Comments on the Gregorian melodies for select Introits and other chants

by Ted Krasnicki

Based in part on the lectures given by Fr. Clément Morin, PSS (1907- 2004) Université de Montréal

Advent I The music for this introit is labeled as Mode VIII. Compositions written in Mode VIII end on the g (sol). The musical theorists of the Middle Ages developed rules and principles establishing criteria for the 8 church modes, such as the idea that the first note as well as the last note for Mode VIII should be the g; most likely this kind of symmetry was thought to bestow a greater perfection on the musical expression. Compositions written before this time were often altered slightly to conform to these rules, either by adding a few notes or performing transpositions to obtain conformity to the musical theory. It is not unusual to see compositions written in one mode to have been transposed to another because of the subsequent more elaborate theory. These alterations were meant to add to the beauty of the compositions through the increase in melodic or symbolic perfections, but sometimes at the cost of the original intentions. The nature of the Gregorian is to speak musically about the text from Scripture; the text came first, and the music comments on the holy text, often through the theological symbolism of certain musical notes and phrases, rendering the meaning of the text more intense and theologically significant. Words are emphasised for theological or poetic (passionate) reasons by assigning the higher notes of the hexachord to those words. But no matter the musical statement, the music always follows the verbal rhythm of the text, for it is the Latin text that commands the musical expression. It is the Latin text that determines everything musical in the Gregorian composition. The Introit for the first Sunday of the Church year is a prayer that trusts God's mercy and protection, while waiting for or anticipating God's Grace of salvation; it is an excerpt from Psalm 24: 1-4 : Ad te levavi animam meam: Deus meus in te confido, non erubescam: neque irrideant me inimici mei: et enim universi qui te expectant, non confundentur. (To you have I lifted up my soul: my God in thee I put my trust, let me not be ashamed: neither let mine enemies laugh at me: for none of them that wait for thee shall be confounded.) Again, for those that follow the missalet, the Latin differs significantly from it. The soul rising in this introit also symbolises Christ's soul going or ascending up to heaven at the crucifixion. The nativity, the Incarnation, cannot be separated from the crucifixion. In that sense, Christ will return, and this introit prepares us for the Second coming of our Lord as well as for a celebration of His birth and manifestation to the world (Epiphany). In the psalm verse (4) the “semitas” are the actions of God which throughout history are part of His plan for our salvation. The first thing to note is that this introit begins on the g. But this is not found in the original composition; it is a later Mediaeval addition. The verbal rhythm of the Latin, as in the English in this case, stresses the word “te”. In the phrase “To you”, it is the “you” that is the strong word here. By adding the g, too much emphasis has been put on the “ad” and the verbal rhythm ignored. The original began on the d. The strong note is the f on “te”. The second thing to notice is that there is a constant movement upwards of the notes, a constantly ascending melody, symbolising the “levavi”- the lifting the soul towards heaven, which culminates on the last syllable of meus in “Deus meus”. The goal of the entire text from the beginning “Ad” is this last syllable of the “meus”. Indeed, the upper d is the highest note of the composition and is found on the “meus” and on the least syllable of “expectant”; the goal of that clause from “et” is similarly the last syllable of the word “expectant”. These are the high notes of the hexachord, and the composer wanted to

emphasise these words for their relevance to the Incarnation. The third point to notice is the stress on the word “neque”, followed by the remaining upper d in this composition which is on the word “irrideant”. For the composer these two words were very important and they should be sung with force. The composer was pleading with God perhaps to protect Christians from demoralising ridicule since the mystery of the incarnation like then and like today seems absurd to a non-believer. Most likely though, the composer was pleading for protection against the enemy- sin; after all, Advent is a time for reflection on sin and repentance of it. Ted Krasnicki

Advent II Today's introit is from the prophet Isaias and is partly suggested by 30: 19, and partly taken from 30:30. Populus Sion, ecce Dominus veniet ad salvandas gentes: et auditam faciet Dominus gloriam vocis suae, in laetitia cordis vestri. (People of Sion, behold the Lord will come to save the nations: and the Lord shall make heard the glory of his voice, in the joy of your heart.) These words announce the coming of a King to Sion, and fittingly the Gregorian melody resembles the sound of royal trumpets. This introit should be sung so as to imitate the sound of trumpets announcing the good news of a great King coming to save the world. Note that on the “o” in “gloriam” there is a salicus. The usual practice has been to lengthen the oriscus, but this is unlikely to have been the original practice (cf. Eugene Cardine). Rather, the principal note should be the note following the oriscus. In this case, it is not the d (re), but the e (mi) that is the important note. In other words, the goal of the 3 note group here on the “o” is the e, and not the d, and this initial emphasis on the e musically brings out the intensity of the glory of God's voice in that whole verbal phrase "gloriam vocis suae". . Ted Krasnicki

Advent III Today's Introit is taken from Philippians 4: 4-6, with Psalm 84. Gaudete in Domino semper: iterum dico, gaudete: modestia vestra nota sit hominibus: Dominus prope est. Nihil soliciti sitis: sed in omni oratione petitiones vestrae innotescant apud Deum. (Rejoice in the Lord always: again I say rejoice: let your modesty be known to all men: the Lord is near. Be nothing solicitous: but in everything, by prayer, let your petitions be made known to God.) One would think from the first few words of the Introit that Gaudete Sunday is the joyful Sunday in Advent, resembling the sort of cheerful break that Laetare Sunday provides in Lent. But the very first notes of today's Introit are anything but joyful; indeed much of the melody is suited to express sorrow rather than joy, and is unusually serious in that expression even for a mode I composition. Let us see why. St. Paul, was in prison when he wrote this text to his friends on the outside, chastising them for being anxious about his safety. For in prayer God is always near his friends where He listens to their requests even for his release from captivity. But this text also applies to us all. This is a world fallen through sin and therefore it is a world of suffering and death, awaiting to be saved by the life giving Redeemer. There is much death and suffering in this world to produce in us sorrowful anxieties. The Gregorian composer(s) understands that this text speaks universally to every Christian here on earth. St. Paul speaks to us here today in this Introit not because we are happy but specifically because we are sorrowful as we wait in this world of sin for the coming of the Saviour. In the midst of sorrow, St. Paul is bringing us a message of joy. Through the music we are listening to St. Paul not just speaking to us sympathetically and reassuringly in our sorrow, but as an authority chastising us for our anxiety and despair, commanding us instead to rejoice as we pray to the Lord in this Mass. God is always with us in prayer and in the Sacrament even as we wait for the His Second coming. Musical analysis: The melody begins by going down pretty well as low as you can get for mode I, the low C (DO), not a very cheerful beginning at all. Notice how the melody tries to get up higher and higher, while trying to become more cheerful. It reaches its apex on “semper” (always), being an important word for the composer. But the weight of this world is very heavy on us, so we fall back down in despair on the second Gaudete. But in the next clause, Paul starts telling us how and why we must rejoice. Paul reassures us of the Lord's coming to release us from our captivity in this sinful world as he released Jacob (i.e. Israel) from his captivity mentioned in the psalm verse. The word “modestia” should be taken in the sense of forbearance, and likely the composer is thinking of Christ's second coming in the Lord being near. Notice how joyful yet firm and reassuring the melody turns with the salicus on “modestia”, and how very joyful it has become on the last syllable of “prope” (near). Remember to make a break between or repercussion on the B flats common to both words “prope est”. In the next sentence, the melody gets even higher, the highest it ever reaches in this composition, where the word “nihil” just pierces out of the text through the music, emphatically ordering us NEVER, NEVER, to be in despair. This should be sung loudly with force and conviction, for we are being commanded. The melody for this clause reflects the tension and anxiety the text is speaking about, and on the last two notes on “sitis” is an inverted cadence, the pes quassus, which through its unresolved

