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Ages in Chaos .

Books by Itnmamiel Velikovsky AGES IN CHAOS WOBUDS IN COLLISION .

Inc. 1952 GARDEN CITY. NEW YORK. .Immanuel Velikovsky \GES IN CHAOS VOLUME I FROM THE EXODUS TO KING AKHNATON Doubleday & Company.

BY XMMANTUKt* VKLIKOVSKY ALL XXIGHT5 KKSKHVKI) PRINTJED IN THJ t^NXTBD STATKS AT THE COUNTBY LIFE PRESS. 1952.Library of Congress Catalog Card NuinJscr 823224 COPYRIGHT. GARDEN CXTY. NY* FIHST KDITXOK .

if ancient Egyptian texts were found to contain references to a similar event. Because I had to discover and to collate them. For a decade after that I worked simultaneously on Ages in Chaos and Worlds in Collision. It is well known that in associations are often built on minute a burnt-out match in the bushes* Some a fingerprint on a bar of metal. It was then had occurred in the midst of a natural upheaval and that this catastrophe might prove be the connecting link between the Israelite and Egyptian histories. the present work deals with its political and cultural aspects. Already by October of the same year I had come to understand the nature and extent of that catastrophe. Ages in Chaos covers largely the period dealt with in Worlds in Collision the eight hundred years from the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt to the invasion of Palestine by Sennacherib in 687 before the present era. searched the records of one land after another and went from one generation to another. . evidence and proof. the present work requiring the lion's share of the toil. details of an archaeological. and the additional three and a half centuries to Alexander of Macedonia. But whereas the first work con- centrated on the description of the physical history of the period. I found such references and before long had worked out a plan of reconstruction of ancient history from the Exodus to the conquest of the East by Alexander the Great.FOREWORD IN* As to that I realized that the Exodus CHAOS was conceived in the spring of 1940. taking from everywhere hints and clues. altogether twelve hundred years of the history of the ancient East. The occurrence of a widespread natural catastrophe serves here only as the point of departure for constructing a revised chronology of the times I and lands under consideration. a hair on a window sill. this book is detective details: work unexpected written like a detective story.

I offer here major battle to the historians. or even reading. Would it help to produce in still more evidence? In my inner council on strategy. and to writconcerned with the storm aroused by those who protested the loudest. a wise and proper move terrestrial and would have been to strengthen my position by following with a volume of geological and paleontological evidence of the same dramatic events in the life of the earth. any book cursorily will prove to be a fruitless it Correct strategy requires that once a bridgehead is established should be fortified. I de- cided to tarry no longer with Ages in Chaos. The two volumes of the present work will be as disturbing to the historians as Worlds in Collision was to the astron- . a volume describing two acts of a celestial the collective memory drama. Is it good judgment. But I found that the arguments presented in that book wore not given a careful hearing. reconstructed from of the human race. after having disrupted the complacent peace of mind of a powerful group of as- tronomers and other textbook writers. 1 have devoted myself to organising Iho evidence from geology and prehistory to supplement the literary and historical evidence of ing Earth in Upheaval. they are necessary to establish the attempt to read undertaking. this main thesis of this work. And in fact. such an difficult It was therefore a from where I had left off in and again. only little by my first book. or paleographic nature may seem minor matters. Therefore. undertaking would seemingly not be great temptation for me to continue Worlds in Collision.Vi FOREWORD chronological. since the publication of Worlds in Collision. to prove again that catastrophes did take place and did disrupt slow-moving evolution in inanimate as well as animate nature. from new angles. but they are the fingerprints of an investigation in which the history of many nations in many generations is vitally involved. Such details are not included to make the reading difficult. is And since this material from the realm of stones and bones not rare but abundant. my opus magnum* I cull Ages in Chaos the second front tacause. instead. to open a second front against a new adversary? After the publication of Worlds in Collision. particularly haste cosmic oatastrophism.

passed this group tried to suppress it there. to reconstruct radically the history of the ancient hundred years in the life of many nations and The attempt world. degrading the learned guild in the eyes of the broad public. a distinguished scholar. expressed this work from the completion of this very idea. twelve king- doms. despite the fact that when the book was already on the presses the publisher agreed it to the censorship of three prominent scientists and it that censorship. in their teaching and writing. It is quite Vll conceivable that historians will have even greater psychological difficulties in revising their views and in accepting the sequence of ancient history as established in Ages in Chaos than the astronomers had in accepting the story of cosmic catastrophes in the solar system in historical times. which does not believe that censorship and suppression are necessary to defend the truth. have already deeply committed themselves to the old concept of history. and still are.FOREWORD omers. suppressed the book in the hands of its first publisher by the threat of a boycott of all the company's textbooks. He said that he knows of no valid argument against the reconstruction of history presented here. writing. They forced to submit who openly took an oband thus drove many members of academic faculties jective stand. Indeed. unprecedented as it is. Should I have heeded the abuse with which a group of scientists condemned Worlds in Collision and its author? Unable to prove the book or any part of it wrong or any quoted document spurious. And here is a rule by which to know whether or the dismissal of a scientist and an editor . And many of those who look to acknowledged authorities for guidance will express their disbelief that a truth could have remained undiscovered so long. alert to stamp out the new teaching by exorcism and not by argument. into clandestine reading of Worlds in Collision and correspondence with its author. When a new publisher took the book over. but that psychologically it is almost impossible to change views acquired in the course of decades of reading. The guardians of dogma were. too. and teaching. who has followed the first draft in 1942. from which they will deduce that it cannot he a truth. by threats. will meet severe censure from those who. the members They of that group indulged in outbursts of unscientific fury.

since the publication of Worlds in Collision. to prove again and again. Therefore. Would it help to produce in haste still more evidence? In my inner council on strategy. a volume describing two acts of a celestial and terrestrial drama. and to writing Earth in Upheaval. Correct strategy requires that once a bridgehead is established it should be fortified. that catastrophes did take place and did disrupt slow-moving evoto strengdien would have been volume of geological and my position lution in inanimate as well as animate nature. 1 have devoted myself to organ* izing the evidence from geology and prehistory to supplement the evidence of eosmic euliistrophism. they are of this work. And in fact. chronological. particularly by those who protested the loudest. reconstructed from the collective memory of die human race. And since this material from the realm of stones and bones is not rare but abundant. only little concerned with the storm aroused by my first book. But I found that the arguments presented in that literary historical and book were not given a careful hearing. or even reading. or paleographic but they are the fingerprints of an investigation in which the hisis vitally involved. my opus* magnum* I call Ages in Chaos the second front because. to open a second front against a new adversary? After the publication of Worlds in Collision. The two volumes of the present work will be as disturbing to the historians as Worlds in Collision was to the astron- . from new angles. such an undertaking would seemingly not be difficult It was therefore a great temptation for me to continue from where I had left off in Worlds in Collision.Vi FOREWORD nature may seem minor matters. any necessary to establish the main thesis to read this book cursorily will prove to be a fruitless attempt details are not included to make undertaking. I offer here major battle to the historians. I decided to tarry no longer with Ages in Chaos. Is it good judgment. Such tory of many nations in many generations die reading difficult. a wise and proper move by following with a paleontological evidence of the same dramatic events in the life of the earth. instead. after having disthe complacent peace of mind of a powerful group of asrupted tronomers and other textbook writers.

to reconstruct radically the history of the ancient life of many nations and king- The attempt world. into clandestine reading of Worlds in Collision and correspondence with its uuthor. They suppressed the book in the hands of its first publisher by the threat of a boycott of all the company's textbooks. this the completion of He said that he knows of no valid argument against the reconstruction of history presented here. Indeed. by threats. but that psychologically it is almost impossible to change views acquired in the course of decades of reading. expressed this work from very idea. from which they will deduce that it cannot be a truth. passed this group tried to suppress it there. too. And here is a rule by which to know whether oy . who has followed the first draft in 1942. which degrading the learned guild in the eyes of tie broad public. When a new publisher took the book over. They forced to submit the dismissal of a scientist and an editor who openly took an oband thus drove many members of academic faculties jective stand. will meet severe censure from those who. writing. It is Vii quite conceivable that historians will have even greater psychological difficulties in revising their views and in accepting the sequence of ancient as established in in Chaos history Ages than the astronomers had in accepting the story of cosmic catastrophes in the solar system in historical times. the members' of that group indulged in outbursts of unscientific fury. have already deeply committed themselves to the old concept of history. The guardians of dogma were. unprecedented as it is. Should I have heeded the abuse with which a group of scientists condemned Worlds in Collision and its author? Unable to prove the book or any part of it wrong or any quoted document spurious. in their teaching and writing. And many of those who look to acknowledged authorities for guidance will express their disbelief that a truth could have remained undiscovered so long. twelve hundred years in the doms. a distinguished scholar. docs not believe that censorship and suppression are necessary to defend the truth. and still are. alert to stamp out the new teaching by exorcism and not by argument.FOREWORD omers. and teaching. despite the fact that when the book was already on the presses the publisher agreed it to the censorship of three prominent scientists and it that censorship.

work as a whole and the inunifoM it on which stands. though emotional outbursts one has have not ceased. before proclaiming that the entire argument can be made carefully structure must collapse because an against this. Sci- A scientific approach requires. invalidation of the evidence presented. Stewart. and are inwardly tempted to take the other side. Howver. but rather under die guise of showing how wrong the author of that heretical book is. entific rejection demands Nothing of the kind was arguments offered whatever could be gathered from numerous reviews-I answered point by point in a debate with Professor J. Finally. Q. a new strategy was employed: the views expounded were appropriated piecemeal by those who first opposed them. fourteen months after the publication of the book. "We are most likely to get angry and excited in our opposition to some idea when we ourselves are not quite certain of our own position. reading.or that point. published in the June 1951 issue of Harpers magazine. though not with frankness and candor. I claim the right to fallibility in details and I eagerly welcome constructive criticism." 1 first. astronomer at Princeton University. In the case investigation. lastly. Groat are the changes in the political hisloiy of the ancient Kast offered in Age<(t in Clutott. The few No argument was left unanswered. He will be like that "eomciVntiuus scientist >" . The historian who permits his attrnfiuu to complete Iw to the jwtoi's extent of overlooking the monopolized by an argument directed against MJIW <l*Uil. of Worlds in Collision the procedure was repeatedly reversed. will only demonstrate the narrowness of his ap- proach to history.Vlll FOREWORD not a book is spurious: Never in the history of science has a spurious book aroused a storm of anger among members of scientific bodies* But there has been a storm every time a leaf in the book of knowledge has been turned over. done with Worlds in Collision. weigh his argument against the whole with all its evidence. and. the critic should M'lit'mc. then thinking and the expression of an opinion. At present no chapter of Worlds in Collision in Worlds in Collision needs to be rewritten and no thesis revoked. and no new been presented since then.

For this reason. the brought professor could not but smile. who went on an expedition with him. taking his bride believe that the evidence collated in Ages in Chaos warrants the reconstruction offered. and then it will become apparent even to the indolent. when accepted. and it may be any day. I should delay no longer the present pubnot the case that at first lication. Sooner or later. IMMANUEL VEUKOVSKY February 1952 . one day. only a fulfilled prophecy is an argument." he said. "You mean. "a crocodile?" to the jungles. too. The recent discovery of two-lapguage texts old Hebrew and whom "Hittite" pictographs and thus of a clue to the undeciphered pictographs of Asia Minor and Syria. as not being new? The publication of the second and final volume of Ages in Chaos is scheduled for a few months from now. gives promise of revealing facts of unmeasured significance. in IX Ogden Nash's verse. There the reader of the first volume will find the eventual solution of the drama in which centuries are shifted on the scale of time.FOREWORD Professor Twist. When. Is it a new idea is regarded as not true. the guide the tidings to him that an alligator had eaten her. and later. some new archaeological discovery will verify the main thesis of I this for book.

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From the day when. his peace of mind. He was first to redeem the land in Negeb. he left the home of his parents and went on foot to one of the old centers of talmudic learnis This work dedicated to my late father. Scripta Universitatis. I do not know whom I intellectual preparedness for this reconstruction late father.. Klausner as editor) collective works on Hebrew philology. he devoted seventy-eight. his fortune. today it is the largest agricultural development in northern Negeb. /. the home of tlie patriarchs. He contributed to the revival of the language of the Bible and the development of modern Hebrew by publishing (with Dr. all that he had. in in its ancient land. at tJie age of he ended his years in the land of Israel. to the realization of what was once an idea.DEDICATION sentences want to say in a few Yehiel Velikovsky was.. his life. I who Simon December 1937. through his foundation. countries contributed to which scientists of and thus laid the groundwork for many Hebrew University at Jerusalem. at the age of thirteen. the renaissance of the Jewish people ing in Russia. to the day when. of ancient history if not have to thank for my . and he organized a co-operative settlement there which he catted Ruhama. Simon. and to the revival of Jewish scientific thought by publishing.

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curator of the Semitic Museum at Harvard University. Professor J. and the biblical passages dealing with the plagues are so similar that they must have had a common origin. It took him more than six years to concede that conventional history is not built on unshakable foundations. to collate more and more historical material. and author of a distinguished standard work on the Old Testament. he is eminently qualified to pass judgment. It was his opinion that the Egyptian record of the plagues. I am grateful to Dr. and stratigraphical archaeology. to generations of philologists. excavator of Jericho. ^ . outstanding authority Bible. His criticism has always been constructive. too. he kept an open mind. I incurred a debt to archaeologists. and the second volume of this work carries chapters on "Ceramics and Chronology" and "Metallurgy and Chronology. editor of the Journal of Biblical Literature (1943-47). Garstang. who has always been ready to help me with his incomparable knowledge who o* Egyptological literature. book attained its present form. and showed a great interest in the progress of my work.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS In composing this reconstruction. In the summer of 1942. Neither subscribing to my thesis nor rejecting it. Robert H. read an early draft of the first chapter. His arguments have been a steady incentive for me to col- lect until the I more and more proof. Federn nor anyone else shares any responsibility whatsoever for any statement in this book. Neither he nor Dr. Pfeiffer. as set forth in this book. New York. I followed his advice. I feel my obligation to him all the more because he has never committed himself to my thesis. when the manuscript was still in its first draft. for more than a century have toiled in excavating numerous places in the lands of the ancient East. Walter Federn. believing that only objective and free discussion could clarify the issue." in addition to a number of scattered sections dealing with the problems of ancient art. on the also indebted to Dr. professor of ancient history at am Boston University. He read later drafts. paleography. Director of the Harvard excavation at Nuzi. he read Ages in Chaos and suggested that I try to prove my thesis on archaeological art material. who have read the ancient texts. and to those among the scholars who have made easier the work of research by collecting and classifying the material. of the Asia Institute.

I. rears. because he knew the odds against which 1 had to work and the had the help of Miss Marion Kuhn. who made mo feel that house were at my disposal all the facilities of this great publishing . Kathryn Tebbcl of the Doublcday 2preat )pposition I would meet. professor and sometime dean of the Graduate faculty of the New School for Social Research. C. Dr. Horace M. H. I. I expiess to Dr. both of the Oriental Insti- jte of the University of lem without being informed ton of L Chicago. S. a humanist ind humanitarian. Mrs. well versed in the Scriptures.V Dr. who with care went over the entire manuscript more than once and offered numerous improvements in style. New York. 1 was fortunate to have staff proved to bo a copy editor of great keenness. graciously answered questions put to as to the thesis of my work. Feigin. gave mo his unfailing moral support during all these uestions in his field. managing editor of Doublcday and Com- pany. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS J. Gelb and the late Dr. I should not omit to say that I have had every possible consideration from Mr* Walter Bradbury. Kallen. Gor- Dropsie College also was kind enough to answer a number of them my appreciation.

The Hyksos retreat to Idumaea (80). Hatshepsut led the expedition to the Divine Land (116). "Firstborn" or "chosen* (32). PalesHyksos domination (71). Two questions (48). Egypt in upheaval (25). 'The desire of the Queen of Sheba" shiDS arrived at Thebes (127). Revolt and flight (34). The length of the Hyksos period (75). From where did the Queen of Sheba come? (105) Where did Queen Hatshepsut go? (108) The way from Thebes to Jerusalem (113)* Paruah met the herald of the queen (114). The Ermitage papyrus (45). What is the historical time of the Exodus? (5) Plagues and portents (12). The expulsion of the Hyksos in the Egyptian and Hebrew records (76). tine at the time of the Chapter III: THE QTJEEN OF SHEBA 103 Two suzerains (103). Chapter II: THE HYKSOS 55 Who were the Hyksos? (55) The Israelites meet the Hyksos (57). Terraces of . The last night before the Exodus (29).CONTENTS FOREWORD INTRODUCTION Chapter I: v xri IN SEARCH OF A LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND ISRAELITE HISTORIES 1 Two lands and their past (1). The Arabian traditions about the Amalekite pharaohs (63). Hyksos and Amalekite parallels (89). The glorious region of God's Land (119). The confusion of Hyksos and Israelites and the beginning of antiSemitism (94). The Queen Tahpenes (85). Malakhei-roim-King-shepherds (69). Upheaval (19). Pi-ha-Khiroth (39). The upheaval in Arabia (61). Hyksos in Egypt (66). World history in the balance (98). An Egyptian eyewitness testifies to tibe plagues (22). The Hyksos invade Egypt (37). Location of Auaris (86).

The of the Scriptures (235). The king of Samaria seeks an ally against tho king of Damascus (254). Hebrew elements. The capture and release of the kitig of Damascus l>y the king of Samaria (250). r>eril Jerusalem in (277). The "great iwligrocoxistruetiou of tlut obscure arid missing portions the stole of Mesha (27?i). Troglodytes or Cartons? (H)(>) The Cariau language (202). Cltapter VII. The end of Ugarit (2U. Did Ilatshepsut visit the land of the Queen of Shcba? (139) almug trees (129). RAS SHAMRA 179 Tho timetable of Minoan and Mycenaean culture (179). Atuon. Genubath. Two cities and two epochs compared (187). Retarded echoes (221). The Temple and the service copied Tho origin of the woids "Pontifex" and "Punt" (132). Jerusalem. Greek elements in the writings of Has Shamra (184). Make-da and Make-ra (134). Tho five kings (23rt). and Jexrcol (229). king of Eclom (166). Kadesh in Judah (151). Adaia. The vessels and furniture of Solomon's Temple (155). Chapter VI. "The astounding civilization'' (168). Meslia's rebellioji (208). Ships. Bible criticism and the documents of Has Shamra (19-1). Chapter IV: THE TEMPLE JN JERUSALEM 143 Thutmosc III pieparcs the disintegration of the empire of Solomon ( L43). Sepulchral cluunhers (183). Summary (176). two versions Samaria (244). or legions (252). Ar/. the governor of first siege of Samaria by the king of Damascus (24G). Thutmosc III invades Palestine (148). Sosenk (174). Amenhotop II (205). THE KL-AMAUNA USTTKIUS (CONTINUKD) mition": of Famine u (20ft). THE KL-AMAKNA LETTERS 225 The el-Anuirna Idlers and when they were written (223). Zoological and botanical collections from Palestine (163). The revolt of tlut So<Jomit<*s .tt the eourtier (270). chieftains.XVI CONTENTS (128). ClKVptCT V. Samaria. Tho letters of Jchoshaphat's captains (239). Princess Ano (167). City-princes (2*13). the <lcpty (2*12). God's Land and Rczcnu (170). The Poem of Koret (211). Ahab or Jehoram.

the commandant of Megiddo (310). INDEX 341 . Samaria (Surnur) under the oligarchs The "King's City. Hazael. Shalmaneser m King Nikined (308). The Phoenicians new home (316). Shalmaneser III invades Amuru land and is opposed by the king of Damascus (315). Shalmaneser III is opposed by a Syrian coalition under Biridri (Biridia)." burns the strongholds of The kst letters of Ahab (298). The age of ivory (327)." Sumur (306). Who is the dreaded "king of Hatti" of the el-Amarna correspondence? (320) Idioms of the el-Amarna letters (324). * A halfway mark (335). The king of Damascus conspires against the life of the king of Samaria (291). (292). The letters of the "Great Woman of Shunem" (289). expels larimuta (303). Chapter VIII: THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS 303 (CONCLUDED) (305). The king of Damascus is killed while lying ill XVii Israel (295). Conleave for a clusions (332).CONTENTS (285). "the dog.

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ILLUSTRATIONS FACING PAGE Plate I: A PAGE FROM THE PAPYRUS IPUWER CONTAINING THE STORY OF THE PLAGUES 24 104 124 126 128 148 Plate II: QUEEN HATSHEPSUT THE PRESENT ATION. OF GIFTS LOADING EGYPTIAN BOATS Plate III: Plate TV: Plate V: ALGUM TREES THUTMOSE in VESSELS AND FURNISHINGS OF THE TEMPLE Plate VI: Plate VII: AT JERUSALEM (photograph) Plate VIII: VESSELS 152 AND FURNISHINGS OF THE TEMPLE AT JERUSALEM (drawing) Between pages 160-161 268 Plate IX: THE MESHA STELE .

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the Churchill of 1341 could not have visited this country. so that in Europe and America the year would it would be 1341. The period under investigation covers over one thousand years. as would the Second. never before disputed. The First World War would be fought twice. where witnesses are brought to the stand to disprove the validity of the old and to attest to the accuracy of a new concept of ancient history. ending with the advent of Alexander the Great Many wondrous distorted. in its second variant. six hundred years after the first one. The old story of mankind. He would have to live three hundred years before Churchill I and also three hundred years after him. Cromwell would also be doubled by the same process. British history would also have a Churchill II. not Franklin Delano Roosevelt of Washington. As Columbus discovered America in 1492. But as American records would speak of Churchill who crossed the ocean in the early forties of the twentieth century. would follow . here assailed as distorted.INTRODUCTION is not descriptive history in the usual meaning of the term. and a reconstruction is presented. or three hundred years before Churchill II. each of which is like a court hearing. things happen when historical perspective is In order to understand the scope of the displacements in the history of the ancient world. one must try to conceive of the chaos which would result if a survey of Europe and America were written in which the history of the British Isles were some six hundred years out of line. would live in history as be 1941 while in Britain cosigner of a charter with Churchill of Britain in 1341. THIS is It is a sequence of chapters. Another chief. The First World War. but must have visited some other land the scholars would be divided in their opinion as to the whereabouts of that land and met its chief.

she would be burned twice with an interval of six hundred years between. obstacles to a correct perception of past history. Complicated theories would bo proposed and disif accepted. tho history of tho "Hittite Empire" is entirely Invented. but also the history of the entire world. the history of Egypt was taken out of real contact with the histories* of other peoples. Difficulties would. appear oneo mow on tho pages of history as archaic intruders out of the gloom of the past The process of leveling out the histories of the peoples of the . arise. the development of the Constitution.INTRODUCTION the Second centuries. the progress of technology and the arts. of course. being the source. Joan of Arc would revive the old in traditions of the suffragettes of the post-Victorian days. Because of the cussed. strong Ancient history is distorted in this very manner. and Media arc disrupted and spoiled. even those with well-known names. Babylonia. many speeches are echoes. "ghosts'* or "halves" and "doubles/" Events are many battles are shadows. many treaties some empires are phantoms. and disruption of synchronism. the cultural life. they would establish themselves as new. or. would bo doubled and In the case presented. World War. but they would be swept away as oddities. Newton with the growing confusion of history. the annals of these other peoples. England would become an early forerunner of Copernicus instead of following him. many figures on the historical scene are often duplicates. Events in which tho people of Kj^ypt and the people of Assyria or Babylonia or Media were involved wens recorded in the histories of these peoples from the Kjjyptiun annuls. she would have to return to the stake a few centuries from today to suffer her death again. because of retardation. tho Greek history of the Mycenaean period is displaced and that of the pre-Aloxander period is lacerated and Spartan and Athcmian warriors. are copies. even Thus the histories of Assyria. not only the history of the British Isles distorted. by five and three quarter the same token. would appear By in chaotic distortion. the same events were then described for the second timo in the* history of Egypt. in its first variant. participants in tho events. The primary error can be found in Egyptian history.

We to establish the identity of the mysterious Hyksos. and also for the concept of the Greek past. Assyria. historical ancient world to an exact synchronism will provide some exciting shall see in a new light many historical documents We which had been misinterpreted when presented perspective. be able We and shall see illustrations habitants. Of still greater scope are the effects of the revision for Egyptian. achievements have been recorded without knowledge of their real nature. signed with names we know from the Scriptures. shall We have before our eyes photographs of the vessels and furniture and utensils of the Temple of Solomon as cut in stone bas-reliefs by a contemporaneous artist. The Chaldean did not know that they language was deciphered. probably the shall read the Queen of greatest fortress of ancient times. Then will follow texts of letters written by the Jewish kings Jehoshaphat of Jerusalem and Ahab. is the case with the Empire and This is the case with the Human people and their language. Crete. but its decipherers were reading Chaldean. The architectonics of the world past. Through the laborious efforts of scholars.INTRODUCTION moments. and also by their military chiefs. Imaginary empires were de- scribed. This its art. Hiltitc even of another millennium. and also to indicate the site of their stronghold Auaris. and following it the histories of Babylonia. and Babylonian histories. Assyrian. handbooks about the Cariaa language were . change their length. when redesigned. by an Egyptian eyewitness and preserved on papyrus. The history of Egypt. the sinner of Jezreel. and museum halls have been opened to display the arts of empires which did not exist: the art objects are products of other centuries. and plants depicting this voyage and showing the inof Palestine of that time. Sheba's record of her journey to Jerusalem in the days of Solomon. The rectification of chronology. Media. in an incorrect We shall read the story of the plagues written shall of the days of the Exodus. their It shows that kings were made own great-great-grandchildren. shows its structure properly joined in time and space. enriches its records bountifully. animals. without altering the sequence of the Hebrew past. Phoenicia. and Greece.

facts about peoples and countries. but this is a shortcoming from which a pioneer work is seldom free. Certainly more than one fact and more than one parallel must have been overlooked in this book. their battles and treatises pour down as if out of a horn of plenty. It is which appear not possible in a short introduction to point out all the things in a new light when correctly placed in time.XXIV written. INTRODUCTION but the industrious philologists did not know that it was Carian. their art and religion. When the hinges of world history are lifted to an adequate height. .

they bore the yoke of bondage. if it at all. it was insisted. happened have expressed the opinion that the sojourn of the Israelites. the absence of direct reference to these events on Egyptian monuments and annals of Egypt. story. their bondage. also. are neighboring countries. and therefore. It is not known when the Exodus occurred. Egypt reaches back to hoary antiquity. But for more than two thousand years they have agreed that the Exodus took place during the period called in present terminology "the New Kingdom" of Egypt. there must be a historical basis for the Historians disagree as to the date of the Exodus. and their departure are mythological motifs. Their eventful departure from Egypt is the most treasured recollection of their past. one of the westernmost lands and Egypt. in the northeast corner of Africa. did not preserve any record of this sojourn of the Israelites or of their departure. the Jewish history of people has a history that claims to describe the very beginning of this nation's march through the centuries. there. At the dawn of their his- came from Canaan to Egypt There they grew to be a people. and their traditions tell its story numbertory the Israelites. . we are told. The PALESTINE. an unsettled tribe. less times. and many hy- potheses have been proposed. it has been argued that no people would invent legends about bondage which were not calculated to enhance the dignity of the nation.Chapter I IN SEARCH OF A LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN HISTORIES AND ISRAELITE Two Lands and Their Past in Asia. A few scholars The papyri seems to corroborate this view. However.

is Of the dynasties from the Seventh to the Tenth almost nothing known. the most renowned of the dynasty of Thutmose I. discovered early in the twenties of this century. but because of the riches in la's tomb. and then in revolt against. comprising the Eleventh. us givon by Julius Africumi* and EusebhiSj. Thutrnose IV.2 Egypt's past 1. when the land into chaos: central authority was abolished in this dark age. Twelfth. th IttKt kings of tlu* Sixteenth. and Egyptian literature reached a height never again to be attained. the greatest of all Egyptian conquerors. and history records that the Nineteenth Dynasty* ITyksos as "rute of foroign countries" is found in the Egyptian the Turino Papyrus and on a few scarabs. the famous Queen Hatshcpsut.. The Ilyksos were expelled at the time of Ahmose (Amasis I). temples at Luxor and Karrtak. when most divided into the following periods: to the Neolithic or the Late Stone Age. the Seventeenth Dynasty is the lost of the Hylww. Dynasty. who called himself Akhnaton. and because of the mystery that has surrounded bis burial The Eighteenth Dynasty declined under sufficiently l conditions that an not known.it is not known of what race they were. that of Phiops. of the pyramids were built: the Sixth. 4. the great heretic. Amenhotep III. exploited by certain invaders known as Amu in Egyptian and called Ilyksos by axithors writing in Crock. 6 The New Kingdom. The Middle Kingdom. The Ilyksos kings were pharaohs of the Fourteenth to the Seventeenth Dynasties and they mlcd over Egypt without mercy. Fourth Dynasty. who founded the Eighteenth Dynasty. 3. But in Manetho's list. not benificent cause of the distinction of his reign. and Thirteenth Dynasties: feudal Egypt was united under the Twelfth Dynasty. Amenhotop II. 2. Thutmose III. place. are fell The first interregnum. among them the young king Tutankhamen is best known. and the the best known. Another period of chaos. that of Cheops. the Jlyksos. text of Tho name . 1 5. is ACES IN CHAOS The predynastic period belonging mainly The Old Kingdom. which is obscure. "The Seventeenth Dynasty is generally regarded as the native of dynasty princes in submission to. The epigoni followed. and Amenhotep IV. the builder of magall.

" "third. called the "late period/ armies against Palestine 7 Some of these pharaohs. Ramses III of the Twentieth Dy1200 or a few years later. 8. and 7). he was the last great emperor of ancient Egypt. VI (1931) . an Egyptian priest of the third century before the Christian era. 6. and Merneptah from this last year on. Akhnaton must have reigned from 1375 to 1358. and their age is 7. who wrote in Greek. but the Egjnptians similar concepts of their past. The pharaohs from the Twenty-first to the Thirtieth Dynasties were small kings. led The last native long was removed by the Persians in 342. Among the kings of the Twentieth Dynasty Ramses III was the most prominent. and Babylonia. but for the most part scriptural. Ranke in Gkronique d'Egypte. 1300 to Ramses II of the Nineteenth Dynasty from 1234." "second. a general of Alexander. The period Dynasties is of transition from the Nineteenth to the Twentieth obscure. the division into dynasties comes from Manetho. themselves had *Tho division into kingdoms is modem. later ones (from 525) were under Persian supremacy. still later ones rebelled against the Persians. followed. The present work covers the time from the end of the Middle Kingdom to the conquest of Egypt by Alexander marked above as 5. the designation of kings as "first. and Merneptah. the sources are not Egyptian. Some of these usually dynasties were Libyan or Ethiopian. however. we are told. The beginning of the New Kingdom is established to have been 1580 (the expulsion of the Hyksos in the time of Kamose about and Ahmose). who left no important records." is an arrangement of modern scholars. over a thousand years of the ancient East. Compare H.LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND ISRAELITE HISTORIES that of Seti the Great. . 3 Ramses II (the Great). It is (the periods in the history useful to remark here that the division into ^kingdoms" is 3 modern. In 332 Egypt was conquered by Alexander the Great. The Ptolemaic Dynasty of descendants of Ptolemy.277-86. These dates nasty began to reign in are regarded as of importance for establishing the time of the Exodus. expired with Cleopatra in 40.

Pert. Addi- tional groups returned to Palestine during the following century. campaigns which the pharaohs of the tenth to the forgot to mention. In the days of Solomon's heir it was split in two Israel in the north and Judah in the south.4 AGES IN CHAOS The history of Israel from the days of the Exodus on is composed of the years of wandering in the desert. 7. Saul. It is sixtli centuries usually and Palestine Exodus of the strange that there is no real link between the histories of Kgvj>t for a period of many hundreds of years* At least the Israelites from Egypt was an event that should belong to both histories fore try to determine during and thus supply a connecting link. wont into Babylonian exile. For only approximately one hundred years. David. after the capture of their capital. during the reigns of Saul. in the days of the Kings Palestine repeatedly came into contact with Egypt mostly through being attacked by armies of the pharaohs. David established his kingship about 1000. Egypt and the Old Tcaiamont (Liverpool. according to tradition forty years. Jerusalem. and Solomon. from whence small groups of the nation came back after Babylon was captured (in 538) by Cyrus the Persian. by Nebuchadnezzar. Samaria. There is no scriptural mention of Egypt during the time of the Judges. about four hundred years. . but no documents referring to these events have been found. However. after the destruction of its capital. E. was the kingdom undivided. J922) p. Alexander the Great conquered Palestine on his way to Kgypt in -333. "the truth is that there is in Egypt singularly little evidence which bears directly on the Bible narrative. from which they did not return. Although Egypt and Palestine are closely neighboring countries."4 The Scriptures tell of the sojourn of Israel in . Whether it occurred only one or two hundred yeans before Duvitl* or three or four or five hundred yours Ix?foro him. In 587 or 586 Judah. of the time of Joshua and Judges ancj the first king. went into exile. About 722 the Ten Tribes of Israel. We shall therewhat period of Egyptian history the Exodus took place. depending on the length of the periods of the wandering and of the Judges m other T. by Sargon II of Assyria.Egypt and of the Exodus. and of the time of the kings of the House of David.

134." in The Ante-Nicene Fathers. Cambridge. according to the convincing evidence of the present calculation it follows that in this reign Moses was still young. and that their chief. thirteenth. Waddell. Donaldson (New York. There he confused Ahmose I. "Chronography. whether the Israelites ing the left 5 Egypt in the sixteenth. A. or twelfth century this event occurred dur- Kingdom. the of the New Kingdom. appear New What The Is the Historical Time of the Exodus? the Israelites oldest theory places the Exodus at the earliest date: were identified with the Hyksos. fifteenth. no definite statement bearing directly on the Exodus has been found in Egyptian historical documents. he added this remark to the list of the kings of the Eighteenth Dynasty: "The first of those was Amos [Ahmose]. and against Manetho. told another story. Julius Africanus. his source. with Ahmose II ( Amasis of Herodotus).. the Persian. Although.LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND ISRAELITE HISTORIES words. the last first king king before the conquest of Egypt by Cambyses. Roberts and J. that he assigned to a later epoch. 1896). a julim Africanus. went to Syria and there built Jerusalem. certain details do which invite discussion. - the Jewish historian of the first century. fourteenth. in his Canon wrote a gloss to the name Cencheres of one of the later kings of the Eighteenth Manetho. in which he related that lepers. 1941). But in his Canon condensing the list of Dynasties of Manetho. Osarsiph. 2 Eusebius. G. and the Exodus was with the expulsion of the Hyksos. VI. the priest previously mentioned. but. adopted the name of Moses and led them to Palestine when they were expelled. Mass. Locb Classical Library. segiegated in Auaris on Sie eastern border of Egypt. . the grammarian. usurped the power in Egypt with the help of the Solymites (the people of Jerusalem) and were utterly cruel. when expelled from identified 1 Egypt. as I have de- clared. where scholars nave differed is concerning the king of the New Kingdom to whose reign the Exodus is to be ascribed. p. in whoso reign Moses went forth from Egypt. another Father of the Churck. wrote that the Hyksos. polemized against Apion. ed." Manetho (trans. wrote on the authority of Apion that in the days of Abmose the Jews revolted under Moses. Josephus did not separate the two Manetho stories. There has never been any doubt on this point. Manetho. though making the Hyksos expelled from Egypt the builders of Jerusalem.. 111. one of the Fathers of the Church. as noted above. W. but accepted and supported the view that the Israelites were the Hyksos. Josephus Flavius.

A* S. Ky. the identity of martyred slaves and cruel tyrants must be regarded as a very strained hypothesis.. the Israelites. Hull. Therefore a variant has been proposed. However. Journal of Egyptian Arc1iM0togy> X (1024). 128. Utelont of Palestine *CF. added. 8. the Kxocius of Israel under Moses. in view of the bondage of the Israelites in Egypt and the bondage of Egypt under the Hyksos. A." The same The City of God. 1L Onrdiner. and Stjria ( Nfw York* *JL R. the tyrants with the oppressed. 1931). Biui#'. according to which the Israelite nation never so- journed in Egypt. 'Augustine.UK l*r testifies. though modern scholars have probably not always been aware that they repeated an old controversy.rt < New Rook. It hough *Eus<5bius alone places in this reipn no argument supports him. OlmstctuI. ed. p. "Israel and tho Surrounding Nations/' in The JVo/i/r tint! tlw A. the time of the expulsion of the Hyksos* *Georgius Syncolhis. Apart from the incongruity of identifying the Ilyksos with the Israelites. pp. adapted them to the stories of their own past. p. in JRtudat C/WM/wrf/ton. 5." This divergence of opinion has not been settled after nineteen centuries. there is a further diflinilly in the fact that during the time of the successors to Ahmose there was no likely moment for an invasion of Palestine by Israelite refugees from Egypt The pharaohs who followed Ahmosc wen* strong kings. 18. K . 110. and it is regarded as established that Palestine was under their domination. Sir York. T. Clxap. A. Peafco (Oxford. hearing of the traditions of a strange people. the Ilyksos sojourned there and then departed. The neglect of early Christian sources seemed justifiable: did not Augustine make Moses and Prometheus contemporaries? 4 The identification of the Israelites with the Hyksos was many times accepted 5 and as often rejected. Even today a group among the historians maintains that the Exodus took place at the very beginning of the Eighteenth Dynasty and that the story of the Exodus is but an echo of the expulsion of the Hyksos. a Byzantine chronographer. p. IMS). argtimcut was employed to defend llus theory that the Exodus occurred in 1580. 88. Bfc. but all his predecessors hole! a contrary view. W. for instance. 10215).6 AGES IN CHAOS : Dynasty (his identity is not known) "About this time Moses led the 3 Jews in their march out of Egypt. JU28. who copied Kusfhius.

'Eduard Meyer. which the excavator referred to 1407 or thereabouts the time of the 10 el- Amarna correspondence. presupposes internal trouble and weakness in Egypt.) is too early for the Exodus. and computations have been made which indicate 1447 as the year of the Exodus. p. where in the history of the powerful Eighteenth Dynasty can we find a probable place for an event which. 7 This earthquake might have been the Hall. Some of them were anxious letters written from Jerusalem (Urusalim). the Exodus must have taken place one or two generations earlier. a correspondence on clay tablets was found A which dated from the time of Amenhotep III and his son Akhnaton. in The People and the Book. In the 1880s. 1931): "The Israelite invasion . corresponds with a period of apathy under Amenhotep HI. 1931 ). but how were they able to put off the yoke of bondage in the days of equally strong pharaohs? large group of scholars regard another moment as providing the clue for determining the time of the Exodus. in others preferring the closest phonetic equivalents. warning the pharaoh of an invasion by the "Habiru. 1580 B. at a place to which archaeologists gave the name of Tell el-Amarna. Pt. a Jolm Carstang. where in the walls of the ancient city were found indications of earthquake and signs of fire. Granting that the Habiru were identical with the Hebrews. Geschichte des Altertums. in some cases following the established spelling of names in English. II (2nd ed. The Cambridge Ancient History acknowledges the inconsistency. and the invasion of Palestine in incide with the time of the el-Amarna letters. 7.C.LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND ISRAELITE HISTORIES *lf the expulsion of the 7 Hyksos (c.p. 214. The view that the Habiru were invading Hebrews was corroborated by the results of excavations of Jericho. like the Exodus of tradition. . 9 The scriptural statement (I Kings 6:1) that the Temple of Solomon was built four hundred and eighty years after the Exodus would point to the middle of the fifteenth century. until the reign of Akhenaten [Akhnaton]?" 7 In the days of strong pharaohs the Israelites were unable to enter Palestine. The Foundations of Bible History (New York. Scholars writing in English have no unified method of transliterating the guttural letters in Semitic languages. ecL Peake. Stuttgart.. in the Nile Valley. VoL 2. This year would fall in the reign 1407 would coof Amcnhotep II. . 8 [Khabiru]/' approaching from Trans-Jordan." .

in order to agree with traditional dates. seems to the historian of Egypt the least 12 probable" Stress has also been laid on the fact that Palestine was under 1358. tried to show that Moses was an Egyptian prince. does not present this difficulty and seems to agree with the chronological figures of the Bible. "Hull. p. i'ettrio. U S. However. 3fl. 1039). whom 1I Moses preserved his teachings by bringing them he left Egypt. lVct. garded on the other hand. 11 An view of students of Egyptology. "Joshua did not find any such Egypend to 18 The end of Akhnatcm's reign and tian hold during his conquest/* the close of the Eighteenth Dynasty in the days of Tutankhamen and Aye was a time favorable for rebellion and the withdrawal of the slaves from Egypt. pp. 74-75. to the slaves. ccl Peuk<\ p. This idea found its way into the work of a psy1 chologist who. Kgyjri and the Old Testament. in The People and tlw Book. following in the footsteps of certain historians. 1034). to place the Exodus. 05. the time of Amenhotep II hardly seems to have been suitable for such a venture* "Of all theories. A combination of the first and second views has also been offered: Israel left Egypt at the time of the expulsion of the Hyksos and reached Palestine as the Habiru in the reign of Akhnaton. T/u l Cei>gi. a pupil of Akh* naton. with "Sir W. Flinders 2. of the fall of the walls of Jericho when the Israelites. and it is therefore re- exodus in the days of Amcnhotep II. instead of the scriptural forty. No reference has been found that could be interpreted as even hinting at an exodus daring the interregnum between the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasties. that fell when Akhnaton ceased to rule and his schism into disfavor. after crossing the Jordan. that AkhnaUm was the founder of monotheistic idealism. in the as improbable. But this hypothesis would entail more than two hundred years of wandering in the desert. in the reign of Amenhotep II. say. Manothcton (New York. M. which put an Egyptian rule as late as Ac disturbances of the reign of Akhnaton.8 AGES IN CHAOS cause. Fraud. 7. besieged the city. MOMS and Palattine and hrucl (London. frmmuri* Strains. . and only the fact that the situation was such as to make an exodus possible favors this hypothesis.% XVJ.

449. "*! Israel did not leave Egypt until the reign o Merneptah. about mains only a century for the events of Judges. Merneptah did not perish in the sea. The Pharaoh of the Exodus. in which this king of the Nineteenth Dynasty says that Palestine "is a widow" and that "the seed is destroyed. 144. p. was thought to be the Pharaoh of Oppression. The circumstances do not correspond of Israel Israel in with the pronounced tradition of tion of Israel. as the Pharaoh of Oppression. This role was ascribed to Ramses II because of the mention of the city of Ramses in the Book of Exodus." See H. because his predecessor. nor did he suffer a debacle. . A. 48ff. Even before the discovery of the Merneptah stele." This is regarded as the earliest mention of an Egyptian document.C. B. he could not have been the Pharaoh of the as the Pharaoh of the Exodus. The adherents of the Habira theory do not regard this as a weighty argument. then the Israelites must have entered Palestine at least a 1190 to 1180. 1922). xo A further obstacle to placing the Exodus in the reign of Merneptah has also been emphasized. 1923). pp. 15 Other scholars. Mercer. Metropolitan Museum Bulletin 17 (New York. "Pharaoh of Exodus. 1220 B. pp. he obviously inflicted a defeat on Israel and ravaged Palestine. "Pharaoh of Oppression. "Plusieurs historien$ remarquant que ces villes [Ramses and Pithom] sont anterieurcs a Ramses IJ esliment que les travaux en question ont pu etre un roi de la XVIZZ Dynastie" P. is Israel. consider the mention of Israel in Palestine in the days of Merneptah not as a corroboration. E. This view is found in R. "The attribution of the Exodus to the reign of Meneptah [Merneptah] 1B (c.)." in his Letters from Egypt. until recently 9. on this theory there regeneration later. but as a refutation of the theory that Merneptah was the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Lopsius. and if they have despent about forty years en route to Palestine. (Paris. Tutankhamen and Egyptology (Milwaukee. Hamses II. sign by a modern hand read. how could Merneptah feated them In Palestine in the t-hird year of his reign?" S. p. but since it is the first men- Merneptah regarded by many Exodus (about 1220). however. Le Drame a'Avarte otdonnes par Under the statue of Merneptah in the hafl of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. his predecessor. 1941). Montet. If he really was the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Ethiopia and the Peninsula of Sinai (London. They argue that if he found Israel already in Palestine. 226-84. 1853). Winlode. he was identified by not a few scholars as the Pharaoh of the Exodus." and under tibat of Ramses II. and Ramses II. "Extracts from the Chronology of the Egyptians.LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND ISRAELITE HISTORIES 9 The next theory reduces the age its of the Exodus further: it has for cornerstone a stele of Merneptah.

. They are believed to have Egypt in the days of Merneptah (though his stele mentions is made of the Israelites. All Israelites were Hebrews. J44. ttgypt and the Old Testament* wtfl others. p. This reference urn! other similar instances led scholars to suppose that th<* Exodus took plaeu in successive waves* '*&\ A. . The arrival 1186. with whom Ramses III battled. . ccl TVaku. but they did not appear iu Palestine until after the invading Philistines. B. in The People and the Book. The Archaeology of Palestine and ttw Wfcto (NYw York. other Hebrew tribes were knocking at the door of Canaan/' 10 The conciliators the scholars proposed the following solution: "Some of the Hebrews remained in Egypt after the Exodus of the main bocly. there is mention of Asher in Palestine. the invasion of Palestine by the Philistines is put some after the Exodus and a few years before the conquest of fifty years Canaan by and still Israel. 101ft).. has always suffered from the reproach of being almost impossibly late/' 17 Some scholars assumed that the Exodus occurred in successive waves. referring to the theory of Driver "(If. ascribing Exodtw to the early 13th cimtuiy* However. Inasmuch as iu the detailed reports of this war among no mention that they left supposed by many scholars had not yet reached Palestine. 1032). llall. W. the days of Ramses III after his campaign there* in no room for the events of the Judges who guided ( the people for four centuries prior to Saul and David school of historians argued in favor of that theory: a7 l(KX)). Thus while the Israelites or Jacob tribes were in Egypt. ln an inscription of Kainses JI t and also in one of his predecessor Seti. but a . Albright advocates the sojourn of the Israelites hi Kgypt in the dajs of the R . one hundred years later* 1h Teet. it is Israel as already in Canaan).. Albright.1 Accordingly. 7. Ramses III of the Twentieth Dynasty carried on a \var the Peresct or Peleset in Palestine.10 AGES IN CHAOS hitherto generally accepted as a probable guess. 'The entry . 124. ttxlra-ttibliral Sources (or Hebrew ami Jnrhh //Mnry (Xew York. Twelve Tribes. Ho identifier tint Habiru as Hebrews* and the Pharaoh of Oppression as Kuiasuft II. leaves less in of the Israelites in Palestine in the days of Merneptah. Mercer. These have been idenagainst tified as Philistines. as A combination of the "Habiru theory" and the "Merneptah theory" puts events into the following order: "When the Hebrews were entering Canaan. winch is the name of one of the. the Israelites were still in Egypt. but not all Hebrews were Israelites. p."~ M Still later. p.

invasion of the Habiru. . 58. 36. and. 1908)." The divergence that an of opinion is even greater. having left Egypt. about the first half of the thirteenth "Garstong. defeat of Israel Expulsion ' Exodus in the days of /. The pharaohs "Pctrie. There continuous native occupation until the break after Israelite 1200 due to conquest/* Consequently the conclusion was drawn that 25 for the invasion of Palestine by Israel "no earlier date is possible. and so on.LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND ISRAELITE HISTORIES could not be till 11 of the Egyptians there by Rameses is no free play of uncertainty 33 left/' considerations were presented to support this Archaeological view. II. 24 During his reign Asiatics crossed the frontier and were register^ by authorities there as immigrants. why do the Books of Joshua and Judges. . ignore the rule of logical system invasion Egypt and. p. p. 67. one hundred years for the period of the Judges undermines another. but into. p. ^Q of the Hyksos. fail to mention Egypt at all? An explanation was found to account for the fact that Israel left Egypt in the days of the strong pharaohs. which cover four hundred years. in Albright's opinion"-thus Wright.. Bethel fell "sometime century. it >Vas claimed. All of them have one and the same obstacle to surmount: "Under any chrono- wandering which can reasonably be advanced. The excavation of Bethel in Palestine. Palestine and Israel. but none to account for the strange silence of the Books of Joshua and Judges. Egypt in the days of Merneptah. Alttestamentliche Studien (Giessen. ^Albright. 57. . is We have been told Merneptah "almost impossibly late/' but a scholar challenged all other opinions by bringing the Israelites. III (1940). "shows after the last B. Each group points to the distortions in which its rivals indulge. Palestine and Israel. **B. 1186 . Eerdmans. D. war [Ramses] III. quoted by Petrie. indeed. 51. The Foundations of Bible History. in the days of Merneptah -these are the three events on which the various schools of historians base their respective theories. "Epic of Conquest/' Biblical Archaeologist.C. Two hundred years of in the desert destroys one theory. not from. how could they have entered Palestine? Moreover. how could sential portion of its Syrian Empire/' the Israelites have left Egypt. p. the date of Israel's and settlement falls within the period (1500-1100 before the present era) when the country was ruled by Egypt as an es20 But if this is so. It is hopeless to try to reconcile the irreconcilable.

Of. in the torrid glow vermin and reptiles bred and filled air and earth. it next to the Jews themit"n never took the trouble to record u Onc merely has to bear in mind what this event meant. "The Exodus from Kgypt was apparently a minor occurrence in the history of that time. plagued by sand and ashes. that the nation most concerned in selves. Krtfoche Schriftcn (Berlin. Crave and ominous signs preceded the Exodus: clouds of tins! and . this search for what passed unnoticed by contemporaries may be only a waste of time and effort. 1901-7). A terrible torrent of hailstones *S. the people of Egypt did not care to notice the Kxodns of tin* Israelites.smoke darkened the sky and colored the water they fell upon with a bloody hue. so minor."is correct then the archaeologists can have? of finding in Egypt a parallel to the Book of Kxodus. they were admitted. The dust tore wounds in the skin of man and brast. or rather. and it may be that he noted their leaving. 16. When the Israelites came to the frontier in a year of drought. the Egyptians. wild beasts. but rather as an event accompanied by violent upheavals of nature. Old Testament. but it was too trifling and stereotyped tin event to become the subject of a monumental inscription. If Plagues and Portents The biblical story does not present the departure from Kgypt us an everyday occurrence. I. an officer gave them a permit for departure. When they left Egypt. p." w . 21: sojourn may vwil hw% been on Rffjpt and the small & scale that the Egyptians never thought it worthy of recording. n!*o ft**. 27. came from the ravines of the wasteland to the abodes of men. Bttron.12 AGES IN CHAOS strong. A Social and Religion* History of the Jew* (New York. and hope historians have no basis on which to decide the time of un event If this point of view little without significance. what 7 it did not mean to Egypt. I. and the Exodus was only the daily passage of Bedouins across the Egyptian border. but they had were very to do some work of benefit to the state to pay for the hospitality they and their herds enjoyed. The HOT). indeed. "Hugo Wtodcler. W.

were im- plored amid groaning and weeping to leave the land the same night. . . 3 Later on. Gressmann. Chapters 7-11.LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND ISRAELITE HISTORIES fell. no conclusion can be drawn about the time of the Exodus/' 5 purely realistic analysis was applied. the clever technique of the narrators was exposed: "These are scholarly reflections: Variations. TEduard Meyer says that the only plague." A. 1 One holds it to be a fairy tale. The slaves. 31). In the ash-gray dawn the multitude moved. night and day. Lord "passed over the houses of the children . still not satisfied. There are two scholarly approaches to this story of the plagues as told in Exodus. in the early version of the legend. they had a story in ten episodes. 1906]. and it was found that originally the legend had told of the death of the crown prince. and 12:27). *"The details of the story ought to be regarded as no less mythical than the details of creation as recorded in Genesis. Uo$e und seine Zeit (Gottingen. Ibii. spared by the delivered our houses'* (Exodus angel of destruction. which obscured the light. but the storytellers. 4 H. miracles have never occurred anywhere. However. 1922. 1913). With "Elohist" and "Yahwist" was discerned* continued to spin out their tale until precision the authorship of "Neither group of legends has any historical truth at its source* are a later substitution for older miracles. behind scorched leaving fields and ruins where a few hours before had been urban and rural habitations. 107. They arc the creation of the narrator" (ibid. 108. Gardiner. a gust of wind brought swarms of locusts. when he smote the Egyptians. and the gloom grew to a prolonged night. one plague was increased to three. was that of the locusts (Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstamme [Halle. 30). p. in Etudes Cham~ And when a poUion. of light. then the death of one person was expanded into a plague that was inflicted on all the firstborn. H. blasts of cinders blew in wave after wave. 13 and a wild fire ran upon the ground. p. Then came the tenth of the and blackness extinguished every ray and most mysterious plague: the Angel of Israel . day and night. 205. with somewhat differing sequences of the plagues. He says also: "There is no folkloristic tradition in the tale of the plagues. 2 The story was taken apart and analyzed. p." 4 "And since neither the The plagues plagues nor the miracles are historical. p. p. are found in Psalms 78 and 105.

year-ont entry and departure of some Bedouins with their cattle. 168. toward the <. as can be seen in the story of the boils: "Pest boils don't fly like ashes in the air. because they already were ripe. Pictures were produced to show the darkened sky on a day when the khamsin blew. 02. If pious. p. is well known to all tourists. This approach to the problem of the plagues nmkes of them a year-in.14 AGES IN CHAOS by the hail only flax and barley were destroyed. they have defended the narrative. For hundreds of years thousands of scholars have paid tribute? to the story of the plagues. they cover the . ''IbkU p. "Varwleb ( to oeheroufl reel . Little wonder. and certain special observations near the cataracts of the Nile were described in detail. This gloss was added in order that at the next plague the locusts should have something to devour [etwas zu jressen haben]"" Sometimes the tale-spinners' self-control failed. that they impressed the Egyptians in the same measure as the ycar-in.nd of JWH'. if enlightened. fleas. . the hot wind is also called khamsin. . p. The desert wind may bring clouds of locusts. 1L Suyeo. J897)." because for fifty days in the year this breath from the desert brings clouds of dust. especially it overflows. 73. In Egypt the sirocco blows in the fall and in the spring. 8 before lice. sky like a screen so that during their passage the sun's disk is obscured. and frogs of the Egypt of today have been the subof attentive study by reverend authors. then. year-out occurrence. Tlw twttj Utelory of the Hebrews (London. and is largely the same today. and still Moses was made to sprinkle the ashes of " the furnace 'toward the heaven/ 7 The other approach tried to find a natural explanation for the plagues. 1677) observed thnt water in the Kile? changed its color from jspvm "When the Nile first begiro to rise. proving that wonders Ibici. tlw red marl brought from the mountains of Abyssinia stata it to u darn tttlmir* whidi glistens like blood in the light of the setting sun/* A. It has been repeatedly ject pointed out that the order of the plagues as described in the Book The of Exodus is exactly the order of the annual discomforts caused by the climate and insects of Egypt under Turkish rule. The brownish color of the waters of the Nile. and the wheat with the rye were spared because they used to ripen later. they have not asked tjucstmm. meaning "fifty.

Journal of Egyp- tian Archaeology. generally translated as "Red Sea. The night was frightful. and at dawn the sea was the waters torn by a double tide of gigantic force. of Jewish thought to some experience by the sea also suggested that not the whole story had been invented. but the waters cleft. or some other lake the Crocodile Lake. A heavy cloud darkened the sky. Gardiner. the pursuers followed in chariots. the Salt Lake. and the Egyptians with their king. if critical. the memory of which was later clothed in fantastic elaborations." A river or sea cleft in two is a frequent motif in folklore. 205&. H." *'So A. not because of a sea rent in twain. fleeing against them. p. The constant return.LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND ISRAELITE HISTORIES are but trivial 15 phenomena. through the waters of which ships pass today from the Mediterranean into the Red Sea there are no perceptible movevalid. the hurricane. through the centuries. Attempts were made to explain this story as a natural phenomenon. Mose und seine Zeit. The pursuers probably experienced some catastrophe. but for the miracles. who regretted their escape. but the vivid description of the night.. pp. they have rejected the story. But an explanation based on ebb and flood tides is obviously inWhether the Sea of Passage was the Gulf of Suez or the Gulf of Aqaba on the Red Sea. met their death in the waves. or Lake Sirbonis (Serbon) 10 connected with the Mediterranean. explaining it as a myth of relatively late origin. A hurricane raged the whole night. 117: 'The picture is drawn so graphiand one would almost think of cally that every detail is clear before the eyes a realistic description of historical events. Thus the vividness of description is also a mark of a saga. and the mountainous waves suggested that some event had actually taken place. Etudes Champollion > 1922. which was rent by incessant lightning. ments of flood and ebb on any of these water surfaces either the Gressmann. returned. It seemed difficult to give credence to its miraculous element. . They pursued by The Book were trapped between mountains and sea. but because of a tide swollen by the storm. of Exodus then proceeds to tell how the Israelites were the army of the king. 82f. Historians agree that the most precious tradition of the people was born on the shores of the Jam-Suf. The slaves passed through. X (1924).

caravans prefer to and tho burning and smoking pitch is intended to prevent anyone from being lost and to frighten the beasts of the at night. The wasteland. S. Some of the chariots of die pursuing Egyptians sank in the sea when its billows broke over the shore. or received the inspiration out of which the exaggerated picture of the catastrophe Then was later born. Did the Israelites not know the manner and custom of caravans journeying in the desert. it was said to be the Angel of God. while the descendants of the fugitives from royal bondage glorified themselves with a story of a miraculous storm un- witnessed by the Egyptians? Is there then any use in endeavoring to show that a strong cast wind. The Hook *4 . Driver. . after their escape. A simple explanation of this portent has been found: at the head of wandering cam- vans a torch is moving train. and were they so impressed by common things and so anxious for wonders* that tho torch in the hand of the leader became for them an angel? ^Scst*. a desolate The Book of Exodus relates that a pillar of smoke went before them by day and a pillar of fire by night. fugitives. the* (Cambridge.16 AGES IN CHAOS or. of fixwlus in the jfirrfoml . it is too simple. lift: variously itttwtrd cwtwn of a bro/ifT filled with burning wood being borne ut the tout of a caravan irf pil- grims/* . for tixumplc. p. H. move desert 11 Although this explanation is the one that is accepted and found in numerous Bible dictionaries. Kngland. indeed. 1911). entered a desert. usually carried lifted high to show the way to the Because of the heat of tho day. of course. is the persistence with which the Jewish people have clung to this story. change in the direction of the wind could overwhelm an army marching on land? Strange. tides A more plausible explanation would therefore omit the itself l and with the storm. How could it be otherwise than exaggerated when the annals of Egypt know nothing about the sea engulfing a king and his chariots. The pillar of smoke and fire deeply impressed the Israelites. Mediterranean or the Red Sea the inland seas (lakes). making it the beginning and at the sainc lime the most drazuulie episxxle of their and that a history as a nation. content the Israelites sang their song of deliverance. could force the sea to retreat. blowing from evening till dawn.

1873." 13 Beke explained the pillar of smoke and fire as the ignited column of ashes and vapors erupted by the volcano. . Beke came to the startling conclusion expressed in the title of his pamphlet. and the noise of the trumpet. that there were thunders and lightnings. according to waves that may retreat and tie reference "London. And mount Sinai was altogether on a smoke and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of a furnace. . the mountain smoking: and when the people saw it. earthquakes and eruptions are often concurrent phenomena. . At the Sea of this explanation. earthquakes that shake the bottom of the sea create tidal from the shore and then return to enyalf the land. and a thick cloud upon the mount. and the lightnings. 22-24) In the last describe Etna: "By day a burning stream of smoke. Eruptions are usually accompanied by rumblings in the bowels of the earth. . an earthquake created havoc. to give them light/* The lines from Pindar (Odes Pythia. 12 On the title page he placed an epigraph of two sentences. the other from the Greek poet Pindar. to lead them the way. Passage. and the voice of the trumpet exceeding loud. volcanic regions showing that volcanic eruptions can produce black clouds of ashes that darken the sky and are sometimes swept over great distances. I. and by night in a pillar of fire. by day in a pillar of cloud. . voyage: Is the century an Englishman named Charles Beke. . a man o. one from the Book of Exodus. they removed.LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND ISRAELITE HISTORIES 19 But the pillar of cloud and of fire could have beefr appearance * lusion and only the invention of storytellers. leaving destruction in their wake.more than one strange idea. to chariots that were unable to move (Exodus 18. . The day of the lawgiving is described in these words: *And it came to pass on the third day in the morning.. 20:18.." Beginning with this parallel and going over to the biblical description of the day of the lawgiving. so that all the people that was in the camp trembled. and the And all the people saw the whole mount quaked greatly. and stood afar off. published a pamphlet entitled Mount Sinai a Volcano. but by night a ruddy eddying flame. "Exodus 19:16. and thunderings. . The verse from Exodus 13:21 reads: ". He cited instances from .

he followed. like a number of others. Kiiny in the midst of a most dangerous and dreadful scene. the eruption of Vesuvius in the year 79 when Pompeii perished. though upon the most level ground. . The sea seemed to roll back upon itself. who also made When (Mount has ft ho returned. 5fl1. He had previously pubwork arguing for the fallacious notion that Mizniim of the Scriptures was not Egypt. he wrote that ho was "egregiously mistaken with respect to the volcanic character of Mount Sinai" 1 * His confession was published post14 Dean Arthur P. Discoveries of Sinai in Arabia and of Mirfian (Txmtltm. all the expressions used in the sacred writers are those which are usually employed in the Hebrew Bekc lished a 14 Scriptures to describe a thunderstorm. but has now boon extinct during many ages/' An old man. were so agitated backwards and forwards. "Charles p. VI." did not regard the mountainous heights of the Sinai Penin- sula as the Mount Sinai of the Scriptures. Bok. 1H7K). *8ttV76)> 107. in the footsteps of the prophet mountain in the desert Elijah. crossed the tip Aqaba and came to the Arabian shore of that gulf. oast of Ghor. on the History o/ tJw /nrfoft Church ( NVw York. conl^ ercul aneum which we had ordered to be drawn out. even by supporting them with large stones. a description preserved in a letter from the Younger to Tacitus (Epistles. granted public assistance. 20): "We stood still. he would locate Mount Sinai in Ilarra llacljla. declaring that Mount Sinai Is Har-Nur of Fire). but some vanished kingdom on the Sinai Peninsula. and to be driven from its shores by the convulsive motion of the earth/* The interpretation of the wondrous events at the Sea of Passage and at Mount Sinai as seismic and volcanic phenomena of nature met most vigorous opposition and derision from high ecclesiastics.16 - AGES IN CHAOS Mediterrane? parallel iti the description of the earthquake that acA morr>J. Stanley. and that. The chariots. a peak that. the Israelites. "It is well known that no volcanic phenomena exist in the desert to account for these appearances. lie announced that he was staking his reputation as a traveler and biblical scholar. that we could not keep them steady. halo around it but docs not appear to have been a volcano. of the Gulf of when leaving the country. In fact. "which was formerly in activity. Lectures I. as his pilgrimage to the g ho thought.

da$$ der Sinai in einem der zdhlreichen jetzt erloschenen Vulhane der Harra's zu suchen ist". we soon feel bound to make the unusual admission that. and then was taken over by the Israelites as a great act of Yahwe. its acceptance. It gave an account of the voyage: "I am therefore bound to confess that I was in error as regards the physical character of Mount Sinai. 418) also denied the visit of the Israelites to Mount Sinai. however. col 3058f. 1T p. Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbartfamme. Upheaval not limit ourselves to the few passages from the Book of Exodus cited in support of the idea that Mount Sinai was a volcano. and that the appearances mentioned in Scripture were as little volcanic as they were tempestuous. 417ff. if the words mean what they say. Musil identified Mount Sinai with the extinct volcano al-Bedr.. Pt. VoL II. 24 (1903). 69ff. 18 and recently the idea that Yahweh was a local deity of a volcano has become an oft-repeated notion. pp. If we do the activity of which impressed the Israelites. it was adopted by one scholar. w Meyer. Earth.. Gunkel. H.). kann '"Meyer. has not prevented some scholars from denying the historicity 19 of the visit of wandering Israelites to Mount Sinai.. Volcanic activity spread far and wide. 3 Iff. 210: "So kein Zwcifel beslehen. 436. the scope of the catastrophe must have exceeded by far the extent of the disturbance that could be caused by one active volcano. compare ibid. and Mount Sinai was but one furnace in a great plain of smoking furnaces. pp. 2 (2nd ed. pp. 1905). Gressmann. . but turn our attention to the many other passages in the various books of the Scriptures referring to the Exodus. Geschichte des Altertum$. Mose und seine Zeit. p. p. 205: "It is very possible that the saga [of the Sinai experience] belonged first to some tribe of the Sinai Peninsula. humously very different in appearance from Mount Sinai a Volcano. Deutsche Literaturzeitung. sea. p.17 ten years later by a few others. and sky participated in the upheaval. H. A. The sea over- bid.LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND ISRAELITE HISTORIES in 19 a gilt-edged volume.." Gressmann (Mose und seine Zeil. also Gressmann. Der UTsprung der israelitisch-jiidischen Eschatologie (Gott&tgen." 16 Thirty years after the theory of the volcanic character of Sinai was enunciated.

. He] shakcth the earth out . covered. and the waters rushed into the chasms. the dry earth the bowels of the mountains groaned. time This seismic and volcanic activity is constantly referred to the when the Israelites went from Egypt. . . of waters were seen. The His lightnings enlightened the world: the earth saw.t in his of her place. He] removoth the mountains. .20 AGES IN CHAOS flowed the land.. the earth shook and trembled. . In a great geologic catastrophe the bottom of the sea foil. "Job 9:5-6. . cliffs were torn away. and the foundations of the world were dis* flood **. . Was there no real experience of any kiwi to which the metaphors eould apply? Is the following a description of the cluumcls of and ebb in the salt marshes in Egypt: waters were seen. . the earth trembled 4 . and trembled. .. of . The last quotation is from the Song of Deborah. * . Formations changed their profile in major displacements* | anger. lava gushed out of the riven ground. even that Sinai . . . 'Psalms 18:7-8. . . 15. and the skies sea. . . Critical analysis likewise sees in them but the expression of an effusive ecstasy. 1 llie channels coals were kindled and the foundations of the world were dis. . [He] overturneth tlu-m . lulls moved and were shaken Smoke and fire . . Tectonic strata collapsed. the vol- canoes threw smoke and fire out of the interior of the earth. . . thundered unceasingly. . molten rock ran along the became valleys. The earth trembled. | . .. . The pious imagination conceives these utterances to be only metaphorie. Psalm* 97:4-5. 2 hills melted like wax . . . . The mountains melted . the foundations . The Scriptures thus describe the uproar of the unchained elements: . . one of the oldest fragments inserted in the Scriptures.

LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND ISRAELITE HISTORIES 5 21 covered '? 5 Folklore does not work in such an indiscriminating manner. . . things were performed at the sea and in the wilderness in the sight of a folk escaped from the house of bondage. remembrance my song in the night: Will the Lord Hath God forgotten to be gracious? . for it shaketh. . by frenzied elements. .. bled and shook. When the Israelites departed Tsalms 60:2-3. troubled. they never forgot the convulsions of the desert. . became the The Egypt that before the Israelites left scriptural tradition persists this land was visited by plagues. . must have had some underlying experience that folklore molded and remolded. persistently repeated in the above and many other similar passages in connection with the time of the Exodus. . according Scriptures. The turbulence and uproar of nature stirred the fugitives in the when wondrous desert to a state of exaltation: Thou hast made the earth to tremble. The experience. the fury of the waters. . "Psalms 77. . I The depths also were remember thy wonders of old. 6 visited at night The poet of this psalm was by a vision of the past.. . The explosion burning events of these weeks or months. lightnings lightened the world: the earth tremThou leddest thy people like a flock by the . tectonic structure. During the long years niglits The their land. Thou hast shewed thy people hard things: thou hast made us to drink the wine of astonishment. when flaming lava flowed and hills melted. . cast off for ever? will . forerunners of a great Holocaust caused "Psalms 18:15. . 7 under the raging sky of the wilderness torn by unceasing lightnings. . was so majestic and terrible that even after a long it to the line of succeeding generations I call to could not be forgotten. were unin which the Israelites lived in forgettable. the of the mountain. These narratives of geologic changes. hand of Moses and Aaron. The . . . when the surface of the earth underwent violent changes in its most important tradition of this nation. thou hast broken it: heal the breaches thereof. .

at whose door disputes. are we not on the right track in our search The logical question to if it is becoming be asked here And for desert close to a synchronic moment in the Jewish and Egyptian histories? A Egypt was convulsed by earth tremors. and its story was handed clown from generation to generation and echoed and reechoed in the Scriptures and in other writings. lasted for years. now more than two thousand decision. is no reference to it to bo found in Egyptian documents? Or was the Exodus really an obscure and insignificant passage throngh the control of the collectors of royal revenues at the "Exodus 15:23. . we should like to persist with our question. Psalms 107:38-35. the? aftereffects There was a great natural catastrophe. bitter. and none of plagues. 8 and springs disappearing or false? is: Is this testimony entirely not a collection of misleading inventions. In this persistence we are guided by the consideration that something great may be at stake. have remained without An Egyptian Eyewitness Testifies to the Plagues statement and In this trial of history the judgment will depend on the following its probing by cross-examination. suddenly yawning chasms. with lava farther ofF. Nevertheless. years old. Were these seismic disturbances of great magnitude confined to a comparatively small area? Is any earthquake at all mentioned in Egyptian records? The standard works on Egyptian history contain no mention of an earthquake. they experienced spasmodic movements of the earth's surface and volcanic activity on a great scale.22 from tlic AGES IN CHAOS country they witnessed gigantic tidal waves on the sea. in the desert. If we could help this witness on the stand remember some vast catastrophe. of which The impression it made endured. gushing out of the cleft ground. the annals of aneient Egypt to we might perchance obtain a all precious clue to an obscure problem. can it be that nothing of this was noticed by the Egyptians? If their land did suffer from the disaster.

really not Did every recollection of it vanish? In view of the failure of works on the history of Egypt to mention any natural catastrophe. Aegyptteche te Oudheden Monvmenten van het Nederlandscke Museum van Leyden (Leiden. 2 It was explained that eight pages of the recto were proverbs or axioms. be found in Egyptian writings? the sea and the desert. *By F. A facsimile copy of both texts was published by the authorities of the The text of museum together with other Egyptian documents. tbe story of Ipuwer is written on the face. 1902). most of them containing fourteen lines of hieratic signs ( a flowing writing used by the scribes. The face (recto) and the verso ) are differentiated by the direction of the fiber tissues. of the next attempt to translate the text ( The author 3 only the first C. The first interpretation of the text of Ipuwer was presented in the introduction to the facsimile." by which listed in the The back ( catalogue as Leiden 344. pages 9 to 16 are in very bad conditionfew lines at the top and bottom of the pages and first of the seventeenth page only the beginning of the two lines remains. papyrus is written on both sides. quite different from pictorial hieroglyphics). Of is the first page only a third the left or last part of eleven lines there are but a preserved. 1846). 23 ex- how is it that it became the most of generations of the citing Jewish people? Whence came the visions of an upheaval that rent earth and sea? Is the turmoil memory that visited the land and to its river. Chabas. 139-40. . In 1828 the papyrus was acquired by the Museum of Leiden in the Netherlands and is in was found "Memphis. Lecmans.. 133tt.* Ipuwer is now folded into a book of seventeen pages. on the back is a hymn to a deity. we should investigate the ancient sources. especially X (Paris. Pt 2. and the following pages were supposed to be a chapter out of a philosophic work. probably meant the neighborhood of the pyramids of Saqqara. reprinted in Bibliothdque tgyptologiqtte. According to first possessor (Anastasi). Face: Plates 105-13. It is not known under what it circumstances the papyrus containing its is the words of Ipuwer was found.LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND ISRAELITE HISTORIES boundaries of the state? If so.

following Lange. Wfawmchaftcn. the rich the land.24 nine pages) understood AGES IN CHAOS it as a collection of proverbs and examples of sayings brought together for didactic use. in Leiden. "Propher/dnngfu dues acgyptischcn Wrisn.* Gardiner the in- ternal evidence of the text points to the historical character of the Egypt was in distress. was &on#t dn Eptthrton for Ktfnfg baxeichntf" Lange. K. interprets the text as though tho words of a sage named Ipuwer were directed to some king. The Admonitions of an Egyptian Stfgc argued that all from a Hieratic Papyrus situation. 0. pp. steltf vw hter &b&f wohl <Un Akadcmie < t clem Allhcwctwr. J. blaming 7 him for inactivity which has brought confusion. "Tho Almighty /" to whom Ipuwer directs his words. before the inauguration of the Twelfth Dynasty. the presern^ of the king listening to the sago is assumed on the basis of tht* listeners preferred form of certain other literary examples of the *F. title. Gardiner under the was published by Alan II. Luxigo. II. violence filled fenseless population. the social system had become dis- organized. translated anew. The words of cal situation in the past. Thutm*phfach~phil&lo$8<:h$ wd *U. Lanili. Sttxungpbtrrtehte <for frew*- . cited rftff by Lange (STC note 5). note to 1:8. are missing." Gardiner. *"Er tot. In 1909 the text. is a customary appellation of groat H gotis. but a great and overwhelm- ing national disaster. *Published 7 iii Ldp'/ig. Gardinor. insecurity* awl suffering to tho people. Admonitions. Invaders preyed upon tho dewere stripped of everything and slept in the open. Brugsch. the entire Ipuwer was made to translate Ipuwer were interpreted as prophetic in character: a time of evil was foretold for the people of Egypt. Because tho introductory passages of the papyrus. The prophet might have been inspired by some similar politiAt the beginning of this century 5 an effort text. "Altnegyplische Lohrsprw-ht*/' SltzungjUtcrichte tit*r MuMlo Akadcrnic dct Classc (1872). 1903. where the" author and his would be likely to be mentioned." S PftsuMtechen Akadvrnic dcr \Vis&wi$c1iaftcn. 3 Another scholar 4 called the papyrus a collection of riddles. and the poor took their possessions. "It is no merely local disturbance that is here described.

- JfcgB^lfcfiaffij ^ _j5^m \*&^^fy%te4A\&w$ PlatC I: A PAGE FBOM THE PAPYBUS IPUWER CONTAINING THE STORY OF THE PLAGUES .' _ ^^W'^feik/f* _.

.

the land turns round as does a potter's wheel 2:11 The towns are destroyed. the point of which is to us obscure.LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND ISRAELITE HISTORIES 25 Kingdom. The royal residence could be overthrown "in a minute" and left in ruins only The The a other S. ." raash signifies "noise. the papyrus containing the words of Ipuwer is called. There is no end to noise." Earthquakes are often acto the upheaval itself." Does it mean "earthquake" and "noise" is What do "years of earthquake"? In Hebrew the word "commotion. Egypt The Papyrus Ipuwer is in Upheaval (Lauth." this acoustic 1 as well as "earthquake. Admonitions of an Egyptian Sage.. "Earthquake/* Hebrew word for "noise. Upper Egypt has become dry (wastes?). and tumult noise and the tumult were produced by the earth." See The Jewish Encyclopedia (New York." shaon. no It is more is it a literary prophecy social (Lange) or an admonition concerning profound changes the Egyptian version of a great catastrophe. Krauss. and life became unbearable. not a collection of proverbs Chabas) or riddles (Brugsch). Ipuwer PAPYRUS 6:1 Oh. Sethe). says: noise. in the Gardiner edition. companied by loud sounds. the state went into sudden decline. and the country was reduced to ruins. 4:2 . also means "earthquake. Years of noise. and phenomenon gives the name Apparently the shaking returned again and again. 1901-6). a description of ruin and horror.. that the earth would cease from (uproar) be no more. wrote: "There and "years of noise" denote? The translator clearly some play upon the word hrw (noise) here. subterranean rumbling and roaring. In accordance with this interpretation. 3:13 All is ruin! 7:4 The residence is overturned in a minute. The papyrus is a script of lamentations. (Gardiner. PAPYRUS 2:8 Forsooth.

river is PAPYRUS 2:10 The EXODUS 7:20 to blood. . PAPYRUS 2:10 after wulcr. . EXODUS 7:21 This was the . water to drink. and the is river stank. and worms. and reptiles bred KXODUS 7:21 . . and thirst KS 7:24 And all the Ejjyplians digged round about the water of the livrr for river.26 AGES IN CHAOS by a mighty earthquake. where ships were thrown into whirlpools. 11. prior to the publication of Worlds in Collision and Ages in Chaos. . Men shrink fiom tasting human beings. prolifieally. . Blood is everywhere. the land. 3:10-13 That shall onr water! That is our happiness! What we do in respect thereof? All is ruin! *TIu Bible quotations arc from the King James version. 3 2:5-6 Plague is make his translation throughout. Ipuwer contains evidence of some natural cataclysm accompanied by earthquakes and bears witness to the apof The papyrus pearance of things as they happened at that time. . the quotation* from the text of the papyrus are from the translation by A. for they could not drink of the The fish in the lakes and the river died. and the people could not drink if. blood. . inserts. first plague. there was blood throughout all the land of Kgypt. As. in the passage where "the towns are destroyed. Carilitmr. * all the waters that were in the river were turned This water was loathsome. the translator of the papyrus could not have been influenced by a desire to resemble the biblical text. The upheaval seems to have wrought havoc on the high seas. I shall compare some passages from the Book of Exodus and from the papyrus." it is also said that ships were set adrift. no parallels had been drawn between the Bible and the text of the Papyrus Ipuwer.

. the papyrus relates It was no duty could be rendered to the crown for wheat and barley. . EXODUS 10:15 or in the herbs of the there remained not any green thing in the trees. columns and walls are consumed by The but fire fell which consumed the land was not spread by human hand from the skies. fire. by consuming fire. . and the flax was boiled.. . and the brake every tree of the hail smote every herb of the field. . is In also Psalms 105:33 this plague described: "He smote [with hail] their vines their fig trees. through all the land of Egypt. after the next plague that the fields became utterly barren. fields. Exodus 7:21 ("And the fish that was in the river died"). . No fruit nor herbs are found ." 'See the Notes to the text of Gardiner. 1. with a reference to and Papyrus Leiden 345 recto. . . mingled with the hail. Like the Book of Exodus (9:31-32 and 10:15). This portent was accompanied over the land. very grievous. PAPTHEIUS 2:10 Forsooth. and field. EXODUS 9:31-32 the flax and the barley was smitten: for the barley was in the ear. there was no fish for the royal storehouse. . 3 6:1 PAPYRUS 4:14 Trees are destroyed. . and fish. that and as in PAPYRUS 10:3-6 Lower Egypt weeps. The fields were entirely devastated. To it belong (by right) The entire palace is wheat and barley. . and brake the trees of their coasts. . without its . Fire spread all EXODUS 9:23-24 there was . gates. .LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND ISRAELITE HISTORIES 27 The destruction in the fields is related in these words: EXODUS 9:25 . 4 according to Exodus. geese . . By this torrent of destruction. But the wheat and the rye were not smitten: for they were not grown up. the fire hail. and fire ran along upon the ground. revenues. Admonitions. .3. .3.

Hail and fire made the frightened cattle EXODUS 9:19 . grain has perished on every side. The years of wandering in the desert are described as . flee. or locusts could have left the fields as though after "the cutting of flax. . And did eat up herbs in their land. . fire. the hand of the Lord is upon thy cattle which the field there shall be a very gdevous murrain. only hail. and there is none to gather them together. and that without number. their hearts weep* Cattle moan. cattle are left to stray. hunger. . The land is left over to its weariness like the cutting of flax. . . The EXODUS 10:22 . covered Egypt with profound darkness. in PAPYBUS 5:5 All animals. gather thy field . . . * . "Not light" is in is Egyptian equivalent to "without light" or "dark/* But there tirely some question as to whether the two sentences are enparallel." The plague is described in Psalms 105:34-35 in these words: ". . . The statement single that the crops of the fields were destroyed in a day ("which yesterday was seen") excludes drought. the usual cause of a bad harvest. according to the Book of Exodus*. cattle. of the Lord left his servants PAPYBUS 9:2-3 Behold. .. Each man fetches for himself those that arc branded with his name. and all that ihou hast in the 21 And he that regarded not the word and his cattle in the field. is EXODUS 9:3 . . all the caterpillars." and PAPYBUS 6:1 No fruit nor herbs are found . .28 AGES IN CHAOS PAPYRUS 6:3 Forsooth... . ninth plague. and there was a thick darkness in nil the laud of Egypt PAPYBUS 9: 11 The land is not light. that has perished which yesterday was seen. 5: 12 Forsooth. The cattle were in a pitiful condition. . . and devoured the fruit of their ground.. the locusts came.

It precipitated a general On were still the population from the cities. when found. The story of the plague does seem like a myth. which would not strike in many places at the same moment and would last last more than a single hour. it appeared that the slaves in Egypt when at least one great shock occurred. The plagues have been described here as forerunners of the catas- trophe which reached its climax at the Jam-Suf (the Sea of Passage). the phenomena in the desert were the subsequent spasms of the earth's crust. even at the same hour of midnight. Testimony from Egyptian sources about an earthquake was sought. with the purpose of establishing a synchronic moment in Egyptian and Jewish history. The biblical testimony was reread. The evidence. the "shadow of death" will also have additional parallels. which can be explained as natural phenomena. It became evident that it had flight of not neglected this most conspicuous event: it was the tenth plague. brought forth more analogies and showed greater resemblance to the scriptural narrative than I had expected. cannot be explained by a pestilence. Apparently we have before us the testimony of an Egyptian witness of the plagues. the last night the Israelites were in Egypt was a night in which death struck instantly and took victims from every Egyptian home. It is rather this biblical ^shadow of death'* to which the quotation of the papyrus seems to be parallel. The Egyptian parallel to the plague of impenetrable tradition persists that for a darkness will be found on a subsequent page.LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND ISRAELITE HISTORIES spent in gloom under a cover of thick clouds. 29 The Jewish written number of years after the Exodus the light of the sun was dimmed by clouds. The Last Night before the Exodus According to the Book of Exodus. while the other plagues probably drove them from the country into the cities. In tie papyrus it is said: "The residence is overturned in a "Jeremiah 2:6. it is a stranger in the sequence of the other plagues. The death of so many in a single night. . ruining houses and destroying life and fortune. careful reading of the papyrus.

30
minute." 1

AGES IN CHAOS

page it was stressed that only an earthquake could have overturned and ruined the royal residence in a minute. Sudden and simultaneous death could be inflicted on many only by
a previous

On

a natural catastrophe.

EXODUS 12:30 And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt: for there was not a house where there was not one dead.

A

great part o

the people lost their lives in one violent shock.

Houses were struck a furious blow.
EXODUS 12:27 [The Angel
of the Lord] passed over the houses of the

children of Israel in Egypt, livered our houses.

when he smote

the Egyptians, and de-

The word nogaf
thrusting with

for "smote"

is

used for a violent blow,

e.g.,

for

2 by an ox. The residence of the king and the palaces of the rich were tossed to the ground, and with them the houses of the common people and

his horns

the dungeons of captives.

EXODUS 12:29 And
all

it

came

to pass, that at midnight the

Lord smote

the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the

dungeon.

PAPYRUS 4:3,

also 5:6 Forsooth, the children of princes arc dashed the walls. against 6:12 Forsooth, the children of princes are cast out in the vStreets.

smashed on the pavement of the dark streets, injured and dead amid the ruins,, moved the heart of the Egyptian eyewitness. No one saw the agony in the dungeon, a pit in the ground where prisoners were locked in, when
sight of the children of princes
it

The

was

filled

by

landslides.
is

PAPYRUS 6:3 The prison

ruined. 8

Why
text?
1

is

this

unreasonable "firstborn" inserted in the
later.

Hebrew

The

explanation will follow

Gardiner accompanies the translation of the word "to overturn" with an explanatory example: "To overthrow a wall/' a j. Levy, WSrlcrbuch tiber die Talmudim und Mldtatihim (Vienna, 1924). ln his notes to another passage Gardiner translates "storehouse* as "prison."
fl

LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND ISRAELITE HISTORIES
In the papyrus (2:13)
it is

31

written:
is

He who To
.

places his brother in the ground

everywhere.

it

corresponds Exodus (12:30):
.

.

there was not a house where there was not one dead.
it is

In Exodus (12:30)
.

written:

.

.

there was a great cry in Egypt.

To

it

corresponds the papyrus (3:14):
groaning that
is

It is

throughout the land, mingled with lamentations.
.

. statues of the gods fell and broke in pieces: 4 "this night against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment" (Exodus

The

.

12:12).

book by Artapanus, no longer extant, which quoted some unknown ancient source and which in its turn was quoted by Eusebius, tells of "hail and earthquake by night [of the last plague], so that those who fled from the earthquake were killed by the hail, and those who sought shelter from the hail were destroyed by the earthquake. And at that time all the houses fell in, and most of the
6

A

temples." The earth

was equally pitiless toward the dead in their graves: the sepulchers opened, and the buried were disentombed.
PAPYRUS 4:4, also 6:14 Forsooth, those who were balmment are laid on the high ground.
in the place of

em-

legend is preserved in the Haggada: in the last night, when the land of Egypt was smitten, the coffin of Joseph was found lying

A

upon the ground,

lifted from its grave. Similar effects of powerful earthquakes have occasionally been observed in modern times. 7
*Eusebius, Preparation for the Gospel (trans. E. H. Gifford; Oxford, 1903),

Book IX, Chap,
"Ibid.

xxvii.

Legends of the Jews (1925), III, 5-6. Osborn, The Earth Upsets (Baltimore, 1927), p. 127, on the earthquake at Valparaiso, Cbile, the night of August 15, 1906: 1 visited the scene as soon as I could get there. Untombed coffins protruded from the graves in hillside cemeteries that had shaken open."
Cf. Louis Ginzberg,
S.

'Compare C.

32

AGES IN CHAOS
everlasting life ere

The unborn, Ipuwer mourned, entered into they had seen the light of the world. In Midrash Rabba on Exodus it is written:
Even pregnant women about to
he found. 8

give birth miscarried and then them-

selves died; because the Destroyer stalked abroad

and destroyed

all

"Firstborn" or "Chosen"

The

biblical story of the last

plague has a distinctly supernatural

quality in that all the firstborn and only the firstborn were killed on tie night of the plagues. 1 An earthquake that destroys only the firstborn is inconceivable, because events can never attain that

No credit should be given to such a record. Either the story of the last plague, in its canonized form, is a fiction, or it conceals a corruption of the text. Before proclaiming the whole a strange tale interpolated later, it would be wise to indegree o coincidence.
quire whether or not the incredible part alone is corrupted. It be that "the firstborn" stands for some other word.
ISAIAH 43:16 Thus saith the Lord, which maketh a and a path in the mighty waters;

may

way

in the Sea,

20 ...

I give waters in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert, to give drink to my people, my chosen.

In the Book of Exodus

it is

said that Moses

was commanded:

EXODUS 4:22-23 And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh, Thus saith the Lord, Israel is my son, even my firstborn. and if thou refuse to let him go, behold, I will slay thy son, even thy firstborn.
.
.
.

The "chosen" are here called "firstborn." If Israel was the revenge was to be taken against Egypt by the death of its
But
if

firstborn,
firstborn.

Israel

was the chosen, then revenge was
of
its

to

be taken against

Egypt by the death
London, 1939), 10 vok

chosen.

*Midra$h Rdbbah (English trans, edited by H. Freedman and M* Simon;
^According to the haggadic tradition, not only the firstborn but the majority of the population in Egypt was killed during the tenth plague.

LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND ISRAELITE HISTORIES
"Israel,
"Israel,
It is

33

my chosen/' is Israel bechiri, or bechori. my firstborn," is Israel bekhori. 2
first

the

root

which was supposed

to determine the relation

between God and his people. Therefore: "at midnight the Lord smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt" (Exodus 12:29) must be read "all the select of Egypt/' as one would say, "all the flower of
Egypt'* or "all the strength of Egypt." "Israel let fall all the chosen of Egypt."
is

my

chosen: I shall

Natural death would usually choose the weak, the sick, the old. The earthquake is different; the walls fall upon the strong and the

weak

alike. Actually the Midrashim say that "as many as nine tenths of the inhabitants have perished." 3 In Psalms 135 my idea is illustrated by the use of both roots where

two words

of the

same root would have been expected.
for his pe-

culiar treasure.

