO(A . the displacements x and y are measured from their respective equilibrium positions. 0 mls.028078 m.1 01. . = 40 N/m 0.x = 0 lIIi + k. That is. 0 mis.i(O) itO) = = k. (b) x(O) = 0. and since sin w( cannot be zero at all times.y) + 40x = 0 j + 1 0(y .(x .

we obtain - WI 2. wc shall obtain the vibrations XCI) and Y(I). )'(0) " 0.7.808 into AlB. [rom Equations (9-50) and (9-5 1 ). we obtain simplify the last two equations as follows: 2 [s'X(s) . in the first mode of vibration two masses move in the same direction (two motions are in phase).w')B = 0 (9-50) (9-51) For constants A and B to be nonzero. or 1 50 . the determinant of the coefficient matrix must be equal to zero.2wl 1 0 .10 =0 10 w' _ I which yields w4 .= .482 Frequency·Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. x(O) = 0.Y(s)1 + 40X(s) = 0 Is'Y (s) .1922 into AlB.35w2 + 200 = 0 or (w' .w2 10 = 7. while in the second mode of vibration two masses move in oppo­ site directions (two motions arc out of phase).2w')A .s)' (O) . Figure 9-37 shows the first and sccond modes of vibratioll.28078 > 0 A B 10 50 . or WT = 7.2w2' A B 10 .6818 Substituting WI A B = 10 50 . = 5. Laplace transforming Equations (9-48) and (9-49). we get A B 10 50 . Next..808 w.w2 10 Similarly.27. substituting w� = 27. and y(O) = 0.1922)(w' .808) = 0 Hence.(0)1 + 1 0 [X(s) .w� .7808 < 0 10 Hence. subject to the given initial COIl­ dilions.y(O)1 + 1O I Y (s) .X(s)1 = 0 Using the initial conditions that x(O) " 0.lOB = 0 -lOA + (10 . 9 Rearranging terms yields (50 . Note also that.1.1922 = and and w� = 27.2w' -10 . we find that I = 0.sx(O) .2wT 10 . we can (25' + 50)X(s) = 25X(0) + 1OY(s) (s' + IO)Y(5) = 5)'(0) + lOX(s) (9-52) (9-53) ..2733 Note that WI is the frequency of the first mode of vibration and W2 is the frequency of the second mode of vibration.

028078. + 0.. _l (O) = O.8078s 0.�922s + 2.1922 The inverse Laplace transform of Xes) gives X(I) = 0.028078 + 5s + s' + 35s' + 200 X 0. 1 922 Hence. 1 922 O .1922) (9-55) 0. = 0.s3 + 7.1922 1 10 sIs ' + 10) s. and yeO) = 0: Substituting the initial conditions into Equation (9-54). Y(I ) 0.028078s(s' + 27.68 1 8 1 Substituting Equation (9-55) il1lO Equation (9-53) and solving for Yes).1 into this last equa t ion we gel Y(s) = = = + us VIs) s ' 1 10 52 s- .1 + [ sy( O ) .028078 cos 2.+ 7 . we gel XIs) = XIs) yeO) = (s' + 10)sx(0) + 5sy(0) s' + 35s' X (s' (s' + 27.1922 = + 10 s2 + 7 .68181 . I I 1 (a) (b) Figure 9-37 (a) First mode of vibration: (b) second mode of vibration. we obtain S b t i t uting yeO) = 0. Eliminating Y(s) from Equations ( 9-52) and ( 9-53) and solving for X(s) .Example Problems and Solutions 483 I.028078s 7. we obtain : Case (a).28078s s' + 7.1.808 )(s' 52 0. ill which rlie inilial cOlldiriofls are x(O) = 0.1 cos 2..1 7.808) + + + 200 (9-54) lO)s 0.ls s' + 7.Q:!.

15(5' + 10) (5' + 10) (5' + 27.15 5' + 27. Note that.808 � Thus.-:-:-' - � -0.484 Notice that both XCl) and yet) exhibit harmonic motion at w first mode of vibration appears in this casco Frequency�Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems = Chap.808) ( 5' + 7.__ -. x( I) � 0.1 into Equation (9-53). P = 5 N.-.-- 0.808) 0.178085 5' + 27. and w = 2 rad/s. The displacement x(t) is measured from the equilibrium position before the force p(t) is applied.r (O) = 0. 1922) (5' + 27.27331 Substituting Equation (9-56) and y(O) Y(s) - --.--.(O) � 0: Substituting the initial conditions into Equation (9-54). we X (5 ) ­ --'--'--. 9 2. both the first and second modes of vibration appear. 1 . what is the response XCl)? Assume that III 1 kg. 178085(5' + 7.. k = 100 N/m. . PROBLEMS Problem 8-9-1 TIle spring-mass system shown in Figure 9-38 is initially at rest. only the second mode of vibration appears.6818 rad/s.1922) 0.--:. -0. Assume that the dis­ placement x is measured from the equilibrium position in the absence of the sinusoidal Figure 9-38 Spring-mass system. x .27331 In this case.--'--. Only the y(o) have � Case (b). for arbitrary initial conditions.17808. ill which fhe initial conditions are x(O) = 0..-. Y(I) -0. we get -0.17808 cos 5. = // k / t p(l) = P sin WI Problem 8-9-2 Consider the mechanical vibratory system shown in Figure 9-39.808 (9-56) Hence.1 cos 5. alld j. If mass III is excited by a sinusoidal force pet) = P sin wf..

p(l ) Figure 9-41 Mcchanical syslcm.(I) and X. Figure 9-39 Mechanical vibrntory system. = 5 N. Obtain the complete solution XCI).(I) when the input p(l) is a sinusoidal force given by p(l) = P sin wI k . Assume that m = 2 kg. and the input force p(r) = sin WI is applied at I = O. The initial conditions are x(O) = 0 and _teO) = 0. b = 24 N-s/m. r. k = 200 N/m.Problems Input force 485 per) :=: P sin WI k b x Problem 8-9-3 excitation force. P P Consider the electrical circuit shown in Figure 9-40. what is the output voltage eQ(t) at steady state? ej(f) is Figure 9-40 Elcclrical circuit. Problem 8-9-4 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 9-41 . . Obtain the steady�state outputs X. and w = 6 rad/s. If the input voltage Ej sin Wf.--'-----' ---.

Problem 8-9-7 A rotating machine of mass M = 100 kg has an unbalanced mass m = 0. specify the spring constant k such that only 1 0 % of the excitation force is transmitted to the foun­ dation. If it is desired that . ] . k x Figure 9-43 ROI<1ting machine mounted on a vibration isolator.486 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. what is the maximum angular speed (in hertz) that can be attained without breaking the cord? Problem 8-9--6 In the speed-regulator system of Figure 9-42. Problem 8-9-5 Consider a conical pendulum consisting of a SlOne of mass 0.\'"\(1) and X2(1) are measured from the respective equilibri� urn positions. If the maximum allowable tension in the cord is 10 N. what is the frequency w needed to main­ tain the configuration shown in the diagram? � 0'" /)1 I I ¢w 15 cm III Figure 9-42 Speed-regulator system.2 kg a dis­ lance r = 0. . Determine the amplitude of the transmitted force.5 m from the center of rotation. 9 The output displacements . Find the tension in the cord. be 0. (The mass M includes mass m.1 kg attached to the end of 1 -01 cord and rotated at an angular speed of 1 Hz.2. Suppose that the machine is mounted on an isolator consisting of a spring and damper.) The oper­ ating speed is 10 Hz. as shown in Figure 9-43.

If the motion of the base is y = Y sin wI. where WI! = �.y is the displace­ menl of the base. the device can be used for measuring the dis­ placement of the basco Show also that if w � Wm the device can be used for measuring the acceleration of the base.s::. W". Problem 8-9-9 Figure 9-45 shows a machine of mass III mounted on a vibration isolator in which spring k] is the load-carrying spring and viscous damper b2 is in series with spring k2 • DClcrminc the force transmissibility when the machine is subjected 10 a sinusoidal excitation force p{t) = P sin wf. .Problems 487 Problem 8-9-8 In Figure 9-44. and z = x Y is the motion of the pen relative to the base.45 Mnchinc mounted on a vibration isolator. what is the steady-state amplitude ratio of z to y? Show that if w .or accelera· tion-measuring instrument. an instrument is attached to a base whose motion is to be measured. Determine also the amplitude of the force Iransmit­ ted to the foundation. (J(I) = P sin W( Figure 9. - Base J' Figure 9-44 Motion. TIle relative motion between mass 111 and the base recorded by a rotating drum will indicate the motion of the basco Assume that x is the displacement of the mass. TIle displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position before the excitation force p(t) is applied.

p{t) = P Sill WI Figure 9-47 Machine wilh a dynamic . Determine the natural frequen­ cies and modes of vibration.ribration absorber. If the foundation is vibrating according to p = sin w(. find the vibration amplitude. 9 I'roblcm 8-9-10 A In<lchine of mass m is mounted on a vibration isolator as shown in Figure 9-46. of the machine. P Figure 9-46 Machine mounted on a vibra­ lion isolator. The displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position in the absence of the vibration of the foundation. The undamped natur­ al frequ� of the system in the absence of the dynamic vibration absorber is ' W/l = Vkim. where p is the displacement of the foundation. . p = P si n W{ Problem 8-9-11 Figure 9-47 shows a machine with a dynamic vibration absorber. Problem 8-9-12 Consider the pendulum system shown in Figure 9-48. what is the amplitude of mass ma of the vibration absorbcr? TIle displacement x is measurcd from the equilibrium position in the absence of the excitation force p(t).488 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. Suppose that the operatio frequency w is close to WH• If the dynamic vibration absorber is tuned so that kjlll(l = w. Determine the motion trans­ missibility.

Determine the natural frequencies and modes of vibration.. TIle vertical displacement x of the centcr of gravity (point G) is measured from the equilibrium position in the absence of any motions. '\ 1- ' Figure 9-48 Pendulum system. '" _ ... Figure 9-49(b) shows the cou­ pling of the translational and rotational vibrations.. . T 1. Figure 9-49(a) shows a simpli[ied model of the auto body and the front and rear springs. 489 .L jf+-. Problem 8-9-13 Consider the pitching motion of an automobile.Problems / a . I.) I • I' -t. / . 4 X 10' N/m.5 m.I II M M �I I I-' 8. = 4 X 10' N/m 2500 kg-m' (J is the moment of inertia of the body about point G. . \ I II' I I . Problem 8-9-14 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 9-50. Assume t he fol­ lowing numerical values: k.. 11/ = = 2000 kg. The displacements Xl and X2 are measured from their respective equilibrium positions. I . Obtain the first and second modes of vibration. \ . J = k.J\ M M . = 1 . I . lhe center of gravity of the body.-- / (a) (b) Figure 9-49 (a) AulO body and front and rear springs: (b) coupling of the translational and rotational vibrations. Assume that the mass elements move without friction. I I I k I 8.

05 111 = � III III % 1 kg.i(O) = 0 m/s.r(O) 0 mis. \Vrite a MATLAB program that plots curves .1 m. = IO N/m. yeO) = 0. y x Figure 9-51 Mechanical system.t(0) = 0. and k2 as given in Problem A-9-16. = 100 Nlm m.028078 111. In the diagram.t(0) (b) . m. yeO) = 0 m .r(t) versus t and yet) versus t for each of the three sets of initial conditions.1 m . k. Determine the mlturai frequen­ cies and modes of vibration. . .t(0) = 0. Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 9-5 1 . yeO) = -0. yeO) = 0 01/5 k. = k. yeO) 0 mls .r(O) O m/s . the displacements x and y arc measured from their respective equilibrium positions. yeO) = 0 mls .17808 = = 0. Problem 8-9-16 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 9-36. Plot the resulting curves. M.i(O) 0 mis. yeO) = -0. Assume that Determine the vibration when the initial conditions are given by . yeO) = 0 01/5 = = .t(0) (e) . k ! . 9 Problem 8-9-15 Figure 9-50 Mechanical system. = 0 .1 m . 1 m. Using the same numerical val­ ues for III. !vi = IO kg.obtain computer solutions for x(t) and Y(/) for the following initial conditions: (a) .490 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.

it is called internal. Disturbances. A disturbance is a signal that tends to affect the value of the output of a system adversely. we then follow with a description of closed-loop and open-loop control systems. We begin the chapter by defining some terms that are essential in describing control systems.Time-Doma in Ana lysis and Design of Control Systems 1 0-1 INTRODUCTION This chapter presents basic information on control systems. we shall call any physical object that is to be controlled a plant. Finally. the advantages and disadvantages of closed-loop and open­ loop control systems are compared. If the disturbance is generated within the system. Plants. an external disturbance is generated outside the system and is an input. A planl is a piece of equipment-perhaps a set of machine parts functioning together-the purpose of which is to perform a particular operation. Our discussions are lim­ ited to time-domain analysis and design based on the transient-response analysis and root-locus analysis. 491 . In this book.

Instead of the driver observing the speedome­ ter. In fact. only unpredictable disturbances are so specified. is fed to the controller so as to reduce the error and bring the output of the system to a desired value. thus enabling it to function properly in a changing environment. 111 is is a feedback control system with a human operator. the driver depresses the accelerator and the car speeds up. since predictable or known distur­ bances can always be compensated for within the system. of course. for instance. or some similar device. The human body. Soaking. tends to reduce the difference between the output of a system and the reference input and that does so on the basis of this difference. Feedback control systems. the thermostat turns the heating or cooling equipment on or off in such a way as to ensure that the temperature of the room remains at a comfort­ able level. A system that maintains a prescribed relation­ ship between the output and the reference input by comparing them and using the difference as a means of control is called a feedback control system or simply a control system. The term closed-loop cOlltrol always implies the use of feedback control action in order to reduce system error. Open-loop control systems. Both body temperature and blood pres­ sure are kept constant by means of physiological feedback. If he or she is traveling too slowly. feedback per­ forms the vital function of making the human body relatively insensitive to external disturbances. This voltage can be compared with a reference voltage that corresponds to the desired speed. the driver releases the pressure on the accelerator and the car slows down. regardless of outside conditions. an electric generator can be used to produce a voltage that is proportional to the speed. By measuring the actual room temperature and comparing it with the reference temperature (the de­ sired temperature). This speed acts as the reference speed. One practical example is a washing machine. Closed-loop control systems. consider the control of automobile speed by a human operator. but can be found in various nonengineering fields as well. 1 0 Feedback control. The difference in the voltages can then be used as the error signal to position the throttle to increase or decrease the speed as needed. Here. In other words. Feedback colltrol refers t o a n operation that. The driver observes the actual speed by looking at the speedometer. which may be the posted speed limit on the road or highway involved. the actuating error signal. which is the difference between the input signal and the feed­ back signal (which may be the output signal itself or a function of the output signal and its derivatives). The human operator here can easily be replaced by a mechanical. For a given situation. Those control systems in which the output has no effect on the control action are called opell-Ioop cOlltrol systems. an electrical. . As another example. If the actual speed is too high.492 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. in an open-loop control system. In a closed-loop control system. the output is neither measured nor fed back for comparison with the input. the terms feedback COl1lrol and closed-loop cOlllrol are used interchangeably. is a highly advanced feedback control system. i n the pres­ ence of disturbances. Feedback control systems are often re­ ferred to as closed-loop cOl1lrol systems. the driver decides on an appropriate speed. are not limited to engineering. Feedback control systems. In practice. An example is a room temperature control system.

By contrast. 1 0-1 Introduction 493 washing. Moreover. the speed of response must be reasonably fast. Section 10-4 cov­ ers the transient-response analysis of control systems. that is. Note that any con­ trol system that operates on a time basis is an open-loop control system. An advantage of the closed-loop control system is the fact that the use of feedback makes the system re­ sponse relatively insensitive to external disturbances and internal variations in sys­ tem parameters. In addition to absolute stability. For example. Clearly. From the point of view of stability. and then static error constants are defined and used to obtain steady-state errors. Section 10-8 discusses the root-locus . and rinsing in the washer operate on a time basis. because system stability is not a major problem. 11. there corresponds a fixed operating con­ dition. Section 10-6 discusses improving transient-response and steady-state characteristics. control actions generally found in indus­ trial automatic controllers and. first. 111e machine does not measure the output signal. the response must show rea­ sonable damping. to each reference input. second. A primary requirement of any control system is that it must' be stable. In the presence of disturbances. and the e(rects of various control actions on the transient-response characteristics of control systems are dis­ cussed. the output is not compared with the refer­ ence input. Closed-loop versus open-loop control systems. which may tend to overcorrect errors that can cause oscillations of constant or changing amplitude. in designing control systems it is necessary to make the most effective compromise between the two. Section 10-5 is concerned with transient-response specifications. and as a result. traffic control by means of signals operated on a time basis is another example of open-loop control. General requirements of control systems. a control system must have a reasonable relative stability. Outline of the chapter. In an open-loop control system. It is thus possible to use relatively inaccurate and inexpensive components to obtain accurate control of a given plant. Section 10-1 has pre­ sented an introduction to control systems. the cleanliness of the clothes. in practice. Section 10-2 deals with block diagrams of control systems. simple electronic controllers. an open-loop control system will not perform the desired task. that is.and second-order control systems to step inputs are examined. Velocity feed­ back to improve the transient response is treated. stability is a major problem in the closed-loop control system. A con­ trol system must also be capable of reducing errors to zero or to some small tolerable value. only if the relationship between the input and output is known and if there are neither internal nor external distur­ bances.Sec. the open-loop control system is easier to build. such systems are not feedback control systems. the accuracy of the system depends on calibration. Section 10-3 discusses. whereas doing so is impos­ sible in the open-loop case. This chapter presents introductory material on con­ trol systems analysis and design in the time domain.e responses of first. Section ·1 0--7 deals with stability analy­ sis and presents Routh's stability criterion. Because the needs for reasonable relative stability and for steady-state accu­ racy tend to be incompatible. Specifically. Open-loop control can be used. Thus.

parallel-connected systems. and feedback­ connected systems is presented. Section 10-10 examines tuning rules for PID controllers.H(s)C(s) ] Figure 10-1 Block dingram of a closed-loop system with a feedback element. This section first defines the open-loop transfer function. Basic rules for constructing root­ locus plots are presented. To show the functions performed by each component. 1 0 method for analyzing and designing control systems.494 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. 8(s) = G(s)H(s) open-loop transfer function £(s) = The ratio of the output C(s) to the actuating error signal £(s) is called the JeedJonvard lre/IlSJer fllllClioll. the output C(s) and input R(s) are related as follows: C(s) = G(s)£(s) 8(s) £(s) = R(s) = = G(s) Eliminating £(s) from these equations gives C(s) = R(s) - H (s)C(s) G(s) [R (s) . Finally. utilizing the root-locus method. feed­ forward transfer function. a MATLAB approach to obtaining transfer functions or state-space repre­ sentations of series-connected systems. Then the simplification of block diagrams is discussed using general rules for reducing block diagrams. Open-loop transfer function and feedforward transfer function. 111e ratio of the feedback signal 8(s) to the actuating error signal £(s) is called the open­ loop transfer fllllclion. For the system shown in Figure 10-1. Figure 10-1 shows the block diagram of a closed-loop system with a feedback elemenl. then the open-loop transfer function and the feedforward transfer function are the same. That is.oJ . Ziegler-Nichols rules are detailed and PID-controlled systems are designed. 1 0-2 BLOCK DIAGRAMS AND THEIR SIMPLIFICATION A system may consist of a number of components. block diagrams are frequently used in the analysis and design of control systems. Finally. "r: G(" : I H(s) C(s) 1_ . and closed-loop transfer function. Closed-loop transfer function. Section 10-9 treats the MATLAB approach to plotting root loci. so feedforward transfer function = C(s) £(s) If the feedback transfer function is unity.

G1 Equivalent Block Diagrams -+ !i G B G B t :z. using rules of block diagram algebra. If there are any loading effects between the components.111ey are obtained by writing the same TABLE 10-1 Rules of Block Diagram Al gebra Rule No. 1 0-2 Block Diagrams and Their Simplification 495 or C(s) R(s) G( s ) 1 + G(s)H ( s) ( 10-1 ) 111e transfer function relating C(s) to R(s) is called the closed-loop tralls/er [I/nction. these components must be combined into a single block.Sec.+_ I�� @ B Original Block Diagrams t AG-8 ~ + _ A � � -B G L----[]] . . I 2 3 4 5 AG AG I A �G A I A� Gi 4J A_@IT 4J . Block diagram reduction.lAGG A-0 GL . A complicated block diagram involving many feedback loops can be simpli­ fied by a step-by-step rearrangement. I � I + GJG2 . Blocks can be connected in series only if the output of one block is not affected by the block that follows.lG ill----A G:z. G A_ G. This transfer function relates the closed-loop system dynamics to the dynamics of the feed forward elements and feedback elements.� 0 . C (s) = G(s) R(s ) 1 + G (s ) f-l (s) the output response of a given closed-loop system clearly depends on both the closed-loop transfer function and the nature of the input. from Equation (10-1 ).lG A I� . Since. Some of these important rules are given in Table 1 0-1.

Moving the Slimming point of the negative feedback loop containing /-/2 out­ side the positive feedback loop containing /-II_ we obtain Figure 1O-3( n ) . 2. In simplifying a block diagram. + G. however. The product of the transfer functions around the loop must remain the same. Simplification of the block diagram by rearrangements and substitutions considerably reduces the labor needed for subsequent mathemat­ ical analysis.N. interchange summing points. Notice that the numerator o f the closed-loop transfer function C(s)/R(s) is the product of the transfer functions of the feedforward path.N. Wt! have Figure 10-3(b).496 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.G. Eliminating the positive feedback luup. Example HI-l Consider the system shown in Figure 10-2 . .G.) . A general rule for simplifying a block diagram is to move branch points and summing points. that as the block diagram is simplified.N. Then. .) C(s) Figure 10-2 Syslcm with mUlliplc loops. The denominator o f C(s)/R(s) is equal t o I - L (product of the transfer functions around each loop) . (The positive feedback loop yields a negative term in the denominator. 1. + G. eliminating the loop con­ taining HUG I gives Figure 10-3(c). Simplify this diagram by eliminating loops. Note. and then eliminate internal feedback loops. eliminating the feedback loop results in Figure J0-3(d).G. Finally. . 1 0 equation in a different way. the transfer functions in new blocks become morc complex because new poles and new zeros are generated.G.G. remember the following: The product of the transfer functions in the feedforward direction must re­ main the same.N.(G.

and G. A physical sys­ tem may involve many interconnected blocks. 1 0-2 Block Diagrams and Their Simplification 497 C(s) (a) R(s) (b) C(s) (c) (d) R(s) C(s) . and feedback-connected blocks. sys 2 = = tf(nurnl . Any linear.Sec. I n what follows. parallel-connected blocks. we shall consider se­ ries-connecled blocks. are series connected. and feedback-connected blocks. Figure 10-3 Successive simplifications of block diagram shown in Figure 10-2.den 1 ) tf(nurn2. time-invariant system may be represented by combinations of series­ connected blocks. Using MATLAB to obtain transfer functions of series-connected blocks. Series-collnected blocks. parallel-connected blocks.den2) FigUTC 10-4 Series-connected blocks. parallel-connected blocks. and fcedback-conneclcd blocks. . and system G. System G. I n the system shown in Figure 1 0-4. G. are respectively defined by sys1 sys2 sys G. sys 1 G.

C l . (a) G1 + G2: (b) Gt . and G. B2. are given in state-space form. and G. Figure 10-5 Parallel-connected systems.D2) The series-connected system G.den2) Consider the case where G 1 __ - 10 s2 + 2s + la' G.498 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. Transfer function: 50 sl\3 + 7 sl\2 + 20 s + 5 0 If systems G . Figures 1 0--5(a) and (b) show porollel-connected systems. den2 = 1 1 5 1 . num2 = [5]. B 1 .B2. den1 = 1 1 2 sys1 = tf(num1 . c. D 1 . are added.C2.num2. Then the series-connected system G.D2) Parallel-collllec/eli blocks. G.denl = series(num1 .B.C2.A2.den1 .sys2) = s+5 5 1 01.sys2) or IA. then their MATLAB rep­ resentations are respectively given by sys1 = ss(A1 .den 1 ).den2). while in Figure 10--5(b) c.Cl . (aJ (b) . MAHAB Program 1 0--1 » » » » » num1 = 1 1 01.DI = series(A 1 .sys2) The system's numerator and denominator can be given by [num. D l ) sys2 = ss(A2 . can be given by sys = series(sys1 . sys2 tf(num2.G2. = -­ MATLAB Program 10--1 produces the transfer function of the series-connected system. B 1 . In Figure 10--5(a) two systems G. 1 0 provided that these two systems are themselves defined in terms o f transfer func­ tions. sys = series(sys1 .C. is given by sys = series(sys1 .G.

den2) and the parallel-connected system G 1 + Gz is given by sys .B2.den1 . are defined in terms of trans­ fer functions. paraliel(sys1 .sys2 ) Transfer function: 5 51\2 + 20 s + 1 00 51\3 + 7 + 1 01.. 52) Feedback-connected blocks: Figure 10-6(a) shows a negative feedback sys­ tem. and Figure 10-6(b) shows a positive feedback system.B. is given by 5)'5 .C1 . Inumh. 51 . then 5). parallel(sys1 .G" as shown in Figure 10-5(b).-5). 10 s· + 2s + 1 0 . system. = -.Sec. tf(num1 . then IA. Inumg.den2) Consider the case where G1 = .B1 . sys .A2. ss(A2.52) or If the parallel-connected system is G.B1 .COI . If G and J-/ are defined in terms of transfer functions.01 . 151. parallel(A 1 . but change sys2 to -sys2 in the expression for sys. is subtracted from system G. n um2. tf(num2. s + � MATLAB Program 10-2 produces the transfer function of the parallel-connected MATlAB Program 1 0-2 » num1 .denl . den1 . ss(A 1 . 51\2 + 20 5 50 If G] and Gz are given in state-space form.sys2) or I num.denhl . » sys . 5 G. tf(num2.den 1 ) s)'s2 . 1 0-2 Block Diagrams and Their Simpl ification 499 system G. paraliel(sys1 .B2.den1 ). If G. 11 2 » sys1 ..02) and the parallel-connected system G.C1 .5). 11 01. 11 5 1 . and G.clengl s)'sh . » sys2 . then we define sys1 and sys2 as before.C2. » num2 . den2 . + G. . then 5)'51 .clen2). 0 1 ) sys2 .02) sysg . paraliel(num1 . tf(num1 .C2. that is. paraliel(sys1 .

sysh. feedback(sysg. feedback(numg. feeclback(sysg. feedback(sysg. tf(numh. 11 I) f-{ = [ 1 ] and sys can be given by Note that.sysh) or Inum. deng . 10. and the entire feedback system is given by sys . that is. » sysh . Consider the case where G = S' " 5 + 25 . tf(numg. for the positive feedback system. in treating the feedback system. If the system involves a positive feedback. s/\2 + 2 . » sys .numh.denl . 151. 1 0 -@- LG (a) (b) Figure 10-6 (a) Negative feedback system.1 1 1 .15 + 1 Transfer function: » numg . (b) positive feedback system.-sysh) Alternatively.cleng. » n u m h . denh 1 1 1 . MAHAB Program 1 0-3 f-{ = 0. feedback(sysg. » sysg . we need to add " + 1 " in the argument of feedbHck as follows: sys .denh). 1 1 2 01.500 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems G Chap.sysh) .+ 1 ) sys . MATLAB assumes that the feed­ back is negative. we may lise H-sysh" in the sys statement.deng). MATLAB Program 10-3 produces the transfer function of the feedback-connected system.denh) If the system has a unity feedback function. then sys . feedback(sysg. 5 s + 5 5 .

Figure 1 0-7 is a block diagram of an industrial control system consisting of an auto· matic controller. The way in which the automatic con� troller produccs the control signal is called thc cOl/Ira/ aCliol/. . or on-off.. an actuator... which is usually at a very low power level. determines the deviation. We then briefly discuss an electronic controller..:t plant. an actuator.- \Actuating Ampllflcr crror signal HI I I I Actuator r--- Plant Output Sensor Figure 10-7 Block diagram of an industrial control system consisting of an automatic controller. 6.. and combinations of proportional.Sec.. The con­ troller detects the actuating error signal.-< (p!��t) I: I � l - Aulomiltic controller rror detector L _ _. 3. derivative.. controllers Proportional controllers Integral controllers Proportional-plus-integral controllers Proportional-plus-derivative controllers Proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative controllers Automatic controller. and produces a control signal that will reduce the deviation to zero or a small value. Industrial automatic controllers can be classified according to their control action as follows: 2. 1._ -. actuator. 5. Refere n e e input ___I _ _ . Two-position. Classifications of industrial automatic controllers. 1 0-3 Automatic Controllers 501 1 0-3 AUTOMATIC CONTROLLERS An automatic controller compares the actual value of the plant output with the desired value. and derivative. integral. 4. and a sensor (measuring element). Here.. and sensor (measuring element). The control actions normally found in industrial automat­ ic controllers consist of the following: two-position. integral.. a plant. and a sensor or measuring element. Control actions. we describe the fundamental control actions commonly used in industri­ al automatic controllers. A good un­ derstanding of the basic properties of various control actions is necessary for the en­ gineer to select the one best suited to his or her particular application. or on-off: proportional..

e set point of the controller must be converted to a reference input of the same units as the feedback signal from the sen­ sor or measuring element. which can be lIsed to compare the output with the reference input signaJ. so that 502 lime-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. The sensor or measuring element is a device that converts the output variable into another suitable variable. such as a displacement. the actuating element has only two fixed positions. or on-off. simply on and off. however. or voltage. (TIl US. quite often it is intentionally provided in order to prevent too frequent operation of the on-off mechanism. so that the feedback signal will correspond to the reference input signal. in many cases. Such a gap causes the controller output m(l) to maintain its present value until the actuating error signal has moved slightly beyond the zero value. 1\vo-position. In a two-position control system. the signal 1'11 ( 1) remains at either a maximum or ct minimum value. to­ gether with an amplifier. As shown in Figure 1 0-] 1 . the automatic controller compris­ es an error detector and an amplifier.and amplifies it to a sufficiently high level. The range through which the actuating error signal must move before switching occurs is called the differelllial gap. = M2 e(l) > 0 e(l) < 0 where M. control is simple and inexpensive and. is used to alter the actuating error signal to produce a beller control signal. is used extensively in both industrial and household control systems. 1 0 m(l) = M. In some cases. or on-off. TIle actuator is an element that produces the input to the plant according to the control signal. -� I 1-"-' t i M. which arc. control action. the input valve is either open or closed. two-position controllers are electrical devices. Two-position. Figure 10-9 shows the block diagram of a two-position controller with a differential gap. pressure. In two-position control. the differential gap is a result of unintentional friction and lost motion. Figure ]0-8 shows the block diagram of a two-position controller. . let the output signal from the controller be m(l) and the actuating error signal be e(I).) Quite often. so the liquid inflow rate is either a positive constant or zero. the output signal Figure JO-8 Block diagram of <I two-position controller. TI. and M2 are constants. depending on whether the actuating error signal is positive or negative. and an electric solenoid­ operated valve is widely used in such controllers. a suitable feedback circuit. To explain the concept. Let us look at the liquid-level control system of Figure 1 0-10. With two­ position control. TI1e minimum value A12 is generally either zero or -M" As a rule. 1l1is element is in the feedback path of the closed-loop system. for this reason.

proportional. and derivative control actions. we illustrate transfer functions H(/) .-.{ 1 � R Figure 10--10 Liquid·level control system. thereby causing the actuat­ ing element to shift from one fixed position to the other.. and derivative control actions are basic control actions found in industrial automatic controllers. From Figure 10-1 1 .. integral.. 503 \--� - t '-. . and the actuating error signal £(s) are related by a transfer function of a specific form. .Sec. The magnitude of the differential gap must be determined from such factors as the accu­ racy required and the life of the component.."'_ \L. .� _ . This step._ . increases the number of on-off switchings per unit time and reduces the useful life of the component. Such output oscillation between two limits is a typical response characteristic of a system that is under two-position control. For each control ac­ tion. In what follows. 1 M. In addition to two­ position or on-off control action. integral. _ /' _1 _ / Differential ga p o Figure 10-11 Head-versus-time curve of the system shown in Figure 10-10. "" . . the output of the controller.r ll V moves continuously between the two limits required. Proportional./. 1 0-3 Automatic Controllers Differential gap M. . we see that the amplitude of the output oscillation can be reduced by decreasing the differential gap.� . 111 Figure 10-9 Block diagram of a two­ position controller with a differential gap. 'tJ---o --�.C 'oL..l. . however. M(s). /\7"1: V ---..

and �I is the derivative time. proportional-plus-integral control action.( l + T" s) � s G. where Kp is termed the proportiollal gain.(s) � --. Finally.. Referring to the controller shown in Figure 10-12. the relationship betwcen M(s) and £(s) is M(s) £( s) � G. 1 0 M(s) Figure 10-12 Block diagram of a conlroller.s ) 1 where K" is the proportional gain and �I is a constant called the derivative lime. M(s) and £(s) are related by M(s) s £( ) where Kp is the proportional gain and T. For integral control action. for proportional control action. + ) T" s ( 1 0-2) . for proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative control action. M(s) and £(s) are related by where Kp is the proportional gain. T. and proportional-plus-integral-plus-de­ rivative control action. For proportional-plus-integral control action. M(s) and £(s) are related by M ( s) . is a constant called the integral time. M(s) and £(s) are related by M(s) ( £( s) � G.. PI D controllers are used frequently in industri­ al control systems. ( s) of the PID controller is G. s) � Kp M(s)/£(s) for proportional control action.. proportional-plus-derivative control action. Electronic PID controllers. Ki where Ki is called the inlegral gain. ( ) � Kp I + ( .(s) � K. ( s) � Kp 1 + ( . T. Since the transfer function G. £( s ) � G. For proportional-plus-derivative control action.. is the integral time.504 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.

In actual prD controllers..--. then the output l11(t) from the controller is given by T" de(t) l11 ( t ) = Kp e(t) + Constants Kp.. .:c R2..:. --.:c s + I Z2 = C2 s z. c. . we adjust Ei(S) ZI where C2 _ .. The proportional band is proportional to 1/ K p and is expressed in percent. (For example. 1 0-3 Automatic Controllers 505 if e(t) is the input to the PID controller.:=.I and Kd become controller parameters. -� . R2 z.J + E(s) + EJs) Figure 10-13 Electronic PID controller. Equation ( 1 0-2) can also be written as (10-3) [ �1' e(t) dt + � -00 dr 1 where Kp = proportional gain Ki = KpiT. 25 % proportional band corresponds to Kp 4. instead of adjusting the proportional gain. Ei(S) L __ R : c _.(5) is given by £( s ) Z2 = I n this case.) Figure 1 0-13 shows an electronic PID controller that uses operational ampli­ fiers.. integral gain K(I KpTd = derivative gain = = the proportional band. KPI K. T" and T" are the controller parameters. The transfer function £(5)/ £.Sec. . C2 ' .

We begin with an analysis of the proportional control of a first-order system. + R2 C2 S Hence. R. 1 0 Noting that we have Eo(s) E(s) -.C.C2 R.(R. In addition to electronic controllers. High-pressure hydraulic systems enable very large forces to be derived. and derivative gain. + R2 C2 ) R3R. K = R3 " Kp = Notice that the second operational-amplifier circuit acts as a sign inverter as well as a gain adjuster. -=. we have R. Hydraulic controllers. Frequently.506 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. C2 . C. integral gain. + R2 C2 R. hydraulic con­ trollers are used extensively in industry. we treat the transient-response analysis of control systems and the effects of integral and derivative control actions on the transient-response perfor­ mance.R2 C.-E(s) Ei(s) R. + R2C In terms of the proportional gain. Moreover.(R. R. K = -=-= � R3R. after which we describe the effects of integral and derivative control actions on the . 1 0-4 TRANSIENT-RESPONSE ANALYSIS In this section.C. R 2C2 I.R2C2 R. + R2 C2 ) R3R. C2 Ti = R . these systems permit a rapid and accurate positioning of loads. C.'---' ::. = -=. a combination of dectronic and hydraulic systems is found because of the advantages resulting from a mixture of both electronic con­ trol and hydraulic power.C.C.':::-'' 2 C. 1 ( 1 0-4) Kp = R.

we must insert a feedback transfer function Kb in the feedback path. H. Q. a change in the reference input is made from X to X + t Assume that all the variables shown in the dia­ gram-x. Then. . Assume also that the magnitudes of the variables ... To simplify our analysis. ii. (Otherwise. At r = 0. qi.(s) = KpK. Equation ( 1 0-7) becomes Q. so that they can be compared directly. and '10 are sufficiently small. Referring to Section 7-2.£(s) A block diagram of this system appears in Figure 10-15(a). and Q. J !L 1-/ + 11 j C R Q + q.) A simplified block diagram is given in Figure 10.+ h = Rq· ' dr (10-5) [See Equation (7-4). Then we present the proportional control of a system with an inertia load and illustrate the fact that adding derivative control action markedly improves the transient performance. . the following equation for the liquid-level system can be derived: .\" 11). or - ( 1 0-7) where Kp is the gain of the proportional controller. In terms of Laplace-transformed quantities. we assume that x and h are the same kind of signal with the same units. Suppose also that the reference input to the system is X .(s) is found to be H(s) Q. Liquid-level conlroi dil RC.] So the transfer function between H(s) and Q.1 5(b).Sec. and C/o-are measured from their respective steady-state values X. we assume that the gain Kv of the control valve is constant near the steady­ state operating condition. Suppose that the controller in the liquid-level control system of Figure 10-14 is a proportional controller. Proportional control of first-order system . 1 0-4 Transient-Response Analysis 507 }( + X transient performance of the system.(s) R RCs + 1 ( 1 0-6) Here. Figure 10--1 4 system. where K = KpK . which means that the system can be approximated by a linear mathematical model. the change in inflow rale fJi is proportional to the actuating error e (when:: e = .t. h. since the controller is a proportional one. q.

-=-:: -: .: . we see that.:. (b) simplified block diagram. The response curve h(l) is plotted against I in Figure 10-16. The closed-loop transfer function between H(s) and Xes) is given by I-I(s) Xes) KR RCs + 1 + KR (10-8) = Since the Laplace transform of the unit-step function is 1/s. or . Next. ) 1 . as I approaches infinity.: 0 (10-10) where RC = 1 + KR Notice that the time constant TJ of the closed-loop system is different from the time constant RC of the liquid-level system alone. substituting X(s) into Equation ( 1 0-8) gives H (s) . 1 0 (a) Figure 10-15 __ X(S) (a) Block dia­ gram of the liquid-level control system shown in Figure 10--14.:. From Equation ( 1 0-10).. ) H. we investigate the response h(l) to a change in the reference input. ----.. We shall assume a unit-step change in x(t). .-- 1 /s 1 KR RCs + 1 + K R s Then the expansion of H(s) into partial fractions results in H( s ) 1 KR 1 = 1 + KR :..-R I'K I t Res + I (b) L _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ r.. by taking the inverse Laplace transforms of both sides of Equation (10-9). the value of h(l) approaches KR/(1 + KR). @--0.-JI ' ( .s + [(l + KR)/RC] { Next.508 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.--:-: :c -. we obtain the time solution h (t) = } (10-9) KR 1 ( 1 + KR TJ _ e-tIT.

Such an offset can be eliminated if integral control action is included in the controller... 1 0-4 h(l) Tra nsient-Response Analysis I Input X{l) Offset 509 KR 1 + KR t . 1 .. the feed-forward transfer function does not involve an integrator or integra­ tors).. � � . The control signal met) can have a nonzero value when the actuating error signal e(t) is zero.. since a nonzero control signal requires a nonzero actuating error signal. as Figure 10-17(a) shows.. (A nonzero actuating error signal at steady state means that there is an offse!.) Figure 1O-17(b) shows the curve of e(t) versus t and the corresponding curve of met) versus t when the controller is of the proportion­ al type.. h ( oo ) = KR 1 + KR Since x( (0) = 1 . o � m(l) l .. C= __ � __ � __ o o '""=-"' Figure 10-17 (<I) Error curve and control signal curve for a system that uses an integral con­ troller: (b) error cun'e and control signal curve for a system that uses a proportional controller. 4T[ 6T. in the response to a step input. e(I) o m(l) Lc=:-:(a) � e(I) .. (b) .. Under integral control action. Such an error is called offset. The value of offset becomes smaller as the gain K becomes larger.Sec. Eliminating offset by the use of integral control..- ---- h(l) 0 2T.. This situation is impossible in the case of the proportional controller. Figure 10-16 Unit-step response curve for the system shown in Figure \O-lS(b).. the control signal (the output signal from the controller) at any instant is the area under the actuating-error-signaI curve up to that instant.. there is a steady-state error of magnitude 1/(1 + KR).. there is a steady-state error. In the proportional control of a plant whose transfer function does not possess an integrator lis (and thus. or offset.

