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Elementary Mechanics and Thermodynamics - J. Norbury

Elementary Mechanics and Thermodynamics - J. Norbury

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Sections

  • VECTORS
  • FORCE & MOTION - I
  • FORCE & MOTION - II
  • SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES
  • COLLISIONS
  • WAVES - II

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

for elementary mechanics &
thermodynamics
Professor John W. Norbury
Physics Department
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
P.O. Box 413
Milwaukee, WI 53201
November 20, 2000
2
Contents
1 MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE 5
2 VECTORS 15
3 MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS 19
4 FORCE & MOTION - I 35
5 FORCE & MOTION - II 37
6 KINETIC ENERGY & WORK 51
7 POTENTIAL ENERGY& CONSERVATIONOF ENERGY 53
8 SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES 57
9 COLLISIONS 61
10 ROTATION 65
11 ROLLING, TORQUE & ANGULAR MOMENTUM 75
12 OSCILLATIONS 77
13 WAVES - I 85
14 WAVES - II 87
15 TEMPERATURE, HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODY-
NAMICS 93
16 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 99
3
4 CONTENTS
17 Review of Calculus 103
Chapter 1
MOTION ALONG A
STRAIGHT LINE
5
6 CHAPTER 1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
1. The following functions give the position as a function of time:
i) x = A
ii) x = Bt
iii) x = Ct
2
iv) x = Dcos ωt
v) x = E sin ωt
where A, B, C, D, E, ω are constants.
A) What are the units for A, B, C, D, E, ω?
B) Write down the velocity and acceleration equations as a function of
time. Indicate for what functions the acceleration is constant.
C) Sketch graphs of x, v, a as a function of time.
SOLUTION
A) X is always in m.
Thus we must have A in m; B in msec
−1
, C in msec
−2
.
ωt is always an angle, θ is radius and cos θ and sin θ have no units.
Thus ω must be sec
−1
or radians sec
−1
.
D and E must be m.
B) v =
dx
dt
and a =
dv
dt
. Thus
i) v = 0 ii) v = B iii) v = Ct
iv) v = −ωDsin ωt v) v = ωE cos ωt
and notice that the units we worked out in part A) are all consistent
with v having units of m· sec
−1
. Similarly
i) a = 0 ii) a = 0 iii) a = C
iv) a = −ω
2
Dcos ωt v) a = −ω
2
E sin ωt
7
i) ii)
iii)
x
t
v
a
x
x
v
v
a a
t
t t
t t t
t
t
C)
8 CHAPTER 1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
iv) v)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
t
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
x
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
t
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
x
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
t
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
v
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
t
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
v
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
t
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
a
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
t
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
a
9
2. The figures below show position-time graphs. Sketch the correspond-
ing velocity-time and acceleration-time graphs.
t
x
t
x
t
x
SOLUTION
The velocity-time and acceleration-time graphs are:
t
v
t
tt t
v
t
t
a
t
t
a
t t
a
t
v
10 CHAPTER 1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
3. If you drop an object from a height H above the ground, work out a
formula for the speed with which the object hits the ground.
SOLUTION
v
2
= v
2
0
+ 2a(y −y
0
)
In the vertical direction we have:
v
0
= 0, a = −g, y
0
= H, y = 0.
Thus
v
2
= 0 −2g(0 −H)
= 2gH
⇒ v =
_
2gH
11
4. A car is travelling at constant speed v
1
and passes a second car moving
at speed v
2
. The instant it passes, the driver of the second car decides
to try to catch up to the first car, by stepping on the gas pedal and
moving at acceleration a. Derive a formula for how long it takes to
catch up. (The first car travels at constant speed v
1
and does not
accelerate.)
SOLUTION
Suppose the second car catches up in a time interval t. During that
interval, the first car (which is not accelerating) has travelled a distance
d = v
1
t. The second car also travels this distance d in time t, but the
second car is accelerating at a and so it’s distance is given by
x −x
0
= d = v
0
t +
1
2
at
2
= v
1
t = v
2
t +
1
2
at
2
because v
0
= v
2
v
1
= v
2
+
1
2
at
⇒t =
2(v
1
−v
2
)
a
12 CHAPTER 1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
5. If you start your car from rest and accelerate to 30mph in 10 seconds,
what is your acceleration in mph per sec and in miles per hour
2
?
SOLUTION
1hour = 60 ×60sec
1sec =
1
60 ×60
hour
v = v
0
+at
a =
v −v
0
t
=
30 mph −0
10 sec
= 3 mph per sec
= 3 mph
1
sec
= 3 mph
1
(
1
60
×
1
60
hour)
= 3 ×60 ×60 miles hour
−2
= 10, 800 miles per hour
2
13
6. If you throw a ball up vertically at speed V , with what speed does it
return to the ground ? Prove your answer using the constant acceler-
ation equations, and neglect air resistance.
SOLUTION
We would guess that the ball returns to the ground at the same speed
V , and we can actually prove this. The equation of motion is
v
2
= v
2
0
+ 2a(x −x
0
)
and x
0
= 0, x = 0, v
0
= V
⇒ v
2
= V
2
or v = V
14 CHAPTER 1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
Chapter 2
VECTORS
15
16 CHAPTER 2. VECTORS
1. Calculate the angle between the vectors r =
ˆ
i + 2
ˆ
j and

t =
ˆ
j −
ˆ
k.
SOLUTION
r.

t ≡ |r||

t| cos θ = (
ˆ
i + 2
ˆ
j).(
ˆ
j −
ˆ
k)
=
ˆ
i.
ˆ
j + 2
ˆ
j.
ˆ
j −
ˆ
i.
ˆ
k −2
ˆ
j.
ˆ
k
= 0 + 2 −0 −0
= 2
|r||

t| cos θ =
_
1
2
+ 2
2
_
1
2
+ (−1)
2
cos θ
=

5

2 cos θ
=

10 cos θ
⇒cos θ =
2

10
= 0.632
⇒θ = 50.8
0
17
2. Evaluate (r + 2

t ).

f where r =
ˆ
i + 2
ˆ
j and

t =
ˆ
j −
ˆ
k and

f =
ˆ
i −
ˆ
j.
SOLUTION
r + 2

t =
ˆ
i + 2
ˆ
j + 2(
ˆ
j −
ˆ
k)
=
ˆ
i + 2
ˆ
j + 2
ˆ
j −2
ˆ
k
=
ˆ
i + 4
ˆ
j −2
ˆ
k
(r + 2

t ).

f = (
ˆ
i + 4
ˆ
j −2
ˆ
k).(
ˆ
i −
ˆ
j)
=
ˆ
i.
ˆ
i + 4
ˆ
j.
ˆ
i −2
ˆ
k.
ˆ
i −
ˆ
i.
ˆ
j −4
ˆ
j.
ˆ
j + 2
ˆ
k.
ˆ
j
= 1 + 0 −0 −0 −4 + 0
= −3
18 CHAPTER 2. VECTORS
3. Two vectors are defined as u =
ˆ
j +
ˆ
k and v =
ˆ
i +
ˆ
j. Evaluate:
A) u +v
B) u −v
C) u.v
D) u ×v
SOLUTION
A)
u +v =
ˆ
j +
ˆ
k +
ˆ
i +
ˆ
j =
ˆ
i + 2
ˆ
j +
ˆ
k
B)
u −v =
ˆ
j +
ˆ
k −
ˆ
i −
ˆ
j = −
ˆ
i +
ˆ
k
C)
u.v = (
ˆ
j +
ˆ
k).(
ˆ
i +
ˆ
j)
=
ˆ
j.
ˆ
i +
ˆ
k.
ˆ
i +
ˆ
j.
ˆ
j +
ˆ
k.
ˆ
j
= 0 + 0 + 1 + 0
= 1
D)
u ×v = (
ˆ
j +
ˆ
k) ×(
ˆ
i +
ˆ
j)
=
ˆ
j ×
ˆ
i +
ˆ
k ×
ˆ
i +
ˆ
j ×
ˆ
j +
ˆ
k ×
ˆ
j
= −
ˆ
k +
ˆ
j + 0 −
ˆ
i
= −
ˆ
i +
ˆ
j −
ˆ
k
Chapter 3
MOTION IN 2 & 3
DIMENSIONS
19
20 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS
1. A) A projectile is fired with an initial speed v
o
at an angle θ with
respect to the horizontal. Neglect air resistance and derive a formula
for the horizontal range R, of the projectile. (Your formula should
make no explicit reference to time, t). At what angle is the range a
maximum ?
B) If v
0
= 30 km/hour and θ = 15
o
calculate the numerical value of
R.
SOLUTION
v
0
v
0 x
v
0 y
range, R
θ
v
0y
= v
0
sin θ
v
0x
= v
0
cos θ
In the x direction we have:
a
x
= 0
x −x
0
≡ R
v
x
= v
0x
+a
x
t
⇒v
x
= v
0x
R = x −x
0
=
v
x
+v
0x
2
t =
2v
0x
2
t = v
0
cos θ t
21
In the y direction we have:
a
y
= −g
y −y
0
= 0
0 = y −y
0
= v
0y
t +
1
2
a
y
t
2
= v
0
sin θ t −
1
2
gt
2
⇒v
0
sin θ =
1
2
gt
⇒t =
2v
0
sin θ
g
⇒R = v
0
cos θ
2v
0
sin θ
g
=
2v
2
0
cos θ sin θ
g
=
v
2
0
sin 2θ
g
i.e. R =
v
2
0
sin 2θ
g
which is a maximum for θ = 45
o
.
B)
R =
(
30×10
3
m
60×60sec
)
2
sin(2 ×15
o
)
9.8msec
−2
=
69.4 ×0.5
9.8
m
2
sec
2
msec
−2
= 3.5 m
i.e. R = 3.5 m
22 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS
2. A projectile is fired with an initial speed v
o
at an angle θ with respect
to the horizontal. Neglect air resistance and derive a formula for the
maximum height H, that the projectile reaches. (Your formula should
make no explicit reference to time, t).
SOLUTION
v
0
v
0 x
v
0 y
θ
height, H
We wish to find the maximum height H. At that point v
y
= 0. Also
in the y direction we have
a
y
= −g and H ≡ y −y
0
.
The approporiate constant acceleration equation is :
v
2
y
= v
2
0y
+ 2a
y
(y −y
0
)
0 = v
2
0
sin
2
θ −2gH
⇒ H =
v
2
0
sin
2
θ
2g
which is a maximum for θ = 90
o
, as expected.
23
3. A) If a bulls-eye target is at a horizontal distance R away, derive an
expression for the height L, which is the vertical distance above the
bulls-eye that one needs to aim a rifle in order to hit the bulls-eye.
Assume the bullet leaves the rifle with speed v
0
.
B) How much bigger is L compared to the projectile height H ?
Note: In this problem use previous results found for the range R and
height H, namely R =
v
2
0
sin 2θ
g
=
2v
2
0
sin θ cos θ
g
and H =
v
2
0
sin
2
θ
2g
.
SOLUTION
θ
height, H
range, R
L
24 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS
A) From previous work we found the range R =
v
2
0
sin 2θ
g
=
2v
2
0
sin θ cos θ
g
.
From the diagram we have
tan θ =
L
R
⇒L = Rtan θ =
2v
2
0
sin θ cos θ
g
sin θ
cos θ
=
2v
2
0
sin
2
θ
g
B) Comparing to our previous formula for the maximum height
H =
v
2
0
sin
2
θ
2g
we see that L = 4H.
25
4. Normally if you wish to hit a bulls-eye some distance away you need to
aim a certain distance above it, in order to account for the downward
motion of the projectile. If a bulls-eye target is at a horizontal distance
D away and if you instead aim an arrow directly at the bulls-eye (i.e.
directly horiziontally), by what (downward) vertical distance would
you miss the bulls-eye ?
SOLUTION
L
D
In the x direction we have: a
x
= 0, v
0x
= v
0
, x−x
0
≡ R.
The appropriate constant acceleration equation in the x direction is
x −x
0
= v
0x
+
1
2
a
x
t
2
⇒ D = v
0
t
t =
D
v
0
In the y direction we have: a
y
= −g, v
0y
= 0.
The appropriate constant acceleration equation in the y direction is
y −y
0
= v
0y
+
1
2
a
y
t
2
= 0 −
1
2
gt
2
= 0 −
1
2
g(
D
v
0
)
2
but y
0
= 0, giving y =−
1
2
g(
D
v
0
)
2
or L =
1
2
g(
D
v
0
)
2
.
26 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS
5. Prove that the trajectory of a projectile is a parabola (neglect air
resistance). Hint: the general form of a parabola is given by y =
ax
2
+bx +c.
SOLUTION
v
0
v
0 x
v
0 y
θ
Let x
0
= y
0
= 0.
In the x direction we have
v
x
= v
0x
+a
x
t
= v
0x
because a
x
= 0
Also
x −x
0
=
v
x
+v
0x
2
t
⇒x = v
0x
t = v
0
cos θt
In the y direction
y −y
0
= v
0y
t +
1
2
a
y
t
2
⇒y = v
0
sin θt −
1
2
gt
2
because a
y
= −g
= v
0
sin θ
x
v
0
cos θ

1
2
g(
x
v
0
cos θ
)
2
= xtan θ −
g
2v
2
0
cos
2
θ
x
2
which is of the form y = ax
2
+bx +c, being the general formula for a
parabola.
27
6. Even though the Earth is spinning and we all experience a centrifugal
acceleration, we are not flung off the Earth due to the gravitational
force. In order for us to be flung off, the Earth would have to be
spinning a lot faster.
A) Derive a formula for the new rotational time of the Earth, such
that a person on the equator would be flung off into space. (Take the
radius of Earth to be R).
B) Using R = 6.4 million km, calculate a numerical anser to part A)
and compare it to the actual rotation time of the Earth today.
SOLUTION
A person at the equator will be flung off if the centripetal acceleration
a becomes equal to the gravitational acceleration g. Thus
A)
g = a =
v
2
R
=
(
2πR
T
)
2
R
=