tension points to what is to follow the colon in the text. The G (SOL) here is an important note and could be emphasised. The tension becomes fully resolved on the word “oratione” (praying) in the next clause which, using our modern terms, begins with a major chord arpeggio. There is much joy on this word here, and the melody joyfully rises as our prayers quickly ascend to God. Note the litany-like character of the simple melody on the following word “petitiones” (petitions). The Introit ends peacefully, the kind of peace that joy brings. There is no F-E note combination (i. e. suffering) in this cadence which must end on the D (RE), as there is in the cadence for the second Gaudete. The composer, like St. Paul, has been calling us to find our joy in this world through prayer, for Jesus Christ will bring peace and salvation to the world. Note that the missalet only contains part of this Introit. -Ted Krasnicki

Advent IV Today's Introit is from the prophet Isaias 45: 8. Rorate caeli desuper, et nubes pluant justum: aperiatur terra, et germinet Salvatorem. (Drop down dew, ye heavens, from above, and let the clouds rain the just: let the earth be opened, and bud forth a Saviour.) This text from the Vulgate is translated from the Greek LXX, and is different from the Hebrew Massoretic. The text speaks about justice personified coming from heaven that is, the Saviour who for Christians is the Christ, the Just One. The earth opens to receive bones, but instead sprouts a Saviour. Unlike the previous three Sundays, this Introit refers more directly to the birth of Christ, rather than of His second coming. There are several symbolic issues to note in the melody. The highest notes in the entire melody are on the word “desuper”, a word that means from above, that is, from the great height of heaven. Note that the word “terra” (earth) has descending low notes for the cadence, like something falling down from up high and hitting the earth below hard. The note sequence Fa-La-Sol-Fa are notes of joy, and are found on the word “justum” (just or the Just One). Most importantly, the notes on the word “Salvatorem” are low in order to emphasise the humility of the Child. In terms of singing, the first four notes of “caeli” (heaven) and first three of “nubes” (clouds), being accented syllables, should be strong as these words are important in the text. The melismatic notes of “desuper” should not be dragged, and could be sung even a bit faster. The first note of the joyful climacus on “justum” should be kept as soft as the previous note Fa and not emphasised. The first part of this text is also the antiphon refrain for the great Advent hymn “Rorate caeli de super” that was often sung during Advent before Vatican II, usually right after Mass. Ted Krasnicki

Christmas: Midnight Mass This evening's Introit is from Psalm 2, verse 7. Dominus dixit ad me: Filius meus es tu, ego hodie genui te. (The Lord said unto me: You are my son, I today have begotten you.) Tonight's Introit is a simple musical composition, has a narrow range of notes, and is fairly rhythmic, having long drawn out rhythm. It is like a lullaby to the sleepy baby Jesus, and should be sung peacefully. Perhaps it is Mary singing to her newborn Child sleeping in the manger or in her arms. It is a mode 2 composition, and since this mode can be a very solemn mode, the words “Dominus” and “Ego”, having the same melody and both symbolically referring to God the Father whose only Son has been born as a man, could be sung solemnly yet softly. The word “meus' should not be rushed. Ted Krasnicki For text and music: http://romaaeterna.web.infoseek.co.jp/liber2/grt1_001.html

Since many in this Gregorian discussion group use the Tridentine Calendar, I will speak about Sexagesima Sunday. It is unfortunate that this great introit is no longer sung as a preparation for Lent, nor on a Sunday in the Novus Ordo calendar, and I sincerely wonder if Bugnini's committees of post Vatican II understood the whole of almost 2000 years of Church history and tradition of a Lenten preparation; but I hope and pray that this will one day be reversed, perhaps in the reform of the reform. The week of Sexagesima Sunday recalls the history of God's redemptive work through Noe, the second of the three fathers of mankind (cf. Saturday Vespers of the evening before). The Lord did not let man perish despite him going against His will: He again gave him another chance through Noe. By following God's will, Noe built the ark through which man was saved once more from his own perdition. It took Noe over 100 years to build the ark because it had to be huge to accommodate the multitude of creatures and yet strong to resist the deluge for 30 days. Early in Christianity the Ark became the symbol for the Church (cf.1 Peter 3:18-21). Today, as then, the earth is deluged by sin and heresy, but the Ark withstands the deluge through its strength from the Holy Spirit. Sexagesima calls us to escape from the deluge of worldliness, by taking shelter in the Ark of salvation: the Church of Jesus Christ and His Apostles (extra ecclesiam nulla salus), as She prepares to fortify our faith with Lent. The introit for this Sunday is taken from Psalm 43: 23-26, and 2: Exurge, quare obdormis Domine? Exurge, et ne repellas in finem: quare faciem tuam avertis, oblivisceris tribulationem nostram? Adhaesit in terra venter noster: exurge, Domine, adjuva nos, et libera nos. Ps. Deus, áuribus nostris audívimus: patres nostri annuntiavérunt nobis. Wake up, why are You sleeping, Lord? Wake up, and don't leave us to perish: why do you turn your face away, ignoring our tribulation? Our belly is stuck to the earth: wake up, Lord, help us, and free us. Ps. O God, we have heard with our ears; our fathers have declared to us. For the psalmist here, God does not turn his face away from his faithful people, just as He did not turn His face away from Noe. It is a prayer of faith and trust in God, that, despite the events, God, through His love and mercy, will come through and again will save his people and not turn his face away. Today, the Church, as the Ark, calls on us to become conscious of the world that we have made wretched through our sins, knowing that God will again save us from our perdition if we repent, and Lent will offer us the time to express our deep sorrow for these sins. We therefore sing today's introit in anticipation of the climax of Lent- the death of Christ – which, together with the His resurrection, has for all time saved us by offering us the door to the eternal World to come and has given the keys to His Church. Musical Symbolism and Theology: The first sentence is a question, and, like some lection tones, it ends on a higher note as interrogatives normally do in speech. Notice the combination FA-MI-SOL-LA on “obdormis Domine”. The combination FA-MI is depricative, representing the suffering or death of Christ, while SOL-LA represents His resurrection. SOL is the note of the resurrection, while LA is beyond the resurrection“surrexit Jesus”, that is, His divine realm. The music is asking God to not only wake up but to save us through the death and resurrection of His only begotten Son which we will recall specifically in the Paschal Triduum at the end of Lent. The note combination on the second “quare” is taken from the “per omnia saecula...” such as before the “Pater Noster”. This “per omnia...” does not have a cadence as such, but is open ended, symbolising that

