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MECN3010 2007

MECN3010 2007

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Published by: Philip Donovan Bradley on Oct 31, 2011
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17 JIi/2007





University of the Witwatersrand, Course or topic No(s)

Johannesburg MECN3010

Course or topic name(s) Paper Number & title



Examination Test' to be held during month(s) of SUPPLEMENTARY (*delete as applicable)

November 2007

Year of Study (Arts & Science leave blank)


Degree/Diplomas for which this course is prescribed (BSc (Eng) should indicate which branch)


Faculty/ies presenting candidates


Internal examiner(s) and telephone extension number(s)

Prof R Paskaramoorthy Mr R Malan

External examiner(s)

Prof HD Chandler

Special materials required (graph/music/drawing paper) maps, diagrams, tables, computer cards, etc.

Time allowance




3 hours

Instructions to candidates (Examiners may wish to use this space to indicate, inter alia, the contribution made by this examination or test towards the year mark, if appropriate)


Internal Examiners or Heads of Department are requested to sign the declaration overleaf.

No formula sheets other than those attached to this • In cases where solutions for more than five questions are presented. • Answer any five questions. . • All incorrect work must be clearly crossed out on the page. • This is a closed book examination. Please check that you have them all.11 PAGES . All questions carry equal marks. • Each solution must have proper units. question paper will be allowed. clarity of presentation. the questions with the most errors will be marked. • Time allowance is three hours.PAGE 1 MECN3010 INSTRUCTIONS This question paper consists of 11 pages including this page. • Maintain four significant digits throughout your calculations so that your final answer will be correct to three significant digits. Neatness. PTO! Page 2 .. and evidence of logical thought will be considered in assessing scripts..

The nails are spaced at 30 mm intervals along the beam. determine the minimum thickness of sheet (constant for the entire periphery) required to resist the torque.5 kN.i. A wooden beam is made by nailing together four pieces of planks to form the section shown in Figure lc.. Figure l c 30 IT 30 80 60 T 1 T T 60 L 1m r lP Wo IIIII 2m 11 1 Figure Id 60 PTO/Page 3 . (12 marks) H' 50'1' 50'1 ~1 . All dimensions are in millimeters unless indicated otherwise.. For an applied torque of 400 kN m and an allowable shearing stress of 50 MPa. (8 marks) Given: Area of a sector = "2 r 1 2g Figure la Figure lb b.11 PAGES . . determine the maximum load intensity Wo that can be supported by this beam. The beam spans 4 m and supports the load shown in Figure ld. Assume that the wood doesn't fail and P = 2. A cross section of the fuselage of an airplane made 6f aluminium alloy is shown in Figure 1 where the dimensions shown correspond to the middle line of the wall. The weight of the beam is negligible.PAGE 2 MECN3010 Question 1 a. Assume that the planks are securely nailed together so that they function as a single beam. Knowing that each nail can resist a shear force of 300 N.

perfectly plastic material with shear modulus G = 40 GPa and yield stress Ty = 30 MPa.11 PAGES . perfectly plastic steel with Young's modulus E = 200 GPa and yield stress CYy = 240 MPa. The beam is subjected to a bending moment in the vertical plane of symmetry.. an internal diameter of 20 mm and a length of 2 m. A tubular shaft has an external diameter of 40 mm.PAGE 3 MECN3010 Question 2 a. (14 marks) SOmm ~l 20mm B 260mm r 20mm 1 PTO/Page4 .~~---- L_-~------r b. The shaft is subjected to a torque that is sufficient to cause yielding from r = 15 mm to the outer surface. A strain gauge attached at point B on the lower surface of the flange reads a longitudinal strain Ex = -0. (6 marks) Ty ----------------.. The shaft is made of steel which is elastic. Determine the shear strain and shear stress at the outer surface for this loading. . Determine the magnitude of the bending moment.0018. A beam having the T cross section of the accompanying figure is made of elastic.

(20 marks) Weld Weld Question 4 An aircraft seen in the figure below has a load distribution on its wing that can be modelled as shown. eb = 310. . At a point on the outside cylindrical surface of the vessel. Assume that the strut attachment B is a pin support that does not deflect and the support at A is a fixed support for extra rigidity. the strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain the following normal strain data: ca = 36/l. E1 is constant.92 GPa. Gauges a and c are oriented in the axial and circumferential directions of the vessel.11. The vessel is subjected to an internal pressure p and a torque T at the ends.3 and G = 76.11. E = 200 GPa.PAGE 4 MECN3010 Question 3 The thin-walled steel pressure vessel shown in the figure has an inside diameter of 500 mm and a wall thickness of 10 mm.. Determine the pressure p and torque T.. v = 0. respectively. and Cc = 150. (20 marks) 4 kNfm A / PTO/Page 5 . It is attached to the top of the fuselage (body of the aircraft) at A and is suspended from a strut at B.11 PAGES . Find the support reactions at A and the force in the strut.

(20 marks) B 1m D 1 m PTO/Page 6 . Determine the vertical and horizontal displacement at point D. .. The cross-sectional area of each member is 1000 mm+. Young's modulus of steel is 200 GPa.PAGE 5 MECN3010 Question 5 The pin-jointed steel truss shown in the figure supports a load of 20 kN at 60° from the horizontal applied at joint D.11 PAGES ..

