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Higher Lessons in English

Higher Lessons in English

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  • LESSON 1
  • LESSON 2
  • LESSON 3
  • LESSON 4
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  • LESSON 7
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  • LESSON 168

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg

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Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg
The Project Gutenberg EBook of Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Copyright laws are changing all over the world. Be sure to check the copyright laws for your country before downloading or redistributing this or any other Project Gutenberg eBook. This header should be the first thing seen when viewing this Project Gutenberg file. Please do not remove it. Do not change or edit the header without written permission. Please read the "legal small print," and other information about the eBook and Project Gutenberg at the bottom of this file. Included is important information about your specific rights and restrictions in how the file may be used. You can also find out about how to make a donation to Project Gutenberg, and how to get involved. **Welcome To The World of Free Plain Vanilla Electronic Texts** **eBooks Readable By Both Humans and By Computers, Since 1971** *****These eBooks Were Prepared By Thousands of Volunteers!***** Title: Higher Lessons in English Author: Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg

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Release Date: December, 2004 [EBook #7188] [Yes, we are more than one year ahead of schedule] [This file was first posted on March 25, 2003] Edition: 10 Language: English Character set encoding: ASCII *** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK HIGHER LESSONS IN ENGLISH *** Produced by Karl Hagen and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team. ** Transcriber's Notes ** Underscores mark italics; words enclosed in +pluses+ represent boldface; Vowels followed by a colon represent a long vowel (printed with a macron in the original text). To represent the sentence diagrams in ASCII, the following conventions are used: - The heavy horizontal line (for the main clause) is formed with equals signs (==). - Other solid vertical lines are formed with minus signs (--). - Diagonal lines are formed with backslashes (\). - Words printed on a diagonal line are preceded by a backslash, with no horizontal line under them. - Dotted horizontal lines are formed with periods (..) - Dotted vertical lines are formed with straight apostrophes (') - Dotted diagonal lines are formed with slanted apostrophes (`) - Words printed over a horizontally broken line are shown like this: ----, helping '--------- Words printed bending around a diagonal-horizontal line are broken like this: \wai \ ting --------- ** End Transcriber's Notes ** HIGHER LESSONS IN ENGLISH. A WORK ON ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION, IN WHICH THE SCIENCE OF THE LANGUAGE IS MADE TRIBUTARY TO THE ART OF EXPRESSION. A COURSE OF PRACTICAL LESSONS CAREFULLY GRADED, AND ADAPTED TO EVERY-DAY USE IN THE SCHOOL-ROOM. BY ALONZO REED, A.M., FORMERLY INSTRUCTOR IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN THE POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, BROOKLYN, AND BRAINERD KELLOGG, LL.D., PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN THE POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, BROOKLYN.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Revised Edition, 1896. PREFACE. The plan of "Higher Lessons" will perhaps be better understood if we first speak of two classes of text-books with which this work is brought into competition.

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+Method of One Class of Text-books+.--In one class are those that aim chiefly to present a course of technical grammar in the order of Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody. These books give large space to grammatical Etymology, and demand much memorizing of definitions, rules, declensions, and conjugations, and much formal word parsing,--work of which a considerable portion is merely the invention of grammarians, and has little value in determining the pupil's use of language or in developing his reasoning faculties. This is a revival of the long-endured, unfruitful, old-time method. +Method of Another Class of Text-books.+--In another class are those that present a miscellaneous collection of lessons in Composition, Spelling, Pronunciation, Sentence-analysis, Technical Grammar, and General Information, without unity or continuity. The pupil who completes these books will have gained something by practice and will have picked up some scraps of knowledge; but his information will be vague and disconnected, and he will have missed that mental training which it is the aim of a good text-book to afford. A text-book is of value just so far as it presents a clear, logical development of its subject. It must present its science or its art as a natural growth, otherwise there is no apology for its being. +The Study of the Sentence for the Proper Use of Words.+--It is the plan of this book to trace with easy steps the natural development of the sentence, to consider the leading facts first and then to descend to the details. To begin with the parts of speech is to begin with details and to disregard the higher unities, without which the details are scarcely intelligible. The part of speech to which a word belongs is determined only by its function in the sentence, and inflections simply mark the offices and relations of words. Unless the pupil has been systematically trained to discover the functions and relations of words as elements of an organic whole, his knowledge of the parts of speech is of little value. It is not because he cannot conjugate the verb or decline the pronoun that he falls into such errors as "How many sounds have each of the vowels?" "Five years' interest are due." "She is older than me." He probably would not say "each have," "interest are," "me am." One thoroughly familiar with the structure of the sentence will find little trouble in using correctly the few inflectional forms in English. +The Study of the Sentence for the Laws of Discourse.+--Through the study of the sentence we not only arrive at an intelligent knowledge of the parts of speech and a correct use of grammatical forms, but we discover the laws of discourse in general. In the sentence the student should find the law of unity, of continuity, of proportion, of order. All good writing consists of good sentences properly joined. Since the sentence is the foundation or unit of discourse, it is all-important that the pupil should know the sentence. He should be able to put the principal and the subordinate parts in their proper relation; he should know the exact function of every element, its relation to other elements and its relation to the whole. He should know the sentence as the skillful engineer knows his engine, that, when there is a disorganization of parts, he may at once find the difficulty and the remedy for it. +The Study of the Sentence for the Sake of Translation.+--The laws of thought being the same for all nations, the logical analysis of the sentence is the same for all languages. When a student who has acquired a knowledge of the English sentence comes to the translation of a foreign language, he finds his work greatly simplified. If in a sentence of his own language he sees only a mass of unorganized words, how much greater must be his confusion when this mass of words is in a foreign tongue! A study of the parts of speech is a far less important preparation for translation, since the declensions and conjugations in English do not conform to those of other languages. Teachers of the classics and of modern languages are beginning to appreciate these facts.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg

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+The Study of the Sentence for Discipline+.--As a means of discipline nothing can compare with a training in the logical analysis of the sentence. To study thought through its outward form, the sentence, and to discover the fitness of the different parts of the expression to the parts of the thought, is to learn to think. It has been noticed that pupils thoroughly trained in the analysis and the construction of sentences come to their other studies with a decided advantage in mental power. These results can be obtained only by systematic and persistent work. Experienced teachers understand that a few weak lessons on the sentence at the beginning of a course and a few at the end can afford little discipline and little knowledge that will endure, nor can a knowledge of the sentence be gained by memorizing complicated rules and labored forms of analysis. To compel a pupil to wade through a page or two of such bewildering terms as "complex adverbial element of the second class" and "compound prepositional adjective phrase," in order to comprehend a few simple functions, is grossly unjust; it is a substitution of form for content, of words for ideas. +Subdivisions and Modifications after the Sentence.+--Teachers familiar with text-books that group all grammatical instruction around the eight parts of speech, making eight independent units, will not, in the following lessons, find everything in its accustomed place. But, when it is remembered that the thread of connection unifying this work is the sentence, it will be seen that the lessons fall into their natural order of sequence. When, through the development of the sentence, all the offices of the different parts of speech are mastered, the most natural thing is to continue the work of classification and subdivide the parts of speech. The inflection of words, being distinct from their classification, makes a separate division of the work. If the chief end of grammar were to enable one to parse, we should not here depart from long-established precedent. +Sentences in Groups--Paragraphs+.--In tracing the growth of the sentence from the simplest to the most complex form, each element, as it is introduced, is illustrated by a large number of detached sentences, chosen with the utmost care as to thought and expression. These compel the pupil to confine his attention to one thing till he gets it well in hand. Paragraphs from literature are then selected to be used at intervals, with questions and suggestions to enforce principles already presented, and to prepare the way informally for the regular lessons that follow. The lessons on these selections are, however, made to take a much wider scope. They lead the pupil to discover how and why sentences are grouped into paragraphs, and how paragraphs are related to each other; they also lead him on to discover whatever is most worthy of imitation in the style of the several models presented. +The Use of the Diagram+.--In written analysis, the simple map, or diagram, found in the following lessons, will enable the pupil to present directly and vividly to the eye the exact function of every clause in the sentence, of every phrase in the clause, and of every word in the phrase--to picture the complete analysis of the sentence, with principal and subordinate parts in their proper relations. It is only by the aid of such a map, or picture, that the pupil can, at a single view, see the sentence as an organic whole made up of many parts performing various functions and standing in various relations. Without such map he must labor under the disadvantage of seeing all these things by piecemeal or in succession. But if for any reason the teacher prefers not to use these diagrams, they may be omitted without causing the slightest break in the work. The plan of this book is in no way dependent on the use of the diagrams. +The Objections to the Diagram+.--The fact that the pictorial diagram groups the parts of a sentence according to their offices and relations, and not in the order of speech, has been spoken of as a fault. It is, on the contrary, a merit, for it teaches the pupil to look through the literary order and discover the logical order. He thus learns what the literary order really is, and sees that this may be varied indefinitely, so long as the logical relations are kept clear. The assertion that correct diagrams can be made mechanically is not borne out by the facts. It is easier to avoid precision in oral analysis than in written. The diagram drives the pupil to a most searching examination of the sentence, brings him face to face with every difficulty, and compels a decision on every point.

and in this edition of the work. like other good things. Henry M. A TALK ON LANGUAGE. the structure and the function of paragraphs. Whitney. it is to the authority of such men that we appeal. We confess to some surprise that so little of what was thought good in matter and method years ago has been seriously affected by criticism since. Austin Phelps. of Lafayette College. therefore. Upon these four sources of help we have drawn in the Revision of "Higher Lessons" that we now offer to the public. if the sentences are long. J. George P. Worrell. During the years in which "Higher Lessons" has been in existence.. the distinguished Prof. and Lecky in England. be used in the same class without any inconvenience. Holmes. Prof. When the diagram has served its purpose. Edward Everett. The books of former editions and those of this revised edition can. we wish specially to name Prof. Green. now alive or living till recently. We have considered hundreds of suggestive letters written us by intelligent teachers using the book. it is liable to be overdone. we chose fifty authors. Easy Gradation. When in the pages following we anywhere quote usage. Motley. Irving. which in number and numbering remain as they were. We have gone to the original source of all valid authority in our language-. have quoted the verdicts of usage on many locutions condemned by purists. Froude. and Lowell in America. W. Francis A. and sometimes are incorporated into the body of the Lessons. we have ourselves had an instructive experience with it in the classroom. When the ordinary constructions have been made clear. Thackeray.--Analysis by diagram often becomes so interesting and so helpful that. as in the preceding. March. D. have explained more fully what some teachers have thought obscure. ***** LESSON 1. . the Subdivisions and Modifications of the Parts of Speech after the treatment of these in the Sentence. or. De Quincey. In both oral and written analysis there is danger of repeating what needs no repetition. and Hawthorne. We have minutely noted and recorded what these men by habitual use declare to be good English. of the Polytechnic Institute. R. Analysis for the sake of subsequent Synthesis. have given the history of constructions where this would deepen interest or aid in composition. AUTHORS' NOTE TO REVISED EDITION. The additions made to "Higher Lessons"--additions that bring the work up to the latest requirements--are generally in foot-notes to pages. and more thoroughly. it should be dropped. We have examined the best works on grammar that have been published recently here and in England. Prescott. and have carefully read three hundred pages of each. have taught the pupil earlier in the work. we take pleasure in acknowledging our great indebtedness to our critic. Cardinal Newman. And we have done more. James Martineau. But the distinctive features of "Higher Lessons" that have made the work so useful and so popular stand as they have stood--the Study of Words from their Offices in the Sentence. Marsh. That we might ascertain what present linguistic usage is. Macaulay. Curtis. Emerson. John Morley. and have led him on from the composition of single sentences of all kinds to the composition of these great groups of sentences. Matthew Arnold. have qualified what we think was put too positively in former editions. Among the fifty are such men as Ruskin. Hamerton. and have advanced to some new positions. diagrams should be used only for the more difficult sentences. Of the teachers who have given us invaluable assistance in this Revision. etc. only for the more difficult parts of them. etc. Bagehot.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 5 +The Abuse of the Diagram+. Prof. In this revised work we have given additional reasons for the opinions we hold.the best writers and speakers of it. have tried to work into the pupil's style the felicities of expression found in the lesson sentences. There is danger of requiring too much written analysis.

and relations of the words of the English language. and so Word language is your mother-tongue. +DEFINITION. for instance. yet Natural language may be used. and use without thinking of it. to assist and strengthen Word language. 6 +DEFINITION. as was said. and calls or drives away his dog simply by the tone in which he speaks. This Natural language is the language of cries. and the action. from its superiority. and tones. Suppose. Natural language. These words you learn from your mothers. and consequently needs no interpreter. by the varying expression of the face. your thoughts. and thus convict the speaker of ignorance or deception. its scream. To communicate. The teacher of elocution is ever trying to recall the pupil to the tones. also. The look or the gesture may even dart ahead of the word. The boy raises his eyebrows in surprise and his nose in disgust. and by the movements of the different parts of the body. You learn them. or even the mental pictures we have called ideas. or a gesture? If you wish to tell me the fact that yesterday was cloudy. you have formed an idea of a day. leans forward in expectation.--Language Proper consists of the spoken and the written words used to communicate ideas and thoughts+. the whole face. a look. even the brute animals in some measure understand it. makes a fist in anger. the facial expression. draws back in fear. uses.--English Grammar is the science which teaches the forms. so natural to him in childhood and in animated conversation. This language is made up of words. laughter. Early in life we begin to acquire knowledge and learn to think. the language of the eyes. precedes this Word language. the nose. you need a language more nearly perfect. and you learn them by reading. of pain. by the tone in which we utter them. as you know. In earnest conversation we enforce what we say in words. of delight. could you express this by a tone. may be written as well as spoken. This Word language we may. its sob. its laugh. then. People of all lands and of all degrees of culture use it. and always should be used. It is a universal language. call +Language Proper+. your playmates and companions. but gives way as Word language comes in and takes its place. or it may contradict it. The child's cry tells of its wants. the mouth.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Let us talk to-day about a language that we never learn from a grammar or from a book of any kind--a language that we come by naturally. you find it wholly impossible to do this by means of Natural language.+ ***** . or that the days are shorter in winter than in summer. But feelings and desires are not the only things we wish to communicate. the language of gestures and postures. for words. The happy union of the two kinds of language is the charm of all good reading and speaking. of grief. from your friends and teachers. and then we feel the need of a better language.

in studying a sentence. Not every group of words is necessarily a sentence. and that which is said of it. are the something of which we think. Spiders spinning is not a sentence. and no thought is expressed. . The shining sun are not sentences. meaning. the word spiders names that of which we think. spoken words and written words. then. and their spinning is what we think of them. A sentence is a group of words expressing a thought. Let us see whether. we compressed our thought into a single word. composed of two parts. and something is said of something else. it is a body of which a thought is the soul. and the word spin tells what we think of spiders. that we have really made up our minds that spiders do spin. The shines sun is not a sentence. The first of these parts we call the +Subject+ of the sentence. In any such sentence as this.. though it contains the asserting word shines. while a thought cannot be. Feathers are soft. and for similar reasons. Take me up into your lap. 7 But there was a time when. meaning. The sun shines are sentences. consists of two parts. And there are two: viz. The sentence. expresses the thought. the +Predicate+. In the thought expressed by Spiders spin.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg LESSON 2. and what a sentence is. something is said. of the animals. let us see now whether we can find out what a thought is. that they spin. In the sentence expressing this thought. spiders. There is nothing in this expression to show that we have formed a judgment. The spinning is not asserted of the spiders. there must be in the thought two parts to be expressed.e. These first words always deal with the things that can be learned by the senses. i. or asserted.. the animals. something of which we think. up. To express a thought we use more than a single word. spiders. through lack of words. Spiders spin. they express the child's ideas of these things. A TALK ON THOUGHTS AND SENTENCES. It is something that can be seen or heard. the second. because it may not be the expression of a thought. and the words arranged to express a thought we call a sentence. and that which we think of it. for. Here the asserting word is supplied. we may not learn what a thought is. This thing in my hand is a book. or. We have spoken of thoughts and sentences. We have already told you that in expressing our ideas and thoughts we use two kinds of words. ***** LESSON 3. The child says to his father. or asserted. A TALK ON SOUNDS AND LETTERS. Soft feathers. Here it is said. the arrangement is such that no assertion is made. Now. if the sentence.--the name of that of which something is said. book. about something.

u for four. Mankind spoke long before they wrote. You are now prepared to understand us when we say that +vowels+ are the +letters+ that stand for the +open sounds+ of the +voice+. Every vowel does more than single duty. as in pine and pin. which represent to the eye these sounds that address the ear. Take a thread. This vibration makes sound. a for six. and sh in shut. ng in sing. There are over forty sounds in the English language. and the organs of the throat and mouth were at hand. The more violent the blow. fall. th in thine. 2. exist. If the breath is driven out without voice. Twenty-three letters represent over forty sounds. The air. Just so with these vocal bands or cords. explain the different degrees of loudness and the varying pitch of the voice. draw it tight and strike it. the other kind of consonant sounds is formed. and fare. i for two. like bands. and you will understand how voice is made. hold the other with thumb and finger. 8 In talking. full. and x that of ks. c stands for the sound of s or of k. stretched. Combinations of letters sometimes represent single sounds. one kind of the sounds called consonant sounds is made. as in city and can. If the voice thus produced comes out through the mouth held well open. the farther will the string vibrate. as in note. as in tube. o for three. or z. and move. or had thought out something worth handing down to aftertimes. The varying force with which the breath strikes them and their different tensions and lengths at different times. But if the voice is held back or obstructed by the palate. or lips. The first cry was a suggestion. Spoken words are made up of sounds. 3. or the tighter it is drawn. and the louder will be the sound. fast. as. and is held back by these same parts of the mouth. and y is a vowel when it has . th in thin. But speaking was easy. provoking imitation. not. e stands for two sounds. and Xenophon. the air driven out from your lungs beats against two flat muscles. The written word is made up of characters.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg We learned the spoken words first. fat. and fur. the lungs. and causes them to vibrate up and down. Our alphabet is imperfect in at least these three ways:-1. tub. Some letters stand each for many sounds. or letters. as in mete and met. The alphabet of a language is a complete list of its letters. tongue. and that +consonants+ are the +letters+ that stand for the sounds made by the +obstructed voice+ and the +obstructed breath+. The different combinations of these give us all the words of our spoken tongue. W is a vowel when it unites with a preceding vowel to represent a vowel sound. as in expel. and only one. put one end between your teeth. Some of the letters are superfluous. the faster will it vibrate. That you may clearly understand these sounds. did they need to write. and the higher will be the pitch of the sound. we will tell you something about the human voice. A perfect alphabet would have one letter for each sound. teeth. as in quit. as in fate. a class of sounds is formed which we call vowel sounds. far. q has the sound of k. The shorter the string. across the top of the windpipe. gz. Not until people wished to communicate with those at a distance. Sounds and noises were heard on every side. and the need of speech for the purposes of communication was imperative.

and palate are placed in the same relative position to make the sounds of both letters in any pair.--In reviewing these three Lessons.--Analyze the following sentences:-+Model+......... Drill them on the vowels also.. some of the following Lessons may be passed over rapidly.--Write these letters on the board..... Of what is something thought? Ans.. we carry in memory a picture of the pencil. Powder explodes... Learn to distinguish clearly these four things..Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg the sound of i.... Hares leap. and there are the two words naming this idea. W and y are consonants at the beginning of a word or syllable... a real thing. ew.....--If the pupils have been through "Graded Lessons" or its equivalent. The various sounds of the several vowels and even of the same vowel are caused by the different shapes which the mouth assumes. v. [Footnote: The word spiders..p d.z (in zone).--Because it expresses a thought. Vocal Consonants..y-----------------. Which word tells what is thought? Ans. and in the alphabetic i and o. as b.. teeth. we wish to emphasize one point brought before you. standing in Roman.... names our idea of the real thing.. +Direction+. Leaves tremble. 6.r-----------------.. Steam expands. and the last or vanishing part of it is the sound of the other letter of the pair....... In each of these sentences there are. 8. two parts--the +Subject+ and the +Predicate+. ou. 2. In closing this talk with you...sh The consonants in column 1 represent the sounds made by the obstructed voice.. ANALYSIS AND THE DIAGRAM. Give the sound of any letter in column 1..+ . These changes in its cavity produce...k -------------------h j... 5. 3.th. as above. Liquids flow.. The letters are mostly in pairs.. represent those made by the obstructed breath.......... Tides ebb.. Carbon burns.--The Subject of a sentence names that of which something is thought. by. TO THE TEACHER. oi... newly. Now note that the tongue.--Spiders. 4...n-----------------.. TO THE TEACHER.. lips..--Spin.ch l-----------------.. and only whisper in those of column 2. Aspirates. g. +DEFINITION. which we call an idea. b... as in now... 9... boy.. Why is this a sentence? Ans.. 9 1.....--A Sentence is the expression of a thought in words+..... and drill the pupils on the sounds till they can see and make these distinctions.. Worms crawl..f w-----------------.. the two sounds that unite in each of the compounds.s z (in azure).m-----------------. This use of Italics the teacher and the pupil will please note here and elsewhere.. 2....... ***** LESSON 4. as you have learned.. spin. put particular emphasis on Lesson 2.th (in thine) (in thin) v...] 1... those in column 2.... Iron melts.. 7. Here is a pencil. TO THE TEACHER. used merely as a word..... The difference in the sounds of the letters of any pair is simply this: there is voice in the sounds of the letters in column 1. the spoken and the written.. also. except h (which represents a mere forcible breathing). +DEFINITION.. is in Italics..--Spiders spin.t g.

Muscles tire.capsize. 15. 8. Cocks crow. Noise disturbs.+ +Direction+. ----. 13. 14.murmur.glisten. 12. Frogs croak. 8. Sap ascends. that love is the subject. Such figures. 2.--A period must be placed after every sentence that simply affirms. 7. build is the predicate because it tells what is thought. and conquers the predicate. 5. the second. 5. 8. 7. 2. 9. +PERIOD--RULE.sailed.] 1. Heralds proclaim. denies. The reasons may be made more specific. Books aid. 3.absorb. ----. let the form of analysis be varied. ----.tarnishes. ----. ----. etc. Buds swell. Sheep bleat. Blood circulates. Apes chatter. Flies buzz. ***** LESSON 5. you will understand that this word is the predicate of a sentence. This is a sentence because it expresses a thought. +CAPITAL LETTER--RULE. ----. Hearts throb. ----.sentence. 6. 9. 3. Beavers is the subject because it names that of which something is thought. ----.--The Analysis of a sentence is the separation of it into its parts. 2. 9. 3. made up of straight lines. 6.surrendered. +Explanation+. Let the first part represent the subject of a sentence. . ----.--The first word of every sentence must begin with a capital letter+.--The Predicate of a sentence tells what is thought. ----refines.corrode. Study pays.--Draw a heavy line and divide it into two parts.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +DEFINITION. What tarnishes? Who sailed. 10.radiates.+ +DEFINITION. ----. +DEFINITION. 4. 5. 6. conquered.gurgle.conquered. Here and elsewhere avoid mechanical repetition. by looking at this figure. 7. or commands. COMPOSITION--SUBJECT AND PREDICATE. Birds twitter. 11.+ +Direction+.careen. Squirrels climb. ----descends. ----. 12.--Beavers build.--Construct sentences by supplying a subject to each of the following predicates:-Ask yourselves the questions. Branches wave. If you write a word over the first part. If you write a word over the second part. Corn ripens. Hens sit. ----. 4. ----. Love | conquers ========|============ | You see. [Footnote: When pupils are familiar with the definitions. we call Diagrams. 4. Hope strengthens.--Analyze these sentences:-1. 10.+ +Direction+.--A Diagram is a picture of the offices and the relations of the different parts of a sentence.--Analyze these sentences:-- 10 +Model+. 11. that Love conquers is a sentence. Cows low. you will understand that this word is the subject of a sentence.? 1. the predicate.

Conscience -----. Light can be reflected. TO THE TEACHER. Heat -----. Stars have disappeared. Moscow has been measured.--Analyze as in Lesson 4. and then. Philosophers -----. Pitch -----. 10. 4. Electricity has been harnessed. 6. Merchants -----. Chalk -----. 5. Nature -----. Conclusions are drawn. Science would released. Labor -----. Sirius has appeared. 24. Glycerine -----. Inventors may be encouraged. 11. Pendulums -----. Planets have been discovered. 14. the subject may easily be found. Tyrants -----. ***** LESSON 7. 19. Reptiles -----. Bubbles -----. Caesar -----.--Make at least ten good sentences out of the words in the three columns following:-The helping words in column 2 must be prefixed to words in column 3 in order to make complete predicates. 15. TO THE TEACHER. 16. 17. The predicate sometimes contains more than one word. 2. Music -----. Glycerine does what? 11 1. 4.--Let this exercise be continued till the pupils can readily point out the subject and the predicate in ordinary simple sentences. Life are command. 13. Shadows may be burned. 8. 22. Raleigh have been prevail. and several predicates to each subject. Vapors -----. . COMPOSITION--SUBJECT AND PREDICATE. Wax -----. 18. Essex might have been saved. Theories will prolonged. 3. 23. Storms may be gathering. 17. +Direction+. Tempests have been raging. Tempests -----. 20. Darkness -----. Leaves are turning. 8. Analyze your sentences. 5. Caesar could have been crowned. Truth were falling. 13. 16. Look first for the word that asserts. the first and most important step in analysis will have been taken. ***** LESSON 6. 12. Constantinople had been captured. +Direction+. 7. ANALYSIS. 15. 6. 7. Life -----. Moisture is exhaled.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. 9. Palaces shall crumble. 18. 21. Jerusalem was destroyed. +Direction+. Yankees -----. Congress -----. 14. Meteors -----.--Construct sentences by supplying a predicate to each of the following subjects:-Ask yourselves the question. 11. 1. 3. Nuisances should be abated. 10. 2.--This exercise may profitably be extended by supplying several subjects to each predicate. Rain must have fallen. by putting who or what before this predicate. When this can be done promptly. 20. 9. Twilight is falling. Allen was tested.--Point out the subject and the predicate of each sentence in Lessons 12 and 17. Seeds -----. Industry will enrich. 12. 19. 1 2 3 Arts is progressing.

we are able to group things that have like qualities. for. pro. them. 12 What is language proper? What is English grammar? What is a sentence? What are its two parts? What is the subject of a sentence? The predicate of a sentence? The analysis of a sentence? What is a diagram? What rule has been given for the use of capital letters? For the period? May the predicate contain more than one word? Illustrate. or office.--We have now reached the point where we must classify the words of our language. we classify words. in the sentence. Just so we classify trees and get the oak. violets. him. who. a noun). and are. From certain likenesses in form and in structure. from others still. Sorting them thus. From their likenesses. we find that they all fall into eight classes. what. But God has made things to resemble one another and to differ from one another. me. he. We find that many words name things--are the names of things of which we can think and speak. as he has given us the power to detect resemblances and differences. we learn all we need to know of every object in it. If we must learn all about the forms and the uses of a hundred thousand words by studying these words one by one. though not in form. Review Questions. The myriad objects of nature fall into comparatively few classes. But may we not deal with words as we do with plants? If we had to study and name each leaf and stem and flower. We group them according to their similarities in use. which we call Parts of Speech.--Introduce the class to the Parts of Speech before the close of this recitation. ***** LESSON 8. +Introductory Hints+. . CLASSES OF WORDS. we put certain flowers together and call them roses. the other would not recognize the name in the place of me. taken singly. Studying each class. the maple. we. therefore. it would be difficult for one stranger to ask another. called +Pronouns+ (Lat. from other likenesses. and both would be puzzled to find a substitute for who. NOUNS. TO THE TEACHER. etc.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Quantity should have been lost. we shall die ignorant of English grammar. we should never master the botany even of our garden-plants. and other words are used in place of nouns. a name. and. we get another class called lilies. I. the elm. it. See "Introductory Hints" below. she. a noun). These we place in one class and call them +Nouns+ (Latin nomen. my. PRONOUNS. Without the little words which we shall italicize. "Can you tell me who is the postmaster at B?" The one would not know what name to use instead of you. and nomen. you. But we are appalled by their number.

william.+-. englishman. +Direction. CAPITAL LETTERS. something in the sentence. Wood | Paper | Oil | Houses + burn or burns. mary. +Direction. man. france. In writing them observe the following rules:-+CAPITAL LETTER--RULE. Note how it would sound if both should add s. they so frequently shorten the expression and prevent confusion and repetition. +Model. platonic. boston. and in another column those words that are derived from individual names:-Observe Rule 1.--A Pronoun is a word used for a noun. messiah.+--From the following words select and write in one column those names that distinguish individual things from others of the same class. milton. british. grow. easter. when the subject adds s or es to denote more than one. scriptures. broadway. the predicate does not take s. love. whether subjects or not.--Proper. hudson. names and words derived from them begin with capital letters. ohio. +Direction+. +Every subject+ of a sentence is a +noun+. +Direction. in the sentences given in Lesson 18. europe.--Abbreviations generally begin with capital letters and are always followed by the period. state. according to the model. bible. american.+--Select and write all the nouns and pronouns. melt. britain. plato. chicago. or individual.+ +PERIOD and CAPITAL LETTER--RULE.--A Noun is the name of anything. deity. +Remember+ that.+ ***** LESSON 9. miltonic.+--Write the names of the days of the week and the months of the year. But not every noun in a sentence is a subject. Lesson 8. bostonian. Coal | Leaves | Matches | Clothes | 13 +Remark. country. or revolve. america. and write the names of the seasons without capital letters. roar. +DEFINITION. river. or assert. when a class name and a distinguishing word combine to make one individual name.+ The principal office of nouns is to name the things of which we say.Nouns. christian.---Write.+ +DEFINITION. city. girl. or some word or words used as a noun. We could hardly speak or write without them now. book. the names of things that can burn. beginning each with a capital letter.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg By means of these handy little words we can represent any or every object in existence. jehovah.+--Notice that. each . england. god.

as.. city. the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. New York city. clinton county. Madison county. but we find Gulf of Mexico. using capital letters when needed:-ohio river.--Write these words. Henry Clay. the class name begins with a small letter. Usage certainly favors small initials for the following italicized words: river Rhine. as. secretary stanton. gulf of Mexico. The American Cyclopedia takes a position still further in advance. Lake Erie. White Mountains. as. +Remember+ that. Grand street. Gulf of Mexico. doctor brown. The principle we suggest may be in advance of common usage. New York City. Kings County. Black sea. each word begins with a capital letter. why should river. Mediterranean sea. Fourth Avenue. when an individual name is made up of a class name. as illustrated in the following: Bed river. & Co.--Long Island. delaware bay. the Pacific.] +Direction+. atlantic ocean. united states. cape cod. Queens county. city of New York. Atlantic ocean. empire of china. bay of naples. in Hudson river. The usage of newspapers and of text-books on geography would probably favor the writing of the class names in the examples above with initial capitals. Catskill village. Good Friday. but we find in the most carefully printed books and periodicals a tendency to favor small letters in such cases. straits of dover. colonel burr. ocean. General Jackson. city of London. Atlantic Ocean. Queens. westchester county. Mediterranean Sea. Brown. isle of man. professor huxley. Kings county. and it tends to uniformity of practice and to an improved appearance of the page. be treated differently? We often say the Hudson. such words as street. using capital letters when needed:-city of atlanta. New York State. Cape May. in the preceding examples.. river Thames. lake george. Suspension Bridge. etc. +Remember+ that. when a compound name is made up of two or more distinguishing words. +Direction+. John Stuart Mill. steamer Drew. which applies to all seas. etc. without adding the explanatory class name. If river and village. president adams. river Rhine. etc. Pacific ocean. Bunker Hill. In the superscription of letters. Pacific Ocean. when the distinguishing word can by itself be regarded as a complete name. and the word Dead. Grand st. and a distinguishing word. In the Encyclopaedia Britannica (Little. the class name should begin with a small letter. Jersey City. and county begin with capitals. About a century ago every noun began with a capital letter. when the distinguishing word can by itself be regarded as a complete name. state of Vermont. which distinguishes one sea from all others. Grand Street. rhode island. queen of england. +Examples+. sea of galilee. as. are not essential parts of the individual names. 9th ed. quite uniformly. isthmus of darien. Red River. Rocky mountains. but it is in the line of progress. Harper's Ferry. Fourth avenue. But.. the class name and the distinguishing word should each begin with a capital letter.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg word begins with a capital letter.) we find Connecticut river.--Write these words. . New York city.] 14 But. Astor House. North Pole. and county. white sea. the word of. green mountains. New York state. Mount Vernon. as. [Footnote: Dead Sea is composed of the class name sea. [Footnote: The need of some definite instruction to save the young writer from hesitation and confusion in the use of capitals is evident from the following variety of forms now in use: City of New York.

These by writing the first three letters:-Alabama. Nebraska. as. only the chief words begin with capital letters. +Direction+. plays. north america.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. south. and for convenience may he abbreviated in writing. new testament. These by writing the first letter:-East.--Write these words. professor. colonel. governor tilden. example. pilgrim's progress. using capital letters when needed:-erie canal. james russell lowell. Texas. 15 +Remember+ that. Delaware. +Direction+. cape of good hope. they should begin . the most high. and the names of the Deity. secretary. These by writing the first four letters:-Connecticut.--Write these words. and Tuesday. new orleans. massachusetts bay. and west. Lesson 8. milton's hymn on the nativity. tent on the beach. Oregon. goldsmith's she stoops to conquer. Indiana. Mississippi. british america. continent of america. city of boston. [Footnote: When these words refer to sections of the country. answer. new york central railroad. credit. Observing Rule 2. essays. Monday. Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. poems. in writing the titles of books. Kansas. and the names of the months except May. Massachusetts. cape cod bay.--Write these miscellaneous names. etc. captain. ABBREVIATIONS.. clarendon's history of the great rebellion. Wisconsin. north. Wednesday. Saturday. using capital letters when needed:-great britain. ***** LESSON 10. Michigan. flatbush village. oliver wendell holmes. old world. long island sound. south carolina. english channel. dombey and son. +Direction+. son of man. major. plymouth rock. June. pope's essay on criticism.--Some words occur frequently. esquire. the holy spirit. governor. general. honorable. anderson's history of the united states. Friday. Sunday. napoleon bonaparte. Arkansas. abbreviate these words by writing the first five letters:-Thursday and lieutenant. new england. and idem (the same). daniel webster. mount washington. the Holy One of Israel. using capital letters when needed:-declaration of independence. Colorado. Nevada. indian ocean. Minnesota. and July. Tennessee. George. johnson's lives of the poets. Illinois. reverend. Paradise Lost. webster's reply to hayne. lower california. California. These by writing the first two letters:-Company. Supreme Being. bancroft's history of the united states. England. county. president.

bu. videlicet (namely)." In the "Guide" Iowa and Ohio are not abbreviated. LL... legum doctor (doctor of laws)..--We told you in Lesson 8 how. +Introductory Hints+. you notice.. Mister. page.. ***** LESSON 11... lines. exempli gratia (for example) etc.] Messrs. or Io. Vermont. Nev.. ll. it tells what clocks do: it asserts action. North America. comes from pluralizing the nouns line. anything.. madame.. Kentucky. These words.. North Carolina.... Pennsylvania. hhd. or assert that they are. vs. Thos. id est (that is). Charles. yd. Robert. lean.. Tenn. street. barrel. or exist. VERBS. Ohio. line. member (of) Parliament. and we called them nouns. etc.. we have had to use another class of words... debtor. hdkf. pp.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg with capitals. and United States. however. Rhode Island. District (of) Columbia. Ia. tick is not the name of anything. of the abbreviations Cal. New York. libra (pound).. account. These by writing the first letter of each word of the compound with a period after each letter:-- 16 Artium baccalaureus (bachelor of arts). Ia.+--In this Lesson we have given the abbreviations of the states as now regulated by the "U. Mme. They are. in the sentence. collect on delivery. when hurriedly written. or acct. mountains. and Virginia.. When we say Clocks tick. Neb. post meridiem (afternoon).. Master.D.. nor does it tell what clocks do.e. or being. anno Domini (in the year of our Lord). Official Postal Guide. et caetera (and others). When we say Clocks are. yard.. dozen. saint.+--The following abbreviations and those you have made should be committed to memory:-Acct.. S... foot. Mo. oz. junior. versus (against).. lb. divinitatis doctor (doctor of divinity). (pronounced missis) mistress. and of p in pp.. viz. Fla.. New Jersey. Col. or bbl. Supt. it simply asserts existence.. Recd... by noticing the essential likenesses in things and grouping the things thus alike. l. do. Penn.. Io. Florida. postmaster. ft. D. New Hampshire. 0. quart. p.] These by writing the first and the last letter:-Doctor.. philosophiae doctor (doctor of philosophy). ounce.. frequently abbreviated thus: Iowa. tell what the things do. ante meridiem (before noon). has led to much confusion. we found one class of words that name things.. Maryland. qt. Georgia. Maine. numero (number). D. or There are clocks. +Direction. we could throw the countless objects around us into comparatively few classes. and page. ditto (the same) doz.. medicinae doctor (doctor of medicine). Mts. . South Carolina. artium magister (master of arts). Thomas. post-office. or office. +Remark. Chas... bushel. Mrs. superintendent. Robt. received. But in all the sentences given you.. Ph. pages. handkerchief. i. Missouri. e.. The similarity. feet. hogshead. are is not the name of. before Christ. Bbl. We began to classify words according to their use..g.. with no period between the letters. Louisiana.. member (of) Congress. messieurs (gentlemen).[Footnote: The doubling of the l to ll and in LL...

| melt. +Remark. or state of being. Give several verbs that assert action. or state. stand. adds s or es when its subject noun names but one thing. the participle and the infinitive (see Lessons 37 and 40).--Noun. | heat. birds. nor do they tell that clocks act or simply exist. (or) + spreads.--+A Verb is a word that asserts action. | scorches. or exist. Speeches were weighed. as. mills.+--Unite the words in columns 2 and 3 below. +Model+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 17 When we say Clocks hang. lie. . Lawyers. three. and have. burn. was dismembered is a verb because it asserts action. scorch. two forms of the verb. last.+--Notice that the simple form of the verb. | burns. or state of being. or state of being+. Fires | glow. she. +Parsing+. or must contain a verb. see Lesson 17. and that are. +DEFINITION+.+--Write after each of the following nouns as many appropriate verbs as you can think of:-Let some express being and some express state of being. or even four words. and have are used with nouns naming more than one thing. mind. was. | rages. [Footnote: Such groups of words are sometimes called verb-phrases. these words hang. Fire | keep. could have been learned. they have been transferred. For definition of phrase. that express action. they tell the condition. and it. she. 1 2 3 Words am confused. horses.+ +Direction+. that is. being.--Poland was dismembered.. Sugar are refined. may be learned. however. melt. books. as. ***** LESSON 12. As verbs are the only words that assert. Give some that assert being. +every predicate+ must be a verb. Cotton is exported. you. they assert state of being. and some that assert state of being. education. A verb may consist of two. a word). stand. it.] +Direction. He. Teas was delivered. and with the pronouns we. we. was. verbum. +Direction.--Parse five of the sentences you have written. in which clocks are. and has are used with nouns naming one thing. or remain. +Naming the class+ to which a word belongs is the +first step in parsing. etc. and they. +Model. being.+--Notice that is. without asserting it. we call +Verbs+ (+Lat+. and append the verbs thus formed to the nouns and pronouns in column 1 so as to make good sentences:-+Remark. do not name anything. I.--Poland is a noun because ----. and with the pronouns he. were. you has been imported. There are. I may be used with am. being-. | exists. All words that assert action. The name was given to this class because it was thought that they were the most important words in the sentence. last. Air coined. is learning.

no.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg MODIFIED SUBJECT. separate the apples into two kinds--the ripe ones and the unripe ones. to throw). thus:-- . Other words may be built upon them. and odor. apples is the +Simple Subject+ and ripe apples is the +Modified Subject+. two oranges having the same color. ad. by pointing out. as an orange and an apple. Analysis and Parsing. or some. rain | is falling =========================|============== \The \cold \November | +Explanation. no apple. each adjective does not always modify the unlimited noun. stand for the less important parts. 18 We learned in Lesson 8 that things resemble one another and differ from one another. +modify+ it. The +Subject+ with its +Modifiers+ is called the +Modified Subject+. Things are unlike. though they are the underlying timbers that support the rest of the verbal bridge. ADJECTIVES.--When several adjectives are joined to one noun. 1. +DEFINITION. some. or Logical Subject. Unripe apples are hurtful. or an. ripe apples or unripe apples applies to fewer things than apples alone applies to. to. It is by their qualities. and an. and show what is modified. this. old modifies house limited by wooden. These prefixed words ripe and unripe. In the sentence above. Things are alike whose qualities are the same. many. this. and that modifies house limited by old and wooden. and limits the word apple to the one pointed out. but the. marking opposite qualities in the apples. and are the principal parts of the sentence. The lighter lines. This may be illustrated in the diagram by numbering the modifiers in the order of their rank. and are called +Modifiers+. and jacere. or eight limits the word in respect to the number of apples that it denotes.+--The two lines shaded alike and placed uppermost stand for the subject and the predicate. or by specifying number or quantity limit the scope or add to the meaning of the noun. and show that these are of the same rank. If we say the.--The subject noun and the predicate verb are not always or often the whole of the structure that we call the sentence. The cold November rain is falling. that we know things and group them. [Footnote: TO THE TEACHER. as.--A Modifier is a word or a group of words joined to some part of the sentence to qualify or limit the meaning+. +DEFINITION. whose qualities are different. Words that modify nouns and pronouns are called +Adjectives+ (Lat. eight apples. or that points out a particular apple. taste. Here wooden modifies house. the modifiers. In these two sentences we have the same word apples to name the same general class of things. These and all such words as by marking quality. That old wooden house was burned. many. we do not mark any quality of the fruit.--An Adjective is a word used to modify a noun or a pronoun+. placed under and joined to the subject line. +Introductory Hints+. then. They resemble and they differ in what we call their qualities. Ripe apples are healthful. that apple. but the prefixed words ripe and unripe. limit the word apples in its scope. then.

I alone should suffer. 6. The cold November rain is the modified subject. 15. See Lesson 21. See Lessons 13 and 21. hence these adjectives are of the same rank. 14. The odious Stamp Act was repealed. If of the same rank. +Direction. luscious. Every intelligent American citizen should vote. When diagrams are used. +Caution. 11.+--(Here and hereafter we shall omit from the oral analysis and parsing whatever has been provided for in previous Lessons. and give your reasons:-1. in the first sentence and cannot be supplied. A wooden rickety large building. straight.+--When two or more adjectives are used with a noun. The melancholy autumn days have come. 7. the shortest first. dignified person entered. 2. A tall. 10.--While in these "models" we wish to avoid repetition. Immense suspension bridges have been built. we should require of the pupils full forms of oral analysis for at least some of the sentences in every Lesson. place nearest the noun the one most closely modifying it. and may be supplied. Five large. . as they often determine the punctuation and the arrangement. of written analysis is preferred. honest tells the kind of young men. ripe. it will be well to have them made in the analysis.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg | ==================|======= \3 \2 \1 | Adverbs. TO THE TEACHER. All nature rejoices. If the pupils are able to see these distinctions. place them where they will sound best--generally in the order of length. 5. and how soon the pupil may dispense with their aid altogether. 8. cold. or no form. +Oral Analysis.+--Arrange the adjectives below. COMPOSITION--ADJECTIVES. our diagrams can be omitted without break or confusion. +Explanation.) The. Tall. we wish to say that the work required in this book can all be done without resorting to these figures. and dignified modify person independently--the person is tall and straight and dignified. The long Hoosac Tunnel is completed. If some other form.] 19 +TO THE TEACHER.+--While we. and two tells the number of honest young men. The old Liberty Bell was rung. The oppressed Russian serfs have been freed. The famous Alexandrian library was burned. ***** LESSON 13. and both phrase and clause modifiers often differ in rank in the same way. 3. A free people should be educated. 2. The great Spanish Armada was destroyed. only the teacher can determine how many shall be required in any one Lesson. care must be taken in their arrangement. 12. and the pointing out. If they differ in rank. and November are modifiers of the subject. Young tells the kind of men. +Parsing. from experience. A poor old wounded soldier returned. cold. 13. mellow apples were picked. 4. Notice the comma after tall and straight.+--The. are clear in the belief that diagrams are very helpful in the analysis of sentences. 3. 9. Level low five the fields. hence these adjectives are not of the same rank.+--Two honest young men were chosen. straight. and November are adjectives modifying rain--cold and November expressing quality. A Newfoundland pet handsome large dog.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg

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4. Blind white beautiful three mice. 5. An energetic restless brave people. 6. An enlightened civilized nation. +Direction.+--Form sentences by prefixing modified subjects to these predicates:-1. ------ have been invented. 2. ------ were destroyed. 3. ------ are cultivated. 4. ------ may be abused. 5. -----was mutilated. 6. ------ were carved. 7. ------ have been discovered. 8. ------ have fallen. 9. ------ will be respected. 10. ------ have been built. +Direction.+--Construct ten sentences, each of which shall contain a subject modified by three adjectives--one from each of these columns:-Let the adjectives be appropriate. For punctuation, see Lesson 21. The dark sunny That bright wearisome This dingy commercial Those short blue These soft adventurous Five brave fleecy Some tiny parallel Several important cheerless Many long golden A warm turbid +Direction+.--Prefix to each of these nouns several appropriate adjectives:-River, frost, grain, ships, air, men. +Direction+.--Couple those adjectives and nouns below that most appropriately go together:-Modest, lovely, flaunting, meek, patient, faithful, saucy, spirited, violet, dahlia, sheep, pansy, ox, dog, horse, rose, gentle, duck, sly, waddling, cooing, chattering, homely, chirping, puss, robin, dove, sparrow, blackbird, cow, hen, cackling. ***** LESSON 14. MODIFIED PREDICATE. ADVERBS. +Introductory Hints+.--You have learned that the subject may be modified; let us see whether the predicate may be. If we say, The leaves fall, we express a fact in a general way. But, if we wish to speak of the time of their falling, we can add a word and say, The leaves fall early; of the place of their falling, The leaves fall here; of the manner, The leaves fall quietly; of the cause, Why do the leaves fall? We may join a word to one of these modifiers and say, The leaves fall very quietly. Here very modifies quietly by telling the degree. Very quietly is a group of words modifying the predicate. The predicate with its modifiers is called the +Modified Predicate+. Such words as very, here, and quietly form another part of speech, and are called +Adverbs+ (Lat. ad, to, and verbum, a word, or verb). Adverbs may modify adjectives; as, Very ripe apples are healthful. Adverbs modify verbs just as adjectives modify nouns--by limiting them. The horse has a proud step = The horse steps proudly. The +Predicate+ with its +Modifiers+ is called the +Modified +Predicate, or Logical Predicate.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +DEFINITION.--An Adverb is a word used to modify a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.+ [Footnote: See Lesson 92 and foot-note.] Analysis and Parsing. 1. The leaves fall very quietly. leaves | fall ========|====== \The | \quietly \very

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+Oral Analysis+.--Very quietly is a modifier of the predicate; quietly is the principal word of the group; very modifies quietly; the leaves is the modified subject; fall very quietly is the modified predicate. +Parsing+.--Quietly is an adverb modifying fall, telling the manner; very is an adverb modifying quietly, telling the degree. 2. The old, historic Charter Oak was blown down. 3. The stern, rigid Puritans often worshiped there. 4. Bright-eyed daisies peep up everywhere. 5. The precious morning hours should not be wasted. 6. The timely suggestion was very kindly received. 7. We turned rather abruptly. 8. A highly enjoyable entertainment was provided. 9. The entertainment was highly enjoyed. 10. Why will people exaggerate so! 11. A somewhat dangerous pass had been reached quite unexpectedly. 12. We now travel still more rapidly. 13. Therefore he spoke excitedly. 14. You will undoubtedly be very cordially welcomed. 15. A furious equinoctial gale has just swept by. 16. The Hell Gate reef was slowly drilled away. ***** LESSON 15. COMPOSITION--ADVERBS. +Caution+.--So place adverbs that there can be no doubt as to what you intend them to modify. Have regard to the sound also. +Direction+.--Place the, italicized words below in different positions, and note the effect on the sound and the sense:-1. I immediately ran out. 2. Only one was left there. 3. She looked down proudly. 4. Unfortunately, this assistance came too late. +Direction+.--Construct on each of these subjects three sentences having modified subjects and modified predicates:--For punctuation, see Lesson 21. +Model+. ---- clouds ----. 1. Dark, heavy, threatening clouds are slowly gathering above. 2. Those, brilliant, crimson clouds will very soon dissolve. 3. Thin, fleecy clouds are scudding over. l. ---- ocean ----. 2. ---- breeze ----. 3. ---- shadows ----. 4. ---- rock ----. 5. ---- leaves ----. +Direction+.--Compose sentences in which these adverbs shall modify verbs:-Heretofore, hereafter, annually, tenderly, inaudibly, legibly, evasively, everywhere, aloof, forth.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg

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+Direction+.--Compose sentences in which five of these adverbs shall modify adjectives, and five shall modify adverbs:-Far, unusually, quite, altogether, slightly, somewhat, much, almost, too, rather. ***** LESSON 16. REVIEW. TO THE TEACHER.--In all school work, but especially here, where the philosophy of the sentence and the principles of construction are developed in progressive steps, success depends largely on the character of the reviews. Let reviews be, so far as possible, topical. Require frequent outlines of the work passed over, especially of what is taught in the "Introductory Hints." The language, except that of Rules and Definitions, should be the pupil's own, and the illustrative sentences should be original. +Direction+.--Review from Lesson 8 to Lesson 15, inclusive. Give the substance of the "Introductory Hints" (tell, for example, what three things such words as tick, are, and remain do in the sentence, what office they have in common, what such words are called, and why; what common office such words as ripe, the, and eight have, in what three ways they perform it, what such words are called, and why, etc.). Repeat and illustrate definitions and rules; illustrate what is taught of the capitalization and the abbreviation of names, and of the position of adjectives and adverbs. Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. (SEE PAGES 150-153.) TO THE TEACHER.--After the pupil has learned a few principles of analysis and construction through the aid of short detached sentences that exclude everything unfamiliar, he may be led to recognize these same principles in longer related sentences grouped into paragraphs. The study of paragraphs selected for this purpose may well be extended as an informal preparation for what is afterwards formally presented in the regular lessons of the text-book. These "Exercises" are offered only as suggestions. The teacher must, of course, determine where and how often this composition should be introduced. We invite special attention to the study of the paragraph. ***** LESSON 17. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES AND PREPOSITIONS. +Introductory Hints+.--To express our thoughts with greater exactness we may need to expand a word modifier into several words; as, A long ride brought us there = A ride of one hundred miles brought us to Chicago. These groups of words, of one hundred miles and to Chicago--the one substituted for the adjective long, the other for the adverb there--we call +Phrases+. A phrase that does the work of an adjective is called

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg an +Adjective Phrase+. A phrase that does the work of an adverb is called an +Adverb Phrase+.

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As adverbs modify adjectives and adverbs, they may modify their equivalent phrases; as, The train stops only at the station. They sometimes modify only the introductory word of the phrase--this introductory word being adverbial in its nature; as, He sailed nearly around the globe. That we may learn the office of such words as of, to, and at, used to introduce these phrases, let us see how the relation of one idea to another may be expressed. Wealthy men. These two words express two ideas as related. We have learned to know this relation by the form and position of the words. Change these, and the relation is lost--men wealth. But by using of before wealth the relation is restored---men of wealth. The word of, then, shows the relation between the ideas expressed by the words men and wealth. All such relation words are called +Prepositions+ (Lat. prae, before, and positus, placed--their usual position being before the noun with which they form a phrase). A phrase introduced by a preposition is called a +Prepositional Phrase+. This, however, is not the only kind of phrase. +DEFINITION.--A Phrase is a group of words denoting related ideas, and having a distinct office, but not expressing a thought+. +DEFINITION.--A Preposition is a word that introduces a phrase modifier, and shows the relation, in sense, of its principal word to the word modified.+ Analysis and Parsing. 1. The pitch of the musical note depends upon the rapidity of vibration. TO THE TEACHER.--See suggestions in Lesson 12, concerning the use of diagrams. pitch depends ==========|================= \The \of \upon \ \ \ note \ rapidity \-------- \------------ \the \musical \the \of \ \vibration \--------+Explanation+.--The diagram of the phrase is made up of a slanting line standing for the introductory word, and a horizontal line representing the principal word. Under the latter are drawn the lines which represent the modifiers of the principal word. +Oral Analysis+.---The and the adjective phrase of the musical note are modifiers of the subject; the adverb phrase upon the rapidity of vibration is a modifier of the predicate. Of introduces the first phrase, and note is the principal word; the and musical are modifiers of note; upon introduces the second phrase, and rapidity is the principal word; the and the adjective phrase of vibration are modifiers of rapidity; of introduces this phrase, and vibration is the principal word. TO THE TEACHER.--See suggestions in Lesson 12, concerning oral analysis. +Parsing+.--Of is a preposition showing the relation, in sense, of note to pitch; etc., etc. TO THE TEACHER.--Insist that, in parsing, the pupils shall give specific reasons instead of general definitions. 2. The Gulf Stream can be traced along the shores of the United States by the blueness of the water. 3. The North Pole has been approached in three principal directions. 4. In 1607, Hudson penetrated within six

\in \ \ ____\below \atmosphere \just \ \_________ \Falls \ \____ \only \ \the +Explanation+.--Correct these errors in position. at the urgent request of the stranger. The tails of some comets stretch to the distance of 100. 9. +Direction+.+ [Footnote: An expression in the body of a sentence is set off by two commas. used in these sentences:-1. for the doctor.000 miles.+--Tell why the comma is. Have regard to the sound also. and just modifies the preposition.] +Remark. The Suspension Bridge is stretched across the Niagara river just below the Falls. The breezy morning died into silent noon. Amid the angry yells of the spectators he died. 3. The body of the great Napoleon was carried back from St. 10. [Footnote: "1607" may be treated as a noun. and "six hundred" as one adjective. +Direction+. +Direction+. see Lesson 51. +Direction. 2. 14. ***** LESSON 18. and use the comma when needed:-1.] and made emphatic. 12. +Caution+. +COMMA-RULE.--See in how many places the phrases in the sentences above may stand without obscuring the thought. COMPOSITION-PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. Coal of all kinds has originated from the decay of plants. In Mother Goose the cow jumps clear over the moon. Helena to France. Unless it is desired to make the phrase emphatic. 13. The honorable member was reproved for being intoxicated by the president. 2. England in the eleventh century was conquered by the Normans. He went. In the Pickwick Papers the conversation of Sam Weller is spiced with wit. or that are loosely connected with the rest of the sentence. at the beginning or at the end.000. or to break the continuity of the thought. Louis.] 5.--So place phrase modifiers that there can be no doubt as to what yon intend them to modify. should be set off by the comma. the growing usage among writers is not to set it off. 4. He went from New York to Philadelphia on Monday. with a chosen band. In the dead of night. 8. he approached. 3. The first astronomical observatory in Europe was erected at Seville by the Saracens. by one comma. New York on the contrary abounds in men of wealth. 7. under the cover of a truce. The first standing army was formed in the middle of the fifteenth century. It has come down by uninterrupted tradition from the earliest times to the present day.----Only modifies the whole phrase. many travelers speak with enthusiasm.--Punctuate such of these sentences as need punctuation:-1. or is not. 5. 5. The Delta of the Mississippi was once at St.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 24 hundred miles of the North Pole. 11. Genius can breathe freely only in the atmosphere of freedom. 6. Of the scenery along the Rhine. 4. That small man is speaking . 2. For the sake of emphasis a word or a phrase may be placed out of its natural order.+--This rule must be applied with caution.--Phrases that are placed out of their usual order [Footnote: For the usual order of words and phrases. 6. Between the two mountains lies a fertile valley.

Of mind of splendor under the garb often is concealed poverty. An aerial trip to Europe was rashly planned. historical 14. national 9. changing the italicized words into equivalent phrases:-+Model+. Those homeless children were kindly treated. on the 22d of February. lucidly 15. +Direction+. earthward +Direction+. in Pennsylvania. 3. 3. At the distance a flood of flame from the line from thirty iron mouths of twelve hundred yards of the enemy poured forth.--Change these adjectives and adverbs into equivalent phrases. between the tropics. 2. incautiously 4. at the Centennial Exposition of 1876. 5. +Direction+. 5. Much has been said about the Swiss scenery. 1. there 6. why 3. . He went over the mountains on a certain day in early boyhood. attending carefully to the punctuation. Arabian 12. Bostonian 2. clear sentences you can convert these by transposing the phrases:-1. and then. from the West Indies.--See into how many good. ***** LESSON 19. The sentence was written with care. COMPOUND SUBJECT AND COMPOUND PREDICATE. ***** LESSON 20.--Rewrite these sentences. Has been scattered Bible English the of millions by hundreds of the earth over the face. here 11.--Compose sentences. On Monday evening on temperance by Mr. A brazen image was then set up. COMPOSITION--PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. 2. To the end with no small difficulty of the journey at last through deep roads we after much fatigue came. use these phrases in sentences of your own:-1. toward the Pacific. lengthy 13. Ticonderoga was taken from the British by Ethan Allen on the tenth of May in 1775. With his gun toward the woods he started in the morning. Of affectation of the young fop in the face impertinent an was seen smile. 2. +Direction+. around the world. whence 10. 4. A message was read from the President in the Senate. +Direction+. nowhere 5. during the reign of Elizabeth. The American Continent was probably discovered by Cabot. CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS.--The sentence was carefully written. 4. 5. 4. hence 7. 3.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 25 with red whiskers. northerly 8. using these phrases as modifiers:-Of copper.) 1. before the application of steam to machinery. Gough a lecture at the old brick church was delivered.--Form a sentence out of each of these groups of words:-(Look sharply to the arrangement and the punctuation.

It may connect two clauses. Connected subjects having the same predicate form a +Compound Subject+. inter. The leaves of the pine fall in spring.--The three short horizontal lines represent each a part of the compound subject. +DEFINITION. The line standing for the word modifier is joined to that part of the subject line which represents the entire .+ +DEFINITION.--A Conjunction is a word used to connect words. was seized. was tried. and Elizabeth reigned in England. expressions that. 1. Edward. and may lapse into an interjection. or cum. +Interjections+ (Lat. between. The three predicates was seized. as. as. would be sentences. was tried.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 26 +Introductory Hints. Some men sin deliberately and presumptuously.The three words Edward. The equinox occurs in March and in September. Mary. Hail! fudge! indeed! amen! etc. Ah! anxious wives. Mary. phrases. express condensed thought as well as feeling. The words connecting the parts of a compound subject or of a compound predicate are called +Conjunctions+ (Lat. as. to throw) are the eighth and last part of speech. as. Ah ---. and was beheaded. Any part of speech may be wrenched from its construction with other words. and was beheaded have the same subject--the three acts being asserted of the same king.--An Interjection is a word used to express strong or sudden feeling.. Mary.wives ========\ '\ ' \ | wait sisters 'x \=====|=========== ========' \ \anxious \for 'and/ \ ' / \news mothers ' / ----. and being understood between Edward and Mary. and Elizabeth are connected by and. Two or more connected predicates having the same subject form a +Compound Predicate+.========'/ \the +Explanation+. express bursts of feeling too sudden and violent for deliberate sentences. and Elizabeth have the same predicate--the same act being asserted of the king and the two queens.+ A sentence may have both a compound subject and a compound predicate. The x shows that a conjunction is understood. to join). as two word modifiers--A dark and rainy night follows. A conjunction may connect other parts of the sentence. Oh! ah! pooh! pshaw! etc.. that is. Charles I. It may connect two phrases. Mary and Elizabeth lived and reigned in England. which stand for the connecting word. They are connected by dotted lines. Connected predicates having the same subject form a +Compound Predicate. and jungere. and mothers wait for the news.+--Edward. standing alone. con. behold! shame! what! Professor Sweet calls interjections sentence-words. sisters. together. Two or more connected subjects having the same predicate form a +Compound Subject+. and jacere. but the leaves of the maple drop in autumn.+ Analysis and Parsing. or clauses.

dark and misty and solemn.. neither--nor. Both friend and foe applauded. +Direction.+--A phrase that contains another phrase as a modifier is called a +Complex Phrase+..+ +Remark+. comfort. Turn this diagram about. ahis an interjection. 10..\ parentage \ \ \muscular \ \----------. 5. Tush! tush! 't will not again appear.. friend -------------------\ ' \ ' \ | applauded 'and. and muscular powers are improved by use. 12. but the words of each pair are not. All forms of the lever and all the principal kinds of hinges are found in the body. COMPOSITION---CONNECTED TERMS AND INTERJECTIONS.--Words or phrases connected by conjunctions are separated from each other by the comma unless all the conjunctions are expressed. when the parts of compound predicates and of other phrases are long or differently modified. ***** LESSON 21. 13. 9. or. Either and neither do the same for or and nor in either--or. the Dead Sea. The optic nerve passes from the brain to the back of the eyeball. Between the mind of man and the outer world are interposed the nerves of the human body. these terms or parts are separated .--And is a conjunction connecting sisters and mothers. (For diagram see the last sentence of the "Explanation" above.--When words and phrases stand in pairs. powers came ================= ========= \The \ X \ and \ \ and \of \. and there spreads out.+--Pick out the simple. the complex. The hero of the Book of Job came from a strange land and of a strange parentage. Two or more phrases connected by a conjunction form a +Compound Phrase+. Some men sin deliberately and presumptuously. 27 +Parsing+..\ \moral \from \mental \ land \--------4. A sort of gunpowder was used at an early period in China and in other parts of Asia. The mental. exhort. The opinions of the New York press are quoted in every port and in every capital. Both >===|=========== ' / foe ' / --------'----------/ +Explanation+. the pairs are separated according to the Rule. and discuss.. 15. 6.. and the compound phrases in the sentences above... 7. 2. +Remark.\ \. 8.. When one of two terms has a modifier that without the comma might be referred to both.. and mothers form the compound subject. By perfection is meant the full and harmonious development of all the faculties. 14.---Wives.. and connects sisters and mothers. is seen.. and the connected horizontal lines will stand for the parts of a compound predicate. moral.--The conjunction both is used to strengthen the real connective and. expressing a sudden burst of feeling. 16.) 3..\. Feudalism did not and could not exist before the tenth century. request. Ugh! I look forward with dread to to-morrow.. sisters. 11. +COMMA--RULE. +Oral Analysis+. From the Mount of Olives.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg subject. anxious is a modifier of the compound subject. In a letter we may advise.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg by the comma though no conjunction is omitted.

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When two terms connected by or have the same meaning, the second is logically explanatory of the first, and is set off by the comma, i. e., when it occurs in the body of a sentence, a comma is placed after the explanatory word, as well as before the or. +Direction.+--Justify the punctuation of these sentences:-1. Long, pious pilgrimages are made to Mecca. 2. Empires rise, flourish, and decay. 3. Cotton is raised in Egypt, in India, and in the United States. 4. The brain is protected by the skull, or cranium. 5. Nature and art and science were laid under tribute. 6. The room was furnished with a table, and a chair without legs. 7. The old oaken bucket hangs in the well. +Explanation.+--No comma here, for no conjunction is omitted. Oakenlimits bucket, old limits bucket modified by oaken, and thelimits bucket modified by old and oaken. See Lesson 13. 8. A Christian spirit should be shown to Jew or Greek, male or female, friend or foe. 9. We climbed up a mountain for a view. +Explanation+.--No comma. Up a mountain tells where we climbed, and for a view tells why we climbed up a mountain. 10. The boy hurries away from home, and enters upon a career of business or of pleasure. 11. The long procession was closed by the great dignitaries of the realm, and the brothers and sons of the king. +Direction+.--Punctuate such of these sentences as need punctuation, and give your reasons:-1. Men and women and children stare cry out and run. 2. Bright healthful and vigorous poetry was written by Milton. 3. Few honest industrious men fail of success in life. (Where is the conjunction omitted?) 4. Ireland or the Emerald Isle lies to the west of England. 5. That relates to the names of animals or of things without sex. 6. The Hebrew is closely allied to the Arabic the Phoenician the Syriac and the Chaldee. 7. We sailed down the river and along the coast and into a little inlet. 8. The horses and the cattle were fastened in the same stables and were fed with abundance of hay and grain. 9. Spring and summer autumn and winter rush by in quick succession. 10. A few dilapidated old buildings still stand in the deserted village. +EXCLAMATION POINT--RULE.--All Exclamatory Expressions must be followed by the exclamation point.+ +Remark+.--Sometimes an interjection alone and sometimes an interjection and the words following it form the exclamatory expression; as, Oh! it hurts. Oh, the beautiful snow! O is used in direct address; as, O father, listen to me. Oh is used as a cry of pain, surprise, delight, fear, or appeal. This distinction, however desirable, is not strictly observed, O being frequently used in place of Oh. +CAPITAL LETTERS--RULE.--The words I and O should be written in capital letters.+ +Direction.+--Correct these violations of the two rules given above:-1. o noble judge o excellent young man. 2. Out of the depths have i cried unto thee. 3. Hurrah the field is won.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 4. Pshaw how foolish. 5. Oh oh oh i shall be killed. 6. o life how uncertain o death how inevitable. ***** LESSON 22. ANALYSIS AND PARSING.