God has no end, being timeless – for ages and ages. The music is asking God about our next World without end to come. The highest note in the introit is the DO; this is the domain of God the Father and we can just barely get up there through the Church, and God will save us. When one is going through great tribulations, there is trembling in one's speech. The repetitive FA-SOLLA combination over “tribulationem” resembles our trembling voices, desperately beseeching the Lord for help. We reach to the divine realm of LA, but cannot stay there because we are prisoners of the earth. Indeed, our bellies are stuck to this earth. We try to lift ourselves up as if with our arms to get up but fall right down to the MI on our bellies: “adhaesit”; we try again but now fall back even further to the lower DO: “in terra”; we are painfully worn out: “venter”; then we just give up from exhaustion: “noster”. We need God's gracious help to free us from the earth, and this we find in Christ our Saviour: “et libera”, on which words the music has the symbolic combination FA-MI-SOL-LA telling us that Christ has liberated us from this sinful world through His death and resurrection to go to the next, to which the Church holds the keys. The musical symbols here, in other words, express the theology of the Church Performance notes: There are three “exurge”s (wake up) in this Introit; it seems God is not waking up so they should get progressively louder. The third one could even be one of desperation: quite loud as suggested by the use of single notes. The “u” of second “exurge” should be punctuated on the LA and not the SOL according to the codices. In fact, the SOL could be reduced to one note. Although the first syllable is always the strongest of the other non-accented syllables, be mindful of the Latin accents in the words, for instance in “repellas”, it is the second “e” that is accented (the music usually reflects this anyways). Make sure to break or mini-pause between “in” and “finem”, as they are different words and sung differently according to their meaning. The DO on “oblivisceris” should be soft. The LAs on “tribulationem” should be stressed as well as the two FAs on “venter”, despite what is written on the latter. On “libera”, the second MI should be sung fast, while the last one softly; do stress the LA, since that is our immediate goal. Trying to translate this great Introit into any other language using the same music is surely folly .

Lent I Station at Our Most Holy Saviour in the Lateran Today's Introit is taken from Psalm 90:15-16 Invocabit me, et ego exaudiam eum: eripiam eum, et glorificabo eum: longitudine dierum ad implebo eum. [He shall cry to me, and I will hear him: I will rescue him, and I will glorify him: I will fill him with longevity.] Lent solemnly begins on this Sunday with this psalm of praise given to our Father our Protector. Unlike Ash Wednesday (which is not particularly important as a holy day), today is one of the most solemn of Sundays of the year, even having the papal Station at Saint John Lateran. In this psalm, it is God the Father who is speaking these words. God the Father hears us, and, being merciful, He will save us. From the Christian perspective, our Father sent His only begotten Son to save us. He has saved us though the suffering and death of His Son, the Christ, who gained for us eternal life. In this Introit we can meditate on God's intimate care for us. For the Church on this Sunday, these words urge us as penitents during Lent to have confidence in God, for He willingly hears our prayers of repentance and penance. The Church's confidence in Him will not be in vain. The Gregorian composer(s) puts this perspective of the Church into the music that announces the text. The composer(s) understands the “him” in the text to be us. This Gregorian Introit, through its music, is, in other words, epi-exegetic. It is God who is speaking to us, and so we have a strong melody, a melody of confidence for us to partake in. Symbolically we have on the word “glorificabo” the sequence DO-SI-RE-MI in this mode VIII (or hexachord), which we often encounter as FA-MI-SOL-LA in other modes. This sequence represents the suffering and the going beyond the resurrection of the Christ that I have discussed several times already for other Introits. It is to be found also in the “Pecatores” of the various Litanies, as well as in its original form the psalmody responsorial for Easter: the “Pascha Nostra”. We are offered glorification by the suffering, death, and resurrection of Christ that we will celebrate at the end of Lent. The last sentence deals with time, that we will be given long days, in other words, a long life which was a great reward for the Hebrews. For the Church as for the composer(s) this means the eternal life gained for us through Christ, and appropriately the composers borrows the melody lacking a cadence of “Per omnia saecula saeculorum”; its melody represents the eternality of God because, having no cadence, it conveys the expression of no end, as God has no ending in time. We will enter the realm of the eternal, of God, to share in His eternal life. The last MI of “implebo” is not justified by some of the earliest manuscripts where it occurs on the next word “eum”. Ted Krasnicki

Lent II Station at St. Mary in Dominica Today's Introit is taken from Psalm 24:6, 3, 22 Reminiscere miserationum tuarum, Domine, et misericordiae tuae, quae a saeculo sunt: ne unquam dominentur nobis inimici nostri: libera nos Deus Israel ex omnibus angustiis nostris.