2
R
T
2
T
2
=

2
R
g
T = 2π
¸
R
g
B)
T = 2π
¸
6.4 ×10
6
km
9.81 m sec
−2
= 2π
¸
6.4 ×10
9
m
9.81 m sec
−2
= 2π
¸
6.4 ×10
9
9.81
sec
= 2π
¸
6.4 ×10
9
9.81
hour
60 ×60 sec
= 44.6 hour
i.e. Earth would need to rotate about twice as fast as it does now
(24 hours).
28 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS
7. A staellite is in a circular orbit around a planet of mass M and radius
R at an altitude of H. Derive a formula for the additional speed that
the satellite must acquire to completely escape from the planet. Check
that your answer has the correct units.
SOLUTION
The gravitational potential energy is U = −G
Mm
r
where m is the mass
of the satellite and r = R +H.
Conservation of energy is
U
i
+K
i
= U
f
+K
f
To escape to infinity then U
f
= 0 and K
f
= 0 (satellite is not moving
if it just barely escapes.)
⇒ −G
Mm
r
+
1
2
mv
2
i
= 0
giving the escape speed as
v
i
=
¸
2GM
r
The speed in the circular orbit is obtained from
F = ma
G
Mm
r
2
= m
v
2
r
⇒ v =
¸
GMm
r
The additional speed required is
v
i
−v =
¸
2GM
r

¸
GM
r
= (

2 −1)
¸
GM
r
Check units:
F = G
Mm
r
2
and so the units of G are
Nm
2
kg
2
. The units of
_
GM
r
are
¸
N m
2
kg
−2
kg
m
=
¸
kg m sec
−2
m
2
kg
−2
kg
m
=

m
2
sec
−2
= m sec
−1
which has the correct units of speed.
29
8. A mass m is attached to the end of a spring with spring constant k on
a frictionless horizontal surface. The mass moves in circular motion
of radius R and period T. Due to the centrifugal force, the spring
stretches by a certain amount x from its equilibrium position. Derive
a formula for x in terms of k, R and T. Check that x has the correct
units.
SOLUTION
ΣF = ma
kx =
mv
2
r
x =
mv
2
kR
=
m(
2πR
T
)
2
kR
=

2
mR
kT
2
Check units:
The units of k are N m
−1
(because F = −kx for a spring), and
N ≡
kg m
sec
2
. Thus

2
mR
kT
2
has units
kg m
N m
−1
sec
2
=
kg m
kg m sec
−2
m
−1
sec
2
= m
which is the correct unit of distance.
30 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS
9. A cannon ball is fired horizontally at a speed v
0
from the edge of the
top of a cliff of height H. Derive a formula for the horizontal distance
(i.e. the range) that the cannon ball travels. Check that your answer
has the correct units.
SOLUTION
H
R
v
0
In the x (horizontal) direction
x −x
0
= v
0x
t +
1
2
a
x
t
2
Now R = x −x
0
and a
x
= 0 and v
0x
= v
0
giving R = v
0
t.
We obtain t from the y direction
y −y
0
= v
0y
t +
1
2
a
y
t
2
Now y
0
= 0, y = −H, v
0y
= 0, a
y
= −g giving
−H = −
1
2
gt
2
or t =
¸
2H
g
Substuting we get
R = v
0
t = v
0
¸
2H
g
Check units:
The units of v
0
_
2H
g
are
m sec
−1
_
m
m sec
−2
= m sec
−1

sec
2
= m sec
−1
sec = m
which are the correct units for distance.
31
10. A skier starts from rest at the top of a frictionless ski slope of height
H and inclined at an angle θ to the horizontal. At the bottom of
the slope the surface changes to horizontal and has a coefficient of
kinetic friction µ
k
between the horizontal surface and the skis. Derive
a formula for the distance d that the skier travels on the horizontal
surface before coming to a stop. (Assume that there is a constant
deceleration on the horizontal surface). Check that your answer has
the correct units.
SOLUTION
H
d
θ
The horizontal distance is given by
v
2
x
= v
2
0x
+ 2a
x
(x −x
0
)
0 = v
2
0x
+ 2a
x
d
with the final speed v
x
= 0, d = x −x
0
, and the deceleration a
x
along
the horizontal surface is given by
F = ma
= −µ
k
N = ma
= −µ
k
mg
⇒ a = −µ
k
g
Substituting gives
0 = v
2
0x
−2µ
k
gd
32 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS
or d =
v
2
0x

k
g
And we get v
0x
from conservation of energy applied to the ski slope
U
i
+K
i
= U
f
+K
f
mgH + 0 = 0 +
1
2
mv
2
⇒ v = v
0x
=
_
2gH
Substituting gives
d =
2gH

k
g
=
H
µ
k
Check units:
µ
k
has no units, and so the units of
H
µ
k
are m.
33
11. A stone is thrown from the top of a building upward at an angle θ to
the horizontal and with an initial speed of v
0
as shown in the figure. If
the height of the building is H, derive a formula for the time it takes
the stone to hit the ground below.
θ
v
o
H
SOLUTION
y −y
0
= v
0y
t +
1
2
a
y
t
2
Choose the origin to be at the top of the building from where the stone
is thrown.
y
0
= 0, y = −H, a
y
= −g
v
0y
= v
0
sin θ
⇒−H −0 = v
0
sin θt −
1
2
gt
2

1
2
gt
2
+v
0
sin θt +H = 0
or
gt
2
−2v
0
sin θt −2H = 0
which is a quadratic equation with solution
t =
2v
0
sin θ ±
_
4(v
0
sin θ)
2
+ 8gH
2g
=
v
0
sin θ ±
_
(v
0
sin θ)
2
+ 2gH
g
34 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS
Chapter 4
FORCE & MOTION - I
35
36 CHAPTER 4. FORCE & MOTION - I
Chapter 5
FORCE & MOTION - II
37
38 CHAPTER 5. FORCE & MOTION - II
1. A mass m
1
hangs vertically from a string connected to a ceiling. A
second mass m
2
hangs below m
1
with m
1
and m
2
also connected by
another string. Calculate the tension in each string.
SOLUTION
A)
B)
m
m
1
2
T’
m
2
T’
W
2
T
Obviously T = W
1
+W
2
= (m
1
+m
2
)g. The forces on m
2
are indicated
in Figure B. Thus

F
y
= m
2
a
2y
T

−W
2
= 0
T

= W
2
= m
2
g
39
2. What is the acceleration of a snow skier sliding down a frictionless ski
slope of angle θ ?
Check that your answer makes sense for θ = 0
o
and for θ = 90
o
.
SOLUTION
N
W
W

c
o
s
θ
W

s
i
n
θ
θ
θ
9
0



θ
y
x
40 CHAPTER 5. FORCE & MOTION - II
Newton’s second law is
Σ

F = ma
which, broken into components is
ΣF
x
= ma
x
and ΣF
y
= ma
y
= W sin θ = ma
x
= mg sin θ = ma
x
⇒ a
x
= g sin θ
when θ = 0
o
then a
x
= 0 which makes sense, i.e. no motion.
when θ = 90
o
then a
x
= g which is free fall.
41
3. A ferris wheel rotates at constant speed in a vertical circle of radius
R and it takes time T to complete each circle. Derive a formula, in
terms of m, g, R, T, for the weight that a passenger of mass m feels at
the top and bottom of the circle. Comment on whether your answers
make sense. (Hint: the weight that a passenger feels is just the normal
force.)
SOLUTION
N
W
W
N
R
42 CHAPTER 5. FORCE & MOTION - II
Bottom: Top:
ΣF
y
= ma
y
ΣF
y
= ma
y
N −W =
mv
2
R
N −W = −
mv
2
R
The weight you feel is just N.
N = W +
mv
2
R
N = W −
mv
2
R
= mg +
m
R
_
2πR
T
_
2
= mg −
m
R
_
2πR
T
_
2
= mg +m

2
R
T
2
= mg −m

2
R
T
2
At the bottom the person feels heavier and at the top the person feels
lighter, which is as experience shows !
43
4. A block of mass m
1
on a rough, horizontal surface is connected to a
second mass m
2
by a light cord over a light frictionless pulley as shown
in the figure. (‘Light’ means that we can neglect the mass of the cord
and the mass of the pulley.) A force of magnitude F is applied to the
mass m
1
as shown, such that m
1
moves to the right. The coefficient
of kinetic friction between m
1
and the surface is µ. Derive a formula
for the acceleration of the masses. [Serway 5th ed., pg.135, Fig 5.14]
m
m
1
2
θ
F
SOLUTION
Let the acceleration of both masses be a. For mass m
2
(choosing m
2
a
with the same sign as T):
T −W
2
= m
2
a
T = m
2
a +m
2
g
For mass m
1
:

F
x
= m
1
a

F
y
= 0
F cos θ −T −F
k
= m
1
a N +F sin θ −W
1
= 0
F cos θ −T −µN = m
1
a N = m
1
g −F sin θ
44 CHAPTER 5. FORCE & MOTION - II
Substitute for T and N into the left equation
F cos θ −m
2
a −m
2
g −µ(m
1
g −F sin θ) = m
1
a
F(cos θ +µsin θ) −g(m
2
+µm
1
) = m
1
a +m
2
a
a =
F(cos θ +µsin θ) −g(m
2
+µm
1
)
m
1
+m
2
45
5. If you whirl an object of mass m at the end of a string in a vertical
circle of radius R at constant speed v, derive a formula for the tension
in the string at the top and bottom of the circle.
SOLUTION
T
W
W
T
R
46 CHAPTER 5. FORCE & MOTION - II
Bottom: Top:
ΣF
y
= ma
y
ΣF
y
= ma
y
T −W =
mv
2
R
T +W =
mv
2
R
T = W +
mv
2
R
T =
mv
2
R
−W
T = mg +
mv
2
R
T =
mv
2
R
−mg
47
6. Two masses m
1
and m
2
are connected by a string passing through a
hollow pipe with m
1
being swung around in a circle of radius R and
m
2
hanging vertically as shown in the figure.
m
2
R
m
1
Obviously if m
1
moves quickly in the circle then m
2
will start to move
upwards, but if m
1
moves slowly m
2
will start to fall.
A) Derive an expression for the tension T in the string.
B) Derive an expression for the acceleration of m
2
in terms of the period
t of the circular motion.
C) For what period t, will the mass m
2
be at rest?
D) If the masses are equal, what is the answer to Part C)?
E) For a radius of 9.81 m, what is the numerical value of this period?
48 CHAPTER 5. FORCE & MOTION - II
SOLUTION
Forces on m
2
: Forces on m
1
:

F
y
= m
2
a
y

F
x
= m
1
a
x
T −W
2
= m
2
a T = m
1
v
2
R
=
m
1
(2πR/t)
2
R
=
m
1

2
R
t
2
where we have chosen m
2
a and T with the same sign.
Substituting we obtain
m
1

2
R
T
2
−m
2
g = m
2
a
giving the acceleration as
a =
m
1
m
2

2
R
t
2
−g
The acceleration will be zero if
m
1

2
R
m
2
t
2
= g
i.e.
t
2
=
m
1
m
2

2
R
g
or
t = 2π
¸
m
1
m
2
R
g
D) If
m
1
= m
2
⇒ t = 2π
¸
R
g
for R = 9.81 m
⇒t = 2π
_
9.81 m
9.81 m sec
−2
= 2π

sec
2
= 2π sec
49
7. A) What friction force is required to stop a block of mass m moving
at speed v
0
, assuming that we want the block to stop over a distance
d ?
B) Work out a formula for the coefficient of kinetic friction that will
achieve this.
C) Evaluate numerical answers to the above two questions assuming
the mass of the block is 1000kg, the initial speed is 60 kmper hour and
the braking distance is 200m.
SOLUTION
A) We have: v = 0 x
0
= 0
v
2
= v
2
0
+ 2a(x −x
0
)
0 = v
2
0
+ 2a(d −0)
⇒ v
2
0
= −2ad
⇒ a = −
v
2
0
2d
which gives the force as
F = ma = −
mv
2
0
2d
B) The friction force can also be written
F = µ
k
N = µ
k
mg =
mv
2
0
2d
⇒ µ
k
=
v
2
0
2dg
50 CHAPTER 5. FORCE & MOTION - II
C) The force is
F = −
mv
2
0
2d
= −
1000kg ×(60 ×10
3
m hour
−1
)
2
2 ×200m
= −
1000kg ×(60 ×10
3
m)
2
2 ×200m×(60 ×60sec)
2
= −694
kg m
sec
2
= −694 Newton
The coefficient of kinetic friction is
µ
k
=
v
2
0
2dg
=
(60 ×10
3
m hour
−1
)
2
2 ×200 m×9.81 m sec
−2
=
(60 ×10
3
m)
2
2 ×200 m×9.81 m
2
sec
−2
×(60 ×60 sec)
2
= 0.07
which has no units.
Chapter 6
KINETIC ENERGY &
WORK
51
52 CHAPTER 6. KINETIC ENERGY & WORK
Chapter 7
POTENTIAL ENERGY &
CONSERVATION OF
ENERGY
53
54CHAPTER 7. POTENTIAL ENERGY&CONSERVATIONOF ENERGY
1. A block of mass m slides down a rough incline of height H and angle
θ to the horizontal. Calculate the speed of the block when it reaches
the bottom of the incline, assuming the coefficient of kinetic friction
is µ
k
.
SOLUTION
The situation is shown in the figure.
N
W
W

c
o
s
θ
W

s
i
n
θ
θ
θ
9
0



θ
y
∆ x
H
x
F
k
55
The work-energy theorem is
∆U + ∆K = W
NC
= U
f
−U
i
+K
f
−K
i
but U
f
= 0 and K
i
= 0 giving
K
F
= U
i
+W
NC
Obviously W
NC
must be negative so that K
f
< U
i
K
F
= U
i
−F
k
∆x where ∆x =
H
sin θ
1
2
mv
2
= mgH −µ
k
N
H
sin θ
where we have used F
k
= µ
k
N. To get N use Newton’s law
F = ma
N −W cos θ = 0
N = W cos θ
= mg cos θ