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+Direction+.--Beginning with the 8th sentence of the first group of exercises in Lesson 21, analyze thirteen sentences, omitting the 4th of the second group. +Model+.--A Christian spirit should be shown to Jew or Greek, male or female, friend or foe. spirit |should be shown / Jew ===============|================ /'-------- \A \Christian | \ /' \' Greek \ / ' \-------- \ / ' \to / x ' / male \--/ '/'-------- \ ' \' female \ x ' \-------- \ ' \ ' / friend \_/'--------- \' foe \--------***** LESSON 23. COMPOSITION--CONNECTED TERMS. Direction.+--Using the nouns below, compose sentences with compound subjects; compose others in which the verbs shall form compound predicates; and others in which the adjectives, the adverbs, and the phrases shall form compound modifiers:-In some let there be three or more connected terms. Observe Rule, Lesson 21, for punctuation. Let your sentences mean something. NOUNS. Washington, beauty, grace, Jefferson, symmetry, lightning, Lincoln, electricity, copper, silver, flowers, gold, rose, lily. VERBS. Examine, sing, pull, push, report, shout, love, hate, like, scream, loathe, approve, fear, obey, refine, hop, elevate, skip, disapprove. ADJECTIVES. +Direction.+--See Caution, Lesson 13. Bright, acute, patient, careful, apt, forcible, simple, homely, happy, short, pithy, deep, jolly, mercurial, precipitous. ADVERBS. +Direction.+--See Caution, Lesson 15. Neatly, slowly, carefully, sadly, now, here, never, hereafter. PHRASES.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg On sea; in the city; by day; on land; by night; in the country; by hook; across the ocean; by crook; over the lands; along the level road; up the mountains. ***** LESSON 24. REVIEW. CAPITAL LETTERS AND PUNCTUATION. Direction.+--Give the reason for every capital letter and for every mark of punctuation used below:--

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1. The sensitive parts of the body are covered by the cuticle, or skin. 2. The degrees of A.B., A.M., D.D., and LL.D. are conferred by the colleges and the universities of the country. 3. Oh, I am so happy! 4. Fathers and mothers, sons and daughters rejoice at the news. 5. Plants are nourished by the earth, and the carbon of the air. 6. A tide of American travelers is constantly flooding Europe. 7. The tireless, sleepless sun rises above the horizon, and climbs slowly and steadily to the zenith. 8. He retired to private life on half pay, and on the income of a large estate in the South. +Direction.+--Write these expressions, using capital letters and marks of punctuation where they belong:-1. a fresh ruddy and beardless french youth replied 2. maj, cal, bu, p m, rev, no, hon, ft, w, e, oz, mr, n y, a b, mon, bbl, st 3. o father o father i cannot breathe here 4. ha ha that sounds well 5. the edict of nantes was established by henry the great of france 6. mrs, vs, co, esq, yd, pres, u s, prof, o, do, dr 7. hurrah good news good news 8. the largest fortunes grow by the saving of cents and dimes and dollars 9. the baltic sea lies between sweden and russia 10. the mississippi river pours into the gulf of mexico 11. supt, capt, qt, ph d, p, cr, i e, doz 12. benjamin franklin was born in boston in 1706 and died in 1790 +Direction.+--Correct all these errors in capitalization and punctuation, and give your reasons:-1 Oliver cromwell ruled, over the english People, 2. halloo. I must speak to You! 3. john Milton, went abroad in Early Life, and, stayed, for some time, with the Scholars of Italy, 4. Most Fuel consists of Coal and Wood from the Forests 5. books are read for Pleasure and the Instruction and improvement of the Intellect, 6. In rainy weather the feet should be protected by overshoes or galoches 7. hark they are coming! 8. A, neat, simple and manly style is pleasing to Us. 9. alas poor thing alas, 10. i fished on a, dark, and cool, and mossy, trout stream. ***** LESSON 25. MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES IN REVIEW. ANALYSIS. 1. By the streets of By-and-by, one arrives at the house of Never.--Spanish Proverb [Footnote: By-and-by has no real streets, the London journals do not actually thunder, nor were the cheeks of William the Testy literally scorched by his fiery gray eyes. Streets, house, colored, thunder, and scorched are not, then, used here in their first and ordinary meaning, but in a secondary and figurative sense. These words we call +Metaphors+. By what they denote and by what they only suggest they lend clearness, vividness, and force to the thought they help to convey, and add beauty to the expression.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg

31

For further treatment of metaphors and other figures of speech, see pages 87, 136, 155, 156, 165, and Lesson 150.] 2. The winds and waves are always on the side of the ablest navigators.--Gibbon. 3. The axis of the earth sticks out visibly through the center of each and every town or city.--Holmes. 4. The arrogant Spartan, with a French-like glorification, boasted forever of little Thermopylae.--De Quincey. 5. The purest act of knowledge is always colored by some feeling of pleasure or pain.--Hamilton. 6. The thunder of the great London journals reverberates through every clime.--Marsh. 7. The cheeks of William the Testy were scorched into a dusky red by two fiery little gray eyes.--Irving. 8. The study of natural science goes hand in hand with the culture of the imagination.--Tyndall. [Footnote: Hand in hand may be treated as one adverb, or with may be supplied.] 9. The whole substance of the winds is drenched and bathed and washed and winnowed and sifted through and through by this baptism in the sea.--Swain. 10. The Arabian Empire stretched from the Atlantic to the Chinese Wall, and from the shores of the Caspian Sea to those of the Indian Ocean.--Draper. 11. One half of all known materials consists of oxygen.--Cooke. 12. The range of thirty pyramids, even in the time of Abraham, looked down on the plain of Memphis.--Stanley. ***** LESSON 26. WRITTEN PARSING. +Direction+.--Parse the sentences of Lesson 25 according to this +Model for Written Parsing. | Nouns. | Pron. | Verbs.| Adj. | Adv. | Prep. | Conj.| Int.| |--------|-------|-------|--------|------|-------|------|-----| 1st |streets,| | |the,the.| |By,of, | | | sentence|By-and- | one. |arives.| | |at,of | | | | by, | | | | | | | | |house, | | | | | | | | |Never. | | | | | | | | --------|--------|-------|-------|--------|------|-------|------|-----| | | | | | | | | | 2d | | | | | | | | | sentence| | | | | | | | | TO THE TEACHER.--Until the +Subdivisions+ and +Modifications+ of parts of speech are reached, +Oral and Written Parsing+ can be only a classification of the words in the sentence. You must judge how frequently a lesson like this is needed, and how much parsing should be done orally day by day. In their +Oral Analysis+ let the pupils give at first the reasons for every statement, but guard against their doing this mechanically and in set terms; and, when you think it can safely be done, let them drop it. But ask now and then, whenever you think they have grown careless or are guessing, for the reason of this, that, or the other step taken. Here it may be well to emphasize the fact that the part of speech to which any word belongs is determined by the use of the word, and not from its form. Such exercises as the following are suggested:-Use right words. Act right. Right the wrong. You are in the right. Pupils will be interested in finding sentences that illustrate the different uses of the same word. It is hardly necessary for us to make lists of words that have different uses. Any dictionary will furnish abundant examples. It is an excellent practice to point out such words in the regular exercises for analysis. ***** LESSON 27. REVIEW.

God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. Benjamin Franklin invented the lightning-rod. 32 Give the substance of the "Introductory Hints" (tell. 3. NOUNS AS OBJECT COMPLEMENTS.moon | / ' ======|== and' | \ ' \ ' keeps | side \--------------- . Liars should have good memories. pages 30. Austerlitz killed Pitt. and makes clear writing is the entire predicate.+ +Analysis. how these expanded forms may be modified.--See suggestions. Repeat and illustrate definitions and rules. inclusive. and names that which receives the act. 5. 6. Washington captured Cornwallis. and exclamatory expressions. and of the punctuation of phrases. Whatever fills out. or completes. At the opening of the thirteenth century. and why.---Writing is the object complement. Lesson 16. we do not fully express the act performed by Washington. what the introductory words are called. How many parts of speech are there? Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.--See notes to the teacher.) TO THE TEACHER.--The Object Complement of a Sentence completes the predicate.+ The complement with all its modifiers is called the +Modified Complement. clear writing is the modified complement. 7. for example. took /---------\ Oxford | / ' \ | rank ========|=and' ========== | \ ' / \ ' held / \-------/ revolves /-----------. 4.+ 1.). how introduced. what such words as long and there may be expanded into. thinking | makes | writing ============|===================== \ clear | \clear +Oral Analysis+. ***** LESSON 28. We find the first surnames in the tenth century. we complete the predicate by naming that which receives the act. 2.+--In saying Washington captured. Introductory Hints.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg TO THE TEACHER. 150. etc. Oxford took and held rank with the greatest schools of Europe. (SEE PAGES 153-156. is a +Complement+. The invention of gunpowder destroyed feudalism. Connected objects completing the same verb form a +Compound Object Complement+. Clear thinking makes clear writing. Washington captured Cornwallis and his army. 8. As Cornwalliscompletes the expression of the act by naming the thing acted upon--the object--we call it the +Object Complement+.--Review from Lesson 17 to Lesson 21. illustrate fully what is taught of the position of phrases. as. +DEFINITION. connected terms. If we add a noun and say. +Direction+.

Pocahontas completes the predicate by presenting a second idea. James study grammar =========\ /===========\ /=============== ' \ | / ' \ | / ' 'and ==|== and' ===== and' John ' / | \ ' recite / \ ' arithmetic =========/ \===========/ \=============== ***** LESSON 29. and. 13. and banished the confessor. But.. by one name--the predicate. and seed displays a figure. 1. beef and bacon. +Introductory Hints+. The history of the Trojan war rests on the authority of Homer. Lizards are reptiles. e. or attribute to them--The maple leaves become red. oppressed the wife. [Footnote: We may call the verb the predicate. Slang is vulgar.] The maple leaves become. 11. we pass this distinction by as not essential in grammar. Hunger rings the bell. The noun reptiles. Every stalk. denoting the quality we wish to assert of leaves. the predicate presents another. it does not fully express the idea to be asserted. degraded the brother. when it is followed by a complement. Most grammarians call the adjective and the noun. The moon revolves. Corn is growing presents the idea of the thing. when so used. The idea may be completely expressed by adding the adjective red. When the completing word expressing the idea to be attributed does not unite with the asserting word to make a single verb. as it is disputed whether any word can assert without expressing something of the idea asserted. flower. it is an incomplete predicate. of the king. and asserts the act of the thing. if preferred.+ [Footnote: Subjective Complement may. and the idea of the act. as one word often performs both offices. a harmony. which was asserts to be identical with that of the subject.] Connected attribute complements of the same verb form a +Compound Attribute Complement+.--The subject presents one idea. and asserts it of the first. the +Predicate Adjective+ and the +Predicate Noun+. and forms the subject of the noblest poem of antiquity. bud. 14. Corn grows. In logic. The verb become does not make a complete predicate. and call both that which asserts and that which expresses the idea asserted. and keeps the same side toward us. Rolfe's wife was Pocahontas. . +DEFINITION. performs a like office for the asserting word are. and orders up coals in the shape of bread and butter. and thatch roofs with the leaves. naming the class of the animals called lizards. but.--The Attribute Complement of a Sentence completes the predicate and belongs to the subject. 10. of the cocoa-nut palm.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 33 9. a proportion. Corn growing lacks the asserting word. g.+ Analysis. 15. The natives of Ceylon build houses of the trunk. 12. James and John study and recite grammar and arithmetic. pies and puddings. growing. the asserting word is called the copula--it shows that the two ideas are coupled into a thought--and the word expressing the idea asserted is called the predicate. beyond the reach of art. Richelieu exiled the mother. and Cornis lacks the word denoting the idea to be asserted. corn. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES AS ATTRIBUTE COMPLEMENTS. we distinguish it as the +Attribute Complement. be used instead of Attribute Complement.

and artificial.--he.--The line standing for the attribute complement is. 2. The east wind is peevishness and mental rheumatism and grumbling. tranquil. The highest outcome of culture is simplicity. ***** LESSON 30. Under the Roman law. Settle. then. 3. 8. dignified. Here. The verb is the life of the sentence. and you settle which word--plant or ivy--is the subject. 6. assumes that the hearer already understands. homely. The sun shines bright and hot at midday. 4. as --. 4. which--plant or ivy--Dickens supposed the reader to know least about. (Is it not the writer's poetical conception of "the green ivy" that the reader is supposed not to possess?) 10. The Saxon words in English are simple. therefore. and substantial. Stillness of person and steadiness of features are signal marks of good-breeding. 1. 8. 7. The mountains are grand. and that as is simply introductory. and which. Good-breeding is surface-Christianity. Plato and Aristotle are called the two head-springs of all philosophy. is vulgar is the entire predicate. 3. Dickens was telling him about. but notice that the line which separates the incomplete predicate from the complement slants toward the subject to show that the complement is an attribute of it. in this example.' went \ ' mate /======================= He | / ' \out ====|=and ' | \ ' came \ captain \======================= \back +Explanation+. The ear is the ever-open gateway of the soul. and present an .--Vulgar is the attribute complement. and lovable.] 6. like an adverb to modify it. He went out as mate and came back captain. Velvet feels smooth. She grew tall. and looks rich and glossy. The sea is fascinating and treacherous. 11. like the object line. From their form and usual function.--Mate. +Oral Analysis+. seems to complete am. and puts the stamina of endurance into a man. 14. and beautiful. 5. Some would say that the conjunction as connects mate to he. He came a foe and returned a friend. The south wind is full of longing and unrest and effeminate suggestions of luxurious ease. 9. A dainty plant is the ivy green. +Explanation+. but we think this connection is made through the verb went. ATTRIBUTE COMPLEMENTS--CONTINUED.--The office of an adverb sometimes seems to fade into that of an adjective attribute and is not easily distinguished from it. The terms in which he says it. 5. Analysis. 13. completing the predicate and expressing a quality of slang. 15. and curls one up in the chimney-corner. like an adjective.--the predicate. This is indicated in the diagram.--The subject names that of which the speaker says something. here. and. queenly. [Footnote: The assertion in this sentence is true only in the main. +Explanation+. 12. I am here. and has promise and adventure in it. 2. of course. The French and the Latin words in English are elegant. is an attribute complement. should be called an adverb. The north wind is full of courage. a continuation of the predicate line. like captain. 7.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Slang | is \ vulgar ==========|================= | 34 +Explanation+. every son was regarded as a slave. The west wind is hopeful. I am present.

+Introductory Hints+. 5. They made Victoria queen. made Victoria queen is the complete predicate. OBJECTIVE COMPLEMENTS.--Queen is an objective complement completing made and belonging to Victoria. This book is presented to you as a token of esteem and gratitude. Queen helps made to express the act. +DEFINITION. 2. We should consider time as a sacred trust.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg adjective. 4. +Oral Analysis+. 6. Here made does not fully express the act performed upon the wall. In the fable of the Discontented Pendulum. A word that. Wm. Here made does not fully express the act performed upon Victoria. They did not make Victoria.+ Analysis. last foot-note. White helps made to express the act. Sir Philip Sidney lived and died the darling of the Court. to make). think. it is sometimes called the factitive complement or the factitive object (Lat. but. We do not mean to say. ***** LESSON 31. As the objective complement generally denotes what the receiver of the act is made to be. and at the same time it denotes the quality attributed to the wall as the result of the act. and name. created the worthless Villiers Duke of Buckingham. He made-white (whitened) the wall. Some one has called the eye the window of the soul. Lord Darnley turned out a dissolute and insolent husband. 15. 14.--The line that separates made from queen slants toward the object complement to show that queen belongs to the object. 13. choose. President Hayes chose the Hon. but made-queen(crowned) Victoria. . 35 9. 1.--The Objective Complement completes the predicate and belongs to the object complement. helps to complete the predicate and at the same time belongs to the object complement. They | made / queen | Victoria ======|========================= | +Explanation+. M. Destiny had made Mr. The brightness and freedom of the New Learning seemed incarnate in the young and scholarly Sir Thomas More. 12. James I. facere. the weights hung speechless. Evarts Secretary of State. [Footnote: See Lesson 37. 3. and at the same time denotes the office to which the act raised Victoria.--He made the wall white. differs from an attribute complement by belonging not to the subject but to the object complement. He madethe white wall. in fact or in thought. After a break of sixty years in the ducal line of the English nobility. The apple tastes and smells delicious. The warrior fell back upon the bed a lifeless corpse. 11. They made Victoria queen. and the gentleman and idol of the time. and so is called an +Objective Complement+. like the adjective white or the noun queen. Churchill a schoolmaster.] Some of the other verbs which are thus completed are call. 10.

iron. +Caution. +Direction+. The sun shines bright. he. They all arrived safe and sound. 6. He felt around awkwardly for his chair. 4. 12. It can be bought very cheaply. Coal. . was. I. We here wish to tell the condition of Mary on her arrival. COMPOSITION--COMPLEMENTS. Ophelia and Polonius thought Hamlet really insane. 13. +Direction. 5. follows. The sun shines bright (is bright. and not the adverb. brittle.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Explanation+. He felt awkward in the presence of ladies. My head feels bad (is in a bad condition.--Correct these errors and give your reasons:-1.+--Be careful to distinguish an adjective complement from an adverb modifier. 3. Niagara Falls. The boy is running wild. might have been. and these pronouns as attribute complements:-Is. 8. The boy is running wildly about. 4. transparent | Glass is hard. The day opened bright. she. 36 7. I feel tolerable well. My friend has acted very strange in the matter. +Direction+. as in the examples above. they. 2. 10. The President and the Senate appoint certain men ministers to foreign courts. He appeared prompt and willing. They named the state New York from the Duke of York. 3. as perceived by its shining). ***** LESSON 32. 6. Custom renders the feelings blunt and callous. Henry the Great consecrated the Edict of Nantes as the very ark of the constitution. 14. +Direction+. as perceived by the sense of feeling). you see that the adjective. Richmond. 2. ships. Madame de Stael calls beautiful architecture frozen music. 7. She looks beautifully.--As may be used simply to introduce an objective complement. The sun shines brightly on the tree-tops. and then make complete sentences by asserting these qualities:-+Model. 9.+--Mary arrived safe. war.--Join to each of the nouns below three appropriate adjectives expressing the qualities as assumed. 9. He appeared promptly and willingly. Longfellow. Don't speak harsh.+ Hard | brittle + glass. 11. +Explanation. 10.+--Justify the use of these adjectives and adverbs:-1. Shylock would have struck Jessica dead beside him.--Compose sentences. flowers.--Compose sentences containing these nouns as attribute complements:-Emperor. +Direction+. using these verbs as predicates. and transparent. My head pains me very bad. 5. mathematician. When the idea of being is prominent in the verb. we. 8. and not the manner of her arriving. Socrates styled beauty a short-lived tyranny.

but they are names of things. appoint. Analysis. +Introductory Hints+. 2.--Notice that these forms of the pronouns--I. Paul. the wise Solomon's temple. consider. Mahomet. call. boys' hats. thee. like adjectives. we. or polliwog. the first word telling whose favorite is meant. and that me. The relation of Solomon to the temple is expressed by the apostrophe and s ('s) added to the noun Solomon. Make. her. and let some objective complements be introduced by as. was beheaded in the reign of Nero. thou. ye. was beheaded by James I. The noun emperormodifies Dom Pedro by telling what Dom Pedro is meant. The tadpole. They represent two kinds of +Noun Modifiers+--the +Possessive+ and the +Explanatory+. Dom Pedro. and are modified by adjectives and not by adverbs. the other an objective complement:-Let some object complements be pronouns. Solomon's temple = the temple of Solomon.--Elizabeth's and Raleigh are modifiers of the subject. and whom are never used as subjects or as attribute complements of sentences. 7. 3. and is therefore a modifier of temple.--Compose sentences in which each of the following verbs shall have two complements--the one an object complement. Elizabeth's favorite. +Model+. It identifies or explains by adding another name of the same thing. them. A fool's bolt is soon shot. the apostle. and who--are never used as object complements or as principal words in prepositional phrases.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 37 +Remark+. was born in the year . Raleigh is the modified subject. as. was welcomed by the Americans. modify nouns. choose. as. or Mohammed.--They call me chief. Raleigh. this relation of possession is expressed by the apostrophe alone ('). the Brazilian emperor. she. When s has been added to the noun to denote more than one. they. Dom Pedro. The Explanatory Modifier is often called an +Appositive+. 4. Both words name the same person.--Solomon's temple was destroyed. +Direction+. This same relation of possession may be expressed by the preposition of. 6. We regard composition as very important. us. St. 1. ***** LESSON 33. NOUNS AS ADJECTIVE MODIFIERS. he. the emperor. becomes a frog. him. Solomon's and emperor. Solomon's limits temple by telling what or whose temple is spoken of. favorite (Raleigh) | was beheaded ====================|============== \Elizabeth's | \by \ James I \----------+Oral Analysts+. The best features of King James's translation of the Bible are derived from Tyndale's version. Elizabeth's favorite. These are conclusive reasons for calling such words nouns. the second what favorite. An idle brain is the devil's workshop. 5.

is set off by the comma. Lesson 18] +Explanation+. namely. or each may be made explanatory of bees. on a short line placed after the sentence line. enclosed in curves. John . when it does not restrict the modified term or combine closely with it.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 569 and died in 632. The lamp of a man's life has three wicks--brain. the beloved disciple. the explanatory term combines closely with the word explained.--As.--Feat is explanatory of the sentence.. united for the dismemberment of Poland. three powerful nations.. close at night and in rainy weather. They | scaled | Mount Blanc ( feat ) ======|===================== ======= | \a \daring 38 +Explanation+. we boys. 15. Bees communicate to each other the death of the queen. day's-eye. In each of these expressions. and that is may introduce explanatory modifiers. 11.+ [Footnote: See foot-note. blood. Cromwell's rule as Protector began in the year 1653 and ended in 1658. Jacob's favorite sons. 9. Protector is explanatory of Cromwell's. 14. and no comma is needed. They scaled Mount Blanc. +Explanation+. by a rapid interlacing of the antennae. Russia. John.] +Explanation+. The phrase Joseph and Benjamin explains sons without restricting. 8. William the Conqueror. limits its application. and therefore should be set off by the comma. ***** LESSON 34. that is. namely. My brother Henry and my brother George belong to a boat-club. i. The phrase I and O restricts words. back-bone shell =============\ ========\ '\ /' \ | are and' \==========(======/ 'and \=)=|======= ' / \turtle's \its \ ' / | breast-bone '/ \The \' coat / =============/ ========/ 12. The petals of the daisy. +COMMA--RULE.e. to wit. Austria. e. The author of Pilgrim's Progress. +Direction+. They scaled Mount Blanc--a daring feat. [Footnote: For uses of each other and one another. lay on his Master's breast. +Explanation. and breath. The turtle's back-bone and breast-bone--its shell and coat of armor--are on the outside of its body. In the diagram they stand like as in Lesson 30.g.+--Several words may together be explanatory of one. COMPOSITION--NOUNS AS ADJECTIVE MODIFIERS. viz.--An Explanatory Modifier. I myself.. see Lesson 124. and no comma is needed. and Prussia.--Each other may be treated as one term. Joseph and Benjamin.--Give the reasons for the insertion or the omission of commas in these sentences:-1. 13. were Rachel's children. In the latter half of the eighteenth century. 2. and in the diagram it stands. but they do not seem to connect them to the words modified. 10.--The words I and O should be written in capital letters.

's business. Brown & Co. the girl's bonnet. theirs. naming the person toward whom the act is directed. in Washington captured Cornwallis and his army. 6. was cruel in his treatment of Montezuma. Lesson 21. the Imperial City. You blocks! You stones! 0 you hard hearts! 4. 1.+--Make possessive modifiers of the following words. babies. 6. calf. The conqueror of Mexico. 2. 3. 4. The meaning is not. they call the direct object. women. was careless of his literary reputation. ours. Pizarro. The five Books of Moses or the Pentateuch ----. they call the +indirect+. the hermit.--Insert commas below. The Franks a warlike people of Germany gave their name to France.+--Punctuate these expressions. Shakespeare. fairy. baby. fairies. five dollars' worth. ***** LESSON 35. buffalo. New Orleans or the Crescent City ----. Palestine or the Holy Land ----. a day's work. and join them to appropriate nouns:-Woman. +Direction. +Direction. Elizabeth Queen of England ruled from 1558 to 1603. Here we have what many grammarians call a double object. 3. the great dramatist. they cannot be connected by a conjunction. calves. men's clothing. +object+.+--Compose sentences containing these expressions as explanatory modifiers:-The most useful metal. My son Joseph has entered college. 4. and give your reasons:-1. mice. Omit or. the capital of Turkey.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 39 Bunyan. buffaloes. for they do not stand in the same relation to the verb gave. +Introductory Hints. a dollar's worth. hero. He gave me and the book. He himself could not go. NOUNS AS ADVERB MODIFIERS. the great English poets. heroes. 5. hers.+--He gave me a book. 5. or dative. The Emperors Napoleon and Alexander met and became fast friends on a raft at Tilsit. ladies' calls. a distinguished American statesman. The poet Spenser lived in the reign of Elizabeth. You see that me and book do not. form a compound object complement. +Remember+ that ('s) and (') are the possessive signs--(') being used when s has been added to denote more than one.+--Copy the following. children's toys. those girls' dresses. like Cornwallis and army. New York or the Empire State ----. Mecca a city in Arabia is sacred in the eyes of Mohammedans. and employ each of them in a sentence:-See Remark.+--Do not use ('s) or (') with the pronouns its. was the son of a tinker. . was a Spaniard. +Caution. 3. where they are needed. mouse. naming the thing acted upon. and ('s) in other cases. +Direction. yours. +Direction. the conqueror of Peru. three years' interest. and note the use of the possessive sign:-The lady's fan. his. 7. Book. 2. Burns's poems. Cortez. and me. +Direction+. and note the effect.

9. 5. quantity. Aristotle taught Alexander the Great philosophy. Puff-balls have grown six inches in diameter in a single night. The frog lives several weeks as a fish. 12. etc. fell Aug. as. The idiom of the language does not often admit a preposition before nouns denoting measure.+ 1. explain and illustrate fully the distinction between an adjective complement and an adverb modifier. When the indirect object precedes the direct. 21.--See suggestions. value. explain what is meant by a complement. send.+--Caesar and times are nouns used adverbially. TO THE TEACHER. 14. time. We pay the President of the United States $50. I gave him a dollar a bushel for his wheat. permit. explain and illustrate the use of the possessive sign. 2. Repeat and illustrate definitions and rules. weight. a preposition must be supplied. and breathes by means of gills. show what parts of speech may be employed for each. or direction are often used adverbially. 15. We walked four miles an hour.\ \three \ \ Caesar ----------+Oral Analysis. 40 Besides these indirect objects.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg We treat these indirect objects. inclusive. show clearly what two things are essential to a complete predicate. Serpents cast their skin once a year. He asked mea question.. The wall is ten feet six inches high. and tell what general idea--action. He gave a book to me. Give the substance of the "Introductory Hints" (for example. +Direction. Good land should yield its owner seventy-five bushels of corn an acre. He magnanimously gave a dying soldier the water. In your analysis you need not supply one. The famous Charter Oak of Hartford. Sept. The pure attar of roses is worth twenty or thirty dollars an ounce. quality. He sent his daughter home that way. we. They | offered | crown ========|========================== | \ \ times \the \ ------. 22. +Analysis. 10. REVIEW. If we change the order of the words. 11. I went home that way. Lesson 16.+--Review from Lesson 28 to Lesson 35. He bought me a book. distance. 7. as equivalent to phrase modifiers. me. 3. illustrate what is taught of the forms I. us. On the fatal field of Zutphen. class. etc. promise. 4. which generally denote the person to or for whom something is done. It is worth a dollar a yard. etc. ***** LESSON 36. +nouns denoting measure+. and ten cents a pound for his sugar. Queen Esther asked King Ahasuerus a favor.. Conn.). 13. distinguish clearly the three kinds of complements. 1856. 1586. They offered Caesar the crown three times. being equivalent to phrase modifiers. and lend are other examples of verbs that take indirect objects. or identity--is expressed by each attribute complement or objective complement in your illustrations. his attendants brought the wounded Sir Philip Sidney a cup of cold water. tell. Shakespeare was fifty-two years old the very day of his death. 6. 8. direction.. . no preposition is expressed or understood. Teach. being equivalent to adverb phrases modifying the predicate offered. He asked a question of me. He bought a book for me.000 a year. It weighs one pound. etc.

Others call these words Gerunds. -ing.) Singing birds delight us.+--Corn grows. Here singing has the nature of a verb and that of a noun. sweetly. and injuring. But this derivation of them encounters the stubborn fact that those verbal nouns never were compound. and never were or could be followed by objects. By singing their songs birds delight us. to take) because it partakes of two natures and performs two offices--those of a verb and an adjective. are compound. in sentences (1). Growing is a form of the verb that cannot. As a verb it has an object complement. Lesson 38. and having said in these expressions: "for the purpose of being accepted. and as a noun it names an act and takes a possessive modifier. A gerund in Latin is a simple form of the verb in the active voice. ***** LESSON 37. There are two kinds of participles. following almost any preposition.) TO THE TEACHER. as we have seen. VERBS AS ADJECTIVES AND AS NOUNS--PARTICIPLES. As a verb it has an adverb modifier. writing. and (2) as a verb by expressing the act of singing as going on at the time birds delight us.--and consequently is a mere adjective. having been shown. [Footnote: Grammarians are not agreed as to what these words that have the nature of the verb and that of the noun should be called. Infinitives. as incredible as that they are from infinitives in -an. and modified by the and by nouns and pronouns in the possessive? No wonder the grammarian Mason says. This form of the verb is called the +Participle+ (Lat.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. These words. (SEE PAGES 156-159. (6)." "is the having been shown over a place. and have objects. naming the act and taking adjective modifiers. used in both voices. Corn may be called the assumed subject of growing. on the contrary. Here. pars. They would also call by the same name such compound forms as being accepted." Others call these words modernized forms of the Anglo-Saxon Verbal Nounsin -ung. (For definition see Lesson 131. 41 +Introductory Hints. or those of a verb and a noun. and (7). "An infinitive in -ing. and expresses a permanent quality of birds--telling what kind of birds. never . only one form of which followed a preposition. Here singing does duty (1) as an adjective." But does it not tax even credulity to believe that a simple Anglo-Saxon infinitive in -an. is a perfectly unwarranted invention. and almost for the same reasons. singing. and that always to. Here growing differs from grows in lacking the power to assert. 150. The singing of the birds delights us. set down by some as a modification of the simple infinitive in -an or -en. Corn growing. Birds. Their singing so sweetly delights us. and capere.--See suggestions to the teacher. Here singing has lost its verbal nature. describing birds by assuming or implying an act. Here singing is simply a noun. and as a noun it names the act. could have developed into many compound forms. songs. Some would call the simple forms doing. pages 30." "I recollect his having said that. and stands as the principal word in a prepositional phrase. singing has the nature of a verb and that of a noun. a part. delight us. That they are from nouns in -ung is otherwise. like grows. make a complete predicate because it only assumes or implies that the corn does the act. also.

3. though some of them may be traced back to the Saxon verbal noun or to the infinitive. which is completed by the noun step. and generally (9) do not indicate purpose. The participle. having been seen. sometimes (2) are used in the passive voice.] the principal word is hearing. sometimes (8) are modified by a noun or pronoun in the possessive. sometimes (6) are subjects of verbs. may be followed by an object complement or an attribute complement. [Footnote: Logically.--The line standing for the participle is broken.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 42 found in the nominative. hearing a step modifies the predicate also. sometimes (4) do not follow any preposition. The +participle+ may be used as an +adjective modifier+. I turned when or because I heard a step. The forms in question--seeing. To call these words in question gerunds is to stretch the term gerund immensely beyond its meaning in Anglo-Saxon. one part slants to represent the adjective nature of the participle. See Lesson 79.\a +Explanation+. 4. +Parsing+. and it shares the nature of an adjective and that of a verb. like other forms of the verb. and the other is horizontal to represent its verbal nature. Participles commonly end in ing. sometimes (7) are modified by the. proceeding from the brain. is not warranted by any precedent except that furnished above in the extension of the term infinitive or of the term verbal noun! Still others call some of these words Infinitives. . What can they possibly be but the forms that all grammarians call participles extended to new uses? If the uses of the original participles have been extended. as good grammarians long ago called them and still call them. having seen. and never in the accusative (objective) after a verb. ed. the nature of the verb and that of the noun.--Hearing is a form of the verb called participle because the act expressed by it is merely assumed. sometimes (5) are objects of verbs. A gerund in Anglo-Saxon is a simple form of the verb in the active voice--the dative case of the infinitive merely--used mainly to indicate purpose. or en. and having been seeing. hewn in the celebrated forest of the Hague. and make it cover words which sometimes (1) are highly compounded. The fat of the body is fuel laid away for use. Hearing a step. The name participle neither confounds terms nor misleads the student.--The complement is here modified by a participle phrase. 2. +Explanation+. and though the Saxon participle was adjectival. For convenience of classification we call these disputed forms participles. and some of them Gerunds. why may we not carry over the name? The name participle is as true to its etymology when applied to the nounal use of the verb as when applied to the adjectival use. I turned. I | turned ===|========= \ | \ hea \ ring | step --------|-----. or in sense. for instance--are now made from the verb in precisely the same way when partaking the nature of the noun as when partaking the nature of the adjective. +Oral Analysis+. Analysis and Parsing. sometimes (3) follow other prepositions than to. and always preceded by the preposition to. We submit that the extension of a class term so as to include words having these relations that the Anglo-Saxon gerund never had. extends down-ward through the back-bone. the other. some of them Verbal Nouns. 1. Van Twiller sat in a huge chair of solid oak. stepis modified by a. The nounal and the adjectival uses of participial forms we distinguish very sharply. being seen.--The phrase hearing a step is a modifier of the subject.] one sharing the nature of the verb and that of the adjective. The spinal marrow.

and therefore is not a mere modifier of man. [Footnote: Some grammarians prefer to treat the participle in such constructions as adverbial. He kept-waiting me=He detained me. The assertive force of the predicate came seems to extend over both verbs. it belongs to manthrough the assertive force of was found. If dead is here merely an "appositive" adjective. and he was asleep. stirring. The +participle+ may be used as an +objective complement+. If we put the sentence in the passive form. The +participle+ may be used as an +attribute complement+.. They stood terrified. and the infinitive do not here seem to differ essentially in office.. and (to) stir in the following sentences are objective complements:-I saw the leaves quiet. "I caught him.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Explanation+.\ \ \ \star \ \ \ ving \ \sav \------. The natives came crowding around.\ bbing \------------. I saw the leaves stir. who was dead" (or." the condition expressed by dead is the result of the act expressed by struck.. \and \and \ \. I found my book growing dull. Not found. [Footnote: It will be seen by this and following examples that we extend the application of the term objective complement beyond its primary." the condition is not the result of the act. dead is an objective complement. The adjective. Kept-waiting expresses the complete act performed upon me. The two sentences obviously are not equal. 9. "I caught him asleep" does not mean.--Crowding here completes the predicate came.] . "I found the man dead" must equal "I found the man.. 11.--The principal word of a prepositional phrase is here modified by a participle phrase. but found-dead tells what was done to the man. I was kept waiting. In "I struck the man dead.. and so grammarians say that in this second example dead should be treated simply as an "appositive" adjective modifying man. +Explanation+. returning with victorious legions. had amused the populace with the sports of the amphitheater. in the construction discussed above.--Waiting completes kept and relates to the object complement me. Lentulus. He kept me waiting." If. "The man was found dead." it will be seen that dead is more than a mere modifier..| miser | kept \ / \ ======|====================== | 10. 8. or factitive.\ \ ing \gru \---------.\. "and he was dead"). The natives are represented as performing the act of coming and the accompanying act of crowding. Dead helps foundto express the act. +Explanation+. 43 5. While dead does not belong to man as expressing the result of the act. I saw the leaves stirring. sense. See Lesson 31. The relation of waiting to me may be seen by changing the form of the verb. it is made to belong to man through the asserting force of the verb. The old miser kept grubbing and saving and starving. the participle. See Lesson 31 and page 78. as. The philosopher sat buried in thought. But is crowding any more adverbial here than are pale and trembling in "The natives came pale and trembling"?] 7. In "I found the man dead. 6. quiet. and belongs to the subject natives. The city lies sleeping. 12.

All that stands on the complement line is regarded as the complement. ---. Saul. You cannot fully sympathize with suffering without having suffered. Portions of the brain may be cut off without producing any pain. 6. and vigorously.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg \grow \ wing \ dull \--------------. 16. the first part represents the participle as a noun. The +participle+ may be used as +principal word+ in a +prepositional phrase+. +Oral Analysis+. it takes an object complement. +Oral Analysis+. like a noun. (Suffering is here a noun. He owned himself defeated.--The diagram representing the phrase complement is drawn above the complement line. by introduces the phrase. Notice that the little mark before the phrase points toward the object complement. Success generally depends on acting prudently.| I | found / / \ | book =====|============================== | \my 44 +Explanation+.doing | good -------------+Explanation+.--The line representing the participle here is broken. 13. The adjective dull completes growing and belongs to book.\Your | \neatly \that | \so | / \ | secured | position =========|========='=========== | \the +Explanation+. which is completed by the noun good.--Doing is a participle. No one ever saw fat men heading a riot or herding together in turbulent mobs. The Coliseum was once capable of seating ninety thousand persons. and. as a noun.) The +participle+ may be the +principal word+ in a phrase used as a +subject+ or as an +object complement+.--The diagram of the subject phrase is drawn above the subject line. by the adverb . You may imagine me sitting there. All that rests on the subject line is regarded as the subject. We receive good by doing good. Your writing that letter so neatly secured the position.--The phrase your writing that letter so neatly is the subject. as a verb. the principal word is doing. steadily. on which it is made to rest by means of a support. I felt my heart beating faster. writing | letter '-----------------------. which is completed by letter. it follows the preposition by. PARTICIPLES--CONTINUED. +Passing+. 1. 14. 2. seeking his father's asses. the principal word of it is writing. Analysis and Parsing. like a verb. 3. 4. 5. writing. found himself suddenly turned into a king. 15.--The phrase by doing good is a modifier of the predicate. We | receive | good =====|==================== | \by \-----. 17. the assumed subject of growing. is modified by your. and the other as a verb. ***** LESSON 38. and.

4.--In using a participle. stands by itself.--Many modifies song after song has been limited by aand long-forgotten. sitting restricts--limits the application of bird to a particular bird. at the beginning or at the end. grasping. 15. of Dickens's "constitutionals. [Footnote: "Manig man in Anglo-Saxon was used like German mancher mann. and punctuate. 14. celebrated in many a long-forgotten song. Latin multus vir.--Justify the punctuation of the participle phrases in Lesson37. March. +Caution+. 13. The bridge at Ashtabula giving way. +Direction+. and the like.] +Explanation+.--A bird. +Explanation+. greeted me with a song."--Prof. A. 9. be careful to leave no doubt as to what you intend it to modify. until the thirteenth century.] +by the comma unless restrictive+. See lesson 44. +COMMA--RULE. 2. 8. He was a squeezing. +Direction+. with the words belonging to it. The bird sitting on the wall is a wren. The town contains fifty houses and one hundred inhabitants built of brick. lighting near my window." ***** LESSON 39. Suits ready made of material cut by an experienced tailor handsomely trimmed and bought at a bargain are offered cheap. F. Talking of exercise.--Correct these errors in arrangement. which consists of a noun used independently with a participle. Seated on the topmost branch of a tall tree busily engaged in gnawing an acorn we espied a . COMPOSITION--PARTICIPLES.--The diagram of the absolute phrase. Good reading aloud is a rare accomplishment. is set off+ [Footnote: An expression in the body of a sentence is set off by two commas. giving your reasons:-1. 10. We should avoid injuring the feelings of others. 45 7. when the article was inserted to emphasize the distribution before indicated by the singular number. of course.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg phrase so neatly. 12. hardened old sinner. 11.--The Participle used as an adjective modifier. by one comma. +Explanation+. Such was the exciting campaign. The +participle+ may be used in +independent+ or +absolute phrases+. Lighting describes without restricting. 3. The +participial form+ may be used as a +mere noun+ or a +mere adjective+. My going there will depend upon my father's giving his consent. A gentleman will let his house going abroad for the summer to a small family containing all the improvements. All silencing of discussion is an assumption of infallibility. The cackling of geese saved Rome. you have heard. the train fell into the river.

Here also the form with to is equivalent to the participle form reading. This form of the verb is frequently the principal word of a phrase used as a subject or as an object. like other forms of the verb. VERBS AS NOUNS--INFINITIVES. see Lesson 131. Here the verb see. may be followed by the different complements. It differs from this participle in form. The +infinitive phrase+ may be used as an +adjective modifier+ or an +adverb modifier+. infinitus.--Compose sentences in which each of these three participles shall be used as an adjective modifier. as in the first example given above. +Direction+. and so does duty as a noun and as a verb. To read good books is profitable. like the participle. and from many grammarians has received the same name--some calling both gerunds.Incorrect because it appears that the ocean did the climbing. we call it the +Infinitive+ (Lat. when the infinitive phrase is used as subject or as object complement. but. as a mere noun. and performs its full function as a preposition. 1. Came to see=came for seeing. and punctuating correctly:-+Model+.--I came to see you. see Lesson 134. and in such cases to expresses relation.--Climbing to the top of the hill the Atlantic ocean was seen.] names the act and is completed by you. Reading good books is profitable. The infinitive. Desiring an early start the horse was saddled by five o'clock. See. For definition. It serves only to introduce the phrase. 3. . Entering the next room was seen a marble statue of Apollo. and in no way affects the meaning of the verb. I like to read good books. The infinitive. making the reference of the participle clear. and others calling both infinitives. +Introductory Hints+. without limit). The assumed subject denotes that to which the action or being expressed by the participle or the infinitive belongs. Frequently the infinitive phrase expresses purpose. we saw the Atlantic ocean. 5. as the principal word in a phrase used as a subject or as an object complement. following the preposition to. lacks asserting power--I to see asserts nothing. complement.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 46 squirrel. ***** LESSON 40. the to expresses no relation. 2. A poor child was found in the streets by a wealthy and benevolent gentleman suffering from cold and hunger. without limiting it to a subject. Climbing to the top of the hill. like the participle. +Direction+. Analysis and Parsing. As this form of the verb names the action in an indefinite way. as a mere adjective. In office it is like the second kind of participles.--Recast these sentences. as. and in an absolute phrase:-Buzzing. as the principal word in a prepositional phrase. leaping. By giving him a few hints he was prepared to do the work well. [Footnote: For the discussion of to with the infinitive. waving. may have what is called an assumed subject. described in Lesson 37. and in following only the preposition to.

hot-house | is \ trap ============|================ \The | \a \to \ catch | sunbeams \-------'---------+Oral Analysis+. 2. ***** . in sense. to build another shingle palace.--To is a preposition. 8. like a verb. 14. wanders away to seek new lands. and. 15. 3. The blind men's dogs appeared to know him. To heal = to be healed. 13.--The infinitive phrase is here used adverbially to modify the predicate. and again to sell off and wander.--To. These harmless delusions tend to make us happy. We will strive to please you. having no noun to relate to.| | / \ | is \ / \ ========|================== | Explanation.+ 10. The complements good and great are adjectives used abstractly. 7. Ingenious Art steps forth to fashion and refine the race. of the principal word to trap. introducing the phrase and showing the relation. Richelieu's title to command rested on sublime force of will and decision of character. to clear new cornfields. 4. He seemed to be innocent. To bear our fate is to conquer it. +Explanation+. +Explanation+. 6. Each hill attempts to ape her voice. catch is the principal word. \To \to \ be \good \ be \ great \----------------------. The +infinitive phrase+ may be used as +subject+ or +complement. We should learn to govern ourselves. it follows the preposition to and names the action. The representative Yankee. +Explanation+. 9. To eat = to be eaten. it is completed by sunbeams. like a noun. To be entirely just in our estimate of others is impossible. 11. in each of these phrases.--Happy completes make and relates to us. shows no relation--it serves merely to introduce. 5. 12.--To introduces the phrase. 47 +Parsing+.--The infinitive phrase here performs the office of an adjective. 16. selling his farm.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 1. +Explanation+. 17.--The infinitive phrase is here used adverbially to modify the adjective hard. +Explanation+. catch is a form of the verb called infinitive. +Explanation+. These apples are not ripe enough to eat. To be innocent = innocent. To be good is to be great.--The infinitive phrase is here used adverbially to modify the adverb enough. Wounds made by words are hard to heal.--The infinitive phrase is here used as an object complement. The hot-house is a trap to catch sunbeams. Many of the attempts to assassinate William the Silent were defeated. and sunbeams completes it. The noblest vengeance is to forgive.

God never made his work for man to mend.+ 7.+ . \to \ leave | me \-------'---. The +infinitive phrase+ may be used as +objective complement. Paul was now about to open his mouth. +Explanation+.| / \ | is \ profitable =============|====================== | 48 +Explanation+. 3.| friend | is \ / \ ========|===================== \My | +Explanation+.--For introduces the subject phrase. the principal word is us. 11. may become delightful. \to \ find | fault \-----'-----. It is not the way to argue down a vice to tell lies about it. 2. 6. It is natural to man to indulge in the illusions of hope. The +infinitive+ and its +assumed subject+ may form the +principal term+ in a phrase introduced by the preposition +for+. No way remains but to go on. For a man to be proud of his learning is the greatest ignorance.--But is here a preposition. Read the sentence without it. the principal part is the infinitive phrase to leave me. The +infinitive phrase+ may be used as an +explanatory modifier. 9. For us to know our faults is profitable. This use of it as a substitute for the real subject is a very common idiom of our language. to teach the young.---The principal term of the phrase for man to mend is not man. 8.| It (/ \) | is \ easy =========|=========== | +Explanation+. This task. 4.--The infinitive phrase to find fault explains the subject it. the principal part of the entire phrase is us to know our faults.| \to \ | \ know | faults \For | \------'-------. 10. which is modified by the phrase to know our faults. It is not all of life to live. The +infinitive phrase+ may be used +after a preposition+ as the +principal term+ of another phrase. and thus gives the sentence balance of parts.\ about | \ / \ \----------------.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg LESSON 41. 5. My friend is about to leave me. +Explanation+.--The preposition about introduces the phrase used as attribute complement.\ / \ \our \------. but man to mend. Analysis. INFINITIVES--CONTINUED. us ------. 1. and you will see the real nature of the phrase. It allows the real subject to follow the verb. It is easy to find fault.

The stick was made straight. See Lesson 79.--In the diagram the independent element must stand by itself. as.We found the report to be true.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 12. and to lower the bridge is the object complement. and to be promoted the predicate.--Stir is an infinitive without the to. to be assassinated. shall walk. He was seen to do it.. and participles used as objective complements. Agrippina. foot-note. See "Introductory Hints.] +Explanation+. than. He commanded the bridge to be lowered. INFINITIVES--CONTINUED. Being persuaded by Poppaesa. The stick was made to bend. He made me wait. Compare He told me to go with He told (to) me a story. have walked. Compare I saw him do it with I saw him doing it. In such sentences as (13) and (14) it may not always be expedient to demand that the pupil shall trace the exact relations of the infinitive phrase to the preceding noun and to the predicate verb. [Footnote: These infinitive phrases can be expanded into dependent clauses. [Footnote: See pages 68 and 69. I saw the leaves stir."] 15. see Lesson 63. also He taught me to read with He taught (to) me reading. 49 +Explanation+. [Footnote: Some prefer to treat the report to be true as an object clause because it is equivalent to the clause that the report is true. He made-wait me = He detained me. But many expressions logically equivalent are entirely different in grammatical construction. I desire that he should be promoted. I desire him to be promoted. to teach that him is the subject. Compare also He made the stick bend--equaling He made-bend (= bent) the stick--with He made the stick straight--equaling He made-straight (= straightened) the stick. The +infinitive phrase+ may be used +independently+.] +Explanation+. This last sentence = He commanded him that he should lower the bridge. For the infinitive after as. equivalent to a clause. Participles and infinitives unite with other verbs to make compound forms. 13. Lesson 37.| We | found / / \ | report ===|========================== | 14. Him represents the one to whom the command is given. Analysis. in such cases." Lesson 31. Besides. as. I desire his promotion.] \to \ be \ true \-------------.--The infinitive wait (here used without to) completes made and relates to me. and stick may be more clearly seen by changing the form of the verb. . This construction is similar to the Latin "accusative with the infinitive. 16. the infinitive and its assumed subject may be treated as a kind of phrase object. of a clause would certainly be confusing. etc. him. He was seen doing it. The relation of these objective complements to me. Hero caused his mother. [Footnote: Notice the difference in construction between this sentence and the sentence He commanded him to lower the bridge. ***** LESSON 42. If preferred. thus: I was made to wait.

To rise early is healthful. Conscience. 5. ***** LESSON 43. To make a long story short. 8. the council would sit for hours smoking and watching the smoke curl from their pipes to the ceiling. I supposed him to be a gentleman. 7. COMPOSITION--THE INFINITIVE. and the infinitives into participles:-1. of. 14. 11. 13.--Improve these sentences by changing the participles into infinitives. I commenced to write a letter. 4.--Vary these sentences as in the model:-+Model+. 3. Stones are used in ballasting vessels. for. It is inconvenient being poor.--Change the infinitives in these sentences into participles. is a necessity. She threatened to go beyond the sea.--Rising early is healthful. It is a good thing to give thanks unto the Lord. is changed to toward. 9. This sentence is not too difficult for me to analyze. Swearing is sinful. It is not wise complaining.000. to put it in round numbers. To be. 15. 6. We began ascending the mountain. 3. 10. wounded lies. I am ashamed to be seen there. to throw herself out of the window. You are prompt to obey.--that is the question. 1. 2. It will serve for amusing the children. 2. so to speak.+--Write eight sentences in which these verbs shall be followed by an infinitive without the to:-- . 2. She will be grieved to hear it.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 1. Reading good books is profitable. 12. and the participles into infinitives:-Notice that to. +Direction+. 10. For one to rise early is healthful. keeping the body in health by making it warm and repairing its waste. 7. when the infinitive is changed to a participle. in three of which the infinitive phrase shall be used as an adjective. I am inclined to believe it.000. at. We require clothing in the summer to protect the body from the heat of the sun. England's debt. Indorsing another's paper is dangerous. He did not recollect to have paid it. in three as an adverb.+--Write nine sentences.000. Busied with public affairs. +Direction+. and in three as a noun. Equivocating is disgraceful. +Direction. (Notice that the explanatory phrase after it is not set off by the comma. 9. Itis healthful to rise early. and Marie Antoinette were executed. I am surprised at seeing you. There is a time to laugh. Louis XVI. 50 4. to drown herself. The fog came pouring in at every chink and keyhole. is $4. 5. MISCELLANEOUS. 3. Infinitives and Participles. 5. Slandering is base. 6. or not to be. They delight to do it. the only preposition used with the infinitive. I will teach you the trick to prevent your being cheated another time. her first law broken. Food. 3. I rejoice to hear it. +Direction+. 4. 4. in. 11. Rip Van Winkle could not account for everything's having changed so. Every object has several faces. 5. +Direction. They trembled to hear such words. or on.) 1. 2. 8.

two-story intellects. there is used idiomatically. 2. but the phrase has no connective expressed or understood. as you have learned. ***** LESSON 44. I stake my fame (and I had fame). my heart. The fault. dear Brutus. another there may follow the predicate. the idea of place having faded out of the word. Interjections are without grammatical connection.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Model. upon this cast. as. hear. and hence are independent. Poor man! he never came back again.+--We saw the sun sink behind the mountain. is not in our stars. as in this sentence. and three-story intellects with skylights. generally speaking. my soul. His master being absent. Well. +Explanation+. Dear Brutus serves only to arrest attention. my hope. make. WORDS AND PHRASES USED INDEPENDENTLY. . Rod and staff simply call attention to the objects before anything is said of them.+--In this Lesson we wish to notice words and phrases that in certain uses have no grammatical connection with the rest of the sentence. The infinitive phrase is independent. need. +Introductory Hints. +Analysis+. the business was neglected. dare. as. feel. Speaking is a participle without connection. and see. To confess the truth. life is an enigma. merely to throw the subject after the verb. To express place. now. But is an adjective modifying shadows. was honorable. The loveliest things in life. and are independent by pleonasm--a construction used sometimes for rhetorical effect. as. There is gold there. that is strange. There are one-story intellects. they comfort me.--Often. Now. Whatever is enclosed within marks of parenthesis is also independent of the rest of the sentence. I was wrong. Bid. Tom. His master being absent logically modifies the verb was neglected by assigning the cause. Poor man is independent by exclamation.+--Tom is independent by address. there are sometimes independent. His conduct. it is already noon. 1. An absolute phrase consists of a noun or a pronoun used independently with a modifying participle. This is called the absolute phrase. and is therefore grammatically independent. and is independent by address. and with the adverb generally forms an independent phrase. +Explanation. let. 51 Thy rod and thy staff. are but shadows. There are pitch-pine Yankees and white-pine Yankees. Why. but out of place in ordinary speech. why. The adverbs well.

surely. 7. 11. 9. I shall enter on no encomium upon Massachusetts. shall occur.) TO THE TEACHER. are usually followed by the exclamation point.150. 13. a pool. still.\A 16. The teacher being sick. now and then. therefore. The smith. then. too. +COMMA--RULE. follow Washington's orders. it may be enclosed within marks of parenthesis. Properly speaking. like however. the dash is required. a mighty man is he. the comma is used. this is not revenge. No accident occurring. 1812) began the fatal retreat of the Grand Army. accordingly. as in (15) and (16).+--Write sentences illustrating the several kinds of independent expressions. 8. by the way.--Interjections. moreover.+--Write short sentences in which these words shall modify same particular word or phrase so closely as not to be set off by the comma:-Indeed. but rather the sentence as a whole. do not modify a word or a phrase alone. in general. Now. President. 15. Ah! then and there was hurrying to and fro. 19. all is lost. If the independent expression can be omitted without affecting the sense. pages 30.) Words and phrases nearly independent are those which. now. above all. +Direction. again. 5. no doubt. retreat | began =========|======= \later \---\ \ day \------. for instance. too. see Lesson 148.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 52 3. of course. +Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. there was no school Friday. +Direction. by the sheep-market. there is at Jerusalem. 6. however. 4. but. then. further. 14. there can be no chance in our affairs. Lee did not. and there. used in a manner nearly independent. indeed. But the enemies of tyranny--their path leads to the scaffold. A day later (Oct. namely. To speak plainly. 12. however. as in (5).--See suggestions to the teacher. this is the forest of Arden. as in (14). +Direction. from Moscow. the artfulness of the woman!) managed the matter extremely well. by the bye. She (oh. Lesson 44. indeed. Why. by the bye. why. in short. COMPOSITION--INDEPENDENT WORDS AND PHRASES.--Words and phrases independent or nearly so are set off by the comma. and punctuate them properly:-In short. in fine. if it is more abrupt. When the break after pleonastic expressions is slight. your habits are your worst enemies. Mr. used merely to introduce. at least. and punctuate according to the Rule as explained. we shall arrive to-morrow. Well. and accordingly. (For the uses of the dash and the marks of parenthesis. Hope lost. as you have seen.+ (SEE PAGES 160-162. for instance. of course. ***** LESSON 45.+ +Remark+.+--Write short sentences in which these words and phrases. . 10. as. See Lesson 35. is never set off by the comma.

This sentence is used simply to affirm. How . but a declarative. Alexander the Great died at Babylon in the thirty-third year of his age. Six days shalt thou labor and do all thy work. and is called a +Declarative Sentence.) 4. He asked. How the mountains lift up their heads! In this sentence the thought is expressed with strong emotion. see page 42. strike wide of the mortal part? 3. and is called an +Imperative Sentence+. How wonderful is the advent of spring! 5. or to declare a fact. and is called an +Interrogative Sentence.--In the previous Lessons we have considered the sentence with respect to the words and phrases composing it.+ +DEFINITION.+--Before analyzing these sentences. Such expressions as You must go. He asked what the trouble was.] +INTERROGATION POINT--RULE.--An Interrogative Sentence is one that expresses a question.+ +DEFINITION. SENTENCES CLASSIFIED WITH RESPECT TO MEANING.+ Do the mountains lift up their heads? This sentence expresses a question. Oh! a dainty plant is the ivy green! 6. +Introductory Hints+.+ Lift up your heads.+--When an interrogative sentence is made a part of another sentence. an interrogative. 2. +Direction. as. or an imperative sentence may become exclamatory when the speaker uses it mainly to give vent to his feelings. 53 The mountains lift up their heads.+ +DEFINITION.--An Imperative Sentence is one that expresses a command or an entreaty.--A Declarative Sentence is one that is used to affirm or to deny. It is called an +Exclamatory Sentence+. classify them. as. 8. as. "What is the trouble?" or indirect.) Analysis. his victim sleeping before him. This sentence expresses a command. How and what usually introduce such sentences. You shall goare equivalent to imperative sentences. though they have not the imperative form. Why does the very murderer. it may be direct.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** LESSON 46.+ [Footnote: For punctuation. and his glaring eye taking the measure of the blow. Let us now look at it as a whole. There are no accidents in the providence of God. (The subject is you understood. Suffer not yourselves to be betrayed with a kiss. 7.--An Exclamatory Sentence is one that expresses sudden thought or strong feeling. and justify the terminal marks of punctuation:-1. It is impossible! How can I endure it! Talk of hypocrisy after this! +DEFINITION.--Every direct interrogative sentence should be followed by an interrogation point. (See Lesson 74.+ +Remark.

Greek art. went gleaning the silent fields of childhood. 5. floating grandly over a Liberal ministry yesterday. 2.--Gail Hamilton. carried your flag into the very chops of the British Channel. and competence. on the graves of the dead! 15. Cheerfulness banishes all anxious care and discontent. The Alps. The Angel of Life winds our brains up once for all. and the morning sunlight fresh and fair. Greek eloquence. 10. How beautiful was the snow. Richelieu would permit no eminent author to stand bareheaded in his presence. the Thistle. Greek wisdom. the Leek. are called Epigrams. I called the New World into existence to redress the balance of the Old. (8). 11. and carries the two-and-thirty winds in the boiler of his boat. MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES IN REVIEW. bearded the lion in his den. By means of steam man realizes the fable of Aeolus's bag. What power shall blanch the sullied snow of character? 13. moreover.Longfellow. piled in cold and still sublimity. memory.-. Robertson. In that calm Syrian afternoon. The setting of a great hope is like the setting of the sun. Things take on dignity and importance as they rise in the scale of being.--Lamb.--Wordsworth.--Warner. on the roofs of the living. the Broom of the Plantagenets.-. What brilliant rings the planet Saturn has! 12. 9. Who.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 54 sickness enlarges the dimensions of a man's self to himself! 9. falling all day long. Analysis. W.] ***** LESSON 48. all the joys of sense. I want my husband to be submissive without looking so. 4.--Phillips. Note. 2.--Lowell. over a Tory ministry to-day.Beecher.--De Quincey. and woke the echoes of old Albion's hills by the thunders of his cannon and the shouts of his triumph? ***** LESSON 47. 1. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain. then closes the case. MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES IN REVIEW Analysis. The vulgar intellectual palate hankers after the titillation of foaming phrase. Two mighty vortices. like (7).--Canning. 4. Lend me your ears. 7.--Curtis. and found the scattered grain still golden. soothes . 3. 6.health. and (10) in this Lesson. [Footnote: In Ruth of this sentence. Every Latin word has its function as noun or verb or adverb ticketed upon it. Pericles and Alexander the Great.--Tyler. What quality do you think they impart to one's style?] 8. The laws of nature are the thoughts of God.--Emerson. peace. The prominent nose of the New Englander is evidence of the constant linguistic exercise of that organ. 7. Things mean. I love to lose myself in other men's minds.--Conway. a flag. Prayer is the key of the morning and the bolt of the night. 9. 8. Reason's whole pleasure. Refusing to bare his head to any earthly potentate. All the interest that the Ruth of the Bible awakens in us this allusion gathers about so common a thing as memory. are an image of despotism. 1.--Earle.--F. and gives the key into the hands of the Angel of Resurrection. 6. 5. Extreme admiration puts out the critic's eye. --Stephen. 10. 14. Poetry is only the eloquence and enthusiasm of religion. become noble by association. 3. [Footnote: Weighty thoughts tersely expressed. a pensive Ruth. that in this instance of the figure we have an +Allusion+. 11. drew into strong eddies about themselves all the glory and the pomp of Greek literature. all night long. we have a type of the metaphor called +Personification+--a figure in which things are raised above their proper plane. taken up toward or to that of persons. in the darkest days of our Revolution.--Holmes. lie in three words-. The Queen of England is simply a piece of historic heraldry.--Pope.

of power to the subject phrase. so far as you have been taught.--If. +Explanation+. The eight following Lessons may thus be reduced to two or three. ***** LESSON 50. like Chinese soldiers. Authors must not. TO THE TEACHER. making the required changes orally. in sense. Give. illustrate the different uses of the participle and the infinitive. it is found desirable to abridge these Lessons on Arrangement and Contraction. and the punctuation of these independent elements. 11." repeat and illustrate definitions and rules. and the pupil may be required to illustrate the positions of the different parts. ***** LESSON 49. Lesson 16.--Addison. the exercises to be written may be omitted.--Give the reasons.--Longfellow. +Example+. +Direction+. and keeps the soul in a perpetual calm. and then to read the examples given. inclusive. and illustrate the Caution regarding the use of the participle. TO THE TEACHER. the substance of the "Introductory Hints.--Review from Lesson 37 to Lesson 46. To discover the true nature of comets has hitherto proved beyond the power of science. REVIEW. The preposition beyond shows the relation. .--See suggestions. in some such way as we have outlined in preceding Review Lessons. 47. and is therefore an attribute complement. The verb follows the subject. +Direction+. 46. ARRANGEMENT--USUAL ORDER. and the object complement follows the verb. illustrate the different ways in which words and phrases may be grammatically independent. in both the Usual and the Transposed order. for the marks of punctuation used in Lessons 44. from lack of time or from the necessity of conforming to a prescribed course of study. expect to win victories by turning somersets in the air. Let us recall the +Usual Order+ of words and phrases in a simple declarative sentence. 10. and 48. REVIEW OF PUNCTUATION. ***** LESSON 51.--Beyond the power of science = impossible.--Drake circumnavigated the globe.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 55 and composes the passions.

--Observing this order. the lawgiver. write three sentences illustrating the relative position of adjectives before and after the noun. came down from the Mount. the adverb. I hurt him badly. Eastern life is dreamy. +Direction+. on the contrary.--The usual order of words. He had often been there.--Observing this order. They offered Caesar a crown. follows the verb. ***** LESSON 52.--Observing this order. Moses. +Introductory Hints+. great freedom in the placing of words and phrases is . 56 The attribute complement. +Direction+. I soon found him. A rock. if a word has two or more phrases. +Direction+. +Examples+. +Examples+. write sentences illustrating these several positions of the adverb. write four sentences illustrating the positions of the noun and of the adjective when they perform these offices. Cassino has a lean and hungry look. They made Bonaparte consul. or the phrase which it modifies.--Observing this order. each sentence containing an adjective.--The light far in the distance is so very bright. two with possessive modifiers and two with explanatory.--Facts once established are facts forever. and the indirect object precedes the direct. write four sentences. they stand in the order of their length--the shortest first. the one most closely modifying the noun stands nearest to it. Phrases follow the words they modify. He sailed for Liverpool on Monday. An adverb precedes the adjective.--Observing this order.--Egypt is the valley of the Nile.--Man's life is a brief span. spoken of in the preceding Lesson. and follows one or more words of the verb if the verb is compound. +Examples+. precedes or follows (more frequently follows) the simple verb or the verb with its complement. If adjectives are of unequal rank. and an explanatory modifier follows it. +Direction+. +Direction+. write three sentences each with an object complement.--Two honest young men enlisted. ARRANGEMENT--TRANSPOSED ORDER. whether noun or adjective. those most closely modifying it stand nearest to it. An adjective or a possessive modifier precedes its noun.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+.--Observing this order. if of the same rank. is not the only order admissible in an English sentence. +Examples+. +Examples+. write sentences illustrating the positions of participle and prepositional phrases. the objective complement follows the object complement. stood in our path. huge and precipitous.

11. To their will we must succumb. happy. consequently. forever live. 12.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 57 sometimes allowable. long and deeply. we say change. give them additional importance to the reader or hearer. He ended his tale here. 3. in excited speech of any kind. as. Monmouth had never been accused of cowardice.--Change these to the usual order:-1. and note the effect:-1. before the subject. transpose. Volatile he was. Strange is the magic of a turban. one may deviate widely from this order. Slowly and sadly we laid him down. 12. stripped from some privileged . they were. The moon shone bright. She seemed young and sad. 10. That gale I well remember. more of it lies in some words than in others. 13. and explain the effect:-1. by thus attracting attention to them. each with one of the adverbs or phrases as predicate modifier. A frozen continent lies beyond the sea. my son!" 8. 2. 2.----Where. They were pretty lads. He would not escape. 11. Under the influence of strong feeling. Him they hanged. Freely ye have received. Churlish he often seemed. in the market. 8. 2. in impassioned oratory. One strong thing I find here below. The clouds lowering upon our house are buried in the deep bosom of the ocean. Their names will forever live on the lips of the people--Their names will. serene. 5. 6. Let the relation of the words be kept obvious and. A yeoman had he. often. I must go. +Direction+. we have what we may call the +Transposed Order+. then transpose the ten with these same words moved to the front. under foot. He cried. Flashed all their sabers bare.--Change these sentences from the usual to the transposed order by moving words or phrases to the front. the thought clear. When any word or phrase in the predicate stands out of its usual place. 7. and explain the effect:-1. 9. +Direction+. +Direction+. "My son. A writer's meaning is never distributed evenly among his words. 3. and in poetry. the pupils need not write the sentences.--Change these sentences from the transposed order to the usual. Let a shroud. The great fire roared up the deep and wide chimney. appearing either at the front of the sentence or at the end. indeed. Of noble race the lady came. 3.--Transpose these sentences by placing the italicized words last. +Direction+. +Direction+. 2. 14. He could not avoid it. The great Queen died in the year 1603. 4. character. and five. one may move words out of their accustomed place. in our directions in these Lessons on Arrangement and Contraction. The whole of a verb is not placed at the beginning of a declarative sentence except in poetry. When the word or phrase moved to the front carries the verb. or the principal word of it. Aeneas did bear from the flames of Troy upon his shoulder the old Anchises. TO THE TEACHER. each with one of the following nouns or adjectives as a complement. Require them to show what the sentence has lost or gained in the change. as. 13. This double office the participle performs. He was a contentious man. 10. It was quoted so. 9. Such a heart beats in the breast of my people. we have the extreme example of the transposed order. Him. or restore. him. then. I dare not venture to go down into the cabin--Venture to go down into the cabin I dare not. the Almighty Power hurled headlong. and. on the lips of the people. and explain the effect:-Giant. 5. Overhead I heard a murmur. 4. 4. 6.--Write five sentences. You shall die--Die you shall. 7. Once again we'll sleep secure. Victories. No woman was ever in this wild humor wooed and won. They should study them and be able to read them.

2. Ease and grace in writing are.--Restore these sentences to their usual order by moving the attribute complement and the verb to their usual places. be. 6. and tell what is lost by the change:-1. peace. and then transpose them:-Rock. for its proper price.--Transpose these sentences by moving the object complement and the verb. 5. and tell what is lost by the change:-1.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 58 corpse. The English character has faults and plenty of them. horse. 2. You have learned much in this short journey. and tell what is gained by the change:-1. 4. "Exactly so. by and by.--Restore these sentences to their usual order by moving the object complement and the verb to their customary places.--Using these nouns as attribute complements. write three sentences in the usual order. 4." replied the pendulum. Washington is styled the "Father of his Country. 3.--Restore these sentences to their usual order by moving the adjective complement and the verb to their customary places:-- . As a mark of respect was the present given. +Direction+. glad. each with the following noun or adjective or phrase in its usual place in the predicate. A changed France have we. 5. words. +Direction+. Thorns and thistles shall the earth bring forth. the most difficult and valuable. 3. 5. Treasures of gold and of silver are. +Direction+. suddenly stopped. gift. 3.--Write six transposed sentences with these nouns as object complements. ***** LESSON 53. in the deep bosom of the earth. 5. Me restored he to mine office. The maiden has such charms. 2. "Lazy wire!" 2. and then restore them to their usual order:-Pause. The king does possess great power. early one summer's morning. placing these words wherever they can properly go:-Mountains. 5. of all the acquisitions made in school.--Write three sentences. Feet was I to the lame. +Direction+. displayed. A dainty plant is the ivy green. These evils hath sin wrought." 3. +Direction+. and tell what is gained by the change:-1. Henry VIII. 4. 4. cry. The man seemed an incarnate demon. concealed. had become a despot. A mighty man is he. An old clock. I will make one effort more to save you. fortress. He was a stark mosstrooping Scot. The dial-plate exclaimed. We are merry brides. ARRANGEMENT--TRANSPOSED ORDER. and then transpose. before the stirring of the family. +Direction+. +Direction+. desert. 4.--Transpose these sentences by moving the attribute complement and the verb. A giant towered he among men. +Direction+. 3.