For the Lord hath chosen Jacob unto himself, and Israel Who smote the firstborn of Egypt.
.

.

.

In Psalms 78 the history of the Exodus

is

told once

more:
.
.

PSALMS 78:43 How he had wrought his signs in Egypt 51 And smote all the firstborn in Egypt 52 But made his own people to go forth 56 Yet they tempted and provoked the most high God 31 The wrath of God came upon them, and slew the fattest of them, and smote down the chosen men of Israel.
.
.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

,

.

the firstborn destroyed when the wrath was turned against Egypt, and were the chosen destroyed when the wrath was turned

Were

against Israel?

AMOS 4:10
manner

I

of Egypt:

have sent among you the pestilence [plague] your young men [chosen] have I slain.

after the

In the days of raash (commotion) during the reign of Uzziah, the select and the flower of the Jewish people shall perish as
perished the chosen, the strength of Egypt, was the prophecy of

Amos.
*Bechor9 to choose, select, prefer; bachur, a young man, is of the same root Bekhor, to be early, produce first fruits, to be first in ripening. Levy, Wtirterbuch iiber die Talmudim and Midrashim.
'Ginzberg, Legends, H, 369.

34
It is

AGES IN CHAOS
of the uppossible that the king's firstborn died on the night The death of the prince could have been an outward reason
text.

heaval.
for

changing the

The

intrinsic reason lies in the

same source

that interrupted the story of the Exodus at the most exciting place after the houses of the Egyptians had crumbledwith these

sentences:

EXODUS 13:2 Sanctify unto
the
is

me

all

womb among
all

the children of Israel, both of

the firstborn, whatsoever openeth man and of beast: it

mine.
the firstborn of

13 ... and redeem.

man among

thy children shalt thou

Jeremiah

testifies to

the fact that burnt offerings and sacrifices
Israel left Egypt.

were not ordered on the day

PEREMIAH 7:22 For I spake not unto your fathers, nor commanded them in the day that I brought them out of the land o Egypt, concerning burnt offerings or
sacrifices.

This

is

in contradiction to the text of

free the people from this

bondage

is

Exodus 12:43 to 13:16. To the task of Amos, Isaiah, and

Jeremiah.
5:22 Though ye offer me burnt offerings and your meat offerthem: neither will I regard the peace offerings
let

ings, I will not accept of your fat beasts.

24 But

judgment run down

as waters,

and righteousness

us a

mighty stream. 25 Have ye offered unto
forty years,

me

sacrifices

and

O house

offerings in the wilderness

of Israel?

Revolt and Flight

My endeavor has been
of a natural catastrophe.

to find in Egyptian sources some mention The description of disturbances in the

Papyrus Ipuwer, when compared with the scriptural narrative, gives a strong impression that both sources relate the very same events.
It is therefore

only natural to look for mention of revolt

among

the

LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND ISRAELITE HISTORIES

35

population, of a flight of wretched slaves from this country visited by disaster, and of a cataclysm in which the pharaoh perished.

Although in the mutilated papyrus there

is

no

explicit reference to

the Israelites or their leaders, three facts are clearly described as consequences of the upheaval: the population revolted; the

wretched or the poor
circumstances.
If,

men

fled;

the king perished under unusual

in addition to the closely parallel description of the plagues, I should try to extract more than these three facts from the papyrus,

should expose myself to the charge that I use the defective condition of the document to support preconceived ideas. But the references to the catastrophe and to the population that rebelled
I

and

ambiguous; their meaning is clear and not open to misunderstanding. Consequently, when, in the next few paragraphs, I try to uncover additional parallels in certain passages, I do so
fled are not

with

restraint.
if

The papyrus

is

damaged and obscure
is
it

in

many

places;

may

one or another comparison add nothing to, but neither does

incomplete or arbitrary, it detract anything from, the

fact established here, that

a sequence of earthquakes and other
in Egypt,

natural

phenomena occurred

accompanied by plagues

bringing destruction to men, animals, plants, and sources of water.

The first omens of an approaching catastrophe brought unrest to the land, and the captives longed to escape to freedom. The papyrus narrates that "men ventured to rebel against the Uraeus" (the emblem of royal authority) and that magical
spells

connected with the

serpent are divulged (6:6-7 to 7:5-6), that gold and jewels "are fastened on the neck of female slaves'* (3:2-3; compare with Exodus
11:2: "and let every man borrow of his neighbor, and every woman of her neighbor, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold /'). The collapse of stone structures, the dead and wounded in the
. .

debris, the fall of

many

horror;
slaves.

all

these were looked

statues of the gods, inspired upon as the acts of the

dread and

God

of the

EXODUS 12:33

And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people, that send them out of the land in haste; for they said, We be they might all dead men.

36

AGES IN CHAOS

The Egyptians were to use still bitterer words; when the calamity was repeated, they no longer expressed anguish and fear of death,
but invoked
it

in passages such as these:

PAPYRUS 4:2 Forsooth, great and small say: I wish I might die. 5:14f. Would that there might be an end of men, no conception, no birth! Oh, that the earth would cease from noise, and tumult be no
morel

The following lines speak of a population escaping a disaster. "Men flee. Tents are what they make like the dwellers of the
.

.

.

(Papyrus 10:2). In the Book of Exodus it is said that the Israelites left the country "in haste" (Exodus 12:33) and "could not tarry" (12:39). No doubt flight and living in makeshift tents was
hills"

shared by the majority of the survivors, as has happened many times since then whenever a violent shock has occurred, devastating cities;

a new shock is feared by those who have escaped with their lives. A "mixed multitude" of Egyptians joined the Israelite slaves, and with them hastily made toward the desert (Exodus 12:38), Their
brief stop "huts."
first

was

at Succoth (13:20)

which in Hebrew means

The escaped

slaves hurried across the border of the country.

By
it

day a column of smoke went before them in the sky; by night was a pillar of fire.

EXODUS 13:21 ... by day in a pillar of a cloud, to load them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; to go by day and night.

PAPYRUS 7:1 Behold, the

fire

has mounted up on high.

Its

burning

goes forth against the enemies of the land.

The

translator

added

this

remark: "Here the

'fire* is

regarded as
the

something

disastrous."
first

After the

manifestations of the protracted cataclysm

Egyptians tried to bring order into the land. They traced the roxite of the escaped slaves* The wanderers became "entangled in the land, tie wilderness hath shut them in" (Exodus 14:3). They ttirned to
the sea, they stood at Pi-haKhiroth. "The Egyptians pursued after

LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND ISRAELITE HISTORIES
them. The Egyptians marched after them/' the night and the sea fled.

37
all

A

hurricane blew

In a great avalanche of water "the sea returned to his strength,"

and "the Egyptians fled against it." The sea engulfed the chariots and the horsemen, the pharaoh and all his host. The Papyrus Ipuwer (7:1-2) records only that the pharaoh was
lost

fore."

under unusual circumstances "that have never happened beThe Egyptian wrote his lamentations, and even in the broken
they are perceptible: *
.
. .

lines

weep

.

,

.

the earth

is

... on every

side

.

.

.

weep

.

.

.

The Hyksos Invade Egypt
in Egypt. In the following turned into scenes of looting. Justice ceased to function. The mob dug in the debris and in the public records,

There was no longer any royal power
cities

weeks the

where
were

contracts, notes

filed.

and pledges, and deeds to real property The plunderers searched among the wreckage of the

royal storehouses.

Men

PAPYRUS 6:9 Forsooth, the kws of the judgment-hall are walk upon [them] in the public places.
10:3 The storehouse of the king
is

cast fortiL

the

common property

of everyone*
after-

The papyrus

furnishes information as to

what happened

wards* The earth's crust repeatedly contracted in violent spasms ("years of noise"). The roads became impassable "dragged" and "flooded" (Papyrus 12:llf.), The realm was depopulated, and

Ipuwer bewails the "lack of people." The residence of the pharaoh was a heap of jruins. Governmental authority was completely shattered. "Behold, the chiefs of the land flee" (8:14); "Behold, no
offices are in their (right) place, like

herdsman" (9:2). Slaves who remained in Egypt raised
PAPYRUS 6:7 Forsooth, public
lists

The "poor men" who ran away roamed
their heads.

a frightened herd without a the desert*

offices

are opened

and

their census-

are taken away*

The catastrophe that rendered Egypt defenseless was a signal to the tribes of the Arabian desert." stroys three . the Egyptians did not clear whether "a million of people'* the number of the perished fear or of the intruders.38 AGES IN CHAOS Then invaders approached out of the gloom of the desert." "He who passed the night is in squalor" raised his head. in order to plunder his burden. A foreign tribe from abroad has come to Egypt. the aftermath and the subsequent disturbances of nature were not yet at their end. The nomes are laid waste. he who slept without a wife through want finds precious things. "A man journey upon a road. "Behold. none Prostrated by the appalling blows is is not defend themselves. number slay the less. Nobody worked. "She possessor of a mirror. There are found to stand and protect themselves. PAPYBUS seen 12:6ff. no craftsmen work/' strikes his brother. If * . the Desert is throughout the land. men . What am I to do?" mo because of the misery in this time!" laments Ipuwcr. ." It who looked at her face in the water was anarchy. The land is as a weed that degreater men. PAPYRUS 3:1 Forsooth. ." "Behold. Not weep. they crossed the borders and entered the shattered land. It in the next sentence of nature. To all the previous plagues this was added: pillagers completed the destruction. noble ladies go hungry. killing and raping. The double catastrophe caused by nature and by the invasiondestroyed all class distinction and brought about a social revolution. "Woe is Several expressions of Ipuwer indicate that the text of the papyrus was composed shortly after the major catastrophe. the ." "Men sit [behind] the bushes until the benighted (traveler) comes. they are found to be two men. Today enemies enter into the temples more than a million of people. "How terrible it is. one uses violence against another. PAPYBUS 15:1 What has happened? Asiatics to through it is to cause the know the condition of the land." "Behold. the son of his mother. 14:11 Men They have come to an end for themselves. "Behold.

It was used by the Arabs of the locality as a cattle trough. in addition to of "dwellers in marshes" and "poor men" who fled the land scourged by plagues. doubtless containing details. Gu6rin. L. 8 Georges Goyon. Sometime during the present century the stone was brought to the Museum of Ismailia and a new attempt to translate the text 'V. This record contained in the Papyrus Ipuwer. In order to find the time of the Exodus in Egyptian history. a town on the border 1 Palestine. In a subsequent section the divergent views on the date of origin of the papyrus of Ipuwer will be presented. preyed on the disorganized country. was undertaken. VI ( 1936). "Les Travaux de Chou t les tribulations de Geb d'apres le Naos 2248 d'Ismailia/* KSmi. in . the story It was surprising to find in the papyrus. possibly names. An account of this shrine 2 and a partial transla- tion of the text were published in 1S90. Revue de philologie et tfarch6ologie 6gyptiennes et coptes. 241. are destroyed. 3 Judee (Paris. Pi-ha-Khiroth In the sixties of the last century. The beginning and the end. we had to search for is some record of catastrophe in the physical world. Griffith. who came from the deseit of Asia. The Mound of the Jew and the City of Onias). and became its violent oppressors. But what is preserved is sufficient to impress us with this fact: before is us not merely the story of a catastrophe. laments about the invaders. The Antiquities of Tell el Yahudiyeh and Miscellaneous Work Lower Egypt during the Years 1887-1888 (London. =F. II.LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND ISRAELITE HISTORIES 39 The starting point of this research was this: the Exodus from Egypt took place at the time of a great natural catastrophe. in el-Arish. 1869). 1890) (published with NaviUe. Many parts of the papyrus are missing. but an Egyptian version of the plagues. 1-42. Amu or the Hyksos were the invaders who ruled Egypt during the centuries that separate the period of the Middle King- dom from that of the New Kingdom. the attention of a traveler between Egypt and was at- tracted to a shrine (naos) of black granite inscribed with hieroglyphics over all its surfaces. the shrine was still being used as a trough.

. . though kings. 1934).* With this remark the author of The Accuracy oj the Bible contented himself. we "Myth of the God-Kings' which is as old as Egypt itself it is said that tihe world was filled with darkness and the text proceeds literally. Not even the sequence of the text is conclusively established. and there was a thick darkness in all the land saw not one another. The inHellenistic age. and that was so complete that no one could discern the face of his neighbor. They his place for three days. that confined everyone to his place. the monolith of el-Arish been men- tioned only infrequently. In the mutilated text there are these lines: It The land was in great affliction. The text. such a tempest that neither the of their next. #4. Evil fell on this earth. on p. and during these nine days of upheaval there was . . and its strange text has been regarded as rather mythological. left the palace was a great upheaval in the residence. . 'and no one of the men and the gods could see the face oftho other eight days/ The Hebrew author was less fantastic and excessive than his Egyptian predecessor and therefore reduced the 8 days to only 3. that of King Thorn and his successor. but the events related scription is of the Ptolemaic or are of a much earlier period. deserves attentive study and this inscription the name a new definitive translation. 4 find the following passage: "In the . is found in the Book of Exodus in the story of EXODUS 10:22-23 . In A. and geographical described. the ninth plague. . residences. S. neither rose any from The Egyptian text differs from the Hebrew in that it numbers nine days of darkness. . of Egypt three days. They were brought by the "east wind" and "covered the faco of the Yahuda. The Accuracy of the Bibk (London. The places are named and an invasion of foreigners names of deities appearing in the text are royal cognomens. In of King Thorn is written in a royal cara fact that points to the historical background of the text touche.4 A strong wind is mentioned in the Scriptures in connection with the removal of the preceding plague the locusts. men nor the gods could see the faces Similar mention of a darkness that lasted a number of days. .40 Since its AGES IN CHAOS has discovery. Nobody during nine days. as will be demonstrated. that was accompanied by a great upheaval.

and cast them into the Red sea. 'Ginzberg. V. was . 5. . or else it was . overwhelmed by the affliction. 41 and EXODUS 10:19 And the Lord turned a mighty strong west wind. 6 Josephus Flavius 6 and Philo the Alexandrian 7 of the first century of the present era also belong to what may be called The collation of this material presents the fol- rabbinical sources." 5 Ginzberg. None was the seventh day of darkness. I. II. nor could anyone venture to take their outward senses in but they lay themselves down food. 359-60. 1 able to speak or to hear. 359-60. II.). Midrash Tanhuma Hakadom ^ita Mosis. Shemoth Raba. Midrash Hajashan. . . during the next three days one could not stir from his place. of the storm. 21. . Targum Yerushalmi. Ibid. it . . 14. During the first three days one could still change his position. Sefer Hajashar. so that the land was darkened" (Exodus they were removed by "a mighty strong west wind": 10:13ff. 'Jewish Antiquities. 9 In the Book of Exodus it is Israelites said that "it was a cloud and darkness'* so that the camp of the The last. . Egyptians came not near the camp of the Israelites "all the night. . . which took away the locusts. overtook the land when the were at the Sea of Passage. . The light of the fire . . additional details are given. . .LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND ISRAELITE HISTORIES whole earth. The plague of darkness endured seven days. Legends. . could not be dispelled by artificial means. Thus they remained. 431-39. . . Among the sources are Midrash Shir Hashirim Raba." "And the Lord caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night. All exceeding strong west wind The darkness the time the land was enveloped in darkness. density of the darkness. Sefer Mekhilta Divre IshmaeL II. Immediately thereafter came the ninth plague the thick darkness. lowing picture: endured seven days. Legends. either extinguished by the violence made invisible and swallowed up in the . was of such a nature that . as told in old Midrash books. The rabbinical sources so describing the calamity of darkness are numerous. 8 a trance. In the story of the darkness in Egypt. .

. p. Now when the majesty of Ra-Harmachis [Harakhti?] fought with the evil-doers in this pool. . ^Josephus. "See the reading of A.. this earth the earth is in a great affliction disturbance in the residence/* are passages on the great shrine describing the nine days of darkness and tempest when nofell . Jewish Antiquities.. "Evil The land upon were among the dead from the ninth distress and ruin. the evil-doers prevailed not over his majesty. is commemorated on of Nisan). until the passage of the sea at six days and a few hours. Ginzberg. . The Hebrew ness and that 12 sources that cities were devastated in the dark- many Israelites fell into plague. misfortune. 345. The Antiquities of Tett el Vahudiyeh. above. S. Yahuda. . "The darkness came from the hell and The Hebrew In the tempest and darkness that lasted for days was difficult to measure time. Legends. were bereft of exact judgment of the passage of time. "'Griffith. version of the plague of darkness is not unlike the Egyptian version. they would again see light: "We shall see our father Ra-Harakhti in the luminous region of Bakhit. Under such circumstances the slight discrepancy between the text on the stone (nine days 11 of darkness) and the tradition of the could be felt/' it 10 and Midrashim (seven days of darkness) tell is negligible. . men. note 4. the seventh day day of Passover (twenty-first day of Nisan). it was not the darkness of a quiet night a violent storm rushed in fine ashes. ". His majesty leapt into the so-called Place of the Whirlpool 18 lbid. In the midst of the savageries of nature "his majesty of Shou" his hosts and ordered them to follow him to regions where. he promised. II." Apopi was the fierce god of darkness. overwhelmed by nights. . The king and his hosts never returned. 14. ao II. they perished. 5. a body could assembled see anything and none could leave the palace." Under cover of darkness intruders from the desert approached the border of Egypt. his majesty of Shou went to battle against the companions of Apopi. 73. The Exodus that followed the night of the tenth plague the first day of Passover (fifteenth and the passage of the sea on the last. the Place of the Whirlpool. which followed immediately the plague of darkness.42 AGES IN CHAOS Tradition puts the time from the tenth plague.

and the waters returned. 31. VI (1936). The waters is also similar in both Hebrew and Egyptian sources.. and the Lord brought again the waters of the sea upon them. too: Pharaoh himself perished EXODUS 15:19 For the horse of Pharaoh went in with his chariots and with his horsemen into the sea. yet even a striking similarity is not identity. and the horseall the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them. explanation of the translator of the text concerning this geonot known except in graphical designation "Pi-KharotT is: ". it is related: EXODUS 14:27-28 . and covered the chariots. He arrived at a place designated by name: The march His Majesty Pi-Kharoti. He departed to heaven. air. the sea returned to his strength . The subject of the two records should be regarded as identical only if some detail can be found in both versions. . ou sur la route sans douie peu eloigne de Soft el Henneh qtte par cet exemple. de Memphis d Pisoped. . is this 1* The example. of the pharaoh with his hosts is related amidst the description of the great upheaval in the residence and the tempest that made the land dark. The story of the darkness in Egypt as told in Hebrew and Egyp- is very similar.. the Hebrew and the Egyptian. note 4. that And cannot be attributed to chance. and it. He was thrown by the whirlpool high in the He was no longer alive. . the Egyptians fled against in the midst of the sea." Goyon. K&mi. - [here words are missing] finds on this place called A few lines later it is said that he was thrown by a great force. . and the Lord overthrew the Egyptians And men.LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND ISRAELITE HISTORIES 43 And in the Book of Exodus . and ing the value of this similarity is enhanced by the fact that in both ver- tian sources death of the pharaoh in the whirl- sions the pharaoh perished in a whirlpool during or after the days of the great darkness and violent hurricane." identification of the subject of the Here attempted connu two versions.

He did not return to with [or "like"] the companions Heliopolis: of the thieves of the scepter". Invaders approaching by way of Yat Nebes came in the gloom and overpowered Egypt. Goyon. name is met nowhere else except on the inscription on the shrine relates that after a time a son of the pharaoh. the rebels that arc at Ousherou [not identified. "his majesty Geb. .44 the AGES IN CHAOS where Hebrew and the Egyptian. The information about all that happened to Ra in Yat Nebes. "He asks informa. and 27 (translation)." sustained burns before he re- turned from his expedition to seek his father. 15 It is the same place. In his helplessness he recalled how his father. same erroneous to say that the shrine. came from the mountains of the Orient by they all the ways of Yat Nebes. 11 (text). The vowels of the translator: the in Pi-ha-Khfroth is the Hebrew definite article. ." meaning "desert"] and in the desert. eyewitnesses from neighboring abodes "give him the . . he was robbed of his heritage. and the prince."16 The prince retreated before the invaders. the com- bats of the king Thoum. "The children of Apopi. who succumbed in the whirlpool. all the horses and overtook them encamping by the and chariots of Pharaoh . It is Hebrew text. Ho secluded himself in the provincial residence of Hy-Taoui "in the to entirely unsuccessful." set out himself. Kfrni. . is not incorrect if the locality the pharaoh perished was a place by the Sea of Passage. to communicate with "the foreigners and the Amu. has a sign "dry. . they approached by way of Yat Nebes. who had perished. is Pi-Kharoti It is the Pi-Khiroth of the pursuit." that they leave the country. These They conquered only to destroy. beside Pi-ha-hiroth [Khiroth]. It belongs between Pi in the translation of the Egyptian text are a conjecture w name can also be read Pi-Khirot. sea. EXODUS 14:9 But the Egyptians pursued after them. and fell upon Egypt . at the fall of darkness. ." All who accompanied the prince were killed by a terrible blast." The tion. "his majesty Geb. all "He did not go On land of the plants henou" From there he made an attempt. in better days the rebels and "massacred the children of Apopi/* had battled ""Ha" and Khiroth. VI (1936). rebels.

Against Apion York. was largely tie reason why Ramses II of the Nineteenth Dynasty was identified as the Pharaoh of Oppression. It is not of interest that Pi-Thorn means "the abode of Thorn. 100-6. See Josephus. 1926). 75." Pithom was one of the two cities built by the Israelite slaves for the Pharaoh of Oppression. but The treasury city of Pithom was discovered by E. Ilamses could also be a city named for a divinity. 17 In Manetho. See note 14. St. and identified with the help of an inscription. In this papyrus the same story 1T Leningrad and listed as "number 1116b recto.LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND ISRAELITE HISTORIES After a time "the air cooled It is off. Ramses. London. "New Literary Works from Ancient Egypt. Pi-ha- The Khiroth. 45 and the countries dried. centuries or even millennia old. It is also possible that the name of the city Ramses (Exodus 12:37) is a later el we call by the name Tell el-Amama the historical name or the P^ce. Egypt was devastated by the tempest and scorched by fire. . New Tmaio<. On the basis of certain indications in the text. and Ramses of the Nineteenth Dynasty may have had some predecessors of the same name in pre-Hyksos dynasties. I. The Ermitage Papyrus A papyrus text preserved in the Ermitage in the catalogue of that museum literary echo of fateful days when the empire of Egypt perished and the land fell prey to invading nomads." known what happened to the unhappy prince.. I (1914). similarly Akhet-Aton. is called Tutimaeus or Timaios. the pharaoh in whose days the "blast of heavenly displeasure" fell upon Egypt. preceding the invasion of the Hyksos." 1 is a in is related that we now know from the Papyrus Ipuwer. The argument of the Ramses city was sometimes raised against the identification of the Habiru with the Israelites. Thackeray. H. M Gutschmidt and Reinach read the name (trans. 10 H. was 19 on the way from Memphis to Pisoped. where the events took place." Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. *A. The inscription on the shrine at el-Arish says that the name of the pharaoh who perished in the whirlpool was Thorn or Thoum. note. His end was certainly sad. Gardiner. as to where the Sea of Passage was. can be solved with the help of the inscription on the shrine. The residence was seized by the Amu. The name of the other city. It is well to remember that "second" is our modern reckoning of kings. Naville in 1885 at Tell Maskhuta. 18 question.

of things future." The seer "was brooding over what should come to pass in the land and conjuring up the condition of the East. "Said his of land thou art sprung/ "The land is utterly perished and nought remains. /* "I show thee the land upside down. ..2. . in "the land of shadow. . Where is the Lord that brought us up out of the land of Egypt. /' dry (even the river) of Egypt/' "The South Wind shall the North Wind. ?* through a land of drought. that led us through the wilderness. . Compare Psalms 23:4. . majesty: Nay. . Job 24:17. . He is in the sky like the moon. but as things that are to come. 28:3. laugh with the laughter of . Isaiah 9. The upheavals of nature and the subsequent subjugation of Egypt by the desert tribes are recounted." "The earth is fallen into misery * "The river is blow against . 34:22. ? From them desert. the description of the changes in nature we can recognize as belonging to the period when the Israelites roamed in the under a cloudy sky." "Men never (yet) had happened. And he said: 'Up my heart and bewail this " . Bedouins pervade the land. None can live when the sun is veiled by clouds. (2:6. shadow of death/* 2 Jerqxdali centuries later complained: "Neither said they. . . The sun is veiled and shines not in the sight of men. etc. 44:19. through a land of deserts and of pits. of death/' "None knoweth shadow is not discerned. and of the shadow of death . tion. . happened that which . . Obviously this indicates only a preference for the literary form of foretelling. Jeremiah 13:16. Perished is this land..46 in a different AGES IN CHAOS way. . that midday None is there is is who weepeth because there. when the Asiatics [Amu] approach in their might and their hearts rage. 51:16. . pain. .) In numerous other passages in the Scriptures is this "shadow of death" mentioned: during the years of wandering in the desert 14. A sage by the name like he would Neferrohu asks his royal listener whether to hear about things past or things future. Amos 5:8. not as events in the past or present. For foes are in the East [side of sunrising] and Asiatics shall descend into Egypt. Not [sun's] when he is beheld. his dazzled the sight . . . 107:10." "The beasts of the desert shall This land shall be in perturbadrink from the rivers of Egypt. . .

and for all life processes reason the gloom was called "shadow 5* of death. clouds hung over the desert. pp. H. . 1930). the seer Neferrohu lision.** This prophecy translation of to preserved in a papyrus written in Greek. the Hyksos (Amu) period followed the end of the Middle Kingdom. is For in the Typhon time the sun 5 is veiled. He is usually pictured as black. prophesied the liberation by a king who would be born of a Nubian. After giving this picture of natural disaster combined with the political subjugation of Egypt by the Amu. the "shadow of death" was a lasting remainder. Aegypti . II (1934)." is It questionable whether Ameny a historical personality. being a text. 4 However. refers to the same Ameny or Amenhotep *A thick veil of clouds over the desert tures and in the Talmud and Midrashim. A literary remnant that is closely resembles the Ermitage papyrus a prophecy of a potter under King Amenophis [Amen"The waterless Nile will be filled. come in its own season. the papyrus was supposed to have been written during the Old Kingdom or shortly after its end.4 which would also conform with the words **born of a Nubian woman. 1909). in it is also apparent that this text has much in common with the text of the Egypt it papyrus in Leiden. Altorientalische Texte (Tubingen. 8 this which investigates the physical side of the catastrophe. mentioned repeatedly in the Scriprefer to his being may worshiped as a on this prophecy is found in G. 119-27. woman and the called Ameny "the Amu shall fall by his sword/* There- after "there shall be built the Wall of the Prince* so as not to allow Amu is to go down into Egypt. Melanges Maspero. of which.LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND ISRAELITE HISTORIES the sky 47 were impaired. at the time of liberation he was a prince. an older Egyptian The pharaoh's name 6 one of the Amenhoteps of the New Kingdom I. ." He was highly revered in later times. is dealt with in Worlds in Col- was veiled. his being pictured as black deceased saint. the displaced winter will hotep]. De opusculis graeds (Warsaw. 207-8: "Der Name Amenophis weist jedenfalls auf einen der Amenhotep der XVlll Dynastie" "Literature . one of the first kings of Egypt was freed from the Hyksos. Manteuffel. I maintain. However. The plague of darkness. The name Ameny may after refer to Amenhotep I. Be- cause of some surmise as to his identity. I assume. is points and. The sun will resume its course and the 1116b recto winds will be restrained. Ranke in Gressmann.

but also of many other fields. or this series of catastrophes. When did the text originate? grows in importance in view of the parallels with the Book of Exodus presented here. we turn to the other question: When did the upheaval occur? In Jewish history the answer is at hand: in the days of the Exodus. on the whole. Ibid. p. if this term be interpreted in centuries older." 8 "The text tells both of war and of an Asiatic occupation of the Delta/* "There are two periods which might possibly answer the requirement of the case: civil the dark age that separates the sixth from the eleventh dynasty [or the Old Kingdom from the Middle Kingdom]. very similar scriptural and Egyptian testimony? In the next chapter we shall also have the corroborating autochthonous tradition of the Arabian peninsula." 1 liberal 2 a very way. 17. A reply to this ahout which we have now question involves a study. Scholars who have studied this papyrus agree that the document is a copy of a still older papyrus: "The scribe used a manuscript a few The copy was made sometime during the Nineteenth Dynasty.. . the other the one is 'Gardiner. The first is: What were the nature and dimensions of trophe.48 AGES IN CHAOS Two Questions There are two questions that demand an answer. accompanied this catas- by plagues. that of a literary text of the Middle Kingdom. The It was understood that the question of the age of the text "is inextricably bound up with the problem as to the historical situation that the author [Ipuwer] had in his mind. "Ibid. As for Egyptian history. 2. Admonitions. 3. p. not only of history. Leaving aside here the problem of the extent and character of the catastrophe." question. A work comprising an investigation into the nature of great catastrophes of the past preceded this volume. but 'The spelling is. p. we must first find out when the text of the Papyrus Ipuwer originated.

Philological considerations show that the text has all the signs of a literary product of the Middle *In this case "Amu" would designate not only the Hyksos people." The discussion of whether the text describes the period between Old and Middle Kingdoms. Gardiner admitted. This mention. points even more precisely to the time when the Middle it. 4 "There is no such difficulty in the view preferred by Sethe/' who maintained that the time described is vasion during the knowledge of any inperiod that between the that of the invasion of the Hyksos. Gardiner conceded and added: "The view that our Leiden papyrus contains allusion to the Hyksos has the better support from the historical standpoint" But a philological consideration "makes us wish to put back the date of the composition as far as possible. or between the Middle and New Kingdoms." We should remember that these Great Houses are described in the papyrus as fallen down and trodden upon by the throngs who dug in the ruins. on the basis of be interpreted as a document composed in pre-Hyksos times. . it seems to me." I take "It is doubtless wisest to leave the question open for the is up the question. Kingdom collapsed. The text also contains some references to the lete "in or establishment of "Great Houses'* (law courts).LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND ISRAELITE HISTORIES is 49 the Hyksos period [between the Middle and the New Kingdoms]. From the standpoint of style and language. but Asiatics generally. and the literary papyrus should not." The opinions of the papyrologists (Gardiner and Sethe) were divided on the question. such an invasion at that time must be first postulated with the help of the papyrus. "it is of course possible that our text may have been composed while the Hyksos were still in the land. The historical background that of the invasion of the Hyksos (Sethe). To which of these periods does the text of the papyrus relate? There Asiatics is no definite first (Amu) by Old Kingdom and the Middle Kingdomand to conform with the historical background of the papyrus." The language was found beyond doubt to be not of the New Kingdom but of an earlier time. was closed by the supporter of the first view with this the remark: present. which became obsosoon after the Middle Kingdom.

he is mistaken in assuming that the text describes events of the dark period between the Old and Middle Kingdoms. However. there can be no doubt that the earlier elate between the Old and Middle Kingdoms is out of the question. for it appears to be too indicate that early for the Exodus. because in the few are combined. Is there any physical evidence c known which would Both Selhe and Gardiner regarded the text as not contemporaneous with the events described. Gardiner thought the Kingdom. it is obvious that Ipuwer bewails the tragedy of his own time and not of a past age. and even the later one is embarrassing enough. In the centuries of domination by the Hyksos literary activity ceased in Egypt. On this basis. but in discussing the age of the text. In the dispute between Gardiner and Sethe. all months since the end of this great age no change in the language and form of poetic works could have occurred. Besides. and of course not as far back as between the Old and the Middle Kingdoms. Gardiner is right in his philological arguments that the latest period from which the text could have originated is the time of the Hyksos. so are the physical catastrophe and the plagues. On the other hand. Sethe is mistaken when he ascribes the composition of the text to the New Kingdom. of course. It was composed immediately after the fall of the Middle Kingdom. and these are analogous to those of the time of the Exodus. and Scthe is right argument that the events described are those of the invasion of the Hyksos after the fall of the Middle Kingdom. too. When the historical and philological proofs to the end of the Middle Kingdom and the point very beginning of the invasion of the Hyksos. The style would still be. at the very beginning of the Hyksos in the historical period. The historical arguments as well as the philological arguments are in harmony with this solution.50 AGES IN CHAOS 5 Kingdom (Gardiner). that of the Middle Kingdom. Scthe saw in it a descTiption of the events o the Hyksos period and considered the beginning of the Nc Kingdom as the time of the composition. Not only is the invasion of the Amu ( Hyksos ) the historical hackground of the Admonitions. Those who have tried to place the Exodus in the sequence of Egyptian history have not dared to set it as far back as between the Middle and New Kingdoms (time of the Hyksos). or perhaps the Hyksos period > was the time of the composition* k w .

" Arihang of the Abhandlungen der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. 14. III. 19-20: "Semneh. 101. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology.LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND ISRAELITE HISTORIES some major change occurred in the geologic structure of Egypt some point of time following the Middle Kingdom? 51 at Lepsius has observed the remarkable fact that the Nilometers at Semneh dating from the Middle Kingdom show an average rise in the waters of the Nile at that place. Evans. especially in the reigns of the Kings Amenemhet III and Sebekhotep I." Gardiner. Theoretically the dropping of the water level by twenty-two feet must be ascribed either to a change in the quantity of water in the Nile since the Middle Kingdom or to a change in the rock structure of Egypt. There exists Hatshepsut. twentytwo feet higher than it does at present. . to the scanty Nile and to a veiled or eclipsed sun" are "much of the characteristic stock-in-trade of the Egyptian prophet. 194-202. 1906. Clarke. . who came an important Egyptian inscription of the Queen to power two or three generations after ^the it is expulsion of the Hyksos. and by comparing them. 1923). in which written: The abode of the Mistress of Qes was fallen in ruin. p. 1-5. that about 4000 years ago the Nik used to rise at that point. and Siteungsberichte. 1934. . III (1916). ology. on an average. "Nilmesser und Nilstandsmarken. Altagyptische Festungen an der zweiten NiZschwelle (Leipzig. Journal of Egyptian Archae. twenty-two feet higher than the highest level of today. Borchardt. Apparently the Nilometers at Semneh indicate that some violent changes in the rock formation of Egypt larly took place at the end of the Middle Kingdom or later. where the river is channeled 6 in rock. which is the period of the Cretan coeval with the Middle Kingdom in Egypt. as "references to foreign invaders. many residences and temples would have been regucovered with water. also Borchardt. pp. The Nile was low at least temporarily after the catastrophe. the earth has swallowed her beautiful sanctuary and children played over her 'Lepsius. 1921-35)." But compare L. The Palace of Minos (London. also came to a II close in a terrible natural catastrophe. 169. as the excavations at Knossos reveal. pp. pp. 15. we obtained the remarkable result. The Nile is here compressed within a breadth of only about 1150 feet between high rocky shores. inscriptions from the Twelfth and Thirteenth Manethonic Dynasties. Many of them were intended to indicate the highest rising of the Nile during a series of years. 1 ( 1914). We found a considerable number of . Letters from Egypt. Ethiopia and the Peninsula of Sinai. 7 If the Nile had contained so much more water before the catastrophe. . 8 7 Sir Arthur J. . 8 Age. The Middle Minoan culture. and S.

Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. In general. and as the heavals and of the Amu are described as one following the natural catastrophe consisted of a series of updisturbances. by Gardiner. did not care to restore the ruins and even added to the destruction.. 1924). London. the natural catastrophe and the invasion other. W. 69. as he referred the Exodus to that time) may show whether or not this Midrash account is legendary. as Golenischeff does. A History of Egypt: During the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Dynasties (7th 19. the invasion of the people from Asia occurred before the elements calmed. II.. . A London. they reigned ignorant of the god Ra. M. and I completed that which was left unfinished. For there had been Amu in the midst of the Delta and in Hauar (Auaris). The majority of scholars. and the foreign hordes of their number had destroyed the ancient works. think that the sojourn of the Israelites took place in a still later ^Inscription at Speos Artemidos. XXXII (1946). "The Life and Monuments of Hatshopsitu" in The Tomb of Hatshop&tu by Theodore u< M. in the The Hyksos 11 ground.. ^Old Midrash sources narrate that the walls of Pithom and Ramses fell and were partly swallowed by the earth. excavation into deeper strata (Naville explored the level of the Nineteenth Dynasty. . however. the swallowing up of cities and villages in earthquakes is authen* lished ticateci "It is not easy to understand what the queen means. Records. If the place Edouard Naville identified as Pithom ( TJie Store-City of Pithom end the Route of the Exodus [2nd ed. * . . who took possession of the country. 'the land which had swallowed up the sanctuary/ Docs this mean that the temple disappeared in an earthquake?'* Edouard Naville. Davis (London. I translate. I cleared and rebuilt it anew. AGES IN CHAOS . since the days of antiquity several authors have identified the Israelites with the Hyksos (Amu). the writings on the shrine of el-Arish. p. Breasted. Flinders Petrie.. but they did not bury buildings mean that the temple disappeared in an earthquake?" In all three Egyptian documents quoted the papyrus of Leiden. 1906). other authors have At various times placed the arrival of the in Israelites in the period of Egypt and the Exodus of the Israelites in the reign of the Hyksos rule one of the Icings of the Eighteenth Dynasty. II. new traaslation was pubed. 300ff..52 temple. differs in translation.. 46f.. 'Does this destroyed. 1885] ) is the site mentioned in the Book of Exodus. These lines contain an inference that temples were swallowed in the ground 10 and that the Hyksos (Amu). and that many Israelites perished on that occasion. I restored that which was in ruins. and the papyrus of Ermitage and also in the inscription of Hatshepsut.

upon which they came to prey. earth. I have arrived at a very different result. "The dwellers of the marshes" or "the poor men' left the country under these very circumstances. who invaded Egypt and became the masters of the land immediately afterward. 12 The Amu-Hyksos reached the land of Egypt. were obviously not the Israelites. The Amu.LINK BETWEEN EGYPTIAN AND ISRAELITE HISTORIES period. they must have been the Israelites and the multitude of the Egyptians who accompanied them in the Exodus. sky. 53 They relate the coming of the Israelites to some point of time during the Eighteenth Dynasty. The Israelites left Egypt amid the outbreak of a great natural catastrophe. then: the Exodus of the Israelites preceded by a few days or weeks the invasion of the Hyksos. 12:38. and place the period of oppression in the days of Ramses II of the Nineteenth Dynasty and the Exodus in the days of his successor Merneptah. If the above parallels and these conclusions are correct. a short time after the catastrophe. The tradition of the from Egypt with the and sea excelled in wrath and destruction. 7 . days but knows nothing of their arrival in Egypt in the days of a cataIsraelites definitely connects their departure when clysm.

.

Here is the first passage: I will quote his [Manetho's] own words. whose coming was unforeseen. *A hypothesis put forward by I. which they mastered by main force without difficulty or even a battle. Resell ini. is our main source of information on the invasion of the Hyksos. Pt. 176." 2 From where did the Hyksos come? The theories of the scholars differ. VoL H. Egyptian historian Manetho. Euseand Sextus Julius Africanus. . I know not why. in his pamphlet. "A people of ignoble origin from the east. And. 1832). even the very fact of was disputed by a scholar who expended more effort than Hyksos 3 others. Thackeray). 1 Josephus. I Monumenti Storid (Pisa. His history of Egypt is not extant.Chapter II . for two millenhave supposed that they were the Israelites. p. whose sojourn in Egypt is preserved in quite a different version in the Bible. In his reign. 'Meyer. THE HYKSOS the Hyksos? Who Were THE bius. of the Aryan race. that they were 4 Scythians. the invasion of Egypt by a tribe called finally. but some passages dealing with that invasion are preserved by Josephus Flavius. Ge$chichte des Altertums. Still others.)> p. St. ^Manetho (trans. Against Apion (trans. who lived in the Ptolemaic age. I. Against Apion. 74-75. preserved more of the second book of Manetho's history of Egypt than Eusebius and Africanus did. 'Josephus. Waddell). 1 (2nd ed. Some thought that the Hyksos were Mitanm'ans. 42. just as if I had produced the man himself in the witness box: "Tutimaeus. had the audacity to invade the country. a blast of God's dis- pleasure broke upon us. nia.

explained their being named Hyksos: Their race bore the generic name of Hycsos [Hyksos]. 34-43. 7 Ibid." For Hyc in the sacred language denotes "long. 8 The Egypt Scriptures furnish no information about what happened left." Chronique tfEgypte. Weill. CCXXXIV (1943-45)." Journal asiatique. 1918). and his La Fin du Moyen Empire 6gyptien (Paris. but this he did know: "Some say that they were Arabians. and "Le Synchronisme egypto-bahylonien. he desecrated its sacred R. no literary works survived their dominion in Egypt. The memory of the wickedness of these nomads is preserved by Manetho-Josephus. the combined words form "Hycsos. 82." As already noted on a previous page. The same author more recently published on this theme: "Remise en position chronologique et conditions historiques de la XII* Dynastic/' Journal asiatique. 131-49. I. I. 1-262. 'Josephus." The Hyksos were a people imbued to the core with a spirit of destruction. However. The tenth plague was not the last. Already in the days of Manetho the land of their origin was not known with certainty. 76. who wrote in Greek. in after the Israelites departed. "Les Hyksos et la Restauration nationale. XXI (1946). yet one more was to follow.. he found no followers. In the midst of a natural upof invaders heaval and a holocaust they The papyrus of Ipuwer completes the records: it tells that vexed and tormented the land of Egypt. pp." 6 Manetho. now overthrown and prostrate. At present the preferred etymology sees in the tian equivalent for "the rulers of foreign countries/* * B name Hyk-sos the Egyp- Against Apion. Against Apion." and $os in the common dialect means "shepherd" or "shep7 herds". A cruel conqueror invaded the once mighty realm. no monuments of any historical or artistic value were erected under their rule. with the exception of lamentations. he subjugated it without meeting resistance.56 AGES IN CHAOS others in the investigation of the remnants of the so-called Hyksos 5 dynasties in Egypt. literature the in the remnants of Egyptian Hyksos are called "Amu. . such as those contained in the Ipuwer papyrus. 1910-13. which means "king-shepherds. As far as is known.

Asia and Africa. but EXODUS 17:13-16 Joshua discomfited Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword. . triangular piece of land.THE HYKSOS places. We read the By comparing the evidence of the it Book of Exodus and that of the Ipuwer papyrus plague followed the preceding ones when the Israelites were already out of the country. and fought with Israel in Rephidim" (Exodus 17:8). the sepulchres of the dead. becomes clear that this eleventh The upheaval was not yet over. 57 he raped its surviving women. would meet the Amu invaders moving toward the Egyptian Did they meet each other? frontier. was still in progress. and mutilated the victims who alive. if any remained erect. Another people called Amu by the Egyptiansoverran the country and turned its exhaustion to their advantage. Aaron. At some stages of the battle Amalek had the upper hand. "came Amalek. are connected by a small. . There was a good chance that the Israelites. but only a very short time after their departure. They really met. this is stated in the Ipuwer papyrus. At Meriba. The Israelites went in the direction of Asia. The Israelites left the land that lay devastated under the blows from heaven. when Egypt was invaded by the Amu. Moses. complaint of one of those who escaped alive the fury of the trembling earth and who witnessed the misery inflicted by a fierce foe. and Hur went up to tie top of the hill and prayed there when Joshua fought with Amalek. lation. which is where the people thirsted for water. And the Lord said unto Moses. The invaders came from Asia. Write this for a memorial in a book . moving toward Asia. The two continents. in the bed of a stony valley at the foot of Horeb. enslaved the decimated popu- He robbed remained utterly destroyed the temples. The Even before Israelites Meet the Hyksos the Israelites reached Mount Sinai they met the multitudes of Amalek.

" says the Midrash.* The people to whom this message was brought by the twelve men "wept that night" (Numbers 14:1): "Would God that we had died in the land of Egypt! or would God we had died in this wildertheir been 7 home.. for although southern Palestine had not originally they had recently settled there. had created alarm among the heathen. "To intensify to the utmost. continually involved the wanderers in raids. "The Amalekites dwell in the land of the south*' (Numbers 13:29). and irregular engagements. despoilers.. 62. 'Ibid. says the Haggada. Legends* VI. 27. night from lack of water Israelites were plagued by the merciless and plundered like pirates. and none would oppose the Israelites. 1886). 2 The southern approach to Canaan was closed to the Israelites. the minor skirmishes. 1 The defeat. Soon the Israelites. . came upon them in every direction chose to go. 272. the scouts said: The Amalekites dwell in the land of the south/ The statement concerning Amalek was founded on fact. The rabbinic tradition says that in this encounter Joshua faced four hundred thousand Amalekite warriors. 'Ibid. Because the Lord hath sworn that the Lord will have war with Amalek from generation to generation.) 'Midrash Aba Gorton. who pillaged The upheaval at the sea. And Moses built an altar. still ness!" (14:2. 23. .58 . The people in the wilderness heard this message from the twelve men when they returned from their mission to investigate Canaan. But this fear vanished when the Amalekites attacked them. and called the name of it Jehovah-nissi: For he said. Suffering in a desert covered with dust and ashes. The tribes of the desert. III (Vilna. escaping from Egypt. III. AGES IN CHAOS for I will utterly put out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven. See Ginzberg. 3 "their fear of the inhabitants of Palestine. . migrating in large bands they toward Syria and Egypt. victory at prevailed only after Rephidim was costly: in that battle the Israelites they had been hard pressed and were close to This was but one of the battles with the Amalekites.

and smote them. even unto Hormah. cleavage the Israelites. And now Moses said: NUMBERS 14:42-45 Go not ." and they were doomed to wander forty years in the wilderness. shall fall by the sword. . rified them. and the locusts that were flung by the lair of the the wind into the Red Sea. and in desperation they decided to battle their way through. up. The human abode and wild beast and the nest of the fowl became unsafe. The Israelites their ancestral home. . It was the second battle between the Israelites and the Ama- lekites. A life as wanderers in that desolate region ter- wandered toward Canaan. For the Amalekites and the Canaanites are there before you. and were disheartened when faced with the choice of battling the Amalekites or going into the wilderness. . disappearance of springs terrified killed thousands. and the Canaanites which dwelt in that hill [-country]. . . Then came the condemnation: "Surely they shall not see the land which I sware unto their fathers. And it was said to them: NUMBERS 14:25 Now the Amaleldtes and the Canaanites dwelt in the valley. their teeth. but they were afraid and threatened to stone their leader. and get you into the wilderness by the way of the Red Sea. that fled to the domicile of man. Then the Amaleldtes came down. the Amaleldtes from Arabia.THE HYKSOS To inspire this boundless fear. the Amaleldtes 59 must have been not mere bands of Bedouin robbers but a force superior to other peoples in the area. outbursts of flame. . the flesh of wild fowl in plague A put to flight like the Israelites who from Egypt. and a mighty roving instinct awoke simultaneously in all of them. The desert with its dreadful experiences earthquakes. . Tomorrow turn you. and discomfited them. At first Moses charged the Israelites to try to break through into Canaan across its southern border. for the Lord is not among you. . and ye But they presumed to go up. and the wild beasts These were quail. fled of the earth. The above remark in the Midrash that southern Palestine was not .

might not some evi- dence of this fact be found in Arabian sources also? The old Arabian writings. In the Book of Genesis. Fleischer (Leipzig. The Amalekites who participated in these battles in the days of lek. O. The Amalekites were thus of an older clan and no kinsmen of the Twelve Tribes. among them 8 Laud. and the Arabian. son of sources: the Egyptian. 1831)." thus ascribing to these tribes a primeval existence. Tasm. p. If before introducing the entire body of evidence from sources to establish the cardinal point of the identity of the Hyksos and the Amalekites. a mighty coalition. wrote: 'Genesis 36:12. Isaac's son. an Arab scholar of the thirteenth cen- "Shem [son of Noah] had several sons. The Book of Genesis also has another record: as early as before the destruction of Sodom the Amalekites were at war with the kings of the Two-Stream Land. when investigated. Abulfeda. from ancient days. ed. to whom were born Pharis. The Amalekites dently had conquered the south from before. himself a descendant of Abraham. Abraham could not have been descendants of Amadescendant of Esau. 17. 'Abulfeda. I shall ask a questhe Hyksos really came from Arabia. But obviously this statement does not refer to the Amalek who was father of the tribe. and Amalek. But there are tury.60 originally the AGES IN CHAOS home of the Amalekites and that they had only reevi- cently occupied that area draws our attention. At this point. In the course of their migration the Amalekites apparently divided and turned simultaneously toward Egypt and toward the south of Palestine* Because of the Amalekites the Israelites were compelled the desert for a whole generation. I shall therefore proceed to compare the three Hebrew. dominated Arabia. because the arrivals of Palestine only a short time Egypt were not aware of their presence in that region. in a genealogical table. Uistoria anteislamica. the 4 Esau. Amalek is said to have been an offspring of Eliphaz. H. Djordjan. . provided the desired evidence. to roam Hebrew and Egyptian tion. The of the Islamic historians consider Amalek as one of the most ancient Arab tribes. The Amalekites were an old Arabian tribe who.

And then came the upheaval. and all the thousand miles of the Tehama (d. Masudi8 trophe and rage. HI.. Journal asiatique. The Upheaval There was a flood. 3 Saba ( their native land. but were not able to reach them. signifie auasi la pluie et le nuage qui Tapporte" *Trans. People were swept away by a blast. The Lord led them to them "toufan" a deluge. *In the Arab text the word used is ghayth. All the tribes on the peninsula suffered similar horrifying experiences. . this catas- tells and other when many perished in Mecca. and give its ancestral line correspondingly. coast were shattered. 'Magoudi (Masudi). They inarched without rest toward those clouds which they saw near them. All parts of Arabia Felix. The earth quaked violently." by M. Seligsohn in The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden and London. Afterwards the Lord sent drought and famine and showed them the clouded 1 sky at the horizon.THE HYKSOS other of 61 Moslem historians who declare this Arabian tribe to have been Hamite stock. but writes: "Le mot ghayth. Arabia Petraea. 207. The tradition is thus handed down by Abul Faradj (c. Mecca. they were pursued by the drought which was always at their heels. 1908-38. A signs of the Lord's turbulent torrent over- 8 See article. where He sent against Sheba) in the south of Arabia. 3rd Series. Fresnel. 1861-77). 6 The Amalekites ruled in Mecca and from their central position on the great peninsula dominated other Arabian tribes. Les Prairies d'or (Paris. VoL VI (1838). XXXIX. Fresnel translates it as pdturage. F. and Arabia Deserta alike were within reach of their bows.897-967) in Kitab-Alaghaniy (Book of Songs): The tradition reports that the Amalekites violated the privileges of the sacred territory and that the Almighty God sent against them ants of the smallest variety which forced them to desert Mecca. Chap. The catastrophe was pre- ceded by plagues. in Arabia an immense wave." about 956) also relates the tradition of of "swift clouds. ants. que fai rendu par celui de pdturage. "Ajnalik.

"The scene of this catastrophe is known by the name of 'Idam' 94 (Fury).. They also witnessed the destructive flood at the Sea of Passage. at Pi-ha-Khiroth. no voice of pleasant talk. The Israelites met the Amalekites for the first time a few days after occurred at the time of the Israelites' they had crossed the sea. earthquake in the night. settled in MASUDI: From el-Hadjoun up to Safa all became desert. Meanwhile Mecca was destroyed in a single night filled with a terrible din. fleeing the ominous signs and plagues and driving their herds of animals infuriated by earthquakes and evil portents. a tidal flood carrying away entire in tribes these disturbances alike. an ancient poet. 101. 5 In tumult and disorder. Told. p. In these lines Masudi quotes cl-Harit. I intend to bring together more Arabian recollections of the tidal flood in an essay on the Desert of Wandering.* "Omeyah son of Abu-Salt of the tribe of Takif alluded to this event in a verse worded thus: In days of yore. Other tribes. and in their escape they followed swift clouds." clouds Plagues of insects. also visited by plagues.62 AGES IN CHAOS the land of Djohainah. . and a violent flood carried all of them away/ The Amalekites were put to flight by plagues that fell upon them in Arabia. too many Amalekites perished at Djorhomites and Katan (Yaktan) were swept away by the flood and perished in great numbers. terrible devastation. "the most sweeping the ground. p. The land became a desert.. and the whole population drowned whelmed in a single night. shortly before they met the Amalekites. Not only the Egyptians but also the sea. in Mecca the nights are silent. and upheavals were experienced Arabia and Egypt This succession of phenomena helps us to recognize that they escape from Egypt. We dwelt there. the fugitive bands of Amalekites reached the shores of the Red Sea. 101-2. The thick clouds covering the desert are repeatedly mentioned in the Scrip4 Ibid. drought. the Djorhomites " Tehama. but in a most tumultuous night in the most terrible of devastations we were destroyed.

a 1 Syrian. or an Amalekite. drought and famine. XXXI. We shall disregard these attempts of some Arabian authors to insert stories culled from the biblical narrative into stories indigenous to the Arabian peninsula. but not to the correct ones. . The Arab story of the flood at were not conscious of any link between their the shores of the Red Sea and the events of the Exodus. An important historirevealed in the sequence: a natural catastrophe composed of many significant phenomena was the causfc of a hurried migration of Amalekites toward Syria and Egypt. cal is moment The Arabian Les traditions that Prairies $or. The Midrashim encountered the Amalekites in a thick historians veil of clouds. but they report. and did not connect them. In several instances they are spoiled by the clumsy attempts of these authors to adapt their Arab traditions to the traditions of the Hebrews. So it happens that Joseph was sold into Egypt when an Amalekite was the pharaoh. or that Moses left Egypt when an Amalekite was the pharaoh. There is a great deal of fancy in some of these stories. an earthquake. if they had. who escaped from Arabia when it was visited by plagues of insects. were unaware of the significance of their The Arabian Many Traditions about the Amalekite Pharaohs ancient Arab writers recorded the invasion of Egypt by the Amalekites. and we shall devote our attention only to the narratives which did not have their source in the Bible or the Haggada.THE HYKSOS tares ites 63 narrate that the Israel- and in the Midrashim. and a flood at Saf a and Tehama. whether he was a Copt. II. They must have been autochthonous and transmitted from generation to generation on the Arabian peninsula. they would have been suspected of having handed down a passage of the Bible in arbitrary form. have survived to our time were writ- Chap. There it was told that Syria and Egypt came simultaneously under the domination of the Amalekites. An Arab author as to the race of the phar- admitted that there was BO concurrence aoh who reigned at the time of Moses.

quoted by al-Samhudi. with a fold in about Egypt. son of Douma. Paris. conquered it. and the flight of the Amalekites from Mecca. which they mastered by main force without difficulty or even a battle. WiistenAbhandlungen der Gesellschaft der 'Wi$$en$chaften %u Gottingen. recounted also the conquest of Egypt by the Amalekites. arrived from Syria. sometimes naming them. from the to had the audacity Manetho previously quoted: east. son of Douma. Al-Samhudi (844-911) wrote: The Amalekites reached Syria and Egypt and took possession of these lands. p. p.342. 62. Chap. whose coming was uninvade the country. invaded Egypt. An Arnalekite king. II. 3 Masudij who wrote about the plagues that befell Arabia. he heard rumors He sent there one of his servants named Ouna. seized the throne and occupied it without opposition. his life long. IX (I860). and the tyrants of Syria and the Pharaohs of Egypt were of their origin. e& F. El-Welid.. with the intention to overrun diverse countries and to over- throw their sovereigns. III. VoL "Masoudi. advanced at the head of a numerous army. 28.64 ten AGES IN CHAOS down by refer to these ancient traditions authors of the ninth to the fourteenth centuries." In another work of his Masudi 4 gives a more detailed account of the conquest of el-Welid. el-Welid. The end of this passage recalls the sentence in the Haggada: "Amalek . Legends. and the flood. . 1861. in his wantonness undertook to destroy the whole world/' 5 Masudi continues: When this conqueror came to Syria. 1898). 8 We are reminded of the words of of ignoble origin *A people foreseen. Les Prairies tfor.. great host of Taqut. After the Amalekites invaded Syria and Egypt they established a dynasty of their pharaohs. *Ginzberg. His- torisch-philologische Klasse. *L'Abr6g6 des meroeilles (French translation by Carra de Vaux. XXXI. they and also to older authors. Geschichte der Stadt Medina.

son of Amalek. Tatari. son of Salwas. 361. son of Mosab.76. . they reigned ignorant of the god Ra. and treated the whole native population with the utmost cruelty. Paris. son of Amrou. 17. tt. p. pp. seized their possessions and drew forth all the treasures he could find. a second among the Amalekites and of the invasion wave of this people led by Alkan. . In this inscription.. ^Historic. in his history of pre-Islamic Arabia. the frontier of objects of art. referred to on a previous page. There were Egyptian Pharaohs 1. ed. The following sentence is characteristic: Then the king of Egypt died and another long. .. He was also of Amalekite race and was named Kabous. ascended the throne. . I. Masudi of tells of strife Egypt by Abou-Kabous. 7 tion of The words of Masudi accord with the mention of the destrucmonuments in the inscription of Queen Hatshepsut. razed the temples of the gods to the ground. 179. said: There had been Amu in the midst of the Delta and in Hauar [Auaris]. artfelslarnica. 1836). 9 Abulfeda wrote: (1273-1331). to ruin the monuments. 8 Tabari (838-923) related stories and legends of Amalekite pharaohs and gave their genealogies. L*Abr&g6 des merveittes. 8 These words recall those of Manetho Against Apion and quoted above: as cited by Josephus in [The Hyksos] savagely burned the cities. destroyed many monuments and The Amalekites invaded Egypt. Chronique (French trans. 19. El-Welid oppressed the inhabitants.THE HYKSOS 65 warriors. Dubeirx. 261. son of Maouya. of Amalekite descent. 'FeMe. 10 *Mapoudi. and the foreign hordes of their number had destroyed the ancient works. son of Nemir. a ruler it is of the Eighteenth Dynasty. and started to ravage the country . surnamed The Amalekites entered Egypt. his relative. which they had already crossed. L. to smash the objects of art. Fleischer. History of Egypt.

Only that is true which was appropriated by the Arab writers from the Old Testament. 46. Gardiner.AGES IN CHAOS He also mentioned a most violent tempest that had swept Egypt in remote days. 101 (ventus vehementtesimus) . 56. The Hyksos u "T. H. 1B H. the Hyksos were supposed to be of native rulers. . Therefore the historical existence of the one or the other was sometimes doubted. "The Expulsion of the Hyksos. Geschichte Israels 212. B. The elapsed lbid. Noeldeke. p. 1895). 179. The historical background of their stories about Amalekite pharaohs in Egypt was regarded with distrust. V ( 1918). 13 cited by Yaqut (1179-1229). Gunn and A. not people. Ibn Abd-Alhakam. of of .. Amalek probably rests on a mythological idea. note 1: "R. presumably. 14 There were scholars who took an even more radical viewpoint and asserted that the Amalekites had never existed. Ueber die Amalekiter (Gb'ttingen. and other names could be added to the authors quoted here. . I. Winckler. als wer $ie fur Romer odcr Terser hielte" His argument was: The Arab reports are of no value. p. "The nation (Leipzig.. der ware nicht viel krittecher. Weill holds the entire story the Hyksos to be a legendary construction. 15 They based their conclusion on the assumption that the name of the Amalek tribe was never mentioned in Egyptian inscriptions. Hyksos in Egypt rule in Egypt endured through all the time that between the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom. 36. "Commentary to Sura II. The Hyksos (Amu) were equally known unknown to the Egyptian to other peoples." See p. an equally extreme viewpoint doubted the very fact of the invasion of Egypt by the Hyksos and interpreted it as a story of legendary origin. 16 just another dynasty The Amalekites were. "Ibid. but those given suffice to demonstrate that the tradition of Amalekite dynasties of pharaohs was spread among the Arabian scholars. On the other hand. note 5. 11 He gave the names of a succession of Amalekite 12 pharaohs and told of the domination of Syria by the Amalekites. ." Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 1864): "Wer nun etwas auf das Amalekitertum der Pharaonen geben wollte.

their first rulers. "Ibid. a strategic point from which to control both Egypt and Syria. .flank'* to protect the realm from the north. This place he used to visit every summer. 81. He rebuilt and strongly fortified it with walls. Against Apion. in order to intimidate foreigners. 77. in Josephus. The expulsion of the Hyksos and the period immediately preceding it are also described in some contemporaneous documents.. He provides the information that after the Hyksos invaded the country. partly to serve out rations and pay to his troops. Manetho is a late source on the dominance and expulsion of the Hyksos. as their power increased in the future. and established a garrison there numbering as many as two hundred and forty thousand armed men to protect his frontier. and left garrisons in the places most suited for defence. The first first six king-shepherds are con- Hyksos Dynasty of pharaohs. On the confusion of Assyrians with Syrians (Palestinians) by writers in Greek. VII. 63. D. see Herodotus (trans. they established a dynasty of Hyksos pharaohs. 3 Josephus. about one thousand years separated the historian from his subject. as Tie foresaw that the Assyrians. raping. resided in Memphis and "exacted tribute from Upper and Lower Egypt. In Manetho-Josephus said of them: The was continually growing ambition of these to extirpate the Egyptian people. that the first of these kings. would covet and attack his realm. to the east of the Delta. I. and ravaging. But the period between the invasion and the expulsion is very poor in records. Against Apion. In particular he secured his eastern. destroying. I. partly to give them a careful training in manoeuvres. *Manetho. and he is said to have ruled for sixty-one years.THE HYKSOS text of the 67 Papyrus Ipuwer was composed at the time of the invasion Hyksos and it refers to this invasion. it is a dark age of the in two senses. named Salitis or Salatis. Godley. 1921-24)." 1 There. 3 six. burning. 2 The fourth king sidered the it is is called Apophis by Manetho. I9 78-79. King Salitis discovered a favorably situated place called Auaris. A.

" In Auaris was the sacrarium of Seth. but among them I found a piece of human jaw and patella." 4 In another grave he found an "apparently separated arm. superfluous loose hand. that at least the area of political influence of the Amu-IIyksos and was very extensive." When we remember what Manetho cruelty of the invaders. The finding in distant countries of objects bearing the seems torians if to prove that Apop's names of Apop and Khian words were no vain boast. have found themselves compelled only for a transient period. 39. whom the Hyksos worshiped. the Seventeenth Egyptian Dynasty. pp.68 AGES IN CHAOS rule of the The stantiation of this Hyksos was cruel. *Gunn and Gardiner. with the names of King Apop and King Khian. The excavator of one of the smaller garrison-fortresses of the Hyksos thus described the contents of a grave: "A heap of bones stacked closely together. or of the Amu-Hyksos was not confined Egypt. M. Flinders Petric. set all foreign countries under his feet. have been found in various countries. Hyk$o$ and Israelite Cities (London. lord of Auaris. was a dynasty of "shepherds and Theban kings. the finding of an odd hand or jaw does not seem an accidental occurrence. Manetho. They knew no mercy. at Knossos in Crete. 12f\ "Cutting off the hands of the fallen or captured enemy soldiers became a practice in a later period of Egyptian history and Assyrian as well This practice probably goes back to the time of the Hyksos. An had inscription of Apop says that "his father Seth. until the time of the Ramessides. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. Hyksos Dynasty. V . Submay be found even in graves. and who. 1906). ture. most of them were of animals." meaning that in Thebes there were princes of Egyptian last The according to *W. commanded a very great empire. was regarded by the Egyptians as the personification of the dark power (the con tester of Isis and Horus> or equivalent of the Greek Typhon). The name of Khian is engraved on a sphinx discovered in Baghdad and on a jar lid found official seals. Some histo believe that the Hyksos. said about the extreme and compare it with the Hebrew narratives about Amalekites mutilating their prisoners by cutting off members 5 of the body. ( 1918). The garrison-fortresses were places of to tor- The dominion Scarabs.

and indignation. evil angels" is "Sending of roim. The only first difference in spelling is one silent letter. and trouble. during the whole time of the Judges. evil or What may known as the bad angels? There is is no plague no expression like "evil to be found elsewhere in the Scriptures. that mean. too. wrath. in the case. aleph. first The reading is not only unusual Hebrew. or perhaps only days. they could not avoid meeting these Hyksos coming from Asia. must Israelites." It would appear that the "visit of evil angels." There text is corrupted. Is there any reference preserved in the old Jewish sources that would hint at the Hyksos invasion of Egypt immediately after the departure of the Israelites? It is said in the enumeration of the plagues in Egypt: PSALMS 78:49 angels He [the Lord] cast [sent forth] upon them fierceness of his anger. was afflicted with the same plague and to an even greater degree. before the invasion of the Hyksos. The prominent king. also a Malakhei-Roim King-Shepherds The Israelites left Egypt a few weeks. It would thus seem that the second reading is the original. and actually did meet them before they reached Mount Sinai. but it is also con- . Did the Israelites know that Egypt had undergone an "eleventh" and very severe plague one which endured for centuries the inin the whirling vasion of the king-shepherds? When they sighted the Amalekites and trembling desert they might have been unaware that these despoilers would bring to Egypt. by sending evil among them. of the new ordeal But while have known that Egypt. (presumably) mishlakhat malakheiis "Invasion of king-shepherds'* mishlakhat malkhei-roim.THE HYKSOS nationality subordinate to the Hyksos pharaohs. the who suffered from the onslaughts of the Amalekites. last of these Hyksos pharaohs was Apop II. in Canaan. There is an "angel angels" of death" or "Satan." but no "evil angels.

This legend implies knowledge on the part of the Israelites of the fact that the Amalekites came to Egypt and became the rulers of the land." sufficient he changed the words to "evil angels" without grammatical change. In what other way could they have come lists into possession of the census in the Egyptian archives? it is In Papyrus Ipuwer said: PAPYBUS 6:7 Forsooth. But if roim were a noun. the preceding word could not take a shortened form." plural) were used as an adjective here. Verse 49 of Psalm 78 must therefore be read: He anger. the correct plural of "evil" is not roim but raoth. [the Lord] cast [sent forth] wrath. and trouble." When the editor or copyist of the sentence could not find sense in long-shepherds. . angels" in correct Hebrew would be mcdakhim roim. III. upon them the fierceness and indignation. Serfs offices are opened and the census-lists become lords of serfs [?]. . "invasion of king-shepherds. Amalek appeared before the Jewish [Israelite] camp. he invited them to leave the camp and come out to him.70 AGES IN CHAOS trary to the grammatical structure of the language. 56. in their wars with the Israelites in succeeding centuries they might have argued that the Israelites had deserted their bondage in Egypt 3 Ginsberg. "Evil finally. If roim ("evil. roim must therefore be a noun. they may have looked on themselves as the legatees of the former Egyptian Empire with its colonies. . "angels of and evils" malakhei raoth. it would be in the singular and not in the plural. and calling the people 1 by name. invasion of of his king- shepherds. Not only the sense but the grammatical form as well speaks for the reading. Legends. When the Amalekites vanquished Egypt. public are taken away. An old Hebrew legend throws a side light on the same problem: Amalek fetched from Egypt [Israelites] . these lists lay in the the table of descent of the Jews Egyptian archives.

Esther . the vowels in the Massorcte Bible.THE HYKSOS 71 Palestine at the Time of the Hyksos Domination The problem of why. and I Samuel 15.. He set his face toward the wilderness. and his kingdom shall be exalted. he took up his and said. 3. was called upon to curse the Israelites approaching Moab on their way from the desert. The Amalekites were at that time the first among the nations. Balaam turned another direction: NUMBERS 4:20 And when he looked on Amalek. Palestine was dominated by Egypt. there is no mention of Egyptian domination over Canaan or any allusion to military expeditions headed by pharaohs has remained unsolved. the sorcerer. In harmony with this revised scheme the Amalekites must have been regarded at that time as the mightiest among the nations. and his king shall be higher than Agag. in the Books of Joshua and Judges. 1 Agag [Agog] was the name of the Amalekite king. The highest degree of power a was expressed by comparison with the Numbers 24:7. his seed shall be in many waters. and of Judges in the period of the Hyksos-Amaleldte rule over Egypt. he blessed these words: Israel with NTTMBERS 24:7 . why were they called "the first among the nations" and what could the blessing "higher than Agag" mean? No satisfactory explanation was presented. but instead of cursing. and Cf. period of time. The revision presented here places the time of wandering. but parable. The Amalekites are supposed to have been an unimportant band of robbers. of Joshua. Amalek [is] the first of [among] the nations. his latter end shall be that he perish for ever.. according to the conventional chronology. his face in Standing on the edge of the mountain. These verses did not seem clear. Balaam. . which cover more than four hundred years. Yet during this long .

One of the first and most prominent of tut? Hyksos rulers was Apop. The name of the king Agog is the only Amalekite name that the 2 Scriptures have preserved. a *I *Cf. Apop was the fourth king of the Hyksos Dynasty and ruled for sixty-one years. Worlds in Collision. . in submission from their fortress border of the country. In Palestine there was likewise a fort which the Amalekites built built near the which they Numbers 24:7. The name of the Hyksos king. according to Manetho. some four hun- dred years The Amu-Hyksos held Egypt Auaris. 151. Agog II reigned later.72 AGES IN CHAOS power of the Amalekite king Agog. In the history of Egypt the most frequently mentioned name of the Hyksos kings is Apop. their last king. at the very end of the period. who reigned some four hundred years later and was a 8 contemporary of Saul. and is similar to the written number 7. Khian. and Agog II. I have set forth some reasons in another place. was like that of a * star of your god" (Amos 5:26). the last king of the Hyksos was also Apop. Samuel 15. the king's name has the sound expressed by the letter "khet and the name of the star has khcf* . more oblique line. there was another Amalekite king Agog. and only empirically are all the sounds symbolized by a consonant found. p. No other two letters are so much alike in shape as these: each is an oblique line connected to a shorter. Throughout the land they maintained garrisons (Manetho). Besides the king Agog mentioned in the Book of Numbers. Agog I appears to be Apop I. the spelling of planet: "Khiun . Nevertheless. However. 4 Almost every hieroglyphic consonant stands for more than one sound. The early Hebrew written signs as they are preserved on the stele of Mesha show a striking resemblance between the letters g (gimel) and p (pei). it seems that not the Hebrew reading but rather the Egyptian must be corrected. the size of the angle between the two oblique lines constitutes the only difference. He was the ruler over Arabia and Egypt. Apop IL King Agog reigned at the beginning of the period.

when Israel had sown. 6 The when the one people occupied Mecca and the harvest. or that they supported the Canaanites in their war against the Israelites. related since the days the other lived in Israel just before 7 Medina. The Israelites under the guidance of Deborah and Barak succeeded temporarily in breaking the yoke. together they often invaded the land of came And And so it was. 114. The King James translation of this verse is cumbersome: "Out of Ephraim was there a root of them against Amalek. of Deborah. this explains the reversal in the progress of the Israelite penetration into Canaan and their occasional status as vassals. Ginzberg. The Amalekites ruled over vast territories and kindred nations. who reigned in Hazor. like the blessing of Balaam. The Amalekites supported the Canaanites. king of Canaan. who commanded nine hundred chariots of iron. another ancient Arab name . JUTCES 6:3-6 ites Midianites were close kin of the Amalekites. that the Midianup. They oppressed Israel. and Hobab with Jathrib. of the high priest of the Midianites in tie days of Moses Jethro. This citadel is also mentioned in another verse of the Book of Judges: "Pirathon in the land of Ephraim. Compare also the name called also Reuel. The traditions of the Arabs connecting the Amalekites with Mecca relate the Midianites to the region of Medina. . An obscure verse reads: "Out of Ephraim their root is in The Song Amalek" (Judges 5:14). The verse cited seems to mean that the strength of the Canaanites was based upon the support they received from the Amalekite citadel in the land of Ephraim. they encamped against them. Legends.THE HYKSOS 73 tor a garrison. and to Jabin. and the children of the east. and other peoples. Canaanites. 7 The region of the Midianites is incorrectly located on the desert strips on both sides of the Aqaba Gulf. and in these disguises carried on war against Israel. This in their colonial politics allied themselves with is the ground for the Hebrew tradition that the Amalekites posed as Moabites. . and the Amalekites. Numbers 21:1 and 33:4. is an old fragment. for Medina." Targum Yerushalmi. in the mount of the Amalekites" (Judges 12:15). 6 "Their" obviously refers to the Canaanites. in the land of Ephraim. and to his captain Sisera. VI. Raguel. it was strategically situated in the heart of the country. and destroyed the increase of the .

I (1914). the Israelites dared to take the Under Gideon they reached even the cities of Midian. reckoned as forty years. . and they take away [their] kine from the ploughing. They waited until the people of the land had sown. Their cattle and their camels without number are responsible for Egyptian name of king-shepherds. and naught remains. as long as garrisons were stationed at fortified points scattered throughout Trans. nor ox. . And Israel was greatly impoverished. The Israelites seem to have of The time wandering in the desert is been the only people who incessantly struggled for their independence against the Amalekite and allied tribes. then. generally as four hundred years. with their herds PAPYRUS ERMTTAGE 1116b. under valiant leadership. neither sheep. But every was a heroic effort on the part of the Israelites to achieve and retain real independence was doomed to failure as long as the Amalekites ruled northern Africa and Arabia up to the land of the Euphrates. When offensive. For they came up with and their tents. It time.74 earth. Marching to devastate a country. for both they and their camels were without number: and they entered into the land to destroy it. and they came as grasshoppers for multitude." They employed the same system of exploitation and plunder as in Egypt. they appeared in a multitude to devour the harvest and to take away the oxen used for plowing and every other animal of the household. of the shortly before the time of gathering. and their cattle left no sustenance for Israel. the time of Judges is estimated variously. nor ass. they drove their cattle before them. 103. -their . Gardiner. . and by their resistance they also safeguarded the maritime cities of Tyre and Sidon. recto: The Amu approach in their might and their hearts rage against those who are gathering in the harvest. . The land 8 is utterly perished. till AGES IN CHAOS thou come unto Gaza. . Nothing is known of uprisings in Egypt or in other places of the Amalekite Empire during these centuries. The dark age in the Near East continued as long as the supremacy of the Amalekites endured. . Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. Also in the next chapter Book of Judges (7:12) they and their cattle are compared to "grasshoppers'* and to the "sand by the sea side.

The reduction was not based on any consideration of cultural changes or archaeological finds. period of 1460 years was interposed by Petrie. the Hyksos period lasted five hundred and eleven years. It was during this time that the saying was coined (Exodus the Lord will have war with Amalek from 17:16): ". genera. If the dates are right. between the lands of Africa and Asia. The fell at cultural changes were enormous: as if a curtain of the the end of the Middle Kingdom and was raised again over the entirely different scene of the New Kingdom. 84). Because advanced the idea that between the end of the Twelfth Dynasty and the beginning of the Eighteenth were not 200 years but 1660: in other words. But in modern books on Egyptian history this period is drastically reduced. This view was offered and defended by Eduard Meyer. remained unbroken. again according to the calculations Eighteenth Dynasty in based by modern scholars on the Sothis period calendar. ancient charts or dates. and since some of the kings of the Thirteenth Dynasty had long reigns.THE HYKSOS 75 many countries. tion to generation. an additional Sothis Petrie immense changes. the most that can be left for the Hyksos domination in Egypt is one hundred years. was lengthened. on the ground of the astronomical computations of 1780. but mainly on the fact that the end of the Twelfth Dynasty of the Middle King- dom is ascribed." The Length of the Hyksos Period According to Manetho as cited by Josephus (Against Apion. to last of the Middle nasty (the Kingdom) and by the Hyksos period ere the New Kingdom was inaugurated with the advent of the 1580. . instead of being reduced from Josephus' figure. It was followed by the Thirteenth Dythe Sothis period. . and the military wedge they drove toward the coast. about two hundred years are left for the Thirteenth Dynasty and the Hyksos period. of time In the view of Flinders Petrie and a few of his followers. this span is entirely insufficient for the interval between the Middle and the New Kingdoms. I. the time of the Hyksos domination.

imreferences to the star Sothis or Sirius mediately preceding the keep in Kingdom." became supreme. 3 H. disregarding the New mind involved computations on which the Sothis reckoning is made. especially if we that Egyptian chronology served as a basis for the chronology of the entire complex called the ancient East." 1 The conciliatory view did not take root among the scholars. R. suggested a period of four or five hundred years for the Hyksos period. All the time of subjugation to the Hyksos. In this book we occupy ourselves with Egyptian history from the moment when the Middle Kingdom came to its end with the Hyksos conquest of Egypt. the long chronology after the death of Petrie had very few supporters. "Egyptian Chronology. also called the chronology of the "Berlin School.76 AGES IN CHAOS These two schemes are called the "long" and the "short chron1580 for the ology/* They have in common the date beginning of the Kingdom. is amazing. our evidence would not require more than 400 or at most 500 years between the two the twelfth and the eighteenth dynasties. I. Auaris. and. The Expulsion Hyksos in the Egyptian and Hebrew Records of the Egypt was ruled from where a strong garrison was kept by the king-shepherds. If the Hyksos period is measured by the time the Amalekites dominated the Near East." Cambridge Ancient J/ivioi^. 169. and the short chronology. "Were the Sothic date unknown. At the end of this work 'we shall examine the validity of this notion that may provide a basis for a scheme. Some scholars tried to take the middle road. . Neither the 'long chronology" nor the "short chronology" proposed to reduce this date. The great divergence between the schools of chronological historians. Hall. or by the sum of years allotted by the Scriptures to the wandering in the desert and to the leadership of the Judges. as much as 200 or 1660 years for the same period. a time span of over four hundred and forty years should be assigned to the period in question. Both are built on the New Sothis period for the computation of Egyptian chronology.

The last plague. An Egyptian monument has also preserved a description of the final act: the story of the expulsion of the Hyksos is engraved on the wall of the tomb of an Ahmose. a vassal pharaoh of one of the nomes and probably a brother of Kamose. The end of the papyrus is missing." Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. Obviously. Journal of Egyptian Archaeokgy. 40-42. I showed valor on foot before his One fought on the water in the canal [riverbed] of "A. prince of the southern city [Thebes] retime. The inscription reads: I followed the king on foot when he rode abroad in his chariot. . This roll of papyrus tells the story of the abuse and derision to which the dependent princes of the nomes were subjected. 95-110. was apits proaching end. the dominawhich had endured since the Exodus. . HI (1916). One besieged majesty. 1 King Apop humiliating II (Agog II) sent a messenger from Auaris with a demand to the I Egyptian prince Seknenre. The Egyptian prince was arrested by the messenger of King Apop II and brought to Auaris. . tablet records The Carnarvon the participation of the vassal 2 pharaoh Kamose.THE HYKSOS Here these kings received tribute 77 from Egypt and gave instructions to their regional governors. an enigma is inserted concerning officer of the most important circumstance. and Gardiner. described in the Sallier Papyrus I. which is the best available Egyptian source on the war of deliverance. H. He was assisted by some foreign troops. V (1918). not rebellious Egyptian princes but some warriors coming from abroad were the real deliverers of Egypt. son of Seknenre. 'The Defeat of the Hyksos by Kamose. But it tion of the shepherds. was the darkness before dawn. in action against the Hyksos. . the name of the officer was also Ahmose. the city of Avaris. The story is in the form of a narrative about the sieges and battles in which the officer took part. In the Ahmose inscription. and he did not know how to SALLIER PAPYRUS The mained silent and wept a long return answer to the messenger of king Apophis [Apop]. The princes of the nomes were dependent vassals and were treated in a disdainful manner. Gardiner.

brought away a living captive. . . . ." and more especially the "river o Egypt" or the wadi of el-Arish. and ten thousand men of Judah.* The indefinite pronoun would not have been used if the Egyptian king had been at the head of the besieging army. translates nakhal as "Ffewff." The Egyptian document says in fact that in the war fought 5 the Hyksos a foreign army was active. . The war was fought by a foreign "one." Zeitschrift -fur agyptische Sec Kurt Sothe. . . "Die Dauor dor Bclagenmg Sprache und Altertumskundc. w&rterbuch tiber die V The Talmudim und "Midrashim. . south of this city. Breasted. 136. six years [ ] s [and] his majesty took . H.78 Avaris. Saul gathered "two hundred thousand footmen. I remember that which Amalek did to Israel. Bach. I again One fought in this Egypt. the priest and prophet. how he laid wait for him in the way. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. . of foreign kings. *J. XLV1I (1905). ''Gunn and Gardiner. One One captured Avaris. when he came up from Egypt. . 1906). Egyptian against ?> . inscriptions did not memorialize the deeds and hence the name of the king who destroyed the Hyksos is missing. Samuel. Now go and smite Amalek. . . Sees. then I fought. . . "in the valley. Ndkhal is "a Vfc! of a river." and the history written on that tomb did not ascribe the sieges and the expulsion of the Hyksos to the dead man's own chief. AGES IN CHAbS Then there was again fighting in this place. . 47* King Jamas translation. besieged Sharuhen [sV-h'-n] for it. said to Saul." "a river. (1918). Levy. However. who only aided the foreign liberator. Ancient Records of Egypt (Chicago.** to [the] city of Amalek. ." is incorrect. VoL II. or the Nile. . . anointed to be king over Israel: I whom he had SAMUEL 15:2-3 Thus saith the Lord of hosts. and laid wait ^Gardiner reads "three von Sharuhen. 7-13. Flussbett" . and utterly destroy all that they have. as distinguished from Yeor. Had the Egyptian prince been the main figure in this war for freedom his triumph would not have been attributed to the indefinite "one." The writer or "Our troops would have said: "His Majesty besieged ." i in [the SAMUEL 15:5 And Saul came bed of] the stream years.

and lambs (I Samuel 15:9). that is over against Egypt. therefore. '"One would not expect that the settlement of such a wandering nation would deserve the lek. The Amalekites are supposed to have been a small tribe of unsettled Bedouins. In southern Palestine. Rich it spoils of the shepherds* city are mentioned in both sources. . what does the "city of Amalek" mean? 7 It is said that since days of old the Amalekites dwelt in the south. is over against Egypt. "city of Amalek. summer reference in the verse that follows: *. W. . . And he took Agag the king of the Amalekites alive." have always been a stumbling block for commentators and Bible students. the Sinai desert. One and up to the boundaries of Egypt there are no rivers save the "river of Egypt" the wadi of its el-Arish. "Ama- . identity of the foreign liberator of Egypt is thus revealed by The "one" was King Saul. The Amalekite city was Auaris. In Egyptian and Hebrew sources alike the strategic use of the bed of the stream in the siege of this city is stressed. until thou comest to Shur. Amalekites." 428. as a result of the capture of the city of the Amalekites. I SAMUEL 15:7-8 And Saul smote the Amalekites from Havilah until thou comest to Shur. both sources consisted of oxen." I. In bed is dry. Max Muller in the Jewish Encyclopedia. geographical indication may also be tentatively drawn from the which the Scriptures in persistently apply the it is torrential. . northern Arabia. The material for exact identification is brought together name later in this book. of a city. the only river to winter A that name nakhal. In it is said that during this compaign the "one" (in the inscription of the officer Ahrnose) or Saul (in the Book of Samuel) fought the Amu-Amalekites and destroyed them "to the south of Auaris" or "until thou comest to Shur. indication as to the location of the place is its topography: the city was besieged from the bed of a stream (nakhal). The the Scriptures. ." This was the southernmost point of the victorious campaign of Saul. that is over against Egypt/* Contraposing the Hebrew and Egyptian sources will help to identify the location of Auaris. The city must have been situated near a river. Apop II was Agog II.THE HYKSOS 79 These words. sheep.

" a city in Judah. that the Hyksos. after having been beleaguered for a long time in Auaris. . Upon these terms no fewer than 240. 1933). "The Two Hawilas. 190: "The mention of Huwila has Our own very exalways presented Biblical scholars with great difficulties. who at that time "The territory ascribed to Amalek in I Samuel 15:7. Wellhausen changed "from Ilavilah" to "from Teloin. Yahuda. Max Mullcr.000. too regained liberty. p. The Hyksos Retreat to Idumaea detail of the siege of Auaris is preserved in another document written at a much later date. or that another Egypt? It Havila besides the one in the land of the Euphrates was somewhere near Egypt 10 If the true role of the Amalekites during the long period of is Judges recognized. "Amalefc.80 AGES IN CHAOS reference "from Havilah" 8 The was also a difficult problem for exegesis. 1871]. 30 . . . .) A. 97. . Then. Amulekilcs/' The Jewish Encyclopedia. no difficulty will be encountered in accepting the text with its king the Amu-Amalekite Empire. left Egypt and traversed the desert to Syria. *J. a skirmish with insignificant Amalekites or the of some settlement of nomads result in a victory sweeping siege across Havila in the land of the Euphrates and up to the border of How could has been supposed that the text is corrupt and that instead of Havila another name must be read. were allowed under an agree- ment to leave the place. . I. 483. entire households with their possessions. 'from JIaviiuh until thou comes! to Shtir/ is perplexing/* W. They [the besieged in Auaris] were all to evacuate Egypt and go whither they would unmolested. S. Manetho narrates in his history of A Egypt. with was the signal for the collapse of the immediate result that all of Syria to the land of the Euphrates as correct. 1. {Text der Bucher Samuels [Gottingen. haustive investigation and close scrutiny of all the suggested ." The Language of the Pentateuch in Ito Relation to Egyptian (London. e terrified by the might of the Assyrians. of the Amalekite stronghold The capture and Egypt. possibilities has in every case yielded unsatisfactory results/' . as quoted by Josephus.

get you down from among the Amalekites. they built a city in the country of accommodating their vast company. . capable the name of Jerusalem. There is not the shadow of a doubt that the contemporaneous inscription on the grave of Ahmose contains the correct rendition of the name of the place to which the Hyksos retired. lest I destroy you with them . In Manetho's story it is stated that the Hyksos. According to Ahmose. So the Kenites departed from among the Amalekites. retreating from Auaris. which is exposed here by left comparing the two Egyptian sources on the escape of the Hyksos to Sharuhen in one source. regarding their departure from the city under siege. I shall add a few more words on this subject at the I. depart. i SAMUEL 15:6 And Saul said unto the Kenites. later and that the rendering of Manetho is This mistake. Before storming the Amalekite city Saul made an agreement with the tribe of the Kenites. Either Manetho's source or his text was corrupted. end of this chapter. has played a harsh role in the fate of the Jewish people beginning with the Ptolemaic age.. after the capture of Auaris the Hyksos-Amu who saved themselves from death escaped to Sharuhen in southern Palestine. escaped into Judea to a place which they built and named Jerusalem. and the lesser-known Sharuhen was replaced by the better known Jerusalem (Jerushalaim). 88-90.. wrong. Go. The biblical record may reconcile the conflicting statements of the contemporary warrior and of the later historian as far as they concern the immediate fate of the besieged people. accidental or deliberate. quoting Manetho.THE HYKSOS Asia. Against Apion. who recorded the capture of the city Auaris by siege. 1 81 were masters of now called it and gave This confused statement of Manetho is in obvious conflict with the inscription of the officer Ahmose. Judaea. aflSliated with the Amalekites. it has deep marks on the behavior and spiritual evolution of other peoples. to Jerusalem in the other. but did not mention any agreement with its defenders. only seldom has a mistake of a writing hand had so many tragic consequences as this corrupt text. ^osephus.

and burned it with fire. From there they undertook a raid on the neighboring cities. Ahmose's version into southern Palestine corresponds with the the scriptural narrative.** i SAMXTEL 30:11-13 to . The practice of burning the cities. David followed the Egyptian slave and found the Amalekite band and rescued the captive women and children. I. and their sons. and smitten Ziklag. said. master left me. . it was burned with fire. and David was one of his officers. After the capture of Auaris. servant to an Amalekite. . . In the desert they found an unconscious man who "had eaten no bread nor drank any water three days and three nights. because three days agone I fell sick. *Again$t Apion. . . and went So David and his men came to the city. . Apop. brought him David . again to him. 76. they found an Egyptian in the field. stroyed. children. Those who escaped with their Saul's Amalekite city and the Amalekites were not wholly delives fell back to the hill country of southern Palestine. were taken captives. and and when he had eaten. and their daughters. his spirit came . I And David said unto him. the stronghold and residence 2 the Hyksos-Amu retreated to Sharuhen in southern Pales- tine. I SAMUEL 30:1-3 . This was still during the reign of Saul. David with four hundred men pursued the Amalekite band that had carried off his wives. and Ziklag. quoted by Josephus 3 ).82 AGES IN CHAOS of the The defeat of Hyksos-Amu was brought about in two succes- sive sieges. and behold. After the capture of the overwhelming victory. and withdrawing was carrying off the women the same as the Hyksos had and em- ployed in Egypt when they invaded it. . four or five hundred years before: "They savagely burned the cities . and my . To whom belongcst thoii? And he am a young man of Egypt. the Amalekites had invaded the south. . *The town is mentioned in Joshua 19:6. And . . wives and children into slavery" (Manetho. and here the last retreat of the Amu of siege took place. on their way. . . carrying off the . and their wives.

a poor nomad? This man. edL . the Egyptian slave and his Amalekite master. p. accepted their political leadership. and. were the last offensives. such as that from Sharuhen to Ziklag. He went into this war with a heavy heart. lost more and own spiritual heritage and became a hybrid nation. coast. after his great victory over the Amalekites. Commentary to Sura n. engaged himself in a war with the Philistines. tian young man a very striking detail: the Egypsaid that he was a slave to an Amalekite master. 17. 4 They intermarried with the Amalekites. both towns in southern Palestine. Abulfeda. more of their This merging of the Philistines and the Amalekites provided. a son of the ruling and proud nation. But they were already the last in their respective roles. It reveals also Let us return the two histories that of the Hebrews and that of the Egyptians to their conventional places in chronology. Ziklag Shortly after the great natural catastrophe the Philistines arrived from the island of Caphtor and occupied the coast of Canaan. and Sharuhen was a point between Philistia and Seir. 6 Saul.THE HYKSOS 83 This episode is most instructive. What does it mean that an Egyptian. 95-99. the few raids. 91. the Amalekites' old homeland. some of them came into the Philistine region on the was on the outskirts of the land of the Philistines. during the centuries that followed. Waddell). Their warriors were dispersed. pp. 'Abu-el-Saud. The Amalekites were in retreat and flight. in identifying himself. provided them with metalwork and pottery."5 and also for the assertion that the Philistines were of Amalekite blood. the prophet. Samuel. had spoken stern words to him: his would be taken from him for the kindness he had shown kingdom 'Jeremiah 47:4. sought their favor. Historia anteislamica. spoke of his being a "servant" and the Amalekite being the is "master" as of something that was the order of the day. Fleischer. 'Manetho (trans. It shows that the Amalekites invaded the south of Palestine after they had lost their stronghold on the border of Egypt. the basis for the Egyptian tradition (Manetho) that the Hyksos Dynasties in the later period of their rule in Egypt were of "Phoenician origin. I think. Amos 9:7. a servant of an Amalekite.