1
2
mv
2
= mgH −µ
k
mg cos θ
H
sin θ
v
2
= 2gH −2µ
k
g
H
tan θ
= 2gH(1 −
µ
k
tan θ
)
v =
_
2gH(1 −
µ
k
tan θ
)
56CHAPTER 7. POTENTIAL ENERGY&CONSERVATIONOF ENERGY
Chapter 8
SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES
57
58 CHAPTER 8. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES
1. A particle of mass m is located on the x axis at the position x = 1 and
a particle of mass 2m is located on the y axis at position y = 1 and
a third particle of mass m is located off-axis at the position (x, y) =
(1, 1). What is the location of the center of mass?
SOLUTION
The position of the center of mass is
r
cm
=
1
M

i
m
i
r
i
with M ≡

i
m
i
. The x and y coordinates are
x
cm
=
1
M

i
m
i
x
i
=
1
m+ 2m+m
×
×(m×1 + 2m×0 +m×1)
=
1
4m
(m+ 0 +m) =
2m
4m
=
1
2
and y
cm
=
1
M

i
m
i
y
i
=
1
m+ 2m+m
×
×(m×0 + 2m×1 +m×1)
=
1
4m
(0 + 2m+m) =
3m
4m
=
3
4
Thus the coordinates of the center of mass are
(x
cm
, y
cm
) =
_
1
2
,
3
4
_
59
2. Consider a square flat table-top. Prove that the center of mass lies at
the center of the table-top, assuming a constant mass density.
SOLUTION
Let the length of the table be L and locate it on the x–y axis so that
one corner is at the origin and the x and y axes lie along the sides
of the table. Assuming the table has a constant area mass density σ,
locate the position of the center of mass.
x
cm
=
1
M

i
m
i
x
i
=
1
M
_
xdm
=
1
M
_
x σdA with σ =
dm
dA
=
M
A
=
σ
M
_
x dA if σ is constant
=
1
A
_
L
0
_
L
0
x dxdy with A = L
2
=
1
A
_
1
2
x
2
_
L
0
[y]
L
0
=
1
A
1
2
L
2
×L =
L
3
2A
=
L
3
2L
2
=
1
2
L
and similarly for
y
cm
=
σ
M
_
y dA =
1
2
L
Thus
(x
cm
, y
cm
) =
_
1
2
L,
1
2
L
_
as expected
60 CHAPTER 8. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES
3. A child of mass m
c
is riding a sled of mass m
s
moving freely along an
icy frictionless surface at speed v
0
. If the child falls off the sled, derive
a formula for the change in speed of the sled. (Note: energy is not
conserved !) WRONG WRONG WRONG ??????????????
speed of sled remains same - person keeps moving when fall off ???????
SOLUTION
Conservation of momentum in the x direction is

p
ix
=

p
fx
(m
c
+m
s
)v
0
= m
s
v
where v is the new final speed of the sled, or
v =
_
1 +
m
c
m
s
_
v
0
the change in speed is
v −v
0
=
m
c
m
s
v
0
which will be large for small m
s
or large m
c
.
Chapter 9
COLLISIONS
61
62 CHAPTER 9. COLLISIONS
1. In a game of billiards, the player wishes to hit a stationary target ball
with the moving projectile ball. After the collision, show that the sum
of the scattering angles is 90
o
. Ignore friction and rolling motion and
assume the collision is elastic. Also both balls have the same mass.
SOLUTION The collision occurs as shown in the figure. We have
m
1
= m
2
≡ m.
Pi
v
T
v
P
v
x
y
m
1
m
2
θ
α
63
Momentum conservation is:
p
Pi
= p
P
+ p
T
and we break this down into the x and y directions. Momentum con-
servation in the y direction is:
0 = m v
T
sin α −m v
P
sin θ
v
P
sin θ = v
T
sin α
Momentum conservation in the x direction is:
m v
Pi
= m v
T
cos α +m v
P
cos θ
v
Pi
= v
T
cos α +v
P
cos θ
Energy conservation is:
1
2
m v
2
Pi
=
1
2
m v
2
P
+
1
2
m v
2
T
v
2
Pi
= v
2
P
+v
2
T
We now have 3 simultaneous equations which can be solved. This
involves a fair amount of algebra. We can do the problem much quicker
by using the square of the momentum conservation equation. Use the
notation

A.

A ≡ A
2
p
Pi
= p
P
+ p
T
⇒ p
2
Pi
= ( p
P
+ p
T
)
2
= ( p
P
+ p
T
).( p
P
+ p
T
)
= p
2
P
+p
2
T
+ 2p
T
p
P
cos(θ +α)
but the masses cancel out, giving
v
2
Pi
= v
2
P
+v
2
T
+ 2v
P
v
T
cos(θ +α)
which, from energy conservation, also equals
v
2
Pi
= v
2
P
+v
2
T
implying that
cos(θ +α) = 0
which means that
θ +α = 90
o
64 CHAPTER 9. COLLISIONS
Chapter 10
ROTATION
65
66 CHAPTER 10. ROTATION
1. Show that the ratio of the angular speeds of a pair of coupled gear
wheels is in the inverse ratio of their respective radii. [WS 13-9]
SOLUTION
2. Consider the point of contact of the two coupled gear wheels. At that
point the tangential velocity of a point on each (touching) wheel must
be the same.
v
1
= v
2
⇒ r
1
ω
1
= r
2
ω
2

ω
1
ω
2
=
r
2
r
1
67
3. Show that the magnitude of the total linear acceleration of a point
moving in a circle of radius r with angular velocity ω and angular
acceleration α is given by a = r

ω
4

2
[WS 13-8]
SOLUTION
The total linear acceleration is given by a vector sum of the radial and
tangential accelerations
a =
_
a
2
t
+a
2
r
where the radial (centripetal) aceleration is
a
r
=
v
2
r
= ω
2
r
and
a
t
= rα
so that
a =
_
r
2
α
2

4
r
2
= r
_
ω
4

2
68 CHAPTER 10. ROTATION
4. The turntable of a record player rotates initially at a rate of 33 revo-
lutions per minute and takes 20 seconds to come to rest. How many
rotations does the turntable make before coming to rest, assuming
constant angular deceleration ?
SOLUTION
ω
0
= 33
rev
min
= 33
2π radians
min
= 33
2π rad
60 sec
= 3.46 rad sec
−1
ω = 0
t = 20 sec
∆θ =
ω +ω
0
2
t =
3.46 rad sec
−1
2
20 sec
= 34.6 radian
number of rotations =
34.6 radian
2πradian
= 5.5
69
5. A cylindrical shell of mass M and radius R rolls down an incline of
height H. With what speed does the cylinder reach the bottom of the
incline ? How does this answer compare to just dropping an object
from a height H ?
SOLUTION
Conservation of energy is
K
i
+U
i
= K
f
+U
f
0 +mgH =
1
2
mv
2
+
1
2

2
+ 0
For a cylindrical shell I = mR
2
. Thus
mgH =
1
2
mv
2
+
1
2
mR
2
ω
2
and v = rω giving (with m cancelling out)
gH =
1
2
v
2
+
1
2
R
2
(
v
R
)
2
=
1
2
v
2
+
1
2
v
2
= v
2
⇒ v =
_
gH
If we just drop an object then mgH =
1
2
mv
2
and v =

2gH. Thus the
dropped object has a speed

2 times greater than the rolling object.
This is because some of the potential energy has been converted into
rolling kinetic energy.
70 CHAPTER 10. ROTATION
6. Four point masses are fastened to the corners of a frame of negligible
mass lying in the xy plane. Two of the masses lie along the x axis at
positions x = +a and x = −a and are both of the same mass M. The
other two masses lie along the y axis at positions y = +b and y = −b
and are both of the same mass m.
A) If the rotation of the system occurs about the y axis with an angu-
lar velocity ω, find the moment of inertia about the y axis and the
rotational kinetic energy about this axis.
B) Now suppose the system rotates in the xy plane about an axis through
the origin (the z axis) with angular velocity ω. Calculate the moment
of inertia about the z axis and the rotational kinetic energy about this
axis. [Serway, 3rd ed., pg. 151]
SOLUTION
A) The masses are distributed as shown in the figure. The rotational
inertia about the y axis is
I
y
=

i
r
2
i
m
i
= a
2
M + (−a)
2
M = 2Ma
2
(The m masses don’t contribute because their distance from the y axis
is 0.) The kinetic energy about the y axis is
K
y
=
1
2

2
=
1
2
2Ma
2
ω
2
= Ma
2
ω
2
. .
.
y
m
M
b
x
a
M
m
a
b
71
B) The rotational inertia about the z axis is
I
z
=

i
r
2
i
m
i
= a
2
M + (−a)
2
M +b
2
m+ (−b)
2
m
= 2Ma
2
+ 2mb
2
The kinetic energy about the z axis is
K
z
=
1
2

2
=
1
2
(2Ma
2
+ 2mb
2

2
= (Ma
2
+mb
2

2
72 CHAPTER 10. ROTATION
7. A uniform object with rotational inertia I = αmR
2
rolls without
slipping down an incline of height H and inclination angle θ. With
what speed does the object reach the bottom of the incline? What
is the speed for a hollow cylinder (I = mR
2
) and a solid cylinder
(I =
1
2
MR
2
)? Compare to the result obtained when an object is
simply dropped from a height H.
SOLUTION
The total kinetic energy is (with v = ωR)
K =
1
2
mv
2
+
1
2

2
=
1
2
mv
2
+
1
2
αmR
2
_
v
R
_
2
= (1 +α)
1
2
mv
2
Conservation of energy is
K
i
+U
i
= K
f
+U
f
O +mgH = (1 +α)
1
2
mv
2
+O
⇒v =
¸
2gH
1 +α
For a hollow cylinder I = mR
2
, i.e. α = 1 and v =

gH.
For a solid cylinder I =
1
2
mR
2
, i.e. α =
1
2
and v =
_
4
3
gH
When α = 0, we get the result for simply dropping an object,
namely v =

2gH.
73
8. A pencil of length L, with the pencil point at one end and an eraser
at the other end, is initially standing vertically on a table with the
pencil point on the table. The pencil is let go and falls over. Derive a
formula for the speed with which the eraser strikes the table, assuming
that the pencil point does not move. [WS 324]
SOLUTION
The center of mass of the pencil (of mass m) is located half-way up at
a height of L/2. Using conservation of energy
1
2

2
= mg L/2
where ω is the final angular speed of the pencil. We need to calculate
I for a uniform rod (pencil) about an axis at one end. This is
I =
_
r
2
dm =
_
r
2
ρ dV
where dV = Adr with A being the cross-sectional area of the rod
(pencil). Thus
I = ρ
_
r
2
Adr = ρA
_
L
0
r
2
dr
= ρA
_
1
3
r
3
_
L
0
= ρAL
3
/3
The density is ρ =
m
V
=
m
AL
giving
I =
m
AL
A
L
3
3
=
1
3
mL
2
We put this into the conservation of energy equation
1
2
1
3
mL
2
ω
2
= mg
L
2

1
3

2
= g
Now for the eraser v = Lω, so that
1
3
L
v
2
L
2
= g

v
2
3L
= g
⇒ v =
_
3gL
74 CHAPTER 10. ROTATION
Chapter 11
ROLLING, TORQUE &
ANGULAR MOMENTUM
75
76 CHAPTER 11. ROLLING, TORQUE & ANGULAR MOMENTUM
1. A bullet of mass m travelling with a speed v is shot into the rim of a
solid circular cylinder of radius R and mass M as shown in the figure.
The cylinder has a fixed horizontal axis of rotation, and is originally
at rest. Derive a formula for the angular speed of the cylinder after
the bullet has become imbedded in it. (Hint: The rotational inertia of
a solid cylinder about the center axis is I =
1
2
MR
2
). [WS354-355]
R
M
.
m
v
SOLUTION
Conservation of angular momentum is
L
i
= L
f
The initial angular momentum is just that of the bullet, with magni-
tude L
i
= mvR. Thus
mvR = Iω
where the final rotational inertial I is due to the spinning cylinder and
the bullet, namely
I =
1
2
MR
2
+mR
2
Thus
mvR =
_
1
2
M +m
_
R
2
ω
giving
ω =
mv
_
1
2
M +m
_
R
Chapter 12
OSCILLATIONS
77
78 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS
1. An object of mass m oscillates on the end of a spring with spring con-
stant k. Derive a formula for the time it takes the spring to stretch from
its equilibrium position to the point of maximum extension. Check
that your answer has the correct units.
SOLUTION
The frequency of a spring, with mass m on one end is
ω =
¸
k
m
and ω =

T
The time for one complete cycle is
T = 2π
_
m
k
The time for a quarter cycle is
T
4
=
π
2
_
m
k
Check units:
The units of k are N m
−1
(because F = −kx for a spring). Thus the
units of
_
m
k
are
¸
kg
N m
−1
=
¸
kg
kg m sec
−2
m
−1
=

sec
2
= sec
which are the correct units for the time
T
4
.
79
2. An object of mass m oscillates at the end of a spring with spring
constant k and amplitude A. Derive a formula for the speed of the
object when it is at a distance d from the equilibrium position. Check
that your answer has the correct units.
SOLUTION
Conservation of energy is
U
i
+K
i
= U
f
+K
f
with U =
1
2
kx
2
for a spring. At the point of maximum extension
x = A and v = 0 giving
1
2
kA
2
+ 0 =
1
2
kd
2
+
1
2
mv
2
mv
2
= k(A
2
−d
2
)
v =
¸
k
m
(A
2
−d
2
)
Check units:
The units of k are N m
−1
(because F = −kx for a spring). Thus the
units of
_
k
m
(A
2
−d
2
) are
¸
N m
−1
m
2
kg
=
¸
kg m sec
−2
m
−1
m
2
kg
=

m
2
sec
−2
= m sec
−1
which are the correct units for speed v.
80 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS
3. A block of mass m is connected to a spring with spring constant k,
and oscillates on a horizontal, frictionless surface. The other end of the
spring is fixed to a wall. If the amplitude of oscillation is A, derive a
formula for the speed of the block as a function of x, the displacement
from equilibrium. (Assume the mass of the spring is negligible.)
SOLUTION
The position as a function of time is
x = Acos ωt
with ω =
_
k
m
. The speed is
v =
dx
dt
= −Aω sin ωt
giving the total energy
E = K +U =
1
2
mv
2
+
1
2
kx
2
=
1
2
mA
2
ω
2
sin
2
ωt +
1
2
kA
2
cos
2
ωt
=
1
2
mA
2
k
m
sin
2
ωt +
1
2
kA
2
cos
2
ωt
=
1
2
kA
2
(sin
2
ωt + cos
2
ωt)
=
1
2
kA
2
(Alternative derivation:
E =
1
2
mv
2
+
1
2
kx
2
; when v = 0, x = A ⇒E =
1
2
kA
2
).
The energy is constant and always has this value. Thus
1
2
mv
2
=
1
2
kA
2

