Chernobyl

Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment
Alexey V. YABLOKOV Vassily B. NESTERENKO Alexey V. NESTERENKO
coNsultiNG editor Janette d. sherman-Nevinger

ANNAls of the New york AcAdemy of scieNces

VOLUME 1181

oN the coVer Pine trees reveal changes in wood color, density, and growth rate following irradiation from the chernobyl disaster. t.A. mousseau, university of south carolina (2009)

I S B N 978-1-57331-757-3

9

781573 317573

Published by the New york AcAdemy of scieNces

Chernobyl

Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment

ANN. N.y. AcAd. sci. Vol. 1181

ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Volume 1181
Director and Executive Editor DOUGLAS BRAATEN Assistant Editor JOSEPH ABRAJANO Project Manager STEVEN E. BOHALL Project Coordinator RALPH W. BROWN Creative Director ASH AYMAN SHAIRZAY The New York Academy of Sciences 7 World Trade Center 250 Greenwich Street, 40th Floor New York, New York 10007-2157

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Chernobyl
Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment

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NESTERENKO ALEXEY V. SHERMAN-NEVINGER Published by Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the New York Academy of Sciences Boston. YABLOKOV VASSILY B. NESTERENKO Consulting Editor JANETTE D.ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Volume 1181 Chernobyl Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment ALEXEY V. Massachusetts 2009 .

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.. . Acknowledgments . . . . . Nesterenko. . . . . . . Chernobyl Contamination through Time and Space. . Yablokov . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SHERMAN-NEVINGER CONTENTS Foreword. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . By Alexey V. and Disability after the Chernobyl Catastrophe. . Yablokov . Vassily B. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . Yablokov . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . Dr. . . . . . .. . Biol. . . . . Grodzinsky . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . By Alexey V. . . . . .. . . . and Alexey V. . By Alexey V. . . . . . . . .. . Yablokov and Vassily B.. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .... By Alexey V. . . . . . . . YABLOKOV. . . Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe for Public Health 2.... . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . Chernobyl Contamination: An Overview 1. .. . . . . . . . . . . . ... . Yablokov . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 3. NESTERENKO. . . . . . . . . . Dimitro M. . . . . . NESTERENKO Consulting Editor JANETTE D. Chapter I. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . Chapter II. Yablokov . . . . . . ... .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . Nonmalignant Diseases after the Chernobyl Catastrophe. Introduction: The Difficult Truth about Chernobyl. . By Alexey V. . . . . . 55 5. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . Yablokov . Accelerated Aging as a Consequence of the Chernobyl Catastrophe. . . . . . . . . . 42 4. . . . . . . . . . Nesterenko . . 161 7. ... . . . . . . . Nesterenko.. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . Yablokov and Vassily B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Conclusion to Chapter II . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . By Alexey V. . . . . .. . . Yablokov . . . . . . .ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Volume 1181 Chernobyl Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment ALEXEY V. . ... . . Mortality after the Chernobyl Catastrophe. . . . . VASSILY B. . . . . By Alexey V. .. 58 6. . . . . . . . .. .. v vii x xiv 1 5 217 . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . Nesterenko . . . .. . . .. . . Chernobyl’s Public Health Consequences: Some Methodological Problems. . . . By Prof.. Impairment. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . By Alexey V. . . AND ALEXEY V. . . . Oncological Diseases after the Chernobyl Catastrophe. By Alexey V. . . Preface. . General Morbidity. . . . . . . . . .. .

. . . . .. . and Alexey V. Yablokov . .. . . . .. . Nesterenko. .. . ... . . The positions taken by the participants in the reported conferences are their own and not necessarily those of the Academy. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . . . . ..vi Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Chapter III. . . .. . . . . ... Yablokov... . . .. . By Alexey V. . . .. Chernobyl’s Radioactive Impact on Fauna. . . and Alexey V. . 11. . Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe for Public Health and the Environment 23 Years Later... .. Conclusion to Chapter III . . . . . . . . . . . . Vassily B. Protective Measures for Activities in Chernobyl’s Radioactively Contaminated Territories. 13.. . . . . .. . Yablokov. . .. .. . .. .. .. 14. . . . Nesterenko and Vassily B. Nesterenko. . . . Vassily B. Chernobyl’s Radioactive Contamination of Food and People. . . . . Yablokov ... .. .. By Alexey V. 289 303 311 318 327 The New York Academy of Sciences believes it has a responsibility to provide an open forum for discussion of scientific questions. and Soil Contamination after Chernobyl. .. . By Vassily B. .. .. .. .. . Water. Yablokov . .. . . 223 237 255 281 285 Chapter IV. Conclusion to Chapter IV .. . . . . Nesterenko . Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe for the Environment 8. . 9. . . . . . Decorporation of Chernobyl Radionuclides. . . .. . Radiation Protection after the Chernobyl Catastrophe 12.. . . . . .. .. . . .. By Alexey V. . .. . .. By Alexey V. . .. . .. . . . . . . .. .... .. . .. .. .. . Chernobyl’s Radioactive Impact on Flora. . By Alexey V. . . Nesterenko . . . ... ..... Vassily B.. .... . . ... . . Nesterenko. . . . By Alexey V. .. .. . ... . . . . .. 10. ... . . . . . Nesterenko . ... . . By Alexey V. Chernobyl’s Radioactive Impact on Microbial Biota.. . .. . . . . . Atmospheric. . The Academy has no intent to influence legislation by providing such forums. .. Nesterenko . ... . . .. and Alexey V.. . Nesterenko and Alexey V. Nesterenko. .. . . . .. . .. . . ... . .. . .. .. .. . Yablokov . . . 15. . . . . . .. . .

vii . attempts were made to explain it away as being a result of nationwide fear. This response disturbed the governments of many countries. In just a few days.CHERNOBYL Foreword More than 22 years have passed since the Chernobyl catastrophe burst upon and changed our world. The enormous expenses required to mitigate the negative consequences of Chernobyl at once “raised the price” of nuclear-generated electric power. instead of organizing an objective and comprehensive study of the radiological and radiobiological phenomena induced by small doses of radiation. When it became impossible to hide the obvious increase in radiation-related diseases. international organizations. rivers. and official bodies in charge of nuclear technology and led to a paradoxical polarization as to how to address the issues of those injured by the Chernobyl catastrophe and the effects of chronic irradiation on the health of people living in contaminated areas. Ukraine. apologists of nuclear power began a blackout on data concerning the actual amounts of radioactive emissions. natural waters. and seas turned to potential sources of danger to people. On the basis of the effects of small doses of radiation in some nonhuman systems where hormesis was noted. A number of countries decided to stop the construction of new nuclear power stations. insofar as possible. At the same time some concepts of modern radiobiology were suddenly revised. to protect the population from possible negative effects. For example. trees. a campaign began to deny nonthreshold radiation effects. as radioactive substances emitted by the destroyed reactor fell upon all life. anticipating possible negative consequences. and the increasing morbidity among the people that were affected. two international conferences were held in venues close to one another: one was convened by supporters of atomic energy and the other by a number of international organizations alarmed by the true state of health of those affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe. woods. flowers. Throughout the Northern Hemisphere radioactivity covered most living spaces and became a source of potential harm for all living things. Owing to the polarization of the problem. and taking adequate measures. just after the failure. the air. The apogee of this situation was reached in 2006 on the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl meltdown. some scientists began to insist that such doses from Chernobyl would actually benefit humans and all other living things. In April 2006 in Kiev. By that time the health and quality of life had decreased for millions of people. contrary to elementary observations about the nature of the primary interactions of ionizing radiation and the molecular structure of cells. the doses of radiation. The second conference unanimously agreed that radioactive contamination of large areas is accompanied by distinctly negative health consequences for the populations and predicted increased risk of radiogenic diseases in European countries in the coming years. The decision of the first conference has not been accepted up to now because the Ukrainian party disagrees with its extremely optimistic positions. Naturally. public response was very strong and demonstrated mistrust of atomic engineering.

so even supporters of “radiophobia” as the principal cause of disease do not deny it. Causes for alarm are complications of pregnancy and the state of health of children born to so-called “liquidators” (Chernobyl’s cleanup workers) and evacuees from zones of high radionuclide contamination. Internal radiation doses were defined on the basis of the activity in milk and potatoes for different areas. How can we understand this difference in calculating the numbers of individuals who are ill as a result of irradiation? It is groundless to think that the doctors’ diagnoses were universally wrong. To estimate doses of the Chernobyl catastrophe over the course of a year. Thus. Thus decisions to calculate dose only on the scale of Cs-137 radiation led to obvious underestimation of the actual accumulated effective doses. The basis for believing that these risks are not minor is very convincing. where mushrooms and other forest products make up a sizable share of the food consumed. Against the background of such persuasive data.viii Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences For a long time I have thought that the time has come to put an end to the opposition between technocracy advocates and those who support objective scientific approaches to estimate the negative risks for people exposed to the Chernobyl fallout. oncological diseases with longer latency periods. Even in 1987 activity of some of the radionuclides exceeded the contamination by Cs-137 and Sr-90. and the percent of practically healthy children has continued to decrease. breast and lung cancers’. in particular. The incidence of eye problems. which contaminated various forms of food with short-half-life radionuclides. Thus in the Ukrainian Poles’e region. They were probably higher than the accepted figures. We do not know the quantity or dose of hot particles that settled in the nasopharyngeal epithelium to cause this syndrome. and morbidity has essentially increased for all age groups. in Kiev. Many knew in the first 10-day period after the meltdown that diseases of the nasopharynx were widespread. there are very concrete data about malignant thyroid disease in children. For example. In some Ukrainian Poles’e territories. Data on the growth of morbidity over two decades after the catastrophe confirm this conclusion. From year to year there has been an increase in nonmalignant diseases. particularly cataracts. there is reason to believe that doses of irradiation have not been properly estimated. became more frequent. which has raised the incidence of overall morbidity in children in areas affected by the catastrophe. the figure is now 20%. Ukraine. especially for the first year after the reactor’s failure. Average life expectancy is accordingly reduced. there are no healthy children. some defenders of atomic energy look specious as they deny the obvious negative effects of radiation upon populations. a fact also neglected. The frequency of disease has increased several times since the accident at Chernobyl. has increased sharply. where before the meltdown. up to 90% of children were considered healthy. it is critical to consider the irradiation contributed by ground and foliage fallout. With the passage of time. The biological efficiency of cytogenic effects varies depending on whether the radiation is external or internal: internal radiation causes greater damage. Diseases of the central nervous system in both children and adults are cause for concern. Increased cardiovascular disease with increased frequency of heart attacks and ischemic disease are evident. First of all. In . the radioactivity was not considered. Declassified documents of that time issued by Soviet Union/Ukraine governmental commissions in regard to the first decade after 1986 contain data on a number of people who were hospitalized with acute radiation sickness. The number is greater by two orders of magnitude than was recently quoted in official documents.

BIOL. GRODZINSKY Chairman. officials have also diverted scientific personnel away from studying the problems caused by Chernobyl. It would be very wrong to neglect the opportunities that are open to us today. DR. Information in this volume shows that these consequences do not decrease. and Russian scientists and physicians gained after the Chernobyl catastrophe. but. The main conclusion of the book is that it is impossible and wrong “to forget Chernobyl. Ukrainian National Commission on Radiation Protection . Rapid progress in biology and medicine is a source of hope in finding ways to prevent many diseases caused by exposure to chronic nuclear radiation. We must hope and trust that this will happen. even liquidating government bodies that were in charge of the “affairs of Chernobyl. Department of General Biology.” Over the next several future generations the health of people and of nature will continue to be adversely impacted. PROF. DIMITRO M. Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences. Belarussian. The present volume probably provides the largest and most complete collection of data concerning the negative consequences of Chernobyl on the health of people and on the environment. are increasing and will continue to do so into the future. Chairman.” Under pressure from the nuclear lobby.Grodzinsky: Foreword ix fact. and this research will advance much more quickly if it is carried out against the background of experience that Ukrainian. their reactions include almost complete refusal to fund medical and biological studies. We must look toward the day that unbiased objectivity will win out and lead to unqualified support for efforts to determine the influence of the Chernobyl catastrophe on the health of people and biodiversity and shape our approach to future technological progress and general moral attitudes. in fact.

Labunska. Sumner (2006). V. Amsterdam. 2006.asp#2007). Volkov (Eds. the report “The Chernobyl Catastrophe–Consequences on Human Health” was published by A. These materials were added to the Chernobyl literature collected over the years by Alexey Yablokov [A. For technical reasons. I. Thus part of this original material was published as “The Health Effects of the Human Victims of the Chernobyl Catastrophe: Collection of Scientific Articles. presented their latest data/publications on the consequences of Chernobyl.” I. Stimulated by the IAEA/WHO “Chernobyl Forum” report. 24 pp. Germany. I.. Berlin.pdf ). Sadownichik.) (Greenpeace. in a brief and systematic form. Yablokov. and many reports with new materials concerning the consequences of the meltdown were published. 235 pp. Ed. the results from researchers who observed and documented the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. Environment and Socio-Economic Impact and Recommendation to the Governments of Belarus. Vienna): 50 pp. Yablokov (2001): Myth of the Insignificance of the Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe (Center for Russian Environmental Policy. www. Labunska.pdf ) (in Russian)]. “Chernobyl Accident’s Consequences: An Estimation and the Forecast of Additional General Mortality and Malignant Diseases” [Center of Independent Ecological Assessment.greenpeace. Blokov (Eds. Moscow): 112 pp. http://www. In our view.) (Greenpeace. with the initiative of Greenpeace International. T. mostly from Belarus. Belarus.to/publications.]. on April 18. Just before the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl catastrophe. Fairly and D. Greenpeace International also collected hundreds of Chernobyl publications and doctoral theses. Switzerland. the need for such an analysis became especially important after September 2005 when the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) presented and widely advertised “The Chernobyl Forum” report [IAEA (2006). 2007. (IAEA.CHERNOBYL Preface The principal idea behind this volume is to present. x . and I.org/international/press/reports/chernobylhealthreport). the Russian Federation and Ukraine 2nd Rev.ru/programs/atomsafe/books/mif_3. 90 pp. 137 pp.iaea. Ukraine.seu. In 2006 multiple conferences were convened in Ukraine. and Russian Greenpeace Council (2006). Russian Academy of Science.] because it lacked sufficiently detailed facts concerning the consequences of the disaster (http://www. and other countries devoted to the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl catastrophe. Among them: • • “The Other Report on Chernobyl (TORCH)” [I. Amsterdam. and Russia (see the list below).greenpeace. 2006. it was not possible to include all of the above-mentioned material in that book.].org/Publications/Booklets/Chernobyl/chernobyl. (//www.. and I. and before the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl catastrophe. many experts. The Chernobyl Legacy: Health. Moscow. the United States. Blokov. Russia.

The authors of the separate parts of this volume are: • • • Chapter I: Cherbobyl Contamination: An Overview—A.).php?news id=614&p=1. Aberystwyth.pdf. Materials of the International Scientific and Practical Conference. Watermann (Eds. . Green Audit. Busby and A. Moscow. V.) (2006). Moscow. Yablokov.]. especially numerous for “Children of Chernobyl” and for the Chernobyl Cleanup Workers (“Liquidators so called”) organizations. memoirs. Twenty Years of Chernobyl Catastrophe: Results and Perspective on Efforts to Overcome Its Consequences in Russia. 1986–2006. For example in GOOGLE there are 14. HOLTEH Kiev. Twenty Years after the Chernobyl Catastrophe: Consequences in Belarus and Overcoming the Obstacles. Ministry of Emergencies. Nesterenko.ru/upload/File/conferencebook_2006. The list of the literature incorporated into the present volume includes about 1. Agenda Verlag. u “Health Effects of Chernobyl: 20 Years after the Reactor Catastrophe” [S. National Ukrainian Report (2006).000 titles and reflects more than 5. 76 pp. S. At the same time the IAEA/WHO “Chernobyl Forum” Report (2005). (Eds. & Bol’shov. Belarus Publishers. 92 pp. (in Russian).). 1. The Chernobyl Digest—scientific abstract collections—was published in Minsk with the participation of many Byelorussian and Russian scientific institutes and includes several thousand annotated publications dating to 1990. photos. Chapter II: Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe for Public Health—A. Chernobyl. The scientific literature on the consequences of the catastrophe now includes more than 30. 305 pp. the authors apologize in advance to those colleagues whose papers addressing the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe are not mentioned in this review—to list all papers is physically impossible. Braun. 112 pp. V. & Gurachevsky. German IPPNW. Minsk. Ukraine. Twenty Years of Chernobyl Catastrophe: Future Outlook. Nesterenko. maps. vol.ecopolicy. Chapter III: Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe for the Environment— A. Yablokov and V.ua/news show.Yablokov & Nesterenko: Preface • xi • • • • • • • Chernobyl: 20 Years On.. in YANDEX. http://www. B. Shevchyuk. There are many special Chernobyl Internet portals. B. www. E. V. Pflugbeil et al.) (2006). Yablokov. A. mainly in Slavic languages.87 million. www. R. and in RAMBLER. L. C. However. 2006. Kiev.tesec-int. V. and U. 1. and A. (Eds.].org/T1. (2006).V. Nesterenko. (in Russian). primarily in Slavic languages. National Russian Report (2006).pdf]. (in Russian). Yablokov (Eds. 217 pp. Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident [C. Twenty Years after the Chernobyl Accident: Future Outlook [Contributed Papers to International Conference. V.mns. Twenty Years of Chernobyl Catastrophe: Ecological and Sociological Lessons.000 printed and Internet publications.000 publications. European Committee on Radiation Risk. advertised by WHO and IAEA as “the fullest and objective review” of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. 2006. National Belarussian Report (2006). K. mentions only 350 mainly English publications. V.gov. etc. Shoigu.5 million. M¨ nster. Myth and Truth [A. V. Millions of documents/materials exist in various Internet information systems—descriptions. April 24–26. L. Kiev. Berlin.25 million citations. 1–3. Yablokov. 250 pp. June 5. 20 Years After.].

In spite of a vast amount of material. The structure of this volume is as follows: Chapter I provides an estimate of the level and character of radioactive contamination released from the Chernobyl accident. V. and European Russia. the largest technological catastrophe in history. Such expressions as “distribution of diseases in territory.ru or . For comments and offers for a subsequent edition we ask you to address information to: Alexey Vladimirovich Yablokov. and A. 2. B. Leninsky Prospect 33. during the first weeks and months of the catastrophe practically all territories of Belarus. . The words “Chernobyl contamination. Specific facts are presented in the form that has long been accepted by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR)— itemized by numbered paragraphs. Nesterenko. 1986 and continued thereafter. 5. V. Ukraine. The volume comes to an end with general conclusions and an index (available online only).” mean occurrence of diseases in the population of the specified territory. The expressions “weak. Levels (amount) of contamination are expressed as in the original papers— either in Curies per square kilometer (Ci/km2 ) or in Bequerels per square meter (Bq/m2 ). However. The final text was coordinated by all authors and expresses their common viewpoint. Chapter II analyzes the public health consequences of the catastrophe. Chapter III documents the consequences for the environment.” “contaminated territories. The term “clean territory” is a conventional one. and Europe and most of the Northern Hemisphere were to some extent contaminated by the Chernobyl radionuclide fallout. Russia. however. Some important editorial remarks: 1.xii • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Chapter IV: Radiation Protection after the Chernobyl Catastrophe—A. Yablokov@ecopolicy. Nesterenko. 5–15 Ci/km2 (185–555 kBq/m2 ). and Russia. 1–5 Ci/km2 (37–185 kBq/m2 ). The word “catastrophe” means the release of numerous radionuclides into the atmosphere and underground water as a result of the explosion of the fourth reactor at the Chernobyl nuclear power station (Ukraine). Ukraine. 4. it is necessary for humankind to deal with the consequences of this.” “low. Yablokov. affecting primarily the Northern Hemisphere. and 15–40 Ci/km2 (555–1480 kBq/m2 ). which started on April 26. and so these data are presented. Russian Academy of Sciences. . the current information is not comprehensive because new studies are continually being released. 3. 6.” “contamination. V.” and “Chernobyl territories” mean the radioactive contamination caused by radionuclide fallout as a result of the Chernobyl catastrophe. Chapter IV discusses measures for minimizing the Chernobyl consequences for Belarus. 119071 Moscow.” and “high” (“heavy”) radioactive contamination usually indicate a comparison among officially designated different levels of radioactive contamination in the territories: less than 1 Ci/km2 (<37 kBq/m2 ). Office 319.

js@verizon. 27. YABLOKOV . 2-nd Marusinsky Street. Sherman-Nevinger. USA. VA 22303.ru or Janette D. Western Michigan University. He was a great person who. anester@mail. Alexandria. YABLOKOV AND VASSILY B. Contact: P. NESTERENKO This book had been nearly completed when Prof. 2008. Vassily Nesterenko passed away on August 23.Yablokov & Nesterenko: Preface xiii Alexey Vassil’evich Nesterenko. Belarus. 220053. toxdoc. ALEXEY V. Kalamazoo.O.net ALEXEY V. like Andrey Sakharov. Institute of Radiation Safety (BELRAD). Environmental Institute. stopped his own bright professional nuclear career as the general design engineer of the Soviet Union’s mobile nuclear power plant “Pamir” and director of Belarussian Nuclear Center to devote his life’s efforts to the protection of humankind from Chernobyl’s radioactive dangers. Michigan. Box 4605. Minsk.

Elena B.. Yury Izrael. Peter Hill. Ukraine. Ol’ga Horishna. Vladimir Gubarev. Rosa Goncharova. We are sincerely grateful to all of them as well as to many others who aided us in the preparation of this book. Valery Mentshykov. Igor Reformatsky. Ivan Blokov. Vladimir Remez. This English edition would have been impossible without Dr. Anatoly Tsyb. Iryna Pelevyna. and Inge Schmits-Feuerhake (Germany).G. Vladimir M. Dmitry Lazjuk. Sebastian Pflugbeil. primarily from Ukraine. Joe Mangano. which have been widely used (see below). Dmitry Schepotkin. Lyudmyla Kovalevskaja. Arabskaya. Vytaly Mezhzherin. Michail Malko.P. Forty-nine researchers. Svetlana Revina. including (by alphabetical order in each country): Rashid Alymov. Jay Gould. Academy of Medical Sciences. Research Center for Radiation Medicine. Richard Bramhall and Chris Busby (England). Grodzinsky (Kiev) for reviewing the manuscript.. Elena Mokeeva. Michael Ferne. Svetlana Aleksievich. Igor Gudkov. and Bronislav Pshenichnykov (Ukraine). who tirelessly scientifically edited our very rough translation. Dimitro M. Nikolay Bochkov. Tatyana Belookaya. Zakharov. Vladimir Tchertkov. Elena Klymets. Dmitry Rybakov. Alison Katz. Tatyana Murza. Eugenia Najdich. Michael Mariotte. Nykolay Karpan. Leonid Tymonin. and Vladimir P. Vladymir Borejko. Alexander Nikitin. Alexander Glushchenko. Obstetrics and Gynecology. Zakharov (Russia). and Karl Grossman. Galina Talalaeva. Galyna Klevezal’. xiv . Lyudmyla Komogortseva. Burlakova (Moscow) and Prof. Kiev. Obstetrics and Gynecology. and RADNET (USA). Institute of Pediatrics. Rosalia Bertel (Canada). Svetlana Davydova. Rustem Il’ayzov. Belarus. Ukraine. Igor Chasnikov (Kazakhstan). The following is a list of the experts who provided original material or reviews of specific topics for the first 2006 edition: Antipkin. Institute of Pediatrics. Alexander Bahur.A.. Rimma Filippova. Morozova (Center for Russian Environmental Policy. Konstantin Loganovsky. Arjun Makhijani. Janette ShermanNevinger. Bazyka. Angelina Nyagu. Many individuals helped the authors with information and consultations. Eugen Krysanov. and Alexander Oceanov (Belarus). Vyacheslav Grishin. Vladymir Ivanov. and Russia. Hagen Scherb. Natalia Preobrazhenskaya. D. Sergey Klado. Lydia Popova. Academy of Medical Sciences. Dilbar Klado. Yu. Lym Keisevich (Israel). Kiev. Ernst Sternglass. Mikhail Mina. Grigory Lepin. Alfred Korblein. Special thanks go to Prof.CHERNOBYL Acknowledgments The present book would have been impossible without the help of many experts and activists. Pavlo Fedirko. Christophe Bisson and Anders Moller (France). and Jurg Ulrich (Switzerland). Ida Oradovskaya. Academy of Medical Sciences. Yury Bandazhevsky (Lithuania). provided original material or reviews of specific topics to Greenpeace International. L. Leonid Rikhvanov. and to Julia F. Ukraine. Kiev. Moscow) for inexhaustible patience in putting numerous variants of the text in order and laboriously working with the lists of cited literature. Valery Soyfer. Galina Bandazhevskaja.

V. Kovalenko. Burlakova. E. Belarus. Geranios. “Physicians of Chernobyl” Association.Ye.. Department of Nuclear Physics and Elementary Particles. Research Center for Radiation Medicine.. Research Center for Radiation Medicine. Ukraine. Institute of Pediatrics. M. Fedirko. Kiev. Institute of Experimental Pathology. Research Center for Radiation Medicine. Russian Academy of Sciences. Institute of Oncology. Ukraine. Institute of Radiological Hygiene and Epidemiology. Academy of Medical Sciences. Petersburg.I. Academy of Medical Sciences. Zh. Ukraine. Kiev. Institute of Experimental Pathology. Kiev. G. Academy of Medical Sciences. Kiev. Fedorenko. Kiev. Diomyna. Ukraine. Oncology and Radiobiology. Research Center for Radiation Medicine. N. Joint Institute of Power and Nuclear Research. Kiev... Research Center for Radiation Medicine. Ukraine.A. Loganovsky. . Ukraine.. Okeanov. I.V. Buzunov.F. Mishryna. Ukraine. Belarus.I. National Academy of Sciences. P. V. Academy of Medical Sciences. Academy of Medical Sciences. Kiev.L. Oncology and Radiobiology. Ukraine. Omelyanets. V... National Academy of Sciences.. D. A. Kiev. Ukraine. International Journal of Radiation Medicine. National Academy of Sciences. Ukraine. N. Minsk. Academy of Medical Sciences. Kiev. Druzhyna. Kiev. Cheban. Minsk. Kiev. Sakharov’ International Environment University. M. Moscow. A. G. Greece. Research Center for Radiation Medicine.. Ukraine. Kiev.. Gryshchenko. Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism..Acknowledgments xv Burlak. Research Center for Radiation Medicine. Academy of Medical Sciences. Fuzik. N.K.. Russia. M.. Academy of Medical Sciences. Laboratory of Medical Demography.V. Kiev. M. Institute of Oncology. A.A. Pilinskaya. Ukraine. Nyagu. Oncology and Radiobiology. Ministry of Health of Ukraine. Kiev. Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism... Russia. M.. Malko. Russia. Khudoley. Research Center for Radiation Medicine. Institute of Experimental Pathology. Kiev.V. “Physicians of Chernobyl” Association. St. V. Academy of Medical Sciences.A. Z..E.. Gulak. University of Athens.B. Ukraine.A. Ukraine.. Department of Ecohygienic Investigations of the Radioecological Center.. Academy of Medical Sciences. Kiev. E.. K.V. Institute of Biochemical Physics and Russian Academy of Science. A.. Ukraine. Naboka. Lipskaya. Kiev. Immunology Institute of the Ministry of Public Health.N. Ukraine. Obstetrics and Gynecology. Moscow.A... Academy of Medical Sciences. A. Ukraine. Center of Independent Environmental Expertise.A. E. Ukraine.I. I. Ukraine. Oradovskaya. Academy of Medical Sciences. Dashkevich. Kiev.V. Komissarenko. Kiev. A. Petrov’ Research Institute of Oncology. Ukraine... Kiev.A.

Ukraine. Kiev.. Academy of Medical Sciences. P. .. Wenisch. Shestopalov. Kiev. Serbskiy’ Institute for Social and Forensic Psychiatry... Kiev. Ukraine. V. Tereshchenko. Research Center for Radiation Medicine. Vienna. Moscow. I. E. V. Russian Scientific Center of Roentgenoradiology. Oncology and Radiobiology. Usatenko. Moscow. Ukraine. Sushko. Academy of Medical Sciences. Ukraine. Vdovenko.. Prysyazhnyuk..K. L.I.M. State Scientific Research Center for Preventive Medicine. Kiev..A.. University of Bremen. Austria.A. G. National Academy of Sciences.S. Kiev. Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism.. V. Russian Scientific Radiology Center. Kiev.M. Kiev. Germany. Ukraine. Kiev.. Research Center for Radiation Medicine. Institute of Experimental Pathology. V. Academy of Medical Sciences. A. Zubovsky. Kiev. Academy of Medical Sciences. Kiev. Research Center for Radiation Medicine. Rodionova.P. Research Center for Radiation Medicine.. Skvarskaya. Ukraine. Research Center for Radiation Medicine. Ukraine. K. Serkiz. Austrian Institute of Applied Ecology. National Commission of Radiation Protection of Ukraine. G. V... Moscow.Yu. Oncology and Radiobiology. National Academy of Sciences. Rjazskay. Ukraine.. Moscow. Institute of Experimental Pathology. Surgical Department. Rybakov. Research Center for Radiation Medicine. Ukraine. N. Rymyantseva. O. Slypeyuk. Academy of Medical Sciences. National Academy of Sciences. Stepanova. Academy of Medical Sciences. Kiev. Research Center for Radiation Medicine. A. Oncology and Radiobiology. Sherashov. E. Russia. V. Ukraine. Russia. Tararukhyna. Schmitz-Feuerhake.. Kiev. S.A. National Academy of Sciences. Ukraine.. Russia. Academy of Medical Sciences. Academy of Medical Sciences. Ukraine. Russia.I. Ya. Academy of Medical Sciences..xvi Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Pintchouk. Ukraine.B. V. Department of Physics.. Radioecological Center. Research Center for Radiation Medicine. E.I.S. Institute of Experimental Pathology.. Kiev. Ukraine.B.I. Kiev.

the Third Chernobyl Forum Meeting was held in Vienna. but the estimates vary from 50 × 106 Ci. The questions persist: How many radionuclides spread over the world? How much radiation is still stored inside the sarcophagus. Chernobyl AIDs. the World Health Organization (WHO). the dome that covers the reactor? No one knows for certain. children of Chernobyl. 1181: 1–3 (2009). prior to the 20th anniversary of the catastrophe. Chernobyl dust. Russia. 2006.” the personnel who worked at the site attempting to contain the escaping radiation. Yablokovb a Institute of Radiation Safety (BELRAD). 2006). N. fax: +7-495-952-80-19. a directive from the USSR Ministry of Defense. UNDP.04819. for the latest short version see IAEA. Chernobyl heart. doi: 10.3). Address for correspondence: Alexey V. Yablokov@ecopolicy.1). In April 2005. etc.2009. the explosion of the fourth reactor of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on April 26. Chernobyl has become synonymous with human suffering and has brought new words into our lives—Chernobyl liquidators. Leninsky Prospect 33. to the reactor being essentially empty and more than 10 × 109 Ci dispersed over the globe (Chapter I. the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). and Ukraine. Acad. For the past 23 years it has been clear that there is a danger greater than nuclear weapons concealed within nuclear power.ru Chernobyl: Ann. 119071 Moscow. in our view. Voice: +7-495-952-80-19. Nesterenko.a Vassily B. Office 319. Moscow. and. 2005. mandated secrecy (Chapter II. WHO. and governmental organizations from Belarus. 2002. Belarus b Russian Academy of Sciences. the World Bank. 1989. Russia. Nesterenko. It is not known how many liquidators ultimately took part in the mitigation. One nuclear reactor can pollute half the globe.a and Alexey V. and other individuals from the United Nations. for cowardice on the part of people in public life who were afraid to warn the population of the unimaginable threat to innocent victims.1749-6632. and Chernobyl collar (thyroid disease). The result was a three-volume report presented in September 2005 (IAEA. The Chernobyl catastrophe was the occasion for technological adventurism and heroism on the part of the “liquidators. Yablokov. 1 .CHERNOBYL Introduction: The Difficult Truth about Chernobyl Alexey V.1111/j. or 4–5% of the total radionuclides released from the reactor.x c 2009 New York Academy of Sciences. Forum experts included representatives from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). No citizen of any country can be assured that he or she can be protected from radioactive contamination. Chernobyl fallout covered the entire Northern Hemisphere. Russian Academy of Sciences. 1986 divided life into two parts: before and after. Russia For millions of people on this planet.Y. Chernobyl contamination. Emissions from this one reactor exceeded a hundredfold the radioactive contamination of the bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. dated June 9. Minsk. Sci.

2 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences The basic conclusion of the report’s medical volume is that 9. such as Cs. For the first 4 years after the atomic bombs were dropped on Japan. and others.000 of the . . are more dangerous than the radioactive contamination.” Some 4. Many will die prematurely. as well as their childhood. Sr. They are still suffering. Pu. or to measure the kinds and total amount of radionuclides that a particular individual ingested from food and water. . In the contaminated areas. In the heavily contaminated areas it is difficult to find one healthy child (Chapter II. research was forbidden. the adverse consequences for the health of the people were not as significant as previously thought. (AP. feelings of victimization. Why are the assessments of experts so different? There are several reasons. including that some experts believe that any conclusions about radiation-based disease requires a correlation between an illness and the received dose of radioactivity. Given biological and statistical laws the adverse effects in these areas will be apparent for many generations. some of whom were associated with the nuclear industry. More than 50% of the surface of 13 European countries and 30% of eight other countries have been contaminated by Chernobyl fallout (Chapter I. 2000) No fewer than three billion persons inhabit areas contaminated by Chernobyl’s radionuclides.” Prior to 1985 more than 80% of children in the Chernobyl territories of Belarus. as a result of what happened .6). concerned doctors observed a significant increase in diseases in the contaminated areas and demanded help. We believe it is unreasonable to attribute the increased occurrence of disease in the contaminated territories to screening or socioeconomic factors because the only variable is radioactive loading. which are widespread among the population of the contaminated areas. An opposing position was voiced by Secretary-General Kofi Annan: Chernobyl is a word we would all like to erase from our memory. Ukraine. During that time more than 100. cataracts were increasingly seen in liquidators and children. their future life will be deformed by it. as was done for those exposed at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. today fewer than 20% are well. Initial levels could have been a thousand times higher than the ones ultimately measured several weeks and months later. But more than seven million of our fellow human beings do not have the luxury of forgetting.4). concluded that as a whole. but given the background of spontaneous cancers. The experts involved with the nuclear industry and highly placed tribunals declared that there is no “statistically authentic” proof of Chernobyl radiation. and European Russia were healthy.000 victims died or developed radiogenic cancers. But three million children demanding treatment until 2016 and earlier represents the number of those who can be seriously ill .000 children were operated on for thyroid cancer. especially during intrauterine development (Chapter II. . but in the 10 years immediately following the catastrophe. and fatalism. official documents recognized that the number of thyroid cancers grew “unexpectedly. Some believe that poverty. It is also impossible to calculate variable and “hot spot” deposition of nuclides or to measure the contribution of all of the isotopes. .1). Among the terrible consequences of Chernobyl radiation are malignant neoplasms and brain damage. “it will be difficult to determine the exact cause of the deaths. A second reason is that some experts believe the only way to make conclusions is to calculate the effect of radiation based upon the total radiation. We believe this is an impossibility because no measurements were taken in the first few days. everyday. Those experts. I. The exact number of victims can never be known. Soon after the catastrophe.

3). This volume is an attempt to determine and document the true scale of the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. The Chernobyl Legacy: Health. the Russian Federation and Ukraine. all data were classified for the first 3 years (Chapter II.3). WHO (2006). Environmental Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident and Their Remediation: Twenty Years of Experience. Repacholi & Zh.104/ search?q=cache: EN91goYTe_gJ: www. New York): 75 pp.135.” B.org/english/docs/Strategy%20for%20Recovery.scorched3d. .18&gl&equals. Edn. Worst effects of Chernobyl to come.209. Vienna): 280 pp. (//www. UNDP (2002). Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group “Environment” (EGE) August 2005 (IAEA. (//www-pub.pdf).undp.who.) (WHO. IAEA (2006). M. Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident and Special Health Care Programmes. Environment and Socio-Economic Impact and Recommendations to the Governments of Belarus. (//www.org/publications/booklets/Chernobyl/Chernobyl.iaea.ru). However. Carr (Eds.Introduction 3 weakest died. the USSR authorities officially forbade doctors from connecting diseases with radiation and. The Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident: A Strategy for Recovery.chernobyl. A Report Commissioned by UNDP and UNICEF with the Support of UN-OCHA and WHO (UNDP. Geneva): 167 pp. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group “Health. (IAEA.iaea. like the Japanese experience. (//www.php%3Ff%3D12% 26t%3D5256%26st%3D0%26sk%3Dt%26sd%3Da+Kofi+Annan+million+children+demanding+ treatment+Chernobyl+2016&hl=ru&ct&equals. Associated Press 25 April 2000 (//www. social. Bennett. 2nd Rev.pdf).pdf).int/ionizing_radiation/chernobyl/WHO%20Report%20on% 20Chernobyl%20Health%20Effects%20July%2006.clnk&cd&equals.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1239_web. A similar pattern emerged after Chernobyl. and such comparisons have unequivocally attributed differences in health outcomes to Chernobyl fallout (Chapter II.uk/phpBB3/viewtopic. IAEA (2005). Vienna): 50 pp. It is scientifically valid to compare specific groups over time (a longitudinal study). References AP (2000). and economic characteristics and differ only in the intensity of their exposure to radiation.85. In independent investigations scientists have compared the health of individuals in various territories that are identical in terms of ethnic.co.pdf).

Sci. Minsk. 1181: 4–30 (2009). Chernobyl Contamination: An Overview Vassily B. Nesterenkoa and Alexey V. doi: 10. Moscow.Y. Yablokovb a Institute of Radiation Safety (BELRAD).1111/j.CHERNOBYL Chapter I. N.2009. radioactive contamination.04820.x C 2009 New York Academy of Sciences. Northern Hemisphere Chernobyl: Ann. Russia Key words: Chernobyl.1749-6632. Belarus b Russian Academy of Sciences. lead contamination. 4 . Acad.

and it is critical to be aware of the fact that there continue to be emissions. Radioactive Contamination Immediately after the explosion. leaving deposits of radionuclides and radioactive debris.2. 1. Office 319. There has been some dispute over the years as to the volume of radionuclides released when reactor number four of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) exploded. nor does it provide exact calculations of received doses (see Chapter II.000 m and spread around the globe. a quantity hundreds of times larger than the fallout from the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. and even now. There is no reasonable explanation for the fact that the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization (Chernobyl Forum. Ukraine. primarily in the Northern Hemisphere (Figure 1. Nearly 5 million people (including. fax: +7-495-952-80-19. Georgia. Claims that the Chernobyl radioactive fallout adds “only 2%” to the global radioactive background overshadows the fact that many affected territories had previously dangerously high levels of radiation. 1. Russian Academy of Sciences. many articles report levels of radioactivity calculated by the density of the contamination—Ci/km2 (Bq/m2 ). China). Sweden. Nesterenko Radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl meltdown spread over 40% of Europe (including Austria. Iceland. Greece. Slovenia) and wide territories in Asia (including Turkey.500 and 10. Clouds of radiation reached heights between 1. and European Russia. was many hundreds of millions of curies. attempts began to reconstruct the radioactive fallout picture to determine radioactive fallout distribution levels using hydrometeorological data (wind direction. Geographical Features of Contamination Immediately after the NPP explosion.2). and European Russia. as shown below. Armenia. Norway. which received more than 50% of the Chernobyl radionuclides. Yablokov. and North America. Voice: +7-495-952-80-19. Great Britain. France. That release. Switzerland. 119071 Moscow.11 Ci/km2 ) from April to July 1986. more than 1 million children) still live with dangerous levels of radioactive contamination in Belarus. While these levels form a basis for further calculations of collective and individual doses.1). To fully understand the consequences of Chernobyl it is necessary to appreciate the scale of the disaster. Romania. Ukraine. etc. northern Africa. Italy. even without taking the gaseous radionuclides into account. Emirates. rainfall. Leninsky Prospect 33. Even if the current level is low.CHERNOBYL 1.) for each Address for correspondence: Alexey V.ru 5 . 2005) have completely neglected the consequences of radioactive contamination in other countries.1. such an approach is not completely valid as it does not take into account either the ecological or the physical aspects of radioactive contamination. Nearly 400 million people resided in territories that were contaminated with radioactivity at a level higher than 4 kBq/m2 (0. Yablokov@ ecopolicy. Finland. Yablokov and Vassily B. Chernobyl Contamination through Time and Space Alexey V. Germany. and addressed concerns only in Belarus. Russia. there was high irradiation in the first days and weeks after the Chernobyl catastrophe.

2006).. 0. Geographic distribution of Chernobyl radionuclides around the globe is shown in Figure 1.6 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences tled outside of Belarus. and “hot particles” (see below) widely dispersed across Europe in the first weeks and months following the explosion: Cs-134.4). Sr-90.2).. but there were significant quantities of many other radionuclides in the form of gases. e. The daily emissions formed several radioactive clouds. . For example. Geographic distribution of Chernobyl radionuclides (UNSCEAR. UNSCEAR.3. 1. I-131. 2000. then the proportional distribution Figure 1.2. U.7 is a reconstruction of only one of the Chernobyl clouds (corresponding to No.. Borzylov. Ukraine. We do not have accurate instrumental data for Chernobyl radionuclide contamination for all of Europe. and European Russia (Figure 1.1). Figure 1.2 refer only to the distribution of Cs-137. 1986.S. 1.2. From April 26 through May 5. Izrael. Spatial distribution of Chernobyl radionuclides in the Northern Hemisphere 10 days after the explosion. without exception (Table 1. cc. If the distribution of radioactivity for Cs-134 and Cs-137 corresponds to their ratio in emissions (i. 1995). Sr-90. The effective doses in May 1986 for Chernobyl radionuclides in England were: Cs-134 and Cs-137. Europe According to other data (Fairlie and Sumner.6.6).9 mSv (Smith et al. 48 and 85 PBq. It is clear that most of the gaseous–aerosol radionuclides set- Figure 1. so the radioactive emissions from the mix of radionuclides varied from day to day and covered an enormous territory (Figures 1. Fairlie and Sumner. and radioactive gases from the destroyed reactor (see. and 1. Table 1.5. (2000). 2 on Figure 1. and I-132. 1992).g. Calculated data (averaged for 1 km2 ) were published only for Cs-137 and Pu. subsequent day and include emissions of fuel particles. 27 mSv. and each such cloud had its own radionuclide composition and geography. or 36 and 64%.2. aerosols. The data in Table 1. table 3. 1991.1. respectively). aerosol particles. the winds around Chernobyl varied by 360◦ .e.1. Te-132. in May 1986 in Wales and in the Cumbria area of England rainwater contained up to 345 Bq/liter of I-132 and 150 Bq/liter Cs134 (Busby. 1990. Livermore National Laboratory modeling (Lange et al. 1988). 48 & 49) Europe received from about 68 to 89% of the gaseous–aerosol radionuclides from the Chernobyl clouds in a distribution that was extremely nonuniform. 2006.4. while Cs-137 contaminated all of the European countries. 6 mSv. It is important to understand that radionuclide emissions from the burning reactor continued until the middle of May. I-131.

Table 3.7 136. and Te-132 radioisotope fallout covered the entire country (Figures 1. A maximum level of I-131 contamination of 600 Ci/km2 was measured in the Svetlovichi village in Gomel Province in May 1986. .0 28. Tsalko.6 17. Belarus If the proportional distribution of Chernobyl radionuclides in England is similar to that of other European countries (i. 2006..2. For example. 2006).7 100 PBq 70a 39 24 3. Some 23% of the area of Belarus (47.6 17.1. 11 in Scotland. one can assume that the total amount of radioactive fallout in Europe is nearly 137 PBq: % 51. Chernobyl radioactive fallout in the Northern Hemisphere (Livermore National Laboratory data from Yablokov et al.7 100 Cs-137 Cs-134 I-131 Sr-90 Total Twenty years after the Chernobyl catastrophe. 70 PBq Cs-137 made up 51% of all the radionuclide fallout). in 2006.100 km2 (Figure 1. pasturing more than 200.000 km2 ) was contaminated by Cs-137 at a level higher than 1 Ci/km2 (Nesterenko. many areas in Europe remain contaminated.2.10).7 2.3 9.3. Practically the entire country of Belarus was covered by the Chernobyl cloud.Yablokov & Nesterenko: Contamination through Time and Space 7 Figure 1..7 Cs-137 Cs-134 I-131 Sr-90 Total a See Table 1. according to Great Britain’s Ministry of Health 355 farms in Wales.000 sheep.8 through 1. 2005).9 33.. 1. 2006).0 28.12). of the main Chernobyl radionuclides in England should be as follows [Dreicer et al. Until 2004. I-131.7 6.9 % 51. Fairlie and Sumner.0 0. and 9 in England. continue to be dangerously contaminated with Cs-137 (McSmith.8(i)]: mSv 17. the density of Cs137 contamination exceeded 37 kBq/m2 in 41.e.1. I-132. 1996. 1996.7 2.

exceeding the precatastrophe level by a factor of 3. 12. 1986: (1) April 26. (4) April 29. Fairlie and Sumner. 12. . 2000 34 (33) 34 (33) 33 (32) No No 100 (98) 47 (40) 60 (45) No No No 100 (85) Maximum levels of Cs-137 contamination were 475 Ci/km2 in the village of Zales’ye. 1988. Ukraine.6. (6) May 4. 2002). 0 hours. % (PBq) (Fairlie and Sumner.39 8 6 0. Mogilev District. 1987. Contamination from Sr-90 has a more local character than that of Cs-137. Estimations of a Geographic Distribution of Chernobyl’s Cs-137. 41 (29) 37 (26) 21 (15) No No 100 (70) UNSCEAR. Braginsk District. 48–49) UNSCEAR.00 hours.402 kBq/m2 or 145 Ci/km2 . (5) May 2. 0 hours (Greenwich time). 2006: table 3. pp.4. and 500 Ci/km2 in the village of Dovliady and the Narovlja District of Gomel Province. 0 hours. Fairlie and Sumner. (2) April 27. 48 Belarus. covering an Figure 1. p. 2006.500 (Il’yazov. The maximum radioactive contamination in the soil found in 1993 in the village of Tchudyany. 0 hours. Six stages of formation of radioactive gaseous–aerosol emissions from Chernobyl from April 26 to May 4. was 5.8 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 1. Some 10% of the area of Belarus has levels of Sr-90 soil contamination above 5.5 kBq/m2 .00 hours (Borzylov. 2006. 1991). (3) April 27. Shading indicates the main areas of the radionuclide fallout.1. European Russia Other European countries Asia Africa America <50 .6 100 Goldman.

An alternative version of radioactive gaseous–aerosol distribution over Europe from April 26 to May 6.000 km2 of agricultural land or 22% of Belarus farmland is heavily contaminated. Pu-239.37 kBq/m2 was found in 4.000 km2 .100 km2 (Figure 1.12). and Pu-240 at levels higher than 0. As a whole. 2006. Of that. Soil contaminated by Pu-238. 2006).11). or nearly 2% of the country (Kono- plya et al. Figure 1. more than 18.5.640 km2 cannot be used . area of 21..Yablokov & Nesterenko: Contamination through Time and Space 9 Figure 1. 1986 (National Belarussian Report. an area of 2.

Portugal. Official Service Central de Protection Contre les Radiations Ionisantes initially denied that the radioactive cloud had passed over France. 1998). 1986. especially the alpine regions.6.13).2.2.10 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 1. Chernobyl fallout clouds over southern Finland reached peak concentrations between 15:10 and 22:10 hours on April 28. Some of the main areas of Europe contaminated at a level higher than 1 Ci/km2 by Cs-137 as a result of the Chernobyl catastrophe. 1998). 1. some additional comments follow. 3. for agriculture and the 1. 2.1.1. European Russia Until 1992 contamination in European Russia was found in parts of 19 Russian provinces (Table 1. so consideration must be given to serious contamination in the Asian part of Russia as well. 1.2. were . 1. 1..2. with Cs-137 levels higher than 1 Ci/km2 in 4. Yugoslavia.3.300-km2 Polessk state radioactive reserve near the Chernobyl NPP is forever excluded from any economic activity owing to contamination by long half-life isotopes. 1986. and Sicily were not surveyed at all (Cort and Tsaturov. Turkey was surveyed only in part and Bulgaria. FINLAND.8% of the country (Figure 1.4.2. Other European Countries The level of Chernobyl’s Cs-137 contamination in each European country is shown in Table 1.3). BULGARIA.1. Ukraine Chernobyl radionuclides have contaminated more than a quarter of Ukraine. There were two peaks of fallout: May 1 and 9 (Pourchet et al. FRANCE. This is contrary to the finding that a significant part of the country. The primary Chernobyl radionuclides reached Bulgaria on May 1–10. Iceland.

