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04_TrainingGeology

04_TrainingGeology

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Published by: Mihail Merekesh on Oct 31, 2011
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Geological Surveillance

updated February 4, 2004

Geolog Training Department 2004

Geology

Geological Surveillance
The scope of the Geological Surveillance is to evaluate the drilled formation in order to re-build the lithological column encountered sequentially through the well. The correct construction of the lithological column is essential for the safety and the efficiency of the drilling operation and also for further production and planning through correlations of future wells (delineation of the basin). Safety : recognition of Evaporites (Cap rocks), Argillaceous transition zones, porous Sand or Carbonates layers, unstable rocks... Efficiency : Hole stability, correct bit and drilling parameters selection, correct casing shoe position... Production : visualisation of the reservoir characterization (porosity, permeability...) Correlations : with other wells for the basin / reservoir delineation

Geolog Training Department 2004

Geology

Geological Surveillance

The evaluation of the drilled formation will be done through the observation of the : cuttings : fragments of the rock destroyed by the bit and carried at the surface by the mud bottom cores : a cylinder of formation cut and recovered by a special tool (standard length is 9 m) side-wall cores : small cylinders of the formation sampled laterally by a special tool

Geolog Training Department 2004

Geology

Geological Surveillance Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology .

reservoir. well and the measured depth (specify the unit m or ft). Use an indelible felt pen. according to the ROP and the interest to look for a specific lithotype (marker. change of formation.)..Cuttings Sampling Procedures (1) Frequency : is normally given by the Oil Company (each 10m. Various types : Unwashed sample (reference – micropaleontology) Washed and Wet (percentage lost . 1m . Packing : Number of sets : always given by the Oil Company according to its specific needs and the number of partners.. Bags : control that bags are correctly closed Large bags to be used with unwashed samples (20 X 30 cm) Small bags to be used with washed samples (15 X 20 cm) Identification : according to Oil Company but always the name of the Operator. 5 m..lithological reference) Washed and Dry Head Space or Mini Head Space (Geochemistry) Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology ..

Use aluminium plates. Washed : 100 – 150 cc after washing Head Space or Mini Head Space : volume of the phial Drying : in the drying oven. Quantity : Unwashed sample : normally 500 cc.Cuttings Sampling Procedures (2) Where : cuttings samples MUST BE taken on the various levels of the shale shakers using a washed bucket and a washed trowel. Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology . A plate of wood can be used downstream the shakers to collect all cuttings between two samplings. When : According to a correct and controlled lag-time. spreading the samples as much as possible.

Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology .5 cm from the upper edge. close it carefully and write on the container lid and side the usual information with an indelible felt pen. Then pour either an oversaturated saline solution or a bactericidal solution “Carbosan EF “ up to 1. After wiping the container upper edge.Cuttings Sampling Procedures (3) Geochemical samples (Head Space) : The containers “Mini Head Space” (phials 20 ml ) are filled with unwashed samples to 3/4 full.

. washed.Cuttings Sampling Procedures (4) Storage : Refer to the Customer's instructions.. The first and last sample depths Receiver's name if it is not to be the Customer These indications are written : with an indelible felt pen on the cardboard boxes with paint on the wooden cases (flatten the surfaces which will bear the references). It is imperative that : the specifications are correctly presented (legibility) the presentation is uniform (same line for the same references) Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology . The specifications must be marked on both faces (lid and lateral side) Customer's name (or that of the subsidiary) Well name Sample nature (unwashed. It is possible to use either wooden cases or cardboard boxes designed for cuttings (these cardboard boxes must be carefully clamped before filling). containers .

Packages are stored on a carriage pallet in a sheltered spot. As soon as the pallet is full (or on Customer's request).Cuttings Sampling Procedures (5) Dispatching : Refer to the Customer's instructions. Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology .. contact the Customer's Representative to prepare dispatching after filling up the dispatch note (keep a copy).