1
2
kx
2
v
2
=
k
m
(A
2
−x
2
)
v = ±
¸
k
m
(A
2
−x
2
)
81
4. A particle that hangs from a spring oscillates with an angular fre-
quency ω. The spring-particle system is suspended from the ceiling of
an elevator car and hangs motionless (relative to the elevator car), as
the car descends at a constant speed v. The car then stops suddenly.
Derive a formula for the amplitude with which the particle oscillates.
(Assume the mass of the spring is negligible.) [Serway, 5th ed., pg.
415, Problem 14]
SOLUTION
The total energy is
E = K +U =
1
2
mv
2
+
1
2
kx
2
When v = 0, x = A giving
E =
1
2
kA
2
which is a constant and is the constant value of the total energy always.
For the spring in the elevator we have the speed = v when x = 0. Thus
E =
1
2
kA
2
=
1
2
mv
2
+
1
2
kx
2
=
1
2
mv
2
+O
Thus
A
2
=
m
k
v
2
but ω =
_
k
m
giving ω
2
=
k
m
or
m
k
=
1
ω
2
A
2
=
v
2
ω
2
A =
v
ω
82 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS
5. A large block, with a second block sitting on top, is connected to a
spring and executes horizontal simple harmonic motion as it slides
across a frictionless surface with an angular frequency ω. The coeffi-
cient of static friction between the two blocks is µ
s
. Derive a formula
for the maximum amplitude of oscillation that the system can have if
the upper block is not to slip. (Assume that the mass of the spring is
negligible.) [Serway, 5th ed., pg. 418, Problem 54]
SOLUTION
Consider the upper block (of mass m),
F = ma
= µ
s
N
= µ
s
mg
so that the maximum acceleration that the upper block can experience
without slipping is
a = µ
s
g
the acceleration of the whole system is (with the mass of the lower
block being M)
F = (M +m)a
= −kx
The maximum acceleration occurs when x is maximum,
i.e. x = amplitude = A, giving the magnitude of a as
a =
kA
M +m
But ω =
_
k
M+m
giving a = Aω
2
= µ
s
g, i.e.
A =
µ
s
g
ω
2
83
6. A simple pendulum consists of a ball of mass M hanging from a uni-
form string of mass m, with m M (m is much smaller than M). If
the period of oscillation for the pendulum is T, derive a formula for
the speed of a transverse wave in the string when the pendulum hangs
at rest. [Serway, 5th ed., pg. 513, Problem 16]
SOLUTION
The period of a pendulum is given by
T = 2π
¸
L
g
where L is the length of the pendulum. The speed of a transverse wave
on a string is
v =
_
τ
µ
where τ is the tension and µ is the mass per unit length. Newton’s
law gives (neglecting the mass of the string m)
F = Ma
τ −Mg = 0
τ = Mg
and the mass per unit length is
µ =
m
L
Thus
v =
¸
Mg
m/L
=
¸
MgL
m
but T
2
= 4π
2 L
g
or L =
T
2
g

2
giving
v =
¸
MgT
2
g
m4π
2
=
gT

¸
M
m
84 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS
Chapter 13
WAVES - I
85
86 CHAPTER 13. WAVES - I
Chapter 14
WAVES - II
87
88 CHAPTER 14. WAVES - II
1. A uniform rope of mass m and length L is suspended vertically. Derive
a formula for the time it takes a transverse wave pulse to travel the
length of the rope.
(Hint: First find an expression for the wave speed at any point a
distance x from the lower end by considering the tension in the rope
as resulting from the weight of the segment below that point.) [Serway,
5th ed., p. 517, Problem 59]
SOLUTION
Consider a point a distance x from the lower end, assuming the rope
has a uniform linear mass density µ =
m
L
. The mass below the point
is
m = µx
and the weight of that mass will produce tension T in the rope above
T = mg = µxg
(This agrees with our expectation. The tension at the bottom of the
rope (x = 0) is T = 0, and at the top of the rope (x = L) the tension
is T = µLg = mg.)
The wave speed is
v =
¸
T
µ
=
_
µxg
µ
=

xg
The speed is defined as v ≡
dx
dt
and the time is dt =
dx
v
. Integrate this
to get the total time to travel the length of the rope
t =
_
t
0
dt =
_
L
0
dx
v
=
1

g
_
L
0
dx

x
=
1

g
_
2x
1/2
_
L
0
=
1

g
2

L
= 2
¸
L
g
89
2. A uniform cord has a mass m and a length L. The cord passes over
a pulley and supports an object of mass M as shown in the figure.
Derive a formula for the speed of a wave pulse travelling along the
cord. [Serway, 5 ed., p. 501]
M
x
L - x
SOLUTION
The tension T in the cord is equal to the weight of the mass M or

F = Ma
T −Mg = 0
T = Mg
The wave speed is v =
_
T
µ
where µ is the mass per unit length
µ =
m
L
Thus
v =
¸
Mg
m/L
=
¸
MgL
m
90 CHAPTER 14. WAVES - II
3. A block of mass M, supported by a string, rests on an incline making
an angle θ with the horizontal. The string’s length is L and its mass
is m M (i.e. m is negligible compared to M). Derive a formula for
the time it takes a transverse wave to travel from one end of the string
to the other. [Serway, 5th ed., p. 516, Problem 53]

L
θ
M
SOLUTION
The wave speed is given by v =
_
T
µ
where T is the tension in the
string and µ is the mass per unit length µ =
m
L
. To get the tension,
use Newton’s laws as shown in the figure below.
91
θ
M
Ν
Τ
W
W

s
i
n

θ
θ
W

c
o
s

θ
Choose the x direction along the edge

F
x
= Ma
x
T −W sin θ = 0
T = W sin θ = Mg sin θ
where we have used the fact that m M so that the mass of the
string does not affect the tension. Thus the wave speed is
v =
¸
T
µ
=
¸
Mg sin θ
m/L
=
¸
MgLsin θ
m
To get the time t for the wave to travel from one end to the other,
simply use v =
L
t
giving
t =
L
v
= L
_
m
MgLsin θ
=
¸
mL
Mg sin θ
92 CHAPTER 14. WAVES - II
4. A stationary train emits a whistle at a frequency f. The whistle
sounds higher or lower in pitch depending on whether the moving
train is approaching or receding. Derive a formula for the difference in
frequency ∆f, between the approaching and receding train whistle in
terms of u, the speed of the train, and v, the speed of sound. [Serway,
5th ed., p. 541, Problem 54]
SOLUTION The Doppler effect is summarized by
f

= f
v ±v
D
v ∓v
s
where f is the stationary frequency, f

is the observed frequency, v
D
is the speed of the detector, v
s
is the speed of the source and v is the
speed of sound.
In this example v
D
= 0. If the train is approaching the frequency
increases, with v
s
≡ u, i.e.
f

= f
v
v −u
and if the train recedes then the frequency decreases, i.e.
f

= f
v
v +u
The difference in frequencies is then
∆f = f

−f

= f
_
v
v −u

v
v +u
_
= f
v(v +u) −v(v −u)
(v −u)(v +u)
= f
v
2
+vu −v
2
+vu
v
2
−u
2
= f
2vu
v
2
−u
2
= f
2vu/v
2
v
2
/v
2
−u
2
/v
2
= f
2(u/v)
1 −(u/v)
2
Let β ≡
u
v
. Thus
∆f =

1 −β
2
f
Chapter 15
TEMPERATURE, HEAT &
1ST LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
93
94CHAPTER 15. TEMPERATURE, HEAT &1ST LAWOF THERMODYNAMICS
1. The coldest that any object can ever get is 0 K (or -273 C). It is rare for
physical quantities to have an upper or lower possible limit. Explain
why temperature has this lower limit.
SOLUTION
From the kinetic theory of gases, the temperature (or pressure) de-
pends on the speed with which the gas molecules are moving. The
slower the molecules move, the lower the temperature. We can easily
imagine the situation where the molecules are completely at rest and
not moving at all. This corresponds to the coldest possible tempera-
ture (0 K), and the molecules obviously cannot get any colder.
95
2. Suppose it takes an amount of heat Q to make a cup of coffee. If you
make 3 cups of coffee how much heat is required?
SOLUTION
The heat required is
Q = mc∆T
For fixed c and ∆T we have
Q ∝ m
Thus if m increases by 3, then so will Q. Thus the heat required is 3Q
(as one would guess).
96CHAPTER 15. TEMPERATURE, HEAT &1ST LAWOF THERMODYNAMICS
3. How much heat is required to make a cup of coffee? Assume the mass
of water is 0.1 kg and the water is initially at 0

C. We want the water
to reach boiling point.
Give your answer in Joule and calorie and Calorie.
(1 cal = 4.186 J; 1 Calorie = 1000 calorie.
For water: c = 1
cal
gC
= 4186
J
kg C
; L
v
= 2.26×10
6 J
kg
; L
f
= 3.33×10
5 J
kg
)
SOLUTION
The amount of heat required to change the temperature of water from
0

C to 100

C is
Q = mc ∆T
= 0.1 kg ×4186
J
kg
×100 C
= 41860 J = 41860
1 cal
4.186
= 10, 000 cal
= 10 Calorie
97
4. How much heat is required to change a 1 kg block of ice at −10

C to
steam at 110

C ?
Give your answer in Joule and calorie and Calorie.
(1 cal = 4.186 J; 1 Calorie = 1000 calorie.
c
water
= 4186
J
kg C
; c
ice
= 2090
J
kg C
; c
steam
= 2010
J
kg C
For water, L
v
= 2.26 ×10
6 J
kg
; L
f
= 3.33 ×10
5 J
kg
)
SOLUTION
To change the ice at −10

C to ice at 0

C the heat is
Q = mc∆T = 1 kg ×2090
J
kg C
×10C = 20900J
To change the ice at 0

C to water at 0

C the heat is
Q = mL
f
= 1 kg ×3.33 ×10
5
J
kg
= 3.33 ×10
5
J
To change the water at 0

C to water at 100

C the heat is
Q = mc∆T = 1 kg ×4186
J
kg C
×100 = 418600 J
To change the water at 100

C to steam at 100

C the heat is
Q = mL
v
= 1 kg ×2.26 ×10
6
J
kg
= 2.26 ×10
6
J
To change the steam at 100

C to steam at 110

C the heat is
Q = mC∆T = 1 kg ×2010
J
kg C
×10 C = 20100 J
The total heat is
(20900 +3.33 ×10
5
+418600 +2.26 ×10
6
+20100)J = 3.0526 ×10
6
J
= 3.0526 ×10
6
1 cal
4.186
= 7.29 ×10
5
cal = 729 Cal
98CHAPTER 15. TEMPERATURE, HEAT &1ST LAWOF THERMODYNAMICS
Chapter 16
KINETIC THEORY OF
GASES
99
100 CHAPTER 16. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES
1.
A) If the number of molecules in an ideal gas is doubled, by how much does
the pressure change if the volume and temperature are held constant?
B) If the volume of an ideal gas is halved, by how much does the pressure
change if the temperature and number of molecules is constant?
C) If the temperature of an ideal gas changes from 200 K to 400 K, by how
much does the volume change if the pressure and number of molecules
is constant.
D) Repeat part C) if the temperature changes from 200 C to 400 C.
SOLUTION
The ideal gas law is
PV = nRT
where n is the number of moles and T is the temperature in Kelvin.
This can also be written as
PV = NkT
where N is the number of molecules, k is Boltzmann’s constant and T
is still in Kelvin.
A) For V and T constant, then P ∝ N. Thus P is doubled.
B) For T and N constant, then P ∝
1
V
. Thus P is doubled.
C) In the idea gas law T is in Kelvin. Thus the Kelvin temperature has
doubled. For P and N constant, then V ∝ T. Thus V is doubled.
D) We must first convert the Centigrade temperatures to Kelvin. The
conversion is
K = C + 273
where K is the temperature in Kelvin and C is the temperature in
Centigrade. Thus
200C = 473K
400C = 673K
Thus the Kelvin temperature changes by
673
473
. As in part C, we have
V ∝ T. Thus V changes by
673
473
= 1.4
101
2. If the number of molecules in an ideal gas is doubled and the volume
is doubled, by how much does the pressure change if the temperature
is held constant ?
SOLUTION
The ideal gas law is
PV = NkT
If T is constant then
P ∝
N
V
If N is doubled and V is doubled then P does not change.
102 CHAPTER 16. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES
3. If the number of molecules in an ideal gas is doubled, and the absolute
temperature is doubled and the pressure is halved, by how much does
the volume change ?
(Absolute temperature is simply the temperature measured in Kelvin.)
SOLUTION
The ideal gas law is
PV = NkT
which implies
V ∝
NT
P
If N →2N, T →2T and P →
1
2
P then V →
2×2
1/2
V = 8V .
Thus the volume increases by a factor of 8.
Chapter 17
Review of Calculus
103
104 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
1. Calculate the derivative of y(x) = 5x + 2.
SOLUTION
y(x) = 5x + 2
y(x + ∆x) = 5(x + ∆x) + 2 = 5x + 5∆x + 2
dy
dx
= lim
∆x→0
y(x + ∆x) −y(x)
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
5x + 5∆x + 2 −(5x + 2)
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
5
= 5 as expected because the slope
of the straight line y = 5x + 2 is 5.
105
2. Calculate the slope of the curve y(x) = 3x
2
+ 1 at the points x = −1,
x = 0 and x = 2.
SOLUTION
y(x) = 3x
2
+ 1
y(x + ∆x) = 3(x + ∆x)
2
+ 1
= 3(x
2
+ 2x∆x + ∆x
2
) + 1
= 3x
2
+ 6x∆x + 3(∆x)
2
+ 1
dy
dx
= lim
∆x→0
y(x + ∆x) −y(x)
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
3x
2
+ 6x∆x + 3(∆x)
2
+ 1 −(3x
2
+ 1)
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
(6x + 3∆x)
= 6x
dy
dx
¸
¸
¸
¸
x=−1
= −6
dy
dx
¸
¸
¸
¸
x=0
= 0
dy
dx
¸
¸
¸
¸
x=2
= 12
106 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
3. Calculate the derivative of x
4
using the formula
dx
n
dx
= nx
n−1
. Verify
your answer by calculating the derivative from
dy
dx
= lim
∆x→0
y(x+∆x)−y(x)
∆x
.
SOLUTION
dx
n
dx
= nx
n−1
.
. .
dx
4
dx
= 4x
4−1
= 4x
3
Now let’s verify this.
y(x) = x
4
y(x + ∆x) = (x + ∆x)
4
= x
4
+ 4x
3
∆x + 6x
2
(∆x)
2
+ 4x(∆x)
3
+ (∆x)
4
dy
dx
= lim
∆x→0
y(x + ∆x) −y(x)
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
x
4
+ 4x
3
∆x + 6x
2
(∆x)
2
+ 4x(∆x)
3
+ (∆x)
4
−x
4
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
[4x
3
+ 6x
2
∆x + 4x(∆x)
2
+ (∆x)
3
]
= 4x
3
which agrees with above
107
4. Prove that
d
dx
(3x
2
) = 3
dx
2
dx
.
SOLUTION
y(x) = 3x
2
y(x + ∆x) = 3(x + ∆x)
2
= 3x
2
+ 6x∆x + 3(∆x)
2
dy
dx
=
d
dx
(3x
2
) = lim
∆x→0
y(x + ∆x) −y(x)
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
3x
2
+ 6x∆x + 3(∆x)
2
−3x
2
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
6x + 3∆x
= 6x
Now take
y(x) = x
2