. it may lead to an oscillatory response of slow­ ly decreasing amplitude or even increasing amplitude.H Cs) XCs) . and (2. Note that integral control action improves steady-state accuracy by removing offset. 1 0 x+x Q + Cfi --- ==t>l<>==� I + �R (a) . We assume that the controller is an integral one . the closeLl-loop lrans­ fer function between H(s) and Xes) is HCs) Xes) KR Res' + s + KR Res' + s Res' + s + K R It follows that Since the system is stable._ Figure 10--18 (a) Liquid-level control system: (b) block diagram. Integral control of a liquid-level system. . (2. We also as­ sume that the variables x. However. both of which are undesirable. . the steady-state error ess for the unit-step response can be obtained by applying the final-value theorem: £(s) Xes) X Cs) . are small quantities. Figure 10-18(a) shows a liquid­ level control system. the system can be considered linear. or steady-state error. H. the block diagram of the system can be obtained as shown in Figure l0-18(b). and qo: which are measured from their respective steady-state values X. .510 Time-Domain Analysis a n d Design of Control Systems C ha p . Under these assumptions. qil h. X(s) ��L-__�__ (b) _(S) H _ . therefore. From this diagram.

This is an important improvement over proportional control alone. C(s) T(s) is' The diagram of Figure 1O-19(a) can be redrawn as shown in Figure 1O-19(b). provides a means of obtaining high sensitivity. Derivative control action. becomes . the use of proportional-plus­ integral control action will enable the transient response to decay faster. Its output is a torque signal T. An advantage of using derivative control action is that it responds to the rate of change of the actuat­ ing error and can produce a significant correction before the magnitude of the actu­ ating error becomes too large. Before considering the effect of derivative control action on a system 's performance.-'--­ � . Derivative control action. initiates an early corrective action. In the position control system of Figure 10. Derivative control thus anticipates the actuating error. let us discuss the proportional control of an inertia load. the box with the transfer function K" represents a proportional controller. when added to a pro­ portional controller. In fact. It is always used in combination with proportional or proportional-plus-integral con­ trol action.Sec.-0 lim sEes) Integral control of the liquid-level system thus eliminates the steady-state error in the response to the step input. the closed-loop transfer function is . Note that proportional-plus-integral control action gives just as good a steady­ state accuracy as integral control action alone. assummg zero initial conditions. this mode is never used alone. Although derivative control does not affect the steady-state error directly. From this diagram. because derivative control operates on the rate of change of the actuating error and not on the actuating error itself. which is applied to an inertia element (rotor) 1. For the inertia element. a factor that yields an improvement in steady-state accuracy. Notice that. Proportional control of a system with inertia load. 10-4 Transient-Response Analysis e" = 51' s( RCs' + s) 1 ..1 9(a).-0 RCs' + s + K R s =0 . and tends to increase the stability of the system. = lIm . The output of the system is the angu­ lar displacement c of the inertia element.Is'C(s) = }(3 = T T(s) 1 Hence. we have The Laplace transform of this last equation. it adds damping to the system and therefore permits the use of a larger value of the system gain. which gives offset. thereby improving steady-state accuracy.

Derivative coo­ trol action is essentially anticipatory. the response to a unit-step input continues to oscillate indefinitely. measuring the instantaneous error velocity and predicting the large overshoot ahead of time in order to produce an appropriate counteraction before too large an overshoot occurs. (c) unit-step response curve. 1 0 R(s) -+ � (S) - (0) K I' C(s) (b) C(I) Figure 10-19 (a) Position con­ trol system. (b) block diagram. o (c) C(s) R(s) Kp ' + Kp Is Since the roots of the characteristic equation is ' + Kp = 0 are imaginary. Let us modify the proportional controller to a proportional-plus-derivative controller whose transfer function is Kp ( l + T" s) . Proportional-plus-derivative control of a system with inertia load. We shall see that the addition of derivative control will stabilize the system.512 Time-Doma i n A na lysis a n d Design of Control Systems Chap. as shown in Figure 1O-19(c). the closed-loop transfer function is given by . The torque developed by the controller is proportional to Kp(e + �/e). For the system shown in Figure 1O-20(a). where e is the actuating error signal. Control systems exhibiting such sustained oscillations are not acceptable.

C(s) R(s) is' + KpTds + Kp = 0 now has two roots with negative real parts.Sec. Thus. shown in Figure 1O-19(c). because the values of i. Then the response characteris­ tics can be easily compared.) The transient response of a system to a unit-step input depends on initial con­ ditions. Kin and Td are positive. the transient-response characteristics constitute one of the most important factors in system design. it is mathematically possible to compute the system ' s response to any input. Frequently. the desired performance characteristics of control sys­ tems can be given in terms of transient-response specifications. 10-5 Transient-Response Specifications C(s) 513 " '}' o (a) IL (b) Figure 10-20 ( a ) Block dia­ gram of a position control system that uses a proportional-plus­ derivative controller. (If the response of a linear system to a step input is known. it is common practice to use a standard initial condition: The system is at rest initially. since such an input is easy to generate and is sufficiently drastic. (b) unit­ step response curve. For convenience in comparing the transient responses of various systems. derivative control action introduces a damping effect. 1 0-5 TRANSIENT-RESPONSE SPECIFICATIONS The characteristic equation Because systems that store energy cannot respond instantaneously. such per­ formance characteristics are specified in terms of the transient response to a unit-step input. Clearly. I n many practical cases. with its output and all time derivatives thereof zero. they exhibit a transient response when they are subjected to inputs or disturbances. the response curve is a marked improvement over the original response curve. . Consequently. A typical response curve C(I) to a unit-step input is presented in Figure 1O-20(b).

I n specifying the transient·response characteristics of a control system t o a unit-step input. 5% to 95%. Rise time.9 Allowable tolerance ��L 1 -- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 . Mp Settling time.- 0.-. fp Maximum overshoot. is the time required for the response to rise from 10% to 90%.0 0.. Delay time.5 0. Peak time.-. t. For overdamped sys­ tems. 5. If c ( oo ) = 1 . These specifications are defined next and are shown graphically in Figure 10-21 . 0. 3. f" Rise time. Delay time. or 0% to 100% of its final value. 4.---.02 -------. The rise time t. the 0% to 100% rise time is normally used. For underdamped sec­ ond-order systems. the maximum percent overshoot is Mp X 100%. The peak time fp is the time required for the response to reach the first peak of the overshoot. ----�. Maximum (percent) overshoot. 1.1 O ����_+----_+--� f-----t. it is common to name the following: 2.514 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems C hap . Th e transient response of a practical control system often exhibits damped oscillations before reaching a steady state. measured from c(oo).j Figure 10-21 Transient-response specif ications. The delay time fd i s the time needed for the response t o reach half the final value the very first time. Peak time.. If the final cCt) 1. . f. the 10% to 90% rise time is common. 10 Transient-response specifications. The maximum overshoot Mp is the maxi­ mum peak value of the response curve [the curve of c(t) versus fl.

11le position control system (servo system) shown in Figure 1O-23(a) consists of a proportional controller and load elements (inertia and viscous-friction elements).5 These points fIre specified. we use the 2% criterion. is used as the percentage of the final value. for an overdamped system. response remains within this strip.Sec. Settling time. we find that Js'C(s) c(r) + bsC(s) = T(s) For ( > 15. 5%. . 1. If we specify the values of rd.0 �/ f/// /t( ((((((/// // /I / J_ 0. Figure 10-22 Specifications of transient-response curve. In some cases. tn lp. . IS) and MPI the shape of the response curve is virtually fixed. For instance. Note that not all these specifications necessarily apply to any given case. the terms peak titHe and maximum overshoot do not apply. Position control system. 111e settling time I. The equation for the load elements is Jc + be = Comments. then it is common prac­ tice to use the following definition of the maximum percenl overshoot: maximum percent overshoot = C(lp) . is the time required for the response curve to reach and stay within 2% of the final value. whose gain constant is K. however. Throughout this book. instead of 2%. 1 0-5 Transient-Response Specifications 515 steady-state value c ( 00) of the response differs from unity.e amount of the maximum (percent) overshoot directly indicates the relative sta­ bility of the system.02 0. The settling time is related to the largest time constant of the system. T where T is the torque produced by the proportional controller. Suppose that we wish to control the output position C in accordance with the input position r. assuming zero ini­ tial conditions. o �--���----�--_ r. 111is fact can be seen clearly from Figure 1 0-22.c ( oo ) c( 00 ) X 100% 11. Taking Laplace transforms of both sides of this last equation.

(b) block diagram: (c) block diagram of a second-order system in standard form.516 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap..e closed-loop transfer function is then C(s) = ls2 R(s) or K + bs + K Kjl S2 + ( bj. = S2 + 2Cw"s + w. 10 T c J l'J (a) C(s) (b) C(s) (c) (a) Position control system.! )s + ( Kjl) C(s) R(s) w. Figure 1O-23(a) can be redrawn as shown in Figure 1O-23(b).. Figure 10-23 So the transfer function between C(s) and T(s) is C(s) T(s) s( is + b) 1 With the use of this transfer function. TI. ( 10-1 1 ) .

Except in cer­ tain applications in which oscillations cannot be tolerated. Later we shall see that the maximum overshoot and the rise time conflict with each other.)2 + w.8) responds sluggishly..C - s i n Wdl + COS Wdl - ) (10-13) (10-14) A family of curves C(I) plotted against I with various values of C is shown in Figure 10-24.w.. Small values of C (C < 0. and a system with a large value of C (C > 0. it is preferable that the transient response be sufficiently fast as well as reasonably damped. 1 0-5 Transient-Response Specifications 517 where W 2 v KJ In terms of C and W.' (s + Cw. If one is made smaller. In other words. 111en C(s) = 2 S + 2(Wll5 + WI! S 2 C= n = fK V1 = undamped natural frequency _ � = b .1 cos wII 1 � or = 1 = (s + Cw.Sec..8.W" ' (h 1 . w� + 1 1 s where Wd s = S2 s+ w.. in order to get a desirable transient response for a second-order system.4 and 0. let us consider the unit-step response of this system when 0 < C < 1 ." the block diagram of Figure 10-23(b) can be redrawn as shown in Figure 10-23(c). dampmg ratI O . The curves are functions only of r A few comments on transient-response specifications. So.I sin wdl e-. where the abscissa is the dimensionless variable W"I.. . The inverse Laplace transform of Equation ( J O-12) gives C C(I) 1 e-" ". we have R(s) = 1/s. For a unit-step input. the other necessarily becomes larger.. the damping ratio l may be chosen between 0.�. (10-12) e-.)2 2Cw" ?rw 2 -� IIS + wII + W. Next.4) yield excessivc overshoot in the transient response. both the maximum overshoot and the rise time cannot be made smaller simultaneously.

Let us now obtain the rise time. 1 .{3 Wd (10-16) . Rise time t. These values will be derived in terms of .. we must have a large Wd.tan 1 Wd _ ( r. the rise time If is t.) = 1 Since e-(w"" '" = 1 - e-iw". = where {3 is defined in Figure 10-25.. . . We find the rise time I.) = 1 in Equation (10-13). to obtain a small value of .." sin wdl. and settling time of the second-order system given by Equation (10-11). maximum overshoot.518 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. + cos Wdl.-:---:::. Equation (10-15) yields . peak time. and w". � . SIn wdlr + cos wdtr = 0 vI _ or Thus. by letting c(t. Clearly. (b 1 . or e(t. The system is assumed to be underdamped.. ) (10-15) 0. 1 0 o 2 3 4 5 6 w"r 7 8 9 10 11 12 Figure 10-24 Unit-step response curves for the system shown in Figure 10-23{c). Second-order systems and transient-response specifications.

1 . Peak time I I'" de dt I t follows that or Since the peak time corresponds Then to the first peak overshoot. 1_{1 {h sin 7r + cos 7r ) ( 10-18) Since c(oo) . as shown in Figure 10-26. _e-iW"(�/W" = e -{r. the maximum percent overshoot is e-ir. SellUIIg time I.. Wt.i' x 100%. That is. C(lp) .. 1. The peak time tI' corresponds to one half-cycle of the frequency of damped oscillation. We obtain the peak time by differentiating crt) in Equation (10-13) with respect to time t and letting this derivative equal zero. is four times this time constant. ( 1 0-17) The maximum overshoot occurs at the peak time Mp . The settling time I. from Equation ( 1 0-13). [The curves 1 ± ( e-lw"I/ � ) are the envelope ClIrves of the transient response to a unit-step input. 'I' t . 7r/Wd' Thus. ­ Wd 7r h ave wt/lp = 'Tr. the transient response for a unit-step input is given by Equation ( 1 0-14).] The time constant of these envelope curves is 1/ Cw. For an underdamped second-order system. 1 0-5 Transient-Response Specifications jw 519 Figure 10--25 Definilion of angle (3. Notice that the re­ sponse curve c(r) always remains within a pair of the envelope curves.Sec./Vt .. or (10-19) . Maximum overshoot M p P .

then the maximum percent overshoot for a step response is between 25% and 2. To limit the maximum overshoot Mp and make the settling time small. and settling lime when the control system shown in Figure 10-28 is subjected to a unit-step input.5 for this system. maximum overshoot.5' � 0.4 and 0. Examplc W-2 Determine the rise time. without changing the maximum overshoot. it is clear that Wil must be large if we are to have a rapid response. by adjusting the undamped natural frequency w".. the damping ratio � should not be too small. The relationship between the maximum overshoot and the damping ratio is presented in Figure 10-27. = -­ w. the duration of the transient period can be varied. = 0.8./ VI - 0. Since the value of � is usually determined from the require­ ment of permissible maximum overshoot. In other words. From the preceding analysis./3 1. Note that if the damping ratio is between 0.I 520 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems c(t) �2 Chap. So w" � w.866 .-- �I e-{w. the rise time is 7T . Note that the settling time is inversely proportional to the undamped natural frequency of the system . peak time. Notice that Wn = 1 rad/s and .5%. 1 0 1 1+ _ - JI _ 1 .l _ " ° 1 1_ _ _ � 3T 4T Figure 10--26 Unit-step response curve and its envelope curves. � � Rise time tr: From Equation (10-16). the settling time is determined primarily by the undamped natural frequency w".

1. 1 -l/0..Sec.. I'-.05 fad.l 0..14 0.'-'---J where f3 = sin. 1 0-5 % Transient-Response Specifications 521 100 90 80 70 Mp \ \ C(s) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 \ \ \ MI': Maximum R(s) " l + 2�w..866 = e-1.05 � 2.:"-'-. � Ip 3. is ls = = e-O.n defined by Equation (10-19).866 � 3 . Maximum overshoot MfI: From Equation (I0-iS). t.63 s e-. 163 4 .866 Peak rillle 11': The peak time is given by Equation ( 1 0-17): tp � M.r5 w� ..t-.s X3. 1. the maximum overshoot is = Wd 7r � 3. overshoot + w� "'- 1'-.5 Figure 10-27 R(s) Curve relating maximum overshoot /\4p and damping ralio r C(s) � -y----.-0.L.'rr/� Settling rime ts: The settling time t.8! = 0.14 . = 1 .) X 1 = 8s .. lllerefore.41 s 0. 0.0 1.866 Figure 10-28 Control system.5 '-.-..

Some of the servo­ driver's features are point-lo-point positioning. There are many types of de motors in use in industries. Electronic motion controllers that use a pulse-width-modulated driver .) In the latter case. the de motor is called a field-co11lrolled de motor. The technique is called armature COlllro/ of de servomOlOrs. and word processors. Then we discuss a method for improving the damping characteristics of second-order systems through velocity feedback (also called tachometer feedback). (That is. Such de servomotors are called permallent­ magne( de servomotors. the magnetic flux is constant. is a serious disadvantage. the field windings may be connected in series with the armature. the magnetic field is produced by a permanent magnet.1l. we define system types and static error constants that are related to steady-state errors in the transient response. In de servomotors. D C motors that are used in servo systems are called dc servomotors. however. We showed that a small damping ratio will make the maximum overshoot in the step response large and the settling time large as well. tape drives. Next. and programmable acceleration. A de servomotor may also be driven by an electronic motion controller. Finally. and so on. can be controlled by the armature current. DC servomotors. the magnetic field is produced by a separate circuit. [n de servomo­ tors. numerically controlled milling machines. Some de servomotors have extremely small time constants. therefore. (Some speed control systems use field-controlled de motors.is section begins with the derivation of the transfer function of a servo sys­ tem that uses a dc servomotor.) The requirement of constant armature current. the rotor inertias have been made very small. In some de servomotors. with the result that motors with very high torque-to-inertia ratios are commercially available. the response of second-order systems to ramp inputs is considered. or the field windings may be separate from the armature. velocity profiling. where the field is excited separately. as well as permanent-magnet de servomotors. printers. We present a method for improving the steady-state behavior of a ramp response by means of proportional-plus-derivative control action. the magnetic flux is independent of the armature current.) The time constants of the field-controlled de motor are generally large compared with the time constants of a comparable armature-controlled dc motor. fre­ quently called a servodriver. fol­ lowed by another method for improving such steady-state behavior through the use of a proportional-plus-derivative type of prefilter. as a motor-driver combination. In the case where the armature current is maintained constant and the speed is controlled by the field voltage. Such features are generally unde­ sirable. we considered the step response of position control systems. DC servomotors with medium and large power ratings are used in robot systems. (Providing a constant current source is much more difficult than providing a constant voltage source. 1 0 1 0-6 IMPROVING TRANSIENT-RESPONSE A N D STEADY-STATE CHARACTERISTICS In Section 1 0-5.522 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. The servodriver controls the motion of the dc servomotor and operates in various modes. DC servomotors with relatively small power ratings are used in instruments and computer-related equipment such as disk drives. DC servomotors with separately excited fields.

The output voltage of this amplifier is applied to the armature circuit of the de motor. whose gain constant is K\. (The amplifier must - c . ec = e. 111e objective of this system is to control the position of the mechanical load in accor­ dance with the reference position.Sec. The command input signal deter­ mines the angular position r of the wiper arm of the input potentiometer.u is the error voltage. numerical control systems. In what follows we shall discuss a servo system that uses armature control of a de servomotor. The operation of the system is as follows: A pair of potentiometers acting as an error-measuring device converts the input and out­ put positions into proportional electric signals. e. The error voltage that appears at the potentiometer terminals is amplified by the amplifier. Consider the servo system shown in Figure 1 0-29(a). = Kor and ec = Koc. 1 0-6 Improving Transient-Response and Steady-State Characteristics 523 Reference input Input potentiometer Error-measuring device Amplifier (a) MOlor Gear train (b) Figure 10--29 (e) (a) Schematic diagram of servo system: (b) block diagram of the system. (e) simplified block diagram. that is. to control a de servomotor are frequently seen in robot control systems. The angular position r is the reference input to the system. The difference between the input angular position r and the output angular position c is the error signal e. where er is proportional to r and ec is proportional to c. A servo system. and other position or speed control systems. or e= r - The potential difference e. and the electric potential of the arm is proportional to the angular position of the arm. The output shaft position determines the angular position c of the wiper arm of the output potentiometer. where Ko is a propor­ tionality constant.

and gear train.(0 dt2 + bo.)(J0 5 + bo ) + K2K3 s ( 1 0-23) where 6(5) = X[O(t)] and £. K3 is the back-emf constant of the motor. Notice that if the sign of the current i" is reversed. load. and gear train.. The transfer function between the motor shaft displacement and the error voltage is obtained from Equa­ tions ( 1 0-21) and (10-22) as follows: s ( L"s + R. since it feeds into the armature circuit of the motor.e speed of an armature-controlled dc servomotor is controlled by the arma­ ture voltage ew (The armature voltage en Kiev is the output of the amplifier. When the armature is rotating. the motor develops a torque to rotate the output load in such a way as to reduce the error to zero. and bo is the viscous-friction coefficient of the combination of the motor. At the same time.. 11.. 1 0 have very high input impedance. referred to the motor shaft. .+ Rala + K3dt dt = Kle" ( 1 0-21 ) The equation for torque equilibrium is Jo - . the torque developed by the motor is where K2 is the motor torque constant and ia is the armature current. load. the induced voltage eb is directly proportional to the angular velocity dO/dt.524 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.) A fixed voltage is applied to the field winding. which will result in a reversal of the direction of rotor rotation. and 0 is the angu­ lar displacement of the motor shaft. because the potentiometers are essentially high­ impedance circuits and do not tolerate current drain. the amplifi­ er must have low output impedance. where eb is the back emf. ( 10-22) where Jo is the inertia of the combination of the motor. referred to the motor shaft. dO . We assume that the gear ratio of the gear train is such that the output shaft rotates n times for each revolution of the motor shaft..+ Ra1(/ + eb = ea dt or di.) The differential equation for the armature circuit is di. = L.. the sign of the torque T will be reversed.I·a - dO dt . La.(t)]. For a constant flux. For constant field current. C(5) = n6(s) ( 1 0-24) . Thus.= T = K.(5) = X[e. or (10-20) T = K2 i. a voltage proportional to the product of the flux and the angular velocity is induced in the armature. If an error exists.

and the motor acts as an ideal integrator. With small fo.----'"----' ----. R(s). -OC Js I = K :.I1/R" K..-:-:C ( s) = -./ Ra) are referred to the motor shaft.K. J E(s) e(s) £./Ra)J!n' = viscous-friction coefficient referred to the output shaft K = KoK[ KzlIlR" we can simplify the transfer function C(s) given by Equation (10-26) to C (s) = -.(s) ---. the motor time constant approaches zero. The inertia 10 and the viscous-friction coefficient bo + (K.) ( J + bo) + K. Tachometers.K3/ R. the inertia and viscous-friction coefficient are expressed in terms of the output shaft.K. and the transfer function in the feed­ forward path becomes :-.­ s[R.)Js indicates that the back emf of the motor effectively increases the viscous friction of the system.-. A dc tachometer is a generator that produces a voltage pro­ portional to its rotating speed.-- ( ) (10--26) The term [bo + (K.Sec.::. The transfer function in the feedforward path of this system is C (s) = . . it can be neglected.--:-:-. The block diagram of this system can be constructed from Equations (10-23). Introducing new parameters defined by fo/n' = moment of inertia referred to the output shaft b = [bo + (K.K. In Equation (10-27). it can be seen that the transfer func­ tions involve the term lis..-::: --" :-"-.11 C(s) e(s) E. The relationship among Ev(s). If the input to the .£[r(I)J.-.(f + bo) + K. and C(s) is Ev(s) = Ko[R(s) . and (10-25) as shown in Figure 10--29(b). fo s + bo + . as the resistance R" is reduced.K. this system possesses an integrating property.C(s)J = KoE(s) ( 10--2 5) where R(s) = . From Equations (10-26) and (10-27).J os KoK[ K.Kj Ra) are multiplied by l/n'. When fo and bo + (K.-= --. + bs (10--2 7) The block diagram of the system shown in Figure 1O-29(b) can thus be simplified as shown in Figure 10--2 9(c). (10-24).-: ---:'.£[c(t)] and c(t) is the angular displacement of the output shaft. 1 0-6 Improving Transient-Response and Steady-State Characteristics 525 where C(s) = . converting the ve­ locity of the rotating shaft into a proportional dc voltage.K.-- Since L" is usually small. the time constant fib of the motor becomes smaller for a small­ er Ra and smaller 10. Thus..(s) KoK[K..11 --.os s[( L" s + R.s R" KoK[K.. 11le device is used as a transducer.

so Chap. + bs + K Is2 e" � � To ensure the small steady-state error for the ramp response. R(s) 1 Is' + bs .� E(s) R(s) R(s) . However.. we h ave R(s) obtained as � � I _ C( s) R(s) � ___ Is + bs _'_ _ ----. some means of improving steady-state error for the ramp response without adversely affecting transient-response behavior is necessary.� - .-0 Js2 + bs + K s' s' (1s + b) . the value of K must be large and the value of b small.92 N-m YKji.218 5 Steady-state error in ramp responses..� � £(s) - K I s(Js + b) C(s) Figure 10-31 Block diagram of a position control system with a propor­ tional controller. In such a ramp response. result in undesirable transient­ response characteristics. we have . Consequently. The transient response of this sys­ tem when it is subjected to a ramp input can be found by a straightforward method. in general. a large value of K and a small value of b will make the damping ratio � small and will. the steady-state error for a ramp response must be small.---..-o s'(Is' + bs + K ) lim sE(s) � lim S --c . � 24. Consider the system shown in Figure 10-31. we shall examine the steady-state error when the system is subjected to such an input. From the block diagram. Two such means are discussed next. Position control systems may be sub­ jected to changing inputs that can be approximated by a series of piecewise ramp in­ puts. In the present analysis.ram p i np u t r(l) � I. b hm K .-0 .528 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems � The undamped natural frequency w" i s cqual to VK/J K � 2w. . 1 0 K" is then obtained from Equation ( 1 0-28) as K" � 2 VKl? K - I � 0.C(s) R(s) The steady-state error for the unit-ramp response can be obtained as follows: For a I/s 2 The steady-state error e" is then unit.

E(s) R(s) R(s) = C(s) R(s) - For a unit-ramp input. So it follows that E(s) = --c.4 and 0.Sec. R(s) = 1/5' . . A com­ promise between acceptable transient-response behavior and acceptable steady­ state behavior can be achieved through proportional-plus-derivative control action. e = hm sEts) = hm s s-o is ' " s-o + is' + bs 1 ( b + Kd)S + Kp . For the system shown in Figure 1 0-32. .8.Is' + (b The effective damping of this system is thus b + Kd rather than b. Since the damp­ ing ratio ? of this system is + Kd)S + Kp = 0 it is possible to have both a small steady-state error e" for a ramp response and a reasonable damping ratio by making b small and Kp large and choosing Kd large enough so that ? is between 0. the closed-loop transfer function is C ( s) R(s) ( 10-29) Therefore. Figure 10-32 Proportional-plus-derivative control of second-order systems. - Js' + bs 1 is' + ( b + Kd)S + Kp s' The steady-state error for a unit-ramp response is .-2 - - b Kp The characteristic equation is . 1 0-6 I mproving Transient-Response and Steady-State Characteristics 529 R(s) -� Kp + K(/s s(Js 1 + C(s) b) Block diagram of a position control system with a proportional­ plus-derivative controller.---.

as shown in Figure 10-34.0 1. 2 w. and if the value of k is properly set.8 1 . C(s) 1« s) ( 1 + ks)K is' + bs + K 2..5 and various values of zjtw" are shown in Figure 10-33. 10 Let us examine the unit-step response of this system. If we define wn ::::..5. Second-order systems with a proportional-plus-derivative type of pre­ w� s = ( 1 Z) s' + 2tw"s + w� R(s) Notice that if a zero s = is located near the closed-loop poles. From these curves. we see that proportional­ plus-derivative control action will make the rise time smaller and the maximum overshoot larger. t.530 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.5) 5 6 7 8 .2 0 / /II I '/II � ��� � 0 ' / � \ <} V � � "-.4 Figure 10-33 Unit-step response Ji!'1 / V r II 0- 0. the transient­ then Equation (10-29) can be written in terms of w. and z as C(s) + -z fK" \/i' The steady-state error for the ramp response can be eliminated if the input is introduced to the system through a proportional-pius-derivative type of prefilter.2 ell) 1. The transfer function C(s)/R(s) for this system is filter..0 0.6 1 .4 1 . response behavior differs considerably from that of a second-order system without a zero.8 0. CJ( = � 3 curves for the system shown in Figure 10-32 with the damping ratio C equal to 0. Typical step-response curves of this system with t = 0.6 0./ 4 « = �WII 0.

Sec.-0 lim sEes) So if we choose � 1S2 + (b Kk)s 1 2 + bs + K s2 . in fact. I! is worthwhile pointing out that the block diagram of a system with a pro­ portional-pius-derivative controller shown in Figure 10-32 can be redrawn as in Figure 10-35. 1 0-6 Improving Transient-Response and Steady-State Characteristics R(s) 531 Figure 10-34 Block diagram of a position control system with a propor­ tional-pius-derivative type of prefilter.) Figure 10-35 Modified block diagram of the system shown in Figure 10-32. Once the value of K is determined. From this diagram. blK is a constant and the value of k � blK becomes constant. a combination of a prefilter and velocity feedback in which the values of both k and K" are chosen to be K"I K".) q. the difference between R(s) and C(s) is E(s) � R(s) . it can be seen that the proportional-plus-derivative controller is.-0 1s lim s b . Given the values of 1 and b. k � � R(. The use of such a prefilter eliminates the steady-state error for a ramp response. .C(s) � 1S2 1s2 + bs + K - + (b � [I - C(s) R(S) R(s) R(s) j - Kk)s The steady-state error [or a ramp response is e" � . Therefore. Note that the transient response of this system to a unit-step input will exhibit a smaller rise time and a larger maximum overshoot than the corresponding system without the prefilter will show.Kk K � K the steady-state error for the ramp response can be made equal to zero. the value of K is normally determined from the requirement that w" VKjJ.

and coulomb friction. as well as by the relative magnitudes of the residues evaluated at the closed-loop poles. parabolic inputs.. (The only way we may be able to eliminate this error is to modify the structure of the system. the values of k and K" can be chosen independently of each other. Dominant closed-loop poles.. the dominant ones are the 1110st important. ( 10-30) s (T. and a computer approach to obtaining the response curve becomes necessary. The magnitudes of the residues depend on both the closed-loop poles and zeros. Thus far. ramp inputs. TIle magnitudes of the steady-state crrors due to these individual inputs are indicative of the accuracy of the system. Quite often. Higher order systems involve more than two closed-loop poles. so that the response of the system is dominated by that pair of complex-conjugate c1osed­ loop poles. 1 0 If the prefilter and velocity feedback are provided separately. The gain of a higher order system is often adjusted so that there will exist a pair of dominant complex-conjugate closed-loop poles. The presence of such poles in a stable system reduces the effect of such nonlinearities as dead zone.532 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. backlash. Classification of control systems.) Control systems may be classified according to their ability to follow step inputs. A proper choice of these values may enable the engineer to compromise between acceptable steady-state error for the ramp response and acceptable transient-response behavior to the step input. Those closed-loop poles which have dominant effects on the transient-response behavior are called dominant closed-loop poles. The relative dominance of closed-loop poles is determined by the ratio of the real parts of those poles. Higher order systems. System types. but may exhibit nonzero steady-state error to a ramp input. then the closed-loop poles nearest the jw-axis will dominate in the transient-response behav­ ior. A well-designed higher order system may have a pair of complex-conjugate closed-loop poles that are located to the right of all other closed-loop poles. This is a reasonable classification scheme because actual inputs may frequently be considered combinations of such inputs.s + 1 )( T2s + l ) · · · ( Tps + 1 ) . If the ratios of the real parts exceed 5 and there are no zeros nearby. A system may have no steady-state error to a step input. and so on. Since all closed-loop poles more or less contribute to the tran­ sient response of such systems. Any physical control system inherently suffers steady-state errors in response to certain types of inputs. Among all closed-loop poles. because these poles correspond to transient-response terms that decay slowly. we have discussed the transient-response analysis of second-order systems. Consider the unity-feedback control system with the following open-loop transfer function G(s ) : K ( T" s + l ) ( TbS + 1 ) · · · ( T.s + 1 ) G(s) = ". analytical expressions of the output become very complicated. the dominant c1osed­ loop poles occur in the form of a complex-conjugate pair.

Sec. . The present classification scheme is based on the number of integrations indicated by the open-loop transfer function. m . The closed-loop transfer function is C(s) R(s) The transfer function between the error signal e(t) and the input signal r(t) is E( s) 1 C( s) J _ = __ = _ _ --= -::-:R( s ) R(s) -:-+ G ( s ) 1- = G(s) 1 + G(s) where the error e(t) is the difference between the input signal and the output signal."FiJ. Note that this classification is different from that of the order of a system. increasing the type number aggravates the stability problem. We shall see later that. the smaller is the steady-state error.:urc 10-36 C(s) Control system. . . however. . N = 2. The final-value theorem provides a convenient way to find the steady-state performance of a stable system. A compromise between steady-state accuracy and relative stability is always necessary. = Steady-state errors in the transient response. In practice. Next. A system is called type 0. -0 1 + G(s) The static effor constants defined next are figures of merit of control systems. except the term s N . type 2. the steady-state error is e" = .---.::-. 1 0-6 1mproving Transient-Response and Steady-State Characteristics 533 This transfer function involves the term s N in the denominator. we present a systematic discussion of steady-state errors in the transient response. . N = 1.. In a given system. then the open-loop gain K is directly related to the steady-state error. because we find it generally difficult to design stable systems having more than two integrations in the feedforward path. representing a pole of multiplicity N at the origin. . Consider the system shown in Figure 1 0-36.".R ( s ) --:::-:J 1 + G(s) 0 = t-OO lim e(r) = lim s E(s) 5- sR (s) ". the � � � G(s) i---r'. We have discussed steady-state errors in step and ramp responses both in Section 10-4 and in the cur­ rent section. if N 0. accuracy is improved. The higher the constants. . type 1. Since E(s) = if the system is stable. . if G(s) is written so that each term in the numerator and denominator.'---' -:­ . it is rather exceptional to have type 3 or higher systems. respectively. As the type number is increased. approaches unity as 5 approaches zero. .-..-:.

-o s' (TIs + l ) ( T zs + 1 ) · · · for N '" 1 1 + K for type 0 systems for type 1 or higher systems 0 The foregoing analysis indicates that the response of the feedback control sys­ tem shown in Figure 10-36 to a step input involves a steady-state error if there is no integration in the feedforward path. Therefore." and so on. (If small errors for step inputs can be tolerated. it is difficult to obtain reasonable relative stability. This means that. "velocity" represents the rate of change of the output temperature. Kp is infinite. .'": '--K T" + 1 )-. in what follows.. = For a type 1 or higher system. the physical form of the outpul is immaterial to the present analysis. we shall call the output "position. I1m s 1 + C(s) s . 1 0 output may be position.-0 lim T . If the gain K is too large.-0 Thus. provided that the gain K is sufficiently large. For a unit-step input. _ (:-.s_ ". temperature. . the type of the system must be 1 or higher. Figure 10-36 for a unit-step input is Static position error constant Kp" The steady-state error of the system of ess = 11. for a type 0 system. velocity.) If zero steady-state error for a step input is desired. the steady-state error ess may be summarized as follows: ess = 1 ess = .-:-:1 + C ( O) .534 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap." the rate of change of the output "velocity.:. KI. and so on..-0 1 .:: _ . pressure. the steady-state error in terms of the static position error constant Kp is given by 1 For a type 0 system. while for a type 1 or higher system. "position" represents the out­ put temperature.e static position error constant Kp is defined by Kp = lim C ( s ) = C(O) 1 = -:--= -. however."_ -cc :c S _ _ ( TIs + 1 )(T 2s + 1) · · · K Hence. K(T "s + 1 ) ( T bS + 1 ) ' " = 00 Kp = Itm '1\ ' .. then a type 0 system is permissible.: b_+ 1 )_ ' . in a temperature control system.( . or the like. the static position error constant Kp is finite.

-0 . are obtained as follows: For a type 0 system. sK ( T" s + 1 ) ( TbS + 1 ) · · = K The steady-state error ess for the unit-ramp input can be summarized as follows: e 5S bs + 1 ) · · · s K ( T"s + I ) ( T . is defined by .= ­ Kv K e" = 1 I ( = O for type 1 systems for Iype 2 or higher systems . not in velocity. the output velocity is exact­ ly the same as the input velocity.Sec. . TI. velocity error is an error. = For a type 2 or higher system. In steady-state operation. = Itm = 00 N '-'0 s (TIS + I ) ( Tzs + 1 ) · 1 = . K. . That is. is given by e" l i y error constant . s K ( T"s + 1 ) ( T bS + 1 ) · · · (TIs + 1 ) ( T 2S + 1 ) · · · It m = 0 For a type l system. The steady-state error of the system of Figure 1 0-36 with a unit-ramp input is given by e" = 1 --' 5-0 1 + G( 5 ) s- Imp raving Transient-Respanse and Steady-State Characteristics 535 lim . = .-0 s(Tls + 1 ) ( T 2S + 1 ) · · · Itm . The term velocily error is lIsed here to express the steady-state error for a ramp input.= 00 Kv for N 2: 2 for type 0 systems 1 1 ess = . The dimension af the velocity error is the same as that of the system error. -0 lim sG(s) = ­ 1 K. The foregoing analysis indicates that a type 0 system is incapable of following a ramp input in the steady state. but there is a positional error that is proportional to . but in position due to a ramp input.e type 1 system with unity feedback can follow the ramp input with a finite error..-osG(s) iIm -­ = 1 Kv K. s The static ve oc t TIlUS. the steady-state errar in terms of the static velocity error constant K. 10-6 Static velacity error constant K. The values af K. K. K .

The values of Ka are obtained as follows: For a type 0 system. . Static acceleration error constant Kao 111e steady-state error of the sys­ tem of Figure 1 0-36 with a unit-parabolic input (an acceleration input) defined by r(l) = "2 = 0 12 for t < 0 1 . + G(s) . 3 1 � - for I 2: 0 is given by = The sialic acceleration error constant Ka is defined by Ihe equation . =0 . 0 the velocity of the input and inversely proportional 10 the gain K..2G( s ) The steady-state error is then Note thai the acceleralion error-the steady-state error due to a parabolic input-is an error in position..-0 - lim .. The type 2 or higher system can follow a ramp input with zero error at steady slate.536 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.(I) C(/) 10 Figure 10-37 Response o f a type 1 unityfeedback system 10 il ramp input. Figure 10-37 is an example of the response of a Iype 1 system with unily feedback to a ramp input.

Summary. A finite velocity error implies that. The type 3 or higher sys­ tem with unity feedback follows a parabolic input with zero error at steady statc.(I) C(I) I m p roving Tra nsient·Response and Steady·State Characteristics 537 o Figure 10-38 Response of a type 2 unity­ feedback system to a parabolic input. the steady-state error for the unit parabolic input is ess = 00 For a type 3 or higher system. The finite values for steady-state errors appear on the diagonal linc.s + l )( T. · K{/ = lim 2 = K .-0 s ' (T. and acceleration error indicate steady-state deviations in the output position.�O s(T. below the diagonal. . s'K ( Tas + l ) ( Tbs + 1 ) . and type 2 unity-feedback systems subjected to various inputs. Kn = 11m 'II! . . Table 1 0-2 summarizes the steady-state errors for type 0. s + l ) ( T. . s'K ( Tas + l ) ( Tbs + 1 ) · · · = 0 Ka = 11m . Figure 10-38 shows an example of the response of a type 2 system with unity feedback to a parabolic input. Thus. The type 2 system with unity feedback can follow a para­ bolic input with a finite error signal. Above the diagonal. velocity error. 10-6 . . they are zero.s + 1 ) · · · ess 1 for N "" 3 for type 0 and type 1 systems for type 2 systems for type 3 or higher systems = - K Note that both type 0 and type 1 systems are incapable of following a parabol­ ic input in the steady state.s + 1 ) · · · = 00 For a type 2 system.Sec. . Remember that the terms position error. the steady-state errors are infinity. For a type 1 system.-0 s ( T. after transients have died out. s'K( T" s + I ) ( Tbs + 1 ) . type 1 . the input and output move at the same velocity.s + l ) ( T. s + 1 ) · · · . . but have a finite position difference.

