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SEC T IO N II:
curve is for a six-blade disk turbine with the shape factors of a standard turbine given on page 241. At high Reynolds numbers the curve levels off at a power number of 5.8, in agreement with the value calculated earlier. The curve for the CD-6 concaveblade turbine is similar but levels off at a value of 2.9. The pitched turbine with four blades set at an angle of 45° draws about 70 percent as much power as the standard turbine at low Reynolds numbers, but only about 20 percent as much at high Reynolds numbers. The A310 and HE-3 high-efficiency impellers have much lower power numbers than the turbines, but also have lower flow numbers and are usually operated at higher speeds. The power number for all five impellers is constant when Re » 104, and it varies inversely with the Reynolds number when Re < 10. Power numbers for a marine propeller and a helical ribbon are shown in Fig. 9.14. For the propeller the power number when Re = 104 is about 50 percent greater in a baffled tank than in an unbaffled one, but at low Reynolds numbers there
~ Propeller 1-0- Helical ribbon ~
-T'" ... -I
100 Re = D;np/J-L
FIGURE 9.14 Power number Np versus Reynolds number Re for marine propellers (pitch = 1.5:1) and helical ribbons.
1 ~i-' \'1'1')\ i--"'i--"'i-" ~I-"'" ...Ta)/(Tw ..c: II => C.344 SECTION Ill: Heat Transfer and Its Applications Since D. 1 .. i-'""" -.0.66.3 x 10-6.18) is significant.. (It does not include effects of natural convection or viscosity gradients.le ~\\e~<. the theoretical Nusselt number increases with about the one-third power of Gz.Ta) - (Tw - 'h) Tb)] In[(Tw ... theoretical values of the Nusselt number for parabolic flow can be obtained.25) . since the final temperature difference is very small.n t~i--"'~IOI':'le ~o\\le~~ co~sIO~1 ." . (12.2..21) (12.23) (12..000 FIGURE 12. For example. An empirical equation for moderate Graetz numbers (greater than 20) is Nu ~ 2.. and the Nusselt number approaches a limiting value of 3.22) and or Nu = rrkL Nu = Gz mc n p In[(Tw . the ratio of exit to inlet driving forces is only 8.2 Heat transfer for laminar flow in tubes with a parabolic velocity profile. and these values are shown in Fig.1 ~o\.24) -In[(Tw .Ta)/(Tw (12.18). . (12. It is difficult to get an accurate measurement of the heat-transfer coefficient at low Graetz numbers...' .:... at Gz = 1.?e ..Tb)] - (12. Data for air and for moderate-viscosity liquids follow a similar trend. - haD Ik I 10 100 1. constant Hux ~~ . For Graetz numbers greater than 20.- eol'!' 2 1 . but the coefficients are about 20 percent greater than predicted from theory. 12.1'1''~iTr" \\o~' cP .24) and (12.0 GZ1/3 60 40 20 -"< (12. . ~s\o~\ . At low Graetz numbers...h = (Tw .) . only the first term of Eq.Tb)] - Using Eqs.Ta)/(Tw .- ~ '?\': ..Z 10 6 4 Theory...~. ~o .
Chemical Engineers' Handbook. McGraw-Hill Book Company.. u c: Ql ~ 0... [By permission.] still fluid in the Stokes law range.-" i /~ . Uo is the velocity of the fluid approaching the solid..~:::::. from 1. 6th ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company.. g is the acceleration of gravity. and cylinders are shown in Fig...1020 SECTION V: Operations Involving Particulate Solids Fluid streamline Particle path A B FIGURE 29. Copyright 1984.. [By permission. p.01 ~V 0.5 Ql Qj OJ . New York. Perry (ed. 20-81./ ~ . In settling in the Stokes law range... is the terminal velocity of the particle in still fluid. 29.0 0. The abscissa is the dimensionless group N..8 .19 Target efficiency of spheres. and Db is the width of the ribbon or the diameter of the sphere or cylinder.Q 0.). New York. Perry (ed.-}:f 07 ~v/ .] 1. p. and ribbons. from 1.- . the terminal velocity ut is proportional to 0. 20-83.0 Separation number. Thus the smaller the particle.18 Principle of impingement.. 0. The target efficiency. the target efficiencies for ribbons.6 0. Chemical Engineers' Handbook. Copyright 1984.-<Pb -: . the lower the target efficiency.19. ..4 0.1 / 1..2 0. H. called the separation number utuol g Db. H.).. spheres.l.. 10 utuo/gDb FIGURE 29.. can be increased by decreasing the target size Db' and for the collection of ~ .9 .. cylinders. 6th ed. f-'. however..7 0. where u.3 ~ If / ( ~/:~~0~b .>:.1 'u ::E 0..-: rl / '?YV'tlII/(J<:' o 0..