dy
dx
= 2x
Thus
d
dx
(3x
2
) = 6x
= 3
d
dx
x
2
108 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
5. Prove that
d
dx
(x +x
2
) =
dx
dx
+
dx
2
dx
.
SOLUTION
Take y(x) = x +x
2
y(x + ∆x) = x + ∆x + (x + ∆x)
2
= x + ∆x +x
2
+ 2x∆x + (∆x)
2
dy
dx
=
d
dx
(x +x
2
) = lim
∆x→0
y(x + ∆x) −y(x)
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
x + ∆x +x
2
+ 2x∆x + (∆x)
2
−(x +x
2
)
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
(1 + 2x + ∆x)
= 1 + 2x
dx
dx
= 1
dx
2
dx
= 2x
.
. .
d
dx
(x +x
2
) =
dx
dx
+
dx
2
dx
109
6. Verify the chain rule and product rule using some examples of your
own.
SOLUTION
your own examples
110 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
7. Where do the extremum values of y(x) = x
2
− 4 occur? Verify your
answer by plotting a graph.
SOLUTION
y(x) = x
2
−4
0 =
dy
dx
= 2x
.
. . x = 0
y(0) = 0 −4 = −4
.
. . extreme occurs at (x, y) = (0, −4)
The graph below shows this is a minimum.
111
8. Evaluate
_
x
2
dx and
_
3x
3
dx.
SOLUTION
y =
_
f dx with f(x) ≡
dy
dx
A) the derivative function is f(x) = x
2
=
dy
dx
. Thus the original function must be
1
3
x
3
+c. Thus
_
x
2
dx =
1
3
x
3
+c
B) the derivative function is f(x) = 3x
3
=
dy
dx
. Thus the original
function must be 3
_
1
4
x
4
+c
_
. Thus
_
3x
3
dx =
3
4
x
4
+ 3c
or =
3
4
x
4
+c

where I have written c

≡ 3c.
112 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
9. What is the area under the curve f(x) = x between x
1
= 0 and x
2
= 3?
Work out your answer i) graphically and ii) with the integral.
SOLUTION
f(x) = x
The area of the triangle between x
1
= 0 and x
1
= 3 is
1
2
× Base × Height =
1
2
×3 ×3 = 4.5
_
3
0
xdx =
_
1
2
x
2
+c
_
3
0
=
_
1
2
3
2
+c
_

_
1
2
0
2
+c
_
=
_
9
2
+c
_
−c
=
9
2
= 4.5
in agreement with the graphical method.

2

Contents
1 MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE 2 VECTORS 3 MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS 4 FORCE & MOTION - I 5 FORCE & MOTION - II 6 KINETIC ENERGY & WORK 5 15 19 35 37 51

7 POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 53 8 SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES 9 COLLISIONS 10 ROTATION 11 ROLLING, TORQUE & ANGULAR MOMENTUM 12 OSCILLATIONS 13 WAVES - I 14 WAVES - II 57 61 65 75 77 85 87

15 TEMPERATURE, HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 93 16 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 3 99

4 17 Review of Calculus CONTENTS 103 .

Chapter 1 MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE 5 .

B in m sec−1 . B) v = dx dt and a = dv dt . D. v. C. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE 1. E. ω? B) Write down the velocity and acceleration equations as a function of time. D. Indicate for what functions the acceleration is constant. Thus iii) v = Ct i) v = 0 ii) v = B iv) v = −ωD sin ωt v) v = ωE cos ωt and notice that the units we worked out in part A) are all consistent with v having units of m· sec−1 . The following functions give the position as a function of time: i) x = A ii) x = Bt iii) x = Ct2 iv) x = D cos ωt v) x = E sin ωt where A. C.6 CHAPTER 1. D and E must be m. a as a function of time. Thus we must have A in m. C) Sketch graphs of x. SOLUTION A) X is always in m. B. E. θ is radius and cos θ and sin θ have no units. Thus ω must be sec−1 or radians sec−1 . B. ωt is always an angle. C in m sec−2 . Similarly i) a = 0 iv) a = ii) a = 0 iii) a = C v) a = −ω 2 E sin ωt −ω 2 D cos ωt . ω are constants. A) What are the units for A.

7 C) x i) x ii) x iii) t v v t v t t a a t a t t t t .

5 0 -0.8 CHAPTER 1.5 -1 0 1 2 3 4 t 5 6 .5 x 0 -0.5 0 -0.5 a 0 -0.5 -1 0 1 2 3 4 t 5 6 1 0.5 -1 0 1 2 3 4 t 5 6 v 1 0.5 -1 0 1 2 3 4 t 5 6 a 1 0.5 -1 0 1 2 3 4 t 5 6 x 1 0. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE iv) v) 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 0 1 2 3 4 t 5 6 1 0.5 v 0 -0.

The figures below show position-time graphs. x x x t t t SOLUTION The velocity-time and acceleration-time graphs are: v v v t a a t a t t t t . Sketch the corresponding velocity-time and acceleration-time graphs.9 2.

. Thus v 2 = 0 − 2g(0 − H) = 2gH ⇒ v = 2gH a = −g. SOLUTION 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a(y − y0 ) In the vertical direction we have: v0 = 0. y0 = H. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE 3.10 CHAPTER 1. If you drop an object from a height H above the ground. y = 0. work out a formula for the speed with which the object hits the ground.

by stepping on the gas pedal and moving at acceleration a. but the second car is accelerating at a and so it’s distance is given by 1 x − x0 = d = v0 t + at2 2 1 = v1 t = v2 t + at2 2 1 v1 = v2 + at 2 ⇒t = 2(v1 − v2 ) a because v0 = v2 .) SOLUTION Suppose the second car catches up in a time interval t. Derive a formula for how long it takes to catch up. During that interval. the first car (which is not accelerating) has travelled a distance d = v1 t. A car is travelling at constant speed v1 and passes a second car moving at speed v2 . The instant it passes. the driver of the second car decides to try to catch up to the first car. (The first car travels at constant speed v1 and does not accelerate. The second car also travels this distance d in time t.11 4.

MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE 5. If you start your car from rest and accelerate to 30mph in 10 seconds. 800 miles per hour2 . what is your acceleration in mph per sec and in miles per hour2 ? SOLUTION 1hour = 60 × 60sec 1 1sec = hour 60 × 60 v = v0 + at v − v0 a = t 30 mph − 0 = 10 sec = 3 mph per sec = 3 mph 1 1 = 3 mph 1 1 sec ( 60 × 60 hour) = 3 × 60 × 60 miles hour−2 = 10.12 CHAPTER 1.

v0 = V = V 2 v = V . The equation of motion is 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a(x − x0 ) and ⇒ v or 2 x0 = 0. with what speed does it return to the ground ? Prove your answer using the constant acceleration equations. and neglect air resistance. SOLUTION We would guess that the ball returns to the ground at the same speed V . and we can actually prove this. x = 0.13 6. If you throw a ball up vertically at speed V .

MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE .14 CHAPTER 1.

Chapter 2 VECTORS 15 .

(j ˆ = ˆ ˆ + 2ˆ ˆ − ˆ k − 2ˆ k i.80 .j i.t ≡ |r||t| cos θ = (ˆ + 2ˆ ˆ − k) i j).ˆ j. i j j ˆ SOLUTION r.ˆ = 0+2−0−0 = 2 |r||t| cos θ = 12 + 22 12 + (−1)2 cos θ √ √ = 5 2 cos θ √ 10 cos θ = ⇒ cos θ = 2 √ = 0.16 CHAPTER 2.632 10 ⇒ θ = 50. Calculate the angle between the vectors r = ˆ + 2ˆ and t = ˆ − k.j j. VECTORS 1.

(ˆ − ˆ i j ˆ i i.f where r = ˆ + 2ˆ and t = ˆ − k and f = ˆ − ˆ i j j ˆ i j. SOLUTION r + 2t = ˆ + 2ˆ + 2(ˆ − k) i j j ˆ ˆ = ˆ + 2ˆ + 2ˆ − 2k i j j ˆ = ˆ + 4ˆ − 2k i j (r + 2t ). Evaluate (r + 2t ).ˆ i.i j.j = 1+0−0−0−4+0 = −3 .f ˆ i j) = (ˆ + 4ˆ − 2k).i j.ˆ − ˆ ˆ − 4ˆ ˆ + 2k.17 2.j ˆj = ˆ ˆ + 4ˆ ˆ − 2k.

j ˆ j = 0+0+1+0 = 1 D) u × v = (ˆ + k) × (ˆ + ˆ j ˆ i j) = ˆ ׈+ k ׈+ ˆ × ˆ + k × ˆ j i ˆ i j j ˆ j ˆ j = −k + ˆ + 0 − ˆ i = −ˆ + ˆ − k i j ˆ .v = (ˆ + k).ˆ + ˆ ˆ + k. A) u + v B) u − v C) u.(ˆ + ˆ j ˆ i j) = ˆ ˆ + k.18 CHAPTER 2. Two vectors are defined as u = ˆ + k and v = ˆ + ˆ Evaluate: j ˆ i j.v D) u × v SOLUTION A) u + v = ˆ + k + ˆ + ˆ = ˆ + 2ˆ + k j ˆ i j i j ˆ B) u − v = ˆ + k − ˆ − ˆ = −ˆ + k j ˆ i j i ˆ C) u.ˆ j. VECTORS 3.i ˆ i j.

Chapter 3 MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS 19 .

R v0y = v0 sin θ v0x = v0 cos θ In the x direction we have: ax = 0 x − x0 ≡ R vx = v0x + ax t ⇒ vx = v0x R = x − x0 = vx + v0x 2v0x t= t = v0 cos θ t 2 2 . At what angle is the range a maximum ? B) If v0 = 30 km/hour and θ = 15o calculate the numerical value of R. (Your formula should make no explicit reference to time.20 CHAPTER 3. of the projectile. t). Neglect air resistance and derive a formula for the horizontal range R. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS 1. A) A projectile is fired with an initial speed vo at an angle θ with respect to the horizontal. SOLUTION v0 θ v0 y v0 x range.

5 m i. B) ( 30×10 m )2 sin(2 × 15o ) m2 69. R = 2 v0 sin 2θ g which is a maximum for θ = 45o .5 60×60sec R = = 9.e.8 sec2 m sec−2 = 3.5 m 3 .21 In the y direction we have: ay = −g y − y0 = 0 1 0 = y − y0 = v0y t + ay t2 2 1 = v0 sin θ t − gt2 2 1 ⇒ v0 sin θ = gt 2 2v0 sin θ ⇒t = g 2v0 sin θ 2v 2 cos θ sin θ v 2 sin 2θ = 0 = 0 ⇒ R = v0 cos θ g g g i. R = 3.e.4 × 0.8m sec−2 9.

H v0 x We wish to find the maximum height H.22 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS 2. . as expected. Also in the y direction we have ay = −g and H ≡ y − y0 . The approporiate constant acceleration equation is : 2 2 vy = v0y + 2ay (y − y0 ) 2 0 = v0 sin2 θ − 2gH 2 v0 sin2 θ ⇒ H = 2g which is a maximum for θ = 90o . At that point vy = 0. (Your formula should make no explicit reference to time. t). Neglect air resistance and derive a formula for the maximum height H. SOLUTION v0 θ v0 y height. that the projectile reaches. A projectile is fired with an initial speed vo at an angle θ with respect to the horizontal.

derive an expression for the height L. which is the vertical distance above the bulls-eye that one needs to aim a rifle in order to hit the bulls-eye. Assume the bullet leaves the rifle with speed v0 . namely R = 2 v0 sin 2θ g = 2 2v0 sin θ cos θ v 2 sin2 θ and H = 0 2g .23 3. A) If a bulls-eye target is at a horizontal distance R away. R . g SOLUTION L height. H θ range. B) How much bigger is L compared to the projectile height H ? Note: In this problem use previous results found for the range R and height H.

MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS A) From previous work we found the range R = From the diagram we have tan θ = L R 2 2v0 sin θ cos θ sin θ g cos θ 2 v0 sin 2θ g = 2 2v0 sin θ cos θ . g ⇒ L = R tan θ = = 2 2v0 sin2 θ g B) Comparing to our previous formula for the maximum height H= 2 v0 sin2 θ we see that L = 4H. 2g .24 CHAPTER 3.

The appropriate constant acceleration equation in the y direction is 1 1 y − y0 = v0y + ay t2 = 0 − gt2 2 2 1 D 2 = 0 − g( ) 2 v0 but y0 = 0. directly horiziontally). x−x0 ≡ R.e.25 4. If a bulls-eye target is at a horizontal distance D away and if you instead aim an arrow directly at the bulls-eye (i. giving y =− 2 g( v 1 D 2 0 ) or L = 2 g( v )2 . Normally if you wish to hit a bulls-eye some distance away you need to aim a certain distance above it. 0 1 D . The appropriate constant acceleration equation in the x direction is 1 x − x0 = v0x + ax t2 2 ⇒ D = v0 t D t = v0 In the y direction we have: ay = −g. by what (downward) vertical distance would you miss the bulls-eye ? SOLUTION L D In the x direction we have: ax = 0. in order to account for the downward motion of the projectile. v0x = v0 . v0y = 0.