11 PAGES . the wall thickness is 5 mm. iii) If the column was loaded centrally. The length of the tube is 2.5m 50 mm p PTO/Page 7 .. The Young's modulus is 70 GPa. (5 marks) (5 marks) A B p 2. The allowable normal stress is 85 MPa. The external diameter of the tube is 50 mm..5 m.PAGE 6 MECN3010 Question 6 A circular cross-section aluminium tube is simply supported at its ends and is loaded eccentrically as shown. determine whether the beam will fail or not. i) If the beam is loaded with a P equal to 8 000 N. . determine the failure mode and critical load. (10 marks) ii) Determine the lateral deflection at the midpoint of the beam for this load.

...2(1 + v) PTO/Page 8 .. ...\y . \" \ IylZI Z \ 8 \ "2 (Iy + Iz) + "2 (Iy "2 (Iy + Iz) "2 (Iy 1 1 1 .Iz) sin 28 + IyZ cos 28 Z' ~/ y' z' Shear stress VQ r=It + z sin 8 .Iz) cos 28 ....PAGE 7 MECN3010 Formula Sheet Torsion J </J ~(c4_c4) 221 y r L T J 'r" canst T 2Amt T 4A. .-------.-'\ --- 2Iyz .Iz) cos 28 1 - "2 (Iy 1 + Iyz sin 28 .Iyz sin 28 ..G t: '" </J L fdS t Bending y y P (J My I tan </J Principal moments of inertia y tan28 z ..--.. \ \ \ Y "....y sin 8 + z cos 8 y cos 8 q=- VQ I Stress-Strain relationship Yxy = 1 G rxy where E G=-..11 PAGES .-"'\ _".

8y lY. O"y) cos 28 . + O"y) . . .. .Cy )2 12 + 4 Yxy Pressure vessels Cylindrical vessel: Longitudinal Hoop stress Spherical vessel: Hoop stress stress 0"[ = 2t pr t pr 2t pr O"h= - O"h =- PTO/Page 9 ."2 ( o"x -"2 tan 28p tan28s 1 1 1 .Cy) cos28 + ~YxySin28 + 8y) "2 (cx . .O"y) sm 28 + '[xy cos 28 ~(cx+ 1 "2(cx -"2(8x tan28 Yxy 1 8y) + ~(cx - .nax 1 4 (e.Cy) cos28 . 1 1 .O"y) cos 28 + '[xy sin 28 "2 ( o. .11 PAGES .cy) sm28 + "2Yxycos28 1 e.'[xy sin 28 (o..PAGE 8 MECN3010 Transformation of stresses and strains ~ ( O"x+ O"y) + ~(O"x.lYey sin28 .

+ 2" O"yey + 2" O"zez + 2" Txy Yxy + 2" Tyz YYZ + 2" Tzx Yzx Strain energy: U=- J N2 --dx+ 2AE J T2 M2 --dx+-dx 2GI 2E1 J Castigliano's theorem: For trusses: O="NLdN L. Deflection of beams y y dV - dx = -w(x) dM dx V(x) '---------_ X x_---------' d2v E1..O"xex 1 2 for uniaxial stress for pure shear stress 1 1 1 1 1 for general case = = 2" ry 1 1 2" c. 0".11 PAGES .2 = M(x) dx E1 dx4 = -w(x) d4v Strain energy density l~ = ..... .PAGE 9 MECN3010 Failure theories Maximum normal stress theory: Tresca theory: von Mises theory for plane stress: O"f - 0"10"2+ O"i ::. AE dP PTO! Page 10 .e.

O. 2L. .~ [ (Jmax 1 _ (KL/r)2] (J 2(KL/r)~ y = n2E n] = 3 (KL/r) 3 +"8 (KL/r)c 23 5 1 (KL/r)3 8 (KL/r)~ KL So (KL) r r c n2 = 12 .)AE r= If = = radius of gyration c = distance of the compressive fibre from the neutral axis Design of centrally loaded steel column: KL) r ( c Va..PAGE 10 MECN3010 Buckling of columns Euler's formula: L. O..7L.:::::: l. Eccentric column: for pinned-pinned column fixed-pinned column fixed-fixed column for fixed-free column v(x) Vmax = e [tan ~L sinAx+coSAX-l].11 PAGES . = e [sec =- (~{f) -1] (J max A P [ 1 + -r2 sec (Le ec 2r {!.5L.92 KL) (r So KL c r PTO/ Page 11 .

....6E1 - -wL3 V max - --- _WL4 8E1 8max -..... END ....... ............PAGE 11 MECN3010 Deflection table x 8 max - --_. _PL2 16E1 Vmax _PL3 = 48E1 V = --(3L 48E1 -Px 2 -4x ) 2 o ~x 5L/2 v x 81 = = -MoL 3E1 MoL 6E1 V max - - -MoL2 VillE1 82 V x max - - -5wL4 384E1 8max =-- _PL2 2E1 V max - --- _PL3 3E1 V= _Px2 --(3L-x) 6E1 v 8max --.11 PAGES ..........E1 - MoL V max - --- MoL2 2E1 v=-- Mox2 2E1 .......

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