80 − 4.2 (32) 0. remaining from nuclear weapons tests before the 1970s.66 1.2 0.21 (5.8) 0.83) 0.9 (79) 2. c Without Yugoslavia.8 5. GERMANY. Fairlie and Sumner.7 1.86 2. Without Sicily. 2006d 29 15 13 3.95 3.055 (1. Greece reported significant fallout of several Chernobyl radionuclides . 5.63 0.40 (11) 0.016 (0.57 (15)b 0.3) ? 2.1) 0.5) Portion (%) Country Russiaa Belarus Ukraine Finland Yugoslavia Sweden Norway Bulgaria Austria Romania Germany Greece Italy Great Britain Poland Czech Republic France Moldova Slovenia Albania Switzerland Lithuania Ireland Croatia Slovakia Hungary Turkeya Latvia Estonia Spain Denmark Belgium The Netherlands Luxembourg Europe as a whole a b PBq (kCi) Cort and Tsaturov.4) 0.10 (2.Yablokov & Nesterenko: Contamination through Time and Space 11 TABLE 1.02 <0.35 0.95 0.5 (41) 1.75 2.4 and 3.93 0.10 1.28 0.0 18.53 14. 1986 (see Figure 1.8 2.4 0.83 0.4) 0.10 0.33 0.09 0.16 0.39 0.26) 0.43 0.031 (0.39 0.36 0.43 0.60 3.09 0. and Iceland.1 (8.6) 0.34 (9.1. 1998c 29.54 0.2) 0.8e Cort and Tsaturov.2.16 0. d Without Portugal and Iceland.1 1.01 100.051 (1.39 0.9 0. 1988).40 0. 1998c 19 (520) 15 (400) 12 (310) 3.26) 0.44 0.80 1.32 0. Portugal.52 − 0.3) 0.27 (7.5 2.05 0.003 (0.98 2.88 1.10 0.9) ? 0.69 (19) 0.43) 0.44 0.24 0.0 (53) ? 1.21 (5.5).33 0.6 (42) 1.53 (14) 0.02 0.15 (4. Bulgaria. GREECE.5 2.01 100.38 0. Cs-137 Contamination of European Countries from Chernobyl (Cort and Tsaturov.24 (6.28 0.53 0.02 0.18 0.33 (8.98 1.0 Fairlie and Sumner.90 0.01 90.06 0. 1998: table III.07 0.01 (0.5) 0. The scale of Chernobyl’s contamination in Germany is reflected in the fact that several shipments of powdered milk to Africa were returned to West Germany because they were dangerously contaminated with radiation (Brooke.40 2.38 0.37 0.33 4.35 0. 2006: tables 3.32 0.0 4. 4. contaminated on April 29 and 30.01 (0.25 0.18 (47) 0.08 0.18 0.8) 0.40 0.97 1.6 0. Albania.44 0.34 (93) 0.19 5.05 1.4 3.02 0.40 1.02 0.08) 64 (1700)c Fairlie and Sumner.93 0.96 16.31 2.48 0. 2006d 31.55 0.06 0.5) 0.05 0.35 (9.40 0.35 0.7 23.0 European Russia.42 0.10 − 2. e Includes nearly 20 PBq Cs-137.2 0.

1 below) is important.. Patterns of fallout related to local weather conditions: Cs-137 dominated on the coast of southern Norrland. The main plume passed over Poland around April 30. SWEDEN. Some 97% of the total deposition in Italy occurred between April 30 and May 7 (Spezzano and Giacomelli. In June 1987.. with Te-122 as the primary radionuclide. including: Ag-110 m. 7. 1986. and Scotland (Boccolini et al.12 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 1. Cs-137. 1986. 1990). The path of one Chernobyl radioactive cloud across Europe from April 27 to early May 1986 (Pakumeika and Matveenka. 1986. but it is also evidence of the inadequacy of the available data relevant to Chernobyl contamination: where are comparable data about radioactive Ag-110 m contamination in other countries? Do data not exist because no one has compiled it or because this radioactive Ag contaminated only Greece. Italy. 1988)? 6. There were several radioactive plumes. 1986. 1996). I131 in the north and south. but the main Chernobyl fallout cloud passed over northern Italy on May 5.. The peak concentration of Cs137 in air occurred on April 28. 9. 8. The main radioactive plume passed Scotland between 21:00 and 23:00 hours on May 3. and Te-132 in the . Numerous “hot particles” were detected with a prevalence of Ru-103 and Ru-106 (Broda. 1988a. 1986. with the largest concentrations of Te-132. Noting unusual contamination (see Section 1. 1987). Martin et al. a 1. 1987).7. but 99% of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides were deposited in Sweden during a single period of rain on May 8. I-132. 1988. and Sb-125 (Papastefanou et al.600-ton shipment of powdered milk from Poland to Bangladesh showed unacceptably high levels of radioactivity (Mydans. and I-131 (Martin et al. 1988). SCOTLAND..4. see Figure 1. ITALY. POLAND.b.16).

9. 2006). Figure 1.Yablokov & Nesterenko: Contamination through Time and Space 13 Figure 1. 2005).8. Reconstruction of Te-132 and I-132 contamination of Belarus from April to May 1986 (Zhuravkov and Myronov. Reconstruction of I-131 contamination of Belarus for May 10. . 1986 (National Belarussian Report.

with the highest level in northwestern Japan and a maximum concentration on May 5. Asia Up to 10% of all the Chernobyl radionuclides fell on Asia. JAPAN. 1. and that figure was twice as high in East Georgia. 1989. 1989). Sanderson and Scott. Fisheries and Food (RADNET. Imanaka and Koide. central Upland area (Kresten and Chyssler. 1987). 1988. 1986). and the Asian part of Turkey were highly contaminated. most powerful emissions on the first days of the catastrophe. Mellander. 1999. Chernobyl-derived stratospheric fallout continued until the end of 1988 (Higuchi et al. Figure 1. Official reports grossly underestimated the Chernobyl-derived fallout and its radiological impact on the United Kingdom. 2006). some tens of PBq of the first. Reconstruction of contamination of territory of Belarus by Cs-137 for May 10. UNITED KINGDOM. 1. TRANS-CAUCASUS. 1987). The main radioactive fallout occurred on May 3–5. Far East). Cs-137 deposition in Cumbria was up to 40 times higher than originally reported by the Ministry of Agriculture. 2006. 1986 (National Belarussian Report. 2001) and in Japan (Imanaka. Western Georgia was especially heavily contaminated.14 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 1. Twenty Chernobyl radionuclides were detected in two plumes in early and late May 1986. 2. YUGOSLAVIA. 1988. East and Central China (Figure 1.2. .500 Bq/kg (Chankseliany. The average soil radioactivity due to Cs-137 from 1995 to 2005 was 530 Bq/kg. 10.. 2008.14). including. basically.. The combined activity of Cs-137 and Sr-90 reached 1. 11. Huge ar- eas of Asian Russia (Siberia. 2006). Mattson and Vesanen. 1986 (Juznic and Fedina.10.14). Chernobyl fallout was noted in central Asia (Imamniyazova. Chankseliany et al.2.

Idaho. New Jersey. Cs136. Iran. Mn-54. La-140. Ru-106. The Chernobyl plumes crossed the Arctic within the lower troposphere and the Pacific Ocean within the mid-troposphere. respectively. An Associated Press release on May 15. and other states (Table 1. Ru-103. Co-60. Trans-Caucasia. Ce-141. central. Ce-141.2. Sr-90 contamination of Belarus at the beginning of 2005 (National Belarussian Report. Ru-106. 1988). CANADA.11. 2. China. Zr-95. 1. Ba-140.Yablokov & Nesterenko: Contamination through Time and Space 15 Figure 1. New York. Cs-137. By the official “Environmental Radioactivity in Canada” report for 1986 (RADNET. most powerful explosion. UNITED STATES. and Afghanistan). Ce-144. I-132. and that of May 25 and 26 via the Pacific (Roy et al.3. 2006). Some 1% of all Chernobyl radionuclides—nearly several PBq—fell on North America. Hawaii. 1.4). Cs-134. continuing until the present time. and Cs-137 were consistently measurable until about mid-June. Chernobyl isotopes of Ru-103. Zn-65.” . Ce-144. 1986. and Zr-95 were detected in Alaska. The fallout of May 6 and 14 arrived via the Arctic. Nb-95. Cs-134.. Mo-95. Zr95. which lifted a cloud of radionuclides to a height of more than 10 km. There were three waves of Chernobyl airborne radioactivity over eastern Canada composed of: Be-7. and Cs-137. Fe-59. La-140. and the Persian Gulf area. Oregon. Ru-106. North America Areas in North America were contaminated from the first. Iraq. noted “Officials in Oregon have warned that those who use rainwater for drinking should use other sources of water for some time. 2008) Chernobyl Ru-103. and middle Asia (including Turkey. Ba-140. I-131. Florida. There is still a high probability of small but dangerously radioactive areas in the Caucasus. lower.

2.3. 1998). 2000).4. Northern Africa Radionuclide fallout in northern Africa came from the most powerful emissions on the first day of the catastrophe and that area has been subject to more than 5% of all Chernobyl releases—up to 20 PBq. Estimates of Primary Chernobyl Radionuclide Emissions The official view was that the total radionuclide emissions calculated for May 6.12.2. 1. Arctic Regions A high level of Chernobyl contamination is found in Arctic regions. The moss Racomitrium on Franz Josef Land contained up to 630 Bq/kg (dry weight) of Cs-137 of which 548 Bq/kg (87%) came from the Chernobyl fallout (Rissanen et al.16 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 1. Southern Hemisphere In the Southern Hemisphere Cs-137 and Cs134 from Chernobyl have been found on Reunion Island in the Indian Ocean and on Tahiti in the Pacific. 1. 2006). The Cs-137 to Pu-239/Pu-240 ratio in accumulated Nile River sediment is evi- dence of significant Chernobyl contamination (Benninger et al. 1.2.5. 1.. The greatest concentration of Cs-137 in the Antarctic was found near the South Pole in snow that fell from 1987 to 1988 (UNSCEAR. the .6. EGYPT. 1986. Transuranic radionuclide contamination of Belarus in 2005 (National Belarussian Report. 1.. 1999).

Yablokov & Nesterenko: Contamination through Time and Space

17

Figure 1.13. Contamination of Ukraine [Cs-137 (above) and Pu (below)] as a result of the Chernobyl catastrophe (National Report of Ukraine, 2006).

time when most of the short-lived radionuclides had decayed, was 50 × 106 Ci or 1.85 × 1018 Bq (Izrael, 1990, 1996). It was estimated that 3–4% of the fuel from the moment of meltdown (i.e., from 190.3 tons) was blown out of the reactor, a serious underestimation. Emissions continued after May 6, with intensity decreasing over 10 days until the graphite lining of the reactor stopped burning. Emission of radioactive

substances into the atmosphere was prolonged. UNSCEAR (2000) estimated that the total activity of ejected radionuclides was 1.2 × 1019 Bq, including 1.2–1.7× 1018 Bq of I-131 and 3.7 × 1016 Bq of Cs-137. UNSCEAR reports (1988, 2000) contain data (comparable with emissions of I-131) about an enormous volume of emissions of Te-132 (half-life 78 h and decaying into

18 TABLE 1.3. Radioactive Contamination of European Russia (≥1 Ci/km2 ) as a Result of the Chernobyl Catastrophe (Yaroshinskaya, 1996) Province Tula Bryansk Oryol Ryazan Kursk Penza Kaluga Belgorod Lipetsk Ulyanovsk Voronezh Leningrad Mordova Tambov Tatarstan Saratov Nizhniy Novgorod Chuvashiya Smolensk Total Contaminated area, 1 × 103 km2 11.5 11.7 8.4 5.4 1.4 3.9 4.8 1.6 1.6 1.1 1.7 1.2 1.9 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 56.0 Population, 103 936.2 476.5 346.7 199.6 140.0 130.6 95.0 77.8 71.0 58.0 40.4 19.6 18.0 16.2 7.0a 5.2a 3.7a 1.3a 1.1a 2,644.8

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Figure 1.14. Activity of Cs-137 in sediments from Dabusupao Lake (northeast of China). The peak of radioactivity of sediment at a depth of about 6 centimeters is associated with atmospheric nuclear tests, and peaks at a depth of 1–2 centimeters, with the Chernobyl fallout (Xiang, 1998).

a Authors’ estimation based on average population density in each province.

radioactive iodine), as well as emissions of Zr-95 (half-life 64 days). According to calculations by Vukovic (1996) there were additional emissions of more than 0.5 × 106 Ci of Ag-110 (half-life 250 days). Disputes concerning the amount of radionuclides released are important to estiTABLE 1.4. Data on the May 1986 Peak Concentrations of Some Nuclides in Areas of the United States (RADNET, 2008) Date May 5, 1986 May 5, 1986 May 7–8, 1986 May 8, 1986 May 11, 1986 May 11, 1986 May 15, 1986 May 16, 1986 Place Forks, WA Spokane, WA Augusta, ME Portland, ME Rexburg, ID New York, NY Chester, NJ Cheyenne, WY Radionuclide Ru-103, Cs-134 Total Total Total I-131, air Cs-137 Total Total

mate the collective dose. If only about 3% of the fuel (5 tons) was discharged then the Chernobyl catastrophe caused the world to be contaminated with 20 kg of Pu, a quantity sufficient to contaminate a territory of 20,000 km2 forever. The half-life of Pu-239 is 24,000 years. If 30–40% of the fuel was released (Gofman, 1994; Medvedev, 1990; Sich, 1996; UNSCEAR, 2000; and others) allowing nearly 3 × 109 Ci to escape, or 80–90% was released (i.e., 7–8 × 109 Ci; see Chernousenko, 1992; Kyselev et al., 1996; Medvedev, 1991)—the manifold larger territories of the Northern Hemisphere will be contaminated forever. Table 1.5 shows some estimates of the total of the primary radionuclides emitted during the catastrophe. All existing estimates of emitted radionuclides are rough calculations and indications are that we will be seeing an appreciable increase in these estimates as time goes on. It is indicative that even 20 years after the catastrophe there are new thoughts about the role of some of the radionuclides that initially were not taken into account at all, such as Cl-36 and Te-99 with half-lives of nearly 30,000 years and more than 23,000 years, respectively (Fairlie and Sumner, 2006).

Yablokov & Nesterenko: Contamination through Time and Space

19

TABLE 1.5. Some Estimates of the Amount of Primary Radionuclides Emitted from April 26 to May 20, 1986, from the Fourth Chernobyl NPP Reactor (106 Ci) Radionuclide (half-life/full decay time, hours, days, months, years) I-135 (6.6 h/2.75 d) I-133 (20.8 h/8.7 d) La-140 (40.2 h/16.7 d) Np-239 (2.36 d/23.6 d) Mo-99 (2.75 d/27.5 d) Te-132 (3.26 d/32.6 d) Xe-133 (5.3 d/53 d) I-131 (8.04 d/2.7 mo) Ba-140 (12.8 d/4.3 mo) Cs-136 (12.98 d/4.3 mo) Ce-141 (32.5 d/10.8 mo) Ru-103 (39.4 d/1 y 1 mo) Sr-89 (50.6 d/1.39 y) Zr-95 (64.0 d/1.75 y) Cm-242 (162.8 d/4.6 y) Ce-144 (284 d/7.8 y) Ru-106 (367 d/10 y) Cs-134 (2.06 y/20.6 y) Kr-85 (10.7 y/107 y) Pu-241 (14.7 y/147 y) Sr-90 (28.5 y/285 y) Cs-137 (30.1 y/301 y) Pu-238 (86.4 y/864 y) Pu-240 (6,553 y/65,530 y) Pu-239 (24,100 y/241,000 y)
a b

Nuclear Energy Agency (1995) ∼1.5 25.6 >4.6 ∼37.1 175.7 ∼47.6 6.5 5.3 >4.6 ∼3.1 5.3 ∼0.024 ∼3.1 >1.97 ∼1.5 0.89 ∼0.16 ∼0.27 ∼2.3 0.001 0.001 0.023

Devell et al. (1995)

Medvedev (1991) Several 140–150 A lot of

Guntay et al. (1996)

4.5 31 180 48 6.4 0.644a 5.3 4.5 3.1 5.3 0.024 3.1 2.0 1.5 — 0.16 0.27 l2.3 0.001 0.001 0.001

A lot of 170 >85b

45.9 5.67 27.0 175.5 32.4–45.9 4.59 5.40 4.59 2.19 4.59 0.025 3.78 0.81 1.19–1.30 0.89 0.078 0.22 1.89–2.30 0.0001 0.001 0.0001

— —

c —

Cort and Tsaturov (1998). Nesterenko (1996)—more than 100. c Nesterenko (1996)—total emission of Cs-136 and Cs-137 is up to 420 ×1015 Bq (1.14 × 106 Ci).

1.4. Ecological Features of Contamination The three most important factors in connection with the Chernobyl contamination for nature and public health are: spotty/uneven deposits of contamination, the impact of “hot particles,” and bioaccumulation of radionuclides (also see Chapter III). 1.4.1. Uneven/Spotty Contamination Until now the uneven/spotty distribution of the Chernobyl radioactive fallout has attracted too little attention. Aerogamma studies, upon which most maps of contamination are based, give only average values of radioactivity for

200–400 m of a route, so small, local, highly radioactive “hot spots” can exist without being marked. The character of actual contamination of an area is shown on Figure 1.15. As can be seen, a distance of 10 m can make a sharp difference in radionuclide concentrations.

“Public health services of the French department Vosges found out that a hog hit by one of local hunters ‘was glowing.’ Experts, armed with supermodern equipment, conveyed a message even more disturbing: practically the entire mountain where the dead animal had just run is radioactive at a level from 12,000 to 24,000 Bq/m2 . For comparison, the European norm is 600 Bq/m2 . It was remembered that radioactive mushrooms were found

20

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Figure 1.15. Spotty concentration (Ci/km2 ) of Cs-137 (above) and Ce-144 (below) in the forest bedding in the 30-km Chernobyl zone. Scale 1:600 (Tscheglov, 1999).

in these forests last autumn. The level of Cs-137 in chanterelles, boleros and stalks of mushrooms exceeded the norm by approximately forty times . . .” (Chykin, 1997)

There is still uncertainty in regard to contamination not only by Cs-137 and Sr-90, but

also by other radionuclides, including beta and alpha emitters. Detailed mapping of territories for the varying spectra of radioactive contamination could not be done owing to the impossibility of fast remote detection of beta and alpha radionuclides. Typical Chernobyl hot spots measure tens to hundreds of meters across and have levels

Yablokov & Nesterenko: Contamination through Time and Space

21

of radioactivity ten times higher than the surrounding areas. The concentration density of Cs-137 can have several different values even within the limits of the nutrient area of a single tree (Krasnov et al., 1997). In Poland, Ru-106 was the predominant hot spot nuclide in 1986, although a few hot spots were due to Ba-140 or La-140 (Rich, 1986). Figure 1.16. shows distinct large-scale spotty radioactive distribution of Sb, Cs, and Ag in areas of continental Greece. 1.4.2. Problem of “Hot Particles” A fundamental complexity in estimating the levels of Chernobyl radioactive contamination is the problem of so-called “hot particles” or “Chernobyl dust.” When the reactor exploded, it expelled not only gases and aerosols (the products of splitting of U (Cs-137, Sr-90, Pu, etc.), but also particles of U fuel melted together with other radionuclides—firm hot particles. Near the Chernobyl NPP, heavy large particles of U and Pu dropped out. Areas of Hungary, Germany, Finland, Poland, Bulgaria, and other European countries saw hot particles with an average size of about 15 μm. Their activity mostly was determined to be (UNSCEAR, 2000) Zr-95 (half-life 35.1 days), La-140 (1.68 days), and Ce-144 (284 days). Some hot particles included beta-emitting radionuclides such as Ru-103 and Ru-106 (39.3 and 368 days, respectively) and Ba-140 (12.7 days). Particles with volatile elements that included I-131, Te132, Cs-137, and Sb-126 (12.4 days) spread over thousands of kilometers. “Liquid hot particles” were formed when radionuclides became concentrated in raindrops:

these houses are occupied by staff of the Chernobyl atomic power station. While planning occupancy the special dosimeter commands I developed (I then was the deputy chief engineer of Chernobyl NPP on radiation safety and was responsible for the personnel in areas found to be contaminated) carried out a radiation check on the apartments. As a result of these measurements I sent a report to the Governmental Commission advising of the inadmissibility of inhabiting these “dirty” apartments. The sanitation service of the Kiev municipality . . . answered with a dishonest letter in which it agreed that there was radioactivity in these apartments, but explained it away as dirt that was brought in by tenants.” (Karpan, 2007 by permission)

Radioactivity of individual hot particles reached 10 kBq. When absorbed into the body (with water, food, or inhaled air), such particles generate high doses of radiation even if an individual is in areas of low contamination. Fine particles (smaller than 1 μm) easily penetrate the lungs, whereas larger ones (20–40 μm) are concentrated primarily in the upper respiratory system (Khruch et al., 1988; Ivanov et al., 1990; IAEA, 1994). Studies concerning the peculiarities of the formation and disintegration of hot particles, their properties, and their impact on the health of humans and other living organisms are meager and totally inadequate. 1.5. Changes in the Radionuclide Dose Spectrum To understand the impact of Chernobyl contamination on public health and the environment it is necessary to consider the essential changes in the radionuclide spectrum during of the first days, weeks, months, and decades after the Chernobyl catastrophe. The maximum level of activity from Chernobyl’s fallout in the first days and weeks, which was due mostly to short-lived radionuclides, exceeded background levels by more than 10,000-fold (Krishev and Ryazantsev, 2000; and many others). Today radioactive contamination is only a

“Hot particles” were found in new apartment houses in Kiev that were to be populated in the autumn of 1986. In April and May they stood without roofs or windows, so they absorbed a lot of a radioactive dust, which we found in concrete plates of walls and ceilings, in the carpenter’s room, under plastic covers on a floor, etc. For the most part

22

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Figure 1.16. Maps of the Chernobyl fallout: (A) Sb-124, 125; (B) Cs-137; and (C) Ag125m in areas of continental Greece (by permission of S. E. Simopoulos, National Technical University of Athens; arcas.nuclear.ntua.gr/apache2-default/radmaps/page1.htm).

Sr-90. 1998).16. Today these radionuclides. Ni-95. Based on data from Sweden and Finland. 2002.17). from Sokolov and Krivolutsky.” They tested Figure 1. which are found mostly in soil. ratios of Cs-137 and other radionuclide fallout in the first days and weeks allows for reconstruction of the relative value of the various nuclides that make up the total external dose (Figure 1. Ru-103. and Np-239.17. Timescales of radiation contamination can be determined by an analysis of tooth enamel. but the level of radiation from I-131. Ce144.9 and IV. During the first days after the explosion the share of total external radiation due to Cs-137 did not exceed 4%. Continued. most external radiation levels have been defined by Cs-137. and several other radionuclides was hundreds of times higher. Such analyses were conducted by experts with the German group “Physicians of the World for the Prevention of Nuclear War. Te-129. small part of all the radiation emitted during the catastrophe. Dynamics of radioisotope structure of Chernobyl’s contamination. seriously impact agricultural production (for details see Chapters III. and Pu. I-133. Zr-95. Cs-136. Within the succeeding months and the first year after the explosion the major external radiation was due to isotopes of Ce-141. . Since 1987. Ru-106. percentage of total activity (Yablokov. Te-132.Yablokov & Nesterenko: Contamination through Time and Space 23 Figure 1.13).

400 tons of Pb into the reactor (Samushia et al. National Belarussian Report. 1998). 2000). the level of Pb was 0.001 mg/liter.000 persons/Sv (or even 514. causing.8. 1.000–930. it is now clear that these figures for collective doses are considerably underestimated. Pb contamination added to radiation causes harm to living organisms (Petin and Synsynys. By other more grounded estimates (see Fairlie and Sumner. During several subsequent days. retardation in children (Ziegel and Ziegel. 2007. and sublimation in the burning reactor. Problem of Americium-241. for example. Ukraine. of 213 children studied.000 children and found that children born soon after the Chernobyl catastrophe had 10 times more Sr-90 in their teeth compared with children born in 1983 (Ecologist. 1996). 3.109 ± 0.000 persons/Sv. Increased levels of Pb were apparent in the soil and atmosphere and in the urine and the hair of adults and children in Kiev soon after the explosion (Bar’yakhtar. where the level of alpha radiation is usually low.000 km from the Chernobyl NPP. for example. In Ukraine in the Poles’e District of Kiev Province. However. Lead Contamination During operations to quench the fires in the fourth reactor of the Chernobyl NPP. 2005) estimated a collective dose for Belarus. and European Russia as 55. How Many People Were and Will Be Exposed to Chernobyl’s Contamination? The first official forecasts regarding the health impact of the Chernobyl catastrophe . formed as a result of the natural disintegration of Pu-241. Moreover. 1. a significant part of the Pb was spewed out into the atmosphere as a result of its fusion. 2. boiling.003 mg/liter (Petrova et al. The powerful alpha radiation emitter Am-241.000 persons/Sv (Table 1.. Blood Pb levels in both children and adults in Belarus have noticeably increased over the last years (Rolevich et al.9). Ionizing radiation causes biochemical oxidation of free radicals in cells. 1997). 1995). Pb poisoning is dangerous in itself.007 mg/liter. levels of Pb in the air breathed by operators of agricultural machinery was up to 10 times or more. 1997).. 1. An additional danger of Am-241 is its higher solubility and consequent mobility into ecosystems compared with Pu. 1993. and about half of these children had levels of 0. Evaluation of Chernobyl’s Population Doses The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and WHO (Chernobyl Forum.000 persons/Sv only for Belarus. according to other data. 2006)..188 ± 0. The territory contaminated by Pu today.24 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences the teeth of 6.720 tons (Nesterenko. Belarussian children contaminated with both Cs-137 and Pb have an increased frequency of atrophic gastritis (Gres and Polyakova. UNSCEAR.6). the figure was 6. exceeding maximum permissible concentrations. helicopters dumped 2. Under the influence of heavy metals (such as Pb) these reactions proceed especially intensively. will again become dangerous as a result of the future disintegration of Pu-241 to Am-241 in the ensuing tens and even hundreds of years (see also Chapter III.7. 2000). is a very important factor in the increasing levels of contamination in many areas located up to 1. whereas the World Health Organization (WHO) norm for children is no more than 0.6. 1.000– 326. and many others). 2006) this collective dose is 216. The worldwide collective dose from the Chernobyl catastrophe is estimated at 600. 1996). In the Brest Province of Belarus.

One must understand that in areas contaminated above 1 Ci/km2 (a level that undoubtedly has statistical impact on public health) there are no fewer than 1 million children.000 250. and minimization of consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe (http://daccessdds.un.720 (Kaminsky. mitigation. and European Russia Individuals. c Kazakhstan: 31. and nearly 15 million in the areas where the Cs-137 contamination is higher than 40 kBq/m2 (1. The total number of people forced to leave their homes because of Chernobyl contamination was nearly 350.. Optimization of international efforts in study. and other countries.700.000 930.000 318. It is possible to consider that about 190 million Europeans live in noticeably contaminated areas.000a 52.000 28.275. and Russia have been adversely affected (Table 1. Israel. (1988).000 (Oganesyan et al. Bennett (1995. Germany.11–1. 231). and 0.725 (Total 116.000c 9.. Latvia: >6. 103 Group Evacuated and movedb Country Belarus Ukraine Russia Different sources 135. 1996 135. Department of Energya Belarus.000 (Oldinger. Armenia: >3. b Evacuated from city of Pripyat and the railway station at Janov: 49. Russia: 78. included only several additional cases of cancer over a period of some 10 years.379.000a 2.000 326. Belarus: 110.400 a Report of the UN Secretary General (2001).800.Yablokov & Nesterenko: Contamination through Time and Space TABLE 1. Population Suffering from the Chernobyl Catastrophe in Belarus. Also in Moldova.000a 3.000 Anspaugh et al.7. 2006).000 600.000 Lived in territory contaminated by Cs-137 > 555 kBq|m2 (>15 Ci/km2 ) Lived in territory contaminated by 7 Cs-137 > 37 kBq/m2 (>1 Ci/km2 ) Liquidators Belarus Ukraine Russia Belarus Ukraine Russia Other countries Total 2.400.pdf>). Ukraine.08 Ci/km2 ). 6% of Africa. Chernobyl fallout contaminated about 8% of Asia.000a 130.600. Assuming that about 35% of the European population lives in this territory (where radionuclides fell on sparsely populated mountain areas) and counting the total European population at the end of the 1980s. Lithuania: >7. Georgia. Some 40% of Europe has been exposed to Chernobyl’s Cs-137 at a level 4–40 kBq/m2 (0.000a 162.000 360.000 580.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/ N01/568/11/PDF/N0156811. 2006).7).483. evacuated from 6 to 11 days from 30-km zone in Ukraine: 41. 1993). and evacuees and liquidators have had no fewer than 450. 2006) U.500. It is possible to estimate the number of people living in areas subject to Chernobyl fallout all over the world. European Russia Other European countries Rest of the world Total a b 25 UNSCEARb 216.6% of North TABLE 1. Ukraine.792.000 66.405.000 6.000 Not less than 90.6.400a Cardis et al. see Table 1. in Belarus: 24.500.000 children.S. the United States. evacuated 1986–1987 from territories with density of irradiation above 15 Ci/km2 —Ukraine: 70. In 20 years it has become clear that no fewer than 8 million inhabitants of Belarus. 1996).000. . Ukraine.2).614. Total Collective Effective Dose (persons/Sv) of Additional Irradiation from the Chernobyl Catastrophe (Fairlie and Sumner.000 — — 270.000 (1986–1987) — — — 7.000 — — 200.08 Ci/km2 . we can calculate that nearly 550 million people are contaminated. Great Britain.

000 Nearly 196.000 270.8.4 ≥2.000 Nearly 36.7 billion and at a level of higher than 0.000.000. end of 1980s 2. the calculated figures in Table 1. This uncertainty is caused.000 600. such as I-131. so by similar reasoning it appears that outside of Europe the total number of individuals living in areas contaminated by Chernobyl Cs-137 at a level up to 40 kBq/m2 could reach nearly 200 million (Table 1.).9. 2007) Group USSR liquidatorsa Evacuees USSR heavily contaminated areas USSR less contaminated areas Other areas in Europe Outside Europe a Number of individuals 240. and some others.000 Population under fallout of 1–40 kBq/m2 Nearly 150.Y. which is not a legitimate assumption.6 14.000. On the other hand. Other calculations of populations exposed to Chernobyl radiation have been based on the total collective dose.% 8 6 0.000.000.000 600.000 Average individual dose. TABLE 1. 1. Population Suffering from Chernobyl Radioactive Contamination at Different Levels of Radiation Based on Collective Doses (Fairlie.5 × 10−2 mSv might be more than 4.000 years.8 are of limited accuracy. these calculations are based on a uniform distribution of population.270. These include Cl-36 and Te-99 with half-lives of nearly 30. The true number of people living in 1986 in areas outside of Europe with noticeable Chernobyl contamination can be no fewer than 150 million and no more than 230 million.000 years and more than 21. by calculations that do not include several short-lived radionuclides.000. In total.9.000 Nearly 10. Certainly.000.000.8).000.000. Conclusion Most of the Chernobyl radionuclides (up to 57%) fell outside of the former USSR and caused noticeable radioactive contamination over a large area of the world—practically the entire Northern Hemisphere.000 116.000.1 Ci/km2 ). mSv 100 33 50 10 ≥0.000.000 Continent Asia Africa America Total America.26 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 1. .000 3. Estimation of the Population (103 ) outside of Europe Exposed to Chernobyl Radioactive Contamination in 1986 Share of the total Chernobyl Cs-137 fallout. Te-132. which result in much higher levels of radiation than that due to Cs-137.000 4.6% Total population.9) the number of people who were exposed to additional radiation at a level higher than 2. I-133. The latter isotopes cause very low levels of radiation. According to one such calculation (Table 1. 2006).4 mSv more than 605 million.500. in 1986 nearly 400 million individuals (nearly 205 million in Europe and 200 million outside Europe) were exposed to radioactive contamination at a level of 4 kBq/m2 (0. respectively (Fairlie and Sumner. but it will persist for many millennia.5 × 10−2 Presumably 1986–1987 (A.000 5.000 170. on the one hand.

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CHERNOBYL

Chapter II. Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe for Public Health
Alexey B. Nesterenko,a Vassily B. Nesterenko,a,† and Alexey V. Yablokovb
a

Institute of Radiation Safety (BELRAD), Minsk, Belarus
b

Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia †Deceased

Key words: Chernobyl; secrecy; irradiation; health statistics

Chernobyl: Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1181: 31–220 (2009). doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04822.x C 2009 New York Academy of Sciences.

31

CHERNOBYL

2. Chernobyl’s Public Health Consequences
Some Methodological Problems
Alexey V. Yablokov

Problems complicating a full assessment of the effects from Chernobyl included official secrecy and falsification of medical records by the USSR for the first 3.5 years after the catastrophe and the lack of reliable medical statistics in Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. Official data concerning the thousands of cleanup workers (Chernobyl liquidators) who worked to control the emissions are especially difficult to reconstruct. Using criteria demanded by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) resulted in marked underestimates of the number of fatalities and the extent and degree of sickness among those exposed to radioactive fallout from Chernobyl. Data on exposures were absent or grossly inadequate, while mounting indications of adverse effects became more and more apparent. Using objective information collected by scientists in the affected areas—comparisons of morbidity and mortality in territories characterized by identical physiography, demography, and economy, which differed only in the levels and spectra of radioactive contamination— revealed significant abnormalities associated with irradiation, unrelated to age or sex (e.g., stable chromosomal aberrations), as well as other genetic and nongenetic pathologies.

The first official forecasts of the catastrophic health consequences of the Chernobyl meltdown noted only a limited number of additional cases of cancer over the first decades. Four years later, the same officials increased the number of foreseeable cancer cases to several hundred (Il’in et al., 1990), at a time when there were already 1,000 people suffering from Chernobyl-engendered thyroid cancer. Twenty years after the catastrophe, the official position of the Chernobyl Forum (2006) is that about 9,000 related deaths have occurred and some 200,000 people have illnesses caused by the catastrophe. A more accurate number estimates nearly 400 million human beings have been exposed
Address for correspondence: Alexey V. Yablokov, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospect 33, Office 319, 119071 Moscow, Russia.Voice: +7-495-952-80-19; fax: +7-495-952-80-19. Yablokov@ecopolicy.ru

to Chernobyl’s radioactive fallout and, for many generations, they and their descendants will suffer the devastating consequences. Globally, adverse effects on public health will require special studies continuing far into the future. This review concerns the health of the populations in the European part of the former USSR (primarily, Ukraine, Belarus, and European Russia), for which a very large body of scientific literature has been published of which but little is known in the Western world. The aim of the present volume is not to present an exhaustive analysis of all available facts concerning Chernobyl’s disastrous effects—analyzing all of the known effects of the Chernobyl catastrophe would fill many full-size monographs—but rather to elucidate the known scale and spectrum of its consequences.

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2.1. Difficulties in Obtaining Objective Data on the Catastrophe’s Impact For both subjective and objective reasons, it is very difficult to draw a complete picture of Chernobyl’s influence on public health. The subjective reasons include: 1. The official secrecy that the USSR imposed on Chernobyl’s public health data in the first days after the meltdown, which continued for more than 3 years—until May 23, 1989, when the ban was lifted. During those 3 years an unknown number of people died from early leukosis. Secrecy was the norm not only in the USSR, but in other countries as well, including France, Great Britain, and even the United States. After the explosion, France’s official Service Central de Protection Contre les Radiations Ionisantes (SCPRI) denied that the radioactive cloud had passed over France (CRIIRAD, 2002) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture failed to disclose that dangerous levels of Chernobyl radionuclides had been found in imported foods in 1987 and 1988. The first public announcement of these contaminations was not made until 8 years later (RADNET, 2008, Sect. 6 and Sect. 9, part 4). 2. The USSR’s official irreversible and intentional falsification of medical statistics for the first 3.5 years after the catastrophe. 3. The lack of authentic medical statistics in the USSR and after its disintegration in 1991, as well as in Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia, including health data for hundreds of thousands of people who left the contaminated territories. 4. The expressed desire of national and international official organizations and the nuclear industry to minimize the consequences of the catastrophe.

The number of persons added to the Chernobyl state registers continues to grow, even during the most recent years, which casts doubt on the completeness and accuracy of documentation. Data about cancer mortality and morbidity are gathered from many and various sources and are coded without taking into account standard international principles . . . public health data connected to the Chernobyl accident are difficult to compare to official state of health statistics . . . (UNSCEAR, 2000, Item 242, p. 49).

The situation of the liquidators is indicative. Their total number exceeds 800,000 (see Chapter I). Within the first years after the catastrophe it was officially forbidden to associate the diseases they were suffering from with radiation, and, accordingly, their morbidity data were irreversibly forged until 1989.
EXAMPLES OF OFFICIAL REQUIREMENTS THAT FALSIFIED LIQUIDATORS’ MORBIDITY DATA: 1. “. . . For specified persons hospitalized after exposure to ionizing radiation and having no signs or symptoms of acute radiation sickness at the time of release, the diagnosis shall be ‘vegetovascular dystonia.’” [From a letter from the USSR’s First Deputy Minister of Public Health O. Shchepin, May 21, 1986, # 02–6/83–6 to Ukrainian Ministry of Public Health (cit. by V. Boreiko, 1996, pp. 123–124).] 2. “. . . For workers involved in emergency activities who do not have signs or symptoms of acute radiation sickness, the diagnosis of vegetovascular dystonia is identical to no change in their state of health in connection with radiation (i.e., for all intents and purposes healthy vis-` -vis radiation sickness). Thus the diagnoa sis does not exclude somatoneurological symptoms, including situational neurosis . . ..” [From a telegram of the Chief of the Third Main Administration of the USSR’s Ministry of Health, E. Shulzhenko, # “02 DSP”-1, dated January 4, 1987 (cit. by L. Kovalevskaya, 1995, p. 189).] 3. “(1) For remote consequences caused by ionizing radiation and a cause-and-effect relationship, it is necessary to consider: leukemia or leukosis 5–10 years after radiation in doses exceeding 50 rad. (2) The presence of acute somatic illness and activation of chronic disease in

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persons who were involved in liquidation and who do not have ARS (acute radiation sickness – Ed.), the effect of ionizing radiation should not be included as a causal relationship. (3) When issuing certificates of illness for persons involved in work on ChNPP who did not suffer ARS in point “10” do not mention participation in liquidation activities or the total dose of radiation that did not reach a degree of radiation sickness.” [From an explanatory note of the Central Military-Medical Commission of the USSR Ministry of Defense, # 205 dated July 8, 1987, directed by the Chief of 10th MMC Colonel V. Bakshutov to the military registration and enlistment offices (cit. by L. Kovalevskaya, 1995, p. 12).]

Officially it is admitted that “the full-size personal dosimeter control of liquidators in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) zone managed to be adjusted only for some months” (National Russian Report, 2001, p. 11). It was typical to use so-called “group dosimetry” and “group assessment.” Even official medical representatives recognize that a number of Russian liquidators could have received doses seven times (!) higher than 25 cGy, the level specified in the Russian state register (Il’in et al., 1995). Based on official data, this evidence makes the liquidators’ “official” dose/sickness correlation obsolete and unreliable.
TWO EXAMPLES OF CONCEALMENT OF TRUE

Data from the official Liquidators Registers in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus cannot be considered reliable because the status of “liquidator” conveyed numerous privileges. We do not know if an individual described as a “liquidator” was really directly exposed to radiation, and we do not know the number of individuals who were in the contaminated zone for only a brief time. At the same time, liquidators who served at the site and were not included in official registers are just now coming forward. Among them are the military men who participated in the Chernobyl operations but lack documentation concerning their participation (Mityunin, 2005). For example, among nearly 60,000 investigated military servicemen who participated in the clean-up operations in the Chernobyl zone, not one (!) had notice of an excess of the then-existing “normal” reading of 25 R on his military identity card. At the same time a survey of 1,100 male Ukrainian military clean-up workers revealed that 37% of them have clinical and hematological characteristics of radiation sickness, which means that these men received more than 25 R exposure (Kharchenko et al., 2001). It is not by chance that 15 years after the catastrophe up to 30% of Russian liquidators did not have radiation dose data on their official certificates (Zubovsky and Smirnova, 2000).

DATA
ON THE

CATASTROPHE’S CONSEQUENCES

1. “(4) To classify information on the accident. . . (8) To classify information on results of medical treatment. (9) To classify information on the degree of radioactive effects on the personnel who participated in the liquidation of the ChNPP accident consequences.” [From the order by the Chief of Third Main Administration of the USSR’s Ministry of Health E. Shulzhenko concerning reinforcing the secrecy surrounding the activities on liquidation of the consequences of the nuclear accident in ChNPP, #U-2617-S, June 27, 1986 (cit. by L. Kovalevskaya, 1995, p. 188).] 2. “(2) The data on patients’ records related to the accident and accumulated in medical establishments should have a ‘limited access’ status. And data generalized in regional and municipal sanitary control establishments, . . . on radioactive contamination of objects, environment (including food) that exceeds maximum permissible concentration is ‘classified’.” [From Order # 30-S by Minister of Health of Ukraine A. Romanenko on May 18, 1986, about reinforcing secrecy (cit. by N. Baranov’ska, 1996, p. 139).]

Comparison of the data received via individual biodosimetry methods (by the number of chromosomal aberrations and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry) has shown that officially documented doses of radiation can be both over- and underestimated

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(Elyseeva, 1991; Vinnykov et al., 2002; Maznik et al., 2003; Chumak, 2006; and others). The Chernobyl literature widely admits that tens of thousands of the Chernobyl liquidators who worked in 1986–1987, were irradiated at levels of 110–130 mSv. Some individuals (and, accordingly, some groups) could have received doses considerably different than the average. All of the above indicates that from a strictly methodological point of view, it is impossible to correlate sickness among liquidators with the formally documented levels of radiation. Official data of thyroid-dosimetric and dosimetric certification in Ukraine were revised several times (Burlak et al., 2006). In addition to the subjective reasons noted above, there are at least two major objective reasons for the difficulty in establishing the true scale of the catastrophe’s impact on public health. The first impediment is determining the true radioactive impact on individuals and population groups, owing to the following factors:

Difficulty in reconstructing doses from the radionuclides released in the first days, weeks, and months after the catastrophe. Levels of radioisotopes such as I-133, I135, Te-132, and a number of other radionuclides having short half-lives were initially hundreds and thousand of times higher than when Cs-137 levels were subsequently measured (see Chapter I for details). Many studies revealed that the rate of unstable and stable chromosome aberrations is much higher—by up to one to two orders of magnitude—than would be expected if the derived exposures were correct (Pflugbeil and Schmitz-Feuerhake, 2006). Difficulty in calculating the influence of “hot particles” for different radionuclides owing to their physical and chemical properties. Difficulty determining levels of external and internal radiation for the average person and/or group because “doses”

were not directly measured and calculations were based on dubious assumptions. These assumptions included an average consumption of a set of foodstuffs by the “average” person, and an average level of external irradiation owing to each of the radionuclides. As an example, all official calculations of thyroid irradiation in Belarus were based on about 200,000 measurements done in May–June 1986 on fewer than 130,000 persons, or only about 1.3% of the total population. All calculations for internal irradiation of millions of Belarussians were made on the basis of a straw poll of several thousand people concerning their consumption of milk and vegetables (Borysevich and Poplyko, 2002). Objective reconstruction of received doses cannot be done on the basis of such data. Difficulty determining the influence of the spotty distribution of radionuclides (specific for each one; see Chapter I for details) and, as a result, the high probability that the individual doses of personal radiation are both higher and lower than “average” doses for the territory. Difficulty accounting for all of the multiple radionuclides in a territory. Sr-90, Pu, and Am can also contaminate an area counted as contaminated solely by Cs-137. For instance, in 206 samples of breast milk, from six districts of the Gomel, Mogilev, and Brest provinces (Belarus), where the official level of radiation was defined only by Sr-90 contamination, high levels of Cs-137 were also found (Zubovich et al., 1998). Difficulty accounting for the movement of radionuclides from the soil to food chains, levels of contamination for each animal species and plant cultivar. The same difficulties exist for different soil types, seasons, and climatic conditions, as well as for different years (see Chapter III of this volume for details). Difficulty determining the health of individuals who have moved away from contaminated areas. Even considering

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the incomplete official data for the period 1986–2000 for only Belarus, nearly 1.5 million citizens (15% of the population) changed their place of residence. For the period 1990–2000 more than 675,000 people, or about 7% of the population left Belarus (National Belarussian Report, 2006). The second objective barrier to determining the true radioactive impact on individuals and/or population groups is the inadequacy of information and, in particular, incomplete studies of the following:

rious effects from Chernobyl. More and more cases are coming to light in which the calculated radiation dose does not correlate with observable impacts on health that are obviously due to radiation (IFECA, 1995; Vorob’iev and Shklovsky-Kodry, 1996; Adamovich et al., 1998; Drozd, 2002; Lyubchenko, 2001; Kornev et al., 2004; Igumnov et al., 2004; and others). All of these factors do not prove the absence of radiation effects but do demonstrate the inaccurate methodology of the official IAEA, WHO, and UNSCEAR approach. 2.2. “Scientific Protocols” According to the Chernobyl Forum (2006), a common objection to taking into account the enormous body of data on the public health consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus is that they were collected without observing the “scientific protocols” that are the norms for Western science. Usually this means that there was no statistical processing of the received data. Thus, valid distinctions among compared parameters, as for groups from heavily contaminated versus those from less contaminated territories or for groups from areas with different levels of radiation, have not demonstrated statistical significance. In the last decade—a sufficient time span for effects to become manifest—as information has accumulated, a range of values has been found to be within the limits of true “statistical significance.” One of the authors has considerable experience in statistical processing of biological material—the review Variability of Mammals (Yablokov, 1976) contains thousands of data calculations of various biological parameters and comparisons. In other reviews as Introduction into Population Phenetics (Yablokov and Larina, 1985) and Population Biology (Yablokov, 1987) methodical approaches were analyzed to obtain reliable statistically significant conclusions for various types of biological characteristics. Generalizing these and other factors concerning statistical

Specificity of the influence of each radionuclide on an organism, and their effect in combination with other factors in the environment. Variability of populations and individuals in regard to radiosensitivity (Yablokov, 1998; and others). The impact of the ultralow doses (Petkau, 1980; Graeub, 1992; Burlakova, 1995; ECRR, 2003). The influences of internally absorbed radiation (Bandazhevsky et al., 1995; Bandazhevsky, 2000).