TllltS. Tile stability of a linear c1osed­ loop system can be determined from the location of the closed-loop poles in the s­ plane. If any of these poles lie in t he right-half s-planc. hm s s-o s (1 s + b) b ess = . then. . To improve the steady-state performance. these constants are indicative of the steady-state performance of the system. introduces an additional stability problem. The design of a satisfacto­ ry system with morc than two integrators in series in the feedfofward path is gener­ ally difficult. using the SIalic velocity error constant Kw For the system of Figure 10-3 1 . with increasing time. Stability analysis in the complex plane. where K i s defined in Equation Type 0 system Type 1 system Type 2 system Step Input r(r ) = 1 -- Ramp Input ( 1 0-30) r(r) = r 1 1 + K Acceleration Input r(r) = !r 2 00 00 00 0 0 - I K 0 - 1 K The error constants Kp. = K . Example l� Obtain the steady-state error in the unit-ramp response or the system shown in Figure 1 0-3 1. K b 1 0-7 STABILITY ANALYSIS The most important question about the closed-loop control system is concerned with stability. the system must be stable. K. This. we can increase the type of the system by adding an integrator or integrators to the feed forward path.= ­ Kv K which is the same result as obtained earlier. It is generally desirable to increase the error constants. however. 10 Gain K. For any practical purpose. while maintaining the transient response within an acceptable range. K" and K" describe the ability of a unity-feedback system to reduce or eliminate steady-state error. stability analysis is most important in control systems analysis. Therefore.538 TABLE 10-2 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Steady-State Errors of Unity-Feedback Systems i n Terms of Chap.

that is. the system is not stable. enables us to determine the number of closed-loop poles that lie in the right­ half s-plane without having to factor the polynomial. or driving function. This criterion applies only to polynomials with a finite number of terms. Thus. any zero root has been removed.) The absolute stability of higher order systems can be examined easily with the use of Routh's stability criterion. In such a case. (Mathematically.-IS + + (I" b". but contribute only to steady-state response terms in the solution.Sec. then the system may eventually be damaged and fail. If no saturation takes place in the system and no mechanical stop is provided.-1 + 1 aos" + a.I S b". do not affect the stability of the system. Therefore. where noise is present. The locations of the roots of the characteristic equation (the denominator of the preceding equation) determine the stability of the closed-loop system. Most linear closed-loop control systems have closed-loop transfer functions of the form C(s) R(s) = bos"' where the a's and b's are constants and 111 S II. This is a necessary ( 1 0-31) 2. . there is no need to follow the proce­ dure further. and the transient response increases monoton­ ically or oscillates with increasing amplitude. the amplitude of oscillations may increase at a rate determined by the noise power level. the output may increase with time. a control system should not have closed-loop poles on the jw-axis. If all closed-loop poles lie to the left of the jw-axis. b s". Note that all the coefficients must be positive. as soon as the power is turned on. The procedure used in Routh's stability criterion is as follows: 1. since Ihe re­ sponse of a real physical system cannot increase indefinitely. known as ROlllil's Slability cri­ terion . including the jw-axis. any transient response eventual­ ly reaches equilibrium. of the system. closed-loop poles on the jw-axis will yield oscillations. Routh's stability criterion. For such a system. Whether a linear system is stable or unstable is a property of the system itself and does not depend on the input. Either of these motions represents an unstable system. Therefore. or driving function. Assume that all ¢ 0. If any of the coefficients are zero or negative in the presence of at least one positive coefficient. there is a root or roots that arc imaginary or that have pos­ itive real parts. closed-loop poles in the right-half s-plane are not permissible in the usual linear control system. 1 0-7 Stability Analysis 539 they give rise to the dominant mode. When Routh's stability criterion is applied to a control system. however. If we are n terested in i only the absolute stability of the system. the problem of absolute stability can be solved readily by choosing no closed-loop poles in the right-half s­ plane. the amplitude of which neither decays nor grows with time.s" 1 + + + + (In. = -- 8(s) A {s ) Write the polynomial in s in the following form: where the coefficients are real quantities. A simple criterion. information about the absolute stability of the system can be obtained directly from the coefficients of the characteristic equation. In practical cases. The poles of the input. This represents a stable system.

and so on. . That is. d's. b. It is important to note that the condition that all the coefficients be positive is not sufficient to assure stability. The product of any number of lin­ ear and quadratic factors containing only positive coefficients always yields a polynomial with positive coefficients. The nec­ essary. The factor (s2 + bs + c) yields roots having negative real parts only if b and c are both positive. e's.l 5'1-2 5. C. but not sufficient. such as ( s + a) and (S2 + bs + c). and the quadratic factors yield complex roots of the polynomi­ al. where a. are evaluated as follows: The evaluation of the b's is continued until the remaining ones are all zero. and c are real. condition for stability is that the coefficients of Equa­ tion (10-31) all be present and have a positive sign.. d. The coefficients bl > 1>" b3. and so on. and so on. in all factors must be positive. For all roots to have negative real parts.540 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. b . The linear factors yield real roots. c. If all of the coefficients of the polynomial are positive. The same pattern of cross multiplying the coefficients of the two previous rows is followed in evaluating the c's.3 S2 sl sO 511-4 ao al bl CI dl el II gl a2 a3 b2 c2 d2 e2 ". they can be made positive by multiplying both sides of the equation by . as b3 C3 d3 a6 a7 b. arrange the coefficients of the polynomial in rows and columns according to the following pattern: s" S" .1.) 3. the constants a. a s may b e seen from the following argument: A polynomial in s hav­ ing real coefficients can always be factored into linear and quadratic factors. 1 0 condition.. (If all a's are negative.

Note that. 5' s· The condition that all roots have negative real parts is given by Example 10-6 Consider the po l ynomi al . The first column of the array means the first numeri­ cal column. 1 0-7 Stability Analysis 541 and CI cIb3 .aOa3 a. only the signs are needed. a.-'-' -'.Sec. . an entire row may be divided or multiplied by a positive number in order to simplify the subsequent numerical calculation without altering the stability conclusion. The array of coefficients becomes a. where all the coefficients are positive numbers.bIC3 -" CI - ti. The finished array of coefficients is triangular. Example l()-S Let us apply Routh's stability criterion to the third·order polynomial aos3 + a[52 + "2S + a3 = 0 s' s. in developing the array. S. The process continues until the nth row has been completed. The necessary and sufficient condition that all roots of Equation ( 1 0-3 1 ) lie in the left-half s-plane is that all the coefficients of Equation (10-31) be positive and all terms in the first column of the array have positive signs.) Note that the exact values of the terms in the first column need not be known. sO on the far left side of the table is used [or identification purposes only. a. a. . .. "t a2 . a.-I. Routh's stability criterion states that the number of roots of Equation (10-31 ) with positive real parts i s equal t o the number o f changes i n sign of the coefficients of the first column of the array.. this colunm is not included. . . In counting the column num­ ber. (TIle column consisting of Sil.

then the zero term is replaced by a very small positive number E and the rest of the array is evalu­ ated. . ( :� ( 5° 5' o '" • -3 2 2 . This means that there are two roots with positive real parts. 5' 53 . TIle remaining terms are obtained from these rows. 1 0 Let us follow the procedure just presented and construct the array o f coef[jcicnts. it indi­ cates that there is a pair of imaginary roots. for the equation S3 . ' I 3 5 5' 3 5 2 4 0 53 e 2 0 1 5 . Actually.) The completed array is as follows: In this example.35 + 2 = (s - 1 )2(s + 2) 1 = 0 the array o[ coefficients is as follows: One sign change: One sign change: TIlere are two sign changes of the coefficients in the first column of the array. (The first two rows can be obtained directly from the given polynomial. Equation ( 1 0-32) has two roots at s = ±j. consider the following equation: (10-32) TIle array of coefficients is S3 s' s .5 -6 5' 3 5 5° 5 52 4 The second row is divided by 2. If any coefficients are missing. For example. but the remaining terms are not zero or there is no remaining term. then there is one sign change. 1 1 2 o '" • 2 SO 2 If the sign of the coefficient above the zero ( . the sign of the coefficient above the zero ( . Special cases. For example. the number of changes in sign of the coefficients in the first column of the array is 2. ) is opposite that below it.542 lime-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. they may be replaced by zeros in the array. TIlis agrees with the correct result indicated by the factored form of the polynomial equation. however.. Note that the result is unchanged when the coef[icienls of any row are multiplied or divided by a pos­ itive number i n order to simplify the computation. ) is the same as that below it. sO r .3 -• 2 . If. If a term in the first column of the array in any row is zero.

By solving for roots of the auxiliary polynomial equation. which is always even.50 = a S2 = -25 s = ±1. Thus. that is.. The derivative of P(s) with respect to s is dP(s) = 8s3 + 96s ds The terms in the S3 row are replaced by the coefficients of the last equation.25s . there are II pairs of equal and opposite roots. the evaluation of the rest of the array can be continued by forming an auxiliary polynomial with the coefficients of the last row and by using the coefficients of the derivative of this polynomial in the next row. In such a case.111e auxiliary polynomial P(s) is P(s) = 2s' + 48s2 - 50 which indicates that there are two pairs of roots of equal magnitude and opposite sign. the original equation has one root with a positive real part. For example. = S and 96. s = ±j5 . .- 2 8 24 1 1 2.. there are two real roots of equal magnitude and opposite sign andlor two conjugate imaginary roots. then there are roots of equal magnitude lying radially opposite each other in the s-plane. consider the following equation: S 5 + 2S4 + 24s3 + 48s2 . For a 211-degree auxiliary polynomial.7 -50 48 96 -SO a -SO <- Coefficients of dP(s)/ds We see that there is one change in sign in the first column of the new array.25 1 24 S5 s• S3 Sl SO .4 row.Sec. 1 0-7 Stability Analysis 543 If all of the coefficients in any derived row are zero.111e array of coefficients then becomes . The auxiliary polynomial is then formed from the coefficients of the . 2s' we obtain or + 48s2 . These pairs are obtained by solving the auxiliary polynomial equation P( s) O. that is.SO = a The array of coefficients is s5 s· s3 1 2 a 24 48 a -25 -50 <- Auxiliary polynomial P(s) The terms in the S3 row are all zero. Such roots of equal magnitude and lying radially opposite each other in the s-plane can be found by solving the auxiliary polynomial.

however.j5) ( s + 2) = 0 Relative stability analysis. th. Consider the system shown in Figure 10-39. write the polynomial in terms of s.is answer is not sufficient. A useful approach to examining relative stability is to shift the s-plane axis and apply Routh's stability criterion. Routh's stability criterion is of limited usefulness in linear control systems analysis. . we usually require information about the relative stability of the sys­ tem.-+ l�+ 2---:-:­ s(s The characteristic equation is s' + 352 + 25 + K = 0 The array of coefficients becomes s' s3 . In many practical cases. however.544 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. mainly because it does not suggest how to improve relative stability or how to stabi­ lize an unstable system. C(s) R(s) K ---:-) (s ---:):-: + K = -. the original equation can be written in factored form as follows: ( s + l ) (s . A s a matter of fact. That is. Routh's stability criterion provides the answer to the question of absolute stability. we substitute S = S .fJ ( CT = positive constant ) into the characteristic equation of the system. It is possible. and apply Routh's stability criterion to the new polynomial in s. this test reveals the number of roots that lie to the right of the vertical line Application of Routh's stability criterion to control systems analysis. Let liS determine the range of K for stability. 1 0 These two pairs o f roots are a part of the roots o f the original equation. to determine the effects of changing one or two parameters of a system by examining the values that cause instability. The number of changes of sign in the first column of the array developed for the polynomial in s is equal to the number of roots that are located to the right of the vertical line s = -CT.l ) (s + j5 ) ( s . We close this section with a brief consideration of the problem of determining the sta­ bility range of a parameter value. The closed-loop transfer function is s = -u. st 1 2 sO 3 6-K 3 K K 0 C(s) s(s + 1)(s K + 2) }�igurc 10-39 Control system. Thus.

The basic idea behind the root-locus method is that the values of s that make the transfer function around the loop equal to . In this method. and. Unless otherwise stated.1 must sat­ isfy the characteristic equation of the system. . we shall assume that the gain of the open-loop transfer function is the parameter to be varied through all values. 1 0-8 Root-Locus Analysis 545 For stability. the oscillation is sustained at constant amplitude. in some systems simple gain adjustment may move the closed-loop poles to desired locations. but any other variable of the open-loop transfer func­ tion may be used. K musl be positive. The locus of roots of the characteristic equation of the closed-loop system as the gain is varied from zero to infinity gives the method its name. Such a plot clearly shows the contributions of each open-loop pole or zero to the locations of the closed­ loop poles. 6>K>0 When K = 6. R.Sec. the addition of a compensator to the system will become necessary. Evans and is used extensively in control engineering. that the designer know how the closed-loop poles move in the s-plane as the loop gain is varied. the system becomes oscillatory. since it indicates the manner in which the open-loop poles and zeros should be modified so that the response meets system performance specifications. The method is particularly suited to obtaining approximate results very quickly. From the design viewpoint. I n designing a linear control system. It is important. it is desired that the designer have a good understanding of the method for generating the root loci of the closed-loop system. The roots corresponding to a particular value of this parameter can then be located on the resulting graph. we find that the root-locus method proves quite useful. Then the design problem may become merely the selection of an appropriate gain value. the designer can predict the effects on the location of the closed-loop poles of varying the gain value or adding open-loop poles andlor open-loop zeros. 1 0-8 ROOT-LOCUS ANALYSIS 11. then the location of the closed-loop poles depends on the value of the loop gain chosen. Root-locus method. called the root-locus metltod. Note that the parameter is usually the gain. therefore. If the system has a variable loop gain. mathematically. from zero to infinity. the gain adjustment alone does not yield a desired result. Therefore. both by hand and with the use of computer software like MATLAB. Therefore.e basic characteristic of the transient response of a closed-loop system is closely related to the location of the closed-loop poles. If. By using the root-locus method. and all coefficients in the first column of the array must be positive. the roots of the characteristic equation are plotted for all values of a system parameter. however. A simple method for finding the roots of the characteristic equation has been developed by W.

. 1 .) " ' ( s + Zm ) =0 (s + p . or the closed-loop poles.546 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. .. The closed-loop transfer function is C(s) Consider the system shown in Figure (10-33) LB� G(s) f--. Equation (10-34) can be split into two equations by equating the angles and magnitudes of both sides.) ' " (s + p. and the characteristic equation may be written as 1 + K(s + 'I) ( S + .) ( 1 0-37) IG(s)H(s) 1 = 1 Then the root loci for the system are the loci of the closed-loop poles as the gain K is varied from zero to infinity. A plot of the points in the com­ plex plane satisfying the angle condition alone is the root locus. In many cases. we must know the locations of the poles and zeros of G(s)H(s). Angle and magnitude conditions. to obtain the following: Angle condition: /G(s)H(s) = ± 1800(2k + 1 ) k = 0. 1 + G(s)H(s) = 0 or G(s)H(s) = .1 (10-34) Here. Remember that the angles of the complex quantities originating from the open-loop poles and open-loop zeros to the test point s are measured in the counterclockwise direction. 10 �� � Figure 10-40 Control system. respectively. .---'- C(. The roots of the characteristic equation (the closed-loop poles) corresponding to a given value of the gain can be determined from the magnitude condition. The details of applying the angle and magnitude conditions to obtain the closed-loop poles are presented later in this section. to begin sketching the root loci of a system by the root-locus method. Since G(s)H(s) is a complex quantity. . ( 1 0-35) (10-36) Magnitude condition: The values of s that fulfill both the angle and magnitude conditions are the roots of the characteristic equation. That is. ) (s + p. . 1 0-40. we assume that G(s)H(s) is a ratio of polynomials in s. Note that. G(s)H(s) involves a gain parameter K.) G(s) R(s) = 1 + G(s)H(s) The characteristic equation for this closed-loop system is obtained by setting the denominator of the right-hand side of Equation (10-33) equal to zero. 2.

. + 2 _ 1 5(5 1�(5 I = I + + 2) R(s) -+ @-- J C(s) Figure 10-41 Control system.5. are always located symmetrically about the real axis.!. Let us sketch the root-locus plOl and determine the value of K such that the damping ratio { of a pair of dominant complex­ conjugate closed-loop poles is 0.. Illustrative example. Therefore. . the loci can be scaled.. The first step in the procedure for constructing a root-locus plot is to use the angle condition to seek out the loci of possible roots. For the given system. Because graphical measurements of angles and magnitudes are involved in the analysis. 1 0-8 Root-Locus Analysis 547 Note that. .Sec. .':':-. The magnitude condition is I C(5 )1 1.s. in gain with the use of the magnitude condition. 2 . Although computer approaches to the construction of the root loci are easily available. let us use graphical computation... -. s = . and s = -2 in the complex K . Such a graphical approach en­ hances one 's understanding of how the closed-loop poles move in the complex plane as the open-loop poles and zeros are moved. .L£.I .. Exmnplc 10-7 Consider the system shown in Figure 1 0-4 1 .. 1 . because the open-loop complex-conjugate poles and complex­ conjugate zeros. . the angle condition becomes � = /S(5 + 1)(5 + 2) = -!. Then. ' + ) s :.( :. if necessary.:!:J. 1 ". _ (:.. 1l1c first step in constructing a rool-locus plot is to locate the open-loop poles s = o. we find it necessary to use the same divisions on the abscissa as on the ordi­ nate in sketching the root locus on graph paper. = A typical procedure for sketching the root-locus plot is as follows: Derermine rhe roor loci 011 rhe real ax. G ( 5) = -:. ..-'. For this system.:-:+ 1 + 5(5---: )( s---:2 ) ' K H(5) = I \Ve assume that the value of the gain K is nonnegative. or graduated. . to determine and plot the root loci upon which the roots of the charac­ teristic equation of the closed-loop system must lie. combined with inspection. ) '. the root loci are always symmetrical with respect to that axis. we need to construct only the upper half of the root loci and draw the mirror image of the upper half in the lower half s-plane.. if any.� K k = O.

- f.s..:':..s. TIle number of in­ dividual root loci for the given system is three. � o· and the angle condition is satisfied.. If a test point is selected between -1 and -2. f. and 180°. To determine the Toot loci on the real axis. then G(s) may be written as -.s..) Note that the starting points of the rool loci (the points corresponding to K = 0) are open-loop poles. + 2 may be considered the ... .!. if a test point is located on the negative real axis from -2 to -00.. If the test point is on the positive real axis. f. . root loci exist on the negative real axis between 0 and -1 and between -2 and -00.s. � f.) The locations of the opcn­ loop poJes are indicated by crosses.1 . the distinct angles for the asymptotes are determined to be 60°. 1 .+ '-C7. the root loci for very large values of s must be asymptotic to straight lines whose angles are given by angles of asymptotes = -f. same . Thus. � ....s. -60°.. Therefore. Therefore..548 Time-Domain Ana lys is and Design of Control Systems Chap. Thus.. then angles f.:... Similarly.f... Next.:':.+ :-c --:-:K --:-: s(s 1 )(s 2) K (10-38) G ( s) (10-39) . TIlCn Thus..:':. (111e locations of the open-loop zeros in this book will be indicated by small circles. 1 0 plane. and f. (There are no open-loop zeros in this system... which is the same as the number of open-loop poles. then TIlis shows that the angle condition cannot be satisfied.s.. The one having an angle of 180° is the negative real axis..180' ft can be seen that the angle condition is not satisfied.s..s.s. - f. Since G ( s) - if a test point is located very far from the origin. we must find the point where they intersect the real axis.!.. then and -f...... � f. there are three asymptotes. the ponion of the negative real axis between 0 and -1 forms a portion of the root locus...:':. the angle condition is satisfied.:... 2. Hence. select a test point on the negative real axis between 0 and . 2.:t:. Before we can draw these asymptotes in the complex plane. Determine the asymptotes of the root loci.:t:.../s + 2 � -360' ± 180'(2k + I ) 3 k � 0.\ to -2 is not a part of the root loclls. the negative real axis from . we select a lest point s.. . Since the angle repeats itself as k is varied. The asymptotes of the root loci as s approaches infinity can be determined as follows: If a test point s is selected very far from the origin. there is no root locus on the positive real axis... Therefore.

S2 ) ' " (s . = -K For a large value of s . we must find the breakaway point.st l ( s ' . .. The breakaway point corresponds to a point in the s-plane where multiple roOIS of the characteristic equation occur.53 + 352 + so.1 break away (as K is increased) from the real axis and move into the COI11plex plane. < S 8' (s) = -­ ri8(s) ds .s. The method is as follows: Let us write the charctcteristic equation as . au = -1 i ts) where A(s) and 8(s) do not contain K. where the root-locus branches originating from the poles at 0 and . 3. Note that its) points where -- = 8(s) + K A(s) = 0 = ( 1 0-40) 0 has multiple roots at d[(s) = 0 ds This can be seen from the following reasoning: Suppose that f{s) has multiple roots of order r.Sec. from Equation (10-39). this last equation may be approximated by (s + l )' = O If the abscissa of the intersection of the asymptotes and the real axis is denoted by S = (T".) 1l1is means that multiple roots of f(s) will satisfy Equation ( 10-41 ) . From Equa­ tion ( 1 0-40). -. the particular value of K that will yield multiple roots of the characteristic equation is K 8'(s) A'(s) rl/\(s) A'(s) = . the characteristic equation may be written as . 10-8 Root-Locus Analysis 549 = -j . The asymptotes are almost part of the rcol lad in regions very far from the origin. Then f(s) may be written as If we differentiate this equation with respect to s and sel s it s) = (s . Determine the breakaway pOIIII. we obtain d[(s) ds I s=s. then and the point o f origin o f the asymptotes is ( 1 0). To plot rOOI loci accurately. TIle characteristic equation is G(s) . A simple method for finding the breakaway point is available. = 0 = SI' then we get (J0-4L) ri[(s) ds = 8'(s) + K A ' (s) = 0 ( 1 0-42) where From Equation (10-42).

c-.I .+ 6s + 2 ) 0 or s = -0. we have 8(s) K = . at a point at which df(s)/ds = O.1. Therefore.550 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. On the other hand. 1 0 ( [ we substitute this value of K into Equation {l0-40). the value of K takes a real positive value. 5774 is not on the root locus: hence. s = . this point is not an actual breakaway point.-lI(s) and dK ds 8'(s) A (s) .5 774 Since the breakaway point must lie all a rool locus between 0 and .1 .3849 K = -0. ctual breakaway points. = . we get 8' (s) /(s) = 8(s) . the breakaway points can be determined simply from the rooLs of dK =0 tis Note that not all lhc solutions of Equation ( 1 0-43) or of Kids = 0 correspond to .4226 corresponds to the actual breakaway point.-.A ( A(s) = 0 ' s) or 8(s)A'(s) .c:c -.8'(s)lI(s) = 0 ( 10-43) If Equation ( 10-43) is solved for s.4226 for s = . from Equation (10-40). The point s = . we gel Equation (10-43). then that point is an actual breakaway point. we obtain - 3s' + 2s) = dK tis .S(s)II ' ( s ) If (/I(Jds is set equal to zero. it is clear that s = -0.3849 for s = -0. In fact.1 .5774 yields K = 0.(3. If a point at which df(s)/ds = 0 is on a root locus.4226 and s = . the characteristic equation G(s) + J = 0 is given by K --.::s (s + 1 ) (5 + 2) + = d 0 or K = _ (s3 Setting dK/ds = 0.4226.-. the points where mulliple roots occur can be obtained. For the present example. it a is an actual breakaway point. Stated differently.. if.5774 .1. evaluating the values of K corresponding to s = -0.--: + 1 .

If a test point is on the root loci.5 lie on lines passing through the origin and making the angles ±cos. the characteristic equation is Substituting s = . equating both the real and imaginary parts. 2w . Ol + O2 + 03 . ..3w' ) + j(2w . (llle sum of the angles at the test point will indicatc in which direction the test point should be moved. Also.Sec. De/ermine a pair of r/ominalll complex-conjugale closed-loop poles sl/eh film the damping mlio { is O. Draw Ihe roar loci. These points can be found easily by substituting 5 = jw into the characteristic equation. we obtain (jW) 3 + 3(jw) ' + 2(jw) + K = 0 ( K . Dcrermillc the points where the rOOl loci cross rhe imaginary axis. must be 180°.j..w3 ) = + 25 + K = 0 0 Equaling both the real and imaginary pans of this last equation to zero yields K .. Closed-loop poles with { = 0. select another test point until it satis­ fies thc condition. For the present system. they leave the real axis at angles of ±90°. and apply the angle condition.I { = ±cas. K =6 w = K = -2 (J Construction of . 0 jw w = ± Yz. a root-Joeus branch on the real axis touches the imagi­ nary axis at w = O. and then solving for w and K. then the sum of the three angles.3 + 352 or jw into the characteristic equation. 4. 7. If the test point does not satisfy the angle condition. root loci cross the imaginary axis at w = ± Vz. to zero. 1 0-8 Root-Locus Analysis 551 Note that when the two branches enter the complex region from the breakaway point.l 05 = ±60° with or 0. based on the information obtained in the foregoing steps. and the value of K at the crossing points is 6.) Continue this process and locate a sufficient number of points satisfying the angle condition. 5_ Choose a (eSI point ill lhe broad neighborhood of (he jw-axis (llld (he origin.jl Figure 10-42 root locus.w3 = 0 from which it follows that Thus. as shown in Figure 10-42.3w2 = O. 6. as shown in Figure 10-43.

0383 2) IF-o.5 s. For K > 6. obtain the characteristic equation 1 + G(s)H(s) = 0 . the system will exhibit sustained oscillations. we find the third pole a t s = . the product is equal to the gain value K at that point.jO.2. + + valuc of K t hat yields these poles is found from the magnitude condition as fo l lows : K = s. if necessary.jl Figure 10-43 Root-locus plot.5780.5780 I s(s 1 ) (5 Note thai. From Figure 1 0-43.0383 K=6 -3 I -2 / \ /\ 600 - \ Jl J1 ji K = 1. note that. = -0. from step 4.s. it can be seen that for K = 6 the dominant closed-loop poles lie on the imaginary axis at s = ±jV2. and multi· ply these magnitudes. measure the magnitudes of the three complex quan t i ti es 5. or Using this value of K. are obtained as follows: lllC == 0.552 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems jw Chap. the negative rca I a xi s. 5 + 1 . = -0.3326. We simply pick out a point on a root locus. 10 K = 1 .0383 u I .so 151 · I s + 1 1 · 15 + 21 = K General rules for constructing root loci.able system. Finally.3337 . First.33J7-Jo. = 1 .3337 + jO. \Vi th this value of K. and 5 + 2. the rool loci can be easily graduated in terms of K with the use of the magnitude condition. resulting in an unst. such closed-loop poles having . the dominant closed-loop poles lie in the right-half s-pJane. We next summarize the general rules and procedure for constructing the root loci of the system shown in Figure 1 0-44 .

Then rearrange this equation into the form 1 + K(s + z \ ) ( s + Z2 ) · · (s + z. As K is increased to infinity. = . then the angle of each complex quantity may be considered the same. The rOOl-loclls brallc"es srarl from open-loop poles and lerminare at zeros (finite zeros or zeros at infinity). The remaining /I . The points on the root loci correspond­ ing to K 0 are open-loop poles. where K > O. TIle complex-conjugate poles and zeros of the open-loop transfer function have no effect on tbe loca­ tion of the root loci on the real axis. 2. 3. One open-loop zero then cancels the effects of one open-loop pole and vice versa.Sec.m branches terminate at infinity (n . In the present discussion. Each root locus thus originates at a pole of the open-loop transfer function G( s)H(s ) .m implicit zeros at infinity) along asymptotes. we assume that the parameter of interest is the gain K. If the test point s is located far from the origin. Find the starting points and terminating points of the root loci. then the number of individual root-locus branches terminating at finite open-loop zeros is equal to the number 111 of open-loop zeros. Note that the root loci are symmetrical about the real axis of the s-plane. + p. Determine the root loci 011 the real axis. the number of branches usually equals that of poles. Determine the asympTOtes of rool loci.. Since the number of open-loop poles generally exceeds that of zeros. each root-locus approaches either a zero of the open-loop transfer function or infinity in the complex plane. 1 0-8 Root-Locus Analysis 553 C(s) Figure 10� Control system. Locare Ihe poles and zeros of G(s)H(s) all Ihe s-plalle. A root-locus plot will have just as many branches as there are roots of the characteristic equation. . and find also the number of separate root loci.. If the number o f closed-loop poles i s the same a s the number of open-loop poles. ( s + p. . because the angle contribution of a pair of complex-conjugate poles or zeros is 3600 on that axis. then that point lies on a root locus. The root locus and its complement form alternate segments along the real axis. Root loci on the real axis are deter­ mined by open-loop poles and zeros lying on the axis..) . If the total number of real poles and real zeros to the right of a test point is odd. ) = 0 (10-44) 1. because the complex poles and complex zeros occur only in conjugate pairs.) (s + pi l e s so that the parameter of interest appears as the multiplicative factor.

then dividing the denomina­ tor by the numerator yields G(s) H(s) = . the asymptotes can be readily drawn in the complex plane.. + ·_ + '-'. k = 0 corresponds to the asymptotes making the smallest angle with the real axis. . ---. . . .. . _ _ -::. + PI P2 . and the number of distinct asymptotes is 11 . + p. ' " Here. . as k is increased.Ill.. + Z + .(Z I + Z.I ---': -:-'. + Z . + Pn) . 1 . the result is III = number of finite poles of G(s)H(s) number of finite zeros of G(s) H(s) G( s) H (s) = � I . Equation (10-45) may be approximated by n.m k = 0. _ Z I + -=.\"" m + [ ( PI + p.--'. . PII K [ S Ill + ( z. the angle repeats itself. + PI1 )5" + . K Since the characteristic equation is G(s)I-/(s) i t may be written -1 For a large value of s. 111 s . Although k assumes an infinite number of values.( " + Z.-.. Un is always a real quantity. + Z ) ] S . . . I + � � � -. ) . then one of the asymp­ totes is the negative real axis. . + (P� p ..l + . + . . -" _ ·_ -' "' ----:.­ � � 111 n ( 1 0-46) .m s + e: c..'--.( ZI-2 .Z2 ' " Z II] If a test point is located very far from the origin. .-=5 'l + ( PI + P2 + .554 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.__ __:_ -=. + p . -m ) . - j If the abscissa of the intersection of the asymptotes and the real axis is denot­ ed by S = u{/l then � n = = Because all the complex poles and zeros occur in conjugate pairs.. + Z2 + .c. + .p.+�) .m .m ._ + + z ) P. . ) . The point at which they do so is obtained as follows: If both the numerator and denominator of the open­ loop transfer function are expanded. + .(:'. . Once the intersection of the asymptotes and the real axis is found. . . . . All the asymptotes intersect on the real axis. + z ) s m . 2. + .11 . ' 2_ _ _ ""' . . 10 Therefore.-.-= "-::= :-.. .� �.I m = -K + ( 1 0-45) 0 [ PI + P _ (. .. the root loci for very large values o f s must b e asymptotic to straight lines whose angles (slopes) are given by angles of asymptotes where 11 = = - ± l SO' (2k + 1 ) -'-'. Note that if the number of asymptotes is odd. + .m + [ (p.

then it is necessary to check the corresponding K value. _ . and s = . Derermine rhe angle of deparrure (angle of arrival) of rhe roar locus from a complex pole (ar a complex zero).--.-. Suppose that the characteristic equation is given by S(s) + KA(s) = 0 The breakaway points and break-in points correspond to multiple roots of the characteristic equation. --. [A break-in point is a point where a root locus in the complex plane enters the real axis (or other root locus) as the gain K is increased.. like a breakaway point. if the root locus lies between two adjacent zeros (one zero may be located at . 1 0-8 Root-Locus Analysis 555 It is important to note that the asymptotes show the behavior of the root loci for lsi � 1. of Equation ( 1 0-47) are a complex-conjugate pair.. then there may exist no break­ away or break-in points. Find rhe breakmvay and break-in poims. -. is an actual breakaway or break­ in point. and if it is not certain whether they are on root loci. if the value of K thus obtained is negative. but not all roots of Equation (10-47) are breakaway or break-in points. point s = 5.. If a real root of Equation (10-47) lies on the root-locus portion of the real axis.--. then there always exists at least one break-in point between the two zeros. If the root locus lies between an open-loop pole and a zero (finite or infinite) on the real axis. It is important to note that the breakaway points and break-in points must be roots of Equation ( 1 0-47).. s .--= 0 A \s) ( 1 0-47) . As shown earlier.--.)-. If the value of K corresponding to a root S = SI of d Kids = 0 is positive. If two roots s = ". (A break-in point.S ( ) A ( s) .-.) 5. then this 1'001 corresponds to neither a breakaway point nor a break-in point. we must find the directions of the root loci near the complex poles and zeros. 4. then there exists at least one breakaway point between the two poles. To sketch the root loci with reasonable accuracy.' .Sec.--. then point s = 5 1 is neither a breakaway nor a break-in point. the breakaway and break-in points can be determined from the roots of dK ds where the prime indicates differentiation with respect to s.s. Similarly. If a test point is chosen and moved in the very vicinity of a complex S ' ( " ) A ( -'.". or there may exist both breakaway and break-in points. the breakaway points and break-in points either lie on the real axis or occur in complex-conjugate pairs.00 ) on the real axis. corre­ sponds to a point in the s-plane where multiple roots of the characteristic equation OCCUL)] Because of the conjugate symmetry of the root loci. . A root locus branch may Lie on one side of the corresponding asymptote or may cross the corresponding asymptote from one side to the other side. (Since K is assumed to be nonnegative.--. If a real root of Equation (10-47) is not on the root-locus portion of the real axis. then it is an actual breakaway or break-in point. If a root locus lies between two adjacent open-loop poles on the real axis.

(sum of the angles of vectors to a complex pole in question from other poles) + (sum of the angles of vectors to a complex pole in question from zeros) Angle of arrival at a complex zero = 180' . (Angle of departure = 1800 - (O! + 02) + Ip. Taking (/ series of test points in the broad neighborhood ofthe origin of the s· plane. Determine the closed-loop poles.(sum of the angles of vectors to a complex zero in question from other zeros) + (sum of the angles of vectors to a complex zero in question from poles) The angle of departure is shown in Figure 10-45. TI. sketch the root loci. equating both the real part and the imaginary part to zero.] . 6. 8. with appropriate signs included. Therefore. The most important part of the root loci is on neither the real axis nor the asymptotes. Angle of departure from a complex pole = 180' . The values of w thus found give the frequencies at which root loci cross the imaginary axis. A particular point on each root· locus branch is a closed·loop pole if the value of K at that point satisfies the magnitude con­ dition. Conversely.556 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. but is in the broad neighborhood of the jw·axis and the origin. and solving for w and K. 1 0 pole (or a complex zero). the sum of the angular contributions from all other poles and zeros can be considered to remain the same. Figure 10-45 Construction of the root locus. Determine the root loci in the broad neighborhood of the jw·axis and the origin. 7.e K value corresponding to each crossing frequency gives the gain at the crossing point. That is. The points where the root loci intersect the jw-axis can be found by letting s = jw in the characteristic equation. the magnitude condition enables us to determine the value jw Angle of aeparture e. Find the poinrs where the root loci may cross the imaginary axis. the angle of departure (or angle of arrival) of the root locus from a complex pole (or at a complex zero) can be found by subtracting from 180' the sum of all the angles of vectors from all other poles and zeros to the complex pole (or complex zero) in question. The shape of the root loci in this important region in the s-plane must be obtained with sufficient accuracy.

the root loci may be graduated i n terms of K. the system involves ve loci t y feedback. I f the gain K of the open-loop transfer function is given in the problem.poles -"'. (If necessary. I n some cases. Here.between point . then.--=--. 1 0-8 Root-Locus Analysis 557 of the gain K at any specific root location on the locus.Sec. The characteristic equation for the system is open loop transfer function = 20 s( s + I ) ( s + 4 ) + 20ks = s3 + 5s' + If we define then Equation ( 10-48) becomes 4s + 20 + 20ks = 0 (10-48) 20k K ( 10-49) C(s) 53 + 5s2 + 45 + K 5 + 20 = 0 Figure 10-46 Control system. TIle open-loop transfer function is Notice that the adjustable variable k docs not appear as a multiplicative factor.--=--K = '---product of lengths between point s to zeros ­ This value can be evaluated either graphically or analytically. it may be possible to rewrite the characteristic equation so that K does appear as a multiplicative factor of G(s)H(s). the variable parameter K may not appear as a multiplicative factor of G(s)H(s). Example 10-8 Consider the system shown in Figure 10-46. or product of lenglhs .. The root loci are continuous wilh K. Example 1 0-8 illustrates how to proceed.--. .s to .4.-.) The value of K corresponding to any point s on a root locus can be obtained using the magnitude condition. Draw a root�locus diagram. we can find the correct locations of the c1osed­ loop poles for a given K on each branch of the rool loci by a trial-and-error approach or with the use of MATLAB (see Section 1 0-9). anu then deter­ mine the value of k such that the damping ratio of the dominant closed-loop poles is 0. applying the magnitude condition. In such cases. Constructing root loci when a variable parameter does not appear as a multiplicative factor.

-:.. 1589+j4.!.j2)(s + 5 ) Ks + 20 -0 - (10-50) ±1800(2k + I ) = ±90° 3 1 _ The intersection of the asymptotes with the real axis can be found from .4065 � 8.W90+j2. At point P. s = -j2.lim � .2° the angle of departure from the pole 5 = j2 is 158. Note that the closed-loop poles with . = 0.. 10 -c.::.8° + 90° � 158....f=-2. I (s + j2)(s ....j2)(s + 5) 5 I k� At point Q.42° with the negative real axis.: . Since one open-loop zero cancels the effects of one open-loop pole and vice versa. and � may be considered the same.. the value of K is - l=o-I .260 . two values of K will give the damping ratio ( of the closed-loop poles equal to 0.� 0 .= I1m S ---o 00 53 + 552 + 45 + 20 s-00052 + 55 + Ks . we ger I + or I + Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. We shall now sketch the root loci of the system given by Equation (10-50).2.4 must lie on straight lines passing through the origin and making the angles ±66.21..42°.:. 5 )- as (Til 11le angle of departure ( angle 0) from the pole at 5 = j2 is obtained as follows: 111US.4490 20 at point P K � I ( s + j2)(s .90° . Is .%52 � 28.j2)(s + 5 ) S I .-= K ') (s + 2. then the angles L. TIle root locus exists on the real axis between 0 and -5.. K = lim . the value of K is K � Hence. If the test point s is located far from the origin.-' -. = -2 .. the root loci for very large values of s must be asymptotic to straight lines whose angles are given by angles of asymptotes = --. there are two intersections of the root-locus branch in the upper-half 5plane with the straight line of angle 66.=--:: ':':'::' c-(s + j2) (s .2°.558 Dividing both sides of Equation (10-49) by the SUIll of the terms that do not contain K. !s + i2. Notice that the open-loop poles are located at s = j2. and s = -5. Thus. .-. 5 8 � 180° . I n the present case.4.9801 K � 0 .Ks :"" :: 53 + 552 + 45 Equation ( 10-50) is now of the form of Equation (10-37).. Figure 1O-47 shows a root· locus plot of the system.::-:. and the open-loop zero is located at s = O.

1 . since The open-loop zero al s = 0 was introduced in the process of modifying the character­ istic equation such that the adjustable variable K = 20k was to appear as a mullipJica­ tive factor. the three closed-loop poles are located at For k = 1. For k = 0. s = . This is evident because the original system shown in Figure 10--46 does not have a closed-loop zero.4490. Thus.4130 at point Q It is important to point out that the zero at the origin is the open-loop zero. not the closed-loop zero. 20 C(s) R(s) = s(s + l ) (s + 4) + 20(1 + ks) s = -2.9652.4130. s = .1589 + j4.9021 = 1. we have two solutions for this problem. 1 0-8 Root-Locus Analysis 559 jw Q j6 j5 j4 j3 /1 jl s = .9652.1589 .Sec.0490 .)1. s = -2.6823 .}4. s = -0.0490 + }2.1589 + }4.0490 + /1.1 . k = - 20 K Consequently.4065. the three closed-loop poles are located at s = -2.4065.4065 s = -2.1.9652 -7 -6 -5 -4 0 a -jl -/1 -j3 -j4 -j5 -j6 Figure 10-47 Root-locus plot for the system shown in Figure 10-46.