ARRANGEMENT--TRANSPOSED ORDER. huge. and then restore the sentences to the usual order:-Tempestuous. 6. 3. +Direction+. .Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 1. 2. 8. 6. glorious. yet. To such straits is a kaiser driven. ***** LESSON 54. 2. The fall of that house was great.--Restore these sentences to the usual order by moving the phrase and the verb to their customary places. 11. A sincere word was never utterly lost.--Write five transposed sentences. I came into the world helpless. Dark rolled the waves. There thunders the cataract age after age. 4. The secretary stood alone. There dozed the donkeys. 14. In purple was she robed. 12. 10. On the 17th of June. never. 2.--Transpose these sentences by moving the adverb and the verb:-1. Tictac! tictac! go the wheels of thought. 11. 2. The boy stood there with dizzy brain. here. thus. Away went Gilpin. each with one of these adjectives as attribute complement. 13. Here stands the man. Venus was yet the morning star.--Restore these sentences to the usual order by moving the adverb and the verb to their customary places. now. 9. Happy are we to-night. 5. 7. In those days came John the Baptist. out. Weary had he grown. 4. The great event occurred soon after. 4. 10. Upon such a grating hinge opened the door of his daily life. 6. was fought the battle of Bunker Hill. +Direction+. 9. You must speak thus. 5. So died the great Columbus of the skies. 3. Near the surface are found the implements of bronze. 9. so. 12. Wise are all his ways. 4. Thy proud waves shall be stayed here. lively. +Direction+. I will never desert Mr. Through the narrow bazaar pressed the demure donkeys. Down came the masts. 9. and note the loss:-1. 11. 9. The air seemed deep and dark. Seven years after the Restoration appeared Paradise Lost. Lady Impudence goes up to the maid. +Direction+. Catiline shall no longer plot her ruin. Pale looks your Grace. My regrets were bitter and unavailing. Wide open stood the doors. It stands written so. 6. +Direction+. She had grown tall and queenly. Louder waxed the applause. 6. The uproar became intolerable. The Spaniard's shot went whing! whing! 5. Between them lay a mountain ridge. 5. 7. there.--Write ten sentences in the transposed order. Crack! went the ropes. 3. 8. 12. +Direction+. 1775. Then burst his mighty heart. Well have ye judged. Thus waned the afternoon. boys. Micawber. Good and upright is the Lord. The peacemakers are blessed. 11. 7. 2. and note the loss:-1. The untrodden snow lay bloodless. seldom. On swept the lines.--Transpose these sentences by moving the adjective complement and the verb:-- 59 1. Off went his bonnet. 5. 10. Doubtful seemed the battle. 8. Boom! boom! went the guns. using these adverbs:-Still. Faithful proved he to the last. Into the valley of death rode the six hundred. fierce. 4. Hotter grew the air. Behind her rode Lalla Rookh. 7. 10. 7. Blood-red became the sun. 10. 8. Three times were the Romans driven back. The anger of the righteous is weighty. 8. 3. 3.

after the first word of it . If the interrogative word is subject or a modifier of it. +Direction+. using the first word below as a subject. ARRANGEMENT--INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES.--Whom did you see? What are personal consequences? Which course will you choose? +Direction+.--Transpose these sentences by moving the phrase and the verb:-- 60 1. into. +Examples+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. 4. between. the fair young flowers? +Direction+. why. 9. where. what. Touch proper lies in the finger-tips and in the lips. and then transpose the sentences. upon.--Write five interrogative sentences. 5. 7. If the interrogative word is an adverb. which.--Why is the forum crowded? Where are the flowers. using these prepositions to introduce phrases. +Direction+. I have served in twenty campaigns. the order is transposed. 8. ***** LESSON 55. 2. by. which. If the interrogative word is object complement or attribute complement or a modifier of either. His trusty sword lay by his side.--Write six sentences in the transposed order. 6. when. The dreamy murmur of insects was heard over our heads.--Write ten sentences in the usual order. the second as a subject and then as a modifier of the subject. The disciples came at the same time. to. in. what. +Examples+.--Write an interrogative sentence with the first word below as object complement. and compare the two orders:-Beyond. and another with the second word as attribute complement. toward. If there is no interrogative word. 10. The house stands somewhat back from the street. Write four with the third and the fourth as complements. using these adverbs:-How. whither. of. and four with the third and the fourth as modifiers of the complement:-Whom. neither. at. nor. beginning them with these words:-There (independent). An ancient and stately hall stood near the village. 3. the order is usual. the order is transposed. +Examples+. Pepin eventually succeeded to Charles Martel. the subject stands after the verb when this is simple.--Who came last evening? What star shines brightest? +Direction+.--Write five interrogative sentences. Our sphere turns on its axis. The bridle is red with the sign of despair. the third as a subject and then as a modifier of the subject:-Who. who.

but. the subject. +Examples+. Samuel Adams's habits were simple and frugal and unostentatious. Write four sentences with the word what modifying (1) an object complement and (2) an attribute complement--in two sentences let the verb follow.--Using these verbs. obey.--Praise ye the Lord. +Direction+. 61 +Examples+. The means used were persuasions and petitions and remonstrances and resolutions and defiance. a great debater. ***** LESSON 56. love.--How quietly the child sleeps! How excellent is thy loving-kindness! What visions have I seen! What a life his was! +Direction+. and (3) an adverb--in three sentences let the verb follow. and a great writer. and all the conjunctions except the last:-1. must see. (2) a verb. ARRANGEMENT--IMPERATIVE AND EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES. +Direction+.--Write six interrogative sentences. lend. +Examples+. can learn. and are usually in the transposed order. 7. By their valor. Carthage was the mistress of oceans. 3. +Direction+. could have been found. yet exclamatory sentences ordinarily begin with how or what. might have gone. choose. The subject is usually omitted in the imperative sentence.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg when it is compound. so delicate. CONTRACTION OF SENTENCES. 6. in five of which the subject shall be omitted. and by their matrimonial alliances.--Write six exclamatory sentences with the word how modifying (1) an adjective.--Have you your lesson? Has the gentleman finished? +Direction+. They are truly prosperous and truly happy. using these words:-Is. expressed:-Remember. . use. when it is expressed. live. write ten sentences. and of nations. and in five. Although any sentence may without change of order become exclamatory (Lesson 46). 2. Webster was a great lawyer.--Change the sentences you have written in this Lesson into declarative sentences. a great statesman. the subject. has. devote. Give (thou) me three grains of corn.--Contract these sentences by omitting the repeated modifiers and prepositions. and in three precede. by their policy. strive. 4. and in two precede. listen. and so ornamental! 5. they became powerful. the sentence is in the transposed order. Flowers are so fragile. ***** LESSON 57. of kingdoms.

He was a good son. peaches.--Expand these by repeating the adjective. sir. Are you a captain? 5. with. Death to the tyrant. Hence. Off with you. I want a word with you. . Bayard was very brave. All aboard! 4. Egypt. I offer a world for sale. May a prosperous voyage be to you. 8. Where hast been these six months? 6. you idle creatures! 9. and Palestine. through. Will you take your chance? 3. +Direction+. Honor. wife. Art thou gone? 2. father. and. false fugitive. The tourist traveled in Spain. 5. sir. room. 5. and then contract them as above. 2. 3.--Expand these by supplying both subject and verb.--Expand these sentences by supplying subjects:-1. silence. revenge. Forward. Hear me for my cause. Whither are you going so early? +Direction+. Sit you down. Why so unkind? 4. 6. and then contract the sentences by omitting both subject and verb:-Why. friend. soothless insulter. I offer a penny for your thoughts. one of these adverbs or phrases or nouns. 4. 15. 2. Coffee for two. Are you here? +Direction+. On with the dance. 3. ***** LESSON 58. shame. 9. Shine. to arms. My kingdom for a horse! 8. We will drink a health to Preciosa. Canst thou wonder? 8. May long life be to the republic. and contempt inflamed his heart. brother. and chivalrous. Nobody there. At your service. and the conjunction:-- 62 1. madam. 2. +Direction+.--Construct ten full sentences. out. sir. It is true. the preposition.--Contract these by omitting both subject and verb. 3. Save us. REVIEW.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. Greece. Bring ye lights there. strange! 14. and note the gain in force and animation:-1. His career was ably run. Impossible! +Direction+. each with one of these words used four times. and note the loss in vivacity:-1. 9. 7. using in each. All hands to the pumps! 5. 7. go you to breakfast. Why dost stare so? 3. Half-past nine. When Adam thus to Eve. Thou shalt back to France. away! 16. Bless me! 7. Strange. his career. for the guns. 4. Thank you. the adverb. +Direction+. 4. 3. to your tents. Upon them with the lance. 4. Now. 8. truthful. 7. 6. and note the effect of the repetition and of the omission:-Poor. Whose footsteps these? +Direction+. Give us this day our daily bread. then. 9. the light brigade! 5. Short. 6. hence. What to me fame? 6. 10. sir? 11. 2. water. Once more unto the breach.--Contract these by omitting the subject or the verb:-1. Back to thy punishment.--Write six sentences. I must after him. 12. or. indeed. how. Away. How great is the mystery! 7. 2. 10. Those are my sentiments. 10.--Expand these by supplying the verb or some part of it:-1. 13.

+Introductory Hints+. +Direction+. A youth makes friends. by their connection. (SEE PAGES 162-165.--This is a complex sentence because it consists of an independent clause and a dependent clause.--See suggestions. They | will be defiled =======|===================== ` | ` ` that ` | touch | pitch --------|--------'------. we call an +Independent Clause+. not performing such office. They are called +Simple Sentences+. and that touch pitch is the dependent. The whole sentence.--The sentences given for analysis in the preceding Lessons contain each but one subject and one predicate. we call a +Dependent Clause+. They that touch pitch will be defiled. you learn from this diagram that that touch pitch is a modifier of they. of an imperative. . illustrate the different ways of contracting sentences.--The relative importance of the two clauses is shown by their position. In Lesson 17 you learned that you could expand the adjective discreet into a phrase. This part of the sentence and the other part. Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. +Oral Analysis+. and say. inclusive. COMPLEX SENTENCE--ADJECTIVE CLAUSE.| +Explanation+. pages 30. and say. A youth of discretion makes friends. illustrate the different positions of the parts of an interrogative. we call a +Complex Sentence+. That performs the office of a conjunction also.) TO THE TEACHER. That touch pitch is a modifier of they because it limits the meaning of they. 1.--Review from Lesson 51 to Lesson 57. The adjective clause that is discreet. A discreet youth makes friends. containing each a subject and a predicate. A dependent clause that does the work of an adjective is called an +Adjective Clause+. composed of an independent and a dependent clause. the dependent clause is connected by its subject that to they. ***** LESSON 59. performing the office of a single word. Analysis. we call +Clauses+. Lesson 16. 150. and of an exclamatory sentence. You are now to learn that you can expand it into an expression that asserts. and by the difference in the shading of the lines.--See notes to the teacher. They will be defiled is the independent clause. 63 Illustrate the different positions--Usual and Transposed--that the words and phrases of a declarative sentence may take. A youth that is discreet makes friends.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg TO THE TEACHER. This office is shown by the dotted line. As modifiers are joined by slanting lines to the words they modify. A youth makes friends. The pronoun that is written on the subject line of the dependent clause.

It was from me that he received the information. and that by substituting for them the words for which they stand.--Illustrate the connecting force of who.) 16. Photography is the art which enables commonplace mediocrity to look like genius. When the pronoun that connects an adjective clause. I found the place to which you referred. In analysis restore the preposition to its usual place--It is you that I speak to. 6. 7. Islands are the tops of mountains whose base is in the bed of the ocean. +Explanation+.--A preposition is wanting.` \ `.--The pronoun connecting an adjective clause is not always a subject. It was the same book that I referred to.` | \to ` \ which ` \------9. ***** LESSON 60. (Me must be changed to I when from is restored to its usual position. The diagram is similar to that of (8). 4. rests with John Hawkins. Grouchy did not arrive at the time that Napoleon most needed him. The guilt of the slave-trade.--The adjective clause does not always modify the subject. I | found | place ====|================== | \the ` ` you | referred ` ------|---------.--The connecting pronoun is here a possessive modifier of base. +Explanation+.] which sprang out of the traffic with Guinea. which. That I speak to modifies the subject. Attention is the stuff that memory is made of. [Footnote: See Lesson 61. 17. In 1685 Louis XIV. Unhappy is the man whose mother does not make all mothers interesting. and noting the loss of connection.. Wine makes the face of him who drinks it to excess blush for his habits. 11. mountains ----------. The lever which moves the world of mind is the printing-press.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg TO THE TEACHER. +Explanation+. 3. . 12.. 64 2. +Explanation+. That = in which. 8. It is to you that I speak. That connects the adjective clause..--Here the preposition. foot-note. She that I spoke to was blind. The thirteen colonies were welded together by the measures which Samuel Adams framed.\whose +Explanation+. +Explanation+. 5.` ` base | is ` ------|----.--The phrase to that modifies referred. 10. 15. signed the ordinance that revoked the Edict of Nantes.. (Can you find a word that would here sound better than that?) 13. which usually would stand last in the sentence. The spirit in which we act is the highest matter. 14. the preposition never precedes. is found before the complement of the independent clause.

and before which no antecedent is needed. Whoever does a good deed is instantly ennobled. As where performs these two offices. They would treat in the same way clauses introduced by whoever. He | did | x ====|====================== | ` ` what ` | was \ right ---------|------------+Explanation+. What men he had were true. 5. 8. He did what was right. 9. [Footnote: Many grammarians prefer to treat what was right as a noun clause (see Lesson 71).--The adjective clause modifies the omitted word thing. which."--Prof. 11. Analysis. March. +Explanation+.--The connecting pronoun that [Footnote: When whom. 1.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ADJECTIVE CLAUSES--CONTINUED. they are often omitted. 65 +Explanation+. Analyze as if arranged thus: The men what (= that or whom) he hadwere true. the double nature of the conjunctive adverb will be seen. Macaulay is the only writer we have found who seldom or never omits them. The upper part represents where as a conjunction connecting the adjective clause to place. 13. 7. it is confined to clauses which may be parsed as substantives.] 6. or some word whose meaning is general or indefinite. A depot is a place where stores are deposited. By changing where to the equivalent phrase in which. +Explanation+.] is omitted. it may be called a conjunctive adverb. 2.) 14. The swan achieved what the goose conceived. Trillions of waves of ether enter the eye and hit the retina in the time you take to breathe.--The adjective clause modifies the omitted antecedent of whom. Whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth. I told him to bring whichever was the lightest. What is false in this world below betrays itself in a love of show. attained the full construction of a relative. however. Its possessive whose has. and that would. 12. if used. 3. F. and using a diagram similar to (8). and the lower part represents it as an adverb modifying are deposited. depot | is \ place =======|============== \A | \a ` \where stores | ` are deposited -------|--------------------. Whatever crushes individuality is despotism.| +Explanation+. "What was originally an interrogative and introduced substantive clauses.--The adjective clause modifies the omitted subject (man or he) of the independent clause. 10. The smith takes his name from his smoothing the metals he works on. (Supply the place before where. the object of did. Its use as a compound relative is an extension of its use as an indirect interrogative. Socrates was one of the greatest sages the world ever saw. The relative pronoun what here precedes its noun like an adjective. be object complements. A. whatever.--The line representing where is made up of two parts. Supply him. He raised the maid from where she knelt. Lesson 59. or permitted to be expressed. 4. whichever. Youth is the time when the .

+COMMA--RULE. is innocent. I have no right to decide who am interested. I gave the letter to my friend. 139.)] +Caution+. would class each of these three italicized clauses as an adverb clause of cause. the sentence being nearly equivalent to. +Direction+. 4. making the relative clause independent. 15. 2.--Change the following simple sentences to complex sentences by expanding the participle phrases into adjective clauses:-1. lovable. in every case. who will return it to you. Solomon was the son of David who built the Temple. (See pages 119.--Construct five complex sentences. as. who did not know the law. telling which one was picked. A wife and children. Some people. in the second the adjective clause is added merely to describe the apple picked. Such classification will often require very careful discrimination. 143. 121. Shylock would give the duke no reason why he followed a losing suit against Antonio. and insert the comma when needed:-1. 16. 2. he did not know the law. undervalue the advantages of their native land. and it was ripe. . My brother caught the fish on a small hook baited with a worm which we had for breakfast. Those who prefer to let their classification be governed by the logical relation rather than by the grammatical construction call such a sentence compound.--I picked the apple that was ripe. Do they differ in logical force? The student should carefully note all those constructions in which the grammatical form and the logical force differ. we think. when not restrictive. No grammarian. John is innocent. for instance. quick-witted. or co-ordinate with its antecedent clause. who can be trusted. 142.Ambitious. John is innocent because he did not know the law. I picked the apple. COMPOSITION--ADJECTIVE CLAUSE. I picked the apple.+ +Explanation+. But we know of no author who. The Knights of the Round Table flourished in the reign of King Arthur who vied with their chief in chivalrous exploits. each containing an adjective clause equivalent to one of the following adjectives:-.--The adjective clause should be placed as near as possible to the word it modifies. +Direction+. 5. 138. is set off by the comma. Mark the majestic simplicity of those laws whereby the operations of the universe are conducted. as. which was ripe. talkative. 3. This difference in meaning is shown by the punctuation. In the first sentence the adjective clause restricts or limits apple. having lived abroad. The Constitution framed by our fathers is the sheet-anchor of our liberties. Those fighting custom with grammar are foolish. 4.[Footnote: There are other constructions in which the relative is more nearly equivalent to and he or and it. respectful.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 66 seeds of character are sown. ***** LESSON 61. +Direction+. doomed for a certain term to walk the night.--Correct the following errors of position. I am thy father's spirit. governs his classification of phrases and clauses strictly by their logical relations.--The Adjective Clause. between the preceding sentence and the following: I gave the letter to my friend. Let us examine the following sentences:-John. 3.

--Change these simple sentences to complex sentences by expanding the infinitive phrases into adjective clauses:-1. Reason's whole pleasure. A man's heart deviseth his way. one whose connective is omitted. It was a sight to gladden the heart. 5. 5. in the following sentences to "what". 6. ***** LESSON 63. You have learned that you can expand the adverb late into a phrase. striving to put their hands on the very spot where brave men died. what. +Introductory Hints+.--Form complex sentences in which these pronouns and conjunctive adverbs shall be used to connect adjective clauses:-Who. one modifying the principal word of a phrase. +Direction+. +Direction+. . or "in which". 3. When. all the joys of sense.--Change "that which". 4. and "whereby" to "by which":-1. peace. You take my life in taking the means whereby I live. and "what" to "that which". one modifying some word omitted. and why. I have many things to tell you. 2.--He arrived late.--Analyze the first nine sentences in the preceding Lesson. The play's the thing wherein I'll catch the conscience of the king. 2. That which is seen is temporal. one whose connective is a complement. 67 +Direction+. ***** LESSON 62. It was a din to fright a monster's ear. You are now to learn that you can expand it into a clause of +Time+. and say. 3. and competence. "where" and "when" to "at". "whoever" to "he who". 2. +Direction+. which. "wherein" to "in which". and whatever. one whose connective is the principal word of a phrase. He arrived when the clock struck twelve. and "whatever" to "anything" or "everything which". 8. Whatever we do has an influence. whoever. Scholars have grown old and blind. +Direction+. He arrived at midnight. and write illustrative sentences as here directed:-Give an example of an adjective clause modifying a subject. 4. that. What God hath joined together let not man put asunder. There were none to deliver. one whose connective is a subject. one whose connective is an adverb. where. one modifying a complement. one whose connective is a possessive modifier. 7. The year when Chaucer was born is uncertain. He had an ax to grind. have knelt at your feet on the very threshold of the Senate Chamber. COMPLEX SENTENCE--ADVERB CLAUSE.--Expand these possessive and explanatory modifiers into adjective clauses:-1. and say. "on".Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg threatened with widowhood and orphanage. Lie in three words--health. Whoever lives a pious life blesses his race.

denoting that the two acts take place at the same time. [Footnote: See (11). A clause that does the work of an adverb is an +Adverb Clause+. till. as an adverb modifier. and foot-note. or.--Many here modifies year. Just here modifies at the time. in constructions like this. for convenience. see Lesson 14 and (1) above. 7." [Footnote: Some prefer. Blucher | arrived ===========|=========== | \ \------\ \ `as \ just ` \ ` \ Wellington | \ was meeting | onslaught --------------|-----\-----------------------. ere. Where the snow falls. The +adverb clause+ may express +place+. Lesson 38. to treat before. 4. 6. as modifies profitable. When my father and my mother forsake me.--By changing then into at the time. Just as=just at the time at which.--Just may be treated as a modifier of the dependent clause. For explanation of the line representing when. and when into at which. 8. Blucher arrived on the field of Waterloo just as Wellington was meeting the last onslaught of Napoleon. Analysis. When pleasure calls. and which connects. At the time is represented in the diagram by the first element of the asline. rather. Europe was at war. after. reigned. at which modifies calls. year as modified by a. The line representing when is made up of three parts to picture these three offices. spent the night in reading Plato's "Immortality. there is freedom.] 5. placed above its principal line instead of below it. The clause introduced by where expresses +Place+...| +Explanation+. until. The part representing when as a modifier of calls is.--When modifies both listen and calls. before he durst give himself the fatal stroke. and since as prepositions followed by noun clauses.\ then ` \ ` `When father \ ------------'\ \ \my ' \ \ ' \ \ ' \ | \ forsake | me 'and \----|--------------------. A closer analysis. 3. however would make it a modifier of as.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg He stood where I am. then ths Lord will take me up. At the timemodifies listen. we listen.' / | ' / mother ' / ------------'/ \my +Explanation+. 1. we | listen ===|========= | \ `When ` pleasure | \ calls ---------|---\------. the offices of these two words will be clearly seen. telling the +Degree+ of the quality expressed by it. 68 This exercise is as profitable as it is pleasant. The clause introduced by as .] +Explanation+. 2. While Louis XIV. to listen. Lord | will take | me ======|===================== \The | \up \ .. Pope skimmed the cream of good sense and expression wherever . The offices of the conjunctive adverb when may be better understood by expanding it into two phrases thus: We listen at the time at which pleasure calls. and is equivalent to the adverb here or to the phrase in this place. Many a year is in its grave since I crossed this restless wave. The +adverb clause+ may express +time+.| +Explanation+. It also connects pleasure calls. Cato.

modified by the adverb clause.. and modifies humbler. the second the = by so much. answers the question. asinto two phrases. the dependent clause is sometimes termed a clause of Result or Consequence. The oftener I see it. here.] +Explanation+. +Explanation+. Clauses of Result express different logical relations. the better I like it... It is here an adverb. modified by the adverb clause that the mercury froze. See diagram of (3) and of (20). Cold to what degree? The sentence = It was cold to that degree in which the mercury froze. 10. [Footnote: The... It is the Anglo-Saxon demonstrative pronoun used in an instrumental sense.. 69 +Explanation+. also in (15) and (17). which is an adverb modifying good. The first the = by how much.--The degree of the cold is here shown by the effect it produced. Washington was good in the degree in which he was great.. The +adverb clause+ may express +degree+. modifies froze and connects the clauses. as you see. and is therefore a conjunctive adverb.--Heavier = heavy beyond the degree. the humbler he became. [Footnote: In this sentence. 11.--To be right is better (good in a greater degree) than to be president (would be good). Transposing.\oftener \ . 18.--The adverb clause as he was great modifies the first as.] 20. It was so cold that the mercury froze. 16.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg he could find it. [Footnote: For the use of he instead of the indefinite pronoun one repeated. 14. The wind bloweth where it listeth. That.. Is and heavy are omitted. +Explanation+. 15. Washington was as good as he was great. 12. The wiser he grew. and cannot always be classed under Degree. The sentence = Gold is heavy beyond the degree in which iron is heavy. and modifies wiser. Good to what extent or degree? The second as modifies great and performs the office of a conjunction.. answers the question. and than = in which. To preach is easier than to practice.--The words the . 17. the are similar in office to as . 9. Frequently words are omitted after than and as.\ ` \ ` I | ` see | it ----|--`-------------. is not the ordinary adjective the. It was so cold as to freeze the mercury. He called so loud that all the hollow deep of hell resounded. The first as. Gold is heavier than iron. 19.] +Explanation+. To be right is better than to be president. as--He became humbler in that degree in which he became wiser.. see Lesson 124. we have.. Gold | is \ heavier =======|============== | \ ` than ` iron | x \ \ x -------|--------------+Explanation+. Dying for a principle is a higher degree of virtue than scolding for it.--It was so cold as to freeze the mercury (would indicate or require). The adverb so. Than modifies heavy (understood) and connects the clause expressing degree to heavier. I | like | it =====|=========== | \ \----\ better \the \ . and expanding as . and is therefore a conjunctive adverb. it is therefore a conjunctive adverb..` \ `The \ `. 13. One's breeding shows itself nowhere more than in his religion.

and is equivalent to the adverb foolishly or to the phrase in a foolish manner. The adverb clause. 3. because the ground is . 1. The +adverb clause+ may express +manner+. 2. as it is an affected way of talking. introduced by as. Slang is always vulgar.. see when . The +adverb clause+ may express +real cause+. 13. 5. so. see (1). The adverb clause. The ground is wet because it has rained.] Analysis. The +adverb clause+ may express +evidence+. does not assign the cause of the raining. The upright man speaks as he thinks. being a mere conjunction. Cause produces an effect. [Footnote: Evidence should be carefully distinguished from Cause. 12. 9.--He lived as the fool lives. it gives the +Evidence+ of what is asserted.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** LESSON 64. God was angry with the children of Israel. Lesson 63. 14. as it combines fresh air and vigorous exercise with its other benefits. (For diagram of as . The waves of conversation roll and shape our thoughts as the surf rolls and shapes the pebbles on the shore. It rained last night. is a clause of +Manner+.. wise people ventilate their sleeping rooms. assigns the +Real Cause+ of the ground's being wet. He died as he lived. but the cause of our believing that it has rained. The adverb clause. It has rained. introduced by because. Since the breath contains poisonous carbonic acid. Tobacco and the potato are American products. 7. 8.. 10.--He died in the manner in which he lived. We keep the pores of the skin open.--Because. As is the boy so will be the man. Sea-bathing is the most healthful kind of washing. ground | is \ wet ==========|============= \The | ` ` ` because ` it | ` has rained ----|--------------+Explanation+. since Raleigh found them here. Evidence produces knowledge of an effect. then (3). +Explanation+. Lesson 63. for he overthrew them in the wilderness. for through them the blood throws off its impurities. 11.) 4. ADVERB CLAUSE-CONTINUED. 70 The ground is wet because it has rained. As the upright man thinks so he speaks. stands on a line wholly dotted. For diagram.. +Introductory Hints+. introduced by for. Clauses of Evidence are sometimes treated as independent. Wheat is the most valuable of grains because bread is made from its flour. 6. for the ground is wet.

--The relative position of the subject and the verb renders the if unnecessary. as here expressed.--If it rains. in spite of this opposing cause. The +adverb clause+ may express +condition+. condition. it is asserted that the ground is dry. introduced by although. the ground will be wet. is a mere conjunction. but. 15. you have an image of a dull speaker and a lively listener. under the general head of +Cause+. If the air is quickly compressed. is only a +Condition+ ready to become a cause.--The phrases in order that. ***** LESSON 65. 71 +Introductory Hints+. that it may drop them as rain or dew upon the thirsty earth. although only the first kind assigns the cause proper. but. 8. This omission of if is a common idiom. 2. The air draws up vapors from the sea and the land. ADVERB CLAUSE-CONTINUED. The adverb clause. and retains them dissolved in itself or suspended in cisterns of clouds. so that = that. 6. +Explanation+. assigns what. The adverb clause. assigns the cause or the motive or the +Purpose+ of his exercising. The adverb clause.--That. introduced by if. The ship-canal across the Isthmus of Suez was dug so that European vessels need not sail around the Cape of Good Hope to reach the Orient.) 3. +Explanation+. always use prose. Language was given us that we might say pleasant things to each other. Were it not for the warm waters of the Gulf Stream. introduced by that. and concession come. It is conceded that a cause for the ground's not being dry exists. We Americans must all be cuckoos. if it occurs. the fat of the body is thrown into the grate to keep the furnace in play. Analysis. (Unless = if not. for we build our homes in the nests of other birds. the harbors and the rivers of Britain would be blocked up with ice for a great part of the year. The +adverb clause+ may express +purpose+. He takes exercise that he may get well. 7. 1.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg wet this morning. Unless your thought packs easily and neatly in verse. 9. The ground is dry. Spiders have many eyes in order that they may see in many directions at one time. All these dependent clauses of real cause. If ever you saw a crow with a king-bird after him. although it has rained. expresses a +Concession+. +Explanation+. purpose. introducing a clause of purpose. enough heat is evolved to produce combustion. Should the calls of hunger be neglected. evidence. as you see. 4. . 5. will be the cause of the ground's being wet.

The tree is inclined--manner. 8. they are not sufficient to make up the loss caused by evaporation. Though many rivers flow into the Mediterranean. still we do not feel its weight. 11. 5. 13.--If here = even if = though. ***** LESSON 67. Our eyes cannot bear the light--time. Vesuvius threw its lava so far--degree. Leaves do not turn red because the frost colors them. when I was last abroad. see Lesson 100). 72 10.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg The +adverb clause+ may express +concession+. Dew does not form in a cloudy night--cause. 11. Iron bends and molds easily--condition. 6. (for connectives. Punishment follows every violation of nature's laws--concession. When the adverb clause precedes. 15. That thunderbolt fell a mile away--evidence. if the Chinese tell the truth. 17. after these independent clauses. 13. 9. We dream in our sleep--evidence. I will not call him villain. each is very closely related in thought to the independent clause.---Tell why the adverb clauses are or are not set off in Lessons 63 and 64. +Direction+. 18. etc. it arrested its progress for a hundred years. place. Apples would not fall to the ground--condition. 16. . 2. Many persons died in the Black Hole of Calcutta--cause. The lion springs upon his prey--manner. Every spire of grass was so edged and tipped with dew--degree. The leaves of the water-maple turn red--time. +Explanation+. +Explanation+. Though the atmosphere presses on us with a load of fifteen pounds on every square inch of surface. Millions of soldiers sleep--place. adverb clauses of time. and punctuate according to the Rule:-1. In these sentences the adverb clauses are not restrictive. about one-sixth of the blood is sent to it. 7. Here the adverb clauses are restrictive. Paper was invented in China. 14. Though thou shouldst bray a fool in a mortar. Europe conquered Napoleon at last--concession. because it would be unparliamentary. and may almost be said to be the essential part of the sentence. Glass bends easily when it is red-hot. ***** LESSON 66. 4. 10. 14. it is set off.--I met him in Paris. 12. 12. Although the brain is only one-fortieth of the body. Peter the Great worked in Holland in disguise--purpose. The Bunker Hill Monument stands--place.---Write. and are added almost as afterthoughts. +Direction+.--An Adverb Clause is set off by the comma unless it closely follows and restricts the word it modifies+. yet will not his foolishness depart from him. but are supplementary. 3. We put salt into butter and upon meat--purpose. +COMMA--RULE. +COMPOSITION-ADVERB CLASSES+. It will break if you touch it. If the War of the Roses did not utterly destroy English freedom. COMPOSITION-ADVERB CLAUSES. degree.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ARRANGEMENT. we gave up the chase. between the parts of it. 2. when they die. When oxygen and carbon unite in the minute blood-vessels. The Gulf Stream reaches Newfoundland before it crosses the Atlantic. An adverb clause may be contracted to a prepositional phrase having for its principal word (1) a participle. for "Probabilities" predicts it. for it has cooled to 32 deg. 4. will rise again. he stopped = Seeing me. though she may be crushed to earth. if he is wounded. An adverb clause may be contracted to an absolute phrase. COMPOSITION--ADVERB CLAUSES. Black clothes are too warm in summer. +Direction+. form vast islands with their bodies. 3. +Direction+. we gave up the chase = Night coming on.--She stoops that she may conquer = She stoops to conquer. An adverb clause may be contracted into a participle or a participle phrase. +Example+. 5. Truth. (2) an infinitive. The water will freeze. . If Chaucer is called the father of our later English poetry. Some of these adverb clauses can stand only at the end. they did not exterminate them. +Example+.--Contract these complex sentences to simple ones:-1. Error. 1. 4. or after it.--They will call before they leave the city = They will call before leaving the city. because they absorb heat.--When he saw me. 3.--When night came on. and dies among his worshipers. Note its force in its several positions. Washington retreated from Long Island because his army was outnumbered. we shall be better understood. of another adverb clause to follow each independent clause in the preceding Lesson.--Contract each of these adverb clauses to a prepositional phrase having a participle for its principal word:-+Model+. It will rain to-morrow. 73 +Direction+.---Think. Coral animals.--Contract these complex sentences to simple ones:-1. If we use household words. The adverb clause may stand before the independent clause.--Contract each of these adverb clauses to an infinitive phrase:-+Model+. +Direction+. 3. Wycliffe should be called the father of our later English prose. he stopped. 2. writhes with pain. and attend to the punctuation. He grew rich because he attended to his business. 2. and by means of a caret (^) indicate where this adverb clause may properly stand in the sentence. heat is produced. 4. if you can. or (3) a noun. Though they persecuted the Christians. +Direction+. ***** LESSON 68.

. +Example+. though it has no lungs. 4.--When you are right. A fish breathes. (Frequently. When a man lacks health. +Direction+. 3. because he leaves school so early in life. An adverb clause may be contracted by simply omitting such words as may easily be supplied. An adverb clause may sometimes be changed to an adjective clause or phrase. This is a prose era rather than it is a poetic era. however strongly it may be defended. 2. who has no friends. No other English author has uttered so many pithy sayings as Shakespeare has uttered. (Sentences like this never appear in the full form. 3. Philip II. 4. +Direction+. is to be pitied = This man. built the Armada that he might conquer England. if it is not disease. without friends.--Contract these adverb clauses:-1. you may expect a happy old age.--Change each of the following adverb clauses first to an adjective clause and then to an adjective phrase:-1. The pine tree is so tall that it overlooks all its neighbors. +Direction+. 2. He is foolish. A man is to be pitied if he does not care for music. he lacks three good things.) 6. 1. 3. Luther died where he was born. wealth.--Contract each of these adverb clauses to a prepositional phrase having a noun for its principal word:-+Model+. ***** LESSON 69. clauses introduced by as and than are contracted. having no friends. If you are free from vices. We are pained when we hear God's name used irreverently. go ahead. The general marched as he was ordered. and connects a concessive clause. is to be pitied.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 74 1. ANALYSIS. +Example+. Error must yield. is to be pitied = This man. 2. and friends. What would I not give if I could see you happy! 5. 2.--He fought that he might obtain glory = He fought for glory. Criminals are punished that society may be safe.--However modifies strongly. +Explanation+. Much wealth is corpulence.--This man is to be pitied. 5. Chevalier Bayard was killed while he was fighting for Francis I. The sun is many times larger than the earth is large. 4. go ahead = When right.) 5. because he has no friends = This man.

manner.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction. For connectives. 65. ***** LESSON 71. The clause introduced by that is equivalent to a noun. two. The dependent clause that men should obey is equivalent to a noun. Your future depends very much on who your companions are. and is the +Principal Term+ of a +Phrase+ introduced by the preposition on. purpose. . two. two. Analysis. +Direction. The fact that mold. 64. A clause that does the work of a noun is a +Noun Clause+.+ (SEE PAGES 165-168. that it has so many borrowed words. +Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. two. The clause who your companions are is equivalent to a noun. 150. and yeast are plants is wonderful.--See suggestions to the teacher. real cause. is equivalent to a noun. A peculiarity of English is. and explain fully the office of each. 75 Select two sentences containing time clauses. The +noun clause+ may be used as +subject+. Tell why the adverb clauses in Lesson 68 are or are not set off by the comma.+--In Lessons 40 and 41 you learned that an infinitive phrase may perform many of the offices of a noun. a place clause. and two. and is the +Object Complement+ of believe. mildew. Obedience is better than sacrifice = To obey is better than sacrifice = That men should obey is better than sacrifice.) TO THE TEACHER. ***** LESSON 70. and is +Explanatory+ of fact. REVIEW. pages 30. see Lesson 100. one. two. The dependent clause. Many people believe that the beech tree is never struck by lightning. and note the different positions in which these clauses stand. condition. introduced by that. and is an +Attribute Complement+ relating to peculiarity. evidence.+--Compose sentences illustrating the different kinds of adverb clauses named in Lessons 63. +Introductory Hints. and analyze them. one. degree. THE COMPLEX SENTENCE-NOUN CLAUSE.+--Tell the kind of adverb clause in each of the sentences in Lesson 68. The clause introduced by that is equivalent to a noun. concession. Compose sentences illustrating the different ways of contracting adverb clauses. You are now to learn that a clause may do the same. and is the +Subject+ of is.

) 14."--C.\the | | Galileo | taught | / \ =========|============== | +Explanation+. The conjunction that [Footnote: "Thatwas originally the neuter demonstrative pronoun. 2. The world will not anxiously inquire who you are. 15. for the whole sentence cannot be called a clause. "What can you do?" 12. 10. 11. NOUN CLAUSE--CONTINUED. saying. "Where is Abel. That the earth is round has been proved.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 1. or When they ought to quit business. "What a fine tail I have!" 13. It will ask of you. (See explanation of (7). The +noun clause+ may be used as +object complement+.] introduces the noun clause. a part of a sentence. . that ------. The peacock struts about. Such constructions may be expanded into clauses. +Explanation+. ***** LESSON 72. 9. By an inversion of the order this became. used to point to the fact stated in an independent sentence. "What have I done?" is asked by the knave and the thief. and has become a mere sign of grammatical subordination. That the same word is used for the soul of man and for a glass of gin is singular.\the | | | / \ | has been proved =============|================= | 76 +Explanation+. 5. there is here no principal clause. or they may be treated as phrases equivalent to clauses. 3. where that has been transferred to the accessory clause. When to quit business and enjoy their wealth is a problem never solved by some. This is a peculiar kind of complex sentence. He does not know which to choose. P. 7. It was good.. i. We may say that it is a complex sentence in which the whole sentence takes the place of a principal clause. No one can tell how or when or where he will die. Who was the discoverer of America is not yet fully determined by historians. +Explanation+. Philosophers are still debating whether the will has any control over the current of thought in our dreams. above.' earth | ' moves ------|------. he saw that.--The clause that the earth is round is used like a noun as the subject of has been proved. 6. When to quit business = When they are to quit business. When letters were first used is not certainly known. See Lesson 74.--Here the clause introduced by that is used like a noun as the object complement of taught. Galileo taught that the earth moves. and so passed into the form He saw that it was good. The Esquimau feels intuitively that bear's grease and blubber are the dishes for his table.--The subject clause is here an indirect question. Mason.--When to quit business and enjoy their wealth is an indirect question. 8. thy brother?" smote the ears of the guilty Cain. Strictly speaking. as.e. That -------. He saw that (namely) it was good. 4.' earth | is ' \ round -------|-------------.

introducing adverb clauses expressing condition. and yeast are plants is wonderful. This we know.--The grammatical subject it has no meaning till explained by the noun clause. here used as the principal term of a prepositional phrase. do as the Romans do. The +noun clause+ may be used as +principal term+ of a +prepositional phrase+. Tweed's defiant question was. The myth concerning Achilles is. It is believed that sleep is caused by a diminution in the supply of blood to the brain. Augustine in regard to conformity to local custom was in substance this: "When in Rome. in case that.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Analysis. "What are you going to do about it?" 3. that ------. The +noun clause+ may be used as +explanatory modifier+. The question ever asked and never answered is. The advice that St. the clause introduced by that is a noun clause explanatory of order. It has been proved that the earth is round. 7. +Explanation+. Ambrose gave St. "Where and how am I to exist in the Hereafter?" 4. There has been some dispute about who wrote "Shakespeare's Plays.--Why they sing is an indirect question. Hamlet's exclamation was. We are all anxious that the future shall bring us success and triumph. The fact that mold. Have birds any sense of why they sing? birds | Have | sense =======|================ they | sing | \any \ -----|-----." 12.\the | | It (/ \) | has been proved ==========|================== | +Explanation+.--Unless in order that is taken as a conjunction connecting an adverb clause of purpose (see (7). The Sandwich Islander is confident that the strength and valor of his slain enemy pass into himself. "Night's candles are burnt out. 11. Shakespeare's metaphor. A peculiarity of English is. Lesson 65). that our future depends on our present. the noun clause will become explanatory. 17. 77 1. 16. By supplying of the fact. ***** .] 10. 2. that he was invulnerable in every part except the heel. [Footnote: A similar explanation may be made of on condition that. 14. 9.\ of | \why \ / \ \------------+Explanation+." 15. the noun clause may be treated as the principal term of a prepositional phrase modifying the adjective certain.' earth | is ' \ round ------|-------------." is one of the finest in literature. 8. 6. that it has so many borrowed words. "What a piece of work is man!" 5. mildew. We are not certain that an open sea surrounds the Pole. The +noun clause+ may be used as +attribute complement+.--By supposing of to stand before that. 13. +Explanation+. Napoleon turned his Simplon road aside in order that he might save a tree mentioned by Caesar.

used parenthetically.--By the aid of the expletive it.1.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg LESSON 73. The belief of astronomers is. 3.--Vary the following sentence so as to illustrate five different kinds of noun clauses:-+Model+. using the independent clauses parenthetically:-1. Often the clause used as object complement may be placed first. as admit transposition. +Direction+. . 5. Our conclusion is. except where the comma would contribute to clearness. +Direction+. 3.+ 78 +Remarks+. Astronomers are confident that stars are suns. is set off by the comma.--Present usage seems to favor the omission of the comma with the clause used as subject or as object complement. +COMMA--RULE. in the preceding Lessons. That stars are suns is the belief of astronomers.--That the story of William Tell is a myth is now believed = It is now believed that the story of William Tell is a myth. 2. is a myth. (Notice that the principal clause. 4.--The Noun Clause used as attribute complement is generally set off by the comma.--Transpose such of the clauses used as object complements. and the subject to a possessive. 1. Astronomers believe that stars are suns. It is true that the glorious sun pours down his golden flood as cheerily on the poor man's cottage as on the rich man's palace. See Lesson 34. +Example+. The noun clause may be contracted by changing the predicate to a participle. But the real subject made explanatory of it is seldom set off. By using it as a substitute for the subject clause. +Direction+.--Give the reasons for the use or the omission of the comma with the noun clauses in the preceding Lesson. +Example+. +Direction+. that different forms of government suit different stages of civilization.--Write the following sentences. transpose five subject clauses in Lesson 71. We believe that the first printing-press in America was set up in Mexico in 1536.--The story of William Tell. it is now believed. that stars are suns.) +Direction+. 2.-. Punctuate them if they need punctuation. The punctuation of the explanatory clause is like that of other explanatory modifiers. this clause may be placed last. The belief that stars are suns is held by astronomers.--That he was brave cannot be doubted = His being bravecannot be doubted. COMPOSITION--NOUN CLAUSE. The noun clause may be made prominent by separating it and inserting the independent clause between its parts. I am aware that refinement of mind and clearness of thinking usually result from grammatical studies. +Example+. See next Lesson for the punctuation of noun clauses that are questions or quotations.

He does not know whom he should send. +Direction+. He cannot find out how he is to go there. 5. as."'" This introduction of a third quotation should generally be avoided. Caesar Augustus issued a decree that all the world should be taxed. the double marks are again used.--Make the following complex sentences simple by changing the noun clauses to phrases:-- 79 1. and the subjects to object complements:-+Model+. the objective complement. A noun clause may be contracted to an infinitive phrase. 3. 1." said Clay. The Governor ordered that the prisoner should be set free. "The incorrectness of the dispatches led Bismarck to declare. "I would rather be right.--King Ahasuerus commanded that Haman should be hanged = King Ahasuerus commanded Haman to be hanged. 4.--Quotation marks ("") inclose a copied word or passage+. They hold that taxation without representation is unjust. especially where the three marks come at the end. within the quotation having single marks. +QUOTATION MARKS--RULE. 2.--Single marks (' ') inclose a quotation within a quotation. The noun clause may be contracted by making the predicate. that the eye is blinded." . I believe that he is a foreigner. +Remarks+. The effect of looking upon the sun is. "than be president. Many people believe that Webster was the greatest of American statesmen. Everybody admits that Cromwell was a great leader. +Direction+.--Make the following complex sentences simple by changing the predicates of the noun clauses to objective complements. 5. Every one desires that he may live long and happily.--That he should vote is the duty of every American citizen = To vote is the duty of every American citizen. when changed to an infinitive phrase. still another quotation is made. as. 'It will soon come to be said. We are all anxious that we may make a good impression. A man's chief objection to a woman is. 2. 3. 3. as above. She was aware that I appreciated her situation. +Example+. 7. That the caterpillar changes to a butterfly is a curious fact.--Expand into complex sentences such of the sentences in Lesson 41 as contain an objective complement and an object complement that together are equivalent to a clause. that she has no respect for the newspaper. 4. When a quotation is divided by a parenthetical expression. COMPOSITION--NOUN CLAUSE--CONTINUED.--Contract these noun clauses to infinitive phrases:-1. The thought that we are spinning around the sun at the rate of twenty miles a second makes us dizzy. That we guard our liberty with vigilance is a sacred duty. 2.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. +Direction+. 4. If. ***** LESSON 74. How wide do you think that the Atlantic ocean is? 5. and the subject the object complement. 6. each part of the quotation is inclosed. "He lies like the telegraph.

as. is copied. The indirect quotation is not generally set off by the comma. Nathan's words to David were these: "Thou art the man. as. and is inclosed within quotation marks--though these may be omitted. "Thou art the man.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 80 In quoting a question. The reference here of the pronoun he is somewhat ambiguous. He asked. May we not find "sermons in stones"? So also with the exclamation point. and some of which shall be questions occurring at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence. whether a question or not. The direct quotation is set off by the comma. as. ANALYSIS.--Write five sentences containing direct quotations. Cain asked. Nathan told David that he was the man. but not whose exact words. +Direction+. when a question contains a quotation.--Rewrite these same sentences. begins with a capital letter. the interrogation point must stand within the quotation marks." An +indirect quotation+ is one whose thought. The direct question introduced into a sentence is set off by the comma (but no comma is used after the interrogation point). as.--A +direct quotation+ is one whose exact words.--The first word of a direct quotation making complete sense or of a direct question introduced into a sentence should begin with a capital letter+. and the quotation marks. An indirect question is not generally set off by a comma. the interrogation point. tell why they do or do not begin with capital letters. and is inclosed within quotation marks--though these may be omitted. +Remarks+. begins with a capital letter. +Direction+.--Point out the direct and the indirect quotations and questions in the sentences of Lesson 71. Nathan said to David.--Write sentences illustrating the last paragraph of the Remarks under the Rule for Quotation Marks. is formally introduced (see Lesson 147). Cain asked whether he was his brother's keeper. as. "Am I my brother's keeper?" An +indirect question+ is one which is referred to as a question. does not necessarily begin with a capital letter." He put the question thus: "Can you do it?" +Direction+. and the indirect to direct. as.--Analyze the sentences given for arrangement and contraction in Lesson 73. +Direction+. and which is followed by an interrogation point. does not necessarily begin with a capital letter. and is not inclosed within quotation marks. it is preceded by the colon. Guard against this. +Direction+. as well as thought. changing the direct quotations and questions to indirect. and justify the use or the omission of the comma. If the direct quotation. and look carefully to the punctuation and the capitalization. A +direct question+ introduced into a sentence is one in which the exact words and their order in an interrogative sentence (see Lesson 55) are preserved. . are copied. and is not inclosed within quotation marks. this order is reversed. Change these to the indirect form. ***** LESSON 75. and which is not followed by an interrogation point. +CAPITAL LETTER--RULE. "What are you living for?" but. some of which shall be formally introduced. but not directly asked or quoted as such. as. especially in indirect quotations.

and bayonets think.+ Analysis. excludes the other. or logical relation between the facts in either sentence is expressed in a sentence of the compound form--an and may be placed before therefore and hence. intemperance destroys it. 81 +Introductory Hints+. The second clause. Here the conjunction connects independent clauses whose thoughts stand in contrast with each other. continues the line of thought begun by the first. the grammarian regards them both as independent. but woman has her way. but either.+ +DEFINITION.+ SENTENCES CLASSIFIED WITH RESPECT TO FORM. connected by or. or a noun. +Independent Clauses+ in the +same line+ of thought. really stands to the other fact.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** LESSON 76. Here the inferred fact. hence the ground is wet.--A Compound Sentence is a sentence composed of two or more independent clauses.--Cromwell made one revolution.. 1.--A Dependent Clause is one used as an adjective. ' ' bayonets | ' think . present thoughts between which you may choose.. The independent clauses.--A Complex Sentence is a sentence composed of an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. as cause to effect--the raining made the ground wet. The two clauses are independent of each other. Temperance promotes health. +DEFINITION. really stands to the other fact. Light has spread. Sentences made up of independent clauses we call +Compound Sentences. either or both of which may be compound. The Tudors were despotic.+ +DEFINITION. the raining.. and Monk made another. Man has his will.. Here the independent clauses are joined to each other by their very position in the sentence--connected without any conjunction. But this the real. or history belies them. Unless the connecting word expresses the dependence of one of the clauses.--A Simple Sentence is a sentence that contains but one subject and one predicate. as effect to cause--the ground is made wet by the raining.--An Independent Clause is one not dependent on another clause. an adverb.--A Clause is a part of a sentence containing' a subject and its predicate.. This kind of connection is common.+ +DEFINITION.+ +DEFINITION. the wetness of the ground. accepted.. the raining. the wetness of the ground. +DEFINITION. added by the conjunction and to the first. Here the inferred fact. Light | has spread =======|============= | ' ' ' and . THE COMPOUND SENTENCE. The ground is wet. therefore it has rained. It has rained.

or he feigned madness admirably. and some have greatness thrust upon them. The diagram illustrates therefore as connective. Hamilton smote the rock of the national resources. 3. The camel is the ship of the ocean of sand. Lesson 20. As simply introduces it. . as it were. thy spoken word is master of thee. As one entire clause is connected with the other. +Oral Analysis+. 11. and the line connecting them is not slanting. the connecting line is drawn between the predicates merely for convenience. What grave (these are the words of Wellesley. speaking of the two Pitts) contains such a father and such a son! ***** LESSON 77. hence it must be raining. Places near the sea are not extremely cold in winter. 15. +Independent Clauses+ expressing thoughts in +alternation+. 16.--The clauses are of equal rank. 10. 14. the reindeer is the camel of the desert of snow. 2. (Here a choice is denied.) 9. I have seen. Ready writing makes not good writing. +Independent Clauses+ expressing thoughts in +contrast. Of thy unspoken word thou art master. from billow to billow. therefore I believe.) +Independent Clauses+ expressing thoughts one of which is an +inference+ from the other. The ship leaps. or the adverb may be regarded as the connective. some achieve greatness. and abundant streams of revenue gushed forth. or you will have to be abstinent in old age. I | have seen ===|=========== | ' ' I | ' believe ===|='========= |\' \therefore +Explanation+. but his memory lives. (See (16).--As it were is an independent clause used parenthetically. Some are born great. 7.--In such constructions and may be supplied. Put not your trust in money. +Independent Clauses+ joined in the sentence +without a conjunction+.--This is a compound sentence because it is made up of independent clauses. 13. +Explanation+. and so the lines on which they stand are shaded alike. Religion--who can doubt it?--is the noblest of themes for the exercise of intellect. Be temperate in youth. People in the streets are carrying umbrellas. nor are they extremely warm in summer. 5. COMPOSITION--COMPOUND SENTENCE. The man dies. but good writing brings on ready writing.+ 4. 12. 6.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ===========|========== | 82 +Explanation+. 8. Either Hamlet was mad. but put your money in trust.

+Examples+.--Independent Clauses. You will find other antitheses in this Lesson and in the preceding. The sweet but fading graces of inspiring autumn open the mind to benevolence. 2. and the alternative or or nor. Read that you may weigh and consider the thoughts of others. 2. Compound sentences may be contracted by using but once the parts common to all the clauses.) +Direction+. when short and closely connected. and the spirit of the Almighty is above us. 5. 3. and the sweet but fading graces of inspiring autumn dispose the mind for contemplation. The wind and the rain are over the clouds are divided in heaven over the green hill flies the inconstant sun. the adversative but. The more discussion the better if passion and personality be avoided and discussion even if stormy often winnows truth from error. attending carefully to the punctuation:-1. form compound sentences out of the following simple sentences. The spirit of the Almighty is within us. Great was the fall of it.--Punctuate the following sentences. or our passions will conquer us. Can the Ethiopian change his skin? Righteousness exalteth a nation. +Direction+.] 6. Lafayette fought for American independence. 2. The epic poem recites the exploits of a hero tragedy represents a disastrous event comedy ridicules the vices and follies of mankind pastoral poetry describes rural life and elegy displays the tender emotions of the heart. +Direction+.-. 83 +Remark+. We must conquer our passions.--Assign reasons for the punctuation of the independent clauses in the preceding Lesson. and tide waits for no man = Timeand tide wait for no man.--Time waits for no man. Language is not the dress of thought. Can the leopard change his spots? The winds blew and beat upon that house. 4. It fell. It is not simply its vehicle. 3. Sin is a reproach to any people. +Example+. and give your reasons:-1.--Contract these compound sentences. [Footnote: In this sentence we have a figure of speech called +Antithesis+. and Baron Steuben fought for American independence. the miser robs himself. are separated by the+ +comma. Wealth may seek us but wisdom must be sought. (The rule above is another example. See the last three sentences in the preceding Lesson. and give the reasons for your choice of connectives:-Read not that you may find material for argument and conversation. The floods came. but good is in the ascendant. in which things unlike in some particular are set over against each other.--A parenthetical clause may be set oil by the comma or by the dash. There is a fierce conflict between good and evil. and compounding the remaining parts. Antithesis gives great force to the thought expressed by it. A compound sentence may be contracted by simply omitting from one clause such words as may readily be . the spirit of the Almighty is around us.1.--Using the copulative and. +Direction+. The prodigal robs his heirs. Sentences containing it furnish us our best examples of +Balanced Sentences+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +COMMA and SEMICOLON--RULE. The rain descended. Occidental manhood springs from self-respect Oriental manhood finds its greatest satisfaction in self-abasement. or when they are themselves divided into parts by the comma. The race is not to the swift nor the battle to the strong. and must triumph at last. 3. the semi-colon is used+. or it may be inclosed within marks of parenthesis--the marks of parenthesis showing the least degree of connection in sense. but. when the clauses are slightly connected. Each part shines with its own light and with the light reflected from the other part.

COMPLEX AND COMPOUND CLAUSES. because it was built upon a rock = The house. 1.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg supplied from the other. in the adverb clause which modifies would have paused. to England.--Change these compound sentences to complex sentences:-1. and just as fruit. He converses. did not fall. like the three words and the three phrases in the complex word modifier and the complex phrase . 3. Govern your passions. but he is vulgar = He is witty but vulgar. +Example+. +Direction+. and so he surrendered. These three dependent clauses in the complex clause modifier. the hours will take care of themselves. Here just as the word modifier quietly is itself modified by very. is itself modified by the adjective clause that he was. 5. They ate of the fruit from the tree in the garden. Here we have co-ordinate words. Was Cabot the discoverer of America. and he was rewarded. 2. Our friends heard of our coming. Regulus would have paused if he had been the man that he was before captivity had unstrung his sinews. Example. (Notice that the imperative form adds force. and the principal word of that by another: so man. or was he not the discoverer of America? 4. and then change the dependent clause to a participle phrase:-+Model+. and very by so. +Introductory Hints+. 2. I conquered. or they will govern you. and I lost no time in coming. and the hours will take care of themselves = If you take care of the minutes. or order. ***** LESSON 78. He found that he could not escape. Resist the devil. but it should not be the web. +Direction+. compose three compound sentences. and he has justly been likened to him.--Using and. and they hastened to meet us. phrases. and it was not his dress that pleased me. It is called so.--Contract these sentences:-- 84 1.) +Direction+. and at the same time he plays a difficult piece of music. and to France. co-ordinate phrases. the principal word in a modifying phrase.--Change one of the independent clauses in each of these sentences to a dependent clause. and he will flee from you. and was by the adverb clause before captivity had unstrung his sinews. but.--He is witty. and therefore it did not fall = The house did not fall. It was his address that pleased me. Mirth should be the embroidery of conversation. I heard that you wished to see me. but it is improperly called so. 3. being built upon a rock.--Sun and moon and stars obey.--The house was built upon a rock. and or as connectives. and clauses of equal rank. He was faithful. words. 2. is modified by another phrase. I saw. William the Silent has been likened to Washington. that is.--Take care of the minutes. A compound sentence may sometimes be changed to a complex sentence without materially changing the sense. I came. Leaves fall so very quietly. and co-ordinate clauses. +Direction+. 5. each containing three independent clauses. Peter the Great went to Holland. 4.

requiring like ideas to be expressed alike. as the which clauses in (3). And connects the co-ordinate clauses. ' ' it | ' revolves ' ===|='============'= | He | proved | / \ ====|============= | +Explanation+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg modifier. like a cloud. although Parliament frequently urged it. In your war of 1812. [Footnote: In tongue. have their words in the same order. and when the gloom of despondency hung. when the Army of the Northwest had surrendered. Analysis. as is explained on page 168. 4. 10. when your arms on shore were covered by disaster. When a man becomes overheated by working. "Shall we gather at the river?" 3. and holds supremely with sentences in the paragraph. as in (10) and (14). holds also in phrases. The office of while as connective is shown by the dotted lines. is used in place of that other. and which soar on the most ethereal wings. which is as little disputed as any verse in the catechism. 6. over the land. but a lie is a handle which fits them all. are not co-ordinate. are formed on the same plan.. but differing in meaning from it. 85 Mary married Philip. 2. both. 1. composed of the simple clause which precedes but and the complex clause which follows it--the complex clause being composed of an independent clause and two dependent clauses.. Lesson 28. but Elizabeth would not marry. 8. or of equal rank. It is one of the most marvelous facts in the natural world that. The +clauses+ of +complex+ and +compound+ sentences may themselves be +complex+ or +compound+. Lesson 46. Parallel construction contributes to the clearness. and consequently to the force. 9. flowing down mountain gorges. combined. and in (14) and (15).. and the whole body is bathed and cooled.. Sin has a great many tools.--The first diagram illustrates the analysis of the compound adjective clause in (3) below.] 7.` ` ` ` ` `which | are admired ` ` `=====|============= ` ` | ' ` ` ' x ` ` ... ` ' opportunity | ` had escaped ============|==`============ \the | ` \ ` ' ` ' `' ` `while ` he | ` tarried ----|------------.. had escaped.... when Winchester had been defeated. Some one has said that the milkman's favorite song should be..| that ----' earth | ' is \ round =========|======'======== | ' that ' and ----. the upper surface flows faster than the lower. which is destructive to fire.. The third diagram illustrates the analysis of a complex sentence containing a compound noun clause.. running. Some of the insects which are most admired.] ***** . and the two connected by and. the six or seven millions of perspiration tubes pour out their fluid. and made the welkin ring with the shouts of victory? [Footnote: The when clauses in (11). 5.. The second diagram shows that the clause while he tarried modifies both predicates of the independent clauses. we have a +Pun+--a witty expression in which a word agreeing in sound with another word. Glaciers. In Holland the stork is protected by law. Each adjective clause is connected to insects by which. This is a compound sentence... which are decorated with the most brilliant colors. water. have passed the greater portion of their lives in the bowels of the earth.... though hydrogen is highly inflammable.. 11. who first relit the fires of national glory. and the center faster than the adjacent sides.. and the peace of England demanded it. that one small head could carry all he knew. Milton said that he did not educate his daughters in the languages. of expression. rowing.. ` ' ` which | soar ' `======|======= | hour | had passed =========|============= \The |` ' ` ' and ` . because it eats the frogs and worms that would injure the dikes. because one tongue was enough for a woman. or making furious speeches. Not to wear one's best things every day is a maxim of New England thrift. as here used. and oxygen is a supporter of combustion.. form an element. insects ---------. Still the wonder grew. This principle of +Parallel Construction+. While modifies had passed. one co-ordinate with the other. obey the law of rivers. ` ` ' ` `which | are decorated ` ======|=============== ` | ' ` 'and ` . and tarried. as illustrated by the short lines under the first two verbs and the line over tarried.

The icebergs floated down.) 3.--Expand these absolute phrases into the clauses indicated:-1. but a Frenchman. (Purpose. Loved by all. however awful. He is a fool to waste his time so. (Independent clause. suing for pardon. (Noun clause. half way about on but. I shall be happy to hear of your safe arrival. Desiring to live long. White garments. (Condition. (Evidence. It happens with books as with mere acquaintances. What if he is poor? 5.) 3. I regard him more as a historian than as a poet. The energy which drives our locomotives and forces our . takes the helm. The infantry advanced. having a sword. (Time.) 2.) 5. we returned. Analysis. The bridges having been swept away.) 4. He does not know where to go. Much as he loved his wealth.) 9. Writing carefully. He handles it as if it were glass.) 8. you will learn to write well.--Expand these infinitive phrases into the clauses indicated:-1. Herod will seek the young child to destroy it. virtue could sustain itself. 6. There being no dew this morning.) 5.) 5. it must have been cloudy or windy last night.) +Infinitive+ phrases may be expanded into different kinds of +clauses+. and steers straight for the Maelstrom. (Condition. 2. reflecting the rays of the sun. He is braver than wise.--Complete these elliptical expressions:-1. They went to the temple. that I might have one more day! 3. +Direction+. (Degree. +Participles+ may be expanded into different kinds of +clauses+. no one would be old. And so shall Regulus.) 4.) 6. The weather is so warm as to dissolve the snow. ***** LESSON 80. the cavalry remaining in the rear. (Concession.) 6. are cool in summer. 8.) 3.) +Absolute phrases+ may be expanded into different kinds of +clauses+. Sitting there. Troy being taken by the Greeks. (Purpose. (Cause. (Evidence. She regrets not having read it.) 4. MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES IN REVIEW. 4. (Noun clause. (Adjective clause. (Condition.) +Direction+. cooling the air for miles around. No examples. sink into the heart. (Time.--Holmes. 1.--Expand the participles in these sentences into the clauses indicated:-- 86 1. (Independent clause. He is not an Englishman. fight as he never fought before. (Cause.) 2.) 6. drew it. 2. 10. so to speak. (Concession. though dead. A cause not preceding. I heard the cry of "Fire!" (Time. Whenever the wandering demon of Drunkenness finds a ship adrift. he must have a genial disposition. EXPANSION. I will go whether you go or not.) 2.) 7. They have nothing to wear. 7. Simon Peter. he loved his children better. The adversative sentence faces. All things else being destroyed. 11. he steps on board. 9. (Adjective clause. +Direction+.) 7. +Direction+. Oh. (Cause.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg LESSON 79. Aeneas came into Italy. no effect is produced.

--Tennyson.--Sir H. when. are the men and women who bless their species. Give examples of adjective clauses connected by who. Analysis. and smote the rivers and the brooks and the ponds. There is a class among us so conservative that they are afraid the roof will come down if you sweep off the cobwebs. Office confers no honor upon a man who is worthy of it.--Curtis. Give and illustrate fully the Rule for punctuating the adjective clause. 10. when we lack fit words.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 87 steamships through the waves comes from the sun. and the Caution regarding the position of the adjective clause. Kind hearts are more than coronets. The men whom men respect. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?--German Proverb. whose. 14.--Lowell.--Whately.--Phillips. . The sea licks your feet. 7. out of respect to the memory of Patrick Henry. we lack fit thoughts. The setting sun stretched his celestial rods of light across the level landscape. 13. it were a martyrdom to live. 3. There is no getting along with Johnson. No language that cannot suck up the feeding juices secreted for it in the rich mother-earth of common folk can bring forth a sound and lusty book.--Boyd. 4.--Gladstone. 9. which. What is bolder than a miller's neck-cloth. The evil of silencing the expression of an opinion is. 3. Show that an adjective may be expanded into an equivalent phrase or clause. We wondered whether the saltness of the Dead Sea was not Lot's wife in solution. To speak perfectly well one must feel that he has got to the bottom of his subject. and it will disgrace every man who is not. 15.--Cooke. who loveth us. 11. 11.--Sallust. There is a good deal of oratory in me. 6. for the dear God. 1. smooth in field. ***** LESSON 82. 2.--Higginson. We think in words. He prayeth best who loveth best all things both [Footnote: See Lesson 20. 12. Gilbert. 12. 14."--Whittier. Commend me to the preacher who has learned by experience what are human ills and what is human wrong.--Koran. REVIEW. No scene is continually loved but one rich by joyful human labor. --Napoleon. if his pistol misses fire. I fear three newspapers more than a hundred thousand bayonets. or sail obey virtue.] great and small. Show that an adjective clause may be equivalent to an Infinitive phrase or a participle phrase. he knocks you down with the butt of it. and they became as blood.--Nasby. why. which seemed to have taken toll of everything that went into his mouth. he made and loveth all.--Sir T.--Holmes. 5. the women whom women approve.--Parton. He that allows himself to be a worm must not complain if he is trodden on.--Holland.--Irving. in any one place. A ruler who appoints any man to an office when there is in his dominions another man better qualified for it sins against God and against the state. 6. 10. and show that each connective performs also the office of a pronoun or that of an adverb. that. Browne. 7. its huge flanks purr very pleasantly for you. but I don't do as well as I can. 9. We are as near to heaven by sea as by land. A breath of New England's air is better than a sup of Old England's ale. Of all sad words of tongue or pen the saddest are these: "It might have been. where. were curiously mottled and streaked with dusky red. fair in garden. what.--Coleridge. and.--Mill.--Longfellow. 4.--Ruskin. Van Twiller's full-fed cheeks. than Norman blood. Were the happiness of the next world as closely apprehended as the felicities of this. It is better to write one word upon the rock than a thousand on the water or the sand. but it will crack your bones and eat you for all that. MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES IN REVIEW. 5.--Goldsmith. and simple faith. ***** LESSON 81. 13. 8. whichever. full in orchard. 8. that it is robbing the human race. build. like a spitzenburg apple. All those things for which men plow.--Kant.--White.