The above are the factors that expose the scientific fallacy in the requirements outlined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) and similar official national bodies that are associated with the nuclear industry. They demand a simple correlation—“a level of radiation and effect”—to recognize a link to adverse health effects as a consequence of Chernobyl’s radioactive contamination. It is methodologically incorrect to combine imprecisely defined ionizing radiation exposure levels for individuals or groups with the much more accurately determined impacts on health (increases in morbidity and mortality) and to demand a “statistically significant correlation” as conclusive evidence of the delete-

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processing of biological and epidemiological data, it is possible to formulate four positions: 1. The calculation “reliability of distinctions by Student,” devised about a century ago for comparison of very small samples, is not relevant for large-size samples. When the size of the sample is comparable to the entire assembly, average value is an exact enough parameter. Many epidemiological studies of Chernobyl contain data on thousands of patients. In such cases the averages show real distinctions among the compared samples with high reliability. 2. To determine the reliability of distinctions among many-fold divergent averages, it is not necessary to calculate “standard errors.” For example, why calculate formal “significance of difference” among liquidators’s morbidities for 1987 and 1997 if the averages differ tenfold? 3. The full spectrum of the factors influencing one parameter or another is never known, so it does not have a great impact on the accuracy of the distinct factors known to the researcher. Colleagues from the nuclear establishment have ostracized one of the authors (A. Y.) for citing in a scientific paper the story from the famous novel Chernobyl Prayer (English translation Voices from Chernobyl, 2006) by Svetlana Aleksievich. Ms. Aleksievich writes of a doctor seeing a lactating 70-year-old woman in one Chernobyl village. Subsequently well-founded scientific papers reported the connection between radiation and abnormal production of prolactin hormone, a cause of lactation in elderly women. 4. When the case analysis of individual unique characteristics in a big data set does not fit the calculation of average values, it is necessary to use a probability approach. In some modern epidemiological literature the “case-control” approach is popular, but it is also possible to calculate the probability of the constellations of very

rare cases on the basis of previously published data. Scientific research methodology will be always improved upon, and today’s “scientific protocols” with, for example, “confidence intervals” and “case control,” are not perfect. It is correct and justified for the whole of society to analyze the consequences of the largest-scale catastrophe in history and to use the enormous database collected by thousands of experts in the radioactively contaminated territories, despite some data not being in the form of Western scientific protocols. This database must be used because it is impossible to collect other data after the fact. The doctors and scientists who collected such data were, first of all, trying to help the victims, and, second, owing to the lack of time and resources, not always able to offer their findings for publication. It is indicative that many of the medical/epidemiological conferences in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia on Chernobyl problems officially were termed “scientific and practical” conferences. Academic theses and abstracts from these conferences were sometimes unique sources of information resulting from the examination of hundreds of thousands of afflicted individuals. Although the catastrophe is quickly and widely being ignored, this information must be made available to the world. Some very important data that were released during press conferences and never presented in any scientific paper are cited in this volume. Mortality and morbidity are unquestionably higher among the medical experts who worked selflessly in the contaminated territories and were subject to additional radiation, including exposure to radioactive isotopes from contaminated patients. Many of these doctors and scientists died prematurely, which is one more reason that the medical results from Chernobyl were never published. The data presented at the numerous scientifically practical Chernobyl conferences in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia from 1986 to 1999 were briefly reported in departmental

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periodic journals and magazines and in various collections of papers (“sborniks”), but it is impossible to collect them again. We must reject the criticism of “mismatching scientific protocols,” and search for ways to extract the valuable objective information from these data. In November 2006 the German Federal Committee on Ionizing Radiation organized the BfS-Workshop on Chernobyl Health Consequences in Nuremberg. It was a rare opportunity for experts with differing approaches to have open and in-depth discussions and analyze the public health consequences of the catastrophe. One conclusion reached during this meeting is especially important for the past Chernobyl material: it is reasonable to doubt data lacking Western scientific protocols only when studies using the same or similar material diverge. From both scientific and social-ethical points of view, we cannot refuse to discuss data that were acquired in the absence of strict scientific protocols. 2.3. Dismissing the Impact of Chernobyl Radionuclides Is a Fallacy Natural ionizing radiation has always been an element of life on Earth. Indeed, it is one of the main sources of on-going genetic mutations—the basis for natural selection and all evolutionary processes. All life on Earth— humans included—evolved and adapted in the presence of this natural background radiation. Some have estimated that “the fallout from Chernobyl adds only about 2% to the global radioactive background.” This “only” 2% mistakenly looks trivial: for many populations in the Northern Hemisphere the Chernobyl doses could be many times higher compared with the natural background, whereas for others (mostly in the Southern Hemisphere) it can be close to zero. Averaging Chernobyl doses globally is like averaging the temperature of hospital patients. Another argument is that there are many places around of the world where the natural radioactive background is many times greater

than the average Chernobyl fallouts and as humans successfully inhabit such areas, the Chernobyl radioactive fallout is not so significant. Let us discuss this argument in detail. Humans have a similar level of individual variation of radiosensitivity as do voles and dogs: 10–12% of humans have lower (and about 10–14% have a higher one) individual radiosensitivity than everyone else (Yablokov, 1998, 2002). Experiments on mammalian radiosensitivity carried out on voles showed that it requires strong selection for about 20 generations to establish a less radiosensitive population (Il’enko and Krapivko, 1988). If what is true for the experimental vole populations is also true for humans in Chernobyl contaminated areas, it means that in 400 years (20 human generations) the local populations in the Chernobylcontaminated areas can be less radiosensitive than they are today. Will individuals with reduced radioresistance agree that their progeny will be the first to be eliminated from populations? One physical analogy can illustrate the importance of even the smallest additional load of radioactivity: only a few drops of water added to a glass filled to the brim are needed to initiate a flow. The same few drops can initiate the same overflow when it is a barrel that is filled to the brim rather than a glass. Natural radioactive background may be as small as a glass or as big as a barrel. Irrespective of its volume, we simply do not know when only a small amount of additional Chernobyl radiation will cause an overflow of damage and irreversible change in the health of humans and in nature. All of the above reasoning makes it clear that we cannot ignore the Chernobyl irradiation, even if it is “only” 2% of the world’s average background radiation. 2.4. Determining the Impact of the Chernobyl Catastrophe on Public Health It is clear that various radionuclides caused radiogenic diseases owing to both internal and

and economic features. for example. & Romanova. and sisters) before and after irradiation using health indices that do not reflect age and sex differences. Osechinsky et al. Burlakova. Yu. Edlund. (1998). & Shestopalov. B. (2000). (1995). Y. V. Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident: Future Outlook.) (1996).pdf).. V. Ukraine (Ecological Cultural Center. Low intensity radiation: Radiobiological aspects. Medical and Biological Effects of Incorporated Radio-cesium (BELRAD. (1996). (2002). Bandazhevsky. (in Russian). Compare the characteristics. V. N. Gomel): 128 pp. in heart tissue in Belarus’ Gomel Province (Bandazhevski. In: Proceedings of International Conference. comparison of diseases in people with different levels of absorbed Cs-137 will give objective results of its influence. Non-cancer endpoints in children-residents after Chernobyl accident.. I.. I. Chernobyl Tragedy: Documents and Materials (“Naukova Dumka. Rad. for 80–90% of the population. children. Kiev) 2: pp.. N. M. social. Voices from Chernobyl: The Oral History of the Nuclear Disaster (Picador. V.. Leucocytic and lymphocytic reactions as factors of the population resistance. N. V. for instance. Dosimet. D. ssrn. P. Exact calculations of population dose and dose rate are practically impossible because data were not accurately collected at the time. Zhabinsky. P. V. stable chromosomal aberrations.com/abstract=1009797). Naboka. (1995). 121–132 (in Russian). Scientific Solution of the Chernobyl Problems: 2001 Year Results (Republic Radiology Institute. Y. References Adamovich. 43(2): 36–42 (in Russian). V. 2007). If we truly want to understand and estimate the health impact of the Chernobyl catastrophe in a methodologically correct manner. for groups with different levels of incorporated radionuclides. NBER Working Paper No. W13347 (//www. Mikhalev. Document the pathological changes in particular organs and subsequent diseases and mortality with the levels of incorporated radionuclides. Clinical and Experimental Aspects of the Effect of Incorporated Radionuclides Upon the Organism (Gomel Medical Institute. study on the specific leukoses in the Russian Bryansk Province. (2006). Chernobyl’s subclinical legacy: Prenatal exposure to radioactive fallout and school outcomes in Sweden. Borysevich. effects. V. Sv. A..org/T1. Strelko. Burlak. Hematol. I. Kiev) 1: 37–41 (//www.. mostly morbidity. Transfusiol. In the first few years after the catastrophe.tesec-int. V. (2007). Lelevich. V. Protect. 1998). Compare the health of the same individuals (or genetically close relatives—parents. Yu. Baranov’ska. As demonstrated by the work of the BELRAD Institute (Minsk). 2000). Contributed Papers (HOLTEH. & Palmer. New York): XIII + 236 pp. (Ed. Shylo. M. V. V. It is methodologically flawed for some specialists to emphasize “absence of proof” and insist on “statistically significant” correlation between population doses and adverse health . (2006). brothers. L. Minsk): 44 pp. (in Russian). Minsk): 70 pp. Boreiko. E. Stifling the Truth about Chernobyl: White Spots of the USSR Environmental History—Russia. G. Aleksievich. Bandazhevsky. thus for those not contaminated with other radionuclides. 62(1/2): 13–18 (in Russian). but differing in the level of radioactive contamination (Almond et al...g. et al. This is the most usual approach in the Chernobyl studies. There are several ways to determine the influence of such radiation: • • • • • Compare morbidity and mortality and such issues as students’ performance in different territories identical in environmental. & Poplyko. the dose of internal radiation was mostly due to Cs-137. Almond.” Kiev): 784 pp. (in Russian). this method is especially effective for children born after the catastrophe (see Chapter IV for details).Yablokov: Public Health Consequences of Chernobyl 39 external radiation. it will be demonstrated in populations or intrapopulation group differences varying by radioactive levels in the contaminated territories where the territories or subgroups are uniform in other respects. L... G. Document the aggregation of clusters of rare diseases in space and time and compare them with those in contaminated territories (e. Y.

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Barretsur-Meouge): 196 pp. Remote Medical Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe (“Viribus Unitis. June 1–6. The Petkau Effect: Nuclear Radiation. Kiev): pp. Health Env. Igumnov. (1995). & Schmitz-Feuerhake. (1980). P. Moscow): 39 pp. 11: 20–22 (in Russian). Radio-contamination patterns and possible health consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group “Health”. Il’in.” Kiev): 328 pp. Variance estimate of individual irradiation doses in Chernobyl liquidators by cytogenetic analysis. Twenty Years after the Chernobyl Catastrophe: Consequences for Belarus Republic and Its Surrounding Area (Minsk): 112 pp. (2001). Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe: Strategy of Recovery (Materials. (1991). Atomic penal battalion: National characteristics of liquidators and the consequences of radiation accidents in the USSR and Russia. M. Il’enko. Kornev. RADNET (2008). Radioecol. Minsk): pp.org/cbm/Rad12. N. Mityunin. V. 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V. Zubovsky. S. V.. A. Med.ru/modules/ecology/print. Yablokov. (1998). A. Biology (Mir. (2002). Tenth Chernobyl anniversary. Moscow): 304 pp.portalus. Yablokov. Vinnykov. & Smirnova.php? subaction=snowfull&id) (in Russian). Zubovich.” Moscow): 160 pp. A. I. N. G. (1976). A. A. New York). I. N. A. 41(6): 9–10 (in Russian). Yablokov. 11 (//www. V. Russian Chernobyl 4. Annex G (United Nations. Vorob’ev. & Shklovsky-Kodry. What to do? Hematol. V. V. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. V. Human milk and babies’ health in the radioactive contaminated areas of Belarus. & Zemskov. (2002). V. (1985). Some problems of ecology and 41 radiation safety. Genetic Consequences of Extraordinary Radioactive Situations (Peoples’ Friendship University. Moscow): pp. Public Health 5: 28–30 (in Russian). Safety 43(1): 24– 29 (in Russian). V. & Myzyna. (1996). (1998).. Transfusiol.Yablokov: Public Health Consequences of Chernobyl UNSCEAR (2000). (1987). . E. Yablokov. N. S. Population Biology: Progress and Problems of Studies of Natural Populations. G. 25–26 (in Russian). Kil’chevskaya. V.. Introduction into Population Phenetics: A New Approach to Natural Population Studies (“Vysshaya Shkola. Myth on Safety of the Low Doses of Radiation (Center for Russian Environmental Policy. A. Petrov. Moscow): 180 pp. A. V. (in Russian). (2000). A. A. E. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. & Laryna. (in Russian). Radiol. K. N. Chernobyl catastrophe and your health. Radiat. 6. USSR. International Conference. Yablokov. Beresten. Maznik. New Delhi): XI + 350 pp. Variability of Mammals (Amerind. I. Advanced Scientific Technologies..

There is no threshold for ionizing radiation’s impact on health. This includes deaths from common Address for correspondence: Alexey V. and environment. In 1993.. 6. there is increased morbidity in the more contaminated territories. The explosion of the fourth reactor of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) dispersed an enormous amount of radionuclides (see Chapter I for details). Impairment. and environment.ru as well as rare illnesses (Nesterenko et al. only 9. was due primarily to disease among the growing number of premature infants. The data on morbidity included in this chapter are only a few examples from many similar studies. 3.000.. there is a marked increase in general morbidity in the former.” By 2000 fewer than 20% were considered so. General Morbidity. The annual increase in disease (per 1. Yablokov. The general morbidity of children noticeably increased in the heavily contaminated territories. 2001). 2004). Yablokov@ecopolicy. sooner or later. Belarus 1. 5. 1996). According to data from the Belarussian Ministry of Public Health. Russia. Office 319. 1996). and in the most contaminated Gomel Province. Ukraine.. economy. fewer than 10% of children were well (Nesterenko. Yablokov In all cases when comparing the territories heavily contaminated by Chernobyl’s radionuclides with less contaminated areas that are characterized by a similar economy. demography.1. Voice: +7-495-952-80-19. fax: +7-495-952-80-19. The number of children with impaired physical development increased in the heavily contaminated territories (Sharapov. The largest increase (up to 205%).5%. Even the smallest excess of radiation over that of natural background will statistically (stochastically) affect the health of exposed individuals or their descendants. 3. In all cases when territories heavily contaminated by Chernobyl radionuclides are compared with less contaminated areas that are similar in ethnography. Increased numbers of sick and weak newborns were found in the heavily contaminated territories in Belarus. Children from areas with contamination levels of 15–40 Ci/km2 who were newborn to 4 years old at the time of the catastrophe have significantly more illnesses than those from places with contamination levels of 5– 15 Ci/km2 (Kul’kova et al. demography. 119071 Moscow. increased numbers of weak newborns. just before the catastrophe (in 1985). for 16 classes of illnesses) in the 42 . and increased impairment and disability.5% of children (0 to 4 years old at the time of the catastrophe) were healthy in areas within the Kormyansk and Chechersk districts of Gomel Province. 1993). where soil Cs-137 levels were higher than 5 Ci/km2 . 4. 90% of children were considered “practically healthy. Changes in general morbidity were among the first stochastic effects of the Chernobyl irradiation. and Disability after the Chernobyl Catastrophe Alexey V.CHERNOBYL 3. found in the most contaminated Gomel Province (Dzykovich et al. Russian Academy of Sciences. From 1986 to 1994 the overall death rate for newborns was 9. Leninsky Prospect 33. and European Russia. 2. Some 37% of the children there suffer from chronic diseases.

In the 8 years after the catastrophe. but a smaller head and a smaller thorax circumference (Akulich and Gerasymovich.6. Table 3. Brest Province. 13. 1999). For children of the Stolinsk District. The rates of both premature neonates and small-for-gestational-age babies in Belarus as a whole were considerably higher in the more radioactive contaminated territories for 10 years following the catastrophe (Tsimlyakova and Lavrent’eva. Table 3.05). who were radiated in utero from ambient Cs-137 levels up to 15 Ci/km2 . ∗∗ c-a (P < 0.035 0. most of the parameters were higher among the heavily contaminated. The number of complaints in the group living in heavily contaminated areas was noticeably greater than in less contaminated places. Data from Table 3.81 ∗ 0. ∗∗∗ d-b (P < 0.1 show that within groups the level of radioactive contamination did not change statistically over 3 years.022∗∗ Three years later (d) 0. Disease diagnoses were manifest at ages 6 to 7 years (Sychik and Stozharov.6 years First survey (a) mSv Pb. 7. 1993).3. which increased in controls. d-c (P < 0. 1992–1994: 610.000 children increased 3. 10. Each child was followed for 3 years. age 9. Narovly. 11.017∗∗ 0. In the Vetca. 1989– 1991: 337.031 b-a. and Hoyniky districts of Gomel Province and the Kalinkovich District of Mogilev Province.02∗∗ 0. which was considerably higher than for less contaminated territories (Gutkovsky et al.020 0.1 shows the results of two groups of children from the heavily and less contaminated territories surveyed for the years from 1995 to 2001. 8.019 Three years later (b) 0.025 0. 1996).1.. Blet’ko et al. spontaneous abortions and miscarriages and the numbers of low-birth-weight newborns were significantly higher in the heavily contaminated territories (Izhevsky and Meshkov.. Impairment. mg/liter Cd. The state of their health was obtained by subjective (self-estimation) and objective (based on clinical observations) studies. 1995). avg.77 0. urine.7 (Voronetsky. Radioactive and Heavy Metal Contamination in Children from the Heavily and Less Contaminated Areas (Arinchin et al.Yablokov: Morbidity.3 show that children living in heavily contaminated areas differed noticeably from those in less contaminated places for . and Disability after Chernobyl 43 TABLE 3.05).5 years First survey (c) 0. 12. 85 girls. Although the number of complaints increased in both the heavily contaminated and the less contaminated groups after 3 years of observation. urine.015 0.021∗ 0. 2002) Heavily contaminated: 73 boys. morbidity was significantly higher for the primary classes of illnesses 10 years later.03∗∗∗ 0. 60 girls. age 10. Data in Table 3. Newborns whose mothers had been evacuated from a zone of the strict control (≥15 Ci/km2 ) had a statistically significant longer body.2 shows the results of children’s self-estimation of health. in the heavily contaminated Luninetsk District. and individual contamination determined by measuring the level of incorporated radionuclides (using an individual radioactivity counter) and the levels of Pb and other heavy metals. illnesses per 1. 1995. avg. 1995). 1998)..5 times—1986–1988: 166. Brest Province. whereas heavy metals levels were slightly reduced. mg/liter Hg.05). It is clear that children living in the heavily contaminated areas complain more often of various illnesses.03∗ 0. heavily contaminated areas reached 102–130 cases. 9. urine. with the exception of the Pb level. mg/liter ∗ Less contaminated: 101 boys.040 0.02∗∗ 0.

5 51.2∗∗∗ 37.5∗∗ 13. 15.4 28.5 b-a. ∗∗ c-a (P < 0.5∗ 34.2∗ 0.8 2.7∗ 5.3 3.9 6.9 9.9 9.1 1.5 8.1 and 3.1 73.1∗ ..1∗∗ 0.6∗∗ 0∗∗ Three years later 32.3 17.2∗∗ 0. The findings in both Table 3.9∗∗∗ 0 1.6 17.7∗∗ 0 0. 1996).8 7.4 b-a. practically all diseases in both the first and the second survey.05).2∗∗ 1. In the Gomel Province the relative number of invalids was higher. 1996).9 20.3∗.1 (Arinchin et al.3 27.6 42. 2003) morbidity of Belarus TABLE 3.0 Three years later 66.05).3 3.. The authors of this research defined this condition as “ecological disadaptation syndrome” which may be another definitive Chernobyl effect (Gres’ and Arinchin. Frequency of Clinical Syndromes and Diagnoses (%)—Same Children as in Tables 3.1 43.7∗ 12.8∗ 72.8∗∗∗ 25.05).2 17.3 give a convincing picture of sharply worsening health for children in the heavily contaminated areas.6 12.2 and Table 3.7∗ 15.3∗∗ 7. . ∗∗ c-a (P < 0.7 39. According to official statistics in 1993– 1994 primary morbidity was significantly higher in territories with Cs-137 levels above 15 Ci/km2 (Kozhunov et al.∗∗∗ 11.5 21. Frequency of Complaints (%) on State of Health—Same Children as Table 3. 2001). ∗∗∗ 24.2∗∗ 2. but in Mogilev Province there were more sick children (Kozhunov et al.3∗ 5.9 28.2 (Arinchin et al.05).2∗.8∗ 10.5 9.∗∗∗ 44.7 11.6 0. ∗∗∗ d-b (P < 0.6∗ 5.05). d-c (P < 0.1 58.2 6.8 Three years later 36. 16.8 37.∗∗∗ 12.. 17.2 31.4 2.44 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 3.8 23. Primary invalidism in contaminated territories of Belarus noticeably increased after 1993.3.8∗.9∗∗ 20.9 1.1 2.6 1. According to official data (Medical Consequences.2. 2002) Heavily contaminated areas First survey Complaints of state of health Weakness Dizziness Headache Fainting Nose bleeds Fatigue Heart arrhythmias Stomach pain Vomiting Heartburn Loss of appetite Allergy ∗ Less contaminated areas First survey 45.4∗∗ 40.8 1.05).2 11.5∗ 14.4 4. 2002) Heavily contaminated areas Syndrome/diagnosis Chronic gastroenteric pathology Including chronic duodenitis Including chronic gastroduodenitis Gallbladder inflammation Vascular dystonia and heart syndrome Asthenia-neurosis Tonsil hypertrophy and chronic tonsillitis Tooth caries Chronic periodontitis ∗ Lees contaminated areas First survey 31.9 1.6 17.0 1.3 18..3 45. 14.5 11.2 17. especially during 1997 and 1998 (Figure 3.7 16.1).8∗ 64.9∗∗ 4. ∗∗∗ d-b (P < 0.6 First survey 44.2 59.5 ∗∗ Three years later 78.3∗∗∗ 0.4 67. d-c (P < 0. The number of invalids was noticeably higher in the more contaminated Gomel and Mogilev provinces than in the country as a whole.6∗∗∗ 52.

The annual disease rate among this group of liquidators was up to eight times higher than for the adult population of Belarus as a whole (Antypova et al. Horishna. At the beginning of 2005 the percentage of invalid children in contaminated territories was more than fourfold that of the average among children in other populations (Omelyanets.652 2.9 times higher than in 1986 (Table 3. 3. 2006)... 2005). Primary and General Morbidity of Children (0 to 14 Years) in the Heavily Contaminated Territories of Ukraine. it was typical for children from heavily contaminated territories to suffer from functional disturbances of various organ systems. 1998) followed by a slight reduction. In 1988. In spite of the intensive social and medical programs in place from 1986 to 2003. inated areas (Baida and Zhirnosecova.4). but comparison of the same groups in 1995 showed that morbidity was significantly higher in the highly contamTABLE 3.2%). and Disability after Chernobyl 45 Figure 3. The percent of children with chronic diseases increased steadily—from 8. 5. 1995. Dynamics of primary invalidism in Belarus that is officially connected with the catastrophe in heavily (top curve) and less contaminated provinces (Sosnovskaya. 1999.2. 1997). 2003. For the first 10 years after the catastrophe. the number (percentage) of “practically healthy” children in affected territories decreased 3.7 times (from 27. Children radiated in utero had lower birth weight and more diseases during the first year of life as well as irregularities in their physical development (Stepanova and Davydenko. 9.5 to 7.4. From 1987 to 1989.000 (Grodzinsky.2). 3. there was no indication of significant differences in general morbidity among children living in heavily contaminated versus less contaminated areas. There was appreciably retarded growth in children from 5 to 12 years of age at the time of the survey in the heavily contaminated territories (Arabskaya.4% . and the number (percentage) of “chronically ill” children increased from 8.2 to 0. but 15 years after the catastrophe it was 2. 8.423 (1384a ) General morbidity 787 1. 1995. 1993.. 2006). 1997. 2005) Year 1987 1994 2001 2004 a Primary morbidity 455 1.. Zakrevsky et al.. Horishna. Moskalenko. Zapesochny et al.1.4% in 1986–1987 to 77. 10. 2006). 1998. 2006). 2005). From 1997 to 2005 the number of the “practically healthy” children in heavily contaminated areas decreased more than sixfold— from 3. 2002). per 1. 7.. liquidators 1986–1987 was significantly higher than for a similarly aged group.139 n/a 1.5% (Horishna. 2001).Yablokov: Morbidity. In 1999 there were fourfold more sick children in contaminated territories than the average of such children in Ukraine (Prysyazhnyuk et al. Among 252 children in contaminated territories officially recognized as invalids in 2004. 6. 160 had congenital malformations and 47 were cancer victims (Law of Ukraine. 2. general morbidity in Ukrainian children increased sixfold (TASS. By 1996 those functional disturbances had become chronic pathological processes with long-term relapses that were relatively resistant to treatment (Stepanova et al. 4.8% in 2003 (Figure 3. 1998). Ushakov et al. indicative of hormonal and immune imbalance.285 n/a By Stepanova (2006). Impairment. Law of Ukraine. Ukraine 1.

For the period 1992 to 2005 disability due to neoplasm increased nearly fourfold.3% in 2005). among them were 3. 11. 2006a).665 per 1. 20.6). In Ukraine in the 15 to 18 years after the catastrophe there has been a steady increase in the numbers of invalid children: 3.8% in 2004 (Stepanova..000) in 2000. According to official Ukrainian data.0 in 2002.4 per 1.224 to 1.422. at the beginning of 2005 there were 148. in 1986–1987 to 77.3%). Number (percentage) of “practically healthy” children (1) and those with “chronic pathologies” (2) in affected territories in Ukraine from 1987 to 2003 (Stepanova. 2006).5% in 2005. across the whole of Ukraine child morbidity showed a Figure 3. and 1.9 in 1995. Children in contaminated territories were undersized and had low body weight (Kondrashova et al.5 to 2. In the years from 1988 to 2002.199 people whose invalidism resulted from the Chernobyl catastrophe. 12. Since 2001 the primary disability is neoplasm (53. Figure 3. The current second set of primary disabilities in the contaminated territories is due to circulatory disease (32.2 in 2000. General morbidity increased 1. 2006).3.2 in 2004 (Horishna.000) among children in Ukraine from 1987 to 2003 (Stepanova. 17. At the same time in less contaminated areas the percentage of healthy children has been constant during the last 20 years—up to 30% (Burlak et al. and 4.57 in 2004 (Stepanova. 4.0%) and diseases of the nervous system (32. This trend is continuing: 455. The prevalence of diseases for this period rose more than double (1.160. furthermore these liquidators’ children were statistically significantly taller and more overweight (Kondrashova et al. 18. 2006a. 15. 16. 1.5)..2.9 in 2004 (Stepanova. 2006). At the same time.2% compared with 18. 1995).000).000 in 1987. 19.425 up to 3. After the catastrophe the number (percentage) of “practically healthy” children in contaminated territories declined markedly and the number of sick children significantly increased (Table 3.6–9. Morbidity among adults and teenagers in the heavily contaminated territories increased fourfold: from 137. Number of invalids (per 1.5 in 1990.6%).5 in 2003. 2006b)..000 in 1987 to 573. marked increase (Lukyanova et al. 2006a).6– 24.367.4 times from 1987 to 1992 (from 1. 2006). Table 3.. The level of general morbidity among evacuee children increased 1.2 per 1. 1.3). According to annual surveys during the period from 1988 to 2005 there were severalfold fewer children of liquidators considered “practically healthy” than were found in the control group (2. 14. 866.. 2006a).1 (per 1. among adult evacuees the number of “healthy” fell from 68 to 22% and the number “chronically ill” rose from 32 to 77% (National Ukrainian Report. 4.46 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 3.4 times in the contaminated territories from the period before the catastrophe until 1992. 2006).046). From 1988 to 1997 increased morbidity related to radiation levels was more apparent in the heavily contaminated territories: up to . 2005).326 children (Ipatov et al. In 1991 the prevailing primary physical disabilities in the contaminated territories were due to circulatory problems (39. 13.

Beginning in 1991–1992 the occurrence and prevalence of these diseases was above the average for the country (Figure 3.6 1990 25.5. abnormal dreaming (37.3 40.7 and 3. and aching joints (30.6 34.0 4.000. 28.3 4.6 to 5.9 39.0 50.0 2005 53.7 1991 19. 25. 2006.4 times in a zone with 1–5 Ci/km2 (Prysyazhnyuk et al.1 1988 54.1 1.000) from 1988 to 2002. 2006). National Ukrainian Report. Figure 3.8 1987 50.. 2006).2 1.9 29. and the number with chronic illnesses increased 6. The general morbidity of Ukrainian liquidators increased 3.8 times (from 632 to 3. headache (65. and up to 1.6%).3 4.5 National Ukrainian Report. TABLE 3. Buzunov et al. 26.4% (National Ukrainian Report. 2006) and are still increasing (Tables 3.4 0.2%) (Buzunov et al.5 28.6.5 41.5 times in the 10 years following the catastrophe (Serdyuk and Bobyleva..8 times: from 67.9 1.000. From 1988 to 2003 disabilities among liquidators increased 76-fold (from 2. the general morbidity for the entire province was significantly higher 10 years after the catastrophe as compared with 10 years before (Donets. 1995) Health group First (healthy) Second Third Fourth 1986 56.2 times in a zone with more than 15 Ci/km2 .3%. 2005).9 30. up to 2. 22.7 to 206 per 1. Typical complaints in the contaminated territories in the first year after the catastrophe included rapidly developing fatigue (59. Prevalence and occurrence of nonmalignant diseases among adult evacuees and the population of Ukraine from 1988 to 2002 (National Ukrainian Report. . 1998).9 34. 21. 2006) Illness Neoplasms Nervous system diseases Circulatory diseases 1992 8. the general morbidity significantly exceeded that in areas with less contamination.2 times: from 12. Law of the Ukraine.2 2. Impairment. and Disability after Chernobyl 47 TABLE 3.8 to 81. From 1988 to 1999 primary morbidity among the populations in the contaminated territories doubled (from 621 to 1. 2002.3 times in a zone with 5–15 Ci/km2 .7 16.2 8.8). 1992 to 2005 (Ipatov et al.6 to 193 per 1. From 1988 to 2002 physical disabilities among adult evacuees increased 42-fold (from 4.276 and from 310 to 746 per 1. 23. 27..2 1989 39. Primary Diseases (%) Resulting in Invalidism Connected with the Chernobyl Catastrophe.8 1.5%). 2006). blood pressure instability (37. 2002).. During the period from 1988 to 2004 the number of liquidators who were healthy decreased 12. In the heavily contaminated districts of Chernygov Province.9 41.6%).4). Among adult evacuees the occurrence of nonmalignant diseases increased 4.8%).7 9.000).3 43.Yablokov: Morbidity.037 per 10. 1995). 1986–1991 (Luk’yanova et al. 2006).4. Children’s Health (percent in each healthy group) in Contaminated Territories in Ukraine.1 8.6 2001 43. Beginning in 1993 these parameters have continually exceeded the Ukrainian norms (Prysyazhnyuk et al..5 32. 24..

Children from radioactive contaminated provinces became ill much more often than children in “clean” regions. Morbidity (per 1.7.48 TABLE 3. 4. 42. 2004). From 1995–1998 the annual prevalence of all registered diseases of children in the southwest districts of Bryansk Province (Cs-137 > 5 Ci/km2 ). Russia 1. 2001).. Law of Ukraine. Figure 3. Disability among liquidators began to increase sharply from 1991 and by the year 2003 had risen tenfold (Figure 3.8. Lubensky.9% of the liquidators were officially “sick” in Kiev. In the 18 years after the catastrophe the number of “sick” liquidators exceeded 94%. to 81% (Grodzinsky.9 29. 1999). 000) in Ukraine. 2004. 1987–1994 (Grodzinsky. 34..000) in Radioactive Contaminated Territories of Ukraine (Grodzinsky.5. 1996). 1999. Childhood morbidity in the contaminated districts of Kaluga Province 15 years after the catastrophe was noticeably higher (Ignatov et al.5 Ukraine 0. 1997). In 2003. Since 1987 the number of liquidators in the category of “ill” has consistently increased: 18. 2006).2 Evacuees 2.6 23. The greatest differences in morbidity are expressed in the class of illness labeled “symptoms.1 9. In 2004 childhood morbidity in these districts was double the average for the province (Sergeeva et al. some 99. and inexact designated conditions” (Kulakov et al. 1999. 57.9 2.5 0. The total measure of the “health of the population” (the sum of invalidism and morbidity) in the Russian part of the European Chernobyl territories worsened up to threefold TABLE 3.5–3. phenomena. 64. 2006) Year 1987 1994 2004 Adults and teenagers 421. 96. 2. Percent of “Practically Healthy” Individuals in Three Categories of Chernobyl Victims in Ukraine.0 1. Primary Invalidism (per 1.9. 1999) Year 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 Liquidators 82 73 66 58 43 34 25 19 Evacuees 59 48 38 29 25 20 16 18 Children born to irradiated parents 86 78 72 62 53 45 38 26 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 3.8 during the 10 years after the catastrophe (Tsyb.5% in Sumy Province were sick and 96% in Donetsk Province (LIGA.097. which exceeded the Ukrainian norms (Table 3. . 1987–1994 (Grodzinsky.3. For the period from 1988 to 1994 there was a manifold increase in primary disabilities (invalidism) among liquidators and evacuees. was 1. 27. 2005). 3. 2001). Invalidism as a result of nonmalignant diseases in Ukrainian liquidators (1986—1987) from 1988 to 2003 (National Ukrainian Report. Kuiyshev et al. 31. 3.3 times the provincial level as well as the level across Russia (Fetysov.255. 1999) Year 1987 1994 Liquidators 9.9)..5).. 30. 75.

Yablokov: Morbidity. 3. 2004.000) in the Contaminated Districts of Kaluga Province. The morbidity of liquidators exceeds that of the rest of the Russian population (Byryukov et al. 1999). 12. were initially healthy.4 ± 4. 11. The general morbidity of the Russian liquidators (3.506 to 2. All the Russian liquidators. The total morbidity owing to all classes of illnesses for the Russian liquidators in 1993–1996 was about 1. Initially diagnosed childhood illnesses measured in 5-year periods for the years from 1981 to 2000 show an increase in the first two decades after the catastrophe (Table 3. In Bryansk Province there was a tendency toward increased general morbidity in liquidators from 1995 to 1998 (from 1.5 diseases. 2004).11). Initially Diagnosed Children’s Morbidity (M ± m per 1.140 per 1. and the risk of birth of a sick child in this area was more than twofold compared with a control group: 66. Prybylova et al.. Kukishev et al. only up to 2% were “healthy” (Table 3..2 1996–2000 130. Lyubchenko.0 diseases (Lyubchenko and Agal’tsov.4∗∗ 176.5 108. Fetysov. 174 per 1.6 1991–1995 253.000. 8. 2001.. 2006) Districts Three heavily contaminated Three less contaminated Province.4∗ 81. The general morbidity of adults in 1995– 1998 in the districts with Cs-137 contamination of more than 5 Ci/km2 was noticeably higher than in Bryansk Province as a whole (Fetysov. 14. Impairment. 31.3% vs.3 ± 6.3 1986–1990 198.10).. in 1995.8 ± 2.0 ∗ Significantly different from province’s average. 13.1 ± 10. State of Health of Russian Liquidators: Percent Officially Recognized as “Sick ” (Ivanov et al.5∗ 121. 16. Ivanov et al. Invalidism among liquidators was apparent 2 years after the catastrophe and increased torrentially (Table 3.6 ± 10. 2004).7 ± 3.000 (average for Russia. ∗∗ significantly different from province’s average and from the period before the catastrophe. and in 1999.882 surveyed) who were “under the age of 30” at the time of the catastrophe increased threefold over the next 15 years. 15.8% (Lyaginskaya et al. 10 years after fewer than 9% of them were considered “healthy..3 130. 1999.8 177. 9. 161.12). 2002).11. Children’s disability in all of Bryansk Province in 1998–1999 was twice that of three of the most contaminated districts: 352 vs. 5.9 ± 16. 2006).5 times above that for corresponding groups in the population (Kudryashov. TABLE 3. 10. total 1981–1985 128. mostly young men. The number of low-birth-weight children in the contaminated territories was more than 43%. 2001).8∗∗ 171.0∗ 100. The frequency of spontaneous abortions and miscarriages and the number of newborns with low birth weight were higher in the more contaminated Klintsy and Novozybkov districts of Bryansk Province (Izhevsky and Meshkov.2 ± 3. 2001... 2001). Komogortseva.10. 5. 1981–2000 (Tsyb et al.8 diseases.0 ± 6. 1998).5 ± 6..1 ± 64. 2004) Years after the catastrophe 0 5 10 16 Percent “sick” 0 30 90–92 98–99 . 2001). in the group “31–40 years of age” the highest morbidity occurred 8 to 9 years after the catastrophe (Karamullin et al. The number of diseases diagnosed in each liquidator has increased: up until 1991 each liquidator had an average of 2.4 ± 5.” and after 16 years. 7. Within 5 years after the catastrophe 30% of them were officially recognized as “sick”. and Disability after Chernobyl 49 TABLE 3.1 ± 8. 6.6 ± 9.

Following scientific canons such as Occam’s Razor. and differ only in their exposure to Chernobyl contamination. there is no direct proof of the influence of the Chernobyl catastrophe on these figures. 1989). Physical development abnormalities in newborns born Figure 3. 1995).808 survived) morbidity was noticeably higher among those who were 45 to 54 years of age during their time in Chernobyl (Burokaite. etc.4. HUNGARY.1 57. In 1995 the level of disability among liquidators was triple that of corresponding groups (Russian Security Council.0 12.500 g) were noted in 1986–1987 (Figure 3.500 g from 1983 to 1992 (top curve) and a level of Sr-90 in soil (bottom curve) in Wales (Busby. Other Countries 1. natural surroundings. N. we cannot discern any reason for this level of illness other than the radioactive contamination due to the Chernobyl catastrophe. G. economic.0 >20 cGy 17.50 TABLE 3.6 43. 2008) Disabled (%) Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 0–5 cGy 6. References Akulich. 3. 2007). 1990). Certainly. Among infants born in May– June 1986 there was a significantly higher number of low-birth-weight newborns (Wals and Dolk. Disability in Liquidators (%) Compared to Calculated Radiation Doses.3 31. 27% of the Russian liquidators became invalids at an average age of 48 to 49 (National Russian Report. 2002). FINLAND. S. 2..7% of all the liquidators of working age were disabled (Zubovsky and Tararukhina.6). and Bradford Hill criteria. one of the regions most heavily contaminated by Chernobyl fallout. 1990–1993 (Ryabzev.3 21. 3. and psychological factors.5 28.7 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 17. Some 15 years after the catastrophe. GREAT BRITAIN. 5. (1993). 4. 2006) that the increased morbidity is partly due to social. & Gerasymovich.4 50. The number of newborns with low birth weight was significantly higher in July 1986 (Ericson and Kallen. SWEDEN.6 84. LITHUANIA.12. Percent of newborns with birth weight less than 1. By the year 2004 up to 64. Among liquidators (of whom 1.6. There was an increase in the number of premature births just after the catastrophe (Harjulehto et al. In Wales.1 74. abnormally low birth weights (less than 1. ∗∗∗∗∗∗ It is clear that there is significantly increased general morbidity in territories heavily contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout and higher rates of disability among liquidators and others who were exposed to higher doses of radiation than the general population or corresponding nonradiated groups. I. but the question is: What else can account for the increased illness and disability that coincide precisely in time and with increased levels of radioactive contamination. Mills’s canons.5 5–20 cGy 10. 1998). Socioeconomic factors cannot be the reason because the compared groups are identical in social and economic position. 2002). . and in 1998 was four times higher (Romamenkova. 1994). 2001). age composition. if not Chernobyl? The IAEA and WHO suggested (Chernobyl Forum.

V. & Pyrogova. I. A.). invalidism and mortality). Kiev): pp. Wings of Death. Gomel (Treatise.. D. Kyoto): pp. Byryukov. E.int/ionizing_radiation/chernobyl/WHO%20 Report%20on%20Chernobyl%20Health%20Effects %20July2006. & Zhirnosecova.Yablokov: Morbidity. (1994). Environ. K. (2006). Second Annual Conference. S. Inform. (2002). 4(3): 11–22 (in Russian). Connection of morbidity and mortality with cleanup and mitigation operations of the Chernobyl NPP accident. Impairment. Liquidators’ tendency toward chronic nonspecific illnesses.). A. & Kallen. A. L. Antypova. Donets. Gomel): pp. 1997. T. Kiev): pp. T. T. 4 (Bryansk): pp. Future Outlook. Arabskaya. M. April 24–26.. 92–93 (in Russian). A.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/ Pub1239_web. S. KURRI-KR-79 (Kyoto University. M. Main results of epidemiological studies of Chernobyl liquidator’s health (nonmalignant morbidity. Arinchin. Kiev. Ukraine (Abstracts.. I. Avhacheva. Ericson. 67: 149–159. E. Maksyutov. 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Ivanov. & Stozharov. (1990).54 prenatally irradiated children. Z. & Karelo. Progr.). A. In: Blokov. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Voronetsky. O. B. The Health Effects on the Human Victims of the Chernobyl Catastrophe (Greenpeace International. T. Moscow): 247 pp. (1995). Tsyb. & Blet’ko. Kiev) 1: pp. (in Russian). Chernobyl traces in Russia. Tsimlyakova.. N. V. (1995). International Conference. H. I. Chernobyl and Public Health (Abstracts. I. K. V. Maksyutov. G. Chernobyl: Radiation Psychophysiology and Ecology of the Person (SSRI Aviation and Space Medicine. (1997). E. Ph.. Burdyga. Actual and Prognostic Infringements of Physical Health after the Nuclear Catastrophe in Chernobyl. Rad. Kiev): 311–312 (in Russian). I. I. Effect of the Chernobyl radiological contamination on human reproduction in Western Europe. (2007). 1995. A. L. Borovykova. Scientific and Practical Conference. Gomel): pp. Arlashchenko. Transfus. April 6. 5 (in Russian). (1996). I. G. L. (1996). A. Porada.. de & Dolk. I. A. (Eds.. M. G. B. & Volkov. & Tsybenko. T. A. Nykulyna. F. V. G.. Gutkovsky. M. Sychik.. June 5. A. 6: 128–136 (in Russian). 10: 25. A. G. P. & Martynenko. May 24–28. November 9–10. p. V. Morbidity of children inhabiting territories with radionuclide contamination. Chem. United NewsList.. Gomel (Materials. & Popov. “Tverskaya. Amsterdam): pp. Brit. M. I. Sadownichik. 340: 339– 346. Matveenko. Twenty Years after the Chernobyl Catastrophe: Biological and Social Lessons.. A. Zakrevsky. Radioecol. 13” 17 (Moscow). K. J. Hematol.. Dolzhanov. 9–10 (in Russian). & Tararukhyna. After the Chernobyl accident Ukrainian children’s morbidity increased 6 times. A. Biol. 147–151. B. Res. Labunska. L. Morbidity among persons exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. E. M. Scientific and Practical Conference. A. Moscow (Materials. Analysis of medical consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe in children who live in contaminated territories in order to develop strategy and tactics for special dispensation. N. 41(6): 11–13 (in Russian). International Scientific and Practical Conference Devoted to the Fifth Anniversary. of the Gomel Medical Institute. Kiev. I. Early postnatal adaptation of newborns whose mothers were impacted by radiation. Tsyb. (2006). 269–277 (in Russian). Moscow): pp. .. (1993). Perinatal irradiation assessment of function of critical organs and systems in children long after the Chernobyl catastrophe. TASS (1998). Zapesochny. Kiev. J. Zubovsky. Biol. F. Irradiation in utero and intellectual development: Complex science-metrical analysis of information flow.. E. B. Results of 10-year cohort observation of children irradiated after the Chernobyl accident. I. Haemat. Ushakov. (1999). M. & Lavrent’eva. 2006. Wals. 1995. 116–117 (in Russian).. S. N. A. Ukraine (Materials.

2006). Early aging is a typical characteristic seen in liquidators.. Men and women categorized as middle aged living in territories with Cs-137 contamination above 555 kBq/m2 died from heart attacks 8 years younger than the average person in Belarus (Antypova and Babichevskaya. including those in the brain. 70% came from the heavily contaminated territories (Morozevich et al.. 1997a. 1998. chronic cholecystitis. 2002. Ushakov et al.. 2003. Children living in all the Belarussian territories heavily contaminated by Chernobyl fallout evidence a characteristic constellation of senile illnesses (Nesterenko. 7. 8.. 2007). Zubovsky and Malova. Accelerated Aging as a Consequence of the Chernobyl Catastrophe Alexey V.6 diseases diagnosed in one liquidator is 2.b. Presenile characteristics of liquidators include (Antypova et al. Children from the contaminated areas of Belarus have digestive tract epithelium characteristic of senile changes (Nesterenko.. 2004. Chernobyl radiation induced premature aging of the eyes (Fedirko and Kadochnykova. 2002. 1994.. Inhabitants of Ukrainian territories heavily contaminated with radiation developed abnormalities of accommodation and other senile eye changes (Fedirko.4 times higher that the age norm). This phenomenon is apparent to a greater or lesser degree in all of the populations contaminated by the Chernobyl radionuclides. Druzhynyna. Degenerate and dystrophic changes in various organs and tissues (e. 2002. The biological ages of inhabitants from the radioactive contaminated territories of Ukraine exceed their calendar ages by 7 to 9 years (Mezhzherin.. 3. 6. 1998). 2004.. 1.. fatty liver. 2002. Voice: +7-495-952-80-19. Accelerated aging of blood vessels. 4. Oradovskaya et al. 2003. 2. leading to senile 55 . 2006): • • Address for correspondence: Alexey V. 1996). 1996. Yablokov Accelerated aging is one of the well-known consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation. 2001). 1999. fax: +7-495-952-80-19..ru • Multiple illnesses characteristic of senility in individuals at early ages (10. 1997)..CHERNOBYL 4. Kharchenko et al. and many others). Bebeshko et al. Krasylenko and Eler Ayad. pancreatitis. 1996. The biological ages of liquidators calculated by characteristics of aging are 5 to 15 years older than their calendar ages (Gadasyna. osteoporosis. The same phenomenon is observed in Russia (Malygin et al. 1995. Fedirko and Kadochnykova.. Zhavoronkova et al. Russian Academy of Sciences. Kirke. Of 69 children and teenagers hospitalized in Belarus from 1991 to 1996 diagnosed with premature baldness (alopecia). Leninsky Prospect 33. Yablokov. Office 319. 9. 1995. Tron’ko et al. 5. Kholodova and Zubovsky. 2004. 2007). 2002.g. Fedirko et al. Stepanenko. 1997). Vartanyan et al. and renal dystrophy).. and many of them develop diseases 10 to 15 years earlier than the average population. 119071 Moscow. Yablokov@ ecopolicy. Romanenko et al. Russia.

Evidence of accelerated biological time in liquidators is the shortened rhythm of intracircadian arterial pressure (Talalaeva. and acoustic and vestibular disorders as a syndrome of premature aging in liquidators (clinical experimental study). (1997b). T. J. A. April 24–26. Scientific and Practical Conference.. Liquidators younger than 45 years of age were more vulnerable. Decline in higher mental function characteristic of senility. 11. Kiev) 1: pp. Minsk/Vitebsk): pp. V. St. Belarussian adult mortality among the evacuees. et al. Otolarygolog. (Eds.56 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences • • • • • • encephalopathy in those 40 years of age. Liquidators’ health problems In: Medical Biological Effects and Ways to Overcome the Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident. 2001. Loss of stability in the antioxidant system. St. & Suvorova. (Collection of Papers Dedicated to the Tenth Anniversary of the Republic’s Radiation Medicine Dispensary. May 20– 21. 4: 44–49 (in Russian). Risks of eye pathology in victims of the Chernobyl catastrophe. In: Blokov. & Kovalenko. Loganovsky. S.. .. Antypova. Kiev): pp. I. including early senile cataracts and premature presbyopia. (1997a). Changes are also found in epithelial tissue. References Antypova. Korzhunov. 1998). (2006). N. marked by biological and cardiopulmonary changes (and for 11 years by physiological changes) was found in 81% of men and 77% of women liquidators (306 surveyed).. Polyakov.). The biological age of liquidators who worked at the Chernobyl catastrophe site in the first 4 months after the meltdown exceeds the biological age of those who labored there subsequently (Polyukhov et al. 208–210 (in Russian). A. Retina vessel arteriosclerosis.. (2004). Gadasyna. 10. Third Interna- tional Conference. Development of Type II diabetes in liquidators younger than 30 years of age. D. I. Mitchanchuk. & Kadochnykova. (1994). 2004. V. & Volkov. S. Volovik. I. 2006). Kholodova. Hearing and vestibular disorders at younger ages. including that of the intestines (Tlepshukov et al. 2004 (Materials. 2001. June 30. 16–24. Ukraine (Materials... An accelerated rate of aging. Contributed Papers (HOLTEH. June 4–8. All-Russian Scientific Conference. Medical Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe: The Results of 15 Years of Investigation. 13. I. Korzhunov. I. (Collection of Papers Dedicated to the Tenth Anniversary of the Chernobyl Accident. Perm’ April 5–7.. Labunska. Medical Biological Problems of Radioactive and Chemical Protection. Yu. Kiev. Kiev..pdf). S. Druzhynyna. Minsk. 2000). & Babichevskaya. Liquidators’ tendency to develop chronic non-specific illnesses.org/T1.. & Furmanova. Bebeshko. Amsterdam): pp. & Kholodenko. p. P. Petersburg (Materials. B. Fedirko. S. Ukraine.. A. Fedirko. (2007). Kharchenko. Does ionizing radiation accelerate aging phenomena? International Conference. S. Actual Problems of Medical Rehabilitation of Victims of the Chernobyl Catastrophe. P. (2004). measured in 5-year intervals.tesecint. (2004). V. Minsk): pp. 3–6 (in Russian). 2: 69–73. Perm’/Izhevsk) 1: pp. 2002). Fedirko. Antypova. Chernobyl accident and the eyes: Some results of a prolonged clinical investigation. I. 152– 153 (in Russian). 1997. N. B. V. K. 13–18 (//www. 59–60 (in Russian). and generalized arteriosclerosis. 12. Bebeshko et al. Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident: Future Outlook. T. I. G. 53–54 (in Russian). Inter-Region Inter-Institute Scientific Student Conference... M. & Zubovsky. 3. A. M. I. S. V. 2000. Ocular changes. It is proposed that the accelerated occurrence of age-related changes in organs of liquidators is a radiation-induced progeroid syndrome (Polyukhov et al. V. Ophthalmol. I. (1999). 2006. Clinical and psycho-physical correlates of premature aging after low dose irradiation. The Health Effects of the Human Victims of the Chernobyl Catastrophe (Greenpeace International. P. Materials. Chernobyl tightens spring of life. Izvestiya (Moscow) July 22. Atherosclerotic changes of the aorta and eye vessels. Sadownichik. Findings indicating accelerated aging in practically all liquidators are changes in blood vessel walls leading to the development of atherosclerosis. Bazyka. M. P. I. A.. V. Petersburg): pp. Condition of liquidators’ mandibles.