'k = 1 . the oscillations due to the closed-loop poles MAHAB Program 10-4 � » % Enter n umerators and denominators of systems » % with k 0. respectively. (The effect of the closed-loop pole at s = �2.xl . » [c2.41 30. 10 \Ye have obtained two different values o f k which satisfy the requirement that the damping ratio of the dominant closed-loop poles be equal to OA.98s + 20 R(s) (s + 1. TIle resulting unit-step response curves [CI(t) for k = 0. Let us compare the unit-step responses of both systems.1589 + j4.t[ step{num1 .9021 ) 1.9652)(s + 2.4065 )(s + 2.t. l n this case. ' k = 0.t). » den1 [ 1 5 1 2 .9021 on the unit-step response is small.26 201.t). » t � 0:0. 1 .0. the real closed-loop pole at s = -0. 1 : 1 0.560 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.0490 + j2.4490') » text{4. The closed-loop transfer function with k 0. » num2 [ 0 o 0 20[. 1 .j4.c1 .6823 is dominant and the complex-conjugate closed-loop poles are not domi­ nant.c2) » text{3 .4490 is oscillatory.4065)(s TIle closed-loop transfer function with k = + 20 1.9652)(s + 0.41 30') » grid » title{ ' U nit-Step Responses of Two Systems') » xlabel{'t (sec)') » ylabel{'Outputs c_1 and c_2 ' ) � = � � � � . » plot{t.t[ step{num2 . From Figure 10--48 we notice that the response of the system with k = 0.4490 and c2(r) for k = 1.x2.4130.den1 . 1 . » den2 � [ 1 5 32. » » num1 [0 o 0 201. whereas in the system with k = 1.j2.98 20[.4130] are shown in Figure 10-48.26s + 20 20 (s + 2.8.4130 is given by C(s) 20 � R(s) s3 + 5s' + 32. » [c1 . MATLAB Program 10--4 may be used to plot the unit-step response curves in one diagram.0490 .86.den2.1589 .) For the system with k = 1.4490 and k 1 . the response characteristic is determined primarily by the real c1osed­ loop pole.6823) Notice that the system with k = 0.4490 has a pair of dominant complex-conjugate closed-loop poles.4490 is given by = C(s) 20 � s3 + 5s' + l2.4130.

(The reader is urged to study various root-locus diagrams shown in the solved problems at the end of the chapter. In con­ cluding this section. 1 0-8 Root-Locus Analysis 561 Unit-Step Responses of Two Systems � � '-.� 1. the system can become unstable.4.4 r. In that case. The pattern of the root loci depends only on the relative separation of the open-loop poles and zeros. From the preceding discussions. Summary. we should choose k = 0.. A stable system musl have all its closed-loop poles in the left-half s-plane.6823.� � .4 k = 1.8 0.. .) Figure at s = -2. it is important that the designer have the capability of quickly sketching lhe root loci for a given system. := Typical pole-zero configurations and corresponding root loci..--'.4130 (which exhibits a slow overdamped response). we can easily eval­ uate the changes in the root loci due to the changes in the number and location of the open-loop poles and zeros by visualizing the root-locus plots resulling from var­ ious pole-zero configurations.Sec.� . it should be clear that it is possi­ ble to sketch a reasonably accurate root-locus diagram for a given system by follow­ ing simple rules. we present several open-loop pole-zero configurations and their corresponding root loci in Table 1 0-3.-'. ollen.4.4130 0. o � � 0. ) At preliminary design stages..1589 ± j4.' � "0 0.� . thus. we may not need the precise locations of the closed-loop poles. l.2 2 3 4 5 6 ( (sec) 7 8 9 lO 10-48 Unit-step response curves for the system shown in Figure 10-46 when the damping ratio ( of the dominant closed-loop poles is set equal to 0.4490 for the present system.9652 damp out much faster than the purely exponential response due to the closed-loop pole at s � -0. 4490 (which exhibits a faster response with relatively small overshoot) has a much better response characteristic than the system with k 1. The system with k = 0. (Two values of k give the damping ralio � equal to 0. If the number of open-loop poles exceeds the number of finite zeros by three or more. their approximate lo­ cations are aU that is needed to make an estimate of a system 's performance. Note that once we have some experience with the method. Therefore.2 c.6 0. there is a value of the gain K beyond which root loci enter the right-half s-plane.

Plotting root loci with MATLAB. we deal with the system equation given in the form of Equation ( 1 0-37). we present the MATLAB approach to generating root-locus plots. In plotting root loci with MATLAB. which may be .562 TABLE 1 0-3 Root Loci Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. 1 0 Open-Loop Pole-Zero Configurations and the Corresponding jw jw u � / jw �w ( jw jw ) \ jw jw I \ jw ! u 1 0-9 ROOT-LOCUS PLOTS WITH MATLAB In this section.

MATLAB uses the automatic axis-scaLing feature of the plOl command. Note that command rlocus(num. x ') or plot(r.'-') = = rlocus(num. since the gain vector is determined automatically. If it is desired to plot the root loci with marks '0' and 'x ' . Also. A MATLAB command commonly used for plotting root loci is rlocus( num.) If the preceding two commands are invoked with left-hand arguments. note that.c1en.Sec. since each calculated closed-loop pole is shown graphically.K] Ir. K) utilizes the user-supplied gain vector K. Through an internal adaptive step-size routine. The gain vector K is automatically determined. FinaUy.den) p lot( r. that is. the root-locus plot is drawn on the screen.den) rlocus(num.) The plot command plot(r. (r has length K rows and length den 1 columns containing the locations of complex roots. (The vector K contains all the gain values for which the closed-loop poles are to be computed. Ir. MATLAB supplies its own set of gain values that are used to calculate a root-locus pial. and in another portion of the root loci they are sparsely situat­ ed.c1en. Note that both vectors num and den must be written in descending powers of s.K) plots the root loci. Each row of the matrix corresponds to a gain from vector K. 1 0-9 Root-Locus Plots with MATLAB 563 written as 1 + K -- num = 0 den where num is the numerator polynomial and den is the denominator polynomial.KI - the screen will show the matrix r and gain vector K. in some portion of the root loci those marks are densely situated. rool-locus plots of r = rlocus(num. it is necessary to use the following command: Plotting root loci with marks '0' or I X ' is instructive.den ) With this command.'o') ' G(s) /-/( s) K(s + 1 ) s(s + 2 ) ( s + 3) 10K ( s + 1 ) G(s)H(s) = s ( s + 2)(s + 3) 200K (s + 1 ) G(s)J-/(s ) = ( s + 2)( s + 3 ) s .

5)(s.6s + 10) K 54 + 1.1480. 1480. With this command..� � . The 1 6 11 01 num 10 j1 0 5 10-9 K G(s) H (s) = . KI r1ocus(num. '---.� � -.-.--2 � 4 � -3 -2 -� �� � -7 -I -7 � � 3--Real Axis .65+1 0)1 ') xlabel ('Real Axis'). To sct the plot region on the screen to be square.. 1 1 0. a line with unity slope is at a true 45° angle and is not skewed by the irregular shape of the screen. '-') » axis('equa l'). 10 are all the same.5. v 1-4 4 -4 = » » = » grid 41. we obtain the rool-Iocus plot shown in Figure 10-49. » plot(r.5) (5/\2+0.: .3 + j3. � '---.-. ylabel (' Imaginary Axis') = Root-Locus Plot of G(s) 3 K lls(s + 0.den).j3.564 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems the Chap.6s 10)1 4 � -.+ 0. axis(v) title(' Root-Locus Plot of G(s) Klls(s+0.­ s(s + O.352 + 55 Consider a system whose open-loop transfer function G(s)H(s) is lllcre are no open-loop zeros. s = -0.� . The num and den se t is and den are num den Example = = same for all three systems..3 .3 5 01.5)(s2 + 0. » den = [ 1 » Ir. 1sj + 10..= + 2 -3 -2 Figure 10-49 ROOl-locus plOL � 0 -. and s = 0. MAHAB Program 1 0-5 » num = 1 1 1 . s = -0. Open-loop poles are located at s = -0. Entering MATLAB Program 10-5 into the computer.:. enter the command axis ('equaJ'). 1 .

axis (v) » grid » title (. K3 [ 1 00:0.' ) » axis('equal').) K(s + t )/ 1'(s .1 6 0[. » K [K1 K2 K3[. Note that this system is stable only for a limited range of gain K.02 : 1 00[.5:500[. » [r.K). The re­ sulting plot is shown in Figure 1 0-51. 1 0-9 Example Consider the system shown in Figure 10-50.den. K2 = [5:0.-.1 )(s' + 4s + 16)] -.) MATLAS Program 1 0-6 10-10 Root-Locus Plots with MATLAB 565 » num = [ 1 1 [ . v [ . Root-Locus Plot of G(. » K1 [0:0.. » plot(r._4 7 � .� -. yiabel('lmaginary Axis') = = = = s(s.-.t)(s2 + 4s + 16) K(s + I ) Figure 10-50 Control system. » den = [1 3 1 2 .l ) (sI\2+4s+ 1 6)] ') » xlabel(.� � � 6. ' . Root-Locus Plot of G(s) = K(s+ 1 )/[s(s.6 6[. .6 6 .-6 r. (For the exact range of K.6 Real Axis Figure 10-51 Root-locus p[OI. K[ = rlocus(num.0 1 :5[.2 .Real Axis').� � � � � 4 '00 " � a E a -2 -4 - I-------i-� �� � . Plot the root loci with a square aspect ratio so that a line with unity slope is a true 45° line.Sec.� � � -4 O 2 . see Problem A-IO-IO. MATLAB Program 10-6 produces a root-locus plot in a square region.'.

PID control . and derivative time �I based on the transient-response characteristics of a given plant. automatic tuning methods have been developed. Here. Many practical methods for bumpless switching (from manual opera­ tion to automatic operation) and gain scheduling are commercially available. PID con­ trollers can be delicately and finely tuned. In the field of process control systems. many different types of tuning rules have been proposed in the literature. many of these are transformed into digital forms through the use of microprocessors.. TIle process of selecting the controller parameters to meet given performance specifications is known as controller wning. are convenient when mathematical models of plants are not known. I f a mathematical model of the plant can be derived. we introduce only the Ziegler-Nichols tuning rules. then it is possible to apply various design techniques for determining the parameters of the controller that will meet the transient and steady-state specifications of the closed-loop system.) Ziegler-Nichols rules for tuning PIO controllers. However. Such determination of the parameters of PID controllers or tuning of PID con­ trollers can be made by engineers on-site by experimenting on the plant. we must resort to experimental approaches to the tuning of PID controllers.) 111e two methods called Ziegler-Nichols tuning rules are aimed at obtaining 25% maximum overshoot in the step response. and electronic types or their combinations. electric.. of course. Also. integral time T. Ziegler and Nichols suggested rules for tuning PID controllers (to set values Kin T. presented next. (See Figure 10-53. pneumatic. and T. I n that case. Because most PID controllers are adjusted on-site. it is a well-known fact that both basic and modified PID control schemes have provcd their usefulness in providing satisfac­ tory control. 1 0 10-10 TUNING RULES FOR PIO CONTROLLERS I t is interesting to note that more than half of the industrial controllers in use today utilize PID or modified PID control schemes.. Analog PID controllers are mostly hydraulic. if the plant is so complicated that its mathematical model cannot be easily obtained.) C(s) Figure 10-52 of a plant. however. and some PID controllers may possess on-line automatic tuning capabilities. With these tuning rules. Currently. be applied to the design of systems willi known mathematical models.566 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. (Numerous tuning rules for PID controllers have been proposed since Ziegler and Nichols of­ fered their rules.) based on experimental step responses or based on the value of Kp that results in marginal stability when only the proportional control action is used. (These rules can. PIO control of plants. then an analytical approach to the design of a PID controller is not possible. Ziegler-Nichols rules. Figure 10-52 shows the PID control of a plant. Ziegler and Nichols pro­ posed rules for determining values of the proportional gain K". The usefulness of PID controls lies in their general applicability to most control systems. although they may not provide optimal control in many given situations.

22:(1 + 2Ls + O..5LS ) L ( 2. These constants are determined by the intersections of the tangent line with the time axis and the line C(I) = K..) Step-response curves of this nature may be generated experimentally or from a dynamic simulation of the plant._ V 11(1 ) s L D C(I) Figure 10-54 Unit-step response of a plant.:ll--__�. 1 0. as shown in Figure 10-54.I t-. as shown in Figure 1 0-55. First method. If the plant involves neither integrators nor dominant complex-conjugate poles.Ls = U(s) Ts + 1 Ziegler and Nichols suggested setting the values of Kp' 7. Notice that the PID controller tuned by the first Ziegler-Nichols method gives GAs) = = = O. according to the formula shown in Table 10-4.".'s TdS ) 1.:. and 7. this method does not apply.1 0 C(I) Tuning Rules for P I D Controllers 567 Figure 10-53 Unit-step response curve showing 25% maximum overshoot. I n the first Ziegler-Nichols method.6T _ I ( . we obtain the response of the plant to a unit-step input experimentally. + . The S-shaped curve may be characterized by two constants-the delay lime L and a time constant T-determined by drawing a line tangent to the S-shaped curve at the inflection point.. . ) 2 Kp l + + _ _ 1 .---_r. (If the response does not exhibit an S-shaped curve. then such a unit-step response curve may look like an S-shaped curve.Sec. The transfer function C(s)/U(s) may then be approximated by a first-order system with a transport lag as follows: CCS) Ke. as shown in Figure 10-55.

Tangent line at inflection point Figure 10--55 S-shaped response curve.2L T.. In the second Ziegler-Nichols method. = TABLE 10-4 Ziegler-Nichols Tuning Rule Based on Step Response of Plant (Fi rst Method) Type of Controller P PI PID KI' T L T 0. Notice that the PID controller tuned by the second Ziegler-Nichols method gives Second method. and 0.5L - L 0. 1 0 K r-------7f�-- . (If the output does not exhibit sustained oscillations for whatev­ er value Kp may take.) Thus the critical gain K" and the corresponding period Pu are determined experimentally.3 2L . Thus.) Ziegler and Nichols suggested that we set the values of the parameters Kp' T.1 / L. the PID controller has a pole at the origin and double zeros at s = = . 9L T 1 . we increase Kp from 0 to a critical value Kcr at which the output first exhibits sus­ tained oscillations. Using the proportional control action only (see Figure 10-56). 00 �I 0 0 0. T. we first set 00 and Td O. according to the formula shown in Table 1 0-5. then this method does not apply. (See Figure 10-57.568 Time-Domain An a lys is c(/) and Design of Control Systems Chap.

(If plant dynamics are known.4SKcr Q. the PID controller has a pole at the origin and double zeros at s -4/ P". 0. Ziegler-Nichols luning rules can. iod er = Comments. the real usefulness of Ziegler-Nichols tun­ ing rules (and other tuning rules) becomes apparent when the plant dynamics are 1101 known. Then. it is possible to determine the parameters K". of course.Sec.5Kn c.) If the transfer function of the plant is known. However.6Kcr 00 1 -p 1. be applied to plants whose dynamics are known.SPer . Rule Based on Critical Type of Controller P PI PID K" T. so that no analylical or graphical approaches to the design of controllers are available. many analytical and graphical approaches to the design of PID controllers are available in addition to Ziegler-Nichols tuning rules. and 01 from Table 1 0-4 or Table 10-5.2 cr D D. a unit-step response may be cal­ culated or Ihe critical gain K" and critical period P" may be calculated. 1 2SP" O. Ziegler-Nichols tuning rules (and other lUning rules presented in the literature) have been widely used to tune PID controllers in process control systems for which the plant dynamics are not precisely known. such tuning rules have proved to be highly useful. with those calculated values. T" 0 O. TABLE 10-5 Gain �r and Critical Period Pcr (Second Method) Ziegler-Nichols Tuning Thus. 10-10 Tuning Rules for PID Controllers C(I) 569 Figure 10--56 Closed-loop system with a proportional controller. C(I) o Figure 10--57 Sustained oscillation with per P . Over many years.

Since the characteristic equation for the closed-loop system is s(s + l ) (s Kp + 5) + Kp 53 + 6s2 + 55 + Kp = 0 C(s) Figure 10-58 PID-controlled PID Controller S(5 + t )(5 + 5) system. (This is quite understandable.. then the plant with a PID controller tuned by such rules will exhibit approximately 10% to 60% maximum overshoot in step response. On the average (obtained by experimenting on many different plants). If the maximum overshoot is excessive (40% or more). for plants with complicated dynamics. but n o integrators.570 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. however.15) 7is C(s) � R(s) The value of Kp that makes the system marginally stable so that sustained oscillations occur can be obtained by the use of Routh's stability criterion.) In a given case. The PID controller has the transfer function � G. If. 711 and �/' Then we will obtain a unit-step response curve and check whether the designed system exhibits approximately 25% maximum overshoot. we use the second Ziegler-Nichols method. either because the plant does not exhibit the S-shaped response or because the plant does not exhibit sustained oscil­ lations no matter what gain K is chosen. Examplc 10-11 Consider the control system shown in Figure 10--58. If the plant is such that Ziegler-Nichols rules can be applied. . Ziegler-Nichols tuning rules give an educated guess for the parameter values and provide a starting point for fine-tuning. + 7.. it is always possible (experimentally or otherwise) to fine-tune the closed-loop system so that it will exhibit satisfactory transient responses. fine-tunc the system and reduce the amount of the maximum overshoot to approximately 25%. let us apply a Ziegler-Nichols tuning rule for the determination of the val­ ues of parameters Kp . 1 0 Generally. Ziegler-Nichols tuning rules can be applied. because the values suggested in Tables 1 0-4 and 1 0-5 are based on the average. the plant has an integrator. if the maximum overshoot is excessive. I n fact.. Since the plant has an integrator.( s) Kp l Although many analytical methods are available for the design of a PID controller for this system. we obtain the closed-loop transfer function ( + J. Setting 7j = 00 and �I = O. in which a PID controller is used to control the system. the maximum overshoot is approximately 25%. the rules may not be applicable in some cases..

we find that sus­ tained oscillation will occur if Kp = 30.(5) = Kp 1 = I Kfl = O. A block dia­ gram of the control system with the designed PIU controller is shown in Figure 10-59. (See MATLAB Program 10--7. The transfer function of the PID controller is thus G..) T.32235' + 1Bs + 12. we determine 211 w = 2 = 2. Thus.w') + jw(5 .6Kcr = 18 o = 0.. the characteristic equation becomes s3 + 6s2 + 5s + 30 = 0 To find the frequency of the sustained oscillations. we substitute s = acteristic equation and obtain or from which we find the frequency of the sustained oscillation to be Hence.35124 6.4235 .!.3223(5 + 1.125?" = 0.Kp 6 K.s O' B ( + � + 0.J 5 Kp Examining the coefficients of the first column of the Routh array. The closed-loop trans­ rer runction C(5)/R(5) is given by C(5) R(5) 6. let us examine the unit-step response of the system. is .Sec. = 0.B l l ' + 6s3 + 1 1 . Next.4235)' -' ( + -. + 7. the period of sustained oscillation is (jw)' + 6(jw)' + 5(jw) 30 = 0 6(5 .-.. 10-10 Tuning Rules for PIO Controllers 571 the Routh array becomes 53 5 ' 51 sO I 6 30 .w') 0 = + jw into this char­ = 5 or ?" = From Table 10--5. 5 v ::: w2 w = Vs. the critical gain Kcr is Kcr = 30 With the gain Kp set equal to Kcr( = 30).B099 . 32235' + IB5 + 12..) TIle resulting unit-step response curve is shown in Figure 10-60.4 1 )5 The PID controller has a pole at the origin and double zero at s = -1. TIle maximum overshoot in the unit-step response is approximately 62%.5?" = l AOS 0.B l l 5 The unit-step response of this system can be obtained easily with MATLAB.351245 ) 1.

.3223 1 8 1 2 . by keeping Kf! = 18 and by moving the double zero of the PID controller to s = -0.-: .. 0..6 1.01 : 1 4.65) ' s (10-51) MAHAB Program 1 0-7 » t 0:0..846 (s + 0.65. using the PID controller G. » num [0 0 6.l) » grid » title('Unit-Step Response') » x[abe[('I')..6 0. possibly on the computer.. We find that..3223 1 8 1 2 .077s ) � 1 3. � .3223 (s + 1 ._ ... ylabe[('Output cit)' ) � = .4 Figure 10-60 S Q. » step(num.4235)' Chap. . 1. Unit-step response curve of PIO-controlled system designed by the use of the second Ziegler-Nichols luning method.8 1.den..2 I 'G :.2 O L-�-�----�-�-�� o 2 4 6 I 8 10 12 14 (sec) excessive... thaI is. It can be reduced by fine-tuning the controller parameters.81 1 1 .8 o 0. 0.-.----.(s ) � 18 1 ( + 1 + 0.. 1 0 PIO Controller s(s + I )(s + 5) C(s) Figure 10-59 Block diagram of the system with PID controller designed by the use of the second Ziegler-Nichols tuning method.572 lime-Domain Analysis and Des i g n of Control Systems � L_ _ _ _ -' s 6.4 <::' Unit-Step Response 1 .7692s 3...81 1 [ .� � . » den = [1 6 1 1 .

(') 1 3 . but the maximum overshoot is also increased.+ 0. T. Since the dominant branches of root loci are along the ( = 0. to be acceptable..Sec.7692s = 30. we may consider G.(s) = 39. increasing the value of KI' increases the speed of response. llle reason for this may be seen from the root· locus analysis.''( 1 0-52) -G.2 O L.) If the proportional gain K p is increased to 39. (sec) Figure 10-61 Unit-step response of the system shown in Figure = � � 10-58 with PID cOOlro\ler with parameters Kp = and T" 0. to approximately 28%.077.(s).� � 5 6 7 .0. = 3. T" � 0. Figure 1 0--63 shows the root· locus diagram for the system designed with the second Ziegler-Nichols tuning method. in the case where the double zero is located at s = -1 . then the speed of response is increased. (See Figure !O-61. 1l1e important thing to note here is that the Ziegler-Nichols rule has provided a starting point for fine·tuning. 10-10 Tuning Rules fo r PID Controllers 573 1 .6 0. but as far as the percentage maximum overshoot is concerned. 18.4235.. varying the value of K (from 6 to 30) will not change the damping ratio of the dominant c1osed·loop poles very much.7692 .-'.4 1.42.� � � � ..(s) given by Equation (10-51). 07 7 s s ( I ) is used. + 0.7692.� � .8 .. without changing the location of the double zero (s = -0. 3. or G.846(..65)'/. Since the maximum over­ shoot in this case is fairly close to 25% and the response is faster than the system with G. if thc PID controller ' (s + 0 65 ) . thai is. as given by Equation (10-52).4 0.077. as shown in Figure 10-62.--'-' 3..3 lines for a considerable range of K. the maximum overshoot in the unit-step response can be reduced to approximately 18%. varying gain Kp has very little effect. T.2 s.65). varying the location of the double zero Kp = 39.'-.42.322 "'-. However. Then the tuned values of Kp' ri• and �I become It is interesting to observe that these values are approximately twice the values sug· gested by the second Ziegler-Nichols tuning method.� � � � _ _ _ _ o 2 _ _ 3 _ _ L.Unit-Step Response :5 "5 0- 0. It is instructive to note that.42 I + .

2 Unit-Step Response 0.4235.3 -""'" K 6.32 -5 .12. 10 1. = 0.4 1.4 Figure 10-62 Unit-step response of the system shown in Figure 10-58 with PID controller with parameters Kp = 39.5 2 2..2 1.077.5 I (sec) 3 3. + 1)(5 + 5) K = 6. _ I� _ - f.. T = 3.(.65)'ls.574 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. + 35 ) K S _.322(s + 0. j3 j 2 \ 0.5 4 4.32 .7692. and T. 2 _ _ (_ _ _ ' -.5 5 jw -&-IL..I i 0. or G("(s) = 30. .= = jl -4 -3 -2 -I I o -jl (]" -j2 Figure 10-63 ROOI-Iocus diagram of system when PID controller has double zero at s = -1..

with the result that these closed­ loop poles and the double zero almost cancel each other.846. K = 13.846 corresponds to Ge(s) given by Equation (10--51) and K = 30. the maximum overshoot in the step response would be approximately 6%.(s) given by Equation (10-52).322 corresponds to has a considerable effect on the maximum overshoot. The dominant pair of closed-loop poles indeed determines the nature of the response.82 act as dominant poles.Sec. because the damping ratio of the dominant closed-loop poles can be changed significantly. Two additional closed­ loop poles are very near the double zero at s -0. The maximum overshoot in the step response in this case (18%) is much larger than in the case of a second-order system having only dominant closed-loop poles. when the system has K = 13. Figure 1� Root-locus diagram of system when PID controller has double zero at s = -0. the closed-loop poles at s = -2.65.65.65.65 have a considerable effect on the response. (In the laner case. 10-10 Tuning Rules for PID Controllers 1 jw jS 575 S(H 1)($+ 5) j6 G.) = . because the two other closed-loop poles near the double zero at s = -0. Notice the change of the roOl-locus configu­ ration. the closed-loop poles at s = -2. notice that.322.35 ± j4.62 are not quite dom­ inant.35 ± j2. in the case where the system has gain K = 30. This can also be seen from the root-locus analysis. making it possible to change the damping ratio of the dominant closed-loop poles. In the figure. Figure 10--64 show'S the root-locus diagram for the system with PID controller with a double zero at s = -0. By contrast.

1----. Figure 10-65 Block diagram of a system. move the branch point of the path involving HI outside the loop in­ volving H2 as shown in Figure 10-66(a).576 lime-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. eliminating two loops results in Figure 1O--{j6(b). H. . (a) (b) G 1 + GH2 H 1 + ----' G (e) Figure 10-66 Block diagrams showing steps for simplifying the system of Figure 10-65. Solution First. Then. Combining two blocks into one gives Figure 1O--{j6(c). 10 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS Problem A-IO-l Simplify the block diagram shown in Figure 1O--{j5 .

) G.r = y C(s) Problem A-I0-3 Consider the system shown in Figure or A state space representation of G2 is . + 1 R(s) Solution The signal = = R(s). D2 [a] = -'©-I- t sysg Figure lQ-68 Closed-loop system.5] = f{ B2 [a = z = = = - Y C2 = [0 10).5x+ + 0.[GI R(s) + R(s)) + R(s) \Ve thus have C(s) = GIG. A state-space representation of G1 is -5x -1. D1 = [0. derive the transfer function relating C(s) R(s) Figure 10--67 Block diagram of a system. 0 [0 lOt.i-.5// Bl = [l!. or A2 = [-21 O0]· ["1] [-2 O][XI] + [1] l O x.X(s) + R(. Ai = [-5].Example Problems and Solutions 577 Problem A-I0-2 For the block diagram shown in Figure and Xes) is the sum of two signals GIR(s) and R(s): Xes) GIR(s) + R(s) The output signal C(s) is the sum of G. !' � . ] + [O]y - 10-68.X(s) and R(s): C(s) = G. 10--67. . Cl [-LS]. + G.

578

Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems

Chap. 1 0

Define

Obtain a state-space expression of the series connection of Gt and G2 with MATLAB. Use the command Then pl ot the unit-step response of the closed-loop system shown in Figure using the following commands: Solution MATLAB Program A
=

sysl = sslA 1 , B l ,Cl , 0 1 ) sys2 = ssIA2,B2,C2,02)
sysg series{sys1 ,sys2)

=

» A1 = 1 5 1 ; B 1 = 11 1 ; Cl = 1- 1 .51; 01 = [0.51; » A2 = [-2 0; 1 01; B2 = 11 ; 01; C2 = [0 1 01 ; 02 = 101; » sys1 = ss(A1 , B 1 ,C1 , 0 1 ); » sys2 ssIA2, B2,C2,D2); » sysg = serieslsys1 ,sys2) a= xl x2 x3 xl -2 - 1 .5 0 x2 0 0 0 x3 0 -5
=

MAHAB Program 1 0-8

10-8 0 [�2 �0 -�- 5]. [ �5 ], 5
o

sys = feedback{sysg, [1 [);

produces sysg characterized by C
=

steplsys)

10--68
=

by

B

=

I

[0 10 OJ,

D

[OJ

b=

u1 xl x2 x3
c= 0.5

0

xl y1 d= y1 u1 0
0

x2
10

x3
0

Continuous-time model. » sys = feedbacklsysg,ll I); » steplsys) » grid » tit[e( ' U n i t-Step Response') » x[abe [('t') » y[abe[('Output zit)')

Example Problems and Solutions

579

Unit-Step Response

0.9 0.8 0.7 S 0.6 � 0.5 5 o 0.4
N

0.3 0.2 0.1

0.5
Figure 10-69

1.5

r (sec)

2

2.5

3

3.5

Unit-step response curve.

MATLAB Program 10-8 <lIsa produces the unit-step response of the closed-loop sys­ tcm, as shown in Figure 10-69.
Problem A-l� Consider the control system shown in Figure 1 0-70, in which a proportional-plus­ integral controller is used to control the load element consisting of a moment of iner­ tia and viscous friction. Show that if the system is stable this controller eliminates steady-slate error in the response to a step reference input and a step disturbance input. Show also that if the controller is replaced by an integral controller, as shown in Figure 10-71. the system becomes unstable. Solution For the control system shown in Figure 1 0-70, the closed-loop transfer func­ tion between C(s) and R(s) in the absence of the disturbance input D(s) is C(s) R(s)

=

K" K +P T;s

K" , Js- + bs + Kp + T,s
D(s) C(s)

Figure 10-70

Proportional-plus-integral control of a load clement consisting of moment of inertia and viscous friction.

580

Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems

Chap. 1 0

C(s)

Figure 10--71 Integra! control of a load element consisting of moment of
inertia and viscous friction.

TIle error signal can be obtained from
£(s) R(s) R(s) - C(s) R(s) Kp ., is- + bs + Kp + 7fs

Hence, for the unit-step input R(s) = l/s,
£(s)

., is- + bs + Kp +
lS2 +

J52 + bs

-

Kp

7js
bs

If the system is stable, the steady-slate error css can be obtained as follows:
e"

S

1

s-o

lim s£(s) � lim

s-o

152 + bs + Kp + KP

�0

TiS

For the system shown in Figure 10-70, the closed-loop transfer function between C(s) and D(s) in the absence of the reference input R(s) is
C(s) D(s) s

The error signal is obtained from
£(s)

-C (s)

If the system is stable, the steady-state crror torque of magnitude D [D(s) � Dis] is
e ss

s - - - - D( s ) - ::..... ---; ;K J5"; + bs2 + K/'s + ---.!!.. 7j
ess

in the response to a step disturbance

s--o

lim s£(s)

s-o

lim

Kp is] + bs- + Kps + T,
.,

_.'12

D
5

�0

Thus, the steady-state error to the step disturbance torque is zero. If the controller were an integral controller, as in Figure 10-71, then the system would always become unstable, because the characteristic equation
lsJ + bs2 + K = O

Example Problems and Solutions

581

Problem A-10-5

will have at least onc root with a positive real part. Such an unstable system cannot be used in practice. Note that in the system of Figure 10-70, the proportional control action tends to stabilize the system, while the integral control action tends 10 eliminate or reduce steady·state error in response to various inputs. Determine the values of K and k such that the closed-loop system shown in Figure 10-72 has a damping ratio { of 0.7 and an undamped natural frequency w" of 4 Tadls. Solution The closed-loop transfer function is

C(s) R(s)
Noting that
W,, =

=

K s' + (2 + Kk)s + K

VK.
K

we obtain and

2{w" = 2 + Kk
=

= w�

42 = 16

2 + Kk
Thus, or

=

2{w" = 2 x 0.7 x 4 = 5.6
Kk = 3.6
=

R(s)

@-@-+ +
-

36 k = . 16

0.225
C(s)

l..-_--'

Figure 10-72 Closed-loop sysrem.

Problem A-10-6 Determine the values of K and k of the closed-loop system shown in Figure 1 0-73 so that the maximum overshoot in unit-step response is 25% and the peak lime is 2 s. Assume that J = 1 kg_m2 .

Solution The closed-loop transfer function is

C(s) R(s)

K = 1s' + Kks + K

582
R(s)

-+

@--@--

TIme-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems
C(s)

Chap.

10

+

-

Figure 10--73
= 1

Closed-loop system.

LG
C(s)

Substituting J

2 kg_m into this last equation, we have

R(s)
WI! =

=

K s' + Kks + K

Note that

The maximum overshoot Mp is which is specified as 25% . Hence.

VK.
Mp
-

e-'1f/�

e-M� = 0.25 from which it follows that

or The peak time tp is specified as 2 s, so

!: = 0.404

1 = �=2 P W(t

or

Wt/ W

The undamped natural fre quency WII is then

=

1.57
1.57 0.404'
-

w =

"

VI="?

d

=

VI

=

1. 7

2

Therefore, we obtain

K
k

=

=

w� = L7i� = 2.95 N-m 2!:w" 2 X 0.404 X 1 .72 = 0.471 s = 2.95 K

Example Problems and Solutions

583

Problem A-I0-7 When the closed-loop system shown in Figure 10-74(a) is subjected to a unit-step input, the system output responds as shown in Figure 10-74(b). Detennine the values of K and T from the response curve. Solution The maximum overshoot of sponse curve, we have Consequently,
l,, =
w(/ 'TT

25.4 %

corresponds to ,

= 0.4. From the

re­

=

7T

W11 � WI!
=

It follows that From the block diagram, we have C(s) R(s) from which we obtain
w"

1.143

=

Jf.
C(s)

2Tw = !> /I T

I

(a)

C(I)

0.254

o

3

(seconds)

(b)

Figure 10-74 (a) Closed-loop sys­ tem: (b) unit-step response curve.

584

Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems

Chap. 10

111crefore,

= 1 . 094 T=-= 2(w" 2 x 0.4 x 1.143

K = w;,T = 1.143' x 1 .094 = 1.429
Problem A-I0-8 For the closed-loop system shown in Figure 10-75, discuss the effects that varying the values of K and b have on the steady-state error in a unit-ramp response. Sketch typical unit-ramp response curves for a small value, a medium value, and a large value of K. Solution The closed-loop transfer function is

1

I

C(s) R( s)
Therefore.

Js' +

K bs + K

£(s) R(s)
For a unit-ramp input, R(s)

R(s) - C (s) R(s)
1/5'- Thus,
£(5)

ls2 + bs + K

The steady-state error is
ess
=

J-O

hm

b . sE ( s) = K

We sec that we can reduce the steady-state error ess by increasing the gain K or decreasing the viscous-friction coefficient b. However, increasing the gain or decreas­ ing the viscous-f:riction coefficient causes the damping ratio to decrease, with the result that the transient response of the system becomes more oscillatory. On the one hand, doubling K decreases ess to half its original value, whereas ( is decreased to 0.707 of its original value, since ( is inversely proportional to the square root of K. On the other hand, decreasing b to half its original value decreases both ess and ( to half their original values. So it is advisable to increase the value of K rather than decrease the value of b. After the transient response has died out and a steady state has been reached, the output velocity becomes the same as the input velocity. However, there is a steady·state positional error between the input and the output. Examples of the unit·ramp response of the system for three different values of K are illustrated in Figure 1 0-76.

C(s)

Figure 10-75

Closed-loop system.

Example Problems and Solutions
Large K Small K

585

,(I) c(/)

Medium K

Figure 10-76 o

Unit-ramp response curves for the sys­ tem shown in Figure 10-75.

Problem A-I0-9 Consider the following characteristic equation:
s"' + Ks3 + 52 +
S

Determine the range of K for stability. Solution The Routh array of coefficients is
54 5' 52 51 5° I K

+ I = 0

I 0

-

K - I K K' K -

0 0

---

For stability, we require that
K >0 K - I -- > 0 K K' >0 K - 1
--

From the first and second conditions. K mllst be greater than unity. For K > 1. notice that the term 1 - f K2j( K - "1 ) I is always negative, since
K - I - K' K 1
-

- + Kc- - K ) - I _ ...: I_ ---,__ ( _ ' < 0 K - I

lllUS. the three conditions cannot be fulfilled simultaneously. lllcreforc. there is no value of K that allows stability of the system.

586

Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems

Chap. 1 0

Problem A-IO-IO A simplified form of the open-loop transfer function of an airplane with an autopilot in the longitudinal mode is

Determine the range of the gain K for stability. Solution The characteristic equation is

K(5 + 1 ) G(5) N (5) = - --' , -'- ­ - '"' - s(s - 1 ) (s- + 45 + 16)
+

G(s)N(s)
or
_ _ _

1 =a
+ a

K (5 c + 1 ' "': --, ) '_ 5(S - 1 ) (s' + 45 + 16)
which can be rewritten as

1
+

=

5(S - 1 ) (5' + 4s + 16) + K(s
or

1)

= 0

5' + 3s3 5' 53

The Routh array for this characteristic equation is

+

I2s' + (K - 16)s + K 12 K - 16 K a

=a
K
a a

, s-

51 SU

1 3 52 - K --3 -K' + 59K - 832 52 - K K

The values of K that make the 5 1 term in the first column of the array equal to zero are K = 35.68 and K = 23.32. Hence, the fourth term in the first column of the array becomes

- ( K - 35.68)(K - 23.32) 52 - K
The condition for stability is that all terms in the first column of the array be positive. Thus, we require that

from which we conclude that K must be greater than 23.32, but smaller than 35.68, or

52 > K 35.68 > K > 23.32 K>a

35.68 > K > 23.32
A root-locus plot for this system is shown in Figure 10-77. From the plot, it is clear that the system is stable for 35.68 > K > 23.32.

Example Problems and Solutions
jw

587

-6

-4

Figure 10-17 Root-locus plot.

Problem A-lil-ll A control system with G(s) =
'

s (s + I ) '

K

H(s) = I

is unstable for all positive values of the gain K. Plot the root loci of the system. Using the plot, show that the system can be sta­ bilized by adding a zero on the negative real axis or by modifying G(s) to G,(s), where G, (s) - s'{s + 1 )

-

K s +_ -, (_ a ) ,.:- -,K

(0

" a < I)

Solution A root-locus plot for the system with G(s) - s'(s + I )

_

H(s)

=

1

is shown in Figure 10-78(a). Since two branches lie in the r ight half-plane, the system is unstable for any value of K > O. The addition of a zero to the transfer function G(s) bends the right half-plane branches to the left and brings all root-locus branches to the left half-plane, as shown in the root-locus plot of Figure 10-78(b). Thus, the system with

588

Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems

Chap. 1 0

is stable for aU K > O.

K ( s + a) , G1 = , r(s + 1 )

H(s)

1

(0 s a < 1 )

2 ,-��--��-��--.
1.5

Root-Locus Plot of G(s) K�s'(s + I»), H(,)

=

=I

e 0 c '0;, e E -0.5

<
•• K
-

0.5

>.

-1.5

-I

-2_2 -1.5

-I

-0.5

0

0.5

1.5

2

Real Axis (a)
=

Root-Locus Plot of G(,) K(, + 0.5)/[s'(, + 1»), fI(,) = I

2 r- � � -- � � � -- � � �
1

1.5
;; 0.5 < t0 O c 'Qh 0 E -0.5
. �

(a) Root-locus plot of the system with G(,) = K/[,'(, 1») and H(s) 1; (b) root-locus plot of the sys­ tem with G,(,)= K(, + a)/[,'(, + 1») and H(s) 1, where a = 0.5.
Figure 10--78

=

+

-1.5

-I

f

�-�-1.5 -1 -7 7- 0.5 � 1.5 � � � � 1 -7 2 � 2 � 7--0.5 0 �
Real Axis (b)

=

Problem A-l(l-U Consider the control system shown in Figure 10-79. Plot the root loci for the system. Then determine the value of the gain K such that the damping ratio { of the dominant closed-loop poles is 0.5. Using MATLAB, determine all closed-loop poles. Finally, plot the unit-step response curve with MATLAB.

Example Problems and Solutions

589

Figure 10-79

Control system.

Solution TIle open-loop transfer function is G(s) Hence, for this system,
=

K , s(s- + 4s + ))
_

num den

= =

III 11 4

5

01

MATLAB Program 10-9 produces a rOOl-locus plot for the system, as well as the ( = 0.5 line (a line radiating frorn the origin and having an angle of 60° from the nega­ tive real axis if the axes are square). The root-locus plot is shown in Figure 10-80.
MATlAB Program 1 0-9

» num Il l; » den = 1 1 4 5 01; » K1 = 10:0.001 :2.51; K2 12.5:0.01 : 1 001; K3 » K IK1 K2 K3 1 ; » Ir, KI = rloc u s ( num, de n ,K); » plot(r,'-') » axisCequal'); v = [-4 4 -4 4[; axis(v) » hold Current plot held » x = 10 -2]; y = [0 3 .464]; l ine(x,y) » grid » title C Roat-Locus Plot') » xlabelCReal Axis'); yl abelC l magi n ary Axis') » text( - 3 .5,2.5 , ' \zeta = 0.5') » hold Cu rrent plot released
= = =

=

1 1 00:0.5 : 1 0001;

Next. we shall determine the value of the gain K such that the dominant closed-loop poles have a damping ratio { of 0.5. We may write the dominant closed-loop poles as s
=

x

where x is an unknown constant to be determined. Since the characteristic equation for the system is substituting s 53 + 4s2 + 5s + K = 0 x + jV3x into this last equation, we obtain = (x + jV:lX)3 + 4(x + jV:lx)' + 5(x + jV:lx) + K

±

j'v3x

or

-8x3 - 8x' + 5x + K

+

2V:lj(4x'

+

2.Sx)

=

a

= a

590

Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems 4
2 , = 0.5 Root-Locus Plot

Chap. 1 0

3
. ';;
<: 1:"

.� 0

-I

0

-2 -3
-4-4 4

-3 -2 -I

J'igurc 10-80 Root-locus plol.