Show how the noun clause may be made prominent. Give participle phrases. 40). Illustrate the different ways of contracting adverb clauses. Phrase (37. Define the different kinds of clauses. Illustrate the different positions of a noun clause used as object complement.+ Noun or Pronoun (28). Illustrate and explain the distinction between a dependent and an independent clause. Clause (71).Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 88 Show that an adverb may be expanded into an equivalent phrase or clause. Illustrate and explain the difference between compound and complex word modifiers. 30). Illustrate five different offices of a noun clause. Give the Rule for the punctuation of independent clauses. Explain the two different ways of treating clauses introduced by in order that. +Complements. . REVIEW. and illustrate fully. between compound and complex phrases. Define the different classes of sentences with regard to form. ***** LESSON 84. between compound and complex clauses. The pupils should be able to reproduce it except the Lesson numbers. 30). 40).+ Verb (11). Illustrate the different ways of contracting independent clauses. Illustrate and explain fully the distinction between direct and indirect quotations. and hence are related in sense. Illustrate and explain the different ways in which independent clauses connected by and. Noun (or Pronoun) (31). and explain the office of each and the fitness of the name. absolute phrases.+ Adjective (29. Participle (37). Give and explain fully the Rule for the punctuation of adverb clauses. Phrase (38. Scheme for the Sentence. Tell all about their capitalization and punctuation. What three parts of speech may connect clauses? GENERAL REVIEW. +Predicate. Show how independent clauses may be joined in sense without a connecting word. Phrase (38.) +PARTS. 40). Give and illustrate fully the Rule for quotation marks. Clause (72). REVIEW. and the distinction between direct and indirect questions introduced into a sentence. Participle (37). 41). +Objective. Illustrate the different positions of adverb clauses.+ +Subject. Define a clause. ***** LESSON 83.+ +Object. etc. Illustrate the different kinds of adverb clauses. Clause (71). Explain the office of the expletive it. and expand them into different kinds of clauses. Phrase (37. and infinitive phrases. Noun or Pronoun (29. Illustrate the different ways of contracting noun clauses.+ Noun or Pronoun (8). (The numbers refer to Lessons. or.--This scheme will be found very helpful in a general review. TO THE TEACHER. but. +Attribute.+ Adjective (31).

7. this day. Phrases (17. forego The godlike power to do. 9. 3. Here. 38. They are offered to those teachers who may not. +Form. 63. Speak clearly. find it convenient to prepare extra or miscellaneous work better suited to their own needs. dazzled his eyes. 64). "Give us. ADAPTED FROM IRVING'S "SKETCH BOOK. Carve every word before you let it fall. In another corner stood a quantity of linsey-woolsey just from the loom. Let the pupils discuss the thought and the poetic form. while the coward stands aside. In this parlor claw-footed chairs and dark mahogany tables shone like mirrors. 37. We do not advise putting them in diagram. but. These were mingled with the gaud of red peppers. Complex. In one corner stood a huge bag of wool ready to be spun. A door left ajar gave him a peep into the best parlor. 8. It will be evident that this work aims not only to enforce instruction given before Lesson 17. Of God's occasions drifting by. 65). Imperative. +Connectives. Adverbs (60. Nouns and Pronouns (33. in the lap of sensual ease. the godlike aim to know. . with their accompanying shovel and tongs. 60. TO THE TEACHER. This hall formed the center of the mansion and the place of usual residence. 5. by an easy and familiar examination of words and groups of words. Unmindful. should additional work be needed for reviews or for maturer classes. 6. Andirons. 40. Pronouns (59. O Lord. but in continuing such exercises the teacher will.--Lowell. 10. so frame the questions as more and more to throw responsibility on the pupil.+ Conjunctions (20. ranged on a long dresser. Exclamatory (46). Ears of Indian corn and strings of dried apples and peaches hung in gay festoons along the walls. as well as the logical construction of these passages. and said. till his Lord is crucified. to prepare the way for what is afterwards presented more formally and scientifically. The questions appended to the following sentences are made easy of answer. 41). Clamored their piteous prayer incessantly. from lack of time or of material. piping loud. TO THE TEACHER. rows of resplendent pewter. and 't is prosperous to be just.+ +Meaning. 60)." 1. Doubting in his abject spirit. Then it is the brave man chooses. the following selections will afford profitable study. Better with naked nerve to bear The needles of this goading air Than. Knowing who hears the ravens cry.--Holmes. Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. From this piazza the wondering Ichabod entered the hall. Interrogative. but. The sparrows chirped as if they still were proud Their race in Holy Writ should mentioned be. 65. on its flowery strand. Additional Selections. 64. assembled in a crowd. of course. 35).+ Simple. if you speak at all.--These and similar "Exercises" are entirely outside of the regular lessons. Filled all the blossoming orchards with their glee. Then to side with Truth is noble when we share her wretched crust. our daily bread!" --Longfellow.--We believe that you will find the preceding pages unusually full and rich in illustrative selections. Ere her cause bring fame and profit. Compound (76). And hungry crows. Adverbs (14). Better to stem with heart and hand The roaring tide of life than lie. 76).+ Adjectives (12). --Whittier. The robin and the blue-bird. glistened from their covert of asparagus tops. Participles (37). 2. 64. +Independent Parts+ (44). +Classes. Clauses (59. 71. 63.+ Declarative. 4.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 89 +Modifiers.

In the eleventh sentence what two things does decorated tell something about? In the seventh sentence thesestands for what two nouns. something about both ears and strings? In the ninth sentence put what before the predicate shone and find two nouns that answer the question. or part of speech.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg [Footnote: Asparagus tops were commonly used to ornament the old-fashioned fireplace in summer. or loses. Change the order of words and read these sentences. found in the preceding sentence? Find the subject and the predicate of each sentence from the sixth to the thirteenth inclusive. Find more common expressions for center of the mansion and place of usual residence. A corner-cupboard. In the fourth sentence does the expression ready to be spun tell what is actually seen. Do you think the picture gains. together with the more formal and searching work of the regular lessons. where it can be done to advantage. Mock-oranges and conch-shells decorated the mantelpiece. you may join the sentences neatly together. and. formed. will be found of incalculable value to the pupil. . by representing the door as "ajar" instead of wide open? Why? Can you see any similar effect from introducing their covert in the tenth sentence? What does the expression knowingly left open suggest to you? This selection from Irving illustrates the +Descriptive+ style of writing. The parts of this picture as made by Irving were smoothly and delicately blended together. How is a similar effect produced in the ninth and the tenth sentence? You see that this great artist in words does not here need to repeat his language. We recommend that this work be varied and continued through the selection above and through others that may easily be made. As a part of the sentence what is each of these words called? To what class of words. Such exercises. What group of words tells the position of the rows? In the fourth sentence what group of words shows where the bag stood? Of wool ready to be spun describes what? A and huge are attached to what? TO THE TEACHER. Read in their regular order the two chief words of each. We can easily imagine that he could produce the same effect in a great variety of ways. In the sixth sentence what word says. 90 +The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+. To what class of words does each of these chief parts belong? Find in these sentences nouns that are not subjects. and prosperity. displayed immense treasures of old silver and well-mended china. +The Force and the Beauty of the Description above.--We have here suggested some of the devices by which pupils may be led to see the functions of words and phrases. SUGGESTIONS FOR COMPOSITION WORK. You may rewrite this description.] 11. Find several compound nouns the parts of which are joined with the hyphen. and then after.--+ Can you find any reason why we are invited to see this picture through the eyes of the interested and wondering Ichabod? Do you think the word wondering well chosen and suggestive? Look through this picture carefully and tell what there is that indicates thrift. Strings of various-colored birds' eggs were suspended above it. knowingly left open. or asserts. Perhaps some of these sentences may be changed to become parts of other sentences. for we have broken it up into single sentences. Notice in the third sentence the effect of resplendent and dazzled. 13. What does of the mansion go with? What does of usual residence describe? In the third sentence what word tells where the dazzling occurred? Find a group of three words telling what the rows were composed of. In the description above we have taken some liberties with the original. The and wondering in the first sentence go with what noun? The group of words from this piazza goes with what word? In the second sentence put what before. They will not only afford the best mental discipline but will aid greatly in getting thought and in expressing thought. 12. and find the names that answer these questions. industry.--Find the two chief words in each of the first three sentences. does each belong? Notice that in the fourth and the fifth sentence the subject is put after the predicate. or names. or what is only suggested? What is gained by this expression and by just from the loom in the next sentence? Do you think an unskillful artist would have used in gay festoons? Read the seventh and make it more common but less quaint.

" 1. 5. the structure. Seemed does not make sense. and the reception. drawing from imagination or experience. after examining the structure and style as suggested above. so far as possible. explain how these were blended together in the original. 6. What does each of the two phrases under their wings and buried in their bosoms describe? What connects these two phrases? In the seventh sentence were is understood before cooing and before bowing. +The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+. Before the barn-door strutted the gallant cock. commonplace matter and language that characterize much of the so-called "original" composition work.) To insure thoroughness.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 91 TO THE TEACHER. employments. 2. if standing by itself. and. In these descriptions different persons might be introduced. then. with their peevish. 4. convoying whole fleets of ducks. and crowing in the pride and gladness of his heart--sometimes tearing up the earth with his feet. as if to snuff the air. see pages 157-162. Guinea fowls fretted about. A written reproduction of the selection may then be made from memory. unwieldy porkers were grunting in the repose and abundance of their pens.--It will be found profitable for pupils to break up for themselves into short sentences model selections from classic English. and the style of the great masters in language must lead to a discriminating taste for literature.--In the first sentence seemedasserts something about what two things? Every goes with what word or words? What word or words does the phrase of the vast barn make more definite in meaning? The two words window and crevice are joined together by what word? The group of words bursting forth with the treasures of the farm describes what? Notice that bursting also helps seemed to say something about window and crevice. Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. now and then. discontented cry. They were watching the weather. formally stated further on. 8. we have as if they were watching the weather. For composition work more nearly original the class might read together or discuss. telling about the preparation. In the study of these selections. and then generously calling his ever-hungry family of wives and children to enjoy the rich morsel which he had discovered. 12. 3. 11. troops of sucking pigs. descriptions of home scenes. to note and. Others were swelling and cooing and bowing about their dames. clapping his burnished wings. Sleek. the rules for punctuation. all such compositions should he short. and the effect upon the pupil's own habits of thought and expression will necessarily be to lift him above the insipid. they might make descriptions of their own. 10. the journey. 9. 13. 7. Putting in some of the words omitted. Rows of pigeons were enjoying the sunshine on the roof. with their attitudes. like ill-tempered housewives. You see that one sentence may be made a part of another sentence. Regiments of turkeys were gobbling through the farmyard. especially in the work of copying. What does forth modify? What does with the treasures of the farm modify? In the third sentence what two nouns form the subject of skimmed? What connects these two nouns? In the fourth what word tells what the rows were enjoying? In the fifth turned up as if watching the weather describes what? As if watching the weathergoes with what? The expression introduced by as if is a shortened form. Swallows and martins skimmed twittering about the eaves. How many predicate . but seemed bursting does. the start. (For studies on narrative style. would make a complete sentence. Every window and crevice of the vast barn seemed bursting forth with the treasures of the farm. may easily be anticipated informally. For exercises in narration pupils might write about trips to these homes. The flail was busily resounding within from morning till night. From these pens sallied forth. Some sat with one eye turned up as if watching the weather. Some sat with their heads under their wings or buried in their bosoms. and other rules. and acts of hospitality. This study of the thought. ADAPTED FROM IRVING'S "SKETCH BOOK. A stately squadron of snowy geese was riding in an adjoining pond.

adjectives. tearing. Such expressions are called +Figures of Speech+. grain. It is shorter and stronger." Sleek. pounding. The sentences in the description above. tearing. In the tenth sentence convoying whole fleets of ducksdescribes what? Does convoying assert anything about the squadron? Change it into a predicate verb. crowing. Is a real squadron referred to in the tenth sentence? and were the geese actually convoying fleets? These are figurative uses of words." +The Beauty and the Force of the Description above+. ever-hungry. It uses instead of the verb reposing and the adjective abundant the nouns repose and abundance. fifth. You may unite smoothly such as should be joined. There is danger of making your sentences too long. Arrange the ninth sentence in as many ways as possible and tell which way you prefer. . You may now explain as if to snuff the air." we have a figure of speech called +Metaphor+. gallant. each asserting something about the pigeons represented by others? Why are these verbs not separated by commas? What two nouns form the principal part of the phrase in the eighth sentence? What connects these two nouns? Read the ninth sentence and put the subject before the predicate. and perhaps other things? A good description mentions such things and uses such words as will help us to see in imagination many things not mentioned. What can you say of regimentsin the eleventh? In the twelfth Guinea fowls are compared to housewives. verbs. or this substitute for it: "The large barn was entirely full of the products of the farm"? Give every reason that you can find for your preference. pronouns.--Why may we say that this farmyard scene is surrounded by an atmosphere of plenty. Repose and abundance are thus made the striking features of the pen. unwieldy porkers would be too high-sounding an expression for you to use ordinarily. "Guinea fowls are fretting housewives. Which he had discovered = He had discovered morsel. It will be noticed that in the questions above we especially anticipate the regular lessons that follow Lesson 27. rich morsel. all describe what? Notice that all the other words following the subject go with these four." In the thirteenth sentence notice how well chosen and forceful are the words strutted. burnished. remembering that a similar expression in the fifth sentence was explained. Notice that without which there would be no connection. In the third sentence would you prefer skimmed to flew? Why? Compare the eighth sentence with this: "Large fat hogs were grunting in their pens and reposing quietly with an abundant supply of food. generously. and adverbs. Except in this one fancied resemblance the two are wholly unlike. have a somewhat broken or jerky effect. We often speak of a barn or storehouse as "bursting with plenty. TO THE TEACHER. Find the three words that answer the questions made by putting what after clapping. calling. In the repose and abundance of their pens is much better than the words substituted above." Do the words busily resoundingjoined to flail bring into our imagination men. Clapping. This we do in all such "Exercises. The fourth. What phrase tells the cause of crowing? The phrase to enjoy the rich morsel which he had discovered tells the purpose of what? Which he had discovered limits the meaning of what? The pronoun which here stands for morsel. the first sentence above. In the twelfth sentence find one word and two phrases joined to fretted." when there is really no bursting nor groaning. Were the wings actually burnished? What can you say of this use of burnished? SUGGESTIONS FOR COMPOSITION WORK. sound.--It may be well to let the pupils complete the examination of the structure of the sentences above and point out nouns. Such comparisons frequently made by as and like are called +Similes+. happiness. sixth." or of a table as "groaning with a load of good things. Young writers find it difficult to make very long sentences perfectly clear in meaning. and makes these the principal words in the phrase. and seventh can all be put into one. when read together. This figure is used above when flocks are called "squadrons" and "fleets. but it is in tone with the rest of the description. and content? Which do you prefer. and calling.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 92 verbs do you find. See whether you can find substitutes for these italicized words. Examine the second sentence and compare it with the following: "The men were busy all day pounding out the grain with flails. in the thirteenth. Here you will see a sentence has again been made a part of another sentence. If we leave out like and say.

--Break up sentence 1. Do the same for 2. and. into three distinct sentences. and was told they had none such. Then I asked for a three-penny loaf. intending. in Second Street. considering. it will be almost impossible to secure good work. I was very hungry. walked off with a roll under each arm. three great puffy rolls. and tell what changes this will make in capitals and punctuation. inquiring where he got it. Drop till and see whether the parts of 1 make separate sentences. or their imagination. knowing. who at first refused it on account of my rowing. by telling why? In 1. The latter I gave the people of the boat for my passage. I bade him give me three-penny worth of any sort. Which read more closely together. I was dirty from my journey. 2. What word. I went immediately to the baker's he directed me to. ***** +The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+. and want of rest. telling where? He directed me to (whom) belongs to what? Who is represented as intending? Intending such as we had in Boston belongs to what? As we had in Boston goes with what? Notice that it seems is a sentence thrown in loosely between the parts of another sentence. Then I walked up the street. What phrase belongs to went. He gave me. accordingly. but took it. one a noun and the other a group of five words. 3. or principal. and I knew no soul nor where to look for lodging. intending such as we had in Boston. it may he well to let them write similar descriptions drawn from their reading. and an object complement. Notice that gazing. 6." 1. Find in 2 a phrase whose principal part is made up of three nouns. 1. binds these two sentences into one? Read 2 and make of it three distinct sentences by omitting the first and and the word but. who is described as gazing about? What does gazing about modify? Read the group of words that tells how far or how long Franklin walked up the street. Such expressions are said to be parenthetical. Put what after inquiring and find the object complement. the parts of 2. then. till near the markethouse I met a boy with bread. Find a phrase belonging to I and representing Franklin as doing something. inquiring. or the greater cheapness and the names of his bread. Find two object complements of knew. and. I was surprised at the quantity. their observation. and are more closely connected. FROM FRANKLIN'S "AUTOBIOGRAPHY. rowing. or of 1? How is this shown to the eye? Analyze the first two sentences you made from 1. If the compositions contain more than two or three short paragraphs each.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 93 TO THE TEACHER. but I insisted on their taking it. I was fatigued with traveling. 3. and asked for biscuit. 4. were not made in Philadelphia. having no room in my pockets. 5. and my whole stock of cash consisted of a Dutch dollar and about a shilling in copper. Notice the punctuation. and eating the other. 2.--While the pupils' thoughts and style are somewhat toned up by the preceding exercises. a predicate. as some are used like single words to make up the main. What modifies refused by telling when? What. paragraph 2. it seems. Find the object complement of gave. I had made many a meal on bread. Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. Notice that this whole group is used like an adverb. but they. paragraph 1. In this second part of 2 find the leading subject and its two predicates. So not considering or knowing the difference of money. What have you learned about the commas used with these nouns? In making separate sentences of 3 what words do you change or drop? Are these the words that bind the parts of 3 together? What noun is used adverbially after gave? Supply a preposition and then tell what phrases modify gave. my pockets were stuffed out with shirts and stockings. The second of these three sentences just made contains several sentences which are not so easily separated. Find in it a subject. sentence. and having are all modifiers of I found in the . gazing about.

my pockets. to use large words for small ideas. hugging a great roll of bread under each arm. The words are ordinary." Compare this sentence with Franklin's and point out the faults you see in the substitute. spoken of in Lesson 11 as not asserting. Yet the piece has a charm. A group of sentences related and held together by a common thought we call a +Paragraph+.--What is here taught of the paragraph and of style will probably not be mastered at one . as you see. Then examine the sentences of the second group and see whether all will not come under this heading: How I Found Something to Eat. Benjamin Franklin trudging along the street. or reporters in writing for the newspapers. and they stand in their usual place. Change each of these participles to a predicate. to the writer to know that he must write in paragraphs? +The Style of the Author+. direct. or asserting form. foolish writer. "My pockets were stuffed out with shirts and stockings. to be something like this: My First Experiences in Philadelphia. and eating the other.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 94 different sentences of paragraph 2.--This selection is mainly +Narrative+. the style is clear. and you will see that no assertion is made. Put I before any one of these words." he said a homely thing in a homely way. he fitted the language to the thought. The closing sentence is slightly humorous. and long. illustrates the other form (the infinitive).--The sentences above. You will notice that giving these words the asserting form makes them more prominent and forcible--brings them up to a level with the other predicate verbs. If Franklin had been a weak. and eating a third roll. and natural. Does other properly mean one of three things? Try to improve this expression. we will call these under topics sub-topics. These words illustrate one form of the verb (the participle). Now examine the first group of sentences and see whether its topic might not be put thus: My Condition on Reaching Philadelphia. simple. The thoughts are homely. his sentence might have taken this form:-"Not having been previously provided with a satchel or other receptacle for my personal effects. which were employed as a substitute. Can you find anything in the meaning of provided that makes previously unnecessary? Do you now understand what Lowell meant when. As submeans under. To fit the expression to the thought on every occasion is the perfection of style. Those of each group are more closely related to one another than they are to the sentences of the other group. simple thoughts? Have you ever seen what could be neatly said in three or four lines "padded out" to fill a page of composition paper or a column in a newspaper? When Franklin said. There are two groups of sentences in this selection because there are two distinct sub-topics developed. that is. and look in 1. +The Grouping of Sentences into Paragraphs+. in praise of Dryden. must have been a laughable sight. Have you ever known boys and girls in writing school compositions. How is the paragraph indicated to the eye? What help is it to the reader to have a composition paragraphed? What. were protruding conspicuously with extra underclothing. You see that even a short composition like this has a general topic with topics under it. "His phrase is always a short cut to his sense"? TO THE TEACHER. Participles are very useful in slurring over the less important actions that the more important may have prominence. and then read the sentences in which these predicates are found. or heading. paragraph 1. he said. Examine the phrase with a roll under each arm. The sentences of each group stand together because they jointly develop one sub-topic. Show that they are so used in Franklin's narrative. and see if you do not find an illustration of the fact that even great men sometimes make slips. Do you see how? In studying this short selection you may find the general topic. The matter is somewhat tame. Figures of speech are not used. the expression is in perfect keeping. stand in two groups. and the expression is commonplace. high-sounding phrases and sentences for plain.

must be the word that connected the two sentences. To their credit be it said that I never observed anything of it in them. They seemed to me very good workmen. TO THE TEACHER. Find a compound infinitive phrase and tell what it modifies. thus making an outline for a composition to be completed from reproduction. I found the plumbers perfectly willing to sit down and talk about it--talk by the hour. and sit down and talk--always by the hour. 6. came out to view the situation. what word is dropped? This. 4. It will be found necessary to return to it occasionally.--We suggest that the pupils reproduce from memory the extract above. 5. They are patient and philosophical. Nor had they any of that impetuous hurry that is said to be the bane of our American civilization. They can afford to wait. Some of their guesses and remarks were exceedingly ingenious. If they had been made by the job is joined like an adverb to what verb? What is the predicate of this modifying group? . This enables the writer to show that the two main divisions of 5 are more widely separated in meaning than are the parts of the second division where the comma is used. WARNER'S "MY SUMMER IN A GARDEN. The work dragged a little--as it is apt to do by the hour. Notice that the two main parts of 5 are separated by a semicolon. In the driest days. What adjective may be used in place of good in a good deal? What long complex phrase modifies deal? Put what after the preposition about and find a group of words that takes the place of a noun. Give the three leading predicate verbs in 5 and their complements. so far as possible. a mile and a half. 2. They may also note the amount of description it contains. 5. Find in this group a subject and a predicate. and talk about the job or anything else. and could hardly have been better if they had been made by the job. with the implements of their craft. 7. Use an equivalent adjective in place of a couple of. 1. A couple of plumbers. SUGGESTIONS FOR COMPOSITION WORK. 2." 95 1. 9. my fountain became disabled. One only wishes there was some work he could do for them by the hour. The plumbers had occasion to make me several visits. It will now require little effort to write simple original narratives of real or imagined experiences. upon arrival. Explain the use of there in 3. and one would go back to the shop. D. 3. +The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+. when I went near them. 4. while a comrade goes for a tool. 10. Find in 4 an objective complement. ***** Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. When 5 is divided into two sentences. FROM C. after it. 8. Notice that the dash helps to show the break made by repeating talk. and always willing to stop. 3. The pupils may be able to note to what extent the narrative follows the order of time and to what extent it is topical. Find in 2 an adverb phrase that expresses purpose. and to refer pupils to it for aid in their composition work. or would you use a comma? Give a reason for the comma after days. that they had forgotten some indispensable tool. 6. 11. the pipe was stopped up. Two of them will sometimes wait nearly half a day. and that other selections of narrative be found in the Readers or elsewhere and studied as above.--How can you make the last part of 1 express more directly the cause of becoming disabled? Would you use a semicolon to separate the sentences thus joined. and their general observations on other subjects were excellent in their way. They should. I do not know but it is a habit to have something wanted at the shop. It is a great pleasure to meet such men.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg reading. find the topic for each paragraph. and his comrade would await his return with the most exemplary patience. then. Sometimes they would find. There was a good deal of difference of opinion about where the stoppage was.

He spoils your work. Warner's quality of style +Humor+? or that +form of wit+ known as +Satire+? Is our author's use of it delicate and refined? or is it gross and coarse? Does it stop short of making its object grotesque. though there are descriptive touches in it. and those of the second under the sub-topic Subsequent Visits. Indolence promises without redeeming the pledge. to eat their bread and not his own. Would you call Mr. if the latter. TO THE TEACHER. eats up your substance. the object complement of make? Put what after would find in 2 and get the object complement. What explains it in 10? Find the object complement of wishes in 11. They should stand in their proper order. lying denials. and then find two groups of words that tell the time of waiting. Find a subject and a predicate in the second group. Let us take for the general topic The Visits of the Plumbers. . they possess the prime quality of +Unity+. the style is satirical or sarcastic. It is a story of what? Is the story clearly told throughout? If not. disappoints your expectations." 1. a better arrangement can be made. 3. must have made an adjective of this sentence and joined it to hurry? What is the object complement of can afford in 7? Supply a preposition after will wait in 8. or generally short? What are the faults or foibles of these real or fancied plumbers? Does the author speak of them in a genial and lenient way? or is he hostile. 4. or visits. Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. and does he hold up their foibles to scorn and derision? Does he make us laugh with. subterfuges. If he borrows. What is the subject of was? The office of there? After work supply the pronoun that and tell the office of the group it introduces. the article remains borrowed. the plumbers? If the former. or other figures of speech? Are the sentences generally long. there are two paragraphs. Do the paragraphs above stand such tests? If they do. +The Author's Style+. or not? Can you name any writers whose humor or satire is coarse? SUGGESTIONS FOB COMPOSITION WORK. As poverty waits upon the steps of indolence. similes. modifies what? Is me. His carelessness is somebody's loss. 5. Negligence of truth. The negligence of laziness breeds more falsehoods than the cunning of the sharper. the style is humorous. next occasional falsehood. and hangs a dead weight upon all your plans. What is the object complement of could do? What connects this group to work? +The Grouping of Sentences into Paragraphs+. 1. his neglect is somebody's downfall. pages 159. Accordingly. Can you make a sentence of this object complement? What phrase can you put in place of the pronoun it without changing the sense? By using the word it. Falsehood becomes the instrument of every plan.--There are two distinct sets of sentences in this selection--distinct because developing two distinct sub-topics. 4.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 96 The infinitive phrase in 1. it is as the letting out of waters--no one knows where it will stop. exhausts your patience.--See suggestions. What group of words in 5 is used like an adjective to modify hurry? Change the pronoun that to hurry and make a separate sentence of this group. The sentences of each paragraph should be closely related to one another and to the sub-topic. 2. FROM BEECHER'S "LECTURES TO YOUNG MEN. if he begs and gets. Indolence inclines a man to rely upon others and not upon himself. Warner here giving us a bit of his own experience? Or do you think he is drawing upon his imagination? Would you call the style plain. and the very best thing an honest man can do with a lazy man is to get rid of him. abuses your confidence. 3. a mist of forgetfulness rises up and obscures the memory of vows and oaths. Let us see whether all the sentences of the first paragraph will not come under the sub-topic First Visit. What word. where is it obscure? Is it made interesting and entertaining? Is Mr. or does it abound with metaphors. 160. paragraph 2. or does he make us laugh at.--This selection we may call +Narrative+. then. Can you make a sentence of this group? What are its principal parts? Does the writer make an unexpected turn after talk? How is this shown to the eye? Put what after do know in 3 and find the object complement. 2. so upon such poverty brood equivocations.

or arguments. would you change the punctuation? A sentence that unites with another to make one greater sentence we call a clause. is not purely intellectual. Find in 2 the omitted predicate of the clause introduced by than. and used like adjectives. But Mr. by the aid of the second phrase we see the same thought from the negative side. which. and not far apart. Mr. and stimulates his fancy. Beecher's heart is in his work. Notice that in 1. Indeed. or thought.) In 3. or consequence. to prove its truth. used as subjects? Explain their use and punctuation. already treated. 2. Find the office of that by placing it after do. But the argument is not all thought. Indolence as surely runs to dishonesty as to lying. figures of speech abound. (See Remark. falsehood. it may be written at the head of the extract as the general topic. 5. In what sentence is the style made +energetic+ by the aid of short predicates? How does the alternation of short sentences with long throughout the extract affect you? The alternation of plain with figurative . Supply the words omitted from the last part of each compound. 3. As a consequence. paragraph 1. In directing the conduct of the Ephesian converts. By every repetition here. Put together the three thoughts established in these paragraphs and tell what they prove. and who. Supply that after thing and tell what clause is here used like an adjective. Examine the other sentences of this paragraph and see whether they enforce the leading thought by illustration.--You can easily learn the sub-topic. ***** +The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+. and in the three paragraphs is giving three reasons. Paul says. What shows that the parts of 2 are not closely connected? Would a conjunction bring them more closely together? If a conjunction is used. are admirably illustrated in this extract? +The Style of the Author+. Beecher is trying to establish a certain proposition. When stores are broken open. Find in 4 an infinitive phrase used as attribute complement. 97 1. The needless repetition of the same thought in different words is one of the worst faults in writing. how are the words borrowed from Paul marked? Change the quotation from Paul so as to give his thought but not his exact words. they are but different parts of the same road. See whether you can find it in the first sentence of each. Beecher makes his thought clearer and stronger. Give the three sub-topics. is impassioned. paragraph 3. Find a compound subject in 3. working with his hands the thing which is good. Are the quotation marks now needed? In 3 and 4 find clauses introduced by that.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg then wanton mendacity--these three strides traverse the whole road of lies. in 5. Beecher is contending. It is suffused with feeling." 4. You will see that the thought is repeated. Read the words Indolence inclines a man with each of the four infinitive phrases that follow.--Find in 1 two compound infinitive phrases and tell their use.--This selection is neither descriptive nor narrative. to a clause. What merits of the paragraph. example. it is +Argumentative+. but rather let him labor. +The Grouping of Sentences into Paragraphs+. and mendacity. the idle are first suspected. Mr. What they prove is that for which Mr. Change the phrase in 1. the thought is repeated by means of the infinitive phrases. the third phrase makes the statement more specific. Mr. It is first expressed in a general way. This feeling warms and colors his style. Read the first part of 2 and change somebody's first to a phrase and then to a clause used like an adjective. the fourth puts the specific statement negatively. Beecher's repetition is not needless. Industry was the road back to honesty. What distinction can you make between the use of the semicolon and the use of the comma in 3? The clause if he borrows is joined like an adverb to what verb? If he begs and gets? What pronoun more indefinite than your might take its place in 4? What noun? Explain the use of the semicolon and the comma in 4. 6. Are negligence. each of these paragraphs develops. "Let him that stole steal no more. The men who were thieves were those who had ceased to work. paragraph 2. Lesson 45.

2. With noiseless foot he paces the lonely hall. or are they transposed? In what different places may they stand? Does either phrase need to be transposed for emphasis or for clearness? Explain the punctuation. a quality.--Do the phrases in 1. paragraph 2. If you think these do. Of this he moves the lock. and he plies the dagger. and the beams of the moon. No eye has seen him. though it is obvious that life has been destroyed by the blow of the bludgeon. 3. by soft and continued pressure. 1. Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. He feels for it. that "Murder will out. that was a dreadful mistake. and it is safe. and doth so govern things. tell how. The fatal blow is given! and the victim passes. 8. introduce us to another figure. 3. True it is that Providence hath so ordained. 5. and say it is safe. no ear has heard him. It is accomplished. 5. . and ascertains that it beats no longer. and places it again over the wounds of the poniard. Something belonging to the men. and in 3. paragraph 1. or would you call it independent? Explain the punctuation of 3. till it turns on its hinges without noise. 1. Such a secret can be safe nowhere. he winds up the ascent of the stairs and reaches the door of the chamber. paragraph 2. generally speaking. paragraph 2. He retreats. The whole creation of God has neither nook nor corner where the guilty can bestow it. and he enters. 2. and 5. Such a figure is called +Metonymy+. in 3. such secrets of guilt are never safe from detection even by men. 2. 4. Not to speak of that eye which pierces through all disguises and beholds everything as in the splendor of noon. Indolence in 1 and 3. and in 1 and 2. He even raises the aged arm that he may not fail in his aim at the heart. from the repose of sleep to the repose of death.--Exercises in argumentative writing may be continued by making selections from the discussion of easy topics. that those who break the great law of heaven by shedding man's blood seldom succeed in avoiding discovery. It is the assassin's purpose to make sure work. ***** +The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+. 4. is made to represent the men themselves. referring to the door. 3. Pick out the comparisons. SUGGESTIONS FOB COMPOSITION WORK. 6. To finish the picture. True it is. or similes. TO THE TEACHER. Begin 2 with the lonely hall. 2. Can you find any other arrangement by which 3 will follow 2 so naturally? Can you change 3 so as to make the reference of it clearer? What is the office of the till clause? Does the clause following the semicolon modify anything? Would you call such a clause dependent. and beholds his victim before him. paragraph 3. without a struggle or a motion. The deed is done. Can you tell why? Notice that in the latter part of 2 the door is mentioned. 1. Compositions should be short. For original work we suggest debates on current topics. into an unoccupied apartment. retraces his steps to the window. 3. passes out through it as he came in. Ah! gentlemen. and that 3 begins with of this. EXTRACT FROM DANIEL WEBSTER. The face of the innocent sleeper is turned from the murderer. 2. Figures of speech should add clearness and force. he explores the wrist for the pulse. half lighted by the moon. The secret is his own. The assassin enters.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 98 sentences? Can you show that the author's style has +Variety+? Pick out the metaphors in 1. paragraph 1. through the window already prepared. show him where to strike. and notice that the sentence is thrown out of harmony with the other sentences. He has done the murder. 1. 3. and escapes. 7. and that the assassin is for the moment lost sight of. stand in their usual order." 6. and laziness in 2. resting on the gray locks of his aged temple.

and of the who clause in 6. . words understood even by children. in paragraphs 1 and 3. at the fact that the sub-topic of each paragraph is found in the first line of each paragraph.+--This selection is largely +Narrative. Could Webster have done more to make his thought seen and felt? +The Style of the Author. They are mostly of the same length. It will.+ Its leading facts were doubtless supplied by the testimony given in the case. in paragraphs 3 and 4. The sentences here are framed largely on one plan. that the language is plain language. Webster. In studying our questions and suggestions the pupils should have the "Extract" before them. Neither order could be changed without making the stream of events run up hill. They probably will not fully comprehend it till they have returned to it several times. stand for? What kind of clause is introduced by where in 3? By which in 4? Expand the as clause in 4 and tell its office. paragraph 4. proof of (3). It is noticeable also that very little imagery is used. Are 7 and 8 identical in meaning? Give the modifiers of passes in paragraph 3. but much of the matter must have come from the imagination of Mr. its perspicuity. But it is impossible to read these paragraphs without being most profoundly impressed with their energy. because (3) these +words+ are +specific+ and +individual+. and (4) at the larger unity of the four paragraphs--that of each paragraph determined by the relation of each sentence to the sub-topic of the paragraph. and (2) at the order of the paragraphs themselves. Look (5). and of (7). TO THE TEACHER. even when they are not. Find the object complement of ascertains in 6. The style is forcible because (1) the +subject-matter+ is +easily grasped+. and 5. (2) because +simple words+ are +used+. has all the effect of an argument. What is the office of the though clause? Find in this a clause doing the work of a noun and tell its office. (5) because of the +prevalence of short sentences+. because (6) of the +repetition of the thought+ in successive sentences. We add that the obvious reference of the repeated he to the same person. touched with description.--Do not be discouraged should your pupils fail to grasp at first all that is here taught. +The Grouping of Sentences into Paragraphs+. their force. Look (3) at the unity of each paragraph. in sentences 3. The more real the murderer's fancied security is made in this paragraph to appear. Give the modifiers of passesin 2. for each order is the order in which the events happened. This sameness is not accidental. In 4 would his in place of the before aged and before heart be ambiguous? If so. to the assertive form. Read the first part of 3 and put the explanatory phrase in place of it. the more startling in the next paragraph will be the revelation of his mistake. Hence no novelty in the words or in their arrangement is allowed to distract our attention from the dominant thought. paragraph 2. in the first three paragraphs. Everything is so skillfully and vividly put that the story. Webster speaks as if it were +now taking place+ in our very sight. because (7). because (4) of the grateful +variety of sentences+. In paragraph 3. why? Find in this paragraph an infinitive phrase used independently.--Look (1) at the order of the sentences in each paragraph. of (5) and (6). those in one clause or sentence seem to suggest those in the next. a remarkable sameness prevails. throughout. the principle that sentences similar in thought should be similar in form. though the murder took place some time before. The sentences are made to look and sound alike and to be alike that their effect may be cumulative. Tell the office of the that clauses in 5 and 6. The order of the words in them is the same. be impossible for them to study it without profit. and that of the four paragraphs determined by their relation to the general topic of the extract. and lastly. One quality of it is its clearness. paragraph 2. not generic. The principle of +Parallel Construction+. What does that in 1. and of that and secret in paragraph 4 demonstrates both unities. often the words are the same. Find in 1 a pronoun used adverbially and a phrase used as object complement. and. is here allowed free play. Expand the phrase into a clause. proof of (4). 4. and should try to verify in it all that is taught concerning it. Explain the as clause. Find proof of what we have just said--proof of (2). The meaning will grow upon them. however. Find in 4 and 5 an infinitive phrase and a participle phrase used independently.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 99 Give the effect of changing resting in 1.

or the one spoken of are called +Personal Pronouns+. as. or what. Is that a man? What is this? or by words telling something of their number. and it. Lesson 8. If the speaker is ignorant of the name of a person or a thing and asks for it. DEFINITIONS. and so we call these words common nouns. or quantity. whatever. him. conceal. By adding self to my. Sarah. The name Sarah is not thus held in common. These little words that by their form denote the speaker. Any name which belongs in common to all things of a class we call a +Common Noun+. have this most noticeable feature. which. for instance. he uses who. they hide. whichever. The sky. and them. The latter will do. my. as. and what. and binding the clauses together. used in a general way. and without any word expressed to which they relate. but words used instead of names. whosoever. thou. which. her. a shower. it. as. This the root +sku+ signifies. order. Much has been done. she.. and scum. they are a cover. . None are perfect. and in the adjective obscure.. shower(Saxon scu:r). The root does not necessarily denote the most essential quality of the thing. etc. you were told to begin with capital letters are proper nouns. and selves to our. your. speaking of one. he may use he. Any one speaking of himself may use I. thy. what. it does distinguish one girl from other girls. as. each thing forms a class by itself. the clause is introduced by who. her. instead of that person's name. your. [Footnote: Most common nouns are derived from roots that denote qualities. and scum that name these objects. he may use you. etc. instead of that one's name. If a noun. and any particular name of an individual. girl. Instead of naming things a speaker may indicate them by words pointing them out as near or remote. is to be modified by a clause.. Xerxes himself was the last to cross the Hellespont. These words. the one spoken to. By adding ever and soever to who. which. or some word or words used like a noun. music. we form what are called +Compound Personal Pronouns+.--You have now reached a point where it becomes necessary to divide the eight great classes of words into subclasses. distinguishing this individual from others of its class.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** PARTS OF SPEECH SUBDIVIDED LESSON 85. we call a +Proper Noun+. etc. CLASSES OF NOUNS AND PRONOUNS. instead of his own name. thy. In Lesson 8 you learned that pronouns are not names. Who did that? These pronouns. and sku is the main element in the words sky. we form what are called the +Compound Relative Pronouns+ whoever. as. Such words we call +Adjective Pronouns+. etc. names" which in Rule 1. or that. used in asking questions. I know the man that did that. only its most obtrusive quality. there is but one thing in the class denoted by each. You have learned that nouns are the names of things. or architecture does not distinguish one thing from others of its class. The "proper. and hence does not distinguish one girl from another. 100 +Introductory Hints+.. speaking to one. your. used either for emphasis or to reflect the action of the verb back upon the actor. Such a word as wheat. are called +Interrogative Pronouns+. +A Noun is the name of anything+. The mind cannot see itself. or individual. relating to words in another clause. are called +Relative Pronouns+. The name girl is held in common by all girls. as. him.

existence. and he denote their objects by the relations these objects sustain to the act of speaking. army. a clause. An +Abstract Noun+ is the name of a quality. It follows that pronouns are more general than nouns. after which the wind ceased. The sails turned. Any person. as. and becomes really meaningless. a being. I denotes the speaker. flock. . by the association of this quality with the rest. and he or she or it. Some pronouns stand for a phrase. or White from his color. Gestures could express all that many pronouns express. may as an adjective accompany its noun. wisdom. like nouns. the thing or things. as Smith is from the man's office of smoothing. However derived. you. we have conformed to the traditional views of grammarians. and hence so vague. or a sentence. and they when referring to the person or persons. the one spoken to. (the) sleep. in their denotement that they show the speaker's complete ignorance of the objects they denote. +Remark+. +An Adjective Pronoun is one that performs the offices of both an adjective and a noun+. In. as. except the speaker and the one spoken to. 1. the name soon ceases to denote quality. +A Pronoun is a word used for a noun+. How is it with you? 3. It is doubtful whether the North Pole will ever be reached. I. she. the corn was ground. 4. beauty. To what does itrefer in. +A Proper Noun is the particular name of an individual+. They seize upon relations that objects sustain to each other and denote the objects by these relations. and that their primary function is not to prevent the repetition of nouns. jury. spoken of--and all creatures and things. This and thatdenote their objects by the relative distance of these from the speaker. and the person or thing that Which denotes. as. or even an animal or a thing personified. in the last. and he. Which. I craved his forbearance a little longer. Herein proper nouns differ from common.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 101 A noun denoting at first only a single quality of its object comes gradually.--It may be well to note two classes of common nouns--collectiveand abstract. which forbearance he allowed me. +An Interrogative Pronoun is one with which a question is asked+. A +Collective Noun+ is the name of a number of things taken together. Ought you to go? I cannot answer that. They do not. you when referring to the one addressed. to denote them all. or a state. the one spoken of. but it may be well for the student to note that pronouns are something more than mere substitutes for nouns. It and which in the second and third sentences stand for clauses. To be or not to be--that is the question. fall into the last list. going before or coming after. mob. it. the one spoken to. may use I when referring to himself. Some pronouns are so general. lay hold of qualities and name things by them. (the) singing. In the first of these sentences. you. retaining its office as connective. some and few and others indicate parts separated from the rest. whiteness. Pronouns are not the names of things.] +A Personal Pronoun is a pronoun that by its form denotes the speaker. an action. that stands for a phrase. Who did it? Which of them did you see? the questioner is trying to find out the one for whom Whostands. for a sentence.] +A Common Noun is a name which belongs to all things of a class+. [Footnote: In our definition and general treatment of the pronoun. +A Relative Pronoun is one that relates to some preceding word or words and connects clauses+. or the one spoken of+. 2. it rains.

one. The compound personal pronouns are:--Myself. one. I saw what was done = I saw the thing that was done. former. each. which one should scorn to be. or as adjectives modifying nouns to be supplied. and what. The interrogative pronouns are:-Who. whole.--When the interrogatives who. as. I found the person who called and the thing that he wanted. the good. as. etc. and those are called +Demonstrative+ pronouns. that. another. and neither are also called +Distributives+. [Footnote: The adjective pronouns this. in such sentences as this: Give such things as you can spare. it is not always easy to distinguish them from relatives whose antecedents are omitted. and parse all the pronouns:-- . etc. and what introduce indirect questions. this. and always knocked off his hat when he met him. each. either. When the sentence is expanded. +Remark+. and it. such. several. enough. but is found to be a preposition--There is not a man here but (= except) the one who would die. the grand. thyself. Some adjectives preceded by the are abstract nouns. Some of the more common adjective pronouns are:-All. +Direction+. For example--I found who called and what he wanted. these. herself. The first sentence does not mean. other. or clause in the place of which a pronoun is used is called an +Antecedent+. these. many. that. and what. phrase.--Analyze these sentences. either. But by expanding the sentence as is seen to be a conjunctive adverb--Give such things as those are which you can spare. It should be remembered that which and what may also be interrogative adjectives. good. No question is suggested. and every boy should know it. other. little. There is not a man here but would die for such a cause. which is a blessing. the beautiful. which. etc. "Who called" and "what he wanted" here suggest questions--questions referred to but not directly asked. he. which. may be treated as a relative pronoun. etc. I saw what was done. which. you. few. is to repair and renew the body.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg The simple personal pronouns are:--I. yourself. thou. himself. and itself.] The compound relative pronouns are:-Whoever or whosoever. as. To sleep soundly. in the phrases the brave. both. any. 102 The simple relative pronouns are:--Who. But used after a negative is sometimes called a "negative relative" = that not. neither. any. whichever or whichsoever. Each. which was to their advantage. They may be treated as nouns. same. many. To lie is to be a coward. much. etc. To lie is cowardly. Which side won? What news have you? +Direction+. latter. that. describe--which pronouns never do--we might call them adjective pronouns. All. [Footnote: As. whatever or whatsoever. those. both. are called +Indefinite+ pronouns because they do not point out and particularize like the demonstratives. the sublime. Daniel and his companions were fed on pulse. But for the fact that such words as brave. none. she. either.] The word.--Point out the pronouns and their antecedents in these sentences:-Jack was rude to Tom.

have you heard bad news? 2. Whatever is done must be done quickly. read some of the examples in their correct form. 2. Bestow thou upon us your blessing. (This sentence may have four meanings. and the dogs they barked. +Direction+. It is not known to whom the honor belongs. The cat it mewed. The farmer told the lawyer that his bull had gored his ox. Napoleon. his father would die. use the two styles of the pronoun. they. Dr. and who said it? 8. 5. 4. What was said. he thought he had better go home. for. ***** LESSON 86. but could not because he was so short. 3.--Do not use pronouns needlessly. 4. A tried to see B in the crowd. and relieve these sentences of their ambiguity:-+Model+. and correct these errors:-1. if he should leave his father. 5.--The pronoun them should not be used for the adjective those. He said to his friend that. You cannot always have thy way. do not. It isn't true what he said. 3. which he intercepted. 9. The father he died. or recast the sentence. quote the speaker's exact words. but she cannot positively tell which. Who steals my purse steals trash. She saw one of them. To insure care in preparation. and the examples should be read by you. using what you may suppose were the speaker's words. Lysias promised his father never to abandon his friends = Lysias gave his father this promise: "I will never abandon your (or my) friends.--Avoid he. 7. and the man he shouted. these sentences. for. 4. or any other pronoun when its reference to an antecedent would not be clear. Let every one turn from his or her evil ways. +Direction+. TO THE TEACHER. but a declarative noun clause is introduced by the conjunction that. nor the pronoun what for the conjunction that. when he took his commentary to the bookseller.--In addressing a person." 1. [Footnote: What properly introduces a noun clause expressing a direct or an indirect question. if he should leave him. I myself know who stole my purse. Require specific reasons. He heard what was said. You have guessed which belongs to me. +Direction+.--The lad cannot leave his father. 4. 5. +Caution+. and the children they were taken sick. +Caution+. They knew whose house was robbed. omitting needless pronouns:-1. Whom the gods would destroy they first make mad.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 103 1. Charles's duplicity was fully made known to Cromwell by a letter of his to his wife. he would die = The lad cannot leave his father. Waterloo having been lost. Thou art sad. if he did not feel better soon. 10. and close attention in the class. it. +Caution+. he told him it was a dry subject. But may be placed before this . 6. Repeat the noun instead. the pupils' books should be closed. 3. he gave himself up to the English.--Study the Caution. Love thyself last.--Study the Caution. the mother she followed. CONSTRUCTION OF PRONOUNS. and others will love you. in the same sentence. +Caution+.--In the recitation of all Lessons containing errors for correction. and that it was but fair that he should pay him for his loss. 2. Give them all.) 3.--Write. 2. Prideaux says that.

The intended meaning is. and but. 3. as. "No one doubts that he will do it." or "Every one believes that he will do it." But what. and what. 7. 2. "No one doubts but that he will do it" is incorrect.--The relative who should always represent persons. +Direction+." For this office of but or but that in an adverb clause. The lion whom they were exhibiting broke loose. 2. . 104 This use of but requires careful discrimination. see Lesson 109. LESSON 87. Longfellow. He told that what he knew.--When the relative clause is not restrictive. and who has his being in God should not forget him. and things. is also incorrectly used to connect an adverb clause. CONSTRUCTION OF PRONOUNS--CONTINUED. has written beautiful prose. The earth is enveloped by an ocean of air. The dog who was called Fido went mad. and nitrogen. Time. and not that. +Caution+. that is a precious gift. +Direction+. and that reached the stand last. For example--"I have no fear that he will do it". [Footnote: See Lesson 61. It was Joseph that was sold into Egypt. fourth "Example" of the uses of but. Hand me them things.--Study the Caution. and correct these errors:-1. and correct these errors:-1. doubts.--Study the Caution. 4. Who knows but what we may fail? 3. covers three-fourths of the earth's surface. +Direction+.] who or which. which.--Several connected relative clauses relating to the same antecedent require the same relative pronoun. is of few days and full of trouble. 3. Those which say so are mistaken. 4. "He is not so bad but what he might be worse. +Caution+. This is the horse which started first. that. for it contains three negatives--no. who became governor of the land." or "No one believes but that he will do it. "I have no fear but that he will do it. that is born of woman. is generally used.--Write correct sentences illustrating every point in these five Cautions. should not be wasted. Two negatives may be used to affirm.--Study the Caution.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg conjunction to give a negative force to the noun clause. We ought to have a great regard for them that are wise and good. animals. He who lives. but not three. and who was drowned was the first mate. +Caution+. that is the most popular American poet. 6. 4. The horse whom Alexander rode was named Bucephalus. and the latter certainty that he will do it. Man. that is a compound of oxygen. and which saved his father and brothers from famine. 5. persons.--Water. I cannot believe but what I shall see them men again. 2. brute animals and inanimate things. things.] +Direction+. All what he saw he described. He has some friends which I know. +Example+. and correct these errors:-1. 4.--Study the Caution. 3. that moves. The man that fell overboard. which is composed of hydrogen and oxygen. for but that or but. The antecedent of what should not be expressed. and correct these errors:-1. +Direction+." The former indicates certainty that he will not do it. 2.

this. the one and the other refer to things previously mentioned. Her hair hung in ringlets.--Write correct sentences illustrating every point in these five Cautions. and the other to the last mentioned. 2. Especially may this be said of which. . 2. in speaking of what does not grow--a mountain. an artist: in the one we most admire the man. Charles XII. 5. +Direction+. It was not I who did it. these. The wide use of who and which in restrictive clauses is not accounted for by saying that they occur after this. He should not keep a horse that cannot ride. +Direction+. and Peter the Great were sovereigns: the one was loved by his people. 8.--High and tall are synonyms: this may be used in speaking of what grows--a tree. (2) when that would prevent ambiguity. +Direction+. 3. +Caution+. He sent his boy to a school which did him good. The pupil will receive a reward from his teacher who is diligent. and correct these errors:-1. 6. All who knew him respected him. they are not confined to them in actual practice. while those are sought after. and correct these errors:-1. Virgil. Who who saw him did not pity him? 4. The chief material which is used now in building is brick.--When this and that. That man that you just met is my friend. and (3) when it would sound better than who or which.) +Direction+. 2. e. than with. 3. these are shunned. the one refers to the first mentioned.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 105 +Caution+. the indefinite it. those. or the whole clause He lived near a pond. and that. the other was hated. (That relates to pond--the pond was a nuisance. the interrogative who. A purse was picked up by a boy that was made of leather. 4. He is the same who he has ever been. tact. and hence are used to avoid disagreeable repetitions of sounds. but usage authorizes us to affirm (1) that who and which stand in such clauses oftener without. and so its use here would be ambiguous. A dog was found in the street that wore a brass collar.] should be used instead of who or which (1) when the antecedent names both persons and things. and that and those to the first mentioned.. and (2) that they so stand oftener than thatitself does. those. same. g. these and those. in the other. 9. triumphantly: this is complimented by the bench. +Examples+. Which might have. that gets the fees. or that preceding them. these.--Study the Caution.--Correct these errors:-1. +Caution+. +Example+.--Study the Caution. repeat the nouns. 7. He is the very man whom we want. 5. 6. This may frequently be the reason for employing who and which in restrictive clauses. very. who scarcely deserved the name of man.--The relative clause should be placed as near as possible to the word which it modifies. which was dark and glossy. However desirable it may seem to confine who and which to unrestrictive clauses. ***** LESSON 88. When there is danger of obscurity. The selfish and the benevolent are found in every community. The wisest men who ever lived made mistakes.--The relative that [Footnote: That is almost always restrictive. Claudius was canonized among the gods. the work. that. Talent speaks learnedly at the bar. and adjectives expressing quality in the highest degree. Homer was a genius. for its antecedent. 3.--He lived near a pond that was a nuisance. this and these refer to the last mentioned. pond. after that. all.

or (2) when they are attribute complements.[Footnote: Pronouns. 17. or narrow. 12. by pointing out the particular fruit. The fields were green. the good God. its application (1) when they denote qualities that always belong to the thing named. is a brilliant gem. Boys who study hard. the other. and that study wisely make progress. he aided us in our Revolutionary struggle. There is no book which. denoting qualities asserted by the verb. The brakemen and the cattle which were on the train were killed. 9. that is. You learned also that the. numbering. these have scales. They buy no books who are not able to read. by numbering it. and correct the errors:-- 106 1. an. He. the application of any noun which they modify. 6. Kosciusko having come to this country. +An Adjective is a word used to modify a noun or a pronoun+. the blue sky. who reason thus.--You learned in Lesson 12 that.--Give the Cautions which these sentences violate. +DEFINITIONS+. They know little of men. are often modified by an "appositive" adjective. he struggled on or. was the general appearance of the class. the adjectives ripe and unripe limit. that is pure carbon. or narrow. Help thyself. 18. the other. Reputation and character do not mean the same thing: the one denotes what we are. when we look through it sharply. 22. 5. or denoting quantity are called +Definitive Adjectives+. Adjectives which limit by expressing quality are called +Descriptive Adjectives+. Adjectives that complete the predicate belong as freely to pronouns as to nouns. and Heaven will help you. The ground was dry and hard. ***** LESSON 89. faint and weary. Whales are the largest animals which swim.] +A Descriptive Adjective is one that modifies by expressing quality+. John's father died before he was born. the application of apples by describing. and he ordered him out. no. in the sentences Ripe apples are healthful.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg CONSTRUCTION OF PRONOUNS--CONTINUED. 24. or narrow. as. Witness said that his wife's father came to his house. There are miners that live below ground. like nouns. but he refused to go. as. 21. an adjective joined loosely without restricting: thus--Faint and weary. +Introductory Hints+. Shall you be able to sell them boots? 23. some. Miscellaneous Errors. as apple or apples. 26. The diamond. 8. CLASSES OF ADJECTIVES. 7. I don't know but what I may. They need no spectacles that are blind. There is one marked difference between shiners and trout. 19. 2. and those which limit by pointing out. that is a plant. and which was spoken of by others. is woven into cloth. He who does all which he can does enough. had been a British officer. What pleased me much. 4. +Direction+. 10. A man should sit down and count the cost who is about to build a house. 14. 27. and many limit. we cannot find mistakes in it. or by denoting the quantity of it. struggled on. yellow gold. 11. this. and who seldom see the light. and those have not. General Lee. The reporter which said that was deceived. 15. Beer and wine are favorite drinks abroad: the one is made from grapes. There are many boys whose fathers and mothers died when they were infants. 25. Unripe apples are hurtful. from barley. that served under Washington. Do you know that gentleman that is speaking? 13. 3. or by expressing certain qualities of the fruit. Cotton. 16. 20. Adjectives modifying a noun do not limit. what we are thought to be. . He did that what was right.

--Study the Caution. as. the Pitt diamond. an hook. and (2) one class of things from other classes. a umpire.] +Examples+. Here the distinguishes this class of animals from other classes. and name such as do not limit:-Able statesmen. Washington market. and earl are here meant to denote each the whole of a class. a historian. The horse or the horses must be turned into the lot. numbering. third. etc. three cats. the martyr president. CONSTRUCTION OF ADJECTIVES. less trouble. etc.--An and a are different forms of one. motion. little thread. This is a poor kind of a gas. The man(meaning the race) is mortal. first. diamond pin. ***** LESSON 90. the patient Hannibal. a humble petition. An is used before vowel sounds. position. The horse is a noble animal. two. some feeling. a inheritance. that libel. few people. or whether they modify in some other way.--London journals. What name was given? Which book is wanted? +Direction+. much rain. etc. third--etc. an hour (h is silent). The is used to distinguish (1) one thing or several things from others. an usurper. a bag. happy children. +Caution. an hero. moving spectacle. an uniform. an historian.[Footnote: The definitive adjectives one..Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 107 +A Definitive Adjective is one that modifies by pointing out. from others of the same class. second. all men. are called +Numeral+ adjectives. an hard apple. A gold is heavy. small grains. and the before horses distinguishes certain animals. An or a is called the Indefinite Article. moral qualities. an ewer. three. William Pitt received the title of an earl because gold.--Point out the descriptive and the definitive adjectives in Lessons 80 and 81. but we cannot say. tin pans. and the is called the Definite Article. and correct these errors:-A heir. or denoting quantity+. A noun may take the place of an adjective. silver spoons. are called +Ordinal+ numerals] The definitive adjectives an or a and the are commonly called +Articles+. The anger is a short madness. +Explanation. The truthis eternal. The poetry and the painting are fine arts. any book. The huge clouds were dark and threatening.--An inkstand. Eyes are bright. are called +Cardinal+ numerals. three.+--An or a is used to limit a noun to one thing of a class--to any one. two. the broad Atlantic. One. slender cord. +Direction+. and thebefore lot distinguishes the field from the yard or the stable--things in other classes. Mansard roof.--Point out the descriptive and the definitive adjectives below. state papers. For the sake of euphony. and a limits its noun to one thing of a class. an hundred. second. an drops n and becomes abefore consonant sounds. brave Washington. +Direction+. the New York press. gold bracelet. meaning any one horse. hundredth anniversary. and first. ten mice. +Caution+. a account. brass kettle. this toy. But we cannot say. Here thebefore horse distinguishes a certain animal. such a one (one begins with the consonant sound of w). because . and tell whether they denote color. size. gas. shape.+--We can say a horse. a unit (unit begins with the consonant sound of y). +Examples+.[Footnote: Some writers still use an before words beginning with unaccented h. crushing argument.

A noun and pronoun are alike in office. 7. Dog is a quadruped. 4. or the before each of two or more connected adjectives. +Direction+. Neither the North Pole nor South Pole has yet been reached. but not much. and name things that are sufficiently distinguished without the. 9. cotton and silk modify the same noun--umbrella. 4. There are a few pleasant days in March. 2. 6. We criticise not the dress but address of the speaker. 3. 2. There is a difference between the sin and sinner. (The secretary and treasurer was absent--referring to one person--is correct. He saved a little from the fire. +Explanation+. A cotton and silk umbrella means one umbrella partly cotton and partly silk. or the before each of two or more connected nouns denoting things that are to be distinguished from each other or emphasized. and painting are used in their widest sense. The sculpture is a fine art.+--Use an. The right and left hand. 6. A hill is from the same root as column. the wise and good means one class. ***** . This is another kind of a sentence.--A cotton and a silk umbrella means two umbrellas--one cotton and the other silk. 3. because it is a stormy month. but not many. and correct these errors:-1. truth. The Northern and Southern Hemisphere. but. +Caution.--Study the Caution. The Northern and the Southern Hemispheres. A Pullman and Wagner sleeping-coach. Distinguish carefully between an adjective and adverb. 5. +Direction. +Direction+. Oak is harder than the maple. poetry. 8. anger. and little means not much. The fourth and fifth verse. the article should not be repeated. +Direction+. The lion. 3.--Use an. I expected some such an offer. 4. 4. 5. Churchill received the title of a duke. 2. +Direction+. 2. a.--A few and a little mean some as opposed to none. A Webster's and Worcester's dictionary. when these adjectives modify different nouns. 6. as well as tiger.--Write correct sentences illustrating every point in these Cautions. 7. The woman is the equal of man. Unicorn is kind of a rhinoceros. 7. The fourth and the fifth verses. Little was said or done about it. belongs to the cat tribe. 5.--He saved a few things and a little money from the wreck. expressed or understood.--Study the Caution as explained.--Study the Caution. and correct these errors:-1. The secretary and treasurer were both absent.+--Study the Caution as explained. +Examples+. as it broke out in the night. and correct these errors:-1.) +Caution+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 108 man. 3. when they modify the same noun. Little can be done. +Caution+. The wise and the good means two classes. the word umbrella is understood after cotton. Few men live to be & hundred years old. Few shall part where many meet. fewmeans not many. a. and correct these errors:-1.

--Study the Caution carefully. 18. CONSTRUCTION OF ADJECTIVES--CONTINUED. avoid such as repeat the idea or exaggerate it. A pupil. It was a gorgeous apple. verdant green. She has less friends than I. 7.--The following adjectives are obviously needless: Good virtues. His penmanship is fearful. The belief in immortality is common and universal. barren. but do not use them needlessly. The victory was complete. A fried dish of bacon. Transitive means passing over. 2. +Caution+. He used less words than the other speaker. 5. docile and mild. It was a tremendous dew. 13.--Study the Caution. The eldest son of a duke is called a marquis. 3. It was splendid fun. We saw in the distance a precipitous. we complete the predicate by naming the one that receives the act that passes over from the doer. 6. The arm-chair was roomy and capacious. and so I had a little faith in him. He had deceived me. A few can swim across the Straits of Dover. If we say Cornwallis was captured by Washington.--So place adjectives that there can be no doubt as to what you intend them to modify. 15. but not cold of winter. two lazy men. 6. Such an use! 16. 4. and correct these errors:-1. 3. 9. Samuel Adams's habits were unostentatious. and so all verbs that represent an act as passing over from a doer to a receiver are called +Transitive Verbs+. Adding Cornwallis. 11. though a few of the enemy were killed or captured. I can bear the heat of summer. which names the receiver. A prodigious snowball hit my cheek. 109 +Remark+. and correct these errors:-1. LESSON 92. A white and red flag were flying. an hard apple. +Direction+. but I paid a frightful price for it. 20. painful toothache. 22. The North and South Pole. It was a blue soft beautiful sky. 2. 8. unexpected. umbrageous shade. the shortest first. The house was comfortable and large. but the object. 19. The truth is mighty and will prevail. 8. Cornwallis. place nearest the noun the one most closely modifying it.--Give the Cautions which these expressions violate.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg LESSON 91. +Direction+. He wanted a apple. 3. place them where they will sound best--generally in the order of length. CLASSES OF VERBS AND ADVERBS. The day was delightful and warm. 8. 5. It was a lovely bun. is here the . 9. Two gray fiery little eyes. frugal. +Introductory Hints+. for the width is great and the current strong. The fat.--Write correct sentences illustrating every point in these two Cautions.--You learned in Lesson 28 that in saying Washington captured we do not fully express the act performed. The scepter. 7. 14. A salt barrel of pork. the miter. +Direction+. If they are of the same rank. 6. 17. and simple. The lad was neither docile nor teachable. and extraordinary success surprised him. An old and young man. 2. towering mountain. +Direction+. the verb is still transitive. and coronet seem to me poor things for great men to contend for. 5. and correct the errors:-1. 7. If those forming a series are of different rank. 21. The evil is intolerable and not to be borne. A docile and mild pupil. A dried box of herrings. He received a honor. +Caution+. 10. 12. A new bottle of wine. 23. His unusual. I have a contemptible opinion of you. 4.--Choose apt adjectives. 4. Miscellaneous Errors.

Exceedingly. Here captured is. Did you see him? No = I did no (not) see him. and not. now. negation is more frequently expressed in English by the adverb than by any other part of speech--than by all other parts of speech. Notice that ed is added to capture (final e is always dropped when ed is added) to form its past tense and its past participle. 110 A verb transitive in one sentence. Early. soon. therefore.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg subject of the sentence.. within. are called +Adverbs of Manner+. so. as you have learned. and it is now a letter only.. The force of yes may be illustrated by substituting certainly--Will you go? Certainly. verbs. used in making an inference or in expressing cause--as. fell. none. as before. why. [Footnote: It may be worth remarking that while there are many negative nouns. back. sufficiently. As noand yes represent or suggest complete answers."--Earle. nought. used to modify a word--as the adjective hot in. not. etc. when used to answer Questions. Hence. they may be called +sentence-words+. it is a past participle. never. used to modify any verb--as. thus. The tea is very hot--by expressing degree. the war speedily closed. gone. which. as. enters into many words. but we have lost that word. Why is it dark?--are called +Adverbs of Cause+. and hence this verb is in the past tense. may be intransitive in another. and conjunctions in oar language. used to modify any verb--as. too. . adjectives. as. Washington captured Cornwallis. often. Some adverbs fall into more than one class. will go in. show how the thought presented is regarded. do not represent the act as passing over to a receiver. A very large per cent of these adverbs modify the verb. may be the subject.. All verbs that form the past tense and the past participle by adding ed to the present are called +Regular Verbs+. and. will go in. the word that names the receiver of the act. out. elsewhere.] etc. very. Plainly. It is very suggestive that much of what is said consists of denial--is taken up in telling not what is true of things but what is not true of them. not. nor. as. pronouns. etc. "The negative particle in our language is simply the consonant +n+. He writes well--meaning simply He is a good writer. All verbs that. are called +Irregular Verbs+. Cornwallis captured. That is to say. the object complement. It is dark. and may therefore be classed with adverbs of manner. In Saxon it existed as a word +ne+. Certainly I will go. go. They seem to modify words omitted in the answer but contained in the question. the sun is down. hereafter. hence. as into no. hardly. I will go soon--by expressing time. fall. used to modify a word--as. or it may be the object complement. as. a participle. representing the act as past at the time indicated by closed. A verb is transitive only when an object is expressed or obviously understood. He writes good English. etc. Away. are called +Adverbs of Degree+. and all that express mere being or state of being are called +Intransitive Verbs+.. No and yes (nay and yea). I will go away--by expressing direction or place.. are called +Adverbs of Time+. spoke in. like fall in Leaves fall. hence. fallen. He spoke plainly--by expressing manner. All verbs that do not form the past tense and the past participle by adding ed to the present. are called +Adverbs of Place+. neither. it is largely through the adverb that what the predicate expresses is declared not to be true of the thing named by the subject. etc. as. went. or therefore. presently. quite. Will you go? Yes. They are sometimes called independent adverbs. well. Tense means time. or I will certainly go. You see that the object. so and as. Here captured represents the act as having taken place in past time.