(12.2 (17.65) . The term /L I /L~14 is usually about 1. the limiting Sherwood number is somewhat higher than for a constant concentration at the wall (see Fig. kgM P S 2/3 JM = --c G Coefficient kg is discussed in Chap. as in a counterflow membrane separator.8 SCI/3 0.33) with the Schmidt numbers.64) (17. since the basic equations for diffusion and conduction are similar. with a limiting value of 3.2). In general. value is probably due an empirical equation One equation for Eq. which was shown by Chilton and Colburrr' to be the same as iH and also the same as 112. Extending the analogy to include friction loss is possible for pipes only because all the loss comes from skin friction.!!:__ /Lw ) (17.62) This is the simplest equation that gives a fairly good fit to the published data over a wide range of Reynolds numbers and Schmidt numbers.62 Gzll/3 where Equation (17. When the wall concentration is a function of axial position.61) been used to predict the internal mass-transfer resistance for using hollow-fiber membranes.25).CHAPTER 17: Principles of Diffusion and Mass Transfer Between Phases 533 Mass transfer with flow inside pipes Correlations for mass transfer to the inside wall of a pipe are of the same form as those for heat transfer.60) tt = --m = - DvLp 4 D Re Sc L (17. . 18. (17. For gas-phase mass transfer. An alternate form of the correlation is obtained by dividing Eq.60) has separation processes for heat transfer. Eq.66 for a constant wall concentration and a one-third dependence on flow rate for short tubes. The recommended equation for moderate Graetz numbers is the theoretical equation Sh = 1. other forms of iM can be used: iM = kyRT Pu SC2/3 = kyM G SC2/3 (17. has an empirical coefficient of 2. turbulent-flow mass transfer to pipe walls is a modification of Nusselt and Prandtl numbers replaced by the Sherwood and Sh = 0.63) The analogy shown in this equation is general for heat and mass transfer in the same equipment. The recommended equation (12. The analogy does not apply to total friction loss when there is form drag from separation of flow.0. as occurs in flow around objects.023 ReO. . I JM = JH =:2 I =. iM is a function of Re. There are not enough data to determine for mass transfer in laminar flow.0 for mass transfer and is omitted: .62) by Re x SCI/3 to give the iM factor.14 ( .. 0 023 R e -0. and this higher to natural convection. Gz I (17. 12. For laminar flow the Sherwood number shows the same trends as the Nusselt number. but there may be little difference with high Graetz numbers Gz.
.APPENDIX 2 Dimensionless Groups Symbol Bi Name Biot number Definition hs k hrm for slab for cylinder or sphere k CD Fo Fr Drag coefficient Fourier number Froude number Fanning friction factor 2FDc pu~Ap at r2 u2 gL !:.'PscD 2LpV2 L3p2f3g!:.T JL2 mcp f Gr Gz Gz' jH jM Grashof number Graetz number Graetz number for mass transfer Heat-transfer factor kL m pDuL _!!_ cpG (CpJL k r (:w r /3 14 Mass-transfer factor kM (~y/3 G Dvp ( Continued) " 1066 .
UQ «o.Ss: nD~ r.APPENDIX 2: Dimensionless Groups 1067 Symbol Ma NAe Np NQ Nu Pe Pr Re Ns Sc Sh We Name Mach number Aeration number Power number Flow number Nusselt number Peclet number Prandtl number Reynolds number Separation number Schmidt number Sherwood number Weber number Definition u a . /L Dvp «» Dv DpV2 a . pn3D5 q nD~ hD k DV -or-Duo Dv a k cp/L DO /L u.