In the x direction we have vx = v0x + ax t = v0x Also x − x0 = vx + v0x t 2 ⇒ x = v0x t = v0 cos θt because ax = 0 In the y direction 1 y − y0 = v0y t + ay t2 2 1 ⇒ y = v0 sin θt − gt2 because 2 x 1 x = v0 sin θ − g( )2 v0 cos θ 2 v0 cos θ g x2 = x tan θ − 2 2v0 cos2 θ ay = −g which is of the form y = ax2 + bx + c. .26 CHAPTER 3. Prove that the trajectory of a projectile is a parabola (neglect air resistance). SOLUTION v0 θ v0 y v0 x Let x0 = y0 = 0. Hint: the general form of a parabola is given by y = ax2 + bx + c. being the general formula for a parabola. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS 5.

SOLUTION A person at the equator will be flung off if the centripetal acceleration a becomes equal to the gravitational acceleration g.e. Even though the Earth is spinning and we all experience a centrifugal acceleration.81 ( 2πR )2 v2 4π 2 R = T = R R T2 2R 4π g R g = 2π hour 6.27 6.81 60 × 60 sec = 44.6 hour i. In order for us to be flung off. Earth would need to rotate about twice as fast as it does now (24 hours). such that a person on the equator would be flung off into space.4 × 109 sec 9. the Earth would have to be spinning a lot faster. Thus A) g=a = T2 = T B) T = 2π = 2π = 2π = 2π 6. B) Using R = 6.81 m sec−2 6. A) Derive a formula for the new rotational time of the Earth. we are not flung off the Earth due to the gravitational force. (Take the radius of Earth to be R).4 × 109 9. calculate a numerical anser to part A) and compare it to the actual rotation time of the Earth today.4 × 106 km 9. .4 million km.4 × 109 m 9.81 m sec−2 6.

Check that your answer has the correct units. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS 7. .28 CHAPTER 3. Derive a formula for the additional speed that the satellite must acquire to completely escape from the planet.) Mm 1 2 ⇒ −G + mvi = 0 r 2 giving the escape speed as vi = 2GM r = ma v2 = m r GM m r The speed in the circular orbit is obtained from F Mm G 2 r ⇒ v = The additional speed required is vi − v = 2GM − r GM r GM r GM r √ = ( 2 − 1) Check units: m F = G M2 and so the units of G are r N m2 . SOLUTION The gravitational potential energy is U = −G Mrm where m is the mass of the satellite and r = R + H. A staellite is in a circular orbit around a planet of mass M and radius R at an altitude of H. Conservation of energy is Ui + Ki = Uf + Kf To escape to infinity then Uf = 0 and Kf = 0 (satellite is not moving if it just barely escapes. kg 2 The units of are N m2 kg −2 kg kg m sec−2 m2 kg −2 kg √ 2 = = m sec−2 = m sec−1 m m which has the correct units of speed.

Due to the centrifugal force. R and T . Derive a formula for x in terms of k. the spring stretches by a certain amount x from its equilibrium position. and 2 N ≡ kg m . Thus 4π mR has units sec2 kT 2 kg m kg m = =m −1 sec2 Nm kg m sec−2 m−1 sec2 which is the correct unit of distance. Check that x has the correct units.29 8. . A mass m is attached to the end of a spring with spring constant k on a frictionless horizontal surface. The mass moves in circular motion of radius R and period T . SOLUTION ΣF = ma mv 2 kx = r m( 2πR )2 mv 2 4π 2 mR T x = = = kR kR kT 2 Check units: The units of k are N m−1 (because F = −kx for a spring).

SOLUTION v0 H R In the x (horizontal) direction 1 x − x0 = v0x t + ax t2 2 Now R = x − x0 and ax = 0 and v0x = v0 giving R = v0 t. the range) that the cannon ball travels. .e. v0y = 0. ay = −g giving 1 −H = − gt2 2 Substuting we get R = v0 t = v0 Check units: The units of v0 m sec−1 2H g or t= 2H g 2H g are √ m = m sec−1 sec2 = m sec−1 sec = m m sec−2 which are the correct units for distance. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS 9.30 CHAPTER 3. Derive a formula for the horizontal distance (i. y = −H. Check that your answer has the correct units. A cannon ball is fired horizontally at a speed v0 from the edge of the top of a cliff of height H. We obtain t from the y direction 1 y − y0 = v0y t + ay t2 2 Now y0 = 0.

(Assume that there is a constant deceleration on the horizontal surface). SOLUTION H θ The horizontal distance is given by 2 2 vx = v0x + 2ax (x − x0 ) 2 0 = v0x + 2ax d d with the final speed vx = 0. At the bottom of the slope the surface changes to horizontal and has a coefficient of kinetic friction µk between the horizontal surface and the skis. and the deceleration ax along the horizontal surface is given by F = ma = −µk N = ma = −µk mg ⇒ Substituting gives 2 0 = v0x − 2µk gd a = −µk g . d = x − x0 . Derive a formula for the distance d that the skier travels on the horizontal surface before coming to a stop.31 10. Check that your answer has the correct units. A skier starts from rest at the top of a frictionless ski slope of height H and inclined at an angle θ to the horizontal.

.32 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS or d = 2 v0x 2µk g And we get v0x from conservation of energy applied to the ski slope Ui + Ki = Uf + Kf 1 mgH + 0 = 0 + mv 2 2 ⇒ v = v0x = 2gH Substituting gives d= Check units: µk has no units. and so the units of H µk 2gH H = 2µk g µk are m.

ay = −g v0y = v0 sin θ 1 ⇒ −H − 0 = v0 sin θt − gt2 2 1 − gt2 + v0 sin θt + H = 0 2 or gt2 − 2v0 sin θt − 2H = 0 which is a quadratic equation with solution t = = 2v0 sin θ ± v0 sin θ ± 4(v0 sin θ)2 + 8gH 2g (v0 sin θ)2 + 2gH g . If the height of the building is H. y = −H.33 11. derive a formula for the time it takes the stone to hit the ground below. y0 = 0. vo θ H SOLUTION 1 y − y0 = v0y t + ay t2 2 Choose the origin to be at the top of the building from where the stone is thrown. A stone is thrown from the top of a building upward at an angle θ to the horizontal and with an initial speed of v0 as shown in the figure.

34 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS .

I 35 .Chapter 4 FORCE & MOTION .

I . FORCE & MOTION .36 CHAPTER 4.

Chapter 5 FORCE & MOTION .II 37 .

Calculate the tension in each string. The forces on m2 are indicated in Figure B. A mass m1 hangs vertically from a string connected to a ceiling. SOLUTION A) B) T’ T m 1 T’ W m m 2 2 2 Obviously T = W1 +W2 = (m1 +m2 )g.II 1. A second mass m2 hangs below m1 with m1 and m2 also connected by another string.38 CHAPTER 5. FORCE & MOTION . Thus Fy = m2 a2y T − W2 = 0 T = W 2 = m2 g .

39 2. What is the acceleration of a snow skier sliding down a frictionless ski slope of angle θ ? Check that your answer makes sense for θ = 0o and for θ = 90o . SOLUTION y N W co θ 90 − θ x sθ θ W sin θ W .

no motion. broken into components is ΣFx = max = W sin θ = max = mg sin θ = max ⇒ ax = g sin θ and ΣFy = may when θ = 0o then ax = 0 which makes sense. .II ΣF = ma which. i.e. FORCE & MOTION . when θ = 90o then ax = g which is free fall.40 Newton’s second law is CHAPTER 5.

) SOLUTION N W R N W . T . g. Derive a formula. for the weight that a passenger of mass m feels at the top and bottom of the circle. (Hint: the weight that a passenger feels is just the normal force.41 3. R. Comment on whether your answers make sense. A ferris wheel rotates at constant speed in a vertical circle of radius R and it takes time T to complete each circle. in terms of m.

II Top: ΣFy = may mv 2 N −W = R The weight you feel is just N . which is as experience shows ! .42 Bottom: CHAPTER 5. FORCE & MOTION . N mv 2 R m 2πR = mg + R T 2R 4π = mg + m 2 T = W+ ΣFy = may N −W =− mv 2 R N =W − 2 mv 2 R 2 m 2πR R T 2R 4π = mg − m 2 T = mg − At the bottom the person feels heavier and at the top the person feels lighter.

horizontal surface is connected to a second mass m2 by a light cord over a light frictionless pulley as shown in the figure.) A force of magnitude F is applied to the mass m1 as shown. (‘Light’ means that we can neglect the mass of the cord and the mass of the pulley. [Serway 5th ed. A block of mass m1 on a rough.14] F θ m1 m 2 SOLUTION Let the acceleration of both masses be a. Fig 5. Derive a formula for the acceleration of the masses.135. For mass m2 (choosing m2 a with the same sign as T ): T − W 2 = m2 a T = m2 a + m2 g For mass m1 : F x = m1 a F cos θ − T − Fk = m1 a F cos θ − T − µN = m1 a Fy = 0 N + F sin θ − W1 = 0 N = m1 g − F sin θ . The coefficient of kinetic friction between m1 and the surface is µ. pg..43 4. such that m1 moves to the right.

44 CHAPTER 5. FORCE & MOTION .II Substitute for T and N into the left equation F cos θ − m2 a − m2 g − µ(m1 g − F sin θ) = m1 a F (cos θ + µ sin θ) − g(m2 + µm1 ) = m1 a + m2 a a= F (cos θ + µ sin θ) − g(m2 + µm1 ) m1 + m2 .

If you whirl an object of mass m at the end of a string in a vertical circle of radius R at constant speed v.45 5. SOLUTION T W R T W . derive a formula for the tension in the string at the top and bottom of the circle.

II Top: ΣFy = may mv 2 T −W = R T T mv 2 R mv 2 = mg + R = W+ ΣFy = may mv 2 T +W = R mv 2 T = −W R mv 2 T = − mg R .46 Bottom: CHAPTER 5. FORCE & MOTION .

47 6. Two masses m1 and m2 are connected by a string passing through a hollow pipe with m1 being swung around in a circle of radius R and m2 hanging vertically as shown in the figure.

R

m1

m2
Obviously if m1 moves quickly in the circle then m2 will start to move upwards, but if m1 moves slowly m2 will start to fall. A) Derive an expression for the tension T in the string. B) Derive an expression for the acceleration of m2 in terms of the period t of the circular motion. C) For what period t, will the mass m2 be at rest? D) If the masses are equal, what is the answer to Part C)? E) For a radius of 9.81 m, what is the numerical value of this period?

48 SOLUTION

CHAPTER 5. FORCE & MOTION - II

Forces on m2 : Fy = m2 ay T − W 2 = m2 a

Forces on m1 : Fx = m1 ax T = m1 v2 m1 (2πR/t)2 = R R m1 4π 2 R = t2

where we have chosen m2 a and T with the same sign. Substituting we obtain m1 4π 2 R − m2 g = m2 a T2 giving the acceleration as a= m1 4π 2 R −g m2 t2

The acceleration will be zero if m1 4π 2 R =g m2 t2 i.e. t2 = or t = 2π D) If m1 = m2 ⇒ t = 2π R g m1 R m2 g m1 4π 2 R m2 g

⇒ t = 2π

for R = 9.81 m √ 9.81 m = 2π sec2 = 2π sec −2 9.81 m sec

49 7. A) What friction force is required to stop a block of mass m moving at speed v0 , assuming that we want the block to stop over a distance d? B) Work out a formula for the coefficient of kinetic friction that will achieve this. C) Evaluate numerical answers to the above two questions assuming the mass of the block is 1000kg, the initial speed is 60 km per hour and the braking distance is 200m.

SOLUTION A) We have: v=0 x0 = 0

2 v 2 = v0 + 2a(x − x0 ) 2 0 = v0 + 2a(d − 0) 2 ⇒ v0 = −2ad v2 ⇒ a = − 0 2d

which gives the force as
2 mv0 2d

F = ma = −

B) The friction force can also be written F = µk N = µk mg =
2 mv0 2d v2 ⇒ µk = 0 2dg

FORCE & MOTION .81 m2 sec−2 × (60 × 60 sec)2 = 0.50 C) The force is F = − = = = = CHAPTER 5. .07 which has no units.II 2 mv0 2d 1000kg × (60 × 103 m hour−1 )2 − 2 × 200m 1000kg × (60 × 103 m)2 − 2 × 200m × (60 × 60sec)2 kg m −694 sec2 −694 N ewton The coefficient of kinetic friction is µk = = = 2 v0 2dg (60 × 103 m hour−1 )2 2 × 200 m × 9.81 m sec−2 (60 × 103 m)2 2 × 200 m × 9.

Chapter 6 KINETIC ENERGY & WORK 51 .

52 CHAPTER 6. KINETIC ENERGY & WORK .

Chapter 7 POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 53 .

assuming the coefficient of kinetic friction is µk . Calculate the speed of the block when it reaches the bottom of the incline. y Fk H co θ 90 − θ N ∆x W sθ θ x W sin θ W . A block of mass m slides down a rough incline of height H and angle θ to the horizontal.54CHAPTER 7. SOLUTION The situation is shown in the figure. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 1.

To get N use Newton’s law F N = ma = W cos θ = mg cos θ N − W cos θ = 0 1 H ⇒ mv 2 = mgH − µk mg cos θ 2 sin θ H 2 v = 2gH − 2µk g tan θ µk = 2gH(1 − ) tan θ v = 2gH(1 − µk ) tan θ .55 The work-energy theorem is ∆U + ∆K = WN C = Uf − Ui + Kf − Ki but Uf = 0 and Ki = 0 giving KF = Ui + WN C Obviously WN C must be negative so that Kf < Ui KF = Ui − Fk ∆x where ∆x = H sin θ 1 H mv 2 = mgH − µk N 2 sin θ where we have used Fk = µk N .

56CHAPTER 7. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY .

Chapter 8 SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES 57 .

1). SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES 1.58 CHAPTER 8. y) = (1. ycm ) = 1 3 . 2 4 . What is the location of the center of mass? SOLUTION The position of the center of mass is rcm = with M ≡ xcm = = 1 M 1 M mi ri i mi . The x and y coordinates are i mi xi i and ycm = = 1 M mi yi i 1 × m + 2m + m ×(m × 1 + 2m × 0 + m × 1) 1 2m (m + 0 + m) = 4m 4m 1 = 2 = 1 × m + 2m + m ×(m × 0 + 2m × 1 + m × 1) = 1 3m (0 + 2m + m) = 4m 4m 3 = 4 Thus the coordinates of the center of mass are (xcm . A particle of mass m is located on the x axis at the position x = 1 and a particle of mass 2m is located on the y axis at position y = 1 and a third particle of mass m is located off-axis at the position (x.