Why? +Direction+. How. Caesar was stabbed by Brutus. as. as. 111 +A Transitive Verb is one that requires an object+. They may modify a clause or a sentence. may be the +object complement+. See page 187. +Caution+. They may modify a phrase or a preposition.] +An Intransitive Verb is one that does not require an object+. +A Regular Verb is one that forms its past tense and past participle by adding ed to the present+. and where is this to be done? and that they may add to the office of the adverb that of the conjunction. It may also be noted here that adverbs are used interrogatively. the regular and the irregular verbs in Lesson 14. In what way? +Adverbs of Cause are those that generally answer the question+. avoid such as repeat the idea or exaggerate it. as. +An Adverb is a word used to modify a verb.] CLASSES OF ADVERBS. To what extent? +Adverbs of Manner are those that generally answer the question+. When? +Adverbs of Place are those that generally answer the question+.--Choose apt adverbs. +An Irregular Verb is one that does not form its past tense and past participle by adding ed to the present+. CLASSES OF VERBS WITH RESPECT TO MEANING. . there must be an error here. ***** LESSON 93. as. the name of the receiver of the action. They may be used independently. when. CLASSES OF VERBS WITH RESPECT TO FORM. DEFINITIONS. Certainly you may go. He came just in time. connect clauses. but do not use them needlessly or instead of other forms of expression. or it may be the +subject+. as.--Point out the transitive and the intransitive. being. [Footnote: Adverbs have several exceptional uses. Brutus stabbed Caesar. and classify the adverbs. [Footnote: The +object+ of a transitive verb. +Adverbs of Time are those that generally answer the question+. as. an adjective. Now. I go where I am sent. CONSTRUCTION OF ADVERBS. and are therefore called +Conjunctive Adverbs+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Some adverbs. or an adverb. that is. He let go simplybecause he was exhausted. +A Verb is a word that asserts action. as you have learned. It went far beyond the mark. or state of being+. Where? +Adverbs of Degree are those that generally answer the question+.

The belief in immortality is universally held (not universally held everywhere). or split. No man can do nothing. +Direction+. Fitzedward Hall and others have shown this. 8.] +Examples+. 3. This 'ere knife is dull. as. an adjective). 10. Whether the adverb should be placed before the to or after the infinitive is often a nice question. He tries to distinctly speak. His sagacity almost appears miraculous. I do not like too much sugar in my tea.--Study the Caution and the Examples. This (not this here or this 'ere) sentence is correct. They seldom stand between to and the infinitive. 4. Do as (not like) I do. +but+ did not swim or wade. Few writers ever place an adverb there at all. A direct quotation is when the exact words of another are copied. 12. There must be something wrong when children do not love neither father nor mother. only an occasional adverb. 13. 6. 2.--I only rowed across the river = I only (= alone. peaceably.] +Examples+. Have regard to the sound also. +Caution+. He had not hardly a minute to spare.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 112 +Examples+.. or = I only rowed etc. He doesn't do nothing. His nose was very (not terribly or frightfully) red. sometimes to be determined by the ear alone. because it is intended to affirm). I don't think. He isn't improving much. 7. 5. He wrote that (not how that) he had been sick. I am dreadfully glad to hear that. All is not gold that glitters. 3. +Caution+. and no one else. +Direction+. He said how that he would go. That 'ere horse has the heaves.--I could ill (not illy) afford the time. 5. 7. I have thought of marrying often. But there can be no question that usage is overwhelmingly against an adverb's standing between to and the infinitive. He tries distinctly to speak.--So place adverbs that there can be no doubt as to what you intend them to modify. All that glitters is not gold. Merely to see (not to merely see) her was sufficient. 6. Charlie Ross can't nowhere be found. 8. No unpleasant circumstance happened (proper. [Footnote: Instances of the "cleft. and these few. We only eat three meals a day. . It was awfully amusing. +Direction+. where it would leave the meaning ambiguous or in any way obscure. No other reason can never be given. [Footnote: Not infrequently we use two negatives to make an affirmation.-1. 3. He isn't no sneak. The affair was settled amicably. not the bay etc. This is a fearfully long lesson. I rowed across the river only = the river only. 4. 2. Not every collegian is a scholar (not Every collegian is not a scholar). He hopes to rapidly recruit. It should never stand. and correct these errors. He is not unjust. infinitive"--the infinitive separated from its to by an intervening adverb--are found in Early English and in English all the way down. +Caution+. The belief in immortality is universally held by all. 11. 4. do not use two negative words so that they shall contradict each other.--No one has (not hasn't) yet reached the North Pole. 9. and correct these errors:-1. 5. He seldom or ever went home sober..--Study the Caution and the Examples. however. 6. 2.--Do not use adverbs for adjectives or adjectives for adverbs. I rowed only across the river = across. A diphthong is the union of two vowels (not where or when two vowels unite) in the same syllable. and that adverb only occasionally.--Study the Caution and the Examples. I returned back here yesterday. and correct these errors:-1.--Unless you wish to affirm. and peacefully. rowed etc. not up or down etc.

and shows the relation. A circle can't in no way be squared. ere. of. 7. behind. The river runs rapid. 8. The tortured man begged that they would kill him again and again. athwart. 8.+ Composition. betwixt. 14.--The moon looks calm and peaceful (not calmly and peacefully. 31. after. He spoke up prompt. 26. upon. 13. It is pretty near finished. recklessly. Most everybody talks so. You must read more distinct. The one is as equally deserving as the other. 28. They were nearly dressed alike. up. until. I don't believe. over. between. within. I have a pencil that long. 25. +DEFINITION. 20.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 113 +Examples+. He hasn't his lesson. till. 11. ***** LESSON 94. in sense. We publish all the information. He can do it as good as any one can. with. PREPOSITIONS. beyond. 13. +Direction+. She is miserable poor. but. 10. underneath. 30. and correct the errors:-1. amidst. I can't find out neither where the lesson begins nor where it ends. into. since. LESSON 95. 4. in. to. He behaved thoughtlessly. 27. The lesson was prodigiously long. 23. beside. +Direction+. through. 12. That 'ere book is readable. above. Generally every morning we went to the spring. among. +Direction+. 22. 21. 2. for. 6. 15. The moon looks down calmly and peacefully on the battlefield (not calm and peaceful. I slept soundly (not good or sound).--Write correct sentences illustrating every point in these four Cautions. on. The cars will not stop at this station only when the bell rings. around. beneath. down. of its principal word to the word modified. Feathers feel softly. Verbosity is when too many words are used. The prima donna sings sweet. CONSTRUCTION OF ADVERBS-CONTINUED. This is a remarkable cold winter. 10. at. under. It was an uncommon good harvest. 24. I will not go but once. 19.--A Preposition is a word that introduces a phrase modifier. Miscellaneous Errors. He behaved very bad. I am real glad to see you. official and otherwise. towards. It was a softly blue sky. round. amongst. Make short sentences in which each of these shall be aptly used. throughout. by. before. and carelessly. as the words are intended to describe the moon). 11. 18. 12. 29. across. as the words are intended to tell how she performs the act). Begin it over again. 7. 16. 17. 4. amid. He hasn't yet gone. I don't believe. without.--Give the Cautions which these sentences violate. Most every one goes there. about. I wish to simply state this point. The fortune was lavishly. unto. along. He went most there. against. past. 6. toward. 3. 3. +Direction+. She is most sixteen. This is a mighty cold day. 9. and correct these errors:-1. It is a wonderful fine day. and prodigally spent. He tried to not only injure but to also ruin the man. He is some better just now. below. 9. This can be done easier.--Study the Caution and the Examples. The discussion waxed warmly. 5. 5. . profusely. 2. Use two or three of them in a single sentence if you wish:-Aboard. My head feels badly. besides.--We give below a list of the prepositions in common use. The house is extra warm. from.

out of. as. But in most cases the participial meaning has faded out of them. and Webster's. in general. White. Whitney."--W. and Ethiopia. an ass. But from in these compounds. B. "His flight between the several worlds. Syria."-B. and they express mere relations. He rode past. and round about may be called compound prepositions. from among. G."--Bryant. "A Triple Alliance between England. excepting. concerning. +To the Teacher+. over against.--We give below a few words with the prepositions which usually accompany them. "The identity of form between the nominative. CONSTRUCTION OF PREPOSITIONS. All but or exceptor save him were lost." Ordinarily. and vocative cases in the neuter. they are so used. extended to more than two."-."--Addison. a choice between one of several. but are they always. saving. "In the vacant space between Persia. from between. Many prepositions become adverbs when the noun which ordinarily follows them is omitted." are used "only when two things or sets of things are referred to. according to." --G. and touching are still participles in form and sometimes are such in use.' or 'to insert a needle among the closed petals of a flower."--Imperial Dictionary. respecting. accusative. He should he a man of wide and careful reading who assumes to teach pupils that such prepositions.'"--The New English Dictionary. ***** LESSON 96. the principal term of which is the phrase that follows from. because of (by cause of). The phrases aboard of. It is still the only word available to express the relation of a thing to many surrounding things severally and individually--among expressing a relation to them collectively and vaguely: we should not say. Egypt. teach that between and betwixt "refer to two. pending. But. instead of(in stead of). as. notwithstanding.L'Estrange. from under. That grammarian exceeds his commission who marks out for the pupils' feet a path narrower than the highway which the usage of the best writers and speakers has cast up. "The distinction between these three orders has been well expressed by Prof. We do below all that we think it prudent or profitable to do with them. really introduces a phrase.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 114 +Remarks+. Holland. 'The choice lies among the three candidates. during. Marsh. Grammarians. and Sweden. and a fox. P. and must they be? "There was a hunting match agreed upon betwixt a lion. in such a sentence as. "Betwixt the slender boughs came glimpses of her ivory neck. He stands above. Form short . regarding. Max Mueller.--Bating. With what clumsy circumlocutions would our speech be filled if prepositions could never slip the leash of their etymology! What simple and graceful substitute could be found for the last phrase in this sentence. and save.] +Direction+. as to. "Between such dictionaries as Worcester's. from its earliest appearance. along with. are usually classed with prepositions. should be used with certain words. and so delicate in their shades of distinction that a definition of them based upon etymology would mislead. and while clinging to their derivation.--Most prepositions express relations so diverse. [Footnote: Take a single illustration. Nowhere in grammar is dogmatism more dangerous than here. He crawled from under the ruins. "In all senses between has been."-J. except. A happy and discriminating use of prepositions can be acquired only by an extended study of good authors. D. for instance: There were forty desks in the room with ample space between them? "We observe that between is not restricted to two. We have collected hundreds of instances of between used by good writers with three or more. Guard against such expressions as between each page."--Gibbon. The Imperial. and such only. Green.

sit in. for. The year of the Restoration plunged Milton in bitter poverty. 20. 26. 3. and note carefully the different relations expressed by the different prepositions:-(Consult the dictionary for both the preposition and the accompanying word. indulge in. What is the matter of him? 23. many besides. 43. disappointed in. in. CONSTRUCTION OF PREPOSITIONS--CONTINUED. . +Caution+. 30. anxious about. with. compare to. She is angry with your conduct. in. He is in want for money. Place a mark between each leaf. obliged for. part from. The child died with the croup. What a change a century has produced upon our country! 40. He bears a close resemblance of his father. to. I have other reasons beside these.) 115 Abide at. 17. I agree with that plan. towards. The evening was spent by reading. [See previous footnote] 8. 21. 36. He went in the park. with. of. familiar to. angry at. weary of. in. on or upon. 24. 27. with. against. consists in. impatient for. with. with. 37. You make no use with your talents. into. 12. solicitous about. 9. need of. "When one is outside of a place."] 7. Can you accommodate me in one of those? 39. different from.--Do with the following words as with those above:-Inquire after. He entered in the plot. to. [Footnote: Beside = by the side of. ***** LESSON 98. taste for. 15. 33. with. joined to. I saw him over to the house. from. He fought into the Revolution. 32. He is angry at his father. intrude into. yearn for. +Direction+. but he cannot do anything in it until he has got into it. accommodate to. She stays at the North. with. 2. insensible of. 11. share in. smile at. he may be able to get into it. of. by. He stays to school late. for. 28. careless about. 25. agree to. 38. with. 19. in. look after. into. They two quarreled among each other. with. He did not take a walk. He distributed the apples between his four brothers. on. He placed a letter into my hands. from. He fell from the bridge in the water.] 29. die by. live at. but was disappointed of it. liberal of. I board in the hotel. reconcile to. These plants differ with each other. He threw himself onto the bed. with.--Great care must be used in the choice of prepositions. 5. 35. communicate to. 16. He lives at London. He took a walk. with. 31. The boys are hard to work. to. I spent my Saturdays by going in the country. with. of. 42. He arrived to Toronto. on. with. regard for. on. change from one condition or place into another. influence on. School keeps upon Monday. 13. 34. over. sank beneath. remonstrate against. to. for. 14. He lives in the turn of the road. defend against. of.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg sentences containing these words combined with each of the prepositions which follow them. 41. touch at. ***** LESSON 97. of. 22. to. [Footnote: In denotes motion or rest in a condition or place. 6. with. useful for. He boards to the hotel. of. The Colonies declared themselves independent from England. I have need for a vacation. 18.--Correct these errors:-1. with. to. in. besides = in addition to. 10. attend on or upon. of. in. distinguish by. upon. into. You can confide on him. He stays to home. CONSTRUCTION OF PREPOSITIONS--CONTINUED. with. over. argue against. He was accused with felony. +Direction+. of. on or upon. on. with. arrive at. This book is different to that. for. he was disappointed in it. and enjoying myself by fishing. placed in. I was followed with a crowd. sat beside. strive for. for. advantage of. 4.

20. Sentences (10) and (13). 29. He was born August 15. 11. Keep off of the grass. +Direction+. that they lack smoothness. Prof. +Caution+. It was the size of a pea. To what may Italy be likened to? 25. or essentially a part of. In about April the farmer puts in his seed.--Correct these errors:-1. 12. He is worthy our help." Such sentences have been condemned. Egypt is the west side of the Red Sea. they show the relation. Raise your book off of the table. They admitted of the fact. He lives near to the river. You can tell by trying of it. 6. 4. 23. 10. 14.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** LESSON 99. "The old Scotch interrogative.--Correct these errors:-1. He was born on the 15th August. and name the words between which. By what states is Kentucky bounded by? 10. and many in succeeding Lessons violate the rule so carelessly expressed. 1834. 7. I went there at about noon. Give to me a knife. 4. 21. 6. In what latitude is Boston in? 3."] CAUTION. Adam and Eve were expelled the garden. Austin Phelps says. Butter brings twenty cents for a pound. but the lowly. "A preposition as such is by no means a feeble word.[Footnote: "A preposition is a feeble word to end a sentence with. 27. 13. in sense. 9.--Do not omit prepositions when they are needed. "is purest idiomatic English. . This is the subject of which I intend to write about. He received dispatches from England and Russia. 11. 26. Of what is the air composed of? 16. 3. They offered to him a chair. the times. in 1834. Jack's favorite sport was in robbing orchards. DIRECTION. His efforts were not for the great. 2. the thoughts. Sentences containing a transitive verb and a preposition before a noun are very common--"Powerless to affect." we are told. His servants ye are to whom ye obey. +Direction+. He took the poker from out of the fire. (2). 5. He was banished the country. 22. 24." Professor Phelps says. What use is this to him? 7. 8. so long as there is left of Plymouth Rock a piece large enough to make a gunflint of!" "This. But smoothness is not always desirable. Where are you going to? 12. He is unworthy our charity. 116 CONSTRUCTION OF PREPOSITIONS--CONTINUED. 9. ***** LESSON 100. Lesson 59. 2. Lesson 60. 15. A good place to see a play is at Wallack's. 'What for?' is as pure English in written as in colloquial speech. 5." and he quotes a burst of feeling from Rufus Choate which ends thus: "Never.--Do not use prepositions needlessly. There is no use going there. or to be affected by. laid down without regard to usage and thoughtlessly repeated.--Point out the prepositions in Lessons 80 and 81. Of this rule. I was leading of a horse about. I must think. 17. but the worst that can be urged against them is." Sentences containing two prepositions before a noun are exceedingly common in English--"The language itself is inseparable from. I have a brother of five years old. The boy is like to his father. 19. I was prevented going. 28. He went to home. Where have you been to? 18. I started a week ago from last Saturday. He came in for to have a talk. 8. Before answering of you." He adds.

as well as I. and not that in. as well as [Footnote: The as well as in. where. and that connect each a lower. and hence are called +Subordinate Conjunctions+. but neither the living nor the dead are conscious of their gaze. who. To THE TEACHER.+ [Footnote: +Copulative+ conjunctions join parts in the same line of thought. but. we regard only the individual sentence and treat such connectives as introductory. neither. then.. which. In analysis and parsing. in the absence of the conjunction.] are conjunctions proper. Accordingly. and some are adverbs or adverb phrases. +Remark+. phrases. or. in thought. notwithstanding. nor. +Co-ordinate Connectives. and why are conjunctive adverbs. When. . as and and but. in addition to their office as modifiers. now. phrases. and yet are conjunctive adverbs. See Lesson 76. +Adversative+ conjunctions join parts contrasted or opposed in meaning. phrases.+ CONNECTIVES OF ADJECTIVE CLAUSES.. went. and some of the most common connectives of each group. may.. However. consequently. either . whichever.--We do not advise the memorizing of these lists.. or clauses of the same rank+.--The stars look down upon the roofs of the living and upon the graves of the dead. nevertheless. or clauses+. so. 117 +Introductory Hints+. Else and otherwise are conjunctive adverbs. and even connect paragraphs. or. clause to a clause of higher rank. connect. or subordinate. both . +Subordinate Conjunctions are such as connect clauses of different rank+. sentences separated by the period. At the burning of Moscow. or both dependent but of unequal rank. what. furthermore. whatever. whereby.] +Copulative+. also. Here and. and clauses of equal rank. or order.+ +A Conjunction is a word used to connect words. wherein. and so are called +Co-ordinate Conjunctions+.--And. which. likewise. some are relative pronouns. on the other hand.] +Co-ordinate Conjunctions are such as connect words. and therefore are conjunctive adverbs. +Alternative+. +Alternative+ conjunctions join parts so as to offer a choice or a denial. One clause may be independent and the other dependent. it seemed as [it would seem] if the heavens were lighted up that the nations might behold the scene.. take its office upon themselves and connect the clauses. [Footnote: Some of the co-ordinate conjunctions. The pupils should he able to name the different groups. +Subordinate Connectives. on the contrary.--Some of the connectives below are conjunctions proper. +Adversative+. He. CONNECTIVES OF ADVERB CLAUSES. He is as well as I am. nor are conjunctions proper.--Neither. moreover. Here as. Both clauses may be independent. and neither. That. and norconnect words. besides.. still. and whoever are relative pronouns. if.--But and whereas are conjunctions proper. hence. +DEFINITIONS.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg CLASSES OF CONJUNCTIONS AND OTHER CONNECTIVES. or both dependent but of equal rank. and.

while. provided that. which. with an adjective or an adverb. and so thatare conjunctions proper. Purpose. since. where. for.] are conjunctions proper. and point out all the connectives in Lessons 80 and 81. correlative. and wherever are conjunctive adverbs. +Direction+. that. but their omission will occasion no break in the course. and whether are conjunctions proper. ere.--Study the lists above. like the use of it with three or more things. for. and whereas are conjunctions proper. whence. but it has burst the bonds of its etymology and is very freely used with three or more. Place. Evidence. and whilst are conjunctive adverbs. Degree. has been condemned. but usage allows us to repeat it. provided. lest. +TO THE TEACHER+.--As. ***** LESSON 101. if (= even if). lest (= that not).--Write twenty compound sentences whose clauses shall be joined by connectives named in the three subdivisions of co-ordinate connectives. . Real Cause. +Direction+. if. since. that. though. correlative with adjectives or adverbs. often. COMPOSITION--CONNECTIVES. notwithstanding. Manner. However is a conjunctive adverb. and whoever are relative pronouns used indefinitely. If. or if it is found necessary to abridge this work in order to conform to a prescribed course of study. and why are conjunctive adverbs introducing questions. The authors consider these exercises very profitable. and since are conjunctions proper. until. that. where.--Whence.--Except.--As. and the are conjunctive adverbs. and whether [Footnote: Etymologically. and who are pronouns introducing questions.--Because. than. What. and how. CONNECTIVES OF NOUN CLAUSES. which are conjunctions proper. telling which are relative pronouns. till. whether is restricted to two. in case that. Concession. COMPOSITION--CONNECTIVES--CONTINUED. Whatever. as. and unless are conjunctions proper.--As is a conjunctive adverb. ***** LESSON 102. because. whichever. before.--In order that. Whether or no is also allowed. The repetition of whether. when. and which are conjunctive adverbs. when. on condition that.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Time.--If the pupils lack maturity.--Although. whenever. the six following Lessons may be omitted. 118 Condition.--After.

they were persecuted. Analysis. purpose. or it may introduce a +noun+ clause. Who knows if one of the Pleiads is really missing? [Footnote: Many grammarians say that if here is improperly used for whether. +degree+.--Write twenty complex sentences whose clauses shall be joined by connectives of adjective clauses. degree. +Lest+ may connect a clause expressing +purpose+. 7. Watch and pray lest ye enter into temptation. Many thousand years have gone by since the Pyramids were built. 12. and by connectives of adverb clauses of time. 13. . +cause+. CONNECTIVES. as an icicle from the hand. as water expands in freezing. ***** LESSON 103. 10. +Since+ may connect a clause expressing +time+. Mount Marcy is not so high as Mount Washington. 119 +Direction+. 14.] 9. 2. or +concession+. If wishes were horses. +If+ may connect a clause expressing +condition+. +cause+. ***** LESSON 104. 11. place. It must be raining. It must be raining. +time+. all beggars might ride. 8.--Write twenty complex sentences whose clauses shall be joined by connectives of adverb clauses of real cause. 1. or it may introduce a +noun+ clause. as men are carrying umbrellas. 5. 4.--Tell what kinds of clauses follow the connectives below. evidence. and concession. and what are the usual connectives of such clauses. As I passed by. +time+. since men are carrying umbrellas. ***** LESSON 105. Pope continues longer on the wing. 3. and then analyze the sentences:-+As+ may connect a clause expressing +manner+. Since the Puritans could not be convinced. that moment he is free. and manner. +Direction+. England fears lest Russia may endanger British rule in India. Ice floats. and by connectives of noun clauses. 6. I found an altar with this inscription. But this use of if is common with good authors in early and in modern English. COMPOSITION--CONNECTIVES--CONTINUED. If a slave's lungs breathe our air. condition. If the flights of Dryden are higher. or +evidence+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. or +evidence+. Half-learned lessons slip from the memory.

120 +Direction+. or it may connect +co-ordinate+ clauses. condition. 7. and they would go and kiss dead Caesar's wounds. +Direction+. The dial instituted a formal inquiry. Wisdom is the principal thing. it is . 10. You must eat. While we sleep. or it may connect +co-ordinate+ clauses.) 1. 12. Napoleon was a genius. or a +noun+ clause. 16. We never tell our secrets to people that pump for them. had many excellent traits. Analysis. When the future is uncertain. and what are the usual connectives of such clauses. 5. The Aztecs were astonished when they saw the Spanish horses. 4. he was a bad king.--Tell what kinds of clauses follow the connectives below. make the most of the present. CONNECTIVES--CONTINUED. +cause+. and change these compound sentences to complex without changing the meaning. When the five great European races left Asia is a question. an +adjective+ clause. 14. wheels. +cause+. 13. Men are carrying umbrellas. Analysis. +Where+ may connect a clause expressing +place+. 1. 15. Vesuvius threw its lava so far that Herculaneum and Pompeii were buried. 5. let three express cause. or a clause expressing +degree+. an +adjective+ clause or a +noun+ clause. and then analyze the sentences:-+That+ may connect a +noun+ clause. 6. five. 8. 3. 6. November is the month when the deer sheds its horns. and it becomes carnage. No one knows the place where Moses was buried. and then analyze them:-(Let one dependent clause be an adjective clause. No one has been where Moses was buried. but he would fain have had it. what may we expect from common people? 11. +When+ may connect a clause expressing +time+. Take away honor and imagination and poetry from war. While Charles I. and he must flee. Socrates said that he who might be better employed was idle. When judges accept bribes.--Use the appropriate connectives. an +adjective+ clause. 7. 2. and weights protested their innocence. +While+ may connect a clause expressing +time+ or +concession+. while Wellington was a man of talents. or you will die. the body is rebuilt. Caesar put the proffered crown aside. ***** LESSON 106.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg CONNECTIVES--CONTINUED. 3. 9. 17. and two. concession. The smith plunges his red-hot iron into water that he may harden the metal. therefore get wisdom. 2. The Pharisee thanked God that he was not like other men. Where Moses was buried is still a question. or +purpose+. His crime has been discovered. or +condition+. when hands. 4. Let but the commons hear this testament.

6. the Consul sees it. +Examples+. there would never have been an England. Have ye brave sons? look in the next fierce brawl to see them die. by either or by whether. and need not be repeated by nor). The Senate knows this. Not only dogs (not dogs not only) bark but wolves also. I could do no more for him. 5. . She not only dressed richly but tastefully. Should we fail. Try and recite the lesson perfectly to-morrow. He has no love for his father or(not nor) for his mother (the negative no is felt throughout the sentence. 3. but do not use them needlessly or instead of other parts of speech. or. or by such. I could not gratify the reader. 11. but (but also and but likewise). +Direction+.--Two of the dependent clauses below express condition. +Direction+. as. 3. 13. He seldom or ever went to church. by neither. if (not or) ever. He was not well. ***** LESSON 107. and three express concession. 14.--Study the Caution and the Examples. No one can deny but that the summer is the hottest season. 2. 7. 16. He was neither (not neither was) rich nor poor. 5. by then. nor is needed to make the second clause negative). page 176. is tenderness. 9. Who doubts that (not but that or but what) Napoleon lived [Footnote: See foot-note. +Caution+.--Some conjunctions and conjunctive adverbs may stand in correlation with other words. And may be accompanied by both. nor. and then analyze the sentences:-12. Were he my brother.] A harrow is drawn over the ground. There was nothing either strange nor interesting. I will try to (not and) do better next time. Take away the grandeur of his cause. and correct these errors:-1. by not only.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 121 raining. Thales was not only famous for his knowledge of nature but also for his moral wisdom. should an adverb stand between to and the infinitive. [Footnote: See foot-note. 2. which (not and which) covers the seed. Were I [Admiral Nelson] to die this moment. Be careful that the right words stand in correlation. by then.--Choose apt connectives. Not only he is successful but he deserves to succeed. it can be no worse for us. +Examples+. and where.--Seldom. by yet. 8. 6. and yet the traitor lives. by so. by the. No one can deny that (not but) he has money. Neither Massachusetts or Pennsylvania has the population of New York. page 176. I cannot find either my book or (not nor) my hat. +Direction+. more frigates would be found written on my heart. Were I so disposed. +Caution+. by there. 10. No one can eat nor drink while he is talking. Place an appropriate conjunction before each. and which he possesses beyond other poets.] The doctor had scarcely left when (not but) a patient called. 15. that. He not only gave me advice but also money.--Give me neither riches nor (not or) poverty. nor (not or) was he sick (not is expended in the first clause. by as. 4. when. 7. CONSTRUCTION OF CONNECTIVES. and stand where they belong. Who can doubt but that there is a God? 4. if. A theatrical part may either imply some peculiarity of gesture or a dissimulation of my real sentiments.--Study the Caution. though. and it is pure carbon. Dogs not only bark (not not only dogs bark) but also bite. and correct these errors:-1. The excellence of Virgil. and Washington is a rebel instead of the purest of patriots. Had the Plantagenets succeeded in France. the. by so. The diamond is a sparkling gem.

15. The boy was graceful and tall. He no sooner saw the enemy but he turned and ran. 21.--A diamond is nothing else than carbon. The book cost a dollar. 3. 23. 4. 24. 17. Junius was no other than Sir Philip Francis. than iron. but heavier. 28. 4. than that. 5. 16. The right and left lung were diseased. 10. The lady that was thrown from the carriage. 11. Gold is not so useful. MISCELLANEOUS ERRORS. and correct these errors:-1. ***** LESSON 108. This is as valuable. 19. But else.--Correct these errors. 29. It was no other but the President. telling what Caution each violates:-1. There are some men which are always young. if not more so. +Direction+. the other on the southern. but does not talk so well. 27. 5. that he was more puzzled than before. Ethan Allen. as his sister). He said that. +Caution+. and who was picked up insensible. This is the same man who called yesterday. that are worn on the finger. He was thrown forward onto his face. I rose earlier than I intended. He has . died. laid by much. 9. He hasn't. 2. as B. other.--Else. but not different in kind. the one on the northern coast of the Mediterranean. otherwise. He is outrageously proud.--Study the Caution and the Examples.--Study the Caution and the Examples. rather. I only laugh when I feel like it. but not so tall. and that in Europe. He would neither go himself or send anybody. +Direction+. 5. +Examples+. Them scissors are very dull. This dedication may serve for almost any book that has. One would rather have few friends than a few friends. but not so cheap. He can converse on other topics besidespolitics. but not so useful. and which is a great price. I don't suppose. 7. or may be published. At what wharf does the boat stop at? 20. Shakespeare was greater than any other poet that has (add lived) or is now alive. The butter is splendid. Faithful boys have always and always will learn their lessons. 6. Americans would rather travel than stay at home. Gold is heavier. The moon is something else but green cheese. after he had asked the advice of all his friends. other.--Two or more connected words or phrases referring to another word or phrase should each make good sense with it. 2. I cannot think but what God is good. The music sounded harshly. but not so tall (not The boy is stronger. 14. A knows more. Not only the boy skated but he enjoyed it. 6. 25. The cripple cannot walk otherwise than on crutches. My friend has sailed for Europe. Battles are fought with other weapons besides pop-guns. is. A told B that he was his best friend. and correct these errors:-1. The boy is stronger than his sister. are used in pushing the needle. He was an humble man.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg I do not know as I shall like it. as iron. 3. Thimbles. and adjectives and adverbs expressing a comparison are usually followed by than. may be followed by but or besides. who was here yesterday. +Examples+. 8.--I have always (add said) and still do say that labor is honorable. 8. +Direction+. 3. 26. The right and the left lungs were diseased. he tried to capture Canada. implying something additional. It isn't but a short distance. 13. 12. 4. Bread is more nutritious. Cornwallis could not do otherwise but surrender. Carthage and Rome were rival powers: this city in Africa. and more. as potatoes. 22. 122 +Caution+. 2. being a rash man. The eye and ear have different offices. 18.

17. When shall we meet together? 39. and hence is euphonic. It prevents repetition. What! I the weaker vessel? 11. and a +preposition+. Not a sparrow falls but (= unless--subordinate conjunction) God wills it. Some people never have and never will bathe in salt water.] 40. We meet but(adverb = only) to part. Life is but (adjective = only) a dream. a +definitive adjective+. but = in which not). He did nothing but laugh. AND BUT. No man is so wicked but (conjunctive adverb) he loves virtue = No man is wicked to that degree in which he loves notvirtue (so = to that degree. He bought a condensed can of milk. +But+ may be used as a +conjunction+. he had amassed a fortune. 10.--The ostrich is a bird. 6.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 123 gone way out West. That life is long which answers life's great end. No sooner did I arrive when he called. It was the length of your finger. It was a look that. Who doubts but what two and two are four? 31. That man is a hero.--He did what was right. 8. [Footnote: The use of the verb do as a substitute for a preceding verb is one of the most remarkable idioms in the language. What! you a lion? +That+ may be used as a +relative pronoun+. 32. . All but (preposition = except) him had fled. 2. 16. point out the exact use of what. 35. There's not a breeze but whispers of thy name. There is no fireside but (preposition) has one vacant chair (except the one whichhas). an +adverb+. transitive and intransitive. The longest life is but a day. The death is inevitable. +What+ may be used as a +relative pronoun+. +Examples+. That is heroism. 15. and therefore is energetic. We eat that we may live. +Examples+. +Direction+. It was once supposed that crystal is ice frozen so hard that it cannot be thawed. I cannot but remember = I cannot do anything but (preposition = except) remember. VARIOUS USES OF WHAT. an +interrogative pronoun+.--Study the examples given above. it abbreviates expression. There is nobody here but me. She wore a peculiar kind of a dress. a +conjunction+. What did he say? What man is happy with the toothache? What with confinement and what with bad diet. 7. One should not always eat what he likes. He came but to return. or. regarding but as a negative relative = that not. Whom should I obey but thee? 12 What by industry and what by economy. What love equals a mother's? 4. an +adjective+ +pronoun+.--He that does a good deed is instantly ennobled. The fish breathes with other organs besides lungs. THAT. 13. and but in these sentences. a +definitive adjective+. +Examples+. 14. 5. that. What if the bee love not these barren boughs? 9. 34. or He was all (anything in that line) except (the climax) dead. regular and irregular. would have seemed disdain. 37. He was all but (conjunction or preposition) dead = He was all dead. the sentence = There is no fireside that has not one vacant chair. and modifies the phrase following it). an +adverb+. 38. The fine arts were all but proscribed. 30. 3. I long ago found that out. In its several forms it stands for the finite forms and for the infinitive and the participle of verbs. but (adversative conjunction) it cannot fly. the prisoner found himself reduced to a skeleton (here what = partly. He talks like you do. 36. 33. The tears of love were hopeless but (preposition = except) for thee. and then analyze the sentences:-1. The problem was difficult to exactly understand. an +adjective+. 41. It was so cold that the mercury froze. There's not a white hair on your face but should have its effect of gravity. but he was not dead. and an +interjection+. This word has a different source than that. but for its quiet. ***** LESSON 109. and a +conjunctive adverb+.

What is an antecedent? Lesson 86. Lesson 89. What. and the use of a few and few.--Define an adjective. 124 Lesson 85.--Give and illustrate the Cautions respecting he. Lesson 93.--Define a preposition. What is the distinction between a common and a proper noun? Why is music a common noun? What is a collective noun? An abstract noun? Define a pronoun. the use of that instead of who or which. and save? Of certain compound prepositions? When do prepositions become adverbs? Lesson 98. the needless use of pronouns. What are the several classes of adverbs? Define them. and of what for that.--Give and illustrate the Cautious respecting the choice and the position of adjectives. except. and the use of adverbs for adjectives and of adjectives for adverbs. and the use of this and that. and what is their difference? What other parts of speech besides conjunctions connect? What are adverbs that connect called? Into what three classes are co-ordinate connectives subdivided? Give some of the conjunctions and the conjunctive adverbs of each class.--Define a verb. Lesson 100. the relative in clauses not restrictive.--Give and illustrate the Cautions respecting connected relative clauses. the one and the other. and the. and what. Lesson 90. REVIEW QUESTIONS--CONTINUED. the use of double negatives. the position of the relative clause. What is a conjunctive adverb? Lesson 93. a. What are the two great classes of conjunctions. ***** LESSON 111. What is said of some prepositions ending in ing? Of but. and they.--Give and illustrate the Cautions respecting the use of the adjectives an. Lesson 91. the use of them for those. which. is the difference between in and into? Lesson 99.--Define a conjunction. What are the classes of pronouns? Define them.--Give and illustrate the Caution as to the choice of prepositions.--Give and illustrate the Cautions respecting the choice and the position of adverbs. Name some of the common prepositions.--Give and illustrate the two Cautions relating to the use of prepositions. What are transitive verbs? Intransitive? Illustrate. What three kinds of clauses are connected by subordinate connectives? The . Lesson 95. the two styles of the pronoun. and the use of who. it. REVIEW QUESTIONS. Lesson 87. What distinction is made between the object and the object complement? What are regular verbs? Irregular? Illustrate.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** LESSON 110. that. in general. What adjectives do not limit? Illustrate. a little and little.--Define a noun. What two classes are there? Define them.

THE INTERJECTION.. as a form. lest. we suppose. find themselves within bounds which they continually overleap. They define number. viz." in which expression singular must be taken to mean singular form to save it from sheer nonsense. | THE CONJUNCTION. 99). or forms." that is. You are now to learn that the meaning or use of a word may be changed by simply changing its form. to take Modifications with such breadth of signification that it will apply to meaning and to use. and the use of the parts of speech we call their +Modifications+. For instance. Schemes for the Conjunction. 21). (The numbers refer to Lessons.--Give and illustrate the four Cautions relating to the construction of connectives. | | THE PREPOSITION. if. and but. + Subordinate + 106-107. They tell you that case is a form. where. so that many of the changes in the meaning and the use of words are not now marked by changes in form. plural or singular in form but singular or plural form in sense. +Classes+. those that make what we call Modifications denote only relations or conditions of words cannot cling to these abstract terms. of course. and that the thought may be varied by adding modifying words. We know no way to steer clear of Scylla and keep out of Charybdis but to do what by the common use of the word we are allowed. MODIFICATIONS OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH. and while. But we shall use Modifications to indicate changes in meaning and use when the . used to mark changes in the meaning and use of words. Primarily. that. Lessons 104. etc.) | Co-Ordinate.--Illustrate two or more offices of each of the connectives as. they ask the pupil to "pronounce and write the possessive of nouns. The English language has lost most of its inflections. and speak of the nominative and the objective case of the noun. the meaning. No Classes (95. and they speak of "a noun in the singular with a plural application. since. though only two forms. or inflection. mode. and yet speak of nouns "plural in form but singular in sense. if you construe them rigorously.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg connectives of adverb clauses are subdivided into what classes? Give a leading connective of each class. and yet insist that nouns have three cases. Lesson 109. and Interjection.--what we here call Modifications--to form. ***** GENERAL REVIEW. it meant inflections." or "singular in form but plural in sense. These changes in the form. case. Preposition. that the "condition" of a noun will be sounded or written. No Classes (20. 125 +Introductory Hints+. when. 105. for instance. Lesson 107." hardly expecting.--Illustrate the offices of what. ***** LESSON 112.--You have learned that two words may express a thought. as well as to form. [Footnote: Those grammarians that attempt to restrict number. 98. "although in fact the two cases are always the same in form"--the two forms always the same in form! On the other hand. that.

cage. four boys. meaning. NUMBER FORMS. volcano. innuendo. Boy denotes one lad. veto. is in the +Plural Number+. +Modifications of the Parts of Speech are changes in their form. mosquito. topaz. and boys. But.[Footnote: In Anglo-Saxon. grotto. motto. The following nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant add es without increase of syllables. face. Lesson 137. In modern English. The following nouns in o preceded by a consonant add s only. as two hissing sounds will not unite. however. race.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 126 form in the particular instance is wanting. to express more precisely how many. mulatto. denoting more than one thing. is in the +Singular Number+. niche. +Direction+. lens. nowhere. cargo. we use adjectives. The boys shout. The boy shouts. prize.--Such words as horse. which became the regular plural ending. +RULE. when the singular ends in an s-sound. boys. niche. +Number is that modification of a noun or pronoun which denotes one thing or more than one. denoting one thing.--The plural of nouns is regularly formed by adding s to the singular+. tornado. echo. as was the plural termination for a certain class of nouns. cloud-es. and note what letters represent sounds that cannot unite with the sound of +s+:-Ax or axe. +Direction+. The meaning has changed.] +Remark+. recognizing that as a modification which is not somewhere marked by form. +DEFINITIONS+. NUMBER. many or several boys.--Form the plural of each of the following nouns. portico (oes or os). brush. See Rule 1. glass. potato. torpedo.+ +The Singular Number denotes one thing+. arch. e is dropped. adz or adze. hedge. lash. chaise. In later English. and use+. and cage drop the final ewhen es is added. To this rule there are some exceptions. . and s is joined to the singular without increase of syllables. calico. The form of the subject boy is changed by adding an s to it. cross. Number expresses only the distinction of one from more than one. box. bird-es. gas. two or more lads.] Modifications of Nouns and Pronouns. embargo. the original syllable es is retained.--Form the plural of each of the following nouns:-Buffalo. as. and say two boys. negro. hero. as was changed to es. When the singular ends in a sound that cannot unite with that of s. the word boy. esis added and forms another syllable. This change in the form and the meaning of nouns is called +Number+. +The Plural Number denotes more than one thing+. horse. ditch.

proviso. mice. +Direction+. as. seraglio.) ***** LESSON 113. men. embryo. cuffs. money.] in y after a consonant change y into i and add es without increase of syllables. (For the plurals of pronouns. Some nouns adopted from foreign languages still retain their original plural forms.] wife. feet. kerchief. +Direction+. +Direction+. The compounds of staff are regular. gulf. piano. calf. [Footnote: Staff (a stick or support). sheaf.. fancie.--Form the plural of each of the following nouns:-Beef. attorney. portfolio.--Learn to form the following plurals:-Child. tooth. geese. memento. In old English. kidney. such words as lady and fancy were spelled ladie. +Direction+. solo. scarf. duodecimo. chimney. staves or staffs. loaf. fife. oxen. fancy. flagstaffs. tyro. woman. reef. half. children.--Form the plural of each of the following nouns:-Belief. louse. self. cuckoo. staff. generally wharfs. staff (a body of officers). staffs. The modern plural simply retains the old spelling and adds s. goose. [Footnote: In England. lily. Lesson 127. wolf. roof. are regular. cameo.--Form the plural of each of the following nouns:-Canto. safe. NUMBER FORMS--CONTINUED. brief. two. leaf. turkey. fairy. vanity. waif. city. lasso. colloquy. women. mystery.. The following nouns in f and fe are regular. elf. quarto. grief. soliloquy. lady.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. junto. chief. Nouns in y after a vowel add s. zero (os or oes). knife. as. dwarf. essay. octavo. wharf. . see Lesson 124. shelf. man. Bamboo. (Nouns in ff. hoof. 127 Common nouns [Footnote: See Rule 2. mouse. except staff. domino (os or oes). lice. strife. trio. Mr. life.) The following plurals are still more irregular. ally. teeth. foot. The following nouns change f or fe into ves. ox.--Form the plural of each of the following nouns:-Alley. monkey. halo. salvo. cuff. folio. Nouns in o preceded by a vowel add s. Some of these take the English plural also. [Footnote: U after q is a consonant] daisy. Messrs.] thief. valley. proof.

as. foci: fungus. hanger-on. bandit. court-martial. the Mrs. pronounced bil'-la:-doo:z ] commander-in-chief. ellipsis. pailfuls. crises. basis. dormouse. ignis fatuus. phenomena. as. hypothesis. gentlemen. antitheses. [Footnote: Of the two forms. hypotheses. but. is rather stiff if not pedantic. vortices or vortexes. radii or radiuses. men-singers. pianoforte. man-trap. sons-in-law. This expression denotes a number of pails. father-in-law. vary the first word. madame. except in formal notes or when the title is to be emphasized. mesdames. . forget-me-not.] +Direction+. cherubim or cherubs.--Form the plural of the following compounds:-Miss Jones. ellipses. each full.--Form the plural of each of the following nouns:-Man-child. strata. cherub. oasis. we believe that the former is most used by the best authors. the two Miss Clarks. +Direction+. appendix. +Direction+. phenomenon. the Misses Clarks and the two Mrs. billet-doux. man-of-war. crisis. as. seraphim or seraphs.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. The following. handful. automaton. Englishman. genera.] +Direction+. in which the principal word stands first. ignes fatui. fisherman. data. Clarks. genus. erratum. stratum. fellow-servant. seraph. the Miss Clarks and the Misses Clark. tooth-brush. woman-singer. General Lee. is used. The following compound nouns. The following compounds vary both parts. memorandum. goose-quill. [Footnote: Plural. The following nouns (except Norman) are not compounds of man--add sto all. Compounds consisting of a proper name preceded by a title form the plural by varying either the title or the name. vertebrae. datum. analyses. nebulae. errata. synopses.--Form the plural of the following words:-Aid-de-camp. when the title Mrs. banditti or bandits. nebula. have little authority. Master Green. Ottoman. Messrs. The latter.--Learn to form the following plurals:-- 128 Analysis. A title used with two or more different names is made plural. radius. bases. man-singer. talisman. as. fungi or funguses. terminus. tete-a-tete. Norman. as. memoranda or memorandums. synopsis. Jones. attorney-at-law. vary the last word. Brown. Drs. the name should always be varied. and most compounds. portemonnaie. monsieur. axis. Dr. when a numeral precedes the title. the name is usually varied. Clark. as. appendices orappendixes. beaux or beaus. Clark and Maynard. mouthful. magi. spoonful. termini. antithesis. magus. Mussulman. Frenchman. cousin-german. German. beau. automata or automatons. Grimes and Steele. maid-servant. vertebra. Some authorities say that. Mr. [Footnote: Pails full is not a compound. vortex. billets-doux. parentheses. focus. woman-servant. the Miss Clarks or the Misses Clark. messieurs. stepson. man-servant. Brahman.--Form the plural of each of the following nouns:-Courtyard. axes. The forms. parenthesis. oases. as.

+--Form the plural of each of the following characters:--S. grouse. Miss Mary. cannon (in a collective sense). [Footnote: The names of several sorts of fish. etc. 2's. apparatus or apparatuses. herring. four score. sail (vessels). they add s in other cases. geniuses (men of genius). . by scores. i. any. dies (stamps for coining). vermin. shad. horse (horse-soldiers). head (of cattle). +. Shot. The following nouns and pronouns have the same form in both numbers. the if's and and's. The compounds of fish. heathen. as. +Direction. 129 Letters. The following nouns have no plural. thousand. have the same form in both numbers. brothers (by blood). fishes (individuals). trout. yoke. pennies (distinct coins). odds. hundred. hose. foot (foot-soldiers). and Anna Scott. ----'s. but the (') is here unnecessary. none. indexes (tables of reference). sails (pieces of canvas). feet (parts of the body). shots (number of times fired). tins. Index. Fish. what. x. as. heathen or heathens. who. genii (spirits).] as. Mr. are used in the same way. gross. the plural ko:rz.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. qualities.--Put each of the following expressions in its proper form:-General Lee and Jackson. a's. Genius. brethren (of the same society). Cannon. dice (cubes for gaming).] deer. Die. Horse. species. means.+--Learn these plurals and their meanings:-Brother. +Direction.) Names of materials when taken in their full or strict sense can have no plural. as codfish. (The following nouns have the same form in both numbers when used with numerals. Head. 9. horses (animals). [Footnote: Some good writers form the plural of words named merely as words. score. 1. [Footnote: The singular is pronounced ko:r. pains (care). series. Sail. Green. (The following have two forms in the plural). Apparatus. [Yough]. as. & Co. NUMBER FORMS--CONTINUED. cottons. sheep. +Direction. Stacy. heads (parts of the body). as. which.+--Study the following list:-Bellows. or sciences. (These are generally names of materials. indices (signs in algebra). [Cyrillic: E].] Foot. coppers. that (relative). but they may be plural when kinds of the material or things made of it are referred to. in the same way. ***** LESSON 114. fish (collection). Some nouns have two plurals differing in meaning.) Dozen. cannons (individuals). coffees. swine. and other characters add the apostrophe and s to form the plural. Penny. corps. [Dagger]. figures. pence (quantity in value). 1/4. t. shot (number of balls). Julia.

literati. etc. ethics. shoe. eaves (A.) +Direction+. (Collective nouns have plural forms. morals (character). pulley. vespers (evening service). vitals. The following have no singular corresponding in meaning. potato. goods (property). +Direction+. iron. genius. ashes. +Examples+. and as singular when the collection as a whole is thought of. spectacles (glasses). oats. loaf. narrows. mumps. scissors. handkerchief. music. copper. efese). riches (Norman French richesse). ox. thanks. Alms (Anglo-Saxon aelmaesse). grammar (science. pride. victuals. termini. and note those that have no plural. Colors (flag). goodness. bush. matins (morning service). physiology. shears. politics (and other names of sciences in ics). marble. but they are now treated as plural. REVIEW IN NUMBER. committees.--Write the plural of the singular nouns and pronouns in the following list. waltz. meekness. suds. flagstaff. assets. not a book). piano. (Such words are generally names of things double or multiform in their character. Acoustics. fireworks. . fife. valuables. clothes. coffee. A committee was appointed. bench. amends. remains (dead body). measles. Mr. S. give the Rule or the Remark that applies to each.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction. tidings. letters (literature). tin. flour. and its report will soon be made. milk. The following plural forms are commonly used in the singular. greens. compasses (dividers). loss. child.+--Study the following list of words:-- 130 Bread.) Bitters. molasses.) ***** LESSON 115. colony. as. armies. cherubim. grass. hysterics. snuffers. tax. trousers. manners (behavior). stays (corsets). gold. annals. staff. The following words are always plural. pincers. lead. rickets. kangaroo. bagnio. and they asked to be discharged. genus. mesdames. The following were originally singular forms. news. water. age. (The singular form is sometimes an adjective.--Study the following list:-Aborigines.--The committee were unable to agree. tongs. sweets. hay. beaux. nippers. and the singular of those that are plural. wharf. honesty.. house. peace. grounds (dregs). mathematics. and those that have no singular:-Hope. Collective nouns are treated as plural when the individuals in the collection are thought of.

denoting a male animal. news. fish. teeth-brushes. the pronouns he. +Remark. molasses. ***** LESSON 117. NUMBER FORMS IN CONSTRUCTION. the pronouns they. man-servant. politics. family.+--Give five words that have no plural. geese-quills. The plurality of scissors is here made known in four ways. molasses. Brown and Smith. those. pennies. terminuses. galley. trout. mystery. chimnies. man-of-war. is in the . the adjectives these.+--Correct the following plurals. muff. +Direction. dice. and them. heros. genuses. mother-in-laws. aldermans. +Direction+. The lioness was caged. scarves. swines. the fourth as a plural subject. heathen. the adjective. pride. brethren. and its. Frenchman. and five that have the same form in both numbers. mosquitos.+--These scissors are so dull that I cannot use them. German. vermin. five that have no singular. and it are incorrectly used: This scissors is so dull that I cannot use it. phenomenons.) Bellows. maid-servant. Misses. eaves. their. +Direction+. x. bellows. series. ms. it. 2s. crowd. either. news. oxes. species. colloquy. NOUNS AND PRONOUNS--GENDER. The modification of the noun to denote the sex of the thing which it names is called +Gender+. all. babys. Messrs. neither. ***** LESSON 116. was. and have been. meeting. Smith. trioes. Dr. any. In the following sentence this. deer. deer. man-childs. storys. and that. son-in-law. is.--Compose sentences in which the first three of the following adjective pronouns shall be used as singular subjects. this. and the remainder both as singular and as plural subjects:-Each. elfs. his. and give the Remark that applies to each:-Stagees. and has been. gross. grounds. child. In the first sentence something is said about a male lion. means. spoonful. her. irons. and by the pronoun used in connection with it:-(With the singular nouns use the verbs is.) (With the plural nouns use the verbs are. attorney-at-laws. goods. the adjectives an. that. beefs. by the adjective. who.--Construct sentences in which the number of each of the following nouns shall be indicated by the form of the verb. axises. 1/2. iron. greens. head (of cattle). alms. +Direction. former. foxs. none. she. clothes. Mussulmen.--The lion was caged. and two.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 131 theory. +Introductory Hints+. mouthsful. riches. Lion. and the pronoun used in connection with it. soloes. sunfish. him. parent. one. oats. and in the second something is said about a female lion. calicos. series. The number of a noun may be determined not only by its form but also by the verb. were. both.

benefactor. 3d. Knowing the sex of the thing or its lack of sex. gender has followed sex. [Footnote: In Anglo-Saxon. The masculine is distinguished from the feminine in three ways:-1st. and in Latin and Greek. is neuter. read-er. Names of things that are without sex are said to be in the +Neuter Gender+. baron. as. Er(A. neighbor are either masculine or feminine. speak-er. as in the French and the German. and add ess. of course. Lesson 127). idolater. and the English. (Drop the vowel e or o in the ending of the masculine. By using words wholly or radically different. Ess is the most common ending for feminine nouns. but it now generally denotes an agent without reference to sex. estre. Gender Forms. waiter. Such words are sometimes said to be in the Common Gender. enchanter. The original meaning of ster is preserved in spinster. and lioness. Sex belongs to the thing. +The Feminine Gender denotes the female sex+. No English nouns have distinctive neuter forms. but. By a difference in the ending of the words. conductor. the mother-tongue of our language. deacon. prince (see Rule 1. +The Neuter Gender denotes want of sex+. +The Masculine Gender denotes the male sex+. is in the +Feminine Gender+. old English ster). The German for table is a masculine noun. shepherd. 2d. for in our language gender follows the sex. [Footnote: The suffix ess came into the English language from the Norman-French. heir. but a lew have different forms to distinguish the masculine from the feminine. god (see Rule 3.) Actor. since the union of the Norman-French with the Anglo-Saxon to form the English. director. giant.] +Direction+. patron. child. But in such modern languages as the French and the German.] ***** +DEFINITIONS+. the French is feminine. host. preceptor. Jew. to the noun that names the thing. you know the gender of the noun in English that names it.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 132 +Masculine Gender. editor. . tutor. tailor. arbiter. By different words in the compound names. hunter. prior. count. +Gender is that modification of a noun or pronoun which denotes sex+. Such nouns as cousin. ere) was originally a masculine suffix. poet. instructor.--Form the feminine of each of the following masculine nouns by adding e s s :-Author. S. friend. It displaced the feminine termination of the mother-tongue (A. denoting a female animal. lion. S. Lesson 127). gender was grammatical. the gender of nouns naming things without reference to sex is determined by the likeness of their endings in sound to the endings of words denoting things with sex. and gender. tiger. ambassador. prophet.

--Learn the following forms:-Administrator. . friar or monk. testatrix. In some compounds distinguishing words are prefixed or affixed. mermaid. duck. negress. Georgiana. executrix. Frances. he-bear. mistress. man-servant. It was Mary. beau. +Direction+. don. Some words. Julius. Paul. executor. Such words as editor and author are now frequently used to denote persons of either sex. Mr. landgravine. widow. George.--Give five examples of each of the three ways of distinguishing the masculine from the feminine. equestrienne. mostly foreign. ***** LESSON 118. wizard.--Learn the following forms:-Billy-goat. gentlewoman. (The following are somewhat irregular.) +Direction+. madam. cock-sparrow. drake. landgrave. hero. empress. buck-rabbit. heifer. nanny-goat. merman. Jones. abbess. sorcerer. Henrietta. peacock. Englishwoman. Charles. infante.--Learn these forms:-- 133 Abbot. Julia or Juliet. hind. landlady. niece. is used idiomatically to refer to a male or a female as. Mrs. lady. maid. duke.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg (Drop the masculine er or or. Augustus. feminine she.) Adventurer. doe. czar. testator. nun. +Direction+. caterer. siguora. czarina. Jessie. lad. belle. lord. donna. Pauline. governor. murderer. grandfather. Augusta.] +Direction+. equestrian. grandmother. or Miss Jones. duchess. administratrix. Words wholly or radically different are used to distinguish the masculine from the feminine. buck. countess. gander. damsel or maiden. emperor. nephew. although a neuter form. +Direction+. marchioness. goose. Louis. have various endings in the feminine. It was John. sultan. hart. stag. Joseph. sir. landlord. Francis. maid-servant. Henry. and neuter it. Louisa or Louise. roe. doe-rabbit. Cornelia. sultana. marquis. gentleman. master.--Give five nouns ending in e r or o r that may be applied to either sex. The pronoun has three gender forms:--Masculine he. infanta. widower. earl.) +Direction+. Englishman. witch. negro. lass. Josephine. she-bear. steer.--Learn the following forms:-Bachelor. heroine. Cornelius. (This is a matter pertaining to the dictionary rather than to grammar. youth. hen-sparrow. and add the feminine ess. Charlotte. Ess was formerly more common than now. signore or signor. [Footnote: It. peahen. Jesse.

that is.master.--Write sentences in which the things named below shall be personified by means of masculine pronouns:-- .--It is quite generally used instead of he or she. it gives two or three graceful springs. in referring to an animal. The child was unconscious of ---danger.raven wing. The elephant is distinguished for ---.habits. Inanimate things are often represented as living beings. +Examples+. yet ---. Each person was required to name his or her favorite flower. Despair extends ---. she. and then fill each of the blanks in the following sentences with a masculine. or productiveness are considered as feminine.grove. and are referred to by the pronoun he or she. No one else is so much alone in the universe as ---.--The grizzly bear is the most savage of his race.work of gladness to contrive. The mocking-bird poured from ---little throat floods of delirious music. +Remark+. 12. 11. both the masculine and the feminine pronoun should be used. 13.] +Example+. but in grammar it is chiefly important as involving the correct use of the pronouns he. Death. [Footnote: When it is necessary to distinguish the sexes. 3. 15. gentleness.--The oak shall send his roots abroad and pierce thy mold. the wild bird from ---. The forest's leaping panther shall yield ---. The neuter pronoun it is often used with reference to animals and very young children. the sex being disregarded. +Remark+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg GENDER FORMS IN CONSTRUCTION.--Study what is said above. 17.prey. 18. Everybody should think for ----. The catamount lies in the boughs to watch ---. When a singular noun is used so as to imply persons of both sexes. The wild beast from ---. a feminine. +Direction+.cavern sprang. or a neuter pronoun. The little child reached out its hand to catch the sunbeam.who denies God.--When the deer is alarmed. +Example+. 9. 7. Personification adds beauty and animation to style. it is commonly represented by a masculine pronoun.is meek and modest.song. unless some masculine or feminine quality seems to predominate. Belgium's capital had gathered then ---. 134 Gender as a matter of orthography is of some importance. as.morals. 16. Truth is fearless. 14.beauty and ---chivalry.--Every person has his faults. The catsteals upon her prey. 8. 4. or sublimity are regarded as masculine. Life mocks the idle hate of ---. The fox is noted for ---.--The names of objects distinguished for size. The dog is faithful to ---.arch-enemy. power.strength and sagacity. 10. and in each case give the reason for your selection:-1. 5. +Direction+. +Examples+. beauty. 2. 6.--The writer employs he or she according as he fancies the animal to possess masculine or feminine characteristics. Spring comes forth ---. +Remark+. A person's manners not unfrequently indicate ---. The night-sparrow trills ---. and it.cunning.spotted hide. they are personified. and the names of those distinguished for grace. The names of animals are often considered as masculine or feminine without regard to the real sex. He is more frequently employed than she. The bat is nocturnal in ---.

genitive. contracts and elongates the pupil of her eye. in the second.--Number and gender. Hlaford. as possessing something. +Introductory Hints+. Voc. genitive. have written. hlaford-a. and objective. but of nouns the possessive case is the only one that is now marked by a peculiar form.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Death.--Write sentences in which the things named below shall be personified by means of feminine pronouns:-Ship. Acc. The man killed the bear. hlaford-es. accusative. dative. denoting the one spoken of. and he are personal pronouns. time. A noun used as subject is in the +Nominative Case+. sometimes. though. winter. used as object complement it is in the +Objective Case+. Nom. There are two modifications which do not refer to changes in the meaning of nouns and pronouns but to their different uses and relations. War leaves his victim on the field. hlaford-as. river. hlaford. is in the +Second Person+. +Direction+. earth. as you have learned. The polar bear is comparatively rare in menageries. accusative. in the third. The bear's grease was made into hair oil. vocative. denoting the one spoken to.--Correct these errors:-1. the English are nominative. These uses and relations are not generally indicated by form. night. distinguish person by their form. ***** LESSON 119. Instead of I a writer or speaker may use the plural we. I. . In the first sentence the bear is represented as performing an act. +Caution+. Dat. Gen. hlaford-as. and decks itself with flowers. to use the plural you instead of thou. spring. is in the +Third Person+. gender. dative. thou. in the second. and through courtesy it came to be customary. as receiving an act. moon. We inflect below a noun from the Anglo-Saxon. and homes desolated by it mourn over her cruelty. 4. or inflection. NOUNS AND PRONOUNS--PERSON AND CASE. as you see. wind. possessive (genitive). virtue. Paul. denoting the speaker. except among the Friends. Singular. In these three sentences the word Paul has three different uses. I. and. These different uses of nouns and pronouns and the forms used to mark these uses constitute the modification called +Case+. the Latin are nominative. as you see. I. hlaford. lord. to name the one spoken to. sun. in the third. or inflection. hlaford. is in the +First Person+. hlaford-e. or in the language of prayer and poetry. ANGLO-SAXON. Plural. Some of the pronouns have a special form for each case. thou. when it comes to the light. and ablative. are modifications affecting the meaning of nouns and pronouns--number being almost always indicated by form. hlaford-um. England. to name the one spoken of. Paul. thou art beside thyself. as it suffers so much from the heat that he is not easily preserved in confinement. The cat. Summer clothes herself in green. nature. These different uses of nouns and pronouns and the forms used to mark these uses constitute the modification called +Person+. The bear killed the man. 2. and used to denote possession it is in the +Possessive Case+. 135 +Direction+. [Footnote: The Anglo-Saxon cases are nominative. vocative. hlaford-as. and he. He brought Paul before Agrippa. its form is not changed. war.--Avoid changing the gender of the pronoun when referring to the same antecedent. 3. In the first it is used to name the speaker.

the one spoken to. Thou seest. +Person is that modification of a noun or pronoun which denotes the speaker. John. domin-is. domin-is. Ab. Singular. +The Nominative Case of a noun or pronoun denotes its office as subject or as attribute complement+. in order that you may see how cases and the inflections to mark them have been dropped in English. Idle time. I see. and it is thought that by them our language can express the many relations of nouns to other words in the sentence better than other languages can by their cumbrous machinery of inflection. He sees. Dominus. lord. In English. select and write in one list all the first person forms. . [Footnote: It is doubtful whether a noun is ever of the first person. is ruinous. the parent of the Norman-French. saw these things. ENGLISH. lord-'s. Gen. +Direction+. Acc. lord-s'.--From the forms of the pronouns given in Lesson 124. Plural. or the one spoken of+. or when used independently as a term of address. domin-o. in the sentence I. Singular. domin-um. prepositions have largely taken the place of case forms. Person is regarded in grammar because the verb sometimes varies its form to agree with the person of its subject. Plural. Dat. I. lord. and in another. We Americans are always in a hurry. +The Second Person denotes the one spoken to+. +The First Person denotes the one speaking+. Obj. Voc. domin-i. John speaks of his own name. domin-orum. domin-o. +Case is that modification of a noun or pronoun which denotes its office in the sentence+. as. domin-i. +DEFINITIONS+. Pos.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 136 LATIN. Lord. +Direction+. Nom. +DEFINITIONS+. as. I. Pos. +The Third Person denotes the one spoken of+. domin-us. Obj. domin-e. +The Possessive Case of a noun or pronoun denotes its office as possessive modifier+. saw these things. lord. A noun is said to be of the first person when joined as an explanatory modifier to a pronoun of the first person. Nom. Ye crags and peaks. all the third person forms. lord-s. lord-s. +The Objective Case of a noun or pronoun denotes its office as object complement. John. Personal pronouns and verbs are the only classes of words that have distinctive person forms.] A noun is of the second person when used as explanatory of a pronoun of the second person. the expression meaning. John. domin-i. as. all the second person forms. domin-os. Nom.--Compose sentences in which there shall be two examples of nouns and two of pronouns used in each of the three persons. etc. in another list. or as principal word in a prepositional phrase+. +Person Forms+. and my name is John.] and one from the Latin. It may be said that.

him.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg A noun or pronoun used independently is said to be in the nominative case.) as the word to which it relates as attribute. A noun or pronoun used as attribute complement of a participle or an infinitive is in the same case (Nom.] is to be a scholar. your friend. +Direction+. 137 +Examples+. the attribute complement is said to be in the nominative case. +Examples+." +Examples+. ***** LESSON 120. 3. reasoning from the analogy of the Latin. reasoning from the German. Some.--Being an artist. When the participle or the infinitive is used abstractly. Not to know what happened before we were born is to be always a child. The assumed subject of the infinitive being omitted when it is the same in sense as the principal subject. A noun or pronoun used as objective complement is in the objective case. its attribute complement is also said to be in the nominative case. etc. or Obj. would put the attribute complement of the abstract infinitive in the objective. as.+--Analyze the following sentences. +Examples+. To be he [Footnote: See footnote above. His being a Roman saved him from being made a prisoner. addressed the King. He made it all it is. For one to be him. as. George III. . +Direction. Its being he [Footnote: The case of he in these examples is rather doubtful. I proved it to be him. +Remark+. to which our language is closely allied. poor Yorick! He being dead. ANALYSIS AND PARSING. without an assumed subject. being in the same case as me. I am this day weak. the dry-goods merchant. it has fled! (See Lesson 44.] should make no difference. Liberty. is the proper form. It is therefore a matter of no great practical importance.--I am. Others. in the possessive in two ways. Being a scholar is not being an idler.--Study carefully the Definitions and the Remark above. in the sentence I wish (me or myself) to be him. in the objective in five ways. and give the case of each noun and pronoun:-1. dear madam.--When the assumed subject of the participle or the infinitive is a possessive.) A noun or pronoun used as explanatory modifier is in the same case as the word explained--"is put by apposition in the same case. He buys is goods at Stewart's.--They made him speaker. and then compose sentences in which a noun or a pronoun shall be put in the nominative case in four ways. supposing for and some other word to be understood. would put this complement in the nominative. The nominative and the objective forms of the pronoun occur so rarely in such constructions that it seems impossible to determine the usage. we shall live. Alas. he appreciated it. though anointed king. that of 1774.--The first colonial Congress. 2. as.

