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17 JIi/2007

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C8.2Z_8

EXAMS OFFICE USE ONLY

University of the Witwatersrand, Course or topic No(s)

Johannesburg MECN3010

Course or topic name(s) Paper Number & title

MECHANICS

OF SOLIDS

Examination Test' to be held during month(s) of SUPPLEMENTARY (*delete as applicable)

November 2007

Year of Study (Arts & Science leave blank)

THIRD

Degree/Diplomas for which this course is prescribed (BSc (Eng) should indicate which branch)

BSc(ENG) MECHANICAL iBSc(ENG) AERONAUTICAL

Faculty/ies presenting candidates

ENGINEERING

Internal examiner(s) and telephone extension number(s)

Prof R Paskaramoorthy Mr R Malan

External examiner(s)

Prof HD Chandler

Special materials required (graph/music/drawing paper) maps, diagrams, tables, computer cards, etc.

Time allowance

COURSE NO.

MECN3010

HOURS

3 hours

Instructions to candidates (Examiners may wish to use this space to indicate, inter alia, the contribution made by this examination or test towards the year mark, if appropriate)

SEE PAGE 1 FOR INSTRUCTIONS

Internal Examiners or Heads of Department are requested to sign the declaration overleaf.

• All incorrect work must be clearly crossed out on the page. • Time allowance is three hours.11 PAGES . • Each solution must have proper units. Neatness. . question paper will be allowed. • Maintain four significant digits throughout your calculations so that your final answer will be correct to three significant digits. and evidence of logical thought will be considered in assessing scripts. All questions carry equal marks. • This is a closed book examination... Please check that you have them all. • Answer any five questions. No formula sheets other than those attached to this • In cases where solutions for more than five questions are presented. clarity of presentation.PAGE 1 MECN3010 INSTRUCTIONS This question paper consists of 11 pages including this page. the questions with the most errors will be marked. PTO! Page 2 .

The nails are spaced at 30 mm intervals along the beam. The beam spans 4 m and supports the load shown in Figure ld. A wooden beam is made by nailing together four pieces of planks to form the section shown in Figure lc. All dimensions are in millimeters unless indicated otherwise.5 kN.. Figure l c 30 IT 30 80 60 T 1 T T 60 L 1m r lP Wo IIIII 2m 11 1 Figure Id 60 PTO/Page 3 . . Assume that the planks are securely nailed together so that they function as a single beam. determine the maximum load intensity Wo that can be supported by this beam. (12 marks) H' 50'1' 50'1 ~1 . The weight of the beam is negligible. (8 marks) Given: Area of a sector = "2 r 1 2g Figure la Figure lb b.PAGE 2 MECN3010 Question 1 a. determine the minimum thickness of sheet (constant for the entire periphery) required to resist the torque.i.. For an applied torque of 400 kN m and an allowable shearing stress of 50 MPa. A cross section of the fuselage of an airplane made 6f aluminium alloy is shown in Figure 1 where the dimensions shown correspond to the middle line of the wall.11 PAGES . Knowing that each nail can resist a shear force of 300 N. Assume that the wood doesn't fail and P = 2.

11 PAGES . The shaft is subjected to a torque that is sufficient to cause yielding from r = 15 mm to the outer surface. perfectly plastic material with shear modulus G = 40 GPa and yield stress Ty = 30 MPa. (6 marks) Ty ----------------. perfectly plastic steel with Young's modulus E = 200 GPa and yield stress CYy = 240 MPa. A strain gauge attached at point B on the lower surface of the flange reads a longitudinal strain Ex = -0. (14 marks) SOmm ~l 20mm B 260mm r 20mm 1 PTO/Page4 . A tubular shaft has an external diameter of 40 mm. The shaft is made of steel which is elastic.PAGE 3 MECN3010 Question 2 a. Determine the shear strain and shear stress at the outer surface for this loading..~~---- L_-~------r b.0018. an internal diameter of 20 mm and a length of 2 m. The beam is subjected to a bending moment in the vertical plane of symmetry.. . A beam having the T cross section of the accompanying figure is made of elastic. Determine the magnitude of the bending moment.

Gauges a and c are oriented in the axial and circumferential directions of the vessel.3 and G = 76. Assume that the strut attachment B is a pin support that does not deflect and the support at A is a fixed support for extra rigidity. eb = 310. v = 0. Determine the pressure p and torque T. the strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain the following normal strain data: ca = 36/l. The vessel is subjected to an internal pressure p and a torque T at the ends..11..92 GPa. and Cc = 150. At a point on the outside cylindrical surface of the vessel. E = 200 GPa. (20 marks) Weld Weld Question 4 An aircraft seen in the figure below has a load distribution on its wing that can be modelled as shown. . respectively. Find the support reactions at A and the force in the strut. (20 marks) 4 kNfm A / PTO/Page 5 . E1 is constant.11 PAGES . It is attached to the top of the fuselage (body of the aircraft) at A and is suspended from a strut at B.11.PAGE 4 MECN3010 Question 3 The thin-walled steel pressure vessel shown in the figure has an inside diameter of 500 mm and a wall thickness of 10 mm.

PAGE 5 MECN3010 Question 5 The pin-jointed steel truss shown in the figure supports a load of 20 kN at 60° from the horizontal applied at joint D. (20 marks) B 1m D 1 m PTO/Page 6 . The cross-sectional area of each member is 1000 mm+. .. Determine the vertical and horizontal displacement at point D.. Young's modulus of steel is 200 GPa.11 PAGES .