This stronghold of the Amu had to be taken by storm. Historical credit for freeing the but his great slaves there. in the valley of the Jordan. last The Amu-Hyksos defended it for three long years. the enemies of the Jewish people. He and his three sons fell on the field. The officer Ahmose. and to drive the Philistines from the hilly land.84 AGES IN CHAOS life of eternal Agog. gentle and generous. at out of the host of the Philistines. and a premonition of his fate. Saul. tidings to David (II Samuel 1:8). The day after his visit to the witch by sparing the Endor. the headless bodies were hung on the walls of Beth-Shan. even his contemporaries did not reward him with gratitude." Only after overpowering the Philistines could the Israelites con- sider themselves a free people. he went to his last battle. The double task fell to David: to destroy the Amalekites in their last strongholds in southern Palestine. with the help touch with the deceased Samuel. after the fall of Auaris. tried to get in again. the real "elect of God. according to one scriptural version. This was the sad end of the man anointed to be the first king of Judah and Israel. Philistine archers struck him down in the middle of the battle. not Hyksos even recognized. king of the Amalekites. Samuel killed Agog. Cursed by Samuel for his when he spared the life of Agog. killed the wounded Saul at his request and brought the evil Near East from the yoke of the deed was not esteemed. and died. The capture of Auaris and the destruction of the Amalekite host changed the course of history. In a little-known page of some Haggada he is said to have been more pious than David. His head having soft heart and the head of his son Jonathan were cut off by the Philistines and carried through the villages. never met Saul of necromancy. Posterity did not learn of the deeds of Saul. It was an Amalekite. who. followed his prince to Sharuhen in southern Palestine to participate in the siege of this stronghold. driven to depression. Once more Egypt rose to power and splendor after being freed from hundreds of years of abject slavery by a descendant of the Hebrews who had been belongs to Saul. The Scriptures have preserved the story of the Amalckitcs "in- .

Joab turned his to put the crown of the Egypt and undertook a campaign army to the east and after a time Ammonite king at the feet of The Queen Tahpenes the ruins of the great Amalekite Empire two kingdoms rose simultaneously to freedom and power: Judah and Egypt. 1908). Petra. . twelve thousand strong. and he described The Egyptian king returned was able David. 21). King Ahmose was probably with Joab*s army as an ally. Its History and Monuments (London. 1925). this route was preferred in earlier times (Strabo. H Samuel 12:30. large'* city. p. and G.THE HYKSOS 85 vading the south" after their disaster on the border of Egypt. trade caravans coming from Arabia "come to Petra. and then to Rhinocolura [el-Arish]. destroyed the heathen King David was not present at this prolonged siege. 24). Sharuhen was probably situated close to Petra. more particularly toward Petra. See Sir H. the most remarkable the taking of the Amalekite capital. a captain of David. which is in Phoenicia near Egypt. besieged the stronghold without result. B." 8 For a long time the chosen troops. The in- On heritance was divided between them. and the officer Ahmose his share. 37-^53. W. The natural retreat for an army pressed at once from Egypt and from the shore of Palestine would be in the direction of Edom. "Ginzberg. Caravan e 7 Cities (Oxford. Legends. who became a favorite The Israelites stormed the Amalekite city. p. tion of the spoils it." The Egyptian king got his portemples. pp. 9 to against Ethiopia. and thence to the other peoples. The officer Ahmose wrote: "One besieged Sharuhen for three years and his majesty took it. 4. also M. A legend about the adventures of Joab. IV. The early -builders of Petra are not known. Other Hebrew sources have retained the story of the siege of the "Amalekite capital" in the south of Palestine. 81. Petra is "fortified all round by a rock" (Ibid. 16. Rostovtzeff." and according to this author. 4. 98. 1932). 33. The Geography. Dalman. Petra und seine FelsheiUgtumer (Leipzig. Kennedy. and killed the inhabitants. penetrated alone into this "very motif for storytellers. 7 "Among is all the heroic achievements of Joab. 16. In the days of Strabo..

Le Livre des rote tfEgypte (Cairo. ed. . This was in the days of David. 1 n SAMUEL 8:14 And he [David] all Edom put he garrisons. n. possibly. Edom. But see Strieker. Amon. Tah8 We penes. unto Pharaoh. XV (1937). Edom's land was along the entire shore of the Red Sea. 1902). Expansion was also eastward David and Joab led the army against Moab. king of Egypt/* in the sight of Pharaoh. besides the population of women and children and slaves. 26ff. throughout . 187. 'Hadad left Egypt after the death of David (I Kings 11:21). Ahmose reigned more than twenty years. 11-12. Among 2 his The pharaoh must have been queens must have been one by the name of Tahpenes. a and even hundreds of thousands of warand According to the Arabian tradition.86 AGES IN CHAOS Asiatic provinces of the Amalekites Judah absorbed the from the Euphrates in the north to the border of Egypt in the south. Acta Orientdia. own wife. was among those who escaped from Midian and came to Paran. Medina was conquered by David. and "out of Paran they came i to Egypt. to provide for large herds and flocks. the city served to keep Egypt in bondage? It was large enough to conits walls tens riors. Her name is actually preserved and read Tanethap. the sister of KINGS 11:19 And Hadad found great favour to wife the sister of his so that he gave him Tah-pe-nes the queen. and the area stretching toward Mesopotamia. *Gauthier. pp. Wiistenfeld. note 3. . see al-Samhudi. Ahmose. . The Location Where was which tain within of Auaris Auaris. a child of royal blood. or. the greater part of Arabia. according to Manetho twenty-five years. open the register of the Egyptian queens to see whether Pharaoh Ahmose had a queen by this name. Gesckichte der Stadt Medina. Joab remained six months in Edom (I Kings 11:16) and smote "every male in Edom/* Hadad. the stronghold of the Amu-Hyksos. Aram meant Syria. and Aram. put garrisons in Edom. Tenthape.

I." comparing the last sentence with one in I Samuel (27:8) and the Amalekites . vttle historique ait ete promenee par les 6gyptologues tout le long du Delta oriental. and at Tell-el-Yehudiyeh. king of the Hyksos] left garrisons in the places most suited for defence. San el Hagar (Tanis). 10-16. en passant par TeU el Her.THE HYKSOS 87 The descriptioii Manetho gives in his history points to a site on the eastern frontier of Egypt. over against Egypt. 1 secure According to Manetho. even unto the land of Egypt" we find a clue to the location of the Amalekite city on the border of Egypt. [Salitis. . . p. pp. Having discovered in the Sethroite nome a city very favourably situated on the east of the Bubastis arm of the called after river. but not in Egypt proper. and established a garrison there numbering as many as two hundred and forty thousand armed men and to protect his frontier. El Rantarah. Auaris had a great stone wall "in order all their possession and spoil/* Several scholars have to made various conjectures: it was located at Pelusium. of old the inhabitants of the land. Auaris is futilely 8 sought on the eastern branch of the Delta..** Auaris can be located in the following way: Saul conquered "the Amalekite city. It was a small stronghold and not the huge fortress of the Hyksos rulers." is: "to the the residence of the king Agog (I Samuel 15). *Petrie. TeU el Yahoudieh" Israelite Cities. "Montet. the precise translation of Manetho-Josephus east from the Bubastis arm of the river. Against Apion. The capture of this city terminated the domination of Amalekites over "the land from Havilah until thou comest to Shur. as is thou goest to Shur. de Peluse a Hetiopolis. In the last-named place 2 Hyksos tombs were unearthed. some ancient theological tradition Auaris. In particular he secured his eastern flank. would covet and attack his realm. that By **. as their power increased in future. but archaeological study did not confirm the opinion of the excavator that it was Auaris.. 77-78. However. This also corresponds with the statement in the inscription of the a josephus. Hyksos and Le Drome . as he foresaw that the Assyrians. pharaohs from the Fourteenth up to the Seventeenth Dynasty. he rebuilt strongly fortified it with walls. 47: "Le lecteur s&tonnera cfapprendre qtfune cPAvaris. at Tanis.

88
officer

AGES IN CHAOS
Ahmose:
"I followed the king

on

foot

when he rode abroad

in his chariot.

The
4

besieged the city of Auaris." of the name "Auaris" is "the town of the desert meaning

One

strip."

Auaris on the northeastern frontier of Egypt was designed by its builder, the Hyksos king Salitis, to secure the eastern flank against

from the north. 5 The fortress dominated Egypt and Syria. It was situated on a river this is told in the Egyptian record of Ahmose and in the story of the siege by Saul. "One fought on the water in the river" (Ahmose). "And Saul came to [the] city of Amalek, and laid wait in the stream" (I Samuel 15:5). The only river in the whole area is the seasonal stream of el-Arish.

any

assault

Because of the mention of the Ahmose, Auaris was sought on

river battle in the inscription of

the eastern
it

though Manetho-Josephus wrote that eastern branch of the Delta.
Moreover, the
city was

was

to the east

branch of the Nile, from the

name

of the river "nakhaT

on which the Amalekite

built

is

el-Arish,

which

repeatedly applied in the Scriptures to the stream of 6 is at the border of Egypt (Nakhal Mizraim).

From the later history of location of Auaris.
Egypt, used banish them

Egypt we

also

may

derive clues for the

Haremhab, the king who ruled before

the Nineteenth

to cut off the noses of offenders against the to the region of Tharu. The station of Thani

Dynasty in law and

was the

northeastern outpost of Egypt, as may be seen from the description of various campaigns into Syria undertaken by kings of the Nine-

teenth Dynasty. It must have been near Auaris,

if it

was not another

name for the same place. 7 The noseless offenders were
deprived of his nose
4

was
(

in

sent to a place for the "unclean"; one appearance similar to a leper, unclean
IV,

K.

Sethe,

Urkunden (Leipzig, 1906-9),
III

390; Gardiner,

Journal of

Egyptian Archaeology,

1916 ), 100.
I,

*Josephus, Against Apion,

78f

.

Compare Numbers 34:5;
border of Egypt.
7

II

Kings 24:7; II Chronicles 7:8:

"NakhaF was

the

of Auaris follows immediately that of Sekliet-za; the latter site associated with the site of Tharu on several steles of the Ramesside period. See Gardiner, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, III (1916), 101,
is closely

The symbol

THE HYKSOS

89

for religious service, and kept apart from society. The unclean were sent into exile to the remotest part of the country. Manetho, writing of the rebellion of these unclean at a later date, said:

The king
abandoned

.

.

.

assigned them for habitation and protection the

8 city of the shepherds, called Auaris.

The place where the noseless exiles lived was called by Greek and Roman authors Rhinocolura (cut-off nose) or Rhinocorura. It was identified as el-Arish: Septuagint translated "Nakhal Mizraim" 9 (the stream of el-Arish) by this name, Bhinocorura. Hence Auaris
of the ancients
is

el-Arish of today.

the archaeologists excavate on the banks of el-Arish they will find the remnants of Auaris, one of the largest fortresses of an10

When

tiquity.

As a supplementary bit of evidence I cite the following passage from Masudi about a sovereign of the First Dynasty of Amalefcite
pharaohs.
In the neighborhood of el-Arish he constructed a fortress. 11

Hyksos and Amalekite
Is

Parallels

the identity of the Amalekites and Hyksos established, or were they perhaps two different peoples? The historical evidence of the

preceding pages will be juxtaposed.

A
8
6

people called the

Amu
I,

or Hyksos invaded Egypt after a great

w Epiphanius said: "RMnocorura" means **Na3chal (bed of a river); Saadia translated "Nakhal Mizraim" as "Wadi el-Arish/* and similarly Abu-faid. See F, Hitzig, Urgeschichte ttnd Mythologie def Philistder (Leipzig, 1845), pp. 112ff. Hitzig recognized that el-Arish must have been an old city (Loris of the Crusaders), but was unable to identify the ancient city that had heen situated

Josephus, Against Apion,

237.

on the
10

site

of el-Arish or Rhinocolura.

noms gfographiques de TantiquitS, quand Us se sont conserved en arabe. Le tell Basta recouvre les mines de Bubaste. . . Mais le nom cFAvaris etait tambe en d4sutude bien avant la fin des temps pharaoniques" Montet, Le Drame d'Avaris, pp. 47-48.
*7J est facile (^identifier les
.

p. 388. The Amalelcite pharaoh is called The Hyksos king who built Auaris is called Salitis or Salatis (Cambridge Ancient I, 233) by Manetho. The two History, forms, Latis and Salatis, handed down through two such different channels, are

^Magoudi, L'Abr^gS des mervetiles,
successor to Latis.

by Masudi Talma

nevertheless noticeably similar.

90
1

AGES IN CHAOS

natural catastrophe, when the river "turned into blood" and the earth shook. 2 They overran without encountering any resistance. 8

Egypt

invaders were utterly cruel; they mutilated the wounded and cut oft the limbs of their captives; 4 they burned cities, savagely destroyed monuments and objects of art, and razed the temples to

The

the ground; 5 they held the religious feelings of the Egyptians in
6

contempt. 7 They enslaved the Egyptians and imposed tribute on them. These 8 invaders came from Asia and were called Arabians, but had some

Hamitic features
12

too.

10

11 They were herdsmen, and they were

skilled

with the bow: their kings ruled as pharaohs of Egypt. They also ruled over Syria and Canaan, the islands of the Mediterranean, and other countries, and had no peer for a long period. 14

13

The
Nile.
15

Amu

built

a great

city fortress east

from the Delta of the

They impoverished the native population of Egypt, usually 16 invading the fields with their cattle before harvest time. Among their kings were at least two rulers by the name (tentatively read) of

Apop; both were outstanding, one at the beginning, the other at the very close, of the period. 17
a

Papyrus Ipuwer (Leiden 344 recto) 3:1; 15:1Papyrus Ipuwer 2:10; 4:2; 6:1; Papyrus Ermitage 1116b recto.

*Manethc~Joseph.us, Against Apionf I, 73ff. ^Compare the findings of Petrie in Hyksos graves (Hyksos p. 12).

and

Israelite Cities,

^anetho-Josephus; inscription at Specs Artemidos,
"Sallier

Papyrus I; Papyrus Ipuwer 17:2; Manetho-Josephus. Tapyrus Ipuwer; Papyrus Ermitage; Manetho-Josephus. ^anetho-Josephus ("from the East"); Papyrus Ipuwer 14:10; 15:13.

Manetho-Josephus

.

^Papyrus Ipuwer 14:10; 15:3.
Manetho-Josephus. "Papyrus Ipuwer 14:10; 15:3; Carnarvon Tablet "Scarabs of Hyksos kings; Sallier Papyrus Ij Manetho-JosepHus. "Inscriptions of Apop; see J. H. Breasted, A History of Egypt* p. 218; Eduard Meyer, Geschichte de$ Altertums, VoL I, Pt. 2, p. 319. "Manetho-Josephus; Tomb of Ahmose; Sallier Papyrus I; inscription of Hatshepsut at Speos Artemidos.

u

"Papyrus Ermitage.
Papyrus
I;

compare

Petrie,

A

History of Egypt,

I,

243.

THE HYKSOS
The domination
the Near and
18

91

of this people extended over Middle East. Their dynasties ruled

many
some

countries of
five

hundred

their fortress-residence on the some foreign host. 19 A part of the siege by 20 beleaguered population of the fortress was allowed to depart; the bed of the river was the main scene of the siege and of the final

years,
river

and

their rule

ended when

was put under

Amu Empire after this siege, Egypt beand the expelled invaders moved to southern Canaan to free, the stronghold of Sharuhen, where they maintained their hold a few 22 years longer. This fortress in the south of Canaan was beleaguered.
came
The
siege

21 storming of the fortress. With the crushing of the

was

protracted. Finally the city

was stormed,

its

defenders

killed,

and the few survivors were dispersed and
28

lost their

im-

portance.

They

left

a deep feeling of hatred in the people of Egypt, 2 *
called Amalekites.

The other people were

They left Arabia

after a

25 and immediately after a violent earthquake. 26 series of plagues Many of them perished during the migration in a sudden flood that
27 swept the land of Arabia, They sighted the Israelites coming out of Egypt, which was laid in ruins by a great catastrophe. 28 In this

catastrophe the water in the river turned red as blood, the earth 29 shook, the sea rose in a sudden tidal wave.

The invaders from Arabia occupied
M
Manetho~Josephus,
of Ahmose; compare Against Apian,

the south of Palestine

and

I,

88.

of Ahmose.
of Ahmose; compare Manetho-Josephus, of Ahmose.

^Manetho-Josephus. as Magoudi, Les Prairies
206ff.

d'or,

HI, 101; Kitdb-Alaghaniy (trans. Fresnel), pp.
III,

*El-Harit, cited by Macoudi, Les Prairies d'or, 12:29,

101; compare

Exodus

^Kitab-Alaghaniy (trans. Fresnel), p. 207. *Exodus 15:7-12; 17:8-16; Numbers 14:43-45. ""Exodus 7:20; 12:29; 14:27.

92

AGES IN CHAOS
80

simultaneously moved toward Egypt. out meeting resistance. 81

They conquered Egypt with-

The Amalekite conquerors came from Arabia, but apparently they had Hamitic blood in their veins. 32 They were a nation of herdsmen and roamed with their large herds from field to field. 33 They mutilated the wounded and the prisoners, cut off limbs, and
were unspeakably cruel in many other ways. 34 They stole children and carried off women; 35 they burned cities; 86 they destroyed monuments and objects of art that had survived the catastrophe, and 37 They were contemptuous of the despoiled Egypt of her wealth.
religious feelings of the Egyptians.
38

The Amalekites

built a city-fortress

on the northeastern border

of

Egypt
tress.
40

39

Their chieftains were pharaohs and ruled from their for-

They held sway over western Asia and northern Africa and had no peer in their time. 41 They kept the Egyptian population in bond42 They also age, and their tribesmen used the Egyptians as slaves* 48 and by periodically built smaller strongholds in Syria-Palestine, the country with their herds before harvest time, they invading

'Numbers 13:29; 14:43; Tabari, Chronique (trans. Dubeux), p. 261; Abulfeda, Historia anteislamica, ed. Fleischer, p. 179; Mekhilta Beshalia, I, 27.
^Magoudi, Les Prairie$ tfof, II, 397. ^See "Amalik," The Encyclopedia of Islam.
"Judges 6:3, 33; 7:12;
I

Samuel 15:9,

l'4.

11:1; Targurn Yerushalmi of Exodus 17:8; ^Deuteronomy 25:15f.; Midrash Tannaim, 170; Pirkei Rabbi Elieser 44; and many other sources. "Numbers 14:3; I Samuel 30:15.

Numbers

*I Samuel 30:1.

^acoudi, L'Abrtgt, pp. 342, 361. **Kitab-Alaghaniy (trans. Fresnel), p. 206. ^1 Samuel 15:5 and 7; cf. Magoudi, L*Abr6g6,
*Macoudi, L'Abr6g6y
I,

I,

331.

338; Abulfeda, Historia anteislamica, ed. Fleischer, pp. IClff. and 179; Tabari, Chronique (trans. Dubcux), p. 209; Ibn Abd-Alhakam, Yaqut, Koran Commentary to Sura II, 46; Alkurtubi, Koran Commentary to Sura II, 46 (Leiden Ms.). ^Literature in Ginzberg, Legends, III, 63; Numbers 24:20; 24:7; I Samuel
331f.,

15;7.
4

*The above Arabian sources of the ninth to the thirteenth centuries;

I

Samuel

30:13.

^Judges 5:14; 12; 15.

THE HYKSOS
impoverished the people of
countries
of the
Israel.
44

93

Their domination over

many

Near and Middle East endured, according to various reckonings, for almost five hundred years. 45 Among the kings of the Amalekites there were at least two by the name of Agog, both of them outstanding: one a few decades after the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt, the other at the very end of
the period of Amalekite domination. 43 This people intermingled with the Philistines. 47

Their supremacy came to an end when their fortress-residence on the border of Egypt was besieged by Saul, king of Israel.* 8 The bed
of the river (nakhal) was the main scene of the siege. 49 A large part of the besieged garrison was allowed to depart. 80 After this siege and the fall of the fortress the Amalekite Empire from Havila in the

land of the Euphrates to "over against Egypt" collapsed. 51 Their remnants moved into mountainous southern Palestine, 52 where they
too,

gathered their strength in a stronghold-city. But that stronghold, was surrounded and, after a protracted siege, was captured by

storm. 08 After that they lost their significance. 64 55 They left in the people of Israel an intense feeling of hatred.

On the basis of the foregoing, the Amu of the Egyptian sources

inescapable that and the Amalekites of the Hebrew
the conclusion
is

and Arab sources were not two different peoples, but one and the same nation. Even the name is the same: Amu, also Omaya, a
"Judges 6 and 7; I Samuel 14:48. ^Compare: Exodus 17:8ff. I Samuel 27:8; "Numbers 24:7; I Samuel 15:8.
;

I

Samuel 30;

I

Kings 6:1.

**!! Samuel 1:13; Abu-el-Saud, Commentary to Sura II, 247; compare Abulfeda, Historic anteislamica, ed. Fleischer, p. 17; compare also "Amalik," The Encyclopedia of Islam.

*I Samuel 15:5.
48

27:8; see also Ginzberg, Legends, IV, 99; Compare al-Samhudi, Geschichte der Stadt Medina, ed. Wustenfeld, p. 26.

Samuel Samuel *I Samuel **! Samuel
I

15:5.

I

15:6.

15:7.

WH Samuel 11; Ginzberg, Legends, MI Chronicles 4:42f.

IV, 98

"Deuteronomy 25:17-19; I Samuel 15:2; Midrash sources see Ginzberg, Legends, III,

I

Samuel 28:18;

for

Talmud and

61f.,

333; IV, 230; VI, 480.

94
frequent

AGES IN CHAOS

name among the Amalekites, was

a

synonym

for Amalekite.

Dshauhari (Djauhari), an Arabian lexicographer of the tenth century of the present era, wrote: "It is handed down that this name 56 [Amu, or Omaya] was a designation for an Amalekite man."
or the Hyksos, This identity, established
parallels, is the

The Amu,

were the Amalekites. on a large number of correlations and

riddle:

Who

Flavius, in

answer to the two-thousand-two-hundred-year-old were the Hyksos? As early as the days of Josephus the first century, it was already a debated question of

long standing. The arguments of the present chapter for the identity of the Amu-Hyksos and the Amalekites have been stated and re-

peated here point by point because of the momentous consequences
this identification carries.

The succeeding parts of show how important the consequences are.

this

book

will

The Confusion

of Hyksos and Israelites the Beginning of Anti-Semitism

and

The

Israelites

could never forget the time of their suffering in

1 Egypt, but they did not bear any hatred against the Egyptians or other peoples of antiquity; the Amalekites alone became the symbol

of evil

and the object of

their hate.

DEOTEHONOMY 25:17-19 Remember what Amalek did unto thee by the way, when ye were come forth out of Egypt; How he met thee by the way, and smote the hindmost of thee,
that were feeble behind and he feared not God. weary;
all

even

thee,

when thou wast

faint

and

Therefore it shall be, when the Lord thy God hath given theo rest from all thine enemies round about that thou shalt blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven; thou shalt not for. . .

get

it.

"Italics

Zeitschrift

aer Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, HI (1849), 151. Tuch took the quotation from Djauharl without any thought of the question debated here as to the identity of the Amalekites and the Hyksos.
, .

supplied. See

D. F. Tuch, "Ein und zwanzig Sinaitische Inschriften,"

z ". thou shalt not abhor an Egyptian; because thou wast a stranger in his land" (Deuteronomy 23;7).

THE HYKSOS
utter wickedness of this people 2 throughout the old literature: how
of the

95

The

was iterated and reiterated they came to "suck the blood"

weary in the desert; how cowardly they acted in attacking from ambush; how vile and ignoble and merciless they were. They mutilated the wounded and blasphemed by throwing the mutilated parts of the bodies toward the heavens and jeered at the
Lord. 8

legend presents the feeling of the symbolic words:

A

Israelite nation in these

So long as the seed of Amalek exists, the face of God is, as it were, covered, and will only then come to view when the seed of Amalek shall have been exterminated.*

There was also a tradition that "God bade Moses impress upon the Jews to repulse no heathen should he desire conversion, but never accept an Amalekite as a proselyte/' For his sins Amalek shall
"the
first

descend

to hell."

"God Himself took up the war

against

Amalek."
the same hatred in the Egyptians; heir extreme cruelty and their wantonness were cut deep into the memory of the people. They befouled and burned rolls of papyri

The Hyksos engendered

and objects of art; in their camps they tortured their captives. Heads were cracked open, teeth smashed, eyes gouged out, and limbs hacked off. They professed faith only in their superior strength and
employed it in their camps on their defenseless victims. Even the Arabian authors exposed the evil and the recklessness of the Amalekites in dealing with the holy and the profane in Mecca and in Egypt. They, too, proclaimed that the Lord had sent them away from Mecca for their iniquity.

was the lot of Saul to carry on the war of liberation of Israel -and Egypt. That the Israelites were not remembered with praise for what they had done for Egypt and were referred to as *one" and "they" in Egyptian history was the least of the injustices; their real reward at the hands of the Egyptian historians was to be idenIt
"See the Register to Ginsberg, Legends, Tinder "Amalek, Amalekites."
8

Ginzberg, Legends, in, 57.

*Ibid., p. 62.

1895). Osarsiph. The earliest references are by Theophrastus. the vizier. But Manetho. Clearchus of Soli. the Amalekite. "Esther 3:10." The people of Jerusalem never conquered Egypt. Textes tfauteurs Juda'isme (Paris. The first wave of anti-Semitism in the east was spread much later in the Persian Haman. the Hyksos retreated to Sharuhen. 68. Legends. were occasionally looked upon as a mysterious people. the Jews' Empire by 6 6 enemy. 397. 398. Ahmose wrote when Auaris was taken. wrote that the Hyksos retreated into Palestine and built Jerusalem. many centuries later. when a leper colony in Auaris re- volted. 7 See Theodore Reinach." Haman. 'Ginzberg. in southern Palestine. These traditions told how Hainan's royal forefather Agog had been dispossessed by a Jewish king and killed by a Jewish prophet. 422. In the Greek world no signs of racial antipathy toward Jews can be traced until the stories of Manetho began to circulate.96 tified AGES IN CHAOS with the ravagers that whom the Israelites had driven out of Auaris. who was of the seed of Agog. and that one of the lepers. had changed his name to Moses. The Jews but no ex- pression of animosity or contempt is preserved in the writings of the old authors. This confused story reflects the Assyrian conquest of Egypt. 7 philosophers who flourished at the end of the fourth and the beginning of the third century before this era. they do not cease to occupy themselves with the divinity. these rebels summoned the Solymites (the people of Jeruand together conquered Egypt. and Megasthenes. Theophrastus wrote: They are a race of philosophers. grecs et remains relatifs au . when Sennacherib and Esarhaddon invaded Palestine and Egypt "with a great host of Assyrians and Arabs. "the Agagite. that these Solymites were salem) extremely cruel to the population. conspired to destroy the Jewish population in Persia and Media. We may imagine that the traditions of Hainan's house were likely to inspire this hatred. IV. also that at a later date.

8 9 Megasthenes. Reinach. to Jews in the Greek language are the only ones Greek literature from before the time Manetho's history in the extant These references appeared. . The Jews descended from the Jerusalem. never extinguished in the memory the inhuman shepherd-conquerors was revived: of posterity. Inaugurated by Manetho. politician in the service of Seleucus ^Quoted by Th. with the Brahmans of India. Clearchus quoted the words of Aristotle on "the great and admirable soberness of this Jew. an extensive Jew-baiting literature followed. . XIII. Gospel "Historian and Nicator. and in Syria with those who are called Jews. against whom the apology (Against Apion) of Josephus Flavius was directed. Preparation for the (trans. he approved it and even defended it in a most for doing so was his wish to categorical manner. for the Jews were identified with the descendants of the Hyksos. Gifford). 12. Textes. and the stories of writers. The hatred. . ^'Plato derived Ms idea of God from the Pentateuch. wrote in his book Indica: All the opinions expressed by the ancients about nature are found with the philosophers foreign to Greece. Pkto is Moses translated language of the Athenians. of Pythagoras and Plato it is recorded that they were in close contact with wise Jews and were anxious to learn from them." Also. 10 Manetho were told and retold and adorned by many 'Among them was Apion. Clearchus told the story of a Jew from whom Aristotle learned some of his wisdom during his journey in Asia. The phers name of their capital is very difficult to pronounce: it is called . who lived in India between 302 and 291 before the present era. Josephus did not of the Jews with the Hyksos.THE HYKSOS 97 And Clearchus of Soli wrote: philosophers of India. and his self-restraint. try to cast doubt on the identification on the contrary." Numenius in Eusebius. his only reason establish the antiquity of the Jewish people with the help of Manetho's into the stories. The philosoare called in India Calanians and in Syria Jews.

but the defense of his pen was worth as much as the defense of his sword. he ended as a renegade. In been fed from many other sources. and monstrous stories head of an ass which the Jews kept in and about the human blood they sucked. His apology for the Jewish case was first considered a masterpiece and was often translated and quoted by defenders of the Jewish people. The persecution started with the misstatements of Manetho. the later years anti-Semitism has Egyptian. They bore their pain for being identified with the Hyksos. whose nation was freed from the Hyksos by the Jews. burning in the generations of the ancient Orient. World History The proofs in the Balance been summarized of the identity of the Hyksos and the Amalekites have to make the case as strong as possible. It is not . No one knew any longer that the this Amalekites were the Hyksos.98 AGES IN CHAOS Josephus played a tragic role in the days of the war in Galilee and Judea and the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus in the century of the present era. saw in the Jew the wretched seed Greek and Roman one on the of cruel tyrants." It was blotted out. were heaped were invented about the their temple and worshiped. A Jewish mother even today frightens her child with an "Amalekite. found a target in the Jews. Starting as a soldier at the head of the Galilean army. Subsequently authors established in their writings the object for the never dying necessity to hate. "Thou shalt blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under the heaven." An Hatred can last is much stronger a long time even when its object is not alive. Hatred of the Hyksos. How that hatred if the hated ones did not dissolve their national existence a thousand years before on the Arabian but are still supposed to exist? The Egyptian author peninsula. The Israelites endured much suffering from distortion of history. The curse on the Amalekites became a curse on the Israelites. equally glowing hatred of the Amalekites persisted in the memory of the Jews. Insinuations other.

The Hyksos were expelled by Saul. and with data the chronological tables have been made may be room to question whether 702 or in Sennacherib in his third campaign invaded Palestine in 700. their later destruction was the work of Joab. and give the years of their reigns. is entirely different Thus. is hundreds of Hebrew history the help of common so accurate that while there closely related to Assyrian history. there can be no question whether this Assyrian king came 1280 or thereabouts. The entire structure of ancient history hangs in the balance. The entire period of the Hyksos lies in between. king after king. but not years. The biblical annals record the succession of the kings of Judah and of Israel. some discrepancies or difficulties in the double account of the kings of Judah and of Israel. the dates of events may be . David lived in the tenth century. they are of entirely different dimensions. and Saul was his predecessor on the throne. The expulsion of the Hyksos is put at 1580. which leaves almost six centuries unaccounted for. further. If there are. and may amount at most to one or two decades. as all scholars maintain. but at the close of ing the Middle Kingdom. While there to the Jerusalem of Hezejdah in a difference of opinion whether to lengthen or shorten the the accounts of reign of one or another of the kings by comparing the Book of Kings and the Book of Chronicles.THE HYKSOS is 99 merely the solution of the enigma of the identity of the Hyksos that at stake. history is to be moved by these centuries? Is it possible to place David in the sixteenth century before this era? No student of ancient history will see the slightest possibility of altering the his- Whose tory of the kings of Jerusalem by a single century. the expulsion of the Hyksos was neither identical with the Exodus nor did it take place before the Exodus. here and there. then world history. if. from what we have been taught. soldier of David. If the catastrophes of the Papyrus Ipuwer and of the Book of Exodus are identical. establishing the period in which the Exodus took place becomes of paramount importance: Israel did not leave Egypt durthe New Kingdom. much less by six. as it really occurred. without disrupting all established data and concepts. the Hyksos and the Amalekites are one.

and the history of the Double-Stream countries is synchronized with Jewish cording to their contacts some events of the Assyrian and Babylonian past involved Egypt. who destroyed Jerusalem in 587 or 586. Where are the six hundred years to be inserted? conceivable that about six centuries have disappeared from Jewish history. 332 by Alexander the Great. too. Cyrus.100 in AGES IN CHAOS are. the years of each of them known from many contemporary Greek authors. Egyptian chronology the standard for the entire world history. conquered the Chaldean-Babylonian Empire. The period of the kings of Jerusalem ended with the exile to Babylon in the days of Nebuchadnezzar. and down the time is to the Greek conquest in is filled with successions when Cambyses overran Egypt. procedure could this have come about? history. and Hittite histories. By what prodigious. of dynasties and kings. lasted until Alexander the Great. the only possibility is that . On the other hand. Babylonian. Dynasty after dynasty ruled in Egypt. which is about six hundred years behind when compared with the history of Judah and Israel. on the other hand. and that because of this disappearance the history contracted so greatly? Where is the historical place of this chasm? Is it There is not a trace of a historical chasm. which Assyria or Babylonia participated in a number of instances. The Assyrian. are distributed and divided on the world timetable ac- with Egyptian history. The Persian king after king. to within a year. Some events of the Assyrian and Babylonian past concerned the Jewish people. century. the rule and The ages of the Minoan and Mycenaean cultures of Crete and the Greek mainland are placed in time in accordance with the chronological scale of Egypt. established with precision. how can a history be shortened? Egyptian firmly settled too. Even with the greatest effort of the imagination the succession of centuries cannot be torn apart to make room for additional ones. or rather illogical. If the fault lies in Egyptian history. in the second half of the same rule. Not only is the Egyptian past fixed. and the history of the countries of the Double Stream is synchronized with Egyptian history. 1580 until the the beginning of the New Kingdom in about is history from time of the Persian rule in 525. the Persian.

and we shall see whether they. that the events of many other peoples are described in wrong succession. reign by reign and age by age. . but with the historians. But that in Jerusalem it was the tenth century while in Thebes it was the sixteenth is an absolute impossibility.THE HYKSOS 101 events of that history are described twice. too. and taught history. Even before we know which of the schemes is wrong we may conclude that the histories of peoples which are in harmony *with the two schemes are in a most chaotic state. I shall set down the events of the time following the expulsion of the Hyksos-Amalekites. coincide and for long. century by century. or that years disappeared six hundred years were doubled in the history of Egypt and in the history of many other peoples as well. then. But this seems to be a preposterous statement. It would follow. By going through the ages we shall soon be able to establish where the fault lies. whoever learned. do better to vestigated. shall. either six hundred missing years will be found in Palestine or six hundred "ghost" years will be discovered in Egypt. which insults the sound judgment of many generations of the entire scholarly world. not with history. Both these alternatives appear to be chimerical: that six We admit that the mistake lies. wrote. and that by juxtaposing the two histories. in- hundred from the history of the Jewish people. in Egypt and in Palestine. and six hundred years are repeated. And if the tenth and the ninth centuries in Palestine are found to be coeval with the sixteenth and fifteenth centuries in how Egypt we shall have additional proof that the identity of the Hyksos and the Amalekites is not at all an arbitrary assumption.

.

Thutmose I. freed from the same oppressor. of gold were the drinking cups of his palace. According to the scriptural narrative. He THE beginning of the famous Eighteenth Dynasty. also achieved grandeur and glory under Amenhotep I. whose kings were native Egyptians and who freed Egypt from the Hyksos. a contemporary of Saul. and presents were brought from near and far. . and a house of worship. garments and spices." He built a palace with a great throne of ivory. he over all the land from the river Euphrates to the land of reigned the Philistines and the border of Egypt. The kings of Arabia paid him tribute. Hatshepsut.Chapter III THE QUEEN OF SHEBA Two Suzerains coincided with the beginning of the line of Kings in Judea. Solomon had one thousand Saul delivered the fatal blow to the chariots and twelve thousand horsemen. Vessels therein were of gold. devastated and destitute in the centuries under the rule of Egypt. rapidly grew in riches. Six hundred threescore and six talents of gold came yearly to his treasury as tribute. The two realms. in the time of Hyksos. entered into trade relations and into relations of kinship. Solomon the realm achieved its splendor. vessels of silver and of gold. after regaining independence under Ahmose. the Hyksos. hegemony of the AmalekitesDavid established Jerusalem as his capital. armor and horses. King Solomon took an Egyptian primcess to be one of his wives. besides the income from tibe traffic of the merchants (I Kings 10:14-15). The kingdom of Egypt. and Thutmose III. and four hundred made cedars in Jerusalem "to be as sycamore trees in the vale of abundance.

it would be the Jordan. VoL II." "After these things" the pharaoh "journeyed to Retenu to wash his heart among the foreign countries/' 1 Nothing positive can be established with these meager remnants except that the pharaoh actually crossed the Sinai Peninsula. which is closer to Egypt. burned Gezer. raiier than owing the Euphrates. he undertook an Asiatic cam- paign "and overthrew the Asiatics. the pharaoh. left inscriptions. the home it of the Philistines as and the Canaanites. and then proceeded peacefully to Palestine (Retenu). then Queen Hatshepsut. where he had some cause for rejoicing. If the Exodus took place at the end of the Middle Kingdom. must have been a contemporary of Solomon. Sec. the great and celebrated queen. It is known only that her father.104 AGES IN CHAOS probably his chief wife. Can it actually be that no memory of her was preserved in the annals of Jerusalem? their foreign relations Two lands in the process of developing of and trade could hardly have been out Breasted. Scriptures talto the scheme The pharaoh. if. which he subdued. according presented here. furthermore. the Hyksos rule was that of Amalekite invaders. The Scriptures do not preserve her name. and gave (I dowry to his daughter Kings 9:16). The northernmost area of Thutmose's domain was Edom in southern Palestine. Thutmose I. He shared the throne with her and made her his successor. This will be exat length in another place. *Thutmose ." It is generally supposed that he meant the Euphrates. 81. Only a few lines of his annals are extant. the third king of the New Kingdom. I described the domain of his influence from Ethiopia to the land of "the inverted waterthe river that flows upstream. made an expedition against southern Palestine. Although very sparse records are preserved from the reign of Thutmose I. But if the Egyptians were amazed by a river Slained southward. whose huge statues confront us in the highceilinged halls of museums. as the Egyptians had the idea that a river like the Ni]e must flow from the south to the north. Records. whose name is also omitted in the mudic tradition calls him Shishak was. waged a campaign of conquest in PhiHstia. 2 he was often mentioned as the father of Queen Hatshepsut. and figures of herself in abundance. By "the river that flows upstream*' is meant the Jordan. basreliefs. Hatshepsut. Besides a military expedition into Nubia.

(courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art!) Plate II: QUEEN HATSHEPSUT .

.

Neither would it accord with our idea of King Solomon. Breasted. be very for these two rulers were no ordinary occupants of throne singular. If Solomon was this really a renowned king. but very excellent suzerains. . Montgomery. The Punt reliefs in Breasted. halls.THE QUEEN OF SHEBA 105 touch during the reigns of Solomon and Hatshepsut. London. The complete record of Deir el Bahari (Memoirs of 1894-1908." and "all the earth sought to Solomon. indeed. was Solomon's policy of . and Nor would it fit our notion of the adventure-loving character of or the Queen Hatshepsut. 12-14. neither of whom broke the peace of their countries. 29). . Vol. Chapter 9 of the Second Book of Chron^cholars following the established construction of history could not close ambitious and inventive their eyes to the similarity of these enterprises: **. developing a maritime route on the Red Sea. the reigns of both were the glorious periods of these two Both of them built palaces countries. It would. p. A. as the Hebrew sources describe him. Vols. 19. Sec. not by war. each possessed a fleet on the Red Sea and sent it on adventurous expedi8 tions. Records. Arabia and the Bible (Philadelphia. 176.) 7' . (I Kings 10:24. but by peaceful enterprises. Was the queen of Egypt excluded from "all the kings"? From Where Did The visit of the Queen of Sheba Come? is the most illustrious of Solomons guests recorded twice in the Scriptures. II. and magnificent temples. 1934). The old vigor ot Egypt as displayed by Queen Hatshepsut in her navigation of those waters had long since disappeared/ J. then the absence of any contact between this queen king is difficult to explain. Kings 4:34. The Temple the Egyptian Exploration Fund. whose capital was visited by ambassadors from many countries 6 and who had personal contact with many sovereigns: "And all the kings of the earth sought the presence of Solomon (II Chronicles 9:23). the fame praise: "Thy name reaches as of Makere (Hatshepsut) en- the sea. 27.. . 325. Vol. may be found in Edouard Naville. . IE. circles words of far as the circuit of heaven. 269. both enriched their countries. The "I Karnak obelisk.. Records. . 16." 4 and Tier fame has encompassed the Great Circle" 5 (ocean). Sec.

"In the Land of the Queen of Sheba. who saw not fiction but real adven- ture in the story. was their queen. with a very great company. 1932). 38 (1934). But Ethiopia South. This view is supported by the Koran 23:42). A. ." American Journal of Archaeokgy. Neither of the two Talmuds contains any clear historical reference They *Cf. *Kebra Nagast. vies witib Arabia for the fame of the Queen of the The kings of Ethiopia claim descent from Menelik. the (Sura XXVII). she communed with him of all that was in her heart. 1904). HaI6vy. L. unsuccessfully sought some historical remnants of the life and reign of the Queen of Sheba. 1 The land over which the Queen most scholars as the their hands. Budge as The Queen of Sheba end Her Only Son Menyetek. who. which carry this tradition. inhabitants of the land of in Arabia Felix. did she find a splendid and generous king in Jerusalem and not a poor vassal prince who was never mentioned in the history of other countries? Many this are inclined to believe that there is no historical basis for legendary romance. believe that the The Yemenites. Ecole pratique des Hautes Etudes. which put bracelets upon and beautiful crowns upon of their heads" (Ezekiel Saba (Sheba) Sheba was their queen. to prove And when Is this story a fairy tale? Did a fairy queen come from a mysteri- ous land with jewels and other marvelous things? If she really came. the land of the "Sabeans from the wilderness. possess medieval manuscripts." Annuaire. Queen and with rich oriental imagery they ornament the story of her life and of her visit to Jerusalem.106 icles AGES IN" CHAOS repeats almost verbatim the story of Chapter 10 of the First Kings. and precious stones: and when she was come to Solomon. she Solomon with hard questions at Jerusalem. Legrain. being the Book of the Glory of 4 k Kings (Oxford. a son of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. they insist. 1905 (Paris. and gold in abundance. W. Xa L6gende de reine de Saba. with texts composed in the 2 early Christian centuries. and camels that bare spices. the Book of came queen of Sheba heard of the fame of Solomon. J. others. translated from the Ethiopian by E. district of of Sheba ruled is identified by Saba (Sheba) in southern Arabia.

Budge). The genealogy of the Abyssinian emperors. Ecole pratique des Hautes Etudes. Travelers have been unsuccessful though they have turned every stone in southern Arabia which promised an answer to the riddle. But the tradition that some 'Queen of the South* did visit Solomon is so old and so widespread. 8 See L. who wished to be recognized as the seed of Solomon and the Queen of the South. Ecole pratique des Haute* Etudes. Annuaire. when she heard of Solomon's virtue and understanding. or was she a legendary character from a fairyland? In the Jewish Antiquities of Josephus we find the story of the 7 Queen of Sheba introduced by these words: Now the woman who at that time ruled as queen of Egypt and Ethiopia was thoroughly trained in wisdom and remarkable in other ways. 9* 'See Hal6vy. However the opinion is expressed in the Talmud that "Sheba" in the name Queen of Sheba is not a geographical designation but a personal name. however small. or of Ethiopia. 329-37. was led to him by a strong desire to see him which arose from the 8 things told daily about his country. Legrain. VIH. Jewish Antiquities. and. is accepted with the same lack of belief as all similar genealogies of and demigods. 38 (1934). must be hidden somewhere in it/' 6 Yaman [Yemen] Was the Queen of the South a queen of Saba (Sheba) in Arabia. Here we have a clear indication: "queen of Egypt and Ethiopia. p. being removed some six hundred years from 'Compare Babylonian Talmud. Systematic excavations have been possible in southern Arabia only in the last few years. which produced 5 kings many treatises and commentaries. Tractate Baba Batra 15b. 6. 165. that a kernel of historical fact. viL See also Hatevy. 1905 (1904). Research. *Josephus.THE QUEEN OF SHEBA 8 107 to the mysterious adventurous queen. Annuaire. American Journal of Archaeology. 4 The very numerous inscriptions of southern Arabia are silent on the Queen of Sheba. arrived at the conclusion expressed by one writer: "We shall never know whether the queen who visited Solomon was a pure-blooded Abyssinian or an Arab queen from or Hadramaut or some other part of the great Arabian peninsula. *Kebra Nagast (trans. . T Josephus did not name the queen. 1905 (1904). But Egyptian history. after exhausting all material.

series. moved along six hundred years and put at the right place. called her father being the god Ra. Vol. 1. It *The country on the Nile south of the Second Cataract. 9 The history of Egypt. series of reliefs in * They are as beautiful in execution as they are important land. Where Did Queen Hatshepsut Go? Most Splendid of Splendors" at Deir el Bahari near Thebes in Egypt was built against a semicircular wall of cliffs. tells the story of a journey to the land of Punt or the Holy Land (Divine. It . would make it difficult to explain the absence of any reference story of Queen Hatshepsut in the Hebrew annals. They are accessible only from the north by a steep and difficult path leading to the summit of the ridge that divides Deir el Bahari from the wild and desolate valley of the Tombs of the Kings. The record was written. God's Land). 246." 1 On the walls of this temple are engraved bas-reliefs describing the life and the most important events of the reign of Queen Hatshepsut. "These cliffs of white limestone. Memoir. Introductory II. And it conforms. which are opposite to and symmetrical with the first series. of course. 3 Naville. "These are undoubtedly the most interesting Egypt. . form an absolutely vertical barrier. which time and sun have coloured rosy yellow. was then described as Ethiopia. Records. Deir el Bahari. Sec. . Is the Queen of Sheba the story of Queen Hatshepsut? to the The most convincing proof. or the modern Sudan. could not present a woman ruling in Egypt and Ethiopia. the goal of the expedition in had all the features of a mythical in content. A magnificent temple called "The One series tells the story of her divine birth." 2 must have been a blessed ships propelled by sail and oar. would be presented if a record of the voyage to Jerusalem by Queen Hatshepsut were found and if it conformed with the account in the annals of the kings of Jerusalem.108 AGES IN CHAOS the synchronical point with Israelite history. It is preserved. p. Another the Punt reliefs. breasted.

gold and silver and precious stones. 1934). 28. Vol. In an utterance by Amon. Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries (2nd ed. 62. See E.THE QUEEN OF SHEBA 109 3 land of happy fields and hills. W. Schoff." 7 Amenhotep III. Then. Glaser.. 8 Byblos was the old capital official of An 'Suggested by Chabas. they composed the bulk of the population. showing that the Egypaffiliated in by the tians regarded Punt as a land some way with Egypt. the whereabouts of Punt probably would be no problem. Plants about which the inscription says. White men of a north-Semitic or Caucasian race 4 lived there. Pt IH. p. dating from the time of the later part of the Eighteenth Dynasty. in her ships. Besides these/' these trees. as is also part of the population*' (ibid. 176.. I cause to come to thee the countries of Punt." Mitteilungen. a heavy load. 8 VoL H. . Deir el Bahari. p.. In a number of Egyptian inscriptions Punt is mentioned as situated to the east of Egypt. Were it not for the bas-reliefs with the exotic animals and plants. of the Sixth Dynasty left a laconic record stating that he visited Byblos and Punt eleven times. dark-skinned men in Punt. Montgomery.). Vorderasiatisch-dgyptische GeseUschaft (Berlin. there were a few entirely different. 1899). 1912). n. "Punt und die siidarabischen Reiche. p. there are the following words: "When I turn my face to the sunrise . *Naville. they are identified as having belonged to African fauna number of monkeys and a panther. H. Where was the land of Punt? Many been theories concerning the location of the land of Punt have advanced. the pictures show. 5 The plants were indigenous 6 to the southern Arabian coast. 12. IV. Sec. Lucas. Ibid. p. 892. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (New York. The name of Punt or Divine (God's) Land is not accompanied sign designating a foreign country. Arabia and the Bible. Records. p.. Animals were led a on ropes. "Since the beginning of the world never were seen trees like were brought from Punt by the Egyptian expedition. proud and handsome. "TBreasted. there were gifts of ivory and ebony. but it has remained uncertain. These Queen Hatshepsut brought home. London. a ''"The animals represented in the sculptures are exclusively African. 218. 93. C A.

1899. and in the following chapter. Mitteilungen. die von den Einwohnern und den Prodttkten des Landes uberltefert werden" Glaser. The name Punt or Pont can be traced to "Pontus. 33f. p. created a division of opinion among the scholars.110 of Phoenicia. The elaborate pageant." as narrated by Sanchoniaton. p. . the fauna and flora. Punt must have been asvisited eleven tunes by the officer sociated with Byblos. In an inscrip- tomb of a general of Thutmose IV. Mitteilungen. 53. 10 Palestine and Syria were never included among the possibilities. 11 the presence of the white people was easiest: they have migrated to that country. To account for by Eusebius in Preparation for the Gospel. The majority of the population is north-Semitic or Caucasian. IV (1899). which is rich in foliage. There are also numerous Punt and God's Land we shall read some of them tion in the is inscriptions that mention products of as being obtained in Palestine (Retenu). God's (Divine) Land is often mentioned in the Egyptian inscriptions as the land which produced frankincense. The animals and the few negroids are African. the early Phoenician writer. "Lucas. and if the rare trees were these frankincense plants. Palestine (Retenu) called God's Land. Ancient Egyptian Materials (2nd ed). 9 Sidon was a Phoenician metropolis. 93. As the bas-reliefs of Deir el But all Bahari showed exotic animals and plants. its AGES IN CHAOS ruins are eighteen miles north of Beirut. and being mentioned together with Byblos. a building inscription of Amenhotep III one generation later also refers to Palestine as God's Land. the Somalian frankincense does not leaf as depicted in the basrelief. The plants are south-Arabian. Vorderasiatisch-tigyptische Geselkchaft. father of Poseidon and Sidon. "Glaser. 12 The people of Punt were might Philo of Byblos as quoted 10. zoologists and botanists were called by the historians to determine the place to which they were indigenous. Vorderasiattech-tigyptische GeseUschaft. 27. Having been coming from Egypt. *>"Uin seine Lage genauer zu bestimmen. I. these points were not even considered by scholars who tried to locate Punt or God's Land. they must have been of the Arabian variety. sind wir au$$chlte$slich auf die Abblldungen angewiesen.

as some authorities thought. The Struggle of the Nations (New York. XXIV (1938). whence six hun- dred years later a fairy queen came to Solomon in Jerusalem? 17 Or did the expedition of Hatshepsut arrive at the Somali shore. Vorderasiattech-agyptische GeseUschaft. The designation "Eritrean Sea" covered as well as the Red Sea. exhausted all entered into the dispute. the same two southern Arabia and the highland of Somali with Ethiopia means of finding out whether the Queen of the South came from Saba or from Ethiopia. A review of opinions. 14 Tbe statement of an official of the Old Kingdom that he visited Byblos and Punt eleven times was understood to mean that the Byblos in Syria eleven times and Punt in eastern Africa or southern Arabia eleven times.THE QUEEN OF SHEBA Phoenicians. 33f . 182-84. 234). Like the biblical scholars who the Egyptologists exhausted every source without arriving at a final decision as to whether Queen Hatshepsut sent her expedition to southern Arabia or to the African coast "Herodotus. R. 13 and this seemed to sustain the theory that Punt was in eastern Africa. Lepsius. Maspero. taking a position chiefly for or against southern Arabia and Somaliland. 1897). p. 15 official visited still that Punt was to the east of Egypt complicated further the obscure problem of African fauna and Asiatic flora. "Three Old Kingdom Travellers to Byblos and . Mitteilungen. 1899. p. 17 G. The Puntites would have been the ancestors of the Phoenicians. Nubische Grammatik (Berlin. Maspero ascribed to Eduard Meyer the belief that the inhabitants of Punt were the ancestors of the Sabeans (Geschichte de$ Altertums. Compare Glaser. as the 111 name implies. shows how hopelessly confused The indication the problem is. 18 See the various opinions presented by G. 247." Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. the other land which claimed to be the birthplace of the Queen of Sheba? With regard lands to the origin of the Queen of Sheba. the paper of Newberry. from a passage in Herodotus. and their presence in Somaliland could be inferred. "Cf. of Pwenet. however Meyer thought Punt was in Africa. the Indian I. 1880). 16 Did the expedition of Queen Hatshepsut undertake the voyage into the faraway kingdom of Saba. pp. who wrote that the Phoenicians at an early date came from the Eritrean Sea to the Mediterranean. It was certain only that all Ocean 1 and VII. 89.

p. Was the Divine Land the region of Jerusalem? Palestine is east of lower Egypt. would have come neither from Saba in Arabia nor from the Somali coast of Ethiopia. she. her destination most probably would have been neither southern Arabia nor Somaliland. 1899. Deir " . 22: Hatshepsu's fleet undoubtedly sailed for the coasts of Africa and not for those of Arabia. both foreign to Palestine. 1886). or God's Land. also the Divine." . but will strongly I shall support it. lay upon Red Sea. 18 with a population of handsome men. el . Breasted translated by Naville as Divine Land and by as God's des alten Aegypten. Holy. ahari. with exotic animals. Queen Hatshepsut a contemporary of Solomon. Geschichte J. . a Solomon's judgment was urged. Mitteilun- W f&n. with marvelous plants. outside of Egypt but touch with it. Lieblein. 19 In the previous chapters a synchronism was presented between was found to be Egyptian and Hebrew histories. but from Thebes in Egypt. [the Egyptian] religious texts ascribe both shores of the southern end of the an almost legendary character. Introductory Memoir. "Geographic des alten Aegypten (Berlin. Meyer. is Land in Egyptian inscriptions. it had a white north-Semitic population. but Jerusalem. be a hindrance to the identification here proposed.112 AGES IN CHAOS in somewhere. and the land of Punt Finally. was a blessed land of riches called Punt. Voiderasiatisch-agyptische Gcselkchaft. Diimichen. Glaser. Handel und Schifahrt auf dem Roten Meere in alien Zeiten (Christiania [Oslo]. But tie flora and fauna of the bas-reliefs. and the men (negroids) will not only cease to plants. If Queen Hatshepsut were herself the Queen of the South. J." in E. now pass on to the description of the expedition. After that the identification will be tested against other references to Punt and Divine ^Neterto [Toneter] Land. was divided between the Arabian Land of Saba and African Somaliland. The rare the animals. See also Navifle. but we are not justified in The land to which their limiting the land of Punt to the African coast alone* . 1879*87). would appear to be a double anomaly. of course.

in the Geber. Soon they recognized the advantages of the southern route. 3 When tines. the Phoenicians of Tyre and Sidon resumed their Circle** (the full maritime activity and sent their ships to "the Great Sea. Thutmose I. Solomon built a harbor in the Aqaba Gulf of the Red Sea. this route much other reasons. the Amalekites were destroyed and their allies. when the maritime nations were lost together with their ships. 25. to the overseas countries. a short the Nile. through Auaris and Gezer. . Timaeus. and burning Gezer. The way across the Sinai Peninsula sut's desire to display the splendor of her new fleet.THE QUEEN OF SHEBA US The Way from Thebes The to Jerusalem shortest route from Thebes to Jerusalem is not along the Nile the coast of the Mediterranean. and from Aqaba overland to Jerusalem. land of Edom. little more than distance was preferred for various was not safe: It led through the last settlements of the Amalekites and Philistines. daring ventures had been few and far between. 1 a harbor on the Red Sea. stopping at night to rest in tents pitched in the middle of the desert. carried on a campaign in this region. clearing it of rebellious bands of Amalekites and Philistines. For a long time the Atlantic Ocean was agitated by tectonic ruptures in a subsiding bottom. up then by ship across the Red Sea and along the Aqaba (Aelana) Gulf. Still another reason for traveling by sea was probably HatshepBesides being shorter. and then to el-Qoseir. The seaway was safer. Red Sea has been mentioned. i KINGS 9:26 Since the great cataclysm. the Red Sea route is only a and half its distance: from Thebes to Coptos. Also a voyage by ship was more comfortable for the queen than a long journey in a chariot or in a palanquin. by the Red olden times the harbor of el-Qoseir on the as the starting point of travel to the Divine Land. And king Solomon made a navy of ships in Ezionwhich is beside Eloth. the Philissubjugated. ocean). the father of Hatshepsut. Plato. on the shore of the Red Sea.

voyages. and precious stones/' 1 Before the queen undertook the voyage a preliminary exploring mission was sent out The record of the visit of this mission is preserved in the Haggada. . Ibid. navy of Hiram. But in rabbinical writings it is recounted of the queen that she arrived on a ship after a long voyage by the sea. Paruah Met the Herald of the Queen Solomon inspected Ezion-Geber before the queen . and with sea. few lines after the above passage in Chronicles the story of the it is And visit of the Queen of Sheba begins. H. had To all Thebes to the other reasons for choosing the maritime route from Palestine. this. 9:27 And Hiram knowledge sent in the navy his servants. . In disregard The Phoenician king Solomon and his friendship. sought an alliance with King because of the naval base of Ezion-Geber in the land of Edom. and to Eloth . " In the Scriptures it is not said that the Queen of Sheba made the first part of her journey by ship." to Ezion-Geber. . . with the servants of Solomon. E. vassal to Solomon. Sura XXVII (trans. "Then went Solomon 8:17). Palmer). arrived. . may be added: the queen was inter- ested in visiting the new harbor from which the Phoenician and Hebrew fleets were sail to starting their three-year Ophir. (II Chronicles A here that one would expect the expedition to land. pearls The Queen of Sheba "assembled all the ships of and loaded them with the finest kinds of wood. I am Ginzberg. 2 The Koran 8 also tells of the preliminary expedition: "Said she [the Queen of Sheba]: *O ye chiefs .114 AGES IN CHAOS of Tyre. . shipmen that of the sea. 144. Legends. IV. too. Hiram. possibly of their practice of allowing no one to know the secrets of their Solomon with them. *The Koran. the Phoenicians took the sailors of I KINGS 10:22 For the king had at sea a navy of Tharshish with the .

this picture probably shows the preliminary expedition or the arrival of the herald of the queen. Also in Kebra Nagast (trans. possessor of three and seventy ships and leader of a merchant caravan. of the sea. into the domain of Jehoshaphat. the son of Paruah. from the left a chief approaches. * and in Aloth Jehoshaphat the son of Paruah. See also J. . Aloth and Eloth being the same. swimming about The chief is called a tent is serves to indicate that the place is or Paruah). Paruah must have been Solomon's representative in the land of Edom. which indicates that he and his family were residents and probably natives of the place. According to the reading "on both sides of the sea. Budge). The reading then would be: ". appar6 ently. son of Paniah. 35) same suggestion that the place Aloth be transferred to the next verse. On the picture Paruah is an elderly man with no insignia of sovereign power. W. 95. and a few other members of his family.THE QXJEEN OF SHEBA going to send to 115 them a "* gift. fish el Bahari is depicted the right a "king's messenger" advances at the head of his soldiers. . disfigured by elephantiasis. the Ethiopian legend about "the of the South/* an Ethiopian emissary by the name of Tannin. In a context having no relation to the question presented here. A line of From water with on the coast. he appears to have been the chief of EzionGeber. visited Jerusalem and on returning to his queen "he rekted unto her how he had arrived in the and all that he had heard and seen/' country of Judah and Jerusalem 4 Queen . where both shores can be seen. possibly an Edomite vassal of his. his father. made the Albright (Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society. 1929). a position of minor importance. Samaria in Ahab's Time (Edinburgh. and the last word of 4:17 to the following verse." In this case the son remained governor where his father had served in the same capacity. p. Jack. He is accompanied on this mission by his wife. administered the same region. . was governor in Ezion-Geber and Eloth. V [1925]. Among the twelve governors of King Solomon at a later period in his reign (when some of these officials were his sons-in-law) one was a son of Paruah (I Kings 4:17). e lt appears that the last word in I Bangs 4:16 belongs to the next verse." the harbor was situated on opposite shores. Ezion-Geber was built by Solomon on the Gulf of Aqaba. . and will wait to see with what the messengers return/ In the lower corner of the bas-relief in Deir a landing place." 5 On "a chief of Punt P'-r'-hw" (Perehu written: "Pitching the tent of the king's messenger and his army on it is Since the myrrh-terraces of Punt on the side placed on the extreme lower part of the mural. Jehoshaphat.

normal from the Egyptian point of view. way toward ." L This is an exceedingly beautiful bas-relief of the fair fleet of the queen. The inscription reads: "Sailing in the sea. and her figure was taller than the masts. VoL . journeying in peace to the land of Punt. . with tall masts and flying sails.116 AGES IN CHAOS is consequently that of Edom. 2 leads one to infer that it was Breasted. among the common people. while two are still moored. may be the The landscape "alia" which we find in the Scriptures. II. Sec. with prows curved like lotuses. the august likeness must not humble herself by being in the company of common sailors. The very importance ascribed to this expedition. beginning the goodly Land. The buildings penthouse. It is probable that the fleet consisted more than five ships as the pictures are partially destroyed. This manner of representation. . three are under sail. Hatshepsut Led the Expedition to the Divine Land The next picture shows the departure of a fleet of five vessels. sometimes constructed on piles. . Queen Hatshepsut was portrayed beside the ships. Each ship had a crew of about fifty men to a shift. This is in accord with of 7 the rules of Egyptian art: the Egyptian artist did not picture a royal person. 253. Kings and queens were drawn oversize like giants among dwarfs. **Hat$hepsu did not prize her military laurels as highly as her naval expedition to the land of Punt. God's . But it is clearly apparent that she herself participated in this voyage. a room reached by a ladder from the outside. . This was "the very great company* (II Chronicles 9:1). We see the small with penthouses. was the reason for a curious oversight The expedition to the Divine Land is described in modern histories of Egypt as an expedition sent by the queen. The considerable space wnicu these sculptures cover. Of course a figure as tall as that could not have been placed on the deck. The queen herself is not shown on a ship. half of them on either side of the ship. Records. which makes it the most prominent event of her reign.

. 11. the Haggada. Deir el Bahari. a command was heard from god himself. 11. too. 285. for the fashioner of her beauty. Sec. If it were an ordinary commercial expedition to Punt. takes staff in hand: Queen Hatshepsut undertook . hearing an inner bidding. mentioned that he "had gone eleven times to Byblos and Punt.THE QXJEEN OF SHE^A her 117 it Splendid of Splendors as a counterpiece to the depiction of her divine birth."4 Why. Pt. Of all the events of her reign chiseled on the wall of the temple of the Most own was chosen to have perpetuated have been close to Egypt. Ill. 'Breasted. all prove how highly the queen valued the achievements of her ships. VoL p. Sec. an oracle of the to Punt should be searched out. in which an official." The fact that Punt was "written without the sign indicating a foreign country" (together with its frequent mention in inscriptions ) "seems to show that the Egyptians considered they were in some way connected with that country. VoL n. this is intimated in various references on Egyptian monuments. 247. in Records. 8 Punt must be experience. and she thought it was her god. It was an oracle or a mysterious voice that Queen Hatshepsut heard within her. and Josephus. p. already cited. who lived at the time of the Sixth Dynasty.. Records. . . Pt HI. then. but only meager and prosaic data are preserved. such as the one. and took pride in their results/' Naville. unless she herself were the visitor? Would the meeting of some royal messenger with a chief Paruah have been an event that the queen would have wanted to immortalize as a thing "that had never happened"? the journey like a devout pilgrim who. that the ways the great throne. 'Breasted. de- the fullness of the details. collected the earlier references to voyages to the land of Punt "None of these sources contains more than the meagerest reference to the fact of the expedition/* 4 Naville.. II. and the exquisiteness of the work. why should the records it so elaborately and with such pomp? In previous times persons and missions had already been sent to Punt. Like the Punt inscription. Deir el Bahari. that the highways to the myrrh-terraces should be penetrated: "I will lead the army on water and on land. to bring marvels from 5 /' God's land for this god. would the queen create such excitement over the visit there and acclaim it in great festivals.

The route led the royal fleet into the The sail. "I have led them on water and on land. were obviously impressed by the handsome appearance of the Israelite warriors. the intense blue of the water as the gulf suddenly deepens. snow-capped massif of Mount Sinai. therefore. imperative desire that inspired the was considered a divine command. give this silent chasm an eerie character. e What did the ancient Israelites look like? josephus. 6 There there is is also no known precedent of a woman on the throne of Egypt. 'With the possible exception of Sebelcnofcrure at the end of the Twelfth Dynasty. . and the red slopes of the Edom highland." indicate that the voyage did not end at the coast (Ezion-Geber). from there the queen with her royal train proceeded on land. Sec. The steep. "with great splendor and show of wealth" (Josepbus). In the days of Amalekite sovereignty this region was visited by neither Israelites nor Egyptians. was an exploring expedition. II. breaking his mast in a whirlwind. 288. the resplendent pilgrims to the city of wisdom were escorted by the royal guard. "the camels were laden with gold and various spices and precious stones". This journey of the queen. The queen and her train. Jewish Antiquities. a visit of homage ships of Hatshepsut rode the waves under full toiled at the oars. and I have reached the myrrh-terraces. 165f. including her royal artist. have led them [the company of the expedition] on water and on he waters of inaccessible channels. towering at the entrance to the gulf. 7 no known previous instance of a ruler of Egypt paying to a foreign sovereign. crimson at dawn. The caravan moved toward Jerusalem. 'Breasted. VIE. In the time of Solomon this danger was probably not apprehended. It is a perilous gulf. Records. If a north wind enters this channel it may capsize the careless sailor. scarlet in the twilight. to explore The words. 8 I land.118 AGES IN CHAOS queen and that scribe this strong. the crew narrow chan- nel of the Aelana (Aqaba) Gulf. Vol. the shallow water at the mouth lying among reefs and coral isles.

2167. In the valley of ruined Jericho abundant springs watered gardens in the desert. saffron. Legends. But here on the Punt reliefs the We have moment appearance of dignified. Here the slopes of the hills were cut which are seen even today. who remained in Jerusalem to await his august guest. only the gods and the pharaohs are shown with beards. and cinnamon. *Cf. fruits. concerning the aromatic substances used in the Herodian Temple. . that the appearance of foreign soldiers. their eyes set deep." and the queen was amazed. *M. 1893 )> p. should express more nobility and grace than the figures of the Egyptians themselves. a scene of desolation. The beards of the captives are round and untrimmed. their noses are aquiline. 10 the evening star and the lily. their beards resembling is the dwellers in God's Land the beard of the god Ra. produced for The Egyptians are pictured beardless. where lava gushed from the interior of the earth and congealed in fantastic forms. and a great part of form of terraces. Myrrh. for the most part they are portrayed at the of their execution. IV. Neue Beitrage zur semitischen Sagenkunde (Leiden. leaving stony Petra on the right. pictured by the Egyptians. them was cultivated on these terraces. King Solomon.THE QUEEN OF SHEBA 119 been accustomed to seeing the Syrian prisoners sculpthe Egyptian craftsmen of later longs of the Eighteenth by Dynasty. and it never happened again. the article "Incense" in Encyclopedia Biblica. col. roots were used in the Temple of Jerusalem. 213. cassia. and also of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Dynasties. and runs along the Dead Sea. The road in the rises to Jerusalem. The Glorious Region of God's Land The route goes up the valley of the Araba. II. their chins protruding. fragrant herbs. Griinbaum. sent a procession of handsome youths to meet her. 1 Almonds. Ginzberg. and they budded and blossomed the greater part of the year. They were "like the sunrise. and nard. "socratic." the tured figures helpless. Vol. The impression in a legend about the the Judean guard made on the guests is also told visit of the Queen of Sheba. sweet spices. 145. 9 It is unprecedented.

'Breasted. But if it was a text that was erased and not a likeness. II.120 2 AGES IN CHAOS trade." In the lower row there appear to have been one of which was the queen. . to the house of the Lord. as part of her cartouche figures. is Proverbs 7:17. 167. Records. 288. Jewish Antiquities. what was peculiar in this text that it had to be erased by the order of her jealous successor. 'Naville. But several of the pictures on that part of the mural which portrayed the sojourn in God's Land have been erased: thirds of the short wall on which was sculptured the description of the Land of Two Punt huge between two defaced fields is still recognizable. to the king's palace such seen before in the land of Judah. VIII. and aloes used by the maidens of Judea to perfume their beds. in particular by mentally grasping with ease the ingenious problems she set him. The Temple of Deir el Bahari. but the most upon terraces were in the middle n CHRONICLES were none 9:11 And the king made of the algum * trees terraces . The Egyptians would have considered it a dishonor to see a picture of their queen in society and as a guest in the house of a foreign ruler. She wondered at the pageant of the blooming splendid groves of trees planted of Jerusalem. 6 destroyed. p. 22. "Josephus. grew there. which follow I Kings 10:2-3. ." 5 Whether there was a likeness of Solomon on the bas-reliefs of the temple of the Most Splendid is impossible to say. 8 The queen who came from the plains of Egypt later wrote on stone: PUNT RELIEFS: I have reached the myrrh-terraces. It is a glorious 4 region of God's land. Vol. and and there "And the king received her gladly on her arrival and was studious to please her in all ways. Would she picture herself with her host? On the bas-reliefs she communes only with the god Amon. hills. Thutmose III? Genesis 43:11. Sec.

there was no more spirit in her" (I Kings 10:4-5). which she had heard before.THE QTJEEN OF SHEBA 121 Whether details of the queen's visit in the palace of Jerusalem were originally pictured on the bas-relief or not. false report that reached us/* 3 Jewish Antiquities.. and the attendance of his ministers. . She praised "the greatness of the marvels. of from mouth to mouth by hearsay of The queen wished to see with her own eyes the land of which she had heard marvelous reports. 170-71. until I came. and behold. It . Records. for she "AH things indeed. but what she saw exceeded her expectations. she dissimilar: compared with what she herself witnessed. she repeated in Thebes. showed was by no means a Breasted. the half was not told me. trust it . In the Scriptures the words of the queen are not I KINGS 10:6-7 And she said to the king. PUNT RELIEFS: the ancestors. It was a true report that I heard in mine own land of thy acts and of thy wisdom. since the beginning" (Punt reliefs). Josephus wrote: [She] was not able to contain her amazement at what she saw. She decided to tread and to explore that land (*1 have led them on water and land"). O. and their apparel. The stories of the Divine Land." she said.. thy wisdom and prosperity exceedeth the fame which I heard. 7 In Thebes she had heard about the land of the terraces. When the queen saw the palace of the king. the strong impression which the queen received there and which she expressed in Jerusalem. . . VIH. was heard . . and mine eyes had seen it. and his ascent by which he went up into the house of the Lord. VoL II. to address the king. 274. King. "that come to our knowledge through hearsay are received with mis. and his cupbearers. which happened to her" and wrote: "Never did the like happen under any gods who were before. Sec. but was moved clearly how much admiration she felt. Howbeit I believed not the words. and she found it glorious. "and the sitting of his servants. she reached that country ("I have reached the myrrh-terraces").

To know for herself. If the sovereign of Egypt. the guest." (I Kings 10:9). and the king. .. therefore "because he [Amon] so made he thee king. gifts. . the .. the scene of the loading for the return voyage. . spices great abundance. much loves the King of Upper and Lower Egypt. there might well be truth in the words of the First Book of Kings: "King Solomon exceeded all the kings of the earth for riches. . . and so she undertook the pilgrimage to the myrrh-terraces.122 AGES IN CHAOS is The emphasis in these quotations and in the Punt inscription alike laid on the comparison of that which came "to our knowledge through hearsay" with that which was witnessed. It is indeed my place of delight . . was astonished at the sight of Jerusalem's splendor. abode of happy men: "Happy are thy men. I conciliated them by love that they might give to thee praise. The queen described her impressions in the following sentences addressed to the god Amon: "It is a glorious region of God's Land. she had to visit the Divine Land.* What was the desire of the Queen of Sheba? "The Desire of the Queen of Sheba" The "desire of the the temple of Queen of Sheba" is pictured on the walls of the Most Splendid. the land of plenty. The gifts are shown in the presen- tation scene. exchanged precious "And she gave the king a hundred and twenty talents of gold. . and of 9:9). . and precious stones" (II Chronicles After the interpolation concerning the almug trees brought by Solomon's navy from Ophir. happy are these thy Blessed be the Lord thy God" (I Kings 10:8-9)." The manner of expression ascribed to the Queen of Sheba in speaking about King Solomon is not unlike that which Queen Hatshepsut used in respect to herself: because the Lord loved Israel for ever.." The land seemed to the queen an servants. the host. not through hearsay. Hatshepsut .. whatsoever she asked. ." The queen. the story proceeds: "And King Solomon gave to the queen of Sheba all her desire.

tens of thousands.. Records.. thousands and hundreds: 1 reception of the marvels of Punt. . Solomon and Hatshepsut vied with each other not only in gifts but also in appreciation of the generosity of the other. and every costly stone" (Punt la-TiTli. and she remalachite. there came no more such abundance of of spices as these which the queen II. The PUNT RELIEFS: Reckoning the numbers. 278. the exact weight of the precious metals she received in the Divine Land. amount and size of the gifts were exceedingly great. officials after silver" and a "double house of silver" (inscriptions of Senmut2 and Thutiy8 ). "precious stones" (I Kings 10:10). . Sec. after measuring and weighing. Breasted. rare in antiquity. and a "floor wrought with gold and silver" (Thutiy). "And the king made silver to be in Jerusalem as stones'* (I Kings 10:27). summing up in millions. "Ibid. She gave gold and received "green gold of the land of (landing scene). Amu" Silver. i n KINGS 10:10 . Records. but the inscriptions of Hatshepsut's the return of the expedition tell about a "house of for construction. A scene of the bas-relief shows the queen weighing the objects herself. and "silver and gold" (weighing scene). was nothing accounted of in the days of Solomon" (I "silver Kings 10:21). but "a floor wrought with . neither was there any such spice as the queen of Sheba gave king Solomon. but just as King Solomon knew the weight of the gold he received. The gifts were exchanged with mutual generosity.THE QUEEN OF SHEBA of dedication to 123 scene of the counting and weighing after the return. so Queen Hatshepsut knew. The queen gave spices in abundance and of the choicest varieties: CHRONICLES 9:9 . 352. Breasted.goH and silver" must be understood as made of these metals.. Vol. . *A "house of silver'* may signify the treasury. Sheba gave to king Solomon... and the scene Amon. 375.* The queen gave ceived 'lapis reliefs). a Sec. Sec. was abundant in the Jerusalem of Solomon. It sounds like an exaggeration that silver was used . hundreds of thousands. VoL II.

93. living animals were also among the royal gifts. by Schoff. and the accurate drawings show that they were of the variety known as cynocephali. . Lucas. like since the world was. and Solomon gave unto the queen of Sheba all her desire. marvels of the countries of Punt. "never was seen the like since the world was. The "best of out number ." Now king we see that this interpolation was made not without reason. minerals. the trees were a genuine sensation and were admired like the plants and other "marvels" brought quite two and a half millennia later by sailors returning from the Western Hemisphere. A picture shows how they were handed over. . seen unto this day. . 8 identified as Boswellia Carteri p. ." myrrh'' was counted in "millions" and found "with- But more than all "marvels" the queen valued some precious trees. The words. Never did the like happen under any gods who were before since the beginning. and There came no such almug trees. The trees were brought from a distant island or continent and a part of them was given to the queen guest. Anti trees are termed myrrh by Breasted. PUNT RELIEFS: Thirty-one Never was seen the anti trees. In both scriptural narratives the story of Hiram's navy that brought back the exotic almug trees (algum trees in Chronicles) from Ophir is placed just between the verses about the presents which the Queen of Sheba gave to Solomon and the words ". Apes were brought to her by servants of the king.124 AGES IN CHAOS it. that brought gold from Ophir. . Ancient Egyptian Materials. brought in from Ophir great plenty of almug trees. The queen received not only metals. and plants." or "unto this day" are alike in the Hebrew and Egyptian sources. 5 brought as marvels of Punt. nor were precious stones. also in great quantities PUNT RELIEFS: Fresh myrrh (anti) in great quantities. and frankincense by NaviHe. . She desired myrrh and she received and of the choicest kinds. i KINGS 10: 11-12 And the navy also of Hiram.

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of Irem. trees. the hieroglyphic and the scriptural. 6 they are dark-skinned and have round heads and and seem to be themselves gifts like the animals and *In the opinion of some scholars the tribute-paying Negroes signify that beside the expedition to Punt there was another expedition to the' African region of Khenthenofer. with cinnamon wood. heaps of gum of anti. with balsam." and are not unlike the Egyptians. ivory wood. with green gold of the land of Amu. But Queen Hatshepsut mentioned also "inhabitants of the [south] country and their chilsilver The dren. the bas-reliefs bringing together what geographically was divided.THE QUEEN OF SHEBA 125 In the same tenth chapter of the First Book of Kings we read that apes were brought to Solomon by the navy of Tharshish* i KINGS 10:22 For the king had at sea a navy of Tharshish with the navy of Hiram: Once in three years came the navy of Tharshish. is inscribed: PUNT RELIEFS: The loading of the cargo-boats with great quantities of marvels of the land of Punt. was brought by the ships of Tharshish. with pure ivory. with ebony. with all the good woods of the Divine Land. and apes. Ivory. . The apes given to the queen were brought from afar. On tusks. The officials of the Divine Land are in the is a line of men approaching with the kneeling men of the upper middle row are called "chiefs gifts. antimony. with inhabitants of the [south] country and their children. and trees of green anti. and silver. the ivory. monkeys. the uppermost row represents the men of Nm'yw or Khenthenofer who look en- two lower rows. and behind them tirely different thick lips. plants. the apes. the and gold and precious stones were enumerated in both records. over the vessels laden with jars of myrrh. and it was not lacking in the bounty bestowed on the queen." In the picture showing the presentation of gifts there are four rows of kneeling men. and peacocks. greyhounds. Never were brought such things to any long since the world was. rare trees. ivory. resin. bringing gold. and apes. with skins of panthers of the south. too. Ehesit wood. the mural. the myrrh for incense. with cynocephali.

in Arabia. are important indications. who could be the representatives of two other ethnic groups? Two foreign lands and peoples are referred to in the chapter on the Queen of Sheba. they sowed and reaped on the way. referring to the opinion of Weill. Legends. who gifts. the West Indies. would participate in the cere- mony of presentation. VHI. in Australia. starting in the Red Sea. . vii. In the West Indies. Different theories place Ophir in Africa east coast. were apparently brought by the Hiram and Solomon. China. in the Persian Gulf. Peacocks abound in South America and Australia. . 8 Were the men from Ophir brought to Palestine? It is not men- tioned in the Scriptures that the navy of Hiram and Solomon brought natives from Ophir. The murals therefore show us the ancient Hebrews. Ceylon. 2. which he ordered to carry all sorts of merchandise to the inland nations and from the sale of these there was brought to the king silver and gold and much ivory and kussiim [Negroes] as and It apes. a faraway place mentioned in the account of the It is quite conceivable that the officers of Solomon's ally. One is the neighboring people of Hiram. and on Madagascar there are no apes.126 AGES IN CHAOS The capital of the Divine Land being Jerusalem. . the king of Tyre: is navy of Hiram brought gold from Ophir. that Josephus was not wrong: expedition word men of Ophir. an3 probably some of the people of Ophir together. Jewish Antiquities. Marcus 'to his translation of Josephus. Malaya. and Peru. and it took four years to circumnavigate the continent "Jewish Antiquities. The chiefs of Irem were therefore the mes7 sengers of Hiram. The picture of the to Punt proves. ^ee VIE. the ancient Phoenicians. vii. The men of Nm'yw or Khenthenofer were probably the men of Ophir. The presence of silver in Ophir its on Ophir and the three years needed for the voyage and return. it was called. Necho II sent a Phoenician expedition around Africa. 373. brought the precious things from afar. a note by R. But Josephus Flavius wrote: The king [Solomon] had many ships stationed in the Sea of Tarsus.* has been supposed that Josephus mistook some other Hebrew of an older source and read it kussiim. V. and also in many other countries." Ophir the other land. the coast of India. See may signify generally Africa. ". Spain. 8 T name of the kings of Tyre. however. 2. the dark sailors of Hiram was the traditional or often recurring Ginzberg. kussiim.

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an uninterrupted feast. and was finished much later.. As it is written and shown on the relief that the fleet of ships landed at Thebes. the apes clung to the rigging. returned to The ivory trees along the were transported in pots. 1911). each carried by four men and gangway by six. Ceschickte des Altertums. 1 But there is no mention of such a canal in the days of Hatshepsut. in the time of the Persian conquest 2 To reach it by The Divine Land being recognized no problem is encountered Nile. a difficult dilemma faced the commentators: either this part of the story was invented for some obscure reason. r. F. many hundred years after Hatshepsut. 105. The The Ships Arrived at Thebes "The ships arrived the Nile. . or in the days of Hatshepsut there must have existed a canal connecting the Nile with the Red Sea. and to display both her fleets. entering inscription to the next bas-relief states simply and clearly: at Thebes. f i (2nd ed. . From Jerusalem she probably traveled to one 117. behold! The load is very heavy. 158. . Die Keflinschriften der Achamenlden (Leipzig.THE QUEEN OF SHEBA The gifts 127 in were exchanged. in the arrival of ships at Thebes on the U . that of the Red Sea and that of the Mediterranean. as the region of Jerusalem. JOSEPHUS: And the queen of Egypt and Ethiopia her own country. 'Herodotus. came to their end. and finally the days and weeks Jerusalem. EL Weissbach. II. p.sailed along the from the Mediterranean. A voyage from Punt in southern Arabia or in Somaliland to Thebes by the sea route would have meant disembarking at elQoseir and journeying overland from there to Thebes. Hatshepsut was obviously eager to see the two sea routes to Palestine. the ships must have. tusks of and jars filled the decks* PUNT RELIEFS: Ye people. 1928). Nile." Thebes is situated on the banks of water. It is known that a waterway connecting the Nile and the Mediterranean with the Red Sea was dug by Pharaoh Necho II.

her skin is gilded with electrum. Terraces of Almug Trees was celebrated in The completion of the journey Thebes by two festivals. 1 success of the expedition to the Divine Land was a personal triumph for the queen. The temple of the Most Splendid of Splendors. for the success of the a new temple and by expedition by erecting constructing terraces and planting in these gardens the costly trees which she had brought from Punt. I KINGS 10:4-5 And when the queen of Sheba had seen .. her fragrance is divine dew. Records. Makere [Hatshepsut] . terraces were laid out. to plant the trees of God's land beside 3 his temple. in the temple and in the palace. VoL H. commanding me to establish in his house. the house that he had built and his ascent by which he went . and she emphasized it. She decided to thank The her Tieavenly father/* the god Amon-Ra. up unto the house of the Lord.. in his garden. the best of myrrh is upon all her limbs. Breasted. to Thebes needs no artificial canal.. my father . the second to the royal court. I have hearkened to for him a Punt The terraces in the Divine (God's) Land impressed the queen. . the ruins of which bear these bas-reliefs. . spirit This path ascended from the lower to the upper terraces planted with algum trees (II Chronicles 9:11).. 295. . shining as do the stars. These celebrations were memorialized in two great murals: the first contains a formal an- nouncement to Amon of the success of the expedition. her odor is mingled with Punt. 274. . . Sec. in the midst of the festival hall. before the whole land.128 AGES IN CHAOS from the Syrian shore the water route of the Phoenician seaports. was built. there was no more in her. and trees were planted. Sec. Ibid..

fr 'o ft i*/ '/iH^NvRuw'jJn^ /N V. .<">: "> i"' v ... ALGUM . .. * Ar<nvv.Pitt mzMfo&fo $' * ^ ! V* J JV& *' fej i* 1 ...

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" On the wall of the Deir el Bahari temple these trees are shown planted. ^'Mariette. p. ) . Ibid. ." (Deir el Bahari [Leipzig. even the service. The queen even emphasized that she built a "Punt" The walls of the temple were adorned with murals of the expedition to the Divine Land. Maspero in The Struggle of the Nations. there came no such almug trees. cited hy G. and Queen Hatshepsut wrote: "Never was seen the like since the world was. The Temple and Its Service Copied The design of the Most Splendid of Splendors in Deir el Bahari did not follow the contemporary Egyptian style. pp. and the opinion was expressed that the original of this imitation had been seen in Punt.." Similar terraces were built and planted facing the temple of the Most Splendid of Splendors. note 2.THE QUEEN OF SHEBA Queen Hatshepsut wrote on ways of the myrrh-terraces'* of the Divine and "I have reached the myrrh-terraces." 129 the wall of her temple that "the high- Land were "penetrated. and the inscription reads: Trees were taken up in God's Land and set in the ground [in Egypt]. forming Not only were garden plateaus at rising levels. 3 The ruins of this temple disclose where and how the terraces were in situated. struck by the strange appearance of the edifice. the gardens imitated. 187T]. 294. 1 during the expedition there a different style of art had been observed. Sec. 10-11. were followed as models. and the style of the temple itself was a memorial to the foreign influence in architecture. * nor were seen until this day". the plan of the Temple Jerusalem. thought that it betrayed a foreign influence. They were planted with the trees about which it is said in Kings: ". and after the return from Punt the temple in Deir el Bahari had been erected. 241. and supposed that Queen Hatshopsitu [Hatshepsut] had constructed it in the model of some buildings seen by her officers in the land of Puanit. The earlier Egyptologists recognized the striking foreign elements in that building.