+--The singular one is explanatory of the plural ye. 9. God.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 138 +Explanation. We would not do away with parsing altogether.) 14. For the agreement of pronouns. page 247.--Elizabeth's favorite. subject of such a verb. +TO THE TEACHER+. Worship thy Creator. [Footnote: See second foot-note. introduced by as and used without a possessive sign. execrable shape.] 16. 8. This news of papa's puts me all in a flutter. What means that hand upon that breast of thine? [Footnote: See second foot-note. 5.--We do not believe that the chief end of the study of grammar Is to be able to parse well.--Myself may be treated as explanatory of I. its modifications. and obey his Son. +Explanation+. +Explanation. be specific. Amos." When a pupil has said that such a noun is in the nominative case. see Lesson 124. what is gained by a repetition of the definition in the Rule: "A noun or a pronoun which is the subject of a finite verb is in the nominative case"? Let the reasons for the disposition of words. +Model for Written Parsing+. in parsing. and its syntax.+--Teacher. 12. though without question analysis reveals more clearly than parsing the structure of the sentence. see Lesson 142.) 4. .+--Nouns used adverbially are in the objective case because equivalent to the principal word of a prepositional phrase. Arnold's success as teacher was remarkable. King. the herdsman of Tekoa. (For the case of him see explanation of (3) above.--Select and parse in full all the nouns and pronouns found in the first ten sentences of Lesson 120.] ***** LESSON 121. was not a prophet's son. its relation to other words. +Direction+. 6. Our great forefathers had left him naught to conquer but his country. i. Raleigh. is explanatory of Arnold's. was beheaded by James I. (See Lesson 35. thou being absent? 13. page 247. What art thou. of "Rules of Syntax. and Saviour of men. Think'st thou this heart could feel a moment's joy. O you hard hearts! you cruel men of Rome! 11. I will attend to it myself.. 7. +Parsing+--a word is giving its classification. Bear ye one another's [Footnote: For the use of one another. PARSING. Everybody acknowledges Shakespeare to be the greatest of dramatists. or one another's may be treated as a compound. or even to analyze well. and is immeasurably superior to it as intellectual gymnastics. 15. But we must be allowed an emphatic protest against the needless and mechanical quoting.e. when given at all. but would give it a subordinate place. that darest advance? 10. the Master. What made Cromwell a great man was his unshaken reliance on God.] burdens. +Explanation.

| 3d Sing. -----------------|-----------------------|-----------------------------.| -----------------|-----------------------|-----------------------------. Mod. phrase. "Mars his sword.--When the singular and the plural are alike in the nominative. 73. | 3d Sing. In prose this omission of the s should seldom occur. Prop. 30. Fem. +Remark+. 33.| Nouns. common to the nominative and the objective case.| 3d Sing. witness's. and 81. and then write the possessive singular and the possessive plural of each of the following nouns:-- . TO THE TEACHER. | Sub. and in Middle. boys'. and (') stands in its place. Other exercises may be selected from examples previously given for analysis. der. +Remark+. as. 31.--Pronounce the ('s) as a separate syllable (= es) when the sound of s will not unite with the last sound of the nominative.|son. CASE FORMS--NOUNS. The use of the apostrophe has been extended to distinguish the possessive from other forms of the plural. Nom. But it has been proved that the his in such expressions is an error that gained its wide currency largely through the confusion of early English orthography. Mas. In modern English. Nouns have two case forms. but exists in the English possessive ending to-day. ber. Case. prince's. | Expl. Pos. Kind. [Footnote: In Anglo-Saxon. ('s) are both added. | Prin. sta:n. as. and parsing continued as long as you think it profitable. see Lessons 28. | MODIFICATIONS. the vowel is generally dropped. Hemans's.--Boy's. Raleigh Prop. 71. +RULE. Heman's and Mrs. 60. Achilles' sword." "King Lewis his satisfaction" are abundant in Early.|Per. conscience' sake. in the plural by adding (') only.--The Possessive Case of nouns is formed in the singular by adding to the nominative the apostrophe and the letter s ('s). 59. 35. 44. +Direction+. es was a genitive (possessive) ending of the singular. plural. Mas. some place the apostrophe after the s in the plural to distinguish it from the possessive singular. Obj.Num. men's. 46. of favorite. Mrs. King James's." "The Prince his Players. between Miss Round's and Miss Rounds'. and the possessive form. ***** LESSON 122. James I. es and is were both used. goodness' sake. The weight of usage inclines to the use of s in such names as Miss Rounds's. Mas. Nom. If the plural does not end in s. 34.--To avoid an unpleasant succession of hissing sounds. in spoken language. Some have said that our possessive ending is a remnant of the pronoun his.--Study the Rule and the Remarks given above.] +Examples+. +Remark+. as. Mrs. In old English. genitive sta:n-es. English.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 139 CLASSIFICATION.Gen. word of Prep. of favorite. the s in the possessive singular is sometimes omitted. 29. singular. Archimedes' screw (the s in the words following the possessive here having its influence). sheep's.--For exercises in parsing nouns and pronouns.Elizabeth's Prop. | Mod. | SYNTAX. the simple form. Hemans'.| 3d Sing. favorite Com. Phrases like. Without the s there would be no distinction. sheeps'. Professor Hadley has clearly shown that the Saxon termination has never dropped out of the language. 78. of was beheaded. 80.

as.--Study carefully the principles and Remarks given above. (See Lesson lai. as may seem most appropriate.--The possessive plural of such terms is not used. negro. William's and Henry'sboat. thief. mountain. expressed or understood. +Explanation+. elephant. lion.[Footnote: In parsing the words queen and England separately.--When several possessive nouns modify the same word and imply common possession. If they modify different words.[Footnote: In such expressions as everybody else's business. +Remarks+. horse. fish. goose. the sign is added to each. book. and to names of periods of time. mothers-in-law's faults may be avoided. child. +Caution+. aid-de-camp. and join an appropriate name denoting the thing possessed:-Father-in-law. wife. seraph.] Frederick the Great's verses. the possessive sign is added to the last only. volcano. The preposition of with the objective is often used instead of the possessive case form--David's Psalms = Psalms of David. the queen of England's palace. +Direction+. junto. calf. year. By the use of of. waif. woman. and then make each of the following terms indicate possession. or which we wish to dignify. a man-of-war's rigging. sheep. swine. gunpowder. buffalo. such expressions as witness's statement. fortune's smile.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Actor. tyro. chair. chief.) The possessive sign should generally be placed immediately before the name of the thing possessed. or the idea of belonging to. wolf. In the first example. mosquito. but the whole phrase queen of England's may be treated as one noun in the possessive case. fairy. genius. in the second. house. mouse. ***** LESSON 123. We do not say the tree's leaves. ally. of is used more frequently than ('s). a dollar's worth. Socrates. cuckoo. each is represented as owning a separate boat--boat is understood after William's. dwarf. princess. The possessive sign however is often added to names of things which we frequently hear personified. Henry the Eighth. and of animals and things personified. eagle. . day. king of Great Britain. farmer. William the Conqueror. the ('s) must be regarded as belonging to queen. As the possessive is the only case of nouns that has a distinctive inflection.--To denote the source from which a thing proceeds. hour. 140 Compound names and groups of words that may be treated as compound names add the possessive sign to the last word. and to words denoting value. a day'swork. eternity's stillness. the earth's surface.] Jefferson. two cents' worth. ocean. king. using either the possessive sign or the preposition of. somebody else. attorney. the possessive sign is removed from the noun and attached to the adjective. monkey. ox. hero. a year's interest. sun. attorney-at-law. William and Henry are represented as jointly owning a boat. summer. deer. but the leaves of the tree. +Remark+. elf. torrent. CONSTRUCTION OF POSSESSIVE FORMS. enemy. lady. beau. princess. it is only with this case that mistakes can occur in construction. as.--William and Henry's boat. The possessive sign ('s) is confined chiefly to the names of persons.

as well as the people's. 5. If the name of the thing possessed is given. Stacy's. queen of England's. books. This province is Victoria's. This was Franklin's motto. +Direction+. the greatest poet of antiquity's. This is Tennyson's. +Direction+. 7.--When the different possessors are thought of as separate or opposed. or held by my wife's father. if the explanatory word has several modifiers. as well as James's.--The president's reception means the reception given by the president. only the principal word takes the sign. the cardinal's. queen of England's. +Remarks+. favorite.--When a common noun is explanatory of a proper noun. My brother's wife's sister's drawings have been much admired. I took tea at Brown's. +Direction+. 8. mother's. my old friend and schoolmate's. the jeweler's. the jeweler. He was the King's.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 141 +Remark+. etc. 2. 3. The drawings of the sister of the wife of my brother have been much admired. 5. the sign is repeated. the distinguished philosopher's statesman's. This was James's. the noun immediately before it takes the sign.--This is the opinion of my wife's father. This was the sage and the poet's theme. They are Thomas. & Co.---Tell which of the sentences above may be improved by using other forms to denote possession.'s business prospers. (See the following Caution. but the reception of . Messrs.--Improve the following sentences:-1. Charles's. In constructing sentences be careful to secure smoothness and clearness and variety by taking advantage of these different forms. 7. That language is Homer's. +Explanation+. and Robert's estate. We stopped at Tiffany. The Bank of England was established in William's and Mary's reign. This is my wife's father's opinion. dominion. career ended in disgrace.) +Caution+. Wolsey's.--The relation of possession may be expressed not only by ('s) and by of but by the use of such phrases as belonging to. We were comparing Caesar and Napoleon's victories. property of. But. 5. 2. 4. 6. 3. not the people's. 4. It was the king. of England. home. as. This is my wife's father's farm. +Correction+. 6. America was discovered during Ferdinand's and Isabella's reign. This belongs to Victoria's. Frederick the Great was the son of the daughter of George I. France's and England's interest differs widely. the possessive sign is added to the explanatory word only. He was his father's.--Correct these errors. 2.--If an article precedes the possessive. +Direction+. or We stopped at Tiffany's. Green's. 3.--Correct these errors:-1. +Explanation+. or if there are more explanatory words than one. choice. as. Leggett's. and the name of the thing possessed is omitted. Of is not always equivalent to the ('s). +Caution+. the possessive sign may be added either to the modifying or to the principal word. 4. 6. the sign may be repeated although joint possession is implied. and sister's favorite. the poet's.--When a possessive noun is followed by an explanatory word. and give your reasons:-1.

--Lowell.--Declension is the arrangement of the cases of nouns and pronouns in the two numbers+. 6. or That the writer is a scholar is not doubted. Grouchy being behind time decided the fate of Waterloo. It is not the finding of a thing but the making something out of it. ladies. not a leaving them out of mind. boys'. +Direction+. 4. but the putting a new construction upon them. Whether it be the imposing a tax or the issuing a paper currency. the care of a father. ladies'. Poltroonery is the acknowledging an infirmity to be incurable. Plural. man's. 3. ***** LESSON 124.--Emerson. +Direction+. +Caution+. Singular. I do not doubt him being sincere. the participle may be followed by a preposition and so become a pure noun (Lesson 38).--Burke. lady. boys. man. the love of a mother. men. The writer's being [Footnote: The participle may be modified not only. boy. The giving away a man's money.--Bagehot. MAN.--Correct these errors:-1.--Learn the following declensions:-Declension of Nouns. +DEFINITION. BOY. ladies. LADY. boys.--Matthew Arnold. The writer being a scholar is not doubted. Singular. my friend's picture. NUMBER AND CASE FORMS. +Direction+. Brown being a politician prevented his election. It should be.--Often ambiguity may be prevented by changing the assumed subject of a participle from a nominative or an objective to a possessive. man. Declension of Pronouns. Obj. +Correction+. Pos.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg the president means the reception given to the president. a picture of my friend.] a scholar is not doubted. lady. Singular. that is of consequence. Plural. 5.--This is ambiguous. as here. or that the writer's scholarship is not doubted. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. As seen in this last quotation. boy's. lady's. men's. a father's care. . Not a making war on them. the taking them from under the old conventional point of view. Declension. men. Plural. by a noun in the possessive but by the articles a and the---as said in Lesson 37. I have no doubt of the writer being a scholar. No one ever heard of that man running for office. as it may mean either that the writer is not doubted because he is a scholar. Nom. after it is found.--Construct sentences illustrating the meaning of the following expressions:-- 142 A mother's love. 2. boy.

+ ours. Obj. Plural.--Sheridan Knowles.) New York (see Lesson 34). Some suggest that the word possessing or owning is understood after these possessives. and Nom.* you. him. Singular. yours. Plural. and the s a possessive ending. Obj.--Byron. herself. us. THIRD PERSON--Fem. Plural. It is said that this construction can be used only when more than one thing is possessed such expressions as This heart of mine.] [Footnote ++: Ye is used in Chaucer and in the King James version of the Bible exclusively in the nominative. her. Obj. The explanation generally given is. Ours. hers.---Carlyle. yours. yourself. hers. or ourselves. that of is partitive. myself* thyself himself. because of the grammatical blunder it contains--the t in its being a nominative neuter ending. their or her or their or its. you. THIRD PERSON--Neut. and theirs are consequently double possessives. theirs. I myself saw it: and (2) as . His. Plural. my or our or your or your or thy or ye(++) or you mine. The literature of the 16th and 17th centuries shows a growing sense of this impropriety. and Nom. it. Long after its introduction many looked askance at its. 143 Nom. you. as.] COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. her. me. as. We means I and you. [Footnote *: Strictly speaking. [Footnote *: The compound personal pronouns are used (1) for emphasis. hers. Obj. her. them. it. you. it. them. or yourselves. thine. THIRD PERSON--Mas. hers. They would make the expression = This temper. and abounds with of it. you. This naughty world of ours. Singular. and that the expression is equivalent to one friend of my friends. they. the possessive of the masculine he. ours. for I does not admit of plurality. SECOND PERSON-. You (the Saxon accusative eow) has now taken the place of ye. Pos. Plural. his. Nom. Plural. thou. This moral life of mine. Mine and thine were formerly used before words beginning with a vowel sound. and Nom. yours. I and she. But it came to be thought improper to employ his to denote inanimate things as well as animate. your. Singular. as does of in city of (=viz. they. ye(++) or you Pos. and Nom. But no one thinks now of shunning what was then regarded as a grammatical monstrosity. Plural. yours. she. Singular. others say that of simply marks identity. The s in ours. he. andObj. etc. idiomatic English. Shakespeare uses you in the nominative. we can hardly be the plural of I. [Footnote *: The possessive its is our only personal pronoun form not found in Saxon.* their or theirs. Singular. Obj. yours. Nom.SECOND PERSON-. The expression a friend of mine presents a peculiar construction. Singular. as was its original ge in the Saxon. I and he. The first appearance of the new coinage its is placed in 1598. and it own in place of his as the possessive of it. the. themselves. Plural. Singular. we. Obj. and is both nominative and objective. I. as. forms already possessive. ourself. mine honor. them. This temper of yours (your possessing).common form old form. That temper of yours are good. Obj. says Professor Sweet. they. thee. and Nom. theirs. was there the possessive (genitive) of the neuter hit also--our it. thereof.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg FIRST PERSON. and theirs are used only when the name of the thing possessed is omitted. Plural. thine enemy. itself. yours. and their. and theirs is the s of his and its extended by analogy to our. thine. Singular. mine is new = Your book is old. Singular. Yours is old. your temper. as. or I and they. Dim are those heads of theirs.] [Footnote +: The forms mine. etc.

Singular and Plural. that. My uncle stopped a minute to look about him. Sing. The compound personal pronouns should not be used as subjects. Only the second of these alternative locutions in each paragraph is allowed by many grammarians. Sing.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 144 reflexives. +Interrogative Pronouns+. Each. and what. The interrogative pronouns who.Nom. where no obscurity would arise. whosoever.] +Remark+. whose. whom. ------. whatever.--Bryant. former. in fact. and neither are always singular. as. and all. have no possessive form. farmery latter. Obj. has no plural. any.." . and are alike in the nominative and the objective. both is always plural. whomsoever. +Compound Relative Pronouns+. Much has been said against this whose. they utterly condemn the first. [Footnote: On the pages immediately preceding Lesson 1. whichsoever. +Relative Pronouns+. Pos. who. whose. which. and whatsoever do not change their form. Whichever. On the warrant of usage we say that both expressions are correct. it is evident that whose is not formed from which. Sing. these and those. and Plu. It is. and others to hide their individuality. some." or "by each other. They are not the only words used in this last relation. which. and we there explained how we are able to appeal to usage as we all along have done. Nom. and another. "Several able men were in correspondence with each other. or hwaet-lic = who-like. We may use +each other+ with more than two. +Adjective Pronouns+. Pos." 2.--From the composition of which--hwa:-lic. whosesoever. that." or "with one another. and lattersometimes take the apostrophe and s ('s) in the singular. Those who regard usage as the final arbiter in speech need not avoid this form of the pronoun. In the first twelve paragraphs below we give alternative expressions. Ourself and we are used by rulers. is the only authority in language. we may use one another in such a case. and Plu. Singular and Plural. whomever. none. and what are declined like the relatives who. We may say. we may use the simple personal pronouns instead. we may use each other in such a case. we said that +usage+. We may use +one another+ with only two. have laid them down in their last sleep. same. This and that with their plurals. what.--The possessive of these pronouns is wanting. and Plu. Either. but it is in general use. ------. or what-like. We may say. whosever. as determined by the majority of the best writers and speakers of the generation. declined like otherin the singular. He found himself deserted by his friends. Sing. 1. +Remark+. what.. which. "The two countries agreed to stand by one another. the possessive of what transferred to which. editors. In treating of the adjective pronouns we now appeal to it again. which. Obj. neither. and give authority to what they say. and such are either singular or plural. Oneand other are declined like nouns. either. And millions in those solitudes . and Plu. whoever.--Dickens. to turn the action of the verb back upon the actor.

we may use each instead. we may use any one and none in such cases. and are not declined. we may use so with the adjective in such a case. but we need not. the other two ran away." or "white roses. We may say. you may vote for either or for neither of them. instead of two first. as we do the conjunctions either and neither." or "for any one or for none of them." "The whole farm." The paragraphs below contain noteworthy uses of adjective pronouns but no really alternative expressions." or "the two others ran away. etc. last three+. "One of them kept his ground. ***** LESSON 125.] Descriptive adjectives used as nouns are plural." "Such admirable talent.. "You have red roses. etc." or "So strong an argument. Such expressions as "the wretched's only plea" and "the wicked's den" are exceptional. We may use the plural +ones+. "He wrested the land on either side of the Seine. and +whole+ with a preposition and a noun following. . We may use +a+ before a noun in the singular and +or two+ after it. CASE FORMS--PRONOUNS. both+. no one else's. We may say. We may use +he+ or some other personal pronoun after the indefinite one." or "on each side of the Seine. we may use the two others in such a case. "Such a strong argument. "I will go in a day or two.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 145 3." "The whole of the farm. 13. we may place the than immediately after other." 7. somebody else's. We may say." 11. We may use the pronouns +either+ and +neither+. we may use none in the singular. we may use one or two before the noun in the plural. between +other+ and +than+. Usage is also decidedly in favor of +first two. There is scarcely any authority for placing the ('s) upon one or body. instead of any one's else." or "in one or two days. We may use +such+ before an adjective and its noun." or "along with one. nobody else's+. "None hear thy voice. three last. We are advised to shun it. we may repeat the one in such a case. or a noun and other words. 14. etc." 12." 8. We may insert a noun." 9. We may use +either+ in the sense of each. We may apply +the other two+ to those that remain when one of three things has been taken from the rest." 4. We may say. We may say." or "All the people. We may use +none+ in the plural. We may say." "Both trees." "Both of the trees. "The home one must quit." or "for some reasons for it other than those suggested." or "None hears thy voice. "We must look for somee other reasons for it than those suggested. we may use the noun for which onesstands. We may say." "Talent so admirable. We may say. We may say." This form is common and convenient." 5. "Here are three candidates. yet taking much of its life along with him." 10. We may say. I have white ones. Usage is overwhelmingly in favor of +any one else's. with more than two." 6. We may use +all. "Written by Dickens for his own or any one else's children. "All of the people. we may use these words as adjectives qualifying the noun.

+Me. To whatever is the prevailing. Who servest thou under? [See previous footnote.+ and +who+ are +nominative+ forms.] 2. if not quite unknown in American literature. yourn. her. Them that study grammar talk no better than me. 9. ye. 5. She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. +Caution.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 146 The pronouns I." A course of reading will satisfy one that the best writers and speakers in England are not in the habit of using such expressions as It is me. he. No one has freed himself from the influence of early associations that are in a careless moment some vicious colloquialism may not creep into his discourse. Scotland and thee did in each other live. she. it was her. 18. he. 23.] them. Remark. they easily misled him. 11. he or I? 21. I knew that it was him. and. 17. 15. and must not be used in the objective case. Oh.+--Study carefully the Definitions and principles given under the head of case. It is not me you are in love with. Construction of Case Forms--Pronouns. and that these are almost. him whom Pharaoh promoted. happy us! surrounded thus with blessings. . hern.--Study the Declensions. [Footnote: Her is also a possessive. It was her. their's.] 3." But such analogy would justify It are them (ce sont eux). your's. we. us. Dean Alford regards as correct the forms condemned by Latham. He is better than me. We will refer it to whoever you may choose.] 4. Who did he refer to. 8. he of whom I so often speak. I thought that tall man was him. and on the ground that they are "more frequently heard than the prescribed form. and me too. and who are the only words in the language that have each three different case forms. All the rules of syntax given in the grammars to guide in the use of the nominative and the objective case apply. she. I referred to my old friend." Professor Bain justifies If I were him. Not one in a thousand could have done it as well as him. 13. 25. "The nations not so blest as thee" "Such weak minister as me may the oppressor bruise. Him being a stranger. A Violation of every principle of grammar may be defended. +Direction+. and even defends the use of who as an objective form by quoting from Shakespeare. He was angry. we have good authority for "Her ain't a calling we: us don't belong to she. 33. 20. practically. 24. Who did he choose? Did he choose you and I? 22. and must not be used in the nominative case. +Direction. 12. He that is idle and mischievous reprove. I am not so old as her. Who did you suppose it to be? 31. her's. 28. 7. thee.--The eight nominative forms and the seven objective forms here given are the only distinctive nominative and objective forms in the language. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend? 20. It was not them.--I. 27. [Footnote: Dr. only to these fifteen words. 30. hisn. Him and me are of the same age. and asserts that thee and me are correct in.+ and +whom+ are objective forms. They that are diligent I will reward. the habitual. theirn. It isn't for such as us to sit with the rulers of the land. and It is her. 14. or to the common usage of the unreflecting and the uncultivated. if the argument from the speech of the uneducated is to have weight. "Who should I meet?" They justify such expressions as It is me from the analogy of the French c'est moi. 10. but condemns It is him. thou. My hour is come. they. Latham defends It is me. Whosoever the court favors is safe. I knew it to be he. I took that tall man to be he. him. Between you and I. Its being me should make no difference. usage of a majority of the best writers and speakers the grammarian should bow without question. 16. I believe that he is losing his mind. [See previous Footnote. 29. thou. You have seen Cassio and she together. Lesson 119. it's. but not to the accidental slips of even the greatest writers. Whom did you suppose it was? 32. It was Joseph. 19. if such inadvertencies are to be erected into authority. and then correct these errors. giving your reasons in every instance:-1. "Who servest thou under?" and from Steele. she is older than me by ten years. 6. hi's. and correct these errors:-Our's. Who will go? Me. but not to render up my soul to such as thee.

him who wrote the "Aeneid. (Abstract and Collective. 1. All enjoyed themselves.) NOUN. who I afterwards found to be Miss B." 31. 15. Scheme for the Noun. Plural (112-116). For the queen's sake. Subject (4. Case. Howard's. but it is better to avoid these awkward forms. Direction. It being difficult did not deter him. than whom. and give your reasons:-1. 24. 6. It is not him whom you thought it was.. Define the noun and its classes. In some cases a single question may suffice for a whole lesson. or Adams's administration. Let him be whom he may. 10. 123). 11. It is Othello's pleasure. Singular (112-116). Modifications. and Walker's dictionary. Number. 29. . 18. life was a noble one. TO THE TEACHER. 13. Adverb Modifier (35). Whom here may be parsed as an objective case form used idiomatically in place of who. I understood it to be they. 118). Object Complement (28). 5. Objective (119). 23. He spoke of you studying Latin. his sister's. us excepted. He asked help of men whom he knew could not help him. this would be correct. Third (119).Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 147 Although than is not a preposition. 17. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn.. Phrase (17). 3. whom I afterwards found was Miss B. Jefferson. A lady entered. Masculine (117. Peter's. 7. Adjective Modifier (33). Attribute Complement (29.--Lesson 85. Classes. 8). The questions given below may be made to call for minute details or only for outlines. 30). 118). I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. 21. Satan except. These are neither George nor Fanny's books. Us boys enjoy the holidays. +Explanation. 22. Who was Joseph's and Benjamin's mother? 2.--Correct these errors. none higher sat. John's. 9. Independent (44). 4. Possessive (119. his brother Philip's wife. 118). ***** LESSON 126. Person. Questions on the Noun. 122.) Proper (85). 30.+--If the possessive plural of such nouns were used. Worcester. What need is there of the man swearing? 16. Feminine (117. and Andrew's occupation was that of fishermen. MISCELLANEOUS--REVIEW. Objective Complement (31). Gender. I am sure it could not have been them. you or me. Let you and I try it. Ask somebody's else opinion. 26. I am opposed to the gentleman speaking again.as in the familiar passage from Milton: "Beelzebub. For Herodias's sake. First (119). He thought it was us. Common (85). Uses. Principal word in Prep. It was Virgil. He visited his sons-in-law's homes. It did not occur during Washington. A valuable horse of my friend William's father's was killed. Neuter (117. CONSTRUCTION OF CASE FORMS. (The numbers refer to Lessons.--These schemes and questions under the head of General Review are especially designed to aid in securing an outline of technical grammar. 20. This state was south of Mason's and Dixon's line. 27. 14. Nominative (119). 28. it is sometimes followed by whom. Second (119). I consulted Webster. 25. the philanthropist's. A lady entered." Than whom is an irregularity justified only on the basis of good usage. 12. 19. our noble and valiant general's. 8.

Adjectives. 113.--Same as those of the Noun (112. least sweet. have one modification. or the sweetest of those compared. 4. that which expresses the quality in a greater or a less degree.+ 148 PRONOUN. genders. then.--Lessons 118. that other is sweeter. persons. Interrogative (85). but possessed by them in different degrees.--Lessons 86. 86.--Lessons 112.--Lesson 128. the gender forms. we should not say. Questions on the Pronoun. Define the pronoun and its classes. 119. Give and illustrate the several ways of forming the plural. Personal (85. The adjective sweet. The form of the adjective which expresses the simple quality. and that which expresses the quality in the greatest or the least degree. 119. 125. This apple is sweeter than that. When we say.--Lesson 85. +Scheme for the Pronoun. 117. This apple is the sweetest of the three. 2. Name and define the modifications of the noun. 3. 124. 114.--Same as those of the Noun. How is the possessive case formed?--Lesson 122. inflected by adding er and est.--Lessons 112. Notice. +Uses+. Name and define the several numbers. This modification is called +Comparison+. This appleis sweet. +Modifications+. 7. unless this particular fruit had more of the quality than ordinary apples possess. 1. 87).+--That apple is sweet. 142). 87). as sweeter. 119.--Lessons 112. is of the +Superlative Degree+. but this one is the sweetest. Relative (85.--Lesson 124. but only that one apple is sweeter than the other. 3. But even the positive implies a comparison. 5. 87. 125.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 2. because it is used when things are compared with one another in respect to some quality common to them all. 117. Decline the several pronouns. expressing a quality of the three apples. we do not mean that any one of the apples is very sweet. Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of the different pronouns. too. as sweet. is. is of the +Positive Degree+. +Classes+. less sweet. 6. COMPARISON. that the adjective in the comparative and superlative degrees always expresses the quality relatively. 4. 117. 86. or inflection. Give and illustrate the several ways of distinguishing the genders. 118. is of the +Comparative Degree+. Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of the number forms. Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of the possessive forms. as sweetest. Adjective (85. ***** LESSON 127. and the case forms. and this is marked by form. 87). or. . 142. and cases. as you see.--Lesson 117. +Introductory Hints. and give the lists.

The Saxon .] +DEFINITIONS+. loving. This method is often used with adjectives of two syllables and sometimes with those of one. and (3) when it is needed to preserve the identity of the word.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 149 The several degrees of the quality expressed by the adjective may be increased or diminished by adverbs modifying the adjective. the Marys. +Remark+. as+.--More beautiful.+ [Footnote: Different degrees of quantity. exceedingly. But note how the adverb is compared. and in parsing they may be regarded as separate words. or somewhat sweet. fine. +RULE. dyeing. +RULE II. +RULE III. a final consonant after a single vowel doubles before a suffix beginning with a vowel. singeing.] +The Positive Degree expresses the simple quality. are compared.---Y does not change before 's. +Comparison is a modification of the adjective (or the adverb) to express the relative degree of the quality in the things compared. may sometimes be expressed by comparison. In Anglo-Saxon and Latin. dry. this and that. is varied in sense the same as when the inflections er and est are added. as+. viz. +Comparison+. We can say very. hotter. sweeter. the Henrys.+ witty. and est to the positive to form the superlative+. by far or much the sweetest.--X. RULES FOR SPELLING. begin.+--The e is retained (1) after c and g when the suffix begins with a or o.---Y after a consonant becomes i before a suffix net beginning with i. (2) after o. can hardly be called degree forms of the adjective. finer. most beautiful. [Footnote: Two adjectives. etc. as. Adjectives of more than two syllables are generally compared by prefixing more and most. far. as. those.+ +The Comparative Degree expresses a greater or a less degree of the quality. also. adjectives have forms to indicate gender. Adjectives have one modification. and case. k. Exceptions. or much. as well as adjectives. that. dried. however. lady's.--Adjectives are regularly compared by adding er to the positive to form the comparative. +RULE I. number. love. still. hot. these. as.. Degrees of diminution are expressed by prefixing less and least[Footnote: This use of an adverb to form the comparison was borrowed from the Norman-French. hoeing. Some adverbs. wittier. The adverbs more and most have the degree forms. as. rather. changeable. +The Superlative Degree expresses the greatest or the least degree of the quality+.--Final e is dropped before a suffix beginning with a vowel.--In monosyllables and words accented on the last syllable. peaceable. The adjective. as. and gas has gases in the plural. have number forms--this. nor in forming the plural of proper nouns. Exceptions. and v are never doubled. +Exceptions. beginning.

unwelcome. Bad. When it was forgotten that less is a comparative. lesser. former. vertical. Superlative. Pos. inmost or innermost. long. nearer nearest or next. (Out). Many or more. eloquenter. nimble. fast. unchanged to +r+.]. English.--Learn to compare the following adjectives and adverbs:-Adjectives Irregularly Compared. and the Saxon comparative ending +s+. (In).--From this list of adjectives select those that cannot be compared. undeviating. little boy. most.] Adverbs Irregularly Compared. able. and compare those that remain:-Observe the Rules for Spelling given above. wisely.--Correct the following:-Famousest. Hind. valuable. Good. smallest boy. foolishly.] [Footnote +: For the comparative and the superlative of little. polite. lunar. happy. Most definitive and many descriptive adjectives cannot be compared. utmost or uttermost. comfortabler. one. handsome. intemperate. for a time. hinder. upper. Wooden. +Direction+. foremost or first. Ill | Far. as it regularly was. common. later or latest or latter last. Some +adverbs+ are compared by adding er and est. and we have the double comparative lesser--in use to-day. (Up). furtherest or furthermost. (Forth). +Direction+. witty. as. often. Old. aftmost or aftermost. farther. In "King Lear" Shakespeare uses the double comparative a dozen times. soon. and some by prefixing more and most. easily. as their meaning will not admit of different degrees. Comp. older or oldest or elder. thin. ----. smaller boy. . most boldest. holy. further. two-wheeled. Under. Of the two forms of comparison. er was added. both methods were often used with the same adjective. any. best. infinite. worst.* after. | Evil.--Compare the following:-Early. Much. Top. outer or outmost or utter. humble. ----. late. superior. smaller and smallest are substituted. that. is the last letter in less--changed to +r+. as. double comparatives and double superlatives were common. upmost or uppermost. Direction. After the French method of comparing was introduced into English. Some adjectives and adverbs are irregular in their comparison. worser. hindmost or hindermost. less valuable. inner. + worse. sweet. least valuable. +Direction+. outermost. topmost. Late. and. eldest. as. (Aft). fartherest or fathermost Fore. in the sense of small in size. better. undermost. that which is more easily pronounced and more agreeable to the ear is to be preferred. [Footnote *: The words inclosed in curves are adverbs--the adjectives following having no positive form. in coming into English.+ less or least. it is the r in more. Near. virtuousest. hot. physical. firmly. Little. amusingest.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 150 superlative ending +st+ is in most and least.

to be free from invasion. The grass is greener to-day. any city in Europe. or the term introduced by of. | Deg. most. farthest. the | " | -----. best. 48. Model for Written Parsing. worst. 31. It should be.--We give below a model for writing the parsing of adjectives. better. | -----. include the former. | MODIFICATION. least. 64. +Caution+.| Modifier of glades. Exercises for the parsing of adjectives and adverbs may be selected from Lessons 12. of Comp. furthest. more. less. 4. above all kinds of property. I like this book better than any book I have seen. All the metals are less useful than iron. TO THE TEACHER. 63. 2.| " " " dewy | Des. 3. as. There is no metal so useful as iron. Itcontains more than all the others combined. A similar form may be used for adverbs. | Far. (A comparison is here stated. 6. farther. | Pos. The comparative degree is generally followed by than. | " " " still | " | " | Completes are and modifies glades. London is larger than any city in Europe. and correct these errors:-1. be compared with itself as existing under different conditions. London is larger than any other city in Europe. [Footnote: A thing may. or.) 5.--In stating a comparison avoid comparing a thing with itself. +Caution+. Little. ***** LESSON 128. | All | Def. 46. London is the largest city in Europe. of course. 47.] +Remark+. Much. China has a greater population than any nation on the globe. 65. Time ought.--The comparative degree refers to two things (or sets of things) as distinct from each other.--Study the Caution and the Remark. Comp. . Superlative. Ill. He is no better than other men. The star is brighter to-night. 30. +Remarks+. 14. further. CONSTRUCTION OF COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES.--The superlative degree refers to one thing (or set of things) as belonging to a group or class.| worse.--All the dewy glades are still. +Correction+. and so London is represented as being larger than itself.] +Direction+. and implies that one has more of the quality than the other.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Pos.--In using the superlative degree be careful to make the latter term of the comparison.--The second term of comparison. includes London. but it may be used to compare one thing with a number of things taken separately or together as. 60. [Footnote: The comparative is generally used with reference to two things only. 44. |SYNTAX -------------------|---------------|---------------------------------Adjectives.| Kind. Forth. although no degree form is employed. Well. CLASSIFICATION. 151 Badly. 29.

+Caution+. as.--Of (= belonging to) represents Solomon as belonging to a group of kings. and correct these errors:-1. and the comparison of adjectives whose meaning will not admit of different degrees. Miscellaneous.] +Direction+.--Macaulay. or Solomon was wiser than any other Hebrew king. The extension of these exceptional forms should not be encouraged.--A numeral denoting more than one may be prefixed to a singular noun to form a compound adjective. Solomon was the wisest of all the other Hebrew kings. and other excludes him from this group--a contradiction in terms. 3. of all other vices.--Study the Caution and the Remark. as. 2. a ten-foot pole (not a ten-feetpole). 152 Good writers sometimes use the superlative in comparing two things.--Milton. +Correction+. as. My chiefest entertainment.--When an adjective denoting one. The opinion is becoming more universal.--Sheridan. This is the better of the two. These sort of expressions should be avoided. but the most pleasantest. 3.) 5. Solomon was the wisest of Hebrew kings.[Footnote: Many words which grammarians have considered incapable of comparison are used in a sense short of their literal meaning. The most principal point was entirely overlooked. A worser evil awaits us. Remove this ashes and put away that tongs. a three-cent stamp.--Study the Caution and the Remarks. The superlative is generally followed by of. 4. But in such cases usage largely favors the comparative. 4.--Draw that line perpendicular. 6. It should be. the adjective and the noun must agree in number. John is the oldest of any boy in his class.--Byron. .--Avoid double comparatives and double superlatives. the most inexcusable. 4. Most perfect harmony--Longfellow. That form of expression is more preferable.--Correct these errors:-1. This is the best of the two. +Remark+.--Whittier. This was the most satisfactory of any preceding effort. and are compared by good writers. Less perfectimitations. 6. and correct these errors:-1. 6.choly. 5. +Caution+. The room is fifteen foot square. He was the most active of all his companions. I measured it with a two-feet rule. this is the most satisfactory. as. route. 2. 7. Divinest Melan. The chiefest prize. Of all the other books I have examined. He took the longest. 3. or an adjective denoting more than one. Extremesthell. 5. (He was not one of his own companions. We were traveling at the rate of forty mile an hour. A more beautifuler location cannot be found. +Correction+. 2. The farmer exchanged five barrel of potatoes for fifty pound of sugar. is joined to a noun. +Direction+. Profane swearing is. or more nearly perpendicular. Draw that line more perpendicular. These kind of people will never be satisfied.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg and as having more of the quality than any of the rest. +Direction+.

Pos. Sup. Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of adverbs. She was willing to take a more humbler part. This result. Definitive (89-91). " | Questions on the Adverb.--Lesson 89. Classes. (The numbers refer to Lessons.--As he is not one of his companions. Time.) ADJECTIVE. 8. Define the adverb and its classes. | Place. | Comp. " | Questions on the Adjective. Scheme for the Adverb. " + 127.--Comparison. | Degree. Modification. (This is the construction which requires the superlative. other is unnecessary. of all others. is most to be dreaded. Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of adjectives. Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of comparative and superlative forms.--Lesson 128. 6. Scheme for the Adjective. Descriptive (89-91). page 255. 91. I don't like those sort of people. Deg. 9. He writes better than any boy in his class. 5. ADVERB. " + 127. See the second Remark in this Lesson. +Correction+. ***** . He was more active than any other of his companions. Define the adjective and its classes. Sup. Illustrate the regular method and the irregular methods of comparison. 2.--See suggestions to the teacher.--Lessons 90. 7. 1. 3. Objective Complement (31). 4. Attribute Complement (29. Uses. Solomon was wiser than any of the ancient kings.--Comparison. Manner. | Comp. 30). The younger of the three sisters is the prettier. TO THE TEACHER. Give and illustrate the regular method and the irregular methods of comparison. He did more to accomplish this result than any other man that preceded or followed him. 1. --Lesson 127. 128. 153 2. 5. | Modification. Deg.--Lesson 127. --Lesson 93. + 92-94. 10. GENERAL REVIEW. 3. Which are the two more important ranges of mountains in North America? 11.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 1. Modifier (12). This is the more preferable form.--Lesson 92.--Lesson 127.) 4. Pos. I have the most entire confidence in him. | Cause. 128. Define comparison and the degrees of comparison. 2. 3. Classes.

DEFINITIONS.+ The passive form is compound. ***** LESSON 130. and whether the verb may be followed by by before the name of the agent without changing the sense. 2. 10. +The Active Voice shows that the subject names the actor+. is to be made prominent. shows that the subject names the thing acted upon. The horse is tired. An expression consisting of an asserting word followed by an adjective complement or by a participle used adjectively may be mistaken for a verb in the passive voice. The first verb. My body is inclined by years. Money is coined. 7. 14. MODIFICATIONS OF THE VERB. and give their voice. Dinner was soon prepared. The man was drunk before the wine was drunk. The tower is inclined.passive voice). picked. and which should not be so treated:-1. These different forms and uses of the verb constitute the modification called +Voice+. +Remark.+--Name all the transitive verbs in Lesson 78. 8. You are mistaken. A fool and his money are soon parted. as. The active voice is used when the agent. I am obliged to you. 11. or actor. shows that the subject names the actor. we do not care to name the agent. 3. +Examples.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg LESSON 129.+--To test the passive voice note whether the one named by the subject is acted upon. 9. The passive voice may be used when the agent is unknown.--He picked a rose. The house is situated on the bank of the river. 6. I am obliged to do this. COMPOSITION--VOICE. +The Passive Voice shows that the subject names the thing acted upon. 12.+--The coat was sometimes worn by Joseph (was worn-. +Direction.+---Tell which of the following completed predicates may be treated as single verbs. A rose was picked by him. when the thing acted upon is to be made prominent. 13. the passive. worn--adjective complement). The coat was badly worn (was--incomplete predicate. the second is in the +Passive Voice+. The same thing is here told in two ways. 5. and may be resolved into an asserting word (some form of the verb be) and an attribute complement (a past participle of a transitive verb). or when. The ship was wrecked. A shadow was mistaken for a foot-bridge. +Direction. +Voice is that modification of the transitive verb which shows whether the subject names the actor or the thing acted upon+. 154 +Introductory Hints+. This task was not accomplished in a day. Are you prepared to recite? 4. The lady is accomplished. . was picked. for any reason. The first form is in the +Active Voice+. VOICE. the second verb.

and note the other changes that occur:-18. they introduced into England their own language. (Notice that the objective complement is here an infinitive phrase. We saw the storm approaching. while the object complement is retained after the verb. +Direction. in the second sentence. 20. 17. vanquished the victorious Carthaginians. +Remark. Harvey. some call it a "retained object.+--Notice that the objective complement becomes the attribute complement when the verb is changed from the active to the passive voice. Even silent night proclaims my soul immortal. glossy surface. 3. +Remark.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 155 The +object complement+ of a verb in the +active voice+ becomes the +subject+ when the verb is changed to the +passive voice. We found him lying dead on the field. 5. not for a fine. The luxury of Capua.+--Change the voice of the transitive verbs in these sentences. He was offered a pension by the government. (Notice that the objective complement is here a participle. 10.) 13.+ or dative. there is difference of opinion. His eloquence had struck them dumb.+ +Example. He told me to leave the room. 2. but for such qualities as would wear well. was worshiped in many parts of Greece and Rome. Some call it an adverbial modifier. The town had nicknamed him Beau Seymour. 8. He kept his mother waiting. Some. +Direction. the messenger of the gods. . established by good usage. more powerful than the Roman legions." and some say that it is a noun without grammatical construction." the relation of the act to the person and to the thing is not changed. Concerning the parsing of the noun following this passive. That tribunal pronounced Charles a tyrant. an English physician. is beyond controversy. sunk to beasts. [Footnote: Some grammarians condemn this construction. Bacchus. and money names the thing directly acted upon. The +indirect. They were refused the protection of the law. or Gothic. +object+ is sometimes made the +subject+ of a verb in the passive voice. I was asked that question yesterday. money still names the thing directly acted upon. which was a dialect of the Teutonic. 9. 4. 21. It is true that it is a violation of the general analogies. In "He was offered money.+--The porter refused him admittance = He was refused admittance by the porter. Mercury.+--You will notice that in the first sentence the agent is made prominent. My wife was chosen as her wedding dress was chosen. 6. the god of wine. 12. 11. find pleasure end in pain. We all believe him to be an honest man. 19. or laws." him represents the one to whom the act was directed. In "I offered him money. When the Saxons subdued the Britons. Everybody acknowledged him to be a genius.+--In each of these sentences change the voice of the transitive verb without altering the meaning of the sentence. discovered that blood circulates. The minds of children are dressed by their parents as their bodies are dressed--in the prevailing fashion.] +Example.) 16. of language. and note the other changes that occur:-1. but that it is an idiom of our language. 14. 7. wore a winged cap and winged shoes. 15. the receiver.+--The Danes invaded England = England was invaded by the Danes.

but as a possible. 24. 156 22. ***** LESSON 131.+--All his friends laughed at him = He was laughed at(ridiculed) by all his friends. in the active voice. It was taken care of. James. AND PERSON. +Introductory Hints. To leave the room = that I should leave the room. and (to) me is used adverbially. They told me that your name was Fontibell. I taught the child reading. and sight as a noun used adverbially to modify was lost. If James walk out. and did not refer to it afterward. MODE.+--He promised me a present = A present was promised me (regular) = I was promised a present (idiomatic). A transitive verb which. however. James may walk. 29. Some grammarians. The intransitive verb and preposition are together equivalent to a transitive verb in the passive voice. They took care of it.+--The following sentences present a peculiar idiomatic construction. Here the walking is asserted only as thought of.+--Put the following sentences into several different forms. I taught the child to read. Here the walking is asserted not as an actual. Here the walking is not asserted as a fact. [Footnote: Some would parse of as an adverb relating to was lost. would call at an adverb. MODIFICATIONS OF THE VERB--CONTINUED. +Remark. as. 32. An intransitive verb is sometimes made transitive by the aid of a preposition. +Direction. 28. Here the walking is asserted as an actual fact. 25. He was taken care of by his friends. but as a command--James is ordered to make . He offered them their lives if they would abjure their religion. 26. This artful fellow has imposed upon us all.+--James walks.+--Change the voice of the following verbs:-27. without regard to its being or becoming either an actual or a possible fact. +Remark.] 31. in the passive. others would call was lost sight of a compound verb.+--Here the infinitive phrase is the object complement. he will improve. analyze the expression as if arranged thus: Sight of his original purpose was lost. 33. Some of his characters have been found fault with as insipid. +Direction. NUMBER. +Direction. 23. They must allow us the privilege of thinking for ourselves. The speaker did not even touch upon this topic.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Explanation. is followed by an object complement and a prepositional phrase. +Example. He dropped the matter there. retaining the complement and the preposition to complete its meaning. TENSE. His original purpose was lost sight of (forgotten).+---Was laughed at may be treated as one verb. fact. and determine which is the best:-30. Such talents should be made much of. walk out. believing that the logical relation of these words is not lost by a change of position. and others. others would treat sight as an object [complement] of was lost. using first the regular and then the idiomatic construction:-+Model. the principal word of the phrase for its subject. takes.+--Change the following transitive verbs to the passive form.

but the time in which the action takes place is different. and the hearer is requested to name the person. +The Participle is a form of the verb partaking of the nature of an adjective or of a noun. and expressing the action or being as assumed+.+ Verbs are said to agree in +Person+ and +Number+ with their subjects. +The Past Perfect Participle denotes action or being as completed at a time previous to that indicated by the predicate+. and is in the +Future Perfect Tense. In these three sentences the manner of asserting the action is the same.+ the second in the +Potential Mode. [Footnote: In "Are you going?" or "You are going?" a fact is referred to the hearer for his admission or denial.] +The Potential Mode asserts the power. These different uses and forms of the verb constitute the modification which we call +Mode. I walked. I walk. I shall have walked out by to-morrow. +DEFINITIONS+. possibility.+ The first verb is in the +Indicative Mode. In "Who did it?" the fact that some person did it is asserted. +Mode is that modification of the verb which denotes the manner of asserting the action or being+. I had walked out when he called. and. and is in the +Past Tense. or necessity of acting or being+.+ the third in the +Subjunctive Mode. +Tense is that modification of the verb which expresses the time of the action or being+. as +Tense+ means time.+ the fourth in the +Imperative Mode.+ Shall walk asserts the action as future.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 157 it a fact. Walk asserts the action as going on in present time. liberty. They walk. +The Infinitive is a form of the verb which names the action or being in a general way. by adding +s.+ Had walked asserts the action as completed in the past. It will be seen that the Indicative Mode may be used in asking a question. is in the +Present Tense. But this agreement is not generally marked by a change in the form of the verb.+ For the two forms of the verb called the +Participle+ and the +Infinitive. I shall walk. In the second sentence walkis changed by adding +est+.+ Shall have walked asserts action to be completed in the future. +The Past Participle denotes action or being as past or completed at the time indicated by the predicate+. Have walked asserts the action as completed at the present.+ Walked asserts the action as past. +The Subjunctive Mode asserts the action or being as a mere condition. Thou walkest. in the third sentence. He walks. +The Imperative Mode asserts the action or being as a command or an entreaty+.+ see Lessons 37 and 40. and is in the +Future Tense. +The Present Tense expresses action or being as present+. +The Present Participle denotes action or being as continuing at the time indicated by the predicate+. or wish+. +The Indicative Mode asserts the action or being as a fact+. without asserting it of anything+.+ I have walked out to-day. . supposition. and is in the +Past Perfect Tense.+ I walk. and is in the +Present Perfect Tense.

teach. had. have. rid. should. lead. set. They have dropped the past tense ending. Since most verbs form their past tense and past participle by adding ed. could. would. might. we did love. weak verbs form their past tense by adding ed. +Conjugation is the regular arrangement of all the forms of the verb+. fed. Our irregular verbs include all strong verbs and those that may be called "irregular weak" verbs. shall. The d of the participle is not from did but is .This derivation of d in ed is questioned. but in many verbs this ending is now lost. 158 +Number and Person of a verb are those modifications that show its agreement with the number and person of its subject+. feed. the past indicative. The past participle of all strong verbs once ended in en or n. will.+ List of Irregular Verbs. or t. can. being written love-did-we. as. d. +The Present Perfect Tense expresses action or being as completed at the present time+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +The Past Tense expresses action or being as past+. +DEFINITIONS+. Some weak verbs shorten the vowel of the present without adding anything. +Synopsis is the regular arrangement of the forms of one number and person in all the modes and tenses+. +Auxiliary Verbs are those that help in the conjugation of other verbs. and some have the present and the past alike. These are weak because they add d or t. Strong verbs form their past tense by changing the vowel of the present without adding anything. are the present indicative or the present infinitive. for instance. +The Future Perfect Tense expresses action or being to be completed at some future time+. as. Some weak verbs change the vowel of the present. Of the ed added to form the past tense of regular verbs. as. or those from which the other parts are derived. d is what remains of did. CONJUGATION. told.+ The auxiliaries are do. must. rid. and all others Irregular. ***** LESSON 132. set. taught. FORMS OF THE VERB. +The Past Perfect Tense expresses action or being as completed at some past time+. +The Future Tense expresses action or being as yet to come+. +The Principal Parts of a verb. see Lesson 135). may. led. tell. and be (with all its variations. did. [Footnote: Grammarians have classed verbs on the basis of their form or history as Strong (or Old) and Weak (or New). and the past participle.we call such Regular.

girt. clung. dealt. hewed. (For)Get. held. holden. (bring forth) bare. led. (En)Grave graved. betted. (Be) Fall. Clothe. is regular. burned. got. bended. caught.] [Footnote 4: Hang.+ Verbs that are wanting in any of their parts.Abide. Catch. fled. abode. kneeled. gave.[3] gone. bled. bought. Bet. hove. did. bred. burst. durst. ground. must. gilded. bet. The e in the ea of both these forms is the old connecting vowel. Freeze. laded. girded.] [Footnote 5: Hove is used in sea language. Blend. cleaved. e. got. dressed. and those in smaller type are obsolete. brought. flew. Lay. kept. Crow crew. It may always be formed from the present tense by adding ing. clad.Cling. cleaved. clothed clothed.] . done. blessed. girded. will. Cut. hidden. Choose. broken. girt. awoke. dwelled. Fight. dwelled. held. the Rules for Spelling (see Lesson 127) should be observed. bore. dug. fled. Deal. besought. grown. felt. fought. Hear. ground. bid. come. are called +Defective. (carry) bare. hit. borne. abode. begun. came. digged. kneeled. dug. Draw. in studying and in reciting these lists of irregular verbs. Lead. Past. Lade. +Remarks.+--Verbs that have both a regular and an irregular form are called +Redundant. burned. bidden. graven.Bless. cast. heard heard. had. dared. laid. Grow.+ The present participle is not here given as a principal part. Fly. eaten. fed. beat. Past Par. In this way the pupils will be saved the mechanical labor of memorizing forms which they already know how to use. clave.] [Footnote 3: Went is the past of wend.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg from an old participle suffix. hung. bled. led. cleaved. blest. found. Bleed. hid. built. Heave hove.[4] Have.Beseech. Grind. driven. hanged. went. blended. bended. chidden. fallen. Hang. Bring. burnt.] [Footnote 2: Gotten is obsolescent except in forgotten. Buy. bade. Kneel knelt. -----. to frame short sentences illustrating the proper use of the past tense and the past participle. clad.Eat. Cleave cleft. crept.Hew. flung. hewed. hanged. flown. caught. Can. blest. clung. Cast. cleft. (split) clove. In adding ing and other terminations. Keep. bit. He has begun to do better. gilt.[2] Gild. heaved. blent. fought. Bend. bore. knitted. built. and ought were originally past forms. Find. Cleave. Breed.(For)Give. crowed. cut. froze. drunk. chid. dwelt. ate. Dwell dwelt. Burst. forborne. may. gotten. drove. cloven. knelt. and they will be led to correct what has been faulty in their use of other forms. Feel. flung. Hit. drest. blown. graved. cost. Forsake. dreamt. Bite. cut. blended.Be or am. grew. I began yesterday. blessed. This accounts for their having no change in the third person. forsook. Fling. Burn burnt. bound. Beat. knew. hit. Build. (venture) dared. chose. Creep. Feed. and need not be committed to memory. (Be)Hold. beat. hewn. Bear. Cost. dreamed. drawn. bid. brought. besought.Bereave. drew. Chide. dreamed. awaked. found. Dig. had. drank.g. bereft. bound. Dream. awaked. dressed. to execute by hanging.[1] could. Drive. Flee. Awake. fell.[5] heaved. chid.] 159 TO THE TEACHER. The forms below in Italics are regular. forsaken. laded. to go. knitted. Break. known. began. brake. bought.Drink. beaten. fed. bent. blent. kept. broke. laid. as can and may. dreamt. been. Dare.(Be)Come. Bind. Begin. was. born. forbore. bereaved. [Footnote 1: Can. Forbear. crept.Do.Bid. Hide. bitten. hurt. Bear. Present. shall. bent. bred. gilded. betted. chosen. hung. Blow. blew.Gird. given. Hurt.Know. Go.(load) laden. gilt. cost.Knit knit.--It would be well to require the pupils. hid. crowed. knit.(adhere) clave. dealt. digged. bereft. hurt. bet.Dress drest. bit. burst. felt. borne. frozen. bereaved. cast.

put. as. Take. woven. throve. quitted. wound. learnt. Learn. stung. Smell. taught. strowed. Shine. Seethe. learned. rapt. rapped. Put. wept. shed. shod. Let. lost. leaped. seethed.] [Footnote 2: Quoth. Sleep. stove. Tear. read. learned. Weep. Wake. ----. Sting. shred. sat. shaven. shrunk. let. told. wrought. Strive. (recline) Light. told. Stick. Send. spread. waxed. spent. Read. spilled. swollen. (to)wit. "Methinks I scent the morning air". sank. (Be)Set. staid. tore. spoiled. spent. Shoot. But it should be said that new English verbs. (A)Rise. slang Slink. or May woe be to the day. sowed. striven. sawed. stank. trodden. lent. sawn. Sweat. sprang. mowed. slid. Shred. Work. thriven. waxed. ----. and meis a "dative. lent. thrived. . Wear. thought. Split. Show. Saw. Shall. sped. shaped. rung. sold. shaved. wrung. Win. Other forms nearly obsolete are sometimes met in literature. shorn.. is used only in the first and the third person of the past tense. shot. (inclose) penned. Mean. Ride. Swell. rent. stole. ----. seethed. Shoe. Stave. made. sought. stolen. woke. wet. threw. ----. Run. Sweep. slunk. to seem. Slay. swore. swelled.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** LESSON 133. shrunk. wet. weorthan. thincan. sunken. rid. worn. Lend. Sell. smit. sunk. seen. slain. stridden. wore. to be or become) the day = Woe be to the day. ran. spoke. shrank. Wet. sweat. strown. struck. stuck. spun. sung. So that while the regular verbs are not increasing by desertions from the irregular. stove. risen. waked. Slit. strewn. took. I scent the morning air is the subject. stung. struck. ------. Rive. [Footnote 1: Lighted Is preferred to lit. pent. penned. shut. Speed. Must. slung. run. verb] since the reign of Queen Elizabeth". sweated. rid. sent. spake. now nearly obsolete. Wax. mown. spread. staved. set. strowed. rung. wrought. May. strewed. stunk. leaned. sang. In the sentence above. Swear. smelt. Seek. from whatever source derived. stayed. Past Par. split. leant. spilt." And he instances a few which since 1600 have deserted from the regular conjugation to the irregular. slitted. Say. quit. Spill. wound. smelt.[1] Lose. sweat. shapen Shave. Shrink. sodden. sunk. met. Write. shut. stunk. spoken. swept. rapped. should. rode. strove. Steal. Teach. Spring. meant. Make. sworn sware. won. lit. Pen. lighted. taken. Stink. spun. might. Ought. sheared. LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS--CONTINUED. and adds. rived. Quit. to think) = seems to me. mowed. spitten. thrown. leaped. thrust. Sow. trod. Past. smitten. Quoth I = said I. showed. Sit. Speak. ----. slung. ----. split. paid. spoilt. sheared. strung. Strew. Stay. Sink. worked. sawed. shore. thrived. smelled. put. Spend. ----. spelt. Spit. Shape. S. leant. slitted. Ring. Strike. lit. sold. Slide. set. Spoil. sown. tare. "The present disposition of the language is not only to hold firmly to the strong verbs it already possesses but . shed. rent. written. learnt. shod. trod. sought. left. pent. span. sod. shaped. lay. See. saw. Rend. met. slunk. would. quitted. lighted. shrunken. Stand. showed. or Letwoe be to the day. shone.[2] ----. Spread. slew. spilt. Spell. slept. rose. Strow. ridden.--Professor Lounsbury says. Meet. Shed. sweated. slid. read. Stride. thinks is the predicate. wrote. sprung. leapt. slidden. Smite. rang. Sing. strewed. Shear. leaned. Spin. Shake. slit. Throw. smelled. said. Rap. staved. wot. woke. smote. even to extend their number whenever possible. swung. stood. wist. thrust. wrung. shown. sowed. swum. Present. Sling. won. Shut. Rid. spit. Mow. "Modern English has lost not a single one [irregular. let. 160 Lean. quit. thought. Think. swung. Woe worth (A. worked. wept. spoilt. leapt. made. swum. lain. Wind. spelled. Weave. slit. wove. the regular verbs are slowly gaining in number. sent. shaken. String. swept. Tread. or strong. riven. slept. shone. lost. sat. spat. sped. Lie. sung. spoiled. Thrive. waxen. not thencan. swelled. shot. left. rived. sprung. waked. Will. Swim. Leave. spit. spilled. staid. strung. form their past tense and participle in ed. meant. spelt. shook. torn. spelled.] NOTE. stuck.. "Woe worth the day. shaved. shred. Pay. Tell. Leap. said. stayed. stood. paid. Thrust. swam. strode. ----. quoth. stricken. taught. Swing. S." or a pronoun used adverbially." Methinks (A. rapt. Wring.

3. +walkedst+. +walkest+. (You) will have /Past Par. 3. (You) will /Pres. Singular. (We) shall /Pres./. 1. 2././. 2. (We) shall have /Past Par. As a substitute for other inflections we prefix auxiliary verbs. (We) have /Past Par. PAST PERFECT TENSE./. 374./.--Fill out the following forms. are referred to pages 373. 3. 1. regular verbs have six--+walk+. (I) /Past/. (They) have /Past Par./.. (We) /Pres. 1./+s./. 3. (You) had /Past Par. 161 CONJUGATION [Footnote: We give the conjugation of the verb in the simplest form consistent with what is now demanded of a text-book. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. (You) /Past/. (You) had /Past Par. +sees+. (I) have /Past Par./ FUTURE PERFECT TENSE./. past participle +walked+:-INDICATIVE MODE. (We) had /Past Par. 1. (They) /Pres. Plural. 2. 2./+est. 2. using the principal parts of the verb walk--present +walk+. (They) will /Pres. 3.[1]. (They) will have /Past Par. Those who wish to reject the Potential Mode. 3. (You) have /Past Par./ 2. (Thou) /Past/+st+. +walks+. 1. FORMS OF THE VERB--CONTINUED./. 1. +seeing+. (He) had /Past Par. +Direction+. 2. ]--SIMPLEST FORM./. (He)./. 1. 1./. .. (He) will /Pres. (You) will have /Past Par. +sawest+. past +walked+. REMARK./. and who prefer a more elaborate and technical classification of the mode and tense forms. (I) had /Past Par./. (You) will /Pres. 1./. +seest+. Much of this scheme might well be omitted. 2./. (They) had /Past Par. (They) /Past/. FUTURE TENSE. (I) shall /Pres.will have. (He) /Past/./.--English verbs have few inflections compared with those of other languages. (Thou) ha-+st+ /Past Par. (You) /Pres. +seen+./.[1] 3. (You) /Pres.. 3./. +walked+./. 1. (Thou) wil-+t+ have /Past Par./. 2./. 2. (You) have /Past Par. (He) /Pres. 3.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** LESSON 134. +walking+. 1./. +saw+.. or periphrastic. forms./. 2. (Thou) /Pres. 1. (I) shall have /Past Par. 3. PRESENT TENSE. and make what are called compound./././Past Par. PAST TENSE. 2./. Some irregular verbs have seven forms--+see+. 3././../ (Thou) had-+st+ /Past Par. (I) /Pres./. (We) /Past/. 3. (Thou) wil-+t+ /Pres. (He) ha-+s+ /Past Par. (You) /Past/.

/. 3. 1. may be used in a true subjunctive sense. (They) might have /Past Par. 2. 1. In parsing./. If he had known. (If he) /Pres. (They) may /Pres. 2. common style. and should are independent verbs in the indicative. (He) might have /Past Par. Should he fall. are exceptional./. Such forms as If he have loved./. with a subjunctive meaning. old style. (I) might /Pres. 2./. eth is added. (You) may /Pres. can. [Footnote 2: Those who do not wish to recognize a Potential Mode. 1./. (You) might /Pres. (You) might have /Past Par. 1. 2. (Thou) may-+st+ /Pres. (We) may have /Past Par. 3.[3] PRESENT TENSE. (We) may /Pres./. (He) may have /Past Par. 2. and even these ate giving way to the indicative./. 3./. (You) may have /Past Par. (He) might /Pres. (You) may have /Past Par. 3. as. without regard to its being or becoming a fact. (If thou) /Pres. (Thou) might-+st+ /Pres./. (Thou) might-+st+ have /Past Par. might. 2. Singular. old style. 1./ 3. In the third person. Plural. (You) might /Pres. e. (I) might have /Past Par./. singular. the verbs in such constructions may be treated as indicative or potential. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. etc. 2. stis sometimes added in stead of est./. (Thou) may-+st+ have /Past Par. 2. 3./. a classification based strictly .. (He) may /Pres. but in these cases it is not the form of the verb but the connective or something in the construction of the sentence that determines the manner of assertion. 3. 1. 1. (We) might /Pres./. (You) might have /Past Par. es is added when s will not unite. are referred to pages 370-374./././. but prefer the unsatisfactory task of determining when may. (You) may /Pres./. could. The offices of the different mode and tense forms are constantly interchanging. Had he been. (They) might /Pres. i. (They) may have /Past Par. 2. second./. would. (We) might have /Past Par. and in the third person. and when auxiliaries in the subjunctive././.] POTENTIAL MODE./.] SUBJUNCTIVE MODE././. (I) may /Pres./. Singular. 1. 3. 3./. It is true that other forms.[2] PRESENT TENSE./. PAST TENSE. must./. Singular. The only distinctive forms remaining (except for the verb be) are the second and the third person singular of the present. what is merely thought of. PAST PERFECT TENSE. to assert what is a mere conception of the mind.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 162 [Footnote 1: In the indicative present. (I) may have /Past Par./ [Footnote 3: The subjunctive as a form of the verb is fading out of the language.

meaning toward. In the expressions.e. "Shut the gates for to preserve the town.. though they have no antecedent term of relation. or as does the to in He was spoken to.] IMPERATIVE MODE. and would confuse the learner. /Pres. making the three forms alike.[4] PRESENT TENSE. as does an auxiliary. Let them talk. it became usual in Elizabethan literature to place for before the to." "Perish the thought" = "May the thought perish. it performs its proper function as a preposition. but without expressing relation. it seems merely to introduce the phrase. Hen. VI. Some would find a first and a third person imperative in such sentences as "Now tread we a measure". (To)[5] /Pres. some grammarians make a first and a third person imperative. and let is not of the first person. dative to etanne. I am inclined to believe. we do not see why it should change its name./ (you or ye). to was used with the infinitive only in the dative case. Plural. nominative etan (to eat). as." i. Those who call it a part of the verb confuse the learner by speaking of it as the "preposition to" (which./ [Footnote 5: To. Part III. for it in no way affects the meaning. 2. This dative of the infinitive."--K. is not treated as a part of the verb. We cannot see that to is a part of the verb. But us is not the subject of the verb-phrase let-sing.."] INFINITIVES. /Pres. for. the idea of purpose had to be conveyed by the infinitive. For me to do this would be wrong./ (To) have /Past Par. Singular. and the infinitive singis the objective complement. When. with to." But these verbs express strong wish or desire and by some grammarians are called "optative subjunctives. as." or "I desire that the thought may perish.] PARTICIPLES . 163 [Footnote 4: From such forms as Let us sing. the to came to be used before the nominative and the accusative. as they have said. as indicated by the (). Overthe fence is out of danger. 2.. after the dropping of the ne ending. When the infinitive phrase is used as a noun."-Greene. Us is the object complement of let. In the Anglo-Saxon. accusative e:tan./ (you or thou). When a word loses its proper function without taking on the function of some other part of speech. placed before that of which it forms a part --placed before itself. was used mainly to indicate purpose. PRESENT TENSE. having us for its assumed subject. I came to hear. the to expresses no relation. "What went ye out for to see?"-Bible. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. Writers on language are generally agreed that when to introduces an infinitive phrase used as an adjective or an adverb. few grammarians would hesitate to call forand over prepositions.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg on meaning would be very difficult. etc. When the dative ending ne was dropped. "Perish the thought. "And for to deck heaven's battlements. is not a preposition) "placed before the infinitive. where it had its proper function as a preposition." or "Let the thought perish.

(You) had been ---. (We) are ----. 1.--Learn the following forms. (You) are ---. (Thou) art ----./ Having /Past Par. art. (I) was ----. 2. (I) have been ----. (They) have been ----.or 2. 2. +can+. TO THE TEACHES. +would+. Do is prefixed to the imperative also. We be. (Thou) wast ----. and +should+. (We) were ----. 3. and +must+ are potential auxiliaries in the present and the present perfect tense. in the past and the past perfect. He beth or bes. (Thou) wilt be ----. 2. The +emphatic+ form of the present and the past tense indicative is made by prefixing +do+ and +did+ to the present. are are from as.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg PRESENT PAST PAST PERFECT. 1. Am = as-m (m is the m in me). 3. (We) have been ----. (You) were ----. (They) will be ----. (He) is ----. (You) have been ----. (Thou) hadst been ----. (We) shall be ----. (He) has been ----. (You) will be ---. (You) will be ----. regular and irregular.] +Direction+. Am. (He) had been ----. 1.or 2. (They) are ----. [Footnote: The conjugation of be contains three distinct roots--as. (He) will be ----. was.--Require the pupils to fill out these forma with other verbs.or 2. using the auxiliaries named above. Plural. 2. PRESENT TENSE. 3. FORMS OF THE VERB-CONTINUED. FUTURE TENSE. 3. 3. 3. Art = as-t (t is the th in thou). 3.or 2./+ing+. (You) are ----. (He) was ----. 1. Be was formerly conjugated. Ye be. Thou beest. (You) had been ----. 1. (I) shall be ----. 1. (I) am ----. 3. (They) were ----. be. PAST PERFECT 1.or 2. CONJUGATION OF THE VERB +BE+. (They) had been ----. (We) had been ----. /Pres. 3. . I be. (You) have been ---. is. /Past Par. 1. (Thou) hast been ----. +could+. 3. (You) were ---. 1. paying no attention to the line at the right of each verb:-INDICATIVE MODE. (I) had been ----. ***** LESSON 135. 1. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. Singular. 2. +might+. They be. PAST TENSE./ 164 +May+.