Equating the real part and imaginary part to zero, respectively, we get

Real Axis

0

2

3

Noting that x

-8x3 - 8x2 + 5x + K 4x' + 2.5x 4x + 2.5
=

0, we obtain, from Equation (10--54),
0

0 = 0

=

(10-53) (10-54)

or

Substituting x

=

8x3 + 8x2 - 5x = 8( -0.625)3 + 8( = 4.296875 lllU S, we determine that K equals 4.296875.
K
=

-0.625 into Equation (10-53 ) , we get
-

x = -0.625
.

0 625 ) '

- 5( -0.625)

To determine all closed-loop poles. we may enter MATLAB Program the compulCr.
MAHAB Program 1 0-1 0

10-10 into

p = 11 4 rOO(5(p)
ans =

5

4.2968751;

-2 .7500 -0.6250 + 1 .0825i -0.6250 - 1 .0825i

Example Problems and Solutions
� � � --'- - - � ...., r- - - � � � r- -

591

1.4

Uni t- S tep Respon se

1 .2

0 0.6

:; ":;

0.8
0.4 3 5 4 r (sec)

0.2 0 0 2

6

7

8

9
Figure 10-81

Unit-step response.

Thus.lhe closed-loop poles are located al S � -0.625 ± jl.0825 and S � -2.75. 111e unit-step response curve can be plotted by entering MATLAB Program 10-11 into the computer. The resulting unit-step response curve is shown in Figure 10-8 1 .
MAHAB Program

1 0-1 1

Problem A-IO-13

» num = [4.2969[ ; » den [1 4 5 4.29691; » step[num,den) » grid » title('Unit-Step Response') » xlabel('t') » ylabel('Output')
=

Consider the system shown in Figure '10-82. Design a compensator such that the domi­ nant closed-loop poles arc located at s = -2 ± j2V3. Plot the unit-step response curve of Ihe designed system with MATLAB. Solution and s =

s = -2 + j2V3, the sum of the angle contributions of the open-loop poles (at s = 0

From Figure 10-83(a), if the closed-loop pole is to be located at
=

-2) is - 120° - 90°

-210°. This means that. to have the closed-loop po l e at

Figure J0-82

Conlroi syslcm.

592

Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems

Chap. 1 0

s = -2 + j2,f]

jw j4 j3
j 2

s = -2 + ]2{3

jw j4 ]3

'"

30· jl
(]'

-4

-3

-2

:-"\

90·
-I 0

120· -jl
-4 -3

-2

-I

0 -jl

Figure 10-83 (a) Open·1oop poles and a desired closed-loop pole; (b) compensator pole-zero con· figuration to contribute phase IC<ld angle of 30°,
s = -2 + j2Y3, we must add 30° to the opcn-Ioop transfer function. Stated different­ ly, the angle deficiency of the given open-loop transfer function at the desired closed­ loop pole 5 � -2 + j2V3 is 180' - 120' - 90'

(a)

(b)

-30'

The compensator must contribute 30°. A compensator that contributes a positive angle is called a lead compeflsaror, a possible form of which is given by G,(5)

5 + a K -5+ b

Let us choose the zero of the lead compensator at s = -2. Then the pole of the com­ pensator must be located at s = - in order to have a phase lead angle of 30°. [See 4 Figure 10-83(b).] thus, GA5)

5+ 2 K -­ s + 4

The gain K is determined from the magnitude condition

or

I

K

5 + 2 _5 5 + 4 5(0.05 + 1 )

K Hence,

1

5(5

10 +

4

I

s=-2+j2V3

1

) s= -2+j2VJ

1

1.6

s+ 2 1.6 -­ s + 4

5 5 Figure 10-84 Unit-step response curves. cl step(num.denc. plot(t. .2 1. 1 2 .c2. 'Compensated system') = = 1 0-1 2 � _ 1. den = [1 2 1 01 . c2 = step(numc.t).01 :5.75. MATlAB Program » » » » » » » » num = 1 1 01 .-: _ -.55 + 1 ) -- 16 5(5 + 4) Next.Example Problems and Solutions 593 The open-loop transfer function of the compensated system is G.-: _ . TIle original system has the following closed-loop transfer function: C(5) 10 = R(5) 52 + 25 + 10 The compensated system has the following closed-loop transfer function: C(5) R(5) 16 5' + 45 + 16 MATLAB Program 10--1 2 plots the unit-step response curves of the original and com­ pensated systems.2 7.8 a.cl .� � � - Unit-Step Responses of Original System and Compensated System Original system 1.2 S 0. The resulting unit-step response curves are shown in Figure 10-84. denc [1 4 1 61 .5 4 4. ' . t = 0:0.5 3 3. we shall obtain unit-step responses of the original system and the compen­ sated system.75.� . 6 5 + 4 5(5 + 2) 5(0. (5) 5 5+2 10 = 1 .'·I ) grid title( ' U nit-5tep Responses of Original System and Compensated System ') » xlabel('t (sec)')..t.den.t).6 0.4 . 'Original system') » text(l ... numc = [ 1 61.'..5 2 t (sec) 2. 1 . '" 0 0.1 . ylabel('Outputs') » text(I .4 0.

. the pole of the compensator must be located at s = -3.135° = .(s) = K -- s + a b s+ and let us choose the zero of the lead compensator at s = -0.S Lead compensator Space vehicle jw j2 jl Figure 10-86 Pole-zero location of lead compen­ sator contributing 90° phase lead.135' . in a sense.) To obtain a phase lead angle of 90'. Then obtain the unit-step and unit­ ramp responses of the uncompensated and compensated systems. 1 0 Problem A-IO-14 Consider the system shown in Figure 10-85. The zero should not be too close to the origin and should be located somewhere between -0.5 s+ 3 Figure l().135' = -90' The compensator must contribute 900• Let us use a lead compensator of the form G.1 ± j1.1350 .) Thus.8.594 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap..5 is.S Control system. G.(s) = K -­ s + 0.4 and -0.5. Design a compensator such that the domi­ nant closed-loop poles are located at s = . Hence.1 + j I. .270°. the angle contribution of the two open-loop poles at the origin is . arbitrary. so that the lead com­ pensator can provide a 90' phase lead. Solution For a desired closed-loop pole at s = . (See Figure 10-86. -3 -2 -I o -jl (]" . (Note that the choice of the zero at s = -0. the angle deficien­ cy is 180' .

which arc shown in Figure 10-89. we shall obtain the unit-step and unit-ramp responses of the uncompensat­ ed and compensated systems. MATLAB Program 10-13 obtains the unit-step response curves.5 �1 52 or K � I (Ss + 3)5S'1 + 0. s4s++3ssA root·locus plOI of the system is shown in Figure 10-87.1 ± j l and s -1..-. '. the lead compensator becomes G (s) � 4 ss++0..O .-.Example Problems and Solutions 595 where the gain K must be determined from the magnitude condition IK ss++03._ . - .(s)..rr---.--! _3 _ . Real Axis Figure 10-87 Root locus plot. Note that the closed-loop transfer function is C(s) � 4s + 2 R(s) + 3. ..3 Then the feedforward transfer function becomes 3 ' = = 10-88. which aTC shown in Figure MATLAB Program 10-14 obtains the unit-ramp response curves. Next. .' + 4s + 2 The closed-loop poles arc located at s ...""C --'. c s=-l+ji �1 �4 s'=-I-}1 Hence. Root-Locus Plot of (45 + 2)/(s' + 3-") 3 r----r----. . --'-1--.3_'.7".2 . 2 Closed loop poles - -2 ..35 � 1 2 G.2 4 ..

cl . c1 = step(num.3. I .I. 'lnpuI') . den = 1 1 0 01.596 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.3.6 1. plot (t.02 : 1 2.3. 1 . 1 _1 ) grid title('Unit-Step Responses of Uncompensated and Compensated Systems') » xlabel('t (sec) '). text(6. plot{l.85. t = 0:0. numc = 14 2 1 .__ � -- ! .t). Figure 10-88 2 4 .denc. text(4.I. I . 1 .6 0. denc = 1 1 3 4 2 1 . t = 0:0.8. ! Unc�mpcnsale.95. c2 = slep(numc.2.9.8 1 . 1 0. ylabel('Outputs') » text(1 . � � -. text(1 0.t). text( 1 .den. 9.53.6.'Compensated'). 1 _ .den.2. 'system') text(l 0.0. den = 1 1 0 1 1.t. 1 . c2 = step(n umc.t).-- Unit Step Responses o f Uncompensated and Compensated Systems __ � __ � � __ -.3 .1 " 0.65. (sec) 8 10 12 num = 1 1 1 .95.'Compensated'). 1 . 'system') text(1 2 .2 :5 9.8 1 .d system \ \ Compensated system \ 6 i f .denc. 9. denc = 1 1 3 4 2 OJ .2 2 .t. c 1 . c1 = step(num.t)..e 2 . 10 0 0.4 "" 1.4 0.'system') » text(4. 1 . 1_1 ) grid title('Unit-Ramp Responses of Uncompensated and Compensated Systems') xlabel('t (sec)').0.85. numc = 14 21.7. ' Uncompensated').0. f f \ Unit­ step response curves of uncompensated and compensated systems. ' U ncompensated').73.c2 .02 : 1 5.6. 'system ') » » » » » » » » MATlAB Program 1 0-1 3 MATlAB Program 1 0-1 4 » » » » » » » » » » » » num = 1 1 1. ylabel('lnput and Outputs') lext(6. 1 .

Choose the configu­ ration of the closed-loop poles such that there is a pair of dominant closed-loop poles. Solution TIl e PID controller has the transfer function G.'·)� Figure 10-90 PI D-conlrolled system. Obtain also the response to the unit-step reference input.Example Problems and Solutions Unit-Ramp Responses of Uncompensated and Compensated Systems 597 1 5 r. which represents PID control of a second­ order plant G(s). -. 10 ::o .. Problem A-lO-IS Consider the system shown in Figure 10-90. Design a control system such that the response to any step disturbance will be damped Qui quickly (in 2 to 3 s in terms of the 2% settling time).� � � r_ -� .(s) = K(t1s + 1 )(bs + 1) s � K(as + 1}(bS + I) PID Controller � ®-- O(s) -=. C'.. and the response characteristics to disturbances <lrc a vcry important consideration in this system. It is assumed that the reference input R(s) is normally held constant.-. . "" " o §- 5 _+-' ""'-.Compensated o 5 t (sec) 10 15 Figure 10-89 Unit-ramp response curves of uncompensated and com­ pensated systems.__ ---. Thcll obtain the response to the unit-step disturbance input. Assume that disturbances D(s) cntcr the system as shown in the diagram.-l _ J- _ _ Plant G(s) T"(s.Uncompensated system system o ��------�--� �---.----.-= � � � -..-.

we sec that the settling time is approximately 2. fer function becomes Cd (5) 0(5) = 5 5(-" + 3. the response damps out quickly and the system designed here is acceptable. Then the desired characteristic equation can be written as 10)(5' + 2 x 0. 1 0 For the disturbance input i n the absence o f the reference input.065. + 16 ) I = 5 0 . the stcady-state output is zero. the response to the disturbance is given by 14s. n + b = The transfer function of the PID controller now becomes G.598 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. which produces the response curve shown in Figure 10-91 (a). 0( 5) O(s) 1O)(s. + 9) + K ( n5 + 5 1 )(b5 53 + (3.5 and w" = 4 rad/s for the dominant closed-loop poles.065s' + 5 0.385) \Vith this PID controller..6-.- K [nb5' + (n + b) 5 + iJ 160(0.1 0 so that the effect of this real pole on the response is small.6 9+ which yields nb = + Knb = Kn + Kb = K = 14 56 160 0. Thus.( 5 ) = --' --'--. We may choose the third pole at s = . for a unit-step disturbance input. we require 3.7 s.293755 + I ) + .6 + KGb)5' + (9 + Kn + Kb)5 + K = 0 (5 + The specification requires that the settling lime of the response to the unit-step distur­ bance be 2 to 3 s and that the system have reasonable damping.+ 565 + 160 (5 + .(I) = lim 5Cd(5) = lim . the closed·loop trans.6 + Knb)5' + (9 + Kn + Kb)5 + K + I) (10-55) (5 + 10)(5' + 45 + 16) 565 + 160 TIle characteristic equation for the system given by Equation (10-55) is 5' + (3..+ 45 5' . From the response curve._00 lim C. . + 4. We may interpret the specification as ( = 0. sincc . + 16) Clearly.4(5' + 4. + 1O)(s.-0 . 10.-0 (5 The response to a unit-step disturbance input can be obtained easily with MATLAB Program 10-15.5192s 5 s 15.-'-----'.29375 0..5 x 4s + 4') = = 53 + 1452 + Hence.

For the reference input 1'(1). the closed-loop transfer function is C.5 � �. 0 u = � 0.2 6 g. 2 0 -2 1.5 5 Figure 10-91 (b) (a) Response 10 unit­ step disturbance input. 0. The resulting response curve is shown in Figure J 0-91(b)..5 (sec) 3 3.E 6 � 6 4 .0 1.5 2 2. 8 � 0 '" 0.5 5 1.� � � � � � -..5192s + 15.2 0 0 0.14 r.. 0. WAs' + 47s + 160 s3 + 14s' + 56s + 160 .4 . 8 Q.-' -.385) s 3 + 14s' + 56s + 160 The response 10 a unit-step reference input can also be obtained with the usc of MATLAB Program 10-l5.5 1.Example Problems and Solutions 599 � 8 = -..5 4 I �.6 " g.-' � __ x 10-3 Response to Unit-Step Disturbance Input 12 10 8 . 1.(s) R(s) = 10A(s' + 4.-. (b) response to unit-slep reference input.5 3 (sec) (a) Response to Unit-Step Reference Input 3.5 2 f 2.

1 0 111e response curve shows that the maximum overshoot i s 7. 111 C system has quite acceptable response characteristics. Ic1 .-tL:J J h.xl . plot(t.c1 ) grid title(' Response to U n i t-Step Disturbance Input') xlabelCt (sec)') ylabelCOutput to Disturbance Input') = % - --.7 S.4 47 1 601. tl step(numr.'---'- C(s) diagram Figure 10-92 Block of a system. MATlAB Program 1 0-1 5 » » » » » » » » » » » » » » numd = 1 1 0]. -+-EJ LG .Response to unit-step disturbance i nput ----- numr 1 1 0. » plot(t.c2 ) » grid » titleC Response to U n i t-Step Reference Input'l » xlabelCt (sec)') » ylabelCOutput to Reference Input') » = = » % ----. denr = 11 1 4 56 1 601.Response to unit-step reference input ----- PROBLEMS Proble".600 "TIme-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. » Ic2. x2. dend 11 1 4 56 1 60]. r..3% and the settling lime is 1.denr. t = 0:0.dend. 8-10-1 Simplify the block diagram shown in Figure 10-92 and obtain the transfer function C(s)/R(s).tl = step(numd.t).t).01 :5.

11 )) 0. Problem 8-10-4 Use the parallel.... series. R(s) + )--L-- D-®5 + � � 2 ) f----. Problem 8-10-3 loop transfer function C(s)IR(s) of the system shown Use the following series and feedback commands of MATLAB to obtain the c1osed­ in Figure LO-94: sysg sys = = Il(s) series(sys1 .". I-----i Figure 10-93 Block diagram of a system.55 + 1 f--� sys I C(s) sys 2 Figure 10-94 Control system. and feedback commands of MATLAB to obtain the c1osed­ loop transfer function C(s)/R(s) of the system shown in Figure l0-95.--...5s + 1 Figure 10-95 Control system. I------.Problems 601 Problem 8-10-2 Simplify the block diagram shown in Figure 10-93 and obtain the transfer function C(s)/R(s).sys2) feedback(sysg. 10 sIs + l ) (s + C(s) '-------i O. hr--- C(s) H.J . G.

If the thermal capacitance of the glass of the thermometer is negligible. Explain the operation of the speed-control system shown in Figure 10-97. then the thermometer may be considered a first-order . e· . \Vhat is the control action of this controller? R. + + Problem 8-1� Figure 10-96 Electronic controller.602 Time-Domain Analysis and Des ign of Control Systems Chap. 1 0 Problem 8-10-5 Derive the transfer function Eo(5)/ Ej(s) of the electronic controller shown in Figure 10-96. Oil under pressure w e Figure 10-97 Speed­ Fuel - control system. y Engine Problem 8-10-7 Consider a glass-walled mercury thermometer.

s + I ) where T\ and T2 are time constants. . Problem B-l(HI Obtain the unit-step response of the control system shown in Figure 10--99. 'c 1 30 20 to o L---�----�--���=---­ 2 4 6 8 (seconds) Figure 10--98 Response curve for a thermometer system. the thermometer may be considered a second-order system and the transfer func­ tion may be modified to (T. both temperatures measured from the ambient temperature. Assume that a glass-walled mercury thermometer is used (0 measure the tem­ perature of a bath and that the thermal capacitance of the glass is negligible. so it is experimentally determined by lowering the device into a pail of water held at l O°e. the temperature of which is increasing linearly at a rate of 1 0°C/min. Figure 1 0-98 shows the temperature response observed during the test. [0(0) = 30"C. how much steady-state error does the ther­ mometer show? If the thermal capacitance of the glass of a mercury thermometer is not negligi­ ble.Problems 603 system. I f the thermometer is placed in a bath.) Find the time constant.s + I)(T. Assume also that the time constant of the thermometer is not known. where both the thermometer temperature (J and the bath tem­ perature Ob are measured from the ambient temperature. and its transfer function may be given by 0(s) 1 Ts + 1 where 9(5) is the Laplace transform of the thermometer temperature 0 and 01J(s) is the Laplace transform of the bath temperature (h. Sketch a typical temperature response curve (0 vcr­ sus f) when such a thermometer with two lime constants is placed in a bath held at (I constant temperature (Jb.

.604 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. 16 C(s) . R(s) ---. DL.. Figure 10-100 Block diagram of a position control system with velocity Problem 8-10--11 Consider the system shown in Figure 10-101. Figure to-LOO shows a position control system with velocity feedback.. 1 0 C(s) �©-I S+1 r Figure 10-99 Control system.... Then obtain the rise time fn peak time [p. 45-----.- �� DL.5... Determine the value of k such that the damping ratio [ is 0. Figure 10-101 Control system. Problem 8-10--9 Consider a system defined by C(s) R(s) = Problem 8-10--10 Determine the values of ( and WI! so that the system responds to a step input with approximately 5 % overshoot and with a settling time of 2 s. maximum overshoot MI" and settling lime Is in the unit-step response. \Vhat is the response c(r) to the unjl step input? C(s) feedback.

Determine the range of the gain K required for the stability of a un ity-feed back control system whose open·loop transfer function is G( s ) - Use Routh's stability criterion.--+ � + :-:­ . Seuling lime :s.1 4.� Cont rol system. R(s) -+ Problem 8-10-14 C(s) a Figure 10-103 Block diagram of system. Damping ratio of the closed-loop poles is 0. Deter­ mine the values of the amplifier gain K and the velocity feedback ga in Kh so that the following specifications are satisfied: 1.5 2.. Assume thai the system is underdamped. 2 s 3..Problems Problem 8-10-12 605 Consider the system shown in Figure 10--102. Static velocity error constant Kv � 50 5. Determine the range of the gain K required for stability. .--: --. which involves velocity feedback. Also. Plot a root·locus diagram for the system. Problem 8-10-15 --.@-+ + R(s) Figure 10-102 . 0 < K" < 1 -@-. find the steady-state error for the unit-ramp response.-: s ( s I )( s 5 ) K Consider the c1osed·loop control system shown in Figure 10--104. K C(s) Problem 8-10-13 Find the response c(c) of the system shown in Figure 1 0--"103 when the inp ut r(r) is a unit ramp..

606

Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems

�tPL-�
Figure 10-104 Control system.
Problem 8-10-16

If- ..-(s)_ --, C,,:, K(s' . 2s + 4) .:., s(s + 4)(s 6)(; + L.4s + I
+

Chap. 1 0

I)

Consider the system whose open·)oop transfer function is

C (5) N (5)

=

K - - - - --7'- - 5(5 + 0.5 )(5' + 0.65 + 10) K 54 + 1.1s3 + 10.352 + 55

Plot the root loci for the system with MATLAB. Problem 8-10-17 Plot the root loci for the system shown in Figure 1 0-105. Determine the range of the gain K required for stability.

Figure 10-105 COnlrol system.
Problem 8-10-18 Consider the system shown in Figure 10-106. Design a compensator such thal 1he dam· inan! closed-loop poles are located at s = -1 ± / i v

Figure 10-106 Control system.
ProbLem 8-10-19 Consider the system shown in Figure 1 0-107. Plot the root loci for the system. Detemline the value of K such that the damping ratio { of the dominant closed-loop poles is 0.6. lllen determine all closed-loop poles. Plol lhe unit-step response curve with MATLAB.

-------OL..�
Figure 10-107 Control system.

K
'(5 + 1 )(5 + 4)

Problems

607

Problem 8-10-20 Consider the system shown in Figure 1 0-108. It is desired to design a PID controller GAs) such that the dominant closed-loop poles are located at s = -1 ± jl. For the prD controller, choose a = 0.5, and then determine the values of K and b. Draw a roat­ locus plot with MATLAR
R_ _ _(S)� _

� I __

� _ __ __

PID control ler

K � + a ( s + b) �
__

C(s)
Plant

Gc(s)

G(s)

Figure 10-108

PID controlled system. -

Frequency-Doma in Analysis and Design of Control Systems
1 1 -1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter deals with the frequency-response approach to the analysis and design of control systems. By the term frequency respOllse, we mean the steady-state response of a system to a sinusoidal input. An advantage of the frequency-response approach is that frequency-response tests are, in general, simple and can be made accurately by use of readily available sinusoidal signal generators and precise measurement equipment. Often. the trans­ fer functions of complicated components can be determined experimentally by fre­ quency-response tests. Frequency-response analysis and design of linear control systems is based on the Nyquist stability criterion, which enables us to investigate both the absolute and relative stabilities of linear closed-loop systems from a knowledge of their open­ loop frequency-response characteristics. In this chapter, we first present Bode diagrams (logarithmic plots). We then discuss the Nyquist stability criterion, after which the concept of the phase margin and gain margin is introduced. Finally, the frequency-response approach to the design of control systems is treated. MATLAB approaches to obtain Bode diagrams and Nyquist plots are included in this chapter. It is noted that although the frequency response of a control system presents a qualitative picture of the transient response, the correlation between the frequency
608

Sec. 1 1-2

Bode

Diagram Representation of the Frequency Resp o nse

609

and transient responses is indirect, except in the case of second-order systems. I n designing a closed-loop system, we adjust the frequency-response characteristic of the open-loop transfer function by using several design criteria in order to obtain acceptable transient-response characteristics for the system.
Outline of the chapter. Section 1 1-1 has given introductory remarks. Section 1 1-2 presents Bode diagrams of transfer-function systems. I n particular, first-order

systems and second-order systems are examined in detail. The determination of static error constants from Bode diagrams is also discussed. Section 11-3 treats plotting Bode diagrams with MATLAB. Section 11-4 deals with Nyquist plots and the Nyquist stability criterion. The concept of phase margin and gain margin is introduced. Section 1 1-5 discusses plotting Nyquist diagrams with MATLAB. Finally, Section 1 1 -6 pre­ sents the Bode diagram approach to the design of control systems. Specifically, we dis­ cuss the design of the lead compensator, lag compensator, and lag-lead compensator.
1 1-2 BODE DIAGRAM REPRESENTATION OF THE FREOUENCY RESPONSE

A useful way to represent frequency-response characteristics of dynamic systems is the Bode diagram. (Bode diagrams are also called logarithmic plots offreqllellcy respollse.) In this section we treat basic materials associated with Bode diagrams, using first- and second-order systems as examples. We then discuss the problem of identifying the transfer function of a system from the Bode diagram.
Bode diagrams. A sinusoidal transfer function may be represented by two separate plots, one giving the magnitude versus frequency of the function, the other the phase angle (in degrees) versus frequency. A Bode diagram consists of two graphs: a curve of the logarithm of the magnitude of a sinusoidal transfer function and a curve of the phase angle; both curves are plotted against the frequency on a logarithmic scale. The standard representation of the logarithmic magnitude of G(jw) is 20 log I G(jw) I , where the base of the logarithm is 10. The unit used in this represen­ tation is the decibel, usually abbreviated dB. In the logarithmic representation, the curves are drawn on semilog paper, using a logarithmic scale for frequency and a lin­ ear scale for either magnitude (but in decibels) or phase angle (in degrees). (The frequency range of interest determines the number of logarithmic cycles required on the abscissa.) The main advantage of using a Bode diagram is that multiplication of magni­ tudes can be converted into addition. Furthermore, a simple method for sketching an approximate log-magnitude curve is available. TIle method, based on asymptotic approximation by straight-line asymptotes, is sufficient if only rough information on the frequency-response characteristics is needed. Should exact curves be desired, corrections can be made easily. The phase-angle curves are readily drawn if a tem­ plate for the phase-angle curve of 1. + jw is available. Note that the experimental determination of a transfer function can be made simple if frequency-response data are presented in the form of a Bode diagram.

610

Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems

Chap. 1 1

The logarithmic representation is useful in that it shows both the low- and high-frequency characteristics of the transfer function in one diagram. Expanding the low-frequency range by means of a logarithmic scale for the frequency is highly advantageous, since characteristics at low frequencies are most important in practi­ cal systems. Although it is not possible to plot the curves right down to zero fre­ quency (because log 0 = - co ) , this does not create a serious problem.
Number-decibel conversion line. A number-decibel conversion line is shown in Figure 1 1-1. The decibel value of any number can be obtained from this line. As a number increases by a factor of 10, the corresponding decibel value in­ creases by a factor of 20. This relationship may be seen from the formula 20 log K + 20n 20 log ( K X 1 0" )
=

Note that, when expressed in decibels, the reciprocal of a number differs from its value only in sign; that is, for the number K, 20 log K = -20 log 1 K

Bode diagram of gain K. A number greater than unity has a positive value in decibels, while a number smaller than unity has a negative value. The log-magni­ tude curve of a constant gain K is a horizontal straight line at the magnitude of 20 log K decibels. The phase angle of the gain K is zero. Varying K in the transfer function
20
,

10

iii'
Ol ·0 0 0

0

"'"'

- 10

-20

-30

-40 0.01

V

V

/ [ L
0.04

'/

/
0.1

/

/

'/

L

V

i-'

�V-

0.02

0.2

[I 0.4 0.6

2

, -, 4 - 6 8 10 )

Figure 11-1

Numbers

Number-decibel conversion line.

Sec. 1 1-2

Bode Diagram Representation of the Frequency Response

611

raises or lowers the log-magnitude curve of the transfer function by the correspond­ ing constant amount, but does not affect the phase angle.
Bode diagrams of integral and derivative factors. The log magnitude of lI(jw) in decibels is 20 log

I �I
j

The phase angle of l/jw is constant and equal to -90". If the log magnitude -20 log ,odB is plotted against w on a logarithmic scale. the resulting curve is a straight line. Since ( -20 log lOw) dB
=

=

-20 log w dB

( -20 log w

-

20) dB

the slope of the line is -20 dB/decade. Similarly, the log magnitude of jw in decibels is
20 log Ijwl
=

20 log w dB

The phase angle of jw is constant and equal to 90" . The log-magnitude curve is a straight line with a slope of 20 dB/decade. Figures 1 1 -2 and 1 1 -3 show Bode dia­ grams of lIjw and jw, respectively.
Bode diagram of first-order system. function

Consider the sinusoidal transfer

X(jw) 1 -- = G (jw) = :::-:- --:­ -=---P(jw) Tjw + 1

dB
40 20

o
-20 - 40 � O.t
__

- 80' L

90'

t.1
O. t

� __ � __ � __ �

to

tOO

w

1-

---

--

-

__

___' _ _ _'_ _ _'_ _ �

to

t OO

w

Figure U-2

G(jw)

=

lI(jw).

Bode diagram of

612

Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems
dB

Chap. 1 1

40 20
o

Slope =

20 dB/decade

- 40 � � � __ � __ __ __ �

-20

0.1

10

100

w

Figure 11-3

Bode diagram of

G(jw) = jw.

The log magnitude of this first-order sinusoidal lransfcr function, in decibels, is 20 log

For low frequencies such that w "" liT, the log magnitude may be approximated by -20 log Vw'T' + 1 '" -20 log 1
=

I

TJw + ]
.

1

I

'��---0.1 10 100

w

=

-20 log Vw'T' + 1 dB

0 dB

11ll1s, the log-magnitude curve at low frequencies is the constant O-dB line. For high frequencies such that w i> l/T, -20 log Vw'T' + 1 111is is an approximate expression for the high-frequency range. At w liT, the log magnitude equals 0 dB; at w = lO/T, the log magnitude is -20 dB. Hence, the value of -20 log wT dB decreases by 20 dB for every decade of w. For w i> l/T, the log­ magnitude curve is therefore a straight line with a slope of -20 dB/decade (or
=

'"

-20 log wT dB

The preceding analysis shows that the logarithmic representation of the fre­ quency-response curve of the factor l/(Tjw + 1 ) can be approximated by two straight-line asymptotes: a straight line at 0 dB for the frequency range o < w < liT and a straight line with slope -20 dB/decade (or -6 dB/octave) for the frequency range liT < w < 00. 11,e exact log-magnitude curve, the asymptotes, and the exact phase�angle curve are shown in Figure 1 1-4. The frequency at which the two asymptotes meet is called the corner frequen­ cy or break frequency. For the factor lI(Tjw + 1 ), the frequency w liT is the cor­ ner frequency, since, at w = liT, the two asymptotes have the same value. (TIle low-frequency asymptotic expression at w l/T is 20 log 1 dB 0 dB, and the
= = =

-6 dB/octave).

Sec. 1 1-2

Bode Diagram Representation of the Frequency Response

613

10

I

Asymptote

I

o dB -10

� Corner frequency
Exact curve

I

I

r�,

� Asymptote

-20

"'"

o

-45 -90
I

---...
lOT

� �


I

Figure 11-4 Log-magnitude curve together with the asymptotes and phase-angle
curve of I/(jwT + I).
high-frequency asymptotic expression at w = liT is also 20 log 1 dB 0 dB.) The corner frequency divides the frequency-response curve into two regions: a curve for the low-frequency region and a curve for the high-frequency region. The corner fre­ quency is very important in sketching logarithmic frequency-response curves. The exact phase angle </> of the factor 1/(Tjw + 1 ) is
=

201'

I

5T

I

2T

I T w

2 T

I--

5 T

10 T

20 T

</>

At zero frequency, the phase angle is 0'. At the corner frequency, the phase angle is

=

-tan- 1 wT

At infinity, the phase angle becomes -90°, Because it is given by an inverse-tangent function, the phase angle is skew symmetric about the inflection point at </> = -45'. TIle error in the magnitude curve caused by the use of asymptotes can be cal­ culated. The maximum error occurs at the corner frequency and is approximately equal to -3 dB, since
-20 log "\1'1+1 + 20 log 1 = - 10 log 2 = -3.03 dB

614

Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems

Chap. 1 1

111 e error at the frequency one octave below the corner frequency, that is, at w � 1I(2T), is -20 log The error at the frequency one octave above the corner frequency, that is, at w � 2/T, is -20 log

-V� + 20 log 1 4+ 1

v'5 -20 log 2 � -0.97 dB

v'2'+1 + 20 log 2

111US, the error one octave below or above the corner frequency is approximately equal to - 1 dB. Similarly, the error one decade below or above the corner frequency is approximately -0.04 dB. The error, in decibels, involved in using the asymptotic expression for the frequency response curve of 1/(Tjw + 1 ) is shown in Figure 1 1 -5. The error is symmetric with respect to the corner frequency. Since the asymptotes are easy to draw and are sufficiently close to the exact curve, the use of such approximations in drawing Bode diagrams is convenient i n establishing the general nature o f the frequency-response characteristics quickly and with a minimum amount of calculation. Any straight-line asymptotes must have slopes of ±2011 dB/decade ( II � 0, 1 , 2, . . . ); that is, their slopes Illust be 0 dB/decade, ±20 dB/decade, ±40 dB/decade, and so on. If accurate frequency­ response curves are desired, corrections may easily be made by referring to the curve given in Figure 11-5. In practice, an accurate frequency·response curve can be drawn by introducing a correction of 3 dB at the corner frequency and a correction of 1 dB at points one octave below and above the corner frequency and then con­ necting these points by a smooth curve. Note that varying the time constant T shifts the corner frequency to the left or to the right, but the shapes of the log-magnitude and the phase-angle curves remain the same. The transfer function 1/(Tjw + 1 ) has the characteristics of a low-pass filter. For frequencies above w liT, the log magnitude falls off rapidly toward - 00 ,

v'5 -20 log / � -0.97 dB

Corner frequency

-1 dB -2 -3
Figure 11-5 Log-magnitude error in the
response curve of II(jwT +

1

-4

asymptotic expression of the frequency­

I}.

1 101'

1 5T

1 2T

1 T
w

2 3 T T

5 T

10

T

Sec. 1 1-2

Bode Diagram Representation of the Frequency Response

615

essentially because of the presence of the time constant. In the low-pass filter, the output can follow a sinusoidal input faithfully at low frequencies, but as the input frequency is increased, the output cannot follow the input because a certain amount of time is required for the system to build up in magnitude. Therefore, at high fre­ quencies, the amplitude of the output approaches zero and the phase angle of the output approaches -90°. Therefore, if the input function contains many harmonics, then the low-frequency components are reproduced faithfully at the output, while the high-frequency components are attenuated in amplitude and shifted in phase. Thus, a first-order element yields exact, or almost exact, duplication only for con­ stant or slowly varying phenomena. The shapes of phase-angle curves are the same for any factor of the form (Tjw + 1 )'1. Hence, it is convenient to have a template for the phase-angle curve on cardboard, to be used repeatedly for constructing phase-angle curves for any function of the form (Tjw + 1 )·1 If no such template is available, we have to locate several points on the curve. The phase angles of ( Tjw + 1 )±l are
±45° ±26.6° ±5.7° ±63.4° ±84.3°

at w = T 1 at w = 2T 1 at w l OT 2 at w = T 10 at w = T
=

--

Bode diagram of second-order system. Next, we shall consider a second­ order system in the standard form

The sinusoidal transfer function G(jw) is
G(JW ) = '
? (JW ) ' + _(WI! (JW )
' .

2 w"

or
G(jw)

I f ? > 1, G(jw) can be expressed a s a product o f two first-order terms with real poles. If 0 < ? < 1, G(jw) is a product of two complex-conjugate terms. Asymptot­ ic approximations to the frequency-response curves are not accurate for this G(jw)

( )
Wfl

1

' j � + 2? j �
Wn

( )

+ 1

(11-1)

616

Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems

Chap. 1 1

with low values of (, because the magnitude and phase of C(jw) depend on both the corner frequency and the damping ratio r Noting that
iC(jw) i

or
iC(jw) i

(

j- � W"

Y ( )
1
+

2( j- � W/I

+ 1

we may obtain the asymptotic frequency-response curve as follows: Since
20 log

�( - :;,y ( :J
1
+

1

(1 1-2)

2(

for low frequencies such that w

( )
JWI!

1

.w '

w + 2( J. WI!

( )

+ 1

= - 20 log \

I(

1 -

w2 '

w�

) ( )
+ 2(

w 2 w"

w'" the log magnitude bccomes
=

-20 log 1

0 dB

The low-frequency asymptote is thus a horizontal line at 0 dB. For high frequencies w � OJ'I> the log magnitude becomes w2 w - 2 0 log -40 log - dB
-

w�

=

WI!

The equation for the high-frequency asymptote is a straight line having the slope -40 dBJdecade, since - 40 log
-

10 w
WI!

The high-frequency asymptote intersects the low-frequency one at w this frequency -40 log
-

w = -40 - 40 1 0g OJ
" =

=

w" since at

This frequency, w,,, is the corner frequency for the quadratic function considered. The two asymptotes just derived are independent of the value of r Near the fre­ quency w = w,,, a resonant peak occurs, as may be expected fTOm Equation ( 1 1-1 ). The damping ratio ( determines the magnitude of this resonant peak. Errors obvious­ ly exist in the approximation by straight-line asymptotes. The magnitude of the error is large for small values of r Figure 1 1-6 shows the exact log-magnitude curves, together with the straight-line asymptotes and the exact phase-angle curves for the quadratic function given by Equation (1 1-1) with several values of r If corrections

w" -40 log 1 w" =

0 dB

Sec. 1 1-2

Bode Diagram Representation of the Frequency Response
20 r------,---r---r-r-,---,--r,

617

_ _ f- +l -\' / �f- -.I +- -+ "'_ -( 10 f- --+ _ -t- Lj\. _! - - -+ --i

I

f:j ��f-

(

�O 0.2 �

dB

0

I

0.1

0.2

OA

0.6 0.8

I
w w"

2

6

8 10

Figure 11--6 Log-magnitude curves together with the asymptoles and phase-angle curves of the quadratic sinusoidal transfer function given by Equation ( 11-1).

are desired in the asymptotic curves, the necessary amounts of correction at a suffi­ cient number of frequency points may be obtained from Figure 11-6. The phase angle of Ihe quadratic funclion given by Equation (1 1-1) is

W W L� I! __ � n __ � __ � _

( )
j .!!!...

1
2

+ 2 ( j .!!!...

( )

+ 1

=

-tan-1

2( 1
_

( )

WI!

w

.!!!... 2 WI!

( 1 1-3)

The phase angle is a function of both w and r At w = 0, the phase angle equals 0°. At the corner frequency w = w", the phase angle is -90°, regardless of ?, since At w = 00 , the phase angle becomes - 180°. The phase-angle curve is skew sym­ metric about the inflection point, the point where 1> -90°. There are no simple ways to sketch such phase curves; one needs to refer to the phase-angle curves shown in Figure 1 1-6. To obtain the frequency-response curves of a given quadratic transfer func­ tion, we must first determine the value of the corner frequency w" and that of the damping ratio r 11,en, by using the family of curves given in Figure 11-6, the fre­ quency-response curves can be plotted. Note that Figure 11-6 shows the effects of the input frequency w and the damping ratio ? on the amplitude and phase angle of the steady-state output. From the figure, we see that, as the damping ratio is increased, the amplitude ratio decreases. The maximum amplitude ratio for a given value of C occurs at a frequen­ cy that is less than the undamped natural frequency w'" Notice that the frequency w, at which the amplitude ratio is a maximum occurs at w, = w"V1 - 2?2
=

618

Frequency-Domain Analysis a n d Design of Control Systems

Chap. 1 1

d>

=

-tan-I

( t)
2

=

-tan- l oo

=

- 90°

This frequency is called the resonant frequency. The value of w, can be obtained as follows: From Equation ( 1 1-2), since the numerator of IC(jw) I is constant, a peak value of IC(jw) I will occur when w 2 w2 2 g(w) = 1 2" + 2? ;;; (11 -4) 1/ WI! is a minimum. Since Equation (1 1-4) can be written as w2 - w2 ( 1 - 2r2 ) 2 > " g(w) + 4?2 ( 1 - ?' ) 2 w"
=

the minimum value of g(w) occurs at w cy Wr IS

[

(

-

) ( )
o
� � -2 - 2?

=

w"V1

]

Thus the resonant frequen( 1 1 -5)

" ( " 0.707

As the damping ratio ? approaches zero, the resonant frequency approaches w". For 0 < ? " 0.707, the resonant frequency w, is less than the damped natural frequency w" = w" VI - (2 , which is exhibited i n the transient response. From Equa­ tion (1 1-5), it can be seen that, for ( > 0.707, there is no resonant peak. The magni­ tude IC(jw) I decreases monotonically with increasing frequency w. (11,e magnitude is less than 0 dB for all values of w > 0; recall that, for 0.7 < ? " 1, the step response is oscillatory, but the oscillations are well damped and are hardly perceptible.) The magnitude of the resonant peak M, can be found by substituting Equation (1 1-5) into Equation (11-2). For 0 " ? " 0.707,

M,

=

I C(jw) lm",

=

I C( jw,) I

1

(1 1-6)

Sec. 1 1-2

Bode Diagram Representation of the Frequency Response

619

As ' approaches zero, M, approaches infinity. This means that, if the undamped sys­ tem is excited at its natural frequency, the magnitude of G(jw) becomes infinite. For , > 0.707, The relationship between M, and , given by Equations ( 1 1-6) and (11-7) is shown in Figure 1 1-7. The phase angle of G(jw) at the frequency where the resonant peak occurs can be obtained by substituting Equation (11-5) into Equation ( 11-3). Thus, at the resonant frequency w"
M, = 1

(1 1-7)

/G(/w,)

.