3 The Divine Land being el Bahari must have had features in the area of Jerusalem. 'Psalms 120-34: "Songs of degrees/' 'See H. 73. in front of the hall was a vestibule. 5 A. This difference in location S must have influenced the architects to alter their plans. but the data in the First Book tors of Kings did not provide sufficient details. Deir el Bahari. Introductory Memoir. portions of it which are still standing give a fair idea of the structure as it was before it was deserted and fell into decay. east. In every generation attempts have been made to reconstruct the Temple of Solomon in drawings or models. was a sovereign fond of building and erecting Bahari which are accounted the most beautiful left to us by Egyptian antiquity. p. The Temple trees. E. The Tomb (New York. This explains the fact that some of their Psalms are called Shir ha-maaloth. of Jerusalem was built upon terraces planted with These terraces were cut by an ascending path. p. the Temple of Jerusalem stood upon an elevation with a distant chain of hills running northeast. pp.130 "It is AGES IN CHAOS an exception and an accident in the architectural 2 life of Egypt" The temple of Deir el Bahari is regarded by many as the most beautiful building in Egypt. The temple at Deir el Bahari was built against a mighty cliff. Although most of the temple of Queen Hatshepsut lies in ruin. "song of the ascent/** The Temple in Jerusalem contained a hall which was three times as long as it was wide. and as they sang they mounted the path. and the reconstruchave had to draw upon their own imagination. Wmlock. The processions of the Levites started on the lowest terrace. However. 134ff. it has the nobility of simplicity and it is free from the heavy ornamentation of the temples of the Rainessides. behind the hall was a sanctuary. she did not make a useless display of gigantic buildings in the desire to dazzle the posterity as did Ramses II. 1. too. Mariette. the temple in Deir common with the Temple of King Solomon. quoted by Naville in The Temple of Deir el Bahari. it probably represents. . Excavations at Deir el Bahri. and south of it. ^Though she [Hatshepsut] edifices lite that of Deir el of Hatshopsitu." Naville in Davis. a more ancient temple of similar architecture was discovered in the vicinity. a Phoenician influence. the large "sea" was most probably placed in the inner court. 1911-1931 1942).

the work of Solomon was what tie Hebrew kingdom appears to us among the empires of the ancient world a little temple suited to a little .** Maspero. shows twelve a damaged priests divided into four orders. . Rows by a colonnade. the terraces were placed at progressively higher levels. Not only the temple architecture but also the temple service in Egypt were given many new features. But adoption of the style and general features of the plan is probable. 747. which changed with the movement of the sun. A relief on a fragment. . ^'Solomon . which only rectangular stone rhythmically can give. the temple was divided into a sanctuary. p. 741. three in each order. in a small way. tt inscription over their heads reads: 'Naville. The Struggle of the Nations. "Compared with the magnificent monuments of Egypt and Chaldea. It was not until the temple of the Most Splendid at Deir el Bahari was constructed that twelve with a high priest heading them. in Deir el Bahari. The court of the temple was surrounded another. vestibule. and a The ratio of tie width to the length of the hall was almost one to three. officiated before the altar. The pillars supporting the terraces and surrounding the inner court were rectangular in form. .THE QUEEN OF SHEBA Slavish imitation 131 would have dictated a location similar to that of the original. they 'imparted a harmonious and appearance. now in the Louvre Museum. people. and a path leading to the temple mounted from one level to of pillars standing on a lower terrace supported the wall of the terrace above. which might rival." Ibid. Introductory Memoir." of the Most Splendid of Splendors was a famous Several scholars have tried to reconstruct its plan. and priests. the palaces and temples of Egypt and Chaldea. and this is implied in the words of the queen that A comparison of the data in Kings with the remnants of the temple of the Most Splendid may help to a better understanding of the form of both buildings. arranged It is erroneous to assert that the Temple of Solomon was a poor m'ajestic building of an obscure Asiatic chieftain who tried to construct a copy of some Egyptian 7 temple. . a hall. of even if only which he nad heard such glowing accounts. with their shadows. 6 This sanctuary. temple was built upon terraces planted with the trees brought from The temple the Divine Land. in the temple of Amon. p. . wanted palaces and gardens and a temple. she ''built a Punt.

composed of the Latin roots pons. One ancient authority regarded "pontifex" as "I pontis. Sec. Vol. Lefebvre.. 679. Les Pontifes de tantieme Rome (Paris. by the high s Amon in Most Splendid of Splendors ." The Origin The obscure of the Words "Pontifex" and "Punt" which means high origin of the word "pontifex. the queen issued a new edict: "Ye shall fulfill of that which my according to my regulations without transgression mouth has given/' and this "in order to establish the laws of his [Amon's] house. the office of the high priest was already established by Ahmose (Histoire des grands pr&tres (PAmon de Karnak [Paris. and he quoted the opinions of the authorities without finding any of them satisfactory. The service and equipment of the temple receive some light from the mention of its High Priest. Another authority thought that the first pontiffs were so called because sacrifices were supposed to have been made on a religious and prerogatives.. before the time of Plutarch. . Bouche-Leclercq." The philological conjecture was: The pontifex was a man who built bridges.132 AGES IN CHAOS priest of Most Splendid of Splendors. Lives. note to Sec. 69). note to Sec. with twelve subordinate priests in four orders/' Ibid. . p. II. . This reform in the religious service was introduced after the visit of the queen to the Divine Land." 9. . 388." The office of the high priest was established in the Egyptian 9 service only at the time of Queen Hatshepsut. 'Breasted. make. the chief of the people. 1871)." can be traced here. or the principal in his person civil magistrate. Compare A. This bridge (faciebant in ponte). 1929]. . "The queen was conscious of the resemblance of the temple-gardens in Deir el Bahari and Punt. "a bridge. Numa is said to have introduced the institution of the high priest or pontifex in Rome.* This explanation is even more strained. . "Numa. who united explanation is obviously very strained. Ibid. where shortly before the House of the Lord had been completed. In connection with her announcement that she made "a Punt" in the garden of Amon. This question had already been debated priest." and facio. 291. Records. Plutarch. But according to G.

B&ard. G. the king of the Phoenicians. sut. p. although the travels of the Phoenicians to the Western Hemisphere and their contacts with the cultures of the Mayas and Incas were taken into consideration by many scholars who of the studied pre-Columbian America. Mitteilungen. Vorderasiatisch-agyptische GeseUschaft. 288ff. 2 Rome waged so-called "Punic Phoenicia does not apGreek and Latin authors Wars" against Car- thage. "The *JL Sethe in (1917). built a "punt" for the god Amon. built with the help of Hiram. L0 Revue de fhistoire des religions. VIII (1927). 356. 1926). This influence craftsman. a Also the territory man common of Hebrew-Phoenician origin (I Kings 7:13-14). "Le Norn des Ph6niciens. w Revue Name d'art oriental et tfarchtolegie. XIV. It not derived from ponsy but probably from Punt. "Phoenicians" was the name used by since Homer. 93 Civilisation phenioienne (Paris. XIII. story who provided Solomon with building material and with the chief Israel. XXXVI ( 1941). Solomon's alliance with Hiram. 187ff.. copying the service of the Temple in Jerusalem. t (1926). this means of worship. believed that the Greek explanation of the word "Phoenibuilt cians" as "the red men" 8 is but a successful adjustment in the style of folk-etymology. after visiting When it is said that Queen Hatshep- Punt. the name pear.THE QUEEN OF SHEBA The word "pontiff" is 133 is not of Latin origin. 272. expedition to Ophir and the peaceful transfer of from the domain of one long to that of the other (I Kings 9:11) might have brought it about that the whole of Palestine at that time was called Phoenicia. which was It is by immigrants from Tyre. Contenau. 305. The other Greek explanation word "Phoenicia" as "the land of palms" is generally rejected. Queen Hata sacred place shepsut also introduced the institution of the high priest. The name Punt being what is the origin of the word "pontiff" (pontifex). built on a Phoenician model. XXI . 183. the origin of the name Punt? In the Scriptures the Phoenicians are called "the men of Sidon and Tyre" or "the men of Hiram". of the Phoenicians/' Classical Philology. exPhoenician influence in the life of the kingdom of plains the strong Judah and is stressed in the Scriptures in the of the erection of the Temple. Bonfante.* *The Odyssey. 1-20. By erecting a "punt" in Egypt. "V. Syria.

or the name of the mythological ancestor could have been derived from the name of the country. Punt was originally the word for Phoenician temples. . Of the same root is "Presence" (of the Lord)-an idea found with the Phoenicians of Carthage. given to the region of Jerusalem in Egyptian inscriptions of the Old and Middle Kingdoms. Albright. Cf. address. The name Divine (or Holy) Land.134 AGES IN CHAOS Pontus." in Guide for the Perplexed. Preparation for the Gospel. chapter "On homonyms in the Bible. I. 1940). father of Sidon. Since then and up to the present have been called "the Holy City" and "the Holy Land/* day they Make-da and Make-ra between the Arabian and Ethiopian traditions for the Queen of the South can be decided against the Arabian claim and rivalry ''Etisebius. Was Jerusalem a holy place before David conquered it. W. and even before the arrival of the is Israelites under Joshua? In the Bible there in times and to a sanctuary in that place. and in this If case the Phoenicians received their name from the houses of worship they built. 8 Even before the conquest of Joshua the land of Jerusalem was called in Egyptian inscriptions Divine Land. Maimonides. incline. casts light upon the religious significance of Jerusalem and Palestine generally in the days before David. 10. then it could have been derived from the Hebrew word panoi. F. was a legendary ancestor of the Phoeni5 cians. who had captured his kinsman Lot. When the patriarch early Abraham returned from pursuing the kings of the north. The *Panot in Hebrew means to face. "Melchizedek king of Salem [Jerusalem] brought forth bread and wine: and he was the priest of the Most an allusion to the holiness of Jerusalem High God" (Genesis 14:18). Cf. From the Stone Age to Christianity (Baltimore. God's Land (Toneter). and their name could have been derived from him. It is applied innumerable times in connection with worship. 27. p. turn to. even as early as the days when the Israelites were still nomads.

had confused the writers on the Queen of Sheba even before Mohammed borrowed the last sentence of the quoted Sura from the Hebrew Haggada. who re- turned from her visit pregnant with royal seed. Luke 11:31. was obviously wrong. for I bring you from Seba claims embodied [Saba] a sure information: verily. . they insist that a child was born of her liaison The Ethiopians with Solomon." which is the true description by not necessitate an approval of Josephus. The Koran. 185 but only to the extent that she was the "queen of Egypt and Ethiopia. Kebra Nagast. the son of Solomon and the Queen of the South. this son. It followed as a matter of course that the male descendants of this son were the lawful kings of Abyssinia. and as Solomon was an ancestor of Christ they were kinsmen of our Lord. 8 and. a greater than Solomon is here." Budge. who endorsed the Arabian claims. p. . is the direct ancestor of the dy- nasties of Abyssinian monarchs. their legendary ancestor. "Matthew 12:42. . the present royal house included Being of David's seed. and shall condemn it: for she came judgment from the uttermost parts of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon. with this generation. Mohammed. who through Joseph." 1 The land of Saba (in Hebrew Shwa). which he probably had heard from the Jewish teachers of Medina. the carpenter of Nazareth. Menelik.THE QXJEEN OF SHEBA in favor of the Ethiopian. I found a woman ruling over them. He put into the mouth of Solomon the following words: "I have compassed what ye compassed not. and they claimed to reign by divine right. behold. is regarded by them as kindred to Jesus. are not satisfied merely to claim the Queen of the South as their queen.** The Abyssinian tradition is put down in writing in Kebra Nagast . 1 . and she was given all things. and she had a mighty throne. also traced 2 his ancestry to David. x. ^'They never doubted that Solomon was the father of the son of the Queen of Sheba. because of the similarity in name. . Palmer). Venerating the Queen of the South. the Ethiopians honor . more than any other passage in the Gospels the words: "He anAn evfl and adulterous generation swered and said unto them The queen of the south shall rise up in the seeketh after a sign. this does genealogical in the Ethiopian tradition. and I found her and her people adoring the sun instead of God. Sura XXVII (trans.

" With When the queen returned to her country. Of the early history of the compilation and its maker. so do the words and that she "loved wisdom. she ordered her kingdom aright. Budge)." But there in these things as to about the Queen rate. "her officials who had remained there brought gifts to their mistress. arranged by Queen Hatshepsut that "she ordered her kingdom aright" her journey." This quotation from Kebra Nagast . In the Jewish tradition there is nothing 5 Even about a child having been born of this intimacy. and made obeisance to her. Ginzberg. and all the borders of the country rejoiced at her coming. in an early century of the present era. and of its subsequent editors we know nothing. quotations from the Gospels and therefore a fruit of the time its way when Christianity had already found to the African continent. and none disobeyed her command. among the presents he gave of her there were "a vessel wherein one could travel over the sea. .136 or AGES IN CHAOS of the Glory of Kings. some hisand some or a purely folklore character. Legends. of course. Arabia. and Egypt during the first four centuries of the Christian era" torical Kebra Nagast (trans. pp. Arabian and Ethiopian sources. 289. XV-XVI. and a vessel wherein one could travel by air. 6 It would. C 2 Alphabet of Ben Sira 21b. pian lated is a translation from an Arabic It contains existing version in Ethiowhich in turn was trans- from the Coptic. of . is nothing so extraordinary the conclusion that Ethiopian tradition compel of the South knows more than the Scriptures nar- the romance might have been borrowed from a Jewish source. for she loved wisdom and God strengthened her kingdom. strengthen the claim to originality of the Ethiopian tradition if it disclosed some fact not contained in the *"The Kebra Nagast is a great storehouse of legends and traditions. . and from Egyptian (both pagan and Christian). 4 The Book is The text. groundwork Palestine. And resembles the story of the festival for the officials and for the whole after her return from rejoicing land. VI. colorful imagination Kebra Nagast recounts the bridal night Solomon and the Queen of the South. derived from the Old Testament and the later Rabbinic writings. but the principal of its earliest form was the traditions that were current in Syria. *2 Alphabet of Ben Sira 21b also states that Solomon married the Queen Sheba. and did homage to her. which in a single line says that the king responded to the desire of the guest queen.

or he might have heard a legend that the reliefs of Deir el Bahari do represent a voyage to Jerusalem.THE QUEEN OF SHEBA 137 Scriptures. This is a forced construction (Josephus was never in Egypt). The royal name of Queen Hatshepsut. "the New Jerusalem". and in tfofg identified Hatshepsut with the Queen of Sheba ahead of the present author. the historical facts known to Josephus and not preserved in the Scriptures must have been transmitted by some means during the one thousand years which separated Josephus from Solomon. The way might have same theory could be applied to Josephus. but it would show that the Ethiopian legend cidental coincidence. like the legend of Bilkis. which is a part of . There is a detail in the Ethiopian legend which only by a rare chance could have been invented. who might have Punt lived in early Christian times in Egypt. wliich could be checked with the help of our knowledge about Queen Hatshepsut. name Adad or Ada. "Ra" is the divine name is of a god. There may have been a chronological reason. the father of Hatshepsut. who might have written "queen of Egypt and Ethiopia" on the basis of the scenes of the basreliefs at Deir el Bahari. in this case it Even about the Queen of the South going to Jerusalem is not entirely a fanciful addition to the scriptural story. on the other hand. too. conquered the northern TLikewise **Da" could be the divine several scriptural names. seen the texts in Deir el Bahari. for such a hypothetical Copt to identify Hatshepsut with the Queen of the South. Thutmose I. the Queen of Saba of the Arabian authors. One can imagine that if the name was not handed down by an it uninterrupted tradition could have been disclosed by some Copt. he might have mentioned the kussiim (negroids) because they were in the picture. and which would be more than an ac- would not necessarily mean that in the words of Kebra Nagast Solomon "worked his will with her. It was preserved in the Ethiopian tradition. 7 The main part of the name of the Egyptian queen identical with the first two syllables in the name of the Queen of the South. mentioned throughout the Punt reliefs. it did not come from the Scriptures." and a child of that union was enthroned in Aksum. The Ethiopians call the Queen of the South Makeda. and been able to read them. is Make-ra.

31. She is called the daughter of Amon. We took a short leave of the historical material to investigate the Abyssinian legend. Another incident in the Ethiopian legend the robbing of the in Jerusalem will be told in the next chapter. Having become acquainted with the historical person. in the coronation scene and in other scenes. In the inscriptions Hatshepsut is called king. . without implying a blood re8 The name of the "king's son" in lationship with the Egyptian king." which supposed to be only a title. the pronoun used is sometimes "she" and sometimes "he". are also often pictured with her. Pt. Ill. the shaper of It men. we are interested to know what stimulated the folk fantasy and how it worked. Reisner. IV. as royal emblems. on the pictures her is raiment that of a king. 143. to have a 8 woman and religious conruling on the throne. "The Viceroys of Ethiopia. and contrary to the political ceptions of the Egyptians. On the murals. The actual successor to Hatshepsut on the Egyptian throne was the one who Temple sacked the Temple. curious legend in the Haggada 10 narrates that the A Queen of Sheba. Ft. 38. the viceroy of Ethiopia was named Nehi.138 AGES IN CHAOS part of Ethiopia known as Nubia. in the days of her successor. We have already mentioned the divine command heard by Queen Hatshepsut compelling her to undertake her expedition to the Divine Land. and now we should like also to take a look at one or two Hebrew legends about the Queen of Sheba. Deir el Bahari. is the time of Hatshepsut is not preserved. Plates 35. etc. 'Naville. ibid. A. was unusual. a serpent of Lower Egypt or a vulture of Upper Egypt. G. Hatshepsut is portrayed before the god Horus with the head of a hawk. VI (1920). II. 39. but in the picture of her birth a boy is molded by Khnum. Thutmose III. a deed attributed to the putative son of Solomon and the Queen of the South. It is of interest that in Egyptian documents the viceroy of Ethiopia (Nubia) was called "king's son. received a message from a bird summoning her to visit Solomon for her in Jerusalem. ^Ginzberg. Legends." Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. while on her way one morning to pay homage to the god of the sun. Pkte 58.

See also Karl Peters. a few authors have ventured to identify Punt and Ophir. 1899). though the has not yet been established. The Struggle of the Nations. ^aspero.THE QUEEN OF SHEBA 139 therefore she disguised herself and assumed the attributes of a man. It is not known where Punt was. It is not known whence she came from the land of Saba or from Ethiopia. IV. said to her about the hair on her skin (her legs There is were reflected in a mirrored floor): "Thy hair is masculine. 145. Eng. gave rise to these two strange legends? Did Hatshepsut Visit the Land of the Queen of Sheba? The Queen of Sheba who visited King Solomon lived in the tenth century before this era. at his first meeting with the Queen of Sheba. Egyptologists of the first half of the nineteenth century pictured and described Hatshepsut as a king. Das goldene Ophir Salomos (Munich. 1895). King Solomo's Golden Ophir (New York. the pictures of Deir el Bahari. 742. the Phoenician king Hiram undertook a 1 voyage of discovery to Punt. seen by visitors to Egypt. but it disfigures a woman.. . but it is thought that it was either in the land of Saba or on the Somali shore of Ethiopia. On many of her statues and bas-reliefs she is portrayed with a beard. visited by Hatshepsut centuries earlier. Could it be that. p. Accordingly Queen Hatshepsut might have visited the land of the Queen of Sheba six centuries before this queen made her voyage to era Jerusalem. whereabouts of the latter place u lbid. a few centuries after Hatshepsut. hair an ornament to a man. According to that theory. being misled by some of her statues and the masculine pronoun she applied to herself. As the "marvels'* brought by Hatshepsut from Punt are not unlike the "marvels" brought by Hiram and Solomon from Ophir. trans. a well-known legend that Solomon. In the sixteenth century before this Queen Hatshepsut undertook an expedition to the Divine Land and Punt." 11 that is Rabbi Jonathan in the third century of the present era maintained it was a king and not a queen of Sheba who visited Solomon..

Fortunately we also have an illustrated diary of Queen Hatshepsut. the fame spread to faraway countries. ebony. strange that they should not have come in contact with each other. incense before" all this . The return of the ships of the expedition to the Nile harbor of Thebes excludes southern Arabia and Somaliland and places Punt on the shore of the Mediterranean. reducing the age of the six centuries. and in the inscriptions and voyage. I also had and Palestine. To prove that the Queen of Sheba and Queen Hatshepsut were one and the same person.140 AGES IN CHAOS of history offered here. pictures of the Egyptian temple built by the queen after her return to Thebes. I had to show that the Queen of Sheba came from Egypt and that Queen Hatshepsut visited Palestine. show that Punt and the Divine Land are Phoenicia Repeated references to Punt as a country east of Egypt exclude Somaliland. Consequently. I then compared the scriptural record of the visit of the Queen of Sheba and the Egyptian account of the expedition to the Divine Land and found complete accord. the gifts she exchanged. That she participated in the expedition is not difficult to establish by in explicit statements. and the stones. to which she calls herself the leader of the expedition. "her astonishment at what she saw" and what excelled "the hearsay". there is a definite statement by Josephus that the queen came from Egypt. the apes and other animals. This statement has been unduly neglected. "the terwondered at." who came "with a great company** into the Divine Land. The reconstruction New Kingdom of Egypt by almost places Queen Hat- shepsut in the tenth instead of the sixteenth century and makes her a contemporary of Solomon. rare until that time. it is they were contemporaries. silver. Regarding the former. among them the marvels brought by Hiram from Ophir." and trees "never seen is found alike in the scriptural version of that in Josephus* story. ivory and precious races of trees" she and myrrh "without number. I have argued: It is said about Solomon that his all if kings sought his presence. This temple impressed the scholars by its foreign architecture. The journey of the "remarkable woman who ruled Egypt. which gives an account of an expedition to a foreign country. and same is told of Queen Hatshepsut.

The apes and other exotic animals. There remains to be explained the provenance of one plant exported from Punt. The exotic plants Jerusalem were also brought from afar. The Problem erf the Obelisks (London. which led the historians Punt was in Africa. 1923). Naville ( Deir el Bahari) spells it Hatshepsu. sut. (the Hebrew for Sheba) might be the last part of the name HatshepEngelbach. New forms of services were introduced. and the Divine Land or Holy Land. Long before the expedition of Queen Hatshepsut and for some time thereafter. The final t in her name was not pronounced. were actually brought to on the ships of Solomon and Hiram. R. Punt and Divine Land were repeatedly mentioned in Egyptian documents as places producing frankincense.THE QUEEN OF SHEBA queen herself emphasized that 141 it was an imitation of what she had seen in Punt. I leave it for the next chapter to show that frankincense lo the conclusion that grew 2 in Palestine. with twelve and a high priest officiating. Punt was thought to be in southern Arabia. the Holy Land of Jerusalem. The chief Paruah who met the expedition of Hatshepsut in the harbor was the governor of Solomon in Ezionr The complete agreement in Geber. The people of the "Caucasian" or "north-Semitic race" were the Jews. priests the details of the voyage and in many data makes it evident that the Queen [of] Sheba and accompanying 2 Queen Hatshepsut were one and the same person. It was usual to shorten the Egyptian names: so Shwa Amenhotep was often shortened to Hui. Because of the frankincense. spells her name Hatshepsowet. . Punt was Palestine-Phoenicia.

.

cut in hieroglyphics on the walls of the great Amon temple in Karnak. bas-relief at A . A list of one hundred and nineteen cities in Palestine is engraved three times on the walls of that temple. some of the cities were vanquished bowed before him. recount his campaigns in Palestine and Syria. His military expeditions were directed into Palestine and Syria. opened their gates. Another list. a series of other murals exhibits the flora and fauna he transported from Palestine to Egypt. and a shield covering the body of the man bears the name of the city he is symbolizes. Each city represented by a man with his arms bound behind him. these countries.Chapter IV THE TEMPLE Thutmose IN JERUSALEM III Prepares the Disintegration of the Empire of Solomon the last period of her reign Queen Hatshepsut made Thutmose III co-ruler with her on the throne. when he reigned alone. imperfect and in one copy. was placed behind hers. others tributaries. Karnak shows the treasures in gold. Thutmose III became the greatest of all the conquerors who sat on the throne of the New Kingdom in Egypt. also as men bound and with shields on their breasts. Later. bringing an offering of incense to the bark of Amon-Ra. At first he DURING a subordinate role: played in pictures his figure his name was written after hers. bronze. and precious stones that Thutmose III brought as booty from one of his campaigns. and by became The records of his military successes. shows almost three hundred Syrian cities as captives. silver. The bas-reliefs of the Punt expedition show the young prince as a small figure in the background. He subdued force.

a conspicuous record of it must be there. taken in this If the reconstruction of history under- work is correct. came to that land. completely But this record it coincides monarchies rose from the ruins of the Amalekite Empire: Israel. got a large share. he reigned in the later years of Solomon and at the time of Solomon's Thutmose III. day* still the the conqueror of Palestine. embracing the Israel Two and Egypt* kingdoms of sula. Thutmose's victorious march through Palestine must have taken place in the years closely following the reign of Solomon. was the heir of Hatshepsut. The of cities are regarded as settlements of the Canaanites. according to the chronological scheme advanced here. the . led by places named in the list Joshua. would be regarded as irrefutable evidence against it. is preserved in the Scriptures. the booty taken in the conquest contains examples of the art that flourished in Canaan long before the Israelites. and his Mediterranean and the Red Sea. Once more this reconstruction is put to the test. and a record of it should be preserved in the Scriptures. in the years following the reign of Solomon. and south. deep into the Arabian peninto Israel from north. Their exodus and their entry into Canaan were still far in the future when Thutmose III conquered Canaan and Syria. tribute Syria. came Canaan. son and successor. The absence of a scriptural record of the conquest of Palestine by an invading Egyptian army under the personal leadership of a pharaoh. It is also sometimes said that if the Israelites in his had already become organized into a tribal sept they were obscure nomads in the highlands between the Euphrates and Nile. and with the Karnak inscriptions. and Edom. and the chronicles of Judah and Israel could not possibly have omitted it. his legacy ran from the Euphrates to Egypt. the vanquisher of Amalek. land dominated the trade between Asia and Africa and the terminals of two great sea routes. indeed.J44 AGES IN CHAOS in a These campaigns are unanimously considered to have been waged Canaan which had not yet heard of the Israelite tribes. east. Rehoboam. The conquest by Thutmose III was a triumphant sweep across Palestine.

In erecting shrines to strange gods. expressed his hope that the possible future discovery of an Egyptian statue would help to determine the location of Punt. through his marriages with the daughter of Pharaoh and with the "women of the Moabites. XLII [1905]. man. as the abode of the deities of foreign nations. Among the murals of the Punt expedition. the statue of Amon-Ra.THE TEMPLE IN JERUSALEM 145 Egypt. contained an inscription. and he saw the gifts which were said to to bas-reliefs of the Punt expedition were bound those experiences fresh in his mind. the official supreme god of Egypt. . Zidonians. whose name is a synonym for a wise. The statues o pagan *K. as a young prince. defaced by a chisel. enriched by conquest trade. who directed attention to this text and to the very surprising fact that a statue for worship was erected in Punt." Zeitschrift f&r iigyptische Sprache und Alter- tumskunde. either participated in this and expedition into "God's Land" or heard from Hatshepsut about the "luxurious land of delight". The tales of the splendor of Jerusalem. obviously of the god 1 Amon-Ra. should have been among the gods of all of Solomon's "strange wives" (I Kings 11:5-8). Since the Egyptian princess is mentioned as the first among the wives of Solomon. Solomon planned. Sethe. was erected in the Divine Land. even the wisest. But Egypt rewarded good with evil. ("Eine bisher unbeachtet gehliehene Episode der Punt Expedition der Konigin Hatschepsowet. and Hittites. one. His eye looked with keep envy on that land and on the wealth accumulated there. he thought that Jerusalem. Ammonites.) . inspired Hatshepsut with the desire to behold its wealth herself. be marvels. In the latter part of his reign the builder of the Temple in Jerusalem be- of strange gods and a builder of high places to them. The Solomon. came a worshiper Jerusalem." to build a cosmopolitan center at **. the ancient house of bondage. would demonstrate his tolerance and that Jerusalem would become the gathering place for various religions and cults. Edomites. must be charged with most grievous political errors. Thutmose III. 91-99. and from the few words which re- main it can be understood that a statue. was freed from the Hyksos tyranny by the Israelites under Saul. . It is said that he built on the hills around Jerusalem sanctuaries to foreign deities because of the strange women he loved: his wives turned away his heart" (I Kings 11:4).

Thus. I know [them]. Solomon's adversary in Edom. 1 Kings 11: 14-25. Hadad obviously was supported by the bearer of the double crown of Egypt. but it delight. Solomon's a ll Chronicles 14:3. Solomon's third adversary. who fled from his lord Hadadezer. it is indeed my place of political center for strange peoples. Hadad. The first of these was Hadad the Edomite. just following the story of the Sheba. In the days of Saul and David the state attained independence. Three adversaries rose against Solomon. Already in the oracle scene of the Punt expedition it is said in the name of the god Amon-Ra: '"It is a I glorious region of God's Land. fled from Edom into Egypt and later married into the pharaoh's family. The heyday of short.146 AGES IN CHAOS 2 gods were destroyed by later kings of the House of David and cannot be found in Jerusalem. in king became captain of a band and ruled Damascus. at the end of his reign the rapid decline started. have made I it for myself. Jerusalem.. . these two legacies of the Amalekite Empire. Arabia and Syria. Another adversary. Even the land of the Twelve Tribes was divided when Solomon closed his eyes. but the text of the eleventh chapter of the First of Kings. On David's death he returned to his country. then still a child. turned away from the House of David. succeeded in stirring up this region into a state of unrest.. did not Book Queen become of a rapidly became the goal of their political aspirations. . helps to cast light on the damaged inscription. and they began to rend his realm apart. the begetter Amon-Ra. 8 In the imperialistic power was very time of David. with its foreign deities and cults. Jeroboam the Ephraimite." This was written in the days of the peaceful Hatshepsut. Rezon. political ascendancy reaching its culmination in the reign of Solomon. I am their wise lord. The conversion of Jerusalem into a holy city for aU nations doomed its national independence. The dismembering of the state am was provoked by Solomon's policy. Related to the house of Pharaoh and coming from Egypt. of Zobah. Hadad. When Solomon built the harbor of EzionGeber the Edomite land was temporarily pacified.

and fled into Egypt. The prophet Shemaiah could hear the steps of Jeroboam's master *The Greek version of pharaoh. . leaving the throne to his son king. In the northern kingdom Jeroboam introduced as the official cult the worship of bullocks. Solomon. two old sanctuaries of Israel. . were ready boam KINGS 12:3-4 they [his adherents] sent and called Kim [Jeroto return from Egypt] And Jeroboam and all the congregation of Israel came. He received political power from the mighty pharaoh. The have negotiations ended with the proclamation: in we David? . i died.. Rehoboam gathered the warriors of Judah and Benjamin to fight against Israel. Adoram. . KINGS 11:40 Shishak And Jeroboam arose.the charge of the subject house of Joseph.* When Solomon conspirators. who was in charge of collecting the taxes. to keep the people from going to Jerusalem to sacrifice. and was in Egypt until the death of Sol. I the Kings 12:24ff. Rehoboam. O Israel. but the prophet Shemaiah called every man to return to his house and not to fight against his brethren (II Chronicles 11:2-4). omon." But the cities of "What portion . . . and Penuel. . and "all Israel stoned him with stones" (I Kings 12:18). and spake unto Rehoboam.. THE TEMPLE IN JERUSALEM and servant. he set up images of foreign deities in Beth-el and in Dan (I Kings 12:28-29). So Israel deJudah and Benjamin re- mained faithful to Rehoboam. saying: Thy father made our yoke grievous. sought to I kill Jeroboam. holy long before Jerusalem was conquered Rehoboam sent by David. ." secretly harbored the ambitious intention of makaware of ing the land of Ephraim independent. the to act. "So Israel rebelled against the house of David" (I Kings 12:19). unto long of Egypt.. for he had to rend Israel from Judah. parted unto their tents. to your tents. backed by the Egyptian . .. which may have had something in common with the Egyptian cult of the bull Apis. makes Jeroboam a son-in-law of . Jeroboam girded Shechem in Mount Ephraim. whom he made "ruler over all 147 becoming the germs of conspiracy in time. From the very outset he was a political and cultural vassal of Egypt.

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Plate VI: THUTMOSE in .

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majesty prevailing against them they fled in fear. abandoning their horses and their chariots of gold . . . advance to fight "Prepare your weapons for we wretched foe in the morningl" shall with that The king rested went about saying. Now. 420. It was a stronghold closing the passage from the south of Carmel into the valley of Jezreel. 'Ibid. the other northwest of Megiddo. Thutmose III said into That wretched enemy [the chief] of Kadesh has come and entered 3 Megiddo. 8 The long went with forth in a chariot of electrum (gold in amalgam brook pre- silver ) in the center of his army. Sec. if foe of Kadesh [Kds] and the wretched foe of this city were hauled up in haste to bring them into this city. . and silver. Sec. The southern wing of the Egyptian army passed Aruna and came I to the army was in Taanach. and then Who was the these questions will again be asked. the watch of the army "Steady of heart! steady of heart! Watchful! Watchfull" Early in the morning. And where was this Kadesh? The events of the next few days will be followed. .. the bank of the brook of Kina. Megiddo. mentioned together with Taanach as the seat of a governor. . vailed: The Egyptian army . only the army of his majesty had not given their heart to plundering the things of the enemy. Records. 429-30. they would have [captured] Megiddo [Mykty] at this moment. chief (king) of Kadesh who came to defend this fortified point? He is not called by name. behold. when the wretched . . in the royal tent .THE TEMPLE IN JERUSALEM 149 principal regional cities of Solomon (I Kings 4:12). "Ibid. 4 "Breasted. . 430. When they saw his to headlong .. Ordering as follows: the consultation with his army. he is there at this moment. Sees. VoL II. . one wing being at the of Kina. command was given to the entire army to move. The fear of his majesty had entered their hearts.

came to be omitted from a most complete list of the cities of Palestine. portions. In the annals the description of the end of the campaign has not been preserved. . rich spoils of precious vessels shown on a mural also in Karnak. 5 their siege of Megiddo began. it is that the Canaanites were thought superior artists in metalwork. the exquisite form of the vessels captured in a very high degree of campaign. as it was called before. but it may be reconstructed. . The most important questions have remained unsolved. the garrison was unable to stand a long siege against heavy the army of the pharaoh. as appears on the "cities bas- relief in the Karnak temple. army of his majesty went around counting The whole army made jubilee. but the location of Kadesh remained a matter for scientific debate. is all the towns of importance in pre- Israelite Palestine. How to find the name of a king of an unlocated city. In view of the documentary inscriptions and carvings of Karnak. *ibid. the chiefs of The country came to render their portions/* The Egyptian army took three other cities. Although the city was fortified by a wall. Where was the city of Kadesh? Who the king of the city of Kadesh was is not even asked.150 AGES IM CHAOS of the king of Kadesh. and surrendered. the submission of the entire land of one hundred and nineteen cities with the city of Kadesh first on the list. it is to find that the uncultured of the Canaanite era surprising peoples third puzzle this The were artisans of such excellent skill. it would seem. 431. who lived hundreds of years before Joshua. a list comprising. The above explanation is given to excuse the escape who was not taken prisoner. showing craftsmanship. The results of this first campaign were the this conquest of the walled cities as recorded in the quoted annals. . "Behold. and that Jerusalem escaped the doom of its neighbor cities. if the Egyptian record does not mention it? The second question puzzling investigators is how the name of Jerusalem or Salem or Jebus. Sec. The victorious .

There was a Kadesh in Galilee. The suggestion was advanced list is that the first name on the Palestine did not belong to the register and had been added later. 1893). But in the list of Thutmose III the city of Kadesh is named as the first among one hundred and nineteen Palestinian (not Syrian) cities. the Galilean have been intended. located by them on the Orontes River in northern Syria. 8 This highly improbable. Kadesh on the Orontes. Kadesh in Judah The historians claim to know one famous Kadesh. the city referred to was Kadesh 1 2 Naphtali. pp. men- tioned a few times in the Scriptures. According to one hypothesis. according to another. Or. p. 8 XX (London. the stronghold fell. and each theory had to be supported by some explanation as to why a city outside Palestine or an insignificant city in Palestine was placed at the head of a list of Palestinian cities where one would expect to find the capital of the land. he succeeded in king escaping. 12-13. in second place is Megiddo. S G. . especially since the interpolation (if it be made on all three copies. but the sculptor mistook it for the city might famous Kadesh on the Orontes and for this erroneous reason put such) was it in X first 4 place. p. (Leipzig. 1887). VoL Thutmosis HI. but what would be the purpose of placing this unimportant city at the top of the list just before Megiddo? It became a matter for conjecture. Max Miiller. it was said. Maspero. A. 145. 297. hut in the same campaign his own city was subjugated too. W. 1 (1907)." Mitteilungen. 8.THE TEMPLE IN JERUSALEM The king 151 of Kadesh came to Megiddo to defend it against the of Egypt. and one hundred and seventeen other cities follow them. VorderXII. "'Die Palastinaliste asiatisch-agyptische Gesellschaft. zig. the scene of the battle. for in the Palestine campaign Thutmose did not reach the Orontes. This Kadesh could not be a city in Syria. Transactions of the Victorian Institute. Asien und Europa nach altagyptisclien Denkmalern (Leipn. No. Les Listes geographiques des pyldnes de Karndk 1875). Max Miiller. Kadesh Naphtali. 3. *W. Mariette.

. and sound an alarm in my mountain kadesh. . to Jerusalem. . [holy] mountain: then shall Jerusalem be [really] Isaiah said of the people of Jerusalem: ". for . short yet clear. The second phase is the move on the capital." In the Psalms the Lord says: "Yet have I set my king upon 7 Zion. and Where was the The conquest of the walled cities in the beginning of the annals of long-city of Is Kadesh? Jerusalem anywhere else called Kadesh? In many places all through the Scriptures. Handbook for the Study of Egyptian Topographical Lists Relating Western Asia (Leiden.152 AGES IN CHAOS lists These theories met opposition. 'Psalms 2:6. and threescore thousand horsemen: and the people were without number that came with him out of Egypt. H Chronicles 8: 11. ." B J. 1937). This one answer serves two questions: Why was Jerusalem not on the list of Thutmose III. records: n CHHONICLES salem. beyond doubt the list was executed with the Thutmose III and was checked by his personal knowledge of confuse the 5 cities. Shishak king of Egypt . With twelve hundred chariots. is the phase of the war related Thutmose III which have been preserved. my kadesh 9 holy [kadesh]. "Joel 3:17. . The Palestinian were ex- ecuted shortly after the return from the Palestinian campaign and at that time there was no reason to prior to the Syrian campaign. that in the fifth year of Jeru- came up against king Rehoboam. "Joel 2:1. my mount kadesh" Joel called on the people: "Blow ye the 8 trumpet in Zion. "Solomon brought up the daughter of Pharaoh out of the 6 city of David . and the Ethiopians. 12:2-4 And it came to pass. The coeval history of Judah." He also said: "So shall ye know that I am the Lord your God dwelling in Zion. against which the pharaoh advanced. Jerusalem. . the Lubim [Libyans] the Sukkiim. must have been the city of Kadesh. and came . officials. to Simons. And he took the fenced cities which pertained to Judah. because the places are kadesh [holy].

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15:1. the city kadesh" The "Holy Land" and the "Holy City" are names given to Palestine and Jerusalem in early times. kingdom their names with the names The work will be fruitful. Socoh 67. In Ezekiel 20:40.. rest of the people also cast lots.) in the Egyptian list It is appears that Etam is Itmm. .. "A. . and in many other passages of the Bible. Klio Beihefte." the king of Kadesh. Beth-Zur 110 (it is Beth-Zur. 3:11. Among the one were many which the scholars did not when Israel was already settled in Canaan." He prophesied about the the Lord "will gather all nations and And tongues. Antiquity was ascribed to other cities which were not cities hundred and nineteen dare to recognize: they were built it. Orts- Beth- . Like expressions may also be found in Psalms 3:4. comparing of Judah. . nDaniel9:16.THE TEMPLE IN JERUSALEM they call 153 day when themselves of the city Kadesh. was Rehoboam. Jirku. the first among the Palestinian cities. out of all nations . 43:3 and 99:9. Isaiah 66 :18ff. or the Holiness). "Etam is number 36 on the list. The "wretched foe. Socoh Sk. . to my kadesh mountain Jerusalem. . XXXVTU (Leipzig. . let thine anger and thy fury be turned away from thy city Jerusalem. as not only the Scriptures but also the Egyptian inscriptions ("God's Land. they shall bring all your brethrens . entitled to The walled may be found Beth-Zur Bt cities fortified by Rehoboam 14 (II Chronicles ll:5ff. thy kadesh 11 12 the mountain/' "thy city kadesh" And Nehemiah wrote: ". and not Shan as A. in Zephaniah in Zechariah 2:12. The names of the most obscure Arab villages in Palestine were scrutinized by the scholars in biblical lore in an endeavor to locate the ancient cities. Simons. was Jerusalem." 10 Daniel prayed: ". to bring one of ten to dwell in Jeruis salem. but the Arab name for Jerusalem was over- looked: it is el-Kuds (the Holy. 1937)." "Kadesh") bear witness. Handbook. sir. Die agyptischen Listen der Paldstinensischen und Syrischen namen. The name Kadesh is used for Jerusalem not in Hebrew texts alone. in Isaiah 65:11 and 25. ^Nehemiah 11:1. . . 15 Here list a new field for scholarly in- quiry: the examination of the of the Palestinian cities of Thutof the cities in the mose III. . Jirku assumed). Kadesh.

" The city was not stormed. Because they did not wish to be the servants of the Lord. together to Jerusalem because . . the chiefs of this country do obeisance to the fame came to render their portions. four years earlier. left Thutmose III under The strongholds of the land west- we ward from Jerusalem had fallen. opened its gates after the king and his escort had escaped and returned to Jerusalem. they would be servants of an earthly kingdom. was unable to defend itself. defended by the king of Jerusalem. And the Egyptian king and "gave praise to Amon for the victory he his army. came to the king and to the princes of Judah with a wrathful message from the Lord." Then Shemaiah came with another message: n CHRONICLES 12:7f. Judah. After the fall of "the fenced cities which pertained to Judah. The king and the princes abased themselves. But Kadesh in Palestine fell to Thutmose III and its name heads the of Palestinian cities captured princes of Judah after the fall of list by him.. The humbling of the Megiddo is described also by Thutmose III in these words: Behold. There is no record of any storming of Kadesh by Thutmose III." Megiddo certainly repeated their praise at the walls of Jerusalem. weakened by the separation of the northern kingdom. and the king said: "The Lord is righteous." Jerusalem opened its gates without offering resistance. to of his majesty. . Nevertheless they shall be his servants. . "Whereupon the princes of Israel and the king humbled themselves/' and they were "not destroyed. I will grant them some deliverance. were gathered The land only a few years before had been rent in two. This was said in the name of the Lord. and my wrath shall not be poured out upon Jerusalem by the hand of Shishak. had warned the people against engaging in a fraternal war. who.. who at granted to his son.154 AGES IN CHAOS of the At the end preceding section the walls of Kadesh-Jerusalem." and the Lord's wrath was "not poured out upon Jerusalem by the hand of Shishak. n CHRONICLES 12:5 .. the strongest of them. The prophet Shemaiah. forsaken by the people of Jerusalem. to crave breath for their .. the princes of Judah of Shishak.

and the treasures of the king's house." Egypt. vessels. and the Ethiopians. Sidonian. a worthless piece. There are pictures of various precious objects. he took all: he carried away also the shields of gold which Solomon had made. II. 16 of the fame power" is also mentioned in the Hebrew hundred chariots. 434. The bas-relief displays in ten rows the legendary wealth of Solomon. The indignant Lord humiliated Jerusalem. and utensils of the Temple. n CHRONICLES 12:9 So Shishak long of Egypt came up against Jerusalem. 155 because o the greatness of his power. relic of There remained the old Ark of the Covenant. a wall would have been required and even that would not have sufficed. and other deities on the hills around his "The greatness of version "the twelve Jerusaall lem. each spiral one hundred pieces of the same thing. which erected statues of Egyptian. If Thut- had wanted to boast and to display all his spoils from the and the Palace of Jerusalem by showing each object Temple a mile long separately instead of using this number system. every removable precious thing. a the desert. because of the might of his majesty. soon the god with the head of a ram would receive the splendor from Solomon's Temple. Vol. Sec. and took away the treasures of the house of the Lord.THE TEMPLE IN JERUSALEM nostrils. the Lubim. In mose III the upper five rows the objects of gold are presented. of the palace. probably also of the shrines to foreign deities. Under each object a numerical symbol indicates how many of that kind were brought by the Egyptian king from Palestine: each stroke means one piece. furnishings.. and the people without number that came with him out of the Sukkiim. . each arch means ten pieces. in the next "Breasted. Records. together with the stones of the Commandments. in old steles? Was Egypt poor The Vessels and Furniture The of Solomon's Temple treasures brought by Thutmose III from Palestine are reproduced on a wall of the Karnak temple. and sixty thousand horsemen.

it is only tentative. objects wrought by the ancient master Bezaleel. and the vessels. and the like in great quantity.. son may also have been reproduced here. There were altars for burnt offerings and vessels for sacred incense. it was an extremely rich temple that was pillaged treasures by Thutmose The a objects taken by Shishak from Jerusalem were the l Kings 7:13-45. H Chronicles 4:11-22. lavers for liquid offerings. of the tribe of Naphtali. II Chronicles . is reproduced on the walls of the Karnak temple.156 AGES IN CHAOS silver tilings are rows rows. objects of bronze and semiprecious stones are in the lower industrious Wealth accumulated by a nation during hundreds of years of work and settled life in Palestine. even the silver. 1 Specimens of the skill of David's craftsmen must also be found in Ophir. mingled with those of gold and precious stones. Huram and his workmen were skilled artisans. all became the booty of Thutmose III. and the hand of their royal master. gold from queen Sheba-Hatshepsut.. put among the treasures of the house of the Lord. An exhaustive ^identification of objects pictured in the Karnak temple and of those described in the Books of Kings and Chronicles is a matter for prolonged study and should preferably be done with of Uri. No doubt III. The work of Huram. oil. tables for showbread. The following short excursus is not intended to be complete and definitive. loot of the Amalekite Auaris. 2 The sacred the help of molds from the bas-reliefs at Karnak. mose will demonstrate the identity of the booty of ThutIII with that carried out of Jerusalem by the Egyptian king in it Yet the days of Rehoboam. tables for the sacrifice. A large part of the booty of Thutmose III consisted of religious objects taken from a temple. the gifts of the this exhibit. son of Solomon. and the gold. spoils gathered by Saul and David in their military expeditions. 1:5. Solomon. Solomon brought in the things which David his dedicated. supplied them lavishly with precious metal and stone. for I KINGS 7:51 father had did he . earnings from the trade between Asia and Africa.

28. *I Kings 6:20. Besides the art work familiar from the scene of presentation to Amon. This picture does not represent the whole booty of Thutmose III. translated as gold. The books of the Scriptures have preserved a detailed record of furniture and vessels of the Temple only. and in this collection of "cunning work" one has to look for the objects enumerated in the sections of the Books of Kings and of Chronicles describing the Temple. 35.THE TEMPLE IN JERUSALEM of the 12:9). 32. II Chronicles 3:7. The material of which the objects were made is indicated by accompanying inscriptions on the bas-relief. and bronze. Often an article is represented on the wall in gold and another of the same shape in brass. The metals used for the sacral furniture and for the vessels in the Temple of Solomon were of gold. 22. 9. 157 Temple of Solomon and of the king's palace (II Chronicles On the Karnak bas-relief Thutmose III is shown presenting god Amon: these objects are the part of the which he dedicated to the temple of Amon and gave king's booty to the Egyptian priests. 21. silver. and bronze (Tbrass"). apparently from the palace. These were delivered to Pharaoh's palace and to the houses of his favorites. they were made of three different metals. II Chronicles 4:7.* The pictures of the objects in Karnak are described ft by the words "gold" and "overlaid with gold. The "cunning work" was manufactured of each of these metals. 21. On the walls of the tomb chambers of Thutmose's viziers treasures are shown in the process of transportation from Palestine. Fortunately the separation of the sacral booty in the scene of dedication to Amon makes the certain objects to the task of recognition easier. 8. He chose for the Egyptian temples what he took from the foreign Temple. silver. it was either solid gold 3 or a hammered gold overlay on wood.* l Kings 7:48-50. The fashioning of identical objects in gold as well as in bronze (brass) for the Temple of Solomon is repeatedly referred to in the Books of Kings and of Chronicles. 30. . there are also other objects. The metals used and the style of the craftsmanship will be compared briefly in the Hebrew and Egyptian sources. When gold was used for the vessels and the furnishings of Solomon's Temple.

a very unusual type of rim ornament. moved from one battle. 'Vessels and Furnishings of the Temple at Jerusalem. and in colored stone (malachite?) (140). Buds among flowers ("his knops and his flowers'* 10 ) were also used "Exodus 37: 3. found only in the scriptural account and on the bas-reliefs of Thutmose III. rim of lily work may lotus motif is The A be seen on various vessels (35. as well as on the bronze (brass) altar in the ninth row (177). 380. VI. 1903). Rim ornamentation of the vessels is discussed by H. . and was In order to facilitate transportation. . translated as Tily" (lotus). . . The Ark of the Covenant. The old furniture of the tabernacle was placed in the Temple by Solomon. 13-14. The preferred ornament on the vessels was the shoshana. was not removed but remained in 7 the Temple until the Babylonian exile. A lotus vial is shown in gold (10). in the days of his son. in silver (121). Legends. Seder Olam 25. however. i KINGS 7:26 like the the brim thereof [of the molten sea] was wrought brim of a cup. In the Karnak bas-relief are shown various the corners and bars for transporta- "A crown of gold round about" was an ancient Judean ornament 8 of sacred tables and altars. carried off. by the pharaoh and his army. 175). Schaefer. with flowers of lilies. It was probably a model for other transportable sacred paraphernalia used in the holy enclosure in Beth-el and in Shiloh second and seventh rows of the ark-shaped chests with rings at tion. 12. Die altaegyptischen Prunkgefaesse mtt aufgesetzten Randverzierungen (Leipzig." I 7 Exodus 37:17ff. 8 Exodus 37 ill. often repeated on the vessels reproduced on the wall of Karnak. Such ornamentation is seen on the golden altar in the second row (9) of the mural. and thereafter in Jerusalem.25. No reference to the biblical description of the vessels is suggested in his work. Other sources in Ginzberg.158 In the period AGES IN CHAOS had no site for its when Israel permanent place of the Ark of the Covenant and other holy objects were worship. Kings 8:4. 75. See Plate VIII. place to another and were sometimes taken into the furnishings of the 6 tabernacle were made with rings and bars.

60). It was the only such offerings (I Kings 7:48. lions and oxen are Temple in Jerusalem (I mentioned as decorative Gods were often depicted and the head of a hawk are wrought on the lids of some cups. A few animal heads (lions) with the sign of the uraeus figures. The inscription says (177) "One altar of brass [bronze]." Inasmuch as its height is equal to its great Another it : width. and the head of an ox is recognak mural nizable as an ornament on a drinking vessel (132). in Egyptian temples in shameless posithe figures of sacred objects on the Karnak bas-relief tions. but partly plainly discernible (9). partly destroyed. In the Temple of Solomon there was an altar of gold for burnt II Chronicles 4:19). sacked by Thutmose III. These cups might have been brought from the palace Solomon had built for his Egyptian wife. The Temple of Kadesh-Jerusalem.THE TEMPLE IN JERUSALEM 159 as ornamentation in the tabernacle. Among there are none of phallic form. neither are there any pictures of gods at all. a cult in which offerings of and showbread were brought. 11 In the ninth row of the Karnak relief an altar of "brass** (bronze) is pictured. In the second row of the bas-reliefs is an altar with a crown around the edge. altar in the Temple of Jerusalem was of "brass" (bronze). . ten cubits in height II Chronicles 4:1). altar. the shape of which is similar to that of the gold altar. The inscription reads: "The [a] great altar.'* It was made of Piece by piece the identified gold. was square and very large. devoid of any image of a god. Of animal motifs of the Kings 7:29 and 36). rather. was rich in utensils for religious services but animals.. The Karshows lion heads (20. altars and vessels of Solomon's Temple can be on the wall of Karnak. but in which no idols were worshiped. incense. The hundreds on their foreheads of sacred objects appearing in the mural were obviously not of an idolatrous cult. Idols were and still are used in all pagan worship. they suggest. the altar does not fit the description of the altar mentioned in ( ^Twenty cubits square. This motif appears on a vase (195) in the lower row of the Karnak mural and also in the fifth row (75).

and 38 of the mural are candlesticks with lamps. A later form showed a preference for seven lamps on both sides of the stem. also represent showbread. Next sticks to the altar. . 36. 39:36. This form is seen in the third row of the bas-relief (25. identical in form with the silver cone. Other candlesticks are mentioned in addition to those with lamps. In the Book of Kings they are described as bearing flowers (I Kings 7:49). . who was a goldsmith. of sacrifice" in the third was of gold (I Kings 7:48). 27. The candlestick is in the shape of a stem with a lotus blossom. . II Chronicles 4:19). . . which was half as high as it was wide. The showbread was obviously 12 it is said flour. and the candle- were the tables for offerings. ." This bread was of row (138) bears the explanation: "White silver. Next to the altar was the table "whereupon the shewbread was" not of that (I Kings 7:48. a knop. from the first chapter of the Second Book of Chronicles However. . The "candlestick with the lamps" (II Chronicles 4:20) was an illuminating device with lamps shaped like flowers. 18 Exodus 25:35. (35) has three lily lamps on the left and three on the right. One of them 37. and his covers to cover withal. and Numbers 4:7. but of silver or gold. 37:21. EXODUS 35:13 The table and all his vessels. . The cone in the seventh bread. like its vessels. of pure gold. 37:16 vessels upon the table: his dishes. "The tables row (of gold) and in the seventh row (of "Cf. . we know that another brazen altar made by Bezaleel was among the holy objects of the Temple at Jerusalem. and 28). The other candlesticks (37. The table. . and his bowls. the tables with the showbread. 38) have eight lamps to the left and eight to the right. 26. The thirty cones of gold (48) and the twenty-four cones of colored stone (malachite) (169). Showbread is pictured on the bas-relief of Karnak in the form of a cone. and his spoons. 35:13.160 the Second AGES IN CHAOS Book of Chronicles. the tabernacle The candlestick with lamps wrought by Bezaleel for had three lamps to the left and three to the right 13 There were almonds. Exodus 25:30. in the Book of Exodus showbread was made by Bezaleel. and a flower on the arms. Figures 35.

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THE TEMPLE IN JERUSALEM silver) of the 161 flat mural have sets of vessels on them: three dishes. spoons." Golden snuffers were used in the Temple of Solomon for spreading the fragrance during the service (II Chronicles 4:22. The tubes and the mouths of the animals on the vessel could be used to spout perfume or water. and his staves. six larger basins are shown apart. and other implements (30. I Kings Masrek in Hebrew means a fountain or a vessel that ejects a Such fountains are mentioned as having been in the Temple of Solomon (I Kings 7:50. bowls appear in most of the rows. altar. 33. (41. neighboring object seems also to be a fountain. and in the same row at the left end. In the third row of the Karnak mural. but especially in the second and sixth (of gold). 44). Among the vessels shown on the wall at Karnak there are one or two whose form is peculiar. Many tables of gold and silver and bronze are reproduced on the bas-relief. filled with holy anointing oil for the sacrifice. 181)? Vessels containing anointing oil are shown on pedestal over the figures in the lower row (197-99) is written: "Alabaster. The basins of gold were made by Solomon for the Temple (II Chronicles 4:8). The vessel in the fifth row (73) has two side spouts and is adorned with figures of animals. 32. there are hooks. 31. amphibians (frogs) sit on top of the vessel. Did the smoke of the burning incense pour through the openings in the ornamental spouts? Was the incense burned in a dish set on a base altars (41). rodents run along the spouts. 43. and the anointing oil" were in of Jerusalem (Exodus 35:15). fluid. As no detailed Temple description of the form of this altar is given in the Scriptures. near the table of offerings. three large cups. The figures of frogs are especially appropriate for this purpose. ern fountains in a like manner. II Chronicles 4:22). The spouts are connected with the basin by two animals (lions?) stretching toward them. one shovel. It is not unusual to decorate mod7:50). One hundred The walls and floor of Solomon's Temple were "overlaid with fine . one pair up and one pair down. three pots (or bowls). The paraphernalia of the Temple contained also "hooks and all instruments" (II Chronicles 4:16). Ninety-five basins of gold are shown in the sixth row of the mural. various objects "The incense the in the form of altars suitable for incense may be considered.

" Other gold was taken in the form or these stones on the walls.162 AGES IN CHAOS I stones" (II Chronicles gold" and "garnished with precious 3:5-6. The metal of which they are made is not mentioned. it was either copper or bronze (alloy of copper with tin). Chains of gold are also mentioned as having been in the Temple of Solomon (II Chronicles 3:16): "And he made chains. n CHRONICLES 4:9 Furthermore he made the court of the priests." did not leave this gold Kings 6:28ff." 15 The ephod of the high priest (a collar with a breastplate) was not mentioned in the Scriptures among the booty of the pharaoh and might not have been taken. But precious garments of the priests is translated both "brass" and copper. together with the two hundred targets of gold (II Chronicles 9:15. but the next figure has a legend indicating that it is of gold. one sea. u Necho$het ^11 Kings 25:16. which means that they represent three hundred pieces. 16). These three hundred shields. brass (alloy of copper with zinc) was introduced much later. and overlaid the doors of them with copper. they adorned "the house of the forest of Lebanon. The Among the things which were taken later by Nebuzaradan. and doors for the court." In the seventh row of the mural there are three disks marked with the number 300. were "two pillars. 24). who "took all. and the bases which Solomon had made for the House of the Lord. 14 Targets or shields of "beaten gold" are named among the booty of the pharaoh (II Chronicles 9:15). Pharaoh. . and the great court. Some o of bricks and links (chains) (23. the captain of Nebuchadnezzar. were not part of the furnishings of the Temple. and the inscription (over 63-65) reads: "Gold and various precious stones his majesty had reworked.). II Chronicles 4:2) were not removed by the pharaoh (II Kings 25:16). But in Seder Olam it is said that Pharaoh Zerah returned to Asa what Shishak had taken from Rehoboam. them were worked into jewels. large "sea of brass" and the brazen bases (I Kings 7:23. some objects in this row are of silver. However. as it is said that Nebuchadnezzar took vessels of gold which Solomon had made for the Temple (II Kings 24:13)." relief Thirty-three doors are represented in the lower row of the basand the inscription says they are "of beaten copper" (190). A few gold vessels might have been saved by the priests under Rehoboam.

Jeroboam came from Egypt. ibid. Jaffa a general of Thutmose III. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. XI (1925). Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology. to be exact the Palestine campaign was over. Maspero. therefore. Judah bowed The naval base at Ezion-Geber was no longer controlled by Judah. 340-48. Megiddo. was seized by Thutmose III a few years later. It is only logical. In less than five months in one hundred and forty-eight days. they In the bas-reliefs of Karnak we have a very excellent and detailed account of the vessels and furniture of the Temple of Solomon. much more detailed than the single bas-relief of the Titus Arch in Rome. translation of Goodwin. brought to the the sack of the First Roman capital just one thousand years after Temple by the Egyptians. 500. 1 the fleet of the Phoenicians. probably as mer- cenaries. a new translation by T. I. which guarded the road between Jerusalem and Sidon. 163 The fourth row displays rich collars. or part of it. 53-66. a tool in the hands of the pharaoh. where he was trained for his task. and G. became the donians. The next year Thutmose III returned to Palestine on an inspection tour and received tribute. E. The maritime expeditions of the Israelites in company with the sailors of Tyre and Sidon were not repeated. Peet. to expect that the land of Israel would voluntarily pay tribute to Thutmose III. The northern realm of Israel. The kingdom of David and to Egyptian domination. breastplates. Solomon was divided. . some with were destined to be gifts for the priests of Amon. who helped chief Egyptian stronghold in Syria-Palestine. ruled by a puppet king. did not need to be conquered. reverse. 226f. Zoological and Botanical Collections from Palestine Thutmose III succeeded in his plans. showing the candlestick and a few other vessels of the Second Temple. The Sithe garrison of Megiddo.THE TEMPLE IN JERUSALEM were carried off. IE. tried after its fall to save their fell to own independence. In Palestine the pharaoh took a daughter of the royal family to be *See the fantastic story of the capture of Jaffa by a general of Thutmose HE in the Harris papyrus.

This time he visited northern Palestine (Upper Retenu). 451. Looking at these pictures. ivory. rich in his of Judah. Following the peaceful expedition of Hatshepsut. no inscription mentions it. Vol. . form. this land is called God's Land (Divine Land). but the figures of animals appear among the A plants on the bas-relief. when his majesty proceeded to As in the Punt bas-reliefs of Hatshepsut. animals. Many of these gardens. as favors me. "all the luxuries of this country. a gold horn inlaid with lapis lazuli. and color. His majesty said. Benjamin. precious wood. and fragrance. bulls and small cattle. "much silver. i said about plants and KINGS 4:33 And he spake of trees. 3 His majesty. II. Sec." The next year ("year 25") Pharaoh returned to Palestine for inspection. the tribute-collecting expedition of Thutmose III transferred entire botanical collections. when only thirty-one almug trees were transferred to the soil of Egypt. all flowers that are in God's land found by Retenu. These collections are reproduced on the walls of the Karnak temple. Ibid.. "I swear. Records." 823 jars of incense. 447. as Re loves me. showing various and peculiar shapes of the flora of Palestine some twenty-eight and a half centuries ago. all these things happened in truth. zoological collection was also taken along. were transplanted to Egypt: which were Upper All plants that grow. flat dishes of gold "which could not be weighed. Sec.164 AGES IN CHAOS his one of wives 2 and brought her home with jewels of gold and a retinue of thirty slaves. 1718 jars of honeyed wine. On way he admired the gardens Ephraim. he brought also horses lapis lazuli and chariots wrought with gold or electrum. from the cedar tree that is in Lebanon even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall: he *Breasted." my father Amon we remember what was whose royal pleasure was to collect and study Solomon." flat dishes of silver.

Pt. 464-80. the dragon the chrysanthemum. in order to evade the identification of Palestine with God's Land. No wonder that in the booty of Thutmose III there were plants strange to the Palestine of today. text to Pkte 33. the vine date tree. they were strange to the southeastern corner of the Mediterranean even *G. then.. text to Pkte 33: ". namely that princes of distant countries sent messengers with gifts to the pharaoh while on his war of expedition. Atlas zur dtaegyptischen Kulturgeschichte. ." Solomon had trees brought on ships from countries lying more than a year's voyage distant. . and of Botanists 4 recognize among the plants brought "by Thutmose III the blue lotus. rare at the time of Thut- mose III. Atlas. entzieht sich die weft vberwiegende Zahl der dargesteUten Pflanzen der botanischen Bestimmung tmd demit ouch der Bestimmung Hirer Heimat" Ibid. it is unusual for remote countries to send plants and birds to warriors on their march of conquest. As has already been said. the pomegranate. Palestine and God's Land. 165 spake also of beasts. Still another conjecture to explain the presence of these plants may be made. and of creeping things. the twofold geographical designation.THE TEMPLE IN JERUSALEM fishes. . Pt H. "Pflanzenbilder im Tempel von Karnak. as well as the cornflower and mandragora. do not exist in our day. Pt II. the arum. How. all. part of the flowers and other plants appear not to be native to Palestine. cannot be identified at iris. text to Plate 26. this conclusion was reached: "These plants.." Many of the plants. Schweinfurth." Engler's Botanische Jahrbiicher. Since the forms were drawn by an accurate hand. 5 It seems certain that various specimens of flora as pictured on the Karnak bas-relief were not indigenous to Palestine." 6 The second surmise is strange. The first surmise merely illustrates the type of conjecture necessary . the plant. LV Wreszinski. n. and some of them cannot be identified at all. also a variety of pine tree and some sort of "melon tree. (1919). Wreszinski. and of fowl. however. explain the presence of these plants among those brought by Thut- mose III from Palestine? "Possibly. could be explained by the fact that a number of plants actually came from God's Land.

these plants were exotic and rare. after the death of Joab. . 9:21). was ruled by a chief appointed by the Theban king. quoted by Wreszinski. text to Plate 33. King of Edom Edom. the animals and the pknts they raised. and the objects they cherished. I Hilzheimer. his son. Atlas. must have been sent to the Egyptian crown. 1 Since then about forty years had elapsed.166 AGES IN CHAOS cir- in the days of Thutmose III. better preserved are the figures of fowl. there was no need to send an expedition to subdue Edom. M. as they are unknown in the East. and his name was Genubath. Hadad the Edomite had a son by the sister of Tahpenes. but some seemed to him to be fantastic inventions of the 7 know that the sculptor. II. Tribute from this land. Today. was now the vassal king of Edom. This may be concluded from the cumstance that the pharaoh brought them home from his military on the walls of the Karnak expedition and had them depicted and silver. whom Tahpenes weaned in Pharaoh's house: and Genubath was in Pharaoh's household among the sons of Pharaoh. though cultivated in temple. Genubath. II Chronicles Solomon collected not merely one species of birds. Among the plants are carvings of animals. too. surely And it was his zoological garden that was carried by the pharaoh to Egypt as well as the treasures of his Temple and palace. he dwelt either in Edom or in Egypt. the queen of Ahmose. ZINGS 11:20 And the sister of Tahpenes bore him [Hadad] Genubath his son. we may gaze of Tharshish brought on the people Judah of the days of Solomon. i Hadad had returned to Edom in the days of Solomon. When Thutmose III returned from one of his inspection visits to Palestine T 3 he found in Egypt tribute brought by couriers from Pt. like the treasures of gold Palestine. of Genubath. like Israel. Kings 11:21-22. We ships back peacocks (I Kings 10:22. A 20ologist has recognized many varieties of the birds. in the reliefs of Deir el Bahari and Karnak.

their long. there is found the information that when Jeroboam heard in Egypt of Solomon's death he spoke in the ears of the king of Egypt. The people of Genubatye were the people of Genubath. made with regard The year before. Ibid.and I will depart into my land. Sec." 8 hostile generation Behold. 474. 463. contemporary of Rehoboam. Sec. 'Ibid.similar to that applied in the case of Genubath. Records. and skins of panther. Thutmose III. his majesty would cause his son to stand in his place. It consisted of myrrh. And Susakim saying. ebony. in the seventh year after the campaign of Megiddo and Jerusalem. "Let me go." bulls. calves. "On his return to Egypt he took with him the children of the native princes to be educated in friendship toward Egypt. pushed northward to Arvad. to a policy ." of Thelkemina. She was great among the daughters VoL II. using his stronghold of Megiddo as a base and assisted by the fleet captured from the Sidonians. When his majesty arrived in Egypt the messengers of the Genu2 batye came bearing their tribute. This is Hadad and Princess Ano In the Greek version of the Old Testament the Septuagint made in Alexandria in Egypt in the third century before the present era. the children of the chiefs and their brothers were brought be in strongholds in Egypt. his Breasted. the Edomites.THE TEMPLE IN JERUSALEM the land "Genubatye. Who were the people of Genubatye? Hardly a guess has been to this peculiar name." which did not have to be conquered 167 by an expeditionary force. Sec. that they might be sent back gradually to replace the old of Syrian princes. "negroes for attendants. . 467. the eldest sister own wife. 4 (Shishak) gave to Jeroboam to be his wife Ano. Now whosoever died among these 4 chiefs.. besides vessels laden with ivory.

too. like Hadad the Edomite only one generation earlier (I Kings 11:19). which was now flowing as tribute into the treasury of the Pharaohs/' . but none contains so elaborate. In the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York there is pre- served a canopic jar bearing the name of Princess Ano. there to work at their crafts. Reges HI. king of Egypt. of gold and silver. detailed. On the walls Septuagint. and she bore to Jeroboam Abijah. on the tomb of Rekhmire: "This is one of the most important scenes preserved in ancient Egypt. Sec.1003. ^Metropolitan Museum of Art. 760. No. were among the booty of Thutmose. Among these monuments the tombs of Rekhmire. rank first Vessels and furniture are shown en route from Palestine to Egypt Chariots. Breasted. and the artisans of Palestine were brought captive to Egypt. a number of other monuments show the wealth brought from Palestine by Thut- mose III. 10.130. VoL II. 1 This information is of importance because it gives us the name of the queen's sister. and was in Egypt until the death of Solomon/' According to the Septuagint. Records.168 AGES IN CHAOS of the king. Jeroboam received an Egyptian princess for a wife. and were given as presents to his favorites. Similar scenes will be found in other Theban tombs. "The Astounding Civilization" In addition to the bas-reliefs on the walls of Karnak. The various works of art from Palestine were very much appreciated in the Egyptian capital. and Menkheperre-Seneb. 12:24e. 1 vizier of Thutmose III. and extensive representation of the wealth of the Asiatic peoples. No other references to a princess of such name is found in any Egyptian source or document. high priest. The existence of a princess by the name of Ano in the days of Thutmose III lends credence to the information contained in the Septuagint and gives as that of additional support to the identification of Shishak or Susakim of the Septuagint with the pharaoh we know by the name Thutmose III. the extant Hebrew Bible told us only that Jeroboam fled abroad "to Shishak. 2 The time when the jar originated has been established on stylistic grounds Thutmose III.

witnesses to an inplated chariots. of the captivity which his majesty brought for the works of the temple of Amon. dustrial and artistic development that was able to teach Egypt. were skilled in the arts. who fell to working in the Nile valley at the crafts to which they were accustomed at home. craftsmen worked so well in Egypt that their wares changed even the taste of the Egyptians. and the method of writing gradually developed into a smooth-flowing and blood even the graceful style." Over cabinetmakers from Palestine appear the words: "Making chests of ivory. etc. Sec. too. The Syrian and as they worked they taught the Egyptians. 756: **. was not Canaanite but Israelite. . precisely what was afterwards exacted of the Hebrews*" 'Mercer. 10. 2 and the inscription: "Captives which his majesty brought for the works of the temple of Amon/' "The taskmaster. it is an name opinion as unbiased as criticism of the works of an is concealed by a pseudonym. 1937). p. of course. working to build the Amon temple. ebony/' There are brickmakers. . This is. Egypt. . Les Eeliques de Tart syrien dans VEgypte du Nouvel Empire (Paris. of the astounding civilization that period/' 8 of Syria at know now that the astounding civilization. See also P. the products of silver. of goldof chariots inlaid with silver. strange as this may seem: "We learn from the booty carried into Egypt chariots inlaid was regarded with gold-plated chariots. be not idle/ " as proof that the Canaanites. . 1503-1449) the Syrians stood at a higher stage of civilization than even the wonderfully gifted race of "At this carried back to Egypt of coats of mail. of particular interest are the Semitic foreigners.THE TEMPLE IN JERUSALEM 169 majesty of the sepulchral chambers of the vizier. The plunder With all these precious goods went captives. . Under the great influx of foreign Ibid. while the language was semitized. Montet. artist whose time (Thutmosis III. coppersmiths are shown. and it is written: "Bringing the Asiatic copper [-smiths] which his captured in the victories in Retenu. the indigenous population of Palestine. Extra-Biblical Sources. We which we see on these monuments. It is therefore of interest to read what role the modern historians ascribe to the Canaanites in the process of the development of Egyptian art and in the refinement of the Egyptian race. . he says to next to is them the builders: 'The rod All this is in my hand. who appear among the brickmakers.

" It is also worth while to notice the chariots. about which the history of art was thought to be ignorant. gold-plated and inlaid with silver. In the preceding chapter the expedition of have taken place. "The song of which is Solomon's" is supposed to be a creation of a late period. the covering of it of purple. to eastern Africa.170 AGES IN CHAOS more features of the conquering race were changed into a less bold and delicate form. "King Solomon made himself songs.. Rogers. and we We thus begin to acquire some knowledge of the Jewish art of the tenth century." . and the land visited to have been and probably Phoenicia too. God's Land and Rezenu1 of Palestine The present chapter shows the conquest III to by Thutmose Canaanite period. Is not this . In other words." Breasted "Retenu. and the mention of luxury in the time of Solomon is thought to be a product of the poet's fancy. p. but in the days of the Jewish kings. and more precisely in the fifth year of Rehoboam. W. Cuneiform Parallels to the Old Testament transliterates New York and Cincinnati. 1926). captured by Thutmose III in Palestine." The Egyptian monuments show that in the fifth year after Solomon.point es- sential for the identification of Queen Hatshepsut with the Queen (2nd ed. not in the Queen Hatshepsut to the land in the days of of Punt was shown to have taken place King Solomon. He made Jerusalem and also in Megiddo. and not of Sheba? *R. are now in a position that will either trap us or furnish us with We additional proof that Queen Hatshepsut went to Palestine on her famous expedition. the bottom thereof of gold. discard our supposed knowledge of the Canaanite art of the sixteenth and fifteenth centuries before the present era. Egypt had never known such changes since the 4 beginning of the monarchy. in wood of Lebanon. son of Solomon. a Eduard Meyer reads "Rezenu. we assume that Judea Queen Hatshepsut on her peaceful journey and Thutmose on his military expeditions visited the same country. 255. there was not one but of gold many chariots and silver. a chariot of the the pillars thereof of silver.

all flowers that are in God's Land which were found by ." 8 The sixth campaign of Thutmose III. The same characteristic profiles. They were masters in depicting die characteristic features of different races. he conquered the north of Shinar Syria. like the first. was Three years later he went military: to Pales- tine to gather the levy. All plants that grow. already quoted: "Plants which his majesty found in the land of Retenu. of Naharin.THE TEMPLE IN JERUSALEM 171 The assumption that the people of God's Land in the pictures of Hatshepsut were people of Palestine can be easily proved or disproved by comparing these pictures with the figures of men with shields on the Karnak mural symbolizing the conquest of Palestine. and other cities. "Ibid. one might ask. the register reads: "Breasted. 451. But. note to Sec. Records." This sentence induced the translator to conjecture that "God's Land is sometimes applied to Asia. Drawings of various ages are preserved in which Egyptian at the made collections of racial types. After describing the tribute obtained from and Kheta and the land VoL n. with this inscription. his majesty when his majesty 2 proceeded to Upper Retenu. . with a ribbon around the hair tied behind. and the same long beard shaped as a prolongation of a pointed chin make it certain that types of one and the same people were pictured on the bas-reliefs of both Hatshepsut and Thutmose III. Sec. the same hair styles. if Thutmose III went to the same country to which Hatshepsut had gone two or three decades earlier.. of God's Land. Rezenu (Palestine). Kadesk. 451. why did he not call the country of his conquest. God's Land and Punt? Year after year Thutmose III returned to Palestine to collect tribute (II Chronicles 12:8: ". Three years after the conquest of Megiddo. In both cases Egyptian artists of practically the same generation did the sculpturing. by the same names that Hatshepsut called it. he had carved on the walls at Karnak pictures of trees and plants that he had brought from Palestine. they shall be his servants"). the "people of the South/' and people glance die Egyptians on the bas-reliefs of the expedition to Punt artists have A may help us to understand the fine feeling these artists possessed for expressing the types of their own and of foreign races. .

mentioned among the gifts Hatshepsut received in God's Land? Myrrh and frankincense are repeatedly mentioned in Egyptian inscriptions as products of Punt. The less precious incense. 4 We Thutmose III used the same terms as Hatshepsut Punt . ladanum. Ancient Egyptian Materials (2nd ed. who came to do obeisance. and green oil 2080 jars. The question that arises is: Did Palestine produce myrrh. incense [frankincense]. . . sweet oil . Somaliland and southern Arabia on opposite shores of the Red Sea being areas which produce it even today. After his fifth visit of inspection to conquered Syria Thutmose III listed frankincense. ground]. white). year: The translator was surprised by this phrase.. ^Breasted. referred to in the account of the tribute. fruit abundant were they beThe harvest of the land of Retenu was reyond everything. Following his ninth and Palestine. 92. . Because of Frankincense grows in only a very few places. "See Lucas. oil. various silver vessels of the workmanship of the country. likewise in Hebrew (lebana. incense. . 486. with oil.172' AGES IN CHAOS this "Marvels brought to his majesty in the land of Punt in dried myrrh find that . every harbor at which his majesty arrived was supplied with loaves and with assorted loaves. grain in the kernel [not oil." Of his seventh campaign he wrote: "Tribute of the princes of Retenu. chariots. Records. Now. In the "Song of songs. and wine as tribute. and frankincense. *Ibid. Sees. p. visit. honey. barley.). ported consisting of much dean grain. Arabic). . VoL II. and wine 608 jars." and God's Landfor the land they visited Phoenicia-Palestine. wine. . fruit. he stated that he had received as "Retenu tribute in this year" horses. honey. Let us see whether the Scriptures give any indication that they were products of the Holy Land in the days of Solomon. and also "dry myrrh. every Myrrh and frankincense were products of Palestine. Frankincense (olibanum) falls in dear drops which. color the precious incense is called "white** in various languages (Greek. The botanists were guides to the color. . 471-73. is yellow or brown in its turn white. Sec. when gathered and formed into balls or sticks. 5 archaeologists in search of the land of Punt. incense 693 jars. green 8 pleasing thing of the country/' wine.

In the time of Thutmose gardens were transferred to Egypt. Psalms 85:10. "Erez Israel" (the land of Israel). If the in- scription is correctly attributed to the time of Sesostris III. in Egyptian documents of a much of the later period. Numbers 10:9. as he himself told and pictured. Judges 16:24. and Jeremiah 5:19. Lebanah (frankincense) near Beth-el (Judges 21:19) was probably the place where the incense plant grew. and the shadows flee away. but as tribes strong enough to be regarded This would accord with the tradition of enemies by the pharaoh. Micah 5:4. .THE TEMPLE IN JERUSALEM which is 173 little Solomon's/' the enamored prince says to the shepherd- ess (4:6): day break. It is often appropriate here to explain the name "Retenu" or "Rezenu" employed in the Egyptian inscriptions of the New Kingdom to designate Palestine. Mntyw. incense was imported into Palestine III the rare plants of the Palestinian from southern Arabia. In only one inscription of the Middle Kingdom (Twelfth Dynasty) under Sesostris III is the name Rezenu mentioned it is a very short account of a raid into that country against M-n-tyw. in the days of Isaiah (60:6) and Jeremiah (6:20). 13. Thereafter. compare also Leviticus 26:5. that of King Menashe (Manasseh). the song speaks of the time of Solo"Until the mon. The Song of Sol2:12. the mention of the tribe Menashe would imply that before the Israelites had Egypt they had dwelt in Palestine. As we shall find the same name. I will get me to the mountain of myrrh. Galilee is called is "Upper Rezenu." "Rezenu" apparently a transcription of the Palestine for their land. the Mntyw Middle Kingdom must mean the tribe Menashe. a defeat inflicted by Abraham and the servants of his household on come to stay in omon 'Joshua 9:11. not as a single as patriarchal family. on "our country"). In the Scriptures Palestine is frequently called "Erez" ( country )." Even if it was written later. and "Arzenu" (possessive case. 7 What the Egyptologists read as Retenu or Rezenu is probably the "Arzenu" of the Bible. name used by the population of The Hebrew language must be questioned its meaning. and to the hill of frankincense.

. 211. we should hardly have been able of a specific campaign. But whereas Thutmose's list consists of list well-known names familiar from the contains mostly unknown names. Archaeology and the Religion of Israel (Baltimore. too companying inscription consists "of stereotyped phrases and indecisive to furnish any solid basis for a study vague. The references in his inscriptions to tribute of the lancf of Syria. . F. Thutmose III and the whole Eighteenth Dynasty ruled over a Canaanite Palestine. Records. 709. "Egyptian Historical Texts" in Ancient Neat Eastern Texts. Among the names of the kings of the rather obscure period which the historians dealing with Egypt extend over six hundred years 525). after some two hundred years of sojourning in Egypt.174 AGES IN CHAOS the the kings of Shinar and Elam and their allies (Genesis 14). and with number of the Israelites (about two million. including women and children) in the days of the Exodus. of Sosenk's campaign." 2 'Breasted. was sought in the period that followed by some hundred years the epoch of the Ramessides. . These cities are (until the conquest of represented by figures like the city-figures of Thutmose's bas-relief. a Egypt by Cambyses in which reads "Sosenk. Albright. 1942)." This king of the hieroglyphic name is found Libyan Dynasty cut the names of cities subject to him on the outside of the southern wall of the Karnak temple." *W. The Ramessides were the last great pharaohs of the imperial era in Egypt. and it is obvious that Sosenk copied that mural. The ac." 1 And yet Sosenk is presented as the scriptural Shishak in all textbooks and manuals. Sosenk's . ed. general Scriptures. . the pharaoh who carried away the vessels from the Temple at Jerusalem. VoL IV. Shishak. it is admitted that "the date of to surmise that the relief was the memorial Shishak's accession is dependent on Israelite chronology. . or to his victories p. are vague and generalized. Sec. Sosenk (Shoshenk) According to conventional history. However. Had we not the brief reference in the Old Testament to his sack of Jerusalem. Pritchard: "There is no narrative account of the campaign by the pharaoh. Wilson.

not Judah. which can be nothing else than 'the Field of Abram/ 6 There are. Bethlehem. and at the same time so vainglorious that he piled up a list of names of non-existent cities? Thutmose Israelite III. and later were copied by Solo( Die dgyptischen Listen. or Askelon. the furniture and vessels of the Temple of Solomon and of his palace? Was "Shishak" so modest that he did not mention the capital he conquered and the rich booty of the Temple. No locality by have been in Judah or Israel. This gives the of is name Hekel Abram known to the impression that only Israel was subject to Sosenk (Shoshenk). 'Ibid. and which VoL six hundred years furniture in gold. . Klio Beihefte. as a matter of fact. Canaan some on the other hand. conquered later in the and strongholds built much time of Judges or Kings. T^t must be noted that a portion of the bas-relief is destroyed. with one exception. they are mostly unimbility. 6 715. is said to have invaded prefive or six hundred years before the time cities ascribed to Shishak. Hebron. nor is any other Hekel. silver. XXXVIII [1937]) expressed in the tenth cen- doubt whether an Araiaaic word hekel would have been used tury in Palestine. " Abram. portant towns while the remaining five in Judah are. and two more with probaFourteen of these belong to Israel. Beer-Sheba.. Jirku (Die agyptischen Listen. 'Breasted. obscure villages.THE TEMPLE IN JERUSALEM The relief 175 of cities. 3 has one hundred and fifty-five names "Only seventeen can be located with certainty. and each of cause them is identified as hekel. XXXVIII IV. 1937). Sec. Neither Jerusalem. Sec. 'Jirku. Klio Beihefte. "and the most interesting is p'-hw-k-rw' V-r'-m or Hekel Megiddo. 6 Almost no name could be located in all of Judah. Gibeon. 7 The inscription refers in general terms to tribute given to Sosenk. 711. a number of p*-hw-k-rw'. as the few "obscure villages" were mere guesses."4 Among the Palestinian of cities the following were identified be- phonetic similarity: Beth-Shan. "field" (in Aramaic). but where are the spoils. nor was Gath. nor any other known place was among the names on the Jaffa. Records. and taken from Canaan an imof sacred vessels mense plunder brass (bronze). Hapharaim. list.

candlesticks. tibe same number: altars. In Egypt it was the time of the pharaoh Icaown to us from modern history books as Thutmose III. The detailed description of these furnishings and utensils. sent tribute (II Kings 17:4). tables. flowers.'* The palace and the Temple of the capital were sacked and the vessels and furniture carried to Egypt. lavers.'* of the same workmanship. called Kadesh in the annals of the pharaoh and in the Scriptures called both Jerusalem and Kadesh. according to the Egyptian and scriptural narratives alike. "took all the cities'* and approached the capital. and cups of and vases of semiprecious . By consent of the king was thrown open and they "humbled themselves. fountains. The objects are of identical form and shape. the fortresses and other towns submitted. Libyan Dynasty the last king of the northern realm. vases with rims of "buds and stone. agrees perfectly with the pictures engraved on the walls of the Karnak temple. The pharaoh invaded Judea and. Egypt and Palestine. then products to the Canaanites based who was this Libyan Sosenk who received tribute from the northern realm (Israel) hundreds of years subsequent to the time of Jero- boam and Rehoboam? In the pages dealing with the period of the he will be identified as Pharaoh So to whom Hoshea. and Jeroboam of the northern kingdom. The "fell into country disagreement". in Palestine it was the time of Rehoboam. son of Solomon.176 AGES IN CHAOS in mon form and even in numbers and described in the Book of Kings. came into close contact. of lotus shape. The conquest Book of Kings of Palestine is described almost identically in the and Chronicles and in the Egyptian annals. princes and their households gathered in the capital. as preserved in the Books of princes the capital and the Kings arid Chronicles. The two countries. Is this not a dubious construction? Is not the attribution of the art on error? But if this is so. Summary The generation that followed Queen Hatshepsut in Egypt was synchronized in this chapter with the generation that followed King Solomon in Palestine. after an unsuccessful attempt to defend the land.

shows that the frankincense brought by Hatshepsut from the Divine Land was a Palestinean product. He is mentioned by name in the annals of Thutmose HI as the prince of the vassal land paying tribute to the pharaoh. is preserved in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. born in the palace of the pharaohs and reared there in the days of David and Solomon. 'which were not found in the complete list of Canaan in the time of Joshua's conquest. The biblical references to golden chariots in the days of Solomon are demonstrated to be true. The time of Hatshepsut was that of Solomon. dating from the rime of Thutmose III. while in Egypt as a refugee from Solomon. Solomon's son. This. 177 and doors overlaid with copper. A canopic jar with her name on it. gold shields. Such chariots were brought by the pharaoh from Palestine. He also transferred to Egypt the zoological and botanical collections of King Solomon. and the pharaoh actually refers to the products of Punt and of the Divine Land in connection with his expedition to Palestine. Genubath is referred to in the Book of Kings as the son of the Edomite king Hadad in exile. and Jeroboam* . Also craftsmen from Palestine were em- ployed in Egypt. On his repeated expeditions to collect tribute the pharaoh took back with him frankincense. by the way. Thutmose III preceded Joshua. according to the conventional chronology. married a queen's sister by the name of Ano. tine. Jeroboam. a product of the land. again proving that Hatshepsut went on her peaceful expedition to PalesAmong the cities captured by Thutmose III were cities built by Solomon and Rehoboam. and the time of Thutmose his rival III was that of Rehoboam. however. The captives on the bas-relief representing captured cities are of the same race and appearance as the people of Punt and the Divine Land visited by Queen Hatshepsut one generation earlier.THE TEMPLE IN JERUSALEM and priestly ephods. Judea became a dependency and its people vassals to the pharaoh.