3. 2. PBESENT TENSE. (To) have been ----. 2. PAST TENSE. (They) might have been ----. PARTICIPLES. 3. (You) may have been ---. 165 1. 3. (He) might be ----. 1. (You) might be ----. (You) might have been ---. PAST. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. (You) may have been ----.or 2. Having been ----. 1. 1. (If thou) mayst have been ----. (You) will have been ---. 2. 1. 1. Singular. (If he) may have been ----. (He) might have been ----. 2.or 2. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. PRESENT. PAST PERFECT. 3. 2. 1. (We) might be ----. Singular. 1.1.or 2. (He) may be ----. PAST TENSE. Been. PAST PERFECT TENSE. .1. 3. (We) may have been ----. (If we) may have been ----. PRESENT TENSE.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg FUTURE PERFECT TENSE. (You) might have been ----. (Thou) mayst have been ----. 3. 3. or (If thou) wert ----. (He) may have been ----.or 2. Singular. (If you) were ----. (If you) may have been ----. 3. SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. (Thou) mayst be ----. (We) might have been ----. Being ----. 1. 1. (I) might be ----. 3. PRESENT TENSE. (They) may be ----. (Thou) mightst be ----. (If I) may have been ----. (If they) may have been ----. (Thou) mightst have been ----. (They) may have been ----. Plural. (We) shall have been ----. (You) might be ---.2. 2. Be (you or thou) ----. POTENTIAL MODE. 3.or 2. (I) shall have been ----. (He) will have been ----. (I) may be ----.or 2. (If he) were ----. (You) may be ---. (You) will have been ----. IMPERATIVE MODE. (They) might be ----. Singular. (Thou) wilt have been ----. (If you) may have been ---. 2. 3. (To) be ----. (They) will have been ----. PRESENT TENSE. Plural. Plural. (You) may be ----. INFINITIVES. (If I) were -----. 3.1. Be (you or ye) ----. (I) might have been ----. 2. 3. (I) may have been ----. (We) may be ----.

it has grown rapidly into good use. having been choosing. While the flesh was in seething.. Simplest form. in the preceding Lesson. chosen.--The progressive form is sometimes used with a passive meaning.--Select other verbs. Being chosen. or was being built. as. The birds are singing. CONJUGATION--PROGRESSIVE AND PASSIVE FORMS.e. as. Being choosing. The house is building.* ------. We say. In modern language the preposition is dropped. Lesson 138. the so-called neologism has pushed its way. Another passive progressive form. TO THE TEACHER. Present. Past Perfect. The child is whipping. A transitive verb is conjugated in the +passive voice+ by joining its past participle to the different forms of the verb be. the new form stands to the old in about the ratio of three to one. when its subject might be taken to name either the actor or the receiver. FORMS OF THE VERB--CONTINUED. As now used. had chosen.--The progressive form denotes a continuance of the action or being. has recently appeared in our language--The house is being built. Passive form. having been chosen. 166 A verb is conjugated in the +progressive form+ by joining its present participle to the different forms of the verb be. [Footnote *: This form is not commonly used. I love the child--not I am loving the child. +Direction+. read. it is never compound. Past. Choosing.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** LESSON 136. Require them to give synopses of all the forms.--Write and arrange as above all the participles of the verbs break. The prisoner is trying. know--should not be conjugated in the progressive form. especially in England. +Remarks+. Progressive form. a contraction from on or in. Verbs that in their simple form denote continuance--such as love.] +Direction+. In such cases the word in ing was once a verbal noun preceded by the preposition a. i. and require the pupils to conjugate them in the progressive and in the passive form. drive. Introduced only to prevent ambiguity. chosen.--Conjugate the verb choose in the progressive form by filling all the blanks left after the different forms of the verb be. having chosen. respect. The past participle of the passive is not formed by the aid of be. While the ark was a preparing.) In the progressive. as. and then in the passive form by filling these blanks with the past participle chosen. Require them in some of their synopses to . lift. Such a form seems to be needed when the simpler form would be ambiguous. as. consisting of the verb be completed by the present passive participle. All the participles of the verb choose are arranged in order below. and is found where the old form would not be ambiguous. Although condemned by many linguists as awkward and otherwise objectionable. +Remark+. the past participle is wanting. and the word in ing is treated adjectively. The past participle of a transitive verb is always passive except in such forms as have chosen. Notice that after the past participle of the verb be no blank is left. with the present participle choosing. (See have written.

***** LESSON 138. and +should write+ may each be resolved into an asserting word and an infinitive. might write. (2) negatively. it was common to use the simple form of the present and past tenses interrogatively and negatively thus: Loves he? I know not. of the verb walk conjugated (1) interrogatively. Remember that the indicative and the potential are the only modes that can be used interrogatively. Not is placed before the infinitive and the participles. . or +periphrastic. could write. and a participle used as attribute complement.--Write a synopsis in the third person. +May write. Does he sing? A verb may be conjugated +negatively+ by placing not after the first auxiliary. and that write is an infinitive used as object complement. as. He does not sing. A question with negation is expressed in the indicative and potential modes by placing the subject and not after the first auxiliary. forms+ of the verb consisting of two words may each be resolved into an +asserting word and a participle+ or an +infinitive+. and (3) so as to express a question with negation. Does he not sing? +Remark+. but in prose they are now scarcely used. Require the pupils to give synopses of all the forms. CONJUGATION--CONTINUED. as they do not take the auxiliary do. was written+. as. we shall find that the so-called auxiliary is the real verb.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg use it or some noun for the subject in the third person. I will write+. 167 A verb may be conjugated +interrogatively+ in the indicative and potential modes by placing the subject after the first auxiliary. The forms +is writing. +I do write = I do+ or +perform+ the action (to) write. must write. I will write = I determine+ (to) +write+. The +compound+.--Formerly. INTERROGATIVE AND NEGATIVE FORMS. To THE TEACHER. would write+. Is it right? Have you another? +Direction+. Does he love? I do not know. The verbs be and have are exceptions. singular. not to sing. can write. etc. Such forms are still common in poetry. We say. as. consist each of an asserting word (the verb be). and require the pupils to conjugate them negatively and interrogatively in the progressive and in the passive form. COMPOUND FORMS--ANALYSIS. We say. I shall write. not singing. If we look at the original meaning of the forms +I do write. ***** LESSON 137.--Select other verbs. +I shall write = I owe+ (to) +write. as. MODE AND TENSE FORMS.

and +may have+ is composed of the auxiliary +may+ and the infinitive +have+. idioms having the almost universal popular and literary sanction of centuries. 6. You should have been working. the idea of expediency giving place to that of obligation. etc. +Examples+. Birds are flown.--Study what has been said above and analyze the following verbal forms. They originated from such expressions as I have a letter written." "I had as lief not be. Of these expressions the "Standard Dictionary. The expression means. the critics insisting upon the substitution of would or should. The expression equals. (3) what frequently or habitually takes place. Birds have flown.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 168 The forms +have written+ and +had written+ are so far removed from their original meaning that their analysis cannot be made to correspond with their history.e. "If for 'You had better stay at home' we substitute 'You should betterstay at home. 2. 11. He may have been tired and sleepy. She is singing." In the analysis of "I had rather go. in the matter. He writes for the newspapers (habitual). from which comes the idea of preference. 12. are flown. Rather is the comparative of the old adjective rathe = early. He mounts the scaffold. The sun gives light (true at all times). being now regularly used instead of the more logical perfect tense forms. "I should hold going preferable. I may be mistaken. 10. it is a modifier of had. and it is used (5) in describing past or future events as if occurring at the time of the speaking. and written is a passive participle modifying letter. Stars have disappeared. 8. for had. says:-"Forms disputed by certain grammatical critics from the days of Samuel Johnson. and the participle has lost its passive meaning. The idea of possession has faded out of have. The farm was sold. 'I would rather not go' is undoubtedly correct when the purpose is to emphasize the element of choice. but had rather and had better are thoroughly established English. The use of this form has been extended to intransitive verbs--Spring has come."] Compounds of more than two words may be analyzed thus: +May have been written+ is composed of the compound auxiliary +may have been+ and the participle +written. may have been+ is composed of the compound auxiliary +may have+ and the participle +been+.--I hear a voice (action as present). i." are similar in construction to "I had rather go. etc. the . (Is come. as the case may demand. condemned by many grammarians who suppose had to be here used incorrectly for would or should. Phillips speaks in Boston to-morrow night (future). the infinitive go is the object complement. is objective complement.) [Footnote: A peculiar use of had is found in the expressions had rather go and had better go. must not be mistaken for transitive verbs in the passive voice. I shall be contented." an authority worthy of our attention. or will. (2) what is true at all times. 9. (4) what is to take place in the future. If sooner is here allowed as an idiom. TENSE FORMS--MEANING. I shall be satisfied. distinguishing carefully between participles that may be considered as part of the verb and words that must be treated as attribute complements:-1. Times will surely change." had is the predicate verb." The expressions "You had better stay." "I had sooner go" is condemned by grammarians because sooner is never an adjective. May is the asserting word--the first auxiliary is always the asserting word. 4. but in all ordinary cases 'I had rathernot go' has the merit of being idiomatic and easily and universally understood. +Direction+. "I should more willingly have going. Has it been decided? 5. 3. and the adjective rathercompletes had and belongs to go. The +Present Tense+ is used to express (1) what is actually present.. Spring is come.' an entirely different meaning is expressed. Had(= should hold or regard) is treated as a past subjunctive. The danger might have been avoided. The rule has not been observed. in which have ( = possess) is a transitive verb taking letter for its object complement. 7.

| | | | | | | | . you would miss me (future events). (future events now seen in vision). Cicero has written orations. +Examples+.) The +Future Perfect Tense+ expresses action to be completed at some specified future time. Oh! it has a voice for those who on their sick beds lie and waste away.--I shall have seen him by to-morrow noon. A triangle has three sides.. she moves. To-morrow is the day appointed. He will become discouraged before he has thoroughly tried it.|Mode. they bleed.--I had seen him when I met you (action completed at a specified past time). |Case. and (4) it may refer to present time.. (3) a future event. Tr. ---------|-----------------|---------------------------------------------| Sentence. a period of time--an hour. I would try that. Plato reasons well. +Example+. |Nom. and describe carefully the time expressed by each of the following verbs:-1. When I have finished this. 169 The +Past Tense+ may express (1) simply past action or being. | MODIFICATIONS. The ship sails next week. I could have saved you much trouble. |Sub-C. She sings well. 13.|Tense. The +Present Perfect Tense+ expresses (1) action or being as completed in present time (i. I go to the city to-morrow. 17. you shall have it (action to be completed in a future period). If he were here.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg executioners approach to bind him.--The birds sang (simply past action). he struggles. he would enjoy this (refers to present time). 11. 7. etc. 10. 9. Moses has told many important facts. +Examples+.| Neut.--Study what has been said above about the meaning of the tense forms. If I were you. +Examples+.| Gen. (2) a habit or custom as future or as indefinite in time. The clans of Culloden arescattered in fight. She starts. etc. He will sitthere by the hour (indefinite in time). 3. | | | |Sing. | Ind. and (2) in a conditional or hypothetical clause it may express past time. The first column of each table has been repeated for easier reference. 2. |Per. |Def. 12. | " | " | | | a |Adj. 15. +Model for Written Parsing adapted to all Parts of Speech+.|Class. 14. If I should go.e. The +Past Perfect Tense+ expresses (1) action or being as completed at some specified past time.--I shall write soon (simply future action).--Homer has written poems (the period of time affected by this completed action embraces the present). | has |Vb.|Pres. He would sit for hours and watch the smoke curl from his pipe. 6. I should have written (I hadnot time--I did not write. (2) a past habit or custom. He will occasionally lose his temper. The village master taught his little school. | | | | | | | | | it |Pro. resists.| ad. and (2) action or being to be completed in a future period. At the end of this week I shall have been in school four years. 5. she seems to feel the thrill of life along her keel. 8. |Ir. If I had had time. You may hear when the next mail arrives. they rally. The +Future Tense+ may express (1) simply future action or being. 4. [Transcriber's Note: The following two tables have been split to fit within Project Gutenberg line-width requirements. an age--of which the present forms a part). (past events pictured to the imagination as present). He wrote for the newspapers (past habit). |Per. |Voice. a year. 16. | Act. +Direction+.| | | | | | | | | | | Oh! |Int. Had I known this before.|Num.] |CLASSIFICATION. +Examples+.

| Act.Int. | | | | " | " | " |Obj. ---------|-------|----------------------------------..--Correct the following errors.|Mode. CONSTRUCTION OF MODE AND TENSE FORMS..| Ind.| " | " | " | " | | | away. |Place..|Pres. sick | Pos. Tr.| " | who |Pro. phrase.| -. wanders |Pred. Ir. away. She sets by the open window enjoying the scene that lays before her. | Act. |Co-or.| *seek |Inf. | | | | " | " | " |Nom. | | | | | | | | | their |Pro.|Modifier of voice. wanders away to seek new lands. |Per. |Sing. of| | Comp. | -. | selling |Mod. |Reg. 3. | " |M. selling his farm. | -. of beds. and | |Connects lie and waste. beds | |Prin.| *selling|Pr. | | | | | | | | -------------------------------------------------------------------------| | SYNTAX. For the agreement of verbs. sit (to rest) . |Voice.] (See Model for Written Parsing on opposite page.| Oh! | |Independent.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 170 voice |N. word in Prep. +Direction+. +Caution+. who | |Subject of lie and waste. according to the Model below.. |Com. waste | |Predicate of who.| | | | | | | | | | SYNTAX --------|--------.|Num.|Modifier of waste. word in Prep. set (to place) is transitive. the verbs in the sentences of Lesson 42.Int. of Yankee. +Model for Written Parsing--Verbs+.--Select and parse.--Lay (to place) is transitive. CLASSIFICATION. | lie |Vb. |Des. of Yankee. 2. see Lesson 142. voice | |Object comp of has.|Ind. |Com.| " | -. |Obj. those | |Prin. |Rel. | | | | " | " | " |Pos.| wanders |Reg. | | | | | | | | | those |Pro.. a | -.| -.Verbs. | | | | | | | | waste |Vb. | | | |Plu.|Deg. Ir. of has to those.| -. |Per. I done it myself. |Modifier of beds. | | | | | | | | beds |N.--For further exercises in parsing the verb and for exercises in general parsing. seek |Prin. | -. or F. for I seen him when he done it. | Kind. | " | " | | | and |Conj.| 3d. +Direction+. select from the preceding Lessons on Analysis. on | |Shows Rel. |Ir. lie (to rest) is intransitive. Par. Int. He throwed it into the river. for | |Shows Rel. ***** LESSON 139 PARSING. |Pres. of lie to beds. | | | | " | " | Neut. of wanders.. it | |Subject of has.) ***** LESSON 140. +Explanation+. [Footnote: Participles and infinitives have neither person nor number. word in phrase | Mod. has | |Predicate of it. | for |Prep. ---------------------------|------------------------------| Verbs. |Adv. | on |Prep.Sentence.--Be careful to give every verb its proper form and meaning.|Tense. and give your reasons:-1. their | |Possessive Mod. lie | |Predicate of who. phrase. Tr. | -. |Adj. ----------------------------------------------------TO THE TEACHER. | sick |Adj.| -. | -.. | MODIFICATIONS.--The Yankee.

18. He has went and done it without my permission. unless. Though honey be sweet. the difficulty would vanish. there must be valleys between. Set down and talk a little while. If it (should) rain. 7. for I seen him when he done it. it is true. He run till he became so weary that he was forced to lay down. 7. I had began to think that you had forsook us. and in (12) the subjunctive mode is used in place of the potential. he would enjoy this. I found the water froze. 3. we should still believe in it. the work will be delayed. Some valuable land was overflown. +Explanation+. If this were so. 34. Your dress sets well. +Examples+. 23. I guess that I will stop. There is an indirect question in (9). The leaves had fell.1. The sun sits in the west. I wish the lad were taller. but these words are now more frequently followed by the indicative than by the subjunctive. 22. But when the action or being in such a clause is merely thought of as a contingency. the work will be delayed. 24. In (2) the speaker is uncertain of the fact.--A conditional or a concessive clause takes a verb in the indicative mode when the action or being is assumed as a fact. 6. 9. he will call this . The water I drunk there was better than any that I had drank before. 27. 11. 12. 32. 20. The subjunctive is frequently used in indirect questions. 5. +Remarks+. why do you go? 2. I cannot go out. Though it rain to-morrow. She come just after you left. The present subjunctive forms may be treated as infinitives used to complete omitted auxiliaries. 26. it cannot be used after had to form a compound tense.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg is intransitive. use the indicative. 3. 25. I am afraid that I cannot learn him to do it.--In (1) the raining is assumed as a fact. If to-morrow be fine. 29. One may doubt whether the best men be known. in expressing a wish for that which it is impossible to attain at once or at all. I did not see him.-. The speaker is certain of the truth of what is hypothetically expressed in the conditional clause of (5) and in the concessive clause of (6). Go and lay down. 19. It were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck. In the conditional clause of (3) and in the concessive clause of (4) the raining is thought of as a mere contingency. 21. This will often serve as a guide in distinguishing the indicative from the subjunctive mode. Sit the plates on the table. The bird is setting on its eggs. Set in some of its meanings is intransitive. If there be mountains. 17. lest. I am setting by the river. 12. etc. are usually spoken of as signs of the subjunctive mode. Till one greater man (shall) restore us. 5. I had rode a short distance when the storm begun to gather. Can I speak to you? 35. If my friend is in town. 9.--Justify the mode of the italicized verbs in the following sentences:-1. or in such a clause the speaker prefers to put hypothetically something of whose truth or untruth he has no doubt. He has laid there an hour. I knowed that it was so. one can't make a meal of it. I laid there an hour. I have got no mother. Oh! that I were a Samson in strength. He sat out for London yesterday. 28. and instead of the potential mode in independent clauses. Though immortality were improbable. The tide sits in. 15. +Caution+. 31. I expect that he has gone to Boston. If he was there. 10. If my friend were here. He flew from justice. If. 8. If (= since) it rains. 10. 2. 16. If it rains (now). a wish in (10) for something not at once attainable and in (11) for something forever unattainable. If it rain. +Explanation+. 14.--As ought is never a participle. 33. we must march.--When there is doubt as to whether the indicative or the subjunctive mode is required. 13. though. +Direction+. There ain't any use of trying. 30. He had ought to see him. or when the uncertainty lies merely in the speaker's knowledge of the fact. They sung a new tune which they had not sang before. and is certain of the untruth of what is hypothetically expressed in the conditional clause of (7) and in the concessive clause of (8). 4. 5. etc. 6. 8. I remember when the corner stone was lain. I will walk with you. 4. He raised up. the subjunctive is used. 171 4. 11. as. Though this seems improbable.

Attention to this qualification. and may therefore be allowed. 4. are followed by verbs denoting present or future time.--Be careful to employ the tense forms of the different modes in accordance with their meaning. 2. 7. it will be cold. He that was dead sat up and began to speak. If one says. Though an angel from heaven command it. I could not gratify you. 'I meant to have visited Paris and to have . If there be an eye. This sword shall end thee unless thou yield. If he comes by noon. 8. The act of calling was not completed at the time indicated by intended. Would he were fatter! 17. If he ---. expecting. +Explanation+. 6. If a pendulum is drawn to one side. +Caution+. 8. 11. which has been overlooked in the criticism of tense-formation and connection. 3. that he were a son of mine! 19. +Remark+. it should be. as it were.--This is incorrect. 14. 12. 24. 16. 15. I intended to call. I know not whether it is so or not. and in such a way as to preserve the proper order of time.--Be is often employed in making scientific statements like the preceding.a false one. etc. If he ---. 9. If he ever comes. permitting.--Correct the following errors. We should be obliged if you will favor us with a song.--Supply in each of the following sentences a verb in the indicative or the subjunctive mode. and give a reason for your choice:-1. intending. It were well it were done quickly. 3. 22. and give your reasons:-1. it will swing to the other. I must be there. is especially important and imperative. though one rose from the dead. 13. I should say that it was an hour's ride. 4. Were I so disposed. 8. What per cent does he gain? 5. and. 172 +Explanation+. That custom has been formerly quite popular. I wish it ---. Though it be cloudy to-night. we shall know it. 5. Govern well thy appetite.guilty.but discreet. He deserves our pity. desiring.in my power to help you. there would be no colors. 2. 23. hoping. The ship leaps. 20.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg evening. I wish I was in Dixie. Take heed that thou speak not to Jacob. [Footnote: The "Standard Dictionary" makes this restriction: "The doubling of the past tenses in connection with the use of have with a past participle is proper and necessary when the completion of the future act was intended before the occurrence of something else mentioned or thought of. I tremble lest he ----. we should not steal. fight. I intended to have called.he. I should have known him. +Explanation+. Oh. I wish that I were a musician. 6. the evidence does not show it. 6. A man bought a horse for one hundred dollars.--In (6) and (7) the coming is referred to as a fact to be decided in future time. +Direction+. 21. If I ---.there. 7. I did not see him. 18. lest sin surprise thee. Though he ---. at an expense of ten dollars a month. 9. Though the whole exceed a part. let me know. Whether he go or not. CONSTRUCTION OF MODE AND TENSE FORMS--CONTINUED. unless his tale ---. he sells it for two hundred dollars. ***** LESSON 141.--Verbs of commanding.men. 10. I would do differently. we sometimes prefer a part to the whole. from billow to billow. he will succeed. 7. Neither will they be persuaded. If ye ---. If a pendulum is drawn = Whenever a pendulum is drawn. after keeping it three months. +Direction+. If I had have seen him. If there were no light. it was made to see.

18. I have already told you that I was a gentleman. I am glad to have met you is correct. I should not have let you eaten it. 20. 17. Will I go?--i.--The original meaning of shall (to owe. as. I ought to have gone is exceptional. These are the proper forms to express mere futurity. e. Shall I go? Here the speaker puts himself under the control of some external influence--the will of another. in either case the one who goes is under some external influence. . I should have liked to have seen it. I will go. Is it my will to go?--is not used except to repeat another's question. at the time indicated by the principal verb. to be obliged) and will (to determine) gives us the real key to their proper use. as. He shall go. giving it the form of an indirect quotation.--What is true or false at all times is generally expressed in the present tense. 15. In the second and third persons it is more courteous to refer to the will of others than to their duty. 14. The experiment proved that air had weight. +Caution+. 12. There seems to be danger of applying this rule too rigidly. When a speaker does not wish to vouch for the truth of the general proposition. You ought to have helped me to have done it.--I shall go. We hoped to have seen you often.."] The present infinitive expresses an action as present or future. and the present perfect expresses it as completed. He said that iron was the most valuable of metals. He either promises or determines to go. The wind will blow. Even this may be a kind of personification. We expected that he would have arrived last night.. use shall and should to imply that the one named by the subject is under the control of external influence.' the past [present perfect] infinitive . The General maintained that there was not.. +Remark+. because the meeting took place before the time of being glad. Our fathers held that all men were created equal. +Remark+. as. is necessary for the expression of the completion of the acts purposed. 10. You will go. 'I meant to visit Paris and to returnto London before my father arrived from America. whatever tense precedes. and so the present perfect infinitive is used to make the expression refer to past time. +Examples+. He will go. Here the action is under the control of the speaker's will. In the first person the speaker avoids egotism by referring to the act as an obligation or duty rather than as something under the control of his own will.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 173 returned to London before my father arrived from America. Ought has no past tense form.' may convey suggestively the thought intended. He would not have dared done that. but even here we can trace the original meaning of shall and will. We then fell into a discussion whether there is any beauty independent of utility. The tense of the dependent verb is sometimes attracted into that of the principal verb. The only case in which some trace of the original meaning of these auxiliaries cannot be found is the one in which the subject of will names something incapable of volition. I knewwhere the place was. 11. You shall go. I had never known before how short life really was. he may use the past tense. It would be absurd for one to ask what his own will is. Dr. Here the speaker either promises the going or determines to compel these persons to go. 16.--Use will and would to imply that the subject names the one whose will controls the action. but does not express it. 19. 13. Johnson maintained that there was.

Shall you be at liberty to-day? 4. Where will I leave you? 2. Will you go? Ans. You did better than I ---. Shallhe go? Ans. Truth. He knew who ---. crushed to earth. Thou shalt surely die. In this example the events are future as to past time.come by noon. I think we will have rain. 9. +Direction+.betray him.see it. should. He will. My friend said that he should not set out to-morrow.be disappointed if you ---.have done. 7. and I ---.not endure it. They do me wrong.you be unhappy. and refer to his subordinate's willingness to obey.you be ready? 5. I ---. The same principles apply to should and would that apply to shall and will. 9.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 174 Shall you go? Ans. 4. I shall. Though I should receive a thousand shekels of silver in mine hand. I ---. He says that he will go. They requested that the appointment would be given to a man who should be known to his party. They know that I shall be there.he be allowed to go on? 10. and give your reasons:-1. 6.be fatigued if I had walked so far. and that he would be there. yet would I not put forth my hand against the king's son. Will he go? Ans. I ---. I shall be happy to accompany you. . Change the indirect to a direct quotation. This is only an apparent exception to the rule. yet will I not deny thee. I shall never see him again. I will. He shall. or would. Though I should die.--A verb must agree with its subject in number and person.--Fill each of the following blanks with shall. ***** LESSON 142. 7. AGREEMENT. I will never see him again. I said that he should be rewarded.--Correct the following errors. ---. and that he will be there. No difficulty shall hinder me. making them future as to present time. A superior may courteously avoid the appearance of compulsion. 5. 5. It was requested that no person would leave his seat. When will we get through this tedious controversy? 6. 2. +Caution+. 4. He says that he shall go.--VERBS--PRONOUNS. ---. 6. Hear me. and the application of the Caution will be apparent. 3.be greatly obliged if you ---. if I do not come? +Direction+. shall rise again. If he ---. 2.--Assign a reason for the use of shall or will in each of the following sentences:-1.do me the favor. They knew that I should be there. The same auxiliary is used in the question that is used in the answer. but is to be kept under the control of the speaker. will. You will see that my horse is at the door by nine o'clock. +Direction+.be guilty of falsehood. CONSTRUCTION OF NUMBER AND PERSON FORMS. 10. and the force of should will be seen.say so. Change the indirect quotations introduced by that to direct quotations. ---. for I will speak. 8. Will I be in time? 3. The difficulty that might do the hindering is not to be left to itself. If you will call. You ---. 8. If I ---. 3. and give the reasons for your choice:-1. we have.

3. Mary and I shall (not will) be busy to-morrow.l. as. most verbs have one person form. the verb is in the first person. as.) 4. When the subjects are emphatically distinguished. as.--Practically. as. and the verb agrees with the nearest. +Caution+. you. When several subjects follow the verb. We say. as. the plural subject is generally placed next to the verb. you and he = you. Time. The multitude was too large to number. as. except when he confesses a fault. and not pleasure.-.--l. each subject may be emphasized by making the verb agree with that which stands nearest. many a. In the solemn style. the verb agrees with the affirmative. 4. as. the third person singular adds +eth+. is a contraction of the indicative present--ha(ve)s). it is generally more polite for the speaker to mention the one addressed first. it must agree with them in the plural. +st+. I. 3. (See Lessons 134 and 135. it is generally better to express the verb with each subject or to recast the sentence. are generally used instead of needs and dares. (The same is true of subjects connected by as well as. and.--When one of two or more subjects connected by and is of the first person. in the present perfect tense. Thine is the kingdom and the power and the glory. The number present was not ascertained. occupy his time. and child was lost. the verb agrees in person and number with the nearest. or +t+. 2. every. when one of the subjects is of the second person. When the connected subjects are different names of the same thing. The verb be has +am+ (first person) and +is+ (third person). +Are+ and +were+ are the only plural forms retained by the English verb. when the collection as a whole is thought of. and patience also. the verb is in the second person.--When a verb has two or more subjects connected by and. +Caution+. A number were inclined to turn back. made by adding +s+ or +es+ (has. as well as patience. In the common style. this rule applies to but few forms. Books. they are taken separately. and himself last. Time. Neither he nor they were satisfied. or when they name several things taken as one whole. but. +Remarks+. +Caution+. and none of the first. 2.--When two or more subjects are connected by or or nor. the verb should be singular. When the connected subjects are preceded by each. My old friend and schoolmate is in town. In using pronouns of different persons. is needed.--When a singular and a plural subject are used. woman. in the indicative present. Neither poverty nor wealth was desired. the verb must be singular. When the subjects require different forms of the verb. The multitude were of one mind.) Need and dare. +Examples+. +Exceptions+. He need not do it. is needed. When one of the subjects is affirmative and the other negative. He dare not do it. and he = we. Every man. as. 5.--A collective noun requires a verb in the plural when the individuals in the collection are thought of. . the verb agrees with the first and is understood with the second. +Remark+. or no. the second person singular takes the ending +est+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 175 +Remarks+. Bread and milk is excellent food. when followed by an infinitive without to.

Either the master or his servants is to blame. 2. 8. 20. Where was you? 7. and not the body. 10. Mexican figures. 5. 10. 25. Nine o'clock and forty-five minutes is fifteen minutes of ten. They who write.--Correct the following errors. 30. by attraction. 26. 12. He who writes. Neither the servants nor their master are to blame. and both are defended. and give your reasons:-1. 3. 19. It is the dews and showers that make the grass grow. 21. 19. She fell to laughing like one out of their right mind. not words. There is several reasons for this. 14. 12. 7. Is the number four thought of as a whole. The House has decided not to allow its members the privilege. [Footnote: The verb here agrees with figures. no. He don't like it. The lowest mechanic. 6. "No. To profess and to possess are two different things. Young's "Night Thoughts" is his most celebrated poetical work. Neither the intellect nor the heart are capable of being driven. as. the person and number of the complement when this complement immediately precedes the adjective clause." says I. The mind. Three times four is twelve." says they. 5. gender. 26. The nation are prosperous. Talking and eloquence are not the same. No time. 29. sin. and they asked to be discharged. 18. 16. 14. Every book and every paper was found in its place.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 176 +Caution+. This orator and statesman has gone to his rest. I want every one of you to decide for themselves. Every one of these are good in their place. or are the individual units composing it thought of? The expression = Four taken three times is twelve. There are one or two reasons. Twice as much is too much. The assembly was divided in its opinion. Now. 13. The second and the third Epistle of John contain each a single chapter. 23.] 31. the tendency is to make the verb agree with the noun expressed.] 6. John. 30. Man is masculine because it denotes a male. [Footnote: When two adjectives differing in number are connected without a repetition of the noun. 20. 11. 17. 3. The good are great. The committee were unable to agree. 24. One or the other have erred in their statement. Therein consists the force and use and nature of language. no money. 18. It is I that am in the wrong. The hue and cry of the country pursues him. Neither you nor he is to blame. One of you are mistaken. requires a plural verb. were spared. is going. as well as men. . 13. even when singular. 15. and his sister also. Five dollars is not too much. Books is a noun. Many a heart and home have been desolated by drink. Neither wealth nor wisdom is the chief thing. Plutarch's "Parallel Lives" are his great work. 31. Two hours is a long time to wait. 21. but strong proofs bring conviction. as well as the richest citizen. Flesh and blood hath not revealed it. The three special Cautions given above for the agreement of the verb will also aid in determining the agreement of the pronoun with its antecedent. 25. "We agree. Neither of them have recited their lesson. as picture-writing is logically explanatory of figures. +Remarks+. and person. 4. +Direction+. or picture-writing. were needed. The question is (see Caution for collective nouns). 27. Each of these expressions denote action.--A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in number. is here protected in his right. Many a kind word and many a kind act has been put to his credit. Five years' interest are due. What sounds have each of the vowels? 4. Every one is accountable for his own acts. 16. The pronoun you. 9. Thou who writest. 2.--Justify the use of the following italicized verbs and pronouns:-1. 28. Either you or I am right. The tongs are not in their place. 8. as. Nine-tenths of every man's happiness depend upon this. 32. The public is invited to attend. Money. 17. 24. no labor. To relieve the wretched was his pride. It is thou that liftest me up. Not a loud voice. +Direction+. boys. 23. 9. represent things. 11. 22. Times is a noun used adverbially. Why are dust and ashes proud? 27. 22. The committee were full when this point was decided. Three quarters of the men was discharged. 15. [Footnote: "Three times four is twelve" and "Three times four are twelve" are both used.] 29. etc. There comes the boys. 28.--The pronoun and the verb of an adjective clause relating to the indefinite subject it take. Victuals are always plural. Our welfare and security consists in unity.

134. Past Perfect. 131. | Participles. 134-137). To assert action. Singular.--Lessons 129.Present. form the plural? Illustrate. Define the several voices.--See suggestions to the teacher. Irregular (92. Some which are always plural. Past Perfect. + 131. Define the participle and its classes.--Classes. 130). 134-137. Indicative (131. 135. Potential (131. 137. Intransitive (92). 134. Active (129. 134. etc. 134-138. and of the person and number forms.--What are Modifications? Have English words many inflections? Have they lost any? What is Number? Define the singular and the plural number. 4. Transitive (92). Lesson 112. Present. First.--Lessons 140. page 255*. 1. | Past. Plural. +Questions on the Verb+. How do compounds form the plural? Illustrate the several ways. 142. Define the modifications of the verb. Form. TO THE TEACHER. | Person. Some which have no plural. Analyze the different mode and tense forms.--Lesson 138. 3. or state. modes. Tense. | Present Perfect. Define the verb and its classes. | Future. 5. Voice.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg GENERAL REVIEW. 11) To assume action. Lesson 113. ***** LESSON 143. Mode. Subjunctive (131.--Lessons 129. and tenses. 136. Give a synopsis of a regular and of an irregular verb in all the different forms. + 131. 135.-. What is said of the .| 131. 8. 130). Some which have the same form in both numbers. figures. 135. Imperative (131. or state. 132. Define the infinitive. How is the plural of nouns regularly formed? In what ways may the plural be formed irregularly? Illustrate. 141. Participles (37) Infinitives (40) Classes. 135.--Lesson 131. Lesson 114. Present Perfect. 134-137). Third. | Past. | Future Perfect. Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of the mode and tense forms.--Lesson 131. 134-137). 141. 7. and give the functions of the different tenses. | Second. (Redundant and Defective) Meaning. | Number. 140). + 131. being. Modifications.) 177 VERB. 6. | Infinitives. REVIEW QUESTIONS. +Scheme for the Verb. 131. 133).--Lessons 92. + 131.--Lessons 134. Regular (92). 2. 132.--Give examples of nouns having each two plurals differing in meaning. How do letters.--Predicate (4. Passive (129.--Give the plural of some nouns adopted from other languages.+ (The numbers refer to Lessons. Present. Uses. being. 134. 136.| 140.

Lesson 121. and illustrate them fully. Lesson 124.--What is Gender? Define the different genders. When is a noun in the first person? In the second person? What classes of words have distinctive person forms? Why is person regarded in grammar? What is Case? Define the three cases. What word usually follows the comparative. What is the difference between sex and gender? The gender of English nouns follows what? Have English nouns a neuter form? Have all English nouns a masculine and a feminine form? In what three ways may the masculine of nouns be distinguished from the feminine? Illustrate. Decline the several personal pronouns. Give the three gender forms of the pronoun.--What one modification have adjectives? What is Comparison? Define the three degrees. Lesson 122. 178 Lesson 117. the relative and the interrogative. and when is the feminine? Illustrate. when is the masculine pronoun used. How are adjectives of more than one syllable generally compared? How are degrees of diminution expressed? Can all adjectives be compared? Illustrate. what may be used? Illustrate. .--What is Parsing? Illustrate the parsing of nouns. How are some adverbs compared? Illustrate the irregular comparison of adjectives and adverbs.--What is Declension? Decline girl and tooth.--How many case forms have nouns. and what the superlative? Give the Cautions relating to the use of comparatives and superlatives.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg number of collective nouns? Lesson 116. What is the case of a noun used independently? Of an explanatory modifier? Of an objective complement? Of a noun or pronoun used as attribute complement? Illustrate all these. REVIEW QUESTIONS. forms of the pronouns? Lesson 127.--What words in the language have each three different case forms? What are the nominative.--In what case alone can mistakes in the construction of nouns occur? Illustrate the Cautions relating to possessive forms. and what the objective. Lesson 128. What is the possessive sign? To which word of compound names or of groups of words treated as such is the sign added? Illustrate. ***** LESSON 144. Lesson 125. What is the Caution relating to gender? Lesson 119. What adjective pronouns are declined wholly or in part? Illustrate. Lesson 118. How are adjectives regularly compared? What are the Rules for Spelling? Illustrate them.--How is gender in grammar important? When is the pronoun of the masculine gender used? When is the neuter pronoun it used? By the aid of what pronouns are inanimate things personified? In personification. Lesson 123. and what are they? How is the possessive of nouns in the singular formed? Of nouns in the plural? Illustrate.--In what four ways may the number of nouns be determined? Illustrate.--What is Person? Is the person of nouns marked by form? Define the three persons. Instead of the possessive form.--To how many things does the comparative degree refer? What does it imply? Explain the office of the superlative.

When does a conditional or a concessive clause require the verb to be in the indicative? Illustrate.--Show how the general Caution for the use of the verb is frequently violated. REVIEW QUESTIONS. Lesson 130.--Give and illustrate the general Caution relating to mode and tense forms. ***** ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS. Illustrate the exceptions and the Remarks. Give and illustrate the Caution in regard to will and would. lift. Define the classes of participles. For him to continue its use with these "Additional Examples. Lesson 140.--In changing a verb from the active to the passive.--Into what may the compound.--Give and illustrate the Cautions relating to the agreement of verbs and pronouns. ***** LESSON 145.--What is Mode? Define the four modes. etc. and when the other? Into what may the passive form be resolved? Illustrate. What is Tense? Define the six tenses.--What is Voice? Of what class of verbs is it a modification? Name and define the two voices. forms of the verb be resolved? Illustrate fully.--What is Conjugation? Synopsis? What are auxiliary verbs? Name them. What are the principal parts of a verb? What are redundant and what are defective verbs? Lesson 134. or periphrastic. Define the participle. Define the infinitive." unless it be to . shall and should. Lesson 142. read. drive. What is said of the participle in have written. break.--How many inflectional forms may irregular verbs have? How many have regular verbs? What is said of the subjunctive mode? Of to with the infinitive? How is a verb conjugated in the emphatic form? Lesson 136. what does the object complement become? How may an intransitive verb sometimes be made transitive? Illustrate.+ +TO THE TEACHER+. Lesson 131. When is the subjunctive used? Illustrate the many uses of the subjunctive. How may a question with negation be expressed in the indicative and potential modes? Lesson 138. +Suggestions for the Study of the following Selections. Lesson 137. had written.--How may a verb be conjugated interrogatively? Negatively? Illustrate.--The pupil has now reached a point where he can afford to drop the diagram--its mission for him is fulfilled. Lesson 141. What are the number and person of a verb? Lesson 132.? Give and illustrate the several uses of the six tenses. What does the progressive form denote? Can all verbs be conjugated in this form? Why? Give all the participles of the verbs choose.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 179 Lesson 129. What may be mistaken for a verb in the passive voice? Illustrate.--How is a verb conjugated in the progressive form? How is a transitive verb conjugated in the passive voice? Give an example of a verb in the progressive form with a passive meaning. When is the one voice used.

while actual suffering was yet afar off. while that from Shelley is all imagination. poets differ from each other. for example. if we. Let him try to see which structure is the more natural. where the moon. the oratorical character of Macaulay's. is not to be compared--a power which has dotted over the surface of the whole globe with her possessions and military posts. but the part of the sentence following does not. and for the same reason. of certain prepositions. frosty night in a high latitude." are. make complete sense. that our own wicked little earth. In some far-away and yet undreamt-of hour.--De Quincey 2. This will lead him to take a step or two over into the field of literature. of the distinctions in meaning between allied verbs. deal with common facts and in a homely way. these radii in the mighty wheel. and their connection. is a part of such a zone. It is thought by some people that all those stars which you see glittering so restlessly on a keen. This. I can even imagine that England may cast all thoughts of . But the pupil may here review what has been taught him of the uses of adjective pronouns. On this question of principle. the last sentence in (20)--a sentence that has several points at any one of which a complete thought has been expressed. is needless. in the height of her glory. the relations of the independent and the dependent parts. the pupil would find profitless. there again lying close. and is crowded with audacious imagery. has that said of her that is inconsistent with her in her new character. the spectators. Especially should the pupil look at the thought in these prose extracts and at the manner in which it is expressed. for instance--the meaning of which remains in suspense till near or at the close. which center may be far too distant for any vision of man. and why. and which is the more forcible. the ruggedness of Carlyle's. and to some eyes presenting "The beauteous semblance of a flock at rest. its divisions and subdivisions. following the sun and keeping company with the hours. gathered into zones or strata. as we learn from the context. of double negatives. If the attempt is made. they [our fathers] raised their flag against a power to which. would become apparent. of certain idioms. etc.--Webster. he will merely be repeating that with which he is already familiar. He should study the general character of each sentence. circles the earth with one continuous and unbroken strain of the martial airs of England. for instance. and how. could but survey it from the true center. that the one from Lowell is in a higher key. 1. to reach. and which seem to have been sown broadcast with as much carelessness as grain lies on a threshing-floor. and that all this perfect geometry of the heavens. etc. one condition seems imperative--the pupil should thoroughly understand what the author says. all exquisite except in the first line. One gains nothing in doing what he already does well enough--progress is not made in climbing the wheel of a treadmill. whose morning drum-beat. The pupil may see how ellipses and transpositions and imagery abound in poetry. here showing vast zaarahs of desert blue sky. and what style gains by a judicious blending of the two. This will reveal to him the differences between his work and the original. He should note the +periodic structure+ of some of these sentences--of (4) or (19). by itself. and bring into relief the peculiarity of each author's style--the stateliness of De Quincey's. Rome.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 180 outline the relations of clauses or illustrate peculiar constructions. of the relatives in restrictive and in unrestrictive clauses. the humor of Irving's. converted by metaphor into a maiden. He should note in contrast the +loose structure+ of others--for example. of punctuation. the vividness of Webster's. and the brilliancy of Holmes's--the last lines from whom are purposely stilted. 3. of the subjunctive mode. naked or armed. the poetical beauty of Emerson's. in the use of these particulars. He may note that poems are not pitched in the same key--that the extracts from Wordsworth and Goldsmith and Cowper. of the split infinitive. We know no better way to secure this than to exact of him a careful reproduction in his own words of the author's thought. order. for purposes of foreign conquest and subjugation. with the whole of our peculiar solar system. as lie and lay. also. in fact. These extracts are not given for full analysis or parsing.

sir. that shone Full-summer. To him who in the love of Nature holds Communion with her visible forms. saying. on deck. Winking his eyes.--her influence and her glory will still survive. lay.--Bryant. 5. and here he loved to sit. that ever then Was meritoriously administered.Go forth under the open sky. the sad chariot-bier Past like a shadow thro' the field. perhaps. 4. and she glides Into his darker musings with a mild And healing sympathy. and be able to lead forth her Sons.--Longfellow. Where. that steals away Their sharpness ere he is aware. but once far-famed. eloquent. And kiss'd her quiet brows. To lie amid some sylvan scene. for his gayer hours She has a voice of gladness and a smile And eloquence of beauty. 6. "Sister. 9. and that. she. Whilst all its instruments. or the glancing sand-piper. when his father thought To clip his morning nap by hackneyed praise Of vagrant worm by early songster caught. fresh in eternal youth. with fern and heath And juniper and thistle sprinkled o'er. Where power was of God's gift to whom he gave Supremacy of merit--the sole means And broad highway to power. tracing here An emblem of his own unfruitful life. Pall'd all its length in blackest samite. His only visitant a straggling sheep."--Saxe. Stranger. Where liberty and justice."--Ruskin. Were chosen for their aptness to those ends Which virtue meditates. immortal as the intellectual principle from which they derived their origin. Fixing his downcast eye. and. just. where great men grew Up to their natural eminence. "Farewell. and none Saving the wise.Earth and her waters and the depths of air-. as a Christian mother. when.Comes a still voice. those two brethren slowly with bent brows Accompanying. The tools of state for service high or low." and again.--Henry Taylor. and his heart could not sustain The beauty. from first to last. And on these barren rocks. "Served him right! 'tis not at all surprising. Then.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 181 possessive wealth back to the barbaric nations among whom they first arose." parted all in tears. hand in hand. when civilization and knowledge shall have fixed their abode in distant continents. And winds were soft and low. the dumb old servitor. exempt from mutability and decay. So those two brethren from the chariot took And on the black decks laid her in her bed. The stone-chat. Cried. while from all around-. and over which they exercise their control. scarce known by name In these degenerate days. Or where the denser grove receives No sunlight from above. But. And. these gloomy boughs Had charms for him. Underneath whose sloping eaves The shadows hardly move. lifting up his head. to that stream whereon the barge. when woods were green. bitter hour come like a blight Over thy spirit. But the dark foliage interweaves In one unbroken roof of leaves. and twisted all his face. travelers from distant regions shall in vain labor to decipher on some moldering pedestal the name of our proudest chief.--how lovely 't is Thou seest. sweet sister. And. she speaks A various language. may at last attain to the virtues and the treasures of a Heathen one. he many an hour A morbid pleasure nourished. 10. I like the lad who.--Macaulay. saying to her. "These are my Jewels. Loyal. The worm was punished. 7. and shall see a single naked fisherman wash his nets in the river of the ten thousand masts.--Tennyson . Pleasant it was. still more beauteous.--Wordsworth. There were communities. and list To Nature's teachings. shall hear savage hymns chanted to some misshapen idol over the ruined dome of our proudest temple. for early rising. when those who have rivaled her [Athens's] greatness shall have shared her fate. o'er her hung The silken case with braided blazonings. Ordered the common weal. were great.-.--and he would gaze till it became Far lovelier. and sad images Of the stern agony and shroud and pall And breathless darkness and the narrow house Make thee to shudder and grow sick at heart. farewell forever. There sat the life-long creature of the house. Shadows dark and sunlight sheen Alternate come and go. when the next sun brake from underground. 8. he then would gaze On the more distant scene. while the sands of the Indus and adamant of Golconda may yet stiffen the housings of the charger and flash from the turban of the slave. Set in her hand a lily. When thoughts Of the last. when the scepter shall have passed away from England. the long drooping boughs between.

Bearing Sir Launfal. which is death to hide. By the midnight breezes strewn. When I consider how my light is spent Ere half my days. . The wall on which we tried our graving skill. When the care-wearied man seeks his mother once more. and the heart is stone That feels not at the sight.--The Cloud. when from East and from West. young and strong And lightsome as a locust leaf. 12.-. From North and from South come the pilgrim and guest. And post o'er land and ocean without rest. the maiden knight. Tho' mangled.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 182 11. The bench on which we sat while deep employed. 16. And that one talent. There. though my soul more bent To serve therewith my Maker. They also serve who only stand and wait. The little ones. In his gilded mail. --Goldsmith. returning. The stars peep behind her and peer. --Shelley. As happy as we once. --Byron. glowing hot. Ah! on Thanksgiving Day. dear my lord.-. and has been slave to thousands. 'T was mine. that flamed so bright It seemed the dark castle had gathered all Those shafts the fierce sun had shot over its wall In his siege of three hundred summers long. 17. Glides glimmering o'er my fleece-like floor. But he that filches from me my good name Robs me of that which not enriches him."Doth God exact day-labor. so. and hewed. And. lest he. And through the dark arch a charger sprang. Is the immediate jewel of their souls. Up yonder hill the village murmur rose. Who steals my purse steals trash. sweet. Sir Launfal flashed forth in his maiden mail To seek in all climes for the Holy Grail. 't is but to hold Converse with nature's charms. and seas. to muse o'er flood and fell. 't is something. binding them all in one blazing sheaf. The mingling notes came softened from below. 15. "God doth not need Either man's work or his own gifts. And wherever the beat of her unseen feet. and view her stores unrolled. light denied?" I fondly ask: but Patience. when oft. May have broken the woof of my tent's thin roof. That orbed maiden with white fire laden." --Milton.-. 13. nothing.We love the play-place of our early days. not yet destroyed. in this dark world and wide. The scene is touching. and on the very spot.This is not solitude.--Cowper. we seem almost t' obtain Our innocent. who best Bear his mild yoke. With the wild flock that never needs a fold.These all in sweet confusion sought the shade. 14. The noisy geese that gabbled o'er the pool. and what brightens the eye? What calls back the past like the rich pumpkin-pie? --Whittier. and feels at none.-. And mortal foot hath ne'er or rarely been. Which only the angels hear. Alone o'er steeps and foaming falls to lean. hacked.--Sonnet on his Blindness. 18. When I widen the rent in my wind-built tent. Had cast them forth.-. To slowly trace the forest's shady scene.The pleasing spectacle at once excites Such recollection of our own delights That. chide. to prevent That murmur. The drawbridge dropped with a surly clang. The very name we carved subsisting still. Be it a weakness. simple years again. The playful children just let loose from school. Like strips of the sky fallen through me on high. Playing our games. Where things that own not man's dominion dwell. The swain responsive as the milk-maid sung. To pitch the ball into the grounded hat. 't is his. at evening's close. as I passed with careless steps and slow. To sit on rocks. The sober herd that lowed to meet their young. viewing it. And the worn matron smiles where the girl smiled before.--Shakespeare. Till the calm rivers. The watch-dog's voice that bayed the whispering wind. they serve him best: his state Is kingly. Sweet was the sound. Are each paved with the moon and these. to kneel and draw The chalky ring and knuckle down at taw. Or drive it devious with a dexterous pat. Lodged with me useless.--Lowell. And the loud laugh that spoke the vacant mind. And I laugh to see them whirl and flee Like a swarm of golden bees. And filled each pause the nightingale had made. Whom mortals call the moon.-. And makes me poor indeed. To climb the trackless mountain all unseen. When the gray-haired New-Englander sees round his board The old broken links of affection restored. lakes. Good name in man and woman. and present My true account. unbuttoned. thousands at his bidding speed.What moistens the lip. soon replies. it deserves some praise.

as it were. To sweeten the beverage. as the rhythmic waves of blissful consciousness pulsate through their glorified being. nobody knows how long.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 183 19. but stripped by those who. 20. until an improvement was introduced by a shrewd and economical old lady. when the air. we blush for a race which can stoop to such an abject lot. and extorting from nations their treasures to extend this ruinous sway. At length. I am not sure that even one has ever followed it implicitly. just where you found it. nothing is to desire that we have heard of the happiest latitudes. There is a different and sterner path. in these bleak upper sides of the planet. insinuated your stick or your foot or your fingers under its edge. When we see one word of a frail man on the throne of France tearing a hundred thousand sons from their homes. Bergen.---Emerson. the dandelion and the buttercup are growing there. with more or less effect.--Holmes. are not unwilling to play the despot on a narrower scale. which is still kept up by some families in Albany. and the company alternately nibbled and sipped with great decorum. in these times especially. we see the tyrant humbled. when the sad reality comes home to us. and turned it over as a housewife turns a cake. and the broad fans of insect-angels open and shut over their golden disks. at almost any season of the year. but innumerable rush-lights and sulphur-matches.--Channing. and how the torch of science has now been brandished and borne about. and the haste wherewith any fame acquired in a sphere so thoroughly ephemeral as the Editor's must be shrouded by the dark waters of oblivion. when everything that has life gives sign of satisfaction.--Carlyle. Is not this a dream? and. so that not the smallest cranny or doghole in nature or art can remain unilluminated. kindled thereat.--it might strike the reflective mind with some surprise that hitherto little or nothing of a fundamental character. when. a pen as ready to expose and reprove the crimes whereby wealth is amassed and luxury enjoyed in our own country at this hour as if they had been committed only by Turks or pagans in Asia some centuries ago. There are days which occur in this climate. by a string from the ceiling. and perhaps more fiercely than ever. Platbush. in obedience to a kind of feeling that told you it had been lying there long enough. sentencing myriads of the young to make murder their calling and rapacity their means of support. and the earth make a harmony. which was to suspend a large lump directly over the tea-table. indeed. 21. the heavenly bodies. Next year you will find the grass growing tall and green where the stone lay. in walking in the fields. a heart as sensitive to oppression and degradation in the next street as if they were practiced in Brazil or Japan. and end in a general stampede for underground retreats from the region poisoned by sunshine. and to break down the spirit of nations under the same iron sway. in the main. "It's done brown enough by this time"? But no sooner is the stone turned and the wholesome light of day let upon this compressed and blinded community of creeping things than all of them which enjoy the luxury of legs--and some of them have a good many--rush round wildly. and those who mainly support newspapers will be annoyed and often exposed by it. Did you never. the ground-bird builds her nest where the beetle had his hole. for five thousand years and upwards. as if Nature would indulge her offspring. butting each other and everything in their way. wherein the world reaches its perfection. which had lain. whether in the way of philosophy or history. 22. close to its edges. 23.--Irving.--I know not whether there be any now qualified to tread it. .--Greeley. with the grass forming a little hedge. though they can never repay advocacy. has been written on the subject of Clothes. all round it. how. in view of the certain meagerness of its temporal rewards. not only the torch still burns. Considering our present advanced state of culture. we are ready to ask ourselves. so that it could be swung from mouth to mouth--an ingenious expedient. come across a large flat stone. and we bask in the shining hours of Florida and Cuba. and all our uncontaminated Dutch villages. are also glancing in every direction. and the cattle that lie on the ground seem to have great and tranquil thoughts. 24. when she says to herself. and have you not. a lump of sugar was laid beside each cup. but which prevails without exception in Communipaw. breaking asunder the sacred ties of domestic life. stripped of power. This path demands an ear ever open to the plaints of the wronged and the suffering.

+Interrogation Point+. SUMMARY OF RULES FOR CAPITAL LETTERS AND PUNCTUATION. fell. D. It is easy.. etc.. He who teaches. "When shall I use O. Oct. (2) a participle used as an adjective modifier. who have always. He rushed into the field. Separate by the comma (10) connected words and phrases. 12. Caliph Omar having. 1492.--Use capital letters and the proper marks of punctuation in these sentences. and give your reasons:-- .--Set off by the comma (1) an explanatory modifier which does not restrict the modified term or combine closely with it.. 184 +Capital Letters+. San Salvador. or slang.--Every direct interrogative sentence or clause should be followed by an interrogation point. (4) the adverb clause. when Youth and Pleasure meet To chase the glowing hours with flying feet! Direction. 3. as everybody knows. three sons of Catherine de Medici and Henry II. chapters. unless formally introduced. +Comma+. foremost fighting. Begin with a capital letter (5) proper names (including all names of the Deity). Mistress Dial. (8) a noun clause used as an attribute complement.--Place a period after (1) a declarative or an imperative sentence. indeed. often learns himself. and words derived from them. set yourself up above me. Obsolete words. and (9) a term connected to another by or and having the same meaning. [Footnote: Small letters are often used in referring to sections. (11) co-ordinate clauses when short and closely connected. and when shall I use oh?" 3. 5. and the quotation marks:-1. Some letters are superfluous. and (12) the parts of a compound predicate. 4. +Exclamation Point+. (5) a phrase out of its usual order or not closely connected with the word it modifies. for you. in 637 A. except the colon. unless restrictive. TERMINAL MARKS. Foreign words. 6. Low words. +Direction+. AND THE COMMA. to accuse me of laziness. Write in capital letters (8) the words I and 0.. and other phrases. 8. 9. (3) the adjective clause when not restrictive. taken Jerusalem. introducing illustrations. and (4) phrases or clauses separately numbered or paragraphed should begin with a capital letter. unless it closely follows and restricts the word it modifies. CAPITAL LETTERS. etc.. with the words belonging to it. Purity of style forbids us to use: 1. No sleep till morn. (6) names of things vividly personified.--Give the Rule for each capital letter and each mark of punctuation in these sentences. (3) a number written in the Roman notation. unless all the conjunctions are expressed.--The first word of (1) a sentence. 2. (2) an abbreviation. 10.--All exclamatory expressions must be followed by the exclamation point. (7) a direct quotation introduced into a sentence. Francis II. and (7) most abbreviations. namely. The Holy Land was. the semicolon. when long or differently modified. and (15) when it is needed to prevent ambiguity.] +Period+. (2) a line of poetry. and (4) Arabic figures used to enumerate. and. 2. as. (3) a direct quotation making complete sense or a direct question introduced into a sentence. c and q. among the early conquests of the Saracens. The pupil asked. sat upon the French throne. Charles IX. and Henry III. and (9) numbers in the Roman notation..Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** COMPOSITION. LESSON 146. 7. (6) a word or phrase independent or nearly so. Use the comma (13) to denote an omission of words. (14) after as.

i. some letters stand each for many sounds.---Use capital letters and the proper marks of punctuation in these sentences.--Use the colon (1) between the parts of a sentence when these parts are themselves divided by the semicolon. (1) when slightly connected. This is a precept of Socrates: "Know thyself. +Direction+. e.. and strain every effort. still more extravagantly.--Co-ordinate clauses. golden. The result however of the three years' reign or tyranny of jas ii was that wm of orange came over from holland and without shedding a drop of blood became a d 1688 wm in of england 4. when the world is dark with tempests when thunder rolls and lightning flies thou lookest in thy beauty from the clouds and laughest at the storm 3. and (2) before a quotation or an enumeration of particulars when formally introduced. accumulate every assistance you can beg and borrow. if i may judge by his gorgeous colors and the exquisite sweetness and variety of his music autumn is i should say the poet of the family 8. proclaim it there. It may cost treasure. o has three sounds: 1. traffic and barter with every little. and the lights in the palace of the victor were extinguished. kennedy taking from her a handkerchief edged with gold pinned it over her eyes the executioners holding her by the arms led her to the block and the queen kneeling down said repeatedly with a firm voice into thy hands o lord i commend my spirit +Colon+.--Justify each capital letter and each mark of punctuation in these sentences:-1. the oaks of the mountains fall the mountains themselves decay with years the ocean shrinks and grows again the moon herself is lost in heaven 4. the last loiterer had retired from the banquet. and lo from the assembled crowd there rose a shout prolonged and loud that to the ocean seemed to say take her o bridegroom old and gray 2. +Direction+. that in not. must be separated by the semicolon. lowell asks and what is so rare as a day in June 6. and (4) before as.--Justify each capital letter and each mark of punctuation (except the colon) in these sentences:-1. 4. as a and o ***** LESSON 147. Some words are delightful to the ear. or (2) when themselves divided by the comma. let them hear it who heard the first roar of the enemy's cannon. 2. new york apr 30 1789 9. pitiful German prince that sells and sends his subjects to the shambles of a foreign country: your efforts are forever vain and impotent. SUMMARY OF RULES--CONTINUED. and it may cost blood. The shouts of revelry had died away. 2. when they introduce examples or illustrations. 3. +Semicolon+. oriole. Send it to the public halls." .Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 185 1. a large rough mantle of sheepskin fastened around the loins by a girdle or belt of hide was the only covering of that strange solitary man elijah the tishbite 3. let them see it who saw their brothers and their sons fall on the field of Bunker Hill: and the very walls will cry out in its support. You may swell every expense. and it will richly compensate for both. Use the semicolon (3) between serial phrases or clauses having a common dependence on something which precedes or follows. that in note. 3. and that is. as. 2. the roar of the lion had ceased. +Direction+. namely. to wit. and give your reasons:-1. Ontario. all parts of a plant reduce to three namely root stem and leaf 2. spring is a fickle mistress but summer is more staid 7. but it will stand. that in move5. SEMICOLON AND COLON.

---Write sentences illustrating the several uses of the semicolon. and may (6) follow other marks.--Justify each capital letter and each mark of punctuation in these sentences:-1. Carthage--what are they? 5. 2. and give your reasons:-- 186 1. this bill this infamous bill the way it has been received by the house the manner in which its opponents have been treated the personalities to which they have been subjected all these things dissipate my doubts 3. Rome. David. namely. though subject to England. 6. We know the uses--and sweet they are--of adversity. and Solomon.---Use capital letters and the proper marks of punctuation in these sentences. and (3) to distinguish the possessive from other cases. HYPHEN. The dash may be used (5) instead of marks of parenthesis. QUOTATION MARKS. +Quotation Marks+. figures.--Marks of parenthesis may be used to inclose what has no essential connection with the rest of the sentence.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. and (2) between syllables when a word is divided. the advice given ran thus take care of the minutes and the hours will take care of themselves 2. lord marmion turned well was his need and dashed the rowels in his steed +Marks of Parenthesis+. 7. The most noted kings of Israel were the first three--Saul. adding to their force. MARKS OF PARENTHESIS. introducing illustrations or equivalent expressions. AND BRACKETS. and (4) before a word or phrase repeated at intervals for emphasis. the account of a ___'s shame fills pp 1 19 4. or that is. His place business is 225--229 High street. the colon. APOSTROPHE. (See Lesson 74. we may abound in meetings and movements enthusiastic gatherings in the field and forest may kindle all minds with a common sentiment but it is all in vain if men do not retire from the tumult to the silent culture of every right disposition +Direction+. +Direction+. B---. SUMMARY OF RULES--CONTINUED. yet is distinct from it. And--"This to me?" he said. and (2) of such words as as.) . When Mrs.--Use capital letters and the proper marks of punctuation in these sentences. +Hyphen+. 4.--Use the dash where there is an omission (1) of letters or figures.--Use the apostrophe (1) to mark the omission of letters. ***** LESSON 148. the latter is inclosed within single marks. 3.--toward a nation which.--Use quotation marks to inclose a copied word or passage. (2) in the pluralizing of letters. and characters. If the quotation contains a quotation. THE DASH. +Direction+. and the same thought is resumed after a slight suspension. I do not rise to supplicate you to be merciful toward the nation to which I belong. she fainted away. Greece. Assyria. +Apostrophe+. Use the dash (3) where the sentence breaks off abruptly. +Dash+.--Use the hyphen (-) (1) to join the parts of compound words. or another takes its place. and the comma.heard of her son's disgrace. the human species is composed of two distinct races those who borrow and those who lend 2. and give your reasons:-1.

Samaria. 'Give me liberty. with all his canvas strained to the wind.--there he stands-Was struck--struck like a dog. and all his thunders roaring from his broadsides.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 187 +Brackets+. Acts xxi. the scriptures tell us take no thought anxiety for the morrow 5. and the will. On the south. require the pupils to justify the punctuation of . 10. 0 Union. that seemed to sink beneath him." 2. narrow strip. 3. The last sentence of the composition was. 12. of the Mediterranean. it has quickened to life the giant brood of useful arts. +Direction+. Luke says. American nationality has made the desert to bud and blossom as the rose. Thou. The profound learning of Sir William Jones (he was master of twenty-eight languages) was the wonder of his contemporaries. new. don't neglect in writing to dot your is cross your ts and make your 7s unlike your 9s and don't in speaking omit the hs from such words as which when and why or insert rs in law saw and raw4. This is the motto of the University of Oxford: "The Lord is my light. +Direction+. that he sometimes fights ahead of his orders. By means of the apostrophe you know that love in mother's love is a noun. the day before his great reply to Col. it has extended to exiles. Galilee. Sail on. and bearing down like a tempest upon his antagonist. lying along the eastern edge. 7. This--trial! 11. flying as clouds. Judea. The land flowing with "milk and honey" (see Numbers xiv. "I close in the words of Patrick Henry. An honest man. 15. if it is not the establishment of a revolutionary tribunal?" 9. the stars and the stripes at the fore. 8) was a long. or give me death.'" 3. gently rocking on the tranquil tide. 0 Ship of State. and went up to Jerusalem. in quoting another's words. "We took up our carriages [luggage]. the feelings. CAPITAL LETTERS AND PUNCTUATION--REVIEW. 5. O'Connell asks. strong and great. the more it contracts. 2.--Justify the marks of punctuation used in these sentences:-1. As I saw him [Weoster. and give your reasons:-1.--Give the reason for each capital letter and each mark of punctuation in these sentences:-1. "What a lesson. The speaker said american oratory rose to its high water mark in that great speech ending liberty and union now and forever one and inseparable ***** LESSON 149.--If further work in punctuation is needed. "The clause which does away with trial by jury--what. it has whitened lake and ocean with the sails of a daring. by one who wore The badge of Ursini. and lawful trade. and consisted of three divisions. The "beatitudes" are found in Matt. 4. Hayne of South Carolina] in the evening. sail on. namely. the asylum of our better liberty. casting the long shadow of his frowning tiers far over the sea. The only fault ever found with him is. man the life boat 3. 8. or coast. 6. On the north. too. In the middle. 1. 5.---Use capital letters and the proper marks of punctuation in these sentences. There are only three departments of the mind--the intellect. Red-hot is a compound adjective." Trench well says. you insert by way of explanation or correction. 4. the more light you pour upon it. the mizzen. and that i's isn't a verb. +Direction+.--Use brackets [ ] to inclose what. 3--11. dropping his line here and there. his broad pendant [pennant] streaming at the main." 3. and the peak. TO THE TEACHER. Telegraph is divided thus: tel-e-graph. in the name of H----n. my neighbor. A bigot's mind is like the pupil of the eye. The next morning he was like some mighty admiral. 2. next to a conscience void of offense without which by the bye life isnt worth the living is the enjoyment of the social feelings 2. v. (if I may borrow an illustration from his favorite amusement) he was as unconcerned and as free of spirit as some here present have seen him while floating in his fishing-boat along a hazy shore. with the varying fortune of the sport. is it. 13. "the word 'diligence' contains!" 6. dark and terrible.

other +things are (2) unlike each other+ in some particular. arouse the feelings. Do not omit words when they are needed. and the ending of each. and those that have no footing in the language--foreign words. or make your thought clearer to them than it is to yourself. Use words in the senses recognized by the best authority. +The Unity of the Sentence. vigor. is usually charged with intense feeling. and capture the will--lead one to do something. the strongest sentence in the paragraph.+--Use such words as convey your thought--each word expressing exactly your idea.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg the sentences beginning page 314. and the strongest paragraph in the discourse. terms. QUALITIES OF STYLE. But there are some cardinal qualities that all good style must possess. +The Use of the Right Words. 2. words newly coined. ***** LESSON 150. inkhorn. we assert or assume any of these notable relations.+--Perspicuity is opposed to obscurity of all kinds. if the thought is not understood. the strongest clause in the sentence. holding to them the relation that its own sentences hold to one another. Sentences should stand in the paragraph so that the beginning of each shall tally exactly in thought with the sentence that precedes. and in no discourse is it constantly sought. III. no less. prefer the concrete to the abstract. II.+--Many thoughts. terms. 3. it. +A Happy Arrangement.+--The relations of single words to each other. and do not use a superfluity of them. choose specific. we select words and images for strength and not for beauty. or thoughts having no natural and close connection with each other. no other. and requires impassioned delivery. The first and great service of imagery .--Things stand in many relations to each other. +One's Clear Understanding of What One Attempts to Say. Things long seen and associated by us in any of these relations come at last readily to suggest each other. and of clauses to one another should be obvious at a glance. departing from our ordinary manner in speaking of things. 4. Avoid what are called bookish. Perspicuity depends mainly upon these few things:-1. Every paragraph should be a unit in thought. of expression. and not general.+--You cannot express to others more than you thoroughly know. It demands that the thought in the sentence shall be plainly seen through the words of the sentence. +Perspicuity. +Figures of Speech+ are those expressions in which. she. +Imagery--Figures of Speech+. +Energy+. last. In ordinary discourse. We use energy when we wish to convince the intellect. Styles differ as men differ. place subordinate clauses before the independent. of phrases to the words they modify. its expression might better have been left unattempted. and they. distinct from other paragraphs. it means clearness of expression. and slang. Use simple words--words which those who are addressed can readily understand. Be cautious in the use of he. The sentence should not need rearrangement in order to disclose the meaning. should not be crowded into one sentence. 188 +Style+ is the manner in which one expresses himself. it is not often sought. with the sentence that follows.--By energy we mean force. or it is misunderstood. and put the strongest word in the clause. no more. Perspicuity is an indispensable quality of style. shun words that have passed out of use. and still other +things stand to each other (3)+ in some +other+ noteworthy +relation than+ that of +likeness+ or +unlikeness+. Some +things are (1) like each other+ in some particular. When energetic. I. the relation that the several parts of each sentence hold to one another. use few words and crowd these with meaning. Energetic thought seeks variety of expression.

