Paper accepted for presentation at 2003 IEEE Bologna Power Tech Conference, June 23th-26th, Bologna, Italy

Simulation by MATLAB/Simulink of active filters for reducing THD created by industrial systems
I. Zamora, A. J. Mazon. P. Eguia, I. Albizu, K. J. Sagastabeitia, E. Fernández

Abstract—Nowadays, power electronics are widely used in industry for supplying loads with an amplitude and frequency controlled voltage. These systems comprises mainly rectifiers and inverters which, as non-linear loads, produce currents with high harmonic content. In order to fulfil the legislation concerning voltage harmonic distortion it is necessary to put in place corrective actions. Among these corrective actions active filters are one of the most effective. For the design of these filters simulation has been proved to be a very useful tool. In this paper, the simulation by MATLAB/Simulink of an active filter for the reduction of the harmonic distortion is analysed. Two examples are presented: a steel plant and an underground traction system. Index Terms— Active filter, computer simulation, induction furnace, steel plant, metro traction system, THD.

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I. INTRODUCTION

he main requirement of any electric power system is the supply of electricity with a determined power quality and reliability to the minimum possible cost. Due to the increased quality of life, it has taken place a spectacular increase of the number and installed power of non-linear loads, especially of electronic devices used mainly in the control of systems and power hardware. Depending on the nature of these loads, the distortion created can be very high and affect the voltage supplied by the distribution network. In this case, it is highly possible that other loads served from the same network will be affected. For regulating this situation a complete legislation exists at national and supranational levels concerning voltage harmonic distortion. To comply with legislation, corrective actions have to be taken to reduce harmonic distortion to established

regulated levels. Among the possible corrective actions active filters are one of the most effective. Before taking any corrective action, it is necessary to evaluate the distortion introduced by the installation into the distribution network and the expected reduction when the active filter is in use. In this stage, simulation has been proved to be a useful tool. It allows to quantify the harmonic distortion created by a system and, when a corrective action is introduced, simulation will show the reduction in the distortion. Besides, simulation can be used as a tool for the design of the active filter. The work presented in this paper is based on the simulation of active filters for reducing harmonic distortion created by industrial loads. Simulations have been carried out under the MATLAB/Simulink environment and two examples of industrial harmonic polluting loads are presented: a steel plant and an underground traction system. In order to perform the harmonic analysis of the voltage and current signals present in the industrial systems, a Simulink block has been developed. This block calls an M-file that makes the required calculations and shows graphically the harmonic spectrum of the analysed signal (Fig. 1). The 1st harmonic is out of scale so that the rest of the harmonics can be visualized properly. The calculated values correspond to peak values.

I. Zamora is with Department of Electrical Engineering-ESI of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country, Spain (e-mail: iepzabei@bi.ehu.es). A. J. Mazón is with Department of Electrical Engineering-ESI of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country, Spain (e-mail: iepmasaj@bi.ehu.es). P. Eguia is with Department of Electrical Engineering-ESI of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country, Spain (e-mail: iepeglop@bi.ehu.es). I. Albizu is with Department of Electrical Engineering-ESI of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country, Spain (e-mail: iepalfli@bi.ehu.es). J.K. Sagastabeitia is with Dep. of Electrical Engineering-EUITI of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country, Spain (e-mail: iepsabuk@lg.ehu.es). E. Fernández is with Department of Electrical Engineering-ESI of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country, Spain (e-mail: iepfehee@bi.ehu.es).