[Remember thy mercy, Lord, and thy compassions, that are from ages past: do not let our enemies rule over us: deliver us O God of Israel from all our anguish.] In today's Introit, the Church calls us to have confidence in the God whose mercy and compassion has been revealed through His actions in caring for His people as history has shown. We pray during this Lent to be delivered from our enemies which for us today is sin. We pray for His assistance to sin no more. This Introit has two parts: the first part recalls the past and the second part speaks about the present. In the first part up to “saeculo sunt” we recall the constancy of God's mercy and compassion in the history of man. The past is fixed; there is no change in the past. And so we have a melody with little activity and change: it centres on the FA and all notes revolve closely around it, as if this note represents the changeless past of God, and any other notes an indication of how we perceive His actions. There is no change in hexachord in this part. The second part begins with “ne numquam” and we are now in the present asking for the mercy and compassion that God has shown in the past to be with us now also in the present. Note the change of character in the melody in this part. The melody is more alive; it is now an active and more forceful melody for us now who are living in the present time. Interestingly, the last verse differs from the Vulgate. Instead of speaking about delivering Israel, the words have been modified to ask God to specifically deliver us. In the singing of this Introit, it would be wise to start a crescendo at “ne numquam” where we should be quite loud at the “libera”. We are not merely asking, but begging God for his assistance. All the accented syllables in the crescendo should be keenly stressed to reflect the seriousness of our prayerful request for Divine assistance. Ted Krasnicki

Lent III Station at basilica of Saint Laurence Outside the Walls Today's Introit is taken from Psalm 24: 15-16: Oculi mei semper ad Dóminum, quia ipse evéllet de laqueo pedes meos: réspice in me, et miserére mei, quóniam unicus et pauper sum ego.

My eyes are ever towards the Lord: for he shall pluck my feet out of the snare. Look thou upon me, and have mercy on me, for I am alone and poor.
Like last week's Introit (Reminiscere), this Introit is also taken from Psalm 24 which is an acrostic (alphabetical) psalm. As such the ideas therein are loosely put together so each verse can be treated separately in itself. Nevertheless, the leitmotif of this psalm is contrition and forgiveness of sins. As in the Age of Faith (i. e. the “Middle Ages”), we can (symbolically) hear Joseph, son of Jacob, speaking to God from a well (or pit) in this Introit. Joseph has been cast into this pit but prays with confidence to God for deliverance. For centuries, this Introit had been accompanied with the Gospel of Jesus casting out the demons (Luke 11), and this Introit for the third Sunday of Lent is still a prayer to God for help to deliver us from the traps of unseen evils of darkness, such as those cast by the unseen demons that lead us into sin. Sight plays an important theme in this Introit, as Joseph is trapped in the pit of darkness looking up to the Light above for help. On a side note, the DO-RE-MI-RE theme (eg. on “réspice”) did not occur in the Age of Faith, but only FA-SOL-LA-SOL. This Introit is likely a transposition whose theme was originally based on LA-FASOL-LA. For performance, there need be no pause between “Oculi mei” and “semper” as it breaks the verbal rhythm. From the SOL we look up above the pit to the heavens, to the RE. The RE's on “semper” should be stressed as these repeated notes convey a sense of repetition or continuity of action in time emphasizing the meaning of this word as we fix our gaze on heaven above, but without God's help our eyes eventually sink back down to the FA on "Dóminum". We ask God to take the first step to help us on “quia ipse” and so we should sing loudly and powerfully here for we are sure of God's power to help us out of our predicament here on earth. So our first step begins low here on the earth, on the FA and we with confidence look up to God again, to the RE. We then reach our second step on “evéllet” asking God to pull us away to the light above where He is; notice how high the notes on this word go: they are the highest in the entire piece and our voices strain to try to reach those heights of God. As we are looking towards God up high in heaven we also ask God to look at us and help us, and so we should vehemently sing “respice in me”, as we are very much still trapped here on earth. Of course, we are lowly sinners, so we ask for God's mercy and accordingly “et miserere mei” should be sung softly as a sign of our humility; note how low the notes go to represent our heartfelt humility as sinners on “mei”; similarly with the rest. This Introit is a prayer to God to lead us out of darkness into light, out of the unseen traps of this world into the realm of refuge and strength as we try to intensify our Faith in God in Lent. Ted Krasnicki

Lent IV Station at the basilica of Holy Cross in Jerusalem. (One of the seven principal churches in the holy city of Rome.) Today's Introit is taken from the prophet Isaias 66:10-11 Lætáre Jerúsalem: et convéntum fácite omnes qui dilígitis eam: gaudéte cum lætítia, qui in tristítia fuístis: ut exultétis, et satiémini ab ubéribus consolatiónis vestræ. [Rejoice Jerusalem: and be glad all you that love her: rejoice with her, all you that mourn for her: that you will find contentment, and be filled from the breasts of her consolations.] The text from Scriptures has been altered a bit to emphasise the Christian view of Holy Jerusalem that the prophet foretold. Prior to the Vatican II “reforms”, all the readings of the Mass on this Rose Sunday spoke about Heavenly Jerusalem, including the Gospel of Jesus multiplying the five loaves of bread before the passover (John 6), which symbolises the multiplication of the Faithful entering Heavenly Jerusalem through the Eucharist. In this sea of mourning and repentance for our sins that characterises our Lent, we find a little island of joy today. The Church asks us at this midway point to keep our perspective by keeping in mind the purpose of what we are doing this Lent, reminding us of our final goal in life which is the Beatific vision of our Lord in the Heavenly Jerusalem. Today, for our hope, we are offered a little taste of that joy that we will find in our intended final home made available to us through Christ's death and resurrection. Musical analysis and synthesis: There is an explicit joy in the words of this Introit which the Gregorian composer(s) also wanted to announce in the music. On the very first word “Laetare”, we have a melody that resembles the joyful Alleluia of the first Mass of the Resurrection that follows the Paschal Vigil. True, this melody can be found in a few other mode 8 Alleluias and Graduals, but I do not think its appearance here is accidental in what seems to be a mode 5 composition. From the outset we are reminded of the Resurrection, and the subsequent rising melody of the second word “Jerusalem” reminds us to pursue our final destination which is up high in the heavenly City of God. In the next phrase, the eyes of our hearts are still focused on the heaven above that we love, and correspondingly the notes are high. But on “omnes”, the text begins speaking about us here are on earth, and correspondingly the notes go lower, back down to earth and so we have a change of hexachord. Indeed, to reach Heaven we must first live, often in suffering, and die on earth and so we have a cadence formula borrowed from the Requiem Introit (and also repeated for the last Sunday of the year) that expresses the peaceful and eternal rest that we pray will await our souls at the death of our bodies. The same melody is again repeated at the end on the word “consolationes”, for we hope for an eternal peace, that consolation which God will graciously give us in Holy Jerusalem. The melody of the phrase “qui in tristitia fuistis” changes, its mood becoming sadder following the meaning of the text. We are reminded here that we are still not out of Lent even if today we