The external diameter of the tube is 50 mm. . The allowable normal stress is 85 MPa..5m 50 mm p PTO/Page 7 .5 m. determine the failure mode and critical load. determine whether the beam will fail or not. i) If the beam is loaded with a P equal to 8 000 N.PAGE 6 MECN3010 Question 6 A circular cross-section aluminium tube is simply supported at its ends and is loaded eccentrically as shown.. (10 marks) ii) Determine the lateral deflection at the midpoint of the beam for this load. The length of the tube is 2. the wall thickness is 5 mm. The Young's modulus is 70 GPa. iii) If the column was loaded centrally. (5 marks) (5 marks) A B p 2.11 PAGES .

PAGE 7 MECN3010 Formula Sheet Torsion J </J ~(c4_c4) 221 y r L T J 'r" canst T 2Amt T 4A..Iz) cos 28 ...--.-'\ --- 2Iyz ...y sin 8 + z cos 8 y cos 8 q=- VQ I Stress-Strain relationship Yxy = 1 G rxy where E G=-..\y ..Iz) cos 28 1 - "2 (Iy 1 + Iyz sin 28 .11 PAGES .-"'\ _"...Iyz sin 28 .. . \" \ IylZI Z \ 8 \ "2 (Iy + Iz) + "2 (Iy "2 (Iy + Iz) "2 (Iy 1 1 1 .G t: '" </J L fdS t Bending y y P (J My I tan </J Principal moments of inertia y tan28 z .....-------. \ \ \ Y "...Iz) sin 28 + IyZ cos 28 Z' ~/ y' z' Shear stress VQ r=It + z sin 8 .2(1 + v) PTO/Page 8 . .

8y lY. .Cy) cos28 .11 PAGES . + O"y) . 1 1 .'[xy sin 28 (o.PAGE 8 MECN3010 Transformation of stresses and strains ~ ( O"x+ O"y) + ~(O"x.nax 1 4 (e. ."2 ( o"x -"2 tan 28p tan28s 1 1 1 .cy) sm28 + "2Yxycos28 1 e.O"y) cos 28 + '[xy sin 28 "2 ( o. O"y) cos 28 . ..O"y) sm 28 + '[xy cos 28 ~(cx+ 1 "2(cx -"2(8x tan28 Yxy 1 8y) + ~(cx - .lYey sin28 .Cy) cos28 + ~YxySin28 + 8y) "2 (cx . . .Cy )2 12 + 4 Yxy Pressure vessels Cylindrical vessel: Longitudinal Hoop stress Spherical vessel: Hoop stress stress 0"[ = 2t pr t pr 2t pr O"h= - O"h =- PTO/Page 9 ..

2 = M(x) dx E1 dx4 = -w(x) d4v Strain energy density l~ = .PAGE 9 MECN3010 Failure theories Maximum normal stress theory: Tresca theory: von Mises theory for plane stress: O"f - 0"10"2+ O"i ::.e.. 0".....11 PAGES . AE dP PTO! Page 10 . Deflection of beams y y dV - dx = -w(x) dM dx V(x) '---------_ X x_---------' d2v E1. . + 2" O"yey + 2" O"zez + 2" Txy Yxy + 2" Tyz YYZ + 2" Tzx Yzx Strain energy: U=- J N2 --dx+ 2AE J T2 M2 --dx+-dx 2GI 2E1 J Castigliano's theorem: For trusses: O="NLdN L.O"xex 1 2 for uniaxial stress for pure shear stress 1 1 1 1 1 for general case = = 2" ry 1 1 2" c.

= e [sec =- (~{f) -1] (J max A P [ 1 + -r2 sec (Le ec 2r {!.PAGE 10 MECN3010 Buckling of columns Euler's formula: L.)AE r= If = = radius of gyration c = distance of the compressive fibre from the neutral axis Design of centrally loaded steel column: KL) r ( c Va. . O..7L. 2L. O.:::::: l.5L. Eccentric column: for pinned-pinned column fixed-pinned column fixed-fixed column for fixed-free column v(x) Vmax = e [tan ~L sinAx+coSAX-l].11 PAGES .92 KL) (r So KL c r PTO/ Page 11 .~ [ (Jmax 1 _ (KL/r)2] (J 2(KL/r)~ y = n2E n] = 3 (KL/r) 3 +"8 (KL/r)c 23 5 1 (KL/r)3 8 (KL/r)~ KL So (KL) r r c n2 = 12 ..

........... _PL2 16E1 Vmax _PL3 = 48E1 V = --(3L 48E1 -Px 2 -4x ) 2 o ~x 5L/2 v x 81 = = -MoL 3E1 MoL 6E1 V max - - -MoL2 VillE1 82 V x max - - -5wL4 384E1 8max =-- _PL2 2E1 V max - --- _PL3 3E1 V= _Px2 --(3L-x) 6E1 v 8max --........ ...............11 PAGES .PAGE 11 MECN3010 Deflection table x 8 max - --_... END ....6E1 - -wL3 V max - --- _WL4 8E1 8max -..E1 - MoL V max - --- MoL2 2E1 v=-- Mox2 2E1 ...

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