In case of soft and/or fragile formations (chalk. empty it in the sieves and wash.250.. In the absence of indications use 5. Gather the contents of the various sieves in the container. avoid washing under too much water pressure. Water Base Mud : Place the sieves in the sink and wash with water helping with fingers. ). gypsum. 0. the sieves must be washed and dipped in a solution coloured with methylene blue. clays.. 0. Evaluate with accuracy the percentage recovered : fill a graduated container (1 litre) with cuttings not yet washed of mud. 0. 0.063 mm.125.125). After reading the graduations. use the residues of the 0.5).Cuttings Sampling Procedures (6) Washing and Sieving : Refer to the Customer's instructions for sieves mesh. The residues of sieve 5 must be thrown away systematically (they correspond to cavings).063 sieves. (0. etc . The micro-fossils remaining in the sieve will be coloured in blue.500. After each operation.250. it is possible to determine the quantity "gone during washing". allowing resistant fossils to be excluded from subsequent analysis. 0. lf samples are taken to carry out paleontological study. (0. 2. Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology .

this operation will provoke the exudation of the oil which might have been absorbed by the rock.250. the operation can be improved by washing in water. (0. it is advised to dry the cuttings after cleaning. Important remarks : oil shows study is rather difficult. In the absence of indications. if possible.125). 0. use 5. Cleaning with gas oil : the sample is placed in the sieve corresponding to the minimum mesh selected.5). (0. Oil Base Mud : Cleaning with detergents : use several consecutive washings in water containing 10 % detergent. 0. Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology . It is dipped in several containers (successively and always in the same order) containing gas oil. 2.Cuttings Sampling Procedures (7) Washing and Sieving : Refer to the Customer's instructions for sieves mesh.063 mm. hot water with 10 % detergent.

063 mm sieves) Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology . Evaluation of the Clay percentage Evaluation of caving Sample selection for calcimetry (using only crushed cuttings taken from 0.Cuttings Sampling Procedures (8) Identification of the different lithotypes present in the cuttings.125 and 0.

Cuttings Sampling Procedures (9) Granulometry Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology .

Cuttings Sampling Procedures (10) Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology .

minor and/or accessory constituents.). sedimentary and petrographic structures.Lithological and Mineralogical Description Identification of the different lithotypes present in the cuttings and evaluation of their relative percentage. sorting etc. main constituents. Description of each lithotype in term of : texture (grain size. fractures and breaks. roundness. porosity. Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology . sphericity. type and amount of cement. colour.

Percentage estimation Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology .

Percentage estimation Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology .

Percentage estimation Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology .

Sedimentary Rock Name Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology .

Colour Rock colour depends on : Constituents grains Matrix and / or cement Staining from various origin Amber Black Blue Brown Grey Green amb blk bl brn gy gn Milky Olive Pink Purple Red Smokey mky olv pk purp red smky White Yellow Clear Pale Light wh yel clr pa lt Medium Varigated Mottle Dusky Transparent Translucent med vgt mtl dsk trnsp trnsl Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology .

Hardness Loose Soft Friable Hard Very hard LSE SFT FRI HD VHD Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology .

Texture The texture of a rock is characterized by the organization of its components : size granulometry shape roundness and sphericity arrangement sorting Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology .

Texture : Grains size Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology .

Texture : Roundness The roundness characterizes the sharpness of the edges of the particle Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology .

Texture : Sphericity The sphericity characterize the ratio width / length of the particle Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology .

Texture : Sorting Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology .

Carbonates : Dunham Classification Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology .

. a mud (more or less calcareous) which hardened after elimination of interstitial water (compaction) and a possible re-crystallization. Dolomite are due to re-crystallization Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology . through their size. Aragonite. oncolites .. in the depositional conditions. The elements. aspect and origin are going to characterize the rock type and from there. Aragonite. percentage. ) are more or less spherical small particles (d<mm. Dolomite) Calcite. pisolites.Carbonates : Dunham Classification Clastic Limestones are roughly formed of two phases : the matrix ("mud") the elements The matrix was.d>cm) size formed by aggregation of concentric layers around an inorganic fragment the fossils or microfossils (can play the part of particles) and are "packed" in a matrix the crystals : clastic (all except Calcite. its stratigraphic facies : the particles (oolites.

Carbonates : Dunham Classification "Is depositional texture still recognizable?" Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology .

Boundstone Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology .

Grainstone Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology .

Packstone Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology .

Wackstone Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology .

Mudstone Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology .

. Geolog Training Department 2004 Geology ..Geological Surveillance The End.

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