are looking at the joy that has been promised us. Textually, this Introit may be divided into two parts, the first ending with “eam” on which musically we have a full cadence, the second beginning with “gaudete”. There is also a semicadence on “fuistis” in this second part, corresponding to the change of mood in the meaning of the text. Performance notes Joy should characterise our singing of this Introit. On the word “Jerusalem” the goal of the melody is the final two DOs giving these 2 high notes a slight repercussion. These two DOs should draw the other notes towards them, as our love of Heavenly Jerusalem draws us towards it. These DOs should be strong, but not overbearingly so. Make sure the “m” on “conventum” is clearly pronounced (a very slight pause after it may be in order). The Requiem cadence on “diligitis eam” should be peaceful and soft. However do stress the SI on “...tis”, and the LA on “eam”: this cadence should sound like a dove peacefully gliding down 2 little gusts of wind to land on the earth. Some volume on “gaudete” will come naturally. Lighten and become a bit softer on “qui”, building to a little crescendo on this phrase ending with “fuistis”, but resume volume on “ut exultetis”, and move swiftly on the “...tetis”. Resume with joy and volume on “ut”. Stress the two notes of the pes on the second “o” of “consolationis”. Do not forget to again stress the SI and the LA on the peaceful Requiem cadence at the end. Ted Krasnicki

Addendum: Dom Gajard of Solesmes felt that the Introit for Laetare Sunday in the Vatican edition was corrupt. He thought there were too many SI flats, and that these detracted from the joy that the text expressed. The errors, he felt, were a misreading of the manuscript neums, and he came up with a restored version, which I have uploaded in "Ted's Music" as a pdf file called “LaetareGajard.pdf”. I suspect he may have found something important since his version follows more closely the “mood' of the text.

Lent V - Passion Sunday Station at St. Peter's Basilica, Rome Today's Introit is taken from psalm 42: 1-2; this is the first psalm that was ever used for an Introit: Iudica me Deus, et discérne causam meam de gente non sancta: ab hómine iníquo et dolóso éripe me: quia tu es Deus meus, et fortidúdo mea. [Judge me, O God, and distinguish my cause from the nation that is not holy: deliver me from the unjust and deceitful man: for thou art my God, and my strength.] This Sunday is called Passion Sunday in the Tridentine Rite because today the Church begins to reflect specifically on the sufferings of our Redeemer. In the previous four weeks, she has been in empathy with Jesus fasting in the desert. But now she is laden with grief at the suffering of Our Lord. Everything around us in the church urges us to mourn His suffering. The images of the saints are now veiled from our sight as a symbol of our mourning; now we no longer see their glorious happiness in heaven. Even the very crucifix on our altar is veiled so that we so that we may seek Him who died on it all the more, yet not anticipate too soon the coming of His suffering and death on the cross that the Church will specifically recall during the Paschal Triduum. Judgement and deliverance from unjust suffering is the theme of this Introit, as it was in the original Mass readings (that is, before Vatican II). The traditional Gospel (John 8) speaks about
Jesus being judged as a sinner (blasphemer) by the people in the temple near Mount Olivet. But He responds that it is the Father who will be the judge of His righteousness, not they, and He just

barely avoids being stoned by them for proclaiming the Truth. Christ suffers insults and rejection in the judgements of His own people. In this Introit, it is our Messias that is speaking to His Father, using the words of this psalm. He appeals to the judgement of His Father and protests against the sentence of death about to be pronounced against Him by the people. He also expresses confidence in the help of His Father who will lead Him in triumph to the Holy Mount in the New Jerusalem after His impending sufferings and death on the cross. The Introit for this Sunday and the traditional Gospel reading are, today, complementary in the Tridentine Rite. Note that because the Church as of today is in mourning for the suffering of Our Lord, the joyful praise “Gloria Patri” will neither be said nor sung in the Tridentine Rite until Easter. Performance notes: Musically, this is a strange Introit. Originally, the ancient melody probably only encompassed RE-MI-FA-SOL-LA, and it was only later that SI-DO-RE was added extending it to a full octave. There are just a few important points to be noted in singing this Introit. First, this is not a happy Introit. Jesus has been wrongly judged and He suffers for this. But it should nevertheless be sung with dignity (and with strength and energy in the places discussed below), as it is Our Lord who is speaking. Second, the “...lo” of the word “doloso” (deceitful) should be fairly fast, that is, make sure it is not dragged. Third, the word “eripe” (deliver) should be sung with energy, as it is

a plea to the Father; stress the RE on this word, the highest note in the whole piece, a note which reaches way up to the Father's house in heaven. Finally, take a good breath before the phrase “et fortitudo” (and strength) as this phrase should be sung with great energy, for our Saviour is proclaiming His Father's strength which He will be needing shortly to help Him. Ted Krasnicki

Easter Sunday Today's Introit is taken from Psalm 138:18, 5, and 6 (verses are 1 and 2): Resurrexi, et adhuc tecum sum, alleluia: posuísti super me manum tuam, allelúia: mirábilis facta est sciéntia tua, allelúia, allelúia. Ps. Dómine probásti me, et cognovísti me: tu cognovísti sessiónem meam, et resurrectiónem meam. (Originally “et adhuc” was “adhucque”.) [I have risen, and am still with thee, alleluia: thou hast laid thy hand upon me, alleluia: thy knowledge has become wonderful to me: alleluia, alleluia. Ps. Lord, thou hast proved me, and known me: thou hast known my sitting down, and my rising up.] The music for today's Introit does not in any way resemble some joyful fanfare of majestic trumpets triumphantly announcing the Resurrection that we in more modern times could expect from, say, an Easter Oratorio; there are no outward emotions of joy for such great an event in the history of our salvation. Rather, the melody is a musical contemplation of awe, of wonder (mirabilis), that can only be found inside the soul. Indeed, it is Our Lord Jesus Christ that is speaking, and He is giving thanks to His own Father using the words of this psalm. Everything is divine in this music for it is God speaking to God. It is beyond the human senses to fathom; the music is fully in the realm of spirit where the meaning of the text is expressed with suprasensible musical thoughts of peace and tranquility that is found in the heavenly abode. Performance notes: There are three separate verses taken from the psalm for the text, each having its own distinctive melody (which I cannot discuss here). The dominant for each is the FA, where even the hand of God that has been continually available to the Son throughout His suffering and death, falls back to that FA. But what is a stroke of genius is found in the second to last alleluia which unites these previous verses into a single melodic unity (suggesting that perhaps the current melody for the final alleluia is alien to the original). That alleluia rejoices in Christ's awareness of His resurrection, gives gratitude for the presence of God's hand in the Atonement, and conveys ecstasy, pure spiritual ecstasy for the Wonderful events that have just transpired. Therefore, this Introit should be sung lightly. Make a slight repercussion on the “...su” of “posuisti” according to the two puncti. The “...ia” of the second alleluia should be sung softly. Awe should fill your thoughts when singing this Introit. Ted