SOLUTION Let the length of the table be L and locate it on the x–y axis so that one corner is at the origin and the x and y axes lie along the sides of the table. L 2 2 . Consider a square flat table-top. assuming a constant mass density. ycm ) = σ M 1 y dA = L 2 as expected 1 M mi xi = i 1 M x dm 1 dm M x σdA with σ = = M dA A σ x dA if σ is constant M 1 L L x dx dy with A = L2 A 0 0 1 1 2 L L [y]0 x A 2 0 11 2 L3 L3 L ×L= = A2 2A 2L2 1 L 2 1 1 L.59 2. locate the position of the center of mass. Prove that the center of mass lies at the center of the table-top. Assuming the table has a constant area mass density σ. xcm = = = = = = = and similarly for ycm = Thus (xcm .

or v = 1+ the change in speed is v − v0 = mc v0 ms mc v0 ms which will be large for small ms or large mc . (Note: energy is not conserved !) WRONG WRONG WRONG ?????????????? speed of sled remains same . SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES 3. .60 CHAPTER 8. If the child falls off the sled. A child of mass mc is riding a sled of mass ms moving freely along an icy frictionless surface at speed v0 . derive a formula for the change in speed of the sled.person keeps moving when fall off ??????? SOLUTION Conservation of momentum in the x direction is pix = pf x (mc + ms )v0 = ms v where v is the new final speed of the sled.

Chapter 9 COLLISIONS 61 .

Also both balls have the same mass. After the collision. COLLISIONS 1. y vT vPi m1 m2 α θ x vP . Ignore friction and rolling motion and assume the collision is elastic.62 CHAPTER 9. In a game of billiards. SOLUTION The collision occurs as shown in the figure. the player wishes to hit a stationary target ball with the moving projectile ball. We have m1 = m2 ≡ m. show that the sum of the scattering angles is 90o .

Momentum conservation in the y direction is: 0 = m vT sin α − m vP sin θ vP sin θ = vT sin α Momentum conservation in the x direction is: m vP i = m vT cos α + m vP cos θ vP i = vT cos α + vP cos θ Energy conservation is: 1 1 1 2 2 2 m vP i = m vP + m vT 2 2 2 2 2 2 vP i = vP + vT We now have 3 simultaneous equations which can be solved. We can do the problem much quicker by using the square of the momentum conservation equation.63 Momentum conservation is: pP i = pP + pT and we break this down into the x and y directions. from energy conservation. giving 2 2 2 vP i = vP + vT + 2vP vT cos(θ + α) which.A ≡ A2 p P i = pP + p T ⇒ p2 i P = (pP + pT )2 = (pP + pT ). This involves a fair amount of algebra.(pP + pT ) = p2 + p2 + 2pT pP cos(θ + α) P T but the masses cancel out. Use the notation A. also equals 2 2 2 vP i = vP + vT implying that cos(θ + α) = 0 which means that θ + α = 90o .

COLLISIONS .64 CHAPTER 9.

Chapter 10 ROTATION 65 .

[WS 13-9] SOLUTION 2. Consider the point of contact of the two coupled gear wheels. v1 = v2 ⇒ r 1 ω 1 = r2 ω 2 ω1 r2 ⇒ = ω2 r1 . At that point the tangential velocity of a point on each (touching) wheel must be the same. Show that the ratio of the angular speeds of a pair of coupled gear wheels is in the inverse ratio of their respective radii. ROTATION 1.66 CHAPTER 10.

67 3. Show that the magnitude of the total linear acceleration of a point moving in a circle of radius r √ with angular velocity ω and angular acceleration α is given by a = r ω 4 + α2 [WS 13-8] SOLUTION The total linear acceleration is given by a vector sum of the radial and tangential accelerations a= a2 + a2 r t where the radial (centripetal) aceleration is ar = and at = rα so that a= r 2 α2 + ω 4 r 2 = r ω 4 + α2 v2 = ω2r r .

68 CHAPTER 10.46 rad sec−1 ω + ω0 t= 20 sec 2 2 = 34.6 radian number of rotations = 34.5 2πradian . ROTATION 4. The turntable of a record player rotates initially at a rate of 33 revolutions per minute and takes 20 seconds to come to rest.6 radian = 5.46 rad sec−1 ω = 0 t = 20 sec ∆θ = 3. How many rotations does the turntable make before coming to rest. assuming constant angular deceleration ? SOLUTION ω0 = 33 rev 2π radians 2π rad = 33 = 33 min min 60 sec = 3.

With what speed does the cylinder reach the bottom of the incline ? How does this answer compare to just dropping an object from a height H ? SOLUTION Conservation of energy is Ki + Ui = Kf + Uf 1 1 0 + mgH = mv 2 + Iω 2 + 0 2 2 For a cylindrical shell I = mR2 . Thus 1 1 mgH = mv 2 + mR2 ω 2 2 2 and v = rω giving (with m cancelling out) gH = 1 2 v + 2 1 2 = v + 2 = v2 gH 1 2 v 2 R ( ) 2 R 1 2 v 2 ⇒ v = √ If we just drop an object then mgH = 1 mv 2 and v = 2gH. A cylindrical shell of mass M and radius R rolls down an incline of height H. . This is because some of the potential energy has been converted into rolling kinetic energy.69 5. Thus the 2 √ dropped object has a speed 2 times greater than the rolling object.

Calculate the moment of inertia about the z axis and the rotational kinetic energy about this axis. The other two masses lie along the y axis at positions y = +b and y = −b and are both of the same mass m.70 CHAPTER 10. The rotational inertia about the y axis is Iy = i 2 ri mi = a2 M + (−a)2 M = 2M a2 (The m masses don’t contribute because their distance from the y axis is 0..m . [Serway. 151] SOLUTION A) The masses are distributed as shown in the figure. M x . Two of the masses lie along the x axis at positions x = +a and x = −a and are both of the same mass M . find the moment of inertia about the y axis and the rotational kinetic energy about this axis.) The kinetic energy about the y axis is 1 1 Ky = Iω 2 = 2M a2 ω 2 = M a2 ω 2 2 2 y m . Four point masses are fastened to the corners of a frame of negligible mass lying in the xy plane. pg. A) If the rotation of the system occurs about the y axis with an angular velocity ω. M a b b a . B) Now suppose the system rotates in the xy plane about an axis through the origin (the z axis) with angular velocity ω. 3rd ed. ROTATION 6.

71 B) The rotational inertia about the z axis is Iz = i 2 2 r i mi = a M + (−a)2 M + b2 m + (−b)2 m = 2M a2 + 2mb2 The kinetic energy about the z axis is Kz = 1 2 Iω 2 1 = (2M a2 + 2mb2 )ω 2 2 = (M a2 + mb2 )ω 2 .

e. i. SOLUTION The total kinetic energy is (with v = ωR) K = = 1 mv 2 + 2 1 mv 2 + 2 1 2 Iω 2 v 1 αmR2 2 R 2 1 = (1 + α) mv 2 2 Conservation of energy is Ki + Ui = Kf + Uf 1 O + mgH = (1 + α) mv 2 + O 2 2gH ⇒v= 1+α √ For a hollow cylinder I = mR2 . √ namely v = 2gH. α = 1 and v = gH. we get the result for simply dropping an object. ROTATION 7. α = 2 1 2 and v = 4 3 gH When α = 0. For a solid cylinder I = 1 mR2 .e.72 CHAPTER 10. i. A uniform object with rotational inertia I = αmR2 rolls without slipping down an incline of height H and inclination angle θ. . With what speed does the object reach the bottom of the incline? What is the speed for a hollow cylinder (I = mR2 ) and a solid cylinder (I = 1 M R2 )? Compare to the result obtained when an object is 2 simply dropped from a height H.

with the pencil point at one end and an eraser at the other end.73 8. Thus I = ρ r2 Adr = ρA 0 L 0 L r2 dr 1 = ρA r3 3 The density is ρ = m V = ρA L3 /3 = m AL giving m L3 1 A = mL2 AL 3 3 We put this into the conservation of energy equation 11 L mL2 ω 2 = mg 23 2 1 2 ⇒ Lω = g 3 Now for the eraser v = Lω. [WS 324] SOLUTION The center of mass of the pencil (of mass m) is located half-way up at a height of L/2. Derive a formula for the speed with which the eraser strikes the table. This is I= r2 dm = r2 ρ dV where dV = Adr with A being the cross-sectional area of the rod (pencil). Using conservation of energy 1 2 Iω = mg L/2 2 where ω is the final angular speed of the pencil. so that I= 1 v2 =g L 3 L2 v2 ⇒ =g 3L ⇒ v = 3gL . We need to calculate I for a uniform rod (pencil) about an axis at one end. A pencil of length L. The pencil is let go and falls over. is initially standing vertically on a table with the pencil point on the table. assuming that the pencil point does not move.

ROTATION .74 CHAPTER 10.

TORQUE & ANGULAR MOMENTUM 75 .Chapter 11 ROLLING.

76 CHAPTER 11. with magnitude Li = mvR. A bullet of mass m travelling with a speed v is shot into the rim of a solid circular cylinder of radius R and mass M as shown in the figure. The cylinder has a fixed horizontal axis of rotation. Thus mvR = Iω where the final rotational inertial I is due to the spinning cylinder and the bullet. and is originally at rest. TORQUE & ANGULAR MOMENTUM 1. ROLLING. Derive a formula for the angular speed of the cylinder after the bullet has become imbedded in it. [WS354-355] 2 . namely 1 I = M R2 + mR2 2 Thus 1 mvR = M + m R2 ω 2 giving ω= 1 2M mv +m R . v R m M SOLUTION Conservation of angular momentum is Li = Lf The initial angular momentum is just that of the bullet. (Hint: The rotational inertia of a solid cylinder about the center axis is I = 1 M R2 ).

Chapter 12 OSCILLATIONS 77 .

Check that your answer has the correct units. with mass m on one end is ω= k m and ω= 2π T The time for one complete cycle is T = 2π The time for a quarter cycle is T π = 4 2 Check units: The units of k are N m−1 (because F = −kx for a spring). OSCILLATIONS 1. m k m k which are the correct units for the time . Thus the units of m are k kg = N m−1 √ kg = sec2 = sec −2 m−1 kg m sec T 4.78 CHAPTER 12. Derive a formula for the time it takes the spring to stretch from its equilibrium position to the point of maximum extension. An object of mass m oscillates on the end of a spring with spring constant k. SOLUTION The frequency of a spring.

.79 2. Thus the units of k 2 m (A k 2 (A − d2 ) m − d2 ) are kg m sec−2 m−1 m2 √ 2 = m sec−2 = m sec−1 kg N m−1 m2 = kg which are the correct units for speed v. SOLUTION Conservation of energy is Ui + Ki = Uf + Kf with U = 1 kx2 for a spring. Check that your answer has the correct units. Derive a formula for the speed of the object when it is at a distance d from the equilibrium position. At the point of maximum extension 2 x = A and v = 0 giving 1 2 1 2 1 kA + 0 = kd + mv 2 2 2 2 mv 2 = k(A2 − d2 ) v = Check units: The units of k are N m−1 (because F = −kx for a spring). An object of mass m oscillates at the end of a spring with spring constant k and amplitude A.

The speed is v= dx = −Aω sin ωt dt giving the total energy 1 1 E = K + U = mv 2 + kx2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 = mA ω sin ωt + kA2 cos2 ωt 2 2 k 1 1 = mA2 sin2 ωt + kA2 cos2 ωt 2 m 2 1 2 2 = kA (sin ωt + cos2 ωt) 2 1 2 = kA 2 (Alternative derivation: E = 1 mv 2 + 1 kx2 . frictionless surface. The other end of the spring is fixed to a wall. and oscillates on a horizontal.80 CHAPTER 12. If the amplitude of oscillation is A. Thus 1 mv 2 = 2 v2 = 1 2 1 2 kA − kx 2 2 k 2 (A − x2 ) m k 2 (A − x2 ) m v = ± . 2 2 2 The energy is constant and always has this value. A block of mass m is connected to a spring with spring constant k. when v = 0.) SOLUTION The position as a function of time is x = A cos ωt with ω = k m. x = A ⇒ E = 1 kA2 ). (Assume the mass of the spring is negligible. OSCILLATIONS 3. derive a formula for the speed of the block as a function of x. the displacement from equilibrium.

) [Serway. pg.. (Assume the mass of the spring is negligible. as the car descends at a constant speed v. The spring-particle system is suspended from the ceiling of an elevator car and hangs motionless (relative to the elevator car).81 4. Derive a formula for the amplitude with which the particle oscillates. Problem 14] SOLUTION The total energy is 1 1 E = K + U = mv 2 + kx2 2 2 When v = 0. The car then stops suddenly. A particle that hangs from a spring oscillates with an angular frequency ω. x = A giving 1 E = kA2 2 which is a constant and is the constant value of the total energy always. Thus 1 E = kA2 = 2 = Thus A2 = but ω = k m 1 1 mv 2 + kx2 2 2 1 mv 2 + O 2 m 2 v k 1 ω2 giving ω 2 = k m or m k = A2 = A = v2 ω2 v ω . For the spring in the elevator we have the speed = v when x = 0. 5th ed. 415.

418. A large block. Problem 54] SOLUTION Consider the upper block (of mass m). with a second block sitting on top..82 CHAPTER 12. A= µs g ω2 . is connected to a spring and executes horizontal simple harmonic motion as it slides across a frictionless surface with an angular frequency ω.e. 5th ed. OSCILLATIONS 5.) [Serway. x = amplitude = A. giving the magnitude of a as a= But ω = k M +m kA M +m giving a = Aω 2 = µs g. (Assume that the mass of the spring is negligible. i. Derive a formula for the maximum amplitude of oscillation that the system can have if the upper block is not to slip.e. The coefficient of static friction between the two blocks is µs . pg. F = ma = µs N = µs mg so that the maximum acceleration that the upper block can experience without slipping is a = µs g the acceleration of the whole system is (with the mass of the lower block being M ) F = (M + m)a = −kx The maximum acceleration occurs when x is maximum. i.

with m M (m is much smaller than M ). Newton’s law gives (neglecting the mass of the string m) F = Ma τ − Mg = 0 τ = Mg and the mass per unit length is µ= Thus v= but T 2 = 4π 2 L or L = g T 2g 4π 2 m L M gL m Mg = m/L giving v= M gT 2 g gT = m4π 2 2π M m . 5th ed. pg.83 6. 513.. A simple pendulum consists of a ball of mass M hanging from a uniform string of mass m. Problem 16] SOLUTION The period of a pendulum is given by T = 2π L g where L is the length of the pendulum. The speed of a transverse wave on a string is τ v= µ where τ is the tension and µ is the mass per unit length. If the period of oscillation for the pendulum is T . [Serway. derive a formula for the speed of a transverse wave in the string when the pendulum hangs at rest.