.

at a point on the Syrian coast opposite the elongated arm of land stretching out from Cyprus toward the mainland on the east. 26. but in the first nine archaeological seasons only about one eighth of this level had been unearthed. Revue (Fart oriental et tfarchSologie. ruins. the ancient Laodicea ad mare. library. The levels at which dwellings were dug up are numbered from I to V starting at the surface. jewelry. *E. 2 tentatively identified as Ugarit of the el-Amarna and written documents found there confirmed this conIn gray antiquity the city had been repeatedly reduced to jecture. during the Middle Kingdom the north Syrian coast was in the sphere of Egyptian influence. A. On a bright afternoon the island can be seen from the hills surrounding Ras Shamra. Schaeffer and reported in Syria. remnants 1 Directed by Claude F. Forrer. Syria. not even marked on maps. utensils. In 1929 and in the following years. Reprints of the first seven reports were published together under the title Les FouiUes de Minet-el-Beida et de Ros-S/KiTnra. lies to the north of Latakia. . XHI (1932). 1 buildings of a city and its harbor were un~ earthed together with pottery. Digging in deeper strata has been confined to very small areas. At a depth of more than ten meters still older civilizations have come to light.Chapter V RAS SHAMRA The Timetable of Minoan and Mycenaean Culture burial vault. Revue tfart oriental et cParch6ologief 1929ff. in twelve seasons of excavation. This The place was letters. The first or uppermost layer is the most explored. and the tablets of a ON A SPRING day in 1928 a peasant plowing his field near the shore of Ras Shamra in northern Syria lifted the stone of a obscure place. 1929-56. The second layer yielded a few objects of Egyptian origin of the time of the Middle Kingdom.

saw the sudden similar As two different methods had been applied and both led to further questioning of the age of the site. 11. In the course of this discussion I shall also have a few words to say on the age of the Minoan and Mycenaean cultures. pp.ISO AGES IN CHAOS of the Neolithic (Late Stone) rock. too. La Dewdeme Campagne. When a few Egyptian objects were found in this layer. Revue d*art oriental et tfarchtologie). 24. Campagne 1929 296 (extratt de Syria. and all publications dealing with Ras Shamxa-Ugarit5 are based on the premise that the literary and cultural remnants from the conclusions. remnants of a Les FouiEes de Minet-el-Beida et de Ras Shamra. we must appraise the real value of ceramics from Mycenae and Crete in dealing with time reckoning. and the fair Nineteenth Dynasties 4 gave fourteenth century was recognized as the one that decline of the city. . and workmanship of pottery are held to be a reliable calendar in the The age hands of the archaeologists. in Phaestus on the southern shore. which is only from forty centimeters to two meters under the surface. (Paris. p. 1933). 1939). objects of art and other In Knossos on the northern shore of Crete. "The early Ras Sharnja bibliography is given in Schaeffer's Ugaritica I (Paris. the number of publications exceeded five hundred. the period during which Ugarit enjoyed prosperity was placed in the fifteenth century. The material. p. 10-11. design. *Schaeffer. was established before the inscriptions were read. there was no excavated layer were products of the fifteenth and fourteenth centuries. *Schaeffer. pp. and in other places on the island. 1931). 1930 (Paris. In the ten years following 1929. Age were found on the underlying of the remains found in the upper layer. The ceramics of the necropolis of Minet el Beida (the harbor of Ras Shamra) and of the acropolis of Ras be of Cyprian origin and also of Mycenaean manufacture of the fifteenth and fourteenth and part of the thir- Shamra were found to 8 teenth centuries before the present era. the of them as belonging to the Eighteenth and experts* identification support to the time determination made on the basis of the pottery. La Troisteme Campagne de fouilles a Ras Shamra. 1929). 4. 1931 (Paris. Before going further. La Deuxieme Campagne de fouittes a Ras Shamra.

Evans. . The scripts of Crete have not yet been deciphered. is divided into Early. The remains belong to various epochs. Middle. The one neighboring logical dates into any scheme of world chronology. 101. which marked the end of one period and the beginning The ages are divided into Early. and 'Sir Arthur J. 1923). . Another culture recognizable by its characteristic pottery had its center in Mycenae on the mainland of Greece. 347. and New Kingdoms of Egypt are held to be the counterparts of the Early. The dating of the Middle was found. 214. and Late Minoan and Helladic Ages. too. from the name of the semilegendary king Minos. The Minoan and Helladic Ages begin with the end of the Stone Age and are subdivisions of the Bronze Age. which were again deMany reasons led the explorer of these antiquities to the belief that a natural catastrophe was the agent of destruction." A. T "The chronology of prehistoric Greece is naturally far from certain although through connections with Egypt certain general dates can be given. Seals of the type of the Sixth Egyptian Dynasty were found in Crete. Middle. 401-3. It. "The difficulty comes when we attempt to fit these archaeo. . palace and buildings. 286-89. p. 14. There is no internal evidence that would help to fix the dates of the Minoan-Mycenaean Ages. The palace at Knossos and other buildings were suddenly destroyed. in a tomb dating from the Twelfth Dynasty. The Palace of Minos (London. and III. 1921-55). a polychrome vase of the Middle Minoan II period at Knossos a statuette dating from the Twelfth or Thirteenth Dynasty was discovered.HAS SHAMRA culture 181 were found which is called Minoan. which correspond roughly to the Minoan Ages of Crete. Middle. H. J. 348. despite some promising efforts. the Old. III. Wace. of another. 12. At Abydos. 174. B. Minoan. I. II. At Knossos of the Early Minoan period were found vases similar to pottery unearthed at Abydos in Egypt of the First Dynasty. and the contacts with Egypt are regarded as the only source for establishing a timetable in the Minoan7 Mycenaean past With some deviations. Middle. giving place to a new stroyed and again rebuilt. 173-80. I (Cambridge. "Prehistoric Greece" in Cambridge Ancient* History. 6 During the Middle Minoan period there was active intercourse between Crete and Egypt. 43. and Late Mycenaean or Helladic Ages. and Late and each age is divided into three parts. land where there is a fairly stable based on written docuchronological system ments and inscriptions is Egypt" Ibid.

which corresponds Egypt of the Hyksos pharaoh Khian was found on the lid of (the name a jar at Knossos). If Akhnaton flourished in in 1380. After the Middle Minoan III to the time of the Hyksos rule in period. which cor- responds in 'time to the Egyptian renaissance after the expulsion of the Hyksos. At Mycenae on the Greek mainland hotep III.) for this style of vase-painting. 177. Returning to the excavations of Ras Shamra. and the Late Minoan and Late periods started simultaneously." Crete was ruined by a catastrophe that corresponds in time to the of the Middle Kingdom and the catastrophe of the Exodus (the end end of the Middle Minoan II period).C. and lite Late Mycenaean period would accordingly move forward by half a thousand years on the scale of time* It is my Kingdom Mycenaean contention that the glorious Eighteenth Dynasty. about the year 1000 before the present era. Crete freed herself from the influence of Egypt. but ultimately only a single one: the timetables of Crete and Mycenae are built upon the chronology of Egypt. the of David and Solomon. "which thus gives a fixed date (about 1380 B. . also were unearthed a few II." 9 The present research endeavors to bring to light a mistake of more than half a millennium in the conventional Egyptian chron- 840 and not ology of the New Kingdom.182 AGES IN CHAOS "of course Minoan Age 3 depends upon that assigned to the Twelfth Dynasty. Egyptian objects bearing the cartouches of Amenhotep AmenKing- and his wife Tiy. we find that there were not two separate and coinciding time clues in the ceramics and bronze from Crete and Mycenae and in Egyptian pieces of art. vases of the Late Mycenaean style were dug up in large numbers in Egypt. the ceramics from Mycenae found in the palace of Akhnaton are younger by five or six hundred years than they are presumed to be. It had its renaissance in the Late Minoan I period. and especially from under the ruined walls of Akhnaton's palace at el-Amarna. of the Eighteenth Dynasty (New dom). in Thebes.' This will also be shown 'Ibid. p.

they must have been built in the same age. 29. . However. Similar vaults have been found in Cyprus. One fine example is the burial vault of Trachonas on the east coast of the Karpas peninsula. 1934-37). 1939). 1 One might therefore consider these Cypriote tombs to be late copies of the chamber tombs at Ras Shamra. of the necropolis. The Cuneiform Texts Ras Shamta-Ugarit (London. according to the Swedish excavators. The distortion of chronology makes it necessary to maintain that five hundred years elapsed before the Cypriotes started copying the Ras Shamra vaults."2 The vaults on Cyprus across the strait and in Ras Shamra are of identical construction. Some five hundred years lie between the earlier this tombs of Trachonas tomb and those of Ras Shamra. In a typical tomb well-arranged stone steps lead to a sepulchral chamber with arched ceiling. Gjerstad 3 and I. Scliaeffer. until type have been found in Cyprus. The Swedish Cyprus of Expedition. which by then would have been covered with earth and concealed from the human eye. 405. p.. Or it must be said that despite *E. Sepulcliral Chambers is: The question which now sides the ceramics arises Are there not other finds be- which support or challenge the generally accepted view that the upper layer of the Ras Shamra excavations belongs to the period from the fifteenth to the fourteenth centuries? Does the testimony of architecture and of written documents supthe conventional chronology or do they strengthen the view port maintained here that this stratum and the past it buried are of the period from the tenth to the ninth or eighth centuries? The chambers acropolis.RAS SHAMRA in 183 more detail in the chapter in which problems of stratigraphic archaeology are explored. others. 1927-1931 (Stock- holm. unlike the buildings of the are preserved intact. exactly facing Ras Shamra. direct affiliation cannot be claimed. The excavator of Ras Shamra tinue wrote of them: "Those in Cyprus are considerably later and condown to the eighth and seventh centuries.

a very forced explanation to say that the population It is obviously of Cyprus allowed half a millennium to elapse before they began to sustain the soul copy the tombs of the necropolis of Has Shamra (Minet is el Beida).184 AGES IN CHAOS the obvious similarity of the peculiar vaults on both sides of the strait. are very clearly and almost all 8 Cyprian. In the school future scribes were taught to read and to write at least four languages. destroyed by human hand or by the unleashed forces of Revue "Charles ViroHeaud." Syria. form of the sepulcher and its vault. X . it was also a city of title learning: there was a school for scribes and a library. flagons. is The graves of Minet el Beida are of Cyprian shape and construction. and perfume: jars. at least. and flacons were found there by the hundreds. The following especially because of the pottery statement was published after the first year of excavation at Has Shamra: "The influence which appears itself. Tablets of clay were found in the dust under the crashed walls of a building. tfart oriental et (1929). not only because of much archaeological material demonstrating that the influence came from Cyprus to the mainland and not the other way round. no affiliation had occurred because of the five hundred years* difference in time. then. this explanation utterly untenable. oil. 308. at the near-by necropolis of Minet el Beida. a chartombs of Ras Shamra's necropolis is a device served for the offering of libations. and the vases of painted baked clay of which the funeral equipment largely consists. if not at Ras Shamra that of the island of Cyprus. It is an aperture with a which delivered to the dead to pipe in it through which fluid food was In addition to the acteristic feature of the on its journey to the other world. Indeed." Greek Elements in the Writings of Ras Shamra Ras Shamra was not merely a maritime city that traded in arms of Cyprian copper and in wine. ffarcheologie. but found in the graves. "Les Inscriptions cun&formes de Has Sharaia. to dominate.

Business letters in Akkadian. them were people of Alasia (Cyprus). . commercial receipts. was a son of Nilcomedes Rasaccording to other sources. working independently. re- Nikmed (who also wrote his name Nikmes and Nikmedes) with Nikomed (Nikomedes) of the Greeks. is made at the order of Nikmed. the tongue of business and politics in the Babylonian world. 185 The entire collection is written in cuneiform. **Une Inscription de Ras-Shamia langue Churrite/' Archie Orientdlni. "the Latin" or the "dead language" of the scholars. One Nikmed and all the foreign groups in the city. and orders were read. and the name of the Ugaritian King Nikmed. Two of the languages were easily read: Sumerian. Nikomedeia. regarded as originally an Ionian name. its ln the ruins of the library of Ras-Sharnra-Ugarit The semilegendaiy Aristomenes. Some large tablets are lexicons. Two tablets very similar to those of the el-Amarna collection were also found. p. The last name was identified by the a a population was comdocument found there describes city. 129. 1 and with them the connection of Has Shamra with Egypt at the end of the Eighteenth Dynasty was firmly established. bilingual and even trilingual. long of Bithynia on the eastern shore of the Bosphorus. 178.HAS SHAMHA nature. IV [1932]. IV (1932). related it to the Greek name. who led the people of Messene in their battles against the Spartans in the years -684 and -683. Dhoime. 3 The similarity between the name Nikomedes. Hrozn^. after 3 deciphering the name of the king." Archiv OrientdLni. In the third century Nilcomedes I. however. Khar (explained to Among be Hurrites). and Jm'an. Other scholars. Aristotle mentions an Athenian archon of that name who flourished in -483. e* Hrozn^ and E. 33. The name is also found later among the Spartans. of a Pyrrhos (F. See Hrozny. two scholars. On some of the tablets there is a "copyright" mark: it is a statement that these tablets were king of Ugarit. Those who made the identifijected this equation of the name of the king cation were unable to defend their position against the mathematics of conventional chronology. 'Schaeffer. 8 Cuneiform Texts.* Ugarit was a maritime commercial the expulsion of King posed of various ethnic groups. in four different languages. Nikomedes an old Greek name. is so obvious that. 177). "Les loniens Shamra. built a new capital for himself. asking how an Ionian name could have been in use in the fourteenth century before this era. and Akkadian.

the name of the deity Didymeus was inscribed on another Ras Shamra tablet. . for lexicographic purposes. or the very name lonians in the Ras Shamra texts but all these were there. originating from the eighth century. Also Hrozny. "Dhonne. 8 Didyma. ApoUon. Again. . Dhonne. Revue XL ^'Le ddmy est le gentilice (Tun nom quif sous la -forme ddm. 38." (1931). such a reading of texts belonging to the middle of the second millennium. 6. . . of the expelled are repeated. "Les loniens a Ras Shamra. In the same in- scription. and no explanation was put forth in place of the rejected theory about an Ionian colony from the city of Didyma near Milet in Ionia that came to Ugarit and was expelled together with the king of Ionian origin. ton. Hrozny. see also Hrozar^." It is a "catalogue of an enumeration. or the name of the Ionian city of Didyma. . Revue biblique. translated it "Apollon antiquities have been brought from the site of Didymeus. 'Tes loniens & Ras-Shamra. Chronology could not square with the Ionian names of Nikomed. IV (1932). Didymeus." Archiv Orientdlni. 176. the deturning neither 7* 7 left nor right. for no other reason than that in the fourteenth century disputed a reference to lonians would have been impossible. XL (1931). But in the fifteenth or Now fourteenth century neither lonians nor the shrine of Apollo Didy- meus could have been mentioned. brought from Didyma Didyrnaion ) by C.186 AGES IN CHAOS is decipherers as Jamanu. T. La ville serait cette de Didyma et le dieu celui de Didifme. ." Archiv Orientdini. of the is textes phe'niciens de Ras Shamra. "Premiere traduction des biblique. 176. Orientdlni. Nikmed. or the Greek cult of the god of that city. "Les loniens & Ras-Shamra. . IV (1932)." Archiv OrientdM. Nous y verrions volontiers le Didymgen. 9 It could only be stated that there was not a grain of prob." Dhorme. at a point where the names the of name Didyme appears* The 6 the city of Didyma in Ionia. IV (1932). 8 In the British Museum. ability in Among ^E. pourrait tre consider6 comme le roi des loniens qui s'emparerent d* Ugarit au l$-erne Hrozny. XL (1931). represente une divinit^ dans (text) 17. which well known from the Assyrian in- 5 This interpretation of Jm'an was scriptions. decipherers took it to be the name its This city was renowned for cult of Apollo (Ddms) cipherers. New- par *'La colonie egeenne d'Ugarit semble done avoir el6 composee sp6tialement les loniens originaires de Didyme Nkmd pres de Mtict. Revue bibliqve. and means lonians. "Les loniens a Ras-Shamra." Archiv ( IV (1932). the tablets found in Ras Shamra there ships.

Caster. war vessels. placing it anywhere from vised the twelfth to the seventh century. Homer's Catalogue Fund. famous catalogue of ships. but alphabetic a syllabic script like Akkadian uses hundreds of different script only a few. ferries. p. as the Ras Shamra texts show. H. the views of scholars from antiquity on differ widely. racing boats. as certain scholars now agree." Quarterly Statement of the Palestine Exploration n Schaeffer. As for the time of its origin. The large tablets were apparently written in an alphabetic script. April 1938. . Their cuneiform could not be an ideographic or syllabic script. 187 and uses of military Cargo ships.HAS various forms SHAMRA and commercial vessels. This portion of the Iliad was regarded as a later interpolation. Two The its Cities and Two Epochs Compared Has Shamra tablets third language of the in cuneiform (Sumerian and Akkadian being the first two) did not long retain secret. for signs. and troop transports are listed. 40. the commentary to this portion of the Iliad was re- and one of opposite import substituted: "The catalogue. and in this third script there thirty different characters. the only conclusion possible from comparing the two "naval gazettes" was that hundreds of years before the very earliest date for the Iliad there existed a catalogue of ships which served as a model to the epic poet Hebrew Elements. In the second book of the Iliad there is a similar. Cuneiform Texts. By placing King Nikmed at the end of the fifteenth and the be- ginning of the fourteenth centuries. fishing smacks. but has a long history behind it. *'A Phoenician naval gazette. passenger ships. were only An 30 example of the simplification of the cuneiform script was T. would not be a later interpolation. but when a scholar 10 pointed out the similarity between the catalogues of Ras Shamra and the Iliad. new light on of ships. they were drawing up such catalogues in the port of Ugarit many centuries before the date of the Homeric lists/' 11 The Iliad is commonly supposed to have been put into writing in the seventh century.

They thought they knew. Syria. "This was already inferred from Semitic words met in the el-Amarna letters. . scholars kindled their lamps and read the messages in ancient Hebrew. *H." Syria. With an eagerness comparable only to the avaricious excitement of discoverers of a hidden treasure. the Canaanites not only used Hebrew but wrote it 6 in an alphabetic script. Ginsberg. before this pemore than six hundred years had passed. it years! As in the case hundred years of latency before the Cypriotes started to imitate their neighbors only sixty miles away. . The discovery was startling: hundreds of years before the Israelites en5 tered Canaan. par tin trait vertical. in 1930. L. . 8 Reading was facilitated by strokes placed after each word by the scribes of Ras Shamra-Ugarit The Cyprian script of the sixth century has the same characteristic stroke after each word.188 already AGES IN CHAOS known used cuneiform for an alphabet of to the scholars: the Persians in the sixth century 1 thirty-six characters. Kttvei Ugarit. An attempt to substitute Hebrew letters for cuneiform signs was successful. X (1929). Dhonne. le Vie sieclef 6crit leur langue au moyen tfune sorte de syllabaire comprenant soixante signes. a la longae. Alphabetic writing in the fifteenth century ^irolleaud. comme ft Ras Shamra. . independently. six was asserted that. and this similarity was stressed. bear reference to the south of Palestine-Canaan (Negeb). even before they began to read. Jerusalem.the tongue. L'alphabet de Ras Shamra doit-il done Stre consider^ comme le prototype da sytlabaire chypriote? II peut sans doute paraitre etrange quvne ecriture tres simplife ait pu. Some of the texts were even re-edited by modern scholars in Hebrew characters. *Some of the cuneiform texts in old Hebrew. *H. culiarity returned. 305. had The that it to more than one scholar 2 bright idea came simultaneously might be ancient Hebrew written in cuneiform. Bauer and E. se compliquer a nouveau. that the tablets were some six hundred years older than the oldest known Hebrew inscription. et dont on a predsement cherchS jadis Torfgfne dans Venture accadienne. 1936* *"C e$t tin fait bien connu que les Chypriotes ont. 'TLes Inscriptions cun6ifonnes. f X (1929). "Les Inscriptions CTin&fonnes. & partir cFune epoque assez basse il est vrai. and for *hig reason ProtoPhoenician and Canaanite are applied ad libitum to. 309. found in Ras Shamra." Virolleaud. dans lequels les mots sont separes. 4 Again but it hundred six required of the sepulchral chambers. and before the scholarly world were tablets in a legible language.

known by the same name in the Bible as the Lord of the is regarded as "a clear indication of a monotheistic 12 tendency in the Canaanite religion. men* ^Schaeffer. Cuneiform Texts. p. Cuneiform Texts. UR. a literature of with order and By a high moral tone. besides El being T Schaeffer. . the Ras Shamra alphabet is among the first alphabets to be composed. texts ^Attempts were made to find parallelism between the gods of the Ras Shajacoa and temples and the gods of the theological wort of Sanchoniaton. and actually is the earliest 7 yet known. As it is.. the face of a dignified people was reflected." The Hebrew-cuneiform alphabet of Ras Shamra is not a primitive pioneer effort.. 36.** and the supremacy of this deity ("no one can change that which El heroes. p. it has features that indicate it was already in an advanced stage.EAS SHAMRA 189 before the present era was a revelation for paleographers and scholars in the history of human culture. In the Book of Leviticus and ia other books of the Scriptures iniquity and vice were attributed to the Canaanites: the country "was defiled by them. ." earlier the aborigines of Canaan wrote down was even more unexpected. 35. "The Ras Shamra alphabet still is already so advanced that it implies the existence of a 8 alphabet yet to be found.. a* early Phoenician writer." However. it was expected that tie face of a wicked What generation and of a low spiritual culture would be seen. the Ras Shamra texts reveal justice. Ibid. p. 59. p. "Ibid. 11 The land of the Canaanites is sometimes called "the whole land of El. but the supreme deity was El. In the mirror in which. p. Israelites. Baal was one of them." This appeared to be a "biased attitude of Israelite historians. "Since these documents date from the fourteenth or fifteenth century. Dussaud. tempered means of these documents we now see that the early Israelites differed in no way from the Canaamtes. Les Decouvertes de Eos Shamra (Ugarit) et TAncten Testa~ (Paris."* The Hebrew texts of Ras Shamra are mostly poems describing the exploits and battles of the gods and the adventures and wars of Ras Shamra 10 was composed of a number of gods. quoted by Eusebius. 60. 1937). The pantheon of has fixed"). 59. in conformity with biblical references to the Canaanites.

Dunand. 61: "Bten avant le retit du passage de la Mer Rouge par les Israelites.. Red Sea. king of Byblos (c. qtie separe terranee. 1935): "A word of uncertain meaning. The same stele contains the phrase: "Baal Shamim and Baal GevaT (Byblos). Leviathan pictures of the Ras Shamra poems often emwording as the so-called mythological images of the is several heads (Psalms 74:14). an expression put into the mouth of El which sounds like a reference to the great feat of tearing asunder the sea of Jam-Suf. 9. le grand isthme la Mer Rouge de la MedAdesertiqve. espeNegeb. 14 of the Ras Shamra tablets very unusual expression on one name of Baal" appears in the epitaph of Eshmunazar. M. the verb. 13 A few rare expressions or names found on Ras Shamra tablets are El.-650). mphrt (community or family). p. is name which of Keret dealing with exploits in found also on monuments of the seventh century before the present era. The Ras Shamra Tablets. in one of the poems. le foudore ou les mythes du sud de la Palestine' connaissaient une Ugende ou le dieu El etait represent^ comme at/ant fait surgir. XXXIX (1930)." Revue biblique. "to tear asunder/* used there and in Psalms ( 136:13) is the same (gzr). A Phoenician king of Sidon of the fifth 15 century. . There is. vraisemblable que cette concernant le passage de la Mer Rouge Ugende est le prototype '' . the name Yehawmilk also appears on one of die Ras Shamra tablets/' Cf. 321F. p. Les Decauvertes. "Nouvelle inscription ph<nicienne archaique. . des lors. which is found on two of the Ras Shamra tablets." predominant in the poems. name yw-iL The Ras Shamra Tablets (Edinburgh. du par les Israelites. ^Dussaud. W. The conclusion drawn from the similarity was And this: long before the Exodus and the passage through the the Canaanites of Palestine knew this myth. the name cially in the poem Yahu (Yahwe) is also encountered in the Ras Shamra texts.190 AGES IN CHAOS not the sole but the chief god. Ibid. Strange to say. p. occurs on the stele of Yehawmilk. the words "Baal Shamim" are also used in the treaty between Esaxhaddon and the king of Tyre (seventh century)* Jack. The mythological ploy the same Scriptures. 331. "a crooked serpent" (Isaiah 27:1). "Jack. d"entre leaflets. 16 instance in the "J. the "Astart. he is described in the Ras Shamra texts in Homeric terms strange to the Old Testament: "El laughs with his whole heart and snaps his Besides the fingers. it has Lotan of the poems also is "a swift and crooked serpent" and has seven heads. it paratt.

are cited as examples. "Albright. which could be called poetry. Les Decouvertes. such as the expression Beth-Haver. both languages. and the characteristic dual and plural forms. p. . The language of the poems 7* of Ras Shamra in etymology and 17 to the syntax. for instance. 77."25 Shamra tablets and the literature The religious cult. The meter of the poems. Les Decowoertes. p. "there are innumerable parallels with the Old Testament in vocabulary and poetic style. pp. and syntax of the Scriptures. 18 "These rules are precisely those of Hebrew and even the language from some of our Ras Shamra texts is 19 It was therefore concluded that Hebrew and entirely Biblical. and especially the Book of IsaiaL" "We see that the Phoenicians of the fourteenth century before our era used rhythm and poetical forms that have all their development in the Song of Songs. Tiouse of association/ which occurs on one of the tablets and also in the Book of Proverbs/' 28 In short. p. 105-6. "Jack. A. S."24 and an "intimate relationship existing between the Ras of the Old Testament. Syria. XVI (1935). quoting Dussaud. 58. . as. Cuneiform Texts. "Schaeffer. *Thissaud. Harris. 20 "There are striking similarities in the vocabulary. The Ras Shamra Tablets. 16. p. M Schaeffer. 198. the division into feet of three syllables or three words. Archaeology and the Religon of Israel. p. 50. both masculine and feminine. revue <Tart oriental et darcheologte. 38. etymology. 10. p. There are even some composite terms which are identical in . Cuneiform Texts. many words and even locutions being identical"21 in the Ras Shamra texts and in the Old Testament Here and there is found a turn of speech known from the Psalms. an Early Hebrew dialect. 1935). as reflected by poems and other texts of Ras ^Jack. "surprisingly akin language. 10. The Ras Shamra Tablets. J.HAS SHAMRA 191 is. The Dussaud. 1 watered my coach with tears. Montgomery and Eos Shamra Mythokgical Texts (Phikdelpnia." Phoenician alike derived from the Canaanite." "The style resembles most the poetic books of the Old Testa22 ment. . and the balancing of the theme (parallelism) are also found in the Scriptures. p. 38 Z.

to be applied to the inflamed Even wound.192 AGES IN CHAOS Shamra. adzes with engraved dedications to Rav Cohanim were unearthed. Cuneiform Texts. which further emphasize this contact between the Ras Shamra texts and the Old Testament. not ex- Schaeffer. p. also bore a certain resemblance to the cult of the Israelites. judging from stone phalli found in this Phoenician in the city. on a visit to the gravely sick king. Hezekiali. culture and religion of the Israelites are bound up inextricably with the early Canaanites. ordered a debelah. ag lbid. fact that debelah in Ugarit Gordon (Annals of Medical History. is mentioned 26 Ras Shamra texts. The compilers of the Old Testament were fully aware of this. a remedy made of figs. M. 41." 29 And actly the generalization concerning medicine was: corresponding technical words] establish They a very [the exstriking "Ibid. 406-8) was used internally. as its writings reveal. IV [1942]. . There was a Rav Cohanim. This dish was enjoyed at Ras Shamra. known previously to the veterinary surgeons at Ugarit in the fifteenth and fourteenth centuries/'28 Shamra and the This case of correspondence between the medical tablets of Ras Scriptures is not unique: "In the same [veterinary] treatise we also find some technical words corresponding exactly with similar expressions in the Bible." 2T break with such a past and to conceal their indebtedness to in minute details the life in Ras Shamra of the fifteenth cenand the life in Jerusalem some six or seven hundred years tury later were strikingly similar. p. The Jewish law forbidding the people its to boil a calf in the milk of mother was directed against a definite custom and a culinary dish. Isaiah. Circumcision was also practiced Ras Shamra. p. 47. The offering called mattan at tarn. known from the service in the Temple of Jerusalem. Debelah is registered in the pharmacopoeia of Ras Shamra's medical men and is found mentioned in a veterinary treatise. The deduction was therefore made: "The prophet made use o a very old-fashioned remedy. 41. From all this the following conclusion was drawn: "The traditions.. B. a high priest. makes a point of the ternally. hence their obsession to it.

and shdharonim [crescents].." 30 The weights and measures of Ras Shamra were also those known from the Scriptures. ." Ibid. [suns] . the haughty daughters of Zion. too. lament and mourn. and the veils. 1.RAS SHAMRA similarity in the medical 193 knowledge of the Canaanites or Proto- Phoenicians. p. *"It is Texts. and the earrings. *'Un poeme phenicien de Ras-Shamra.. Plate XXXII. So at Ras Shamra we find not only mention of these pendants in the Canaanite texts but also the ornaments themselves that Yahwe. and walk with stretched forth necks and wanton eyes. "Because the daughters of Zion are haughty. used hy the at Ras Shamra that one first meets with the system of weights kter Israelites and described in a certain passage of Exodus. and she being desolate shall sit upon the fine linen. in the passage cited in Isaiah. the talent is divided into 3000 shekels. 209-10. and making a tinkling with their feet: Therefore the Lord will smite with a scab the crown of the head of the daughters of Zion." La Deuxi&ne Campagne de fouiHes & Ras-Shamra. . 33 The same prophet alludes to crescents or pendants in the form of the moon. 82 "Now in the texts three kinds of gold pendants are mentioned by the name of 'Astarte/ 'suns/ and 'moons/ The word used for a sun pendant is 'shapash? 'Shapash* is 9 identified with the word 'shebis mentioned in Isaiah 3:18." 84 will take away one day from emerged out The ornaments named in the curse of the prophet of the earth. but in the Scriptures (Exodus 38:25-27) the talent is composed of only 3000 shekels. . . and the wimples. Was this an erroneous statement? In the Ras Shamra texts. 62. 27. . ^ ^Charles Virolleaud. walking and mincing as they go. '"Ibid. In that day the Lord will take away the bravery of their akhasim [anklets] and shebisim . 81 Jewels of gold to adorn the maidens of Ras Shamra are mentioned in the texts and were unearthed. . ground" (Isaiah 3:16-26).. the rings the chains. and that of the times of the kings of Judah. In the Sumero-Babylonian system a talent was divided into 3600 shekels. and the crisping pins . pp. the and the mantles. And her gates shall and the hoods.. . In the hour of sorrow and mourning dust was thrown over the "Ibid. Fig. p. . and the bracelets . . .

and biblical style. of religious myths and cult. medical science. all were moved to decrease the age of the Old Testament and even to assume a postevangelical editing of various parts of the *"C'est Old Testament. and meter.194 AGES IN CHAOS head. The une revolution compUte de Texgse des temps pr6mo$aiques" Dus- saud. Bible Criticism and the Documents of Ras Shamra For the past seventy years the doctrines of Bible criticism have been taught from most cathedras of modern exegesis and are at last being preached from many pulpits. even according to rabbinical tradition. confusion became great. emphasized and re-emphasized by modern scholars. poetic and ways of expression were in use some six hundred years form. before the biblical books were composed. and jewelry. and (2) most passages of the Scriptures are of a later origin than the Scriptures themselves suggest or rabbinical tradition ascribes to them. Since 1930 when the tablets of Ras Shamra were deciphered. and authors of commentaries. apparel. Two of the fundamental concepts have been: (1) before the time of the Kings (or before 1000) there were no written documents among the Israelites. of old customs. and (2) that many and legends were alive. 1 For three generations famous scholars. . would definitely point to the co-existence of Ugarit with the Jerusalem of the eighth or ninth century were it not for one obstacle. of weights and measures. as the texts of the tablets and the scrolls of the Old Testament testify. writers for The encyclopedias. in ancient Ugarit and in Jerusalem alike. This was the fact that the Ugarit texts and objects were considered to be contemporaneous with the Egyptian and Mycenaean worlds All these revivals of style of the fifteenth and fourteenth centuries. they have been regarded as proofs (1) that already in the fifteenth century Hebrew was written in a highly perfected alphabetic script that had a long period biblical traditions of development behind it. to whose lectures students traveled from afar.

and cultural elements of the 1 Scriptures as copies. < *With the present documents the history of the Hebrew language and of Syrian culture is pushed back toward the middle of the second pre-Christian millennium/' 2 All proofs of late origin and all deductions based thereon become null and void before the evidence of the clay tablets. and many sentences were supposed to have borne allusions to the events of the Maccabean war against the Seleucides. Les De^couvertes. but was a product of the sixth to third centuries. verdict of later origin had been given on many portions of the prophets: many passages were supposed to have been composed and inter- A polated during the Hellenistic period. predominant since the excavations at Ras Shamra. Now.RAS SHAMRA linguistic considerations 195 whole argument was supported by and by a general theory of the natural development of religious thought. moral. in the Ras Shamra tablets of the fifteenth or fourteenth century. Cuneiform Texts. *Schaeffer. since they were already in existence some six hundred years before the time the Bible claims for them. Now the same ideas and similar expressions were found on Ras Shamra tablets of a period six or seven hundred years before the time of the earlier prophets. *"Reu$s. 59. 1. It could be shown expertly that one or another expression in Psalms or in Proverbs could not have been employed in the days of David or Solomon in the tenth century. religious. Bible criticism had them in the Babylonian exile. 115. By advancing the date of formulation of many social. the same expressions were found. Old Testament The new view. referring some to the Seleucid originate period and to the influence of Greek thought. . which followed the conquest of Palestine by Alexander the Great in 332. . . The Montgomery and Harris. they could not be of Jewish origin. en ce qui touche la basse 6poque et le pen de valeur des anciennes traditions Israelites" Dussaud. p. but of Canaanitic originals. p. Graf et Wellhausen . 8 exilic Bible criticism went to great pains to deny to Judaism of the preperiod many of its achievements. p. also regards many social. Mythological Texts. almost six hundred years after Isaiah. and religious imperatives of the to the post-exilic period. on ne peut manquer de reviser leurs conclusions.

poetry had a high moral standard. The revision of chronology requires the leveling of the time of Ras Shamra (Level I from the surface) to the time of the kings of Judea until Jehoshaphat. apparel. style. The presence of parallels in the life of Palestine and of a contemporary Syrian town. style. can one's scientific conscience bridge a gap of If this reconstruction of double dimension and reconcile the results of the industrious of Bible criticism with the archaeological finds of span is twelve centuries. how. In face of the striking parallels between the language. where the languages of neighboring peoples were learned. technical expressions. temple ordinances.196 AGES IN CHAOS Canaanites paved the way to Jewish concepts in religion. owing to the obstacles of chronology already explained. efforts Ras Shamra? The Troglodytes or Carians? The fourth language written in cuneiform on the tablets of the Ras Shamra library is called Khar. religious thought. the language of the government and of a large part of the population. Us ne Tont pas cr66" Ehissaud. . moral ideas. Words in Sumerian were accompanied by explanations in Khar. and jewelry as reflected in the Ras Shamra and in the pages of the Scriptures. treasury of legends and traditions. appears to be only natural. poetical forms. then. the ethos of social justice and the pathos of prophecy were Canaanitic hundreds of years be5 fore they became Israelite. alphabet. social institutions. the logical conclusion would have been that the tablets and the Books of the Scriptures cal tablets But such a deduction containing these parallels are of the same age. and rhythm were inherited by the Jews. their their language. Despite the help of the bilingual syllabic dictionaries ^On reconnaftra que si les Proph&tes ont magnifiqvement dtveloppti cette tendance pieuse. world history by a correction of five to six hundred years puts a strain on the customary notions of history. was not thought of. medi- knowledge. p. These and similar deductions were dictated by the age attributed to the tablets of Ras Shamra. 118. It appears to have been the local language. Les Dgcouvertes.

who in Biblical times were remembered as having been exterminated by the Edomites. At first it was called Mitannian. History of Palestine and only a is some connection with the Hurrians. <c Syria. Mesopotamian Origins (Philadelphia." had long been held and Egyptian designa- tions referred to the Horites or troglodytes of the early chapters of the Scriptures.RAS SHAMRA 197 used by the scribes of Ras Shamra. the reading of Khar is not final. written by Tushratta. . 140: Kharu is doubtless to be connected in name with the Horites. and its name was given as Khri. This letter. Speiser. also his Introduction to Hurrian (New Haven. but the translation and explanation of Sumerian words in Khar did not give all the necessary clues to the decipherers. apart from the introduction. Scholars read the word differently Khar and Khur but finally they decided on Khur as the acceptable name. A. 1 With the discovery of the Tell el-Amarna archives in Egypt it was found that one of the letters of the archives was written. p. the identification of the Hurrians with the biblical Horites or troglodytes was maintained by a number of A definite vestige of the association of the Hurrians with Palestine has been discovered: on tablets from Tell Taannek. in an unknown tongue. and the language was deciphered." See E. it is also possible that there ^Imstead. Before the excavations of Ras Shamra. Then in the state archives of Boghazkeui in eastern Anatolia letwere found in a similar tongue. king of Mitanni. have been put scholars. 1930). dealt in its six hundred lines with some matters interpreted with the help of other letters. frequent mention of Thr" had already been encountered in various archaeological documents. 2 Despite the fact that the language of this people was found to into writing. and accordingly the people are called ters Hurrians or Hunites." and in Egyptian documents a part that these Assyrian often called "Kharu. The people who spoke this language were called Khr. Human names were found. p. Had the words in Khar been explained in Sumerian. but later changed to Subarean. the task of the philologists would have been easier. p. in the valley of Jezreel. 3. Akkadian of Syria It is texts speak of "Khurri. 1941). 133.

120. T Sdhaeffer." 4 of this people has been studied by linguists in an endeavor to unriddle it. Those who spoke it were not Semitic. Consequently the idea that the Khar were cave dwellers or troglodytes (the biblical Horites) appears wholly untenable. from Armenia down to southern Palestine. were neither Semitic nor Indo-Iranian? It became apparent not only but that the scribes who wrote other languages as well. and "the story of their enormous expanse. 6 of Ras Shamra came to writings in alphabetic Khar Translations from other languages into Khar proved that at light least a part of the population used Khar as their daily speech. and from the shores of the Mediterranean up to the borders of Persia. p.198 AGES IN CHAOS With every new discovery it became increasingly obvious that the Hurrians exercised great influence on the civilization of the Near East. people is but a creation of modern linguists. constitutes one of the most amazing chapters in the ancient history of the Near East. tionaries Khar was expressible in writing. but neither were they Indohistory. occupied a fortress in Palesthen. 5 but the historians know nothing of their The language "Hunian" seemed therefore to be a tongue without a people. If we bring the scene five to six hundred years closer to our time we begin to wonder whether the Khar of the inscriptions 8 Most probably the Human Speiser. Mesopotamian Origins. "See Speiser. 152. their tongue on Asia Minor and on Mitanni. were everywhere and nowhere in particular. 3 In a sense they became the leading power. Then the were these Khar that impressed their name on Syria. 131. p. Introduction to "Speiser. It was even stated that with the world a arrival of the Hurrians in this part of the new era in civilization had dawned. Khar were versed in a number of and wore themselves out in lexicographic that in study ("several rooms" in the library of Nikmed "contained only dic- and lexicons" 7 ). Cuneiform Texts. *IbicL. Iranian. . p. p. tine. Human. Who. Mesopotamia^ Origins. 37.

RAS SHAMRA
are not the Carians often mentioned in classic literature. In
tian the

199

Egyp-

Mediterranean Sea was called the Sea of Khar(u).

Was

it

the sea of troglodytes or the sea of the Carians?

The Carians

lived
in

on the shore of the eastern Mediterranean and
other parts of the world.

had settlements

many

They have

left

their traces in geographical names containing the syllable "car" or 8 In very early times that of the semilegendary *cart** or "keret."

King Minos of Crete they manned his fleet. Herodotus says that at this time they were islanders and served as crews on the ships of Minos. "Minos had subdued much territory to himself and was victorious in war/*

and

"this

made

the Carians too at that time to be

very far the most regarded of all nations." "Then a long time afterwards, the Carians were driven from the
10 by Dorians and lonians and so came to the mainland*" The mainland meant here is the southwestern corner of Asia Minor, where Halicarnassus, the native town of Herodotus, was situated.

islands

Thucydides ascribed to King Minos the expulsion of the Carians: "Minos is the earliest of all those known to us by tradition who
acquired a navy.
. .

,

[He] became lord of the Cyclades islands

colonizer of most of them, driving out the Carians 11 establishing his own sons in them as governors."

and

first

and

The Carians are described by Thucydides as dispersed on many islands and engaging with the Phoenicians in piracy: "still more addicted to piracy were the islanders. These included Carians as well as Phoenicians, for Carians inhabited most of the islands.* The
7

close relations existing are further attested to

between the Carians and the Phoenicians by the names of towns like Phoinix and

Phoinikus in Caria. 12

Knowledge
8

of the whereabouts of Carian colonies outside south-

The south of Canaan, called in the Book of Joshua Negeb-Kereti, was, according to the opinion of various 'scholars, at an early age occupied by immigrants
9
10

from Crete.
(trans. A.

Herodotus

D. Godley, 1921-24),

I,

171.

Ibid
(trans. C. Foster Smith;

n

Thucydides

London and New York, 1919),
p.
3.

I, iv.

"Georg Meyer, Die Karier (Gottingen, 1885),

200
west Asia Minor and the

AGES IN CHAOS
trails

of Carian
13

wandering was early

lost

to history. In the first century Strabo
14

wrote: 'The emigrations of the Carians ... are not likewise matters of off-hand knowledge to

everybody."

Cyprus was apparently included in "most of the islands/* and the Carians survived there till a late date. Herodotus (V, 111) mentions
a Carian shield-bearer on Cyprus in the early Persian days.
It does not require much ingenuity to the Khar of Has Shamra were Carians.

come

to the conclusion that

The Carians settled not only in Cyprus but also on the shore of the mainland opposite, and similar graves in eastern Cyprus and in Ras Shamra are evidence of this. The peculiarity of the Carian
graves was stressed by the early historian Thucydides, that Carians had inhabited most of the islands "as may

who
be

wrote

inferred

from the fact that, when Debs was purified by the Athenians in this war [ 426] and the graves of all who had ever died on the island were removed, over half were discovered to be Carians, being recognized by the fashion of the armour found buried with them, and by
the

mode of burial, which is that still in use among them/*15 Modern archaeologists again point out the peculiar features

of

the graves of Ras Shamra and of eastern Cyprus. Inasmuch as the Carians were inhabitants of northern Syria early in the first millennium before this era, it is only reasonable to look

them in the Scriptures. In the eighth century Athaliah daughter of Ahab and daughter-in-law of King Jehoshfor a mention of

aphat of Jerusalem the queen-mother

who usurped

the throne

when her son Ahaziah was

lolled

had a bodyguard composed

of

by Jehu on the road to Megiddo, "Cari." This bodyguard later par-

ticipated in a revolt against Athaliah, when Jehoiada, the priest, made a covenant with "the rulers over hundreds, with the Cari,

Baron d*Eckstein, Revue archeologque, XIV (1857); XV (1858), and Brasseur de Bourbourg, S'il existe des sources de Vhistoire primitive du Mexique dans les monuments egyptiens (Paris, 1864). Names such as Karkar or Carchemish (written also Gargemish) and the word "Ear" in names of cities, like Car Shalmaneser, may be mentioned in this connection.

Strabo, The Geography, I, 3, 21. "Extensive studies were made, in which the name Car was tracked down all over the world in order to find traces of Carian and Phoenician navigation. See

"Thucydides^viii

RAS SHAMBA
and the runners"
Jehoash, the boy
royal family.
It is
(II
1G

201

who was

and brought before them Kings 11:4,19) saved when Athaliah killed the secretly

more than probable that the Kreti of the "Kreti and PletT (Cherethites and Pelethites) bodyguard of David (II Samuel 8:18), led by his marshal Benaiah, were the same Kari. In one place in the Scriptures (II Samuel 20:23) it is said that Benaiah was in command of Kari (or Kre) and Plett The Philistines, since days of old, have been considered the Kreti-Pleti. The word TPletT is generally
regarded as a shortened form of
"Philistines," and without sufficient have been presumed to be the same people as the Kreti, ground they and thus originated the theory that the Philistines came from Crete. 17 Pleti cannot be identical with Kreti or Kari, because whenever they are mentioned the two names are always connected by

"and." 18

The origin of the Kreti in Crete heard even in the name is also attested to by the Version of the Seventy, who translated "KretT by
"Cretans."

The Carians came from

Crete.

The
is

Kreti also

came from

Crete and were identical with the and Kari and Kreti were the same.

Kari. It

obvious that Carians

Carians, royal bodyguard in the Jerusalem of Queen Athaliah, were employed in the same capacity in the Egypt of the seventh
century, after they driven by a gale. 19

The

had arrived therte together with the lonians, The Carians occupied this position until Cam-

17

The

King James version has "the Captains and the Guard.** Philistines came from the island of Caphtor (Deuteronomy 2:23; Amos

9:7; Jeremiah 47:4). Jeremiah speaks of the 'Philistines, the remnants of the country of Caphtor." By identifying the Philistines with Kreti and Pleti, Caphtor was identified as Crete. It will be more in accord with historical evidence if we

understand Caphtor to be Cyprus. If Caphtor was not Cyprus, then no name for Cyprus and no mention of the island would be found in the Scriptures, and that would be unlikely because Cyprus is very close to Syria. The islands of
Khitiim (Jeremiah 2:10; Ezekiel 27:6), usually identified as Cyprus, signified all the islands and coastlands of the west, Macedonia, and even Italy. Cf. article "Cyprus" in The Jewish Encyclopedia.
ls The word ''Pleti" was given still another explanation. The Targum translated Iwreti" as "bowmen," and "Pleti" as "slingers" from the word palet, "to cast" or "cast out." The same verb could be regarded as meaning "those who 7* were cast out by the sea, or "remnants of people escaped from some place on the sea": iam polat is "the sea threw out."

^Herodotus, n, 152.

202

AGES IN CHAOS

20 They also formed the bodyguard of the byses conquered Egypt. Mngs of Lydia in the sixth century.

In

this

connection

it is

interesting to correlate Herodotus' state-

ment (I, 171ff.) that the Carians invented and produced arms and were imitated by the Greeks with the fact that "in no other site in found such a large quantity of arms as in Syria or Palestine was
Has Shamra" 21 and with the Targum's translation of Kreti as bowmen.

and the beginning of the sixth Zephaniah (2:5) and Ezekiel (25:16) prophesied the end to come

At the end

of the seventh century

to the maritime shore of Keret.

Nebuchadnezzar subdued Tyre, Phoenicians and the Carians fled to Carthage, and after that
shortly

When

thereafter

the
this

colony grew to a metropolis.

The Carian Language
With
the Ras

Shamra

tablets before the linguists,

it

would seem

that the scholarly world is at last closer to the solution of the question, What was the language of the Carians? than was Strabo, who

discussed

nineteen centuries ago. 1 Homer, in his enumeration of the
it

allies

of Troy, included "the

barbarously speaking Carians.'* Apollodorus understood these words as an allusion to the fact that the Carians spoke, not Greek, but some
2 strange language. Strabo concluded from Homers reference that the Carians spoke Greek but pronounced it like barbarians. Strabo

probably had in mind the Carians of Asia Minor, about whom Herodotus wrote that, with the settlement of the Carians there, the
speech of the Caunians, the previous inhabitants, lias the Carians*, or the Carians* to theirs." 8

grown

like to

That the Carians used a speech not understandable to the Greeks
"Ibid.,

a

H, 154. Dussaud, Les D6couvertes, p. 20.

'Strabo,
*IbicL,

The Geography, XIV, ii, 27ff. with reference to Apollodorus, Athenian grammarian.
1,

"Herodotus,

172.

RAS SHAMEA
is
1

203

came

obvious from a story of Herodotus. He narrates how a Carian to a temple to hear the oracle; the Thebans stood amazed to

hear the oracle use a language other than Greek. The stranger said that the words of the oracle were Carian, and he wrote them down.

The Carians used Greek too; Herodotus

tells

us that the Egyptians

learned Greek from the Carians and lonians who came to Egypt in the days of Psammetich in the seventh century. A scattering of Carian words is found in the classic authors; also few Carian personal names are preserved. 5 In Egypt, on various a monuments, together with Greek autographs were found autographs not in Greek; they were written in Greek letters with the addition of

a number of different characters so as to conform to the phonetics of the tongue. The conclusion was drawn that these were the names
arms. 6

Carian mercenaries signed next to those of their Ionian comrades-inThe time was the seventh century. A number of epitaphs,
in Carian
texts

but as the

and in Egyptian were also discovered, were apparently not exact translations from one language into the other, attempts to decipher the Carian have remained quite indecisive. The hypothesis that the language was IndoGerman was disputed and rejected. 7 Neither is it Semitic. The same diagnosis that it is neither Indo-German nor Semitic

some bilingual

is

made

for the

Human

(Khar) language of Mesopotamia. In both
in the

foreign to the language cuneiform, in the other

Khar and of the Carian inscriptions, are one case they are borrowed from from the Greek alphabet It is of interest that a Mitanni element was discerned in Carian. 8 The Carian has not yet been read. In the summer of 1935 numerous Carian inscripcases the characters, of the
*Ibid.,

VHI,

135.

*See A. H. Sayce. "The Karian Language and Inscriptions," Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, IX (1886), 123-54. W. Brandenstein, "Karische Sprache/* Pauly-Wissowa, RealrEncydopadie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, Supplement VI (1935), 140-46; F. Bork, "Die Sprache der

(1931-32). Karer/' Archiv fur Orientforschung, *Lepsius noticed these signatures and drew this conclusion. The hypothesis of the Iranian origin of Carian was put forth by P. de Lagarde. See P. Kretschmer, Eirileitung in die Geschichte der Griechischen

VU

Sprache (Gottingen, 1896), pp. 376ff. ^'Neben dem elamoiden Kerne ist im Karischen ein starker Einschlag aus dem Mitanni deutlich zu erkennen." F. Bork, "Die Sprache der Karer," Archiv fur Orientforschung, VH (1931), 23.

204
tions

AGES IN CHAOS

were discovered near Mylasa in Caria (by Benveniste), but they have not yet been published. For reasons explained previously, it seems to me that it would be profitable to investigate the Khar of Ras Shamra, proceeding on the basis that it is the Carian language but in other characters, and to decipher Carian inscriptions with the help of the tablets of Ras Shamra.

The theory that the Ras Shamra tablets contain references to lonians should not have been rejected; lonians might have been
mentioned in them, for it was not the fourteenth but the ninth cento conjecture that the word tury. It seems to me also permissible
read as Ugarit 9
that
is

the Carian-Ionian

name

of Euagoras, Kings of

ruled on Cyprus, and the reign of one Euagoras in the fifth century before this era and of another early in the fourth century are known from Greek and Latin authors. The war of the second Euagoras against the Persians is mentioned in a later chapter of the present work. The influence of Cyprus on Ras Shamra was

name

this site
rulers.

emphasized by the excavators; it is thought that in an early period on the Syrian shore might have been a colony of Cyprian
This observation corroborates the surmise that an early of Cyprus, a descendant of Carians who were driven to the long east by the lonians, built a city on the Syrian shore opposite the

island of Cyprus

on the ruins of a previous

city

and called

it

by

his

own name, Euagoras. The name of the king Nikmedes (also is the lonian-Carian name Nikomedes. A

written Nikmes,
similar

Nikmed) name, Nikodamos,

a form more agreeable to a Semitic ear. 10 The city of Didyma, whence came the lonians to Ugarit, was in 11 Tablets of the ninth century before Ionia, but its name is Carian.

may have been

the present era could contain this name, but not tablets of the
fifteenth century. It is curious, indeed, that the scholar

who
\

insisted that lonians are

referred to in the Ras

Shamra

texts

nevertheless conservatively

""Egrt." See Hrozn^, "Les loniens & Ras-Shamra," Archiv Orientdlni, IV (1932), 175. Compare Virolleaud, Syria, Revue fart oriental et tfarcheologie, XII, 351 and 557.
F. Hill,

of Salamis on Cyprus minted coins ca. -460 to -450 ( Sir George Catalogue of the Greek Coins of Cyprus [London, 1904], p. 52). ^See the article "Didyma" by Biirchner in Pauly-Wissowa, ReaLEncyclopadie.

MNikodamos

RAS SHAMRA

205

maintained that the Khar of Ras Shamra, mentioned together with the lonians, were the Horites ( troglodytes ) of the Bible. 12 Carians and lonians, not only in the Ras Shamra text, but in many texts of

Greek authors, are mentioned together. Despite the fact that at an early date the Carians were driven from Crete and the Cyclades by
the Greeks (lonians), the two people intermingled, and the story of their first appearance together on the Egyptian shore shows that

they became partners in their enterprises. In the classic literature the Carians usually appear either with the lonians or with the Phoenicians.
If

one day an Orphic
it

hymn

should be found in the dust of Ras

would be a lucky day for the excavators but no miracle. According to Homer, the Carians participated in the defense of Troy. They might have had their own reminiscences and their own poems in which they sang the battles of Ilion. It is known that on Cyprus poems were composed dealing with the same subject as the
Shamra
Iliad,
13

of them.

but, except for twenty-five short fragments, nothing remains Were these poems orginally written in Carian?

between the Carians and Crete and between now that the Khar lanof Ras Shamra is being read. Then a new attempt should be guage made to interpret the still unread characters of the Cyprian inearly relations

The

Crete and Cyprus should be remembered

scriptions, the linear script of Crete, and die pictorial script of that island, and thus to lift the veil that conceals the past of Crete and

of the

Minoan

culture, the maritime adventures of the Carians in the
Atlantis.

second millennium, perhaps even the story of

Amenhotep

II

Syria-Palestine of the period we are discussing was a region coveted by the pharaohs and striving for independence.

^'Les

grande influence du peuple churrite ou horite sur la Syrie et la Palestine. Ce fait ne saurait nous surprendre, des que nous connaissons le rdle joue par les Churrites en Syrie et en Palestine a la fn du troisieme et dans la premiere moitie du second millenaire:" Hrozaf, Archiv Orient<flni> IV (1932), 137. See also Speiser,

inscriptions churrites

de Ras Shamra demontrent une

jois

de plus

la

Mesopotamian Origins,
^Herodotus,
II,

p. 133.

117.

206

AGES IN CHAOS
the long and successful reign of

When

Thutmose

III

came

to

its

end, Amenhotep II (his royal name is usually read Okhepemre) took the scepter. To the Asiatic provinces the death of Thutmose III was a signal for insurrection and the casting off of the Egyptian

Amenhotep II marched at the head of a vast army of chariots, horsemen, and foot warriors to suppress the rebellion in Syria and
yoke.
Palestine. His Majesty "went against Retenu [Palestine] in his . . His victorious campaign, in order to extend his frontier.
.

first

Maj-

esty

came to Shamash-Edom and devastated it. ... His Majesty 1 ," came to Ugarit and subdued all his adversaries.
.

.

On
the

the

bow

way to Syria Amenhotep II displayed his ability to use in a demonstration before the local princes in order to im-

few hundred nobles as war and a booty of some hundred horses and chariots or war prisoners some of the prisoners carriages. On his return to Egypt he hanged to the mast of his ship on the Nile with their heads down.
In his ninth year he repeated his expedition to Palestine, his goal being Aphek in lower Galilee. He plundered two villages "west of
to

press and intimidate them. He returned to Memphis with a

unimportant localities, he returned with more prisoners. His harassing visits made him a Memphis common enemy of the kingdoms of Palestine and Syria. When he

Socoh/^and

after pillaging other

came again was fought
proposed

to Palestine, the main,

and seemingly the

only, battle

at a place called y-r'-s-t. Various solutions have 2 for the identification of this locality. However, it

been
is

an

important fact that according to Amenhotep's annals he reached the 3 place one day after his army left the Egyptian border. Thus the
place of the battle could have been only in southern Palestine.
ML.

M. Badawi, "Die neue

historische Stele

Amenophis'

II,"

Annales du

service des antiquites de HEgypte, XLII (Cairo, 1943), 1-23. ^rugsch read the name "ArinatrT and identified it with Orontes. Breasted and others accepted this view; F. W. von Bissing Statistteche objected (Die Tafel von Karnak [Leipzig, 1897], p. 34 ) ; Petrie read Axseth" and surmised it to be Haroshet on the Kishon (History of Egypt, II, 155). J. A. Wilson, however, verified the reading y-r-s-t on the Karnak fragment

Amenhotep II started his campaign, according to the Memphis Stele, on the "First month of the third season, day 25." He reached y-r-s-t on the "first month of the third season^ day 26" (Karnak variant), or only one day later. See "Egyptian Historical Texts" by J. A, Wilson in Ancient Near Eastern Texts, p. 245 and note 8 on the same page.

8

two bows. Sec. But was it really? What was the booty in the battle of List of that y-r'-s-t? which his majesty captured on this day: his horses 2. and one quiver "full But whatwere pitiful was a defeat. Occasional Publications of the British School of Archaeology in Ankara (London. 8 After a victory an army usually marches deeper into the enemy's territory. Vol. the complete spoils the king of Egypt could count after his victorious battle were one chariot." . To ascertain whether his expedition was a defeat. 1949). 2 bows. In a recent publication Sidney Smith arrived independently at the same conclusion that the expedition of Amenhotep II was a disastrous defeat. and this is just what happened. a corselet and 4 some object the reading ever may have been that indeed if all of which is no longer possible. the king turned toward Egypt. Sec. Vassal cities rebel home do not choose that moment on seeing their oppressor in flight. 787. 786. for the war annals relate that Asiatics of a city on the way to Egypt 7 "plotted to make a plan for casting out the infantry of his majesty J* During the remainder of hotep II his reign. When a king returns from a successful campaign of restoring order in the provinces. Amenand there is no mention of any 8 yearly tribute from there. his subjective evaluation of the campaign must be compared with the scriptural record. I. called himself "conqueror of Syria." It spoils say that. That he cessor. 785. "Breasted. "passing southward toward Egypt. Records. Records.HAS SHAMRA 207 Amenhotep called himself victorious. lost Syria-Palestine may also be deduced from the fact that his suc- Thutmose IV. some decades. Ibid. the cities located on his triumphal route for revolt. Vol. his majesty pro- ceeded by horse/*6 Immediately after the battle. B n.. for did not return to Palestine. VoL n. a quiver full of arrows. chariots 1. Sec. two horses. 'Breasted. last object. and it is accepted that this campaign was a victorious one. a coat of mail. But the lines directly following the enumeration of the of arrows.

succeeded in winJeroboam. n CHRONICLES 14:12-13 So the Lord smote the Ethiopians before Asa. could be none other . and they set the battle in array in the valley of Zephathah at Mareshah. who led an army of Ethiopians and Libyans (II Chronicles 16:8) from the southern and western borders of Egypt (like the army of the pharaoh Shishak). and the Ethiopians were overthrown. And Asa and the people that were with him pursued them unto Gerar. for they were destroyed before the Lord. out of Judah three hundred thousand. and the Ethiopians fled. that they could not recover themselves. destruction of the images of the pagan gods was in itself a rebellion (II Chronicles 14:5). constructed walls and towers. as the land since Shishak ( Thutmose The Egyptian belonged III ) had been subject to the Egyptian crown. and before Judah. Abijah. So they built and pros- pered. "In his days the land was quiet ten years. gates our God. the army stood ready. This must mean that Egyptian ing. and they carried away very much spoil." He built fortified cities in and bars. his son. of Judah. followed him. king of Israel (II Chronicles After the short reign of Abijah. He said to Judah. and before his host. and he hath given us Judah: "We have sought the Lord rest on every side" (II Chronicles 14:7). and out of Benjamin. CHRONICLES 14:9-10 And there came out against them Zerah the Ethiopian with a host of a thousand thousand. and came unto Mareshah. Zerah the Ethiopian. two hundred and fourscore thousand: all these were mighty men of valor. Asa. n CHRONICLES 14:8 And Asa had an army of men that bare targets and spears. Then Asa went out against him.208 AGES IN CHAOS of The son Rehoboam. n Asa prayed to God for help. The cities were fortified. and three hundred chariots. king ning a decisive battle against domination was already declin13). Asa clearly rejected Egyptian rule. that bare shields and drew bows. for among them die first place surely to the gods. of By fortifying the cities Judah and recruiting his warriors.

15)." says the Elephantine 9 In Micah 1:14 the place is called Moresheth-Gath. 10 has ever existed. "Breasted. plotted against his garrisons. presumably in Edomite southern a token of defeat Palestine. he was pursued only to Gerar. but he was a large one. So he still had the satisfaction of taking with him on his return to Egypt a few chiefs of some vilburned alive in Egypt: his Memphis stele records lages. He was Amenhotep II was not a great man. or the water of areset. the presence soldiers in the army leaves little doubt that the was invasion. History of Egypt. II. and an Ethiopian army. The first syllable of Me7* resha or Me-reshet may possibly mean "the water of. fighting himself against the soldiers of the enemy. in order to reach Palestine.RAS SHAMBA 209 than a pharaoh. The Egyptians. He was proud of his physical strength and boasted that no one could draw his bow. A large bow inscribed with his name was found a few decades ago in his sepulcher. The why 9 description of the battle of Mareshah or Moresheth reveals the pharaoh turned his back speedily on Palestine and his face toward Egypt. 'There is not one who can draw his bow among his army. among the hill-country sheiks [or] because his strength is so among the princes of Retenu [Palestine] much greater than [that of] any king who stele. ." and why the population of the cities. why from the field of this battle his army carried away "one bow and two horses. Erbt) the story of the Chronicles must have a historical basis in an Egyptian or an Arabian to conquer Egypt first. In bombastic phrases. In the opinion of the exegetes (Graf. could write mu-areset." who battled alone: "Behold. as in Me-riba or Me-rom. It means that. Records. Moreover. VoL H. when everyone had It is when an Egyptian fled. whom he this holocaust. transcribing Moreshet. king recounts his own personal valor and fierceness on the battlefield. The way from Ethiopia to Palestine is along the valley of the Nile. Amenhotep II crossed "the arm of water [ford] of arsetk" ( Petrie. the inscription glorifies the ruler like a fierce-eyed lion. His Majesty fought alone. which do not refer to any special encounter. Sec. would have had of Libyan king the pharaoh of Egypt. 792.

1912). 69. on the stele of Elephantine by Amenhotep who an story of Herodotus has Ethiopian king as the bragging bender of the bow of Amenlived many centuries earlier. ult is a curious circumstance that in the Abyssinian sacred tradition ( Kebra Nagast) Menelik. H Breasted. but Amenhotep II. It was a victory as sweeping as the defeat of the Hyksos-Amalekites by Saul. 1832-44). was Zerah-Amenhotep II. See Gauthier. I. p. its effect on the subsequent period was not of equal importance. H. ^Cf. "Breasted. The one who fled from Palestine. Le Livre des rois tfEgypte. He called his mother Hatshepsut. an earlier king of the Eighteenth Dynasty. the successor of Queen Sheba-Hatshepsut. (1917). Records. to the borders of Egypt Two historical elements are mingled in this legend. Is it possible that before ascending the throne 14 Conventional chronology of Egypt he was a viceroy in Ethiopia? Osorkon of the Libyan Dynasty encounters identifying Zerah. difficulty in the was a glorious accomplishment to carry away so decisive a victory from the battlefield. as we shall see. but. after succeeding in stealing the holy Ark by a ruse. he fled to Ethiopia. Foucart in the Bulletin de TInstitut Egyptien. The hotep II. II.210 "It is AGES IN CHAOS Ids story which furnished Herodotus with the legend that was unable to draw the bow of the king of Ethiopia/' 11 Cambyses A modern scholar saw a common origin in this story. Rosellint. Was Amenhotep II an Ethiopian on the Egyptian throne? In the veins of the Theban Dynasty there was Ethiopian blood. is pictured with a blade face. guest of Solomon. and in the historical boast written II. . king of Ethiopia and son of the Queen of the South. which survived in legendary form in Herodotus (Book III. tiie successor to Thutmose III. returned to Palestine to rob its Temple. 268Amenhotep I. 5 s&ie. the successor of Shishak-Thutmose EL "Who assumed a Kush in Arabia besides the Kush (Ethiopia) in Africa. The sack of the Temple was the work of Shishak-Thutmose III. Vol. 12 Was the royal wife of Thutmose III a full-blooded Ethiopian and the son of Thutmose III at all? did she bear him a dark-skinned son? Or was Amenhotep II not He called himself son of Thutmose. when the foe was not a petty Arabian 15 or a pharaoh of the ignoprince as some exegetes have thought minious Twenty-second Dynasty as other exegetes have assumed It the great pharaoh. pursued by Solomon. pursued by the king of Jerusalem. 803. 287. the greatest of all the pharaohs. 21ff. I Monumenti deW Egitto e delta Nubia (Pisa. A History of Egypt (New York. Sec. but this claim need not have been 18 literally true.). 826. with biblical reference to Zerah as an Ethiopian. his father.

The pharaoh had previously laid Ugarit waste and threatened all the kingdoms in this area.) It is also said that the population of the north- ern tribes went over to Judah because of the high esteem thf? country enjoyed after it had successfully repelled the pharaoh and his army (II Chronicles 15:9). the lands of the Jordan. at the very zenith of beaten by Asa. and this was and Libyan himself. but over the multitude of the Egyptian-Ethiopian military value. the repercussions countries and for many generations. A Phoenician host of poem Amenhotep II. with very many chariots and horsemen?" (II Chronicles 16:8. Is victory of Asa over Amenhotep II no more material concerning the preserved? Such a great triumph sings of that victory over the should have had a greater echo. at the head of whom stood the emperor-pharaoh With the rout all of the Egyptian army in the south of Palestine. Orontes. which had rebelled after the death of Thutmose III. The great victory at Mareshah carried a message of freedom to all these peoof the battle should have been heard in many ples. it is conceivable that the king of Judah had some help from the north. The inscriptions of Amenhotep II reveal his ambition to dominate. It was first translated . of Syria-Palestine naturally was freed of the Egyptian yoke.HAS SHAMRA Politically. The Poem Among of Keret the epics unearthed at Ras Shamra. and the sympathy of the Syrian maritime peoples must certainly have been with Asa. and Euphrates. one contains some historical material. It had this echo. Egypt. hosts. and this in the words of the seer Hanani: "Were not the Ethiopians and the Lubim [Libyans] a huge host. does not detract from its its imperial might. But only once again does the Book of Chronicles pay tribute to this victory. in addition to the land of the Nile. the victory 211 but this fact was not sufficiently exploited. The poem of Keret the archaeologists call it by the name of its hero has a historical setting. was not a victory over an Egyptian garrison or a detachment dispatched to collect tribute. king of Judah.

Who was Terah? asked Virolleaud. Charles Virolleaud.. king the army of Terah aroused Keret's (south of Palestine) by Negeb fears. p. migrated from Ur of the Chaldees on the lower flow of the Euphrates to Harran in the northwest. In the Scriptures it is said that Terah. 1936). as a flood [i/r]. two tribes. They marched to meet the army of Terah. in the poem. Then the poem tells that the huge invading army. and ended his days there (Genesis 11:32). appear according to Virolleaud. Asher. 149). It was found to be a very illuminating addition to the legends about the sojourn and wandering of the patriarchs in Negeb southern Palestine as found in Genesis. Men of Hasis went by thousands. The names of Asher and Zebulun. Asher is mentioned repeatedly in a refrain. roi des Sidoniens (Paris. and by myriads. Abraham's father. In his great distress he was encouraged by a voice heard in a dream. and the poem gives a vivid feeling of armed tribesmen hurrying to join the main army opposing Terah. .212 AGES IN CHAOS 1 and interpreted by Charles Virolleaud. having been defeated. Later a very different meantext. The patriarch Abraham came to Negeb. and three are gone. two and two are gone. and he went to meet the danger and joined the army of the defenders. marched together. And Terah came into Negeb with a great force: "a great force of three hundred times ten thousand [rbt]" which would mean if the translation is correctthree million men. was in full retreat. Revue tfart oriental et d'arcteologie. XIV. so did Terah of the poem. Virolleaud read in the text of the danger ing was given to the of Sidon. La L6gende de Keret. In Genesis the father of Abraham is called Terah. ce nom de Trh est e'videmment la merne que celui du pere ^Abraham" Ibid. Volunteers joined the thousands of Hasis. *'C ermine nous Taoons iwtique dejd (Syria. he wept in the seclusion of his chamber. Asher. The invasion of threatening the country of Keret. It is not clear from the poem whether the role of the tribe of Zebulun was that of an enemy or a friend. three shut the houses. The theory was advanced2 and found followers in France that patriarchal migrations and wars are described in the Phoenician poem of Keret. 25.

Consequently. but received their names from.es. Terah n'avait fait que pr&parer la conquete ou Toccupade Canaan. and it was agreed that Terah did not die in Harran but prepared the conquest of Canaan from the south and also accomplished it in part. meeting resistance on the part of the population. of the his descendants of The occurrence many generations? To meet this situation it was said that originally the names of Asher and Zebulun belonged to cantons inhabited by Canaanites. un jour. *"IZ ne s'agit pas id de deux des douze tribes (Asher et Zebulun). and in fact the peacefulness of his sojourn there is stressed.. . p. and it was conwas because of the leading role played by Terah from the scriptural legend. puisque. the invader seemed to be a convincing to Negeb. Terahites invaded the south of Canaan. and Abraham.RAS SHAMRA 213 A was introduced with the help of the poem. And if tie tale is very mentioned in the poem. 4 Another translation and interpretation 9<f of the poem of Keret was Pouf les Helyreux. and that Abraham capitulated when he met difficulties and left Canaan 3 to seek refuge in Egypt. these tribes were descendants of Abraham.. the conclusion was drawn by Virolleaud that different the scene. the inparallel vader. who did not give their names to. the cantons. le tion nom" Ibid. 32. the scene. 18. At a later date these places were conquered by the tribes of Israel. unexplained unconformity is the huge number of soldiers in the host of Terah: three hundred times ten thousand is very different from the number of persons in Abraham's household. devant les difficult^. p. servants An names Asher and Zebulun also presented a difficulty. son of Terah. il avait du abandonner la partie et setait refugte en Egypte. et son fils Abram n'avait fait luwneme qu'6baucher Pentreprise. How could Terah have battled with children of Asher and Zebulun. the latter becoming an anonym in the multitude of the Terahites. Asher and Zebulun were sons of Israel of the Scriptures. sons of the correction scriptural Terah. and Terah. included." Ibid. Abraham and his two brothers. are not jectured that this and the inconspicuous role of Abraham. although in the Scriptures nothing is said about Abraham's war with the Canaanit. still the combination Negeb. mate de deux de ces cantons canacm6ens> dont les douze tribes prendront. son of Terah.

Free from the limitations imposed by an incorrect estimate of the age of tie Ras Shamra tablets. obviously we shall strengthen the identifica- tion of Zerah as Amenhotep II. Ginsberg. we pose this question: Is an unsuccessful invasion of southern Palestine by a large host known to us from the Scriptures? Such an invasion occurred in the days of Asa. regarding it as a love romance. In the Second Book of Chronicles the invading army under Zerah is called a very large multitude. two march. not the father of the names of the tribes and the martial plot appear patriarch." B . n CHRONICLES 14:9 And there came out against them Zerah the Ethiopian with a host of a thousand thousand. It is. We shall compare a few data from the Phoenician poem and from tie inscriptions of Amenhotep II and from the Scriptures. findpresented. Thus are ex- plained away the names of tribes not to be expected in Ugaritic times. Numerous other changes and corrections were offered. ed. however. . behind It also denies the predominant martial (atur). A H. hotep II. king of Judah. 142F. two and two are gone. It rejects Terah. Instead of "Asher. that Virolleaud's translation was not far truth. after. indeed." or a million." he translated: "After two. L. . sick man (zebulun)* theme of the poem. . from the Terah of the poem was. Ethiopian as King Amenand compared the scriptural and the Egyptian material.000 [rbf] with harpes [hepes] of copper. undisputed that Ugarit and the entire Phoenician coast were threatened by Amenhotep II in the period with which we are concerned. Zebulun. pp. with daggers [snn] of bronze. Pritchard. in Ancient Near Eastern Texts. in fact. It seems to us. and it was headed by Zerah the Ethiopian. In the Phoenician words: poem the army of Terah is described in these great force of 300 times 10. If We have already recognized Zerah the we again find parallels. "thousand thousand. but the to be consistent with history. Asher. ing for them the meanings: bridegroom (terah).214 AGES IN CHAOS as proper names.

smote all the cities round about Gerar . A fifth one and a sixth one. 9 He marches toward the cities of with the intention of sharing in the loot. Records.RAS SHAMRA 215 It was noted that the poem used for copper scimitars the Egyptian word hepes. 802. . According to the Scriptures. pursued them unto Gerar. VoL II. after the battle of Mareshah . And on the seventh day you will meet Sapasites. p. . . A third one and a fourth one. . Inasmuch as the Egyptian name is given to the weapons in the Phoenician Egyptian origin would not be an arbitrary conclusion. In the tomb of Amenken. Lods. Go a day and two days breasted. "See A. Tack. Sec. for there was exceedingly much spoil and they spoiled all the in them" (II Chronicles cities after 14:13-14). ^Mqr mmlat dm" it Ginsberg refers "dm" to the following sentence and gives the meaning "LoP . these are swords described with the words "360 bronze hps [hepes]" and next to these swords are pictured one hundred and forty daggers. In the poem the march to the south to loot the tory is the vic- told in these words by the poet to Keret. ." Jack's is also the translation of these two lines from the poem. cities. 7 King Arnenhotep II is portrayed inspecting gifts to be distributed among his officers. Israel (London. p. 6 and for the daggers of bronze. the Egyptian word snn. poem. 8 extant fragments of the poem describe the armies rushing to see Keret marching across fields on which he finds the battle. 1932). the forces of Terah were armed with weapons identical with those with which Arnenhotep armed his soldiers. he comes to a spring tinged with blood. Edom ( More- sheth-gath) the Judean victors looted the cities of the south: And they the people *. Examples of harpes (scimitars) have been found in Gezer in southern Palestine. Accordingly. . . their The weapons are designated in the Phoenician poem by the word used on the Egyptian monument depicting Pharaoh Arnenhotep II with weapons for his army. The Ras Shamra Tablets. 84. . The We arms thrown away by the fleeing soldiers of a beaten army. 38: "Three millions with copper scimitars or harpes (for which the Egyptian word hepes is used) and bronze daggers.

Then he met the Sapasites And went to Edom Rabbot And to Edom Serirot. Keret. according to the poem and the Second Book of Chronicles. and a subsequently found fragment of the poem tells us that he did so. Depart. The king of Edom begged Keret: Don't combat Edom Rabbot Nor Edom Serirot. > p. and does "people of Sapas" mean? A partial answer is at hand. Cities in Edom were doomed to be looted. 14 . king of Sidon. The poem his is in the rhythm of the marching step of the hero and men. But we We are more anxious to know who were the "Sapasites" before the walls of the cities of Edom.216 AGES IN CHAOS And you shall come to Edom Rabbim And to Edom Serirot. and what the name whether we are on the road we Serirot designates. Sapas of Canaan was analogous to Shamash [sun] of the Assyrians and What is Babylonians." The people who are repeatedly named as opposing Keret before the walls of the Edomite city were Sapas or Shamash 11 men. which also suggested that this fate was imposed on them because they apparently supported Zerah and his Ethiopian and Libyan host. We are therefore interested to know from what base Amenhotep II conducted his campaign against Palestine. nlbid. 10 O. "Translated from Virolleaud. the sun and the Sapasites "Sapas got their name from it. La Ltgende de Keret. set ourselves to follow. from my parvis! And "beautiful as Astarte Keret asked from him his daughter instead of booty: she " is are intrigued to know whether Keret brought the daughter of the king of the Edomite city to Sidon as his consort.

after tibe death of Solomon. His mother. Is it a coincidence that. as the first scene of the Keret poem vividly describes. The city of in the Phoenician poem about the invasion of Terah and his multi- tude. Half a millennium before Jeroboam. according to the Septuagint. In the days of Keret. . called Zeruah in I Kings 11:26. Sarira was the name of a fortress built first about -920 and possibly of every fortress built following the plan of Jeroboam's fortress. When. with the same people as the military and of Amenhotep II of the hieroglyphic poem city Of the word we have an "Sarira" or "Serirot" (plural) in the poem of Keret explanation in the Septuagint. Now we find the same base of Terah of the annals. Shamash Edom is nowhere mentioned in extant Egyptian documents except in the registers of Thutmose III and in this monumental inscription of Amenhotep II. they themselves were alarmed by the invasion approaching from the south. When he was appointed by Solomon to be the Scriptures. the Greek translation of addition to I Kings 12:24 gives some details concerning Jeroboam." The tribe of Ephraim assembled there and. Jeroboam returned from his exile in Egypt he "came into the land of Sarira. one generation later. which he called by the name of his mother. Jeroboam fortified Sarira. These were mercenaries in the service of the king of Jerusalem. Asa called on the Sidonians for help. An over the northern part of the kingdom he built a town in Mount Ephraim and named it Sarira. in time of need. the name or We Scriptures. We have identified Zerah of the Scriptures as Amenhotep Shamash? of the city is Edom and the people are called Sapas have identified Terah of the poem as Zerah of the II. His majesty furnished an example of bravery there. is referred to there as Sarira. the name Edom-Serirot (plural of Sarira) is used.RAS SHAMRA 217 Amenhotep verbatim: II's record of his campaign in Palestine-Syria begins His majesty was in the city of Shamash Edom. What was the role of Keret in the allied army? In II Samuel 8:18 it is written that Kreti and Pleti (Cherethites and Pelethites) were bodyguards of David. Some sixty years later. Serirot is an anachronism.

and that it was turned back by defenders annals of And that the domination of Egypt over Palestine ceased and was re-established only by the successor of Amenhotep II. and that Shamash Edom played an important role in the campaign. or copper scimitars. then by Keret and his allies. of the land. who defeated the invader. The mention of the tribes of Asher and Zebulun in this setting is natural and does not call for a that gives other meanings to these names. both sources that the Phoenician coast was threatened is (Ugarit especially mentioned by Amenhotep II) that the invaders in were armed with hepes. one or two days* distance from the border (nakhd mizraim). the army invading Negeb was composed of three hundred chariots and "a thousand thousand" of soldiers. of the Keret poem reveals Analysis of the historical background that Virolleaud's translation was rejected without sufficient reason. we found that according to both sources a great army came from the borders of Egypt and invaded Palestine. the wells stained red with blood. that it reached the place MoreshethGath or Mu Areset. Comparing now Chronicles and the poem of Keret. These philological theory It is two were the closest neighbors of Sidon. we . a description of a war and a rout. being occupied first by Amenhotep II. who followed Thutmose III. An tribes of the tribes of Israel allusion to this co-operation of the northern tribes is found in the Second Book victory: of Chronicles (15:9) following the description of Asa's "they fell to him [Asa] out of Israel in abundance. according to the scriptural text.218 AGES IN CHAOS of the invading army under Terah. Comparing the annals find of Amenhotep II with the poem of Keret. with the Sidonians they left their homes and hastened to Together Mareshah to take part in the battle or to exploit Asa's victory. the weapons scattered over the fields. in Egyptian. we find that." Comparing the record of the Second Book of Chronicles and the Amenhotep II. and the defending army had three hundred thousand men of . and the cities The defeat trembling before the victorious warriors are vivid pictures which fit the biblical story of the victory over Zerah and over the of Edom Edomite cities supporting him. when they saw that the Lord his God was with him.

It was. 35. 1878). and we find support for him in the historical setting as revealed We by our reconstruction. Edom Serirot is mentioned. and has an explanation in the Translation of the Seventy. Shishak is the scriptural name of Thutmose. successor to Syria Some twenty years after Amenhotep II. we should expect to find in them. that of Shishak. if any. On the other hand. the invading army had three hundred times ten thousand men. P. army of the would not attempt to derive an argument for the present reconstruction of history and to build our conclusions on Virolleaud's interpretation of the Keret poem. Cf. MAs was demonstrated in a previous chapter. The pressure of the Assyrians from the north made it desirable for the Syrians to submit to Egypt. XXVII (1941). p. There are no records of the campaign.RAS SHAMRA 219 Judea. 18. for what was this pharaoh of the ninth or tenth century doing in the middle of the second -millennium? . II partie (Paris. At the head of the army was Zerah or (in the Virolleaud translation) Terah. hebreu Sosaq. The cities in Negeb were looted. but he bears the appellation "conqueror of Syria. Recueil (^inscriptions inSdites du Musfa Egyptien du Louvre. Pierret. The last long whose name is mentioned ^Thutmose IV is twice called "conqueror of Syria" on the Stele Louvre C. re-established Egyptian hegemony over Palestine. 13 The End The excavator of of Ugarit Ras Shamra found that the city had been destroyed by violence and had not been rebuilt. Since the tablets of Ras Shamra belong to the period of the Amenhoteps and Thutmoses." 12 Thutmose IV met very little resistance. The translator did not dare to draw the correct conclusion. un nom propre9 a rapprocher peut-etre de Vegyptien Sosenq. according to the poem. among the first of the deciphered words and it caused considerable surprise. Northern tribes of Israel joined the south in looting the cities of Negeb. Buildings were demolished. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 202. besides the biblical name of Zerah. and the defeat at Mareshah. we may offer a partial vindication of Virolleaud. the library was burned and its walls fell on the tablets and crushed many of them. "Le mot Swsk serrible. Revue biblique. since this translation is a matter of controversy. 55. et Sisaq. Thutmose IV. in fact. XL (1931)." Dhorme.

the city of the king. as well as two letters of the type of the and Nikmed and el-Amarna collection. On the level of the structure destroyed by fire a seal impression of Amenhotep III was found. 1 Half of Ugarit was burned. and the vaders. Archaeology and the Religion of Israel. and the people of the army of Hatti are not there. and found in the state archives of Akhet-Aton (el-Amarna).. Letter 151. Les Fouilles de Minet-el-Beida et de Ras Shamra. retreated after in- they had wrought this destruction. There was that the city was captured is the foreigners were expelled. (1940). concerning the time when Ugarit was de- . 196). soldiers of Hatti. Campagne stroyed. 8 The proclamation found ^l-Amarna in Ras Sharora directly related to the Tablets.220 AGES IN CHAOS fire on the documents that survived the also found a proclamation which all states Nikmed. It is that Nikmed lived during the el-Amarna period. this vassal king informed In a letter written the pharaoh of what had happened to Ugarit: And fire consumed. bore evidence that the catastrophe of fire and as described by the of Tyre and as found by the destruction. in the period of is el- Amarna. and the two tablets of the el-Amarna type. 38. latest tablets of the Ras Shamra library. Judged by these end in the later days of Amenhotep as the findings. "Suppiluliuma et Niqmad cTUgarit. the other half was razed. but the name of the king of letters known on the Ugarit was not given. In the el-Amarna name the city of Ugarit was referred to by and her devastation was recorded. See Schaeffer. king excavators.. occurred in the days of Nikmed. half of it is its other half is not. Ugarit came to its III or in the early days of Akhnaton. La Neuvieme (Syria. It could be established only inf erentially.His name. XIX [1938]. Abimilki. king of Tyre. see Albright. p. 173f. and has consumed Ugarit. V 'Virofleaud. Mention of the destruction brought upon Ugarit and actual evidence of demolition by a violent hand convinced the investigators of Ras Shamra that the city ceased to exist in the very days to which the letter of Abimilki referred." Revue hittite et asianique. a time known by el-Amarna period.

on peut supposer que les premieres lignes de f inscription contenaient " des details sur Uacteur principal des evfaements depeints. a forerunner of the coming migration to Africa. the people of Didyme. they fled Nikmed. IV (1932). in present-day Tunisia? Or did he direct his sails to Hellas. "Keret. have different spellings. all those who it was written 6 in ancient Hebrew with cuneiform characters. is The opening portion because grettable expelled Nikmed." Archiv Orientdlni.'* 4 It appears that the proclamaoppress you. . all the Cypriotes. be expelled from Ugarit. (2) biblical Three of the main conclusions tables of Crete criticism that ascribed the origin of many biblical texts to late centuries and to foreign influences is as erroneous on this issue as *Hrozn Dhorme. 176. his fleet dispersed. it. *7Z est regrettable que le commencement de ^inscription nait pas et conserve. it of the proclamation might have revealed the name missing. burned population. Was Nikmed. tion was addressed to the Phoenician section of the city's population. to foreigners. 171. IV (1932). . where about the middle of the ninth 6 century Phoenician refugees founded Carthage. in Mycenaean ware? Ugarit was their also a market with who had own colony there. Orientdlni. so rich in events." Hrozn^. and caused King Nikmed to flee? He will Who be identified in Chapter VIII. his city burned. loniens a Ras-Shamra. and Keret." Archiv XL ( 1931 ) 37-39. together with the king Nikmed" were "all those who pillage you. the city. this is reof the king who expelled its was the king who conquered Ugarit. I intend to trace his place of refuge later on. all those who ruin you.RAS upheaval in the "die life SHAMRA 221 Jaman of the city. Retarded Echoes of this chapter are: (1) The timeand of early Greece (Mycenaean (Minoan ages) ages ) are displaced by the same stretch of time by which Egyptian dates are out of step with the revised chronology. Revue b&lique. the personal name. I believe Nikmed was not lost in the history of that century. or Keret the New. with which Ugarit traded for the lonians. "Les loniens & Ras-Shamra. the Khar [Carians]. Some invading king decreed that [lonians].

where Homer lived. The sepulchral cham- bers of Ugarit influenced the architecture of sepulchral chambers on but not until more than half a millennium had elapsed. We learned also that Amenhotep II is the scriptural Zerah. that the Keret II. its language. even the system of weights. there existed no Hurrian nation. (3) the Hurrian language is but Carian. Jewels identical with those of Ugarit were worn by maidens of Jerusalem six or seven hundred years after the destruction of Ugarit. the legal ordinances and sacerdotal practices. the echo of its culture. and that he lost the domination of Palestine and Syria in a battle at and institutions Mareshah.222 the reversal of it AGES IN CHAOS that assumes a borrowing of many biblical texts from the Canaanites of the fourteenth century. Dividing strokes between written words were introduced into the script of Cyprus some seven hundred years after the script of Ras Shamra with the same characteristics had fallen into oblivion. on Cyprus. The poetic style and meter. Cyprus of Ugarit reappeared in the epic creations of an interlude of several centuries. Retarded echoes are never heard in Egypt. . all around Ugarit. and how could it be otherwise? For the chronology of Ugarit-Ras Shamra is con- The naval catalogue Homer after structed to synchronize with the chronology of Egypt. and its art returned only after a long period of latency. In western Asia Minor. The excavators and interpreters found themselves compelled to draw a number of inferences about the historical reappearance of and that Ugarit was laid waste actually refers to the harassing of in the one or another earlier cultural achievement. in the Jerusalem of the prophets. re-emerged after an equally long period. poem Ugarit by Amenhotep ninth century.

Only a few and in Syria. Palestine the present over three hundred and sixty tablets have been With the exception of a few single tablets found in which obviously belong to the same collection. Samples sent to the Louvre Museum were pronounced digging in her forgeries. "the place where Aton rises/' The site bears a name artificially composed by archaeologists. Meanwhile. all the others are letters exchanged between two successive longs of Egypt and their correspondents. unskilled excavation. by partition among the clandestine excavators. the tablets had been scattered by unlicensed diggers and dealers in antiquities. palaces. In 1887 state archives were unearthed at Tell el-Amarna. and workshops of craftsmen have been cleared of the desert sand that buried them for thousands of years. Tell el-Amarna. modern tombs. ness. in the course of transportation. A fellah yard turned up some clay tablets with cuneiform signs. Up to recovered. tablets contain fragments of epic poems.Chapter VI THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS The El-Amarna Letters and When They Were Written by the bank of A FEW small villages are scattered in the valley the Nile where once stood Akhet-Aton. woman but soon the scientific world recognized their genuine- During the ensuing years a hunt for the clay slabs was undertaken by many archaeologists on behalf of public and private collections. the free kings of territories in the Middle East and . the entire lot is thought to have been found in or near the place recognized as the state archives of Akhet-Aton. Ruins of temples. Many were damaged. and. private dwellings. some broken into pieces it is by said. the story runs that she sold her find for the equivalent of two shillings.

with few excepAssyro-Babylonian (Akkadian). interpreted as the solax disk. with many words in a Hebrew. his religion was stamped as heresy. The translation into English is by S. it is change which German are by Hugo Winckler and by J. Then the extinct. my lord" and signed them- The selves "thy servant. however." they wrote "to my brother" The kings in Canaan and Syria. The time of the letters can be established with some precision. Thebes. His son-in-law. reigned dynasty became briefly in the old capital. Letters written by the pharaohs or dignitaries their names were obviously copies stored in the archives in order in to preserve tions. The letters sent to Amenhotep III were presumably brought to They were addressed ? to Akhet-Aton from the archives at Thebes. and kings in the and signed themselves "thy brother. B. is a record. In this chapter quotations from the letters are taken from the English version of Mercer (The Tett el-Amarna Tablets [Toronto. and north were not subject to the kings of Egypt. The language of the tablets. Long rows with these of shelves are filled with books and treatises dealing until recently were the most ancient exletters. But shortly after his reign the capital city of who abolished the cult of Akhet-Aton was built by the schismatic king AmenhoAmon of Thebes and introduced Akhet-Aton was abandoned. the cult of Aton. and his images were mutilated. The letters are similarly numbered in Knudtzon s and Mercer's editions. Im-mu-ri-ia) who was Amenhotep III.24 AGES IN CHAOS officers in Syria and princes or Cyprus and various vassal kings Palestine. However. Mercer (1939). Nam-hur-ia). and to Naphuria (Naap-hu-ru-ri-ia. 1939]). of state letters preserved. 1 Syrian dialect similar to The city of tep IV. of the last-named Scandinavian scientist is of classical value for the study of the Tell el-Amarna tablets. were under the scepter of the Nile dynasty and wrote "to my king. The science of history. The translations into lr The work ." There are also letters addressed to certain of the Egyptian court. the young pharaoh Tutankhamen. and who changed his name to Akhnaton. the translations have been checked in Knudtzon's version. Mi-im-muri-ia. Akhet-Aton had a short history of only about twenty-five years before it was deserted by its inhabitants. Nimmuria (Ni-ib-mu'-wa-ri-ia. who was Amenhotep IV (Akhnaton). Twelve letters found since the publication by Knudtzon are included in Mercer's English edition. A. Knudtzon. A.

actually ceased shortly after the reign of Akhnaton. became an important issue and gave rise to the following conjecture: these invaders could have been the Hebrews under Joshua near to the borders of Canaan." Little or no help was sent. In the tablets written by the vassal king of Jerusalem (Urusalim) to the pharaoh." In a later period that of Seti I and Ramses II of the Nineteenth Dynasty there were great wars between the kings of Hatti and the pharaohs. mentioned in the letters of the king of Jerusalem. of Hatti" of the el-Amarna period is supposed to have of the kings of that "forgotten empire." The name Habiru. the mastery of the pharaohs over Syria and Canaan was broken. too. emerged drawing from the desert and approached the land from the other side of ^Breasted. King Akhnaton. "the first monotheist in world history/' 2 did not care for his empire. is 225 in possession of historical testimony to the entrance of the Israelites into jects Canaan. Freud." who threatened the land from east of the Jordan. and the control of Egypt over her Asiatic tributary provinces was swept away. . In letters from Syria the apof the king of Hatti to the slopes of the mountains of Lebanon terror.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS thought. The Habiru. Weigall. In a chapter dealing with that period the "The king been one history of the "forgotten empire of the Hittites" will be analyzed. there is no reference is to Habiru." "pillagers") With the help of various letters it mentioned over and over again. In their letters the vassals incessantly ask for help against the invaders and often also against one another. The name "king of Hatti" is generally understood as "king of the Hittites. is was reported with The impression received that these invasions of Habiru from the east and of the king of Hatti from the north menaced Egyptian domination of Syria. it was learned. In letters written from other places. One on a period previous of the main obin of investigation was to identify places and peoples named the letters. a domination which. has been established that Habiru and sa-gaz (habatu) were proach identical. but an invasion of sa-gaz-mesh (sa-gaz is also read ideographically habatu and trans- lated "cutthroats. he was immersed in his dream of "a religion of love. repeated mention is made of the "Habiru.