A. 3: 21–23 (in Russian). A.. & Epshtein.. I. Rassokhin.. Zubovsky. A. E. 8(8): 86–88 (in Russian). Scale and Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe for Belarus. B. Malygin. & Popov. International Conference. Results of immunological characters and blood pH in liquidators. Minsk): pp. Biol. Cent. I. Nagler. M. Kirke. Gerontol.” Moscow): 179 pp. A. 57 2006. Importance of bone-densimetry to evaluate the mineral content of liquidator’s vertebrae. B. Oleinik. Chernobyl: Radiation Psychophysiology and Ecology of the Person (Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine. Moscow): 247 pp. Vykulov. Book 1 (“Logos. Social. 87–88 (in Russian). 454–456 (in Russian).. E.). Gerontol. 43(1): 39–41 (in Russian). N. Tron’ko. 35(1): 105–115 (in Russian). Laborat. A. June 30. E. Krasylenko. A. F.. Endocrine system. Morozevich. V. Medical and Biological Consequences (“Naukova Dumka. Feoktystov. Aging Longev. I. V. Hematol. Kiev): pp. V.kiev/1.. Transfusiol.). A. Kozachenko. 8(8): 83–84 (in Russian). Kobsar. V. Endogenous Infection in the Pathogenesis of Radiation Sickness (“Medicina. G. (1995). T. Ushakov. Clinic. 8(8): 82–83 (in Russian). 53(4): 410–419 (in Russian). Dolzhanov. (Ed. (2002). (Ed. (2006). A. A. Accelerated occurrence of age-related organ changes in Chernobyl workers: A radiation-induced progeroid syndrome? Exper. Tlepshukov. Early development of some diseases in liquidators. (2000). (1998). J. Scientific and Practical Conference.N. A. Psychological health of the population in radioactive contaminated territories (psycho-physiological study). & Kovalenko.. & Malova.). Civilization and Noosphera. 38–39 (in Russian).. 3: 11–17 (in Russian). Kuznetsova. Yu.. 1997. (2002). Oradovskaya. Liquidators’ health. L. A. (2003). (2002). & Voitenko. V. (2002). E. A.. & Bozheskaya. Vartanyan. In: Lyubchenko. N. & Pasechnik. P. Minsk): 72 pp. L. S.S. E. I. In: Bar’yakhtar. G. A. Chernobyl Catastrophe: History. et al. G. S. V. Romanenko. L. A. G. Stepanenko. (1997). Gurevich. V. (1998). P.stopatom.. (in Russian). Diagnost. Nucl. (1998). & Zubovsky. Geochemical.htm) (in Russian). (1997). L. Changes of biological time in liquidators. V. Moscow (Materials. (Ed. Clinic. (2002). P. Chernobyl Catastrophe: Historiography. Kholodova. Gres’. Kh. D. I. A. A. Zhavoronkova. V. Rad. V. M. . Polymorbidity as syndrome of premature aging after low dose irradiation.” Kiev) (//www. G. (2003). Herald Kazhakh. Changes in homeostasis in liquidators. V. M. Problem 11(4): 405–416 (in Russian). M. (in Russian). Grebelnik.. Radioecol. A. Polyukhov. & Zhavoronkova. Moscow): pp. I. 2.. Social. High Nervous Activit. Age characteristics and correlation of cerebral hemodynamics in persons with high risk to develop cerebral vascular pathology. L. Ukraine and Russia (Pravo and Economica. Arynchyn. (1964). N. & Eler Ayad. E. Postradiation effect on inter-hemispheric asymmetry via EEG and thermographic characteristics. 43(2): 203– 205 (in Russian). Nesterenko. slavutich.. (1996). Dedicated to the Tenth Anniversary of the Republic’s Radiation Medicine Dispensary (Materials. K. Klempartskaya. V. Gabova. V. Moscow (Materials. V. Some eco-pathogenic problems seen in hair growth abnormalities in Byelorussian children. Geochemical. G. Nat. (2002). Atlas. I. Pyatak. V. Arlashchenko.2. (1995). G. K. J. B. M. 145–166 (in Russian). A. G. Sel’sky. O. N.. B. Mezhzherin. L. Medical and Biological Consequences (“Naukova Dumka”. Moscow): pp. In: Bar’yakhtar. Talalaeva.. & Tsyb.. S.. V. Cheban. Clinic. I. N. V. Twenty Years after Chernobyl: Ecological and Social Lessons. N.Yablokov: Accelerated Aging as a Consequence of Chernobyl Kharchenko. (1996). S. A. Delayed medical consequences in liquidators: Results of 20 years of monitoring. V. Minsk. Economical. In: International Conference of Psychiatry.” Kiev): 144 pp. Economical. Gerontol. Actual Problems of Medical Rehabilitation of the Population Suffering from the Chernobyl Catastrophe. V. N.. G. P. D. V. & Burlakova. V. June 5. B. (in Russian). V. Gerontol. & Petrova. (in Russian). Results and Problems of Medical Observation of Health Status of Liquidators Long after the Catastrophe (MONIKI. I. I. Baluda. Long-term effects of low dose of ionizing radiation on the human anti-oxidant system. 103–108 (in Russian). G. I. & Zubovsky. Aging abnormalities in liquidators.. V. Moscow): pp. V.

Incidence of diseases of the blood and the lymphatic system was three. Belarus 1. is far more common than might be expected. respectively. Diseases of the Blood and Blood-Forming Organs 5. Immunological abnormalities and increases in viral. and blood. and parasitic diseases are rife among individuals in the heavily contaminated areas. with some 1. In 1995.. diseases of the blood and the circulatory and lymphatic systems are among the most widespread consequences of the Chernobyl radioactive contamination and are a leading cause of morbidity and death for individuals who worked as liquidators. bone. 1999). 2002). 2. fax: +7-495-952-80-19. young and old alike. Premature cataracts. 4. Russian Academy of Sciences. Yablokov.to five-fold higher in the most contaminated Stolinsk and Luninetsk districts in Brest Province in 1996 than in less contaminated districts (Gordeiko. There are genetic damage and birth defects especially in children of liquidators and in children born in areas with high levels of radioisotope contamination. Leninsky Prospect 33. Brain damage has been found in individuals directly exposed—liquidators and those living in the contaminated territories.4-fold higher for inhabitants of the contaminated territories than for all of the population of Belarus. gastrointestinal.000 cases of thyroid dysfunction for every case of thyroid cancer.CHERNOBYL 5. Kudryashov.424 newborns in the territories contaminated by Cs-137 at levels above 1 Ci/km2 (Busuet et al.4-fold higher than for corresponding groups in the general population (304 and 69 per 10. as well as in their offspring.1. Matsko. 3.220. 1999. Yablokov This section describes the spectrum and the scale of the nonmalignant diseases that have been found among exposed populations. incidence of diseases of the blood and bloodforming organs was 4.1.1. bacterial. The incidence of hematological abnormalities was significantly higher among 1. 175. urologic. Endocrine dysfunction.1. overall morbidity has remained high in those exposed to the irradiation released by Chernobyl. The incidence of diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs was 3. Voice: +7-495-952-80-19. particularly thyroid disease. and 74 per 10. Nonmalignant Diseases after the Chernobyl Catastrophe Alexey V.8-fold higher Address for correspondence: Alexey V. It was 2. The negative health consequences of the catastrophe are amply documented in this chapter and concern millions of people. 5. 1998). these rates were. and skin diseases afflict and impair people. for the Belarus liquidators. heart. Yablokov@ecopolicy. tooth and mouth abnormalities. lung. 2001).000. One cannot give credence to the explanation that these numbers are due solely to socioeconomic factors. Adverse effects as a result of Chernobyl irradiation have been found in every group that has been studied. 5. Office 319. a marked increase after the catastrophe. Blood and Lymphatic System Diseases For both children and adults.ru among evacuees 9 years after the catastrophe. 279. For more than 20 years. 58 .1.1.000 (Matsko. 119071 Moscow. Russia. lymphatic.

10. Evacuees and those still living in heavily contaminated territories have a significantly lower percent of leukocytes. In the contaminated areas of Mogilev Province the number of people with leukopenia and anemia increased sevenfold from 1986 to 1988 compared to 1985 (Gofman. 1996). Ukraine 1. 5.1).09 1.1.60 ± 0.05. 5. 14.. There is a correlation between increased Fe-deficient anemia in Belarus and the level of radioactive contamination in the territory (Dzykovich et al. Children in the heavily contaminated territories have a level of free oxidizing radicals in their blood that is significantly higher than in those in the less contaminated territories: 1.. 1994. Nesterenko. Statistics of the Annual Cases of Belarussian Children with Depression of the Blood-Forming Organs after the Catastrophe (Gapanovich et al.to tenfold higher than the age norms (Baleva et al. Children from Chechersk District (Gomel Province) with levels of 15–40 Ci/km2 of Cs-137 and from Mtzensk and Bolkhovsk districts (Oryol Province. 1999a.b). Absolute and relative numbers of lymphocytes.to sixfold higher. in more contaminated areas (>15 Ci/km2 ) there was a significantly lower level of C3 component cells (Zafranskaya et al. 6. Russia) with levels of 1–15 Ci/km2 have lipid oxidation products that are two. 2001) 1979–1985 1986–1992 1993–1997 Number of cases 9.7-fold (Voznenko et al. which have expressed pan-D cellular marker CD3 (Baeva and Sokolenko. 2001a). 15. and Vitebsk (Ushachy District) provinces contaminated with Cs-137 statistically significantly declined from 1991 to 1994. 1996). Gomel (Kormyansk District).3 Cases per 10. as a percent of basophilic cells were significantly higher among adults and teenagers living in Gomel Province territories with a level of Cs-137 contamination from 15–40 Ci/km2 (Miksha and Danylov.278 ± 80 compared with 445 ± 36 measured as impulses per minute (Horishna. 11.1.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl TABLE 5. The amount of vitamins A and E in babies’ blood from the more contaminated territories (up to 40 Ci/km2 ) decreased 2. Contaminated children have rates of metabolism of BAO two. 8..6 0..0.. The activity of serum complement and the number of effective C4 component cells was significantly lower among 350 children from the Belarus area contaminated by Cs-137. 1995).71 ± 0.. . Myelotoxic activity of the blood (MTA) and the number of T lymphocytes were significantly lower in multiple sclerosis patients from areas with Cs-137 contamination from 5–15 Ci/km2 (Fyllypovich. 1999). For girls there was a reduced concentration of both direct and indirect bilirubin (Sychik and Stozharov. 2005).0 15. The number of cases of preleukemic conditions (myelodysplastic syndrome and aplastic anemia) increased significantly during the first 11 years after the catastrophe (Table 5.1.. 9.to 2.46∗ 1. The levels of irreplaceable bioantioxidants (BAO) were twoto threefold lower than norms for the corresponding age ranges. Primary products of lipid oxidation in the plasma of children’s blood (0 to 12 months) from Mogilev (Krasnopolsk District). Significant changes in the structure of the albumin layer of erythrocyte membranes (increased cell fragility) occurred in liquida- tors’ children born in 1987 (Arynchin et al. 1997).73∗ p < 0. 13.000 0. 7.2. For boys irradiated in utero there was a reduction in direct and an increase in free bilirubin in blood serum over 10 years. The leukocyte count was significantly higher among inhabitants of Vitebsk and Gomel provinces who developed infectious diseases in the first 3 years after the catastrophe compared with those who already were suffering from these diseases (Matveenko et al. 12. 2002).00 ∗ 59 14.1∗ 1. 1994). 1995). 1998).

9.1. 2000). blood hemoglobin levels exceeded 150 g/liter in the settlements of Bryansk Province that had high levels of Cs-137 soil contamination and a level of contamination from Sr-90 (Lenskaya et al. 1999).3% of children from zones with radiation levels of 5–15 Ci/km2 (Stepanova and Davydenko. 2002). 2. and increase in the volume of water. 6.. In 1996. Diseases of the blood and circulatory system for people living in the contaminated territories increased 11. blood-forming organs. morbidity of the blood-forming organs in the contaminated territories was 2. 13.000. 1995). In the contaminated territories. 3. 1995).7 per 1. 7. morbidity of the blood and blood-forming organs in adults and teenagers living in contaminated territories increased 2.4fold higher than for the rest of Ukraine (12. and thrombocytes in liquidators’ peripheral blood were markedly different (Tukov et al. Individuals living in the contaminated areas have fewer lymphocytes with adaptive reaction.to threefold higher blood and blood-forming-organ morbidity compared to children from noncontaminated territories (Horishna.5% (Nagornaya..2 per 10.to 15-fold for the first 12 years after the catastrophe (1988–1999. 6.60 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2. In almost half of the children. 2000). Grodzinsky.. anemia was found in 11. Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs caused much greater general morbidity in children from contaminated areas (Kulakov et al.5-fold between 1986 and 1993 (Baleva et al. and 32% of them also had abnormal blood counts. 7..4-fold: from 12. 1996). 1999a).200 surveyed children living in the area. decreased concentration of cellular substances. For liquidators. 2005). and the number of people with higher lymphocytes radiosensitivity increased (Burlakova et al. Russia 1. 2001). 8. Abnormalities included mitochondrial swelling and stratification of nuclear membranes. The last is an indication of damage to the cellular membranes (Stepanova and Davydenko. 1997)..7 in 1987 to up to 30. 5.2 up to 11.926 children examined in 1986–1998 (Bebeshko et al. In 1998 the annual general morbidity from blood. Morbidity owing to abnormalities of the blood and the circulatory system has more than doubled in children in the contaminated districts of Tula Province and has increased in all the contaminated districts in comparison with the period before the catastrophe (Sokolov.000. 3. The numbers of leukocytes. 5. During 1987–1988 qualitative changes in blood cells were found in 78. erythrocytes. lymphocytes. Children of liquidators living in the contaminated territories had two. 1999).1.3. the morbidity from blood and blood-forming organs grew 14.5 per 10. Fetysov. For the remaining population of Ukraine this level remained at the precatastrophe level (Grodzinsky. During the acute iodic period (the first months after the catastrophe) abnormal blood cell morphology was found in more than 92% of 7. pathological changes in cell surfaces. Prysyazhnyuk et al. 2003). 1995). 4.6 vs. Critically low lymphocyte counts were seen in children in the contaminated districts of Bryansk Province over a 10-year survey after the catastrophe (Luk’yanova and Lenskaya. 4. and the circulatory system of children in the contaminated districts of Bryansk Province significantly exceeded the provincial level (19. 8..5% of 1. 1998). The number of large granulocytic lymphocytes decreased by 60–80% 1 month after the liquidators began work and .. For the first 10 years after the catastrophe the number of cases of diseases of blood and blood-forming organs among adults in the contaminated territories of Zhytomir Province increased more than 50-fold: from 0. 1995). expansion of the perinuclear spaces. 5.000 in 1996. For a decade after the catastrophe.6 and 3.

2003). 2003). 2001. 2001a). Vasyna et al. 2002). Imbalance of the intermediate-size molecules in thrombocytes. 2004). Increased intravascular thrombocyte aggregation (Tlepshukov et al.1. the following parameters of the blood and lymphatic system were significantly different from controls: • • • • • • Quantity of the POL by-products (by malonic aldehyde concentration) and by viscosity of membranes and on a degree of the lipids nonsaturation (Baleva et al. 2002). and blood serum (Zagradskaya. even in the second and third generations (Furitsu et al. Cardiovascular Diseases Cardiovascular diseases are widespread in all the territories contaminated by Chernobyl emissions.. Receptor–leukotrene reaction of erythrocyte membranes (Karpova and Koretskaya. Palpable lymph nodes occurred with greater frequency and were more enlarged in the heavily contaminated territories.2. In the contaminated territories of Kursk Province changes in lymphocyte counts and functional activity and the number of circulating immune complexes were seen in the blood of children 10 to 13 years of age and in pregnant women (Alymov et al. 1998).Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 61 TABLE 5.4% of 468 children and teenagers examined (Bozhko. . 1992). 2002). Among the liquidators. 13. 5. Chronic tonsillitis and hypertrophy of the tonsils and adenoids were found in 45.2). Oryol Province. 1998). Liquidators’ lymphopoesis remained nonfunctional 10 years after the catastrophe (Table 5. and in Chechersk District. Russia. following the Chernobyl catastrophe. Thus it can be expected that... • Average duration of nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation (NPMR) of blood plasma (Popova et al. Increased blood fibrinolyic activity and fibrinogen concentration in blood serum (Tlepshukov et al. 2004).2. 10. 12. Dynamics of the Interrelation by Lymphopoietic Type (in %... and increased toothlike projection of this zone (Aculich.. 2005). 2004).. Decreased scattering of the granular component of lymphocyte nuclei reduction of the area and perimeter of the perigranular zones. It is known that Japanese juvenile atomic bomb victims suffer from diseases of the bloodforming organs 10 times more often than control groups. 2004) Time after the catastrophe 0 to 5 years 5 to 9 years 10 to 15 years Control group Lymphopoietic types Quasi-normal 32 38 60 76 Hyperregeneratory 55 0 17 12 Hyporegeneratory 13 62 23 12 stayed at a lower level for at least 1 year (Antushevich and Legeza. erythrocytes. 9. several more generations will develop blood-forming diseases as a result of the radiation. 11. The glutathione level in blood proteins and cytogenic characteristics of lymphocytes were markedly different in children born 5 to 7 years after the catastrophe in the contaminated Mtsensk and Bolkhov districts. Significant abnormal lymphocytes and lymphopenia was seen more often in children in the contaminated territories (Sharapov... See Text) in Russian Liquidators (Karamullin et al. Gomel Province. Belarus (Ivanenko et al.

2002. 1997). 12. Impaired cardiovascular homeostasis is characteristic for more newborns in the first 4 days of life in districts with contamination levels higher than 15–40 Ci/km2 (Voskresenskaya et al. including in the young working group (National Belarussian Report. 1998). Kienya and Ermolitsky. 1996.. In 1995. 9. cardiovascular system morbidity among the population in the contaminated territories and evacuees was threefold higher than for Belarus as a whole (4. 1999). acute heart attacks. 11. 10.. Matsko. . Incidence of hemorrhages in newborns in the contaminated Chechersky District of the Gomel Province is more than double than before the catastrophe (Kulakov et al. and Brest provinces (Arynchin et al.5% in the general population (Pflugbeil et al. changes in the cardiovascular system were found in more than 70% of surveyed children aged 3 to 7 years from contaminated territories of Gomel Province (Bandazhevskaya. 1995.62 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 5. 7. 2003. and atherosclerosis in of the arms and legs. El’sk.1% increase in the incidence of fatal cardiovascular disease among liquidators compared to 2. and Slavgorodsk districts). 2006). 2002. was significantly abnormal for girls age 10 to 15 years who lived in areas with a level of Cs-137 contamination higher than 1–5 Ci/km2 compared with those in the less contaminated territories (Khomich and Lysenko. Arynchin. 2006). brain arterial vessels in children 4 to 16 years old were more brittle among children in contaminated areas in Gomel (Narovlyansky. There were significantly higher incidence and persistence of abnormalities of cardiac rhythm in patients with ischemic heart disease in contaminated territories (Arynchyna and Mil’kmanovich. 2003).000. 1992. In the observation period 1992–1997 there was a 22. 4.. 2001. Belarus 1. Cardiovascular disease increased nationwide three. 1994. The primary morbidity of both male and female liquidators was high blood pressure. 1992. where contamination was above 30 Ci/km2 (Podpalov. Nesterenko. 6. 2. cerebrovascular diseases. 5. Higher arterial pressure in children correlated with the quantity of the incorporated Cs-137 (Bandazhevskaya. Zabolotny et al. More than 70% of newborn to 1-yearold children in territories with Cs-137 soil contamination of 5–20 Ci/km2 have had cardiac rhythm abnormalities (Tsybul’skaya et al.630 per 100. which increased significantly in 1993–2003. 1994). 1997). 1996). Compared to healthy children.2. 13. 3. 1994). Bandazhevsky 1999). Savanevsky and Gamshey. 1997). 8. 2006). Morbidity of the circulatory system among children born to irradiated parents was significantly higher from 1993 to 2003 (National Belarussian Report.... Bandazhevsky.. and Khoiniky districts). 1996). 1992). Krasnopol’sk. 1996). Abnormalities of cardiac rhythm and conductivity correlated with the quantity of incorporated radionuclides (Bandazhevsky et al.to fourfold in 10 years compared to the pre-Chernobyl period and to an even greater degree in the more heavily contaminated areas (Manak et al. as indicated by vasomotor reactions of the large vessels. 1992.1.. Braginsk.860 and 1. Goncharik.1. Correlated with levels of radiation. Both raised and lowered arterial blood pressure were found in children and adults in the contaminated areas (Sykorensky and Bagel. and others). Increased arterial pressure occurred significantly more often in adults in the Mogilev Province. Nedvetskaya and Lyalykov. The volume of blood loss during Caesarean birth was significantly higher for women from Gomel Province living in the territories contaminated by Cs-137 at levels of 1– 5 Ci/km2 compared to those from uncontaminated areas (Savchenko et al. 1996.. Mogilev (Tchernikovsk. Blood supply to the legs.

2002) Liquidators (n = 56) 151. Oryol Province.3 0 0.8%.3.. mm∗ Overburdening heredity. Russia 1. 1998).. 2.5fold higher than in the rest of Ukraine (430 vs. 1999b). Increased systolic . 1997). is double what it was prior to the catastrophe (Kulakov et al. and increased cardiac wall thickness characteristic of atherosclerosis.. 1997). The health of liquidators differs significantly from that of control groups. 5.4 16.2.04 27.90∗ 25 Inhabitants of contaminated territory (n = 60) 129.000.81 ± 0.05. 4. % Insult.3. 2.. more ischemic heart disease.1∗ 0.5 ± 1. 3.82 ± 0.to fivefold higher than the average (Komogortseva. for 1991–1998 morbidity increased 1. 2002). According to other data.2.. 2006). 2004). morbidity from circulatory disease increased 23-fold between 1986 and 1994 (Baleva et al. p < 0.1. Grodzinsky. hyperthyroidism.2 ± 1. % ∗ Statistically significant differences from control group. The liquidators living in contaminated territories of Voronezh Province differed from control groups also in the number of strokes (cerebral vascular accidents) and the cases of ischemic heart disease (Table 5..5∗ 9.3 Parameter AP–a systole AP–diastole IBH. Kiev Province. 5.1∗ 4. For the three heavily contaminated districts in Bryansk Province. 31. 5. Atherosclerosis and ischemic disease of the heart are seen significantly more often in young evacuees and in those living in contaminated territories (Prokopenko.6-fold (Byryukov et al. Incidence of hemorrhage in newborns in the contaminated Polessk District. 2003). 4. In 1995–1998 morbidity in Bryansk Province liquidators increased 2. 2001). the former having higher arterial blood pressure.3 ± 3. morbidity in children from circulatory system problems is three.2..20 25 Control (n = 44) 126. Liquidators’ morbidity from vegetalvascular dystonia (tachycardia. Some 13 years after the catastrophe cardiovascular morbidity among liquidators was fourfold higher than in corresponding groups of the population (National Russian Report. The incidence of hemorrhages among newborns in the contaminated Mtsensk and Volkovsk districts. % Thickness of carotid wall. 3. Ukraine 1.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 63 TABLE 5. Symptoms of early atherosclerosis were observed in 55. Ten years after the catastrophe there was an increase in the incidence of high arterial blood pressure among a large group of liquidators who worked from April to June 1986 (Kuznetsova et al. Diseases of the cardiovascular system occurred significantly more often in children irradiated in utero (57.1 83.9 ± 1.5∗ 1. and neuropathy) was 16-fold higher than the average for Ukraine in the first 10 years after the catastrophe (Serdyuk and Bobyleva.8 46.6 ± 2.3).2 ± 2.2 33.2 82.1. 5. The morbidity from circulatory diseases in 1996 in the contaminated territories was 1. For liquidators. 2006). Cardiovascular Characteristics of Male Liquidators in Voronezh Province (Babkin et al. 1999).71 ± 0.8∗ 91.2% of children in territories contaminated at a level of 5–15 kBq \ m2 (Burlak et al. has more than doubled since the catastrophe (Kulakov et al. 2001). 294 per 10. Prysyazhnyuk et al.2-fold (Fetysov. 1999).8 vs.

Abnormal vascular circulation of the eye was found in all of the liquidators examined (Rud’ et al.. Typically abnormalities persisted in liquidators for a long time after the catastrophe (Shamaryn et al. Other Countries MOLDOVA.. 2004). it was typical to find lowered tonus of arterial vessels in the circle of Willis in the brain (Kovaleva et al. 11. Liquidators with ischemic heart disease differ significantly in many homodynamic parameters compared with other patients of the same age (Talalaeva. Conclusion Diseases of blood. and the number of such cases is increasing (Romanova. Ischemic heart disease developed in one-third of 118 liquidators under observation for 15 years (Noskov. undoubtedly.8% in 1996 (Strukov.. Morbidity and the frequency of occurrence of ischemic heart disease in liquidators and in the general population of the contaminated territories continue to grow (Khrysanfov and Meskikh. Kuznetsova et al. 2002). and the circulatory system are. 2001. Hypertension is seen markedly more often among both liquidators and people living in the contaminated territories. Hypertension is seen even more often in children of liquidators (Kulakov et al. major components of the general morbidity of inhabitants of the territories contaminated by . 2004.64 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences blood pressure was characteristic for all the liquidators examined (Zabolotny et al.3. 12. 10. and 22% have left ventricular hypertrophy (Kirkae. This pathological condition is specific for the impact caused by small doses of Chernobyl radioactivity and is not listed in the international classification of illnesses (Khrysanfov and Meskikh... Bazarov et al. Impairment of blood circulation in the brain (neurocirculatory dystonia) was found in a majority of the liquidators examined in 1986– 1987. 2002).. DCE was found in 40% of the cases of structural brain circulatory disease in Russian liquidators in 2000. Liquidators from Chisinau evidence a triple increase in cardiovascular diseases over the last years and the incidence among them is now double that of control groups. Kuznetsova et al.. 2004). 2001. 2001). After a second evaluation in 2000– 2001. 2001.2. 2001. 8. from 14. 2001).6 to 23. Liquidators were also found to suffer from diminished antimicrobial properties of vessel walls (Tlepshukov et al. 6. 5. Left-heart ventricular mass was significantly larger in liquidators although arterial pressures were normal (Shal’nova et al. 1998). 2003). 2000)..4. 7. 2001). For all the liquidators examined. High blood pressure accounted for 25% of the cases of pathology in liquidators in 2000 (Khrysanfov and Meskikh.9% (Zubovsky and Smirnova. 14.1.. atherosclerosis of the brachiocephalic arteries was found in several members of the same large group of the liquidators originally examined in 1993–1994 (Shamaryn et al. 13. 2004). From 1993 to 1996 another group of liquidators demonstrated a significant increase in ischemic heart disease. 1998). Some 25% of the liquidators examined developed thickening of the aortic wall. 2004) and occurred more frequently in young liquidators (Kuznetsova et al.1. 1997). a chronic cerebral vascular pathology leading to functional and organic destruction of the central nervous system.. 2004). from 20 to 58. 2001). 5.0% (Strukov. 2003). and others). 2001. blood-forming organs. Khrysanfov and Meskikh. Petrova. Antushevich and Legeza. 2003).. These changes occur mainly owing to disease of small arteries and arterioles (Troshyna.. Impairment of blood circulation in the brain among liquidators is sometimes defined as dyscirculatory encephalopathy (DCE). From 1991 to 1998 the incidence of ischemic heart disease in liquidators increased threefold. 9.5% in 1993 to 24. 2002. 2001). Hypertension morbidity in a group of liquidators increased from 18.

Altered structure of generative chromosomes (in sperm and ova) indicates genetic predisposition to various diseases in the next generation. and others. it is clear that one of the common reasons for these functional impairments is radioactive destruction of the endothelium. Ionizing radiation causes damage to hereditary structures.1). the number of mitoses per 100 cells. Accumulated data show genetic polymorphism of proteins and changes in satellite DNA. insertions. centric rings. 1994. obtained by studying lymphocytes. Chromosomal Mutations Ionizing radiation causes various changes in the general structure of chromosomes: nonstable aberrations (dicentrics. which are retained for many years. 1995a.1. 1999). This section presents data not only on the various types of mutations that have resulted from the catastrophe (Section 5. Occurrence of a chromosomal aberration does not necessarily mean development of disease. including changes in the structure and normal number of chromosomes in those radiated by Chernobyl fallout.4) and the health of the subsequent generation. The Chernobyl fallout caused a further increase in the already elevated number of .2. the covering surface of vessels. Mikhalevich. chromosomal mutations (damage to the structure of chromosomes—translocations. 5. Stepanova and Vanyurikhyna.g.2. 1999. which are rather quickly eliminated in subsequent cell generations. Genetic Changes Changes in genetic structures in both reproductive and somatic cells determine and define the occurrence of many diseases. The incidence of chromosomal aberrations is significantly higher in all of the territories contaminated by the Chernobyl nuclear fallout (Lazyuk et al. noncentric fragments). but also on genetically caused congenital developmental anomalies (Section 5.1.2. in blood cells).Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 65 the Chernobyl radiation. An additional parameter of genetic variability is the so-called mitosis index.. The huge collective dose from the Chernobyl catastrophe (127–150 million persons/rad) has resulted in damage that will span several generations. and also impaired reproductive cells. and inversions).4). The severe impact of radioactive contamination from Chernobyl resulting in increasing morbidity of the blood and circulatory system cannot be doubted. migrants. owing to somatic cell impairment (e.2. and stable aberrations (different types of translocations at separate chromosomal sites). Changes in the Frequency of Mutations There are many convincing studies showing increased frequency of chromosomal and genomic mutations.2. including increasing dicentric and ring chromosome abnormalities in mothers and their newborns in the contaminated territories (Matsko. and liquidators and their children. 5. Pilinskaya. Presence of cells with several aberrations (multiaberrant cells) may indicate the level of the impact of Pu (Il’inskikh et al. but it does signal both the likely emergence of various tumors. Histological analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes reveals structural and chromosomal number aberrations.. deletions. Vorobtsova et al.. including evacuees. Sevan’kaev et al.5). reflects the general status of chromosomes throughout the body. the children born to irradiated parents (Section 5.2.. 1995. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in somatic cells. Twenty-two years after the catastrophe data concerning genetic damage linked to additional Chernobyl irradiation was released. and small (point) mutations.1. 1990. causing changes in genetic structures and various types of mutations: genomic mutations (change in the number of chromosomes). Table 5. 5. 1993. 2002).. In spite of the fact that the general picture of the blood and circulatory systems is still far from complete.

1998–1999 n/a 1.1 0. Goncharova.. have a significantly higher number of chromosomal aberrations.0 All distinctions are statistically significant.4% in 1988).4. 1998–1999 30-km Chernobyl zone. 1999). Gy 0.2 ± 12..1 ± 15.20 ± 0.95 Chromosomal aberrations. . Kiev. 2002).10 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences chromosomal mutations observed worldwide that is associated with the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing that was carried out until the 1980s. early 1970s Ukraine.4 47.14 3. n 1.2 67. a significant increase in the number of multiaberrant cells with two to four aberrations was found (16. before 1986 Average in the world.19 ± 0. Gomel Province (Ivanenko et al.5). 5.4 0.32 ± 2.84 5. micronuclei numbers in peripheral lymphocytes increased many years after their exposure to the radiation (Table 5.21 ± 0..3 108. where the Cs-137 levels are 5–15 Ci/km2 . Belarus 1.7 years old 15. 47.. 1996. The average incidence of DNA mutations was twice as high in 79 children born in 1994 in Belarus to parents who continued to live in contaminated territories after the catastrophe.2. 5. 1996. 1997). For liquidators. The same children examined 1 year and 2 years after the catastrophe had significant increases in the number of chromosomal aberrations (5. Elevated chromosomal aberrations are found in children born 5 to 7 years after the catastrophe in the contaminated Chechersk City. The occurrence of cells with three to four aberrations was especially higher in children from the more contaminated Khoiniky and Braginsk districts (Mikhalevich.9 ± 4.3 years old 2.1. 2002) Aberrant cells. 1972. and biochemical changes in peripheral blood (Mel’nov and Lebedeva. These cytogenic changes are accompanied by molecular-genetic. Incidence of (%.1 108.6 ± 1.1.6 47.0 69. There was a sixfold increase in dicentrics and centric ring frequencies in the blood cells of the same individual before and after the catastrophe (Matsko.7 + 0. Some 52% of surveyed children from the contaminated territories of Brest Province.8 ± 1.3 0.1 24.000 cells)∗ Dose.4 + 3.4 ± 5. cytological. n Ukraine.13 ± 0..51 ± 0.6% in 1988). 40. 1994). Pilinskaya. 2004).16 2. 1992.66 TABLE 5.0 + 3.3 29.06 1.08 3.5. 2002) Frequency of micronuclei (per 1.47 ± 0. During the same evaluation. 1997.1 Controls.2 + 0.. 2001.2 0.97 5.9 ± 21. The number of chromosomal aberrations is higher than the norms among children living in areas with elevated levels of radiation (Nesterenko.0 ± 26. The genetic changes are especially common among individuals who were younger than 6 years of age at the time of the catastrophe (Ushakov et al. Number of Micronuclei in Lymphocytes of Belarussian Liquidators 15 Years after the Catastrophe (Mel’nov.5 ∗ Liquidators.02 ± 1.1. 2000).3% in 1987 and 27. 2004). Bezdrobna et al.19 2. 2000 Ukraine.2 ± 14.4 ± 2. M ± m) Aberrant Cells and Chromosomal Aberrations (per 100 Lymphocytes) before and after the Chernobyl Catastrophe (Bochkov et al. 3.5% in 1987 and 8.2 ± 2. 6. 4. 2.0 ± 16.43 ± 0. Frequency of chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and centric rings) in women and newborns from the contaminated areas of Mogilev Province are significantly higher than in a control group.01 0.0 149. 1999). TABLE 5.7 ± 1. This was more than twice that in the DNA of children from 105 controls (families in Great Britain) and has been correlated with the level of radioactive contamination in the district where the parents lived (Dubrova et al. and the frequency of such abnormal chromosomes is more than double in schoolboys from the contaminated areas of Brest Province compared with those from less contaminated Minsk (Lazyuk et al.4 45.6 ± 10.

3 ± 0..4 2001 0.2 0.0 8.2.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl TABLE 5.07 ± 0.1. Children evacuated from Pripyat City had higher incidences of chromatid aberration 10 years after the catastrophe.5 ± 1. per 100 cells Type of aberrations Breaks and exchanges Insertions Deletions Without fragments Total abnormal Monocentrics Total ∗ “Samosels” 3.152 6.09 0.06 0.7 ± 0. per 100 cells Type of aberration Dicentrics + centric rings Breaks Exchanges∗ Fragments Insertions Deletions with fragments Deletions without fragments Total abnormal Monocentrics Total ∗ 67 TABLE 5. cells.10 ± 0..23 ± 0. the level of chromosomal aberrations and the number of multiaberrant cells significantly in- creased in “samosels” (self-settlers—the people who moved into the prohibited 30-km zone. 2005).0 12. Pre-Chernobyl level: 1. 1986–1988 (Bezdrobna et al.7 .04 0. and 5.6) demonstrate the prolonged effect of low dose.5 per 100 cells) and as a group (1.08 2. Belarus.02 ± 0.25 ± 0. During the first year after their evacuation from the 30-km zone.025 0..b).1 0.03 0. 1999) Person. TABLE 5.02 0. Comparison of the Incidence of Chromosomal Aberrations (per 100 Lymphocytes) from a 30-km Zone of Kiev Province. 4. low linear-energy-transfer of radiation (so-call low-LET radiation).45 ± 0.33 ± 0. Tables 5. 5. 2002. and from the Heavily Contaminated Territories of Gomel Province.1.6 ± 0.13 ± 0. n Aberrant Aberrations. Pilinskaya.0 ± 2.2 0. 2002) Incidence.04 ± 0.6 11.39 ± 0.8).1∗ 0.3 ± 0. For children from the village of Narodichi.1 ± 0. Ukraine.8.6 per 100 cells.6 ± 0.025 ± 0.03 1. The children of liquidators have an increased incidence of chromosomal aberrations (Horishna. 2002.06 0. 1999). In a survey of more than 5.3 ± 2. 6. 2007). the number of aberrant cells and stable and nonstable chromosomal aberrations was higher (Stepanova and Skvarskaya.789 5.273 3.1 0..05 2.01 2.02 ± 0.32 ± 0. 2004). where the Cs-137 contamination was 15 Ci/km2 . 5.02 0.000 children radiated at age 0 to 3 years. and the frequency of occurrence of dicentrics and rings correlated with duration of residence in a contaminated zone (Maznik..05 0. Frequency of Chromosomal Aberrations (per 100 Lymphocytes) of the Same 20 “Samosels” (Self-Settlers) in 1998–1999 and 2001 Surveys (Bezdrobna et al.3 0. The incidence of aberrant cells and chromosomal aberrations is significantly higher in children radiated in utero (Stepanova et al.29 ± 0.07 1. 2. In 12 to 15 years after the catastrophe.2 ± 0.7.2 Kiev area 2.. both as individuals (0.1 3. 2003a).6 ± 0. n n 5.8 12. 5. Incidence of Various Types of Chromosomal Aberrations (per 100 Lymphocytes) among “Samosels” (Self-Settlers) and in the Kiev Area (Bezdrobna et al.2 ± 0.b.1.5–5. n 30-km zone Kiev Gomel area 33 31 56 Cells.0 ± 0.9 ± 0.4 ± 0. Incidence of this cytogenic damage was not sexdependent.10 ± 0. Ukraine 1.09 0.2 ± 0.06 1.2– 2.8 ± 0.16 ± 0.03 0.6. Stepanova et al. whereas that of stable chromosomal aberrations increased (Pilinskaya et al.03 0. the level of nonstable chromosomal aberrations among evacuees significantly exceeded control values and gradually decreased during the next 14 years. The frequency of occurrence of single-hit acentrics and the presence of two-hit dicentrics and circular rings (see Table 5.12 ± 0.18 ± 0.08 ± 0.04 3..8 ± 0. 3.07 0. 2002a.13 ± 0.2.1 0. Stepanova et al.2 1.22 ± 0. Mikhalevich.6. the frequency of occurrence of nonstable chromosomal aberrations was maintained at a more-or-less constant level for more than 10 years.03 0.2∗ Differences are statistically significant. 2002a.1 1998–1999 0.7.05 ± 0.02 0. 2002) Incidence.

40 0.. 1998.. 5. The number of aberrant cells and chromosomal aberrations (pair fragments and rings) and the size of index chromosome breaks in newborns correlated with dose levels and dose rates at the time of the births (Kulakov et al. The index of genomic DNA repair is lower in the majority of children in the contaminated regions (Bondarenko et al. 2004).200 children from the contaminated areas of Bryansk and Kaluga provinces with Cs-137 levels from 100–1. the incidence of stable aberrations was significantly higher (Maznik and Vinnykov. Pilinskaya et al..22 0. 2002. 2005) Aberration (per 100 cells) Contaminated areas Acentric fragments Dicentrics and centric rings 0. 4.1. In 1989–1994 a higher incidence of nonstable chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and circular rings) was found in 1.3.03 7. Radiation-induced cytogenic effects were maintained in 30–45% of surveyed liquidators for 10 to 12 years after the catastrophe... 9. An increased incidence of chromosomal aberrations is found in children born 5 to 7 years after the catastrophe in the contaminated Mtsensk District and Bolkhov City. 1993).1 (Pilinskaya.2. 1993).1. with Cs-137 levels in soil of 110–860 kBq/m2 .000 kBq/m2 . 2.19 Control 0. .. 7.. 2006). and Kaluga provinces. with controls at 0. 1995a. 2003). There was stabilization of the number of dicentric and ring chromosomes at a level of 0. 1995). For the majority surveyed in the contaminated territories. Maznik et al. Russia 1.to fourfold among those individuals in Chernobyl territories with Cs-137 levels of contamination above 3 Ci/km2 (Bochkov.. with controls at 0.9. and among evacuated young men. The level of stable chromosomal aberrations in liquidators increased for 10 to 15 years after the catastrophe (Mel’nikov et al. and/or microanomalies and extremely elevated amount of near-centromer Cheterochromatin (Vorsanova et al. 3. 2002). The level of chromosomal aberrations among children radiated in utero was significantly higher than in children who were born longer after the meltdown (Bondarenko et al. The phenomenon of genetic instability is found in children of liquidators (Stepanova et al. 9.04–0. 2004). 8... There was a correlation between living in the contaminated territories (Bryansk. 2000).2 and increased incidence of stable cytogenetic changes at 0.5–4. Tula. 2005).5 per 100 cells. congenital defects. 1991–1997) and a delay in psychomotor development.. DNA repair activity (tested by reactivation and induced mutagenesis of smallpox vaccine viruses) was impaired in children born after the catastrophe in territories with Cs-137 contamination levels above 5 Ci/km2 (Unzhakov et al. The frequency of occurrence of these aberrations correlated with the level of contamination of the territory (Sevan’kaev et al.. 8.68 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 5. 2003b). Oryol Province (Ivanenko et al. 5. The frequency of occurrence of chromosomal aberrations increased two. 10. 2004). Level of Chromosomal Aberrations in Children and Teenagers from the Contaminated Territories 17 Years after the Catastrophe (Cs-137: 111–200 kBq/m2 ) (Sevan’kaev et al.5–1 per 100 cells. 6. 1998). Seventeen years after the catastrophe there was an increased number of chromosomal aberrations in 30–60% of children and teenagers from territories contaminated by Cs137 to a level of 111–200 kBq/m2 (Table 5. 10.. 1999).b. An increased level of chromosomal aberrations is found in children of the Novozybkov District of Bryansk Province (Kuz’myna and Suskov.9) (Sevan’kaev et al.

03 and 0.3 4.02∗ 0. and in Uzlovaya Station. 1996.12) (Shevchenko et al. Among 248 individuals aged 15 to 28 years surveyed. acentric fragments. 2006). 1996). n 1. 2006) Metaphases.11). 14. Among those radiated in utero. Bezhenar’..3∗ 2. The number of lymphocytes with mutations of T-locus (TCR) and the number of chromosomal aberrations correlated with a level of radiation contamination in women with uterine tumors (myomas) who continued to live in the heavily contaminated Novozybkov and Klintsy districts.430 Aberrations..10).10 + 0..12 ± 0.02 ± 0. Svirnovsky et al.08∗ 0. 2006) Individuals. the frequency of occurrence of such aberrations is fivefold higher than in controls (Sevan’kaev et al. Tula Province.04 Including dicentrics 0.11. 1998.to sixfold less (0. n 21. 2003. Tula Province (Table 5. Shykalov et al. Figure 5. which was two. Number of Mutant Cells and Incidence of Chromosomal Aberrations (per 100 Metaphases) among Women with Uterine Myoma in the Contaminated Territories of Tula and Bryansk Provinces (Tsyb et al. and others.6 ± 0.2 ± 0.1 Contamination.027 51. Among inhabitants of four contaminated districts of Oryol Province. Slozina and Neronova. .. Ivanova et al. 2002. 2006). the incidence of gene mutations on locus T-cellular receptor (TCR) and on locus glycophorin (GPA) is higher than in controls (Sevan’kaev et al. Bryansk Province. Shevchenko and Snegyreva.66 ± 0. Bq/m2 708 322 171 Control No data 18. n Bryansk Province Control ∗ Cells. 1995.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 69 TABLE 5. n No data 4. 2006).07 compared to controls. TABLE 5. Bryansk Province. 17.600 12.2 Aberrations. the incidence of chromosomal exchange aberrations was 0.. The number of nonstable (dicentrics.6 ± 0. Oganesyan et al. Inhabitants of the heavily contaminated Klintsy and Vyshkov districts of Bryansk Province demonstrate a significantly higher mitotic index in comparison with controls (Pelevina et al.27 ± 0.5∗ 4.to fourfold higher than among control groups...1 2. and others). 18.1). the incidence of dicentrics and centric rings is two. and centric rings) and stable aberrations (translocations and insertions) in liquidators was significantly higher in the first year after the catastrophe (Shevchenko et al.0 ± 0. n Novozybkovsky District (n = 22) Klintsovsky District (n = 97) Uzlovaya Station (n = 100) Obninsk (n = 42) ∗ Mutant cells.30 ± 0. 1995. 11. 2002.779 Differences from the control are significant.37 ± 0.3∗ 5. 13..04. The number of lymphocytic and marrow chromosomal mutations correlated with the radiation dose among liquidators and inhabitants of Pripyat City within 3 months after the catastrophe and were manifestly higher than among controls (Table 5.01 80 114 Differences from control are significant.3 ± 0.. 2002. 2002.703 19. The number of chromosomal aberrations among inhabitants of the contaminated territories in Bryansk Province is higher than among people living in less contaminated areas (Table 5.13 ± 0.. Maznik. 12.10. 1999. 16.43 + 0. 15. n 6. and Klintsy District. Incidence of Chromosomal Aberrations among Inhabitants of the Contaminated Territories of Bryansk Province (Snegyreva and Shevchenko.. Among 336 surveyed fertile women from the contaminated Uzlovaya Station. Deomyna et al.

8 1.641 6. GERMANY (southern areas). 2006).7 5.000 liquidators had a significantly higher average frequency of occurrence of chromosomal aberrations (especially high in liquidators from 1986) (Sevan’kaev et al.3 23.1. there was an 11-fold increase (Pohl-R¨ ling et al.2 ± 0. Figure 5.0 0. Average frequency of dicentrics in a group of 1986 liquidators examined within 18 years after the catastrophe (Snegyreva and Shevchenko.7 14.12. n 32.3 1.3 ± 2.0 14. 22. 1999) Group Construction crew for the sarcophagus∗∗ (n = 71) Radiation supervisors (n = 23) NPP staff (n = 83) Drivers (n = 60) Pripyat City civilians (n = 35) Doctors (n = 37) Control (n = 19) ∗ ∗∗ Cells. 1991).1 ± 4.7 ± 1. the number of chromosomal aberrations increased from 4. u 3.7 ± 1.. examined before and 1 year after the catastrophe.0 3.1. 23.937 1. The incidence of dicentrics in liquidators rose during the first 8 to 12 years after the catastrophe (Slozina and Neronova. 1998).4 ± 2. Other Countries 1.8 ± 1. Ten years after the catastrophe 1.4. In the first 6 to 8 years after the catastrophe the number of chromosomal aberrations in liquidators from the Russian Federal Nuclear Center in Sarov City was significantly higher than in controls (Table 5.to sixfold increase in the number of chromosomal aberrations. 2.605 Aberrations.500 liquidators were examined and even after 15 years the frequency of occurrence of dicentrics was considerably higher than in control groups (Snegyreva and Shevchenko.70 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 5. 5. The number of translocations in liquidators was significantly higher than in controls (Table 5.4 13. Among newborns conceived in the months postcatastrophe. Chromosomal Mutations among Various Groups of Liquidators within the First 3 Months after the Catastrophe (Shevchenko and Snegyreva.1.1% (Lukic et al.8 2. AUSTRIA.7 ± 2.1 ± 2.590 3.593 2. 2002).2. 19. .300 2. More than 1.to sixfold increase in the number of chromosomal aberrations (Stephan and Oestreicher. In 1987 among 17 adults examined there was a four.9∗ 4.15).4 ± 0. In the first 8 to 9 years after the catastrophe the number of cells with translocations among liquidators was more than twice that in controls (Table 5.015 5. 1993).14).0 For all groups differences with controls are significant.9 ± 0.5∗ 31. Sarcophagus is the huge concrete construct that covers the exposed Chernobyl reactor. 2002).8 ± 1. 21.9 ± 0. and in two individuals. 20. Among 29 children and adults examined in 1987–1991 there was a two.13).5% (1976–1985 average) to 7. YUGOSLAVIA.. n 4. 1988)..7 Including dicentric and centric rings 4.

. n 44. In West Berlin.8 ± 1. In southern Germany an increase in the number of trisomy 21 cases was determined by amniocentesis (Sperling et al. 1990–1995 (Shevchenko and Snegyreva.5 ± 0. 1994.09 52 15 p < 0.1. 18.33 ± 0..16) and an increase of 17% for the whole country for the period from 1987 to 1994 TABLE 5.4∗ 31.160 26.4 ± 0. Smitz-Fuerhake. In 1991.786 cases) revealed an annual increase in 1987 for the whole country and monthly increases in January 1987 in Minsk City and in Gomel and Minsk provinces (Lazjuk et al. 2002). Number of Chromosomal Aberrations in Lymphocytes of Liquidators.15.01–0. 2006) Year 1986 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 Control ∗ Number of individuals. 3. see review by Schmitz-Feuerhake. GREAT BRITAIN..5fold (Wals and Dolk. Frequency of Translocations (per 100 Cells) among Liquidators (Snegyreva and Shevchenko.19 1.0 ± 0.9 ± 0.14.9 ± 1. .3). 2.30 0 0 Cells. 1999) Liquidators (n = 40) All aberrations. and 21.581 18.2. 1999.179 12.0∗ 34.000 18. There was also a 49% increase in the most contaminated 17 districts in 1987–1988 (Table 5. 1991.47 ± 0.93 ± 0.2. and others.3∗ 18.16∗ 0.849 Aberrations.927 4.90 ± 0.8 ± 0.3∗ 0.268 20.2∗ 1. Sperling et al. 1997). GERMANY.2∗ 1. 1991.1.4 ± 0. the number of newborns with Down syndrome increased 2.1.6 Including dicentrics and central rings 0. have been found in the contaminated territories.05).8 ± 1. 4. NORWAY (northern areas). 2006). There was a doubling in the number of newborns with Down syndrome TABLE 5.2 ± ∗ 14. n 443 23 110 136 75 60 41 82 Cells.953 Translocations 1. Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome) 1.20 ± 0.02∗ 0.02 ± 0.283 21.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 71 TABLE 5. Detailed analysis revealed a sharp increase in the incidence of Down syndrome in December 1986 and a peak in January 1987 (Figure 5.. a 10fold increase in the number of chromosomal aberrations was found in 56 adults compared to controls (Brogger et al.2∗ 0.5∗ 0. n 23.23 Controls (n = 10) 0. per 100 cells Dicentrics % Polyploidy cells 4.077 32.2). n 41. There was a 30% increase in the number of newborns with Down syndrome in the northeast of the country.13. Snegyreva and Shevchenko..9 ± 0.77 ± 0.2.05.0∗ 31. BELARUS. SWEDEN. Analysis of annual and monthly incidences of Down syndrome in 1981–1999 (2.9∗ 19.42 0. 4. 1994).7 ± 1.8 ± 1. 5. 5.01 All differences with the control are significant (p < 0.43 ± 0. n Liquidators Control ∗ (Lazjuk et al. Genomic Mutations Trisomies of chromosomes 13.01∗ 1.2. which was the area most contaminated by Chernobyl radionuclides (Ericson and Kallen. among babies conceived in May 1986. Number of Chromosomal Aberrations among Liquidator Personnel of the Russian Federal Nuclear Center in Sarov (Khaimovich et al..8 ± 1. 1996. 2006). 2006) Individuals. Figure 5. 1990. which are genomic mutations showing change in the number of chromosomes.2∗ 10.

etc. The anomalies included: polydactly. 2004).2.. Incidence of Down Syndrome (per 1. 5.791) and change-point model (see text) allowing for a significant (p < 0.16. XXX chromosomes in females.2. Statistics regarding such cases are not available.2. Kleinfelter syndrome (additional X-chromosome). congenital cataracts.720. the level of genetic polymorphism of proteins is lower compared with children born before the catastrophe.1. 2008). In children radiated in utero and born after Chernobyl. 1991).59 0. . Genetic Polymorphism of Proteins and Other Genetic Disorders Genetic polymorphism of proteins is an important parameter of intrapopulation genetic variability. From clinical descriptions of children born in the contaminated territories there are known cases of other genomic mutations: Edward’s syndrome (trisomy 18). Proliferation was sharply reduced in HeLa cell culture 6 days after the explosion in the 30-km zone (beginning with a total dose up to 0.2.72 TABLE 5. Children born after the catastrophe who were irradiated in utero have a lower level of genetic polymorphism of proteins compared to children born before the catastrophe from the same territories (Kulakov et al. 5. 1993).08 Gr). and infections (Kulakov et al. one of territories contaminated by Chernobyl (Ramsey et al. defects of the nose. Statistics regarding such cases are not available. trigonocephaly. Trisomy 13 and Other Genomic Mutations 1.000 Newborns) in 17 Heavily and 30 Less Contaminated Districts of Belarus. Photos from the contaminated areas of Belarus and Ukraine indicated that there are many cases of newborns with characteristics of Patau syndrome (trisomy 13). Turner’s syndrome (absence of the X-chromosome). and XYY chro- Figure 5. Prevalence of trisomy 21 in Belarus from 1982 to 1992 (N = 1. 2... and may be a factor in the persistent current background of anemia.. 1997).2. They also had significantly lower levels of DNA repair both in the short and the long term after the catastrophe (Bondarenko et al.030. with this effect continuing for seven in Lothian. 2006) 1987–1988 Heavily contaminated Less contaminated 0.01 1.0001) jump and a “broken stick” in December 1986 and a peak in January 1987 (Sperling et al.88 1990–2004 1. n = 1. 1987–2004 (National Belarussian Report. coloboma of the iris).. 1993. cleft lip and palate. lymphadenopathies. Scotland.08 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences mosomes in males. developmental anomalies of the eyes (microphthalmia. This lower level of genetic polymorphism in structural proteins is negatively correlated with levels of congenital malformations and allergies.2.