First Sunday after Easter: Divine Mercy Sunday Station at St. Pancras

Today's Introit is taken from I Peter 2:2, with Psalm 80:2 as the verse
Quasi modo géniti infántes, allelúia: rationábiles, sine dólo lac concupíscite, allelúia, allelúia, allelúia. Ps Exsultate Deo adjutori nostro: jubilate Deo Jacob. [As newborn infants, alleluia, desire the rational milk without guile, alleluia, alleluia, alleluia. Ps. Rejoice to God our helper: sing aloud to the God of Jacob.] (The first word “Quasi” in this Introit predates the Vulgate of St. Jerome which uses the word “Sicut” instead. ) About this Sunday: Today's Sunday is known under quite a few nicknames: Low Sunday, Quasimodo Sunday, Doubting Thomas Sunday, Domenica in albis depositis, White Sunday or Sunday in White, Pascha clausum (“close of Easter” i. e. its octave), and, since May 2000, Divine Mercy Sunday. It is this last designation that is now the official name for this Sunday, the Feast of Divine Mercy. This name comes from the Gospel (John 20: 19-31) in which our Lord institutes the sacrament of Confession. God through His mercy has offered forgiveness of sin to the repentant who thereby merit a fresh start as children of God about whom the Introit speaks. With this new feast, the Easter liturgy now comprises all the major feasts of the Old Testament: Passover, Pentecost and now the Day of Atonement. A plenary indulgence, by the way, is granted today (under the usual conditions) to those who take part in the public devotion to the Lord's Divine Mercy Origin of the Introit: The Introit for this Sunday originally had in mind the neophytes that were newly baptised at the Paschal vigil a week earlier. During the week, the neophytes would wear their white robes during Mass and receive special instruction from the bishop concerning the sacred mysteries and Christian life as they were not admitted to these before the Vigil rites. Today they would officially put away their white robes and entered into the regular life of the Christian. It is for this reason that this Sunday was known as "Dominica in albis depositis" or the "Sunday of putting away of the albs". This Sunday is an octave not only of Easter, but also of those newly baptised through which they become Christians. In becoming Christians, they became children of God, an idea that we often hear our Lord preaching: one must be like children to enter the Kingdom. Today's Introit repeats those ideas through the words of St. Peter. As the newly baptised go out into the world, they have accepted the teachings of the Church to which they will adhere to with honest loyalty and commitment, that is to say, in the manner that children in their purity would accept them. Musical analysis and performance: Unlike the previous Easter Sunday which was a mode IV composition, the “contemplative” mode, this Sunday is written in mode VI, a rarity among the oldest Introits, and the mode that expresses a vigourous joy in the soul most tenderly, as it were. The Gregorian melody follows the intention of the text and is childish in character as if it were a composition for children. That is to say, there is a certain simplicity and purity to the melody, having a rather free rhythm and no big intervals. There is considerable movement with the almost a single note per syllable in the first sentence that leaves us with the impression of youthful energy. In the more ornate second sentence the melody has a more serious character, but only to the extent that juveniles can

understand their complex Faith. There is also outward joy in this Introit. Note the formula FA-LA-SOL-LA on the alleluias, a formula that expresses joy which we will find repeated during the Easter season. In performance, the Introit should be sung with lightness of voice, avoiding extremes of speed and crescendo. The alleluia is the goal of the movement in the first sentence, so give it a bit of crescendo. In childlike manner, stress the endings of the words. Keep a legato in the second sentence, being a bit more heavy with the voice. The final alleluia could be strong. Ted

Fourth Sunday of Easter (Novus Ordo), Second Sunday after Easter (Tridentine) The Introit for today is taken from Psalm 32: 5-6 and 1 for the verse: Misericórdia Dómini plena est terra, allelúia: Verbo Domini cœli firmáti sunt. Allelúia, allelúia. Ps. Exsultáte justi in Dómino: rectos decet collaudátio. [The earth is full of the mercy of the Lord, alleluia: by the Word of the Lord the heavens were firmly established. Alleluia, alleluia. Ps. Rejoice in the Lord, O ye just! Praise becometh the upright. (Douay translation)] In the past (i. e. the Tridentine Rite), the Sunday having this Introit was called Good Shepherd Sunday because of its Gospel reading ( John 10: 11-16) which recalls Our Lord Jesus saying that He is the Good Shepherd Who protects his sheep even with His own life against mortal dangers, and Who will shepherd in the same way those which He calls into His fold. This Gospel is used in the Paschal season because it is understood as Jesus talking about the leadership of His Church. The Church would continue to have a shepherd even when His visible human presence leaves our world at His Ascension into heaven, that is, through the Apostles but also in taking into account that Simon Peter was the object of Jesus' partiality in shepherding His Church (cf. St. Augustine's Sermon LXXXVIII). For after His resurrection, Jesus put Peter in charge of feeding His sheep (John 21) which is understood as Peter being made the shepherd of His Church after His ascension. Indeed, when Jesus preached in the area of Cesarea Philippi (Matt. 16), He made Simon the “Petrus” (rock) upon which He was to build His Church. The idea of “rock” has special significance. For one, it expresses strength and endurance through time. But in Cesarea Philipp there was also a great wall of rock that not only was in former days a centre of pagan worship to Pan and Jupiter, but it is also the source of the Jordan river. Likely in full view of this great rock, Jesus called Simon the rock; but He did not use the traditional biblical word “sur” for rock. For in the Old Testament, only God is called the Hebrew “sur”, so no Jew could be called “sur”. It would have been blasphemy for Jesus to call Simon the “sur”; instead He called him “kepha”, the Aramaic version for “rock”, leaving Simon a mere man but giving him a divine responsibility. Indeed, the traditional Epistle for this Sunday is written by St. Peter himself (1 Peter 2) who writes that by being converted to the shepherd and bishop of souls the sheep no longer go astray. Introits illuminate the teachings of the Church, and so in today's Introit we celebrate the mercy of God in giving governance on earth to His Church. Using the words of the Royal Psalmist, the Introit tells us that the mercy of God has filled the whole earth by the foundation of the Church visible and invisible. The term “heavens” is often thought of in the sense of the “divine heavens”, the symbol for the Apostles (cf. St. Gregory, Homil. 30 in Evang., or the Kathismata of the Apostles in the Greek Orthodox Thursday matins), so the Word of the Lord (Jesus) firmly established, that is in strength and endurance, the Apostles when He gave them Peter to be their shepherd and their rock. Musical performance: In view of what has been said, the Introit takes a tone of triumphant contemplation. It expresses joy and firmness. Accent the word “plena”, for indeed, with the mercy of God the Church is everywhere. Similarly, be forceful with and do not drag the first alleluia, as it is very joyful with its FA-LA-SOL-LA formula. Put great energy into next sentence “verbo....”