In the introductory chapter of this book I dwelt on the various theories relative to the time of the Exodus." Journal of Bible.368. one of them being the Israelites under Joshua ben Nun. whose memory is preserved not only as the addressee of a few el-Amarna letters but also as the A owner of of a rich sepulcher in Akhet-Aton. and engraved with scenes Tett el-Amarna Tablets. 62. 22. This does not seem to be a well-founded construction. or during the interregnum following the extinction of that dynasty: these would have been the only times suitable for the rebellion of the slaves and their departure. making presented each with a tomb built during the lifetime of the recipient "Mercer. The Near Eastern Studies. Barton.226 AGES IN CHAOS the Jordan. In that view the Habiru came in one of the waves of nomads eager to settle in the land of Canaan. LVI (1920). . Other scholars refused to identify the Israelites with the Habiru because the these monarchs We Hebrews were thought still to have been in Egypt at the time of Akhnaton. preceded the Exodus. As the el-Amarna tablets. Arriving at the Promised Land during the time of Amen- to have left Egypt hotep III and Akhnaton. holding the Exodus to be an insignificant event in the history of Egypt. or they select Ramses to be the Pharaoh of Oppression and his son Merneptah the Pharaoh of the Exodus. V (1946). but have chosen Ramses II of the Nineteenth Dynasty to be the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Archaeology and the H. too strong to allow the Israelites to put off the yoke of bondage. 69-71. in Zeitschrift fur Aegyptische Sprache. because were conquerors and despots. Another link was sought to connect the narrative of the Scriptures with the details unfolded in the letters. other waves must have followed. parallel to was found in the Egyptian courtier of Semitic name and Joseph 8 obviously Semitic origin. and the sole opportunity they would have had to leave would have been during a period of anarchy. p. when the once powerful dynasty was dying down. in the opinion of these scholars. King Akhnaton. Ranke. There it was explained that a large group of scholars cannot compromise even on an Exodus at the end of the Eighteenth Dynasty. they were supposed sometime in the days of Thutmose III or Amenhotep II. the Habiru could not possibly have been the Israelites. "Cuneiform Material for Egyptian Prosopography.. n. . desirous a special gift to his favorites. Dudu. pp. Albright. 510ff.

Still was an Egyptian chief in charge of the granaries of the state. the owner of the tomb but not his family being portrayed as a small figure receiving usually honors from the king. Knudtzon. Die El-Amarna-Tafeln (Leipzig. . 5 Alte Testament 1172. who.. There was a famine in the land. 1906). who inhabited neighboring countries. the Egyptians and the Hebrews. O. according to the references in the el-Amarna letters. if he did But the theory identifying the Habiru and the Hebrews was not abandoned. Das im Lichte &s Alten Orients (2nd ect. where grain was bought by the Canaanite princes. who were in Egypt The king of Gubla and Sumur references to a supported the couple in their desire to return to Canaan. Chtonolozische Untersuckungen. Weber in A. T. further conjecture may be recorded. p. then the conception had to be formulated anew. with which I shall deal later was also interpreted both in support of and against the Habiru-Hebrew theory. 390ff. and Jeremias. The equation Habiru-Hebrews is still accepted by a large number of scholars: at the time when the el-Amarna letters were written the Israelite nomads of the desert were knocking at the gates of the land which they had come to conquer. 35ff. Marquart. Did this opinion contradict the scheme according to which the Israelites were still in bondage under Ramses II? If so. it seemed that otherwise the histories of these two peoples of antiquity. pp. Leipzig. The other possible link the Merneptah stele. would show no connecting link in the course of many hundreds of years of their early history. and the migration of the Hebrews was then supposed to have pro*Cf. In the tomb of Dudu there are also figures of Semites rejoicing at Dudu's rewards. The visit of Isaac and 5 Rebecca or of Abraham and Sarah to Egypt was linked to some One handmaid of the goddess of the city of Gubla and her husband. not actually ask for their extradition. will A letter written to this Dudu be quoted later on. pp. and it is an unceasing cry for grain that we hear from the letters of the king of Gubla and Sumur (Sumura). 1915).THE EL-AMABNA LETTERS from the 227 life of the king and his family. another resemblance to Joseph was found in the person of 4 lanhama.

when the former still being oppressed in Egypt and Another theory had the Josephites coming from still another Egypt and the Jacobites directly from Mesopotamia. and Akhnaton identified the Habiru as the Apiru. entered Hebron. The discussion all For these reasons it of the is still Some of those who could not accept the theory that the Hebrews had already entered Canaan at the time of Amenhotep III in progress. Much more important is the fact that there is little similarity in the events described in both sources. nothing suggests the hegemony of Egypt or her interference in the affairs of Canaan. and Debir king of Eglon (Joshua 10:3). memorial monuments in Egypt and in Palestine regarding their passage through Palestine as conquerors of the land lost by the pharaohs of the el-Amarna period or by their successors. missing in the letters. is the most remarkable occurrence in the period of the conquest. and Jericho is not mentioned at all. the workers in the Egyptian quarries on the Sinai Peninsula. others identified them as migrants from the Babylonian district of Afiru. the Rachel dividing the Exodus Leah clan leaving reached Canaan the latter was clan and the at different times. Hoham king of el-Amarna letters. The pharaohs of the Nineteenth Dynasty. Among the letters there are a number written by kings of some of these places but not by these kings. Seti and Ramses II. if the Habiru were the Hebrews under Joshua. In the Books of Joshua and Judges. Reconciling theories were put forth into several successive departures. Adonizedek was king of Jerusalem. further difficulty presented by the equation Habiru-Hebrews arose from the fact that no person in the Book of Joshua could be identified in the A When the Israelites Canaan. Piram king of Jarmuth. How could the Hebrews have reached Canaan before they left . seemed too bold to place the story conquest by the Hebrews so far back in time.228 AGES IN CHAOS ceeded in consecutive stages. covering over four hundred years. variation had the Jacobites coming from Egypt and the Abrahamites followed later. on their seasonal journey from there to their homes in Lebanon. Japhia king of Lachish. The episode of the first siege of Jericho. No contemporaneous left event can be traced in the letters. This silence is strange. from the north.

revised Jerusalem. Samaria. and not the Bible alone. but in 1410 to 870 to in not 6 840. the king of among die princes and chiefs was Sumur (Samaria). and tt Chronicles 16-22. the letters of el-Amarna. were objects of prolonged of Egyptian. too. must correspond to the contents of the el- Amarna letters. and received by Amenhotep III and Akhnaton. It strated with respect to the letters themselves. . is among the tablets of the el-Amarna collection we should expect to find letters written by the royal scribes. The pharprolific writer of letters aoh even wrote to him: "Thou writest regents/* The three to rne more than all the hundred and sixty letters. Kings 1-10. Besides the Scriptures and the el-Amarna tablets. linking the great and small nations of the Near East at of remote antiquity. 1370 as is generally accepted. were written. skilled in cuneiform. in the name of the Israelite kings of Jerusalem and of Samaria. and Jezreel The letters governors in Syria of el-Amarna provide us with the names of princes and Palestine and with the names of cities and and The H readers of this chapter are advised to read beforehand I Kings 16-22. at the time of King Jehoshaphat in Jerusalem. About sixty letters of his are prefifty-four of them addressed to the king of Egypt. If this theory correct.THE EL-AMAKNA LETTERS Egypt? Or how could they have was weakened? left their 229 bondage in Egypt before it sent According to my chronological scheme. Shalmaneser III. The most served. Hittite. Syrian. if it is true that Egyptian history must be and moved forward more than half a thousand years. Babylonian. and the political past of an important period study in the interest Canaanite histories. two other sources relate to the time of on other should be demonbuilt King Jehoshaphat: the stele of King Mesha of Moab and the in- scriptions of the Assyrian king. The statement made above as to the time of the letters should not it fits be accepted merely because into a scheme evidences of preceding or following periods. These relics.

. 18:28. in Hebrew). Joshua 15:8. father of Ahab. Other cities are not mentioned even ten or fifteen cities in times. it had not i KINGS 16:24 And he [Omri] bought and built the of hill Samaria of Shemer called the for two talents of silver. however. Sumur (also Sumura) and Gubla are the most frequently named the el-Amarna letters.30 AGES IN CHAOS walled places. Somron. traced. 1135. See Genesis 14:18. and the frequent mention of this palace in letters that place** in Syria-Palestine the letters to the pharaoh gives the impression that it was a well- known building. no letter from there is to be found in the entire el-Amarna correspondence/* 2 It is obvious from the content of the "most important Sumur was the and apparently also the seat of the deputy administering the region. next to Gubla the most frequently referred to. I Chronicles in Knudtzon. recognizing it as Jerusalem. It was decided that error of these statements. existed. that this city was built. Sumur or Sumura was Samaria (Semer. a name Shemer. It was a fortress. 8 A king's palace was there. the el-Amarna letters were written in the Israelite period. Judges 19:10-11. owner of the hill. of course. after the Samaria. "Weber Die El-Amarna-Tafeln. The difficulty 1 arose only with respect to the passages in the Scriptures according to which the pre-Israelite city was called Salem or Jebus. It could not be presumed that Sumur was Samaria because it was in the reign of Omri. the above conflict does not exist. despite the distress that came upon her. p. Up to now not one of the personal names has been and only several of the geographical names have heen identified. and in the period preceding the conquest of Joshua. 11:4-5. on the hill. each being mentioned more than one hundred times. If. and name of the city which he built. and not was no difficulty in the el-Amarna letters exposed the Jerusalem. letters Urusalim of the el-Amarna there could not be misunderstood. "No king's or prince's name is given for this city Sumur. "Letter 81. I shall identify some important geographical locations and a series of personal also names.

a Greek author. 7 Menander. inby the Masoretes ("carriers of the tradition") over a thou- sand years after the Old Testament had been completed. Samaria was surrounded by a strong wall. However. VIII. He mentioned the name or of Sumur or Sumura about sides the numerous eighty-five times in his letters. Kpny in Egyptian. quoted by Josephus. Tsalms 83:7. Gubla is named repeatedly. identity of Sumur it detail in (Sumura) and Samaria will be shown in the following pages. and remnants of it have been unearthed. . IV (1923). Weber. should now There is scarcely a letter of the king of Gubla in which his uneasiness about Sumur does not find expression. The king of LETTER 85: What was formerly given be given in [to] Gubla. Ezekiel 27:9. but Gwal in Phoenician and Hebrew/ the Phoenician city north of Beirut. A "Dhonne. in Knudtzon. 509f. there is a reference in the 5 Scriptures to Gwal in the south of Palestine. revue (Tart oriental et tfarchSologie. 300. Dussaud. there must have been more than one Gwal ("border") in the region of Syria-Palestine. p. and it is identified as the ancient Botrys. are seen today. I Kings 5:18 (the Hebrew text). Evidence has been found in the letters that Gubla was considered heir to Sumur when this city Gubla wrote to the was temporarily occupied by the pharaoh in Egypt: Syrians. which describe the history of the Together with Sumur. Die ElAmarna-Tafeln. I. 1. 6 However.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS serted 281 Since vowels were a late interpolation in the Hebrew Bible. for instance. It was also asked why the city of letters. 1165. See R. 'Against Apion. Cf. 116. in [to] Sumura.. the name Semer can also be read Sumur. Syria. betimes that the city is referred to as "king's city" "my It city/* was assumed that Gubla is Byblos. The city had a magnificent royal palace. Jewish Antiquities. and the ruins of The period. Revue biblique (1908). says of Ithobalos ^Joshua 13:5. Gwal (Byblos) was changed to Gubla in the el-Amarna few times the long of Gubla mentioned in his letters the city of Batruna.

as the story of Naboth. It is possible that the name of new residence was derived from the name of the Phoenician city. But the daughter of the Sidonian king was Ahab's chief wife. built his palace in Jezreel. then it is apparent that Gubla is the original name of Jezreel. . VHI."* (I Kings 16:31). for he left seventy sons in Samaria (II God of Israel ("the Lord will sow"). 9 Baaltis. whose cult was brought from Gubla thus appears residence city to have been the original name of the royal we know from must have had many Kings 10:1). She brought the evil of the heathen into the land. . too. King Ahab wives. and served Baal. Fragments. of Naboth. She exercised charm and influence over him. Josephus Flavius says that Jezebel built a temple to the deity "whom they "May call The king [Baalis] of of Gubla wrote in almost all his letters: . the city Botrys could be tablets only if the founding of the city mentioned in its his son. 1. and persecuted Elijah the Tishbite. in the memory of the people the most hated person of the period of the Kings. Hundreds of prophets of Baal "eat at The king under her influence "went Jezebel's table" (I Kings 18:19). tihat the residence was named in honor of this wife. It was not to be expected that Ahab. It may be surmised. later vineyard met a violent death. would name the new residence in honor of the persecuted deity. the apostate. the other capital in Israel. the the Scriptures as Jezreel. the king of Tyre in the founded the city Botrys in Phoenicia. Belit to Gubla give power.232 AGES IN CHAOS ninth century. or Belias." Having been built by the father-in-law of the el-Amarna preceded the el-Amarna age which complies with the present reconstruction. that "it was he who (Ethbaal). Jezebel (Izebel). 25. dear to the Phoenician princess. the wife of Ahab. and worshipped him" Bellas. "Philo of Byblos. Jewish Antiquities. killed the prophets of Yahwe. the Josephus. There Queen Jezebel. relates. Omri built Samaria and King Ahab. and he built for her the new residence with her active participation.** Belit of these letters seems have been the deity Phoenicia. adjacent to the palace. was a daughter of the Sidonian king Ethbaal (I Kings 16:31). 2. now queen of Israel. 3011. . If Sumur is Samaria. Ahab.

"May Belit of Gubla give power. The King of Gubla was worried about his other capital. or Gubla in cuneiform transcription. Elijah ran without stopping from Carmel uThe King James site of translation "The to Jezreel (I Kings 18:46). Its traditional site in the east of the valley disclosed no antiquities. We thus have the answer to the question of why no king of Sumur is mentioned in the el-Amarna letters. In the Scriptures there is a direct indication that Jezreel was previously called by the name of Queen Jezebel. rather. shall proceed although the city is named so often: its king had his residence in Gubla. by whose name should it had been called. After that the city was given the name of the QiST) 12 11 valley on the assumption that Sumur and Gubla were Samaria and Jezreel in Israel: the two cities were the two capitals of one state.THE EL-AMARNA LETTEBS 233 Jebel. ^It is possible that the tion of the I lends to the in the name I-chabod (I is: "so that they shall not say." were written from Sumur (Samaria). as Samuel 3:21). This is Jezebel" (II Kings The meaning of the sentence is that the name of the place be blotted out with the death of the queen. It is probable. Ahab. Having raised the curtain on the scene of the main action of the el-Amarna period. Izebel (Jezebel) in the 10 biblical transcription. We Jezreel. dogs tore her flesh "and the carcass of Jezebel [was] as dung upon the face of the field in the portion of Jezreel. about which they [should] not say. that Jezreel is to be looked for in the west of the valley. might have been anxious also to have a share in the maritime trade of the Phoenicians. taking a daughter of the Sidonian king to wife. addiname an ignominious character of denial or curse. When her life ended ignominiously. Possibly some of the letters which bear the usual blessing. When Sumur fell Gubla became its heir. TKe Five Kings The longs letters of of the ancient Orient usually bore many names. The el-Amarna were addressed to the pharaoh Nimmuria and name Jezebel (Izebel) is a later form of Zebel. we must identify the persons on the stage. This is Jezebel/* the residence city of Jezreel has not been established. alternately lost and recovered in incessant wars with the Syrians. .

apparent justification singled out. In the letters there is no mention of the names Amenit is name of III hotep or Akhnaton. Nimmuria was Amenhotep III. The searching rod in my hand is the rod of time measurement: I reduce by six centuries the age of Thebes and el-Amarna.a. 370. 277. of Jerusalem. should my identification of Abdi- Hiba with Jehoshaphat. VI. Tractate Sanhedrin 94. 2 King Hezekiah of Jerusalem had nine names. Ben-Hadad in Damascus. the kings had many names. and NaIV (Aldinaton). crowded with throngs of men from many centuries. and 36:1. Ahab in Samaria. and epithetsj some of them could have been changed during the lifetime of a monarch. I shall insist on the identification. Ginzberg. The Life and wars of the Syrian and Palestinian kings of this period are described with many details in the Scriptures and At in the letters. there is only a limited chance of the kings of Palestine finding in the el-Amarna letters the names of as we know them from But if the Scriptures. also had more than one name. 8 In view of this practice. Legends. a personal name. I point straightway to certain figures bearing names entirely different from those they are even said to belong to an age separated by six centuries from the time of the persons we are seeking. this does not mean that we are free in our choice of substitutes. all these details will be placed source against source. Rib-Addi with Ahab. . Five different names for The longs Solomon are preserved. as well as the kings of Samaria and Damascus. throne known that Nimmuria was the and Naphuria the throne name of Amenhotep Akhnaton. and Ben-Hadad with Abdi-Ashirta seem arbitrary.284 titte AGES IN CHAOS pharaoh Naphuria. Jerome on Isaiah 20:1 Legends. Amenhotep 1 as many as five names. VI. Even before I have investigated the persons thus without of the persons we are looking for. my *A throne name. No doors to indiscriminate identification are opened. Egyptian kings regularly had phuria. Not from the el-Amarna letters but from other Egyptian documents. If rod of time measurement does not mislead me. and I find King Jehoshaphat in Jerusalem. this point in the discussion. I shall be pleased: in the hall of history. Sources are brought together by Ginzberg.

Records of the Past (New Series. one of Israel. We must be sure of The El-Amarna Tablets. permit another reading. this even before we open for the first time Five kings two successive kings of Damascus. we are compelled to conclude Palestine the that the Jerusalem correspondent of Amenhotep III and Akhnaton are no longer free: either we have been was King Jehoshaphat. and one of Moab were the main characters on the stage of the political life of the Egyptian provinces of Syria and Palestine at the time under study. 1889-93). or the contents of the el-Amarna letters will correspond to the scriptural information about the time of Jehoshaphat. Maisler. the king of Damascus. one of Judah. is called Aziru. and Damascus el-Amarna period. Eliahba (Elihiba) in A name H among the officers of King David: . containing the part hiba is known Samuel 23:32. Mesh in the letters. I (Giessen. 5 6 Aradhepa or Arthahepa. of the king of Jerusalem of the el-Amarna letters is read Abdi-Hiba. From this fact we see that names written in cuneiform may be read in many ways. 1928). 7 *By Dhoraie. Cf. The king of Moab. 1930). or Azara in the el-Amarna letters.. Azira. *By H. It would appear that the original reading Ebed-Tov is preferable. of Rehoboam and Thutmose III (Shishak). Having contemporaneity of Solomon and Hatshepsut (Queen of Sheba). London. The el-Amarna letters were written in the days of Amenhotep III and his son Akhnaton some seventy-odd years after Thutcnose III established had conquered and sacked the Temple of Kadesh. For two of them the Scriptures retained names: Hazael. p. Untersuchungen zur alten Geschichte und Ethno- graphie Syriens und PaUstinas. Gustavs. See A. However. 6 Vols. 10. Hiba is presumably the Human form of the name of a Hittit Hepa. Mesha. Die Personennamen in den Tontofeln con Tell Taanek (Leipzig. deity. Samaria. H. We wrong up to this point. Windkler. 37. if regarded as ideo- The name Ebed-Tov ("The Good Servant" others read it graphic. is similar called.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS they are the kings in the 235 who reigned in Jerusalem. By A. B. as we shall see. and the 7 reading Abdi-Hiba is only one surmise among a number of others. and of Asa and Amenhotep II (Zerah). Sayce. the same characters. at first it was proposed to read it in Hebrew) 4 and then Puti-Hiba.

king receive in the A whose endeavor was dedicated memory of a nation the tahnudic tradition asserts. but for Yahwe." This long sent Levites throughout the cities of Judah with a "book of the law of Yahwe" to teach the people (II Chronicles 17:9). The that Solomon ("Peace") was to this The name Rib-Addi. I. in n CHRONICLES 19:5-6 And he set judges in the land throughout all the fenced cities of Judah. *D. son of David." the first part of the name signifying "the elder" brother or "the elder" son. or "one who and a high court for the "judgment of Yahwe" was established Jerusalem (II Chronicles 19:8-10). Abdi-Ashirta and Ajzaru. Luckenbill. Jewish Antiquities. Adra-Astarti). The Amorites were a tribe of Syria and Canaan. 1926-27). part of which means "brother" (ah). It name given him by his people "Yahwe [Jahve] is the judge" to commemorate means judges in the name of Yahwe. Jehoshaphat. for instance. VI. [brother among written in ideograms. it could have been a his deeds. "Josephus. of Damascus. . means "the elder the sons] of the father. 5. 8 It may be gathered from the letters of the king of Sumur that the seat of the kings of Amuru land. D. He also built a new palace of justice in Jerusalem (II Chronicles 20:5). Ancient Records of Assyria (Chicago. And said to the judges. 601. Take heed what man. Sec. work might agnomen Jehoshaphat. is was in Dumaska (Damascus). In the correspondence with Egypt the king of Amuru land was called Abdi-Ashirta (spelled also Abdu-Astarti. and the second the first part "father. a post-mortem name of the king. the second part "father" (ab). Thus Amuru land (Syria) of the scriptural text. who is ye do: for ye judge not for with you in the judgment. 10 Many for the kings biblical scholars are also of the opinion that Ben-Hadad was a generic name the name Ben-Hadad was a general designation for the kings of 'Letter 107." It is construed like the Hebrew name Ahab. city by city.236 AGES IN CHAOS The name of the king of Jerusalem. learn also from an inscription of Shalmaneser III. 9 According to Nicholas of Damascus. may not even have been one of his several original names. a historian of the Aram That Amuru land means Syria we of the letters first century before the present era.

would be quite in accordance with the facts observable in other cases. J.) . "The sound h in the biblical name Hazael happens to occur in Akkadian as Haza-ilu but the spelling Aza-ilu. Hiram. as we know from an inscription of that Assyrian king. I and r being interof Solomon. On Ashera and Astarte. note 1. 119. Ammunira. each of them ^See Jack. age of thirty-nine changeable characters. 1931). is Hamuniri of other letters. p. princes or regents. in some letters. See Meyer. have other examples in the Scriptures as well as in the 122. king of Beirut. The scriptural version of the name Hazael. 13 The name AbcT Astart was in use in the ninth century: Josephus Flavius. gives a royal list of the Phoenician kings. I. Another example is Adkd and Hadad. 274. Gelb. ^Asheroth is usually translated "groves. In the el-Amarna letters they call themselves Tahiti sari. see M. ls Scholars who derived Ivri (Hebrew) from Habiru should find no difficulty in deriving Hazael from Azaru. Samaria in Ahab's Time. Hadoram of the Second Book of Chronicles (II Chronicles 10:18) is called Adoram in the First Book of Kings (12:18). 141fE. Josephus Flavius called Hazael by the name Azaelos. note 2. Ohnefalsch-Richter. Kypros: The Bible and Homer (London.1 * This story may be an echo of the assassination of Ben-Hadad (II Kings 8). Samaria in Ahab's Time. who at the was killed by four sons of his nurse." (Professor I. 1951. note 3.). and Amos Compare Jeremiah 49:27 1:4. p. It was the custom to name kings in conformity with the religious in their domains. 332. 11 237 and historians assume that the king of Damascus who was Ahab's opponent was actually called Biridri. Geschichte des Altertwns. pp." as in I Kings 18:19 ("the prophets of the groves"). the contemporary had a grandson by the name of AbcT Astart. The kings of Jerusalem and of Samaria were hereditary princes. written communication of May 15. ^Jack. Pt 2 (2nd ed. if it occurred. letters. two transcriptions of the same name (I Kings ll:14ff. "How the name came to be translated Ben-Hadad in the Scriptures is uncertain/' 12 We shall discover the real Biridri in the el-Amarna letters in the person of the commandant of Megiddo. differs from the name in the tablets (AzLru or Azaru) in the aspirate sound h. "We ^Against Apion. where h or kh was often freely added or deleted. The worship of Astarte and worship practiced Asheroth in the time of Ben-Hadad is mentioned in the Scriptures. n. 1893). he was the leader of a coalition against Shalmaneser III. quoting a no longer extant work of Menander of Ephesus. from the context of the letters it is clear that p.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS Damascus.

in the singular. In the el- Amarna letters we shall often meet "the rebel Mesh"." the rebellious king of Moab. Occasionally a deputy 17 These consular visits by invitation and officer did visit Jerusalem. Another governor had his seat in Samaria (Sumur). as of the Egyptian crown. "Letter 289. The mighty hand of the king has led me into the house of my father. representatives Governors were attached to "the regents. Mesha. Although the kings of Jerusalem in silver and Samaria were themselves tributaries. In one of his letters the king of Jerusalem asked that the "deputy of the king. be sent to visit Jerusalem. they had their own ceived homage and tribute chiefs. LETTER 286: Behold. neither my father nor my mother has put me in this place. In Jerusalem there was no permanent deputy. was tributary to Samaria (II Kings 3:4). and we shall recognize them there. his name is mentioned so frequently that it was thought to be a grammatical form indicating a group. and the amelut-gaz-Mesh were "the people of the rebel Mesh" or the Moabites. We shall meet both of them not only in the letters but also in the Scriptures. had but one name. One was for northern Syria. The king cattle of Jerusalem reof and from the kings Arabia and from the Philistines (II Chronicles 17:11). We shall readily see that ameZ-gag-Mesh. The names ^Letter 287. the vassal king. other persons on the historical scene generally of the Egyptian military governors . was "the rebel Mesh. the absence of a permanent representative of the Egyptian crown suggest that the king of Jerusalem was a vassal with greater inde- pendence than the other kings and vassals. with his seat probably at Damascus." whose 10 seat was in Gaza.238 sat AGES IN CHAOS on the throne of his to the pharaoh the father. Unlike the kings." the vassal kings. This means that the pharaoh of Egypt was wont to choose from among the royal princes one to succeed his father. The king of Moab. And the king of Jerusalem wrote: The regent king of Samaria recalled time when his father was helped by the pharaoh's father.

Both sources the el-Arnarna and the inscriptions of the Assyrian king are written in the same characters. Moab. n CHRONICLES 17: 14-19 And these are the numbers of them accord- ing [in obeisance] to the house of their fathers: Of Judah. as well as several other similarity or identity of the names is corroborated by the identity of the functions of their bearers. Adnah the chief. army chiefs in Judah. are similar in the el-Amarna letters and in the Bible. as presented in the Scriptures and in the letters. who lived in the time of Jehoshaphat letters and Ahab. "in obeisance to the houses of their fathers. The Not only can the personages in Judah. passing from father . The Letters of Jehoshaphat's Captains five captains at the King Jehoshaphat had head of his army. And next to him was Jeholianan the captain and with him two hundred and fourscore thousand. who willingly offered himself unto the Lord. And armed of Benjamin. Eliada a mighty man of valour. Later in this discourse on the el-Amarna letters the participants in the war of resistance against the invader from the north will be identified. the names of the rulers of the tiny kingdoms in Syria also may be compared in the el-Amarna letters and in the inscriptions of Shalmaneser. the captains of thousands. king of Assyria.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS and those of the 239 names. and with him mighty men of valour three hundred thousand. and with him a hundred and fourscore thousand ready prepared for the war. 7* phrase. And next to him was Amasiah the son of Zichri. and Syria be traced in the Books of Kings and Chronicles and in the letters of elAmarna. It points to the existence of a feudal system at that time. him And next to him was Jehozabad. in The which rank in the army was hereditary. and with men with bow and shield two hundred thousand. Israel. These waited on the king. and with him two hundred thousand mighty men of valour. cuneiform. beside those whom the long put ira the fenced cities throughout all Judah. is of essential value.

form "Adna" the divine name "Addu" (Addu of Dan) is mutilated. Chronicles 17:16. their nizable. From them *In the *H Chronicles 23:1. Addadani) of the el-Amarna letters is 2 called in the Scriptures Adna. Records of Assyria. two.240 to son. contains a reference to a gift he received from Ada-danu. Mercer ( Tell p. lahzibada of the el-Amarna letters is lehozabad (Jehozabad) in the Scriptures. the son of hundred thousand men fit it planation is possible. 375. Their position as military letters as in the Book of Chronicles. officers really important chiefs of the army. who became the Assyrian king after Shalmaneser in 825. and tions. written at length. I. 1 Zichri. the son of Jehohanan. A in slight variation one of is the same in the names are easily recogthe names has a connotation that will lead us to reflection on the development of religion in Judah and on the reform that took place shortly after the death of Jehoshaphat. The "son of Zuchru" of the el-Amarna letters is 4 called the "son of Zichri" in the Bible. Sec. another expresented in one of the following sec- The el-Amarna Judah letters offer rich material on the feudal system in at that time. differ and four of his letters. *II Dani. however. But the inscription of ShamshiRamman. Addudani carried on an extensive correspondence with the pharaoh. eLAmarna Tablets. 722. or three shall find in the next generation We tains Ishmael. The number of men under each of the five chiefs might mean that in their feudal districts there were one. AGES IN CHAOS the names of the capand Elishaphat. . In keeping with his position as chief among the captains. prince of Addudani (also spelled Gaza 8 (Azati). this mutilation was probably the work of the holy penman. who would not admit that a man close to the pious Jehoshaphat had borne the name of AdduLuckenbill. are preserved. is for conscription. note) relates Azzati to Gaza (Aza in Hebrew). yet in their letters the expressions of obeisance disclose their more subordinate role and These were from those in the letters of the king in Jerusalem. We identify letters written by three of the five military chiefs of chiefs Jehoshaphat. as the pharaoh corresponded directly with them.

." In the scriptural list of the five chiefs of Jehoshaname. The pharaoh wrote to Addudani: LETTER 294: Hearken to thy deputy and king. and to tie king (regent) in Jerusalem. and. only his second 5 "of Zuchru. phat. tions to After this introduction he reported on local affairs. on preparameet the archers of the king.. only one is called by the name of his father: Amaziah. is the name of his father at- The scriptural text explains the distinction: Zichri sacrificed himself willingly to God. my lord. and The same words were cities of ' written to the son "of Zuchru": "Protect the the king which are in thy care.. his descendants were honored "sons of Zichri" (II Chronicles 17:16. the son of Zichri. tween him and a deputy." This order is repeated in the reply of the son of Zuchru. on a garrison he had placed so on. Amaziah. on conflicts bein Jaffa. which the long. 23:1).THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS 241 we learn the complicated system in which a chief was bound directly to the pharaoh. pay attention to his servant. only in the case of the son of Zuchru tached. to the local deputy of the pharaoh. thy lord. by the name Zichri of the (Massorete) Bible is Zuchru of the el-Amarna letters. And let the king." Behold. It is interesting to note that in the el-Amarna letters also. on caravans. first name of the writer is not preserved. thy lord. I have heard the words. I protect. behold. 6 dis- Tetter 334." the captain who wrote to the pharaoh on matters relating to the security of his trict. my lord. has written to his servant: "Protect thy deputy and protect the cities of the king. is the "son of Zuchru. protect the cities of the Addudani replied with assurances of his loyalty: LETTER 292: Thus saith Addudani. The custom of repeating in epistles whole sentences from the letter being answered resulted in the preservation of valuable items out of lost tablets of the el-Amarna period. thy servant . "Letter 335. which are in thy care. son of The Zichri. my lord. I hearken day and night to the words of the king.

my gods. but as a good soldier he accepts and acknowledges the orders of the pharaoh. my sum. as they were and the sari of the cities. The place from which they were written is not indicated. Here is one of his stereotyped letters: LETTER 275: To the king. As previously . my gods. Adaia. It is to the credit of the industrious work of Knudtzon that the letters of Addadani. my lord. son of Zidhri. and lahzibada are placed next to the letters of the king of Jerusalem. These few acknowledgments of Pharaoh's orders. say: Thus saith lahzibada. sun. thus he correctly located these correspondents in the southern part of Palestine. mentioned as the last among the five military chiefs was of Jehoshaphat's kingdom. thy servant. the Deputy We have in Chapter 23 of Second Chronicles a list of the chiefs in the sixteenth year after Jehoshaphat.242 AGES IN CHAOS called lahzibada in the letters lehozabad (Jehozabad) of the Second Book of Chronicles is he wrote to the pharaoh. Instead of Amaziah. son of Jehobanan. I king. my sun. in the Second Book of Chronicles (17:17short letters are 18) it is said that he is lehozabad a chief in the land of Benjamin. my gods. replaced his father as one of the chiefs of the army. my lord. my lord. has spoken to my The me. the dust of thy feet: At the feet of the king. seven times and seven times I fall down. the correspondents from the north preceding those from the south. served. may be deteramong mined approximately by the combined information of the el-Amarna letters and the Scriptures. He does not enter into discussions with the pharaoh. nor does he give advice like the first in rank among the captains. The word which the king. In Knudtzon's edition (and also in areas of administration of divided the chiefs Mercer's) the el-Amarna letters are ordered according to the geographical location of their writers. son of Zuchru. will execute it for the verily. Ishmael. Elishaphat. son of Zichri. my lord. but they were written from southern Palestine. Judah and Benjamin.

*La his transliteration. Four times Adaia's name is mentioned in three passages letters of the in the king of Jerusalem: of the king [pharaoh] . 2 The deputy in Edom. LETTER 287: . The el-Amarna phat letters give us a clue to his role. . . This land was under the control of the king of Jerusalem and was a dependency of Judah (II Chronicles 21:8). . In that sixteenth year after Jehoshaphat there was a chief named Maaseiah. ( Adaja). In the Scriptures it is said that in the time of Jehoshaphat "there was then no king in Edom: a deputy was king" (I Kings 22:47). Does this name stand for Dumah in Seir. Let the king know that Adaia has said to me: "Verily. the deputy of the officers Addaia has departed together with the garrison which the king had given. *In Letter mean said that an individual* or could it is 254 Dumuia was entrusted to Adaia. was actually subordinate to the king of Jerusalem. Adaia must have lived in the days of Jehoshaand must have been in the service of the king. Addaia has These letters inform us that Adaia was a deputy of the pharaoh. as given in Second Chronicles. and that he was subordinate to the long-regent in Jerusalem. ended with the passage: "These waited on the king."1 . adjacent to Benjamin. the post of chief 243 son and from one passed from father to brother to another. or Edom (Isaiah 21:11)? . let me depart.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS stated. clearly marking it as a feudal institution. and for some time also had charge over the gateway of Gaza through which traffic with Egypt was son of Adaia maintained. City-Princes The list of the five chiefs of Jehoshaphat. He was apparently the king's deputy in Edom. . Knudtzon it gives these varying spellings of the name. . LETTER 89: The garrison which thou hast sent taken and placed in his house in Hazati. . a dependent land of Judah. LETTER 285: Addaia.

In accordance with Egyptian religious beliefs the subordinate chiefs in the tributary lands addressed the pharaoh thus: "To the king. The deputy in Sumur el- during the first part of Rib-Addf s reign was. In Egypt the monarch was deified as the incarnation of the god. and the sun itself. even to Ben-Hail. Seven tablets in the el-Amarna collection are signed with his name. my lord. . as the Scriptures acknowledge: *. Accordingly. . . Vidia wrote: I protect LETTER 320: LETTER 326: the place of the king. It was therefore necessary to undertake the task of enlightening the The and he [Jehoshaphat] went out again through the people from Beer-sheba to mount Ephraim. and to Zechariah Judah.244 beside those AGES IN CHAOS whom Judah. These efforts met with only partial success. their fathers" (II Chronicles 20:33). sun. to teach in the cities of Also in the third year of his reign he sent to and to Obadiah. . ." Jehoshaphat spiritually: li the king put in the fenced cities throughout all sent Levites to these city-princes to guide them CHRONICLES 17:7 his princes. my my my the sun in heaven. lord. yet the people had not prepared their hearts unto the God of people: ". god. according to the . His domain was confined single city. Amon. to the A city-prince whose name was Vidia wrote pharaoh from to a Askelon in southern Palestine. the son of the sun. the Governor of Samaria In the Syrian and Palestinian realms the sovereign of Egypt kept his deputies at the side of the regent-longs.. and brought them back unto the Lord God of their fathers" (II Chronicles 19:4)." So wrote also Vidia from Askelon. I protect the city of the king." to use Elijah's expression. which is in my care.. idolatry and pagan influence made the cities around Jerusalem "halt between two opinions. Vidia received a deputy from the pharaoh and prepared a tribute for him.

Of Manasseh it is said that he "made Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem to err" (II Chronicles 33:9). In the Scriptures. Hear me. . his position the name of Amon.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS Amarna letters. was before that of the prince of royal blood. The king of Sumur wrote to the pharaoh: LETTER 74: Verily. the governor. That he was an placed Because of is Egyptian implied 1 by his name. as the letters show. and was recommended as an expert in the military and political matters of Sumur. Amon. In all these matters the vassal king and the governor exchanged advice and expressed their common concern for Sumur (Samaria). After his return to Egypt Amon was regarded by the king of Sumur (Samaria) as a friend and as an advocate of his cause before the pharaoh. In a said: letter from the king of Sumur to Aman-appa LETTER 73: Thou knowest my attitude: Whilst thou wast that I was thy faithful servant. that He asked Aman-appa to come again to Sumur and to bring archers with him: LETTER 77: Hast thou not head of the archers? said to thy lord that he sends thee at the The king of Sumur was very letter intimate with the deputy of the pharaoh. king of Jerusalem. the 1 Amon was also the name cf the son of Manasseh. Ask him. Aman-appa is with thee. CHRONICLES 18:25 Then the king of Take thou Micaiah [the prophet]. in Sumura. it is 245 Aman-appa. Israel said." thou didst write to the king to give to thee three hundred people. which is the holy name of an Egyptian deity. and carry him back to and to Joash the king's son. too. Amon the governor of the city. He knows and has seen the distress which oppresses me. in the seventh century (II Chronicles 33:20-25). Aman-appa. was opposed to the policy of supporting the king of Damascus. We n meet this governor in the Second Book of Chronicles. Say to LETTER 93: *1 come to thee. In another he wrote: me.

Sellin. Governor of Palestine. In the el-Amarna letters the governor appa. is Amon. 26. LX1I (1927)." Denkschriften der Akademie der Wissenschaften. the biblical Taanach. The king of Samaria spoke similarly to Elisha: "My father" (II Kings 6:21). And verily. . tures." wrote Sumur (Samaria). Die Personennamen in den Tontafeln von Tell Taanek. they are very similar to those of the el-Amarna collection. Philosophisch-Historische Basse. too. The title by which the governor. In one of them a governor by the name of Aman-hasir exacted tribute from the local" mayor (E. he did not live until Sumur (Samaria). 2 showed his endorseagainst making of regaining the lost cities by arms. who for some time had heard nothing from in Egypt. the king of the Syrian kingdom used the balance of strength in but the north and the south to increase his domain." 'Letter 87. 50 [Vienna. In the Scriptures the name of the governor of Samaria is given as sar. "To Aman-appa. is hostility against Sumur. by imprisoning war on the king of Damascus. is known in the Scrip- often applied to dignitaries in the el-Amarna letters. as recorded in the Scriptures. p." Aman-appa him affectionately: "If thou art dead. thus said Rib-Addi. better 106: "There dead. "Tell Ta'annek. of Sumur was Aman- The The First Siege of Samaria by the King of Damascus kings of Judah and Israel were loyal to the Egyptian crown. They were the same person. wrote to 4 I shall die. its deputy is now Early in this century in Tell Taannek. the king of my father. on the hills in the region of the Esdraelon Valley. His reading was accepted by A. Amon." Zeitschrift fur agyptische Sprache und Alteriumskunde. Gustavs. Albright made a surmise that this governor was the future pharaoh Amenhotep II. 1904]). 63f. Vol. thy son. a few tablets written in cuneiform were found. 1 Kings 22:26-27. The wading of Aman-hasir was revised by Albright to Aman-hatpe: "Aman-hatpe.246 AGES IN CHAOS the prophet who warned governor of Samaria. This expression of respect is preserved in dialogues of the same period. 3 The king of aged man. ment of the policy In the time of the el-Amarna correspondence Aman-appa was an the end of that period.

The king of Sumur (Samaria) and king of Damascus "the slave. Ben-Hadad.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS 247 The letters of Abdi-Ashirta (Ben-Hadad) of Damascus were humble despite or because of his treacherous intentions. who "fled from his lord" and "gathered and the mud men unto him. and Abel-beth-maachah. and became captain over a band. the dog. king of Judah. ." 1 went to Damascus . This happened two generations after Solomon and a few decades before the el-Amarna all Cinneroth. . sent presents to Ben-Hadad. and Dan. thy dog." LETTER 71: What is other vassal kings called the Abdi-Ashirta. . The opponent of Ahab is generally regarded as a son of is Ben-Hadad I. The usual form of respectful address toward a potentate was: "I fall down seven and seven times to the feet of my lord". and reigned in Damascus. these two countries continued to be hostile to each other. i KDSTGS 20:1 *I Kings 11:23-24. and horses together: and chariots. Asa. the adversary of Baasha. It was the time when the Egyptian hegemony over Palestine had been re-established by Thutmose IV. the king of Damascus. The new dynasty of Omri at its beginning strengthened the kingof Israel. Baasha. that he should take the land of the king to himself? What is his family? From the days of Rezon on. with period. to this the king of Damascus usually added when writing to the pharaoh: "Thy servant of thy feet. which encouraged a spirit of rivalry between Israel and Judah. and therefore named Ben-Hadad II. king of Israel. built Ramah against Judah and threatened her. in consequence of Damascus* politics." According to the Scriptures. and all the land of NaphtalT (I Kings 15:20). . and they . Ben-Hadad2 renewed hostilities and arranged a coalition of chieftains depending on him: And Ben-Hadad the king of Syria gathered all his host and there were thirty and two kings with him. the son of Omri. the servant. In the time of Ahab. the father of dom Amenhotep III. and Ben-Hadad turned against Baasha and "smote Ijon. . was a descendant of Rezon. Judah took Mount Ephraim (H Chronicles 17:2).

and material decline the land of Samaria was a prey to the shrewd warrior and politician of Damascus.248 AGES IN CHAOS letter of the In the king of Sumur (Samaria) we [chieftains] are find a complaint: LETTER 90: All the majors one with Abdi-Ashirta. battles. The hazardous policy of the king of Damascus looked for a victim.. Even the prophets Elijah from Gilead and Elisha. his successorspiritual influences of the intervened in the state visited affairs of Damascus. and Damascus melted away the frontiers. short truces. The time was opportune." the pharaoh of Egypt. and renewed oppressions that occupied the period described in the last six chapters of the First Book of Kings and the first nine chapters of the Second Book. Religious ties between Samaria. Hostility against is Sumur has become very great repeated in several letters from the king of Sumur (Samaria). the lord.. The king I of Damascus laid siege to Samaria. national feeling in the Ten Tribes was dwindling. The land of Israel was visited by drought. The worship of pagan images laid the northern kingdom open to the surrounding nations. All the lands as far north as the Orontes flows were "the lands of the In this state of spiritual king. and warred against This campaign opened a long series of sieges. besieged Samaria. KINGS 20:1 . and he [Ben-Hadad] went up and it. men King Ahab asked a prophet whence help would come. $idon. but this circumstance did not prevent the Damascene from seeking to extend his domain. and it was put under siege. He knew that the Egyptian king would not like to see him desert and openly go over to the war-minded Assyrians. Samaria was marked to be the first. visited there and were by people from there. the conquerors who pounded at the strongholds of northern Syria without declaring war on Egypt. He was aware that the approach of the king of Assyria along the valley of the Orontes provided him with a chance to play a double game. "The young of the governors of the provinces'* would put the Syrians to .

went out. army which followed them. These small detachments The bearers of the emblem numbered seldom hundreds.. i KINGS 20:19 So these young of the city. What did this mean? Why should the Syrian host be afraid of the governors' guard if they were not afraid of the king's army? In the battle at the wall of Samaria "two hundred and thirty-two young men of the governors of the provinces. and smote the horses and slaughter.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS flight. . till the archers go forth. of men. 249 was the answer (I Kings 20:14). The fenders of Samaria. to flight. and the the king of Israel men of the governors of the provinces came out 21 And chariots. The answer may be found in the letters. that he should take the land of the send me fifty pairs of horses and two hundred long to himself? . put the Syrians The king pharaoh and of Sumur and Gubla (Jezreel). . the servant. was quoted in the send three hundred of the Egyptian state (the young men of the governors of the provinces ) were a kind of gendarmerie attached to the governors of the pharaoh. One such previous section: the governor was asked to people to relieve the city. repeatedly asked that small deletter tachments of archers be sent him. In executing their duty. . and slew the Syrians with a great . the dog. in his letters to the also to the governors. infantry . .. and their appearance at the place of dispute between the vassals of the Egyptian tens. they were' backed by the regular troops of Egypt. crown heralded a on the part of the pharaoh to support one of the rivals with arms." leading Samaria's small garrison. The impatience with which such a detachment for the relief of Samaria was awaited is reflected in the definite decision following passage from a letter of the king of dignitary in Egypt: Sumur to Haia(?) a ? LETTER 71: Why hast thou held back and not said to tibe long that he should send archers that they may take Sumura? What is AbdiAshirta. . of his troops that the dust of Samaria would not suffice for handfuls for all the people that followed him (I Kings Ben-Hadad boasted % victory over this army was accomplished when the representatives of the suzerainty appeared at the head of the de- 20:10).

the king recalled this or a similar event: to the palace: have written "Send archers. Then they "came to the king of Israel. and did hastily catch and they Thy brother Ben-Hadad* . Ben-Hadad came once more against the king of Israel and was met by the defenders on the plain of Aphek. go out to the king of and said. it: Now the me live. And the whole land will be taken in (a few) days. I Ben-Hadad alive? he is pray thee. filled but the Syrians The dread this Hadad troops. Who can stand against the soldiers of the king [phar- Later on." Have they not formerly regained the lands for the king? and similarly he wrote in another letter of that later period: LETTER 132: Formerly Abdi-Ashirta opposed me. Thy servant And he said." of the house of Israel are merciful kings. saith. army inspired arose from its multitude. In the battle the Syrians were once more defeated. men did said. we read in the el-Amaraa letters that it was composed of wild and irregular flocks of kids. . and Benfled to Aphek and hid. . . to the king. "The children of Israel pitched before them like two little the country" (I Kings 20:27). of when Sumur (Samaria) LETTER 121: I again pressed by the army of Damascus. I protected the city by my own hand. . . let my brother. But I wrote came and they took Sumuri. my The Capture and Release of the King of Damascus by the King of Samaria One year after "the young men of the governors of the provinces'* freed Samaria from the siege. When Abdi-Ashrati I conquered Sumurri.250 AGES IN CHAOS of the governors The young men LETTER 129a: aoh]? were the soldiers of the pharaoh. and I wrote to thy father: "Send royal archers. and soldiers had no garrison." Once more he recalled this memorable event. Is he yet diligently observe . and his words ac- cord with the story in the Scriptures: LETTER 138: lord. His servants said to him: "The kings Israel.

I will restore. and thou shalt make streets for thee in Damascus. stopped the king on the road. there was a dispute between the Syrians and the Israelites about a number of cities. released: all LETTER 117: Abdi-Ashirta. The cities. . see infra. which my father took from thy father. So he made a covenant with 'him. some of which happened only a few years before the date of the correspondence. Go ye. From this story we learn that Ben-Hadad was defeated and captured but released. the Syrians had built a part of Samaria. behold. Then said Ahab. and thy people for . Then Ben-Hadad came forth to him. Looking for help from the pharaoh against Azam (Hazael). We read the complaints Sumur that he is oppressed by the king of DamasThat Hazael was a son of Ben-Hadad. bring him. but. distressed by the credulity of the king of Samaria. go for his [Ben-Hadad's] life. thy life shall his people" (I Kings 20:42). and sent him away' (I Kings 20:31-34). formerly. of the king of 1 This scriptural prophecy was fulfilled. A prophet.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS 251 Then he said. . a covenant was concluded with him. now my people are crushed .. truly Ben-Hadad was captured and (then) taken. And BenHadad said unto him. came later. he recalled the capture of the king of Damascus: LETTER 117: If my words were regarded. and said to him: ". then Azaru would be captured even as his father.. Abdi-Ashratu marched up against me. disguised himself as a wounded warrior. the king remembering these better days. I will send thee away with this covenant. wrote to the pharaoh: I LETTER 127: When. was not The treaty ("the covenant") with Ben-Hadad was made at a time when the Syrian was defeated. as I have said. It appears that in the letters of the king of Sumur we have references to all these events. In the 'times of distress and oppression that of Sumur. with that belongs to him. the son of Abdi-Ashirta (Ben-Hadad1 ). was mighty. as my father made in Samaria. and he caused him to come up into the chariot.

. and they were not an given. The covenant." 2 Ships. AGES IN CHAOS whom he once released. has he [Abdi-Ashirta] opposed at me.. who asked triecl that supplies be sent to in ships.. Otherwise I will make a treaty with Then should I be rescued. wrote that the king of Beirut left in a ship. broke out again Ramoth-Gilead. which started with the siege of Samaria. so sudden in this gulf. endured for three years: "And they continued three years without war between Syria and Israel" (I Kings Damascus were re22:1). smashed the fleet. and Beirut maintained "Letter 85. this even contemplates a new covenant time himself the humble partner: is LETTER 83: Why hast thou held back. The war. or Legions? In the el-Amarna letters a places fits in the text and recurs frequently which in some in others does not: it is the word elippe. In the ninth century Palestine traditions of the to maintain the maritime preceding century. was continued at Aphek. I have written for a garrison and for horses . word translated "a ship. and after a truce of three years. these years. Sidon.252 cus. the king of Sumur (Samaria) wrote: "Three times. He with the king of Damascus. Chieftains. Jehoshaphat ventured to repeat Solomon's undertaking and built ships in Ezion-Geber on the Aqaba Gulf of the Red Sea in order to send them "to Tarshish" (II Chron- icles 20:35f. who. and in a letter of is the king of Sumur (Samaria). then hostilities between Samaria and newed. Send Abdi-Ashirta. . so that thy land taken? ." This translation who him appropriate in the letter of the king of Tyre. which was made in favor of Israel. concluded after the battle of Aphek. He was in the position of the once wretched king of Damascus. The Phoenician cities of Tyre. asked for a treaty of peace.). answer to me. Accordingly. when vanquished. . an enterprise that ended disastrously before it had scarcely begun when a storm.

It might have been the prigin of ." 2 It seems to me that elippe in the el-Amarna small tribe. Ibid." It will be remembered that in the description of the feudal domains of the five chiefs of Jehoshaphat it was said that one had under him three hundred thousand men of valor. 2] described it later). In these scholars. "chieftain. Now 3 eleph (again aleph. Worterbuch Hber die Talmudim und Midrashim. In the Hebrew language there is a word ilpha (aleph." An old Hebrew word aluph (also aleph. This sounds like twenty sheer exaggeration. lamed. but they can be comforted by the fact that a similar mistake was committed by the penman. a "chieftain. a second. lord of a clan. and performing other acts for which a vehicle of transportation on water is not suited. with his captains fled When Ben-Hadad Aphek from the battlefield of "fell upon and seven thousand" men (I Kings 20:30)." a captain over a thousand. in writing the annals of this period. or on the Sea of GaliJordan (as cases one finds ships traveling on dry land. letters must sometimes signify chieftain or the head of a One and presumed city or or another city mentioned in the el-Amarna letters to be a harbor need not necessarily be a maritime a lake city just because elippe arrived there and did some- instances the word is misunderstood by modern thing. and so on. lamed. phe) means "a prince. Aphek was not such a large city. 1 phe) derived from the Syrian and meaning a "ship. two hundred and fourscore thousand. To translate elippe above examples is undoubtedly correct. But in some Amuru land and conspired with the killers of Abdi-Ashirta. a part of the city wall collapsed and See Levy. is 3 fl Sar-ha-eleph aluph. Although at the time of David men available for conscription in Judah numbered five hundred 3 into that city. The readeven be correct in connection with an inland ing "ships" might as "ship" in the Palestine if there was at that time region of navigation on the Strabo [XVI. used old chronicles. who.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS their 253 maritime traffic down to a much later age. the elippe are said to have penetrated into lee. as I have mentioned." and aluph is. head of a family. and tens of thousands of persons would hardly be killed by a falling wall. phe) is "thousand. lamed. For example.

and "ships" in a number of the el-Amarna letters. . other territory was added 'II to that gained by the king of Damascus. it seems that the passage about the chiefs of Jehoshaphat would better reflect the military might of the Palestine princes of that age if it were read as follows: "Adnah the chief. "chieftains" or "heads of communities'* substituted. and in Israel eight hundred thousand. Samuel 24:9. was broken. and must be revised. and one century later Asa commanded over three hundred thousand from Judah and two hundred and fourscore thousand from Benjamin. is recorded scores of times in the el-Amarna letters.254 AGES IN CHAOS 4 thousand. And I reigned over a hundred (chiefs) in the cities which I added to the land/* "Thousands" in the biblical story of the disaster at Aphek and probably also in the passage about the chiefs of Jehoshaphat. and we be the hand of the long of Syria? that the king of Israel said unto his servants. and with him mighty men of valour three hundred chieftains. and with him two hundred and fourscore chieftains/* and so on. and Abel-beth-maachah. in the beginning these cities were "Ijon. with all the land of NaphtalT (I Kings 15:20). and all Cinneroth. The King of Samaria Seeks an Ally against the King of Because of one of the i Damascus the truce cities in dispute. and Dan. Mesha wrote on his stele: "And the chiefs of Daibon were fifty. KINGS 22:3 And Ramoth in Gilead is ours. captured by the king of Damascus. Later. "cities of Israel/' which the king of Damascus smote in days gone by. And next to him was Jehohanan the captain. Know ye still. The According to the Scriptures. for all Daibon was obedient (to me). There is contemporaneous evidence that feudal domains were reckoned by the number of chieftains or heads of communities. and take it not out of dispute over the cities of Israel. thus making the passages in the letters and the Scriptures reasonable. nevertheless.

The king who wrote more than sixty of the extant letters called himself if . KINGS 22:4 I I And he said unto Jehoshaphat. the dog. Later had Israel assistance when defending his land against Baasha of Israel.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS "Abdi-Ashirta. King Jehoshaphat. Possibly. He felt that the Syrian was growing too strong and that the day might come when he would threaten Jerusalem too. The prophet was turned over to the governor (I Kings 22:36). LETTER 85: If one regent would make common cause with me." 255 wrote the king Sumur (Samaria). my lord. The king of Sumur (Samaria) looked lost cities. who had called the king of Damascus to his taken'* (II Chronicles 17:2). A prophet admonished the kings of Jerusalem and Samaria not to go to war against the king of Damascus. at the beginning of his reign. and that he has taken all my cities to himself. . Wilt thou go with me to battle to Ramoth-Gilead? At that time Governor Aman-appa was in Samaria. strengthened himself against Israel: "And he placed forces in all the fenced cities and in the cities of Ephraim. In the course of the battle a chance arrow struck King Ahab* The two Ahab or Jehorara: story of this Two Versions of the Scriptures With the first battle of Ramoth-Gilead we reach the period during which the el-Amarna letters were written. he wished to make amends for the sin of his father Asa. . LETTER 81: Let the king. for an ally to recover these He with him he thought that if one of the king-regents would side would be able to return blow for blow and expel the bands of Syrians. then would drive Abdi-Ashirta out of Amurri. know that powerful is the hostility of Abdi-Ashirta. also. he concluded peace with and agreed to join Ahab in his campaign against the king of Damascus at Ramoth-Gilead. kings joined forces and met their enemy at RamothGilead. which Asa his father of Judah . he seeks to take of all cities.

Ahab's son? They were written in the latter part of Jehoshaphat's reign in Jerusalem. exists in if the other See also II *n Chronicles 20:31. 1 2 Jehoshaphat ruled for twenty-five years. But Kings 8:16. the records of the reigns of . during the last seven years of the reign of King Jehoshaphat. Ahaziah. Ahab died Ramoth-Gilead. The but probably older version at in the Scriptures implies that Ahab was apparently only wounded is Ramoth-Gilead and reigned nine years longer. reigned. for it was during these nine years that the major part of the letters was written. should be made clarifying the question at issue. The difference in these two statements consists of nine years: the last seven years of Je- of his son's reign. which was only a chronological a problem of importance for the study of Palesdifficulty. The el-Amarna letters will it The The problem.256 AGES IN CHAOS the reading is correct Rib-Addi. and their contents accord with According to the more expanded version of the story in the from the wound he received in the battle at Scriptures. clear. 8 The inconsistent records of course presented difficulties to chronologists and exegetes. the events of that time. If. "The same discrepancy of nine years Baasna and Asa. after the death of Ahaziah. but from the divergencies in the scriptural texts. it would also be he who wrote the five letters a have to help in sixty- preserved in the el-Amarna archives. Jehoram. followed him on the throne of Israel. his son. n KINGS 3:1 Israel in Now Jehoram the son of Ahab began to reign over Samaria in the eighteenth year of Jehoshaphat of Judah. becomes tinian history in the period of the el-Amarna letters. less amplified his brother. Was their author the scriptural Ahab or Jehoram. does not result from a comparison of the Scriptures with the el-Amarna letters. hoshaphat and the first two years question under discussion. reigning for two years. The beginning of the reign of Jehoram in Israel contradictory statements: recorded in two n KINGS 1:17 And Jehoram reigned in his [Ahaziah's] stead in the second year of Jehoram the son of Jehoshaphat king of Judah. Jehoram reigned in Israel.

and they washed his armour. and the dogs licked up his [Ahab's] blood. Ahab "said unto the The Turn thine hand. and died at even: and the blood ran driver of his chariot: host. In accordance with this curse. possession? .THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS version of the Second 257 Book of Kings is correct.. and during the last seven years of King Jehoshaphat's reign King Ahab still reigned in Israel. Elijah the Tishbite came to meet him there. But the next passage contradicts this: "And the battle increased that day: and the king was stayed Tip in his chariot against the Syrians. according unto the word of the Lord which he spake" (I Kings 22). . king of Moab. then he must have been the author of the letters and the events of these seven or nine years must have occurred in his time. after the battle of Ramoth-Gilead "one washed the chariot in the pool of Samaria. Hast thou killed and also taken . Having been wounded by an archer. But the story of the meeting sequel clothes of the seer with the king had a When Ahab heard the words of the prophet he rent his his body. He would not have died at the hand of one of Ben-Hadad's archers but would only have been wounded and would have survived Ben-Hadad. . even thine. In the place where dogs licked the blood of Naboth shall dogs lick thy blood. O mine enemy?" And the feared man answered: "I have found thee. Similarly the rebellion of Mesha.. . Ahab. gave him the vineyard of Naboth wound adjacent to his palace in Jezreel to build there a garden of herbs. for I am out of the into the midst of the chariot" (I Kings 22). would have met with the experiences ascribed to his son Jehoram. and put sackcloth on and fasted and went softly. And Ahab said to Elijah: "Hast thou found me. Jezebel. whose wife. Ahab but after his defeat at Ramoth- description of the battle at Ramoth-Gilead gives one the feeling that the hand of a later scribe tried to mingle different sources. would not have taken place after the death of Gilead. and carry me out of the wounded/* This indicates that the wounded Ahab abandoned the field of battle. When Ahab rose up to go down to the vineyard to take possession of it. This story closes a chapter of the drama known as the crime of Ahab. The dogs shall eat Jezebel by the wall of Jezreer (I Kings 21). dying one or two years after Jehoshaphat.

as there are inconsistencies in the text. In the story of Naaman's healing there but the recurrent Tdng of Israel" and no name. when the king met the mother who killed her child. he did not the other version. Also. of chapters the Already in the story of the battle at Ramoth-Gilead. Again.." This is singular in the Books of Kings and Chronicles. the king of Jerusalem is repeatedly called by name. but not the 'Icing of Israel": "So the king of . not once does the name of the king accompany the phrase "king of Israel. ." days will I bring the evil upon his And what about the pardon? Ahab humbled himself. the books of the prophets Nathan. which seems . and others (not extant at the time when the Scriptures were revised and canonized) are referred to in the annals. but the king of Samaria is referred to fifteen times as "king of Israel": "And the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat. and the before me. in the war against Moab. In the long story of the second siege of Samaria. every time the king of Jerusalem is referred to." Israel and Jehoshaphat Only the introductory remark informs . I will misfortune fated for his lifetime was postponed to the next generation. and in the story of the rescue from this siege. Iddo."* period. But in spite of this did the evil overtake him? The effort of the scribe to unify the diverse elements was unsuc- cessful.258 AGES IN CHAOS thou And Elijah the Tishbite heard the word of the Lord: "Seest how Ahab humbleth himself before me? because he humbleth self him- not bring the evil in his days: but in his son's house. but in describing the history of the he evaded the issue by writing in a number impersonal and indefinite "king of Israel. he is called by name. and while giving preference suppress to the tradition that Jehoram was king in Israel during the last seven years of Jehoshaphat. is us that Jehoram is intended. neither does the story o attempts against the life of the "king of Israel" contain his name. This editor of the Books of Kings was helpless in the face of two different versions. in the body of the story the name of Ahab is not mentioned. Jehoshaphat. The editor of Kings indicated that his work was a compilation by referring to "the book of the chronicles of the Icings of Israel/' to have been a larger work than the canonical Chronicles." "And the king of Israel said unto Jehoshaphat". *The annals (the Books of Kings and Chronicles) were composed during and after the Exile in Babylon. since the Exile is narrated in Chronicles and the return from the Exile in Kings.

. Besides the fact that the rebellion of Mesha took place not after the death of Ahab but in the middle of his reign. On the stele it is engraved that of Israel." would accord with the son. It is Omri. oppressed Moab many days. forty being the measure of a generation. he in Tirzah" but for twelve years he Translation by R. that "six years reigned S. recorded that Omri reigned twelve years over Israel. one of the two scriptural versions.' In my days said he thus. Since it is said of his father.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS 259 contemporaneous source. Compare I Kings 16:23 and 16:29. 1 will afflict Moab. Forty years of oppression of Moab may be taken as a rough figure. Either the reign of Ahab started later than recorded or it lasted longer. or a period of time." This contradicts the stele of Mesha. son of Omri. The Second Book of kings opens with these words: "Then Moab rebelled against Israel after the death of Ahab. son of Ahab. and "his son sucOmri. and he also said. the defeat having been a signal for the rebellion of Moab. the expression. and to the reign of Jehoram. which says that Mesha rebelled when Omri's had reigned only half his years. according to one source (the stele of Mesha). during his days Chemosh restored it in and half his son's days. the figure of forty years for the reign of Omri and half of the reign of his son conflicts with the scriptural account. is the stele of King Mesha of Moab. but 5 my days. similar to our counting by centuries. and that Ahab reigned twenty-two them years in Samaria (I Kings 16:29). king ceeded him." A Then follows: Omri took possession of the land of Medeba and (Israel) dwelt therein. "and half the days of his [Omri's] son. which may shed light on the matter. forty years. but only wounded. . according to another source. at Ramoth-Gilead. If Ahab was not killed. Here is an event of importance ascribed to the reign of Ahab. but the account must correspond approximately to the time passed. version that Ahab reigned during the time otherwise allotted to Jehoram. it would 6 suggest a longer reign for Omri and Ahab or for one of them. six of in Tirzah (I Kings 16:23). Driver.

260 reigned over his AGES IN CHAOS Israel. Marti in Encyclopaedia Biblica. a hypothesis "TLuckenbill. Sec. The death of Ahab. Under the circumstances described. the years of his reign in his new capital Jezreel not being mentioned. 854-842. Ahaziah had to reign two years. of 1899). I am old. the reigns ALaziah and Jehoram. and the inscription of Shalmaneser requires shortening of Jehoram's reign so as to bring Ahab closer to Jehu. and Jehu's tribute mentioned in the inscription were paid immediately after he seized the throne. cannot be assigned to so early a date as 854. Sidon. Ahab could have in the first said that he was old. Cf. 672. The tures. of Syrian Shalmaneser wrote that in his sixth year he battled a coalition and Palestinian princes at Karkar. however. and of Jehu. 7 In the eighteenth year of his reign Shalmaneser wrote that he received "a tribute of the men of Tyre. he delivered an army of ten thousand soldiers and two thousand chariots to the allied host. Similarly the twenty-two years capital of Ahab's reign in Samaria may refer to his reign in that capital alone. "Chronology. Sec. and Jehu had to reign for some undefined period. inscription of King Shalmaneser conflicts with the same version of the Scriplike the stele of Mesha. must fall the death of Ahab. of Egypt. there would still not be twelve years left for Jehoram's reign. Jehoram twelve years. the reign of Ahab had to come to an end. I cannot come to the lands and my body is afflicted with a severe disease. 610. Was he *"Within these thirteen years. and the 'accession of Jehu. There appears to be no time left for Ahab after 854. of the house of OmriJ" 8 During the twelve years between the sixth and the eighteenth year of Shalmaneser's reign." . 8 may be formu- Records of Assyria. it is clear that the last six years he reigned in Samaria (Sherner). The Mesha stele thus requires the extension of Ahab's reign. son of Nimshi. But even if Ahab had died right after the battle of Karkar. I.. new In one of his last letters the king of Sumur (Samaria) wrote of himself to Pharaoh Akhnaton: LETTER 137: Behold. I (New York. not so a second son of his part of his reign. Jehu was a son of a daughter of Omri? a son of Jehoshaphat. Among the princes is Ahab mentioned." K. ibid. III of Assyria-Babylonia.

seized the throne of Jerusalem when her husband and son were killed. is is said to said to have been killed at Ramoth-Gilead. . Jehoshaphat visited Samaria and allied himself with Ahab in his military undertakings. his father-in-law. 10 It seems problematic that Ahab. Cf. Of Jehoram it is said: "And he walked in the way of the kings of Israel. son of Ahab. and Ahaziah.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS lated. with the king of Judah again an ally in the battle (II Kings 8:28). son of Jehoshaphat.'' Jehu sent letters to the elders of Samaria with the challenge: "Look even out the best and meetest of your master's sons. 261 and the very existence 10 of Jehoram. This would be a forceful argubut for the fact that the scriptural names of Ahab's other children ^rnent rf^haziah. Obviously it was Jehoshaphat's policy to establish good relations with Israel through this alliance. Jehoram. who died after a short reign and a long illness. Ahab's daughter Athaliah. Possibly Jehoram. What could have misled the annalist into calling the son of Ahab by the name of Jehoram? Jehoram was a son of Jehoshaphat and the son-in-law of Ahab (II Chronicles 21:6). would have called his son Tehoram ( Jahwe is exalted). under similar circumstances. he probably hoped to unite the kingdom under his son Jehoram and Athaliah." The king who was Ahab. son of Ahab. Following the description of the assassination of Jehoram and Ahaziah by Jehu. succeeding Ahab. together with Ahaziah of Judah. Ahab son. Many other details ascribed to the reigns of these two kings of Israel bear the mark of confusing similarity. Joash. like as did the house of Ahab: for he had the daughter of Ahab to wife/* 11 There- was seized by Jehu. and Jehoram was killed. who persecuted the cult of Yahwe. The state of things as he found them in older chronicles was probably confusing. is and set called here "your master" him on his father's throne. II Kings 8:16-18. the Second Book of Kings relates: "And Ahab had after the throne of Israel seventy sons in Samaria. II Chronicles 21:6. may be questioned. wife of Jehoram. acted as a regent. and Athaliah invite the same question. the daughter of Ahab and Jezebel. his have been wounded also at Ramoth-Gilead. not Jehoram. The annalist placed an Ahaziah and a Jehoram in Israel and an- other Jehoram and another Ahaziah in Judah. king of Israel.

which would signify that the kingauthor of more than sixty of the preserved clay tablets was Ahab and no one else. Regardless of whether this hypothesis concerning Jehoram is correct or incorrect. had it not been for the massacre in which all his sons perished. A later annalist might well be misled if contemporaries were mistaken. On subsequent pages it will be shown that rumors of Ahab's death were spread while he was still alive. This also would explain Ahab's reign extending almost until the rebellion of Jehu. the rendering of II Kings 1:17 must be looked upon as the correct one. In the contest between the two versions of the tibree non-scriptural Book of Kings. of Shalmaneser. the documents of Mesha. . all sources testify in favor of the minor version and against the prevailing text. and of el-Amarna unanimously support the version of the Scriptures ac- cording to which Ahab was alive during the last seven years of Je- hoshaphat's reign. This would mean that Ahab died not before but after Jehoshaphat.262 AGES IN CHAOS and one of his ( Ahab's) sons should have succeeded him.

. only thorns sprang from the barren land. The meadows were the sun. that the brook dried up. KINGS 17:7 And it came to pass after a while. The forecast of the drought came from Elijah the Tishbite.1 Palestine's harvest depends solely on rain. driven by famine. the trees in the field withered. (I i KINGS 17:2 And there was a sore famine in Samaria. who said to the king: i KINGS 17:1 . tropical rains that fall in Ethiopia. only to find the land of Israel in even distress and fled. The prophet said that his blessing on the poor widow should last "until the day that the Lord sendeth rain upon the earth" Kings 17:14). a The Blue Nile is fed by snow from its mountains. The brook Cherith. which is dependent on a river. . looking to see whether a cloud would appear. where the prophet looked for a little water. the drought brought the famine.Chapter VII THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONTINUED) Famine of the desert. TRIBES greater The first and misery than that from which they had fields scorched by in Israel yielded nothing. came to Trans-Jordan crossed the river. there shall not be dew nor rain these years. The heavens breathed heat. because there had been no rain in the land. i Eager eyes were turned skyward. Unlike Egypt. dried up like other brooks. and by melted .

After the sons and the daughters had been sold into slavery to save them and the remnants of the population from starvation. he was to repeat it in many letters. The fact is that the letters of el-Amarna written by the king of Sumur (Samaria) are as A eloquent as the Book of Kings. their daughters have come to an end. During those years chapters the el-Amarna letters were written.. have come to an end. all for a famine. The famine was so great that children were sold for bread. the daughters. What shall I say to my . in the Scriptures describes the famine. n KINGS 8:1 . who is without a husband. the Lord hath called come upon the land seven years. My field is a wife. to- gether with ourselves. In more than thirty places in his letters the king of Sumur (Samaria) writes of the distress of the famine or pleads for provisions for the population or the army.. the mark succession of of hunger was impressed on the entire period. because they are given in larimuta for the saving of our lives. LETTER 74: Our sons and our daughters have come to an end. . and it shall also This famine overshadowed other events of that time. LETTER 75: The sons.. the implements of the households also went in exchange for food. and the wooden implements of the houses. . Give grain for my provision. deficient in cultivation. The want lasted seven years. Send grain in ships and preserve the life of his servant and his city* . peasants? Their sons. I have LETTER 83: . because they are given in larimuta for the saving of our lives. me something to feed them [the archers]. LETTER 85: There is no grain for our support. The king repeated his comparison of a land without seed to a woman deserted by her husband. LETTER 79: Give nothing. and it would be inconceivable that they should not reflect these conditions.264 It AGES IN CHAOS was a time of hunger and starvation unparalleled in the history of the period of the kings of Israel..

intended to come to the help of Sumur (Samaria). . produce of the land of larimuta. was in a bad plight. because "there was no water for the host. In the letter of the above. . And from nothing to give for deliverance. .THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONTINUED) May it seem good to the king. who undertook an expedition against Mesha. LETTER 86: There is . The clue of the seven years helps to establish a timetable for some of the letters of el-Amarna. but there was no water for him to drink. an ally of the king of Egypt. Grain received from larimuta in exchange for the freedom of a part of the people was rationed and divided in scanty portions among will the peasants. a prince from the north. 265 . measure our grain three years already. field is deficient in cultivation . LETTER 85: . (As to the whereabouts of larimuta. .) be instructed in a We see the turn of the years: LETTER 85: Two years LETTER 86: I I . that grain be given. LETTER 91: measure my grain. and for the cattle that followed them" (II Kings 3:9). indication in the Scriptures that the famine endured for seven years (II Kings 8:1) corresponds to the impression received from these letters. The up described in the story of the brook that dried after rainless seasons (I Kings 17:7). and so he has returned to his land. The springs and wells dried up. . although on the basis of the letters alone we cannot calculate the time precisely. . . the passage was quoted lack of water is The king of Israel. my lord. after the third year of the drought the famine still was The constantly recalled. "And there was a dearth in the land" (II Kings 4:38). the reader later section. . the land of larimuta should grain be given for our nourishment. measure my grain. LETTER 90: My I . and I measure my grain.

. as in the capital. . for the ruler of the region from which it was to be sent apparently allied himself with Damascus. the king of Babylon we read: 2 water supply cut off.. riches of the realm. After reporting on political affairs. he had heard that the people of Sumura were not allowed to enter Gubla. the king has commanded that they be given to his faithful servant. and the weather hot. the writer referred to his care of the asses: A LETTER 94: Fonnerly> in respect to the asses. But. . It The name of the author at the beginning of the letter is destroyed. might have been Obadiah. the pharaoh by a man of quotation from a letter written to Gubla. the population was starving.'* reported to the Egyptian sovereign that no asses survived the famine and the drought. was concerned that "we lose not all the beasts. animals. it So they divided the land between them to pass throughout .. a man who would have the prerogative to write to the pharaoh. the governor I KINGS 18: 5-6 all . but not by the king himself. 'Letter 7. verily. that we lose not and unto may all fountains of water. may lead us to a conjecture about the author of the letter. together with the children sold into slavery "for the saving of the life/' to a place called larimuta. LETTER 96: What sort of a plague is among the asses? The long brought the Outside of Samaria. he has now nothing * .." This drought and the anxiety of the king of Israel are reflected in that part of the story of his house: where he said equally to Obadiah.266 AGES IN CHAOS 'The road [to Egypt] is very long. the list of the treasures exists in part. unto brooks: peradventure we horses and mules alive. The plague among the animals in Samaria is mentioned in a letter written from Egypt by a chief. together with Ahab. Go into the land. since in Sumura there was a plague. But the long did not get the grain. king of Samaria. in order to take grain from there. and who was charged with the care of the The man who. find grass to save the all the beasts.

THE EL-AM ARNA LETTERS (CONTINUED) The dreadful seven 26 thousand years' famine left deep marks. In the seventh 3 flesh from their own bones/' in the sixth the monstrous thing hunger. '"Letter 114. He king of Sumur (Samaria) wrote of his futile efforts to obtain grain for sustenance from larimuta "that I die not. consumed their own chil- year. "Letter 130. 8 that they would rebel. "Letter 117. The king wrote that he had no provisions for his peasants/ that he was afraid of them. crazed by dren as food. 'Letter 118. in the to the reptiles fifth. is the Scriptures and in the letters the yearslocalized in the land of Samaria (Sumur). The flesh of the clean animals sufficed for the third year. "Letter 112. . In the second. the people supported themselves with what they could scrape together in the fields. later the rabbinical Haggada related: "In the first year everyyears thing stored in the houses was eaten up. men sought to gnaw the The contemporaneous reflect the letters of the agony of those years. . Legends. and go thou and thine household." and the peasants were departing for places where grain was waste to be found: LETTER 125: And there provisions. IV." 5 and again: "Everything is 6 gone/' and the king had nothing to try for to give to his people." 4 Again he wrote: "Everything is consumed. 9 that they intended to 10 and that his land was desert: "My peasants intend to desert. in the fourth the sufferers resorted to the unclean animals. A and insects. no grain for bread and no seed a crop the next year. is no grain for my provisions. and happened that women. 190-91. and the peasants have departed for the cities where there is grain for their This emigration is reflected in II Kings 8:1: Arise. 'Letter 117... and sojourn wheresoever thou canst sojourn: for the Lord hath called for a famine. *Ginzberg. It is significant that in long famine ^Letter 105.

We are not sixties given any details of that "great indignation/* in Trans-Jordan. rams. however. Aftep the stone had been sold to a museum the Arabs regretted the transaction. A young scholar. . and offered him for a burnt offering upon the wall. After the defeat at Ramoth-Gilead. and around the Moab The king of Israel (II Kings 1:1 and 3:5). The king Moab from the south and wrought destruction upon the of Moab tried to break through the siege but could "Then he took his eldest son that should have reigned in his stead. paid tribute to the king of Israel: "And Mesha king of Moab was a sheepmaster. they reasoned that by breaking it up they would have more it. showed were cut ancient Hebrew characters. Judah. of the lands. Mesha's Rebellion Mesha. and returned to their own land" (II Kings 3:27)* It is evident that Israel was defeated and that its allies could not help. a traveler a black basalt stele on which In the of the last century Arabs of Dhiban the ancient Dibon. And it first. king of Moab. Later the broken basalt in a very defective condition was purchased for the Louvre Mu- to destroy the stone possessed a charm they had heated it in fire and poured cold water over if . Edom suffered greatly from lack of water on their march Dead Sea to bring the king of Moab to obedience. rebelled against the allied armies of Israel. And there was great indignation against Israel: and they departed from him. speaks most eloquently: . had previously succeeded in secretly having a cast of the stone made by an Arab. They and it broke into many pieces. and rendered unto the and a hundred thousand king of Israel a hundred thousand lambs. and so they decided to open the stone* Furthermore. They began to think that a treasure was hidden inside the stone and that the strange writing told of it. They reached land. yield . . not.2 68 AGES IN CHAOS shortest record The on short because only a few words remain of it a mutilated tablet dust . objects for sale. with the wool" (II Kings 3:4).

Plate IX: THE MESHA STELE .

.

"Omri. "And the king of Israel had built Yahas. The cast supplies the missing parts. F. which at the time of its disupper part covery was estimated to be the oldest inscription in Hebrew characters in the hands of the archaeologists. Dibon. because Chemosh was angry with his land. e<L Pritchard)." Then Mesha built and repaired the walls and palace in Karkhah with the slave labor of the prisoners of Israel. and Israel perished with an everlasting destruction." men and boys and women and girls and maidservants. Driver. . built Baal-Meon and Kiryathen. . Joshua by S. but it may be presumed that other war exploits against Israel were recorded. while he fought against me. translation Numbers 21:30. "Go. . king of Israel. seven thousand Israel. and it is recounted in more detail. And his son succeeded him. I will afflict Moab. but I saw my desire upon him and upon his house. established the fact that Hebrew. "Translation cf* by W. The . The stone. R. and because he had let me see my desire upon all them that hated me. the dwelling place of Gad from of old. Albright differs in a few details ("Palestine Inscriptions" in Ancient Near Eastern Texts. son of Chemosh. and here the record is interrupted. and abode in it. But Chemosh drave him out from before me. The lower city. fought against Atarofh. but the 269 all together it is only of the stele. It opens am Mesha. because he had saved me from all the assailants.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONTINUED) seum. the lines are defaced. of Moab. an account of Mesha's victory over The with these words: the Moabites used text gives "I Israel. In my days said he thus. the Daibonite [Dibonite] My my reigned after father reigned over Moab for thirty years. and I took it to add it unto Daibon. A modern 13:9. KRKHH. fortified by the king of Israel. king 1 . afflicted Moab for many days. And I made this high place for Chemosh in a high place of salvation. take Nebo against and he took it and slew all that were in it. he also built other places* He continued with the war and went against the Israelite city of Horonen. and I father. "And F can be read a few more times. and slew all the people of that oracle of Chemosh told him. and he also said."2 Mesha recorded that he restored Medeba.

invaded Palestine with the help of the Syrians. but Karkhah The is mentioned on the not known. the letters of the record of which stele of of the Mesha. we should expect to find direct reference to the rebellion of Mesha. the record of Chronicles discloses that the Moabites. found twenty years after the as historical documents discovery of the Mesha stele. In the translations of the el-Amarna rendered as "so~g#s-people.Me$h troops very great against me. In letters from Palestine. provides relates that "there was great indignation The Book of Kings against Israel" at the this on what form attempt to subjugate Moab. tion" is not to be seen merely in the recapture of f our or five not by an "everlasting very significant places in Trans-Jordan.gazMesh troops. which rebelled.gaz. and relating to the Canaanite period. and that Mehedeba. hold back from Sumur that it be not quite annexed to the sa. * . So let not the king. the hostility of the sa. . part of the stele stele are in Trans-Jordan. We should also expect to find mention of events. missing part fact. my lord. together with the Am- monites. cities Every word and every letter and every obliterated portion were examination: the stele of Mesha is regarded as the objects of careful in biblical archaeology. was carved on the lower. and Yahas were retaken. is silent. The Book indignation took. and also give us material with which to reconstruct roughly the missing part of the stele. w letters we Putting these words find sa-gaz-Mesh into English. And. know . The "everlasting destrucAtaroth. especially as it greatest single discovery a parallel record to a scriptural narrative. is my lord.270 AGES IN CHAOS is missing altogether. and especially in those written by the long of Samaria. From the Mesha stele we know that Mesha. that the documents are The present research shows contemporaneous. are regarded preceding the stele of Mesha by some five hundred and fifty years. Already in the earliest preserved letter of the king of Sumur (Samaria) he had written to the pharaoh (Amenhotep III): LETTER 68: Let the king. The cuneiform letters of el-Amarna. Nebo. having been written in the middle of the ninth century. in el-Amarna bear extensive witness to the history of that war. took his revenge destruction" of Israel. king of Moab.

and in the other sentence: "He takes the rebel Mesh." and the words are rendered "the gaz man. But the text speaks in these cases of a single person. A city named Rubute is in Genesis (19:38) the Ammonites appears.* Letter 91." Mesh being dropped. were assumed to be two names for one place. Both names. . "Rabbath of the children of 8 Ammon" (Deuteronomy 3:11). the capital. See Mercer. Tell el-Amarna Tablets. Sometimes the intruding pillagers are called amelut sa-gaz-Mesh. Thus we shall read: "The hostility of the rebels [pillagers] of Mesh is very great against me". ence. 102. or its people. Ammi. the king of In another letter of the early years of the el-Amarna correspondSumur (Samaria) wrote again: LETTER 69: Behold. 4 seems to be the name of the land of Moab or its capital. It is met with in the letters scores of times. rise up day and night in rebellions Ambi. a geographical name referred to in connection with the rebellion of Mesh. and the translators again neglect "Mesh" and translate "robber. is the personal name of King Mesha. of As the earlier letters of the Sumur mention this rebellion. but I shall not omit it from the text of the translation. the dog." "He takes thy cities the amel-gazMesh. because the plural. p. we are already in the second part of the reign of Ahab. which ideographicaUy can also be read "habatu" is translated "plunderers" or "cutthroats'* or "rebellious bandits. this must be Rabbath-Ammon.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONTINUED) 271 sa-gaz. 5 repeatedly mentioned in conalso nection with Ambi. Ambi and Ammia. always in connection with the plundering rebels. thy stele of Mesha. now they against me. are called Ammon. were placed by Historians close to the coast and identified with Enfe near Tripolis. sometimes the text speaks of gaz-Mesh as of a single person. the dog." "Mesh" is the plural. Possibly Ammi. suffix of understood as the amelut being the men or the people. 269." 3 According to the inscription on the cities. not far from Sunmr. and therefore Mesh cannot here be the I shall suffix for it not translate Mesh either. Ambi and Ammia. the revolt took king place in the middle of Ahab's reign. ^Letters 72.

et peut-tre sous la suzerainet$ de ce dernier. Let my lord listen to the words of his servant. in accordance with the demand of Abdi-Ashirta. 7 Paris. "There cometh a great multitude" of "the children of Moab. Les Monuments pcdestiniens et judaiques (Muse du Louvre." 8 Letter 71. 1912). What is and from the records of the Books of Kings generally surmised Chronicles the hidden hand of the king of Damascus in the rebellion of Moab 7 and in the turmoil among the tribes of the desert grows to certainty in face of these letters. Dussaud. Cf. roi de Damas. their king having been killed. p. until the march of the archers. joined the herds- men on the fields of Moab. mais cela r^sulte nettement des renseignements bibliques." said the regents: [Abdi-Ashirta] wrote to the people of Ammia: and they joined the amelut-gaz [pillagers]. R. and the children of Ammon." Letters are rare in mention the revolt cus played in in the of which the king of Sumur (Samaria) does not Mesha and the role which the ruler of Damas- it. . with the amelut-gaz The Ammonites.272 AGES IN CHAOS of The king Sumur (Samaria) wrote to a dignitary in Egypt: LETTER 73: "Kill When he your lord. And if there are no archers then all lands will unite with amelut-gaz-Mesh [the people of the bandit Mesh]. que le secret de $a fortune tint d Vhabilit6 avec laquelk H sut profiler des revers qu'&prouva Israel aprds la mort Achab et dont V agent le plus actif fut le roi de Damas. The role of Damascus war between Samaria and Moab may be read also in the Second Book of Chronicles (20:1-2). 13: M6sa ne nous dit pas. fut occupte de nouveau par M6sa en accord avec HazaH. whether openly or secretly. au nord de Dibon. The king of Sumur (Samaria) asked that horses and infantry be sent him "so that he 8 [Abdi-Ashirta] might not assemble all the bandits of Mesh. then "Thus will he do to us. and with them other[s] beside the Ammonites/' was reported to King Jehoshaphat The king of Sumur wrote: LETTEB 79: Know (II Chronicles 20:1-2)* that since the arrival of Aman-appa to me all amelut-gaz-Mesh [the people of the bandit Mesh] have directed their face against me." And so all lands will join [pillagers]. 11 nest pas douteux que la region. and let him send me a garrison to defend the city of the king.

so that thy land said: "In the days of the princes amelut-gazalso are Mesh [the people of the rebel Mesh] have taken all lands/' Let not such things be said in future days. Another stern warning came in a letter from the king of Sumur: If the pharaoh will not listen to the words he writes to him. even as far as Egypt.. and "thou held back. Damas- LETTER 91: cities Why dost thou sit and hold back. it again: LETTER 83: Listen is taken? Let not be Why hast thou held back. so that he takes thy amel-gaz-Mesh [the rebel Mesh]. . making it clear that he was unable to defend his land against the troops of the 2 rebel Mesh." Sumur (Samaria). the dog? When he had taken . . The help did not come. . Letter 79. . Then will he [the rebel Mesh] depart from me. will unite with amelut-gaz-Mesh [people of die rebel Mesh].. . were endangering the Then he was warned that "the land of the king and Sumur. my lord. The king of Sumur. if Sumura and Bit-Arkha now lost . better 76. . In the days when this letter was written Sumur (Samaria) was only threatened. "And thou wast not able to it" rescue . Already in the Sumur the pharaoh was warned capital." would unite with the people of the rebel Mesh (amelu-gaz-Mesh) ." 1 The king of Sumur asked for archers. Sumura . So he wrote to me.. And he has taken all my cities . all the lands of the king.. then LETTER 88: .THE EL-AM ARNA LETTERS (CONTINUED) 273 The "Great Indignation": A Reconstruction of the Obscure and Missing Portions of the Stele of Mesha "The city of the king. was threatened by the "bandits'* or "cutthroats" of earliest extant letters of the king of that the rebels Mesh (Mesha). Finally it becomes clear that with the help of the king of cus the troops of Mesha entered Samaria (Sumur). looked desperately for help from Egypt and asked the pharaoh in the same letter: LETTER 91: So mayest thou give a thousand minas of silver and one hundred minas of gold. his capital lost. your garrison town.