2005). Most mutations result in termination of embryonic development at an early stage (Nykytin. That these processes occur in the radiation contaminated territories is testified to by: (a) an increase in the number abnormal spermatozoids.3. including the influence of addi- tional irradiation. De novo mutations determine such CDAs as polydactyly. n = 237) and change-point model allowing for a significant (p < 0. Therefore the birth of newborns with anomalies can reveal the presence of genetic disorders. Thus it is reasonable to assume that the increase in the frequency of occurrence of genetically caused CDAs reflects an increase in tens (if not in hundreds) of times the rate of mutations at the gamete stage. but also in germ cells. 5. DNA repair activity (tested by reactivation and induced mutagenesis of small-pox vaccine viruses) was impaired in children born after the catastrophe in territories with contamination levels of Cs-137 above 5 Ci/km2 (Unzhakov et al. These CDAs occur more often in the heavily contaminated Belarussian territories.3. The level of small mutations in minisatellite DNA in children born to irradiated parents and living in the contaminated territories of Belarus and Ukraine is almost twice that of children from Great Britain (Dubrova. (b) an increase in the incidence of spontaneous abortions. 2003). Medical statistics consider only about 30 of the commonest CDAs.000 genetically caused developmental anomalies are known (McKusick. change in the size of arms or legs.4.0001) jump in December 1986 and a peak in January 1987 (Sperling et al. 2007). Prevalence of trisomy 21 in West Berlin from 1982 to 1992 (N = 218. 5. 1995).Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 73 Figure 5.. and in the process of embryonic development. where levels are higher than 15 Ci/km2 (Lazjuk et al. Changes in Satellite DNA The number of mutations due to Chernobyl radiation has increased not only in somatic. 2008). Genetically Caused Congenital Developmental Anomalies It is estimated that from 50 to 90% of all congenital malformations (CMs) and congenital developmental anomalies (CDAs) result from mutations. More than 6..497. Numbers of large cells arising persisted for more than 20 cell generations after irradiation and clonogenicity was lower for 24 generations (Nazarov et al.. Some CDAs have appeared anew in a population as mutations de novo.. and so-called plural CDAs.2. 1998). which reflects increased embryonic . They are evidence of mutations that are not eliminated at previous stages of individual development in gametes (spermatozoa and ova). Genetically caused CDAs in newborns are but the tip of the iceberg. cell generations after the irradiation.2. among impregnated ova up to and during implantation. 1999a).

5%) 13 (21.6– 9. and digestive system diseases (Tsyb et al. g/liter ∗ mortality. . 5. 2007). blood circulation. that occur in the most contaminated territories (Lazjuk et al. and impaired immunity (Lyaginskaya et al. 2. 2007). chronic catarrhal gingivitis. plus urogenital tract. 1999)∗ Children of liquidators (n = 40) Chronic gastroduodenitis Dysbacteriosis Impaired development Number of B lymphocytes Number of T lymphocytes Concentration of IgG.7 23. A survey of a group of 11-year-old children born in 1987 to families of 1986 Belarus liquidators revealed significant differences in the incidence of blood disease and immune status (Table 5. 5.3 ± 1. and dental anomalies (Marapova and Khytrov.9 ± 1. defined by mutations de novo. Among these children only 2. Liquidators’ children up to 10 years of age in Kaluga Province had an incidence of thyroid gland disease that was fivefold higher that the provincial level. delays in intrauterine development.4 14.7%) 6 (15%) 0 8 (20%) 2 (4. there is a higher level of morbidity.. 1. and (d) the greater proportion of CDAs. red blood cell changes. 2002.5. Among children of the Belarus liquidators irradiated during 1986–1987 who received 5 cSv or more. 2006). 2001).. 4. and a high incidence of chronic diseases (Tsyb et al.. a triple increase in CDAs.2%) 14.6% in the control group.367 per 10.500 g. National Ukrainian Report. a larger number of CDAs (Figure 5.6 9. 2002.9 16. Children of Irradiated Parents There are more and more data showing poorer health status in children born to irradiated parents. 3.4 ± 1. functional impairment of the nervous system. double the occurrence of circulatory system diseases. the Ukraine average of 960–1.2 ± 0. CDAs (fourfold above the provincial level). 18. 2007). Health Statistics in 1987 for 11Year-Old Children Born to Belarussian Liquidators Exposed in 1986 (Arynchin et al. and more sick newborns in comparison with children whose fathers received a dose less than 5 cSv (Lyaginskaya et al. 7.17.. Prevalence of congenital developmental anomalies (CDAs) among infants born to families of liquidator (1986–1987) fathers who worked for the Russian nuclear industry from 1988 to 1994 (Lyaginskaya et al. (c) an increase in de novo mutations in aborted fetuses and those with CDAs..000 vs.6–24. Children irradiated in utero in the Kaluga Province have a significantly higher level of general morbidity. 8. CDAs.4). Figure 5. birth weights below 2.4.1 ± 0.17). Control group (n = 48) 17 (42.. The annual general morbidity among children born to irradiated fathers from 2000 to 2005 was higher in Ukraine as a whole (1. a fourfold increase in mental disorders. Among the children of liquidators in the Ryazan area there was an increased incidence of sick newborns. 2006a).200)..1 28. Broken line: level of CDA by UNSCEAR (1988).4 ± 0. Children of liquidators have a high incidence of chronic laryngeal diseases. 2006).74 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 5. 6. multiple tooth caries. including thyroid gland diseases (sixfold above the provincial level).2% were considered “practically healthy” (vs. higher morbidity. 2006).7 All differences are significant.2. There are more congenital malformations and developmental anomalies among children born to irradiated fathers (National Ukrainian Report.135– 1. 1999).

0 Russian State Medical Dosimetric Register.. 12.18).3-fold more respiratory system illness than a control group (Furitsu et al.9 20. and increased basal neutrophilic activity.1 83. rings.3 15.7 25.2 14.9 11.3 0 5.9 0 1.000) among Children of Bryansk Liquidators and All the Children in Bryansk Province. It is likely that the health problems experienced by children born to parents irradiated by Chernobyl will continue in subsequent generations. Kholodova et al. Chromosomal Aberrations as Indicators of Health Status The response of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health ∗ Listed illnesses are those for which there are obvious trends over time.6 19. and do not sit easily in place.5 1. Even more apparent is the morbidity of children of liquidators of Bryansk Province compared to other children in the area.2 3. “.19.6. . 11. . 5. At first sight they differed from other kids in hyperexcitability. demonstrated by decreases in both absolute and relative cell parameters.0 45.2 93.8 12.7 75. and endocrine system diseases.7 83.052 1991– 1995 30. First Reports Concerning Illnesses (per 1. Children of liquidators have higher levels of digestive. They have a relative increase in cellular immunity (higher numbers of CD4 cells. The second and the third generations of children whose parents were irradiated by the atomic bomb explosions in Japan in 1945 suffered 10-fold more circulatory system diseases and impaired liver function. icant difference between children of liquidators and children from the Bryansk area as a whole. From the table it is obvious that there has been a reduction in the occurrence of diseases of the blood and bloodforming organs and a significant increase in all other illnesses.6 5.7 43. single fragments... more CDAs and hereditary diseases. 10. In families of liquidation participants [in the Tula Province] there were 473 children born after the Chernobyl catastrophe. 1996–2000 (Matveenko et al.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 75 TABLE 5.667 Illnesses Circulatory system Mental disorders Digestive system Muscle and bone Congenital anomalies ∗ Children Bryansk Russia of Bryansk Province (RSMDR)∗ Province 6. and gaps) and more polyploid cells (Ibragymova. Children of liquidators and children irradiated in utero have a higher frequency of stable chromosomal aberrations.18.. and increased incidence of infectious diseases (Ponomarenko et al.6 1. They cry. isochromatids. 2003).009 59. . . 2002).5 71. 1992). 2005) Children of liquidators 9. Table 5. and 3.2 3.7 75. Among 455 children of liquidators from Bryansk Province who were born between 1987 and 1999 general morbidity increased from 1988 to 2000 (Table 5. 2001). Primary Morbidity (per 1. . There is lowered cellular immunity in children of Russian liquidators.041 93.5 3. and a decrease in individual heterozygosis (Sypyagyna.2 16. nervous. inversions.3 1.19 presents data showing a signifTABLE 5.2.3 68. respiratory. neither from that nor from this.” (Khvorostenko. 1999).343 1996– 2000 8. 2005)∗ Number of cases Illness Blood and blood-forming organs Mental disorders Neoplasms Respiratory system Digestive system Muscle and bone Urogenital tract Infectious and parasitic diseases Total 1988– 1990 52.3 12.6 3..7 12.9 1. 2002). moderately lower levels of immunoglobulin-A. 13.000) among Children of Liquidators in Bryansk Province (Matveenko et al. Children of liquidators have more chromosomal aberrations (deletions. lower levels of repair activity.2 0 0 790 5..

3. Evdokymov et al. In the contaminated territories of Bryansk and Tula provinces there is a correlation between number of aberrant and multiaberrant cells and the development of uterine myoma (Ivanova et al. 2.. Among them are the following. 1997). The number of chromosomal aberrations in 88% of liquidators coincides with the level of psychopathological illnesses and the expression of secondary immunosuppression (Kut’ko et al. is a measure of high genetic risk.. 8. 1996). 1997.7. number of micronuclei.. 12.. A fuller account of other genetic changes will come with progress in scientific methods. The frequency of occurrence of aberrations is higher in both tumor cells and in “normal” tissue in individuals who live in the contaminated territories (Polonetskaya et al. Domrachova et al.. rings. The number of chromosome breaks correlates with hypothyroidism and a number of stigma associated with embryogenesis (Kulakov et al. The frequency of occurrence of aberrant cells. 13. 10.2.20). 5.. Vozylova et al... 1993. The frequency of cardiovascular and gastroenteric diseases in liquidators correlates with the level of chromosomal aberrations (Vorobtsova and Semenov. 5. 4. 2006). Today it is obvious that changes in the genetic structure of cells were the first dangerous signs of the Chernobyl catastrophe. The prevalence of febrile infections correlates with the level of chromosomal aberrations (Degutene. 2005) to the occurrence of chromosomal changes induced by the catastrophe is that these changes do not in any way affect the state of health—which is scientifically untrue. pair fragments.76 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Organization (WHO) (Chernobyl Forum. 6.. 7. 9. The number of chromosomal aberrations is noticeably higher in those with psycho-organic syndromes. as well as the risk of developing many illnesses. 2001). The number of chromosomal aberrations. 1999b). Derzhitskaya et al. The incidence of congenital malformations defined by mutations de novo is significantly higher in territories with contamination levels of 15 Ci/km2 or higher (Lazjuk et al. 2001). 2001). 2006).. The number of dicentrics and chromatid exchanges correlates with congenital developmental anomalies (Kulakov et al... and chromosomal breaks coincides with the level of immunoregulatory system imbalance in newborns (Kulakov et al. There are correlations between the level of chromosomal aberrations and a number of pathological conditions. Chromosomal changes observed in peripheral blood cells can reflect general damage to genetic and ontogenetic processes. 1997. 11. 2002). There are many examples of such links in the Chernobyl territories. All these correlations demonstrate that the increase in chromosomal damage.. which is observable everywhere in the contaminated territories. 1. Conclusion Somatic chromosomal mutations. The incidence of spermatozoid structure abnormalities correlates with the frequency of occurrence of chromosomal aberrations (Kurilo et al. 1997). The changes occurred in the first days after the . and mutations in minisatellite DNA are only some of the genetic changes resulting from radionuclides released from Chernobyl.. 1997). 1996). mutations causing congenital malformations. 1999. and incidence of spot mutations are considerably higher in children with thyroid cancer (Mel’nov et al. The overwhelming majority of Chernobyl-induced genetic changes will not become apparent for several generations. The level of antioxidant activity for various groups of liquidators correlates with the number of chromosomal aberrations (Table 5. genetic polymorphism of proteins. and the number of chromatid aberrations is noticeably higher in individuals with asthenia and obsessive–phobic syndromes (Kut’ko et al.

5.50∗ 1.88 2.86 2. Average Value of Antioxidant Characteristics among Groups of Russian Liquidators with Various Levels of Chromosomal Aberrations (Baleva et al. MDA 1: malondialdehyde in erythrocytes.85 1.07 1. as millennia will pass before that deadly radioactivity decays. 1993).20∗ Groups of liquidators with various numbers of aberrations 0.74∗ 2.98∗ 136.22 2. (c) those who will live in the territories contaminated by Pu and Am.16 0.88 1. FR: free radicals with the g-factor 2.37∗ 1. t 1 : time of rotary correlation of spin probe N 1 in erythrocyte membranes. release of radiation and increased the occurrence of various diseases.99∗ 2.15 1.41 2.83 1.11 16.. 2006). according to the laws of genetics.18 0.0.70 8.82 115.66∗ 107. SOD: superoxide-dismutase.15 824. and adrenal glands and the ovaries and the testes—which control multiple functions must coordinate to sustain normal development. would affect some generations of humans (Shevchenko.08∗ 5..17 1. its consequences.28∗ 1.08 2. Among adults.04 a GT: restored glucation.70 113. which spread worldwide (see Chapter 1 for details).92 2. thyroid. 1989. These two major portions of the endocrine system were overirradiated during the “iodine” period.12 6.01∗ 1. 2002).59 5.57 120. Dedov et al.23 7. Thus Chernobyl’s radioactive contamination has adversely impacted the function of the entire endocrine system. ∗ p < 0.68 17.05. Hem 1. parathyroids.05 1.20 1. the first weeks after the catastrophe.67∗ 2.66 21.18 823.76 6.24 0. and in children up to 70% (Il’in et al. The genetic consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe will impact hundreds of millions of people. MDA 2: malondialdehyde in erythrocytes after POL-initiation. The Chernobyl radiation is genetically much more dangerous than that released in Hiroshima and Nagasaki as the quantity of radionuclides emitted from the Chernobyl meltdown was several-hundred-fold higher and there were more different kinds of radionuclides. All physiological functions such as the onset of puberty and the closing of bone epiphyses that are dependent on the organs of internal secretion—the pancreas.86 9. n GT SOD Hem 1 Hem 2 MDA 1 MDA 2 t1 CP FR 0.64 25.3. .92∗ 1.74 6. 1991).50 101. (b) those who live and will continue to live in the territories contaminated by Sr-90 and Cs-137. Only 10% of all expected Chernobyl genetic damage occurred in the first generation (Pflugbeil et al.69 0. CP: ceruloplasmin.. as it will take no fewer than 300 years for the radioactive level to decrease to background.14∗ 10.01 1.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 77 TABLE 5. 2001)a Control Aberrations.02 1. Hem 2: hematopoietic proteins.39∗ 1.20. including: (a) those who were exposed to the first release of short-lived radionuclides in 1986. and (d) children of irradiated parents for as many as seven generations (even if they live in areas free from Chernobyl radionuclide fallout).5 7.27 2. Diseases of the Endocrine System Radioactive fallout from Chernobyl has had serious adverse effects on every part of the endocrine system of irradiated individuals..78 7. Even if the Chernobyl radiation persisted only a short time (as in Hiroshima and Nagasaki).10 1.58∗ 1. the thyroid gland concentrates up to 40% of a radioactive iodine dose.15 1.88∗ 1.09 11. The hypophysis (pituitary gland) actively incorporates radioactive iodine at levels 5 to 12 times higher than normal (Zubovsky and Tararukhina.

individuals living in the contaminated territories have 50% lower sympathetic activity and 36% lower adrenal cortical activity. with low levels linked to impaired reproductive function (Lyalykov et al. Children from heavily contaminated territories had blood cortisol levels that were significantly lower than the norm. A sharp increase in endocrine diseases in all Belarussian contaminated territories was observed some years after the catastrophe (Lomat’ et al.1.. But what is the scale of such impacts? Concrete examples are presented in this section to answer some of these questions. Danil’chik et al.1.. 3. Leonova and Astakhova. and testosterone correlated with the level of internal irradiation (Duda and Kharkevich. 6. Children aged 10 to 14 years born to irradiated parents diagnosed from 1993 to 2003 showed significantly more morbidity from goiter and thyroiditis (National Belarussian Report. 2. 2001). Review of many similar examples clearly shows that Chernobyl radiation dangerously impacted the endocrine system. 1993).. thyroxin. 1996. The number of children with impaired hormone secretion (cortisol. during the end of the first and the beginning of the second week of life ultimately resulted in hypothyroidism with its attendant mental and physiological abnormalities (Kulakov et al. According to the State Register.3. After a brief review of material about endocrine system diseases (Section 5. In Gomel and Mogilev provinces. Overtly healthy newborns in Gomel and Mogilev provinces had elevated cortisol levels where contamination was less than 15 Ci/km2 and decreased levels in heavily contaminated areas (Danil’chik et al. Children in the contaminated territories had significantly lower cortisol blood levels (Petrenko et al. Belarus 1. 5. and many others).2). 1996). 2001).. 13 to 14 years. 1996). the levels of umbilical blood cortisol and estriol in areas having Cs-137 contamination of less than 1–15 Ci/km2 were significantly higher than the level from heavily contaminated territories (15–40 Ci/km2 .. Measurements of immunity in children and teenagers with Hashimoto autoimmune thyroiditis correlated with the level of environmental radioactive contamination (Kuchinskaya. . Children from heavily contaminated territories had lower levels of testosterone. and progesterone) was significantly higher in heavily contaminated territories (Sharapov. a hormone associated with physical development. expressed as thyroid dysfunction. disorders in the hypophyseal–thyroid system. 5.1).3. an adrenal hormone. Cortisol is an adrenal hormone that is released under stress (Petrenko et al.3. from the contaminated territories with autoimmune thyroiditis had accelerated sexual development with significantly increased blood serum concentrations of gonadotropic hormones in the lutein phase of their menstrual cycles (Leonova. Review of Endocrine System Disease Data Endocrine system diseases are widespread in all of the territories that were exposed to the Chernobyl radioactive fallout (Baleva et al. 5. Compared with data from normal people. 1996).. 1995). 2001). synthesis of cortisol. in 1994 endocrine system morbidity reached 4. In 28% of surveyed newborns in contaminated areas. 1997). 1993). Damage to the thyroid gland of the fetus or the neonate may doom that individual to a life of diminished mental capacity.3.000 (Antypova et al. Many girls of pubertal age. 2006). In pregnant women. 4.. 1996. and many others). we deal with the central problem of endocrine illnesses linked to the Chernobyl catastrophe— functional impairment of the thyroid gland (Section 5..78 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Adequate and timely thyroid function is necessary for physical and intellectual development. 1993).1. 1998.851 per 100.. In some areas where congenital diabetes had not been seen at all before the catastrophe.

12.to 3-fold increase in the number of individuals with Type-II diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance and a 1. with the highest incidence in the most contaminated districts of Gomel Province (Borysevich and Poplyko. 1998).21.6 510.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 79 there were occurrences afterward and the number of cases has increased since 1986 (Marples. endocrine organ morbidity among evacuees and in those from heavily contaminated territories was double that of the general population of Belarus (Matsko.6∗ 3.8 ± 2.18 1980–1986 3. From 1993 to 2003 in the contaminated territories.3 ± 0.2 ± 15.5 ± 2. 1996)..0 12.3-fold increase in hyperinsulinemia (Aderikho.7 ± 12. TABLE 5. and renin (Table 5. prolactin. Six years after the catastrophe incidence of endocrine organ illnesses was threefold higher in the heavily contaminated territories (Shilko et al. 9. .8 ± 5.026.14 p < 0. 2002). Endocrine pathology was the number one illness diagnosed in a survey of more than 8..to 2.000 children in 1993–1994 in the Slavgorod District of Mogilev Province (Suslov et al. and higher levels of progesterone.22.3 ± 37. 16.6 203.6 52. 2006). Belarus liquidators and evacuees had a 2. 17. there was a significant increase in morbidity owing to nontoxic single-node and multinode goiters and autoimmune thyroiditis (National Belarussian Report.05. Among 1.20 1. Occurrence of Type-I diabetes increased significantly in all of Belarus after the catastrophe (Mokhort. depression of insulin function. 13. 1993). 2003) and to an even greater degree in the heavily contaminated territories (Table 5. 2002). 2004) Years Heavily contaminated (Gomel Province) Less contaminated (Minsk Province) ∗ and lower concentrations of T3 hormone (Dudinskaya and Suryna.5 193. Hormone Concentrations in Male Belarussian Liquidators∗ (Bliznyuk. exhaustion of the pituitary/adrenal system.6 ± 1.21).18 1.046 nursing mothers examined.125 vs.3 2. 1999). 10.2 28.9 ± 0. 7. among men younger than 50 years of age and women of all ages.02 ± 0.4 142. 8. 1999) Liquidators Aldosterone Cortisol Insulin ACTH Prolactin Progesterone Renin ∗ Controls 142.000 Children and Teenagers before and after the Catastrophe in Heavily and Less Contaminated Territories in Belarus (Zalutskaya et al.5. Ten years after the catastrophe.9 ± 45.4. 2001). Nine years after the catastrophe. 14. There was a correlation between the level of incorporated Cs-137 and prolactin concentration in the serum of young women continuing to live in an area with radioactive contamination of 1–5 Ci/km2 (Gomel City) during the first and second phases of their menstrual cycles. In Gomel and Minsk provinces the frequency off occurrence of Type-I diabetes rose significantly after the catastrophe.98 ± 0.4 1987–2002 7. 15.22).3 ± 0. 1999).2 0.8 ± 11.4 724. the incidence of diabetes was significantly higher in the women from territories with Cs-137 contamination above 1 Ci/km2 (Busuet et al. At the time of delivery. 1997). 583) even 9 years after the catastrophe (Matsko.4 18. Endocrine morbidity among evacuees was double that of the general population of Belarus (1. as well as a correlation between levels of incorporated Cs-137 and progesterone concentrations during the second menstrual cycle phase (Yagovdik.43 ± 0. women from more contaminated territories of Gomel and Vitebsk provinces had significantly higher concentrations of T4 and TCG hormones TABLE 5. 2003).52 ± 0.1 ± 10. Occurrence of Type-I Diabetes per 100.2 ± 0. All differences are significant.3 2. 11.. Belarus liquidators had decreased function of the hypophyseal/thyroid axis.

. In the contaminated territories onset of puberty in girls was late and menstrual cycles among the women were disrupted (Vovk and Mysurgyna. From 1988 to 1990 levels of the principal thyroid hormones were close to normal. 1995). but not in the functional levels (Mytryaeva. hormonal system normalization occurred 5 to 6 years after they were irradiated.. Endocrine illnesses were the main cause of medical disability among children in the contaminated territories (Romanenko et al. 1993). 5. p < 0. 6 years later there was normalization of the relevant measurements in the others at rest. 5.000 pregnant women from 1986 to 1993 in the contaminated territories revealed significantly higher levels of thyrotrophic hormone and thyroxin (TSH and T-4) 2 years after the catastrophe.3. In 1993 hyperthyroidism in pregnant women and newborns was observed for the first time (Dashkevich et al.80 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 5. 1996). 2. Both boys and girls in contaminated areas developed increased insulin synthesis.. Some 32% of girls irradiated in utero became infertile (10. progesterone. At the same time more than 52% of those examined still had an increased frequency of occurrence of autoimmune endocrine diseases including thyroiditis. and T-3 were reduced. Practically all liquidators had characteristic hormonal system changes expressed first as impaired cortisone and insulin secretion (Tron’ko et al. and obesity (Tron’ko et al.. Hormonal imbalance (estradiol. 1999). diabetes) began in 1992 in all the contaminated territories (Tron’ko et al. Dashkevich and Janyuta. 3.. 1994. 1994).. including parathormone. For some. Ukraine 1. Liquidators with generalized periodontal disease had significantly lower levels of calcium metabolic hormones.3.5% among controls. T-4. Babich and Lypchanskaya. 1995). 2003). thyrotoxicosis. 2001). 12..3.. 2002). 9. 2003). 8.. 6.. 7. but in 1991– 1992 the levels of the TSH. A significant impairment of the pituitary–adrenal system was seen in a majority of 500 surveyed liquidators in the first years after the catastrophe. 11. Some 30% of women older than 50 years of age living in contaminated territories are subclinically hypothyroid (Panenko et al. 2002). 1995). A significant increase in diabetes mellitus was observed in the contaminated territories some years after the catastrophe (Gridjyuk et al. whereas sexual development was accelerated in territories contaminated by Cs-137 (Paramonova and Nedvetskaya. 1997). The level of endocrine morbidity among adult evacuees is considerably higher than for the overall population of Ukraine (Prysyazhnyuk et al. In 1996 endocrine illnesses in areas contaminated at levels higher than 5 Ci/km2 occurred markedly more often than within the general Ukrainian population (Grodzinsky. In the territories contaminated with Sr90 and Pu. 1998). Russia 1. 2001). The incidence of endocrine disorders in irradiated children increased markedly after 1988 (Luk’yanova et al. and calcitriol (Matchenko et al.. . there was a 2-year delay in puberty for boys and a 1-year delay for girls. The noticeable increase in endocrine diseases (autoimmune thyroiditis. 1995.1. diabetes mellitus. From 1988 to 1999 endocrine system morbidity in contaminated territories increased up to eightfold (Prysyazhnyuk et al. 2002). 10. luteotrophin. 1995).1.2. testosterone) became widespread in the contaminated territories 5 to 6 years after the catastrophe (Gorptchenko et al. 4. and girls developed elevated testosterone levels (Antipkin and Arabskaya.. Within the first 2 years after the catastrophe hormonal imbalance became typical among people in heavily contaminated territories.05) owing to damage to the endocrine system (Prysyazhnyuk et al. Evaluation of more that 16.. 1995). calcitonin.

endocrine morbidity was fivefold higher in 2002 compared to the period before the catastrophe (Sokolov.000) among children of liquidators (1) in Obninsk City. 3.3 24.5 68. and in most of the heavily contaminated districts of Bryansk Province was noticeably higher than for the province and for Russia as a whole (Table 5.2 21. Incidence of endocrine and metabolic diseases (per 1. 1999b: table 6.23).2 47. City.3 49.6 28.5). 1996). In spite of some decrease in the level of endocrine morbidity from 1995 to 1998.9 158. 2003). 2003).5 47.9 31.000) among Children of Bryansk Province.4 28.24). A total of 17.4 69. Endocrine diseases increased in the contaminated territories during the first 10 years after the catastrophe (Tsymlyakova and Lavrent’eva. which was 1. which as a whole was less contamTABLE 5. in Areas with Cs-137 Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 (Fetysov. 7. it remained twice as high as for Russia as a whole. juvenile endocrine morbidity was 5. 1996). The number of children with endocrine diseases increased in the heavily contaminated zones (Sharapov.4 102. 8.5. Overall Endocrine Morbidity (per 1.to 3.2-fold more than that of districts with less contamination (Borovykova et al.2 23.0 67. 2004).2 25. The provincial morbidity for liquidators was noticeably higher than the Russian average. 6. and Klymovo districts it remained highly elevated in 1998 (Table 5. In 1995 the number of children with endocrine morbidity peaked as a whole in the contaminated areas of Bryansk Province.7 245. inated than Bryansk Province.3 n/a All heavily contaminated districts of Bryansk Province.8 347.1) Number of cases District Klymovo Novozybkov Klintsy Krasnogorsk Zlynka Gordeevka Southwest∗ Province total Russia ∗ Figure 5.3 109.5 97. (3) children. 2001).000.2 104.1 per 1.4.. 1995 21.4 65. In the contaminated districts of the Kaluga Province.1 74. Endocrine morbidity in children born to liquidators in Kaluga Province sharply increased in the first 12 years after the catastrophe (Figure 5. Twelve years after the catastrophe overall adult endocrine system morbidity in the heavily contaminated southwest districts of Bryansk Province and liquidators’ morbidity both significantly exceeded the provincial norms (Table 5.4 1996 29. 4. At the same time in the heavily contaminated Gordeevka.5 31.25).8 to 16.0 410..6 41.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 81 2. 1995– 1998.9 54.6 1998 83. 10.6-fold (Sergeeva et al. For children in the contaminated areas of Tula Province. 5. Novozybkov. 2005).2 43.4 1997 25. Kaluga Province (Borovykova.9 25. The rate of increase in overall endocrine illnesses in adults in the heavily contaminated territories was higher than that of children from 1995 to 1998. (2) children. Russia.5 55.0 34. Fifteen years after the catastrophe overall endocrine system morbidity in the contaminated territories exceeded the provincial level 2. .6 133.7% of pregnant women in the contaminated territories had significantly increased levels of prolactin with associated termination of menstruation and loss of fertility (Strukov. 9.23.

9 74. . 2002). 16.2 1998 112. shoulders.6 64. Anthropometrical research: measurements of growth. 12. Endocrine system morbidity of Russian liquidators increased sharply from 1986 to 1993 (Table 5.9 32. .5 77.6 64.2 147. 2003). endocrine system morbidity among Russian liquidators was 10-fold higher TABLE 5.3 67.6 35. levels typically observed only in young women (Strukov.0 38.000 girls with the same developmental anomaly. . 15. hips. For 1..2 32. 14.3 58. then it would be possible to speak about a terrible physiological catastrophe. All heavily contaminated districts of Bryansk Province.5 years of the survey doctors saw surprising results.2) Number of cases District Klymovo Novozybkov Klintsy Krasnogorsk Zlynka Gordeevka Southwest∗ Province as a whole Russia ∗ Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1995 70.2 1996 95.26).000) among Adults in Bryansk Province in Territories with Cs-137 Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 .2 40. weights. There is an association between Chernobyl irradiation and impaired exocrine and endocrine testicular function. “ . 1999). .8 1997 109. . Dr.” However. but among these 300 girls there was one who had no internal reproductive organs at all. 13.. which includes low testosterone plasma levels.82 TABLE 5.4 92. 1993).5 92.5 41.0 38.1 35. triiodothyronine (T-3).8 28. .2 33.2 n/a All heavily contaminated districts. we doctors do not have money for more detailed and extensive studies. Since the accident in the Chernobyl nuclear power station.7 124. However. Doctors chose to study 300 girls who were born in 1986–1990 .5 31. . Under the 11.24.2 29.0 195. . and thyroxine (Bezhenar. Severe changes in hypophyseal function and changes in hormonal levels were found in liquidators (Drygyna. Women liquidators have had consistent and significantly higher levels of gonadotropic and steroidal sex hormones than controls. . “Our results could be wildly accidental. While we have no right to draw any scientific conclusions—if we had found at least three out of 10. General Endocrine Morbidity (per 1.2 n/A than in corresponding groups of the population (National Russian Report. testosterone.0 57. Ultrasound examinations showed that their uteruses and ovaries were underdeveloped . Last summer Dr.0 52. the width of shoulders exceeded the norm and their forearms.4 46. and legs have shown that among girls from a Chernobyl zone all the parameters were below the norms. Bezhenar et al. General Endocrine Morbidity (per 1. Vvedensky’s group has come to the conclusion that the reason for the changes is hormonal imbalance. this sanatorium has been a place to rehabilitate children from the most contaminated areas of Belarus . Vvedensky and a group of colleagues went to the “chemical filaments” state factory sanatorium. and legs were very hairy.1 and 4. 2000).6 41. 1995–1998 (Fetysov.000) among Adults and Liquidators in Territories with Cs-137 Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 in Bryansk Province.6 32.8 31. Vvedensky said. volume of thorax.0 29.5 48.2 27. and decreased luteinizing hormone (LH.8 54. at the age of 12–13 years girls begin to menstruate.9 83.1 28. 1999a: tables 5. . thyrotrophic hormone (TGH).1 57.5 54.5 75.25.2 40.2 38.7 72. 1999a: tables 4.1 81. As a rule.8 43. 1999. Not one of the 300 girls in the study had done so. an increased level of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).2) Number of cases 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Southwestern districts∗ Liquidators Province as a whole Russia ∗ 49. .3 58.9 53. as well as abnormal levels of cortisol.4 66. located several hundred kilometers from Gomel City. High levels of prolactin were found in 22% of surveyed male liquidators. By 1999.4 51.0 31. . 1995–1998 (Fetysov. Other scientists have come up against more serious pathologies.1 153.1 and 5. Byryukov et al.

but when a woman has too much of it she can lose her female characteristics. 1996). Impairment of Thyroid Gland Function Adequate and timely thyroid function is necessary for physical and intellectual development of the fetus. vertebral compression fractures.. frequent dizziness.020 1991 2. Ushakov et al. stomach and duodenal ulcers. hair loss. Belarus 1. and calcium cholecystitis (Dedov and Dedov.850 1992 3. Endocrine Morbidity among Russian Liquidators (per 10. slowed speech. increased bleeding (including menstrual menorrhagia).340 1990 2. osteoporosis. Pathological changes in the thyroid gland are closely linked to those in the parathyroid glands. n 1986 96 1987 335 1988 764 1989 1. 2004). there is a marked increase in nonmalignant thyroid diseases (Gofman. rough. Among them: hypogonadism in men and women. delayed growth in children. difficult respiration (dyspnoea). 2002). and calcitonin—which control. fatigue and lack of energy. tongue swelling. drowsiness. and mild anemia. and calcium exchange. and rough and hoarse voice. Among the subsequent thyroid illnesses are hypo.1. Thyroid gland impairment leads to decreased production of the glands’ three hormones—thyroxin.3.000 people require thyroid surgery (Borysevich and Poplyko.3. but are seen with increased frequency in the contaminated territories. By 1995 there was an apparent increase in the number . 5. Associated illnesses include: delayed healing of wounds and ulcers. thyroiditis). . Dedov and Dedov. 1996). hypophyseal tumors. dry. Testosterone is a male hormone that is normally present only in very small quantities in females. and cold skin. dryness. which is demonstrated by nodular formations. pale. 1994. 2001) Year Number of cases. male impotence.740 83 1993 4. growth and development. Morbidity among children owing to autoimmune thyroiditis increased almost threefold during the first 10 years after the catastrophe (Leonova and Astakhova. Annually some 3. 2000) 5.and hyperthyroidism. Radiation from I-131 and other radionuclides damages the glandular epithelium. decreased perspiration. impaired normal somatic and sexual development.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl TABLE 5. By the year 2000 several hundred thousand people had been registered as having thyroid pathologies (nodular goiter. 1990. 1996. headaches. Among hypothyroid symptoms that are not necessarily recorded as illnesses. . delay in growth of hair.26. myxedema. increased sensitivity to cold. Parathyroid function was destroyed in 16% of the individuals that underwent thyroid gland surgery (Demedchik et al. ringing in the ears. 1998). In all of the contaminated territories.. thermoregulation. and nonmalignant and malignant tumors.” (Ulevich.. poor memory and slowed thinking. triiodothyronine. Damage to the thyroid gland of the unborn or the neonate may result in diminished mental capacity for life. thyroid cancer. Autoimmune thyroiditis is one of the first functional consequences of irradiation (Mozzhukhyna. Many symptoms attributed to parathyroid impairment were observed in the Chernobyl territories.000) (Baleva et al. and others). fragility..300 influence of irradiation a large amount of testosterone develops in the female organism. 1997). and deafness (Gofman. for example. night blindness. urolithiasis. lack of gas- tric hydrochloric acid (achlorhydria).2. increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. joint stiffness. are: facial and eyelid swelling. muscular pains and weakness and impaired muscle coordination. lack of appetite (anorexia).2. 2.

Gomel Province. 1997a. 2000) 1992 Nodular Hyperplasia Thyroiditis 13. 1993). There was a significant correlation between environmental Cs-137 contamination and the incidence of thyroid diseases among 1.to 5-month-old embryos from mothers from areas contaminated with Cs-137 at levels of 1–15 Ci/km2 (Kapytonova et al. 7. From 1993 to 2003 primary nontoxic multinodular and uninodular goiters and autoimmune thyroiditis significantly increased among female evacuees (National Belarussian Report. 11. Here endemic goiter increased sevenfold from 1985 to 1993. 1996).046 pregnant women (Busuet et al. Surveys disclosed thyroid gland pathology in 43% of 4. 8. Thyroid Gland Structural Changes (% of a Total of 1. 2001). Thyroid gland pathology in the Chernobyl-contaminated territories correlated with diseases of the gums and teeth (Konoplya. and Brest provinces (Khmara et al. Brest Province. increased production of triiodothyronine. 1999a). 14. more than 40% of the children examined in 1993 had enlarged thyroid glands.27.6 1. Brest Province (Belyaeva et al. there were 62 cases of thyroid cancer and 45. 1994). 2002).. From 1993 to 1995 thyroid gland hyperplasia was found in 48% of juvenile immigrants from the Bragin District and in 17% of juvenile immigrants from the Stolinsk District.27).. Screening of 328 children ages 11 to 14 years in Khoiniky City. 4..5 3. 5. 16. 2001)... Minsk.437 children examined in Mozyr District. Children irradiated in utero during the first trimester have small thyroid glands and are frequently diagnosed with latent hypothyroidism (Drozd. 9. Levels of immunity in children and teenagers with autoimmune thyroiditis have been correlated with a district’s level of radioactive contamination (Kuchinskaya. In 1996 thyroid gland illnesses were observed 11.b). increased production of thyroglobulin in girls. 1998). in 1998 revealed that 30% had enlarged thyroid glands (Drozd. In Gomel Province.. 2006). Belarus.84 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences of cases of autoimmune thyroiditis in the less contaminated Vitebsk. 13. 2002). 1997). 10. 1996).752 Cases Examined Annually) in Belarussian Male Liquidators (1986–1987) (Lyasko et al. 6. and Russia under 10 years of age at the time of catastrophe who were examined within the framework of the “Sasakava” project. which included: lowered production of thyroxin-binding globulin (T-4).178 children from Ukraine.. 12. and autoimmune thyroiditis increased more than 600-fold from 1988 to 1993 (Astakhova et al. TABLE 5. Gomel Province (Vaskevitch and Tchernysheva. Enlarged thyroid glands were found in 47% of 3. 1994). The incidence of thyroid gland anatomic changes in male liquidators who worked in 1986–1987 was noticeably higher in 1994 compared with 1992 (Table 5. 1995. which was one of the most contaminated.7 10. Byryukova and Tulupova. Children irradiated in utero from the Stolinsk District. and lowered production of thyroxin in boys (Sychik and Stozharov. had thyroid gland impairment even after more than 10 years.873 cases of other thyroid pathology (Yamashita and Shibata. Early sexual maturation was observed in girls from contaminated territories who had autoimmune thyroiditis and was associated with a significant increase in gonadotropic hormone concentration in the luteil phase of their menstrual cycles (Leonova. 17. Among 119.026. which had levels of Cs-137 contamination up to 15 Ci/km2 .1 1994 19.9 . 15. 2002).9-fold more often among liquidators than in the general adult population (Antypova et al. 3.5 0.

6). 2006: fig. 2002).4 27. caries. 1999. . immune disorders. but it was also low in children irradiated during the first weeks after birth (Gorobets.7% of 3.825 children and teenagers living in Kiev Province who were born before the catastrophe (1984–1986) the frequency of thyroid gland pathology did not decrease in 11 to Figure 5. 10. blood vessel pathology. 5. Among 1. From 1992 to 2000 the incidence of chronic thyroiditis increased in teenagers and adults. and since 1990–1991 there has been an increase in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (Stepanova. 8. In thyroid surgical pathology specimens in 1989. and Russia who were younger than 10 years of age at the time of the catastrophe examined within the framework of the “Sasakava” project.178 children of Ukraine.8 63.019 teenagers living in Vinnitsa and Zhytomir provinces who had been 6 to 8 years old at the time of the catastrophe (Fedyk.9 Intestinal 20. Occurrence of chronic thyroiditis among teenagers and adults from Ukraine from 1992 to 2000 (National Ukrainian Report.7 45. Ukraine 1. 15.412 children were examined. Eight years after in utero irradiation. intestinal illnesses.3 9. Chronic thyroiditis morbidity significantly increased among Ukrainian liquidators TABLE 5. 2004).2.2.28). the incidence of goiter was found to be sharply higher compared with the preChernobyl period (Horishna. 11.7 Caries 32.4 4.000 children with psychological problems who were evaluated. 2002). 1999).10).28.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 85 5. 1.4 29. Children with secondary thyroid hyperplasia have two to three times more incidence of allergies. 6. Incidence (%) of Somatic Pathology among Children with Various Degrees of Thyroid Hyperplasia (Luk’yanova et al.6 vs. Among more than 50. 9. 3.125 thyroid pathologies were found for each case of cancer (Foly. thyroid gland hormone production was low. 2.. 7. In another study in which 51.4% (Stepanova. Thyroid gland changes were found in 35. Among 119. 1999. especially among liquidators and evacuees (Figure 5.6 Circulation 3.6. 1997).3 35.8 14.0 5. 2005). 2002). Thyroid gland pathology is twice as common in children from heavily contaminated territories compared to those from less contaminated areas: 32. 1995) VSD∗ 0 I degree II degree ∗ Allergies 1.8 12. 15% have thyroid gland pathology (Contis.3. 5.5 4.2 12.8 Vegetocircular dystonia (autonomic nervous system dysfunction). 4. Belarus. there were 740 abnormal thyroid pathologies for each case of thyroid cancer (Yamashita and Shibata. Thyroid gland dysfunction has been observed in the contaminated territories since 1986–1987.8 7. 2000). Cheban. 2003).4 Infections 5.. 14 years following the catastrophe (Syvachenko et al. and high blood pressure (Table 5.

1998). timing of exposures. In Voronezh Province.4. 1995 600.000 individuals living in the southeast part of the country contaminated by Chernobyl fallout who were examined. adaptation of various organs. In 1998 every third child in the city of Yekaterinburg.3. At first sight some changes in endocrine function in those subjected to Chernobyl radiation were considered controversial. where eight districts were officially registered as being contaminated with radioactivity.7 All heavily contaminated districts.6 162. every second woman and every tenth child had an enlarged thyroid.601 cases of other types of thyroid pathology (Karevskaya et al. Careful research may uncover the explanation as to whether the differences are due to past influences of different isotopes.3.3. In some settlements.2) Number of cases District Klymovo Novozybkov Klintsy Krasnogorsk Zlynka Southwest∗ ∗ boys who were born in Voronezh Province in 1986 were significantly shorter than boys of the same age who were born in 1983. 1998). 4. Cases of First and Second Degree Thyroid Gland Hyperplasia in Children (per 1. located in the heavily industrialized Ural area that was exposed to Chernobyl fallout.0 1997 115. Some 150.29. 2002). Diseases of the same organ may lead to opposing signs and symptoms depending upon the timing and extent of the damage. or factors still to be uncovered. There is a correlation between the level of incorporated radionuclides and hyperplasia of the thyroid gland (Adamovich et al.9 449.2 245. thyroid gland pathology was found in 70% of the inhabitants (Associated Press.86 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences between 1992 and 2001 (Moskalenko.000 Ukrainians developed thyroid gland diseases in 10 years that were related to the catastrophe (ITAR–TASS. 5. 2005). 2000). 1995–1998 (Fetysov. Every second child in the heavily contaminated districts of Bryansk Province has had some thyroid gland pathology (Kashyryna. 6. Conclusion Despite information presented so far.29).2. 5. there were 284 cases of thyroid cancer and 7. From 1998 to 2004 in Bryansk Province. In the heavily contaminated districts of Bryansk Province up to 60% of children have thyroid gland hyperplasia (Table 5.3. 5.0 306.000) in Heavily Contaminated (Cs-137 > 5 Ci/km2 ) Districts of Bryansk Province.7 298.. . With the collection of new data. we hope that such contradictions can be resolved.7 1998 52. Children in territories with high levels of radioactive contamination have a significantly higher incidence of second-degree thyroid gland hyperplasia and nodular and diffuse forms of goiter (Sharapov. 2003). had abnormal thyroid gland development (Dobrynina.3. 5.3 140. 1999b: table 6. Other Countries POLAND.1 195.3 329.9 413. the incidence of enlarged thyroids increased in children in the first 10 years after the catastrophe. 2001). combinations of different radioisotopes.6 348.4 394. 3. TABLE 5. we still do not have a total global picture of all of the people whose hormone function was impaired by radiation from the Chernobyl catastrophe because medical statistics do not deal with such illnesses in a uniform way. Of the 21. 1998)..0 242. however.5 493. 2005). Russia 1. that hormone function may be depressed in a territory with a low level of radioactive contamination and increased owing to an increasing dose rate in a neighboring contaminated area.5 449.. 7.0 224. most probably owing to thyroid hormone imbalance (Ulanova et al.2.8 549.0 487. 2. We have learned.1 385.4 1996 295.3 341. 12. At age 11.1 423.

tumor necrosis factor (TNF-a). 2004). The children also had increased titers of serum interferon. In Belarus alone. 5.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 87 The analysis of remote. Lypyk. lymph nodes.1. Children from areas heavily contaminated with Cs-137 had significantly more eosinophils. 1999. rheumatoid factor. experts estimate that up to 1. and others). may cause impairment of neuroendocrine and neurohumoral regulation. as is widely observed in the Chernobyl-irradiated territories (Bortkevich et al. Some examples of adverse effects of Chernobyl contamination on the immune system as well as data showing the scale of damage to the health of the different populations are described in what follows.4. Among 3. The suppression of immunity as a result of this radioactive contamination is known as “Chernobyl AIDS. spleen.200 children who were examined from 1986 to 1999 there was a significant decrease in B lymphocytes and subsequently in T lymphocytes. which was similar to that from Chernobyl. researchers reported vertebral osteochondrosis.8 ± 2.5 million people are at risk of thyroid disease (Gofman. from the southern Ural area contaminated by radioactive accidents in the 1950s and 1960s indicates that low-dose irradiation in utero. Seven months after the catastrophe there was a normalization of most of the immune parameters. and decreased complement activity.000 cases of other kinds of thyroid gland pathology. Using those data. In the first 1. except for the CIC and IgM. and thrombocytes. including various immunoglobulins... the level of the G-immunoglobulin (IgG) significantly decreased and the concentration of IgA and IgM as circulating immune complexes (CIC) increased.4. It is now clear that multiple endocrine illnesses caused by Chernobyl have adversely affected millions of people. As a result.4% of children from the contaminated territories had high levels of IgE. thymus. atrophic gastritis. An important finding to date is that for every case of thyroid cancer there are about 1. Immune System Diseases One result of many studies conducted during the last few years in Ukraine. The ultimate consequences of destruction of the immune system is immunodeficiency and an increase in the frequency and seriousness of acute and chronic diseases and infections. From 1996 to 1999 T cell system changes showed increased CD3+ and CD4+ lymphocytes and significantly decreased CD22 and HLA-DR lymphocytes. 1996. and Russia is the clear finding that Chernobyl radiation suppresses immunity—a person’s or organism’s natural protective system against infection and most diseases. Lenskaya et al. CIC. are altered. osteoarthritic deformities of the extremities. and antibodies to thyroglobulin. R-proteins.5 months. the spectrum and the scale of endocrine pathology associated with radioactive contamination are far greater than had been suspected. 5. The lymphatic system—the bone marrow. and other problems in the exposed population (Ostroumova. stem cells. From 1987 to 1995 immunosuppression was unchanged and a decrease in the number of T cells indicators was seen. 2004). the quantity and activity of various groups of lymphocytes and thus the production of antibodies. This was especially prominent in children from the heavily contaminated areas. From the data collected from many different areas by many independent researchers.” On the basis of review of some 150 scientific publications the conclusion is that depression of thymus function plays the leading role in postradiation pathology of the immune system (Savyna and Khoptynskaya. Belarus 1. and Peyer’s patches—has been impacted by both large and small doses of ionizing radiation from the Chernobyl fallout. eosinophilic . which occurred within the first 45 days after the catastrophe. decades-old data. 1995). 1994. A total of 40. Belarus.