A +Metaphor+ is a figure of speech in which. ***** LESSON 151. its huge flanks purr pleasantly for you.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 189 is to the thought--it makes the thought clearer and stronger. the usual order now and then yields to the transposed. (7) that of the +abstract+ to the +concrete+. the full method of statement is followed by the contracted. assuming the likeness between two things. Earth fills her lap with pleasures of her own. It +raises+ (1) +mere things to+ the plane of +animals+. A +Metonymy+ is a figure of speech in which the name of one thing connected to another by a relation other than likeness or unlikeness is brought over and applied to that other. Nothing in discourse pleases us more than light and shade. A +Personification+ is a figure of speech in which things are raised to a plane of being above their own--to or toward that of persons. and (8) that of +part+ to the +whole+ or of +whole+ to the +part+. This last relation has been thought so important that the metonymy based upon it has received a distinct name--+Synecdoche+. TO THE TEACHER. the same word does not appear with offensive frequency. or +Comparison+. and the reader is kept fresh and interested throughout. we bring over and apply to one of them the term that denotes the other. as. impassioned language is succeeded by the unemotional. (2) that of +cause+ to +effect+. The mountains givetheir lost children berries and water. (5) that of +material+ to the +thing made out of it+. as. is a figure of speech in which we point out or assert a likeness between things otherwise unlike. no one form or method or matter is continued so long as to weary. (3) that of +instrument+ to the +user+ of it. the verb in the assertive form frequently gives way to the participle and the infinitive. It +raises+ (3) +mere things to+ the plane of +persons+. long words alternate with short. as. +IV. as. It raises (2) +mere animals to+ the plane of +persons+. An +Antithesis+ is a figure of speech in which things mutually opposed in some particular are set over against each other. and simple sentences by compound and complex. Variety is restful to the reader or hearer and therefore adds greatly to the clearness and to the force of what is addressed to him. A stately squadron of snowy geese were riding in an adjoining pond. as. In discourse properly varied. In a word. PERSPICUITY--CRITICISM. The sea licks your feet. declarative sentences are relieved by interrogative and exclamatory. A +Simile+. (6) that of +contiguity+. and loose sentences with periods. clauses have no rigidly fixed position. the sea mocks their thirstand lets them die. (4) that of +container+ to the +thing contained+.--Variety is a quality of style opposed to monotonous uniformity. The gloom of despondency hung like a cloud over the land. So talked the spirited. and sentences heavy with meaning and moving slowly are elbow to elbow with the light and tripping. Imagery adds beauty to style--a diamond brooch may adorn as well as do duty to the dress. figures of speech sparkle here and there in a setting of plain language. as. which assume. Variety+. sly Snake. .--Question the pupils upon every point taken up in this Lesson and require them to give illustrations where it is possible for them to do so. long sentences stand side by side with short. The most important of these relations are (1) that of the +sign+ to the +thing signified+.

3. Blake answered the Spanish priest that if he had sent in a complaint. James's son. then we had half an hour to dress in. then breakfast. 4. if they traveled at all. 5. 4. 3. People had to travel on horseback and in wagons. Crusoe was surprised at seeing five canoes on the shore in which there were savages. and recast these sentences. and recast these sentences. if a full court should attend. When it is made of gold they can not of pure gold but has to be mixed with some other metal which is generally copper which turns it a reddish hue in some countries they use silver which gives it a whitish hue but in the United States and England they use both silver and copper but the English coins are the finest. but he took it ill that he set the Spaniards on to punish them. He was locked in and so he sat still till the guard came and let him out. This tendency will be headed off by approximations which will be made from time to time of the written word to the spoken. given just as we found them. 2. if he did not take care what he was about. school would commence at nine o'clock and closed at four in the afternoon allowing an hour for dinner from one until two then we would resume our studies until four in the afternoon.--Each of these sentences may have two meanings. and told him to consider himself at his service. 3. making them clear:-- 190 [Footnote: These four sentences and others in these Lessons. before the breath was out of his body was proclaimed king in his stead. give these. +Direction+. and he sent for one of his workmen. Two men will be tried for crimes in this town which are punishable with death.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +General Direction+.] 1.--In all your work in Composition attend carefully to the punctuation.) 1. 3.--Point out the faults. 2. as soon as he stepped out on the ground. . Charles I.. 5. They used to ring a large bell at six o'clock in the morning for us to get up. 4. after which we would go to Chapel exercises. Jewelry was worn in the time of King Pharaoh which is many thousand years before Christ in the time when the Israelites left they borrowed all the jewels of the Egyptians which were made of gold and silver. He aimed at nothing less than the crown. PERSPICUITY--CRITICISM. he would have punished the sailors severely. and then see in how many ways each sentence can be arranged:-1. and mind what he said.--So place these subordinate clauses that they will remove the obscurity. How can brethren partake of their Father's blessing that curse each other? 7. He was overjoyed to see him. +Direction+. Direction. supply the two ellipses in each sentence. +Direction+. which was a very slow way. Lovest thou me more than these? ***** LESSON 152. 5. A large number of seats were occupied by pupils that had no backs. he saw the dead and dying laying about everywhere. Study had more attraction for him than his friend. Let us trust no strength less than thine. making them clear:-(If any one of the sentences has several meanings. 2.--Point out the faults. have been culled from school compositions. Richelieu said to the king that Mazarin would carry out his policy. He told the coachman that he would be the death of him. The moon cast a pale light on the graves that were scattered around. He did not like the new teacher so well as his playmates. as it peered above the horizon. 2. and remove the ambiguity:-1. 6. 4.

Diligence is the sine qua non of success. Exclamation points are scattered up and down the page by compositors without any mercy. To your tents. 7. What is his coming or going to you? 5. The author surpassed all those who were living at the same time with him. Rascal! 12.--Change these specific words to general terms. mocking. 3. A devastating conflagration raged. He wanted to go to sea. ***** LESSON 153. at the age of eighteen. Death or free speech! 11. Least said. I rushed out leaving the wretch with his tale half told. A donkey has an abnormal elongation of auricular appendages. 5. 5. +Direction. and at them! 3. We do those things frequently which we repent of afterwards. +Direction+. The deceased was to-day deposited in his last resting-place.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 191 Direction.+--Make these sentences clear by using simpler words and phrases:-1. 3. The inmates proceeded to the sanctuary. Bah! 5. horror-stricken at his crime. Some say that ever 'gainst that season comes wherein our Saviour's birth is celebrated this bird of dawning singeth all night long. No matter. Don't give up the ship! 6. first served. Help. He departed this life. He could not face an enraged father in spite of his effrontery.8. I want to make a present to one who is fond of chickens for a Christmas gift. exclusive of Dorchester. and note the gain:-1. 7. and then see in how many ways each sentence can be arranged:-1. said among themselves with the scribes. 4. 10. A network is anything reticulated or decussated.--So place these italicized phrases that they will remove the obscurity. Are you excavating a subterranean canal?5. 13. I have a wife and six children. 4. with interstices at equal distances between the intersections. 9. Hay is given to horses as well as corn to distend the stomach." etc. 9. Shame on you! 18. every lady in full dress rides. and drove twelve cows on horseback. Hurrah! 10. +Direction+. 2. She has donned the habiliments of woe. 2. I spent most on the river and in the river of the time I stayed there.--Condense each of these italicized expressions into one or two words. Death to the tyrant! 15. boys. I saw my friend when I was in Boston walking down Tremont street. He took the initiative in inaugurating the ceremony. although it was contrary to the wishes of his parents. 16. 7. soonest mended. I'll none of it. The chief priests. 7. and then see in how many ways each sentence can be arranged:-1. 8. 10. 12. 2. 8. ENERGY--CRITICISM. 6. To say that revelation is a thing which there is no need of is to talk wildly. Murder will out. ho! 17. First come. Silence there! 9.--Expand these brief expressions into sentences full of long words. and note the loss in energy:--- . 11. I have partaken of my morning repast. He had no capillary substance on the summit of his head. +Direction. +Direction+.+--So place the italicized words and phrases in each sentence that they will help to convey what you think is the author's thought. In Paris. He made a sad faux pas. The Prince of Wales was forbidden to become king or any other man. Two owls sat upon a tree which grew near an old wall out of a heap of rubbish. 2. 4. He conducted her to the altar of Hymen. These designs any man who is a Briton in any situation ought to disavow. 3. Boston has forty first class grammar-schools. 4. 6. and note the loss of energy:-1. 3. 13. He shuffled off this mortal coil yesterday. and I have never seen one of them. 0 Israel! 2. 14. 6. Up. "He saved. Oh! 8. Indeed! 4. He rode to town.

6. He was no longer consul nor citizen nor general nor even an emperor. 21. If I can catch him once upon the hip. Three hundred men held the hosts of Xerxes at bay. The marble speaks. surrounded. 32. I am now ready here to stake upon it. 23. 17. 20. Night's candles are burnt out. 2. 34. Borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry. like a river in its banks. ***** LESSON 154. 28. Their daggers have stabbed Caesar. +Direction+. The threaded steel flies swiftly. 7. 7. I have no spur to prick the sides of my intent. In proportion as men delight in battles and bull-fights will they punish by hanging. The nations of the earth repelled. It were better for him that a heavy weight were fastened to him and that he were submerged in the waste of waters. 9. if we mean to preserve inviolate our rights. The ice is covered with health and beauty on skates. 31. Burn Moscow. Genius creates. Caesar was slain by the conspirators. 18. 3. 2. 29. 6. All nations respect our flag. Homer. 3. I shall die an American. 4. The good is often buried with men's bones. Please address the chair. 10. I weigh a ton. The cities of the plain were annihilated. and clauses in the order of their strength. like the Nile. 3. you are yoked with a lamb that carries anger as the flint bears fire. and all that I have in this life. 26. if we do not mean to abandon the struggle. . 38. Anne Boleyn was executed. phrases. The capital of the chosen people was destroyed by a Roman general.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 192 1. 5. I sat at her cradle. and resisted him. The air bites shrewdly. but a prisoner and an exile. The robin knows when your grapes have cooked long enough in the sun. 3. 8. using plain language. Virgil. Death hath sucked the honey of thy breath. 22. and the rack. I shall defend it without this House. and note the gain in energy:-1. Don't fire till you see the whites of their eyes. 5. I followed her hearse. 6. 24. The gray-eyed Morn smiles on the frowning Night. in all places. 19. His words fell softer than snows on the brine. FIGURES OF SPEECH--CRITICISM. 4. 39. 11. Nations shall beat their swords into plowshares. The Morn in russet mantle clad walks o'er the dew of yon high eastern hill. at all times. and jocund Day stands tiptoe on the misty mountain top. and then recast a few sentences. give Holland back to ocean. 5. My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar. and within this House. Break down the dikes. Lentulus returned with victorious eagles. We must fight if we wish to be free. A day will come when bullets and bombs shall be replaced by ballots. 2. I called the New World into existence to redress the balance of the Old. The hearth blazed high. and their spears into pruning-hooks. all that I hope to be. and note the loss of beauty and force:-1. Consider the flowers how they increase in size. I will feed fat the ancient grudge I bear him. and note the gain in energy:-1. Have you read Froude or Freeman?12. 40. burning. All that I am. 33. 6. The soul of Jonathan was knit to that of David. taste appreciates what is created. The destinies of mankind were trembling in the balance. pours out his riches with a sudden overflow.--Name the figures of speech. 16. 5. All hands to the pumps! 25. The pen is mightier than the sword. starve back the invaders. Then burst his mighty heart. I was born an American. 4. Traffic has lain down to rest. There's no use in crying over spilt milk. 13. Caesar were no lion were not Romans hinds. 4. 9. while death fell in showers. O Cassius. I am as constant as the northern star. placing the strongest last. Beware of the bottle. 30. He doth bestride the narrow world like a Colossus. 14. with a constant stream. When I'm mad. I live an American. 37. pursued. 36. 8. +Direction+. 15. Our chains are forged. +Direction+. He will bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to the grave. 35.--Change these general terms to specific words. 27. in time of peace and in time of war.--Arrange these words. 2. Lend me your ears. I have bought golden opinions.

Our dispositions should grow mild as we grow old. but is completed by a part of another metaphor or by plain language. It requires great care to avoid this very common error. The stars can no longer be seen. in 57. 20. 11. 56. that it may be made prominent. in 68. in 79. to the wretches that will be roasted at the stake. 2. metonymies:-- 193 1. but I shall yet nip him in the bud. The news of the battle of Bunker Hill. 3. in the second four. an absolute phrase. The man stalks into court like a motionless statue. roused the patriotism of the people to a high pitch of . in 73. The water is boiling. This day we undertake to render an account to the widows and orphans whom our decision will make. fought on the 17th of June in the year of our Lord 1775. between the parts of. a participle phrase. +Direction+. that an adverb clause may be contracted to a participle. +Remark+. Have you read Lamb's Essays? 15. His head is as full of plans as it can hold. It is then put into stacks. and indirect to direct. 8. in 77. 2. VARIETY IN EXPRESSION. 8. We sailed across a bay and sailed up a creek and sailed back and sailed in all about fourteen miles. We have to have money to have a horse.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. 5. 6. 5. and bullets fell. 10. the independent clause. and infinitives may be expanded into different kinds of clauses. 16. or it is put into barns either to use it to feed it to the stock or to sell it. In battle some men are brave. that a noun clause as subject may stand last. and. The flowers are the sweet and pretty growths of the earth and sun. in 67.--Recast these sentences. a prepositional phrase. that one kind of simple sentence may be changed to another. others are cowardly. and may be changed to an adjective clause or phrase. The thin mantle of snow dissolved. +Remark+. 17. and may be contracted. Swords flashed.--You learned in Lessons 52. in 130. and may be changed to complex sentences. with the cloak of hypocrisy in his mouth. 7. He flew with the swiftness of an arrow. in 61. The cock tears up the ground for his family of hens and chickens. that compound sentences may be formed out of simple sentences. The soldier is giving way to the husbandman. that direct quotations and questions may be changed to indirect. 3. in 74. 54 that the usual order may give way to the transposed. I heard a loud noise. ***** LESSON 155. All the ripe fruit of three-score years was blighted in a day. we have what. We have prostrated ourselves before the king. 7. 5. in 55. I see him brewing in the air. We must apply the axe to the fountain of this evil. Unravel the obscurities of this knotty question. and after. that a verb may change its voice. +Direction+. English vessels plow the seas of the two hemispheres. that it may be contracted by the omission of words. that an adverb clause may stand before. use similes. 19. others are cowardly. is called a mixed metaphor. that participles. that simple sentences may be contracted.--If what is begun as a metaphor is not completed as begun. The oak stretches out its strong branches. 2. and as object complement may stand first. 14. metaphors. that adjectives may be expanded into clauses. 6. personifications. In battle some men are brave. I smell a rat. 9. absolute phrases. 4. in the last eight.--Correct these errors:-1. His banner led the spearmen no more. Boston is the place where American liberty began. Wretched people shiver in their lair of straw. in the third four. 13. The devouring fire uprooted the stubble. avoiding offensive repetitions of the same word or the same sounds:-1.--Illustrate all these changes. The waves were still. 4. 4. +Direction+. 53. The brittle thread of life may be cut asunder. 18.--In the first four sentences. 3. 12. may be contracted to simple sentences.

supplying what you need. 2.. Was eyed from head to foot. said that James I. and tell what each paragraph is about:-- . as you have already learned. Barometer fell. holding on. the wind died away about four o'clock yesterday afternoon. not violent at first.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg enthusiasm. in the meantime. +Direction+. +Direction+. what we call a Paragraph. Whether he was Federal or Democrat. marked by beginning the first word a little to the right of the marginal line. 6. The gale came on about eleven o'clock.---Weave the facts below into a paragraph. a semicolon. a snob. +Direction+. It came on. Sentences thus related are grouped together and form. was the wisest fool in Christendom. Stared in stupidity.---Weave the facts below into two paragraphs. The mercury in the barometer fell. I found such of the passengers as could stand. 3. Henry IV. 3. A calm. But even sentences may be connected. It increased in violence. +Direction+. 4. occasioned by the dashing of the waves against the ship. Fowling-piece rusty. Was asked on which side he voted. the rain dashing furiously and in torrents. supplying all you need to make the narrative smooth:-Rip's beard was grizzled. was. 4. The wind died away. Elizabeth had no peer in England. though he was pronounced the first gentleman in Europe. or a colon is needed to divide them. A breeze from the north and northwest. at the doors of the hurricane-house. +The Paragraph+. The calm continued till about nine in the evening.--The clauses of complex sentences are so closely united in meaning that frequently they are not to be separated from each other even by the comma. marked by a period or other terminal point.--Give and number the facts contained in the paragraph below:-I awoke with a confused recollection of a good deal of rolling and thumping in the night. 7. the bond which unites them being their common relation to the thought which jointly they develop. Rip was dazed by the question.--Notice the facts which this paragraph contains. Attracted attention. Between sentences there exists a wider separation in meaning. and looking out in the utmost consternation. 5. 1. The captain predicted a gale. Cowper's letters are charming because they are simple and natural. at an extraordinary rate. see in how many ways you can express the thoughts contained in these sentences:-- 194 1. The clauses of compound sentences are less closely united--a comma. George IV. and the captain predicted that we should encounter a gale from the southeast. ***** LESSON 156. 2. and the relation to each other of the clauses and the sentences expressing these facts:-After a breeze of some sixty hours from the north and northwest. Dress uncouth. It was still quite dark. In the profusion and recklessness of her lies. Hurrying on my clothes.---Using other words wholly or in part. THE PARAGRAPH. Four of the sails were already in ribbons: the winds whistling through the cordage. the noise and spray scarcely less than I found them under the great sheet at Niagara. nevertheless. Women and children at his heels. but increasing every moment. +Direction+.

Made shrill. A spice of vulgarity in him. PARAGRAPHS AND THE THEME. Eats his own weight in a short time. In 1629 appointed governor of Nieuw Nederlandts. Had sacked the vine. Only villages above the surface. The deposit. Earliest mess of peas.--Van Twiller was a Dutchman. This was strange to Rip.---Weave the facts below into three paragraphs. Egypt long the granary of the world. Noisy. . THE PARAGRAPH. Remnant of a single bunch. Cheerful. Three crops from December to June. This was tall and naked. Body capacious. A sword. like Dr. But he stays with us all winter. A beer-barrel on skids. +Direction+. Receives two branches only. unfurrowed expanse. Direction.--Was five feet six inches high. Lion's share of the raspberries. Born at Rotterdam. Rises four inches daily. Two small. Renowned for fruitfulness. Angleworms his delight.500 miles. II. A foreigner. But Rip saw something he remembered. Taste for fruit. Eats with a relishing gulp. The valley very fertile. The red coat gone. and too large for any neck. Runs through an alluvial valley. Legs short and sturdy. in the hand. +Person+. Johnson's. Still the picture was changed. Underneath was painted--"General Washington. Dash of prose in his song. or +Theme+. gray eyes. This summer bore a score of bunches. They secreted sugar from the sunbeams. The fertile strip is from five to one hundred and fifty miles wide. The tavern sign. Descended from burgomasters.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 195 In place of the old tree there was a pole. The flag had on it the stars and stripes. Overflow caused by rains at the sources. How it looked at the bottom of my basket! A humming-bird's egg in an eagle's nest. The melting of the mountain snows. Rises till the close of September. One morning.---Weave these facts into four paragraphs. Course through the valley is 1. Face a vast. The robins beforehand with me. went to pick them. I. and not a scepter. Mulberries. Productions--grain. Plows into the Mediterranean. Appetite extraordinary. One of blue and buff in its place. and indigo. six feet five in circumference. writing the margin of each the main thought:-The robin is thought by some to be migratory. Nature set it on the back-bone. Bustled out from the leaves. Nile overflows its banks. and write on the margin what each is about:-The Nile rises in great lakes. Wore a cocked hat. ***** LESSON 158. No lines of thought. +Direction+. Begins at the end of June.--Weave these facts into four paragraphs:-Note that the several paragraphs form a composition." ***** LESSON 157. Poor soloist. Arrived in June at New Amsterdam--New York city. cotton. Minor outlets. Shy of bearing. Subsides. Laughed. Cheeks had taken toll of all that had entered his mouth. Two principal channels. A few years ago I had a grapevine. Whole valley an inland sea. Head spherical. He recognized on it the face of King George. +Who he was+. Robins joined in the merriment. Sources two thousand miles from Alexandria. Runs north. Fond of cherries. unhandsome remarks about me. the general subject of which is WOUTER VAN TWILLER (according to Diedrich Knickerbocker). A flag was fluttering from it. Mottled and streaked with dusky red.

" Servant reports. Every man responds. Four meals daily. they reach the lake. Separated by Lake Champlain from Mount Independence. Seize a boat at anchor. counted the leaves. Fronts south. would put on a mysterious look. and write on the margin of each paragraph the speciai topic. Smoke in silence. admirers said. When a question was asked. They follow. one for each tribe. Van T. Swayed a Turkish pipe instead of a scepter. Presided at the council. at length. Call on Baal. Sentinel snaps his gun at A. Not prudent to wait. On evening of the 9th. Fall on their faces. Allen orders all who will follow him to poise their firelocks." "Go again seven times. water on three sides. Conceived everything on a grand scale. Leap upon the altar. Perplexed by a joke. in state. They were . Fire falls. Question left to the officers. ***** LESSON 159. Allen and Arnold there. Used next winter at the siege of Boston. +Direction. weighed the books. dust. Elijah commands the people to come near. Never laughed. where they are slain. Demanded why Van Rensselaer seized Bear's Island. A. One day was sent to inquire after the other sons. "Go up now. +Habits+. and ammunition. equally heavy. Allen chosen. Misses fire. Wore fine garments. Search. using the variety of expression insisted on in Lesson 150.+--Weave these facts into as many paragraphs as you think there should be.--These facts are thrown together promiscuously. Repairs an old altar with twelve stones. Pours water three times upon it. PARAGRAPHS AND THE THEME. Send for a scow. Each claims the command. and over the whole what you think it the general subject of the theme:-The prophets of Baal accept Elijah's challenge. Noises of contending doubts. Battled with doubts regarding the Yankees. Vermont. Form. and find small row boats. Cut themselves. it is said. +Direction. each produced his account-book. Only eighty-three able to cross. Internal commotion shown by guttural sounds. Smoked and breathed his last together. and the constable pay the costs. Nathan Beman. equally thick. to surrender. Determine the number of paragraphs and their order. climbs the stairs. Sentinel retreats. look toward the sea. "The Lord. consumes flesh." Take the prophets to the brook Kishon. Prays. Rarely spoke save in monosyllables. Day is dawning when these reach the shore. Blood. he is the God. As self-contained as an oyster. Formed by the outlet of Lake George and by Lake Champlain. Loud cheer." "Behold there ariseth a little cloud out of the sea. Slept twelve. They dress a bullock. Shake his head. +Direction+. Rush upon the parade ground. "There is nothing. he runs before Ahab to Jezreel. each an hour long. Bows in prayer. Classify them as they seem to you to be related. Difficulty in crossing.+--Settled a dispute about accounts thus: sent for the parties. licks up water.+---Weave these facts into four paragraphs." Orders Ahab to prepare his chariot. Digs a trench. People see it. Meet to plan and execute an attack upon Fort T. Observe. Sacrifices. he had doubts. 1775. All but forty-six.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 196 III. One hundred and twenty cannon. Girding up his loins. two hundred and seventy men meet at Castleton. in the name of the great Jehovah and the Continental Congress. from Mount Defiance. Green Mountain boys. made each give the other a receipt. No answer by fire. Smoked and doubted eight hours. +Exploits. and then do as directed above:-Joseph was Jacob's favorite. wood. Orders La Place. and over the whole the general subject of the theme:-Fort Ticonderoga on a peninsula. like a man's hand. Cry till the time of the evening sacrifice. Elijah ascends Mount Carrael. write on the margin the special topic of each. Known to sit with eyes closed two hours. stones. small arms. Fort one hundred feet above the water. guides them to the fort. IV. May 7.--Regular. Cry out twice. and by the outlet. Are mocked by Elijah. Several swords and howitzers. a lad. Capture forty-eight men. But never said a foolish thing.

The wound was mortal. "This have we found." Seemed as if they had not known how deeply they loved him. ANALYSIS OF THE SUBJECT OF THE THEME. These were his last words. ***** LESSON 161. Signal received with a shout. While the brothers were eating.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 197 at a distance. Near the Straits of Gibraltar.'s death was more than a public calamity. Most triumphant death that of a martyr. The best riflemen in the enemy's boats. engaged the Santa Anna. "Thank God. I have done my duty. Buried him in St. "Kiss me. tending the flocks. They sat down to eat. Most splendid death that of the hero in the hour of victory. steered for the center. Camels loaded with spices. Had more and larger cannon than the English. "How goes the day with us?" he asked Hardy. Thus the spirits of the great and the wise live after them." N. know now whether it be thy son's coat or no. Rent his clothes and put on sackcloth. Thirty-three sail of the line and seven frigates. An example which is our shield and strength. Englishmen turned pale at the news. Most awful death that of the martyr patriot. "They have done for me at last. Take any book. fleets of Spain and France. In another the sun. A raking fire opened upon the Victory. and stars bowed to him. determine carefully the number and the order of the paragraphs. They bore down. N.587 men won. +Direction+." he said. The combined fleets in close line of battle. +Analysis of the Subject+. Require them to use the imagination and whatever graces of style are at their command. They bore him below.30 he expired. Ishmaelites approached. The victory that cost the British 1. PARAGRAPHS AND THE THEME. In one dream his brothers' sheaves bowed to his. Heard to say. Fifty fell before a shot was returned. Knelt down again and kissed his forehead. They saw him coming. in the Royal Sovereign led the lee line of thirteen ships. Plotted to throw his body into a pit. or thought. Delighted at being the first in the fire. Killed a kid and dipped the coat in its blood. Agreed to report to their father that some beast had devoured Joseph." ***** LESSON 160.'s secretary the first to fall." Enemy had four thousand troops. They took his coat. because they jointly develop a single point. At the intercession of Reuben they did not kill Joseph. Judah advised that he be raised from the pit.25 ten of the enemy had struck. The loss seemed a personal one. C. At 4 fifteen had struck. Ishmaelites took him down into Egypt. Jacob recognized the coat. The sentences of each paragraph are related to each other. TO THE TEACHER--Continue this work as long as it is needed. Refused comfort. C. Hated him because of the dreams and their father's partiality.--A Theme is made up of groups of sentences called Paragraphs. Hardy. Brought it to Jacob. N. Off Trafalgar. At 1. October 21. Threw him alive into a pit. And the . 1805. and read to the class items of facts. Joseph used to dream. At 12 the Victory opened fire. moon. Has left a name which is our pride. Plotted to kill him. His articulation difficult. C. At 4. and then do as directed above:-Trafalgar a Spanish promontory. Hardy. He signaled those memorable words: "England expects every man to do his duty. Kissed him on the cheek. Joseph foolishly told these to his brothers. Were going down into Egypt. "I hope none of our ships have struck.--Classify these promiscuous facts." They mourned as for a dear friend. Paul's. Nelson in command of the English fleet. He shook hands with Hardy." said N. Sold him to Potiphar. Collingwood second in command. Hardy. in weaving these facts together. in the Victory led the weather line. English fleet twenty-seven sail of the line and four frigates. shot through the shoulder and back. "I am a dead man.15 N. At 2.

***** LESSON 162. The consequences to England and to Spain. Be careful not to split your general subject up into very many parts. These points form. 4. There is a natural order. ANALYSIS OF SUBJECTS. Perhaps you could say under these heads all you wish: 1. Its dispersion and partial destruction by the storm. Reasons why one Should Not Smoke. A Day's Nutting. Its purpose. 8. ANALYSIS OF SUBJECTS.--Prepare the framework of a theme on each of these subjects:-1. 3. nor (4). Suppose you had taken The Armada as your subject. too. 2. . that no point foreign to the subject is introduced. +Direction+. and that all the points together exhaust the subject as nearly as may be. 2. The return to Spain of the surviving ships and men.--Question the pupils carefully upon every point taken up in this Lesson. 3. +Direction+. because these points which they develop are divisions of the one general subject of the Theme. depends largely the worth of the theme. When and by whom equipped.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 198 paragraphs are related to each other. nor (5).--Prepare the framework of a theme on each of these subjects:-1. What the Armada was. A Winter in the Arctic Region. (1). and before writing upon it. 5.--Prepare the framework of a theme on each of these subjects:-1. What Does a Proper Care for One's Health Demand? ***** LESSON 163. See. ANALYSIS OF SUBJECTS. Look to the arrangement of the points. (4). Battle of Plattsburg. it must be resolved into the main thoughts which compose it. 3. TO THE TEACHER. the +Framework+ of the theme. Its sail over the Bay of Biscay and entrance into the English Channel. The attack upon it by Admiral Howard and his great Captains--Drake and Hawkins. A Visit to the Moon. 2. 7. The Arrest of Major Andre. that no point is repeated. +Direction+. 2. Perhaps the 1st point could include the 2d and the 3d. What Does a Proper Observance of Sunday Require of One? ***** LESSON 164. Upon the thoroughness of this analysis and the natural arrangement of the thoughts thus derived. 6. when arranged. (6) could not precede (5). After the subject has been chosen.

and to punctuation. where they will make your thought the clearest. Let a fresh image here and there relieve the uniformity of plain language. if you exceed three pages. Be sure. long and short.--Prepare the framework of a theme on each of these subjects:-1. If developing all the points would make your theme too long. round term like Patriotism or Duty.--Question the pupils closely upon every point in this Lesson. Choose a Subject+. and your clauses. adversative to it. Turn it over in your mind in leisure moments. and at right angles to the ruled lines. and other thoughts will occur to you. Use familiar words. +V. and should instantly start in your mind many trains of thought. The Gulf Stream. +IV. or an inference from it.--Choose your subject long before you are to write. indicate this. and better ways of putting the thoughts already noted down. your sentences must pass rigid muster in syntax. stand shoulder to shoulder in the paragraph. to the clear understanding of which some other point is necessary.--Give your whole attention to your work as you write. Attend to the Mechanical Execution+. Bring the right-hand end toward you. Express yourself easily--only now and then putting your thought forcibly and with feeling. The subject should be on your level. that no one has been raised to the dignity of a head which should stand under some head. the subject should be analyzed. precede that other. as it seems to you. your phrases. take a fragment of it. Let no point. and let sentences. let it swing into position on the hinge of a fitting connective. and. as. See that no two overlap each other. Cast out irrelevant matter. use another sheet. Accumulate the Material+. then bring the top down to the middle and fold again. and even then you should note down what the conversation or reading suggests. and place these. as it stands. How can a Boy be Patriotic? or Duties which we Schoolmates owe Each Other. 3. Study these points carefully. complex. that no one appears twice. . at the right-hand corner. be sure that everything falls under its appropriate head. One sentence should follow another without abrupt break. or heads. jot them down in your blank-book. Write+. Construct a Framework+. Avoid a full. study to see what points you can omit without abrupt break or essential loss. as thoughts flash upon you. double the lower half of the sheet over the upper. On the left of the page leave a margin of an inch for corrections. you get at all the general thoughts into which. Do not write on the fourth page.--Begin to think about your subject. and read nothing on it. In expanding the main points into paragraphs. This superscription will be at the top of the fourth page. +II. When the writing is done. till you have thought yourself empty. and the hearer needs to be advised of this. As occasion calls. and by further thinking upon the subject. that by brooding over your material. Do not strain after effect or strive to seem wiser than you are. at any rate. See to what general truths or thoughts these jottings and those jottings point. and fold through the middle. and let your handwriting be clear. rather than what you have heard or read. +III. Study now to find the natural order in which these points should stand. to the use of capital letters. if continuative of it. Perhaps this or that thought. and across the top write your name and the date.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. simple. and. HOW TO WRITE A THEME. and that no one is irrelevant. and compound. If any of these seem broad enough for the main points.--Keep your pages clean. TO THE TEACHER. Of course. or heads. 199 +I. and you must look sharply to the spelling. 2.--Before writing hunt through your material for the main points. What are Books Good for? ***** LESSON 165. should be interesting and suggestive to you. A Descent into a Whirlpool. includes enough to serve as a head. Talk with no one on the subject. change from the usual order to the transposed.

39. 23. Ripton. Clouds. Monkeys. Maple Sugar. 26. Young America. Robinson Crusoe. 60." 83. John Chinaman. A Pleasant Evening. 57. Cities of the Dead. in words. The Story of Ruth. Our Neighborhood. 33. 3. 14. When my Ship Comes In. The Making of Beer. and the year are written in figures. 36. 30. 1895. 18. Pluck. My Walk to School. 24. the name of the county. A Plea for Puss. How Horatius Kept the Bridge. 40. 46. 71. and The Superscription. its name may take the place of the door-number and the name of the street. 63. give the door-number. Examinations. The Mission of Birds. 48.--Study what has teen said. Donkeys. THE HEADING. Our Sunday School. Of What Use are Flowers? 86. In writing a letter there are five things to consider--The Heading. Addison Co. A Boy's Trials. the name of the city. 2. Politeness. and the whole closes with a period. 45. My First Sea Voyage. If it occupies more than one line. LETTER-WRITING. A Descent in a Diving Bell. 17. 78. Letters need special treatment. Bach important word begins with a capital letter. 22. Apples and Nuts. Pigeons. A Rainy Saturday. each item is set off by the comma. The Ship of the Desert. Bore. Famous Streets. Commerce. Legerdemain. My Friend Jack. 59. and write the following headings according to these models:-1. 84. 77. The Conclusion. Our Minister. The Date consists of the month. Grandmothers. If you write from a village or other country place. 16. 20. 51. Well-begun is Half-done. 65. Ancient and Modern Warfare. and the name of the state. 4.. 35. The Tides. the day of month. 54. Irish Characters. If you are at a Hotel or a School or any other well-known Institution. Street Cries. Timepieces. A Day on a Trout Stream. 27. 53. the day of the month. 31. 5. give your post-office address. Homes without Hands.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Additional Subjects for Themes. 9. Fighting Windmills. 6. The Southern Negro. Whiskers. The door-number. If you write from a city. 82. Bulls and Bears.--The Heading consists of the name of the +Place+ at which the letter is written. 28. 68. 64. and the +Date+. The Watched Pot Never Boils. and the third farther to the right than the second. 67. A Girl's Trials. Jack Frost 43. I Can. 37. 70. School Friendships. 21. Begin the first line of the Heading a little to the left of the middle of the page. 72. Make Haste Slowly. Castles in Spain. 38. 8. 7. 73. Along the Docks.. 76. Up in a Balloon. Autumn's Colors. 66. the second line should begin farther to the right than the first. 32. The Yankee. 25. Parasites. Jack and Gill.--Begin the Heading about an inch and a half from the top of the page--on the first ruled line of commercial note. Over the Sea. 80. Winter Sports. Spring Sports 41. 56. 13. 200 1. The Schoolmaster in "The Deserted Village. 79. A Day in the Woods. A Visit to Olympus. the name of the street. as may also the number of your post-office box. 34. A Stitch in Time Saves Nine. you may begin the Heading lower down. Mosquitoes. . 50. Cleanliness Akin to Godliness. and the year. 69. 10. 74. A Spider's Web. The Early Bird Catches the Worm. 12. Monday Morning. 58. 15. 47. Robin Hood. +Direction+. The Introduction. The Boy of the Story Book. The View from my Window. 29. Umbrellas. 75. ***** LESSON 166. +How Written+. 62. Street Arabs. 49. 81. 11. The Body of the Letter. My Native Town. A Country Store. the rest. 55. Queer People. 61. 44. Vt. 42. July 10. Theatre-going. 19. A Visit to Neptune. The World Owes me A Living. 85. Gypsies. 52. +Parts+. Black Diamonds. and that of the state. If the letter occupies but a few lines of a single page.

the Address may appropriately be placed at the bottom of the letter. 1887. to the names of several gentlemen. Gentlemen. Executive Mansion. LL. Titles of respect and courtesy should appear in the Address. on the marginal line or farther to the right or to the left than the second line of the Address when this occupies two lines. Strangers may be addressed as Sir. Dearest Ellen. My dear Boy. saint nicholas new york 1 hotel nov 1855 THE INTRODUCTION. 1. as it is an abbreviated sentence.. Dr. champlain co clinton n y jan 14 1800 3. Begin the Salutation on the marginal line or a little to the right of it when the Address occupies three lines. to the name of a physician (but never Mr.--Write these introductions according to the models:-.. or by a comma and a dash. 1890. New York City. If the letter is of an official character or is written to an intimate friend.the higher implies the lower. or the writer's degree of intimacy with him. Miss to that of an unmarried lady. and.. the initial words of these lines should slope to the right. Easton. . ] and to that of a Governor or of an Ambassador.D. and near relatives and other dear friends as My dear Wife. and the whole should be followed by a comma. to the name of a Cabinet Officer. 250 Broadway.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 2. etc. T. a little to the right of the marginal line when the Address occupies one line. Hon. and the Place of Business or Residence of the one addressed--and the +Salutation+. to a man's name.. 1888. N. Misses to the names of several young ladies. Prefix His Excellency to the name of the President. Master to the name of a young lad.). 3.. the Title. it should close with a period. Rev. Smith & Jones. after it. but in ordinary business letters. Pa. and Mesdames to those of several married or elderly ladies. 201 +Parts+. Prof. May 3. If two literary or professional titles are added to a name. President. philadelphia 670 1858 chestnut st 16 apr 5. 4. Ph. Mrs. Brooklyn.--The Address may follow the Heading. +How Written+.. Dr. acquaintances as Dear Sir.. If the Address occupies more than one line. p o box 2678 1860 oct 19 chicago 4.D. or Rev. Prefix Rev. D. after it.--The Introduction consists of the +Address+--the Name. it should be placed at the top and as directed above. the Salutation is simply.1. etc. Washington. Prefix Mr.D. +Direction+. There should be a narrow margin on the left side of the page. a State Senator. To the President. and standing on the left side of the page. 25. Every important word in the Address should begin with a capital letter. on the marginal line when the Address stands below. or it may stand in corresponding position after the Body of the Letter and the Conclusion.. if you do not know his Christian name. 771 Broadway.M. N.. Mr. Polytechnic Institute. Dear Sir. Guard against an excessive use of titles-. Madam. if he is a Doctor of Divinity. Mr. Feb. Every important word in the Salutation should begin with a capital letter. Dear Madam. a Law Judge. to the name of a clergyman. My dear Jones. and the Address should begin on the marginal line. All the items of it should be set off by the comma. Y. Prefix Dr. a Member of Congress. My dear Sir.. to that of a married lady. friends as My dear Sir.D. or write M. General. or write Rev. Messrs. March. [Footnote: The preferred form of addressing the President is. My dear Madam. Sir. beginning on the next line. C. 2. June 6. Salutations vary with the station of the one addressed. or a Mayor. Rev. before the name and D. etc. Messrs. ann arbor 5 July 1820 michigan 2. Me. D. let them stand in the order in which they were conferred--this is the order of a few common ones: A. etc.D. Never omit it from the letter except when the letter is written in the third person. Saco.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 3. My dear Mother, When, etc. 4. Messrs. Vallette & Co., Middlebury, Vt. Dear Sirs,

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1. mr george platt burlington iowa sir 2. mass Cambridge prof James r lowell my dear friend 3. messrs ivison blakeman taylor & co gentlemen new york 4. rev brown dr the arlington Washington dear friend d c 5. col John smith dear colonel n y auburn ***** LESSON 167. LETTER-WRITING--CONTINUED. THE BODY OF THE LETTER. +The Beginning+.--Begin the Body of the Letter at the end of the Salutation, and on the same line if the Introduction is long--in which case the comma after the Salutation should be followed by a dash,--on the line below if the Introduction is short. +Style+.--Be perspicuous. Paragraph and punctuate as in other kinds of writing. Avoid blots, erasures, interlineations, cross lines, and all other offenses against epistolary propriety. The letter "bespeaks the man." Letters of friendship should be colloquial, chatty, and familiar. Whatever is interesting to you will be interesting to your friends, however trivial it may seem to a stranger. Business letters should be brief, and the sentences short, concise, and to the point. Repeat nothing, and omit nothing needful. Official letters and formal notes should be more stately and ceremonious. In formal notes the third person is generally used instead of the first and the second; there is no Introduction, no Conclusion, no Signature, only the name of the Place and the Date at the bottom, on the left side of the page, thus:-Mr. & Mrs. A. request the pleasure of Mr. B.'s company at a social gathering, on Tuesday evening, Nov. 15th, at eight o'clock. 32 Fifth Ave., Nov. 5. Mr. B. accepts [Footnote: Or regrets that a previous engagement (or illness, or an unfortunate event) prevents the acceptance of ----; or regrets that on account of ---- he is unable to accept ----.] with pleasure Mr. & Mrs. A.'s kind invitation for Tuesday evening, Nov. 15th. Wednesday morning, Nov. 9th. THE CONCLUSION. +Parts+.--The Conclusion consists of the +Complimentary Close+ and the +Signature+. The forms of the Complimentary Close are many, and are determined by the relations of the writer to the one addressed. In letters of friendship you may use, Your sincere, friend; Yours affectionately; Your loving son or daughter, etc. In business letters you may use, Yours; Yours truly; Truly yours; Yours respectfully; Very respectfully yours, etc. In official letters you should be more deferential. Use, I have the honor to be, Sir, your obedient servant; Very respectfully, your most obedient servant; etc., etc.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg The Signature consists of your Christian name and your surname. In addressing a stranger write your Christian name in full. A lady addressing a stranger should prefix to her signature her title, Mrs. or Miss (placing it within marks of parenthesis), unless in the letter she has indicated which of these titles her correspondent is to use in reply.

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+How Written+.--The Conclusion should begin near the middle of the first line below the Body of the Letter, and, if occupying two or more lines, should slope to the right like the Heading and the Address. Begin each line of it with a capital letter, and punctuate as in other writing, following the whole with a period. The Signature should be very plain. +Direction+.--Write two formal notes--one inviting a friend to a social party, and one declining the invitation. +Direction+.--Write the Conclusion of a letter of friendship, of a letter of business, and of an official letter, carefully observing all that has been said above. +Direction+.--Write a letter of two or three lines to your father or your mother, and another to your minister, talcing care to give properly the Heading in its two parts, the Introduction in its two parts, and the Conclusion in its two parts. Let the Address in the letter to your father or your mother stand at the bottom. ***** LESSON 168. LETTER-WRITING--CONTINUED. THE SUPERSCRIPTION. +Parts+.--The Superscription is what is written on the outside of the envelope. It is the same as the Address, consisting of the Name, the Title, and the full Directions of the one addressed. +How Written+.--The Superscription should begin just below the middle of the envelope and near the left edge--the envelope lying with its closed side toward you--and should occupy three or four lines. These lines should slope to the right as in the Heading and the Address, the spaces between the lines should be the same, and the last line should end near the lower right-hand corner. On the first line the Name and the Title should stand. If the one addressed is in a city, the door-number and name of the street should be on the second line, the name of the city on the third, and the name of the state on the fourth. If he is in the country, the name of the post-office should be on the second line, the name of the county on the third, the name of the state on the fourth. The number of the post office box may take the place of the door-number and the name of the street, or, to avoid crowding, the number of the box or the name of the county may stand at the lower left-hand corner. The titles following the name should be separated from it and from each other by the comma, and every line should end with a comma except the last, which should be followed by a period. [Footnote: Some omit punctuation after the parts of the Superscription. ] The lines should be straight, and every part of the Superscription should be legible. Place the stamp at the upper right-hand corner. +Direction+.--Write six Superscriptions to real or imaginary friends or acquaintances in different cities, carefully observing all that has been said above. +Direction+.--Write two snort letters--one to a friend at the Astor House, New York, and one to a stranger in the country. [Illustration: Envelope with stamp in upper-right corner. Addressed to

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Master H. Buckman, Andover, Mass.] [Cursive Text: Ithaca, N. Y, June 15, '96. My dear Friend,

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You tell me that you begin the study of English Literature next term. Let me assume the relation of an older brother, and tender you a word of counsel. Study literature, primarily, for the thoughts it contains. Attend to these thoughts until you understand them and see their connection one with another. Accept only such as seem to you just and true, and accept these at their proper value. Notice carefully the words each author uses, see how he arranges them, whether he puts his thought clearly, what imagery he employs, what allusions he makes, what acquaintance with men, with books, and with nature he shows, and in what spirit he writes. Your study of the author should put you in possession of his thought and his style, and should introduce you to the man himself. Pardon me these words of unsought advice, and believe me. Your true friend, John Schuyler. Master H. Buckman, Andover, Mass.] A SUMMARY OF THE RULES OF SYNTAX. We here append a Summary of the so-called Rules of Syntax, with references to the Lessons which treat of Construction. I. A noun or pronoun used as subject or as attribute complement of a predicate verb, or used independently, is in the nominative case. II. The attribute complement of a participle or an infinitive is in the same case (Nom. or Obj.) as the word to which it relates. III. A noun or pronoun used as possessive modifier is in the possessive case. IV. A noun or pronoun used as object complement, as objective complement, as the principal word in a prepositional phrase, or used adverbially [Footnote: See Lesson 35.] is in the objective case. V. A noun or pronoun used as explanatory modifier is in the same case as the word explained. +For Cautions, Principles, and Examples respecting the cases of nouns and pronouns, see Lessons 119, 122, 123, 123. For Cautions and Examples to guide in the use of the different pronouns, see Lessons 86, 87.+ VI. A pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person, number, and gender. +For Cautions, Principles, and Examples, see Lessons 118,142.+ VII. A verb agrees with its subject in person and number.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +For Cautions, Examples, and Exceptions, see Lesson 142.+ VIII. A participle assumes the action or being, and is used like an adjective or a noun. +For Uses of the Participle, see Lessons 37, 38, 39.+

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IX. An infinitive is generally introduced by to, and with it forms a phrase used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. +For Uses of the Infinitive, see Lessons 40, 41, 42.+ X. Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns. +For Cautions and Examples respecting the use of adjectives and of comparative and superlative forms, see Lessons 90, 91, 128.+ XI. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or adverbs. +For Cautions and Examples, see Lesson 93.+ XII. A preposition introduces a phrase modifier, and shows the relation, in sense, of its principal word to the word modified. +For Cautions, see Lessons 98, 99.+ XIII. Conjunctions connect words, phrases, or clauses. +For Cautions and Examples, see Lessons 100, 107.+ XIV. Interjections are used independently. CONJUGATION OF THE VERB. +Remarks+.--The scheme of conjugation presented below is from English text-books. In some of these books the forms introduced by should are classed, not as Future, but as Secondary Past Tense forms of the Subjunctive. If we substitute this scheme of conjugation for the simpler one given in the preceding pages, we still fail to get a classification in which every form corresponds in use to its name. The following examples will illustrate:-He returns to-morrow. (Present = Future.) When I have performed this, I will come to you. (Present Perfect = Future Perfect.) If any member absents himself, he shall pay a fine. (Indicative = Subjunctive.) You shall go. (Indicative = Imperative.) After memorizing all the terms and forms belonging to the conjugation here outlined, the student will find that he has gained little to aid him in the use of language. For instance, in this synopsis of the Subjunctive are found nineteen forms. As there are three persons in the singular and three in the plural, we have one hundred and fourteen subjunctive forms! How confusing all this must be to the student, who, in his use of the

and how much to be a "notional. shall. can. Prof. If he were." or independent. "These auxiliary verbs had at some time such a clear and definite meaning that it would have been tolerably easy to determine the case function discharged by the infinitive. he would succeed. the student will find it exceedingly difficult to determine when these auxiliaries are true subjunctives. but these verbs. 10. But in parsing these words as separate verbs the student is left in doubt as to whether they are transitive or intransitive. needs to distinguish only such as these: If he be. 6. I could not do this if I were to try. after passing through various shades of meaning. and the latter a "notional. verb. We are told that can and must are always independent verbs in the indicative. Shall (to owe) and will (to determine) are. May you be happy. 7. and could are past forms of shall. I would not tell you if I could. shall. so that it would be worse than useless to attempt to analyze these periphrastic tenses of our moods. The forms italicized above are said to be subjunctive auxiliaries. and should are either subjunctive auxiliaries or independent verbs parsed in the indicative. Among these is our distinguished critic. To say just how little of its common or original meaning may. He may be there. Must denotes power from without coming from circumstances or the nature of things. May. in their original meaning. These are some of the difficulties--not to say inconsistencies--met by the student who is taught that there is no Potential Mode." A CONJUGATION OF TEACH.--hence permission or possibility. 11.--hence ability. would. may. I learn that I may be able to teach. and. 9. might. It is hard to see why the former may is necessarily a mere auxiliary. and that may. as does could in (11). You should not have done that. or will must have to be an auxiliary. must. 8. If he should try. In some constructions the meaning is fainter or less emphatic than in others. and must denote power (hence potential). . could in (6) above expresses power or ability to do. 2. yet we are told that the former could is a mere auxiliary. With the meager instruction given by any one or by all of these authors. or will love. not from the conjugation of the verb. says.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 206 subjunctive. may in (7) denotes a possible removal of hindrance. May in (1) denotes a desired removal of all hindrance. can. might. The auxiliaries take different shades of meaning. Francis A. If he teach! Beyond these. To illustrate:-1. 4. those below are said to be independent verbs in the indicative. could. Wrightson. He might ask you to go. and as to the office of the infinitives that follow. can. 5. verb would be extremely venturesome For instance. separately from the infinitives with which they seem to combine. the subjunctive manner of assertion is discovered from the structure of the sentence or the relation of clauses." or independent. as the infinitive with which they combine names the act on which this power is exercised.--hence necessity or obligation. He might have done it if he had liked. I could do this at one time. would. some philologists regard them as originally transitive. while the latter is an independent verb. transitive. Active Voice. In a scholarly work revised by Skeat. 3. and can. March. Those English authors and their American copyists who eliminate the Potential Mode from their scheme of conjugation tell us that the so-called potential auxiliaries are either independent verbs in the indicative or are subjunctive auxiliaries. Should. speaking of I may. INDICATIVE MODE. May denotes power from without coming from a removal of all hindrance. will. Can denotes power from within. He would not come when called. have at last become little more than conventional symbols.

...He was teaching... Present Perfect Continuous..(If) he have taught.... Future Perfect Continuous.... Present Indefinite..... Present Indefinite.He is being taught...... Future Imperfect....... Present Perfect Continuous............... INFINITIVE MODE................ Past Perfect Continuous..... Present Imperfect. Present.....He had been teaching. Past Imperfect.. Past Perfect Continuous... Future Indefinite...He has been taught......(To) teach... PARTICIPLES..(If) he had been teaching...... Past Perfect... INDICATIVE MODE...(To) have taught..........He is taught............ Present Imperfect........... SUBJUNCTIVE MODE..........(If) he have been taught....... ..He taught.................(If) he had taught........-----------------------.He will be teaching.(If) he taught. Perfect Continuous.... Present Perfect.... Future Indefinite... Future Indefinite............. IMPERATIVE MODE.......... Present Imperfect.........He had been taught.................(If) he were teaching...............(If) he be teaching.. Present Perfect..(If) he should teach.... Imperfect...... Future Perfect.. Present Imperfect.He has taught... Present Perfect. Present Perfect Continuous......He will be taught.......... Present Indefinite.........................He has been teaching....... Perfect...Having been teaching..He will have been teaching...................(If) he should have taught......Teaching.......(To) have been teaching...Present Perfect..........Teach [thou]..............He will have taught...........Having taught....He will teach.. Future Imperfect.... Present Indefinite.....-----------------------................ Past Indefinite............(If) he be taught.......................Future Perfect.......... Past Indefinite..He had taught......Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 207 Present Indefinite........ Past Indefinite..........He teaches.............. Passive Voice....He was taught. Past Perfect......... Past Perfect.........(If) he teach.......... Future Perfect...........(To) be teaching...... Past Imperfect.He is teaching.. Past Imperfect....... SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. Present Imperfect.......... Present Perfect... Future Imperfect.(If) he should be teaching.(If) he should have been teaching...............He will have been taught......He was being taught.......(If) he have been teaching....... Future Perfect Continuous........

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Past Indefinite...............(If) he were taught. Past Imperfect................(If) he were being taught. Past Perfect..................(If) he had been taught. Future Indefinite.............(If) he should be taught. Future Imperfect..............------------------------ Future Perfect................(If) he should have been taught. IMPERATIVE MODE. Present.......................Be [thou] taught. INFINITIVE MODE. Present Indefinite............(To) be taught. Present Perfect...............(To) have been taught. PARTICIPLES.

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Imperfect.....................Being taught. Perfect.......................Taught. Compound Perfect..............Having been taught. INDEX. A, or an, uses of A and the uses of distinguished A (day) or two, or one or two (days) +Abbreviations+ common ones how made and written of names of states +Absolute Phrases+ definition of diagram of expansion of +Adjective+ an, definition of +Adjectives+ apt ones to be used +classes+ definitive (numeral) descriptive +comparison+ adjectives not compared adjectives irregularly compared form preferred in er and est with adverb descriptive, used as nouns errors in use of having number forms needless ones avoided not always limiting not used for adverbs numeral cardinal ordinal proper order of scheme for general review used as abstract nouns +Adjective Clauses+ connectives of definition of = adjectives = explanatory modifiers = independent clauses = infinitive phrases = participle phrases = possessives modifying omitted words position of restrictive and unrestrictive unrestrictive, punctuation +Adjective Complement+ distinguished from adverb modifier +Adjective Modifiers+ analysis of nouns as +Adverb+ an definition of +Adverbs+ apt ones to be used classes of comparison of errors in use of expressing negation irregular comparison of modifying clauses phrases prepositions sentences not used for adjectives not used needlessly position of scheme for general review sometimes like adjective attributes +used+ independently (note) interrogatively (note) with connective force (note) +Adverb Clause+, definition of +Adverb Clauses+ +classes+ cause, real concession condition degree (result) evidence manner place purpose time +contracted+ by omitting words to absolute phrases to participles and participle phrases to prepositional phrases = adjective clauses and phrases (note) = adverbs = independent clauses (note) position of punctuation of +Adverbial Modifiers+ analysis of nouns as parsing of +Adversative Connectives+, list +Adversative+, meaning of (note) A few, a little, vs. few and little +Agreement+ of parts of a metaphor of pronoun with its antecedent of verb with the subject +Allusion+ (note) +Alphabet+ definition of perfect one what the English imperfect how +Alternative+, meaning of (note) +Alternative Connectives+, list +Ambiguity+ of pronouns, how avoided +Analysis+ examples for, additional of a sentence of subjects of themes +Antecedent+, a clause, phrase, or word (note) +Antithesis+ (note) Any body (or one) else's (note) +Apostrophe+ the +Appositives+ +Argumentative Style+ +Arrangement+ +Articles+ +classes+ definite indefinite errors in use of repeated when uses of a, or an, and the As introductory conjunction relative pronoun (note) with clauses of degree, manner, and time with variety of clauses As ... as, construction of As it were, construction of +Aspirates+ +Assumed Subject+, what +Attribute Complement+ definition of diagram of +Auxiliary Verbs+ Be, conjugation of derivation of (note) Beside and besides distinguished (note) Best of the two Between with three or more (note) +Brackets+, use of But adversative conjunction a preposition various uses of with or without that with what incorrect for but that or but Can +Capital Letters+ in abbreviations in beginning

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sentences in class names in compound names in names of the Deity in proper names in titles rule for I and O summary of rules for +Case+ defined of attribute complement of explanatory modifier of noun or pronoun independent of noun or pronoun used adverbially of objective complement +Cases+ definitions of in Anglo-Saxon and in Latin +Case Forms+ errors in use of five pronouns have three nouns have two only eight nominative only seven objective +Cause+, adverbs of +Cause Clauses+, divisible +Classification+ necessity of not governed by logical relation +Clauses+ classes dependent independent complex and compound +dependent+ adjective adverb noun +independent+ (the thought) in alternation in contrast in same line inferred +Collective Nouns+ form of verb with of what number +Colon+ +Comma+, rules for +Comparison+ adjectives without it cautions to guide in definition of degree used with two degrees of, defined...257. 268 double, origin of double, to be shunned errors in use of forms of irregular when adverb used which form preferred +Complement+ is what the modified is what +Complements+ attribute (subjective) object objective +Complex Sentences+ definition treatment of +Compound Attribute Complement+ +Compound Object Complement+ +Compound Personal Pronouns+ +Compound Predicate+, defined +Compound Relative Pronouns+ +Compound Sentence+ changed to complex contracted defined treatment of +Compound Subject+, defined +Condition Clauses without conjunction+ +Conjugation+ definition of forms of more elaborate form +Conjunction a, definition of+ +Conjunctions+ +classes+ co-ordinate subordinate +co-ordinate+ adversative alternative +Conjunctions+ (cont.) +co-ordinate+ copulative co-ordinate connect sentences and paragraphs scheme for review +Conjunctive Adverbs+ are what offices of +Connectives+ apt ones to be chosen +co-ordinate+ adversative alternative copulative errors in use of in correlation introductory +subordinate+ of adjective clauses of adverb clauses of noun clauses +Consonants+, classes of +Contraction+ of +Sentences+ +Co-ordinate Conjunctions+ +Copulative+, meaning of +Copula+, what +Correlatives+, errors in use of D of the ed of verbs in past tense D of the ed of past participles Dare, without s form +Dash+ the +Declarative Sentence+, defined +Declension+ defined of interrogative pronouns of nouns of personal pronouns of relative pronouns +Degree+, adverbs of +Descriptive Style+ +Diminution+, degrees of +Diagram+ a, what may be omitted Do, idiomatic use of Each other construction of with two or more Ed of past tense and participle Either and neither, pronouns and conjunctions, with two or more Either may be used for each +Elocution+, object of +Energy+ defined exercises in secured how +English Grammar+, definition of +Epigrams+ are what +Evidence+ distinguished from +Cause+ +Exclamatory Sentences+ definition of order of words in +Expansion+ of absolute phrases of infinitive phrases of participles of sentences +Explanatory Modifier+ definition of punctuation of +Figures of Speech+ basis of definition illustrations of names of uses of First two, etc. +Force+ (see +Energy+) For to +Gender+ defined distinguished from sex of names of animals of what importance of pronouns, errors in used in personification +Gender Forms+ +Genders+, the three defined Had better, rather, sooner Hand in hand, construction of Have written, history of He or one after the indefinite one +Humor+, in style +Hyphen+, use of +Idea+ distinguished from object If for even if, although for whether omission of variety of uses +Imagery+, discussion of +Imperative Sentence+ definition of order of words in In and Into distinguished In case that, construction of +Independent Clauses+ definition of joined without conjunction punctuated +Independent Expressions+, punctuated +Indirect+, or +Dative+, Object +Inference+, expressed by an independent clause +Infinitive+ (the), and assumed subject after for definition of double nature of old dative of use of present perfect after past indicative why called infinitive +Infinitive Phrase+ after a preposition as adjective as adjective modifier as adverb modifier as attribute complement as explanatory modifier as object complement as objective complement as subject cleft or split does not with the noun form a clause expansion into clauses independent In order that, construction of +Interjections+ +Interrogation Point+, use of +Interrogative

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Pronouns+ declension definition list +Interrogative Sentences+ definition of order of words in +Intransitive Verbs+, definition +Introductory Words+ +Invitations+, form of +Irregular Verbs+ definition of inflections of list of persistence of It for a clause idiomatic use of use for animals and children vague It is me, him, etc. Just as, construction of +Language+ definition of made up of words natural word Last two, etc. Lay and lie Less, the final s of, and lesser Lest equaling that not various uses of with noun clause +Letters+, the alphabet +Letters+ body of conclusion of heading of illustration of introduction of parts of superscription of +Letter-Writing+ +Loose Sentence+ Many a, explanation of +Manner+, adverbs of +Masculine Gender+ distinguished +Masculine Pronoun+, use of May +Metaphor+ definition of exercises in use of Methinks +Metonymy+ definition of exercises in use of Mine, thine, of mine, etc +Mode+ is what +Modes+ +classes+, imperative indicative potential subjunctive definitions of imperative, no 2d and 3d persons indicative, uses of potential omitted subjunctive +Modifications+, definition +Modified Complement+ +Modifiers+, definition different rank explanatory, punctuation Must Myself, explanatory +N+, Saxon ne, the negative particle +Narrative Style+ +Natural Language+ Need, without s form +Negation+ by adverbs +Negatives+, double No and yes, sentence-words No body (or one) else's +Nominative Forms+, eight +Noun+ a, definition of +Nouns+ abstract as adjective modifiers as adverb modifiers cases of classes of collective common and proper declension gender of number, kinds of person of roots of scheme for general review +Noun Clauses+ as attribute complement as explanatory modifier as object complement as principal term of prepositional phrase as subject connectives of contraction of definition of position of punctuation of +Noun Modifier+ explanatory (appositive) explanatory of a sentence possessive +Number+ definition of kinds of of noun agreeing with adjective of nouns determined of verbs shows what 0 and oh distinguished +Object+ and +Object Complement+ distinguished +Object+, indirect +Object+, indirect, made subject +Object Complement+ becoming subject compound definition of retained after verb in passive +Objective Forms+, seven +Objective Complement+ an infinitive phrase a participle becoming an attribute complement definition of extended beyond its factitive sense Of in place of possessive sign not always indicating possession Of mine, etc On condition that One another syntax of with two or more Only, position of syntax of +Order+ (words and phrases) transposed usual Other, misuse of Ought +Paragraph+ (the) composition of definition of topics and subtopics of unity of +Paragraphing+, exercises in +Parallel Construction+ +Parenthesis+, marks of +Parenthetical Classes+, punctuation +Parsing+ definition of first step in models for written +Participles+ adjectival as adjective modifiers as attribute complements as mere adjectives as mere nouns as objective complements as prepositions as principal word in a phrase definition of expansion of forms of in independent phrases misuse of modified by a and the modified by a possessive nounal, called gerunds, infinitives, verbal nouns place of punctuation of used in slurring +Passive Voice+, idiomatic constructions +Period+, use of +Periodic Sentence+ +Person+ forms of a noun or pronoun of a verb why regarded in the grammar +Personification+, the figure +Persons+, the three defined +Perspicuity+ definition of exercises in +Phrases+ absolute adjective and adverb as prepositions complex and compound definition of infinitive interchange with clauses interchange with words participial position of prepositional punctuation of used independently verb +Place+, adverbs of +Plural Number+ +Plural+ ending, origin foreign forms of formed irregularly formed regularly form same as singular forms treated as singular no form for of compound words of letters, figures, etc. of proper names some originally singular some words always two forms with different meaning without singular of like meaning +Possessive Ending+ added to explanatory word ambiguity avoided by attached to the adjective confined to what error respecting errors in use of of for of compound names origin of when omitted when pronounced es +Predicate+ adjective defined a verb or contains one compound definition of modified noun defined of two or more words +Preposition+ a, defined +Prepositions+ becoming adverbs ending a sentence ending in ing errors in use of list of two before a noun where sometimes found with verb before a noun +Pronoun+ a, defined +Pronouns+ agreement Nom. and Obj. forms +classes+ adjective interrogative personal relative declension of denote relations errors in use of need of number scheme for review vagueness of +Pronouns (Adjective)+ a (day) or two all, both, and whole before of any body (or one) else's, etc. declension of definition of demonstrative distributive each other, with two or more either, neither, with two or more either for each first two, last three, etc., he, etc. after indefinite one indefinite none in both numbers ones, plural other and than, words between other two, when one of three is

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taken partial list of such or so with adjectives +Pronouns (Interrogative)+ declension definition list +Pronouns (Personal)+ avoided when compound consistent use of declension definition its, history of misuse of them for those my and mine, etc. order of ours, yours, etc., double possessives +Pronouns (Personal)+ (cont.) use of compound used needlessly we hardly plural of I we instead of I ye has given way to you +Pronouns (Relative)+ agreement of compound declension definition discriminated in use omitted when same with same antecedent that in restrictive clauses that instead of who and which what misused for that who and which restrictive and unrestrictive with omitted antecedents +Pun+, a +Punctuation Marks+ exercises in summary of rules for +Qualities of Style+ +Question+, direct and indirect +Quotation Marks+, use of +Quotations+ capitalization of definition of direct indirect punctuation of Quoth +Regular Verbs+ definition increasing inflections of +Relative Clauses+, position +Result+, clauses of +Review Questions+ +Review+ of +Sentence+, scheme for +Satire+ +Semicolon+, rules for +Sentence+ (the) balanced contracted defined expanded loose period +Sentences+ (classed) +form+ complex compound simple +meaning+ declarative exclamatory imperative interrogative Set and sit Shall and will Should and would +Simile+, definition and exercises in +Simple Sentences+ definition of treatment of Since, various uses of +Singular Number+ So ... as, construction of Some body (or one) else's +Sounds+ and +Letters+ +Speech+ figures of mechanism of +Spelling+, rules for +Style+ argumentative definition of descriptive illustrations narrative qualities of +Subject+ assumed, what assumed, changed to prevent ambiguity compound defined determined how +Subject+ (cont.), modified, or logical +Subjunctive Mode+ definition of disappearing uses of +Subordinate Conjunctions+ +Subordinate Connectives+ +Synecdoche+ +Synopsis+ is what +Syntax+, rules for +Tense+ defined future, how used future perfect, how used past, how used past perfect, how used present, how used present perfect, how used +Tenses+ defined emphatic form of errors in use of conjunctive adverb Than errors in use of followed by adjective replaced by but, etc. use after comparatives with me after it Than whom That and this, adjectives, plurals That and this (Adj. Pro.) declension reference That (Conj.) with cause clause with noun clause with purpose clause That, Conj. Adv., degree clause That (Rel. Pr.) distinguished from who and which for who and which generally restrictive preposition follows The, uses of The ... the construction of explanation of +Themes+ framework of how to write them subjects for The one, the other This +Thought+, how expressed Three times four is twelve To with infinitive construction of expressing relation extension of no part of not expressed position of without relation +Transitive Verbs+ definition of conjugated passively +Unity+ of paragraphs Unless (= if not) +Usage+ +Variety+ how secured illustrations of want of +Verb+ a, defined +Verb+ Be an auxiliary conjugation of derivation of +Verb-Phrases+ +Verbs+ (classes) +form+ irregular regular +meaning+ intransitive transitive +Verbs+ a modern passive progressive form analysis of compound tense forms as nouns auxiliary changing their voice conjugated in progressive form conjugated interrogatively conjugated negatively conjugation of +Verbs+ (cont.) defective forms not asserting improper forms used indicative and potential with subjunctive meaning inflections of +intransitive+ definition of made transitive +irregular+ definition of list of persistence of principal parts of mode, defined model for written parsing number forms number of defined passive form compound periphrastic forms resolved, person forms person of potential auxiliaries principal parts redundant +regular+ definition of increasing scheme for gen. review Strong (or Old), Weak (or New) subjunctive form fading tense the e and the d of past tense, the e and the d of past participle +transitive+, definition of conjugated passively voice +Verbs+ (agreement of) attracted errors in with and in what with collective noun with subjects connected by and with subjects connected by or or nor with subjects emphatically distinguished with subjects naming same thing with subjects one affirmative and one negative with subjects following with subjects preceded by each, every, etc. with subjects varying in person +Vocal Consonants+ +Voice+, the voices defined +Voices+ changed +Vowels+ What equal to that or whom in origin misuse for that various uses of without antecedent

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