And I said to all the city. And I built its gates. and I built its I built the king's palace. The first thought that presents itself is this: we have only the upper portion of the stele of Mesha. people: 'Make every man a cistern in his house/ And I cut out the cuttings for was that it represents the city of Kir-ha-Kharoshet. Some scholars have thought that it was a portion of the city of Dibon. that there were two steles is not impossible. in the lower lost portion "the or the "great indignation*' (II Kings 3:27) everlasting destruction" were probably described. the wall of Yearim [or of the For- and the wall towers. KRKHH [Karkhah]. turned to building activities in an unidentified place: "I built ests]. of After the capture of the city of Yahas the king of Moab. and in doing this. . together with the reference to Karkhah in the introductory passage. and this. . entered after his sue- . He was told then: "Thou shalt deliver me thy silver and * We know thy gold. we are faced with the surprising fact that the rebel Mesha of Moab succeeded in entering Samaria. It is also possible that the Mesha stele may have been but one part of a twin inscription on two monoliths. lends activities there emphasis to the importance of the With or during the war against the Israelites* the help of die el-Ainarna letters it may be assumed that KRKHH was the capital of the entire Egyptian domain in Palestine. for And of Ophel. In any event we have to reexamine the stele of Mesha. Another conjecture in Karkhah. That we have only the top portion of the stele is evident. which Mesha. each which carried half the story. it may be that we shall see things to which we paid insufficient attention before. it was during the first siege of Samaria described in I Kings 20. With all the information that the el-Amarna letters provide now in hand and properly read. For some reason mention of this building activity in Karkhah is the central theme of this stele. water in the midst of the And there was no cistern in the midst of the you Karkhah with (the help of) prisoners of Israel/' There is no city known by the name of Karkhah. and I made the two reservoirs city.274 AGES IN CHAOS from the Scriptures that the king of Samaria (Sumur) had negotiated to free his capital from a siege by the payment of silver and gold. at war with Israel. the rebel. Sumur (Samaria).

"the city of the king [pharaoh]/* was characteristic indeed. its palace. the city. and unearthed in the Samaria of Omri and Ahab (Sebastieh of today).THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONTINUED) cess in 275 overcoming the resistance of the fortified cities to the east. and Uste. He repaired the city. 185 and 189. being derived from kat. It belonged to the pharaoh. and it is probable that the original writing of Kerakh and Karkhah with khuf is correct. the Arabs attacked the land from "Levy. Karkhah or the metropolis of the Mesha stele. The king's palace (beth-melech) so often mentioned in the elAmarna letters as being in Sumur." the wall of which he built or repaired. in Karkhah there was "Ophel. it is said that the following places. Reference to Ophel in Karkhah on the stele of Mesha is of unquestionable value. Kerakh or Karkha is in Hebrew "a very large city. and also acquired the right to as the senior be regarded tine. In the Scriptures a part of the city called "OpheF is mentioned only with respect to Jerusalem and Samaria. Magdali. Similarly. But in the same inscription of Mesha the word "city" is kar. Worterbuch tiber die *This well-known word is written with two khaf letters. in the inscription of Mesha the letters are khuf and heth. is also spoken of as being . Gehazi. among the vassal princes of Syria-Pales- written from northern Syria. today we write both "Carians" and "Karians" "Letters Tdmudim und Midrashim. were despoiled by the rebels of Mesh (Mesha): Mahzibti. attitude of Mesha in conquering the capital. possibly outside the domain of Israel. In his estimation it did not belong to the king of Israel. the servant of Elisha. to which foreigners come yearly for trade purposes/* that is. "the prophet in Samaria. Samaria on a straight line is about twenty miles from the Jordan. the other characters for k and kh. encircled by a 8 wall. 6 all direc- Like a turbulent wind. Gilutii. also Tahsi and Ubi. Whoever built in it showed in The his peaceful attitude toward Egypt. a 4 metropolis." returning to the house of his master with the presents from Naaman. In other letters. . Rat for city is of Carian origin. and its walls. written also with khuf. According to the inscription of Mesha. the border of Ammon. parted from the servants of the sar when that is they reached Ophel in the city of Samaria (II Kings 5:24).

lord. as in the story of I Kings 20? Arza. and if so. my lord. my an excuse for entering Sumur. He wrote to the pharaoh: LETTER 60: Behold. AGES IN CHAOS The peasants on the plains of the coast. I am a servant house. and came to Sumur. A The left in stele was prepared to be erected in Karkhah-Samaria. the excuse of one who inon protecting a city that does not want his protection: he "delivered it from the hands of the troops of SehlaL" "There were no sists He had If it had not been for him.. it was apparently paid out of the Egyptian treasury. joined the troops of rebellious tribes driving across the land. then I shall reap the grain of Sumur. The vassal triumphed over his lord and the lord of and probably received a ransom. all kings of the long seek selected troops to snatch the my lands from my hand . who had dwelt in her palace. as the Egyptian king saw in Samaria a palace-city of Ids own. sun. be- ." That these troops were incited by him he did not say. ransom was probably paid to Mesh (Mesha) for releasing Sumur (Samaria). This is what was meant by the "great indignation" of the biblical text and the "everlasting dehis lord struction" of the Mesha stele. Behold. left in wars and sieges and deserted by most of her inhabitants of Damascus followed because of the famine. but was Dibon. and entered it. If my plenipotentiary brings life from the long. hungry and thirsty. the Courtier The king marched ruins by the troops of the rebel Mesh and once again toward the city of Samaria (Sumur). then. the people were not there. "the troops would now have burned with fire Sumur and her palace. . .276 tions. tte sun. people in Sumur to protect it" of Sehlal He wrote to a chief in Egypt: LETTER 62: But when I hurried up here . Or did time and the help dispatched by governor Aman-appa arrive in the oppressors of Samaria depart without ransom.. . . and the whole land of Amurri . of the king and a dog of his I guard for the king. and I shall guard all lands for the king.

. the son of Baasha. is repeated in this letter.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONTINUED) 277 hold. allowed the vanquished Ben-Hadad to go in peace with a covenant of brotherhood. enjoyed the air of palace life. when the young king was "drinking himself drunk in the house of Arza steward of his house" (I Kings 16:9). . it may be noted that the turn of speech. There he is called Arza. . In passing. and thy people for his people" (I Kings In these words is disguised the story we read in the letters 20:42). who is familiar to us It from the First Book of Kings. and they said to me: "Deliver us out of the hand of the troops of Sehlal/' and I delivered them out of the hand of the troops of Sehlal. was called Arzaia. were Sabi-ilu. But distinctly From the . and Arzaia. the long [the pharaoh] has let his faithful Mighty is the hostility of the gas-people city go out of his hand . Maia. only four people there were. . Bisitanu. who dwelt in her palace. of the king of Sumur." used in the scriptural text. Probably it was the same old courtier. now. who dwelt in her palace. believest them. [bandits] against me. let go out of the hand. was killed by Zimri. the dweller in palaces. when it was entered by the king of Damascus. Jerusalem in Peril hills surrounding Jerusalem the mountains of Moab are seen in the clear air over the Jordan and the Dead Sea. a prophet told the king: "Because thou hast let go out of thy hand a man appointed to utter destruction. as always. From the Scriptures Samaria had nothing of her fall. life shall LETTER 74: Behold. a captain. Behold. was a few decades earlier that Elah. the people. . What lies did the regents tell thee? And thou One of the four persons who remained in the palace in Samaria. Since then twelve years of Omrfs reign and a number of years of Ahab's reign had passed. therefore thy we know only of two sieges of But we read that when the king of Samaria and go for his life. Arza. after a reign of two years.

and would come with help. saying. . Then Jehoshaphat explained the n CHRONICLES 20:10-11 And now. It begins with these words: CHRONICLES 20:6 . is His prayer before the congregation of Judah and Jerusalem preserved in the Book of Chronicles. and [we] cry unto thee in our then thou wilt hear and help. gavest it to the He place where a sanctuary was would not abandon the name. . from Syria . so that none is able to withstand thee? n God Then he reminded the Lord people of Israel forever: that the land had been given to the n CHRONICLES 20:7 Art not thou our God seed of Abraham thy friend for ever? expressed his belief that the Lord built to His who . O Lord God of our fathers. and with them other beside the Ammonites. came against Jehoshaphat to battle. the children of Ammon and Moab and mount Seir come to cast us out of thy possession. Then there came some that told Jehoshaphat. . . . art not thou in heaven? and rulest not thou over all the kingdoms of the heathen? and in thine hand is there not power and might. "from . affliction.278 AGES IN CHAOS no movement of troops can be discerned from that distance. built thee a sanctuary therein for thy name. . n that the children of CHRONICLES 20:1-3 It came to pass Moab. 20:8-9 And they [thy people Israel] dwelt therein. and the children of Ammon.1 . And Jehoshaphat feared. saying There cometh a great multitude against thee from beyond the sea. behold. when evil cometh upon us . us to inherit. . . unless by their multitude they color the slopes and the ravines.. *Me'ever haiam me'aram gives no support to the King James beyond the sea on this side Syria/* version.. n CHRONICLES and have If. .. distress of his people.. which thou hast given . . .

the period is placed differently: "There is hostility to me. sees the facts. Therefore he cannot abandon the lands of Urusalim [Jerusalem]. . and likewise in that of Mercer. and to me there is hostility. All of it will be taken from me. do not see. there is hostility to me as far as the lands of Seen and even to Gintikirmil. . but observing that help was not arriving from the latter. the long has set his name upon the land of Urusalim for ever. the king. 2 There is peace to all the regents. the pharaoh was obliged to protect him. but to me there is hostility. The same region Mount Seir (Seeri) is distinctly named in both sources as the far land from which a part of the invaders came. *In the translation of Knudtzon. yet the two eyes of the The Habiru are taking the cities of .THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONTINUED) 279 concluded with an invocation declaring his and his people's helplessness because of the great number of the invading hordes. He . . As far as the lands of Seeri and even to Gintikirmil there is peace to all regents. feelings of the king of Jerusalem at the sight of the immense hordes converging on his kingdom are expressed both in his prayer The and in his letters. The land of the king be lost." Comparing this text with the biblical text. On earth his house was in vassalage to Egypt. CHRONICLES 20:12 We have no might against that cometh against us. my lord. he wrote impatient words he would not have addressed to the first: LETTER 288: Although a man king. this great com- to do: but our eyes are upon thee." . then there will also remain to the king no lands and no regents. The king of Jerusalem wrote to the pharaoh: will and LETTER 288: Let the king care for his land. There exists a similarity between his appeal to his Lord in heaven and to his lord on earth. we see that the new period precedes the words: "There is peace. LETTER 287: If there are no archers [this year]. The king expressed the belief that his lord would not abandon place on which he had set his name forever: LETTER 287: the Verily. At the same time he voiced his fear that if no help arrived the invaders would cast them out of his lord's possession. neither know we what pany ii .

"from we king of Sumur (Samaria). . we recognized as "Rabbath of the children of Arnmon. H CHRONICLES seek the Lord. similarity casts light on the genuineness it the fcing-monotheist implies also the religious purity of The letters contain details about this invasion of Moab and Jerusalem." as all other to other writers of the letters. omits expressions of respect for the gods of Egypt. kingdom of Judah simultaneously at a is meant by the designation. written also Rubute. LETTER 289: After they have taken Rubuda. The shepherds Seir took and the threat to Rabbath of Am- in Trans-Jordan with the help of those chieftains who went over to the invaders. he my may pro- be recognized as a servant of a Lord whose name he would not fane in his letters to his pagan protector. to ask help of the Lord: even out of all the cities of Judah they came to And the king of Jerusalem wrote to the pharaoh: of the king has deserted." beyond That Syria offered a through way for them letters of the of places. 'Letter 273.280 AGES IN CHAOS The king of Jerusalem. 20:4 And Judah gathered themselves together. 8 Rubuda. god. and the population of joined the mon Ammon nomads. unlike other vassal kings. A letter learn from the from Palestine re- 4 ports that the bands appeared even in the valley of Ajalon. This explains the retreat of the population to the stronghold of Jerusalem. in distinction sun. Separate bands to take crossed the borders of the number from Syria. That the same type of appeal should issue from the mouth and from the hand of the same human being is natural. he does not mention his God. This is what the sea [the Dead Sea]. they seek now Urusalim. LETTER 289: The whole land Letter 290. In this case the of this prayer in Chronicles." a city still existing today. he does not call the pharaoh "my vassal correspondents did.

all amelvt were in the area of Ammon and Moab Sigata appears to be Succoth on the river Jordan. The king of Jerusalem pointed to the roving tribes penetrating from the wastes of Trans-Jordan. or "AfinT (from the Babylonian region of Afira) are thus found to be without foundation.' Fall of Nineveh (London. u up CHRONICLES 20:23 For the children of against the inhabitants of mount Ammon Seir. them: and when they had made an end of the inhabitants of every one helped to destroy another." and is used for "companions of thieves" in Isaiah 1:23. . This meaning of the word "Habiru" should have been suggested by the fact that $a-gaz> which is translated "bandits. Something of these happenings of Sumur: is reflected in a letter of the king LETTER 76: Behold. Habiru is derived from the Hebrew root haber.** "cutthroats. Gadd." is 6 interchanged with the term "Habiru. he [Abdi-Ashirta] has now mustered gaz [bandits] against Sigata and Ambi. The Revolt of the Sodomites the During the uneasy period through which Jerusalem passed." The various theories about Habiru (Khabiru) of the el-Amarna letters that it signifies "IvrT (Hebrew). and mount Seir" toward Jerusalem was interrupted by disagreement that flared up among the allies. 1923). J.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONTINUED) 281 An unexpected turn of events spared Jerusalem from humiliation. a member of a band. and habiru means "bandits. " C. utterly to slay and Moab stood and destroy Seir. These cities respectively. and called them Habiru. and "companion of a destroyer" in Proverbs 28:24. The approach of the "multitude" of "the children of Ammon. Moab. or "apinT (miners). the conviction that a small and king of Judah apparently reached "Habiru The "is also written with an ideogram signifying 'cutthroats. "troops of robbers" in Hosea 6:9.

and complained that the king had taken KeltL In his turn he was accused by the king of Jerusalem of disloyalty to Egyptian interests. i At another time he opposed the king of Jerusalem Kelti.). 'After the death of Jehoshaphat "Libnah revolted" (II Chronicles 21:10) from under the hand of his successor. Kelti 2 may be identified as Wadi Kelt on the way from Jerusalem to Jericho. Suwardata. 694). p. i Kelt. TeU el-Amarna Tablets. seems more closely associated with Bethshan and Shechem" (Mercer. When Labaia sacked Gezer in the south he wrote to the pbaraoh that this was **his only crime" and that it was not true identification is s The usual "but in the letter 289 it that he disobeyed the deputy or refused tribue. or if a difference is to be drawn between these two denominations. At one time he wrote that he followed the king of Jerusalem against the bandits (sa-gaz). Labaia at one time approached Makkedah (Letter 244) and another time attacked Gczer north of Lachish (Letter 254). It is supposed that Labaia was not only the name of a chief but also of a group of the inhabitants (Weber in Knuatzon. Die El-Amarna-Tafeln. 1558). It appears that the disturbing activities of a certain Labaia at the time this king or Jerusalem was still alive were a preliminary phase of that revolt. of this prince of the Sodomites 8 reflect on their racial origin. A campaign of Jehoshaphat is briefly recorded in the First Book of Kings: KINGS 22:46 And the remnants of the Sodomites." but they did not. was situated between Makkedah and Lachish (Joshua 10:28f.282 AGES IN CHAOS ancient colony on the road from the Jordan to Jerusalem was inclined to take the side of the enemies. They proved to be Wadi invasion of the desert tribes. was obviously the last abode of the remnants of the valley which became a dead lake. More Jerusalem details may be found in the letters of the king of Jerusalem and Suwardata. which remained in the days of his father Asa. he took out of the land. where now a copious stream of water comes out of the and flows toward the Dead Sea and a few anchorites hide ground themselves among the rocks. Libnah. . about eight miles northwest of Hebron. the invaders themselves were not different with Kila. gists to 1 The name may cause the philolo- This letter of Suwardata confirms what has been established on the basis of other considerations that sa-gaz ("bandits/* "pillagers") and Habiru were the same. also called Labina (Josephus). p. "Follow me. The king of disloyal at the time of the wrote to them then. the prince of changed his policy according to the way the wind blew.

The king of Sumur (Samaria) dispatched tothepharaoh: LETTER 74: May the king hear the words of his servant. that his servant may . This by siege described in the Book of Kings. . In one of the el-Amarna letters the long wrote of the city: LETTER 81: Formerly Sumura and garrison for us. and give life live. n KINGS 6:26 . until an ass's head was sold for fourscore pieces of silver. . "Hostility against Sumur has become very great" repeated in many plains letters of the king of that city. the king of Israel was passing by upon the . its people were a fortress and When. wall . n KINGS 6:24 .THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONTINUED) 283 The Second Siege of Samaria The king of Damascus again laid siege . the king learned that had occurred in the instinct.. Then will I [provisions] to his servant. during one case of cannibalism of these inspections.. In a of the distress of that city plagued city is famine in the besieged he comand famine. to Samaria. behold. and the fourth part of a cab of dove's dung for five pieces of there was silver. (II overcome the mother he a and that hunger had city rent his clothes and the people the following message saw him in sackcloth Kings 6:29). of letters number n KINGS 6:23 And a great famine in Samaria: and. they besieged it. The population of the city and its garrison fainted from hunger. and went up. all his host. King of Syria gathered and besieged Samaria. This was a wall of a fortress. but the king of Samaria continued to defend the city and supervise the bastions. The king of Sumur (Samaria) wrote: LETTER 92: He [Abdi-Ashirta] has now come forth against is me.

but time was passing and it seemed that no help would come not a to him. king should (then) march forth all lands would enemy be hostile to him. Anxious to have help in time. The king infantry of Israel really negotiated for the de- He and asking that horses and wrote also to another dignitary in Egypt (Haia). LETTEB 74: the If there is man to deliver me out of the hand of [Abdi-Ashirta]. thy lord. . explaining his plight be sent (Letter 71). . put sackcloth on himself. To this plenipotentiary that was thy faithful servant/' and ex-governor. Amon of Samaria (I Kings 22:26). my So wrote the king who. LETTER 73: Why hast thou held back and not spoken to the long. they will leave even their cities and depart. . the king of Israel hath hired against us the kings of the Hittites. This quotation is of peculiar interest for comparison with the story of the end of tbe second siege of Samaria. And if the . life. he appealed to Aman-appa. Wherefore they arose and and their horses. 1 Amanappa was the dignitary to whom the king of Samaria (Sumur) wrote: "Thou knowest I my attitude. . even the camp as it was. and left their tents. and that thou mayest fall upon the land of Amurri? If they perceive that the archers have gone forth. Art thou kindly disposed towards me? do in solitude? Behold. His only hope lay in the quick arrival of help from without. and we the regents are put out of the then all the lands will unite with the amelut-gaz [pillagers] lands. Lo. in hours of despair. . . and what could he do for us then? Thus have they formed a conspiracy with one another. and fled for their We know now that the fear of the Syrians at the walls of Samaria was not x groundless.284 defend AGES IN CHAOS What shall I his faithful city. the king put this question. according to the Book of Kings. n KINGS a noise of chariots. to come upon us. and the kings of the Egyptians. and fled in the twilight. in order that thou mayest march forth with the archers. 7:6-7 For the Lord had made the host of the Syrians to hear and a noise of horses. their asses. whilst thou wast in Sumura. and thus have I great fear that there is no man to rescue me out of their hand. thus I ask day and night. even the noise of a great host: and they said one to another.

in Knudtzon. upon breast as well seven times . I have fallen and seven times in addition.parture of hearing that "the archers have gone their tents THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONTINUED) 285 archers from Egypt. (Samaria): we find this statement of Kings. Letter 74 town. see Weber. my lord. me. and honourable. In accordance by the king of Sumur LETTER 106: They have been able have not been able to to oppress it [Sumur] but they conquer it. He knew in advance that merely on forth*' the Syrians would leave and be put to flight. learn that may it seem good to the king. my lord. Letter 74. and he in his turn was incited When by the king of Assyria. because by him the Lord had given deliverance unto Syria: he was also a mighty man in valour" (II Kings 5:1). el-Amarna and the Book of Kings present two records which supplement each other. Beth~Ninib was a town in Palestine (Letter 290). my lord. my enmity lord. Thus saith Abdi-Ashtarti. . "Now Naaman. the king of Damascus wrote to his warriors: "Assemble yourselves 2 in the house of Ninib. The city was oppressed but not conquered. How this happened letters of is The told in the Second Book with that record. Naaman Sar of Syria The commander of the army of the king of Damascus bore the name of Naaman. captain [sar] of the host of the king of Syria [Aram]. to is mighty against send a powerful man to protect me. as back. 9 may refer to this ." This might mean: "Make an alliance with the king of Assyria/' 3 Behind the rebellion of the Moabite Mesha was the intrigue of the king of Damascus. the servant of the king: At the feet of tie king. gathering his host for the campaign that ended in flight. . he wrote to the pharaoh: LETTER 64: To the Hug. But when the king of Damascus fled from the walls of Samaria and returned home from his unsuccessful campaign. 1160. So May the king. was a great man with his master. in Chapters 6-7. say. However. p.

286

AGES IN CHAOS

The fifth chapter of the Second Book of Kings narrates the story of the healing of this captain by Elisha the prophet. It informs., us in passing that the Syrians were prowling about in bands (as often mentioned in the el-Amarna letters) and carrying away captives out
and that among these captives was an Israelite handmaid in the household of the captain. The girl members of the household advised him to try the treatment of the prophet in Samaria. And the king of Syria said to Naaman: "Go to, the king of Israel/* go, and I will send a letter unto When the king of Israel received the letter, he rent his clothes. "Am I God," he asked, "that this man doth send unto me to recover a man of his leprosy? wherefore consider, I pray you, and see how he seeketh a quarrel against me." Elisha the seer intervened when he heard that the king had rent his clothes. The story of how Elisha healed Naaman the captain is well known, 1 In the quoted portion of the story, two facts are somewhat strange. First, inasmuch as Ben-Hadad himself was at the head of the thirty-two captains of his army, 2 why, in this story of the wonof the land of Israel,

who became

a

drous healing, is the deliverance of Syria credited to a captain Second, the king of Israel was a lifelong rival of the king of Damascus. Why, then, did this request to cure a sick captain in-

Naaman?

spire in the king of Israel such

dread that he rent his clothes? For an explanation of the real role of this captain Naaman we

shall look to the

contemporaneous

letters.

A man

by whom

Syria

received deliverance must be identifiable in the letters.
nize

We

recog-

him

in the person of

lanhama, called also laanhamu.

lanhama, the pharaoh's deputy in Syria, was sent to the king of Damascus with prerogatives similar to those which Aman-appa had

when he was with
tures
sar
is

also

the king of Samaria. Naaman's title in the Scripused in the letters. He was a plenipotentiary of

the king of Egypt, in charge of the army and walled cities in Amuru land (Syria), later also the overseer of stores of grain. He had great
*He ordered seven baths in the Jordan. The Jordan is rich in sulfur, potassium, and magnesium, which enter the river from the springs at the Sea of Galilee and form the deposits of the Dead Sea, where the water evaporates and the salts
remain.

'Or "thirty and two kings that helped him" (I Kings 20:16).

THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONTINUED)
influence in

287

all matters of Syrian administration. Judged by his name, he was of Syrian origin, as were some other dignitaries at the court of Thebes. 8 lanhama is a Semitic name. "lanhainu was a pow-

Egyptian agent in Syria, where he was respected as a good and wise man, and where he proved himself to be the most faithful of the
erful

pharaoh's servants."* The servant of Elisha said: "Behold, my master hath spared Naaman this Syrian [Arami], in not receiving at his hand that which

he brought." When healed, Naaman asked Elisha to give him two mules* burden of earth, "for thy servant will henceforth offer neither
unto other gods, but unto the Lord. In this thing the Lord pardon thy servant, that when my master goes into the house of Rimmon to worship there, and he leaneth on my
sacrifice

burnt offering nor

hand, and

bow myself in the house of Riromon: the Lord servant in this thing/' Here the god Rimmon was probpardon thy ably the god Ra-Amon, the chief god of the Egyptians. lanhama's
I
. .

.

master was Amenhotep III, and later Akhnaton. lanhama, as may be seen from the context of the letters, protected the king of Damascus

and helped him in his rise to power. At various times he is reported to have been in Syria and in Egypt, favoring a policy of balanced
relations in Syria in

view

of the necessity to secure the position of

Damascus in the Syrian bloc against the "king of Hatti." Accordingly it is said in the Second Book of Kings that through Naaman, "a great man with his master, and honourable . the
. .

Lord had given deliverance unto
In the early
letters of the

Syria."

king of Sumur (Samaria) his fear of the mighty deputy of the pharaoh is plainly expressed. In one letter he wrote to the pharaoh: "Thou must rescue me out of the hand of

laanhamu." 5

He

lanhama, would be responsible

asked the pharaoh to inform his deputy that he, if anything should happen to the

person of the king of Samaria. "Say to lanhamu: 'Rib-Addi is even "6 in thy hands, and all that will be done to him rests upon thee/
*As, for example,

Dudu, referred to

later in this chapter.

*Mercer, Tell el-Amarna Tables, p. 297. See also Weber, in Knudtzon, Die El-Amarnfr-Tafeln, p. 1068. 5 Letter 83.
'Letter 83.

288
Later on,

AGES IN CHAOS

when Aman-appa

left

Samaria and died in Egypt, 7 the

hama governor
right to

king of Samaria wrote to the pharaoh asking him to appoint lanin Samaria. He asked the pharaoh: "May it seem
lord to send lanhama as his deputy. I hear from the the people that he is a wise man and all people love him," 8 recall the scriptural words about Naaman, that he was an

my

mouth of

We

"honourable" man.

What happened
to

that the king of Samaria,

hama and asked recommend that very man

be rescued from

his

who once feared lanhand, should now himself

for the governorship of Samaria? In another letter he again asks the pharaoh to send lanhama and in the next one he praises him in these words: "There is no servant like

lanhama, a

and the king of would hope lanhama: "Hasten very quickly thy arrival/' and explained appoint that because of the hostility of the people of Ambi he was unable to
.

lanhama occupy Sumur until I come Sumur (Samaria) wrote him,

faithful servant to the king." wrote from Egypt to the king of Samaria:
.
.

9

"Go and

enter, fear not,"

10

in the

that the pharaoh

enter Samaria.

The

letters

do not show why the fear

of the king of Samaria

into confidence with respect to the Syrian deputy. The Scriptures provide the explanation in the story of the healing of

changed

the prophet of Samaria. Naaman was very grateful to the prophet, and also to the king of Samaria, to whom he came with a letter from the king of Damascus. "Behold, now I know that there
is

Naaman by

no God

in all the earth,

but in Israel"

declared that he would heal
Israel politically.

Naaman

(II Kings 5:15). Elisha even in order to help the king of

the king of Damascus was killed, be narrated on a subsequent page, lanhama (Naaman) was apparently in Egypt. He did not support the next Syrian king; he corresponded with the king of Samaria and favored him. Certain other features of the role and character of lanhama, reas will
TLetter 106.
"Letter 106.
'Letter 118.

So he became a friend.

When

"Letter 102.

THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONTINUED)
fleeted in the letters, are

289

shown also in the Scriptures. He was a man. This appears in the story of the healing: he gave to generous the servant of the prophet two talents of silver and two changes of
garments, more than the servant had asked for, when the prophet refused to take ten talents of silver, six thousand pieces of gold, and
ten changes of raiment.
It is of interest to find that,

according to the

letters,

in charge of the pharaoh's treasury in Syria, being over
11

lanhama was "money and

clothing."

Paying with a combination of money and clothing is a true custom of that time. In one letter the king of Sumur wrote that he paid "thirteen silvers and one pair of garments" for someone to go on an
errand. 12

According to the Scriptures, the Syrian governor had in his house an Israelite girl, a captive carried off by a Syrian band, who waited
In an early letter of the king of Sumur (Samaria) to the pharaoh there is a complaint that two people from his domain are detained in the private home of lanhama. 14 The el-Amarna letters also speak of him as the generous patron of

on

his wife.

18

a Palestinian youth,

who was educated

in

Egypt

at his expense. 15

The man "by whom the Lord had given deliverance unto Syria" and who was feared by the king of Samaria was lanhama. 16 How this captain changed his attitude and became a supporter of the long of Samaria is recorded in the letters and is explained by the
Scriptures.

The

Letters of the "Great
letters

Woman

of

Shunem"
corre-

Informative

were sent

to the pharaoh

by a woman

spondent called Baalat-NeSe.

might

this

female person

Two of them are be who was at that time

preserved. Who in Palestine and

"Letter 85.

^Letter 112.

^I Kings 5:2.
"Letter 83.
18

Letter296.
biblical

"The

Naaman

could be a cognomen;

it

means

"truthful/*

290
of high

AGES IN CHAOS

enough rank to write to the sovereign in Egypt? She is the in the el-Amarna collection. only lady correspondent from Palestine In her first letter 1 she informed the pharaoh that the pillagers
(sa-gaz people) had sent bands to Ajaluna (Ajalon). She wrote about "two sons of Milkili" in connection with a raid that apparThe menace was not averted beently threatened her native town.

cause she wrote again:

LETTER 274: Thus said Baalat-Nese, thy handmaid, the dust
feet.
.
.
.

of thy

Let the king, my lord, deliver his land out of the hands of the amelut sa-gaz-Mesh [people of the bandit Mesh], that it may not be destroyed.
.

.

.

And

she advised the pharaoh that the invaders were coming nearer and that another town had fallen: "Verily, this is for the information
of the king, my lord/' In Letter 250 from the

hand

of another correspondent

that Milkili "took stand against Shunama and Burkuna/* this statement together with the fact that the lady correspondent

we read If we put

complained to the pharaoh of the bands of Milkili that threatened her domicile,, it becomes quite apparent that her home was either
at

Shunama
If this

or Burkuna.
is

not fallacious, then not only would the lady of Shunama or Burkuna be one of the el-Amarna correspondents, but she would also have a page in the Old Testament.
very simple deduction

And in fact

she has. It begins with the verse:
to

n KINGS 4:8 And it fell on a day, that Elisha passed where was a great woman.

Shunem,

Shunem is doubtless Shunama. To suppose that there was another "great woman" at the same time in the same town or in the neighboring town of Burkuna would be a forced conjecture. The name of the "great woman," Baalat-Nese, might be underoccurred a wonder" (Baalat-Ncs). 2 The story of Elisha breathing life into the son of the lady of Shunem
stood as "a
to
1

woman

whom

Letter273.

translation should be substituted for "Mistress of Lions*' (sec Mercer, Tett el-Amarna Tablets, note to Letter 273); the ideogram for "lion" is nete, but this ideogram could have been used to represent the phonetically similar word in Hebrew which means "sign" or "miracle."

This

THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONTINUED)
would have been a matter of

291

talk in the palaces of that time; it was the subject of the royal audience granted by the king of Israel to the servant of Elisha (II Kings 8:4). The woman could also have been known in the palace of Egypt as "a woman to whom was a

wonder." Her high position was enhanced by the wide circulation of the story about the revival of her child.

The very existence of a "great lady" by the name of Baalat-Nese in the city or district of Shunem (Shunama) at the time of a famine and of the revolt of Mesh (Mesha) seems to throw a sidelight on
the coming and going of a healer and holy
traditions, Elisha.

man

venerated in folk

The King

of Damascus Conspires against the Life of the King of Samaria
in dealing with the Syrian of the Egyptian gov-

Famine, lack of a consistent policy
vassals,

and frequent and prolonged absences

ernors contributed to the reduction of the area to a state of anarchy. The king of Sumur (Samaria) warned the pharaoh:

LETTER 75: Aduna king of Irqata, mercenaries have killed [him] and there is no one who has said anything to Abdi-Ashirta, although thou didst know it. ... The people of Ammi have killed its lord,
So
I

am

afraid.

He was
to

afraid, and not without reason, for he himself was chosen be a victim and to be killed from ambush.

n

KINGS 6:8 Then the king of Syria warred against

Israel,

and took

counsel with his servants, saying, In such and such a place shall be

my camp.
10

And

told

him and warned him

the king of Israel sent to the place which the man of God of, and saved himself there, not once nor

twice.

The corresponding passage in the el-Amarna tablets is found in the letters of the king of Sumur to the pharaoh and also to his former
governor, Aman-appa:

LETTER 81:
killed him.
.

A
.

stranger stood with drawn dagger against me; but I . Abdi-Ashirta, at his command was committed this

292

AGES IN CHAOS
deed against me. Behold, thus I remain shut up in the midst of my I cannot go out of the gate. ... I have been wounded nine times, and so I have feared for my life.
letters describe

city.

The

the terror which the king of Damascus

in-

Samaria (Sumur), then at his residence in spired in the king of ambush at the places where the Jezreel (Gubla), by setting an to pass. The king of Sumur wrote: hunted rival was

supposed

LETTER

88:

He

about every gate of Gubla.

[Abdi-Ashirta, long of Damascus] slinks around cannot go out of the gates. . .
.

We

Josephus Flavius, who related the story following the Scriptures, wrote of "secret attempts on the life of the Israelite king" 1 "There were some Syrians lying in wait to kill him" 2 and the king did not
:

ful in his plot*'

dare to go out of the city; but "Adados [Ben-Hadad] was unsuccessand "decided to fight openly/*

The grove of Jezebel (Gubla) provided the bands of the king of Damascus with hiding places. The grove is mentioned in the Scriptures: "And Ahab made a grove" (I Kings 16:33). The garden of herbs in the vineyard of Naboth was part of the grove. Probably because of the scarcity of water during a number of years, the grove had withered. The king decided to cut it down for reasons of safety,
being afraid for his
life.

He

wrote to the pharaoh:

LETTER
have
It

91:

He

[Abdi-Ashirta] sought to take Gubla, and I myself

my groves. may be that we have

felled

here an explanation of

why

the vineyard

of Naboth, planted by Ahab and Jezebel to serve as a garden, is called only "the field" in the fatal epilogue to the drama of Naboth

(H Kings

9:S7).

The King

of

Damascus

Is Killed

While Lying

111

After years of sieges and battles the day came when the adversary of the king of Samaria was afflicted with a grave disease.
Jewish Antiquities, DC, 60 Ibid, IX, 51.
(trans. R.

Marcus).

THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONTINUED) n

293

KINGS 8:7-9 And Elisha came to Damascus; and Ben-Hadad the long of Syria was sick; and it was told him, saying, The man of God
is

come

hither.

And
by

the king said unto Hazael ... go ... enquire of the Lord him, saying, Shall I recover of this disease?
to

So Hazael went

meet him

.

.

.

and stood before him, and

said,

son Ben-Hadad king of Syria hath sent I recover of this disease?

Thy

me

to thee, saying, Shall

The question
from

of whether the king of Damascus would recover his sickness or die is repeated in the letter of the king of Sumur

(Samaria) to "a chief in Egypt:

LETTER 95: Abdi-Ashirta
die?

is

very

sick,

who knows but

that

he

will

He

A

died on his sickbed, but not from his disease; he was man in Gubla reported to the pharaoh:
Abdi-Ashirta,

killed.

1

LETTER 101: They have indeed killed [pharaoh] had placed over them.

whom

the king

A more detailed record is preserved in the Hebrew sources, where
Hazael
is

named

as the assassin.
that

n KINGS 8:15 And it came to pass on the morrow,
cloth,

and dipped it in water and spread died: and Hazael reigned in his stead.

it

on

his face, so that

he took a thick he

Both records agree that Ben-Hadad (Abdi-Ashirta) was gravely ill, but he did not die from his disease; he met a violent death.

The el-Amarna letters provide us with additional information. Hazael (Aziru, Azaru) was a son of Ben-Hadad: "Aziru, a son of 2 Abdi-Ashirta, is with his brothers in Dumasqa." This information
^"Abda-Ashirta
.
.

ist

aber nicht eines naturlichen Todes infolge dieser Erkran.

kung gestorben, sondern ermordet worden, und zwar ofenbar von AmurruLeuten selbst. sind leider infolge der LiickenDie wahren Umstande
.

.

,

Weber, in Knudtzon, Die EZAmarna-Tafeln, p. 1132. "Aus 105 5f. ist wohl zu entnehmen, doss die So'hne des Abdi-Ashirta bei seinem gewaltsamen Ende kaum ganz unbeteiligt; sein
haftigkeit des Textes nicht devtlich zu erkennen."

konnen"

Ibid., p. 1198.

'Letter 107.

" above. 66-70. 102). was anxious to secure the consent of the pharaoh to his seizure of the throne of the murdered Abdi-Ashirta (Ben-Hadad). en 845. "lord" Calling his father.. Not the least have I done 1 josephus (Jewish Antiquities. p." In the el-Amarna letters he is is persistently called slave* if But Menander's story about Abd" Astartus. Tetter 64. customs and the language. A* M. s H "It was also an Egyptian usage. Helck. It is told in the Scriptures that Hazael "returned to his lord" in Damascus after greeting Elisha. "LuckenbiH Ancient Records cf Assyria. 80. I. son of nobody. The assassination had not been accomplished in public. Texles. See Erman. H W. also called Abdu-Astarti. Sons of the royal nurse were held in honor. 8 casionally could even lay claim to the throne. Letter 117. then the king of Damascus was killed by the sons of his nurse. 4 Now we have authentic documents proving that he was correct in declaring Hazael to be a son of Ben-Hadad. 8 Cf. his descendants reigned for ten generations. In Egypt this role of the milk brothers is noticeable only during the Eighteenth Dynasty. is entirely in keeping with the Hazael was not the lawful heir to the throne." 3 It was Damascus had been mistaken. He wrote: have not sinned. an author of the first wrote: "After the death of Adad century before the present era. so Hazael could try to exculpate himself. 681. seized the throne. also called Azaru (Hazael or Azaelos of Josephus). 1927). and Blaekman. The Literature of the Ancient Egyptians (London. pleading that he was wrongly accused of the crime. 42. From an inscription of Shalmaneser it may be inferred that Hazael was born of a concubine. grandson of Hiram. the story of Abdi-Ashirta.. car. See section "The Five Kings. p. who had one queen but many wives and seventy sons by them in Samaria. who cited Nicholas of Damascus.? Dynastie/' Untersuchungen zur Geschichte und Altertumskunde Aegyptens.94 is AGES IN CHAOS not entirely new. of suggested that Nicholas the king. il parati difficile ffadmettre que la dynastic dcs Iladad ait dw dix generations. VII. Ben-Hadad probably had many sons. *"JEn tout cos. A. Nicholas of Damascus. . Like Ahab. iigyptischen . "Der Einfluss der Militarfiihrcr in der 18. 14 ( 1939). Hazael assassina Ben-Hadad et fonda une dynastie nouvelle. 7 the scriptural Ben-Hadad. each of (Hadad). and oc- 9 Aziru. 6 "Hazael. Sec. whom inherited from his father the name and the crown. Reinach." Th.

knows the people who have committed crime. . "the Dog/' Burns the Strongholds of Israel The reign of Hazael (Azaru. was a typical figure of speech at the time of the el-Amarna letters. Hazael. . king of Sumur (Samaria) and other dispatchers of messages also use the word 'Letter 106. that they act according to their heart's wish. . .IJtlt JLJL-AJVLAJtUNA J_. . . . . Aziru) proved to be even more disastrous for the realm of Israel than the reign of the slain king of Damascus. my lord. My cities belong are the dogs. and cause the cities of the king to go up in smoke? . and the man weepeth on is of God wept And Hazael cause I know lord? and he answered. Why my . . the sons of Abdi-Ashirta. in many a '"Letter 157. almost exactly what Elisha said when. But what. What . 1 The king of Sumur (Samaria) wrote: LETTER 125: Aziru has again oppressed me. . the lord?" In referring to Aziru (Hazael). he announced to Hazael that he would be king over This is Syria: n KINGS 8:11-13 . Samaria was in a state of almost constant siege and changed hands over a period of more than five years. "is . The famine still plagued the people of Samaria in the days of King Hazael as in the days of his father. letters with this sentence: *ls tihy servant a dog that he shall not letter the hear the words of the king. and he seeks after me. this great thing? thy servant a dog. Many chieftains and governors concluded their His expression. before the gates of Damascus. their strongholds wilt thou set fire . to Aziru. Bethe evil that thou wilt do unto the children of Israel: said. my lord. that he should do ?" which accidentally thy servant a dog escaped oblivion." 10 These words imply that the accusation had reached the Egyptian capital.JtL 1 1 JiJtV& ^ UUIN 1 JLJM U l^JJ y against the king. The king. And Hazael said.

and all thy wish write. there are three turns letters. and the question of whether the king of the statement that he. LETTER 158: To Dudu. thou are there. would cause the cities speech that also appear in his (of Israel) to go up in smoke is also preserved in the el-Amarna letters. Hazael. And. thy servant: At the feet of my father I will fall down. In his letters to Dudu in Egypt Aziru wrote. behold. Thus saith Aziri. . "thy son/' "thy servant." Sometimes the word "dog. And. thy servant. And behold. thy son." For example. thou art my father and my lord. appropriate to quote one of the letters of Aziru At this point it is (Hazael) to this mighty man in Egypt who is called Dudu. when I arise . enemies have spoken words of slander to my father before the king. thou sittest before the long. in Letter 108 is name of Aziru not mentioned at it is all. my father. my father. behold. "because of the dog. It will give us an idea of who was the secret force in the colonial office of turous campaigns in Syria Egypt which supported Abdi-Ashirta and and Palestine." and the pharaoh knew who was meant. his son in their adven- LETTER 158: To Dudu. my lord. my father. . my lord. only written." in letters in conversation to in the Scriptures in show respect. May my father be well. my lord But do thou not admit them. . The context of the dialogue Damascus would survive. and I will indeed perform it. my father. thy He and of employed the expressions. and whatever is the wish of Dudu. write. my lord. and I am thy son. Thus saith Aziri.296 AGES IN CHAOS the "dog. I will perform thy wish. and my house is thy house. son. Behold. Elisha he said: prophet is II When Hazael went meet the KINGS 8:9 Thy son Ben-Hadad king of Syria hath sent me to thee. Behold. mayest thou sit before the king. In the only dialogue preserved which Hazael participates. It is therefore a precious example of the authenticity of the scriptural orations and dialogues. the new king. The lands of Amurri are thy lands. of Hazael in the to Scrip- Another figure of speech out of the tures mouth repeated in his letters. my lord.

my lord. who was an adversary of Solomon and who married into the royal house of Egypt (I Kings 11:19). and fearing that he was carrying on a soliloquy. behold. Abdi-Ashratu [Abdi-Ashirta] marched up against me. so have I written to the palace.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONTINUED) 297 and words of slander against me not admit. 51. Hazael (Aziru) oppressed Israel even more than did Ben-Hadad (Abdi-Ashirta). does not love me but hates me. S. and some of the tablets of the king of Sumur (Samaria) waited twenty-seven centuries before receiving attention. There are people in the presence of the' beg: long. The Rock Tombs of El-Amarna. p. desperate at the thought that his messages might not have been reported to the pharaoh. . LETTER 122: do? Hear! I I in . Their author. 2 These Asiatics were Syrians. closed a letter with a bitter plea: my solitude protect my right. I was mighty. 24). His reward at the hand of the pharaoh was celebrated by some Asiatics. . or there are not? Hear me! Behold. de Garis Davies. what shall I then say? . But if the king. A tablet was sent to Pharaoh from Gubla (Jezreel): LETTER 127: When. Tomb of . . VoL VI. . now my people are crushed. made matters easier for Aziru (Hazael). N. It is conceivable that this Dudu was a descendant of Hadad the Edomite. formerly. is thought to have been of Semitic origin. as the murals in the tomb witness. but thou hast not hearkened. whose splendid sepulcher is preserved among the tombs of the courtiers of Akhnaton in Akhet-Aton (Tell el-Amarna). Pendlebury. J. The words of Elisha announcing to Hazael his accession to the throne and his wars against Israel were fulfilled. What should I refuse not. but. The name Dudu is a Semitic name of the Kings period in Palestine. D. This Dudu. The Tell el-Amama. Scriptures as (II Dodo Dudu. Who knows whether all the letters of the king of Sumur ( Samaria) reached the eyes of Akhnaton? The king of Samaria complained that many of his messages went unanswered and did not receive due attention. the chamberlain and the "chief mouthpiece of all the foreign lands/' as he described himself in an inscription in his sepulchral hall. It appears in the Samuel 23:9. fl Tutu.

And they strive for crime. . outrage ."1 and let us make peace "whom Jezebel his wife stirred up" (I Kings The protests of the population he met with reprisals. . it years. . LETTER 109: But. verily. have taken the . left to LETTER 124: Aziru has taken all my cities. the slave. . "And 21:25). the king and the cities of his regents. This oppression letters of by Aziru (Hazael) still tell el-Amarna of it. The Last The people of Gubla and Letters of Aliab my house and my wife said to me: 'Attach yourself to the son of Abdi-Ashirta between us/ But I refused. cities of . where shall I stand? . but lie crushed their children and ripped open their The child (II Kings 8:12). the last endured as long as he lived and lasted many reigned. the dog. soldiers have gone up against Gubla And if he takes it. the sons of Abdi-Ashirta. in the Scriptures: not outrages of Hazael are described only did he kill the men. A parallel account is in the following passage of the Scriptures: Israel shoit: re KINGS 10:32 In those days the Lord began to cut and Hazael smote them in all the coasts of Israel. . . they said: 'How long wilt thou kill us? Where wilt thou get people So wrote the king to Hve in the city?* I wrenched from 1 he himself reported.298 In a series of raids AGES IN CHAOS Hazael depopulated the land. "When I was discouraged 2 my heart a decision/' and he went to Beirut to " Letter 136. Behold. Another tablet was sent to the pharaoh women with from Gubla: is . burned. Gubla in her solitude me. Ibid . . . accordUnder such circumstances my heart ing to their pleasure. . .

EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONTINUED) 29 make friendsfls with the king of that city and prepare a refuge in case Aziru (Hazscael) drove him out of his city. . and we are out of his power/" 5 This episode and the belief that the king had died may have contributed to the confusion of a later chronicler^ and may have been one reason for the many chronological and dynastic contradictions between the different versions of the Scriptures." TE fear my peasants. ar- "Letters 77. is not recorded in the Scriptures. 130. to him as a residence/ Did he mean Jerusalem. "Letter 137* by the pharaolu Jezebel was from ." He wrote the field though he feared the curse of Elijah pronounced in of Naboth: "In the place where dogs licked the blood of as Naboth shall dogs lick thy blood. gates behind him." asked. first which also was not the time he had done so: one such instance is recorded in the Scriptures in the story of the condemning to death of all the 18:3ff. 'Letter 162. The king of Samaria was a son-in-law Beirut city ms of the long of Sidon probably a relative of its (I Kings 16:31). with very collection where the names of cities and persons are spelled Sidon. Here the letters of Rib-Addi. and the king oi this family. . cease. "Letter 138. but it was this absence that gave rise to * the rumors that he was dead.117.* apparently in the house of Jezebel's relatives for more than one year. He. This detail of his refuge in Beirut and later in Sidon. From his refuge he complained to He reported that he had massacred his opponents. "an They had said: littfe hope of gaining the attention of the whether the pharaoh would assign "Buruzilim" Egyptian suzerain." "my 8 peasants will rebel. and did his scribe merely show his ignorance. the scriptural Ahab. even thine/* LETTER 138: And behold. his flowing blood'* . the people of Gubla have now written to me: Behold their hostile words: "Give it. When he departed his closed- the pharaoh. as in ipany other letters of the el-Amarna old man. and this he had already expressed repeatedly in his early and later letters: "I am afraid that the peasants will slay me.)- members He feared an of the opposing party of Yahwists (I Kings insurrection of his people. "They said: 'Our lord is indeed dead?* TUb-Addi is dead.

too. son of Jehoshaphat and aoh gave the kingdom son-in-law of Ahab. my sons. The From the Scriptures we know that Jehu killed the kin of Ahab in Samaria and Jezreel. Apparently the pharJehoshaphat had died only shortly of Israel to Jehoram. Jezebel was thrown out of the window. by his melancholy. The kst letter of Rib-Addi ends with the admonition: "When I die. 7 See section "Ahab or Jehoram. The 10:7). the servants of the king.300 bitrarily? AGES IN CHAOS Or is it that the to the remained attached Hebrew preposition "in" name of the city written (b' in Hebrew) in cuneiform? before. seventy sons of Ahab who dwelt in Samaria were also put to death. broke out. will still live. and they will write to the king: *O bring us back into our city/ The feared revolt was led by the long-suppressed Yahwist party. previously wounded in a " Ahaziah. "So Jehu slew all the remainder of the house of Ahab in JezreeP (II Kings 10:11). There is not one cheerful line in his letters* It is true that the events of his time in his land justified this state of mind. he was a man with a heavy heart. disclose the human nature of their author. and the governor Aman-appa." above. and Jehoram. The conspiracy in the army. The sixty-five letters of Rib-Addi. king of Sumur and Gubla (Samaria and Jezebel-Jezreel). which opposed Hazael. leaving for burial only the skull and the feet and the palms of her hands. Jehu drove furiously to Jezreel and killed battle with the Syrians. it seems that Jehoram took it upon himself to restore order in the northern kingdom. and her flesh was torn by dogs in the field of Naboth. the pharaoh Akhnaton. . "What shall I do in my solitude? Behold. written to the pharaoh Amenhotep III. who had come from Jerusalem to visit him. and their heads were carried in baskets to Jezreel (II Kings prince of Beirut informed the pharaoh that the children of the king of Gubla and Sumur (Letter 142) were given by his brother into the hands of offenders. and Jehu's horses trod upon her. 7 leaving his young son Ahaziah in Jerusalem. and the revolt struck Jezreel. No one else among all the correspondents of the el-Amarna period wrote such distressed letters.. sad and worried. this I ask day and night** He impressed his people.

IV. It is a fact that in Syria. . and fasted. condemned Ahab for his idolatry and the persecution of the prophets of Yahweh. wrote: "Adados and Azaelos who ruled after him are to this day honored as gods because of their benefactions and the building of temples with which they adorned the city of Damascus. and put sackcloth upon his flesh. However. these two kings were honored as great builders and great conquerors and great characters. *ln the heavenly court of justice. and the people of Damascus cherished the memory of these national heroes and saints. and came to Samaria" so when he heard that he had failed by letting Ben-Hadad go away with a covenant (I Elijah cursed Kings 20:43). but could not close its eyes to his patriotism and the deep emotions of his perturbed soul. after describing the act of murder. until the spirit of Naboth appeared and turned the scale 8 against Ahab. and turned away his face. and went softly" so when . 187. "He rent his clothes." minute study of this period might create the false impression Ben-Hadad and Hazael were the principal adversaries in the long Jewish history. and not just two villains who might be found in that A any generation. The Scriptures religious zeal: condemned this "And Ahab the son all idolator who was possessed by of Omri did evil in the sight of the Lord above that The rabbinical tradition were before him" (I Kings 16:30). and would eat no bread" so when Naboth refused him the vineyard (I Kings 21:4). who was sentenced to death by stoning on the testimony of false witnesses (I Kings 21:27). and lay in sackcloth. . And he laid him down upon his bed. nine hundred years after the time I describe. they became the national heroes of the Syrian history. him and Jezebel for what had been done to Naboth. . Josephus. "And the king of Israel went to his house heavy and displeased. the accusing witnesses and his defenders exactly balanced each other in number and statements. Legends.THE EL-AM ARNA LETTERS (CONTINUED) 301 "And Ahab came into his house heavy and displeased. And they [the Syrians and the people of Damascus] have their processions every day in honour of these kings and glory in "Ginzberg. in the time of Josephus Flavius. at Ahab's trial.

Ahab.302 antiquity. went down in the 9 memory The even to some given with which this chapter deals is due minor happenings of the period mainly to the fact that the priceless el-Amarna letters of his people as a great sinner in Israel. 'Josephus. From the of the biblical narrative. . is 92-94. to the historical events and attention were written standpoint at that time. . Their rival. the seers. the importance lent to the period enhanced. and they provide rich material for parallels. IX. . Jewish Antiquities. AGES IN CHAOS ." The Arabs of Damascus feasted in memory of BenHadad and his murderous son. for the letters deal with the mist-shrouded time of Elijah and Elisha.

as was formerly given to Sumura/' 8 of Sumur (Samaria) had a claim on this place. In previous times grain from larimuta had belonged by right to Sumur (Samaria). "Letter 85.." a Letter 85. because he wrote to the pharaoh: "Say to lanhamu that (he) take money and clothing for the people of Gubla in larimuta. . that grain be given. and he the claim to three Egyptian deputies. produce of the land larimuta/* 2 In like manner he wrote to the governor Aman-appa: "Say to thy lord that there should be given to his servant the produce of the land of larimuta. . This place is referred to only in his letters.. we are the frequent mention of a place called larimuta. The to the king. "and they have recognized my right. and even giving children into slavery. eighteen times in thirteen letters. 1 and by the role it played in the aspirations of BEADING the letters of the Osr the king.Chapter VIII THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONCLUDED) larimuta king of Sumur (Samaria). of that LETTER 105: Because me. For a time larimuta was held by the king of Sumur and Gubla. he has become he has and he has taken to take grain for nourishment from larimuta that I die not. two of them being submitted Aman-appa and lanhama. trading of household implements. which belongs to me .** The king The dispute was with hostile to the king of Damascus over larimuta. He oppressed become hostile to me on account of . 'Letter 86. . impressed by also Rimuta. From there his people obtained grain in the years of the famine in return for heavy payments. king wrote to the pharaoh asking his command: "May it seem good my lord. and his army was stationed there.

7 und Palastinas. behold. IV (1924). W. II (Jerusalem. 140. 'Maisler. 4 this according with the theory that lanhama was the Philistia and Sharon. ibid. . The king of Sumur (Samaria) required of the pharaoh military assistance to compel the local chief. 1922). ibid. Rettinschriftliches Material zur Altaegyptischen p. claiming its expect that the Scriptures will give the answer to it? KINGS 22:3 And the Ramoth in Gilead is ours. Vokdisation (Berlin. note 2. II (1897). must belong to him and his people. Tell el-Amarna Tablets. Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society. 112. Mercer." 7 location If this place interested the king of Sumur (Samaria) so much that he involved himself produce. my peasants have provided provisions from the land of larimuta. archers. that larimuta 6 it was in the plain of Antioch. lapa-Addi did not permit them to go for provisions for the garrison. and the king for their provisions. then. and take it not out of ^Compare C.. 22 and note 1. 208&. behold. let the king send thy Care for me. Who would be a friend if I should die? . M. 274f. a royal garrison was with me. Is not lapa-Addi with Aziru? as in During his entire reign he insisted that larimuta's grain. . Ranke. and we be the hand of the king of Syria? that tchaft.. . LETTER 125: Formerly. pp. now There have been various conjectures about this place: that it was in Goshen in Egypt. But. note to Letter 68. former times. 'Albright. I king of Israel said unto his servants: Know ye still. "larimuta's uncertain. Niebuhr in Mitteilungen der Vorderasiatiscliragyptischen Gesett(1896). LETTER 114: Formerly. 5 that is was the ancient name for scriptural Joseph.. II. Miiller. who had aligned himself with the king of Damascus. Untersuchungen zur alien Geschichte und Ethnographic Syriens 7ff.304 AGES IN CHAOS The conflict over larimuta outlived Abdi-Ashirta (Ben-Hadad) and was still acute in the days of Aziru (Hazael). gave grain from larimuta Aziru has again oppressed me. we may the question: What place was i in a prolonged conflict over it. to give provisions to the peasants and soldiers. But. 1910). So.

was almost constantly beleaguered by the kings of Damascus. with the parallels from the 8 See also II Kings 8:28. Ramoth Samaria (Siraiur) under the Oligarchs During the period o the el-Amarna letters Sumur (Samaria). 305 in Gilead played a most important role in the wars of the He conferred with his prophets: "Shall we go against Ramoth-Gilead to battle. opposite to Ramoth in Gilead" See A. according to one version. "Babylonian Talmud. The two sieges -of Samaria. The battles and wars waged for this pkce in the years when Samaria suffered from famine are well explained by the letters: the high land of Gilead was the breadbasket of the entire region. according to another he was only wounded. though the center of Egyptian administration.. there. Tractate Makkot 9b: "Sichem in the mountains. and famine had not touched it.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONCLUDED) Ramoth king of Israel. and its liberation from the first by "the young men of the governors of the provinces" and from a long second siege as the result of a rumor of the arrival of an Egyptian army. 9 Ahab Ramoth of the Bible and Aramatha of Josephus is larimtita or Rimuta of the el-Amarna letters. Jehoshaphat Ramoth. 10. 398. Amon> this supported him in undertaking (I Kings 22:26). in Gilead is prominently mentioned in the Scriptures durthe time of Ahab-Jehoram and Jehoshaphat. as already narrated. he because of Hazael king of Syria" (II Kings 9:14). . 8 on front Jehu was anointed by the messenger of Elisha (II Kings 9:4). Josephus Flavius gave the name of the place for which battled with the Syrians as Aramatha in Galadene.. or shall we forbear?'* His governor. king of Israel "had kept Ramoth-Gilead. La Gtographie du Talmud (Paris. "Jewish Antiquities. VIII. p. accompanied him to battle in At a and all this later date the Israel. Neubauer. and only during ing 10 this time. Ahab was killed. 1868).

For the larger part of the period of the el-Amarna letters the Hng of Surmir lived in his second residence. wrote in a letter: LETTER 157 But the : chief men of Sumur have not admitted mo. LETTER 126: Formerly. At the beginning of that Aman-appa (the biblical governor Amon) reperiod the during the first governor linquished his permanent post in Sumur. the elders exercised To their decision the king submitted the fate authority in the city. Egypt received meager. ." a residence built as the center of Egyptian administration of the Asiatic provinces. challenging yield to them (II to choose one of the sons of Ahab to be king or into him Kings 10). when his attempt to enter Sumur failed. tribute in return. and for some time were the only authority in the city. . who built it. Besides the king and the governor. Because of the anarchical conditions that prevailed as a result the vicissitudes of and frequent sieges. Pharaoh to send silver to Samaria in the days of Omri." Sumur was a "long's city. the elders of Sumur bemany came more influential. became frightened and admitted Jehu The "King s The used city of Samaria City. .306 AGES IN CHAOS been recorded in also earlier have Scriptures and the el-Amarna letters. This time the oligarchs the city. and the "king's house'* of often . there was sent to wiy father from the great palace silver. The pharaoh Sunmr is also provided Samaria with chariots. of the city when he received the ultimatum of the king of Damascus siege (I Kings 20:7). In the city was a palace. To these chief men or "rulers and elders" of Samaria Jehu wrote. however. Aziru (Hazael). and for the greater part of the time was in Egypt lanhama's seat was in Damascus. pages. and from there wrote most of his letters pleading for aid for his capital. if any.

The city of Samaria was surrounded by a wall. as well as in the Scriptures and to collect silver in He had the el-Amarna letters. had only one gate). it was overlaid with ivory. but actually vassal letters. Crowfoot and 0. "G. It also referred to in the Mesha stele. the work being done by the Israelite captives. The custom of taking money at the gate is also mentioned in a letter by the king of Sumur: "All my gates have taken copper. Letter 69* and D G." might refer to the ivory carvings on the palace.." 2 The gate of Samaria. The ivory of the Samarian palace of Omri and Ahab was found in abundance during the excavations. W. The words of Mesha. 1 More will be said about it in a later section of this chapter. and in partnership Since Mesh (Mesha) occupied Samaria with the in king of Damascus. and flour abandoned **to have the charge of the gate" payment for the barley by the Syrians who had fled from beneath the walls of Samaria.THE EL-AMAKNA LETTERS mentioned in the el-Amarna of the pharaoh. in his stele he ascribed the building activity the city to himself. Harvard Excavations 190&-1910 (Cambridge. C. M. "I have cut its cuttings. Moss. which was an important placea kind of forum for the people is referred to in the Mesha inscription. . Lyon. Early Ivories from Samaria (London. The "king's house" referred to also in the stele of Mesha. A. Reisner. the thrones were placed "at the entering in of the gate of Samaria" (II Chronicles 18:9). at Samaria. This wall is menis tioned both in the Scriptures and in the letters of el-Amarna. it ( CONCLUDED j it 307 nominally was the residence of his regent was the residence is the king and probably also of the Egyptian deputy attached to the vassal. The excavations at Samaria disclosed two portions of the ancient wall. It is mentioned in the Scriptures (II Kings 5:24) and in the stele of Mesha. who repaired it. 1938). Crowfoot. The officer was trodden to death. Fisher. S. 1924). The gate was also the station of the officer appointed (II Kings 7:17). The place before the gate was the scene of the two-king conference with the prophets. The palace built by Ahab in Samaria is mentioned in the Scriptures. the place of the gate (the city wall 8 buildings of a palatial type. In the city was a mound or acropolis called Ophel. *).

there. . .308 AGES IN CHAOS of similarly to a dignitary in Egypt. Ben-Hadad told the king of Samaria: I father KINGS 20:34 Thou shalt made in Samaria. meaning that he. Aziru. but during the three decades 870 to 840. ^Letter 159. . Shalmaneser III became king of Assyria. with the work of the Israelite walls of the palace and of other buildings. 'Luckenbill." Sumur 4 ." 5 and one year again. challenges me to demonstrate agreement not only between the letters and the Books of Kings and Chronicles. . the city fell into his hands. I. and is men- tioned in the treaty between Ben-Hadad and Ahab. Sec. Records of Assyria. 1 He undertook a number of devastating raids on the 858. repaired the This privilege to build in Samaria was highly esteemed. and Ahab. after all the devastation that the city had suffered in wars and sieges: "I The king built Damascus wrote . *1 have not built Sumur. In Ids annals Shalmaneser gave an ac'Letter 62.* [Sumur]. 566. and Shalmaneser. promised: "I will build it up The next king . Sumur now. the scriptural Hazael. as my to- When. I will now build Sumur in haste. I will build Zumur Shalmaneser III Expels King Niloned According to the reconstruction of history presented here. not at the beginning of the fourteenth century. tetter 160. but also between the letters and the Assyrian inscriptions. during the time he held Sumur (Samaria). make streets for thee in Damascus. After the defeat of the Syrians at Aphek. too. Later he became Phoenician shore and on northern Syria. Borsippa. . Placing the el-Amarna letters in the time of Jehoshaphat. king of Jerusalem. In about the year king of Babylonia. the elAmarna letters were written. king of Samaria. and Kutha. for a time. their contemporary. . But in . captives. he resumed gether with the rebel Mesh (King Mesha) the building activity of Damascus. My lord. and made offerings in Babylon.

The city of Nikdime. Luckenbill." The inversion common among consonants. especially in personal names of foreign origin. thus. all foreigners. Factories for dyeing wool had been established in Ugarit. This suggestion arc curious to is not far from the truth. . is who since are called here Hatti. [and] cast themselves upon the sea in wicker [?] grim boats I followed after them in boats of fought a great battle on the sea. tion has Nikmed was missing. at . is very oriental peoples. together with the king Nikmed. a city named for Alexander. not far from Ras Shamra is Iskanderun. p." Archiv Orientdlni." in Chapter V. 8 The city of Nikdimc appears to be the city of Nikmed." should be expelled from Ugarit The opening portion of the proclamation. the Khar [Carians]. the city of the king. was situated dose to the sea. I. and its other half is not. To the Nikdime [and] Nikdiera I became frightened . the larger part of which were carried on in Syria. Sec. it is section "End vader? in We of Ugarit. Records of Assyria. and the people of the army of Hatti are not there [any more]/' In the el-Amarna. In a letter written by Abimilki. and found in Tell reported: "And fire has consumed Ugarit. Some intima2 expelled by the Babylonians. king of Tyre. "Les loniens & Ras-Shanua. which might have revealed the name of the king who been found that expelled Nikmed. and with their blood I dyed the sea cities of Year four. awe-inspiring weapons and my warfare. defeated them. like the city of Nikmed. left Babylon was incorporated by Shalmaneser We know whether Shalmaneser any written record of his conquest of Ugarit. half of it is consumed. the people of Didyme. we asked. They my mighty. the Cypriotes. and stores of crushed shells prepared for IV (1932). "of Nikdimc/* The translator of this record also explained the words of two *city of Nikdime" by a gloss: "personal name. And in fact entry twice repeated in his annals: we find the following drew near. 009. It may be that even Shalmaneser's simile of the sea looking like dyed wool was inspired by the trade of Ugarit-Ras Shamia. into his empire. Cities were named in honor of their kings. 178* Hrozn^. quoted also a proclamation found in Ras Who was the in- Shamra-Ugarit which the invading king decreed that "the Jaman [lonians]. and in this case it is put clearly.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONCLUDED) 309 count of his wars. like wool.

very powerful indeed. Let the heart of the . together with Suppiluliuma. . and the prince of Siana. opposed him at Karkar. Powerful is the hostility against us. and some of them from northern Syria." letters. the prince of Usa (not named). the city of Irqata (no prince is named). A written order to tint three before his expulsion Nikmed. We In a letter from Rib-Addi 2 it is reported: *Aduna of Irqata. the lord. the prince of Israel ("with two thousand chariots and ten thousand warriors'* ). the Commandant of Megiddo Shalmaneser relates that in his sixth year. . a ln northern Syria. two years after he drove King Nikdem into the sea. The city of Irqata wrote to the pharaoh: LETTER 100: Thus saith Irqata and the people of its inheritance." In the same letter he wrote about the wars of the king of Hatti in the northeast. * . Matinu-Bali. too. helped by a coalition of twelve princes.310 AGES IN CHAOS loads of the extraction of dye were found there. long. wool also came to light. Let the breath of the king not depart from us. merely states: to his support. mercenaries have killed.. a prince named Biridri.. know that we protect Irqata for him. Adunu-Bali. We shall come across these names in the annals of Some time Shalmaneser. Shalmaneser III Is Opposed by a Syrian Coalition under Biridri (Biridia). 1 Among Biridrfs allies were Ahab. it participated personally in the battle of Karkar. a contemporary city king. The princes. the prince of Arvad. We meet some of the same princes "These twelve kings he [Biridri] brought in the el-Amarna They wrote to the pharaoh that they were holding their garrisons in readiness to take a stand against the invading king of Hatti. inscription of Shalmaneser does not say that the allied Ahab among them. contributed to the goddess of the city of Arne. have closed the gate until the breath of the king conies to us. which was more imhave taken mediately threatened than Palestine might part personally in the battle. "Letter 75.

whose campaign and victory Megiddo were emphasized in his annals. I. and in order that he may drink water. Tyre was on an island near the shore. send caravans I will bring them in so that they be completely safe. we have met Irqata. we may guess that Mut-Balu of the el-Amarna letters was Matinu-Bali. Since Karaduniash is 3 Babylon and the city of Mut-Balu is on the way to Babylon. Arvada. who quoted Menander. LKTTKH ISO: Let the king direct his attention towards his servant and give him Uzu in order that he may live. explained by and the city defended itself without choosing a new prince. mentioned in the Asof Shalmaneser* Mut-Balu did not say from syrian inscription where he wrote his letter. did not have enough drinking water to withstand a siege. 'Against Apion. In those rainless years the king of Tyre asked the pharaoh to transfer the It Uzu (Usa) was city of Uzu to the domain of Tyre. 1013f. 4 we have the in- formation that Metten-Baal was a grandson of Ithobal [Ethbaal] and a nephew of Jezebel near Tyre. my lord. The Assyrian inscription. in the inscription of Shalmaneser and in the letters. He wrote to the pharaoh: to Karaduniash.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONCLUDED) Aduna 311 Prince Aduni of Siana of Shalmaneser's inscriptions was probably and of Irqata" of the el-Amarna letters. LETTER 255: Let the king. the king of Arvad. The city was a barrier the path of the armies coming from the north. by calling the king of Arvad. It at in Its garrison also of by the name . connects Mut-Balu of the letters with Matinu-Bali that city. At the time of the el-Amarna letters a captain 'Knudteon. then the is Shalmaneser to name the prince of Irqata the el-Amarna letter: the prince of Irqata was killed. From Joscphus. Two letters of Mut-Balu are preserved. In both sources. guarded the plain of Esdraelon (Jezreel). and Uzu as small principalities opposing the invader coming from the north. But if Aduni "of of Shalmaneser's failure of war annals was not the prince of Irqata. Megiddo was the strong military base behind these outposts. Die El-Amarna-Tafeln. pp. had been fortified by Thutmose III.

"See C. once a formidable structure. was the man Hatti. the grandson of Jehoshaphat. LETTER 243: And behold. the his on watch at the stronghold of Megiddo. as the would not have dared to enter in his pursuit of Ahaziah. S. the chief of the coalition. 1929). Eight of have been found. cavated were found to be very similar in construction and his flight to The when ex- workman- ship to the walls of Ahab's palace at Samaria. But Ahaziah did not succeed in escaping: he was trapped and killed in It was to Megiddo (II Kings 9:27).312 Biridia AGES IN CHAOS was in command of Megiddo. another time he wrote that he was defending Magiidda. which Jehu Jezreel. walls of Megiddo. my lord. his gave rise to the question. Fisher. day and night. Biridri. as commander of the most important fortress. the most powerful among the kings of supposed Why conjectured against Ahab to compel him to participate in the war against Shalmaneser. Geschichte des Altertums. I protect Makida. p. the city of the king. he was a daring and faithful soldier. tried to escape when the rebellion of Jehu struck him unawares in letters reveal." 6 to lead the coalition of the vassal kings against the "king of The rank and position of Biridia of the el-Amarna letters correspond to those of Biridri of the Shalmaneser inscription. 'Since the el-Amarna letters were not considered as belonging to the time of to have been BenShalmaneser. Megiddo. that Ben-Hadad conducted his war enemy. 16. The names is due to the fact that not slightly different spelling of the only personal but even geographical names were spelled in the letters in different ways: the same Biridia (in one instance he wrote his name Biridi) announced to the pharaoh that he was defending Makida. dating 5 from the ninth century. was a fortress. Assyria.) The identification of Ben-Hadad and Biridri did Ahab come to the help of Ben-Hadad. II. By day I guard from the fields. Biridia. It is obvious that a great responsibility his letters was placed on him at this time of uneasiness. was Syria. . p. There are many similar examples in the letters. Biridia. met the king of enemy of the pharaoh. Megiddo that Ahaziah. With chariots and soldiers I protect the walls of the long. at Karkar? It was Hadad. my lord. (Sec Meyer. Judged by them. and it was the chariots under command that Shalmaneser took captive. The Excavation of Armageddon (Chicago. Pt 2. 274.

some of "the booty of the land of Hatti/' and by this he let his son-in-law know that he was not de- records of Shalmaneser. was able to send. subjects. has gone with him. In an early letter he wrote: "Let the king. Sec his Mount Sinai a Volcano. another located sent. the slave. do not chronicle any decisive victory or permanent terrifeated. to the record of Shalmaneser. p. The presence of a small contingent of Egyptian soldiers in the allied army under Biridia is in accord with the contents of the el-Aniarna letters. the dog. for King Tushratta of Miall Nahma tanni. Biridia also sent regular reports to the pharaoh about his preparations to meet the king of Hatti on the battlefield. by giving credence to this theory and all its consequences (relating to all contacts of the Israelites with Egypt). edL Cheyne and Black. The Encyclopaedia Biblica. In a number of letters the king of Sumur reported to the pharaoh the danger impending from the king of Hatli. when assigned to their proper time.** The successes of the king of Hatti in Mitanni (Mitta) were only temporary. 8 By H. which belonged to the king of Mitta or the king of the land of the great kings. Abdi-Ashirta. torial acqxiisition in the east* The Almost every year during the first two decades of his reign Shalmaneser renewed his southern campaigns into Syria. the father-in-law of the pharaoh. among other numerous and rich presents. aside from his conquest of at the time of a dynastic war between two Babylonian Babylon princes. my lord. As it seemed unreasonable that who the Egyptian king should have sent only one tenth the soldiers that Ahab it Musri was supposed to denote some realm other than 7 8 Egypt. The letters of el-Amarna. know that the king of Hatti has over- come lands. . in northern Syria or in eastern Anatolia. Musri is the Assyrian name according for Egypt (Mizraim in Hebrew).THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONCLUDED) There were one thousand Musri soldiers 313 in the army under Biridri. Beke. 8. *By C. became worthless with respect to many important 'Letter 75. make these theories superfluous. Winckler. In the elAtnarna correspondence the vassals of Egypt in northern Syria reported to the pharaoh the raids of the king of Hatti. joined battle with the army of Shalmaneser at Karkar. One theory put it on the Sinai Peninsula.

His information that the king the was true." Shalmaneser. apparently. Assurnasirpal. . the king of Hatti of the el-Amarna letters. I burned with fire. I devastated. was. I have repeatedly written . are conquered 10 soldiers from the Hatti lands to conquer Gubla. and the pharaoh was regarded as his only either the army of real rival. 12 Hatti is to its farthest border I brought under my sway. they bring Rib-Addi in expressed his fear that the attack would be directed of Hatti burned cities to against him. The latter means. "Letter 126. Sec. . according to this reconstruction of history. . and increased he wrote: it domain he inherited from by the conquest of Bab- The land of Hatti From the source of hands conquered. the Assyrian king of the ninth century. 641. . After he secured the his father. All lands of the king. I this letter ground a statement he often repeated. . Their rivalry in matters of Syria el-Amarna letters. is perfectly reflected in the ^uckenbill. I burned with devastated. my lord. but these lines are destroyed. the Tigris to the source of the Euphrates my here apparently a broad geographical designation. and we can read among the defaced characters only the words "king of the Hatti lands. "Letter 129. not an ethnographical name.314 AGES IN CHAOS These raids were accompanied by holocausts. In one of his later letters Rib-Addi wrote: "I have heard from [about] the Hatti people that they burn the lands with fire. He put all other countries in a state of defense. Shalmaneser himself wrote: "I destroyed. ylon and of other areas. after his sixteenth march into Syria he perpetuated his deeds with these words: "Countless cities I destroyed. Records of Assyria." . I. When the Syrians tinder the walls of Samaria thought they heard an army approaching to relieve the city. the army of Shalmancser. they imagined that it was Egypt or of Hatti (II Kings 7:6)." fire" The same was reported the pharaok Rib-Addi in a still in many letters of Syrian city-princes to later letter 11 wrote about the exploits of the king of Hatti.

But he would be in favor if faithful (Letter thou hast not taken care of 162). O king. Aziru (Hazael) wrote to his protector. Dudu: "But. punishment was meted out to the brothers of Ahab's heir by Jehu's "Letter 165. Hazael. . his lord (Akhnaton). He was summoned to Egypt. my lord. "the king of Hatti" In Egypt. *A similar order. When Biridri died.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONCLUDED) 315 Shalmaneser III Invades Amuru Land Damascus and Is Opposed by the King of In the tenth year of his reign Shalmaneser fought against another again under Biridri (Biridia). then. the land of come. His double-dealing angered the king of Hatti too. father. the king of Hatte is come to Nuhasse! Therefore I cannot May the king of Hatte depart/' In a letter to the pharaoh he conceded that he had "arrived formerly to the king from [of] 3 Hatte/' but now ho looks only in the face of the sun. The royal ax would cut 2 off his head and the heads of hi$ brothers if he took the side of the enemies of the pharaoh. O my lord. the throne of which he had tisurped. the absence of an Egyptian exploiting governor. but he coud not comply with the come to Egypt. At the same time he begged the pharaoh to confirm his status as king of Damascus. but he repeatedly delayed his departure with the excuse that the movements of the king of Hatti had to be watched: "If the king of Hatti comes for hostility against me. ^Letter 75. my messengers?" A long Aziru (Hazael) was "exceedingly vitation to glad'* with "the pleasing and in- good" words of the pharaoh. killed his own coalition. give me soldiers and chariots for my assistance/' But he was questioned: Why hast thou taken care of the messengers of the king of Hatti? But << and interesting letter from the pharaoh to him is preserved. Aziru (Hazael) was suspected of being on the side of as his father at one time had been1 for he re- ceived messengers from the king of Hatti. "And the king of Hatte comes to Amurri.

" This strategic position of Hazael protected Tunip (Baalbek). it is also mentioned in his own annals: "The kings of the land of Amuru. according to his annals. . "As far as Damascus. "Mount Saniru. pp. Weber. f or now he journey to Tunip. In the battle Shalmaneser captured 1121 chariots. Records of Assyria. 601. I advanced. his royal city. AGES IN CHAOS my lord 5 . a mountain peak which is in front of Mount Lebanon. Hazael of Aram [Amuru] came forth to battle.. two one-day's afraid that he will oppress Tunip. In the letters of the kings of the Syrian cities we read about the awe Shalmaneser inspired in that country. His orchards I cut down. Let him departl" *1 am afraid of him." We must now look into the he really came to Amurri. So I fear him. all of them.* and I am 6 dwells in Nuhasse.* Shalmaneser.316 the king. Cf. in Knudfcson. . 112SE "iLetter 165." He wrote that Hazael made his stand at Mount Senir (Anti**In Lebanon)." Four years later "against the cities of Hazael of of his cities. TUickenbill. annals of Shalmaneser to see whether and whether he threatened Hazael (Aziru). ^Letter 166. became terrified at the approach of my mighty. and a num4 Identified as Baalbek by Halevy and Winckler. I crossed the Euphrates for the sixteenth time. awe-inspiring weapons/' 7 He calls the land of Syria by the name applied to it in the el-Amarna letters Amuru (Amurri). The annals of Shalmaneser also verify what was said in the el-Amarna letters concerning Hazael (Aziru): my eighteenth year of reign. The Assyrian terror and the heavy tribute forced the Phoenicians to look for a new home. I. Sec. I watch lest he come up to Amurri. .. . went Aram [Amuru]" and "captured four The Phoenicians Leave From the annals of Shalmaneser for a New Home that we know he subjugated the seacoast of Syria as far as Tyre.

and that the soldiers of the Hatti army had left there. Abimilki. went to the North African shore halfway along the Mediterranean. As we look for further mention of the military activities of Shalmaneser in the letters of el-Amarna. several tablets to the pharaoh. lord. With the fall of Danuna and Ugarit to Shalmaneser. the position of Tyre was very much endangered. . Shalmaneser captured Ugarit. that the other half of the city was despoiled. second part of the ninth century. my handmaid of the king.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONCLUDED) ber of them left 317 Tyre and other cities. Abimilki wrote that Aziru (Hazael) had conquered Sumura (Samaria). it is only reasonable that we should direct our attention to the king of Tyre. especially be- cause of the feud between that city and Sidon as reflected in the el-Amarna letters. wrote letters written from Tyre. in the fourth year of his reign. and founded there the 1 colony of Carthage. In his plight Abimilki wrote that lie was a *serf of tears" and pleaded for help. I protect Tyre. And when finally he received word that the fleet of the pharaoh would arrive at Tyre he sent out his mariners to meet tibe that Egyptian navy* He was encouraged for a while and wrote again he would defend the city. my And again. the LETTER 149: The king. The pharaoh requested Abimilki to give him information about the cities of Syria. has appointed me to protect Tyre. the great city. Tyre on the rock was dependent on the coast not only for water supply but also for the wood necessary in shipbuilding. reassuring him: LETTER 147: Behold. and also because of the pillaging tribes that ap- proached Tyre from across the Jordan. lord. Abimilki also wrote that half the city of Ugarit was destroyed by fire. for the king. if it *In the came at all. the city of Nikdem. But the help was insufficient and too late. that the city of Danuna in Syria was quiet ( Shalmaneser passed through this city in his second year he called it Dihnunu).

Albright. a violent one in the Two-Stream Land and an inactive one in Egypt. "thundereth in the heavens like Adad. Further: let my lord. who in his eighteenth year received tribute from Tyre and Sidon. let the long. of the house of Omri. the change in the overlordship of Tyre is easily misunderstood. the king. 191f. no place for the dead. "Shalmeneser." It should be noted here that this was the same attribute that Shal- maneser in Adad. They have not given it.. Abimilki still paid respect to the pharaoh and called last letter him "the eternal sun/* but in his long pharaoh as to the sole sovereign. as there is no wood. then. So.318 AGES IN CHAOS In the eighteenth year of his reign Shalmaneser wrote that he had received "the tribute of the men of Tyre. 61 (1942). F. Sidon.** Akhnaton and Shalmaneser both claimed to be the sun. Without taking into consideration the contemporaneous account of Shalmaneser. and of Jehu. commanded. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 314. a daughter of Akhnaton. The king has commanded that there be given to his servant and to die servant of Shalmaiati breath. and that there be given water for him to drink. let the king care for the servant of Shalmajati that water be given for the sake of his life. the august overlord. my lord." mighty king. It was also pro- word be read "M^ya-ati" and to identify it with Meryt-aten. Shalmaiati could not be another name of the pharaoh. my lord. the sun of his inscriptions applied to himself: "I thundered like Shalmeneser also wrote. care for the servant of Shalmajati that life be given to him. no water. and it he no longer wrote to the was clearly made known to the pharaoh that Abimilki also bowed before another lord. no earth. and before long Abimilki knew that there were two suns. no straw. 23 (1937). He used to tell the pharaoh that he. because Abimilki called himself Pharaoh's servant and the servant of Shalmaiati. It has been admitted that the posed that the "By W. 2 . LETTER 155: The king is sun for ever. But they have not done what the king. the Storm-god. Journal of Biblical Literature." In his last letter to the pharaoh Abimilkt changed the manner he had used in writing his previous letters. the all peoples. Bizarre conjectures were published to explain the meaning of that perplexing name Shalmaiati.

in Kimdtzon. . could he have been? And yet. equivalent to the sun or Aton of Akhnaton. which makes the sign of divinity unnecessary. set his face towards his servant and Tyre Behold. of this letter becomes evident. Tett el- Amarna Tablets. What should we like to course. city. Abimilkfs read in it? last letter is Of not yet ended. and the I go away with all . and 4 yet is an indication of a second personality. 'Weber. Die El-Ainamar. .THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONCLUDED) evidence for this 319 it and similar explanations is defective. that a sign which usually accompanied the name of a deity was missing every time Shalmaiati was named in the letter. 12541 . the man of Beruta [Beirut] has man of Zidon goes away iu two ships. to look for a new haven along the shores of the Mediterranean. *". about the departure of the people of Tyre and other Phoenician cities on their ships from the grievous yoke of Shalmaneser and from the recurrent drought. pp. and thy ships and my whole city. . It was said that Shalmaiati to observed. Abimilki wrote that he would desert his rocky island and evacuate the popu- He begged the pharaoh to take care of what would remain in the deserted invader. but that here this god is invoked as an alter ego of Akhnaton. however. and that Shalmaiati was the name of a god. Who. The dramatic meaning lation of Tyro. pp. gone in a ship. 504-5. in disregard of both facts that Shalmaiati and the pharaoh could not be the same that Shalmaiati could not be a deity it was supposed person. then. We know that it was in the days of Shalmaneser and in fear of him that the refugees from Tyre and other Phoenician cities fled and laid the foundations of Carthage. 3 Then was was a god. This last letter of Abimilki closes with the words: LETTER 155: Let the king the city of Shalmaiati ." Mercer. and a hypothesis was constructed which ancient Jerusalem and Tyre both worshiped a according deity Salem and this deity was called Shalmaiati by Abimilki. which was bound by tribute to a king nor is it clear what tho etymology of the word is.Tafeln.

to whom Shalmaneser referred in his annals. Actually. the invader from the north at the time of the el-Amarna correspondence. donated to the goddess of Arne. Arne was not far from Ugarit and was captured by Shalmaneser III in one of his campaigns. Records of Assyria. of whom only one very number amiable letter is preserved. might well have been one of the corin continued respondents of the el-Amarna collection. C. It is A of generations later another Suppiluliuma was "a king of Hatti" and therefore it appeared reasonable that Suppiluliuma of the el-Amarna period also had been a great king of Hatti." Besides establishing the identity of Shalmaneser III and the king of Hatti. It is generally accepted that Suppiluliuma. We Sec. Gordon. there is a basis for suggesting an identification of the king of Hatti as one of the el-Amarna correspondents. conflict with Egypt. H. too. V . 2 In a short and broken text from Ugarit referring to donations made to the goddess of the city of Arne. that they exchanged letters. 'Letter 41. *G. 3 Apparently Nikmed and Suppiluliuma. I. Virolleaud. have shown that he is mentioned in the letters of the king of already ^uckenbill.320 AGES IN CHAOS Who The king Is the Dreaded "King of Hatti" of the el-Amarna Correspondence? of Hatti. always feared and often mentioned in the letters of the Syrian princes. csianique. in the time of Shalmaneser III (in the ninth century) there lived a prince called Suppiluliuma (Sapalulme). 563. Vgaritfc Handbook (Rome. therefore. "Suppiluliuma et Nigmad cTUgarit." Revue hittite et (1940). 173-74. Although war against the pharaoh. Sec. 1948)* *LuckenbilI. Arne his royal city I captured. Syrian vassals. 599. "Against the cities of Arame (personal 4 name) I drew near. I. 1 He could have been the author of the letter in the el-Amarna collection signed with his name. was the feared king of Hatti. he never made open at least the pharaoh never sent a strong army to the assistance of his probable. Prince Nikmed of Ugarit- Ras Shamra as well as Suppiluliuma are mentioned. Records of Assyria.

THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONCLUDED) 321 Tyre by the name of Shalmaiati. make animals. ed." therefore Syria. and who referred Shalmaneser wrote of himself: "Shalmaneser.** seems that Shalmaneser alone in his time would have written in the manner of Burraburiash. "bind them. that the road was long and that in the tioning short period of time Pharaoh could not have responded to the news was entitled. my subjects/* *See article "Babylonia" Encyclopaedia Biblica. the autocrat . make good/* He also wrote: *Do not retain my messenger. who king of the universe." He on him "to make good his loss'' of a caravan plundered in "Khinshi is thy land and its kings are thy servants. .'* Then he found fault pharaoh's gifts: "The forty minas of gold which they brought when I pxit them in the furnace. who has smashed It also all of his foes like pots. of his indisposition. the mighty hero. did not come out full weight. let him come quickly/* called ordered various art objects to be made and sent to him as presents: "Let experts. and Burraburiash name of the king who wrote from Babylon 5 in his letters to the Assyrians as his subjects. then. shatters the might of the princes of the whole world. but no letter is signed with this name. who are with thee. and the money which they have stolen. . Burraburiash said that he was angry "I poured forth my wrath toward my brother" because he had not received the message of solicitude to which an indisposed sovereign But when he was informed. he poured forth to thee added to the same letter: "I no longer with the my wrath. He m . through the close quesof his own messenger. who also be- came king of Babylon (Burnaburiash) is the by intrigue and conquest. most probably Burraburiash is the alter ego of Shalmaneser the Assyrian. the unsparing. Inasmuch as Shalmaneser III was king of Assyria. Cheyne and Black. either of ^Letter 9: "Assyrians. an indisposition he refused to grant an audience senger of the was very Under the preto the mes- pharaoh ("his messenger has never eaten food nor drunk date wine in my presence"). the mighty king. It is well known from many instances that in Nineveh and in Bab6 ylon the king used various names. although the pharaoh was the injured party. the king without a rival. Burraburiash text of haughty and wrote letters often bordering on insult.