2000).. 1998). Antibody formation and neutrophilic activity were significantly lower for the first year of life in newborns in areas with Cs-137 levels higher than 5 Ci/km2 (Petrova et al. Significant changes in cellular immunity were documented in 146 children and teenagers operated on for thyroid cancer in Minsk.88 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences protein X concentration in urine. The children were 2 to 6 years of age at the time of the catastrophe (Galitskaya et al. The number of B lymphocytes and the level of serum IgG began to increase in children from the contaminated areas of the Mogilev and Gomel provinces a year after the catastrophe.8 vs.. 1993).313 children examined from an area contaminated by Cs-137 at a level of 1–5 Ci/km2 some developed immune system problems. There was an increasing concentration of the thyroid autoantibodies in 19. 8. Kyril’chik. The immune changes in children of Gomel Province are dependent upon the spectrum of radionuclides: identical levels of Sr90 and Cs-137 radiation had different consequences (Evets et al. IgG. 1995. 2000). 1998). In children from the territories of Mogilev Province contaminated by Cs-137 at levels higher than 5 Ci/km2 there was a significant decrease in cellular membrane stability and impaired immunity (Voronkin et al.. 12. 2001). These changes included: decrease in the number of T lymphocytes (in 30% of children and 39% of teens). 1995)..30). and A(sA) in mother’s milk were significantly lower in the contaminated areas. Levels of immunoglobulins IgA. 5.. 15. and neutrophilic leukocytosis in 60% of the children (Derzhitskaya et al. Changes in both cellular and humoral immunity were found in healthy adults living in territories with a high level of contamination (Soloshenko.. Among 1. 11. Allergy to cow’s milk proteins was found in more children living in territories more heav- ily contaminated by Sr-90 than in children from less contaminated areas: 36. 14.5% of “practically healthy” children and teenagers living in Khoiniky District. 16. 3. 1993). acute bronchitis.. IgM.. . 9. The level of T lymphocytes in children who were 7 to 14 years of age at the time of the catastrophe correlated with radiation levels (Khmara et al. 1996). as well as concentration-specific IgE antibodies to grass and birch pollen (Tytov. 1995). 2... reduced IgA and IgM. 17. 15. 1999). There was a strong correlation between the level of Cs-137 contamination in the territories and the quantity of the D25+ lymphocytes. There was correlation among children and adults between the level of radioactive contamination in an area and the expression of the antigen APO-1/FAS (Mel’nikov et al. and anemia were manifoldly higher in breast-fed babies from the contaminated areas (Zubovich et al. and eosinophilic cation protein concentration in serum (Tytov. 13. Immune system depression occurred in healthy children in the Braginsk District near the 30-km zone immediately after the catastrophe with normalization of some parameters not occurring until 1993 (Kharytonik et al. 7. 10. decreased T lymphocytes (58 and 67%).. 1990). 1993). Gomel Province. 4. and increased clumping of erythrocytes (Bandazhevsky et al. decreased levels of B lymphocytes (42 and 68%). 2002).. 1993). high titers of antibodies to thyroglobulin (ATG). There are significant competing differences in the immune status of children from territories with different Cs-137 contamination loads (Table 5. Acute respiratory virus infections (ARV). Bandazhevsky. 1997). acute intestinal infections. 6. Antitumor immunity in children and evacuees was significantly lower in heavily contaminated territories (Nesterenko et al. The children and teenagers with thyroid autoimmune antibodies living in the contaminated territories have more serious and more persistent changes in their immune status (Kuchinskaya. 2002.0% (Bandazhevsky et al. which included lowered neutrophil phagocytic activity.

4∗ 272. 2000).. Significant changes in all parameters of cellular immunity (in the absence of humoral ones) were found in children born to liquidators in 1987 (Arynchin et al. 28.7 ± 13. A total of 45. Braginsk District. Brest Province. up to 120 Ci/km2 (n = 57) Parameters of immunity Number of T lymphocytes.5% of children radiated in utero (vs. hypertrophy of the adenoid glands and tonsils. 1999) Liquidators T lymphocytes B lymphocytes ∗ Controls 1. stimulation of Th[2]-cells and increased IgE.30. 22. Immune deficiency was seen in 43.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 89 TABLE 5.and B-cellular immunity. IgG. 1998). 3. 20. Gomel Province. complement overactive. 4. Periodic changes in humoral and cellular immunity were found in healthy children from the Komarin settlement. increased T suppressors (in oldest children). fewer T-lymphocyte helpers (older children).4. Autoantibodies to lens antigen were increased 44%.31). P <0. CIC levels raised. 19. 1999). absolute and relative number of B lymphocytes. In a group of 72 liquidators from 1986. These shifts in immune system function are harbingers of pathology of the thyroid gland and crystalline lens of the eye (Kyseleva et al. These included impaired T. 2004). Number of T lymphocytes is raised (all groups). IgM (all groups). Quantitative and functional parameters of the immune status of children correlated with the level of background radiation in areas of permanent residency.6 215. All children have humoral cellular depression.. The level of the CIC. Ukraine 1. The number of T and B lymphocytes and phagocytic activity of neutrophilic leukocytes was significantly reduced in adults from the contaminated areas (Bandazhevsky. and IgA (children up to 6 years of age) is raised..05) within the first 2 years after the catastrophe (Stepanova. and increased frequency of neck lymphadenopathies. 1999). T suppressor.5 ± 50.0% in the control group.31. and levels of IgG and IgA phagocyte activity lowered.5 ± 37. 2. 55%. serum levels for autoantibodies to thyroid antigens (thyroglobulin and microsomal fraction of thyrocytes) were raised 48%. 1995). T suppressors (older children). suppression index. fewer B lymphocytes. 1995) District/radiation level Pinsk. Numbers of T and B Lymphocytes in 150 Belarussian Male Liquidators in 1996 (Bliznyuk. 1–5 Ci/km2 (n = 67) Bragin. All of these pathologies were expressed more in the areas with higher levels of contamination (Bozhko.2. and to thyroglobulin.4% of 468 children and teenagers who were examined had chronic tonsillitis. and IgM immunoglobulins were increased in the postpartum period in women from districts in Gomel and Mogilev provinces contaminated with Cs137 at a level higher than 5 Ci/km2 and the immune quality of their milk was lowered (Iskrytskyi. and levels of immunoglobulins in blood and saliva (Kyril’chik. 1999). T helpers (all groups) is lowered. Mogilev Province. . near TABLE 5. 60%. A survey of 150 Belarus liquidators 10 years after the catastrophe showed a significant decrease in the number of T lymphocyte.0 ± 107. The levels of IgA. 2000). Immune Status of Children with Frequent and Prolonged Illnesses from the Contaminated Territories of Belarus (Gurmanchuk et al.401.9 Differences are significant. 5. 21. The quantity of IgA. 18. and IgM immunoglobulins and secretory immunoglobulin A(sA) were reduced in women in the contaminated territories when they began lactating (Zubovich et al. to CIC. IgG. and T helper cells (Table 5.3∗ 723. 40–80 Ci/km2 (n = 33) Krasnopolsk..

expressed by decreased numbers of T.4.9 ± 0. T suppressors. By 1993 there was a normalization of a number of immune parameters. Decrease in the general number of T and B lymphocytes. as were those of T lymphocytes and T helper cells.. Potapnev et al. 1998. and an index of suppression (IS) especially for children aged 11 to 14 years.and B-rosette forming cells. 2001). 1. were found in a majority of 400 liquidators examined (Zak et al. The number of peripheral blood leukocytes in evacuees remained significantly lower even 7 to 8 years after the catastrophe (Baeva and Sokolenko. 7. 1999.4%).b). 1996)... which included destruction of cell contents.3. 1998). Tymoshevsky et al. Activation of neutrophilic granulocytes. T helpers. changes in membrane contour... development is rapid (Lysyany and Lyubich. 2002. Immunological status of evacuees’ children in the first 2 years was characterized by impaired humoral and cellular immunity. In 1988 the levels of IgM and CIC remained raised. but for children 7 to 14 years of age T lymphocytes and T helper cells were decreased (Kharytonik et al. was found in areas with higher levels of radionuclides (Soloshenko. These changes are expressed as: • • • • • Changes in the ratio of subpopulations of T lymphocytes—T helpers/T suppressors..4 ± 0. abnormal polymorphic forms and lymphocytes with increased segmentation. 2003. Mel’nov et al. Malyuk and Bogdantsova. 13.. 1996). immune-regulating index Tx:Tc (2. A total of 45% of more than 450. 2002.. In 1986 the level of interferon in 40. 1995a. Novykova. and IgM immunoglobulins. 10.000 children living in contaminated territories had lowered immune status 10 years after the catastrophe (TASS. 1995). hypersegmentation of nuclei. Children living in heavily contaminated territories have generalized and specific immunity suppression and malfunction of their antioxidant and sympathetic adrenal systems (Terletskaya. 11. 2003). 2001. . The influences of internal and external radiation on the character of neurohumoral reactions are sharply different: with internal radiation there is a gradual development of autoimmune reactions. 12. whereas with external radiation. Matveenko et al. Levels of T suppressor cells significantly decreased. 1996).. Bazyka et al. Shubik. and IgA and IgG globulins and an increased index of T helpers/ T suppressors. 8. The number of T and B lymphocytes (36 ± 3. Impaired production of cytokines.8 ± 6. Grebenjuk et al.. Gazheeva et al. whereas interferon activity increased. especially in children aged 4 to 6 years. 1997..14). The greatest immune system depression involved a decrease in EAC-POK. 5. 9. These parameters stabilized only 5 years later (Romanenko et al. 1998). 6.19 vs.90 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences the 30-km Chernobyl zone. 2001. 5. 2002). Liquidators from 1986–1987 had impaired immunity expressed as depressed humoral and cellular immunity and poor resistance to infection 6 to 8 years after the catastrophe (Chumak and Bazyka.. Russia 1. Decrease in the level of serum IgA. Pathological changes in neutrophil ultra structure. 2001. and chromatin and nuclei segmentation. Significant impairment of cellular and humoral immunity. 2003).5% and 24 ± 1. IgG. and IgG levels were significantly higher in patients with chronic pyelonephritis living in the contaminated areas of Polessk and Ivankov districts of Kiev Province (Vozianov et al. a decreased level of T lymphocytes. In the 10 to 15 years after the catastrophe many liquidators had quantitative changes in cellular and humoral immunity and altered immune status (Korobko et al.2% of children was significantly below the level of controls. 1996.

Children 11 to 13 years of age and pregnant women living in districts of Kursk Province with high levels of contamination had functional and quantitative lymphocyte changes and significantly increased circulating serum immune complexes (CICs. infections prevailed: frequent acute respiratory virus infections (ARV). 1996). The number of children with critically low lymphocyte counts also rose in 1994–1995. The clinical picture of the second group comprised allergies. 10. Clinically. with Cs-137 levels up to 101. otitis. This index correlated significantly with the dose level in utero (Kulakov et al. T helpers (CD4+ ). and relative and absolute numbers of T suppressors (CD8+ . from 1987 to 1995. 2004). During a survey of 113 children from the Krasnogorsk District. asthmatic bronchitis. 4. Luk’yanova and Lenskaya. 2002). and food allergies (Kholodova et al. At the same time. After 3 to 4 years liquidators had persistent changes in T system immunity with a decrease in T cells and T helpers and a reduction in the helper/suppressor index. 9. After 5 years and then 13 to 15 years most of the parameters of cellular and humoral immunity in liquidators did not differ from normal. children and teenagers had markedly lowered relative and absolute numbers of T cells. In territories of Krasnogorsk District with higher radioactive contamination there was significantly less activity of nonspecific esterase (a marker of immature T cells) and a significant increase in the number of medium-size lymphocytes with intensive granular reaction (Lenskaya et al.. decreased almost to their norms in 1992– 1993. 2001). 1997). 5. Bryansk Province. 1995). and purulent infections of the mucous membranes and skin. 7. . a relative measure of cellular immunity had a tendency to increase owing to an increase in the number of CD4+ cells and there was a decrease in the subpopulation T cells and an increase in basophilic activity. 6. and a raised immune-regulatory index (T4 helpers/T8 suppressors).6 Ci/km2 have decreased relative and absolute numbers of T cells... although there were changes in natural immunity with decreased activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in neutrophils. parameters of intensive granular reaction in lymphocytes peaked in 1991. 3. bronchitis. There were correlations between an intensive granular reaction in children and additional internal radiation of more than 0. sensitivity to pollens. and reduced relative numbers of lymphocytes. For others. morbidity not related to radiation remained the same in both the clean and contaminated territories (Sokolov. significantly lowered relative numbers of lymphocytes..Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 91 2. increased immune-regulatory index (T4/T8). This combination was observed in varying degrees in 80% of cases with bacterial intestinal disease. 8.5 mSv annually (Luk’yanova and Lenskaya. Alymov et al.. In the heavily contaminated districts of Bryansk Province. which indicated that these children had both absolute and relative deficiencies in their cellular immunity. In the contaminated territories the number of individuals with adaptive reaction lymphocytes is lower and the number of people with elevated lymphocyte radiosensitivity is higher (Burlakova et al. 2002). A survey of 144 children and teenagers of Krasnogorsk District. 1998). Bryansk Province. 1996). Absolute levels of all lymphocyte populations were lower in all liquidators’ children examined at 10 to 13 years of age. pneumonia. By 2002 the frequency of occurrence of impaired immunity and metabolism in children had increased fivefold in the contaminated districts of Tula Province compared to pre-Chernobyl levels. and T suppressors (CD8+ ). and a substantial increase in abnormal erythrocytic forms (Antushevich and Legeza. The number of large granulocytic lymphocytes (NK cells) decreased 60 to 80% in liquidators 1 month after beginning work in the contaminated zone and persisted at a low level for not less than 1 year (Antushevich and Legeza. T helpers (CD4+ ). 2003). a markedly reduced subpopulation of active lymphocytes. and increased again in 1994–1995.

In the first days after the catastrophe. liquidators from Obninsk City.4. Conclusion Data in this section demonstrate the powerful effects of the Chernobyl radioactive fallout on the immune system and its functions. 13.. and lungs. In the 7 to 9 years after the catastrophe. Phagocytic activity of peripheral blood neutrophils was lower in 80% and macrophage activity was lower in 85% of those examined (Kut’ko et al. who were subjected to any additional radiation. Apparently. Ru-106. 2004). and others). whose health was supervised more carefully than that of the general population. Ivanov et al. 5. Provotvorov and Romashov. trachea. The levels of two other neuropeptides (leu. Further damage to the respiratory system was caused by hot particles and external irradiation. had a higher incidence of allergic diseases: rhinitis (6. (see Chapter 1 for details). IAEA.. loss of balance of subpopulations of T cells with impaired T helper/T suppressor ratios. Liquidators with neuropsychological disorders developed secondary immunedeficiency conditions (T lymphopenia. 1994).. Kut’kov et al. throat. and 15% of those examined had a significantly reduced number of circulating T-suppressor cells. 1998. Chuchalin et al. Kaluga Province. throat. 12. 1993. 2003. impaired immunity triggered by Chernobyl radionuclides adversely affected all of the individuals. respiratory problems in the mouth. The immune index of liquidators correlated with the dose of radiation calculated by the level of chromosomal aberrations (Baleva et al.” consist of particles containing radionuclides derived from nuclear fuel melted together with particles from metal construction. soil. 1997. 1988.4.. which include those of the nasal cavity. and Ce-144 had the most serious impact on the respiratory system (IAEA.to 17-fold) and nettle rash (4to 15-fold) compared to the local population (Tataurtchykova et al. Hot particles. and alveoli for many years. Trakhtenberg and Chissov. 2001). The number of T helpers (CD4+ ) decreased in 90% of surveyed liquidators. and trachea in adults were basically linked to the gaseous–aerosol forms of radionuclides. Respiratory system diseases. 1992. Bronchopulmonary morbidity increased quickly among liquidators in the contaminated territories (Kogan. During this initial period I131. Despite the fragmentary data.. etc. 1995). etc. it is clear that the scale of the impacts is enormous.5.).. In these groups changes took place that were opposite in nature to changes in the immune-regulatory index CD4/CD8). These persist for long periods in pulmonary tissue because of the low solubility of uranium oxides. while larger particles were trapped in the upper respiratory tract (Khrushch et al. easily reached the deepest parts of lungs. up to 5 μm.92 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 11.. without exception. Liquidators. The syndrome of “acute inhalation depression of the upper respiratory 5. 1998. . bronchioles. were among the first apparent consequences of the irradiation and ranged from nose bleeds and tickling in the throat to lung cancer.and methionine-encephalin) exceeded norms for more than 50% of the liquidators examined (Sushkevich et al.. bronchial tubes. 1996).. Respiratory System Diseases There is a marked increase in respiratory system morbidity everywhere in the territories contaminated by Chernobyl fallout. Four years after their participation in emergency work the normal levels of dermorphin was restored in only 17% of the liquidators examined. Yakushin and Smirnova.. and was also a consequence of changes in the immune and hormonal systems. The smallest hot particles. 2001. Tereshenko et al. 1990. 2004). 1996). The level of the CIC increased in all surveyed liquidators. developed marked restrictive lung disease due to a functional decrease in lung elasticity (Kuznetsova et al. 14. or “Chernobyl dust.. 2002. Tseloval’nykova et al. Chernobyl dust was found in liquidators’ bronchial tubes.

. 3. Stepanova et al..5.. 6. Among the most common illnesses were ARV infection. 1997).. Asphyxia was observed in half of 345 newborns irradiated in utero in 1986–1987 (Zakrevsky et al. 3. and difficulty breathing (Chuchalin et al. Gudkovsky et al. respiratory morbidity was the third cause of overall morbidity 10 years after the catastrophe: 286 per 1.. Ukraine 1. 1998. and 39. respiratory morbidity in 1995 was 2. In 1986–1987.. 54.000 compared to the country average of 1. 1996). Kul’kova et al. Respiratory morbidity in children born at the time of the catastrophe in territories with contamination levels of 15–40 Ci/km2 was significantly higher than in children of the same age from territories with contamination of 5–15 Ci/km2 (Kul’kova et al. 5... 1995).4% from 1992 to 1994. Among 4. 1993. Among 2.566 cases per 10.2. 7. 1997).1. 4. 1998. 1995). Dzykovich et al. 1999). In the first 3 years after the catastrophe respiratory illnesses in children from territories contaminated at a level of 15–40 Ci/km2 were 3.6% and among adults and teenagers it reached 35.660 (Matsko. more than 30% of children in the contaminated territories had breathing difficulties defined as a respiratory syndrome (Stepanova et al. 2003). and 10% of the children had exudative-mucoid disease.. 1996). which had contamination levels of 15–40 Ci/km2 . was 72. Belarus 1. Children born to mothers in the Chernobyl contaminated territories who were pregnant at the time of the catastrophe have twice the incidence of acute respiratory diseases (Nesterenko.6% had bronchial obstruction mainly of the small bronchial tubes (controls.. 5. 13. 1999). tickling in the throat. In 1994 respiratory system morbidity among children from contaminated territories and among evacuees was as high as 61. 2.5-fold more common than in less contaminated territories.598 children newborn to 4 years old at the time of the meltdown from Kormyansk and Chechersk districts. Kut’kov. In 1995 respiratory illnesses in children from the heavily contaminated territories were reported twice as often as from less . In the first months after the catastrophe.5-fold more illnesses (Gudkovsky et al.9%) and (b) 69. 4. nearly 10..9% from 1986 to 1988.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 93 system” presents as a combination of a rhinitis. 5. 1994.1% from 1989 to 1991. 2001.. Chykyna et al. 18. 29. Romanova. respiratory system morbidity was significantly higher than among children from areas with contamination levels of 5– 15 Ci/km2 (Blet’ko et al.000 (Syvolobova et al.335 surveyed evacuees’ teenagers. 2. 9. The number of children hospitalized for bronchial asthma was higher in the more contaminated territories and chronic nasopharyngeal pathology was seen twice as often compared to children from less contaminated areas (Sitnykov et al.. From 1990 to 1993 children from heavily contaminated territories had 2.1% had latent bronchospasms (controls. Respiratory morbidity among children from the Luninetsk District. bronchitis. 2003). Gomel Province.0 vs. Respiratory diseases were found in 19% of liquidators’ children up to 1 year of age.7% (Prysyazhnyuk et al. 5. dry cough.. 8. 1995. 1993. Older children irradiated in utero had respiratory system pathologies significantly more often than controls: 26. Brest Province. 1996).5%. In older children 60% had documented respiratory diseases (Synyakova et al. and chronic tonsillitis (Voronetsky et al. 1995)..000 children from contaminated territories that were examined had breathing problems: (a) 53. and others). Among evacuees.. 2002).6% (Grodzinsky.5. 1993).

1995a). and mortality among liquidators.7. going from 84 to 181 cases per 1.4 per 10. In 80% of the cases of chronic nonspecific pulmonary disease among liquidators. The subsequent development of disease was characterized by progressive obstruction and dyspnoea with shortness of breath and difficulty or pain in breathing.. The occurrence of obstructive disease and bronchitis almost doubled in the second decade after the catastrophe (Figure 5..b).7).8. 6. bronchitis and emphysema among teenagers. According to the Ukrainian Ministry of Health. 2003a).. adults. 8.. restrictive. Chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma are two of the main reasons for morbidity. 11. including hyperplasia. 2004)... From 1988 to 2006 clinical observation of 2. and mixed ventilation disorders (Tereshchenko et al. 2007). . Subsequently.5 years showed chronic obstructive lung disease and bronchitis in 79%. 10. Bronchopulmonary illnesses in Ukrainian male liquidators over a 20-year period (Tereshchenko et al. and evacuees in the contaminated territories increased 1. 2004. Chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) morbidity among Ukrainian liquidators from 1996 to 2004 (Sushko et al. 7. 2000). 12. and dyspnoea in combination with obstructive.5 per 10. 2006). Sushko and Shvayko. which consisted of Figure 5. Dzyublik et al. 1998.. Chronic bronchitis in liquidators more than doubled between 1996 and 2004.4 and 528. as well as ciliary flattening and epithelial metaplasia (Romanenko et al. 2003a. 84% had mucous membrane atrophy. sputum production. and asthma in 8% (Tereshchenko et al.000. 9. atrophy of the mucous membrane covering of the trachea and bronchus was found. and bronchial asthma more than doubled (25.7 ± 8. 2001. 1998). Sushko and Shvayko. usually accompanied by bronchial tree deformities (Shvayko and Sushko.000). 12% had opposite changes in bronchial fiberscopic pathology. Sushko. National Ukrainian Report.8). chronic nonobstructive bronchitis in 13%.7 and 55. contaminated areas (Baida and Zhirnosekova. 1991. The majority of liquidators during their stay in the contaminated zone and immediately afterward suffered from a dry cough complicated by painful breathing.000 (Figure 5. impairment. Of 873 male liquidators examined 15 years after the catastrophe. Tereshchenko et al.94 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 5. 2003. symptoms of chronic obstructive lung disease were observed: cough.476 male liquidators ages 36. 2004.7-fold from 1990 to 2004 (316. Some 84% of 873 surveyed liquidators had tracheobronchial mucous membrane thinning and vascular atrophy.

Isolated sclerotic changes of bronchial mucosa were reported in 16% and mucoid changes in 4% (Tereshchenko et al. 2007).5 2.0 1. 8. 2. and fetal lung dysplasia was more common in 1992–1993 compared with controls and compared with the number of cases observed in 1995 (Romanova et al.750. Broncopulmonary dysplasia was seen in premature newborns from Novozybkov City.080.398.4 1.2 936.. expressed as bronchial 1996 897.8 715. asthma and chronic bronchitis.435.743. 6. Noninfectious respiratory disorders in neonates born to mothers from the contaminated territories were encountered 9. 7.9 728. 2004).3 1.. 1999b: table. 2002). The areas and contamination levels were: Polessk District. 3. 1995–1998 (Fetysov..0 1.072.9 927.281.6 times more often than before the catastrophe. 6.3.4 936.1 1997 1.32).7 n/a 781. . and Mtsensk (1–5 Ci/km2 ) and Volkhov (10– 15 Ci/km2 ) districts.023. Chechersk District. Children in the contaminated territories currently have more bronchial asthma and chronic bronchitis owing to irreversible structural lung changes.001.3 1. Radionuclides were found in their pulmonary systems 6 to 10 years after the catastrophe. 1997).288. Children’s overall respiratory morbidity was much higher in the heavily contaminated districts of Bryansk Province 9 to 12 years after the catastrophe than in the rest of the province and in Russia as a whole (Table 5. 5. but the same tendency toward increase was observed from 1995 to 1998.510.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 95 TABLE 5. Russia 1.1 767.6 1.6 1.426.34). 13. The prevalence of mucoid-sclerotic changes correlates with endobronchial atrophy. The incidence of asphyxia and complicated breathing problems in newborns correlated with the level of contamination in the territory (Kulakov et al. A group of 440 liquidators with chronic bronchopulmonary pathology were examined at the Moscow Institute of Pulmonology. 2003). In the first years after the catastrophe broncopulmonary illnesses were accompanied by moderate immunological changes and latent functional impairment.. Bryansk Province.0 481. Respiratory Morbidity among Children of Bryansk Province Districts with a Level of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 .6 790. In 80% of the group examined mucoid-sclerotic changes in the bronchial mucosa were accompanied by tracheobronchial tree deformity.3 303.582. Years after the catastrophe three liquidators were found to have sclerotic pulmonary mucous membrane changes and bronchial deformities (Sushko et al.3 918.. Incidence of this respiratory abnormality increased continuously for the first 8 years after the catastrophe (Table 5.1) Number of cases 1995 Klymovo Novozybkov Klintsy Krasnogorsk Zlynka Southwest∗ Province Russia ∗ thickening of the mucous membranes and narrowing of primary and secondary bronchial tubes. except in one district (Table 5.33).5 1. 4.2 All contaminated districts. Kiev Province (20–60 Ci/km2 ).32. 2002. 1997).3 1. 10 to 15 years later the findings are pneumonia and lung scarring (Terletskaya. In the contaminated territories there is a marked increase in the incidence of both acute pneumonia and chronic broncopulmonary pathology. 2004). Gomel Province (5–70 Ci/km2 ).267.006. A majority of the surveyed Russian liquidators who were exposed in 1986–1987 have developed progressive pulmonary function impairment (Chykyna et al. Oryol Province (Kulakov et al.5.0 342.0 1.5 1.7 855.6 1.5 771. and 4% were observed to have both types of pathology—atrophic changes proximally and hyperplasia distally. For adults in the more contaminated territories of Bryansk Province the general respiratory morbidity is much below that of children.8 774.. 5.9 1998 1.

0 134.6 192. there is still not enough information to explain all of the serious changes.5.6 230. and 9p21 (p16INK4A).1) Territory Klymovo Novozybkov Klintsy Krasnogorsk Zlynka Gordeevka Southwest Province Russia 1995 195.2 197.2 192. These disorders in structure and function result in damage to the reproductive process.770 1988 3. 2001) Year Morbidity 1986 645 1987 1.. and urinary tract.8 167.630 1990 6. 1992).9 302.3 142. with an increase up to 10-fold for some illnesses. 1998).6 194. Conclusion Illnesses of the upper respiratory system (nasopharynx and bronchial tubes) were the initial consequences of Chernobyl irradiation for the general population and the liquidators in the first days and weeks after the catastrophe. In some years the incidence of bronchopulmonary illnesses decreased. but are indirectly affected through hormonal disruption.2 1998 326.2 219. Although there have been some studies of the functional changes in the urogenital tract as a consequence of Chernobyl radiation. 10.6 1997 259. Ukraine.. bladder. Prolonged persistence of radioactive particles is associated with the appearance of cancer-related molecular abnormalities in the bronchial epithelium of former Chernobyl cleanup workers. 3p22–24 (hMLH1).0 237. 3p14.9 126. microsatellite alterations at seven chromosomal regions. It was unexpected. for example. 1995– 1998 (Fetysov. and Russia remained significantly higher in the contaminated territories.34.4 309.0 192. 5. which not only are subject to direct radiation effects.010 1993 7. the incidence of respiratory system illnesses was higher compared to controls some decades after the bombardments (Furitsu et al.0 298. but the severity increased. 9.6 1996 211. 3p21.0 242.6 199.6 n/a Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 5.4.2 163.2 (FHIT). to find increased levels of male hormones Combined external radiation and incorporated radionuclide effects were expressed in a new form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease syndrome (Chuchalin et al.5 183..2 allelic loss was associated with decreased expression of the FHIT mRNA in the bronchial epithelium as compared with a control group of smokers (Chuchalin.3 196.. The diseases developed more rapidly and were more serious (Tseloval’nykova et al.390 1991 6.0 336.950 1992 7. The frequency of the chronic bronchopulmonary illnesses in liquidators increased significantly over the first 15 years after the catastrophe. 2002.1 237. TABLE 5.6 238. Respiratory Morbidity (per 10.6. Chizhykov and Chizhykov. reflecting significant impairment of the immune and hormonal systems. If such an increase is observed after a single short-term irradiation. as well as the ovaries and testicles.0 209. Respiratory Morbidity among the Adult Population of Bryansk Province in Areas with a Level of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 .5 196.730 1989 5. 1999a: table 5.4 213.33.9 288. 2002).5 168.000) among Russian Liquidators for the First 8 Years after the Catastrophe (Baleva et al. it is possible to assume that the Chernobyl irradiation will cause increased respiratory system illnesses over the next several generations.8 182.96 TABLE 5. These include: K-ras (codon 12) mutation. and allelic loss at 3p12. p16 (INK4A) promoter hypermethylation. For children of the Japanese hibakusha who were not irradiated directly. The incidence of 3p14. Urogenital Tract Diseases and Reproductive Disorders Irradiation directly damages the kidneys. 2003).110 . Some 10 to 15 years later.3 233. respiratory morbidity in Belarus.1 474.

13. Experts can argue about the effects of small doses of radiation. there was a significant delay in sexual maturation among girls from 10 to 14 years of age born to irradiated parents (National Belarussian Report.. In the contaminated territories.1.5-fold in Gomel. Gomel Province (5– 70 Ci/km2 . failed pregnancies and medical abortions increased (Golovko and Izhevsky. “. 1993). 2002). From 1993 to 2003. Abnormalities of menstrual function in nonparous women in areas with contamination of 1–5 Ci/km2 (Gomel City) was linked to ovarian cystic-degenerative changes and increased endometrial proliferation.6-fold. Soon after the catastrophe the majority of fertile women from the contaminated territories developed menstrual disorders (Nesterenko et al... and progesterone (Sharapov. From 1991 to 2001. as were the number of complication during pregnancy and birth (Belookaya et al. Primary infertility in the contaminated areas increased 5.. 8.. 2001. 1993). 1997). Belarus 1. 5. 1998). 6. Gomel Province (5– 70 Ci/km2 . The doctors reminisce: ‘In one village we found twelve lactating∗ elderly women. Reuters. Up until 2000 children born after the catastrophe in heavily contaminated territories had more reproductive organ disorders than those born in less contaminated areas: fivefold higher for girls and threefold higher for boys (Nesterenko et al.. women 70 years of age had milk in their breasts.254 women). 2002). . 4. Of 1. 1993). .. . Increased gynecologic morbidity (including anemia during pregnancy and postnatal anemia) and birth anomalies correlated with the level of radioactive contamination in the Chechersky District.046 pregnant women examined. but the ordinary person cannot even begin to imagine such a thing. .. twice the incidence of sclerocystic ovaries. thyroxin. 1997). 10. 1996).5-fold in 1991 compared with 1986. The incidence of endometriosis increased almost 2. 2006). 9. 3. In territories with heavy Chernobyl contamination.’ ” (Aleksievich. 11. Kulakov et al. . Abnormal development of genitalia and delay in sexual development correlated with the levels of radioactive contamination in the Chechersk District. as though they were nursing. Frequent gynecologic problems and delay in the onset of menarche correlated with the levels of radioactive contamination in the area (Kulakov et al. that is. there are increased numbers of children with sexual and physical developmental disorders related to hormone dysfunction— cortisol. 5. those in the more contaminated areas were 4 to 5 years younger than those from less contaminated areas (Al-Shubul and Suprun. Impotence in young men (ages 25 to 30 years) correlated with the level of radioactive contamination in a territory (Shilko et al. with the disease expressed most often in the first 5 years after the catastrophe. the incidence of gynecologic diseases in fertile women in the contaminated territories was considerably increased. 2000).Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 97 in females as a result of internally incorporated radionuclides (for a review see Bandazhevsky. Ovarian size correlated with testosterone concentration in blood serum (Yagovdik. _________ ∗ Lactation in the absence of pregnancy (termed galactoria or hyperprolactinemia) is an expression of pituitary gland dysfunction. Among women who developed endometriosis. 1993). 1997). which increased 6. 2000b). and a threefold increase in endocrine disorders (Shilko et al. 2. Mogilev. 7.6.. Among the irrefutable reasons for infertility are sperm pathologies. 12. 1999) and also unexpected to observe contrary effects of various radionuclides on the rate of sexual maturation (Paramonova and Nedvetskaya. the level of urogenital tract disease was significantly higher in the more contaminated territories (Busuet et al. 1993). and Vitebsk cities from 1981 to 1995 (surgical treatment for 1.. Kulakov et al. 1997).026.

35. puberty was delayed by 2 years in boys and by 1 year in girls..6. 2003.. Kiev Province. In the first years after the catastrophe there was heavier menstruation. 2004). In the territories contaminated by Sr-90 and Pu. 2003). 14.017 female children of evacuees (aged 8 to 18 years) examined after the catastrophe. 2. and there was early placental aging at 30–32 weeks gestation (Dashkevich et al. Urogenital diseases increased in children in the contaminated territories: 0. Women who were irradiated as girls in 1986 have markedly more problems during childbirth (Table 5. Accelerated rates of sexual development were observed in territories contaminated by Cs-137 (Paramonova and Nedvetskaya. Ukraine 1. correlated with the level of radioactive contamination (20–60 Ci/km2 ) (Kulakov et al. Increased gynecologic morbidity (including anemia during and after pregnancy) and birth anomalies in the Polessk District. uterine hypoplasia.8% 33. 2003).5% ing: renal morbidity increased from 12 to 51%. Sexual maturity was retarded in 11% of a group of 1. Neonates born to women who were irradiated as girls in 1986 have up to twice the incidence of physical disorders (Nyagy. 2005). Among 1. 2006) Irradiated Normal delivery Hypogalactia Hypocalcemia 25. 3. Occurrence of chronic pyelonephritis.98 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 5.. 2003). newborn respiratory disease increased 2. 1995). Abnormal genital development and delay in sexual development in the Polessk District. 11. Kulakov et al.8 per 1. Girls have delayed puberty in the contaminated territories (Vovk and Mysurgyna. 13. in the contaminated territories increased significantly for 5 to 6 years after the catastrophe (Gorptchenko et al. including ovarian cysts and uterine fibromas. and late menarche).. 4. 6. 1995).017 girls and teenagers from contaminated territories (Lukyanova. 15.2. correlated with the level of radioactive contamination (20–60 Ci/km2 . 10.8 per 1. 1994)..8-fold.017 girls examined who had been exposed to irradiation.000 pregnant women in the contaminated territories over an 8-year period after the catastrophe revealed the follow- TABLE 5. 14% had impaired menstruation (Luk’yanova. 1995). 8. 1997). 1997).000 in 1987 to 22. oligohydramnios increased 48%.5% 12. and urinary tract diseases in teenagers correlated with the level of contamination in the territories (Karpenko et al. Child-Bearing Data Concerning Women Irradiated as Children in 1986 in Contaminated Territories (Nyagy. The incidence of female genital disorders. A survey of 16. The number of menstrual disorders in the contaminated territories tripled compared with the precatastrophe period.. 1997).. and after 5 to 6 years menstruation decreased or stopped (Gorptychenko et al. the number of premature deliveries increased up to twofold. 2002). 12. 1993).35). 11% had delayed sexual development (underdevelopment of secondary sex characteristics. Earlier onset and prolonged puberty and disorders of secondary sexual characteristics were found in girls born to liquidator fathers (Teretchenko. The level of alpha-radionuclides is significantly higher in bone tissue of aborted fetuses from mothers from the contaminated territories (Luk’yanova.3% 12. kidney stones. From 1988 to 1999 the incidence of urogenital diseases in the population of contaminated territories more than doubled (Prysyazhnyuk et al. . 9. 1994). Kiev Province. 5.2% Control 63. Menstrual cycle disorders are commonly diagnosed in the contaminated territories (Babich and Lypchanskaya. Dashkevich and Janyuta.8% 74. 1995).000 in 2004 (Horishna. Among 1. 7. 2006). and 14% had disturbed menstrual function (Vovk.

and about 75% had climacteric syndrome and declining libido (Bezhenar et al. 25. complications of pregnancy. 2003.3%). the proportion of mobile sperm was lower (35–40% vs. 41% of 467 male liquidators (age 21 to 45 years) had sexual abnormalities: decreased testicular androgen function and increased estrogen and follicle-stimulating hormone levels (Bero. 2006). Zadorozhnaya et al.1 ± 0. and the number of dead sperm increased up to 70% vs. one had oligospermia. Spontaneous interruption of pregnancy. . 77. Female liquidators of perimenopausal age during the catastrophe had an early menopause (46. These changes included uneven thickness of the placenta. Miscarriages occurred especially often in the heavily contaminated territories of Kiev Province (Gerasymova and Romanenko. and 16% had oliogomenses accompanied by persistent hyperprolactinemia (Bezhenar’ et al.2fold higher than controls.000 in 2003 (Baloga. 21.000 in 1988... and premature births (Horishna. 24. 1995). and undifferentiated and undeveloped fibroblasts in the terminal stromal villi. In 42% of surveyed liquidators sperm counts were reduced by 53%. One had aspermia..Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 99 16. and 98. Some 96% of individuals in the contaminated territories with prostatic adenoma were found to have precancerous changes in the bladder urothelium (Romanenko et al. 19% had mammary fibroadenomatosis.8 per 1. Risks of spontaneous abortions are higher in the contaminated territories (Lipchak et al. 2002. 22. Women in the heavily contaminated areas have more frequent miscarriages. 2005. 27.2% had birth complications and excess bleeding (2. anemia. late gestation. From 1988 to 2003 urogenital morbidity among male liquidators who worked in 1986– 1987 increased 10-fold: 9. 23.. calcium inclusions.000 in 1999. 20.4 per 1.4 per 1.. In an other study.. 1993). and resulted in lower weight of newborns (Luk’yanova. about 30% of liquidators had functional sexual disorders and sperm abnormalities (Romanenko et al. Among 12 men with chronic radiation dermatitis caused by beta. 2003).and gammairradiation during and after the Chernobyl catastrophe two had erectile dysfunction and the others reported various impairments of sexual function. cysts. 2000. Among 250 married couples of liquidators observed in Donetsk City. 17. 2003).. 26. For 8 to 9 years after the catastrophe the incidence of menstrual disorders was significantly increased in female liquidators. 28. In 7 to 8 years after the catastrophe. Dystrophic and degenerate changes of the placenta in liquidators and in other women living in the contaminated territories correlated with the level of Cs-137 incorporated in the placenta. Luk’yanova et al.9 years). premature birth. 18.. Sergienko. 59 ± 5% have experienced sexual dysfunction caused by irradiation and 19 ± 3% owing to radiophobia. aplastic anemia. A total of 84% of young women (average age 30. and other pathologies of pregnancy occurred significantly more often in evacuees and in the contaminated territories 8 to 10 years after the catastrophe (Grodzinsky. In three samples there was an increase in abnormal forms of spermatozoa and in three samples sperm motility was decreased (Byryukov et al. 70– 75% in controls). 1999).. 1993). Kyra et al. 1999). A total of 54. 1995b). two had azoospermia. and four had normal sperm counts. 25% in controls (Gorptchenko et al. 2005). 2000)... 2003. 1999). 1998). presence of fibrous scaring. 2002). 78. and destruction of the placenta (controls 10. 19.5 years in 1986–1987) developed hypermenstrual syndrome within 2 to 5 years after being exposed (41. 1999.1% of pregnant women from the contaminated territories had preclampsia. 1997. Golubchykov et al.2% had uterine fibromyoma. Ivanyuta and Dubchak. Luk’yanova.

8 88.4 1997 64.2 Leukoplacias. Lyaginskaya et al.1 53. From 1995 to 1998 the overall urogenital morbidity in adults in Bryansk Province noticeably increased in all but one of the contaminated areas (Table 5.9 78. %∗ illnesses.000) 171 kBq/m2 ∗ 21.2 75..2 41.1 10. 5.4 1996 71.3 51.4 ± 2. displasias. The frequency of occurrence of spontaneous abortions (miscarriages) in liquidator (1986–1987) families in Ryazan Province was significantly higher during the first 7 years after the catastrophe (Figure 5. 1995–1998 (Fetysov. 7. 8.7 75. 2007). 2007).2 34.4 38. 3. 4.8 30. All heavily contaminated districts.000) in Bryansk Province Districts with Levels of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 . Russia 1.9) and was fourfold higher (18.7 66. 2006) Precancer All pathologies. 1997).9 60.6 1.2 78.2%) than that of the general population (4. A total of 18% of all pregnancies registered among liquidators’ families terminated in miscarriages (Lyaginskaya et al.1 27.8 36.1) Number of cases 1998 79.. from 1995 to 1998.7 60. polyps. The urogenital morbidity among women in some of the heavily contaminated territories of Bryansk and Tula provinces correlated with the levels of contamination (Table 5.37.3 91.4 70..2 95.3 60.7 67.2 114.9 78.1 81.1 82. 9. 1995– 1998 (Fetysov.8 52.2 8.7 26. 2007).1) Number of cases 1995 Klymovo Novozybkov Klintsy Klintsy City Krasnogorsk Zlynka Southwest∗ Province ∗ Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 5.2 44.36.2 Territory Klymovo Novozybkov Klintsy Klintsy City Krasnogorsk Zlynka Gordeevka Southwest∗ Province ∗ 1996 48.1 34.4 56. Urogenital Morbidity (per 1.8 58.37).3 79.7 33..38). etc.7 72.36).5 40.5 25.7 1998 60.000) among Adults in Bryansk Province Districts Contaminated above 5 Ci/km2 ..8 34.1 72. Occurrence of Reproductive System Illness and Precancer Pathologies among Women in Some Territories of the Tula and Bryansk Provinces Contaminated by Cs-137 (Tsyb et al. .1 22.8 11.2 66.0 46. Increased gynecologic morbidity (including anemia during pregnancy.3 45.0 22.2 53.6 29.4 60.100 TABLE 5. which was not revealed until recently (Lyaginskaya et al.6 44.200) 322 kBq/m2 Novozybkov City (n = 1. Urogenital Morbidity among Children (per 1. Four years after the catastrophe up to 15% of liquidators (from 94 evaluated) had TABLE 5. Overall.7 44.6. 1999b: table 6.6 51.4 All heavily contaminated districts.8 24.3 10. postnatal anemia.3 54. % Klintsy District (n = 1. urogenital morbidity in children was higher in the majority of the contaminated districts of Bryansk Province than in the province as a whole (Table 5.8 1995 72.7 43. Impaired genital and delayed sexual development correlated with the level of radioactive contamination in the Mtsensk (1–5 Ci/km2 ) and Volkhov (10–15 Ci/km2 ) districts of Oryol Province (Kulakov et al.1 26.8 1997 51. 1999a: table 5.5 78. 2.1 68. The 1986 liquidators from Ryazan Province and other nuclear industry personnel went through a prolonged period of sterility.7 80.8 76. 5..0 75.2%.3.000) 708 kBq/m2 Uzlovaya Station (n = 1.9 57. 1997).6 ± 1. 6.1 19.38. and abnormal delivery) correlated with the level of radioactive contamination in the Mtsensk (1–5 Ci/km2 ) and Volkhov (10–15 Ci/km2 ) districts of Oryol Province (Kulakov et al.6 44.

. Domrachova et al. 2001). 1997). ARMENIA. Vozylova et al. 2003). 2002). Incidence (%) of spontaneous abortions in liquidators’ families (black rectangles) and in Ryazan’ Province (white rectangles) from 1987 to 1994 (Lyaginskaya et al. 1997).. Evdokymov et al. and increased acidic phosphatase levels in ejaculate compared with other males of the same age (Ukhal et al. 15. 3. an increase in maternal toxemia was associated with increased irradiation (Tabacova.. The number of boys born monthly in Bohemia and Moravia. 2002).39. 1989. 1986–1993 (Baleva et al. 5. 2001). 2007). There were spermatogenesis disorders in the majority of the surveyed liquidators 10 years after the catastrophe (Oganesyan et al.000). and autoimmune orchitis affecting spermatogenesis occurred soon after irradiation. 18. Other Countries 1.. Pathomorphological alterations occurred in testicular tissue of liquidators in Krasnodar Province. The level of abnormal spermatozoids in liquidators correlated with the level of chromosome aberrations (Kondrusev.. A total of 21% of surveyed liquidators had sperm with reduced mobility and morphologic changes... Fifty liquidators who were examined had sperm counts significantly lower than the norms (Tsyb et al. 17. lower sperm mobility..8 to 4% from 1991 to 1998 (Byryukov et al. 16. 2002. A third of 116 liquidators examined had intercourse disorders (Evdokymov et al. Dynamics of Urogenital Morbidity among Liquidators (per 10. 2002). CZECH REPUBLIC. Among 80 children of liquidators who were examined there was increased incidence of pyelonephritis (Hovhannisyan and Asryan. 2001).. 2004).4. 19. Sperm of some liquidators contained 6–8% immature cells (the norm is 1–2%. 2001). Sexual potency was low in half of the male liquidators who were examined (Dubivko and Karatay. 14. 13. significantly more dead sperm. 1991). Liquidators’ virility was noticeably lower in the year after the catastrophe: up to 42% of sperm tests did not meet quantitative norms and up to 52. Lymphoid infiltration developed in the seminiferous tubules 5 years after the catastrophe and in the interstitial tissue after 10 to 15 years.410 .6% did not meet qualitative norms (Mikulinsky et al. The incidence of urogenital illnesses in male liquidators grew from 1. 2001) Year Number of cases 1986 34 1987 112 1988 253 1989 424 1990 646 1991 903 1992 1.6. 12. Urogenital morbidity in liquidators increased more than 40-fold from 1986 to 1993 (Table 5.. Following the Chernobyl nuclear accident. 11. 1997. Sclerosis in 50% of seminiferous tubules and foci of Leydig cell regeneration was seen after the catastrophe (Cheburakov et al.39). 10. BULGARIA. 2. Stepanova and Skvarskaya. the Czech Republic territories that suffered most TABLE 5...Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 101 Figure 5.9.180 1993 1.

Cs-137 incorporated in the placenta at a level of 0. and Sweden between 1982 and 1992.5. Poland.7. 5. 2. osteomuscular morbidity in evacuees and inhabitants of the contaminated territories was 1. 3.1.7. Elevated placental radionuclide concentrations may be a factor in the death of newborns in contaminated territories (Table 5.0081. and birth abnormalities in children. 2004). In the contaminated territories there have been cases of children born practically without bones (“jellyfish-children”).9–3. p < 0. Finland. it is difficult to blame stress for abnormalities in spermatozoa. The proportion of males increased in 1987 with a sex odds ratio of 1. The change occurred among babies who were 7–9 weeks in utero at the time of the catastrophe. 2. In 1995. Hungary. Norway.. 3. The adverse influence of Chernobyl irradiation upon urogenital morbidity and reproductive function for liquidators and for millions of people living in the contaminated territories will continue in coming generations.25 Bq/kg leads to weakness of the tubular bone structures and destruction of spinal cartilage (Arabskaya et al. Such imbalance results from either hormonal disorders or direct damage by irradiation to the cellular predecessors of osteoclasts and osteoblasts (Ushakov et al. A positive association for the male proportion in Germany between 1986 and 1991 with radioactive exposure at the district level is reflected in a sex odds ratio of 1..05). 1999). Conclusion Clearly there is an increasingly wide spectrum of urogenital illnesses in men. p < 0. 2007).102 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences from Chernobyl fallout changed only once over 600 months of observation (1950–1999). dystrophic changes in osteoblasts and osteoclasts.. Belarus 1. Luk’yanova et al. Germany. 1997). a condition seen previously only in the Marshall Islands after the nuclear tests of the 1950s. 5. 5.. women.4-fold higher than for the general population (Matsko. and a change in the osteoblast/osteoclast ratio (Luk’yanova. Liquidators and inhabitants of contaminated territories often complain of bone and joint pain—the indirect indicators of the processes of osteoporosis. 1997).0013–1. Osteomuscular illnesses were widespread among liquidators under 30 years of age (Antypova et al. 2003. The bones of dead newborns demonstrate morphological defects: reduction in the number and size of osteoblasts. Although some claim that poor reproductive function is due solely to psychological factors (stressful conditions).40). there were 457 fewer boys born than expected based on a long-term demographic trend (Perez. 5. In recent years.0021 – 1. 1997).7. There were long-term chronic effects of the catastrophe on sex ratios at birth in Denmark.05) (Frentzel-Beyme and Scherb. 4. ISRAEL. 1997a). reproductive failures. 4. In November 1986. . Ukraine 1. stillbirths from the heavily contaminated territories had increased levels of alpha-radionuclides incorporated in bone tissue (Horishna. Bone and Muscle Diseases Osteoporosis (decreasing density of bone tissue) results from an imbalance between the formation of bone and the natural reabsorption process. 5.0145 per mSv/year (95% CI: 1.. Significant differences in quantitative ultramorphological parameters of sperm heads were observed in liquidators who had emigrated compared with men of similar age who were not irradiated (Fischbein et al.2.0271. The number of newborns with developmental osteomuscular anomalies has increased in the contaminated territories (Kulakov et al.. 2005).6. and children from the territories contaminated by Chernobyl fallout. 2005). 2006). 5. OTHER COUNTRIES.0047 (95% CI: 1.