Ted

Fifth Sunday of Easter (Novus Ordo), Fourth Sunday after Easter (Tridentine) Today's Introit is taken from Psalm 97: 1, and 2 for the verse: Cantáte Domino cánticum novum, alleluia: quia mirabília fecit Dóminus, allelúia: ante conspéctum géntium revelávit justítiam suam. Allelúia , allelúia.
Ps. Salvávit sibi déxtera eius: et bráchium sanctum ejus. V. Gloria Patri. Cantate.

[Sing to the Lord a new song, alleluia: because the Lord has done wonderful things, alleluia: he has revealed his justice before the sight of the Gentiles. Alleluia, alleluia.
Ps. His right hand, and his holy arm has saved us. V. Glory, etc. Sing, etc.]

In today's Mass we continue to meditate on Christ's work after his resurrection in organising and forming His New Apostolic Church. We have reason indeed to sing a new song, for today we look at the seven sacraments which Christ instituted as a new means of conferring grace upon us. God has done great wonders in giving the Church the sacraments through which we can take on the likeness of God's holiness. Justice is the will of God, and we are justified my means of the sacraments. It is God's will that the visible sacraments of the Church be seen even by the gentiles and be offered also to them, so they too can become heirs to the kingdom of heaven. Musical analysis and performance notes: This is a joyful Introit. For those singing a cappella, the LAs should be sung higher than normal. Indeed, the interval SI-DO in the Gregorian is generally much smaller than in today's usual temperaments for tuning musical instruments. There should be a very slight pause after each salicus, that is, after “Cantante”, “fecit”, and in the second “alleluia”. The formula FA-LA-SOLFA-FA on the first and last alleluias expresses joy or exuberance. Really stress that formula on the last alleluia, because we are very joyful at God's gift of the Church and its sacraments to us. Note the musical cadence on the word “revelávit”: God's revelation has been placed in the hands of His Church until the end of time. It is God's will that we are singing about, so the word “suam” should be sung very loudly. Ted

Pentecost Sunday In the English speaking world, this Sunday is also called 'Whit Sunday'. It was also known as 'The
Pasch of Roses' during the Age of Faith.

Today's Introit is taken from Wisdom 1: 7 with Psalm 67: 2 for the verse: Spíritus Dómini replévit orbem terrárum, allelúia: et hoc quod cóntinet ómnia sciéntiam habet vocis, allelúia, allelúia. Ps. Exsúrgat Deus, et dissipéntur inimíci eius: et fúgiant, qui odérunt eum, a fácie eius. [The spirit of the Lord hath filled the whole world, alleluia: and that which containeth all things hath knowledge of the voice, alleluia, alleluia. Ps. Let God arise, and let his enemies be scattered: and let them that hate him flee from before his face.] -Douay translation Commentary: This is a magnificent Introit for the liturgy of Pentecost. It celebrates the immanence of the Spirit of the omniscient God throughout the universe. As well, it celebrates the transcendence of God as sovereign and just ruler over all creation. But foremost, it is the celebration of He who is Love, and Who has descended to fill the souls of the Apostles with His Love which they will begin to spread throughout the earth, and continue for all time through the establishment of the apostolic Church. The Alexandrian text for this Introit already foresees the presence of God in the person of the Holy Spirit; it is the Wisdom of God (cf. John 14: 26). The Holy Spirit fills the earth. He is omniscient, and He knows all voices, that is sounds or languages: 'habet vocis'. Today the Lord shares some of His knowledge by giving them as gifts to the Apostles. The phrase 'hoc quod cóntinet ómnia sciéntiam' is a Stoic (ancient Greece) expression that is used here to describe the One that ('hoc') holds the World in a unity; Christians will later specifically ascribe this role to Christ as the Pantocrator (cf. Col 1: 17). Today the Apostles not only receive the gift of tongues, but they also received a knowledge, the gift of the knowledge of the Faith. This notion of Spirit of the Lord is a new revelation for the Alexandrian Jews; the Hebrew Old Testament only knew God as the sole creator of the World in a general way through His omniscience and ubiquity. The Psalm verse follows well here since God as spirit is everywhere and by being all-powerful, God will bring true justice to His enemies. Musical analysis: The physical presence of the Holy Spirit is typically represented by a dove throughout the New Testament. So today we have a melody that resembles the flight of a bird, a dove, gracefully taking an élan and rising at times even soaring into the air, and then gliding all over the sky with wings stretched out and using the wind for elevation. (Perhaps one has to have lived in the country and watch morning doves so as to appreciate this picture). Indeed, the Holy Spirit is everywhere and the dove flies all over our heavenly sky. The first note in this Introit is the RE and that is the lowest note in the whole composition. Here the Gregorian composer(s) uses this first note of intonation for the protus as the starting point from which the dove takes its élan to quickly take up flight into the heavens, perhaps even from the ground. Correspondingly, we have a quickly rising melody that stays up in the high notes throughout the rest of the composition.

This is a mode 8 composition, often said to be the mode of plenitude (eg. Dom Gajard) because its range can be large when affirming the solemnity of the text. Indeed, of all the Introits in the year, this Introit is perhaps the most generous in terms of movement and free musical spirit, not being tied to a modal rigidity, just as a bird is free to fly anywhere in the huge sky above. Performance notes: There is joy in the text, and indeed, the Introit should be sung with outward joy. It should have a tone of grandeur, for the Holy Spirit is present everywhere in the universe. In the movement there should be a gracefulness resembling a bird that is gliding unfettered all over the sky above. The accent on the first word 'Spíritus' is on the first syllable and it will naturally be stressed a bit in singing; but do stress the second syllable also, for the dove begins its ascent before us. There should be almost no break between the first two words. Give a particular tone of grandeur to 'replévit orbem'. The SOL on 'terrárum' could be accented slightly even though it is a
falling note; it is, after all, the accented syllable in the word. Note the cadence produced by the clivis (i.e. a cliff) on the last syllable of 'cóntinet', and the lack of a cadence on the following word 'ómnia'. This technique makes the latter word more powerful. Similarly, there is a cadence on the last syllable of 'sciéntiam' produced by the torculus, and a privation of cadence on the following word 'habet'.