Fig. 1. Harmonic analyser result

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However. the source impedance may vary. these devices may fall in series and parallel resonance with the source impedance. The same harmonic currents. harmonics isolation between utilities and customers. Besides. The operation of an active filter is based on a continuous monitoring and conditioning of the distorted current created by the non-linear load. The SIMULINK model for the active filter can be seen in Fig. for different purposes as: harmonic compensation of non-linear loads. that shows the peak values of the first twenty harmonic components as the circuit is being simulated. Real time spectrum analyser II. The inverter has a voltage source configuration and its control is based on the p-q control theory [1-2]. etc. has been developed too. The results format is shown in Fig. Fig. Currently. 2. but with a 180º phase shift are generated by the filter. 3. 3. 2. Active power filters were first proposed for harmonic compensation in the early 1970's. In order to overcome these problems active power filters have been developed. Active filter model . In these figure. Since then. but they could not be used in real power systems because high-power high-speed switching devices were unavailable. reactive power/negative-sequence. low cost and high efficiency. much research has been done on active filters and their practical applications. The filter used in the simulations is based on an inverter connected in parallel with the load. harmonic damping throughout power distribution systems.A real time harmonic analyser. and influence in the performance of the passive filter. and because of the high development of power electronics technology. so that harmonic components are cancelled and only fundamental component flows from the point of common coupling of the load. the filter is connected to the low voltage winding of a power transformer. ACTIVE FILTER Passive filters consisting of tuned LC filters have traditionally been used to improve power factor and to absorb harmonics in power systems because of their simplicity. Fig. flicker compensation. a great number of these devices has been installed. This block has been developed using Simulink blocks.

including the active filter. The "point 1" is located in the connection with the distribution system of the electrical utility and the "point 2" is located in the feeding to the non-linear load (traction unit). Each metro traction unit or convoy has a traction power of 2. this is. each convoy has 16 induction motors of 180 kW supplied by a PWM inverter connected directly to DC line voltage.880 kW and nominal voltage of 1. .Two 30/13. The rated power of the non-linear load is 6 MW and it is adjustable through the convoys torque. For modelling considerations.500 Vdc and consists of four motor wagons.000 kVA rated power. Each rectifier group is composed of a 30/1.000 kVA supplied at 30 kV and the auxiliary services transformer and its load as a constant load of 1. It includes three traction groups that feed two meter units.Four rectifier groups with 3R+1 configuration.One 30/0. CASES STUDIES A. The rectifiers convert the voltage at the output winding of the transformers group into DC voltage of 1750 V when they work without load and into 1650 V when they work with 2000 kW rated power. the torque measurements are real. the two underground station service transformers and their load have been grouped into a single constant load of 5. To evaluate the rate of the total harmonic distortion in the substation.250 kVA rated power and a threephase rectifier.000 kVA supplied at 30 kV. 50% and 10% of the nominal torque) to study the variations produced in THD along the day. In Fig. The non-linear load is shown in Fig. the simulation have been carried out at three different traction load levels (developing a 100%. can be seen. . 4. 4.500 kVA rated power each one. for auxiliary services.295 kV transformer (TGR) with 2. Fig. for station services. two measurement points have been located.4 kV transformer with 1. In the simulation. 5. the number of convoys that at the same time are supplied by the same substation. The linear load has been considered as a pure resistance and represents the station and auxiliary services.8 kV power transformers with 2. That is to say. Underground Traction System The main components of the traction substation modelled are the following ones: . Each wagon leans over two bogies with two motors each. The traction system is supplied by a source with 1230 MVA of short-circuit power and feeds a linear and another non-linear load. the whole system. Traction system model . As the frequency of underground trains varies along the day and so.III. three rectifiers are connected at the same time and one is always in reserve.

8.Fig. hardly have weight. the results change as can be seen in Fig. It can be seen that the harmonic voltage. 7. 7. The highest harmonics are the 5th (250 Hz) and the 7th (350 Hz) and they are repeated at the 11th (550 Hz) and the 13th (650 Hz). without filter .85% while the voltage THD is 0. The THD value corresponding to the current is 9. in the “point 1” of measurement (connection with the distribution system) the graphs of voltage harmonic spectrum are shown. Voltage harmonic spectrum in the point 1.31%. The results obtained in the harmonic distortion analysis of voltage at the connection “point 1” without the active filter are shown in Fig. The THD of the current is reduced from 4. It is observed a higher deformation of the waves than in the case measured in the point 1.43 %. Besides. we show the results of the case that both convoys are working in steady-state and developing a 100% of the nominal torque each one.10% and the voltage THD from 0. the results obtained in the harmonic distortion analysis of current without the active filter are shown in Fig. These harmonics are characteristic of nonlinear loads that include three-phase rectifiers of six pulses. Fig. This is due to the nonlinear load consumption which is about 6 MVA in front of the 1234 MVA short circuit power of the source. 6. The THD value corresponding to the current is 4. This distortion is due to the characteristic consumption of the non-linear load that contains electronic power devices.43% to 0. The values of the highest harmonics have been reduced considerably. while in the “point 2” (feeding to the no-linear load) the graphs of current harmonic spectrum are shown. If the harmonic analysis is performed including the active filter.31%.16% while the voltage THD is 0. 6. with filter For the “point 2” of measurement.85% to 0. Complete substation and traction system model As example. Fig. But some new components of low value (harmonics due to the injection of the filter) can be observed. 5. Voltage harmonic spectrum in the point 1. generated by the substation.