7 – 1.2 67.4 1997 90.3-fold from 1991 to 2001 (Borysevich and Poplyko. legs.3 15.8 111. 1999). 2004).3 109.40.9 11.9 25. 2005).000) among Children in Bryansk Province Territories with Levels of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 .2 0.2 94. 1996).3 100.0 136. 8. 3. Osteomuscular Morbidity among Adults in Bryansk Province Territories with Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 . Osteomuscular Morbidity (per 1.7 82.05 0.0 174.0 94.8 40. 4. 2001). and joints (Dedov and Dedov. 7. 2003.7 82..3 89.7 27. 2002).2 ± 0.41.2 129.03 0. Osteomuscular morbidity among adult evacuees is higher than in the general population of the country (Prysyazhnyuk et al.3 67..7 ± 0.41).42).4 49.4 .6 141.4 No data No data No data No data No data 0. Up to 62% of liquidators complain of back pain and pain in the bones of their hands.. 2005 Radionuclides Mother’s body Placenta Liver Spleen Thymus Vertebrae Teeth Ribs Tubular bones 0.3.7 41.5 1996 118. From 1995 to 1998 primary osteomuscular morbidity in children of Bryansk Province was higher in the contaminated areas (Table 5. In 1996 osteomuscular morbidity in territories with contamination of 5–15 Ci/km2 was higher than for the population of the country as a whole (Grodzinsky.9 120.9 69. 1999a: table 5. 1999b: table 6. In 3.6 1996 124. 2002. Lukyanova 2005 et al.4 17.02 0. 2.1 217.9 76.9 7.0 104. Kirkae.7 All heavily contaminated districts. Muscular system and connective tissue diseases in liquidators increased 2.1 29.1 110. Shkrobot et al.7 102.02 Cs-137 Cs-137 Alpha Cs-137 Cs-137 Cs-137 Cs-137 Alpha Cs-137 Cs-137 103 TABLE 5.3 3.3 58.0 29.42.5% of cases the osteoporosis was accompanied by pathological bone fractures.8 150. children’s general osteomuscular morbidity was noticeably higher than that of the province as a whole (Table 5. From 1988 to 1999 osteomuscular morbidity in the contaminated territories more than doubled (Prysyazhnyuk et al. Osteoporosis develops more often in liquidators than in comparable groups of the population (Nykytyna.43). 2002).4 ± 0. 6. 8.02 0. Radionuclide Concentration (Bq/kg) in the Bodies of Pregnant Women and in Organs of Stillborns Horishna.6 1997 216.0 105.4 ± 0..0 1998 143. Russia 1. 9.2 0.0 ± 0.7.2 162.5 12. 5.7 109.24 0.1) Number of cases Territory Klymovo Novozybkov Klintsy Krasnogorsk Zlynka Southwest∗ Province ∗ 1995 146.9 0. 5. General osteomuscular morbidity of adults is higher in the heavily contaminated districts of Bryansk Province than in the province as a whole (Table 5.0 110.8 0.7 101. 1995–1998 (Fetysov.. Osteoporosis was found in 30–88% of liquidators who were examined (Nykytyna. Osteoporosis in liquidators also affects the dental bone tissue (Matchenko et al.2 217.1 111.5 0.3 40. 2002).1) Number of cases Territory Klymovo Novozybkov Klintsy Krasnogorsk Zlynka Gordeevka Southwest Province 1995 173. 7.6 63. The most frequently occurring osteomuscular pathologies among 600 liquidators who were examined were osteochondrosis of various parts of vertebrae and diffuse osteoporosis. In the heavily contaminated districts of Bryansk Province.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl TABLE 5.7 103. 2002. Druzhynyna.2 31. 6.6 151.8 129.1 ± 0. 1995–1998 (Fetysov.7 32.4 81. TABLE 5.9 22.3 37.3 ± 0.0 159.02 1.4 1998 236.

Accordingly.000) among Liquidators and the Adult Population of Bryansk Province Territories with Levels of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 .8 111. 1998). and fractures) are characteristic not only of the majority of liquidators. The effects are especially serious for children when osteomuscular defects impede growth and activity. Bone and muscle dis- Liquidators Southwest∗ Province Russia ∗ 114. there will be new data on the effects of Chernobyl’s radioactive contamination on bone and muscle. 562 per 10.4 81. Primary Osteomuscular Morbidity (per 1. 12.3% had thinning of the compact plate of the mandible. 5. eases are not insignificant. 37.2 13.43. not because these diseases are insignificant but because they attract little attention in terms of survival. the nervous system was considered the system most resistant to ionizing radiation. The mineral density of bone in many liquidators is 16–37% lower than the age norms (Kholodova et al.. as new material is published. but this is apparently true only in respect to large doses (see. 10.5 82.3 93. Conclusion Data concerning the influence of Chernobyl contamination on the osteomuscular system are scarce.2 1998 272. but also of many residents of the contaminated territories.104 TABLE 5. It is now clear that structural bone disorders (osteopenia. Some 62% of liquidators among the 274 who were examined had decreased skeletal mineralization and 8% had osteoporosis (Khartchenko et al..3 All heavily contaminated districts.4 87. in addition. Undoubtedly. From 1994 to 1998.8. Byryukov et al. osteomuscular morbidity in liquidators in Bryansk Province was noticeably higher than that of the general population of the heavily contaminated districts and differed considerably from of the population of the province and Russia as a whole (Table 5. 11. osteoporosis.44.4 1998 42. Gus’kova and Baisogolov.2% had diffuse osteoporosis of the jaw. The loss of teeth leads to deterioration in a person’s ability to eat and secondary adverse dietary effects. 1996.5 80.4 n/a compression of nerve roots.9 1997 24. 1995–1998 (Fetysov.3% also had osteoporosis of a vertebral body (Druzhynyna.000. 1997a.5 16.7. 9. 1971). 2004).7 82. 1998).. Havenaar et al. Chronic bone and muscle pain leads to loss of function and curtailment of activities needed to sustain life.9 238.g..0 80. Osteomuscular Morbidity (per 1. 1995–1998 (Fetysov. 1999b: table 6. 5.6 76.000) among Children in Bryansk Province. from 1991 to 1998 the osteomuscular morbidity of liquidators was significantly higher than for the population as a whole (650 vs.5 1996 39. and osteoalgia and arthralgias (Kholodova et al.. increased levels of depression. 1998).2 1997 221. Since the Chernobyl catastrophe it is clear that low doses and low dose rates of . and mental problems to posttraumatic stress (Havenaar. 33.5 11.4 18. 1999a: table 4.6 87.5 81.4. Skeletal mineral losses in liquidators who worked in 1986 reached 42% (compared with peak age and weight).0 109.. there was less loss among liquidators who worked in 1987–1988 (Khartchenko et al. According to National Registry data.5 1996 207.1 90.b).2) Year Southwest Province 1995 19. the report of the Chernobyl Forum (2005) attributed all neurological illnesses. 1995).. 2001). including children. Diseases of the Nervous System and the Sense Organs and Their Impact on Mental Health Thirty-plus years ago. Periodontal disease markers were found in all surveyed liquidators: 88.44). e.5 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 5.1) Number of cases 1994 1995 99.

The first part of this section is devoted to the nervous system itself and the second to the sense organs. Some parts of the central nervous system (CNS) are especially susceptible to radiation damage. 1996).5%. Impaired short-term memory and attention lapse were observed among high school students aged 16 to 17 and the seriousness of these conditions correlated directly with the levels of contamination (Ushakov et al.1. and ocular structures. Neurological morbidity of 1. Neurological and psychiatric disorders among adults were significantly higher in the contaminated territories (31. Diseases of Nervous System Twenty-two years after the Chernobyl catastrophe. The number of cases of congenital convulsive syndrome (epilepsy) grew significantly in the contaminated territories in the first 10 years after the catastrophe (Tsymlyakova and Lavrent’eva. Ushakov et al. . 7. Nervous system morbidity in children increased in one of the most contaminated areas—the Luninetsk District of Brest Province (Voronetsky et al. newborns.170 individuals examined from the less contaminated districts of Vitebsk Province (Lukomsky et al.8.000 out of the 2. maternity patients.2 vs. 1996).8. was noticeably higher than in 9.1 vs. 5. 2001). 1997).. In a comparison between 340 agricultural machine operators from the heavily contaminated Narovlya District. 8. 2006). Morbidity from diseases of the nervous system and sense organs noticeably increased in all the contaminated territories (Lomat et al. Belarus 1. 1997). 2006). this approach may have led to dramatic underestimation of mental disorders (Loganovsky. which was contaminated with Cs-137 at levels higher than 1. 4. From 2000 to 2005 there was a tendency toward an increasing incidence of mental disorders among children in this district (Dudinskaya et al. From 1993 to 2003 primary morbidity from nervous system disease and diseases of the eye and its appendages increased markedly among children aged 10 to 14 years born to irradiated parents (National Belarussian Report. 6. 4. not with data obtained from welldesigned psychiatric studies using standardized diagnostic procedures. Ten years after the catastrophe nervous system disorders were the second cause of morbidity among teenagers evacuated from contaminated territories. 5. 2002). 18... with radiation levels of 185–2.0%). as well as on neuropsychiatric disorders that are widespread in all the contaminated territories. Gomel Province. it is apparent that low levels of ionizing radiation cause changes in both the central and the autonomic nervous systems and can precipitate radiogenic encephalopathy (for a review see Loganovsky.335 teens that were examined (Syvolobova et al. 5. 1995).Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 105 radiation have enormous impact on the fine structures of the nervous system. Mogilev Province.110 kBq/m2 (30 Ci/km2 ). with 331 cases per 1. on higher nervous system activities. Together with the ongoing changes in the way that the countries of the Former Soviet Union deal with psychiatric problems. the incidence of perinatal encephalopathy after 1986 was two to three times higher than before the catastrophe (Kulakov et al. and a similar group of 202 individuals from the vicinity of less contaminated Minsk. 1998). According to a longitudinal survey of pregnant women. Gomel Province.1.1.. 3. There is a growing body of evidence supporting radiosensitivity of the brain (Nyagu and Loganovsky. Mental health assessment in the Former Soviet Union dealt primarily with mental disorders as recorded in the national healthcare system. 1993).. 1999). 2.590 kBq/m2 (5–70 Ci/km2 ).. 1997). 9.708 adults in the Kostjukovichi District. the first group exhibited a sixfold higher incidence of vascularbrain pathology (27.. and children in the contaminated territories of the Chechersk District.

From 1991 to 2000 there was a 2. Other data between 1988 and 1999 indicated that the incidence of neurological disease grew 1.350 per 10. maternity patients. which had radiation levels of 740–2.6 17.45)..4 25.. 2006). Kiev Province.. According to a longitudinal survey of pregnant women.6 per 1. Intellectual development scores (IQs) for a group of heavily irradiated evacuee children from Pripyat City and for children from less irradiated Kiev (National Ukrainian Report..3 7. Electroencephalograms (EEGs) for 97% of 70 surveyed evacuees’ children indicated structural and functional immaturity of subcortical and cortical brain structures. The incidence of nervous system disease in children grew markedly in the contaminated territories 2 years after the catastrophe (Stepanova. Irradiated children have lower IQs (Figure 5.0 0 11.7 16. . stress. Ukraine 1.10). and somatoform disorders (F40-F48) Physiological developmental disorders (F80-F89) Emotional disorders (F90-F98) Learning disorders 60. the incidence of perinatal encephalopathy after 1986 was observed to be two to three times higher than before the catastrophe (Kulakov et al.3 0 13.2 85.6 3. only two out of these 70 children had normal EEGs (Horishna.7 3. 2001).3 per 1.106 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 5. and children in contaminated territories of Polessk District.3 7. 4. 3. Figure 5.5 1. 6.000 children (Prysyazhnyuk et al. By 1998 nervous system and sense organ diseases in children had increased sixfold compared to 1986 (TASS. that is.369 to 4.0 0 0 0 58. 8. newborns.2-fold increase in the incidence of nervous system and sense organ diseases among Belarussian liquidators (Borysevich and Poplyko.1. 5.2. Controls.8. 1995a). 2005). Greater fatigue and lowered intellectual capacity was found in middle and high school age children in the contaminated villages of the Chernygov Province 7 to 8 years after the catastrophe (Bondar et al.6 15.10.9 10. 2004) Irradiated. 2005).4 2. 5. Occurrence (%) of Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders among Children Irradiated In Utero (Nyagu et al. whereas by 2004 it was 5..8-fold during the 10-year period: from 2.200 kBq/m2 (20– 60 Ci/km2 ).7 1. 7.5 46. The incidence of nervous system asthenia and vegetative (autonomic) regulation disorders was more that fivefold higher in evac- uees’ children compared with a control group (Romanenko et al. 2.000. 2002). Children irradiated in utero have more nervous system illnesses and mental disorders (Igumnov et al. 1998). 2002)..5 25.45. The number of children with mental illness in the contaminated territories increased: in 1987 the incidence was 2.3 2. Table 5. 1999). 2004.000 (Horishna.9 26. n = 121 n = 77 Neurologically healthy Predisposition to epilepsy (G40) Migraine (G43) Other headaches (G44) Sleep disturbances (G47) Other disorders of vegetative nervous system (G90) Neurological complications Intellectual health Organic mental disorders (F06 and F07) Neurotic. 1995).4 3.

9. 1999.1% of the overall morbidity in the contaminated territories (Grodzinsky.001) during the same period (from 15 to 48. and neuropsychiatric disorders (Kovalenko and Loganovsky. epileptiform syndromes. and abnormal schizoid personality development were documented according to local psychiatric classifications and ICD-10 and DSM-IV criteria (Loganovsky. Somatoform autonomic dysfunction (F45. CFS and MSX are considered to be the first stages in the development of other pathologies. G43. The results . CFS may therefore be one of the most widespread consequences of the catastrophe for liquidators (Loganovsky.47).2%). although CFS incidence decreased significantly (p < 0. • • • • Increased incidence of mental and personality disorders owing to brain injury or brain dysfunction (F06.to 5-fold between 1988 and 1999. Nervous System Morbidity (per 10. organic. 2001. F07). and CFS can transform into MSX neurodegeneration.5% in 1996–2001). 2002).8. 13. 2006) Irradiated.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl TABLE 5.5% in 1990–1995 to 10. including: • In Russian-language literature often named “vegetative vascular dystonia. Behavioral and emotional disorders of childhood (F90–F99).. the frequency of occurrence of metabolic syndrome X (MSX—a group of risk factors for heart disease) increased significantly (p < 0. 1987–1992 (Nyagu.. n = 108 Verbal intelligence Distinctions pIQ-vIQ ∗ 107 TABLE 5. From 93 to 100% of the liquidators have neuropsychiatric disorders. Paroxysmal states (headache syndromes.05. 2000). nervous system illnesses in adults and teenagers and among evacuees accounted for 10. Moreover. 11. 2003).8) using a composite international diagnostic interview. Quantitative Parameters of Intellectual Development of Heavily Irradiated Evacuees’ Children from Pripyat City and Less Exposed Children from Kiev City (Yablokov et al. cognitive impairment. 1995a) Number of cases 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 All nervous 264 system diseases Vasomotor 128 dyscrasia∗ ∗ Controls. 2000b. 12. A marked growth of adult nervous system morbidity was observed in the contaminated territories during the first 6 years after the catastrophe. 2005). Quantitative parameters of intellectual development (IQ) of the heavily irradiated evacuees’ children from Pripyat City were worse than those of the less heavily irradiated children from Kiev City (Table 5.46. G40). Disorders of psychological development (F80–F89). 2002). especially after 1990 (Table 5. migraine.” also known as autonomic nervous system dysfunction.3). with predominantly organic symptomatic mental disorders (F00—F09) (Loganovsky.402 372 391 312 p < 0. A total of 26 out of 100 randomly selected liquidators who suffered from fatigue met the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) diagnostic criteria. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).000 Adults) in the Contaminated Territories of Ukraine. n = 73 116 2. Volovik et al.001) (from 65. Nervous system and sense organ morbidity in the contaminated territories increased 3. In 1994. 14.9∗ 107 10. Children exposed in utero at 16 to 25 weeks of gestation developed a range of conditions. Among adult evacuees these illnesses occurred significantly more often than in the population as a whole (Prysyazhnyuk et al. 10. psychosomatic.504 1. 1999).4 242 43 356 32 563 1. G44. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a representative cohort of liquidators within the frame of the Franco-German Chernobyl Initiative (Subproject 3.47.46). 15..

2004).1%). 2005). 1999). 2004.6 vs. 2001).1 per 10.1%). Nervous system morbidity among liquidators in 1986–1987 was twice as high as in 1988–1990 (Moskalenko. In 1986. The cerebral basis for deterioration of higher mental activity causing such disorders following a limited period of irradiation is pathology in the frontal and temporal cortex of the dominant hemisphere and the midline structures with their cortical–subcortical connections (Loganovsky. 2004). 9.5%). especially in those who spent several years working within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (Loganovsky.4%).4 vs. Pathologic radiographic changes in brain structure include atrophy.108 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences indicated an almost twofold increase in the incidence of all mental disorders (36%) in liquidators compared with the general Ukrainian population (20.. Anxiety (panic disorder) was also increased in liquidators (12.. Irradiation occurring in the contaminated territories causes brain damage. 2003).2 ± 0. 2002. 20. Increased rates of neuropsychiatric disorders and somatic pathology (F00–F09) were observed among liquidators who worked in 1986–1987.5 vs. and a dramatic increase in the incidence of depression (24. 2003. 2004a. In 1996.. 25. expressiveness.83 years. hypochondriasis. with cortical–limbic system dysfunction and impairment of informative processes at the molecular level that can trigger schizophrenia in predisposed individuals or cause schizophrenia-like disorders (Loganovsky et al. Loganovsky and Yuryev. neuropsychological. there is a high incidence of stenotic processes. 19. 2003). Romanenko et al. 16. enlargement of cerebral ventricles. 2003. neurophysiological. alcohol dependence among liquidators was not much higher than that in the total population (8. 1994. 23. With hypertonic vascular tone. and poor circulation on the left. 7. Nyagu and Loganovsky. The EEG patterns and topographical distribution of spontaneous and evoked brain bioelectrical activity of liquidators differed significantly from those of the control groups (Nyagu et al. 2000). 1995). 2002. The average age of both male and female Ukrainian liquidators with encephalopathy was 41. nervous system and sense organ morbidity among liquidators was more than triple the country’s average (Serdyuk and Bobyleva. From 1990 there were reports of a significant increase in the incidence of schizophrenia among the Chernobyl exclusion zone personnel compared to the general population (5. and peripheral hemodynamic disturbances. 18. In some cases. noticeably younger than for the population as a whole (Stepanenko et al. 2005b). Autonomic nervous system disorders are closely connected to disorders of neuropsychiatric behavior such as asthenia. organic brain damage was verified by clinical neuropsychiatric. A longitudinal study of the cognitive effects of the Chernobyl catastrophe on the liquidators and forestry and agricultural . and neuroimaging methods (Loganovsky et al.6 vs.. ruling out a major contribution from this factor (Demyttenaere et al... attention deficits. disturbed memory.. paroxysmal variants. The cerebral homodynamic disorders are caused by atherosclerotic changes.000 in the Ukraine in 1990. neuroses. 24. 6. and depression (Romamenko et al. Noshchenko and Loganovsky. 17.. 1998). Loganovsky and Bomko. Loganovsky and Loganovskaya. 21. 1998). At the same time. 1992. cerebral hemisphere asymmetry. 22. presence of vestibular I–III dysfunction. some 80 male Ukrainian liquidators with encephalopathy had both structural changes and functional impairment in the frontal and left temporal brain areas (Antipchuk. emotional disturbance. 2003). Autonomic nervous system disorders among liquidators who worked in 1986–1987 differed from disorders in liquidators from 1988–1989 in stability. 1. and focal brain lesions (Loganovsky et al. Among liquidators the typical structural brain disorder involves the frontal and left temporal lobes with their cortical–subcortical connections and the deep structures of the brain.

. 6. The 4-year averaged levels of accuracy and efficiency of cognitive performance of the exposed groups (especially the liquidators) were significantly lower than those of the controls (healthy Ukrainians residing several hundred kilometers away from Chernobyl).0 59. 4.0 70. 2001).4-fold (Russian Security Council.2 134. The occurrence of an encephalopathy in liquidators increased 25% from 1991 to 1998.2 213. 11. 1997).. caused by destruction of brain cells in adults (Sokolovskaya..1 242. Ushakov et al.8 64.8 144. and by 2004 the increase was up to 34% (Zubovsky and Tararukhyna. as well as psychomotor slowing.7 158.6 133. Borderline adult neuropsychological disorders occurred noticeably more often in the contaminated territories (31 vs. Impaired short-term memory and attention deficit in pupils 16 to 17 years of age in the contaminated territories correlated with the level of contamination (Ushakov et al.0 54.3 237. the level of this morbidity in Klintsy City and Krasnogorsk District sur- 1995 109. newborns. 2007).6 107. 10.48.. 8. for all exposed groups over the 4-year period.0 1998 125. Children irradiated in utero had the highest indices of mental disability and were more likely to display borderline intelligence and mental retardation linked to their prenatal irradiation (Ermolyna et al.2 n/a All heavily contaminated districts. and pulsing headaches. 5. 12. Longitudinal analyses of performance revealed significant declines in accuracy and efficiency. 3.8 79. 2001).0 123.3 275. 2.7 128.8 1996 111.0 1997 109.0 49.0 131.1) Number of cases Territory Klymovo Novozybkov Klintsy Klintsy City Krasnogorsk Zlynka Gorgdeevo Southwest∗ Province Russia ∗ workers living within 150 km of Chernobyl was conducted in 1995–1998.9 212. 7.2 124.. 18%. From 1986 to 1993 neurological morbidity in liquidators increased 42-fold (Table 5. 9. 1996).4 135.” which includes disorders of memory. According to a longitudinal survey of pregnant women. the incidence of perinatal encephalopathy observed after 1986 was double that prior to the catastrophe (Kulakov et al.1 134.1 187.4 159. 1997).2 140.2 155.2 173.5 125.3.8.6 143. There are increasing instances of a phenomenon termed “Chernobyl dementia. Russia 1. Ultrasound studies of babies’ brains from these territories revealed ventricular hypertrophy in almost one-third (Kulakov et al. 1999b: table 6. passes that of the province and the rest of Russia by a significant margin. writing. General Nervous System and Sense Organ Morbidity among Children in Bryansk Province Districts with Contamination above 5 Ci/ km2 . Although data on children’s neurological morbidity in the heavily contaminated districts of Bryansk Province are contradictive (Table 5.1. Electroencephalographic (EEG) studies of children of different ages from heavily contaminated territories revealed increased functional activity of the diencephalic structures.. 2005). In 1995. 1995–1998 (Fetysov. In the contaminated territories a lower level of nonverbal intelligence is found in children radiated in the 15th week of intrauterine development (Rumyantseva et al. convulsions. and children in the contaminated territories of the Mtsensk (1–5 Ci/km2 ) and Volkhov (10–15 Ci/km2 ) districts. maternity patients. Over 40% of the more than 2.0 178. 5.48).000 liquidators that have been observed over many .6 154. nervous system and sense organ morbidity in liquidators exceeded the country’s average 6.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 109 TABLE 5. 2006).. Orel Province.49).8 71.2 143. These findings strongly indicate impairment of brain function resulting from both acute and chronic exposure to ionizing radiation (Gamache et al.2 71. 2002).8 102. 1997).

The EEG findings suggested subcortical disorders at different levels (diencephalic or brainstem) and functional failure of either the right or left hemispheres long after radiation exposure had ceased (Zhavoronkova et al. .7% had mental impairment caused by damage or dysfunction of the brain or somatic illness (F06.110 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 5.2 n/a All heavily contaminated districts. and neurological diagnoses became more serious by diagnostic criteria (Khrysanfov and Meskikh.2 131. Autoimmune and metabolic thyroid gland pathologies are also major factors in the mental disorders found among liquidators (Rumyantseva et al. Dynamics of Nervous System and Sense Organ Morbidity (per 1. 2006).6 1995 312.3 126. The incidence of encephalopathy and proven organic pathology increased from 20 to 34% as compared with 1991–1997 and 2000... 15.000 liquidators evaluated up until 2005.5 104. impaired memory. intercerebral asymmetry.6 134. including the corpus callosum (Zhavoronkova et al. 2000). 1998). neuropsychological illnesses were the second cause of overall morbidity in 18% of 1. 16.50). 1994–1998 (Fetysov.5 130.9 118.9 124. 17% organic disorders of the central nervous system.. In 150 male liquidators 44. 1999a: table 4. 14. and possibly of damage to the endothelium of small blood vessels (Rumyantseva et al.5 134. 2006). Observations on liquidators revealed that changes in brain asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction can be produced not only by a dysfunction of subcortical limbic– reticular and mediobasal brain structures. and limb atrophy (Kholodova et al.6 314... 18. 13. 2001) Year Number of cases 1986 23 1987 79 1988 181 1989 288 1990 410 1991 585 1992 811 1993 989 years suffer from organic brain diseases of vascular or mixed origin. some 53. Of more than 1. are more significant with every passing year.5 1997 376.49.5 129.2 136. burning pains. expressed as excruciating TABLE 5. F07).6 127. 2002). Neuropsychological pathology among Russian liquidators in 1999–2000 included: 34% encephalopathy. 17. 17% vegetative vascular dystonia (vasomotor dyscrasia). but also by damage to the white matter. and other functional disorders (Zhavoronkova et al. 2001).6 136.6 136. 2001). 19.. and are characteristic of diffuse organic brain lesions with localization mainly in the frontal area (Rumyantseva et al. These disorders became clearly apparent 10 to 12 years after the catastrophe. and 17% neurocirculatory dystonia (Khrysanfov and Meskikh. These illnesses are the result of long-lasting cerebral-ischemia.7 1996 372. A total of 12% of surveyed liquidators had polyneuropathy.. Nervous System and Sense Organ Morbidity among Liquidators and the Adult Population of Bryansk Province Territories with Contamination Levels above 5 Ci/km2 . Nervous system and sense organ morbidity among liquidators of Bryansk Province was noticeably higher than for the general population (Table 5.5 1998 467.000 surveyed liquidators (Khrysanfov and Meskikh. 2001).50.1) Group/ Territory Liquidators Southwest∗ Province Russia ∗ Number of cases 1994 312.000) among Russian Liquidators. 2003).5 ± 3 years of age there was an increase in slow forms of EEG activity. decreased quality of performance on all cognitive tests. 1986–1993 (Baleva et al. 1998). disruption of central regulatory functions. According to data from the Russian Interdepartmental Expert Council for the years 1999–2000..

ESTONIA. Loganovsky. The neurological damage suffered by liquidators includes well-marked autonomic nervous system dysfunction expressed as acrocyanosis.. and diffuse decreases in bioelectric activity.. 2. Zozulya and Polischuyk. These data strongly support clinical findings of organic brain damage caused by radiation (Chuprykov et al. general weakness. 1995. 1997. and problems with short-term memory and operative thinking. 1992. 2006). Zhavoronkova et al.to 11-year-old children and cannot be attributed to social factors—they clearly testify to radiation-induced brain damage (Kholodova. Other Countries 1.1.. and occipitoparietal parts of the cerebral hemispheres (Kholodova. and numbness in hands and feet (Sokolova.. loss of vision.. including: (a) hypometabolic centers localized in white and gray matter and in deep subcortical formations. 1998. 23. 1994. often asymmetric. suicide was the leading cause of death among liquidators living in Estonia (Rahu et al. Liquidators demonstrate impaired task performance. Characteristic dysfunction in liquidators involves deep parts of the brain: diencephalic areas. 1996. palpitations. 2000. 2006). 2001. There were many reports concerning neurophysiological. (e) thinning of the corpus callosum. 21. Napreyenko and Loganovsky. 2006). asthenia.. 2006). After Chernobyl. the left temporal area. 2006). 2002. Four hundred liquidators 24 to 59 years of age with organic disorders of the central nervous system have irreversible structural brain defects: structural changes in the frontal lobe. generalized sweating. 2003. 2003). facial redness. difficulty in thinking. and others). 2000. Antonov et al. 1998. sporadic loss of consciousness. 2002. (d) decreased density of the white brain substance. 1995. Vyatleva et al. 24. deep frontal and temporal lobes. 1993. Khartchenko et al. acrohyperhydrosis. and abnormal Romberg test scores (Kholodova. Krasnov et al. (b) ventricular enlargement. the presence of pathological reflexes. Kholodova et al. 2003. 1997). Revenok. 1995. marked hyperreflexia. These features correspond to skill levels typical of 10.and theta-wave bands. 1994.. heart seizures. bone and joint pains and aches that interfere with their sleep. 22. 2006). impaired memory of current events. 1998. and common hyperhydrosis. neuropsychological. sponginess and puffiness of soft tissues. and neuroimaging abnormalities in liquidators (Danylov and Pozdeev. 25. 1997). 28. Age-adjusted mortality from suicide increased among the Chernobyl liquidators compared to the general Lithuanian population (Kesminiene et al. 1995. Voloshyna. flashes.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 111 20. and (f) diffuse singular or multiple localized space-occupying lesions of the brain tissue (Kholodova et al. not relieved by medications. sensation of fever or heat. and the connections in the cortex–subcortex (Khartchenko et al. diffuse dermographism. 26. Other organic nervous system impairments include cranial nerve abnormalities. Morozov and Kryzhanovskaya. Romodanov and Vynnyts’ky. 1993. Khomskaja.. 27. 1997. EEG brain activity demonstrates two types of pathologies: high-amplitude slowed alpha. Tsygan. Typical complaints from liquidators include severe headaches. Kholodova. Zhavoronkova et al. 2006).8. Ushakov et al. Many liquidators had complex organic disorders of the brain. reflecting diffuse cortex and subcortical area damage (Kholodova. The seriousness of brain pathology in liquidators correlates with impaired blood circulation in various cortical white substance sites and deep subcortical formations (Kholodova.4. 1995. 1998). (c) expansion of the arachnoid cavity. LITHUANIA. and depressive syndromes. 5. a shortening of attention span.. reflecting pathology of the visceral brain.... Antipchuk. fatigue. diminished capacity for work. Nyagy and Loganovsky. . 2002..

with Cs137 contamination of the soil at levels of 5– 70 Ci/km2 showed an increase in the number of sensory organ development abnormalities. 1984). 1999).4%.. and hearing loss. conjunctivitis. more damage was found among students born in regions that received more fallout. and dreaming. Conclusion Previous views claiming resistance of the nervous system to radiation damage are refuted by the mounting collective data that demonstrate nervous system illnesses among the populations of the contaminated territories. operative thinking. A comprehensive analysis of a data set of 562. SWEDEN. From 1988 to 1989 the incidence of congenital eye malformation in children (3 to 4 years after the catastrophe) was fourfold higher in the heavily contaminated Gomel Province (1. 2001). an early symptom of cataracts. These conditions are associated with deep cerebral hemispheric damage: diencephalic areas. especially liquidators.. visual and hearing abnormalities occur with greater frequency than in the less contaminated areas: premature cataracts. 2007). attention span. and children in the Chechersk District. This impairment was greatest for those exposed 8 to 25 weeks postconception. In heavily contaminated territories there is a noticeably higher incidence of congenital malformations. 2001). and extra ear tissue (Kulakov et al. Moreover. 5. Goncharova. newborns. Retinal pathology in children in the Khoiniky and Vetka districts.112 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 3.9% in controls (Avkhacheva et al. Byrich et al.797 people examined).8. Cataracts in children are common in the territories with contamination levels above 15 Ci/km2 (Paramey et al. refraction errors. 6. students from the eight most affected municipalities were significantly (3. Clouding of the lens.8. Gomel Province. 5. and occipitoparietal parts of the cerebral hemisphere. uvitis.8.6 percentage points) less likely to qualify for high school (Almond et al. malpositioned ears. 2000). 2001). are deteriorating. Even rather small amounts of nuclear radiation. 5... including congenital cataracts in neonates (Kulakov et al.63%) than from 1961 to 1972 in Minsk (0. including cataracts. 4. nervous system functions. 1996). the existing radiation levels in the contaminated territories have harmed the central nervous system of countless people. deep frontal. have resulted in marked organic damage. Clearly.637 Swedes born from 1983 to 1988 revealed that the cohort in utero during the catastrophe had poorer school outcomes than those born shortly before and shortly after this period. 5. Diseases of Sense Organs Throughout the more contaminated territories. vitreous degeneration. considered harmless by former measures of radiation protection.5. 1993. Gomel Province (4.2. microphthalmia.2. 3. The fact that intellectual retardation is found in 45% of children born to mothers who went through the Hiroshima and Nagasakai nuclear bombardment is a very troubling concern (Bulanova. 2001).6% of exposed children compared with 2. Children under 5 years of age who were exposed have more problems with eye accommodation and more overall eye diseases than controls (Serduchenko and Nostopyrena. These findings correspond to those concerning reduced IQ hibakusha who were irradiated 8 to 25 weeks after ovulation (Otake and Schull.. A survey of pregnant women.1. including perception. 7. 1995. . especially persons that were radiated in utero and liquidators... Low-dose radiation damages the vegetative (autonomic) nervous system. and temporal lobes.1. For many inhabitants of the contaminated territories. Belarus 1. maternity patients. Edwards. was found in 24. increased about threefold: from 6 to 17% in the first 3 years after the catastrophe compared to 1985 (Byrich et al. 1999). short-term memory. 2.

51). 2001).Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl TABLE 5. vitreous degeneration. Ci/km2 Year 1993 1994 1995 Belarus 136 146 147 1–15 190 196 n/a >15 226 366 n/a Evacuees 355 425 443 1–5 Brest Province. Ukraine 1. Hearing disorders are found in more than 54% of inhabitants of the contaminated territories. 1999. Bilateral cataracts occurred more frequently in the more contaminated territories (54 vs.. Eye disease significantly increased from 1993 to 2003 among children 10 to 14 years of age born to irradiated parents (National Belarussian Report. Eye diseases were more common in the more contaminated districts of Gomel Province and included cataracts.2. cataracts were markedly more common in the more contaminated territories and among evacuees than in the general population (Table 5. 1999). a level noticeably higher than that of the general population (Zabolotny et al.11).52) and correlate with the level of incorporated Cs-137 (Figure 5.9 7.3 compared to 14. 2006). 2000) Contaminated territories. and refraction abnormalities (Bandazhevsky.000 (Matsko. 5. including congenital cataracts in neonates (Kulakov et al. .51.. 16.7 1. The level of absorbed Cs-137 correlates with the incidence of cataracts in children from the Vetka District. 1999). From 1993 to 1995.6 >10 6. Incidence (%) of Opacities in Both Crystalline Lenses among Children Living in Territories with Various Levels of Contamination.2.000) in Belarus. Incidence of Cataracts (per 1. 13. Goncharova. Kiev Province (soil Cs-137 contamination 20– 60 Ci/km2 ) showed an increase in the number of sensory organ development defects. and children in contaminated territories in the Polessk District. 29% in controls.8. 1992 (Arynchin and Ospennikova. 14.1 8. 1993–1995 (Matsko. 2001). In 1996. 1999) Incidence of opacities. 11. Figure 5.7 per 1. % 6–10 17.7 kBq/m2 (n = 56) 57. Increased incidence of vascular and crystalline lens pathology. usually combined with neurovascular disease. maternity patients.11. Number of bilateral lens opacities and level of incorporated Cs-137 in Belarussian children (Arynchin and Ospennikova. 1999). newborns.5 60. Gomel Province (Bandazhevsky. From 1993 to 2003 cataract morbidity increased 6% annually among male liquidators (National Belarussian Report. A survey of pregnant women.52.. was found in 227 surveyed liquidators and in the population of contaminated territories (Petrunya et al.9 113 TABLE 5. 137–377 kBq/m2 (n = 77) Vitebsk Province. 3. 12. 15. 2006). Arynchin and Ospennikova. 10. 9. incidence of cataracts among Belarussian evacuees from the 30-km zone was more than threefold that in the population as a whole: 44. Crystalline lens opacities occur more frequently in the more radioactive contaminated territories (Table 5. 1999). 1999). 2. 1999).

Kiev Province.11 Ci/km2 (maximum 13.000 in 2004. Among 5.87 Ci/km2 ). chronic conjunctivitis. 2007). 10.4 Ci/km2 (maximum 8. 90% of the territory.26 Ci/km2 (maximum 4.5 ± 10. 7. 5. Individuals from contaminated territories and liquidators had premature involutional and dystrophic changes in the eyes. In 1992–1998 children from Ovruch City (soil Cs-137 contamination 185–555 kBq/m2 ) had significantly higher subclinical lens changes (234 per 1.7 per 1.000. suggesting the development of involutional cataracts (Fedirko and Kadoshnykova. Typical lens pathologies were detected in 51% of those examined. 2002). In Ovruch the incidence of myopia and astigmatism was significantly higher (Fedirko and Kadoshnykova. development of ocular vascular diseases.89 Ci/km2 (maximum 2. and vacuoles) and were highly (r = 0. In 1991 a group of 512 children 7 to 16 years of age from four villages in the Ivankiv District. (c) Third village: average 1.3 ± 32. and cataracts were seen in persons younger than 30 years of age. which has never been observed in less contaminated areas (Fedirko and Kadochnykova.0 to 766.8 per 1. 2006). 2002.9%.7 Ci/km2 . Children who were exposed before they were 5 years of age have more problems with eye accommodation (Burlak et al.7 ± 23. among 841 adults examined from 1991 to 1997.3 ± 32. Atypical lens pathologies were observed in 61 children (density of the posterior subcapsular layers. Two new syndromes have been seen in liquidators and in those from the contaminated territories: • Diffraction grating syndrome. Individuals from contaminated territories and liquidators had a marked decrease in ocular accommodation (Sergienko and Fedirko. 1999).114 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 3. 11. 90% of the territory.7 ± 35.9 per 1. 6. of 1. The occurrence of involutional cataracts in the contaminated territories increased 2. 2007). eye pathology was diagnosed in 1.9 per 1. Involutional cataracts increased from 294. Central chorioretinal degeneration with clinical symptoms of AMD was the most frequently occurring form of delayed retinal pathology: 136. (d) Fourth village: average 0. 2.992) correlated with the average and maximum levels of soil contamination.0 Ci/km2 .301 evacuees examined.0 per 1. (b) Second village: average 3.1 Ci/km2 ). One cataract occurred for every four cases of other eye pathologies (Buzunov et al.000 (Fedirko. 4. and the incidence of lens pathology was higher in villages with higher levels of soil contamination.405.8 Ci/km2 .7 Ci/km2 . dimness in the form of small spots and points between the posterior capsule and the core. 2007). This was observed in liquidators who were within direct sight .. 8. Fedirko and Kadoshnykova. involutional cataracts.4 Ci/km2 ). increasing incidence of chorioretinal degeneration such as age-dependent macular degeneration (AMD).62 Ci/km2 ).7 ± 35. was examined.. 2007). In the heavily contaminated territories. 4.000. in which spots of exudate are scattered on the central part of the retina. 90% of the territory.000 in 1993 to 766. 9. Two girls (who had early changes of cortical layer density in 1991) were diagnosed with dim vision.000 in 2004 (Fedirko. retinal pathologies. and benign neoplasm of the eyelids.6fold from 1993 to 2004: from 294.000 in 1993 and 585.487 examined). In 1995 the incidence of atypical lens pathologies in the first and second villages (with average soil contamination over 2 Ci/km2 ) increased significantly to 34. 1. of 461 examined) than children from Boyarka City (soil Cs-137 contamination 37–184.9 kBq/m2 or 149 per 1. and vitreous destruction were observed more often than in the less contaminated areas. The villages differed only in the degree of Cs-137 contamination of the soil: (a) First village: average 12. 90% of the territory. 5. 1999).

2. 1998). and.3. schizophreniform syndrome. 14.8. Cwikel et al.. 5. More than 52% of 500 surveyed liquidators had retinal vascular abnormalities (Nykyforov and Eskin. 2005). NORWAY. 4. 6. High-frequency audiometry revealed that the most abnormalities occurred in liquidators with vocal problems (Kureneva and Shidlovskaya. contaminated with Cs-137 levels of 1–5 and 10–15 Ci/km2 showed an increase in the number of sensory organ developmental deficiencies. 13. 2001). and neuroimaging abnormalities in liquidators. Some 3% of liquidators under 40 years of age had cataracts.3. Klymenko et al. Orel Province.7 to 585. as observed in both individuals from the contaminated territories and liquidators. Other Countries 1. 2007).Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 115 • of the exposed core of the fourth reactor (Fedirko.8 per 1.7 ± 23. The frequency of central chorioretinal degradation increased among the liquidators 4. and children in the Mtsensk and Volkhovsk districts. 1996). 3. 2000).. an incidence 47-fold that in a similar age group of the general population.. named for the shape of a chestnut leaf. dilations. 2001). 1999). A survey of pregnant women. 5. Conclusion There is little doubt that specific organic central and peripheral nervous system damage affecting various cognitive endpoints. 5. 1998).4. chronic fatigue syndrome. Liquidators suf- . 1997). 2001. ISRAEL.000 (Buzunov and Fedirko. manifested as left frontotemporal limbic dysfunction. A total of 6. 1991). 2. changes of retinal vessels with multiple microaneurisms. Adverse effects also include neurophysiological abnormalities in the prenatally exposed and neurophysiological.7% had glaucoma (Nykyforov and Eskin. 2002).6% of 182 surveyed liquidators had cataracts (Lyubchenko and Agal’tsev..2. newborns. A 2-year follow-up study of immigrants to Israel from the Former Soviet Union revealed that the proportion of those reporting chronic visual and hearing problems was statistically higher for immigrants from contaminated territories (304 individuals) compared with immigrants from noncontaminated (217 individuals) and other areas (216 individuals. including congenital cataracts in neonates (Kulakov et al. 12. emotional. maternity patients. 2001). neuropsychological. Retinal pathology was markedly higher than the norm among 2002 liquidators’ children who were born after the catastrophe and examined between 1999 and 2006 (Fedirko and Kadoshnykova. Incipient chestnut syndrome. 2000). Among the consequences of the damage to the nervous system caused by the Chernobyl catastrophe are cognitive.3-fold from 1993 to 2004: from 136. 4. is directly related to Chernobyl’s ionizing radiation.8.. and sacs in the retinal veins around the macula (Fedirko. combined with psychological stress. Between 46 and 69% of surveyed liquidators had some hearing disorder (Zabolotny et al. these conditions affect all liquidators and practically every person living in the contaminated territories. and behavioral disorders.. Cataracts in newborns occurred twice as often 1 year after the catastrophe (Irgens et al. expressed as new chorioretinopathy.5 ± 10. Russia 1. fer from defects in different parts of the auditory system resulting in progressive hearing loss and a stuffy sensation and noise in the ears (Zabolotny et al. 5.8. The incidence of cataracts was significantly higher for male liquidators compared with female liquidators (Ruban.2. indications of schizophrenia and related disorders. In differing degrees.

9. 40% had gastrointestinal tract illnesses (Belyaeva et al. 3. In the Stolinsk District in 1996 the incidence of this disease was more than fourfold that seen in 1991 (Gordeiko.3. 12. 1999). Belarus 1. the incidence of acute hepatitis-B. 1997).7% (Kondratenko. 2. 1996). 5. 1995). 1997). it is more difficult to classify these with certainty as being caused by a radiogenic component. 5. Of 135 surveyed juvenile evacuees from Bragin City and the highly contaminated territories of Stolinsk District. 7. Of 2. .6-fold higher than in 1988–1995 (Transaction. 5.. 10. the collected data from the contaminated territories point to a solid basis for such a conclusion..6% in 1986 to 83. digestive system illnesses were the first cause of general morbidity in teenage evacuees (556 per 1. 13... chronic hepatitis-C. 9.8-fold higher than in the general population of the country: respectively. From 1991 to 1996 stomach ulcers among the population increased 9.535 individuals examined in 1996. Gastrointestinal tract pathology is connected to morphologic and functional thyroid gland changes in children from territories contaminated by Cs-137 at levels of 1–15 Ci/km2 (Kapytonova et al. Compared to other illnesses. In 1996 the occurrence of chronic gastritis in children was up to threefold higher in the heavily contaminated territories than in the less contaminated areas. 1996). 1996).. There was a twofold general increase in chronic gastritis in Brest Province in 1996 compared to 1991. 1998).817 per 100. Of 2. 6.and 1. Official recognition occurred 10 years (!) after doctors began to sound the alarm and 13 years after the problem was first registered. 4. The number of digestive organ malformations in newborns increased in the contaminated territories (Kulakov et al. Digestive diseases in adults and liquidators are more common in the contaminated territories. the incidence of diseases of the digestive system among liquidators and evacuees in the contaminated territories was 4..65-fold (Borisevich and Poplyko. 1997a). 1999). Digestive system morbidity increased from 4. 2002). while among liquidators the increase was 46. 2001).298. Ten years after the catastrophe digestive illnesses were fourfold more common among liquidators than in the general adult population of the country (Antypova et al.784. and 1. Of 1. 3. From 1991 to 2001 digestive system illnesses among liquidators increased 1. 11.. By 1996 the incidence of these diseases had increased significantly.5% in 1994 and was the second cause of overall morbidity of children in the Luninetsk District.000 (Matsko. and hepatic cirrhosis diseases was significantly higher in the heavily contaminated territories of Gomel Province than in the less contaminated Vitebsk Province.6%. Chronic upper gastrointestinal disease was common in children of liquidators (Arynchin et al.1.033 children examined in the heavily contaminated territories from 1991 to 1993 there was a significantly higher incidence of serious caries and lowered acid resistance of tooth enamel (Mel’nichenko and Cheshko.000. In 1995. 8. 7.653 adults and teenagers examined. Brest Province.9. Digestive System and Visceral Organ Diseases Digestive system diseases are among the leading causes of illness in the contaminated territories. 1998). Syvolobova et al.116 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Only after 2000 did medical authorities begin to recognize the radiogenic origin of a universal increase in cataracts among liquidators and evacuees from the Chernobyl territories. with chronic hepatitis in liquidators 1. however. Brest Province (Voronetsky et al.

5 to 3 years inflammation was the most prevalent symptom. 1998). 5. 2002. followed by indolent erosive hemorrhagic ulcers (Romanenko et al. 1999. and functional secretory disorders of the stomach. motor. 1999). Peptic ulcer. 3.9. and pancreatitis occurred noticeably more often in inhabitants of territories with higher levels of contamination (Yakymenko. 2003). 2..2. Digestive system morbidity in adult evacuees considerably exceeds that of the general population of the country (Prysyazhnyuk et al. 2002). 16. 15. There were significantly increased levels of hepatic.000.5-fold higher than the country average (Serdyuk and Bobyleva. The incidence of digestive diseases in children correlated with the level of contamination of the area (Baida and Zhirnosekova. chronic cholecystitis. Romanenko et al. Komarenko et al. and from 1989 to 1990 allergies.. 1995. 1999. 13.9 vs. 1995). 210 cases per 1. Tooth caries in boys and girls as young as 1 year are more common in the contaminated territories (Tolkach et al. which included structural. dyspeptic syndromes. and others). 7..9% of liquidators (Yakymenko.. The incidence of stomach ulcers among Ukrainian liquidators in 1996 was 3..53). 17. Grodzinsky. Only 9% of the liquidators evaluated in 1989 and 1990 had normal stomach and duodenal mucous membranes (Yakymenko. 6. 1998). Ukraine 1.. Komarenko and Polyakov. Pancreatic Echogram Abnormalities in Male Ukrainian Liquidators (% of Those Examined) (Komarenko et al. 12. 11. 14. 1999). gallstone disease. For the first 2. In 1990 ulcers and gastric erosion were found in 60.53. 2003) 1987–1991 Thickening Increased echo density Structural change Contour change Capsular change Pancreatic duct dilatation All echogram abnormalities 31 54 14 7 6 4 37. 4.4 (2002) .. 1995). 10. Atrophy of the stomach mucosa occurred five times more often.9% (Stepanova. and biliary problems were rampant (Romanenko et al.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 117 5. and intestinal metaplasia twice as often in children living in areas contaminated at a level of 5–15 kBq/m2 than in a control group (Burlak et al. gallbladder. and pancreatic diseases in 1993 and 1994 in the heavily contaminated territories (Antypova et al. In 1987 and 1988 functional digestive tract illnesses were prevalent in evacuees’ children. 1995). 8. Children irradiated in utero had significantly higher incidence of gastrointestinal tract pathology than controls—18. TABLE 5... Digestive system morbidity in children more than doubled from 1988 to 1999—4. 1995). Premature tooth eruption was observed in girls born to mothers irradiated during childhood (Tolkach et al.659 compared to 1.. 9. 1995). 2006). 1995).6 (1987) 1996–2002 67 81 32 26 14 10 87. 2001).122 per 10. In 7 to 8 years after the catastrophe up to 60% of the liquidators examined had chronic digestive system pathology.. 2003).000 (Korol et al. After the catastrophe pancreatic abnormalities in liquidators were diagnosed through echograms (Table 5. 1995). 8.. In 1996 digestive system morbidity of inhabitants in territories with contamination greater than 15 Ci/km2 was noticeably higher than for the country as a whole (281 vs. The number of digestive system diseases in children rose markedly within the first 2 years after the catastrophe (Stepanova. From 1993 to 1994 digestive system diseases were second among overall morbidity (Antypova et al. 18.