=

-tan

_

1

VI

,

- 2,2

=

-90' + sm

.

_

1 _

r::---::? vI - ,2

,

Minimum-phase systems and nonminimum-phase systems. Transfer functions having neither poles nor zeros in the right-half s-plane are called minimum-phase transfer functions, whereas those having poles and/or zeros in the right-half s-plane are called nonl1linimlll1l-phase transfer functions. Systems with minimum-phase transfer functions are called minimum-phase systems; those with nonminimum-phase transfer functions are called IIomnininwl1'I-phase systems. For systems with the same magnitude characteristic, the range in phase angle of the minimum-phase transfer function is minimum for all such systems, while the range in phase angle of any nonminimum-phase transfer function is greater than this minimum. Consider as an example the two systems whose sinusoidal transfer functions arc, respectively,

and

14

12 10
.=

4

1\
0.2

2

\\

o

0.4

'"
,

0.6

O.S

1.0

Figure U-7 Curve of Mr versus { for the second­ order system l/[(jw/w,y + 2{(jwlw,,) + 1].

620

Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems
jw jw

Chap. 1 1

-+
G J (S) =

I - r;
I + T s

(J"

- +1

I T

Figure 11--8 Pole-zero configurations of minimum-phase and noomini­ mum-phase systems (G1: minimum phase, Gz: nonminimum phase).
The pole-zero configurations of these systems are shown in Figure 1 1-8. The two sinusoidal transfer functions have the same magnitude characteristics, but they have different phase-angle characteristics, as shown in Figure 1 1-9. The two systems dif­ fer from each other by the factor GUw)
=

I + T15

1

The magnitude of the factor ( 1 - jwT )/(1 + jwT) is always unity. But the phase angle equals -2tan- 1 wT and varies from 0 to -180° as w is increased from zero to infinity. For a minimum-phase system, the magnitude and phase-angle characteristics are directly related. That is, if the magnitude curve of a system is specified over the entire frequency range from zero to infinity, then the phase-angle curve is uniquely determined, and vice versa. This relationship, however, does not hold for a nonmini­ mum-phase system. Nonminimum-phase situations may arise ( 1 ) when a system includes a nonmin­ imum-phase element or elements and (2) in the case where a minor loop is unstable.

1 +

-

jwT jwT

-

Figure 11-9 Phase-angle characteris­ tics of minimum-phase and noomini­ mum-phase systems (G1: minimum phase. G2: nonminilllum phase).

-

- - - - - -== _ 1 80 '- - - - - _ ""- _ w
'

90·

Therefore.Sec. I X (jw)IP(jw) 1 in dB.) Determine the numerical values of 111. the system is minimum phase. In most practical control systems. where p and q are. the phase angle at w = 00 becomes -900(q . The input is a sinusoidal force of the form pe. If the slope of the log-magnitude curve as w approaches infinity is -20(q . and k from the Bode diagram . k b x / Figure 11-10 Mechanical system. respectively.p) dB/decade and the phase angle at w = 00 is equal to -90'(q . An experimental Bode dia· gram for this system is shown in Figure 11-11. It is therefore possible to detect whether the system is minimum phase by examining both the slope of the high-frequency asymptote of the log-magnitude curve and the phase angle at w = 00. nonminimum-phase components should not be u s ed. / . b. For a minimum-phase system. if a fast response is of primary importance.p). excessive phase lag should be carefully avoided. measured in decibels-that is. In designing a system.p). .) = 1 1-2 Bode Diag ra m Representation of the Frequency Response 621 P sin wI where P is the amplitude of the sinusoidal input force and the input frequency is varied from 0. the output amplitude is also doubled. the degrees of the numerator and denominator polynomials of the transfer function. Example 11-1 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 11-10. For a nonminimum-phase sys­ tem. (This is because. Note that the amplitude ratio I X (jw )IP(jw) I does not depend on the absolute value of P.pl. if the input amplitude is dou­ bled. we can choose any convenient amplitude P. The units of I X (jw)IP(jw) 1 are mIN.p) dB/decade. Nonminimum-phase systems are slow in response because of their faulty behavior at the start of the response. The phase angle is !X(jw)1 P(jw) in degrees. In either system.01 to '100 Tad/s. the slope of the log-magnitude curve at w = 00 is equal to -20(q . the phase angle at w = 00 differs from -90'(q . The displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position before the sinusoidal force is applied. The ordinate of the magnitude curve is the amplitude ratio of the output to the input.

'< '3' . For a minimum-phase system. First. The sinusoidal transfer function is X(jw) P (jw) = m(jw) ' + bjw + k ( 1 1-8) Now.10 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.::E [ p(r)J.1 80" 100 .1 '\ � w in mdls \ \ 0" 10 \ -90" . from the Bode diagram. gives (illS' + bs + k ) X(s) = P(s) where P(s) IIIX + bi: + kx = p(r) = P sin wr = .01 0. we find that X(jO+ ) P(jO+) = -26 dB .30 � i � '" -20 � -40 . . The transfer function for the system is X(s) P(s) = 1 IIIs2 + bs + k This mechanical system possesses poles only in the left-half s-planc..50 � '\) ' � 0. with zero initial condition.:.622 .:. 1 1 � . we need to determine the transfer function of the system. the transfer function can be uniq ue ly determined solely from the magnitude curve of the Bode diagram. 3 Figure 11-11 Experimental Bode diagram for the system shown in Figure 1 1-10. so it is a minimum-phase system. The system equation is The Laplace transform of this last equation.

32. (3.2) \� III = 3. (The larger the value of the finite static error constant.32. the corner frequency WI! is seen to be 3.2 19.96 k III = -. (Tl's + 1 ) .24 = 1.Sec. Consider the unity­ feedback control system shown in Figure 1 1-12. noting that we obtain b = 2. we find the damping ratio { to be approximately 0.949 = 3. or .992 N-slm. respectively.w"m = 2 We have thus determined the values of III.96 Nlm Relationship between system type and log-magnitude curve. X( '0 + ) P(jO+) or = ." s + 1 ) · . velocity.0501 k Also from the Bode diagram. Assume that the open-loop transfer function is given by G(s) = K ( Tos + 1 )(Tbs + 1 ) .!. Then. and k to be as follows: III X 0. the higher the loop gain is as w approaches zero.992 N-slm k = 19. .s + 1 ) . · (7.2 = 1 . only one of the static error constants is finite and significant.2 fad/so Since the corner frequency of the system given by Equation (11-8) is v kllll. b = 3. b. 1 1-2 Bode Diagram Representation of the Frequency Response J 623 Hence. and acceleration error constants describe the low-frequency behavior of type 0.= 10.96 Nlm Thus.32 X 3. Determination of static position error constants. X 1 . information concerning the existence and magnitude of the s te ady­ state error in the response of a control system to a given input can be determined by observing the low-frequency region of the log-magnitude curve of the system. = -26 dB = 0. Consider the unity-feedback control system.949 kg. type 1. sN(T!s + I ) ( T. Comparing the Bode dia­ gram of Figure 11-11 with the Bode diagram of the standard second-order system shown in Figure 1 1-6. we need to estimate the value of the damping ratio (. For a given system. Thus. it follows that w" = k = 19.) The type of the system determines the slope of the log-magnitude curve at low frequencies. 111e static position. = 0.949 kg ' -- Next. and type 2 sys­ tems.

11 Figure ll-U Unity-reedback conlrol system.. JW Kv for w Thus. or lim G(jw) = Kp It follows that the low-frequency asymptote is a horizontal line at 20 log Kp dB. G( w) = J (jw)N( Tl iw + l ) ( Tziw + 1 ) · · · (Tpjw + 1 ) w-o Figure 1 1-13 is an example of the log-magnitude plot of a type 0 system.. G(jw) = . 20 10g l l Kv JW "" 1 w=l = 20 log Kv .... The intersection of the initial -20-dB/decade segment (or its extension) with the line w = 1 has the magnitude 20 log K. O �-------�--_ Figure 11-13 Log-magnitude curve of a type o system. Figure 1 1-14 is an example of the log-magnitude plot of a type J system. dB 20 log Kp t... In such a system. This may be seen as follows: For a type 1 system.iw + 1 ) . Consider again the unity-feedback control system shown in Figure 11-12.624 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems C(s) Chap. . Determination of static velocity error constants.. or K ( Taiw + l ) ( Tbiw + 1 ) · · · (T". the magnitude of G(jw) equals Kp at low frequencies.

� -. define the frequency at this intersection to be W. and the frequency at the intersection of the -40-dB/decade segment (or its extension) with the O-dB line to be W3.-O � -.� � w. then or Kv = W I As an example. WI W in log scale W = I Figure 11-14 Log-magnitude curve of a type 1 system. consider the type 1 system with unity feedback whose open­ loop transfer function is If we define the corner frequency to be w.. To see this.-.� � � -.Sec. The intersection of the initial -20-dB/decade segment (or its extension) with the 0dB line has a frequency numerically equal to K". then wj = ­ G (s) = ---:­ � -:- K s(is + F ) K J Since it follows that or . 1 1-2 Bode Diagram Representation of the Frequency Response 625 dB -.

626 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. The damping ratio [ of the system is then [ = -- F 2 VKJ W2 =2W3 Determination of static acceleration error constants. The frequency Wa at Ihe intersection of the initial -40-dB/decade segment (or its extension) with the O-dB line gives the square root of Ka numerically. . the W3 point is just midway between the W2 and WI points.log w2 Thus. 1 1 On the Bode diagram. -20 dB/decade O� .4r � ... = 20 log 1 = 0 . G(jw) it follows tbat 20 log = -­ Ka (jw) 2 for W � 1 I I Ka ( Jw) - . "0. at low frequencies.� � .log W3 = log w3 . Figure 1 1-15 is an example of the log-magnitude plot of a type 2 system. 1 ___ 20 Iog K.� ...� w in log scale W= 1 / Figure ] 1-15 type 2 system. Since.( J wa )- w-I = 20 log Ka I Ka I dB -40 dB/decade / -60 dB/decade . This can be seen [rom the following: 20 log .� ­ .. The intersection of the initial -40-dB/decade segment (or its extension) with the W = 1 line has the magnitude of 20 log K". Consider once more the unity-feedback control system shown in Figure 1 1 -12. Log-magnitude curve of a . log WI ..

Roughly speaking. the bandwidth decreases with increasing r Therefore.... From tbe viewpoint of noise. it is necessary that it have a large bandwidth. for a given the rise time increases with increasing damping ratio r On the other hand. Note that.. 11. Thus.. the rise time and the bandwidth are inversely proportional to each other.e necessary filtering characteristics for high-frequency noise... and a 2. the bandwidth indicates how well the system will track an input sinusoid. there are conflicting requirements on the bandwidth... .. The frequency range 0 . Thus. 111e ability to reproduce the input signal. Wb 1.. dB -3 + .. Referring to Figure 1 1-16. . A large bandwidth corresponds to a small rise time...... the bandwidth should not be too large. however.Bandwidth : I .3 dB is called t he bandwidth of the system. dB for W > Wb w'" W . f wb W(I = = Vi<. 1 1-2 Bode Diagram Representation of the Frequency Response 627 which yields Cutoff frequency and bandwidth... . Thus. 111e specification of the bandwidth may be determined by the following factors: I CUW) 1 I CUO ) 1 RUw) RUO) l C(jO)/RUO) l C(jW) 1 RUw) < I < -3 3 dB for W > Wb 0 dB. The bandwidth indicates the frequency where the gain starts to fall off from its low-frequency value.- o�----"" I�-..Sec.... the fre­ quency at which the magnitude of the closed-loop frequency response is 3 dB below its zero-frequency value is called the cutof frequency... i n which the magnitude of the closed loop does not drop .. w" w in log scale Figure U-16 Logarithmic plot showing cutoff frequency Wb and bandwi dth.. or a fast response. For systems in which The closed-loop system filters out the signal components whose frequencies are greater than the cutoff frequency and transmits those signal components with fre­ quencies lower than the cutoff frequency.. we can say that the band­ width is proportional to the speed of the response. For the system to follow arbitrary inputs accurately. .

Cutoff rate. Figures ] l-17(b) and (e) show. Note that a closed-loop frequency response curve with a steep cutoff charac­ teristic may have a large resonant peak magnitude. (b) unit-step response curves: (c) unit-ramp response curves. respecti\'ely.33 I w (in log scale) 0 (b) (a) r(l) e(l) o Figure 11-17 Comparison of the dynamic characteristics of the two systems considered in Exam­ ple 1 1 -2: (a) closed-loop frequency-response curves. (e) . so the cost of components usu­ ally increases with the bandwidth. Example 11-2 Consider the following two systems: System I: C(s) R(s) C(s) R(s) 3s = 01' System II: + I Compare the bandwidths of these systems. Clearly. The cutoff rate is the slope of the log-magnitude curve near the cutoff frequency. whose bandwidth is three times wider than that of system II.33 Tad/s.) \Vc find that the bandwidth of system I is 0 :5 w s I Tad/s and that of system II is 0 :s. Show that the system with the larger band­ width has a faster speed of response and can foUow the input much better than the sys­ tem with a smaller bandwidth.628 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.. dB 0 f--=::=�:. The cutoff rate indicates the ability of a system to distinguish a sig­ nal from noise.c -20 0. has a faster speed of response and can follow the input much better.. 1 1 compromise is usually necessary for good design. Figure 1 1-17(a) shows the closed-loop frequency-response curves for the Iwo sys­ tcms. w :5 0. the unit-step response and unit-ramp response curves for the two systems. which implies that the system has a relatively small stability margin. Note that a system with a large bandwidth requires high-performance components. system I. (Asymptotic curves arc represented by dashed lines.

to generate 50 points between 0. 1 1-3 Plotting Bode Diagrams with MATLAB 629 1 1-3 PLOITING BODE DIAGRAMS WITH MATLAB In MATLAB. of the frequency response of the system. [When the numerator and denominator contain the polynomial coefficients in descending powers of s. . evaluated at user-specified frequency points.w) 'bode' returns the fTequency response of the system in matrices mag.dcn) to draw the Bode diagram.d2.iu. No plot is drawn on the screen.1 00) To incorporate these frequency points when plotting Bode diagrams.) MATLAB Program 11-1 plots the Bode diagram for this system. as in [mag. and w.wl = bode(num.den.B. The matrices mag and phase contain the magnitudes and phase angles respectively.3. enter the following command: w = logspace(0.1 radls and 100 radls. When invoked with left­ hand arguments. The magni­ tude can be converted to decibels with tbe statement magdB = 20' 10gl O(mag) To specify the frequency range. That is. The resulting Bode diagram is shown in Figure 11-18. logspace(d1.w) or bode(A.phase. MATLAB produces a Bode plot on the screen.D.d2.C.n). Example 11-3 Plot a Bode diagram of the ITansfer function = C(s) 25 s2 + 4s + 25 When the system is defined in the form C(s) = num(s) dents) use the command bode(num. When the command 'bode' (without left-hand arguments) is entered in the computer. phase. time-invariant systems.d2) generates a vector of 50 points logarithmically equally spaced between decades 1 0 dt and 1 0 d2.2) logspace(d1.d2) or log­ space(d1. linear.Sec. to generate 100 points between 1 radls and 1000 radls. The phase angle is returned in degrees.w). use the command bode(num.den. enter the command w = logspace( . bode(num. use the command logspace(d1. each of which employs the user-specified frequency vector w. the command 'bode' computes magnitudes and phase angles of the frequency response of continuous-time.den) draws the Bode diagram.1 .n) generates n points logarithmically equally spaced between decades 10 dt and 1 0 d2 For example.

L UU -L-L . which are frequently used for determining the relative stability of a control system.:: 'c :. we first discuss Nyquist plots and then the Nyquist stability criterion. .-.+H -. .t:: ±± i 100 Frequency (Tad/sec) s� + 45 + 25 ') 101 . .J � ::.den) » grid » title(' Bode Diagram of G(s) = 25/(51\2+45+25)') 1 1 -1 1 1 -4 NYQUIST PLOTS AND THE NYQUIST STABILITY CRITERION In this section.: 3- eo " 20 10 0 -1 0 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 II! I I I II ---h:. 1 � 1 . . a posi­ tive (negative) phase angle is measured counterclockwise (clockwise) from the pos­ itive rcal axis..630 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems 0 -0 S . .. MAHAB Program = » num = 1251.... . We then define the phase margin and gain margin.. 0 -45 - ��=..l.1 35 j T[t-�I --+.LL . I 11 -[ I 1 .. An example of such a ..·+�·h------tL-t��·· ·.++�. Thus.l � :±: ±±ddd --'. » bode(num.t\ji:+II-H'--+--ii-+-+h-Hi . . in polar plots. the polar plot is the locus of vectors IC(jw) I/C(jw) as w is varied from zero to infinity.11i'--1 11� ..· --!i-. 1 1 -180 10.!-i-r ---+--HI-til'H---+. we discuss conditional­ ly stable systems.. Bode Diagram of G(l') 25/(? + 45 + 25) = Chap. I -+ !H !1 1 i -90 �--1-11 I � I l 'j 1 \ [ �.-' :-rJ-n' .L. The Nyquist plot of a sinusoidal transfer function C(jw) is a plot of the magnitude of C(jw) versus the phase angle of C(jw) in polar coordinates as w is varied from zero to infinity...--'-.. Finally.!. 111C Nyquist plot is often callcd the polar plot. » den 1 1 4 251. ! ' ( I :.J. . Nyquist plots. 1 02 Figure 11-18 Bode diagram of G(s) = 25 ..t H'I �--·+-j+ =J • =· I ·----.. . Note that.

and type 2 minimum-phase systems are shown in Figure 11-20(a). (b) Nyquist plots in the high-frequency range. and type 2 systems. . type 1. One disadvantage is that the plot does not clearly indicate the contribution of each individual factor of the open-loop transfer function. then the C(jw) loci converge clockwise to the origin. 1t can be seen that. An advantage in using a Nyquist plot is that it depicts the frequency­ response characteristics of a system over the entire frequency range in a single plot.I1I = 3 w = co Re 1/ .Sec. 1m Type 2 system 1m " n . TIle general shapes of the low-frequency portions of the Nyquist plots of type 0. Each point on the polar plot of C(jw) represents the terminal point of a vector at a particular value of w. type 1 . The projections of C(jw) on the real and imaginary axes are the real and imaginary components of the function. i f the degree of the denominator polynomial of C(jw) is greater than that of the numerator. Table 1 1-1 shows examples of Nyquist plots of simple transfer functions. plot is shown in Figure 1 1-19. as shown in Figure 1 1-20(b). 1 1-4 Nyquist Plots and the Nyquist Stability Criterion 631 1m Re[COw)] Re COw w=0 Figure 11-19 Nyquist plot. At w = 00.11/ = 1 Rc Type I system (0) Figure Type 0 system (b ) 11-20 (a) Nyquist plots or type 0. the loci are tangent to one or the other axis.

) . . the time constants in the numerator of the transfer function. 1 +/ru T + jwaT (a > jw(1 + jwT.) 1 Re I) \ .) ( I + jw"[�) 1m w = I 1m + jWT.) ( 1 - 1 Re ).632 Freq uency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems TABLE 1 1-1 Nyquist Plots of Simple Transfer Functions Chap./ (I + jwT. the Nyquist plol starts at a finite distance on the real axis and ends at a finite point on the real axis.w �o:J - jwT. 1 1 1m 1m Re jw - 1m O -w (jw)' 1 \ 1m o L IJ � o 1/ 00 1 + jW T --t _ _ 1m Re w = oo 0 Rc 1m o � Im I + jwT �17' 01" (I + o ll Re w �� 00 w=O \.--. Re For the case where the degrees of the denominator and numerator polynomi­ als of G(jw) are the same. Nole that any complicated shapes in the Nyquist plot curves are caused by the numerator dynamics-that is.

. the extension of relative stability analysis for the unity-feedback system to nonunity­ feedback systems is possible. it is necessary that the system have adequate relative stability. we require that the system be stable. The closed-loop transfer function is C(s) R(s) G(s) 1 + G(s) For stability.Sec. due to H. as shown in Figure 1 1 -2 1 . In designing a control system. TI. all roots of the characteristic equation l + G(s) = O must lie in the left-half s-plane.e Nyquist plot also gives information as to how stability may be improved if that is necessary. Note that it is always possible to reduce a system with feed­ back elements to a unity-feedback system. In what follows. Nyquist. In the discussion that follows. we shall show that the Nyquist plot indicates not only whether a system is stable. but also the degree of stability of a stable system. Now consider the system sbown In Figure 1 1-22. 1 1-4 Nyquist Plots and the Nyquist Stability Criterion 633 C(s) Figure 11-21 Modification of a control system with feedback elements 10 a unity-feedback control system. Nyquist stability criterion. Hence. Furthermore. TIle Nyquist stability criterion relates the open-loop frequency response G(jw) to the number of zeros and poles of I + G(s) that lie in the right-half s-plane. TIlis criterion. we shall assume that the systems considered have unity feedback. is useful in control engineering �@--I C(s) G(s) t Figure 11-22 Unity-feedback control sySICIl1.

for a stable control system. and the system is unstable. hence. . Thus. then.1 + iO point P . . If C(s) does not have any poles in the right-half s-plane. N + P where ( 1 1-9) If P is not zero. it often happens that mathematical expressions for some of the components are not known. the locus of C(s) encircles the -1 + iO point twice in the clockwise direction. consider the system with the following open-loop transfer function: . . For good accuracy. Analytically obtained open-loop frequency­ response curves. 1 1 becall se the absolute stability of the closed-loop system can be determined graphi­ ca lly from open-loop frequency-response curves and there is no need for actually determining the closed-loop poles. we must have Z 0. for this system to be stable. can be used for the sta­ bility analysis. then. from Equation ( 1 1-9). the C(s) locus as a representative point s traces alit the Nyquist path in the clockwise direc­ tion must encircle the . The Nyquist path is a closed contour that consists of the entire iw-axis from w = . the Nyquist path encloses the entire right-half s-plane. C(s) .634 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. For large values of K.1 + iO point P times in the counterclockwise direction. we must have Z . N for stability. as well as experimentally obtained curves. . in designing a control system.1 + iO point. or that the C(s) locus not encircle the -1 + iO point. K s(Tl s + J ) (T2s + 1 ) Figure 1 1-23 shows the Nyquist path and C(s) loci for a small and large value of the gain K. - Z number of zeros of 1 + C(s) in the right-half s-plane. if the open-loop transfer function C(s) has P poles in the right-half s-plane. number of poles of C(s) in the right-half s-plane . The direction of the path is clockwise. Remarks on the Nyquist stability criterion The Nyquist stability criterion can be expressed as Z . From the stability viewpoint. Since the number of poles of C(s) in the right-half s-plane is zero. which means that we must have P counterclockwise encirclements of the . then. only their frequency-response data are available. For example. indicating two closed-loop poles in the right-half s-plane. there is no encirclement of the . K should be large. or N = P.1 + iO point. For small values of K. the system is stable for small values of K. The Nyquist stability criterion can be stated as follows: Nyquist srability criterion: In the system shown in Figure 1 1-22. N number of clockwise encirclements of the . 1. it is necessary that N Z 0. for stability.00 to + 00 and a semicircular path of infinite radius in the right-half s-plane. This connuence of the two types of curve is convenient because.

� jO + Ihe representative point moves along the semicircle of radius l.rr----.:.\·) en w U1 .:C _. From s = jO .+joo jW L h( l'-planc W= a- 1m 0- t II G-pl anc jO+ jO- v . 1m G-plane p=o N�2 Z�2 w � -oo w = .00 Re w= O+ " ( Slable ) (Unstable) Figure 1 1-23 Nyquist path and G(s) loci for a small and large value of the gain K. the Nyquist path encloses the entire right-half .to .. I \ .f plane·1 = G(s) locus with small K locus wit I large K G\. Because the given G(s) hrls a pole at the origin.joo I Nyquist path -1 / '\ �W � OO P�O N-O Z�O W ) Rc � 0 . lnc arca thal lhc modified closed contour avoids is very small and approaches zero as the radius e approaches zero. Thus. lll\c Nyquist path (a closed COIl­ tour) must not pass through a pole or zero.. the contour must be modi· fied by use of a semicircle with an infinitesimal radius e as shown in lhe figure.

to conditionally stable systems. since they may include poles in the right-half s-plane. (This does not apply.) · · K : Large K : Smllll K Open-loop gain = . Figure 1 1-24 shows Nyquist plots of G(jw) for three different values of the open-loop gain K. In general. are located on the jw-axis. We must be careful when testing the stability of multiple-loop systems.. ) ( l + jwT. the G(jw) locus pass­ es through the -1 + jO point.1 + jO point can be used as a measure of the margin of stability. The closeness of the G(jw) locus to the . the system is unstable. it is necessary to insert a compensator into the system. (Note that.) Simple inspection of the encirdements of the 1 + jO point by the G(jw) locus is not sufficient to detect instability in multiple-loop systems. the entire closed-loop system can be made stable by proper design. - Phase and gain margins.1 + jO point. a large value of K causes poor stability or even instability. the more oscillatory is the system response. To com­ promise between accuracy and stability. none of the roots of the characteristic equation should lie on the jw-axis. For a large value of the gain K.) It is common practice to represent the closeness in terms of phase margin and gain margin. Phase m argin. whether any pole of 1 + G(s) is in the right-half s-plane may be determined easily by applying the Routh stability criterion to the denominator of G(s) or by actually finding the poles o� G(s) with the use of MATLAB. although an inner loop may be unstable. This is not desirable for practical control systems. however. with this gain.)( l + jwTb) ' (jw)( l + jwT. or closed-loop poles. then the zeros of the characteristic equation. the closer the GUw) locus comes to encircling the . 1 1 however. the system is on the verge of instability and will exhibit sustained oscillations. however. the system is stable. - 3. 2. As the gain is decreased to a certain value.636 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. For a small value of the gain K. The phase margin is that amount of additional phase lag at the gain crossover frequency required to bring the system to the verge of instability. I f the locus of G(jw) passes through the 1 + jO point. G-plane 1m o Re Figure 11-24 Polar plots of K(I + jw'/. For a well-designed closed-loop sys­ tem. In such cases. 111is means that.

-Log w <:2 - -Qj .d-. )' = 1800 + <!> Positive 1m gain G-planc egative phase margin ! 1m G-plane Positive' phase margin Re - Re Negative gain margin Unstable system (a) GUw) Stable system Positive gain margin + '" 0 �� -90' t. .. The angle from the negative real axis to this line is the phase margin. < O. or On the Nyquist plot.� ._ _ _ -Qj . the phase margin must be positive.1 800 line. 1 1-4 Nyquist Plots and the Nyquist Stability Criterion 637 The gain crossover frequency is the frequency at which IG(jw) I. In the Bode diagrams.180' f.--:. Figures 11-25(a) and (b) illustrate the phase margins of a stable system and an unstable system in Nyquist plots and Bode diagrams.-r '-.180' f. which is positive for ). the magnitude of the open-loop transfer function. For a minimum-phase system to be stable.Sec.� """" -:. a line may be drawn from the origin to the point at which the unit circle crosses the G(jw) locus.270' Negative phase margin Unstable system ( b) Log w Stable system Figure 11-25 Phase and gain margins or stable and unstable systems: (a) Nyquist plols: (b) Bode diagrams. The phase margin )' is 1800 plus the phase angle <p of the open-loop transfer function at the gain crossover frequency.-.� . > 0 and negative for ). the crit­ ical point in the complex plane corresponds to the O-dB line and .-f.. is unity.'" Log w -270' Positive phase margin -90' t Negative gain margin ­ .� :-.

BOlh should be given in the determination of relative stability. Therefore. a minimum­ phase system has guaranteed stability. Thus. they do offer a convenient means for designing control systems or adjusting the gain constants of systems. a slope of -20 dB/decade is desirable at the gain crossover frequency for stability. For satisfactory performance. since the Nyquist plots for such systems do not cross the negative real axis. The gain margin is shown in Figures 1 1-25(a) and (b). (Even if the system is stable.-:.and second-order minimum-phase systems are infi­ nite. In most practical cases. and the gain margin should be greater than 6 dB.- 1 I G(jw.-:-. such first. TIle gain margins of first. the magnitude and phase characteristics of the open-loop transfer function are definitely related. With these values. the system could be either stable or unstable. even if the open-loop gain and time constants of the components vary to a certain extent. Kg -. these margins may be used as design criteria. the phase margin is . Defining the phase crossover frequency w. If the slope is -40 dB/decade. the gain margin indicates how much the gain can be increased before the system becomes unstable.1 80°. the phase and gain margins must be positive for the system to be stable. and a negative gain margin (in decibels) means that the system is unstable. Although the phase and gain margins give only rough estimates of the effective damping ratio of a closed-loop system. the slope of the log­ magnitude curve at the gain crossover frequency is more gradual than -40 dB/decade. A tew comments on phase and gain margins. the gain margin is positive if Kg is greater than unity and negative if Kg is smaller than unity. For a stable minimum-phase system. Negative margins indicate instability.and second-order systems cannot be unstable.638 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. Thus. the gain margin is indicative of how much the gain must be decreased to make the system stable. The phase and gain mar­ gins of a control system are a measure of the cioseness of the Nyquist plot to the . ) 1 Expressed in decibels. in a Bode diagram. For an unstable system. a positive gain margin (in decibels) means that the system is stable. For a minimum�phase system. The requirement that the phase margin be between 30° and 60° means thal. to be the frequency at which the phase angle of the open-loop transfer functIOn equals -180° gives the gain margin Kg: Kg = In terms of decibels. 1 1 Gaill m argill_ The gain margin is the reciproca l of the magnitud e IG(jw)1 at the frequency at whIch the phase angle is . the phase margin should be between 30° and 60°. ) 1 dB = 20 log Kg = -20 log IG(jw. however.1 + jO point. Proper phase and gain margins ensure against variations in a system's compo­ nents. Note that either the gain margin alone or the phase margin alone does not give a sufficient indication of relative stability. For minimum-phase systems.

such a stable nonminimum-phase system will have negative phase and gain margins. the stability condi­ tion will not be satisfied unless the G(jw) plot encircles the . It is also important to point out that conditionally stable systems will have two or more phase crossover frequencies. For stable operation of the conditionally stable system considered here. the G(jw) locus encloses the . For stable systems having two or more gain crossover fre­ quencies. o I smaiL) I f Ihe slope at Ihe gain crossover frequency is -60 dB/decade or steeper. which in turn reduces the open-loop gain of the system.1 + jO must not be located in the regions between OA and Be shown in Figure 1 1 -27. The system is stable only for the limited range of values of the open-loop gain for which the . the system will be unstable. again the C(jw) locus encloses the .1 + jO point twice. If the open-loop gain is increased sufficiently. 1 1-4 Nyquist Plots and the Nyquist Stability Criterion 639 1m Phase crossover frequencies (WI. (Oz_ (03) 1m Re Gain crossover uequcncies w ( W I _ Wz.1 + jO point is completely outside the C(jw) locus. Figure 1 1-27 is an example of a G(jw) locus for which the closed-loop system can be made stable or unstable by varying the open-loop gain. (03) \ w o Figure 11-26 Nyquist plots showing more than two phase or gain crossover frequencies. If the open­ loop gain is decreased sufficiently. the phase margin is measured at the highest gain crossover frequency. Conditionally stable systems. as shown in Figure 1 1-26. Such a conditionally stable system becomes unstable when large input signals are applied. and some higher order systems with compli­ cated numerator dynamics may also have two or more gain crossover frequencies.Sec. For a nonminimum-phase system with unstable open loop.1 + jO point. Hence. the critical point . Such a system is cOlldiliollally slable.1 + jO point twice. . since a large signal may cause saturation. and the system becomes unstablc.

Nyquist plots are polar plots. time-invariant control systems. 'nyquist' produces a Nyquist plot on the screen. One plot or the other may be more convenient for a particular operation. just like Bode diagrams. evaluated at the frequency points specified in the vector w.im. jre.im.den. When invoked without left-hand arguments.640 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. and No plot is drawn on the screen. but a given operation can always be car­ ried out in either plot. 1 1 1m G·plane w = o:> Re Nyquist plot of a condi· tionally stable system. That is. The command nyquist(num. are commonly used in the frequency­ response representation of linear.den) draws the Nyquist plot of the transfer function num(s) dents) C(s) = where num and den contain the polynomial coefficients in descending powers of s. Figure 11-27 1 1-5 DRAWING NYQUIST PLOTS WITH MATLAB Nyquist plots.d e n.den ) .wj = n yq u i st( nu m. which gives the frequency points in radians per second at which the frequency response will be calculated.w) employs the user-specified frequency vector w. The command 'nyquist' computes the frequency response for continuous-time. the command nyquist(num.wj or = \Y. The matrices re and im contain the real and imag­ inary parts of the frequency response of the system. as in jre. while Bode diagrams are rectangular plots.w) nyqui st( n u m . time-invariant systems. linear. im. Note that re and im have as many columns as out­ puts and one row for each element in w. When invoked with left-hand arguments. MATLAB returns the frequency response of the system in the matrices re.

MAHAB Program = 1 1 -2 » num 1 1 ] .den) may be used to draw a Nyquist plot.5 0 0..) Nyquist Plot of G(s) = 1 I(i' 0.1 . [f we wish to draw the Nyquist plot using manually determined ranges-for example. the command nyquist(num.:. 2 -2 21.2 to 2 on the imaginary axis-we enter the fo l l owing command into the computer: v=I .5_1 Figure 11-28 Nyquist plot of -0.--. s� + 0. In this plot..-'-r .8.-' . the ranges for the real axis and imaginary axis are automatically determined.5 G(s) = .85+ 1 ).. Since the system is given in the form of the transfer function.Sec. we may combine these two lines inLO one as follows: axis(l.\' + I 1 ..clen) » title('Nyquist Plot of G(s) = 1 /(51\2+0. 1 1 -5 Drawing Nyquist Plots With MATLAB 641 Example 11-4 Consider the following open-loop transfer function: 1 _ _ = � =--5' + O.& I ) -' . < � '" � c 0.Ss + 1 G(s) Draw a Nyquist plot with MATLAB. + + . .. » nyquist(num.5 0 " E -0.. � ___.� I.5 r. Alternatively...5 Real Axis 1. » den = 1 1 0.8 1 1 ..2 2 -2 2().-. from -2 to 2 on the real axis and [rom . .2 axis(v). MATLAB Program 11-2 produces the Nyquist plot shown in Figure 1 1-28.5 -I .

) E -I -2 -3 -4 -5_2 \ ( - 1 .den. Notice that the plot includes the loci for both w > 0 and w < O.den) » v 1-2 2 -5 5 1 .wj p lot(re. If we wish to draw the Nyquist plot for only the positive frequency region (w > 0). axis(v) » title('Nyquist Plot of G(s) = 1 /[s(s+ 1 )J ') » num = [1]. 1 1 EXUlllpic 11-5 Draw a Nyquist plot for G(s) _ -.642 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.w) MAHAB » Program 1 1 -3 den = [ 1 1 0]. The resulting Nyquist plot is presented in Figure 1 1 -30. even though a warning message "Divide by zero" may appear on the screen.(s + I )] "Sn " Figure 11-29 Nyquist plot of G(s) = IIs(.5 2 Real Axis MATLAB Program 11-4 uses these two lines of commands.5 1.' 0 0. The resulting Nyquist plot is shown in Figure 1 1-29. 5 -I -0.) = 11[. then we need to use the commands (re.\" + I ) .: C " 5 4 3 2 0 Nyquist PIOI of G(.� 1 s(s + 1 ) MATLAB Program 11-3 will produce a correct Nyquist plot on the computer.im. . i m) = nyquist(num. » nyquist(num. (TIle plot shows Nyquist loci for both w > 0 ilnd w < 0. = "K .

w). In Ihe Bode diagram. den. » plot( re im) » v = [-2 2 . .v• or Ka- quency response in terms of the phase margin.:.5 -l -0.5 Real Axis 0 0.) = 1). the phase and gain margins can be read directly from the Bode diagram.Sec.1 :0. » [re. axis(v) » grid » title(' Nyquist P lot of G(s) = 1 /]5(5+ 1 )] ') » x[abel('Real Axis') » ylabel(. 1 1-6 Design of Control Systems in the Frequency Domain 643 MAHAB Program 1 1 -4 » num = [ 1 ] . the low-frequency asymptote of the magnitude curve is 2.5 5].� E " " 0 -2 -3 -4 -5 -2 -1.5 1. 5 4 3 . K. TIle design of a compensator or controller to satisfy the given specifications (in terms of the phase margin and gain margin) can be carried out in the Bode diagram in a simple and straightforward manner. bandwidth. TIlese specifications can be easily handled in the Bode diagram. 3. and so forth. gain margin.l maginary Axis') . Specifications of the transient response can be translated into those of the fre­ indicative of one of the static error constants Kp.im. In partic­ ular. an approach that is particularly useful for the following reasons: 1. » w = 0. 1 1-6 DESIGN OF CONTROL SYSTEMS IN THE FREQUENCY DOMAIN This section discusses control systems design based on the Bode diagram approach.1 :1 00. <: i:' " NyquiSi Plot of Cis) 1I[s(s + l)] = 2 -l ' .5 2 Figure 11-30 Nyquist plo! of G(s) IIs(s + (The plot shows nyquist locus for w > 0.w[ = nyquist(num. » den = [ l 1 0[.

Consider a lead compensator having the following transfer function: Ts + 1 a K. The PID control action is a combination of the PI and PD control actions. However. Lead compensation increases the system bandwidth. and lag-lead compensators. the low-frequency gain can be increased (and hence the steady-state accuracy can be improved). a system using lead compensation may be subjected to high-fre­ quency noise problems due to its increased high-frequency gains. Before we discuss design problems. the total system gain can be increased. and lag-lead compensation techniques. and thereby low-frequency gain can be increased and the steady-state accuracy can be improved. With the use of a lag-lead compensator. aTs + l = K' 1 s + ­ aT I s +- T 0< a < 1 . however. A compensator that has characterstics of both a lag compensator and a lead compensator is known as a lag-lead compensator. followed by the design of a lag-lead compen­ sator. and thus the system has a slower speed of response. increases the phase-lead angle and improves the system stability. the PD controller behaves in much the same way as a lead compensator. The design techniques for PI D controllers basically follow those of lag-lead compensators. The system bandwidth is reduced. we first discuss the design of a lead compensator. Before we begin design problems. lag. as well as increasing the system bandwidth ( ancl thus increasing the speed of response). That is. We lise MATLAB to obtain step and ramp responses of the designed systems to verify their transient-response performance. Lead compensation is commonly used for improving stability margins. we shall briefly explain each of these compensations. 1 1 In this section we present the lead. while at the same time the system bandwidth and stabil­ ity margins can be increased. TIlen we treat the design of a lag compensator.644 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. increases the low-frequency gain and inlproves steady-state accuracy. Characteristics o a lead compellsator f . which affects the high-frequency region. any high-frequency noises involved in the system can be attenuated. Lag compensatioJl reduces the system gain at higher frequencies without reducing the system gain at lower frequencies.) In what follows. ( I n industrial con­ trol systems. the system has a faster response. and lag-lead compensator. the PI controller acts as a lag compensator. The PI D controller is a special case of a lag-lead controller. Because of the reduced high­ frequency gain. l ag compensator. in fact. thus. lag. Also. TIlCrefore. The PI control action affects the low-frequency portion and. each of the PID control actions in the PID controller may be adjusted experimentally. Lag-lead compensation is a combination of lag compensation and lead com­ pensation. Frequency characteristics of lead. The PD control action. we shall examine the frequency characteristics of the lead compensator.

where 0 < 0' < 1 .:jwaT + 1 0<a< 1 with Kc = 1 . the pole is located far to the left.K. We shall call the frequency at the tangent point w"'. For a given value of 0': t he angle between the positive real axis and the tangent line drawn from the origin to the semicircle gives the maximum phase lead angle <p". ) Figure 1 1-31 shows the Nyquist plot of = . Examining Figure 1 1-32. or 1 1 1 log wm = "2 log "T + log aT Hence. Note that.Sec. for a small value of a. TIle corner frequencies for the lead compensator are w = l iT and w = lI(aT) = 101T. w III ( ) = -- -va T ( 1 1-1 1 ) . = 1 and a = 0.05. cPm = 1 -a 2 1 + a 2 = 1 -a 1 + a ( 1 1-10) Equation (1 1-10) relates the maximum phase-lead angle to the value of a. Figure 1 1-32 shows the Bode diagram of a lead compensator when K.a -'.. From Figure 1 1-31 Ihe phase angle at w WIll is cJ>m. 1m 1 1 -6 Design of Control Systems in the Frequency Domain 645 W = CD Re Figure 11-31 yquist plOl of a lead compen­ sator crUwT + l )/(jwaT + I ). the zero is always located to the right of the pole in the complex plane.l /(aT) Since o < a < 1 . where = SlI1 . The lead compensator has a zero at s = . 1 . we see that w'" is the geometric mean of the two corner frequencies. The minimum value of a is limited by the physical construction of the lead compensator and is usu­ ally taken to be about 0. (This means that the maximum phase lead that may be produced by a lead compensator is about 65°.liT and a pole at s . jwT + l -:: -.