" lazuli because she has not done anything for me. the great king. with Shalmaiati of the of the king of Tyre. Briefly summarizing the maneser and the el-Amarna find parallels between the annals of Shal- letters concerning the king of Hatti. of writing to the pharaoh is unique in the el-Amarna collection. a of river ox. . The list opens with the words: are unequaled LETTER king of These are the objects which Naphururia. some are depicted. and the gives letters of Burraburiash indicate that gifts delivered in excessive part is quantities were not made on an entirely voluntary basis.322 land or of river. It is conceivable that these were figures of animals "of land and river" in compliance with the demand ex- which pressed in the quoted letter. . there were rare animals described as camels with two humps. and more appreciated than this metal. One of these lands was Musri (Egypt) "Tribute : of the land of Musri. and only "ibex" (durah) is discernible. the skin." In addition to gold. Egypt [sar Miisrii] sent to his brother Burnaburiash the great king. and other land and water creatures. but they are trifles compared with the presents Akhnaton sent to Burraburiash. and with the 'Icing of Hatti. may it be made as if sent presents. Treasures found in the tomb of Tutankhamen. silver. The list the impression of being tribute rather than a gift. as it AGES IN CHAOS if they were alive. the son-in-law of Akhnaton. and ivory." There exists a very long register of gifts sent by Akhnaton to Burraburiash. 14: Shalmaneser pictured on an obelisk the presentation of the tribute from various lands." He also . All clues point to the identification of Burraburiash with This manner letter Shalmaneser of the Assyrian inscriptions. but remarked: "For the mistress of thy house I have sent only twenty seal rings of beautiful lapis . king of Karaduniash [Babylon]. precious stones.. were alive. but this defaced. 7 After an extensive enumeration of objects of gold. the list mentions animals. we the following: The record of the fourth-year campaign of Shalmaneser against letter 14. by any other archaeological discovery in Egypt or elsewhere.

Sec. fought against him of his reign. The tributary status to cities of reduced the which Shalmaneser. Tyre and Sidon. Shalmaneser's repeated campaigns in Syria he himself mentioned sixteen marches during the first eighteen years of his reign are told in many of the letter of counterpart in a el-Amarna letters. finds expression in many letters. there are military reports to the pharaoh about preparations for defense against the aggressor. in his eighteenth year. which. or Biridia of the letters his (written also Biridi). "I received gifts from 'all 8 the kings of Hatti. Records of Assyria.THE EL-AMARNA LETTEKS (CONCLUDED) Nikdem (Nikmed) has its 323 the king of Tyre and in a proclamation found in Ugarit-Ras Shamra. and the obelisk the presents of gold and rare animals sent from Egypt. Haiti's (Shalmaneser's) wars of Shalmaneser ex- in the region of Mesopotamia." In the letters of el-Amarna the invading king is called "the king of Hatti/' His destruction of numerous cities by fire is mentioned in his inscriptions and also in the letters of el- Amarna. The letters likewise mention the king of letters describe. with the assistance of in the sixth and Egypt (Musri). From the commander of this coalition. . especially in those written from the cities in northern Syria. Cities of the invader are also and princes who wrote to the pharaoh about the approach mentioned in the annals of Shalmaneser as those who. Biridri of the Assyrian annals. annals. Hazael's stand at Anti-Lebanon (Senir) is also recorded both in the annals and in the el-Amarna letters. are described in the last king of Tyre* Shalmaneser's march against Hazael in the same year is related in the former's annals and is reported in the letters of Hazael (Azini). Shalmancser wrote that "the land of Hatti to brought under its farthest border I my sway/' He wrote also. 563. according to his Ugarit. They fought again in his eleventh year. Luckeabill. filled the kings of the land of Amuru. and the departure of their letter of the population on ships for a new haven. vestiges of the conflagration are visible in the ruins of "The chilling terror'' of his arms. I. year once more in his fourteenth year. The el-Amarna hibits.

the prophet. consider! My two the words of Tagi (Letter 264): eyes are upon thee. "he has directed his face towards the glory of the king. Rib- Addfs friendly toward the king". "A brother art thou and love is in thy bowels and in thy heart. Here are some The in the similarity of expression el-Amarna letters 1 examples." similar to Jeremiah 4:19. Cook. of expression. or if we descend into the earth. their manner from Palestine and in the prophets and psalmists did not pass unnoticed. 257. in letters of Rib-Addi (Ahab) and in Genesis 19:21 and I Samuel 25:29. for only a hundred years separate Jehoshaphat from Amos. a characteristic of every land and every age." is similarly in Jeremiah 27:llf. Psalm 139 :7f. a and ." in the letter of the is described in the words. "Style Ideas. 2 in the letters of Yakhtiri (lahtiri) and Baal-miir and it.324 AGES IN CHAOS Idioms of the el-Amarna Letters The el-Amama letters were written in cuneiform characters in Babylonian (Akkadian) with many written in the days of Jehoshaphat. If we go up into by heaven (shamema). and would see his gracious face. A." in Cambridge Ancient History. "to eat men The king's "face" is against of Irqata as well as in Isaiah 49:23. The submission of the enemy dust. VoL IL 'Letters 296. "Syrian idioms. a man. and identical turns of speech were detected and stressed. Akhi-Yawi writes. should be expected to resemble the manner of expression in the earlier books of the prophets.'* "Just as Ikhnaton's so [Akhnaton] hymn reminds us of Psalm 104. or he throws the man out of his handthus. or the king "casts down" a man's face." "face is "Biblical ideas of 'face' and 'presence* will be at once recalled. yet " (rushunu) in thine hands/ in is our head "The footstool of his feet" is an expression found in a letter and Psalm 110. is suggested *As for us." Having been king of Jerusalem. "The city The following examples and quotations are from S. Loyalty and bear "to lay the neck to the yoke expressed by the metaphor.

To may comparisons. same peculiar expressions and he was wrong. helper) these words. When he . their 1 but to Yahweh. He emphasized the similarity of the expressions only and he was right. he regarded this fact as proof that the Canaanites."' By establishing this. "opened his sins. The king of Jerusalem wrote to Pharaoh that "because he has his name upon Jerusalem for ever. not to a divine king of Egypt. The assumed heritage of the Canaanite culture in art and literature was actually an Israelite creation. the author hit on half the truth. compelled by the conventional clironology. taken from the research of another. remind us of Lamentations 1:2 and Isaiah 42:6. in Cambridge Ancient History. 11." an expression also found in Proverbs 28:13.e. has set his name at the rising of the sun and at the setting of the sun. Again. the city cannot be neglected/* words that remind us of a passage in Jeremiah 14:9. and there is none taking hold of our hand" (i. and which we compared earlier in these Letter 137. Cook. These and similar parallels moved the scholar who brought them together to write: "The repeated lyrical utterances of Rib-Addi and Abdi-Khiba are early examples of the unrestrained laments of the later Israelites who appeal.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONCLUDED) 325 weeps and its tears run down.. my lord. A." a parallel to which may be found inMalachil:!!. *S. 338* . had used the overlord. he uses an expression also found in I Samuel 10:9 and Ezekiel 11:19. but. When he he uses the words. and in speech used Joshua 7:9. he sins. The proofs of the continuity of culture in Palestine (before and after tihe conquest by the Israelites) are vanishing.writes that he will die "if there is not another heart" in the king. be added all those expressions that we have found to be identithis list of cal in the letters and in the dialogues and monologues of the Books of Kings and Chronicles in the chapters dealing with the period of Ahab and Jehoshaphat. written by the men of Dunip (Tunip). 3 wishes to say that he confessed his wrote: "See! the king. Rib-Addfs appeals to the pharaoh's good name contain turns of also in Deuteronomy 9:27f. seven or eight hundred years before the Israelite prophets and scribes.

" is also in letters of Lachish. that he should pressions. Kings 20:42. "But what. Cf. twice sent letters to the elders of Samaria. and in the letters of Aziru and in letters of Hazael dialogue It is the king of Jerusalem. Part I. Ben-Hadad sent a letter to to heal Naaman." Altorientdische Forschungen.. or dialogue in the pertinent chapters of Kings and Chronicles that does not have turns of speech which are also in the el-Amarna letters. p.326 pages. with expressions in the letters preserved about him. . 165. Benzinger. AGES IN CHAOS We of speech of Jehoshaphat compared even the forms letters of with similar constructions in the Ahab expressions of the scriptural we found every sentence of the biblical of the king of Sumura. expression. Jehu. 1907). Jeremias. is thy servant a dog. 1 8 Chronicles 20:2 (words of Jehoshaphat)." "my father. Hebraische Archacologu (2nd ed. The found These letters *!! were written shortly before the destruction of the first Temple. Deuteronomy 23:18. peculiar exsuch as. 263. This confirms the theory advanced at the beginning of this century 8 that cuneiform ''"The was being written in Palestine at dog" means also a male prostitute. 1913). Jezebel sent of Jezreel inviting them to bring false witness him the king of Israel asking against Naboth. do this?" 5 or "our eyes are upon theeV ai*d common idioms." are found in el-Amarna the chapters of Kings and Chronicles dealing with the period of as "let Ahab and Jehoshaphat. Das Alte Testament im LicJtte des alien Orients. "Is thy servant a dog that he shall not . in southern Palatine. The el-Amarna letters provide us with ample evidence that em- ployment of scribes and the writing of letters was rather common in the Palestine of that time. after the success of the conspiracy in Jezreel. "Der Gebrauch der Keilschrift bei den Judcn. H. E. my lord. Naville. The art of writing on day was developed and exchange was common in the days of letters to the elders of letters Jehoshaphat and Ahab." "thy son " 7 letters and in go out of thine hand. p. Archaeology of tlie Old Testament (London. III (1902). They prove also that in the Palestine of Ahab and Jehoshaphat tion to scribes read and wrote cuneiform in addiHebrew. the modem Tell ed Duweir.. 176. such king.. such as "the "thy brother". The conventional form of respectful address. for there is not a monologue easy to expand this collection. Winckler.

THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONCLUDED) when the annals. of the el-Amarna correspondence might quite properly be called the ''ivory age. 'Relsner. Two tttnnfnu Of of ebony inkid with ivory. Fithcr. I have dispatched/' And hotep III: "And Burraburiash. The exact date of these tablets from the palace at Samaria is not known. Six beast-paws of ivory nine plants of ivory.. ebony. asked for objects of ivory: Tushratta. and colored! Lot field plants and let them be brought! The list of presents sent by Amenhotep IV (Akhnaton) to Burraburiash displays the "ivory age" before the eyes of the reader. and with lapis lazuli they are the most frequently mentioned royal presents. Here are a few passages from this list: LETTER 14: Eight umninu of ebony inlaid . HoroonZ Earcwtxtftons <tt Samaria. and Lyon. . wrote to let my brother give three statues of ivory/* Amen- LETTER 11: Lot trees be made be made of ivory and colored of ivory . The palace was built early in the ninth century and destroyed late in the eighth century. Lapis lazuli was sent by the kings of Asia to the pharaohs Amenhotep III and Akhnaton. The excavations in Samaria brought to light two tablets in cuneiform. inlaid with ivory. 247.the time texts. Amenhotep III wrote to the king of Arzawa in Asia Minor: "Ten chairs of ebony. with ivory . A Hebrew must have written them. writing from Babylon. . 'Letter 8L . the king of Mitanni. scribe The Age The period of Ivory ages." Next to gold. . and especially furniture. . inlaid 1 with ivory and lapis lazuli . the other is almost obliterated. One of them contains these words: *. twelve sheep' governor tablet 9 7 . say Abiahi to the of the cities to deliver six oxen. later used by the editor of the 327 biblical were composed. . I.. objects. of ivory or inlaid with ivory were requested of the pharaohs by these kings. They have a Hebrew seal. the desideratum of all objects of ivory were the most coveted.

. .. of ivory twenty-nine gherkin oil-vessels of ivory. .* . and the houses of ivory shall perish. 2. of ivory 13 umninu of ivory 3 for the head. * The present research has established the fact that King Ahab was a contemporary of Amenhotep III and Akhnaton. of ivory * .. and that Samaria was built with the help of the king of Egypt. Amos. the prophet. of ivory. of ivory . .. are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel? few generations after Ahab. forty-four oil vessels . of ivory 19 breast ornaments. . 55. Fisher. again he returned to prophesy evil "to them that are at ease in Zion. ." 3 They were fl identified as objects of jewelry. and the buildings therein: A AMOS 3: 15 And I will smite the winter house with the . and all the cities that he built. and all that he did. and the ivory house which he made. p. "Crowfoot and Crowfoot. the capital. In Samaria a house of ivory I was built: KINGS 22:39 Now the rest of the acts of Ahab. and beds of ivory were supposed by earlier have been poetic inventions of the authors of the But kter excavations made on the site of ancient of ivory Samaria brought to light "hundreds of fragments of ivory. Harvard Excavations at Samaria. of ivory of ivory . p.. . . pieces of furniture. p. summer house. .. That chant of ivory. 'Ibid. can be established with exactitude that the time Cf Reisner. oil vessels of three hundred and seventy-five ivory 19 gasu. and trust in the mountain of Samaria/* And AMOS 6:4-5 That He upon beds their couches . 61. . It and orna- mental work. and Lyon. and stretch themselves lo the sound of the viol . of ivory. upon The house 2 excavators to Scriptures. 3 oil dushahu. prophesied about Israel and about Samaria.. of ivory 3 bowls of ivory 3 oil-containing oxen.328 ten AGES IN CHAOS which are . Early Ivories.

" 8 subjects on furniture "are all Egyptian. Ibid. like those of Arslan Tash. winged sphinxes with human heads were also found in Samaria. not a predominance of Egyptian influence in art at a time when." and "the influence synchronizing the time of Akhnaton with that of Ahab. . TbidL. 9. "The forms of winged figures on the ivories are derived from Egyptian models* Tutelary goddesses of this type 10 Three stand at the four corners of the shrine of Tutenkhamun. p." of those objects there are Egyptian designs. arts were not cherished in the Egypt of the ignoble successors of Shoshenk (Sosenk) of the Twenty-second Dynasty.. Swkftuk. Ivory fragments inscribed with Hebrew letters bear witness to this conclusion: a comparison of these scription letters with the characters of the Mesha in- showed that they originated at one and the felt justified in writing: same time. and the cut. p. . the vasive. 49. Karly Ivories. L." 7 *Crowfoot and Crowfoot.. *E. ibid." . . 23. p.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONCLUDED) in 329 which these objects originated was that of Ahab. Early lvorte$. a position to compare the ivory finds in Samaria with those in Egypt at the time of Akhnaton* "Winged figures in human form" were We found in Samaria.: "The result of this examination leads us to ihe conclusion that the Siunariu ivories are. 49. p. Crowfoot and Crowfoot. Egyptian double crown. according to his table of chronology. 5 The excavators us so "No other finds have told much about On some 7 the art of the Israelite monarchy. 18. The excavators of Samaria were surprised: "It is significant that in our ivories there of is no sign of Assyrian influ- Egypt on the other hand is all-per8 There arc plaques which represent Egyptian gods. because of Assyrian domination in the north of Syria in the ninth A century before this era. "Ibid. of the ninth century and earlier than the Sanuiria oslraeu. we realize that the part Egypt played in Samaria in the days of the el- By Amama letters makes the presence of Egyptian motifs and furniture are even in styles in the ivory of Samaria very understandable." ence. long after the brilliant Eighteenth Dynasty. clearly was found on several of the student of the Bible would expect to find Assyrian motifs plates. p.

were recognized as similar to the human-headed lion from the tomb of Tutankhamen. p. The presence of similar figures on his sarcophagus and in the Samaria of Ahab is. not unexpected. took. along with silver. "The type goes back to the Egyptian art of the Eighteenth 18 Dynasty. reverses all conclusions in the study of the comparative art of Egypt-Palestine: the Eighteenth Dynasty ruled from the days of Saul until Jehu. were built not before but after the Temple in Jerusalem was erected. Pharaoh Thutmose III. Probably a reciprocal influence was the inspiration for the motifs on the ornaments. creations of Thutmose III and Amenhotep III. 34. and peacocks. however. W The Tomb of Tvt. Early . 11 Tutankhamen was a son-in-law of Akhnaton. observing the style of the ornaments. such as palm trees "between a cherub and a cherub" (Ezekiel 41:18). "Crowfoot and Crowfoot. on plundering Mcgiddo in his campaign of conquest. 12 The conclusion carved on the House of the Lord in Jerusalem/* arrived at was that the style of the ornaments in the Temple at Jeru- salem represented an intermediate stage in the succession of influences." The* place of origin of the style Egypt or Palestine can be disputed. In the same ornaments of Samarian ivory could be recognized motifs of the type described in the Scriptures. "six large H. and the great temples of Luxor and Kamak. according to his annals. 192&-33). 53. Carter. excavators of Samaria's ivories. recognize the influence of Egyptian art but think that in The the days of Ahab a restoration of ancient forms in art took place. In the time of Solomon ivory was imported from distant countries. the of yesterday" having been revived in Samaria after six hun"Egypt dred years. and Hatshepsut brought ivory with her as the basreliefs of the Punt expedition show and the texts accompanying the bas-reliefs tell.ankhAmen (London. "Ibid. .330 AGES IN CHAOS and they. . VoL Ivories. II. From Palestine it was exported to Egypt. p. too. Plate XDC. One fact. "Some of the were like those which were of Samaria] figures [of the ivories . from our point of view. apes.

built a few decades became a manufacturing center of ivory." 15 "Homer. eighteen tusks from the chiefs in the sixteenth collection of tribute) and in furniture of ivory in the thirteenth collection of tribute). In the last century inlaid plaques with Egyptian subjects were found in Mesopotamia. workers from Palestine are portrayed ported craftsmen. Among the ivories excavated in Samaria there are many unfinished pieces with Egyptian patterns. In the eighth campaign Thutmose III took tribute including "vessels laden with ivory/' In the records of the tribute he received in Punt. Cyprus.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONCLUDED) tables of ivory 331 and six chairs of ivory" besides other spoils. Color effects wore produced by staining the ivory with pigments. 141-42. p. 14 Colored ivory was also found in the tomb of Tutankhamen. a vizier of Thutmose III. God's Land. After en(tables the fleet of the Phoenicians. el-Amarna mention furniture and various objects of ivory delivered to Asia Minor. The pharaoh brought from Jerusalem "the great throne of ivory. Assyria. Samaria. ivory red. like Hatshepsut before him. and other countries of western Asia. IV. 12:9). or Rezenu (Palestine) there is fre- quent mention of ivory in tusks (thus. "making chests of ivory" these were imlater. as the Samaria ivories. When the ivories of Samaria were unearthed they were acclaimed as closely related to those found previously in the palace of Nimrud and in other places: ivories which "may have come from the same workshop as by Layard in the northwest palace come from other sites. Objects similar to those found in Samaria were The tablets of discovered in these lands. at were found Nimrud. In an el-Amarna letter of Burraburiash we read about colored ivory. In the tomb of Rekhmire. a few stray examples in the Iliad. working mainly for Egypt. 9. Early Ivories. he sent his ships to larging his fleet with collect tribute and. overlaid with pure gold" this according to the Hebrew sources (II Chronicles 9:17. mentions the Carton ' woman who stains Crowfoot and Crowfoot. . used the maritime of Rezenu route for transport of ivory from Palestine to Egypt The art of working in ivory was transferred at that time to Egypt.

1939). Loud. of which not a relic remained. that on the occasion of another siege of Sumur the Syrian host. was repeatedly besieged by a king of Damascus. 10 of ivory were attributed by their finders Similarly. . ivories of Samaria and Megiddo show the same patterns and the same workmanship. they were ascribed to two different periods. 1T Ibid. They were but one and the same period. Conclusions If one is history from archaic Canaanite princes.332 AGES IN CHAOS Samaria have been found in a number Ivories similar to those of of different places. that on the occasion of a siege of Sumur by 6ie king of Damascus the guard attached to the governors succeeded in driving away the Syrian host from the walls of Sumur. hearing rumors of the arrival of the Egyptian archers. that on one occasion the king of Sumur captured the king of Damascus but released him. sometimes together with Egyptian objects of the One of these places is Megiddo. with a royal palace and fortified walls. Though the Eighteenth Dynasty. in a conflict that who had Sumur a prolonged over a number endured for a number of decades. The Megiddo Ivories (Chicago. This makes it necessary to hold that there already was a city of Sumur. left their camp and fled every detail "See G. 17 The second period is thought to have been the age of imitation of old Egyptian styles and of the renais- sance of the old craft. and the ivories of the Samaria of Ahab and of the Thebes of Tutankhamen are products of one and the same golden age of ivory art. dispute and recurrent wars with the king of of cities. that this city. other discoveries either to the period of the Eighteenth Dynasty (the fifteenth and fourteenth centuries) or to the period of the kings of Samaria (the ninth and eighth centuries). in and insist that determined to keep to the traditional construction of the letters of el-Amarna were written to and he is also bound to maintain that in Canaan events occurred which recurred half a millennium later the time of Jehoshaphat and Ahab.

Baalith. and that each event of one period has its twin in the other. that the drought lasted several years and caused starvation of the people and epidemics among the domestic animals. and the springs dried up and a severe famine followed. The king of Jeru- salem. as in the days of Mesha's rebellion against the king of Samaria. that the king of Damascus became gravely ill. that the king of Sumur had a second residence where a deity was worshiped whoso name. whose vassal he was. his sickbed. and the king of Sumur each time managed to escape death. that the king of Damascus organized a number of ambuscades against the king of Sumur. The land of Edom was ruled by a deputy of the king of Jerusalem in both cases. like Ahab in the field of Naboth. 333 later at The of traditional construction of history implies also that the king who was at the head of a coalition of many Arabian Damascus. Tribes from as far away as Mount Seir invaded Trans-Jordan in both cases* In the first period as in the second. as Ramoth was in the second epoch. named Mesh succeeded in fomenting a revolt by a Trans-Jordan king against the king of Sumur. and that the inhabitants departed from the realm of the two residences everything just as it happened in the second period. the invaders threatened Jerusalem and caused the population of the kingdom to flee from their homes. like the king of these coincidences This hypothetical scholar would also be bound to admit that all happened at a time when the land of Sumur was visited by a drought. lie would have to maintain that the two periods do not differ in any respect whatsoever. That Rimuta was the place in between this rebellious vassal Damascus and groves in his second residence. chieftains. was afraid of being driven with his people from their inheritance and expressed his fear in . like Jchoshaphat centuries later. was the same as that of the deity introduced by Jezebel. and dispute the king of Sumur. yet did not die from the illness Damascus but was put to a violent death on of the second period. and the king of Sumur planted the king of king captured cities of the king of Sumur and humiliated his people.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONCLUDED) an exact image of what happened again half a millennium the walls of Samaria. like the king of Samaria of the second period.

that the governor of Sumur had the same name as the governor of Samaria of the later period ( Amon). Adna). This scholar would also have to admit that the military chiefs of the Canaanite king of Jerusalem signed their letters with the same Mount Seir did five to six names as the military chiefs of Jehoshaphat. lived a "great lady/' and Again.334 AGES IN CHAOS similar terms. same peculiar expres- This scholar would also be faced with the fact that in the second period the city of Irqata again lost her king. the king of later. like his reincarnation six hundred years again. and that King MatinuBali and King Adunu-Bali. In both cases invader was the king of Assyria and the lord of Hatti. Arza. defied the invader from the north. in the city of Shunem (Shunama) some miracle had happened to her so that already in the first period she was called Baalat-Nese. In both cases he was victorious over the coalition of Syrian and Palestinian princes helped by Egyptian battalions. but everything turned out well when the tribes of and Trans-Jordan rose up one against the other. by the second period: he oppressed the land of Sumur. for example. who was again the first among the chiefs. as they hundred years later. and that the named Arzaia like the chief keeper of the palace in Sumur was steward. he burned with fire the strongholds and villages of Aziru or Azaru. Damascus had a military governor (Naaman. under the leadership of Biridri. lahzi- bada ( Jehozabad) and "son of Zuchru" ("son of ZichrT). and that the names were as peculiar and unusual as. by whose hand "deliverance was given to Syria. or Adadanu (Adadani. of the king of Israel. or Addaia (Adaia)." and who at first was feared by the king of Sumur but later on became the latter's friend. In both cases he received placating presents from Musri . king of Jerusalem. And Further. lanhama). he conquered almost all the land of the realm. he even spoke with the sions as Hazael did later on. the successor of the murdered king of Damascus. just as happened in the first period mighty when a Biridia (Biridi) city of Irqata assumed the task of leading the kinglcss and King Mut-Balu and King Aduna against the inthis vader from the north. acted like Hazael of the name of the king of Sumur.

Egyptian history. light the great events of the Israelite past their long bondage in Egypt and their departure from that land tinder unusual circumstances- appear to have been entirely unknown to the conventional history of Egypt. so exalted in the Old Testament. why. actually the biblical story moves in the Of and shadow of the great kingdom on the Nile. in all its numerous inscriptions. which records the conquest of Canaan. were repeated in the second period. Can one accept such a series of coincidences? And if is it it is ac- only to have the old difficulties present themselves cepted. In both periods the same architecture and stone workmanship (Megiddo. denies any real contact with the neighboring kingdom on the Jordan. . Hazael.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONCLUDED) 335 (Egypt) in the form of rare animals or figures of such animals.Even the glorious age of King Solomon. the kings of Tyre and Sidon. In both periods the art of ivory work flourished. the king of Damascus. harassed by this invader.^then. Again. one professes to have had close tics with the other. and identical were produced: designs and execution. Samaria) found expression. For that reason the time of the Exodus is debated and placed at almost every conceivable time point of the Egyptian past. in the Book of again? Joshua. on stone and on papyrus. And more than that. In both periods the same idiomatic Hebrew was spoken. Lebanon and Hermon as did Azaru of the first period. and in the letters of el-Amarna are no common name and no common event preserved? A At the beginning tories. appears to have passed entirely unnoticed by the Egyptian kings and their scribes. If the Habirti were the Israelites. battled with him between Again. left their cities and departed in ships. on the other hand. and have been found to be so similar that they have been taken for copies of the art patterns objects of the first period. Halfway Mark work I of this placed before the reader the Israelite unsolved problem of the correlation of and Egyptian his- these two ancient nations. as they did six hundred years earlier. characteristic of the earlier period.

Either Egyptian history is much too or biblical history is much long too short. same story as found in the Book ex- of Exodus. the question of the date of the Exodus shrink into insignifiWhatever theories have been offered concerning the time of left the Exodus. and there tion of the we found also a descrip- frontier of his name If of pharaoh and his army toward the eastern where he was engulfed in a whirlpool. made occupy major places in the history after we recognized that the biblical story of the Exothis We attempt dus contains frequently repeated references to some natural catasus to look in extant Egyptian sources trophes. of the sterility of information concerning the relations two during the period covered by the peoples We have attempted to solve the problem of the synchronization of the histories of these two peoples of antiquity. and as neighbors of these Scriptures. then a synchronical point between the histories of is these two ancient nations established.336 AGES IN CHAOS from the beginning of the New Kingdom presumably in 1580 down of the sojourn in many centuries. The inscription on the shrine from el-Arish contains another version of the cataclysm accompanied by a htJrri- cane and nine days' darkness. we were confronted with a problem that made cance. Consequently we found ourselves faced with a problem of very different magnitude. The Leiden Papyrus Ipuwer a record of some natural catastrophe followed by a social up- heaval. where we pected to reach the solution of the problem of the date of the Exodus in Egyptian history. both of whom of the ancient world. But here. Must Egyptian history be shortened by some "ghost" cen- . not once has the thought occurred that the Israelites Egypt on the eve of the arrival of the Hyksos. The kingdom. Logic thus required for references to is some disturbance in nature. The uncertainty as to the time result of the absence of referEgypt and the departure is the direct in Egypt and to their leaving the ences to the children of Israel country. The search proved not to be fruitless. in the description of the catastrophe we recognized many details of the disturbances that accompanied the Exodus as nar- rated in the Scriptures. the pharaoh is given in a royal cartouche which proves that march of the the text was not regarded by its we have in these documents the writer as mythical.

David was a contemporary of Ahmose. perchance. the Israelturned to the old ites encountered the hordes of Amaleldtes. If the Israelites left Egypt on the eve of its invasion by the Hyksos. Actually. From it determined that by Ahmosc. is who years. and Arab autochthonous for four or five hundred alive in the invaded Egypt and ruled Arabian literary heritage from traditions medieval writings. we might. their early past. who was victorious over the Amalekites at el-Arish. The equation of Hyksos and Amalekites gave additional support to the synchronization of the fall of the Middle Kingdom and the Exodus. We then had to examine the historical the end of the collapse of Hyksos rule in Egypt and of Amalckitc domination in the Near East. the first Jewish king. the Ilyksos fortress. who arrived from Asia. We Arabian writers the it and found that the tradition of the Amaleldtes as dominant tribe among the Arabs. But this drove us to the next station on the road* Five years after . and of Amenhotep I. many proofs we and with the help of could establish that el-Arish occupies the position of the ancient Auaris. find outside the borders of in the Scriptures a reference to a We Egypt of the children of Israel meeting and the in- vaders.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONCLUDED) turies. Solomon was a contemporary of Thutmosc I und Ilatshepsut* And we found that the celebrated journey to God\s Land and Punt was the voyage to Palestine and Phoenicia described in the Scriptures as the Sheba. some foreign troops played in the Book of Samuel it could be parallels was King Saul. founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty. or biblical history 337 "lost" lengthened by the same number of centuries? We could not know the answer to this problem until we traveled noticed a long distance through the centuries of ancient history. a decisive role. visit of the Queen of We compared many details and always found that they coincided. As we compared point after point in the Egyptian hieroglyphic. even before they reached Mount Sinai. Hebrew biblical and post-biblical sources. we were forced to conclude that the time of the Hyksos domination of Egypt was the time found in their of the Judges in scriptural history. In the siege of moment Auaris. a path on which to start this journey.

Rehoboam. Israelite. and how the histories of Cyprus. At the same time we observed how the and peoples accord with either the Israelite or the Egyptian chronology. Amenhotep II) and in Palestine (Solomon. in correlating with one side or the other. Mycenae. six centuries older than the biblical texts. What is even more . rial However. the expedition was far from being victorious. from Ras Shamra. It is possible that by sheer accident one age in Egypt bears a close resemblance to another ago. histories of other ancient countries In three consecutive chapters we collated the historical evidence of three successive generations in Egypt (Hatshepsut. and from convinced us that not only the earlier reduction of the age of biblical prose and verse but also its present increase is erroneous. Asa). again we had to find a correspondence here: Thutmose III must have sacked Jerusalem of the treasures of its palace and Temple. with the discovery of the Ras Shamra texts. and the pictures of his booty correspond very closely. This time. Under the next pharaoh Palestine was invaded again. Then. however. Thutmose III. the estimate For three generations biblical scholars was revised in the diametrically opposite direction: the same biblical texts were now regarded as a heritage of Canaanite culture. proved to the full satisfaction of all that many parts of the Scriptures were products of much later centuries than the Scriptures would indicate.338 AGES IN CHAOS Solomon's death the Temple of Jerusalem and its palace were sacked by a pharaoh. Egyptian or must be readjusted. In saying this we are actually ahead of what we may legitimately assert: we still do not know which of the two histories. Thutmose III succeeded Hatshepsut If we were traveling on the right road. in shape and number. and thus offers ground for a spurious coevality. according to scriptural and Egyptian sources. and Crete. during the 1930s. and found unfailing correspondence. with the description of the loot taken by a pharaoh in the fifth year after Solomon's death. This he actually did. but it is quite impossible that three consecutive generations in Egypt and in the neighboring Palestine of two different ages could produce consistent correspondence in so many details. the collation of mate- from Hebrew Egypt literary sources. create confusion in archaeology and chronology.

And this sequence of invariable correlation and conformity gives us a feeling of security that we are not on the wrong path. collations. there were Amenhotcp III and Akhnaton in Egypt and Jehosh- aphat in Judca and Ahab in Israel. The histories two lands and the vicissitudes in the lives of their rulers and their peoples could not be in complete correspondence were there not of And so it happened that in this fourth generaand prominent personages in one country actually wrote letters to the rulers and prominent personages in the other country and received written answers from them. therefore the chance would grow or quadrillion against one that all the parallels offered on previous pages are merely coincidences. we cannot regard the problem of ancient history as solved until wo have covered the full distance to the point where the histories of the peoples of the ancient East no longer present a lels. as well as the theory of probabilities. we are not yet at the end of the journey. other Anyone knows that with every additional coincidence the chances familiar with the theory of probabilities for an- smaller. To what extent details and events correspond during those years of famine. but in a progression of a higher order. sieges. and in Egypt the last days of the Middle Kingdom and the following centuries of Hyksos rule until the rise of the New Kingdom. if all these coincidences were the deliberations parallels of the earlier chapters. not in arithmetical or in geometric progression. and military pressure from the north has been recounted at length. It could not be by mere chance that the fourth generation again presented a picture in which the details fit together like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. and conformities. However. tion the rulers coincidences.THE EL-AMARNA LETTERS (CONCLUDED) striking. in and scrutinized the time of the purely accidental. Notwithstanding all that has been said up to now concerning the numerous paralexact synchronism. but were forced Palestine were upon us by which we Exodus and the following centuries until Saul. invasion from Trans-Jordan. It would be a miracle. . Following the tlirec consecutive generations in Egypt and Pales- be a trillion tine. 339 these three consecutive generations in Egypt as well as in not selected at random. indeed. problem of synchronization.

ing to Israelite history. with the thread of Ariadne we took from the hands of Ipuwer. and Dynasties. historical. that which a treaty? is And where there room for the Twentieth expired shortly before Alexander reached Egypt? The identifications we have made will be of no avail if we are unable to reach safely this point in history the end of the last native We must be able to disentangle the archaeologiand chronological problems that we shall meet in the cal. END OF VOLUME I . shall We have before us the eighth and the following centuries.340 AGES IN CHAOS accordthen. the histories of the various nations of antiquity appear in harmony If we should not be able to do so the coincidences presented will necessarily be regarded as miraculous. that by working diligently we shall arrive at our goal of a complete revision of ancient history. Where. all the others up to and including the Thirtieth Dynasty. with one another. It is safer to assume. that of Ramses II kings? And what about the Hittite king with and other famous II whom Ramses signed and Twentyfirst the Libyan and Ethiopian dominion in Egypt. for they are too many and too striking to be ascribed to accident. to proceed along the path to the point where dynasty in Egypt. following centuries and. therefore. we find room for the so- called Nineteenth Dynasty.

297 Akhi-Yawi. 235. 255. are not included. 236-39. 247. 315. 242. 174. 57-102 113. 65 Abydos. 103. 208 Abimilki. 239. 182.333 Amonhotep 109. 166 Aaron. 230. 60. 83 Abu-faid. 195. 303. 334 Adonizedek. 47. 220. 310. 307. 228 Adoram. 281. 319. 306. 197. 310. 14. 300. 245. 240. 79. 3. 135. 77. 301. 147. 66 Abel' Astiirt. 334 Afiru. 210 Aman-appa. . 237. 235. 326. 317-19 Abraham. 4. 7. Ajalon. Ajaluna. 275. 227 Abu-el-Saud. 334 Addudani. Adad (slonn god). 224. 292. 334 Adunu-Bail. 117. 89 Abul Farad}. 81. 248. with a few exceptions. 294. 156. 236. Addaia. 5 Arnbi. passim. 2. 256. Abyssinian. 107. 300. 85. 200. 280. 200. 235 II. 168. 3. 6. 288. 300. 8. 7. 260. 246 Amasia ( Amaziah). 334 Adados. 229. 254. 281 Africa. 147 Aduna. 242 Amasis. 284. 103. 213. 241. 290 Akhcl-Alon. 298-302 passim. 182. 2. 51 Amenhotep Amenhotop I. 181 Abyssinia. 65 Aloth. 3. 247. African. 240. 243. 79. 329. 205-19 passim. 2. 86. 224. 141 Agag. 21. 228. 260 Ahaziah of Judea. 61 327-29 Akkadian. 249-94 passim Abdi-Hiba. 318 Adu-danu. 226. 291. 322. 272. 330. 5. 100. 272. Agog. 110. 332. 226. Sec also Hadad. Sra also Ethiopia Adad. 324 Akhnaton. 137 Alasia (Cyprus). 300. 254 Abdi-Ashirtu. 287. 261. 57 Abd-Alhakam. 87. 220. 232. 311. 167 aha Adad. Adnuh. 77. 185. Ahmose 88 (officer). Arnalekito. Sets 309 Alexandria. Hadad Adaia. 85. 266. 77. 237. 185 Alexander the Great. Adados 324 Aksum. 324. 220. 246. 328.SELECTIVE NAME INDEX (The names of modern authors. 84. 125. 226 III. See also Eloth Al-Samhudi. 325 Abol-bcth-Maachuh. 2.) Ahaziah of Israel. Alkan (Abou-Kabous). 7. Abulfeda. 210. 234. 187. 84. 210. 8. 132. 239. 224. 318. Addudani. 223. 234. 71. 228. 64. 72. 109-12. 291. 255-62 passim. 276. Abijah. 86 Amalek. 96 Ahab. 240-42 Adam. Ibn. 173. 312 Ahmose. 271. 306 Aman-hatpe. 138. 134. 288 Aroencmhtit. 212. 45. 115. 29<t 34. 182. 297. 222. 60.

53. Ammon. 148. 48. See also Ilazacl Azaru. 235-37. See also Apop II Aton. 334 Arzaia. 258. 86. 271. Azira. 334 Baalbek. 48. 146. 60. 198 Arne. 233. 271. 113. 333 Benaiah. 18. 146. 55 Arza. 119 Arabia Deserta. 201 Aristomenes. 296. 212-14. 247 . 310. Asiatics. 11. Ammunira. 18 Belias. 168. 175. 39. 185 Aristotle. 190 Baalat-Ncsc. 235. 277. 294- 323 passim. 96. 118. 200. 233. 255. 117. 84. 125 Amuru. 102 passim. 299. 73 Batruna. 327 Asa. 104. 269. 68. 319 Auaris. See also Akhnaton Amenken. 218 Ashera.342 SELECTIVE NAME INDEX Arvad. 143. 10. 238. 153. 38. 3. 229. 145. 55. 308. 202 Apop I. 109. 308. 334 Assyro-Babylonian. 65. 18. 214. 254. 331. 323 Antioch. 228. 219. 255. 334 passim Baal. 185 Armenia. 291 Arzawa. 46. 186 Apollodorus (grammarian). 61 Arabia Felix. 109-12. 235. 287. Aramaic. 244r-46. 68 Balaam. 244 Assurbanipal. 277. 309. Aqaba Gulf. 128. 281 109. 215 Ameny. 189. 140. 72. 306 Askelon. 281 Apollo. 80. 223. 10&-7. 229. 245 324. 324 Aram. 255 Asher. 156 77- Augustine. 167. 308 Apion. Arab. 247. 106 Arabia Petraea. 145. 206. 206. 224. 334 220. 270 Athaliah. 52. 261 Athenian. 52. 224. 169 Amon (governor). 113 Atlantis. 268. 216. 285. 314. 33. 272. 4. 237. 50. 6 Aye. Ammonites. 224. 276. Aziru. (king). 200 Atlantic Ocean. 85. 4. 320 Aruna. 73. 269 324 Baasha. 56. 305 Arame. 97. 315. 163. 237 Ataroth. Ammia. 90 Apop H. 8 Aiaelos. 316. 305. 323 23 Anatolia. 228. 138. 61 Baal-Meon. 236. 97 Apiru. 239. 284. 17. 13133. 276. 277 Babylon. 141. 313. 251. 96. Amurri. 77. 73 Barak. 45-47. 316 Baghdad. 255. 252 15. 306. 244 Beirut. Babylonia. 275. 149 Ben-Hadad I. 234. 162. 68. 304 Aphek. 316 Apopi. 224. 216. 157. 71. 167. 186. 217. 175. 200. 61. 79. 260 Astart. 120. Astarte. Baal-miir. 311. 123. 172. 237 Asiatic. 49. 232. 319 Beke. 301. 44 Aqaba. 312. 314 Assyria. 286. 297. Avaris. 228. 86-89. 284. 195. 154. 197. 127. 226. Charles. 201. 82 Apophis. 280. 210. 49. 86. 247. 329. 272. 313 Ano. 328. 302 Araba. 2. 209. 321. 237 Amon. 247. 5. 278. 240. 5. 232. Athenians. 34. 72. 231 Beer-sheba. 69. plain of. 47 Ammi. 211. Amon-Ra. 248. 320 86. 185. Anastasi. 100. 208. 77. 328 39. 333 Belit. 111. 334 Amon Amu. 311 Aryan. 321-23. 72. 42. 190. 82. 175. 207. 216. Arabian. 250-54. 135-37. 113. 100. Assyrians. 55236. 300. 327. 169. Amos. 289-91. 218. Aramatha. 177 205 Anti-Lebanon. 275. Arabia. 330 Amenhotep IV. 313. 67.

277. 235 85. 147. 236. 309 Carmcl. 137 Eglon. 221 Crocodile Lake. 156. 331 Byblos. 153 Bezalecl. 2 Cherith. 62. 79. 199 Dudu. 282. 199. 179. 149. 53. 202 Concheres. Cyclades. 139. 180-82. 217. 268. 310. Song of. 100. 276. 247-94. 94 Djohainah. 88. 312. 268. 254. 48. 315. 200 Caria. 130-32. 182. 290 Bubastis. 254 Daniel. 185. 247. 201 Carchomish. Coptic. Dhiban. 181 arm Burkuna. passim Eighteenth Dynasty. 277 273 Bithynia. 243. 52. 222. 301-8. 68. 323. Carians. 180. 83. 200-5. 109. 78. 255. 180. 322. 332 El. 231. 108. 114-16. 218. 317. 91 . 330. 312. Edom Rabbot. 201.SELECTIVE Ben-Hadad 297 Ben-Hail. 283. 228 Bit-Arkha. 62 Djorhomites. 183. 84. 201. 186. Burraburiash. 173 Bethlehem. 175 Beth-Ninib. 82. 147. 221. 110. 84-86. 272. 232 of river. 52. See Dibon Dibon. 76. 216. 219 Carthage. 199. 190 Coptos. 200. 234-37. 90 Bospnorus. Egyptian. 11. 67. 73 Doir cl Bahari. 137. 63. 185 Boghazkcui. 77 Ebod-Tov. 190. Biridia. 287. 286 Dobir. 199. 296. 316. 153 Danuna. 321. 243. 174. 158. 10. 268. 4. 205 Cyprus. 297. 100 343 234. 185 Botrys. 242. 117. See Tell el-Amama 89 El-Arish. 15 Elah. 297 Dorians. 233 Dodo. 189. 332-34 Dan. 166. 40. 118. 147. 222. 134. 204. 104. 266. 45. 226. Deborah. 2597. NAME INDEX Cyrus. 224. 156. 200 Delta. 236. 273. 86. Elephantine stele. 5-8. 65. 313. 309. Cyprian. 263 Cinnoroth. 331 244 147. 269. 315. 221. 253 Dead Sea. Didyme. 334 146. 327. 87 Bronze Ago. 51. 208. 323. 237. 184. 177. 174 El-Ainarna. 110. 109. 115. 291-95. 75. 216. See Dibon Damascus. 308 Bisitanu. 88. 274. 182. 2. 1<H 202. Cypriotes. 199. 231 276 Didyma. 221. 226. 209. 227. 175 Beth-Zur. 119. 216 Edom Serirot. 144-46. 135. 254 Clearchus of Soli. 315 Carnarvon tablet. 319 Caucasian. 197 Borsippa. 201. 245. 140 Caunians. 133. Chemosh. 96. 103. 313. 269 Cheops. 205. Cretan. 137 Crete. 309 Dihrmnu. 285 Beth-Shan. 39. 99. Benjamin. 247. 239. 4. 310. 317 Djauhari. 20$. 254 164. 204. passim Caphtor. 100 Edom. 52. II. 333 Edom Rabbim. 277 Elam. 5 Chaldean. 285-88. Canaanites. 148. 129. Beth-el. 166 Delos. 62 Canaan. 209 El-Hadjoun. 334 237. 136. 137 Daibon. 109. 315. 07 Cleopatra. 62 El-Harit. 215. Dibonite. Biridri. 160 Bilkis. 317 David. 3 Copt. 195. 20. Edomitcs. 228 Egypt. 65. 110. 280. 188.

163. See also Ithobalos Ethiopia.58. 79. and passim 202 Ezion-Geber. 286. 177. 148.138 Haia. 93 294-323 Hazael. 45. SELECTIVE 239 18. 100. 311. 88 Har-Nur. 275. 330-31 Hatti. 2 Gad. 135-39. 56. 114. 107 Haggada. 113-15. 151. 188. 233. 248. Galilee. See also Jerusalem Eloth. 51. See also Byblos Habiru. 60 Esdraelon. 65. 302. 199. 6. 44. 269 Galilee. A. 182. 231. 215 Gezer. 10. 73 Hebrew. 175 Gaza. 210 Hezekiah. 17 Euagoras. 175 Hcliopolis. 257. 210. 96. 302 Eliphaz. 113. 24. 87.. 127 El-Welid. 146. 235 Herculaneum. 103-42 passim. 74. 2. 52 Esarhaddon. 323. 156. 227. 320. 25. Hapharaim. 20311. 275 Hebron. 86. 90.344 Eliada. 311 Eshmunazar. 18 Hermon. 238. 263. 181 Fourteenth Dynasty. 279 Goshen. 175. 44 Gehazi. 189. 74 Gilead. 106-8. Hebrews. 172. 127. 181. 232. 195 On Genubath. 164. 6 Gerar. 240. See also Helladic ages. 167. 246. Ephraim. 225. 220. Ethiopian. 232. 279. 249-304 Enfe. 43. 271 passim Gwal. 203. Elijah. 117. 98. 153 Ethbaal. 98. 287. 177 Georgius Syncellus. 202. 60 Elisha. 181 Hellenistic period. 7. 5. 191. 111. 64. passim. 145.84. 155. 305 Giluni. 252 Fifth Dynasty (in Egypt). 208. 49-52 Gath. 212 Hatshepsut. 195. 281. 199 Haman. 304 Greece. 282 Ghor. 31. 291. Mount. 244. 192. 228 Hekcl Abram. 93. 115. 87 Fourth Dynasty. Hamitic. 110.31. 205. 335 Ilazor. 314. 317. 134 Ezekiel. 248. 217. 85. 316 Eusebius. 55. 90. 203. 216. 153. 217. 284 Halicarnassus. 248. 305 Elishaphat. 40. 146. 297 Eritrean Sea. 99. 301. 167. plain of. 147. 217. 237. Hadad-ezer. 111. 65 275 Gmtikirmil. 190 Esau. 148. 186. 299. 243 Geb. 231 Gubla. 7-11. 74. 111 Ermitage papyrus. 240. 73. 290. 89 164. 31215. 80. 18 Harris papyrus. 310. 225-28. 251. 133. 89. 47. 149. 175 Haremhab. 247 Epiphanus. 97. 204 Euphrates. 258. 146. 235. 287. 52. 166. 281. 61. 185. 17. 104. 2. 3. 113. 144. 2. 173. 104. 335 Herodotus. 103. 17072. 86. 309. EpTirairaite. 190 Etam. 67. Greek. 246. 230-33. 195. 234 Hiba. 45. 334 Havilah. 215. 244. 202. 147. 42. 177. 18 Hepa. 334. 235 . 92 Hanani. 167. 221. 255 Ephraim. 242 El-Kuds. 80. 206 Sea of. 253 Gardiner. 211. 115 El-Qoseir. 229. 96 Karaite. 146. 148. 18 Harra Radjla. 166. 322. 127. 235. Mount. 293-97. 152. Genubatye. 97. 335 Hadad. NAME INDEX Gibeon. Galilean. H. 209. 163 Hasis. 211 214 Etna. 147 Hadramaut. 5. 205. 175 Gideon.

149. 228 Joscphtis Flavius. 326. son of Jehoshaphat. 173. 119. 324. 182. 147. 65. 11. 225. 228 241 231. 42. king. Jaffa. 117. 10. 261 Jonathan. 164. 158. passim. 226. 150-56. 312. 126. 301. 253. 39 passim of. 252. 78. 139. 257. 133. 257. 330 Jeremiah. 145. 145. kingdom 84. 57 Huram. 300. son of Paruah. 124. 326. 292. lanhama. 4. son of Saul. 239. Ionian. 221 23-39 Ipuwcr. 311 Joshua. 203 125 334 195 Jews. 235. 100. 133. 101. 185. 8. 326 Joab. 284. 242 Ms. ]13. 137. 269 Horus. 261. Isrnuih'a Israel. 68 Islamic. 261 Hoham. 198. 5-8. 200. 147. 7. 240. 166. 84 Irqala.. 152. 227 Isaiah. 81. Hittite. Homeric. 145-47. 233. NAME INDEX 345 237 Hitlitos. 166 Joash. 208. 192. 190. 141. 197. 304 147. 312. 50102 passim. 115 Jehozabad. 217. 47. 229. 292. 163. 205 Hormah. 282. 299. 73 203-5. Joseph. 202. 45. 294. 8. 176. 225 226. 311. 82. 37. Ishmael. 56. 139 Jonathan. Papyrus Ipuwcr. 229. 57. 138 Hoshca. 305. 291. 232. 286-88. 60. 86. 228 athrib. 176. 175. 217 Jerome. 239. 311. 282 Jeroboam. 48. 194. 305 Jehoram. 228 Homer. 240-44. 237. 86. 140. 104. 50. 67. 3. 242-44. 303-6. 120. See Jabin. 230 Jtidah. 235 236. 301. 232. 222 Horeb. 227. 111. 49. 319. 167. See also Hatti Jehoiada. 333 Jethro. 197. 119. 277-82. 5. 328. 31 > 65. 234-38. 230 encash. 99 Iranian. 199. 84. 81. 163. 201 Red Sea 278. 75. 25-55. 135. 100. 260. 247. 107. 185. 130. ako Ethbaal 73 tribes. Israel. 68. 221. 133. 318. 222. 177. 228-30. 334 Indian Ocean. See also loniaus am-Suf. 317 4. Jewish people. 85. son of Ahab. 73 ebus. 228. laanhamu. 5. 141. 219. 133. 240. 103. 333 Jehu. 57 Horites. 211. 310. 56. 201. Isaac. 176. 205. son of Jchohanan. 241-43. 175-77. 239. 229. 99. 268. 97. 144. 208. 25558. 292. 210 Hurrilcs. 173. rabbi. 152-54. 332. Museum. patriarch. 185. 246. 393. 192. 255-62 passim. 4. 94. 330. 55. 232. 98. 12123. 7. 186. 98. See also aphia. 311. 240. 4. 163 Ithobalos. 260. 67. 98. 333 Jezreel. 240. Human. kingdom. 84. 300. 196. 254 55 . See also Horites Hyksos. 261. 281 Julius Africanus. river. 300. 23436. 305. 99. 309. 114. 249. 88. 226. 156 Jehoshaphat. 144. 119. 146. 228 armuth. 134. 261. passim Jezebel. 8. 234 Jerusalem. 115. 298. 231. 106. 163. 11. 147. 163. 200 Jehoram. 325. 242. 225.SELECTIVE Hiram. Israelites. Irem. 280. 256. 29. 34. 70. 186. 134. 300. 46. 60 Jordan. 2. 187. 239. 144. 200. 15. 41. 245. 286. 59 Horonen. Jacob 10. 333 Jehoshaphat. 324 Jericho. ehohanan. 5. 2. 57. 140. Josephites. 228. 275. 300. 87. 277. 299. 126. 222. Judea. 118. 176 Hur. 203. 233. 281. 196. 253. 111 lonians. 306. T Juman. 242. 193. 71.

217 Mayas. 16. 322. 243 Maccabean war. 173 Lebanon. 106. 285. 270. 331 Leah. 318 Mesha. 335 Melchizedck. Makere. 9. 211. A. Hurrites Khenthenofer. 282 Kenites. 195 Magdali. 310. 174. 72 Khnurn. 134. 310. 72. 257. 53. 260. Libyan dynasties. 168 Mercer. 269. 61-65. 77 SELECTIVE NAME INDEX Lepsius. 223 Luxor. 231. O. See Habiru Khar. 198. 294. 179 Latin. 199. 97 Kush. 807 . 149. J. 273. 228. 311 Menasho (Manasseh). 309. 317. 261. 268-76 passim. 150.. 57 Merneptah. 176. 259. 245 Manotho. 72. 162. 55. 242 Meriba. 274. 52 Memphis. 170. 61.. 133 Laud. 152. 175. 274-76 Karnak. 126 Kheta. 111. 131. 2. 138 Kina. A. 155. 335 Leiden Museum. 67. Karaduniash. 170. 135. 229.. 149 Er-ha-Kharoshet. 62 Maaseiah. 64. 72. 15. 128. 282 Kadesh. 242 Koran. 86-S9. 202. 143. 179 Laris. 185. 211 Louvre Museum. 68. 168. A. 282 Labina. 45. See also Hatshepsut Makkedah. 129 Masudi. 201. 174. 149. 330 Lydia. 282. 227 Meryt-aten. 270 Media. 164. 321 Maimonides. 60 Layard. See also Hatti Khifm. 183 Katan (Yaktan) tribe. 222 Khabiru.. 3. 330. 24. 150. 68. 65. 107. 11. 3. 180. 144. 332 Mesha stele. 310-12. 2. 210 Menkheperre-Seneb. 210. 282 Manasseh. 134 Makeda. 171. 135 Kreti. 125. 159.346 235 Kadesh Naphtali. 148. 228. 3. See also Libnah Lachish. 334 Khiun. 114. 202. 203-5. 10. 73. 43. 215-19. 137 Makera. 135-37. 89 Matinu-Bail. 134. 62. 73. 106. 90. 25 Laodicea ad mare. 165. 176 Karpas Peninsula. 237. 134 Lange. 81-83. See also Caria. 127. 222. 311. 51 Libnah. E. 51. 144. 171. 269 Kitab'Alaghaniy. 291. Mareshah. 47. 61 Knossos. 308 Labaia. 45. 96. 135 Mediterranean Sea. 200. 182 Khinshi. 313. 265. 311. 221. 115. 95 Medeba. 308. 211-13. 171. 208. 167. 150-54. 133 Mecca. 206. 154 Kamose. 56. Mehedeba. 210 Kelti. 275 Mahzibti. 275 Maia. 224. 307. 67. 148. 330 Karkhah.. 196-99. 219. 75. 105. $31. R. 171. 222 Marietta. 5. 228. 96-97 Maresha. 237. Libyans. 274 Kiryathen. K. 97 Medina. 173 Menolik. 277 Kebra Nagast. 68. 140. 163-66. 329. 224. 215. 269. 285. B. 218. H. 155-58. 200. 81 Keret. 288. 190. 319 Megasthenes. 137. 210 Kutha. 209. 209 Menander. See also Babylon Kari. 23. 282 Megiddo. 176. 2. 89 Latakia. 228 Lebanah. 163. 151. Mesh. 161. 181 Knudtzon. 316. 259. 221. 202 210 201 - Karkar. 3. 154. 86.

309 347 49. 100. 119. 263 Nile Valley. river. The. 199 Mitanni. 199 Nehemiah. Nikomed. 145. Midianites. 224 Nathan. 148. 100. 320. 239. 290 cl Beida. 14. 334 Mycenae. 206. 51. 10 Persia. 5. 209 184 Late). 213. 277. 47-50. 323. 42 Negeb. Nubia. 147 Pereset. 124. 75. 96. 331 Metropolitan Museum of Art. 46. 209. 301. Minoan (Early. 266 Odyssey. 86. 87 Permel. 50. 260. 55. 127 Ncferrohu. Persians. 268-81 passim Mohammed. 168. 204. river. 204 Naaman. 212. 275. 63. 247. Meyer. 232. 221 Obadiah. 50. 185-87. 2. 108. 151.. 316 Numa. 238. 74. 127. Nikdime. 153 Nehl. 275. 156 Orontcs. 224. 52. 331 Nimshi. 6. 62 Omri. 313 Naphtali (land of). 138 Nuhasse. See also Heliopolis Ophel. 307. 76. 51. 75. 113. 313 Moab. 230. 143. 7. 285-88. 44. 47 Orphic hymns. 326. 307 Ophir. 173. 301. 1-5. 133 Okheperure. 2. 47. 135 Morcsheth-Gath. 181. 313 Nineveh. 8. 18. 318 On. 21. 260. 244. 162. 219 Negeb Kcreti. 134. 177 Metten-Baal. 8. 115. 96 Osorkon. 169. 114. 322. 306. 322 Nile. 311. 225. Motibitcs.SELECTIVE Mesopotamia. 323 Nikdiera. 180. 140. 47^9. 323 Mut-Balu. 179-82. 229. 203. 205 Osarsiph. 311 NAME INDEX 182 Nicholas of Damascus. 228. 220. 4. Mitannian. 85. 90. 218 Moses. 228 Minos. 206. 202 Nebuzoradun. 210 Ouna. 126. 308-10. 3. 235. 122. 197. 181. 270 Nebuchadnezxur. 198. 48. 97 95-97 Sinai. 248 Mylasa. 3. 224. 221. 3. 269. 274. Nubian. 180 Pelusium. 44 Palestine. 119 . 139. 182 Midian. 181. 200. 88. 258. 223. 309 Nikmed. 144. 9. 188. 205. 133. Mycenaean. 294 Nikdem. 257-59. 274 Naphtiria. 290. 32. 275. 148 Micaiah. 42 Mizraim (Egypt). 118 Musri (Egypt). 211. Middle. E. 88. 194. 51. 234 Nimrud. 45. 257. 254. 259. New Kingdom (of Egypt).64 Oushcrou. 180. 100. 117 Passover. 140. 154. 245 Middle Kingdom (in Egypt). 17-19. 188. 179. 226. 313. 321 Nisan. 260 Nineteenth Dynasty. 313 Mitta. 138 Neolithic Age. 209. 53. 198. 86. 315. 127. 57-S9. 73. Omcyah. 71. 104. 57. 204 Pehra. 310. 47. 186 Minet Milkili. 86 Paruah. 233. 203. 221 Nimmuria. 132 Nuinenius. 179-82. 206 Mount Old Kingdom 134. passim Paran. 25B Nebo. 326. 198. 211. 140. 333 Naharin (Mesopotamia). 126. 73. 171 Nahma. 100. 162 Nccho II. 292. 300. 86 Milet. 2. 334 Naboth. 317. 181 (in Egypt). 5. 2. 190. 14.

211. 89 Pithom. 28 Ramses IE. 236. 95. 86. 18. 252 Rehoboam. 177. 199 Pi-ha-Khiroth. 209. 110 Sapasites. 43. II. 4 217 Saul. 17073. 299. 199. 168. 167. 190^ Phiops. 10. 97 Ramses II. 144. 118 Seder Qlam. 93. 253. 52 ""Place of the Whirlpool. 73 Pisoped. 231. 141. 58 Retenu. Philistines. 214. 6. 134. 145. 221. 222. 316. 83. 179-22 passim.280 Saadia. 39. 261. 277 Safa. 85. 268. 27 1. 235 Rekhmire. 148. 68. 153. 77 Salt Lake. 82. 62 Pi-Kharoti. 163. 287 Rome. 16." Plato. 215. 89 Sallier Papyrus I. Rachel. 252. 218. 126. Red 104. 135. 320 Rebecca. 180 SELECTIVE NAME INDEX Ras Shamra. F. 103. 10 Ramses. 65. 0-11. 232 Sea. 111. 62. 76 Phaestus. Sebastieh. Phoenicians. 210. 106. 61. 145. 104. 45. 81 Ptolemy. 88 Sekncnre. 139. 256. 84 Sanchoniaton. 331 Rezon. 103. 45 Rimmon. 137 Saqqara. 278-81. 41. 238. 304. 227 Philistia. 110. 67. 202. 330 Scythians.. 174 Ramoth-Gilead. 193. 4. 206. 126. 45. 15. 130. 108. 81. 244-46. 140. 63 Salatis. 195 Seleucus Nica^or. 333 Sekhet-za. 216 Psammetich. Rezenu. 3. 9. 133. 228 Ra-Harakhti. 235 Pythagoras. 252. 139 Sabi-ilu. Rubute. 132 42 Pompeii. 113. 134. 304 Philo of Alexandria. 156. age. 59. 89 Rib-Addi. 300. 4. 62. 133 Punt. 162 Sehkl. 247 Ramessides. 105 111. 45. 87. 305. knd of. 237. 40. 89. 78. Seeri. 280 02 275 I. Roman. 18 Plutarch. 201. 199 Phoinix. 111. 234. 205. 119. 133. Ra-Ammon. 3. 15 Samaria. father of Sidon. 319 Salitis. 230. 88. 228 Pirathon. Rhinocorura. 276 Seir. 78. 53. 191. 190. 169. 114. 217. 177. Ra-Harmachis. 2 Phoenicia. 287 Rabbath-Ammon. 97. 164. 217 Pliny the Younger. 17 Piram. 99. 325 308. 44. 331 Phoinikus. 79. 113. 333 Sebeknofnire. 84. 314. 41 Philo of Byblos. See Salitis Salem (Jerusalem). 227 Sargon Sarira. 88. 172. 63. 3 Punic Wars. 176. 147. 286 Sea of Passage. 150. 72. 225- city of. 85. 229-335 passim Samuel. 247 Rhinocolura. 87. 110 Saba (Sheba). 44 Pindar. 98. 23 Sarah. 144. 36. 172. 170-72. 3. 163 Rubuda.348 Petrie. 42 Sobekhotcp 51 Ramah. 77 Seleucides. 55 Sea of Galilee. 43. 254-58 passim. 208. 146. 331 Rephidim. 9. 52. 45. 309. 123. 212. 93. 110. 83. 156 162. 113. 97 Ra. 75. 57. 84. 55. 83. 18 Pontus. 331 Puti-Hiba. 108-43 passim. 201. 29. 215. 44. 113 Pleti. 170. 52 . 203 Ptolemaic dynasty. 42 271. 134 Poseidon.

322 Shalmancser III. 232. 4. 197 Suinur. 176. 81. 282 Solomon. 153. 126 Tehama. 3. 246 Tabari. K. 127. 197. 114. desert. 113. 190. Tholkemina. 198. 177. 90. 167 Theophrastus. 169. 174 Seti the Great. 58. 151. 167. 170. 239.3-335 passim Tell el Muskhuta. 235 Shechem. 187. 138. Gulf of. 335 Sigata. 104. Sec Shishak Suwardata. Taanach Temple of Solomon. 304 Sharuhen. 10S-42 passim. 163. 318. 313 Sirius. 146. 212. 168 Serbon. 138. 155. 166. 149. 224. 49. 18 Tagi. 253 Subarean. 182. 61 Shcmaiah. 168. 195-97. 200 76 . 196. 289-91. 2GO Shiloh. 134. 96 Thirteenth Dynasty. lake. 281 Sinai Peninsula. 44. 316-18.235 Shou. 78. 87 Shalmaiati. 90. 147 Shem. 172. 11. 197 Succoth. 173 Setli. 185. 108 Suez. 154 Shemcr. 172 Sosenk (Shoshonk). 237. 77. 163. 45 Tell el Yehudiyeh. Sumenan. 179. 7. 175. 87 Tell Taannok.SELECTIVE Semneh. 148 Senir. 240. 236. 179. 146. Sea of. 185. See aho Shishak. in the desert. 210. 145. 330 Solyniitos. 52 Strabo. 143-77 passim Sisera. 310. 129. 329 Sethis period. 85. 225. 282 Syria. 3. 320-23 Shamash-Edom.219. 136. Theban. 208. 333 Shur. 170. 42 Shunem. 125. 181 Socoh. 110. 174. 297. 229. 145. 79. 110. 145-47. 174. 15 Sukkiim. 197. Tarshish. Sixth Dynasty. 152. 75. Somalian. 80. 86. 275 Takif. 210. 147. 133. 317-19. 155 349 228 Seventeenth Dynasty.. 64. 246. 206 Shamshi-Ramman. 167. 287. 18. 110-12. 62 Talma. 210. 200. 7. 88 Thebes. 22. 119. 299. 181 Thorn. 216-18. 294. 40. 76 73 Terah. 166 Tahsi. 5. 247. 261. 144. 65 Tacitus. Queen of. 36 Succoth. 63. 45. 148. 321. 203. 195. 248. 260. 166. 212-14. 182. 228. 156. 332 121. Sidonians. 85. 152. 128. 156. 182. 149. 227-335 passim Suppiluliuma. 311 Sidon. 202- 334 passim Taanach. 240 Sharon. 104. 323 Senmut. 88 Siana. 281. 217. 148. 140. 260. 108. 281 Sudan. 101. 217-19 Tharshish. 320 Susakim. Syrian. 148 Tell cl-Amarna. 112r-14. 8. 199. 51. 158 Shinai. 83-85. 131. 2. Thoum. 127. 133. 79. 167. 92. 319. 51 Mount. 61-63 Tekoa. 123 Sennacherib. 252. 152. 324 Tahpenes. 5. 202. 173. 75. 308-14 passim. 86. 193. Shunama. on the Jordan. 123 96 Somali. 234-37. 152. Sodom. 117. 103-41 passim. 96 Septuagint. 15 Sesostris III. 234. 140. 111. 143. 45 Thucydicles. 220. 68. 115 Tanis. 310. 2. Thuliy. 171. Sodomites. 52. 206 252 Tharu. 354. 60. 87 Tarsus. 68. 68 Sethe. 10.. 89 Tamrin. NAME INDEX Speos Artemidos. 96 Sheba.

190. 193. 202. 78 Zebulun. See also Has Sharnra Ur. 218 Zcchariah. 268. 311 Uste. 332 Tutimaeus. 275 Vesuvius. 114. 118. 224. 3 Yahas. 316-19. 113. 212. 51. 212-14. 75. 217-19. 311. 263. See El-Arish Kelt. 219 163 Tiy. 14377 passim. 331 Thutmose IV. 332. 259 Titus. 210. 247 Tigris. 181. 104. 335 Zcphaniah. 55 Twelfth Dynasty. 282 47 WaU of the Prince. 325 Tunisia. 120. 2. 235 Zeruah. 202 Zephathah. 98. 2 Tushratta. C. 214. 24. 211. 103. 8. 32S. 137 Thutmose HI. 309. 314 Timaios. Tunip (Dunip). 2. river. 66 324 Yat Nebcs. 325 Yakhtiri (lahtiri). 235. 331. 321. 76. 208. 330. 311. 226. 2. Yemenites. 333 . 313. 208 Zerah. 2. 197. 83 Zimri. 275 179-222 passim. 206. 301. 322. 327 Tutankhamen. 333 Zildag. 328 Zuchru. 252. 317. 218. 163. 110. 270. 219. 47 Worlds in Collision. 202. 281. 182 Trachonas. 329. 82. 152. 244 Twenty-second Dynasty. 221 Turino Papyrus.350 SELECTIVE NAME INDEX Urusalim. 210. 7. 212 Ugarit. 214. 47. 220. 3. 106. 210. 217 Zichri. 126. 19. 2. 190 Yemen. 244 Virolleaud. 68 Tyre. 182 Twentieth Dynasty. 316. 107 Yeor. 222. 45. 193. 333 Troy. 277 Zion. 103. 138. 162. 205 Wadi Wadi el-Arish. 173. 232. See Jerusalem Usa. 240-42. Yakut. 45 Tirzah. 270 Yahweh. 260. 18 Vidia. Thutmose I. Ubi. 280. 323. 310. 309. 329 Typhon. 269. 10. 26. 320.. 239-42. Uzu. 64. 119 Twenty-first Dynasty. 44 Yehawmilk. 183 Trans-Jordan. 190.

the most controversial volume in many decades: N. prominent scientific . Here are a few comments from favorable reviews about this work. In a magnificent piece of scholarly historical research. yet documented with a scholarship worthy of Darwin. science.'S DIGEST. A campaign was carried on to create the impression that the press of this country had rejected the book. ing as a tale a realistic picture of the cosmos. tremendous terrestrial cataclysms took place. Immanuel Velikovsky has assembled into a monumental work evidence from all the early civilizations that in the first and second millennium B. O'Neill: Dr.. Fulton Oursler: single scholar has sought a synthesis of knowledge and reason in the field of science. Treperhaps of the decade mendous volume of research amassed by the author over a period of ten years. Velikovsky has undertaken task of making an "inquiry into the architectonics of the world and its history" and of applying the techniques of scholarship and psychoanalysis to the entire hu- the awesome man race. a furor that has not yet subsided. Y. New Yodfc) This earlier book by Immanuel Velikovsky created a furor all over the world when it was published in April of 1950. Obscure allusions to events in classical and sacred literature become crystal clear as he fits together the jigsaw puzzle of his- Dr. Vclikovsky's detailed and documented denial that the Earth's hisbeen one of peaceful tory hft evolution . religion there is scarcely an area of knowledge or conviction invulnerable to Dr.WORLDS (Doubleday ir IN COLLISION Inc. HERALD TRIBUNE. The result is a theory of earth's history as a planet. COLLIER'S. * Bringing to this per. legend and A Dr. G. Velikovsky expresses are certain to provoke debate. fascinat- as a challenge to scientists to frame by Jules Verne. Editor: "Worlds in Collision" promises to be one of the most controversial books of the year. Eric Lar- HARPER'S MAGAZINE. READER. rabee: Philosophy. .. Vclikovsky's work presents a stupendous panorama of terrestrial and human histories which will stand tory* religion. John J. Although the theories Dr. spective all the apparatus of learning. Company.. Garden City. there unfolds a most exciting picture of terrestrial events that raises world history to a level of superlative interest.

NEWSWEEK: Velikovsky. Editor: PRESS. historian. astronomy. They are ripe for a jolt* Dr. For Velikovsky challenges all the present concepts and laws of history. safe routine. fantastic. a broadfield . . . . BOOK-OF-THE-MONTH NEWS. a sincere scholar. are so great and far reaching as to make the hydro- worthy of most thought. Immanuel Velikovsky. and geology. O'Neill: an intellectual jolt CLUB question but that it had driven the vast majority of the nation's scientists you want read "Worlds in Tf into a highly unacademic fury. biology. academic freedom. . Dr. Ellis. . philosopher. Scholars may disagree with Dr. . For here a volume . * If Velikovsky's monumental work stands. Blakeslee. revolved in their present orbits for billions of years. outside a dull. They have achieved this static program by ASSOCIATED PRESS. filled with events. stu- of the nation's teaching profession Yet a small group of professors themselves stood accused of a major assault on academic freedom. One of the most cherished rights is Collision" by Dr. Its inferences past and future. . He has given us something to think about. It is a serious presentation by . pendous. as Velikovsky 's conclusions. NEWSWEEK. there could be little haps we shall have sense enough to put our heads between our hands and do some real thinking about universal and lasting peace. somePerthing even to pray about . neverserious. They are. Velikovsky has conferred a great boon upon all of us. Paul Science Editor: "Worlds in Colli- This remarkable ten-year study may rock the civilized worfd challenging . physical science and history. caused a commotion among astronomers but Velikovsky said: "Let them disprove the historical sion" records on which gauge savant with an incredible of competence in the sciences His final conconfirms the Bible clusions are even world-shaking . Science history have been standing pat for entirely too long on a theory of man and naiure that excludes the possibility of events and gen bomb and 1950 troubles seem like child's play. Immanucl Velikovsky. physician. Science Editor: The book upsets all cosmological assumptions that the solar system planets have hanging velvet curtains of taboo around embarrassing situations. . It will furnish your mind with a is new set of horizons. cataclysmic terrestrial and cosmic . Velikovsky provides an array' of evidence to support his claims. or stirred up so heated a controversy. . PAGEANT: Nothing in recent years has so excited the public imagination. Harold L. Ickes: Dr. my book is based. . scientist. UNITED EVERYBODY'S DIGEST. F. This is not just a wonder book. To minds blinded by too much orthodoxy they the fascinating new may seem theless. . and there is a deep philosophic significance underlying" it. Velikovsky has pulled some of the curtains aside. Robert W. pressors": "Professors as SupAlthough some of the critics who reviewed Velikovsky's book considered it a major scientific contribution. John J. it will upset prevailing views in evolution." NEW REPUBLIC.and religious leaders have found them most extraordinary. theory advanced by Dr.

So the orthodox scientists. H. Doctor Vclikovsky's offense seems to be that he writes bettor than most scientists and m his book expounds a theory of astronomical activity which differs widely from orthodox theories.. After all. and the long.. religion. tremendous job. . Atwater: Even before the book's has been the subject of publication it a storm of controversy that has swept across the nation . His explosive effect in and AMERICAN MERCURY: The tral thesis of this cen- book is stupendous. Not even prove Velikovsky with facts and fig- . they THIS WEEK MAGAZINE. an amazing of sources. Editorial: One of the most astonisheffort of N. acted with like the author- itarians whom they are con. the scientific brotherhood a tip. Vclikovsky has plunged headlong into a dozen difToront sciences and has dug deeply itito the roots of many. A. SUNDAY NEWS. but Velikovsky makes a very plausible tions case* for errors and truths. even this feeling will be set aside as it is searched and probed expected to excite heated objecin the scientific world.. Gordon are always the chief victims of this kind of intolerance. as related in folklore and religious literature.. oilers a flock of scientists which make orthodox foam at the mouth. Velikovsky. Vclikovcles that sky.. . a widely-travelled scholar and scientific investigator. I do contend that. Velikovsky. forgetting about Galileo. who seems to be a cyclopedia of learning. tists a silly season ought to excuse scienfor book burning. William Smith: "Worlds in Collision" presents arguments to prove that famous colossal miracles of ancient times. As Velikovsky sees our apparently well-ordered universe is like a fireworks factory which an erratic spark ute. the author has done a PATHFINDER: think force Top-flight scientists will "Worlds in Collision" reconsideration of the basic postulates of many major sciences. looking at it from an over-all point of view. veritable Dr. Y. happened.both our religious concepts and the theory of evolution. Editorial: "Worlds in Collision" is raising such a terrific furor in scientific cir- ing episodes was the to Ameri- can scientists suppress a book. Y. realizing the impact of his thesis. . In N. The greatest value of "Worlds in Collision" is this: It sots up an unusual approach to some of the world's great problems.. SUNDAY MIRROR MAGA- assembling those proofs Dr. . has gone to very great lengths to reveal his method so that it may be searched in detail Although the opening impact of this theory due to its sensational nature * . An astounding feat of research list . the is effect of which to link science book will have an the world of science. we don't see how a newspaper which claims to be on its toes can ignore the book or dodge from frank discussion of it. Dr. . actually it. Dr. . draws upon all the sciences and arts to buttress his thesis. is may explode any minThe promulgation of this thesis is certain to arouse violent hos- tility. woeful struggle of scientists to be Worlds in Collision. it would be to get busy trying to dis- tinually in conflict. If we might presume to offer free of dogma. ZINE. SATURDAY EVENING POST. [He] challenges them to prove him mistheories taken.

It is written so that any one can understand. George E. . . . Sokolsky: Certain scienthreatened with a boycott. . It may give a death blow to the growing skepticism of many people whose N. pression of a their Divine Creator had been shaken in the name of scientific enlightenment by the debunkers of the faith in the holy books. Scientists tend to become dogmatic like theologians. Ted. And I expect it may provoke one of the biggest arguments since Einstein said the . N. of divine justice about the theory. Emmett Dedmon: "Worlds clearly written and tressed with data in Collision" is The challenge that Velikovsky presents to modern science may ac- well-enough butto startle any reader into a re-examination of his ideas about the world. complish something more for the troubled and frightened people of the world than putting their scientific house in order. Darwin. in contemporary and future history with Galileo. O. SUNDAY COMPASS. Kepthe other ler. Star- key: Probably the most stimulating horror story that has ever been writ- world of not too settled thought which imbues "Worlds in Collision" with its real significance. Y. Velikovsky's findings thus far may well rank him was being outsold by only one book the Bible. Fisher Perry: It is Florence fascinating reading than anything to be found moro BOSTON POST.GJL Dietz on any original fiction table. It is bade us ern it revise our theories of is the world verse. Marion L. and results in a book that is absorbing reading . whom they denounce as dogmatic. like its what and what laws gov- and relation to the uni- this its role as a potent fer- ment BOSTON GLOBE. is There PITTSBURGH PRESS. It seems certain that there must at one time have been a sudden shifting of the Earth's axis. is non-fiction. McCullough: Few books have so stirred the world of thoughtful men. It is absolutely (Professor at Massachusetts Institute of and convincing. Lester Allen: Only a generation of time and re-examination of the evidence presented by Velikovsky will show whether he is merely a brilliant improviser or a profound discoverer of a new principle. Newton. ten. Technology): Velikovsky proposed a bold and startling thesis . A. the arguments pro and con inevitably must reverberate through learned societies for months to come. and great intellects who have in turn PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER: John M. Y. Y. CHICAGO SUN-TIMES. in a something of poetry. Of what the learned and liberal was the total supprofessors wanted tists course. CHICAGO HERALD-AMERICAN: A fabulous story This book is . JOURNAL & AMERICAN. revolutionary as and may prove almost world-shaking as if Venus had changed her settings again. The epicenter of a literary earthquake. general Collision" Thackrey: There excellent ground for suggesting that Dr. however. Dempsey: Among "Worlds in N. Einstein. boycotts aimed at his ures... Planck.and lay off trying to promote book. book which opposes dogma. BOSTON POST. David TIMES BOOK REVIEW.

" . astounding. Jr. scientist will find it fas- His countless citastrong case a case which scarcely seems to depend on .shortest distance between two points was a curved line. Herbert Shaw: Surely Immanucl Velikovsky has written so controversial a book that it will be the subject of much de- bate and much diligent intellectual searching in the years to come. 111. Dund"Worlds in Collision" is easily the most discussed book of the year. J. Mahoney. lay- contravene theological claims for many miracles described in the . does not yet have any way of its own to explain these "Miracles. Testament tions build up a coincidence. you're an expert on the subject or merely some one who merely looks into the sky occasionally at night to wonder at its PORTLAND OREGONIAN: A high percentage of those whose fields are invaded and their facts questioned may be expected to rise to the chal- . Buls: Chicago. DAYTON NEWS. man K. entirely revolutionary story of the universe. Not since Darwin's "Origin of the Species" has there been advanced an idea so original. this Read book with an open mind and a new vista of ideas will be opened. POST. these ancient biblical stories. furiously Alabama. The minds that will be stimulated by this book are the world's best. thought and drawn on so many "Worlds in for its evidence . He is to be admired and congratulated for CLEVELAND man: It's PRESS. bum: Beatrice Wash- years to come. controversial. .) TELEGRAM. \vin J. Lawrence: A book of absorbing interest and one bound to excite discussion and further elucidation for MIAMI HERALD. deals with the truth or falsity of DALLAS TIMES-HERALD.: You are likely to hear it debated . Edward V. W. This book has literally shaken the thinking world to its foundations. fields of PORTLAND (Me. and It blacks the eye of Dogmatic Science* stupendous in its implications. Who knows what may come of lenge.. ADVERTISER. . BALTIMORE EVENING SUN: Velikovsky has built a powerful case for the contention that those accounts reflect occurrences which did And science actually take place . and PORTLAND JOURNAL. challenged DENVER Ice: fended for many years. amazing and Ken- neth Koran: Startling. Berry: If the theory set forth by Velikovsky stands the acid test to which it undoubtedly will be subjected. it will upset the foundation of the world's natural sciences and while the high degree of scholarship evident throughout the book does not permit derisive dismissal. MONTGOMERY. W. cussed. studied. Collision" presents such an array of evidence that it cannot be ignored. THE CRESSET. Tom Boarda book that will be disand de- the documentation he has presented. Erhu- that? Seldom has one theory extended into so many . * Old man and cinating. SAN ANTONIO EXPRESS. Howes: It Larry can be understood and argued about by laymen. Whether . Henry H. Written in non-technical language.

without any doubt. book of Maximil- OAKLAND POST ENQUIRER: is difficult to ian Berners: Controversy wilt become more and more violent as the gctn laugh away the paral. brim* is stone. known. you'll find this An incredibly simscores of baffling . could kovsky*s book. and tradition you encounter some vast panoramas that are most stimulating to thought lels of legend excitement. "revolutionary" Nashville. * Dr.. rational or ridiculous.. If Dr. Branscombe: This is. "Worlds in ROCKY MOUNTAIN NEWS. TENNESSEEAN. It is a book that will supply many an evening of the drawspirited conversation for ing rooms of the world. In short." But I do submit he convinced me. vince his fellow-scholars. Now. however. philosophy and religion . this book is as easy to read as a western A. never has before. RALEIGH NEWS OBSERVER. Don't miss it. Fontenay: The term other scientists. He sweeps away the cxegetcs.. this nary.. he tells us. fit Dr. To be sure.. . His descripwill make your spine tingle as merely smiled and said. Tenn. California: has aroused speculation and controversies throughout the country . Velikovsky's claims . COURIER-JOURNAL. Galileo or Copernicus. hurricane and earthquake. Kentucky. . Collision" could easily become one of the most important books of the by Velikovsky. for that matter. The most every other torical scientific and is his- textbook in the world out- term. and this reviewer believes 90 per cent of them will. "The case had not been proved. he did not consion. PROVIDENCE JOURNAL. Roberts: ple solution of Ken- book exciting and imagination-stirring . scholars ROCKY MOUNTAIN NEWS. Velikovsky is right. . This well tions it it may is far more than that become a bible. LOUISVILLE. there will language simple enough for virtually The book any reader.." soth century. .magnificent and mysterious beauty. Neither. neth B. Charles L. this is fascinating fare. If the facts in it up under cold analysis by and much more exciting. as in the time of these worthies. Thales. . But right or wrong.. were not mere legends but straight facts. Lee Casey: One of the most amazing and persuasive books I have ever read: "Worlds in Colliver. problems of antiquity . . DenCoL. and will prove for fas- cinating layman and is scientist alike . Joseph Landau: Velikovsky has hurled his interpretation of biblical events and world chaos. the most sensational book of stand the soth century. No book since Darwin . history into a world that is in It could be a book that will affect the thinking of the ages. There fire. The stories we learned in Sunday School. sky's trail of following plenty Velikovsmoke. Actually. Allen Alexander: Once in a great while you may be fortunate enough to come across a truly amazing book. promises to have such an impact on every phase of science^ history. * . It LOS ANGELES TIMES. Veil- . extraordi- among be many red faces the reviewers of the land. al- is all too frequently applied to books in these days when a couple of months seems to be the maximum accepted period between new theories of various kinds. did Pythagoras. are told in dated BERKELEY GAZETTE.

is edge of science. * . Silverstone: For one scholar to have written this book. . . documentation is offered for each particular. "Worlds in Collision" ques- tioned the infallibility of some aptremendous parently natural laws. necessitating as it docs an encyclopedic knowllore. Oklahoma.'* JEWISH CHRONICLE. moving along like a celestial drama with comets and planets for its dramatis pcisonae. Soim*. London: Dr. nevertheless. Edinburgh. and folka remarkable achievement. [The enbook's] reputation has been hanced by dark stories of scientists . and of orthodox physics. in its parallels drawn Fascinating alike in threads the author into the tremendous tap- many tions. and its vast implica- in Collision. Velia man of much learning and he has mastered the commen. is taken in. . "Worlds from the annals of the ancients in lands. fas- Scotland: Probably no book in our generation has caused so much conIn the scientific troversy. What we liave iu this a truly wonderful book. sensational. staggering. of endless fascination. London." The story goes on. It is therefore not at all allegedly applying pressure by boycotting the text book department of surprising that Immanuel Veli- the author's first publishing house in a frenzied effort to prevent the destruction of their own reputation kovsky has been denounced as a heretic. OKLAHOMA CITY OKLAHOMAN. London. LEADER: A volume Minkin: has OXFORD MAIL. CONGRESS WEEKLY. GLASGOW DAILY RECORD. piece of cholarly research h the history of the earth as a planet. no more receptive to new ideas than any other group subscribing to crystallized dogma. instructive and exciting to the end. Aberdeen. It merits close study on the part of and it will reward the EVENING DISPATCH. strange Clyde Beck: A and wonderful book. interesting. Many woven estry that is Jacob Oxford. In THE TIMES. THE NATIONAL JEWISH POST.scientists let loose a flood of tlenuwiaiory criticism and hysterical protests against the publication. kovsky is many ways the book is breathtaking. Scotland: has boon ordinary reader with fascinating hours of menial enjoyment. . . . England: its stupendous pictures of a world in the grip of cosmic forces. DETROIT NEWS. cinatingly told and truthfully docu- world sion of it caused a veritable explo- mented bad temper. .nt times EDINBURGH EVENING NEWS: The It is the subject of so much strength of his evidence is great* controversy. blind it is difficult to see how he can dismiss "Worlds in Collision.FREDERICK. A Glasgow. Unless t amount of orritory reader's prejudices arc completely METHODIST RECORDER. in Alice Hughes: Dinner tables our war-jittery town are agog with this eerie volume* Dr. scientists. Scotland: Gigantic. history. . . England: A thriller that is surely without a peer. Ward Moore: Scientists are taries upon the text and all books on cosmology as well. No lx>ok in rece. S. ABERDEEN PRESS.

Orson) might have collaborated to conceive Ga. Velikovsky. Efin Collision" storm center in the and scientific worlds. read "Worlds in Collision. all will admit that his ideas are thought pro- voking.COMMERCIAL APPEAL. The book is exciting readThe two Wellses (H. a rebel against almost all Russell is cataclysms therein described make even the horrors foreshadowed in the daily papers fade. will call for renewed investigation from others of the facts so long acaucepted. Velikovsky has done us a very great service: he has jarred the complacency of our thinking. H. The author has given to astronomers and cos- law than the ma- deems possible. stressed again the human knowledge. E. It is a foregone conclusion that the book CHRISTIAN REGISTER. and it. Va. the Boston: Dr. W. W. This work is heavily documented and ranges over an amazing variety of fields of learning. TORONTO SATURDAY NIGHT. Memphis: forts PRESBYTERIAN. Boston: This verification of the Bible seems to us of real importance. If it does no more.: Astonishing in many lines. Milwau- kee." The PASADENA STAR-NEWS. .: and perhaps fascinating. CHRISTIAN CENTURY. It shows what are sometimes called "miracles" to be not violations of law but higher demonstrations of spiritual terialist RICHMOND TIMES-DISPATCH: The count significance of this thrilling acmay go far beyond the fasci- nating interpretation of world happenings in connection with man's existence on this earth. But also it is One of the most significant and fascinating books written since the invention of printing. The greatest literary Philadelphia: "Worlds opened new have been made to dismiss has debate in science. this work by calling it "rubbish" and "nonsense" but this will not answer the evidence he has compiled. Editorial: The American scientific world has gone through a cataclysm almost as violent as those referred to PITTSBURGH COURIER. Bell: versial Incredible genius.G. It may be the beginning of understanding of concepts. BECKLEY POST-HERALD. There is plenty of room in the world of thought for rebellion against some of our hoary hy- potheses. AUGUSTA CHRONICLE. McCarthy: Immanuel Velikovsky human learning. mologists something to ponder over. Garrison: ing. and ahiazing book. CHRISTIAN HERALD: The ume is vol- both daring and original reckless. and has thor has rendered a noble service to his profession and to his fellow men. Anyone who has read it can never feel quite the THE LIVING CHURCH. limitations of All of these are important in our generation. G. he has emphasized the importance of understanding and grasping the significance of early tradition. 'same. new and extremely important CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR. Contro- by Dr. Editorial: If you are worried about Russia or the hydrogen bomb.

. London. It will make news for a long while to come. W. Brown: Make a note of the name. Or possibly not. the Book and the Candle advancing. of course and I see the Bell. . and the interests have at of their command immense powers Already the machines of repression are at work. for the established orthodoxies are more than orthodoxies. J. The man is a heretic. Possibly it will go ringing down the corridors of Time. They reach to the stars. Velikovsky's heresies are enormous. And what a case he makes! Already the orthodoxies have marked him down. . suppression.TRUTH. They are interests. .

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