OSCILLATIONS .84 CHAPTER 12.

Chapter 13 WAVES .I 85 .

86 CHAPTER 13. WAVES .I .

II 87 .Chapter 14 WAVES .

) [Serway. 5th ed. Integrate this dt v to get the total time to travel the length of the rope t L t = 0 dt = 0 dx 1 =√ v g L 0 dx √ x = = 1 √ 2x1/2 g 1 √ √ 2 L g L g L 0 = 2 . The tension at the bottom of the rope (x = 0) is T = 0.. Derive a formula for the time it takes a transverse wave pulse to travel the length of the rope. The mass below the point L is m = µx and the weight of that mass will produce tension T in the rope above T = mg = µxg (This agrees with our expectation. A uniform rope of mass m and length L is suspended vertically. (Hint: First find an expression for the wave speed at any point a distance x from the lower end by considering the tension in the rope as resulting from the weight of the segment below that point. WAVES . and at the top of the rope (x = L) the tension is T = µLg = mg.II 1. Problem 59] SOLUTION Consider a point a distance x from the lower end.88 CHAPTER 14. 517. p.) The wave speed is v= T = µ µxg √ = xg µ The speed is defined as v ≡ dx and the time is dt = dx . assuming the rope has a uniform linear mass density µ = m .

501] L .x x M SOLUTION The tension T in the cord is equal to the weight of the mass M or F = Ma T − Mg = 0 T = Mg The wave speed is v = T µ where µ is the mass per unit length µ= m L M gL m Thus v= Mg = m/L . A uniform cord has a mass m and a length L. [Serway.89 2.. The cord passes over a pulley and supports an object of mass M as shown in the figure. 5 ed. Derive a formula for the speed of a wave pulse travelling along the cord. p.

II 3. A block of mass M . The string’s length is L and its mass is m M (i..90 CHAPTER 14. To get the tension. Derive a formula for the time it takes a transverse wave to travel from one end of the string to the other. . 516. rests on an incline making an angle θ with the horizontal. p. m is negligible compared to M ).e. Problem 53] L M θ SOLUTION The wave speed is given by v = T where T is the tension in the µ string and µ is the mass per unit length µ = m . [Serway. L use Newton’s laws as shown in the figure below. 5th ed. supported by a string. WAVES .

91 Τ Ν M co θ θ W W Ws Choose the x direction along the edge Fx = M ax T − W sin θ = 0 T = W sin θ = M g sin θ where we have used the fact that m M so that the mass of the string does not affect the tension. simply use v = L giving t t= L =L v m = M gL sin θ mL M g sin θ sθ in θ . Thus the wave speed is v= T = µ M g sin θ = m/L M gL sin θ m To get the time t for the wave to travel from one end to the other.

and v. If the train is approaching the frequency increases.92 CHAPTER 14. Derive a formula for the difference in frequency ∆f . 5th ed.e. Problem 54] SOLUTION The Doppler effect is summarized by f =f v ± vD v vs where f is the stationary frequency. f =f v v−u and if the train recedes then the frequency decreases.e. the speed of the train.II 4. vs is the speed of the source and v is the speed of sound. the speed of sound. f is the observed frequency. p. The whistle sounds higher or lower in pitch depending on whether the moving train is approaching or receding. A stationary train emits a whistle at a frequency f . with vs ≡ u. Thus v ∆f = . i. [Serway. vD is the speed of the detector. f =f v v+u The difference in frequencies is then ∆f v v − v−u v+u v(v + u) − v(v − u) v 2 + vu − v 2 + vu = f =f (v − u)(v + u) v 2 − u2 2vu = f 2 v − u2 2vu/v 2 2(u/v) = f 2 2 =f 2 /v 2 v /v − u 1 − (u/v)2 = f −f =f 2β f 1 − β2 Let β ≡ u . In this example vD = 0. 541. WAVES . i. between the approaching and receding train whistle in terms of u..

Chapter 15 TEMPERATURE. HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 93 .

This corresponds to the coldest possible temperature (0 K). the lower the temperature. We can easily imagine the situation where the molecules are completely at rest and not moving at all. The slower the molecules move. SOLUTION From the kinetic theory of gases. Explain why temperature has this lower limit.94CHAPTER 15. The coldest that any object can ever get is 0 K (or -273 C). TEMPERATURE. HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 1. and the molecules obviously cannot get any colder. the temperature (or pressure) depends on the speed with which the gas molecules are moving. . It is rare for physical quantities to have an upper or lower possible limit.

then so will Q. Suppose it takes an amount of heat Q to make a cup of coffee. If you make 3 cups of coffee how much heat is required? SOLUTION The heat required is Q = mc∆T For fixed c and ∆T we have Q∝m Thus if m increases by 3. .95 2. Thus the heat required is 3Q (as one would guess).

Lv = 2. 1 Calorie = 1000 calorie. TEMPERATURE. How much heat is required to make a cup of coffee? Assume the mass of water is 0. J J J For water: c = 1 cal = 4186 kg C . Lf = 3.96CHAPTER 15.1 kg and the water is initially at 0◦ C. (1 cal = 4.1 kg × 4186 J × 100 C kg 1 cal = 41860 J = 41860 = 10. 000 cal 4.186 = 10 Calorie .186 J.33 × 105 kg ) gC SOLUTION The amount of heat required to change the temperature of water from 0◦ C to 100◦ C is Q = mc ∆T = 0. HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 3. Give your answer in Joule and calorie and Calorie. We want the water to reach boiling point.26 × 106 kg .

33 × 105 + 418600 + 2.26 × 106 + 20100)J = 3.33 × 105 J = 3.0526 × 106 J = 3.97 4.186 J.26 × 106 J = 2.186 . Lv = 2.26 × 106 kg .0526 × 106 1 cal = 7.29 × 105 cal = 729 Cal 4. Lf = 3. How much heat is required to change a 1 kg block of ice at −10◦ C to steam at 110◦ C ? Give your answer in Joule and calorie and Calorie.33 × 105 J kg To change the water at 0◦ C to water at 100◦ C the heat is Q = mc∆T = 1 kg × 4186 J × 100 = 418600 J kg C To change the water at 100◦ C to steam at 100◦ C the heat is Q = mLv = 1 kg × 2. (1 cal = 4.26 × 106 J kg To change the steam at 100◦ C to steam at 110◦ C the heat is Q = mC∆T = 1 kg × 2010 J × 10 C = 20100 J kg C The total heat is (20900 + 3. J J J cwater = 4186 kg C . csteam = 2010 kg C J J For water.33 × 105 kg ) SOLUTION To change the ice at −10◦ C to ice at 0◦ C the heat is Q = mc∆T = 1 kg × 2090 J × 10C = 20900J kg C To change the ice at 0◦ C to water at 0◦ C the heat is Q = mLf = 1 kg × 3. cice = 2090 kg C . 1 Calorie = 1000 calorie.

TEMPERATURE. HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS .98CHAPTER 15.

Chapter 16 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 99 .

Thus V changes by 673 = 1.4 473 673 473 . The conversion is K = C + 273 where K is the temperature in Kelvin and C is the temperature in Centigrade. then P ∝ N . CHAPTER 16. Thus the Kelvin temperature has doubled. D) We must first convert the Centigrade temperatures to Kelvin. C) In the idea gas law T is in Kelvin. Thus V is doubled. SOLUTION The ideal gas law is P V = nRT where n is the number of moles and T is the temperature in Kelvin. we have . Thus 200C = 473K 400C = 673K Thus the Kelvin temperature changes by V ∝ T . by how much does the pressure change if the temperature and number of molecules is constant? C) If the temperature of an ideal gas changes from 200 K to 400 K. k is Boltzmann’s constant and T is still in Kelvin. D) Repeat part C) if the temperature changes from 200 C to 400 C. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES A) If the number of molecules in an ideal gas is doubled. As in part C. This can also be written as P V = N kT where N is the number of molecules. by how much does the volume change if the pressure and number of molecules is constant. B) For T and N constant.100 1. then P ∝ 1 V . Thus P is doubled. Thus P is doubled. then V ∝ T . A) For V and T constant. by how much does the pressure change if the volume and temperature are held constant? B) If the volume of an ideal gas is halved. For P and N constant.

by how much does the pressure change if the temperature is held constant ? SOLUTION The ideal gas law is P V = N kT If T is constant then N V If N is doubled and V is doubled then P does not change. If the number of molecules in an ideal gas is doubled and the volume is doubled.101 2. P ∝ .

102 CHAPTER 16. and the absolute temperature is doubled and the pressure is halved. = 8V . KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 3. T → 2T and P → 1 P then V → 2 Thus the volume increases by a factor of 8. If the number of molecules in an ideal gas is doubled. by how much does the volume change ? (Absolute temperature is simply the temperature measured in Kelvin.) SOLUTION The ideal gas law is P V = N kT which implies V ∝ NT P 2×2 1/2 V If N → 2N . .

Chapter 17 Review of Calculus 103 .

104

CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS

1. Calculate the derivative of y(x) = 5x + 2.

SOLUTION y(x) = 5x + 2 y(x + ∆x) = 5(x + ∆x) + 2 = 5x + 5∆x + 2 dy dx = y(x + ∆x) − y(x) ∆x→0 ∆x 5x + 5∆x + 2 − (5x + 2) = lim ∆x→0 ∆x = lim 5 lim
∆x→0

= 5

as expected because the slope of the straight line y = 5x + 2 is 5.

105 2. Calculate the slope of the curve y(x) = 3x2 + 1 at the points x = −1, x = 0 and x = 2.

SOLUTION y(x) = 3x2 + 1 y(x + ∆x) = 3(x + ∆x)2 + 1 = 3(x2 + 2x∆x + ∆x2 ) + 1 = 3x2 + 6x∆x + 3(∆x)2 + 1 dy dx y(x + ∆x) − y(x) ∆x→0 ∆x 3x2 + 6x∆x + 3(∆x)2 + 1 − (3x2 + 1) = lim ∆x→0 ∆x = lim (6x + 3∆x) = lim
∆x→0

= 6x dy dx dy dx dy dx

= −6
x=−1

=0
x=0

= 12
x=2

106

CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
n

3. Calculate the derivative of x4 using the formula dx = nxn−1 . Verify dx dy your answer by calculating the derivative from dx = lim y(x+∆x)−y(x) . ∆x
∆x→0

SOLUTION dxn = nxn−1 dx dx4 = 4x4−1 = 4x3 dx

... Now let’s verify this.

y(x) = x4 y(x + ∆x) = (x + ∆x)4 = x4 + 4x3 ∆x + 6x2 (∆x)2 + 4x(∆x)3 + (∆x)4 dy dx y(x + ∆x) − y(x) ∆x→0 ∆x 4 + 4x3 ∆x + 6x2 (∆x)2 + 4x(∆x)3 + (∆x)4 − x4 x = lim ∆x→0 ∆x 3 2 = lim [4x + 6x ∆x + 4x(∆x)2 + (∆x)3 ] = lim
∆x→0

= 4x3 which agrees with above

dx 2 SOLUTION y(x) = 3x2 y(x + ∆x) = 3(x + ∆x)2 = 3x2 + 6x∆x + 3(∆x)2 dy d = (3x2 ) = dx dx y(x + ∆x) − y(x) ∆x→0 ∆x 3x2 + 6x∆x + 3(∆x)2 − 3x2 = lim ∆x→0 ∆x = lim 6x + 3∆x lim ∆x→0 = 6x Now take y(x) = x2 ⇒ Thus d (3x2 ) = 6x dx d = 3 x2 dx dy = 2x dx . Prove that d 2 dx (3x ) = 3 dx .107 4.

.108 5. REVIEW OF CALCULUS + x2 ) = dx dx + dx2 dx .. SOLUTION Take y(x) = x + x2 y(x + ∆x) = x + ∆x + (x + ∆x)2 = x + ∆x + x2 + 2x∆x + (∆x)2 dy dx = y(x + ∆x) − y(x) d (x + x2 ) = lim ∆x→0 dx ∆x x + ∆x + x2 + 2x∆x + (∆x)2 − (x + x2 ) = lim ∆x→0 ∆x = lim (1 + 2x + ∆x) ∆x→0 = 1 + 2x dx dx dx2 dx = 1 = 2x dx dx2 d + . Prove that d dx (x CHAPTER 17. (x + x2 ) = dx dx dx .

Verify the chain rule and product rule using some examples of your own. SOLUTION your own examples .109 6.

REVIEW OF CALCULUS 7. Where do the extremum values of y(x) = x2 − 4 occur? Verify your answer by plotting a graph.. extreme occurs at (x.. y) = (0... . x = 0 y(0) = 0 − 4 = −4 .110 CHAPTER 17. SOLUTION y(x) = x2 − 4 dy 0= = 2x dx . −4) The graph below shows this is a minimum.

111 8. Thus 1 x2 dx = x3 + c 3 B) the derivative function is f (x) = 3x3 = function must be 3 1 4 4x dy dx . Thus 3x3 dx = or = 3 4 x + 3c 4 3 4 x +c 4 where I have written c ≡ 3c. Thus the original function must be 3 x + c. SOLUTION dy y = f dx with f (x) ≡ dx A) the derivative function is f (x) = x2 = dy 1 3 dx . Thus the original + c . . Evaluate x2 dx and 3x3 dx.

SOLUTION f (x) = x The area of the triangle between x1 = 0 and x1 = 3 is 1 1 2 × Base × Height = 2 × 3 × 3 = 4.5 3 x dx = 0 1 2 x +c 2 3 = 0 = = 1 2 3 +c − 2 9 +c −c 2 9 = 4. . What is the area under the curve f (x) = x between x1 = 0 and x2 = 3? Work out your answer i) graphically and ii) with the integral.5 2 1 2 0 +c 2 in agreement with the graphical method. REVIEW OF CALCULUS 9.112 CHAPTER 17.

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