51 0.85 0.53 10 % 15. 8.35 96.85. These harmonics are introduced by the active filter. Each furnace of type 1 is fed from a 4 MVA threewinding transformer which reduces the voltage from 30 kV to 770 V.01 86. Both rectifiers are connected in parallel including filtering coils that improve the direct current obtained.31%. with filter From the whole simulated cases results without and with the active filter. new blocks have been created for the two types of induction furnaces (Fig. The secondary winding feeds a six pulse rectifier and the tertiary feeds another identical rectifier. Fig. but they take worthless and highly variable values.07 0. The distribution transformers of the general services and the temper furnaces consume 1800 kW with a cosφ of 0. – Results for measurement point 2 (traction load) Reduction of Current Current current distortion with Traction load distortion distortion active filter level (THDI %) (%) (THDI %) 100 % 9. Four furnaces are of type 1 and the other two of type 2. The electric load of the plant is composed of six induction furnaces. 10 and 11). Steel Plant The steel plant substation considered is fed alternatively from two 30 kV lines switched by means of a disconnector. The voltage is reduced to 945 V.14 50 % 4. The rectification has a 12-pulse configuration. For simulation purposes they have been modelled as a linear load of these characteristics.The THDI decreases more than 86% in anyone of the three cases. 9). . A capacitor bank is connected in parallel with the induction furnace coil to achieve a controllable resonance of the coil. All these elements have been modelled using existing SIMULINK blocks contained in the SymPowerSystems blockset. Current harmonic spectrum in the point 2.09 98. the THD of the current is reduced from 9.08 2.- The harmonics are decreased almost completely and the highest value becomes the 11th and 13th order. A capacitor bank is connected in parallel with the induction furnace coil.72 0. The approximate consumption of the coil is 4 MW. temper furnaces and general services. Both rectifiers are connected in series including filtering coils. The voltage in the coils that melt the steel is 2200 V with a frequency of 500 Hz and an approximate consumption of 3300 kW.35 TABLE II. Fig.18 50 % 11. The rectification has a 12-pulse configuration. it can make a comparative analysis: . 9.43% to 0. instead of the 5th and 7th order in the case without filtering.63 94. the secondary winding feeds a six pulse rectifier and the tertiary feeds another identical rectifier. Current harmonic spectrum in the point 2. – Results for measurement point 1 (substation interconnection) Reduction of Current Current current distortion with Traction load distortion distortion active filter level (THDI %) (%) (THDI %) 100 % 4. without filter If the harmonic analysis is performed including the active filter (Fig. As there is no induction furnace electrical model. Similarly to the type 1 furnace configuration. This is acceptable as their consumption is only a little portion of the total power consumed in the plant and they do not produce any distortion.09 97. There are two different types of induction furnaces. Each furnace of type 2 is fed from a 5 MVA threewinding transformer.16% to 0.67 B. Even harmonics are also observed (included the 0 order harmonic which is the DC component).79 10 % 1. TABLE I.35% and the voltage THD from 0.16 0.08 95. The rectifiers used to get the DC voltage are the cause of the injection of current harmonics in the system and consequently the cause of the voltage distortion. which implies a high effectiveness of the active filter (TABLE I and TABLE II). The characteristic harmonics injected by a 12-pulse rectifier are harmonics of order 11th and 13th.

the voltage harmonic distortion created by the steel plant has been measured. the distortion has been measured again. Firstly. The steel plant has been simulated considering different levels of load (one. after the active filter has been added. Type 1 induction furnace model Fig.Fig. Type 2 induction furnace model The simulation model of the steel plant including the active filter inserted in parallel with the furnaces can be seen in Fig. . Secondly. 10. 11. three and six furnaces working). 12.