1 T 1-. where a = 0.646 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems 10 Chap. 1 .. s+ - 1 f3T.-=+ � -t -'.. the lag compensator is essentially a low-pass filter.J. 11ll1s. A s the figure indicates. T. f Consider a Jag compensator that has 1 s+­ T the following transfer function: = K. In the complex plane.) Characteristics o a lag compensator. T..-·­ I �. where respectively. the lag compensator has a zero at s = -liT and a pole at Consider the lag-lead compen­ sator given by J s +I s +- G.I -�-\10 T 10 T 1 ______ 100 T w in radls Figure 11-32 Bode diagram of a lead compensator a{jwT + 1)/(jwaT + I). ----=ls+ ­ f3 > 1 {3T K.cp "f. As seen from Figure 1 1-33.. (11-12) . the lead compensator i s basically a high-pass filter. 111e pole is located to the right of the zero.(s) = K. Y s+- T.. (High frequencies are passed. The corner frequencies are at w = liT and w = 1I(f3T).-1 T 1 ---. the magnitude of Ihe lag compensator becomes 10 (or 20 dB) at low frequencies and unity (or 0 dB) at high (requencies. but low frequencies are attenuated. Characteristics o a lag-lead compellsator.. f s = -lI(f3T).. 11 dB 0 -10 -20 90' O· i t-- _ ____ 0.. . and {3 are set equal to 1 and 10. where the values of K. Figure 1 1-33 shows a Bode diagram of the given lag compensator. = 1 and f3 = 10.

.---.. for 0 < W < Wt.. = + 0. TIle term Figure 11-33 Bode diagram of a lag compcnsalor (JUwT + I )IUw{JT I).�-- -90' 0.Sec. i t acts as a lead com­ pensator.-..!. 1 . see Problem A-1l-14. of course.-. ---..) In what follows.-.01 T � -. The frequency WI is the Frequency at which the phase angle is zero.::':_ -.-. and the tcrm {3 > 1 produces the effect of the lag network. It can be seen that.-.-.) VT. We can...1 T � -- -:::. f3. - . -----= T I --_ . 1 1 -6 Design of Control Systems in the Frequency Domain 30 r20 dB 10 647 1-------___. o O' .----_ . The Nyquist plot of the lag-lead compensator with Kr = 1 and y = {3 is shown in Figure 1 1 -34. we shall consider the case where y = {3. (This is not necessary. w in rad/s 10 T y> I produces Ihe effeci of the lead network.:. ----. In designing a lag-lead compensator. while for WI < W < 00.-.--.-L -.T. chose 'Y :.. -. where {J 10..---" where y > 1 and {3 > 1 . It is given by (For a derivation of this equation. we frequently choose y = {3.-. the COIll­ pensator acts as a lag compensator.

O I.648 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems 1m Chap.. Example 11-6 Design of a Lead Compensator Consider the system shown in Figure 1 1-36(a)..-.--.-.-.. \Ve wish to design a compensator such that the closed-loop system will satisfy the following requirements: static velocity error constant = K" phase margin gain margin � = 50Q = 20 5-1 1 0 dB .-- .-.OO l . O.--.. .----.l---.---l o .-. . ')' = f3 = 10.O.lOO . -----i -- -90· '::L .-. 1 1 o Figure 11-34 Nyquist plot of the lag-lead compensator given by Equation (1 1-12) with K( = I and y = (3.: I..- i_ >+ ---j - - -- --...-.-: Figure J 1-35 Bode diagram of the Jag-lead compensator given by Equation (1 1-12) with K" = l . and T2 = lOT.O ::. y = {3 = l O and T2 = l OTI.-. _ --."J __ ___ _ -- -. � � -j.-.." . . -..� .. o dB -10 -20 -30 90' O· t--.-. / w = oo Re 'w=O -.._.-.-:-.::....-l---t--1' I i I :-: F-� _.-.l O .and high-frequency regions.. _.-= ==-� r--j... r .- - - -· -- ------- - � w in fadls � � ---:-: � Figure 1 1-35 shows the Bode diagram of a lag-lead compensator when K. .. Notice thai the magnitude curve has the value o dB in Ihe low.---�=-� -­ -r---I. = 1 .-:..

we may assume that c/>m. We define C. the maximum phase lead required.l . (This means that approximately 5° has been added to compensate for the shift in = 40 s(s + 2) . = lim sC. we must offsct the increased phase lag of Gj (jw) due to this increase in the gain crossover frequency. A lead compensator can con­ tribute this amount. 1 1-6 Design of Control Systems in the Frequency Domain 649 (aJ ( bJ Figure 11-36 (a) Uncompensated system.(s) = KC(s) 4K s(s + 2) K. Taking the shift of the gain crossover frequency into con­ sideration. From this plot. The gain margin is +00 dB. the additional phase lead necessary to satisfy the phase-margin requircment is 33°. (b) compensated system.( s ) C( s ) = lim s $-0 . the compensated system will satisfy the steady-state requirement. . Accordingly.­ I s+­ aT s + - 1 T O < a < l where K = Kea. The first step in the design is to adjust the gain K to meet the stcady·state per­ formance specification or to provide the required static velocity error constant K'I' Since KlJ is given as 20 S.(s) aTS + I 20 or \Vith K = to.-0 lim s4K = 2K s(s + 2 ) Ts + 1 C. We shall next plot the Bode diagram of K = IO C.f-Q = = . we realize that the gain crossover frequency will be shifted to the r ight. is approximately 38°. Noting that the addition of a lead compensator modifies the magnitude curve in the Bode diagram. the phase margin is found to be 17°.Sec. Since the specification calls for a phase margin of 50°. we have K.(s) MATLAB Program 11-5 produces the Bode diagram shown in Figure 11-37. We shall design a lead compensator Ge(s) of the form Ts + 1 CJ s) = K a --:: ---::e aTs + 1 = The compensated system is shown in Figure 1 1 -36 (b).

(. j j .. The amount of the modification in the magnitude curve at w = lI( VaT ) due to the inclusion of the term (Ts + 1)!(aTs + 1) is == 1- + " a 11 "I + jwT + jwaT I ".L ._ . Hence.. 2 = 40/[5(5+2)[ ') :s0 "0 iO :.. .L .. -�� ' . .1 '-...den.- _ _ LJ _ .---'i·..L --'.L --'... Note that a = 0..... __.650 Frequency·Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. � . Notice that the maximum phase-lead angle cPm occurs at the geometric mean of the two corner frequencies.. . -.--' .0 H-i i 10 Frequency (Tad/sec) = +I�-.l ".J . » bode(num..1 80 10. Once the attenuation factor a has been determined on the basis of the required phase-lead angle. 1 00). the gain crossover frequency. � 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 -90 ..) 40/[..2379.Ll..8°. _ .1i ! 1 1i I . or w = 1/( vaT)... 11 MAHAB Program » » » num W = [og5pace( .1.24. "" '2 "" ...._.L.) Since sin ¢m = -- 1 CPm = 38° corresponds to a = 0. Whether we choose cPm = 38° or ¢m 37.v"r 1 + ja 1 + j­ Va Va 1 1 . =J 1 Bode Diagram of G. L..(. + 2)[ .8° does not make much difference in the final solution..... 1 1 -5 0[..1 .24 corresponds to CPm = 37... the next step is to determine the corner frequencies w = liT and w = lI(aT) of the lead compensator.. 1 ..w) » grid » lille(' Bode Diagram of G_1 (5) = den = [1 = [40]. ..L..I I ' 10 1 Figure 11-37 Bode diagram of G1 {s) 40/[s(5 + 2)]. i1 I I II I I Ii j i I i .L -L L..=. .. let us choose a = 0.

a. or We = 9 Tad/s." " 30 20 25 Bode D i agram of G(5) = 40/15(5 + 2)1 � " 15 10 .2 -150 0.-L � __ __ -L -L tOI Frequency (rad/sec) + Figurc ll-38 Bodc diagram of G1{s) = 40/fs(s 2 ) 1. . we find that the frequency point where IGI(jw)1 = -6. = -- I vaT MATlAB Program 1 1 -6 » den = 11 2 01.den.2041 6.. From Figure 1 1-37. -5 -10 -90 � -120 � � . » bode(num. 1 . » w = 1 0gspace (0.w) » grid » lille('Bode Diagram of C(s) = 40/Is(s+2)]') » num = 1401. 1 1-6 Design of Control Systems in the Frequency Domain = 651 Note that -= I Va We need to find the frequency point where the total magnitude becomes 0 dB when the lead compensator is added. Let us select this frequency to be the new gain crossover frequency. MATLAB Program 1 1-6 produces the Bode diagram in this frequency range.2 dB w. -1 00 � � __ __ __ __ __ J__ __ � __ __ -L -L L. From the diagram. Hence. 1 00).� 5 � 0 ::. we see that the frequency point where the magnitude of GI (jw) is 6 2 dB occurs between w = I and 10 rad/s.2 dB is w = 9 rad/s. which is shown in Figure 1 1-38. Noting that this frequency cor· responds to I/( VaT ). I -\1 0. we plot a new Bode dia­ gram of G1(jw) in the frequency range between w = 1 and 10 to locate the exact point where GI(jw) = -6.Sec.24 = 0. or .2 dB.

24 1 9 18.(s) = 4 1.371 K. (s) = where Kc is determined as We .227s + 1 s + 4.652 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.0544s + 1 MATLAB Program 1 1-7 produces the Bode diagram of Ihis lead compensator. (s) 0.a 0.24 lllUS.� " " 25 20 40 30 20 10 I .371) -.= -. + 18.667 0. I rw !!d !It: -- .0544s + 0. 1 1 we obtain and The lead compensator thus determined is G. s s + 4. Note that 35 iii' � 30 0 "0 :..37 1 = K.409)/(.= aT Va \10. which is shown in Figure 1 1-39.. . the transfer function of the compensator becomes G.371 0.409 + 18. � � "0 • 0 -BIi+ IiiI I ._ - illil TII III " Figure 11-39 Bode diagram of the compensator. r 1 1 '1 IIIII --TTl I i I I I Bode Diagram of G.667(s + 4. ..667 - K a = - 10 = 41.409 = 10 s + 18.227s + 1 1 Kc = = 41 .= ..

7 1 ]. 3 7 1 I ' ) The open-loop transfer function of the designed system is G.409 4 5 + 18. w = logspace(. » W = logspace( .l . 3 7 1 ].l .(S)G(5) = 41.Sec. 1 00)..3 .409)/(5+ 1 8. l OO).w) » grid » title('Bode Diagram of G_C(5) = 41 . » bode(numc. bode(num. which is shown in Figure 1 1-40. 1 1 -6 Design of Control Systems in the Frequency Domain 653 MATlAB Program 1 1 -7 » numc = [41 . num = 1 1 66.742 01.(5)G(5).w) grid title(' Bode Diagram of G_c(s)G(s)') Bode Diagram of Gc(s)G(s) 50 iii' � 0 "0 ..� � " 0 -50 Figure 11-40 Bode diagram of Gc(s)G( .den.3 7 1 36.667 1 83 .668 den = 11 20. ) .742s MATLAB Program 1 1-8 will produce the Bode diagram of G.denc.667 5 + 4.8391. .6685 + 734..371 5(S + 2) 166. 37 1 s' + 36.839 s3 + 20. From the figure. notice that the phase margin is approximately 50Q and MATlAB » » » » » » Program 1 1 -8 734. » denc = [ 1 1 8.667 (s + 4.1 .

the original uncompensated system will have a large steady·state error following the unit·ramp input.(s) = s2 + 4 + 4 R. + 166.37 1 )s(s 2) + 41 .c1 . the designed system is satisfactory.In Ihis program. Unit-step response \Ve shall check the unit-step response of the designed system.839 20.den2.(s) 2s 41 .409) x 4 MAHAB Program 1 1 -9 » % .668s + 734. TIle static velocity error constant of the uncompensated system is 2 S-l. all requirements are satisfied.J).c2} » grid » titlee U nit-Step Responses of U ncompensated and Compensated Systems') » xlabelet (sec}') » ylabel('Oulputs c_1 and c_2 ') » texl(3. we obtain unil-step responses % of u ncompensated and compensated systems » » num1 141.24.8391. Since Kv = 20 S-l.3 71 734.41 s + 734.den1 . 1 .839/36. 1 .839 + 4. un­ compensated system.J).668 734.654 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. » num2 11 66. Since the static velocity error constant is 20 S.8. 1 1 the gain margin is + 00 dB. uncompensated system is C.371s2 + 203.742 = 20).409) + The closed-loop transfer function of the compensated system is C2 (s) R.1 . » c1 slep(num 1 .01 :6.l (734. » c2 = slep(num2.83 91.667(s S3 MATLAB Program 11-9 produces the unit-step responses of the uncompensated and compensated systems. 1 . » t 0:0.1.667(s + 4. TIle closed-loop transfer function of the original. » plot(t. the steady·state error following the unit·rarnp input will be lIKv = 0.41 » den2 11 20. Hence. Unit-ramp response It is worthwhile to check the unit·ramp response of the compen· sated system.(s) = X 4 (s + 18.05. ' Uncompensaled system'} » texl(0.'Compensated system') » = = = = = = . 203. The resulting response curves are shown in Figure 1 1-41. » den1 11 2 41. We plol both the unit-step response of the designed system and that of the original. Hence.

] The resulting curves are shown in Figure 1 1 -42. » den1 1 1 2 4 OJ. ' Uncompensated') » text(2 .668 » den2 = 11 20. 1 . O. » c2 = step(num2.-� � --.01 :4. 1 'system ' ) = = .7. 2 and R(s) is a unit-step input.� - 655 1.'-') » grid » title('Unit-Ramp Responses of Uncompensated and Compensated Systems') » xlabel('t (sec)') » ylabel('lnput and Outputs c_1 and c_2 ') » text( 1 .t.c2.85..t.den1 .t).8391. MAHAR Program 1 1 -1 0 » % .35. 1 1-6 Design of Control Systems i n the Frequency Domain � t. MATLAB Program 1 1 -10 produces the unit-ramp response curves. uncompensated system .7. 'system') » text(OA.t. » t 0:0.2 . Uncompensated system "" "5 o � 0.2 2 3 t (sec) 4 5 6 Figure 11-41 Unit-step responses of uncompensated and compen­ sated systems. 734. » plot(t.3. 'Compensated') » text(OA.S 0.4 0.t).6 • . [Note that the unit-ramp response is obtained as the unit-stcp response of Cj(s)/sR(s). where i = 1..'lnput') » text(2 .0.4 . » num2 = [1 66.2 . we obtain un it-ramp responses » % of u ncompensated and compensated systems » » num1 = 141.35.c1 . » c 1 = step(num1 .In this program. � -".839 OJ.Sec. The compensated system has a steady-state error equal 10 onc-tenth that of the origi­ nal. 1 .371 203 A1 734.2 oS' Compensated system Unit-Step Responses of Uncompensated and Compensated Systems ---'.den2.-.85.

5 2 2.. . " fr Chap.c:..(s) = Ts + 1 = K..5 3 3. 1 1 Unit-Ramp Responses of Uncompensated and Compensated Systems � -. 5s + 1 ) It is desired to compensate the system so that the static velocity error constant Ku is I 5 5.5 .. We shall use a lag compensator of the form G.. K. the phase margin is at least 40°. and the gain margin is at least 10 dB. . The open-loop transfer function is given by G ( s) - 1 . Figure 11-:13 Control system.656 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems 4 3...� -.5s + I) S(5 +1)(0.".5 Uncompensated system 0. " 2 Compensated system 1. Figure 11�2 Example 11-7 Design of a Lag Compensator Consider the system shown in Figure 1 1-43.-' -' � � -.-'A --- Input I) -g " " Q.{3 {3Ts + 1 1 s+T s + -- (3T 1 (3 > 1 Define and G.--.55 + I) r.5 � 2... (s) = KG(s) K s(s + 1 ) (0.--.-c s(s + 1 ) ( 0.--..-...5 1.5 0.5 4 I (sec) Unit-ramp responses of uncompensated and com­ pensated systems.

5s + I ) � � � With K = 5. which means that the gain adjusted but uncompensated system is unstable. GJ(jw) � K � 5 dB Figure 1l� Bode diagrams for G1 KG (gain-adjusted. Noting that the addition of a lag compensator modifies the phase curve of the Bode diagram. We shall next plot the Bode diagram of 5 jw(jw + I ) (O. � � or Ts + 1 lim sG.1 rad/s.(s)G(s) lim s GJ(s) � lim sGJ(s) s-o 5-0 (3T S + 1 s-O sK 5 K lim . Since this corner frequency is not too far below the new gain crossover frequency.-0 s(s + 1 ) ( 0. the phase margin is found to be -20°. m w in radls = . Thus. the modification in the phase curve may not be . we must allow 5° to 12° to the specified phase margin to compensate for the modification of the phase curve. but unco pensated system ) . Since the frequency corresponding to a phase mar­ gin of 40Q is 0. the new gain crossover frequency (of the compensated system) must be chosen to be near this value. we shall choose the corner frequency w = liT (which corresponds to the zero of the lag compensator) to be 0. and GeG (compensated system). 1 1 -6 Design of Control Systems i n the Frequency Domain 657 The first step in the design is to adjust the gain K to meet the required static velocity error constant. Gc!K (gain-adjusted compensator).7 rad/s. the compensated system satisfies the steady-state performance requirement. From this plot.5jw + 1 ) The magnitude curve and phase-angle curve of G1 (jw) are shown in Figure 11-44.Sec. To avoid overly large time constants for the lag compensator. K.

= K f3 � = 0. The required phase margin is now 52°.1l1is means that the bandwidth of the system is reduced. The best among many alternatives may be chosen from the economic consideration that the time constants of the lag compensator should not be too large. Finally.658 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. (s)G(s) = 5( lOs + 1 ) lOOs + 1 ) (s + 1 ) (0. Compensators designed by different methods or by different designers (even using the same approach) may look sufficiently different. The phase angle of the uncompensated open·loop transfer function is -128° at about w 0. will give similar transient and steady-state performance. so we choose the new gain crossover frequency to be 0. therefore. 1 1 small. Note that the new gain crossover frequency is decreased from approximately 2 to 0. To bring the magnitude curve down to 0 dB at this new gain crossover frequency.5 10 Hence. The compensated system. which is quite acceptable. TIle static velocity error constant is 5 S. as required. Hence. we add about 12° to the given phase margin as an allowance to account for the lag angle introduced by the lag compensator. however.20 dB.5 rad/s.I .5 radls. 1 s+10 1 s+­ lOa K. we shall examine the unit-step response and unit-ramp response of the compensated system and the original. which is the required value. Hence. The phase margin of the compensated system is about 40°. the compensator Gc(s) is determined to be G. Any of the well·designed sys­ tems. == 20 10gor f3 1 = -20 TIle other corner frequency w == compensator. the transfer function of the lag compensator is Since the gain K was determined to be 5 and (3 was determined to be 10.5 rad/s. uncompensated system. satis· fies the requirements regarding both the steady state and the relative stability. TIle gain margin is approximately 11 dB. The closed-loop transfer G.5 s + 1 ) s( . the lag com· pensator must give the necessary attenuation. which in this case is .(s) = 5 lOs + 1 l OOs + 1 The open·!oop transfer function of the compensated system is thus The magnitude and phase·angle curves of Gc(}w )G(}w) are also shown in Figure 1 1-44. we have las + 1 100s + 1 = K. is then determined as l/{f3 T ) which corresponds to the pole of the lag = f3 = lO f3T GC (s) = KC( 10) 1 am radls lllUS.

Sec. 0 -= . 30 25 nit-Ramp Responses of Compensated and Uncompensated Systems " = " . 1.6 0. . ... TIle resulting unit-step response curves and unit-ramp response curves are shown in Figures 11--45 and 11-46.8 � o Uncompensated system o 5 10 15 t (sec) 20 25 30 Figure 1 1-45 Unit-step response curves for the compensated and uncompensated systems.2 Unit-Step Responses of Compensated and Uncompensated Systems � 0 0. 1 1 -6 Design of Control Systems in the Frequency Domain 659 functions of the compensated and uncompensated systems are C(s) R(s) 50s + 5 ' + 150.2 "..4 1. 0. MATLAB Program 11-11 will produce the unit-step and unit-ramp responses of the compensated and uncompensated systems.4 0. 20 ". Input 15 0- 10 5 Uncompcns<llcd system Compensated system 0 0 5 10 15 ( (sec) 20 25 30 Figure 11-46 Unit-ramp response curves for the compensated and uncompensated systems.5s' + 101.5s' + Sis + 5 50s and C(s) R(s) respectively..

2 .'. » t = 0:0.t[ step(nu m.5 1 .x2. 23.2.den1 e.0.5196.7. » ly2.8. » num1 e [50 51. ' . » denl e = [50 1 50.5 1 01 . 1 .t). » I = 0:0.01 :30.3 . Note that the zero and the poles of the designed closed-loop systems are as follows: zero at s = -0. .32. » plot (t. t[ step(num1 e.6.t).5 5 1 5 [ . s = - 0 1 228 .t). ' U ncompensated system') » » % U n i t-ramp response » » num1 = 11 1 . t[ = step(num1 .t.2859 ± j0. » [e2.01 :30. 1 1 MAnAB Program 1 1 -1 1 » % . » clen = [0. » [e1 .5 1 [. z2. ' .5 51 5 0[.dene.660 Frequency-Domain Analysis and De s ig n of Control Systems Chap.V--') » grid » title('Unit-Ramp Responses of Compensated and Uncompensated Systems') » xlabel('t (sec) ') » ylabel('l nput and Outputs') » lext(l 0.5. z l .') » grid » title('Un it-Step Responses of Compensaled and U ncompensated Systems') » xlabel('t (sec)') » ylabel('Oulpuls') » text(1 2 .6.y1 . ' U ncompensated system') » lexl(1 2 . » plot{t.den1 .5 1 01 . 'Compensated system') » texl(1 7.y2.5 1 . we find that the designed system is satisfactory. From the response curves. » dene = [ 5 0 1 50. '.U n it-step response ­ » » num = [1 [ . s = -2.xl .t.' lnpul') = = = = = respectively.t).t.e2. 'Compensated system') » text(1 2.1 poles at s = -0.3155 .5 0[.den. » [y l .7. » nume [50 5 [ . » den 1 = [0. '.c1 .t[ step(nume.'·'.

It is also noted that in the system compensated by a lag compensator the transfer function between the plant disturbance and the system error may not involve a zero that is near the closed-loop pole that is located close to the origin. although its magnitude will become very small because the zero of the lag compensator wiLl almost cancel the effect of this pole. 4. the system must be designed so that the effect of lag - . a lag-com­ pensated system tends to become less stable. 1 1-6 Design of Control Systems in the Frequency Domain 661 The dominant closed-loop poles are very close to the jw-axis. because the lag compensator will create an additional closed-loop pole i n the same region as the zero and pole of the lag compensator. the transient response to the disturbance input may last very long. the time constant T should be made sufficiently larger than the largest time constant of the system.Sec. the lag compensator will reduce the bandwidth of the system and will result in a slower transient response. with the result that the response is slow. When saturation or limiting takes place in the system. [111e phase-angle curve of G. however. Therefore. Therefore. A few comments on lag compensation 2. Then the system becomes less stable. Then the exact location of the zero and pole is not critical. Note.) Suppose that the zero and pole of a lag compensator are located at s = z and s = p. as shown in Figure 1 1-47. Note that in lag compensation we utilize the attenuation characteristic of the lag compensator at high frequen­ cies. and may even become unstable. 1. To avoid this possibility.(jw )G(jw) is relative­ ly unchanged near and above the new gain crossover frequency. that the zero and pole of the lag compensator should not be located unnecessarily close to the origin. The attenuation due to the lag compensator will shift the gain crossover fre­ quency to a lower frequency at which the phase margin is acceptable. Lag compensators are essentially low-pass filters. it acts approxi­ mately as a proportional-plus-integral controller. provided that they are close to the origin and the ratio zip is equal to the required multiplication factor of the static velocity error constant. How­ ever. Thus. respectively. Conditional stability may occur when a system baving saturation or limiting is compensated by the use of a lag compensator. a pair consisting of the closed-loop pole at s = -0.1 produces a slowly decreasing tail of small amplitude. (The phase-lag characteristic is of no use for compensation purposes. The closed-loop pole located near the origin gives a very slowly decay­ ing transient response. lag compensa­ tion permits a high gain at low frequencies (which improves the steady-state performance of a system) and reduces gain in the higher critical range of fre­ quencies so as to improve the phase margin. S.1228 and the zero at s = . Because of this.] Since the Jag compensator tends to integrate the input signal. Also. To avoid this undesirable feature.0. it reduces the effective loop gain. rather than the phase-lag characteristic. 3. the transient response (decay) due to this pole is so slow that the settling time will be adversely affected.

We shall design a lag-lead compensator of the form Then the open-loop transfer function of the compensated system is Gc(s)G(s). .s( s + l )(s + 4) Consider the unity-feedback system whose open-loop transfer function is G (s) Design a compensator Gc{s) such that the static velocity error constant is lO S-I . ... (111 is can be done by means of minor feed­ back-loop compensation.. let us assume that K. 1 1 dB 10 0 -10 -20 -90' -180' -270' -� -.. -O From the requirement o n the static velocity error constant.____ Figure 11-47 Bode d i agram of a condition­ aUy stable system. Since the gain K of tbe plant is adjustable.O 4 = = 5 K =- 10 lim sGc(s) ( .----.� � -..7-:-. S S + I�( ) s + 4 Hence..Large gain :::S mall " ...--....(s)G(s) .' ---. � _ t 4 2 6 8 10 --� 20 w in radls compensation becomes significant only when the amplitude of Ihe input to the saturating element is small._...662 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems 40 30 20 Chap... K = 40 . _ .I '\ �--:-. cp > 0 " __.-.-.0 .) Example 11-8 Design of a Lag-Lead Compensator K . we obtain S K" = s lim sG..--. . the phase margin is 50°..(s) = 1 . and the gain margin is to dB or more. = I..C:­ --' .7 f cf> < 0 !!ai n _=... 0. Then lim G.---.

A single lag-lead compensator can provide this amount of phase-lead angle quite easily.L --"-. = MAHAB » » » » » » Program 1 1 -1 2 num = 1401. We may choose the new gain crossover frequency to be 2 Tad/s so that the phase-lead angle required at w 2 Tad/s is about 50°. + 4)1· . which can be determined from a consideration of the lead portion of the compensator. MATLAB Program 1 1-12 may be used to plot this Bode diagram. we notice that the phase crossover frequency is w = 2 Tad/s.-101 1 0° 10-1 Frequency (rad/sec) Figurc ll-48 Bode diagram of C(s) = 40/1s(s + 1)(.w) g ri d title(' Bode D iag ram of C(s) = 40/[s(s+ 1 )(s+4lJ ') -. -135 If .L. we need the value of {3. Let us choose the corner frequency w = 1IT2 (which corresponds to the zero of the phase-lag portion of the compensator) to be 1 decade below the new gain crossover frequency.-. bode(num.LJ . Once we choose the gain crossover frequency to be 2 radls.. For another corner frequency w � lI({3T.. w � 0.Sec.2 radls. which indicates that the gain adjusted but uncompensated system is unstable. which is shown in Figure 1 1 -48.. w = logspace(-l ." i -180 � -225 � -270 L _ ---L Li i. -.l. den = 11 5 4 01. The next step in the design of a Jag-lead compensator is to choose a new gain crossover frequency.. From Figure 1 1-48 the phase margin of the uncompensated system is found to be -16°. 1 .den. 1 00). 1 1 -6 Design of Control Systems in the Frequency Domain 663 We shall first plot a Bode diagram of the uncompensated system with K = 40. From the phase· angle curve for G(jw) .).l _ L � ---L .. that is.LL _ _ -L -.LL . we can determine the corner frequencies of the phase-lag portion of the lag-lead compensator.

4 s+4 Combining the transfer functions of the lag and lead portions of the compensator. From this requirement ..664 For the lead compensator.4 radls and w = 4 rad/s..5s + 1 ) (5s + 1 ) (0. then the new gain crossover frequency is as desired.081.(s) = s + 0. sm cPm = f3 + Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. for the lead portion.25s + 1 ) (50s + 1 ) TIle Bode diagram of the lag-lead compensator Ge(.9'. Since we need a 50° phase margin.6 0.6 dB.08l.'i') can be obtained by entering MATLAB Program 1 1-13 into the computer. Since we chose Kc = l. 54.02 The transfer function of the phase-lag panion of the lag-lead compensator becomes s + 0.) The intersections of this line and the O-dB line and -20-dB line detennine the corner frequencies.25s + 1 ( ) G. f3 = 111el1 the corner frequency w = lI({3T2) (which corresponds to the pole of the phase­ lag portion of the compensalOr) becomes 10 w = 0. if the lag-lead compensalOr contributes -6 dB at w = 2 rad/s.. we have f3 . 2. » bode(num.1l1e resuhing plot is shown in Figure 1 1-49..02 (2. (Note that we will be using several degrees less than the maximum angle.1 . 2 rad/s). from Figure 11-48. By substituting a = 1I{3 into that equation. we can obtain the transfer function Ge(s) of the lag-lead compensator.. den [ 1 4.) Thus.5s + 1 10 0.02 50s + I ( ) The phase-lead portion can be determined as follows: Since the new gain crossover frequency is w = 2 radls. TIlUS. the maximum phase-lead angle q>m is given by Equa­ tion ( 1 1-10). we have = .9°.den) » grid » titleCBode Diagram of Lag-Lead Compensator') » = Program 1 1 -1 3 . the transfer function of the lead portion of the lag-lead compensator becomes s + 0. we may choose {3 = 10.4 s + 0. it is possible to draw a straight line of slope 20 dB/decade passing through the point ( . the corner frequencies can be determined as w = 0.02 0. IG(j2 ) 1 is found to bc 6 dB.2 s + 4 s + 0. MAHAR » n u m = 11 0. Hence.2 = 5s + 1 10 s + 0.!. (Such a line has been drawn manually in Figure '11-48. 1 1 1 Notice that f3 = 10 corresponds to cPIII = 54. From this consideration.

we see that the requirements on the phase margin. gain margin. t· · · Figure 11-49 Bode diagram of the designed lag-lead compensator. (s) G(s) = The magnitude and phase-angle curves of the designed open-loop transfer function G. 1 1-6 Design of Control Systems in the Frequency Domain Bode Diagram of Lag-Lead Compensalor 665 £" 20 "0 ::.--'-.) s + ( s -4.325 Noting that = -:- G.2 s' + 9. We next investigate the transient-response characteristics of the designed system.02s' + 24.4 ) MATLAB = Program 1 1 -1 4 » num = 140 24 3 . and static velocity error constant are all satisfied. '0 ff -14 -16 -18 -20 90 " -to -12 -8 -4 -6 0 -2 "'" 2f. From the diagram.0 -=-)s"" .4)(s + 0.2) 40 (s + 4) ( s + 0.02) s(s + l)(s + 4) 40s' + 245 + 3. » den 1 1 9.""-'-+-:.I t OO rrr-·.18s' + 16.den) » grid » title(' Bode Diagram of G_c(s)G(s)') OJ.. .02 24. The openwloop transfer function of the compensated system is G.48s' + 0.21..""') ( . ( s ) G ( s) 40( s + O. 02""'( s + 1:-:(. 0 0 45 " " -45 -90 0 W-3 Frequency (fad/sec) to. obtained from MATLAB Program 11-14.s . 1 8 1 6.4)(s + 0.32 » bode(num.Sec.2 ) + .48 0.-: .(s) G (s) are shown in the Bode diagram of Figure 1 1-50.-'. Unit-step response (s + O.

.) � G.lJJWlL---.ijjJJL. + 3... » step(num...(s)G(J). -50 @.2 .ll.llli"--..L..05:40.(s) G (s) MAHAB Program » » » » 1 1 -1 5 % . (s) G (s) 1 + G.illJ .:urc 11-50 Bode diagram of G.32 3.J...-. we have C(s) R(s) 40(s + O.4)(s + 0.LJ.. + 3.t) » grid » title('Unit-Step Response of Designed System') » xlabel('t').den..2 ' + 9.. 1 1 £' o -c .02 2 4.21.l... we may use MATLAB Program 1 1-15.1 10° 10 1 Frequency (rad/sec) 102 10 FiJ.LJilllJllL.--l � ±i± 10-2 10.2) 40s' + 24.02s' + 24. de n = [ 1 9...LJ liL.....32..LL..--.lJ.2[. 2- 50 0 :E -100 1 . -150 L. which produces the unit-step response curve shown in Figure 11-51..LJ.mTI lT � m � -: � � TT rl mm TIT " o "" _ - � -180 s: 35 H +"+ � -225 -270 10-3 L. ylabel('Output') .Unit-step response ­ = num [40 24 3.....4)(s + 0.02)s(s + I)(s + 4) + 40(s + O.LJ.Iili: H Hll 3 U llL lilll .48s' + 24.LJ WlL .llill----.llJ.48 24.Wl -90 � mw Tm II m. To obtain the unit-step response.18s3 + 56. » t � 0:0.LJ.. 1 8 56.L .. (Note that the gain adjusted but uncompensated system is unstable..2) (s + 4)(s + 0..666 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.LW ..J illl .

2 Design of Control Systems in the Frequency Domain 667 � � � � ---'-:: -:. Here. Unit-ramp response llle unit-ramp response of this system may be obtained by en­ teri ng MATLAB Program 1 1-16 into the computer. we converted the unit-ramp response of G.� ---'.8 Q. r. 5 10 15 I 20 (sec) 25 30 35 40 Figure 11-51 Unit-stcp response of thc designed system.GI(l + G.4 1.'----. 1 2 :.-'-.6 0. 1 1-6 1. 0 0...2 "5 0. Q. The unit-ramp response curve obtained from the program is shown in Figure 1 1-52. 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 t (sec) 14 16 18 20 Figure 11-52 Unit-ramp response of the designed system.Unit-Step Response of Designed System :.. .G)].4 0.Sec.-.:: Unit-Ramp Response of Designed System '" g :. :.G/[s( l + G. 14 10 Q. 20 18 16 0 .G) into the unit-step response of G.

:s_ -!(O -.Unit-ramp response ­ » » num [40 24 3 .48 24.+ . » c = step(num. '-.t (sec)') » ylabel!'lnput and Output') = = = EXAMPLE PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS Problem A-ll-l Plot a Bode diagram of a PID controller given by + G.02 24.:.1 2 4 w in radls 10 20 40 100 .- '" '" 20 0 90' � jI ! i ---+-- 1_ • .2 OJ.s Figure 1 1-53 shows a Bode diagram of the gi ven PID controller.t). ) . 1 8 56.05:20. _-- I2J Figure 11-53 Bode diagram of PID con­ troller given by G.t.2 J .2 + - 2 s O.(s) 2(0..den.32 3 . I s_ I:. 1 1 » % . » plot(t.668 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems MATlAB Program 1 1 -1 6 Chap.4 -90' = 0..:. + .c.. » t 0:0.(s) = 2..2s Solution The controller lTansfer function G. .2 0. » den [1 9. 40 .t. ) _ 2 .(s) can be written as G.(s) = _( . O· J_ 0. ... .: ..• _L_ ! .') » grid » t i tl e ! ' U n i t-Ra mp Response of Designed System ') » xlabel!.ls + l)(s + 1)ls.-.

85s + 57) (s + 4){2. = 57 N/m Taking the Laplace transforms of these two equations. kl = 4 N/m.. obtain the transfer function X(s)/P(s).r) + k 1 (p .\'"(0) = O. substituting zero initial condi­ tions. b. Solution The equations of motion for the system are Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure I I-54.) + b.y) b.05jw) (1 + jW ) { l + 0.( .s + k. Assume that .x ) = b.s x X(s) P(s) (s + 4){2.85s + 57) + 2.Example Problems and Solutions 669 = Problem A-1l-2 p(O) Assuming the displacement p as the input and the displacement x as the output.) (b1s + k1)(b.25jw){1 + 0.s + k.(.t .k. we find that b1 ( p .r . we obtain the transfer function X(s)/P(s) as follows: (b1s + kIl(b. = 2. . Then plot a Bode diagram for the system. The numerical values for bb bb kJ. and eliminating Y(s). and k2 are given as follows: 0 and b1 = I N-s/m.y) = k. k.85 N-s/rn.S5 (s + 4)(s + 20) (s + 1 )(s + 80) 57s The sinusoidal transfer function is X(jw) (jw + 4)(jw + 20) = P(jw) (jw + l)(jw + SO) ( 1 + 0.y = X(s) P(s) Substituting the given numerical values into this last equation.0125jw) y x Figure 11-54 Mechanical system.

-� " Is!. w = 20 Tad/s.- o· -90' � 0.. and for 0 < w < 1 and 80 < W. (Both the accurate magnitude curve and the approximate curve by asymptotes are shown. The Bode diagram of the system is shown in Figure 1 1-56. for 1 < w < 80..1 Figure 11-55 Bode diagram for the system shown in Figure J 1-54.85 N-s/m. 3" . R(s) = lIs2. 1000 Problem A-U-3 Draw a Bode diagram of the following nonminimum-phase system: C(s) -� = R(s) 1 - Ts Obtain the unit-ramp response of the system and plot e(l) versus t. -20 / IGI / / / / -40 90' . the output is attenuated. where bl b2 = 2.. and k2 = 57 N/m. Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. we have Solution C(s) � --� 1 - s' Ts = - s' - - T s . and w = 80 Tad/s. W = 4 Tadls. For a unit-ramp input. the output can follow the input faithfully.) Notice that the system acts as a band-stop filter.670 The carncr frequencies are w = 1 Tad/s.. . Figure 11-55 shows a Bode diagram for this system. That is. k\ = 4 N/m. 10 w in radls 100 = I N-s/m. 1 1 40 20 '" "C ::..= 0 .

but even­ tually comes back in the same direction as the input.jwT.(r) c(r) . ). (Note the faully behavior at the start of the response. [The asymptotes must have slopes of ±2011 dB/decade (/I 0. . The inverse Laplace transform of C(s) gives Figure 1 1-57 shows the response curve C(I) versus T. We have � G(jO+ ) Thus. Solution '''Ie first draw straight·line asymptotes to the magnitude curve. Notice that there arc two corner frequencies. as shown in Figure 1 1-58. we need to examine the low­ frequency region. I T w in log scale dBldecade w in log scale • Figure 11-56 Bode diagram of I .jwTI 0 t 671 1�20.) A characteristic property of such a nonminimum-phase system is that the transient response starts Qut in a direction opposite that of the input. 2.01 . 0 Problem A-ll-4 A Bode diagram of a dynamic system is given in Figure 1 1-58. G(jO + ) � 14 dB � 5. Determine the transfer function of the system from the diagram. To determine the transfer function of the system. .J The intersections of these asymptotes are corner frequencies. w = 1 rad/s and w = 5 rad/s.(r) I I T " " c(r) Figure 11-57 Unit-ramp response of the system considered in Problem A-I 1-3.Example Problems and Solutions dB II . . c(r) � r -T for I 2: 0 . 1 .