Using this technique, the composer(s) has tried to highlight the omniscience of the living God, that is, the limitless nature of God's knowing that the text alludes to in using the Stoic expression. Put a very slight pause after the salicus on the 'le' of the third to last 'allelúia'. Stress heavily the DOs on the second to last 'allelúia'. Ted

Last Sunday of Ordinary Time/Final Sundays after Pentecost The Introit for this Sunday used to be the Introit for the final Sunday of the Church year, until the Feast of Christus Rex took over that position. Fittingly, however, the Roman Gradual of Paul VI retains this Introit and the other chants that accompany it for the last Sunday of ordinary time. The Introit is taken from the prophet Jeremias 29: 11, 12, and 14, with Psalm 84 verse 1 for the versicle: Dicit Dóminus: Ego cógito cogitatiónes pacis, en non afflictiónis; invocábitis me, et ego exáudiam vos: et reducam captivitátem vestram de cunctis locis. Ps: Benedixísti Dómine terram tuam: avertísti captivitátem Iacob. “The Lord said: I think thoughts of peace, and not of affliction: you will call on me, and I will listen to you: and I will lead back (i. e. take back) your captivity out of all places. Ps. Lord, thou hast blessed thy land: thou hast turned away the captivity of Jacob.” Commentary: In this Introit, Jeremias is speaking in God's name to the Israelites who are in the captivity into which God had sent them. God tells them that after they make the proper expiations, He will free them when they ask Him to be liberated. For He is a God of peace Who will listen and forgive, and not forsake them to unending punishments. Like many Gregorian propers, the Church has heavily edited this text from Jeremias' letter in order to bring out its significance for Christians. In this Introit the editing gives the impression that the place of the Israelites captivity is every where, in "de cunctis", that is, “all places”. But this is not merely because the Jews were dispersed during their captivity throughout Babylon; like most of the texts of the Introits, there is an additional spiritual meaning to this text for Christians and which is immediately relevant to the occasion of the Mass. A clue to this spiritual meaning can be found in the music, for after the Council of Laodicea, which introduced strictures on the composition and performance of liturgical music in response to the subversion of Gnosticism, the Gregorian composer(s) had to be quite familiar not just with the canon of Scriptures, but particularly with Catholic theology that informs the Old Testament through the eyes of the New. Indeed, the music on the words “de cunctis” opens up for us the spiritual meaning of the entire Introit text. On those words there occurs the symbolic musical formula for the Paschal Death and Resurrection: FA-MI-SOL-LA. As I have repeatedly mentioned elsewhere, these four notes in sequence symbolise the Paschal mystery.* Christ's death and resurrection gained salvation for “all”- “cunctis”. So the entire Introit is to be understood not just as a prophecy of liberation for the Jews but as liberation here and now to all mankind. And what is the captivity that the Lord promises to liberate all mankind from? It could be several things, but because the Gregorian composer(s) chose to emphasise Christ's atonement for our sins through His sacrifice on the Cross, the captivity for the Gregorian composer(s) is sin. As St. Paul reminds us, sin holds us captive to death. Fittingly, on the word “afflictiónis” (as well as "locis") we have musical phrases taken from the Requiem Introit, reminding us of the death that was brought to us by Adam's sin. But through the Pascal mystery Christ has won for us a new life that liberates us from sin and the death it places us in. By calling upon God's forgiveness, we have the means for this new life. God does not think thoughts of affliction, but of peace, so He sends His Holy Spirit to offer us grace in order that sin no longer have dominion over us as we wait for the Second Coming. How fitting this is in connection with the Gospel of Matthew 24 which has accompanied this Introit for a long time, as it speaks about the end times.

It is interesting to note that some popular English translations of this Introit simply ignore this traditional Catholic theology. The translation found in the Missalet, for instance, does not even have the important word “all”, which was so crucial here for the Gregorian composer(s). It has also changed the future verb tenses found in the Latin, which for the Gregorian composer were so important, for God WILL keep his promises for all time and all places to ALL. Musical Analysis and Performance notes: This Introit begins with a joyful introduction, for it is the Lord Himself that is speaking to us. Mode VI can be a peaceful mode and the best one to use when the Lord is speaking about His peaceful thoughts to us; legato is therefore suggested to bring out the peacefulness of the melody from the beginning to at least the word “afflictiónis”. Maintain the triple little repercussions on all the tristrophas (i. e. “Dóminus”, “cógito”, “cogitatiónes”, “invocábitis”, and “captivitátem”). The high note of the podatus on “Dóminus” should be soft. The melody on the word “pacis”stands out: it is as if the dove of peace has just appeared above in the heavens and is coming down towards us here on earth; this is the Holy Spirit showering His grace to us here at Mass. This word can be sung more loudly, but always keeping it with a peaceful expression. If the singing is unaccompanied, the first LA of the torculus can be lowered slightly. Make a slight pause after “non” so as to make a clean break between it and the following word. The greatest affliction for any person is death; for the Christian it is the death of the soul when it is held captive by sin. And so on the word “afflictiónis” (affliction) the composer(s) has placed the peaceful theme of the Requiem Introit that comforts us in our sorrow at the death of a beloved one; so although the Gregorian composer(s) is reminding us of Adam's sin, he in effect is pacifying the word “affliction”; it should therefore be sung softly. At “invocábitis me”, there is a change of hexachord, for the Lord now asks us to call on Him for our salvation from death, and this He reminds us loudly: we can be loud and firm here. But the Lord comforts us with His forgiveness at “et ego....” and again there is a change of hexachord, so we can be softer and resume our peaceful legato. Make a slight pause after “captivitátem” to emphasise slightly the next word, “vestram”, for it is YOUR captivity. At “de cunctis” we have the musical symbol for Christ's redemption which is introduced with a change in hexachord, and this should be sung softly, particularly the MI which should be very soft. The final word “locis” should end the Introit very peacefully as the peace of the Holy Spirit is present everywhere. *Note: FA-MI, represent Christ's death, since the semitone separating them conveyed the notion of condescension for the ancients and Mediaevals, in this case Christ's death, while the notes SOL-LA represent His resurrection and beyond; the note SOL is the note of the resurrection, and the LA refers to beyond the resurrection (e.g. surrexit Christus, not merely resurrexit Christus). Ted Krasnicki

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