The 9th harmonic also increases its value from the previous cases. The results obtained in the harmonic distortion analysis are shown in Fig. 13 and 14. This is the most common working situation of the steel plant in order to get the maximum profitability.41% while the voltage THD is 6. 13. The highest harmonics are the 11th and the 13th. The voltage distortion is too high as it is above the limit imposed by the regulations (5% for 30 kV). Steel plant model including the active filter As example.Fig.38%. 12. we show the results obtained with the six furnaces working. Fig. 14. We can see that the current THD value is 7. Voltage harmonics (6 furnaces + active filter) . 15. 15 and 16. Fig. Voltage (6 furnaces) Fig. Current harmonics (6 furnaces) The results obtained including the active filter are shown in Fig. This is the worst case from the point of view of the harmonic distortion and the active filter should be able to correct it properly.

Applications. "Application of dominant harmonic active filter system with 12 pulse nonlinear loads".38% to 3. Alain Jaafari. the reduction of the distortion by an active filter has been simulated for both systems. “Five Step. Cheng.87 58.15. 1999. D. Nunez-Noriega. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. IEE Procedings Electric Power Applications.41% to 3.T. 1. 14. [3] J.Current distortion Reduction of THDI with Current THDI active filter THDI (%) (%) (%) 4. No. Casaravilla. Akagi.M. 5. “Design and Performance of Active Power Filters”. Vol. 1375-1386. Akagi. Kanazawa and A. Y.5 3. [5] G. 2000 [8] Bhim Singh. No. No. 2. the voltage and current harmonic distortions created by an underground traction system and a steel plant have been obtained. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. Nabae. Vol. but they take worthless and highly variable values. B. No. No.47 1. [4] K. Power Electronics Conf.06 36. But there are many new components introduced by the filter spread over the spectrum. The THD of the current is reduced from 7. Briozzo and E.85 44. pp. Therefore the active filter is adequate for the steel plant to fulfil the voltage quality requirements.41 3. Vol. – Voltage distortion Reduction of THD with Voltage THD active filter THD (%) (%) (%) 1. allows to reproduce the behaviour of the power systems in different situations. Al-Haddad. 1983.Karady. Tokyo. IEEE Industry Applications Magazine. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems.IV. Bhattacharya. 2002. 16.. Int. June-Yown Lee. Current harmonics (6 furnaces + active filter) V. [9] Carlos V.Harmonic-Filters Set at High Voltage Level”. REFERENCES [1] H. Salvia.61 43.23 2.4. 32.33 55 TABLE VI. 960-971. Chandra.13. 1999. San Pablo .38 3. Latin America T&D IEEE Conference.1. Vol. . 6. “Optimal Planning of Large Passive. 46. “New trends in active filters for power conditioning” . Fig.66 36. Vol.4 No. No. Vol. Kamal Al-Haddad. 1996. of furnaces working 1 3 6 TABLE V. analyse how the system answers in these situations and choose the solution that better fit with the particular problem without additional costs.2 6. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics. N. The 11th and 13th harmonics are still the highest harmonics and the 9th is nearly removed. 14. George G. “A New Control Approach to Three-Phase Active Filter for Harmonics and Reactive Power Compensation”. Divan. Ind. No. 1998. [2] H. Shen. [6] P. No. [10] Thierry Thomas. "Analysis and design of a three level PWM converter system for railway-traction applications". The new value of the voltage distortion is below the limit of 5%. .Low Frequency Switching Active Power Filter for Network Harmonic Compensation in Substations”. CONCLUSIONS The use of simulation tools as MATLAB/ Simulink. 1998. Ambrish Chandra.Brasil. Watanabe. A. Géza Joós. 144. Vol. Moreover. Kévork Haddad. Besides. “Generalized theory of instantaneous reactive power in three-phase circuits”. Additional results obtained whit one or three furnaces working are shown in TABLES V and VI.04 0. 1999. active filters with different rated values can be simulated in order to analyse different reductions of the harmonic distortion. [7] Chih-Ju Chou. IEEE Trans. IEEE Transactiones on Power Systems.1 6. pp. of furnaces working 1 3 6 . 1999. Kune-Da Lee. “Selective active filter applied to an arc furnace adjusted to harmonic emission limitations”. By means of the simulation carried out. Chih-Wen Liu. Singh and A.2 7. 5. “A review of active filters for power quality improvement”.33% and the voltage THD from 6. C.91 3. Butterworth.61%.

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