) Now.1 �r-10 � '" 0' -90' . From w = 5 Tad/s to w = 00. the asymptote has a slope of -40 dB/decade. the transfer function must have a term 1/( 1 + jw). The sinu­ soidal transfer function G(jw) determined here is of second order. from w = 1 Tad/s to w = 5 Tad/s.ISO' � Figure 11-58 w in rad/s 100 Bode diagram of a dynamic system.01 (s + I ) (0.672 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Des ign of Control Systems 40 Chap.= 0 \2 -20 -40 � �. the asymptote has the slope of -20 dB/decade. Hence.2s + 1 ) . and the phase angle of the transfer function agrees with the given phase-angle curve.2jw) Notice that the given phase-angle curve starts from 0° and approaches -180°. Consequently. combining all the terms together. the transfer function must involve a term 1/( 1 + jO.01 ( 1 + jw) (1 + 0. the transfer function determined here is _ G ( s) - 5.0. "� IGI -60 � � L. Since. we find the transfer function to be G(jw) = 5.2w). [This means that an additional -20-dB/decade slope has been added to the slope from w = 5 rad/s to w = 00. 1 1 20 "' '0 .

' + v'4(. Thus..' + 2 )'12 Note that Wb1wl1 is a function only of . hydraulic.2(' + v'4(.Example Problems and Solutions 673 Problem A-ll-S For the standard second-order system C(s) R(s) show that the bandwidth Wb is given by 52 ' _�W + l' II S + W.' . Plot a curve of w.' + V4(.. yields ( w" )' w" = { [ 1 .(::)' ]' 4(.' I _ " _ 1 _ = " = 0..w.(1 ... Transport lags normally exist in thermal. of a transport lag.' + 2 112 Transport lag.) I I (jw. which is equal to 0.' + 2 ) . Then w� = w.)wlI versus {.( 1 Figure 11-59 shows a curve relating Wb1wII to {.' .)' + 2(.' .t:) . we take the plus sign in this last equation. is a feature of nonrninimum-phase behavior and has an excessive phase lag with no attenuation at high frequencies.2(. we obtain I = 05 Solving this last equation for (Wb1w. Then w' C( ·w ) I R(jw.' .) I = -3 dB...J!. instead of -3 dB.2(. Solulion The bandwidth w" is determined from IC(jw.4r.4(.4(..4(. or dead time.(jw. then y(r) = x(r L) . and pneumatic systems. } + = 4(. we use 3 01 dB..' + I ± V Since (Wb1wn) 2 > 0. Problem A-ll-6 . . respectively.2(.)IR(jw. ( 1 1-13) w" = w.707..(l or w" w.707 from which we get Dividing both sides of this last equation by w�.' + 2 ) - . If x(r) and y(r) are the input and output..) + w. Quite often.

: X(s) X(s)e-L.2 wb 1.8 0. the log magnitude of the transport lag e-jwl.0 1. = . is equal to 0 dB.:. Consider the transport lag given by !£[X(l L)I(1 .2 Chap_ 1 1 f--+-'I--+I---+. since Therefore.j sin wLI = e-jwL = I we have � = -wL = -57...= e-'-' c:-.3wL (radians) (degrees) .:r. .L)I < D . zero mllm! condlllon G(jw) The magnitude of the transport lag is always equal to unity..: '.6 0. Draw the phase angle curve of the transport lag on the Bode diagram. [ x ( I ) I ( I )1 - I ..4 0.. The transfer function of the transport lag is transfer funcllon of transport lag .4 1.6 1.0 w" 0.674 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems 2.. .8 1.:. where L is the dead time. Solution For IG(jw)1 = leas wL .I I Figure 11-59 Curve of wtJw" versus � (where Wb is the bandwidth) for the slandard second-order system defined by Equation ( 1 1-13).

Problem A-U-7 ). o - t-t- .8 I wL 2 6 8 10 Figure 1 1-60 Phase. Deter· mine the critical value of the gain K when T I s and L 0.the thermal systema shown in However. if < K < closed-loop system can become unstable if K exceeds a certain critical value.Example Problems and Solutions 675 The phase angle thus varies linearly with the frequency w.5 s. C(s) G(s) Hgurc 11-61 1l1crmal system.100 '" -200 GU w) =e-1W 1• IG(iw)1 = 0 dB \( \ I!i \ \ \ ! e-jWL . such a system is stable for all values of the gain K (0 Solution \Ve first plot a Bode diagram when K = 1.I f L theO. The phase·angle ch:uacteris­ tic of transport lag is shown in Figure 1 1-60. the The controller is proportional one. We then determine the value of K that will cause the system to be critically stable. = = = Consider Figure 11-61.2 0. The plant involves a dead time of L seconds..angle characterist i c of transport ing.1 0. .plant involves dead time.6 0. 0.300 -400' -500' -600' 0.

.676 Frequency·Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems The sinusoidal transfer function G(jw) with K = 1. Bode diagram of the system e-jwL/(jwT 1 ) with L = 0.2 0.SjW-I 1 + jw ... dB 0 . 1 1 e20 log IG(jw) 1 = 20 log 1 0 5lw l = 0 + 20 log The phase angle of G(jw) is � = !e-D Sjw + = . G(jw) The log magnitude is = . l + jW 1 + 'w I i---t---.1 0. "' " �!e-O. T = 1.8 I 2 + 4 6 -270' Figure U-62 T = l.. 5 is Chap. 1\ ::::::--...180' 1\ 0.lan-I w) L� w The log-magnitude and phase-angle curves are shown in Figure 1 1-62 .10 -20 o .. 5JW '"f\.4 .1-.lan-1w ( degrees) . e-o..5w 20 10 (radians) -O.5w .J( )(r -200' /fi II !t /e-O'�w '-._1 1_ _ 1 JW + I 1 + 20 log I �11 }w = 57..6 w in radls 0.300' 0.5 and 8 10 . -90' . o· II .. ­ JW + 1 e-O.3( -0.5Jw and L = 0.

K must be greater than unity.0. or there must be one counterclockwise encirclement of the -1 + jO point for stability. (The exact value is -10.4. P I. N = Z .Example Problems and Solutions The phase crossover fTequency is approximately w = 3.2.1 .544 Consider the closed-loop system shown in Figure 11-63. because there is one pole of G(s) in the right­ half s-plane.) lllUs. = . the system is unstable. Thus. Figure 11-64(b) shows both stable and unstable cases of G(jw) plots. and K = I gives the stability limit.0::: ---:. the system will become critically stable. 'j 0.5 ) G (5) .P must be equal to . locate the frequency points where w = 0. 0. K Problem A-1l-9 Draw a Nyquist plot of 20(s ' + 5 + 0.---:5 ( S + 1)(5 + 10) On the plot. As w is increased from . Determine the critical value of K for stability by use of the Nyquist stability criterion.6732 radis.99 dB = 3.0.I JW .--:-'. 1. 20. G(Jw) = - is a circle with center at -KI2 on the negative real axis and radius KI2. For the closed-loop system to be stable.I I dB. ljw + 1 ) . R(s) C(s) Figure 11-63 Closed-loop system.1.to 00.5) jw(jw + I ) (O. 2. G(Jw) = 2(-w' + jw + 0.0. for stability. (TIle exact value is W = 3. 6. Therefore.0.) This means that if the gain K is increased by 1 0. and 40. 0.0 radis.0.99 dB. In this system.) The gain value at this frequency is approximately . Solution Noting that . the G(jw} locus makes a counter­ clockwise rotation. Z must be equal to zero.6..:-. as shown in Figure 1 1-64(a). the critical value of the gain K is Problem A-ll-8 677 K = 10. (If there is no encirclement of the -1 + jO point.7 rad/s. Solution The Nyquist plot of .99 dB. 0.0. 4.

w- ( _ ) Draw a Nyquist plot of the following system with MATLAB: 20 ( s' + s + 0. we have The magnitude and phase angle may be computed as shown in Table 11-2..tan-t(0.:::-C "._ s( s + J )(s + 10) Draw the plot for only the positive frequency region.== w Vl + w' Vl + om w' w !.678 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems 1m K 2 Cha. _ 90' .5 .den.1 w) 0.=!= � I G (jw ) I = --:-.I). following commands: Solution To draw the Nyquist plot for only the positive frequency region.wj = nyquist(num. Notice the existence of a loop in the Nyquist plot.= -'. ==. Figure 11-65 shows the Nyquist plot.) .5 ) G (s) . Problem A-ll-10 2 V(0.w' ) ' + w' ==' --.I) for stable and unstable cases. G-plane w=O w : -oo Re w = co <a) 1m G-plane 1m G-plane w=O w = _00 Re w =O w : -oo Re w = co P=I N = -I Z=O K> 1 (Stable) P=I N=O Z=I (b) w = oo K< 1 (Unstable) Figure 11-64 (a) Nyquist plot of KI(jw .!lJj!il = tan-t .:.im. im) .tan-t w .w) plot (re. (b) Nyquist plot s of KI(jw . we use the [re.

0 6.768 1.435 1 .03° .14.1 0.1:10.692 1.0 4. [wI w2 w3J . 100:1 0:500.22.10° -45. 0.485 w LGU ) .918 2. the frequency region of interest may be divided into three subre­ gions as follows: wI = w2 = w3 w = = Figure 11--65 Nyquist piot of G(s) = 20(s2 + S + O.801 1 .6 1.24° -31.W .49° . For example.0 10.96° -64.Example Problems and Solutions TABLE 11-2 Magnitude and Phase of G(jw) Con· 679 sidered in Problem A-11-9 w 0.407 0.53° -24.84.2 0.63.893 0.0 IG(jw)1 9.4 -4 -5 w = O.75° -78.46° -47.2 The frequency region may be divided into several subregions by using different incre­ ments.0 20.5)/ls(s + I)(s + 10)].1:0.952 4. 10:2:100.758 1.44° -75.573 1.4 0.0 2.96° 1m 2 -2 / w = ec 3 Re -I 'j'-�'­ w = 20 -2 -3 w = 0.0 40.

Real Axis').5)/ls(s + I)(s + 10)].680 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.w). » den = 1 1 1 1 1 0 01. Using this program. » plot(re. w3 = 1 00:1 0:500. w2 = 1 0:2:1 00. \Vhal is the gain margin in this case? -®--&c(s) Figure 11-67 Space vchicle control system.---'---. Determine the gain K such that the phase margin is 50°.1 :0. MAHAB Program 1 1 -1 7 » num = 120 20 1 01.5)/ls(s + I)(s + 10)] I r---r---�--�--. » w = Iw1 w2 w31. » w1 = 0.wl = nyquist(num. axis (v) » g rid » title('Nyquist Plot of G(s) = 20(51\2+5+0. 1 : 1 0.den. we obtain the Nyquist plot shown in Figure 1 1-66. im) » v = 1-3 3 -5 1 1. . -5 -3 -2 -I 0 Real Axis 2 3 Problem A-U-U Figure 11-67 shows a block diagram of a space vehicle control system.im.5)/15(5+ 1 )(5+ 1 0)] ') » xlabel(. 1 1 MATLAB Program 11-17 uses this frequency region. = o 'x <: to • -I -2 -3 -4 ' " " E c Figure 11-66 G(s) = Nyquist plot of 20(s' + s + 0. » I re. ylabel ('Imaginary Axis') Nyquist Plot of G(s) 20(" + s + O.

.4(jw + I ) 1) [ (!. Noting that the magnitude of G(jw) must be equal to 0 dB at w = 2. Determine the phase margin and gain margin.3835 ' ---r' ' � " � == ' V2 + 2. Solution Note that G(jw) = .3835 I K This K value will give the phase margin of 50°.) + O.Example Problems and Solutions 681 = Solution Since . the gain margin is + 00 dB. l'v ( JW . we set tan-1 from which we obtain w. Problem A-U-12 = 2.1800 We 2 = 500 2 .130°.of + 2 jw + 10 1] Figure U-68 Closed-loop system. G(Jw) K(jw + 2) ' (jw) = we have The requirement that the phase margin be 50° means that /G{jw. where We is the gain crossover frequency_ or Hence.8259 Draw a Bode diagram of the open-loop transfer funclion G(5) of the closed-loop sys­ tem shown in Figure 1 1--68. .) must be equal to .2& tan-I � .3835.2jw 20(. we have from which we get I K(Jw +2 1 (jw) 2) w=2. = � = jiw + 2 .3835 1.180° line.. 20(jw + 1 ) ' + 5 ) [( JW ) � + _Jw + 10) ' ? jw(O. + t) s(s + 5)(52 + 2s + 10) G(. 3835 radls = Since the phase curve never crosses the .

Figure 11-70 Control system. .2 0.180' Problem A-1l-13 Consider the control system shown in Figure 11-70. or The Bode diagram of GUw) is shown in Figure 11--69. I I �' I '. w in radls 4 Ii 6 -I -r.rr -.-I . = 0.-r o -20 dB -40 -60 � � � -+ � � �-r-Ll .T " -. 40 r-' 20 w.4 0.3 dB.. r.3[62 -- -' -"I' I -- -.3[62. __I __ __ L � 1 3 3 dB -- -I I I -80 -100 0.1 Figure 11-69 T. Determine the value of the gain K such that the phase margin is 60°. From this diagram.T -i r I II I .__ I i � __ __ __ __ t-- _ _ I\ � I � -L I -. 1 1 TIle quadralic term in the denominator has the corner frequency of VTO rad/s and the damping ratio r.- -) '.....682 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.6 I �f I - 2 Bode diagram of G(s) of th e system shown in Figure 1 1-68. . we find the phase margin to be 1000 and the gain margin LO be + 13. of 0. o -90' 10 20 -270' 40 60 100 I II . = VfQ.-- ��:+ l --r L J I --- _ 0.

5 0.5)(5+ 1 )J ') Bode Diagram of G(s) 100 80 S 60 � 40 " 20 � � 0 .5 dB.15 rad/s. 1 10 s + 0.135 -180 1 0-] 10-2 10· 10. Then the gain K must satisfy the following equation: 20 log K = .. The magnitude of G(jw) at this frequency is found to be 14. .Example Problems and Solutions Solution 683 The open-loop transfer function is G(s) = K S + 0.5s Let us plot the Bode diagram of G(s) when K = 1 .5)(s + I)J -45 -90 � " 0: .5 dB MAHAB » » » » » Program 1 1 -1 8 num = [ 1 0 l J.' Frequency (fad/sec) + 10 ' Figure 11-71 Bode diagram of G(s) = (lOs + 1 )/[s(.5 s(s + 1 ) K ( l Os + I ) S3 + 1. bode(num. den = 1 1 1 . Fi gure 1 1-71 shows the Bode diagram produced by the program. �. --60 -80 -100 OD 0 0 � = (lOs + 1)/[s(s + O. From the diagram. O. the required phase margin of 60° occurs at the frequency w = 1.5)(s + 1)[.5 01.5s' + 0. -20 " " -40 ::.den) grid titleCBode Diagram of G(5) = ( 1 05+ 1 )/15(5+0.14. MATLAB Program 1 1-18 may be used for this purpose.

1 1 or K = 0.T. Problem A-11-14 Consider a lag-lead compensator G.( s) defined by Show that at frequency Solution the phase angle of GcUw) becomes zero. (This compensator acts as a lag compensator for 0 < w < W I and as a lead compensator for WI < W < 00.) = 90' .(jW I ) becomes A' al W = WI = 1/VT.wT1 = lrV T2• we have Tl + tao.tan-1 wT2f3 � � I JW + - f3 TI JW + - f3T.T.684 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.(jw../{3 . Ihe angle of G. we have determined the value of the gain K.) 1 W I = --- Y T. A' .188 Thus. Since or and also we have /G . At w = W I 1 = tan.90' = Thus.I wT2 - tan-1 wT.

910 aT = 0.2558jw + 1 (jw). < 1 1 ..31' at w = 1..Example Problems and Solutions 685 Problem A-1l-15 Consider the system shown in Figure 11-72. Accordingly. _T_+ 1 a s Solution Notice that = It is desired that the bandwidth of the closed-loop system be ( ) 0 < .G.2 0.91Ojw + I 0.(s) = K.. Assume that Ts + 1 = ----. (jW)l(O. the lead network needs to supply SO' + 11. we have = w '" Thus.06541 3.91Ojw + 1 0. (0.2jw + I + 1) 61.910 = 1 VO.06)41 K.06541 Noting that the maximum phase lead angle <Pm occurs at the geometric mean of the two corner frequencies.2558 = and Hence. _ I .2558 0. G.2 0.) JW + I -02 8.2jw + 1) Compensator G(s) Figure 11-72 Closed·loop syslem. a can be determined from sin <Pm = sin Tj'W 0 .8772 a = 0.= 1 T 1 3. iTT v Y-.[. Hence. we choose the gain crossover frequency to be 1 fad/so At w = 1.06541 T = T 0.06541 K.2 fad/so ..).31° = 1+a The result is I - a = 0. 3. .910 . Since the bandwidth of the closed-loop system is close to the gain crossover frequency.31'.191.31' = 61. . = 1 va T = 1 3. Design a lead compensator such that the closed-loop system will have the phase margin of 50° and the gain margin of not less than 10 dB. .= -.w) or = 3. G. (jW )G (j.2 ( aTjw+ 1 ) (jw)1(0. the phase angle of G (jw) is ..(jw)G( jw) 0.. .2jw + _ I) G. (jw) G (j'w) K.

we find that the magnitude curve must be raised by 2. = 1. Problem A-1l-16 0.. Hence.0654IK.-.06541 K. Consequently. By simple cal­ culations (or from the Bode diagram). the design specifi· cations are satisfied.(jw)G(jw)/(0.) is shown in Figure 1 1-73. Solution K G (5 ) .3041 K.� ::­ -:-: --:-: 5 (5 + 1 ) (5 + 2) Let us use a lag-lead compensator of the form . 40 20 0 -20 90- dB -40 --60 -80 O· -90' -180' -270' 100 Figure lI-73 Bode diagram of the syslem shown in Figure 1 1-72. the phase margin of 5W.4 2 4 lO 20 40 w in radls Consider the unity-feedback system whose open-loop transfer function is Design a compensator such that the syslCm will have the static velocity error constant of ) 0 5-1.2 0. = 19.686 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.1 0. we set 20 log 0.306 dB so that the magnitude equals 0 dB at w = 1 fad/s.94 TIle magnitude and phase curves of the compensated system show that the system has the phase margin of 50° and the gain margin of 1 6 dB.06541 K. 1 1 A Bode diagram for G.306 0. or which yields = 2.and the gain margin of to dB or more.

let us assume that Kc = 1. The next step in the design of a lag-lead compensator is to choose a new gain crossover frequency. we notice that � = -1 80° at w = 1 . compensated system. uncompensated system: Ge• compensator: GrG. as shown in Figure 1 1-74.Example Problems and Solutions TIlen the open�loop transfer function of the compensated system is Gc(s)G(s). Since the gain K of the plant is adjustable. From the phase-angle curve for G(jw). II is convenient to choose the new gain crossover K 0. we obtain S-O 687 K" � � '-o lim sG.4 0. and the compcnsated system.1 0.04 0.5 Tad/s.6 2 4 6 w in radls 10 Figure 11-74 Bode diagrams for the uncompensated system.01 0.02 0.(s) lim � 20 S S ( �( + I s + 2 ) We shall next draw the Bode diagram of the uncompensated system with K = 20.) .(s)G(s) K � 2 � lO Hence. which indicates that the uncompensated system with K = 20 is unstable. thc com­ pensator. � 5-0 sG. From the requirement o n the static velocity error constant. The phase margin of the uncompensated system is found to be -32°. Then lim Gr(s) = l. (G.2 0.

it is possible draw a straight line of slope 20 dB/decade.015 10 ( 66. the corner frequencies for the lead portion are w = 0. the maximum phase-lead anglc CPm is given by Equa­ tion wilh /{3 in the present case.1435 + ) 1 . Since we need a 50° phase margin. w = lIT2 1 1. = we have 0.( s ) = ( 55 ++ 07.15 1. Once we choose the gain crossover frequency to be Tad/s.7 rad/s and w =becomes and the transfer function of the lead portion of the 7 rad/s. 1. 1 1 frequency to be rad/s so that the phase-lead angle required at rad/s is about which is quite possible with the use of a single lag-lead network.015 _ 54. 5 rad/s). Since we chose K. passing through the point (-13 dB. Hence. Substituting " / in Equation we obtain 50°. GU1. we obtain the transfer function of the lag-lead compensator.5 w = 0. + G. Thus..677sS + 1 ) I 1. Let us choose the corner frequency (which corresponds to the zero of the phase­ lag portion of the compensator) to be decade below the new gain crossover frequen­ cy.7s + I ) The phase-lead portion can be determined as follows: Since the new gain crossover frequency is w = 1. from Figure 11-74.{3 {3 Notice that f3 = 10 corresponds to cPm = 54.Ql5 ) = ( 0.43s 6.9°.143s ++ 11 ) (66.9°.15 (11-10)..7 .435 I Combining the transfer functions of the lag and lead portions of the compensator. 1. lag-lead compensator s + s - 1 10 s + 0. then the new gain crossover frequency is as desired.5 = 1 {3 I {3 = --1 = {3 + 11 1 + .5 rad/s. The transfer function of the phase­ lag portion of the lag-lead compensator then becomes w= w = 0. {3 � 1O (Note that we will be using several degrees less than the maximum angle.!.675 + I + 0. 5 ) is found to be 13 dB. we may choose SIn ¢m . Then the corner frequency 1/{3Tz (which corresponds to the pole of the phase-lag por­ tion of the compensator) becomes rad/s. From this requirement.5 w = 1. if the lag-lead compensator contributes 3 dB at w = 1. or fad/so For the lead compensator. The intersections of this line with the O-dB line and -20-dB line determine the corner frequencies. cr = 1 (11-10).5 rad/s.15 6. ( + I 5 + 7 = 10 0..7 ) ( s5 ++ 0..688 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. ) 0. . we can determine one of the corner frequencies of the phase-lag portion of the lag-lead compensator.

55 + G.1499. 5 � -0. The phase margin of the compensated system is 50°. Let us now examine the transient-response characteristics of the compensated system.1435 + 1 )(66.7)(5 + 0. r.4 0. All the requirements arc therefore met.6 0.� --' . and the design has been completed.(5)G(5) � + I) (1 1-14) TIle magnitude and phase-angle curves of the system of Equation (11-14) are also shown in Figure 1 1 -74.30265' + 163. The open-loop transfer function of the compensated system is (5 + 0. 5 � -0.015)5(5 + 1 ) (5 + 2 ) 10(1..� .8 Co 6 0. (The uncompensated system with K = 20 is unstable.5425.4439 5 � -0.1785.Example Problems and Solutions 689 The magnitude and phase·anglc curves of the Jag-lead compensator just designed are shown in Figure 1 1-74.� -.4 1.--. 5 � -7.2 o "---�---�--�-----' 15 20 25 5 10 o I (scc) Figure 11-75 A-ll-J6).3815' + 815 + 1 0 4.15 )20 (5 + 7)(5 0.8973 ± jl. the gain margin is 16 dB.) The closed-loop transfer function of the compensated system is C(5) R(5 ) 95.2 Unit.4923 1. respectively.435 + 1 )(6. Unit-step response or the compensated system (Problem . and the static velocity error constant is 10 5 .Step Response of Compensated System .' .-'--.72875' + 110..6993 poles at 5 � -0. Note that the designed closed-loop control system has the following closed-loop zeros and poles: zeros at 5 � -0.675 + I ) 5(0.1 .7245' + 825 + 10 The unit-step and unit-ramp response curves obtained with MATLAB arc shown in Figures 1 1-75 and 1 1-76.--' " 0..76915' + 47.75 + 1 )(5 + 1 ) ( 0.

:.5425 and the zero at s = -0. 16 14 12 0 '0 -= :. '" � lO 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 t (sec) '" 12 14 16 18 20 Figure 11-76 Unit-ramp response of the compensated system (Problem A-1l-16). Such a pair of pole and zero produces a long tail of small amplitude in the step response. This pair adds an amplitude to the long lail.690 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Unit-Ramp Response of Compensated System Chap.1785 and the zero at s = -0.6993 are located fairly close to each other. PROBLEMS Problem 8-11-1 Draw a Bode diagram of G (s) = Problem 8-11-2 l Os s + 10 Draw a Bode diagram of the following transfer function: G( s ) = Problem 8-11-3 s+5 s' + 2s + 1O Draw Bode diagrams of (he PI controller given by .1499 are located very close to each other. The pole at s = -0. the pole at s = -0. 1 1 20 18 :. as seen in Figure 11-75. Also.

(s) = 30. x(t) is the input displacement and OCr) is the output angular displacement.65"­ G.Problems 691 and the PD controller given by GAs) Problem 8-11-4 Consider a PID controller given by )' (s + 0.) = 0 and 8(0 . Assume that the masses involved are negligibly small and that all motions are restricted to be small. respectively.s Draw a Bode diagram of the controller.----0 R (a) 0_--.3215 -'---. Problem 8-11-5 Draw Bode diagrams of the lead network and lag network shown in Figures 11-77(a) and (b).5s) o----j 1----. The initial conditions for x and 8 are zeros. c = 5 ( 1 + O. therefore. . R Problem 8-11-6 In the mechanical system of Figure 1 1-78. or x(O .) = O.1_0 (b) � Figure 11-77 (a) Lead network: (b) lag network. x b k No friction Figure 11-78 Mechanical system. the system can be considered lin­ ear.

2 N-s/m. k = 2 N/m and b = 0.. 1 1 Consider the case where the i nput displacement X(I) is given by x(t) = X sin wI What is the steady-state output 8(t)? Also. G( s) Problem 8-11-10 - --:-'..+ s + . s' + � + I s s3 + O. .loop system. + 8s + 64) Plot a Bode diagram of the following G(s) with MATLAB.5) s(s + l ) (s + 10) Consider a unity-feedback system with the following fcedfofward-Iransfcr function: G(s) = . ) I Problem 8-11-11 I = 2.::-:­ ----:... ls this system stable? Problem 8-11-11 Draw a Nyquist pl ot of the following G(s) with MATLAB. G(s) = Problem 8-11-9 320(s + 2) s(s + 1)(5".----:- 20(s' + s + 0.-c.8s + I ) Draw a Nyquist plot of G(s) with MATLAB.2s.692 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Des ign of Control Systems Chap. 0(jw) .:-:. + 2s + 10) Consider a unity-feedback control system with the following open-loop transfer function: G(s) = Draw a Nyquist plot of G(l') and examine the stability of the close d. G(s) Problem B-11-U = 20(s + I ) s(s + 5)(5". draw a Bode diagram of when I = 0.. G(Jw) = X(jw) Problem B-11-7 Given show that IG(jw. Plot a Bode diagram of the following G(s) with MATLAB. � ---:1 --:-:­ s(s2 + 0..1 m.

' + s + 4) the ope n. Sketch the Nyquist plots for the open·loop transfer function with and without derivative can· trol. Determine the range of the gain K for stabilily.( TI S + K ·1 ) is inherently unstable. .Problems 693 Problem 8-11-13 A system with the open· loop transfer function G(s)H(s) = ' s. Draw a Bode diagram of the open-loop transfer function and determine the value of the gain K such that the phase margin is 50°. --'-' -.0 S..--. Figure 11-79 Process control system. Plot unit-slcp and unit-ramp response curves of the compensated system with MATLAB.­ with K s( .I . design a lead compensator Gc(s) such that the phase margin is 45°. The system can be stabilized by adding derivative control. What is the ga i n margin of the system with this gain K? -. Problem 8-11-17 Referring to the control system shown in Figure 1 1-81. Problem 8-11-15 Consider a unity-feedback control system G (s) = Determine the value of t he gain K such that the phase margin is 50°. t h c gain margin is not less than 8 dB. \Vhal is the gain margin with this gain K? Problem 8-11-16 Consider the system shown in Figure 11-80. and thc static velocity error constant Ku is 4.loop transfer function Figure 11-80 Control system. Problem 8-11-14 Figure 1 1-79 shows a block diagram of a process control system.

' . Is +�)(S + I ) r--.. Plot unit-step and unit-ramp response curves of the compensated and uncompensated systems with MATLAB.. and the gain margin is not less than 8 dB.. • . 1 1 ---@---B-Figure 11-81 Control system. Design a compensator such that the static velocity crror constant KIJ is 50 5. the phase margin is 50°.-- Problem 8-11-18 Consider the system shown in Figure 1 1-82.694 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. 5(0. Figure 11-82 Control system .

and the second for time). A distinct amount of a physical quantity is called a unit. Systematic units are systematically derived units within a unit system. (To be useful. Basic units and derived units. such as the cgs system of units. practical size. we review systems of units commonly used in engineering fields. Such a unit is called a basic unit.g. and its value can be stated in terms of a ratio and the unit used. the meter for length. 695 . A physical quantity can be measured only by comparison with a like quan­ tity.. The general unit of a physical quantity is defined as its dimension. Systematic units. a specific unit (e. Units. for each basic dimension of the system.Append ix A Systems of U n its In this appendix. metric engineering system of units. British engineering system of units. and International System of units (SI). A system of units can be developed by choosing. All units that are not basic are called derived units. The corresponding physical quantity is called a basic quantity . the unit should be a convenient. They can be obtained by replacing the general units (dimensions) by the basic units of the system.) Any physical quantity of the same kind can be compared with it. the kilogram for mass. mks system of units.

and all the practical electrical units fit in as natural units to form a comprehensive system of units. kilogram force. [L)X[M]Y[T]t.-s /ft and is called a slug (1 slug = I lb. In the mks system of units. This system is the one that has been used in the United States. Absolute systems of units and gravitational systems of units. and the mole as the unit of amount of substance. sec­ ond) of the mks absolute system of units. and second. T hus. and second. The four added basic units are the ampere as the unit of electric current. [M].) In this system. International System of units (SI). For and that of force is [L][M][Tr2. gram mass. This system has been widely used in science. (See Table A-I . (Since the standard of force is defined as the weight of the prototype standard mass of the kilogram. pound force. four more basic units are added to the customary three (meter. and time as respectively. the systematic unit of acceleration is 1 rnIs2 and that of force is 1 kg-rnIs2 . which is the unit of a plane angle. The International System of units (Systeme International d'Unites) is the internationally agreed-upon system of units for expressing the values of physical quantities. mass. The mks system of units. Two auxiliary SI units are the radian. The metric engineering system of units is a gravitational system of units based on the meter. The cgs system of units. whereas those in which force rather than mass is taken as a basic unit are called gra vitation al systems of units. In this system. Metric engineering system of units. the candela as the unit of luminous intensity. The mks system of units is an absolute system of units based on the meter. the derived units for force and energy are a convenient size in an engineering sense. kilogram. and second. candela. the kelvin as the unit of thermodynam­ ic temperature. and mole constitute the seven basic units. Table A-I lists the seven basic .) British engineering system of units. but this factor is not a serious disadvantage.696 If we define the dimensions of length.-s /ft) . and [T]. and second. the basic unit of force is variable. kelvin. which is the unit of a solid angle. the dimension of acceleration is therefore Appendix A [L][Tr2 [L]. The British engineering system of units is a gravitational system of units based on the foot. The cgs system of units is an absolute system of units based on the centimeter. Among its disadvantages are the facts that the derived units for force and energy are too small for practical purposes and that the system does not combine with the practical electrical units to form a comprehensive system of units. Systems of units in which mass is taken as a basic unit are called absolute systems ofunits. kilogram. kilogram mass. and the steradian. ampere. The derived unit of 2 2 mass is Ib. sec­ ond. then physical quantities may be expressed as instance. in SI units. the meter.

I kg S-2 A.Appendix A TABLE A-1 International System of U nits 1YPe of Units (51) 697 Quantity Length Mass T une Electric current Temperature Luminous intensity Amount of substance Plane angle Solid angle Acceleration Activity (of radioactive source) Angular acceleration Angular velocity Area Density Dynamic viscosity Electric capacitance Electric charge Electric field strength Electric resistance Entropy Force Frequency Illumination Inductance Kinematic viscosity Luminance Luminous flux Magnetic field strength Magnetic flux Magnetic flux density Magnetomotive force Power Pressure Unit meter kilogram second ampere kelvin candela mole radian steradian meter per second squared 1 per second radian per second squared radian per second square meter kilogram per cubic meter newton second per square meter farad coulomb volt per meter ohm joule per kelvin newton hertz lux henry square meter per second candela per square meter lumen ampere per meter weber tesla ampere turn watt pascal (newton per square meter) Symbol m kg s A K cd mol rad sr mls2 S-1 rad/s2 rad/s m2 kglm3 N-s/m2 F C Dimension Basic units Auxiliary .I m2 kg S-3 A-2 m2 kg s-2 K-1 m kg s-2 S-1 m-2 cd sr m2 kg S-2 A-2 As VIm 11K Hz n Derived units N H Ix m2/s cd/m2 1m AIm Wb cd sr m2 kg s-2 A.1 kg s-1 m-2 kg-1 S4 A2 m kg s-3 A.I A m2 kg S-3 m-1 kg s-2 T A W Pa (N/m2) . umts m.

n p f a . (Multiples and submultiples of the units are indicated by a series of 16 prefixes for various powers of 10.) Derived Velocity Voltage Volume Wave number Work. the two auxiliary units.698 TABLE A-1 lYPe of Units (continued) Appendix A Quantity Radiant intensity Specific heat Thermal conductivity Unit watt per steradian joule per kilogram kelvin watt per meter kelvin meter per second volt cubic meter 1 per meter joule Symbol W/sr J/kg-K W/m-K mls V m3 m-1 J Dimension m2 kg S-3 sr-1 m2 S-2 K-1 m kg s-3 K-1 m2 kg s 3 A l units (cont. quantity of heat m2 kg S-2 units. see Table A-2.12 5 1 0.1 1 0-2 1 0-3 1 0-6 1 0-9 1 0.1 1 0.) TABLE A-2 Prefixes and Abbreviated Prefixes for Multiples and Submultiples in Powers of 1 0 10 1 8 1 0 15 1 0 12 1 09 1 06 1 03 102 10 1 0. energy. and some of the derived units of the International System of units.18 Prefix exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto deka deci centi micro nano pico femto atto milli Abbreviated Prefix E P G T M k h da d c m p.

since it is a ratio of quantities of the same dimension. of negligible circular cross sections. Kelvin . The mole is the amount of substance of a system that contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.010 C. (The dimension of the radian is zero. Mole. if maintained in two straight.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water. The candela is the luminous intensity. will produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 X 10-7 newton per meter of length. The meter is the length equal to 1 650 763.Appendix A The seven basic SI units are defined in the following way: 699 Meter. The steradian is a unit of measure of solid angles that is expressed as the solid angle subtended at the center of a sphere by a portion of the surface whose area is equal to the square of the radius of the sphere. by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures. since it is a ratio of quantities of the same dimension. France. Second. called the International Prototype Kilogram. (The dimension of the steradian is also zero.012 kilogram of carbon 12. The ampere is a constant current that. Kilogram. par­ allel conductors of infinite length. which is preserved in a vault at Sevres. The two auxiliary units of SI (radian and steradian) are defined as follows: Radian.) . The second is the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corre­ sponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the fundamental state of the atom of cesium 133. The kilogram is the mass of a particular cylinder (of diameter 39 mm and height 39 mm) of platinum-iridium alloy. Ampere. of a blackbody surface 1/600 000 square meter in area at the temperature of solidi­ fication of platinum under a pressure of 101 325 newtons per square meter.) Candela. (Note that the triple point of water is 0. the orange-red line. in the direction of the normal. and placed 1 meter apart in a vacuum.) Steradian. The radian is a unit of plane angular measurement equal to the angle at the center of a circle subtended by an arc equal in length to the radius.73 wavelengths of radiation in vacuum corresponding to the unperturbed transition between levels 2PlO and 5ds of the atom of krypton 86. The kelvin is the fraction 1/273.

length.0254 0.5 10-3 2.108 1. volume. and tem­ perature are presented in Tables B-1 through B-9.48 91.835 6.27 16 1 2.440 X X X X X 10-5 10-2 10-2 10-3 10-6 loJ 453.432 15.480 104 X X 2. TABLE B-1 Conversion Table for Mass g kg Ib X oz grain slug 1 10-3 1 0. ft yd 0.9144 in.459 X X 2.943 4.37 1 12 36 0.432 X 6.0936 0. pressure.205 10-3 3.17 514.Appen d ix 8 Conversion Ta bles Conversion tables for mass.0625 1. power.01094 1.281 0.59 TABLE B-2 32. area.852 3.44 m 0.527 X 10-2 15. energy.205 1 0.3937 39.35 6.6 28.252 1 X 10-2 10-5 10-2 10-4 14.03281 3.54 30.4536 2.286 X 7000 437.429 X 35.852 103 6.01 1 0.480 1.78 lOS I Conversion Tables for Length em 1 100 2.02778 0.3333 1 0.08333 1 3 700 .3048 0.

9/32 5/16 1 1/32 3/8 13/32 7/16 15/32 112 nun in.852 (continued) 701 mile 1 nautical mile 0.3861 1 .0764 X 10-3 10.6093 1.452 929.6214 3280.319 1 1.716 X 10-4 0.196 7.944 X 10-3 1 9 yd2 1 .8690 1 ft 0.081 15.0 8361 m2 10-4 1 6.431 22. 17/32 9116 19/32 518 21132 1 1/16 23/32 3/4 nun in.794 1.525 1 0. 1132 1116 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 7/32 1/4 in.812 24.669 17.175 3.844 20.462 18.875 16.287 15.590 mile2 0.09290 0.762 5.937 8. 1 12 1 1 .556 6.764 6. 15 1 TABLE B-3 Conversion Table for Length (from in.144 7.225 23.8361 in.700 13.381 3.019 23.731 9. 1 1 1 1 1 km2 1 2.906 12. 2 0.400 TABLE B-4 Conversion Tables for Area cm2 1 104 6. 25/32 13/16 27/32 7/8 29/32 15116 31132 1 mm 0.606 25.587 2.256 19.494 14.452 X 10-4 0.Appendix B TABLE B-2 km 1 1 .969 4.5400 0.155 1550 1 144 1296 ft2 1.638 21 . 196 X 10-4 1 .84 5280 6076 1 . to mm) nun in.050 19.350 7.

807 1.315 1.2642 42 3.163 2.832 x tt3 yd3 1.480 9.7646 1 U.7069 3.613 1.308 3.6 7.704 X 6.055 1 5.9 107.639 X 3 10-5 10-2 m3 1 2.702 TABLE B-5 Conversion Tables for Volume Appendix B em3 10-3 1 104 16.297 1.9480 9.724 3.381 0.97 10-3 10-3 1 0.356 3.2520 0.285 X X hp 1.968 1 .389 2.414 0.39 liter m.239 X X Btu/s 0.2389 2.239 X X X Btu 10-4 10-3 10-4 9.10197 1 0.315 10-2 1 27 10-2 1 barrel 2.1782 1 0.671 X ft-lb.356 X X kgrmls 101.968 1 4186 1055 426.233 1 2.343 3.1383 106 3.930 X X X kcal 2.7376 7.600 X 10-7 10-6 10-7 10-3 10-4 10-4 10-3 10-3 lOS 1 X X 860 1 0.655 X kWh 2.186 1.7457 4.6 ft-Ibt's 737.778 2.233 1 550 3087 778.818 X X 10-2 10-3 10-3 10-4 10-3 10-3 0.2520 3413 3.102 6. gallon 1 0.6 3087 778 TABLE B-7 Conversion Table for Power British kW 1 9. 0.807 1.1383 76.0 horsepower kcalls 0.102 X X 35.766 106 1.341 1.785 1 159 10-2 10-2 TABLE B-6 Conversion Table for Energy J kgrm 0.285 X X X 1 9.6290 1 x X 0.343 3. • nun3 1 103 1.9 107.S.297 1.04 426.

3158 X 750..09807 0.09678 1 2. S .0197 1 0.03453 0.197 10..10000 0.1 735.807 6.6 51.53 28.953 10-4 m H2 0 1.4912 1.06805 1 1.92 3.9869 0.4 73.000 0.55 29.34 X 0.TABLE B-8 Conversion Table for Pressure Pa or N/m2 bar ( lOs N/m2 ) 1 x kglcm2 Iblin.71 760 1 25.0133 1.96 2.70 19.33 1.03386 0.3332 3.896 0.22 1 14.3453 1 103 .386 9.937 X 10.501 10-3 in.07031 1..895 1.807 10" 103 0.0133 1.3332 x lOS 103 102 10-3 10-3 10-3 10-3 10-2 10-2 0.50 14.06895 1.03342 0.9807 0.3595 X 14.7031 10.450 10-4 atm (standard atmospheric pressure) mm Hg 7. Hg 2.360 X 9.422 0.036 29.2 1.9678 0.869 X 10-6 X X 10-4 lOS X X X x X X 1.0197 X 10-5 X 9.0197 X 1 1 X 10-5 1 1.0332 1.

15) kelvin .8 100.67.6 39.0 194.4 68.2 114.