Tula Province (n = 183). 8. 2..000) among Children in Bryansk Province Territories with Levels of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 . Digestive system morbidity in liquidators increased 7. Children who were irradiated in utero in the contaminated territories are significantly more likely to develop dental anomalies (Sevbytov. 2001). 1999b: table 6.2 Dentition deformities 0. 2005).9 115. In 7 to 8 years after the catastrophe liquidators had increasing numbers of hepatobiliary illnesses. The incidence of general and primary digestive system diseases in children in the heavily contaminated districts of Bryansk Province is noticeably higher than the average for the province and for Russia as a whole (Tables 5. 2005).4 Age norm 5. Bryansk Province (n = 178). 1995–1998 (Fetysov.7 2.1% had normal structure (Table 5. Tumors were found more often in girls and the complex form was most common (Vorobyovskaya et al.6 0.6 1997 153. Children and the teenagers living in the contaminated territories have a significantly higher incidence of dental caries (Sevbytov. Tula Province (n = 183).6 Time of birth Before 1986 (n = 48) After 1986 (n = 82) Before 1986 (n = 8) After 1986 (n = 15) Before 1986 (n = 39) After 1986 (n = 86) Before 1986 (n = 77) After 1986 (n = 28) 19. 15–45 Ci/km2 : Novozybkov City.4-fold over a 9-year period (Table 5.7 4. Russia 1. 501 per 10. digestive system morbidity in adults increased in the majority of the heavily contaminated districts of Bryansk Province (except in the Krasnogorsk District). 7. Overall Digestive System Morbidity (per 1. This increase occurred against a background of reduced morbidity in the province and across Russia (Table 5. 4.54)..0 n/a All heavily contaminated districts.7 91.0 2. 5.54.56).9 94. The Russian National Register reported that digestive system morbidity among liquidators from 1991 to 1998 was markedly higher than in corresponding age groups in the country: 737 vs.9 1998 154. The frequency of the occurrence of dental anomalies is markedly higher in children in the more contaminated territories. 2006).1 0.58). In Voronez Province there was an increased number of odontomas in children who were born after 1986.4 4. Incidence of Dental Anomalies (%) among Children Born before and after the Catastrophe Exposed to Different Levels of Contamination in Tula and Bryansk Provinces∗ (Sevbytov et al.55.6 2.1) Number of cases Territory Southwest∗ Province Russia ∗ 1995 182. 5–15 Ci/km2 : Uzlovaya Station.2 6.3 3. Periodontal pathology was more common in children from contaminated territories and occurred more often in children born after the catastrophe (Sevbytov.57).6 2. including chronic cholecystitis. 3.5 88.3. In general. Of 236 examined who were born before the catastrophe 32. fatty liver. 9. persistent active hepatitis. 6.000 (Byryukov et al.55 and 5.3 2. ∗ 5 Ci/km2 : Donskoy City. 1995).9 1996 163. TABLE 5. 5..9 114.2 5.4 5.6 1.5 114.8 6. whereas of 308 examined who were born in the same territories after the catastrophe only 9. and chronic hepatitis (Romamenko et al. 2005).4 0.7 2.6 0.6 90.6 4. .6% had normal dentition. 1999) <5 5–15 15–45 Ci/km2 Ci/km2 Ci/km2 Tooth anomalies 3.3 0.6 Occlusion 2..9.118 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 5.

.8 58.to eightfold higher than the norm (Lyubchenko and Agal’tsev.7 56. 16.8 95. 13.000) among Children in Bryansk Province Territories with Levels of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 .2 46.2% have structural pancreatic changes.3 92.2%. The expression of chronic pancreatitis in liquidators correlated with the level of irradiation and the degree of the lipid peroxidation (Onitchenko et al.2) Number of cases Territory Southwest∗ Province Russia ∗ 119 1995 103.3 1996 98.9 57.7 143. which is six.2 91.0 72.1 91.6 89.0 64. which is harmful to the developing teeth.0 46. together with circulatory. which is especially significant against the background of a decrease in the province and in Russia as a whole (Table 5. 40. TABLE 5.12).9 82.1 1996 81.. 10.5 1998 157. In contaminated territories.6 93. and 29% have thickening of the gallbladder wall (Noskov. Ten years after the catastrophe a rapid increase in digestive organ diseases in liquidators began.7 42.000) among Adults in Bryansk Province Territories with Levels of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 .8 52.7 65.3 78. 1995–1998 (Fetysov.9 60. digestive system morbidity accounted for 28.0 90. Of 901 pathologies found in 182 liquidators. 1995–1998 (Fetysov.59). Digestive system morbidity among both liquidators and the population of the contaminated territories of Bryansk Province noticeably increased from 1994 to 1998.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl TABLE 5.6 118. 60. Sr-90 decays to Y-90 via release of a beta particle. 2001). 1999b: table 6.4 n/a 5.56.7 69. Pathological tooth enamel erosion is widespread among liquidators (Pymenov.4 1998 83. an incidence much more common than in corresponding age groups in the country as a whole (Druzhynyna.5 51. endotheliocytes in stomach microvessels. which is taken up during intrauterine development and deposited in teeth and bones. 15.9. it was accompanied by Sr-90. 2003). 2005). 2004).6% have liver changes.. Of 118 surveyed liquidators.0 63. and fibrosis of the gastric mucous membrane (Sosyutkin et al. Ivanova. and the resultant decay All heavily contaminated districts.9 79.4 155.8 92. 2001).2 1997 84. 33.4% have superficial destruction of the mucous covering of the gastroduodenal junction. Among 98 surveyed liquidators 82% have chronic periodontal disease.4.8 1997 84. Chronic catarrhal gingivitis was present in 18% of 98 surveyed liquidators (Druzhynyna.0 97. 2004). 2004. the erosive type). Primary Digestive System Morbidity (per 1.9 88. 2001).8 74.57. where Cs-137 was easily detected.6 79.9% of the liquidators have had chronic gastritis and gastroduodenitis (often. Matchenko et al.6 65.3 n/a All heavily contaminated districts.2 74.1 42. Conclusion The increase in the incidence of digestive system diseases as a result of Chernobyl irradiation cannot be doubted. Pathologic ultrastructural digestive tract changes were observed in liquidators: decreased activity and undifferentiated epithelial cells in the duodenum. 1999a: table 6.1) Number of cases Territory Klymovo Novozybkov Klintsy Krasnogorsk Zlynka Gordeevka Southwest∗ Province Russia ∗ 12.5 76.0 105. 18. bone. 1995 88. 11. and muscular diseases (Figure 5.2 88. A total of 87. Making fewer diagnoses of vegetovascular dystonia has turned this constellation of diseases into a more serious organic illness—discirculatory pathology. 2004. General Digestive System Morbidity (per 1. 14. 17..

8 97. Digestive System Morbidity (per 10. 1999a: table 4. 5. Digestive.2 64.4 91. Belarus 1.0 65. bone.0 54. weakens the structural integrity of the teeth. it is logical to assume that similar consequences from Chernobyl irradiation will have a prolonged effect in territories where radioactive conditions persist.200 1992 5.5 52. Skin Diseases Associated with the Chernobyl Catastrophe Diseases of the skin reflect not only the effect of external irritants.0 63. 2004). and in the southern Ural mountain area owing to radiation contamination (Ostroumova. 2007).. plus melanocytes..270 1989 2. and (6) autonomic nervous system dysfunction (Oradovskaya et al. There was an immediate increase in the incidence of digestive tract diseases among liquidators and a rise in the number of congenital digestive system malformations in babies born in the contaminated territories..5 n/a The skin. The skin is richly supplied with nerves and blood vessels.1) Group/ Territory Liquidators All of the Southwest Province Russia Number of cases 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 24. (5) circulatory encephalopathy.100 isotope.3 91. (3) hypertension.0 88.2 523. as is demonstrated by the research cited in this section. 1992). TABLE 5.10.1. the dermis. (2) bone and muscle.3 346.210 1991 4.7 45. . but also diseases of internal organs and the effects of organic and inorganic agents that are absorbed internally. and muscle diseases among liquidators from Moscow City and Moscow Province: (1) digestive system. 5.8 69.6 95.350 1990 3. circulatory. and various cells. By 1994 skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases had increased among children in all of the heavily contaminated territories compared with 1988 (Lomat’ et al.7 63. is made up of the epidermis. including the keratinaceous structures that form nails and hair.58. Figure 5.59. Considering the significantly increased digestive system morbidity among children of irradiated parents in Japan (Furitsu et al.120 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 5. General Digestive System Morbidity among Liquidators and the Adult Population of Bryansk Province Territories with Levels of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 .7 71.000) among Russian Liquidators (Baleva et al.4 78. and the sebaceous and sweat (eccrine) glands.290 1993 6.12. Y-90. a multilayered organ with multiple functions.4 269. 1994–1998 (Fetysov.10.. 2006. Thus the skin and all of its subcutaneous components reflect internal damage to blood vessels and other tissues of the body. The assumption appears proven that low-level irradiation acts in some way to directly affect the function of the gastrointestinal tract epithelium—and not only during intrauterine development. 1996). 2001) Year Number of cases 1986 82 1987 487 1988 1. (4) ischemic heart disease.

60 and 5. 1999b: table 6. Skin diseases among evacuees living in the heavily contaminated territories from 1988 to 1999 was more than fourfold higher than in the less contaminated areas (Prysyazhnyuk et al. Bryansk Province. 2002). 3.9 80. In Senkevichi Village.61. 2006).3 68. 1996).2. 5. The incidence of skin disease among children who were newborn to 4 years old at the time of the catastrophe is significantly higher in territories with contamination levels of 15–40 Ci/km2 than in children of the same age from territories with contamination of 5– 15 Ci/km2 (Kul’kova et al.6 1997 102.7 73. Luninets District. 1995–1998 (Fetysov.000) in Southwestern Territories of Bryansk Province with Levels of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 . 1999b: table 6..61). endothelial TABLE 5.6 71.60.3 83.3 76.1 78. was significantly higher compared to less contaminated districts (Gudkovsky et al. Dermatological pathology was found in 60% of children and teenagers in Gordeevka. 5. Skin pathology found among liquidators included thickening of the cornified and subcellular layers of the epidermis. 4. 6.2) Number of cases Territory Southwest∗ Province Russia ∗ 5.4 81. where Cs-137 contamination was 15–40 Ci/km2 . Primary Skin Diseases among Children (per 1.. From 1986 to 1993 the incidence of skin disease among 4. Of 69 children and teenagers admitted to hospitals with various forms of alopecia. 5.64). 6.1 1996 89. 1995 111. 2001).2 n/a All heavily contaminated districts. Incidence of diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissues among liquidators increased 6 years after the catastrophe and in 1992 exceeded the level of 1986 more than 16-fold (Table 5.3.. 1995–1998 (Fetysov. In 1996 overall skin morbidity in adults in the heavily contaminated territories of Bryansk Province corresponded to parameters in the province as a whole (Tables 5. 1995)..8 63.3 86. which is one of the most contaminated districts (Kyseleva and Mozzherova.8 84. Ukraine 1.5 71.3 1997 95. Russia 1.63). Out of the first 9 years after the catastrophe. Brest Province.. 2. more than 70% came from the heavily contaminated territories (Morozevich et al.10.1) Number of cases Territory Southwest∗ Province Russia ∗ 2. skin and subcutaneous morbidity was a maximum in 1993 (Blet’ko et al.2 69. 2003). From 1995 to 1998 the incidence of overall and primary skin diseases in children in the heavily contaminated territories was noticeably 1995 88. the incidence of children’s skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases increased 1.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 121 TABLE 5.10.. . Overall Skin Diseases among Children (per 1. 4. Gomel Province. Exudative diathesis (lymphotoxemia) in preschool children in the contaminated territories occurred up to four times more often than before the catastrophe (Kulakov et al. 3.000) in the Southwest Territories of Bryansk Province with Levels of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 . higher than in the province and in Russia as a whole (Tables 5.598 children examined in Kormyansk and Chechersk districts. 1997)..7 65. 1995).9 1996 105.2 n/a All heavily contaminated districts.6 1998 74.7fold from 2000 to 2005 (Dudinskaya et al.62 and 5.0 1998 83.

54fold from 2000 to 2005 (Dudinskaya et al. the psoriasis was always combined with functional impairment of the nervous system and with gastrointestinal disorders (Malyuk and Bogdantsova. Data for 1. .000) in the Southwestern Territories of Bryansk Province with Levels of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 .3 68. 1999a: table 6. 4. 2005).. Chernobyl radionuclide contamination impacted microbial flora and fauna and other of our symbionts (parasites and commensals) and changed our biological community (see Chapter 11).7 1998 45..62.4 62. 1995–1998 (Fetysov... 5. An increased incidence of whipworm (Trichocephalus trichiurus) infestation (trichocephalosis) correlated with the density of radioactive contamination in Gomel and Mogilev provinces (Stepanov. 1993.000) in the Southwestern Territories of Bryansk Province with Levels of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 .1) Number of cases Territory Southwest∗ Province Russia ∗ ful cocktail of radionuclides over the entire Northern Hemisphere (see Chapter 1 for details).9 1997 61. Belarus 1.1.. 2002). a total of 20% had chronic urogenital infections (Belyaeva et al.0 n/a All heavily contaminated districts. inflammatory lymphocytic infiltration accompanied by active panvasculitis of most of the small arteries.5 50.0 46. Genetic instability markedly increased in the contaminated territories and has resulted in increased sensitivity to viral and other types of infections (Vorobtsova et al. 2. Nesterenko et al. 5.7 1997 51.4 45. Luninets District. findings correlated with the level of the radiation load (Porovsky et al. There is evidence of increased incidence and severity of diseases characterized by intestinal toxicoses. 2001).1 40.. Herpes virus activation in the heavily contaminated territories of Gomel Province resulted in increased intrauterine and infant death rates (Matveev et al.63. Clouds from Chernobyl dropped a powerTABLE 5. 1995). Busuet at al. Infections and Parasitic Infestations Ionizing radiation is a powerful mutagenic factor (see Section 5. 7.026. Primary Skin Diseases among Adults (per 1. In Senkevichi Village. and respiratory viruses in areas contaminated by Chernobyl radionuclides (Batyan and Kozharskaya. 1995 50.11.0 n/a All heavily contaminated districts.6 54. Among 135 children living in the contaminated territories of Stolinsk District and Bragin City who were examined in 1993–1995.4 1996 67.2 36.1) Number of cases Territory Southwest∗ Province Russia ∗ Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1995 60.3 1998 58.. 2002.5 50. Among the 97% of liquidators who developed psoriasis after the catastrophe. bacterial sepsis. 2006). 1999a: table 6.2 38. 5. 1993.6 1996 52. 1993).2 above for details). 1996). 3. the occurrence of infectious and parasitic illnesses in children increased 1.11. viral hepatitis. 1995).4 53.9 54. 1995–1998 (Fetysov. gastroenteritis.122 TABLE 5.. and others). Kapytonova and Kryvitskaya. Brest Province. Undoubtedly the post-Chernobyl period has seen an increase in diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissues in children and liquidators. swelling.5 42.046 pregnant women from territories with contamination above 1 Ci/km2 showed that incidence of the puerperal sepsis in heavily contaminated territories was significantly higher than in areas with less contamination (Busuet et al.4 48. 1994. Overall Skin Diseases among Adults (per 1.

anti-HBc. 1993.626 individuals examined) increased from 221 to 349 per 100.653 individuals examined. In all the heavily contaminated territories there was activation of herpes viruses (Voropaev et al. occurred 2.000 (Zhavoronok et al. . During 1991–1995 there was a serious increase in the incidence of tuberculosis in the heavily contaminated areas of Gomel Province. 1996). Tuberculosis was more virulent in the more contaminated areas (Chernetsky and Osynovsky. Neonates born to mothers from territories in the Chechersk District.9-fold more often than before the catastrophe (Kulakov et al. 2.. infections and infestations were significantly higher than in children from territories with contamination levels of 5–15 Ci/km2 . Belookaya. 1998). 1998b).. 1993). 1995. In Gomel Province hepatitis B and C infections in adults and teenagers rose significantly after 1986.. 12. 11. Among 784 preschool children examined from 1986 to 1991 in territories having contamination levels of 15–40 Ci/km2 .. 10. and anti-HCV was significantly higher in liquidators and evacuees than in inhabitants of less contaminated districts of Vitebsk Province (Zhavoronok et al. 17.. Congenital infections in neonates born to mothers in the Polessk District. Ukraine 1. In the Mogilev and Gomel provinces. 1998b)..000) (Baleva et al.1 vs. 13. Herpes viral diseases doubled in the heavily contaminated territories of Gomel and Mogilev provinces 6 to 7 years after the catas- trophe compared with the rest of the country (Matveev. contaminated at a level of 5–70 Ci/km2 had congenital infections 2..000 in 1986 to 35. 9.. 15. 1996). 5..9-fold more often than before the catastrophe (Kulakov et al. From 1993 to 1997 in Vitebsk Province the persistence of infectious hepatitis among adults and teenagers was noticeably higher than in control groups (Zhavoronok et al.0 cases per 100. 1997). In 1993.11. where 1. From 1988 to 1995 chronic hepatitis in liquidators (1.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 123 TABLE 5. 1998a). 14. Blet’ko et al. 1993)..057 children were examined (Gutkovsky et al. where there were drug-resistant forms and “rejuvenation” of the disease (Borschevsky et al. 1995). 16.2. 1995). contaminated at a level of 20–60 Ci/km2 . Among 2.. 7. Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Abnormalities among Russian Liquidators (per 10. By 1995. 18. the incidence increased from 17. 1998a).8% in controls (Lavdovskaya et al.64.. Kiev Province. women with gestational herpes in Gomel Province with a Cs-137 contamination higher than 15 Ci/km2 experienced 8.0 in 1990 (Zhavoronok et al. 8. Among 2. 1997). 1996). 2.. infectious and parasitic diseases in children were over five times more common in the heavily contaminated territories compared with less contaminated areas. In 1988 these territories did not differ in terms of the occurrence of such diseases (Baida and Zhirnosekova. there was a noticeably higher level of cryptosporidium infestation: 4.814 individuals examined the incidence of specific markers of viral hepatitis HbsAg. 1993). Gomel Province.6-fold more infant deaths compared to less contaminated territories (Matveev et al. 2001) Year Number of cases 1986 46 1987 160 1988 365 1989 556 1990 686 1991 747 1992 756 1993 726 6. Activation of cytomegalovirus infections in pregnant women was found in the heavily contaminated districts of Gomel and Mogilev provinces (Matveev.

4. Infantile infections are noticeably higher in three of the more contaminated districts of Kaluga Province (Tsyb et al. 2004). The incidence of infections resulting in the death of children in the heavily contaminated districts of Kaluga Province has tripled in the 15 years since the catastrophe (Tsyb et al. 8.2 78.8 102.. The incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases in children.9 34.11. The prevalence and severity of Gruby’s disease (ringworm). 1996).6 52. 1997). 5.6 n/a All heavily contaminated districts. 9. Infectious disease deaths among infants were significantly correlated with irradiation in utero (Ostroumova.8 45.3. occurred 2.124 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 5. 2.000) in Bryansk Province. Childhood Infectious and Parasitic Diseases (per 1.7 1998 94..11. 1996).. 2006). 3. A significantly higher level of cryptosporidium infestation (8 vs. 30% in controls.. 2003).66.5 64. Territories Southwest∗ Province Russia ∗ 1995 128. Oryol Province.0 107. impaired immunological defenses in the populations.66). Whether this is due to mutational changes in the disease organisms rendering them more virulent. The number of cases of pneumocystis was noticeably higher in children in the heavily contaminated territories of Bryansk Province (56 vs. The overall incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases in the heavily contaminated territories of Bryansk Province from 1995 to 1998 was highest in 1995.8 Less contaminated districts 32.1 121. contaminated at levels of 1–5 and 10–15 Ci/km2 . 5. was significantly higher in the heavily contaminated areas of Bryansk Province (Table 5.9-fold more often than before the catastrophe (Kulakov et al. Lavdovskaya et al.000) in Bryansk Province Territories with Levels of Contamination above 5 Ci/km2 ..7 . 1996). Congenital infections in neonates born to mothers from heavily contaminated territories of the Mtsensk and Volkhovsk districts.6 1996 112. 1998– 2002 (Rudnitsky et al.3 79. Conclusion The above data concerning infectious and parasitic diseases in liquidators and those living in contaminated territories reflect activation and dispersion of dangerous infections.6 23.0 68. 1999b: table 6. 2006a). Herpes and cytomegalovirus viruses were found in 20% of ejaculate samples from 116 liquidators who were examined (Evdokymov et al. One year after the catastrophe.. The incidence of kidney infections in teenagers significantly increased after the catastrophe and correlated with the level of contamination (Karpenko et al.. 5. 6. 2004). 11. or a combination of both is not TABLE 5.65). 2001).3 58.0 68. infectious and parasitic diseases were the primary cause of illness among military men who were liquidators (Nedoborsky et al. caused by the fungus microsporia Microsporum sp.. 10.65. 0 to 4 years of age at the time of the catastrophe was significantly higher in the years 1986–1993 in territories with contamination levels of 15–40 Ci/km2 than in children the same age from territories with contamination of 5–15 Ci/km2 (Kul’kova et al...8 71. 7. and higher than the incidence in the province as a whole (Table 5. 4% in controls) occurred in Bryansk Province (Lavdovskaya et al.3 104. 2003) Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Heavily contaminated districts 56.4. 1995–1998 (Fetysov. Russia 1.. Gruby’s Disease (Ringworm) Incidence (per 100.1) Number of cases 3.4 1997 99.

38 for the years from 2001 to 2004 (National Belarussian Report. Goncharova.67). but by 2001 it was fourfold higher (UNICEF. which are often the only ones officially registered as anomalies.58 per 1.85∗ 1982–1985 compared with 1987–1992. The frequency of the occurrence of CMs. and others). Ibragymova.000 before the catastrophe to 9. including the less contaminated Vitebsk Province (Nykolaev and Khmel’. 1982–1992 (Lazjuk et al. In 1990 the primary. Belarus 1.88 7. 2003.62 6.06 3. and in the districts with contamination levels above 15 Ci/km2 the number reached 83% (Table 5.000 Births) of the Officially Accounted for Congenital Malformations in Belarussian Districts with Different Levels of Contamination. but was especially significant in areas in Gomel and Mogilev provinces with Cs-137 levels of contamination higher than 15 Ci/km2 (Lazjuk et al. 3. 5. The other developmental anomalies arise as a result of damage during prenatal development and can be genetic. This section presents data concerning congenital malformations and developmental anomalies. 4..52 4. 6. Wherever there was Chernobyl radioactive contamination. 5. usually occurring up to the first 16 weeks of pregnancy. The incidence of CMs increased significantly from 5. in districts with Cs-137 contamination levels of 1–5 Ci/km2 the figure was 30%. increased noticeably after the catastrophe.1.01∗ >15 Ci/km2 3. Tsymlyakova and Lavrent’eva.12.74 3. Some 24% of the children in the socalled “clean” regions (<1 Ci/km2 ) were born with CMs.62 4. 1–5 Ci/km2 5. Hoffmann.77 7. 1998). Among them are the so-called “large” congenital malformations (CMs).32 7. initial diagnosis of CM in children was twice that of the illnesses in adolescents 15 to 17 years of age. 1997) Level of contamination Year 1982 1983 1984 1985 1982–1985 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1987–1992 ∗ fully answered. 2005: table 1. 2000. there was an increase in the number of children with hereditary anomalies and congenital malformations.50 6. p < 0.80 6.46 4. caused by mutations. which was stable up to 1986. 1996.52 5.61 6. or teratogenic. 2001.61 5.58 3. Incidence (per 1. 5. head. 2006). These included previously rare multiple structural impairments of the limbs.72 5.94 4.89 5.98 5. It is clear that continued detailed observations are needed to document the spread and virulence of infectious and parasitic diseases among people in all of the contaminated territories.65 6.58 4. One type has a strong genetic background (see Section 5. Analysis of more than 31.96 4. 1996a.22 6.14 8. significant increases in CM morbidity were registered for the whole country. There was a higher incidence of CM morbidity in the more contaminated areas than in less contaminated ones (Table 5. Goncharova. .87 8. 1996.67. and body (Tsaregorodtsev. 1999b). caused by toxic external influences. Although the increase in CMs is marked mainly in the heavily contaminated territories.3 above for details) and the second type includes developmental anomalies resulting from impacts during embryonal development.94 5.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 125 TABLE 5.76 3. 2.68).3).12.32 4.. Congenital Malformations There are several thousand large and small congenital malformations or anomalies.05.000 abortuses revealed that the incidence of officially registered CMs increased in all of the contaminated territories.76 5.17 4.09∗ <1 Ci/km2 5.25 5.00 4.54 4.

There was an increased incidence of 26 officially registered CMs after the catastrophe.32 0.63% from 1961–1972 to 1988–1989 (Byrich et al.75 1. 1981–1986 compared with 1990–2004. Annually in the country there are no fewer than 2. 1996a).4 to 1. heavily and less heavily contaminated areas differed with some CMs increasing from 1987 to 1988.877 239 1990–2004 8.00∗∗ ∗ p < 0. ∗ A compared to B (1987–1988).82∗ 0.128 237 1987–1989 7.27 58. Less contaminated 1981–1986 1987–1988 1990–2004 4.88∗ 0. Incidence of Officially Registered Congenital Malformations (per 1. In Gomel Province congenital anomalies of the eye increased more than fourfold: from 0. CM incidence increased in the whole of the country from 12.000 Live Born + Fetuses) in 17 Heavily and 30 Less Contaminated Districts of Belarus (National Belarussian Report.88 1. 1996).. 10.69. 2006) Districts A.25∗ 0. Incidence of Congenital Malformations (per 1. 1996a.278 601 p < 0. 11. CMs were the second cause of infant mortality.6.68.88∗∗ 8.91 1.1%) than in the least contaminated Vitebsk Province (3.31 76. 2006: table 4.08 0.5 per 1.000 Live Births) in Heavily and Less Contaminated Areas of Belarus before and after the Catastrophe (National Belarussian Report.36 0.99 0.23 47.9% for the country as a whole (Bogdanovich. 12.29 0.57 0.08 4.05.500 newborns with CMs..7 in 1994. 13. Polydactly and limbreduction defects were significantly different in the heavier and less contaminated districts in 1987 and 1988.32 161.10 1.522 430 1987–1989 4.15 1. Heavily contaminated B.972 1. 7.35 98.08 2.. The incidence of CMs increased significantly in 17 heavily contaminated districts (>5 Ci/km2 ) and in 30 less contaminated dis- tricts (<1 Ci/km2 ) compared to 5 years before and 5 years after the catastrophe.. ∗∗ p < 0. whereas others increased from 1990 to 2004.82 4.01 2. In 1994. The incidence was higher in Gomel Province (4.33 0.295 1981–1986 4. 9.05.00∗ 0.925 187 1990–2004 7.000 newborns in 1985 to 17.69).64 1.) Heavily contaminated areas Years Incidence of all CMs Anencephaly Spinal hernia Polydactyly Down syndrome Multiple CMs Newborn and stillborn total Children and stillbirths with CMs ∗ Less contaminated areas 1981–1986 4.28 0.0%). 1999). Eventually. Heavily contaminated districts had increased frequency of occurrence of CMs compared with less contaminated ones only from 1987 to 1988 (Table 5. 8.05.b).96 0. 1997).50 0.71 1. and averaged 3. there was less TABLE 5. with most of the cases in territories with Cs-137 contamination of above 15 Ci/km2 (Lazjuk et al.22 0.41 0. .99∗ 7.36 7. Since 1992 a program to interrupt pregnancy in accordance with medical and genetic parameters (500 to 600 cases in a year) has stabilized the birth of children with CMs (Lazjuk et al.126 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 5. Nine years after the catastrophe the number of newborns who died because of nervous system developmental anomalies was statistically significant (Dzykovich et al.69 0.89 1.97∗ 23.36 0.59 2.88 1.

76) 6.6 ± 1.4 3. distinction between heavily and less contaminated districts and the incidence of CMs in the former decreased in comparison to that in the latter (Table 5.31 2.72).2 3.35 0.7 3.96 1. 1996a) Number of cases District Gomel area Bragin Buda—Koshelevo Vetka Dobrush El’sk Korma Lel’chitsy Loev Khoiniky Chechersk Mogilev area Bykhov Klymovychy Kostyukovychy Krasnopol’e Slavgorod Cherykov Total ∗ 1982–1985 4.15 1.21 0.06 – 4.97∗ 1.13 0. In five districts the increase was significant compared with precatastrophe data (Table 5.33 0.17 – 5.8 7.12.2 ± 1.8 ± 1.7 ± 1.72. Top Line: Data for 17 Districts with Levels above 5 Ci/km2 .6∗ 6.32 p < 0.09 0. 14.62 – 7.. Compared with Minsk.28 0.2 4.0 3.0 3.0 9.6 ± 2.0 7.23 0.2 ± 2. 2006) 1981–1986 1987–1988 1990–2004 Anencephaly Spinal hernias (Spina bifida) Lip defects Polydactyly Limb reduction Esophageal and anal atresia Multiple CMs ∗ 127 TABLE 5.6∗ 0.0 ± 0.25 – 6.75 0. 1996a. the incidence of CMs among medical abortuses and fe- p < 0.7 4.35 0. with the highest incidence of 9.2.2 1.36 0.27 1.61) All differences are significant.7 4.2 2.85 (5.65 0. Before the Chernobyl catastrophe only one case of severe CMs in a newborn was seen TABLE 5.88 0.1 6.87 (3.9 ± 2.22 0.70).29 0.50 0. Occurrence of Officially Registered Congenital Malformations (per 1.9∗ 7. 16.6 ± 2..1 ± 1.2 ± 0. Occurrence of the officially registered CMs correlated with the level of radioactive contamination of the territory (Table 5.3 ± 1. Bottom Line: Data for 30 Districts with Levels below 1 Ci/km2 (National Belarussian Report.23 1.32 0.27 2.3 ± 1.000 Live Births) and Different Levels of Contamination (Lazjuk et al.1 10.4 ± 1.05.72 (4.98) 7.9 7.3 1987–1989 9.000 Live Births + Fetuses) in Contaminated Districts in Belarus.49 0.61 (3.2 ± 1.41 1.000 Live Births + Fetuses) in Gomel and Mogilev Provinces of Belarus before and after the Catastrophe (Lazjuk et al. 1999). 15.14 0.3 ± 1.2 1.69 0.0 ± 2. Incidence of Registered Congenital Malformations (per 1.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl TABLE 5.5 ± 1.7 ± 2.25∗ 0.0∗ 9.6 ± 1.08 1.1 ± 1.05. The incidence of registered CMs noticeably increased in 14 out of 16 districts of Gomel and Mogilev provinces 1 to 2 years after the catastrophe.4 5.88 – 8. .01 (4.87 occurring in 1992 (Lazjuk et al. 17.4 12.0 ± 1. Ukraine 1. Incidence of Officially Registered Congenital Malformations (per 1.10 0..6 ± 2. The frequency of occurrence of CMs from 1986 to 1996 in areas contaminated at a level greater than 15 Ci/km2 was significantly higher than in Minsk.6 ± 2.91 0.6 ± 2.22 0.76) 1987–1992 5. 18.23 2.3∗ 6.21 0.2 3.1 4.71 1.96 – 5.6 ± 2.4 ± 2.0 ± 1. The occurrence of CMs in Gomel Province was sixfold higher in 1994 (Goncharova. 1996b.4 4. Matsko. 5.74) 3.1 4. tuses in the contaminated areas of Mogilev and Gomel provinces was significantly higher in the first decade after the catastrophe (Table 5.6 3.70.6 6. 2000).5 2.73).0 ± 3.64 0.5 ± 1.19 1.0 ± 0.71.71).8 ± 1.84 1. 1999) Level of contamination <1 Ci/km2 1–5 Ci/km2 >15 Ci/km2 ∗ Number of cases 1982–1985 4.59∗ 0.9 ± 2.4 3.62) 4.3 ± 2.17 0.7 12.09 (4.57 0.

1998). the level of congenital malformations in Rivne Province increased from 15.000. For children irradiated in utero. 2005: table 1. and alopecia (Stepanova. The highest incidence of CMs among children born to liquidator families was observed in 1987–1988.63 0. p < 0. and 24–60 in 1993–1997 (Figure 5. 2005). the occurrence of CMs increased significantly (5.3 to 37. after the catastrophe 98% of central nervous system anomalies were due to hydrocephalus.168 n = 20. The incidence of CMs is twice as high in contaminated districts (Horishna. and was six. 2005).209 registered cases in the period from 1981 to 1985 compared with 4.18 in controls.05.6% had officially registered CMs. The highest incidence of maxillofacial CMs (mostly cleft upper lip and palate) occurred in children born within 9 months after April 26.10 0. 2004. Among the 13. National Ukrainian Medical Academy in Kiev. Developmental anomalies in children from heavily contaminated districts occur up to 2. deformed internal organs.13). 2002). 2001. 2005). 1995). 10. 4. 1999). 8.000 neonates).5). According to the Neurosurgery Institute. in a 5-year period.90 7. 000) of Strictly Registered Congenital Malformations.14) and in infants it increased 7.8-fold more frequently than in less contaminated areas (Horishna. 12. dry.52 ± 0.3 (per 1. From 1987 to 2004 the incidence of brain tumors in children up to 3 years of age doubled (Figure 5.7-fold during the first 12 years after the catastrophe (Grodzinsky. Golubchykov et al.54 Polydactyly 0. absent or deformed limbs. 2002a). The peak incidence of CMs in the period from 1987 to 1994 occurred in 1990 (Orlov. Thereafter the ratio began to decrease: 83–102 children in 1989–1991.53 0. 1986∗ –1995. 2. and Fetuses in Minsk Compared with Gomel and Mogilev Provinces Contaminated at Levels above 15 Ci/km2 (Lazjuk et al. After 1986 the number of children with CMs increased in the contaminated territories (TASS. and retarded growth increased significantly in the contaminated districts (Horishna. 1986..128 TABLE 5. Previously rare multiple CMs and severe CMs such as polydactyly. abnormally thin. rough. 1999). The number of the small congenital malformations (anomalies of development) correlated with the level of in utero irradiation (Stepanova et al. 6. 1998. tightly clustered hair. 15. .5-fold (Orlov et al. The average annual increase in central nervous system defects was about 39% among 2.. early tooth decay.79 Multiple limb 0. 9. Medical Abortuses. throat and tooth deformities.53 0. 67 in 1992.507 n = 2.22 vs. 11. and leathery skin. 1999) Territories/period Minsk Contaminated districts Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Congenital 1980–1985.28 defects ∗ Second half 1986.. 5. 7. ∗∗ p < 0. 14. 9.21∗∗ CNS anomalies 0.925 cases from 1987 to 1994. afterward there were several cases a year (Horishna.07 0. 2. 1999.001) and the spectrum of CMs changed (Stepanova. Common developmental anomalies include scoliosis. 3. most noticeably in the heavily contaminated northern districts (Evtushok.to tenfold more common in the more contaminated areas of Kiev City and Kiev and Zhytomir provinces compared with the less contaminated provinces of Vinnitsa and Khmelnitsk (Nyagu et al.32 0. Horishna.73.701 All CMs 5. malformations n = 10...136 children born to 1986–1987 liquidators. Disability owing to congenital defects in children newborn to 15 years of age increased more than threefold in the Ukraine from 1992– 1993 to 2000–2001: from 10 to 31 per 10. 1999).60 4..95 ± 0. Ten years after the catastrophe. 13.000 (UNISEF. 1986∗ –1996. Comparison of the Incidence (per 1. Occurrence of officially registered CMs increased 5. 2006). when there were up to 117 per 1. 2005). 2005).

Sorokman et al. Number of cases of central nervous system tumors in children under 3 years of age from 1981 to 2002. The heavily contaminated districts of Kaluga Province had an increase in the number of CMs after the catastrophe. CMs in contaminated regions increased three. 1995. 3. 1999)....to fivefold in 1991 and 1992 compared with the precatastrophe level.000) of congenital malformations in children born to families of Ukrainian liquidators who worked in 1986–1987 (Stepanova. nervous Figure 5.13.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 129 Figure 5. Lyaginskaya et al. 4. taken from Kiev Institute of Neurosurgery data (Orlov and Shaversky. . 2003). The number of CMs increased markedly for several years after the catastrophe in the heavily contaminated districts of Tula Province (Khvorostenko.14. 2006). 2. 2007).12. Incidence (per 1. Urogenital tract CMs accounted for more than 20% of all officially registered anomalies and were more frequent for the period from 1998 to 2001 (Sorokman. 2002). which resulted in a twofold increase in children’s deaths in these districts 15 years later (Tsyb et al. with a noticeable increase in anomalies of the genitals. 1998. 2006). 16. 5. Russia 1.3. The number of CMs noticeably increased for several years after the catastrophe (Lyaginskaya and Osypov.

9 8. The occurrence of officially registered CMs in the contaminated districts of Bryansk Province was significantly higher from 1995 to 1998 than for the province as a whole (Table 5. An analysis of the nationwide GDR Malformation Registry for the prevalence of cleft lip/palate revealed a . muscular and digestive systems. as well as multiple anomalies following the Chernobyl contamination (Moumdjiev et al.1 1997 12. According to the Russian State Registry. 1993. Between February 1987 and December 1987. sense organs. 2001).4. 2001.7 8. From 1986 to 1987 the rate of CMs increased significantly— about 26%. 6. 2. CZECH REPUBLIC.. 8.3 (per 1. 1988) collectively cover only about 10% of the European population (Hoffmann. Underestimates are thought to be up to 30% for minor malformations and 15–20% for Down syndrome (Dolk and Lechat. The Jena Regional Malformation Registry recorded an increase in CMs in 1986 and 1987 compared with 1985.. CROATIA. which included more than 30.000 (UNICEF. 1998). 7. 1989. from 15 to 19 per 1. Y. The increase was most pronounced for malformations of the central nervous system and anomalies of the abdominal wall..1) Number of cases Territory Southwest∗ Province ∗ Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1995 14. and congenital cataracts (Kulakov et al.541 autopsies at the University Clinic of Zagreb between 1980 and 1993 showed a significantly increased incidence of central nervous system anomalies during the post-Chernobyl period (Kruslin et al.1 8. 1996. isolated malformations leveled off during subsequent years (Lotz et al. Most European countries do not routinely register prenatally diagnosed malformations that lead to induced abortions (Hoffmann. BULGARIA. Other Countries Official European registries of CMs (EUROCAT Registry.9 1996 13. by Hoffmann.. 7. In Pleven Province there was a significant increase in CMs of the heart and central nervous system.6 1998 11. 5. 1991). bone.. SchmitzFeuerhake.130 TABLE 5. The number of CM cases diagnosed as “harelip” and “wolf mouth” increased after the catastrophe.9 All heavily contaminated districts. the rate of registered CMs was about 16. 2001). FINLAND.7 had congenital developmental anomalies and “genetic syndromes” with a prevalence of bone and muscular abnormalities. system. More children in Denmark were born with central nervous system defects after Chernobyl (Hoffmann. Czeizel et al.6-fold higher than corresponding Russian parameters (Sypyagyna et al. 6. AUSTRIA. Subgroups with higher incidence included malformations of the central nervous system and limb-reduction anomalies (Harjuletho et al. 2001). 2001). respectively.2 7. 1992 by Hoffmann. 2001). 1991). 2001). 46.000 Live Births) in Bryansk Province Districts with Contamination Levels above 5 Ci/km2 . Congenital Malformation Morbidity (per 1. 1999b: table 6. 5. Analysis of 3.000 children born to liquidators.. Infant mortality in Bryansk Province due to structural CMs was fivefold the Russian average (Zhylenko and Fedorova..000 total births) and 18. 3.12. For three preChernobyl years. 1998. 1995– 1998 (Fetysov. GEORGIA. by Schmitz-Feuerhake. 2002). 1999).2.74.74). the number of cases of CMs were.) 5. especially in what were probably the most contaminated areas of Ajaria Republic and Racha Province (Vepkhvadze et al. calculation by A. 4. GERMANY. DENMARK. 10 and 6% above expectation in the moderately and highly contaminated regions. 1. More cases of central nervous system defects in newborns were observed in Austria after Chernobyl (Hoffmann. 2002). 2006).3 for three post-Chernobyl years. 2005: from table 1. Occurrence of CMs among children of liquidators was 3..

1994 Zieglowski and Hemprich.02 6. 2006) Location Bursa. 1992 Czeizel. HUNGARY. 1993.1989.. NORWAY. 1990.. 2003 Hoffmann. 2003a. 2001. 9 1989. TABLE 5.. Incidence (per 1. and embryonic hernias) were in the most contaminated southeast territories (Grygory et al. 2000 . 5 1981–1986.. 1988. 1999).. 9. 3 July–Dec. Out of 8. Caglayan et al. Black Sea coast) Bulgaria (Pleven) Croatia (Zagreb) Denmark (Odense) Finland Hungary Scotland Sweden East Germany Bavaria West Berlin Jena Germany total Congenital malformations CMs Incidence of CNS among the newborns conceived in the second half of 1986 Cardiac anomalies. This increase was most pronounced in three northern provinces of the GDR. Castronovo. Scherb and Weigelt. other CMs In 7 months after the catastrophe CM incidence increased 4% CMs among stillbirths noticeably increased in 1987 Increase in CMs (including malformations of the CNS and anomalies of the abdominal wall) In 1987 CM incidence increased significantly Reference Hoffmann.81 2.75.125 1..–June 1987. 11.77 After 12. Pflugbeil et al. 2004 Korblein 2002. 1997 Ramsay et al. Ukraine. 1991 Ericson and Kallen. 2001 Akar et al. Schmitz-Feuerhake. 2006. 1992.76. multiple CMs CMs among stillbirths and neonatal deaths (including CNS anomalies) Neural tube defects (NTD) Malformations of the CNS and limb-reduction anomalies Congenital malformations Down syndrome (trisomy 21) Down syndrome (trisomy 21) Cleft lip and/or palate.–June 1988. Western Turkey Trabzon Elazig 4 131 Before 5. those most affected by the Chernobyl fallout (Hoffmann. 2006) Country.. 2001. 2 Jan. 6 1987–Oct. Scherb and Weigelt. 1999). 1996 Korblein. SchmitzFeuerhake. 2001. structural limb deformities. CNS defects. 1992 Kruslin et al. 8 1987–1988.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl TABLE 5. 10. 1987. 1988 Harjuletho-Mervaala et al.34 4.4% increase in 1987 compared with the country’s average for 1980 and 1986 (Zieglowski and Hemprich. Congenital Developmental Anomalies in Children Irradiated In Utero as a Result of the Chernobyl Catastrophe in Countries Other than Belarus. Izmir.58 10. 1990 Moumdjiev et al. 7 1985–1986.2 –12. Jan. Data on all newborns conceived between May 1983 and April 1989 revealed a positive correlation between calculated total irradiation from Chernobyl and CMs such as hydrocephaly. 2002). territory Austria Turkey (Bursa..63 –20.. MOLDOVA... 2004. There was a negative correlation with Down syndrome (Terje Lie et al. 9. 1999. 1998 EUROCAT.509 registered cases of CMs for the period from 1989 to 1996 the highest frequencies of occurrence of malformations (including Down syndrome. More cases of central nervous system defects in newborns were observed in Hungary after Chernobyl (Hoffmann. and European Russia (Hoffmann. 2001 Lotz et al..09 1 1983–1986. 2001). 2003). Guvenc et al.000 Births) of Neural Tube Defects in Turkey before and after the Catastrophe (Hoffmann.396 2. 1989. Schmitz-Feuerhake. Mocan et al.

1993. 1991) and from www.. 13. Table 5. Information on CMs in newborns irradiated in utero as a result of the catastrophe in various countries is presented in Table 5.15.progetto.75 is a summary of data on the prevalence of neural tube de- fects (including spina bifida occulta and aperta. encephalocele. 1994.132 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 5. u Mocan et al. TURKEY. an increased incidence of CMs was reported in western Turkey..76. which was particularly badly affected (Akar. Caglayan et al. Typical examples of Chernobyl-induced congenital malformations with multiple structural deformities of the limbs and body (drawing by D. 1988. 1990).. . 1990. G¨ venc et al. Tshepotkin from Moscow Times (April 26. 1989.humus). and anencephaly) in Turkey before and after the catastrophe. Akar et al. 12. At the beginning of 1987.

5.000) of 12 Disease Groups among Liquidators (Pflugbeil et al.930 6. Thus the link between congenital and genetic defects and Chernobyl irradiation is no longer an assumption. head.110 1. Everywhere in areas contaminated by Chernobyl radioactivity.7-fold 95.2-fold 5.0-fold 79.0-fold 108.7-fold 21.5-fold 31.895 555 266 664 2.890 4. .5-fold 23.100 3.110 4.1-fold 14.548 7. 2006 Based on Official Gomel Health Center Data.649 5.3-fold 300.290 756 388 564 159 1993 218 4.410 9.199 1.770 3.000) of Juvenile Morbidity in Gomel Province.12. ∗∗ 1985 only malignant neuroplasms.100 726 414 621 184 Increase 14.390 646 4.1-fold 10. and body (Figure 5.270 365 197 180 40 1990 191 2.300 7.250 4. The occur- rence of congenital malformations continues to increase in several of the contaminated territories and correlates with the levels of irradiation.1-fold 11.9-fold 74.567 122 323 1995 127.761 51 1.020 6.4-fold 15.8-fold 11.810 1.036 867 7.146 425 1.730 253 1.180 8.7-fold 1. Simplified) Morbidity group/Organ Total primary diagnoses Blood and blood-forming organs Circulatory diseases Endocrinological.380 3.2-fold 45. including previously rare multiple structural deformities of the limbs.580 1.0-fold 41.6-fold 7. increased numbers of children have been born with hereditary anomalies and congenital developmental malformations.740 7. 2006) Illness/organ group Blood and blood-forming organs Circulation Endocrine sytem Respiratory system Urogenital tract Nervous system and sense organs Psychological changes Digestive System Skin and subcutaneous tissue Infections and parasites Tumors Malignant growths 1986 15 183 96 645 34 232 621 82 46 36 20 13 1988 96 1.282 961 847 908 7.440 1..7-fold 9.4 1990 73. Belarus (Pflugbeil et al.768 859 358 3.923 210 144 1997 124.359 3.771 54 32 3.013 11.111 82. but is proven.010 1.77. and immune systems Respiratory system Urogenital tract Muscle and bones/connective tissue Mental disorders Neural and sense organs Digestive system Skin and subcutaneous tissue Infectious and parasitic illnesses Congenital malformations∗ Neoplasm∗∗ ∗ 1985 9.78.8-fold 48.540 5.694 340 134 Increase 12.4-fold 44.879 7.2-fold 13.150 764 3.Yablokov: Nonmalignant Diseases after Chernobyl 133 TABLE 5. we must assume that each year several thousand newborns in Europe will also bear the greater and smaller hereditary TABLE 5.7 760 25 13 95 645 26 159 4.4-fold 42.450 2.7-fold High estimation of unreported cases through abortions. Incidence (per 10.689 1.549 81. metabolic..754 502 158 116 49.210 686 325 393 85 1992 226 3.9-fold 213.529 6.15).8-fold 6. Conclusion The appreciable increase in newborns with both major and minor developmental anomalies is one of the undeniable consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. Incidence (per 100.040 5.108 4. Extrapolating available data on congenital malformations and the total number of children born in the territories contaminated by Chernobyl.100 8.

G. 2.77 presents dramatic data on the incidence of 12 groups of illnesses suffered by Russian liquidators. (1998).920 60.769 15. Transfusiol. Akar. Table 5. vitamin A levels were noticeably higher than normal and concentrations of vitamin E were significantly lower—up to eightfold (Zaitsev et al.271 73. 1996).. They are real and documented. 1996). Hematolog. Epidemiol. N. Hydrocarbons as risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiac ischemia after irradiation. blood vitamin E levels were significantly lower than normal and were especially low in territories contaminated at a level above 6 Ci/km2 (Zaitsev et al. Leucocytes and lymphocytes reaction as characters of population resistance. Age-related changes found in liquidators included anoxic. N.249 1.. (2003).4-fold 50. A.. V. 1987–1992 (Pflugbeil et al.559 4.13. Aderikho. Other Diseases 1. .8-fold 52. Mikhalev. 8: 456–457 (cited by Schmitz-Feuerhake.503 14.641 2.194 768 1989 886 576 3.79. Lymphocytes in people after low level irradiation. Nearly all physiological systems were adversely affected. L. References Aculich. 3. 2006). 43(2): 36–42 (in Russian).986 2. 204–207 (in Russian). Further notes on neural tube defects and Chernobyl.79 provide a comprehensive view of the deterioration in public health in the affected territories of Belarus and Ukraine.134 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 5. P. 5..101 98. N.262 2. Adamovich. 2006) Illness/Organ Endocrine system Psychological disturbances Neural system Circulatory system Digestive system Skin and subcutaneous tissue Muscles and bones 1987 631 249 2.304 13.9-fold anomalies caused by Chernobyl’s radioactive fallout.8-fold 5.0-fold 60. Paediat. Conclusion Only when we know the full scope of the Chernobyl catastrophe can we prevent such a tragedy from ever happening again.. & Romanova. (1994).7-fold 44. Existing data presented in this chapter are irrefutable proof that the frequency of occurrence of nonmalignant illnesses is obviously and significantly higher in the contaminated territories. These disorders cannot be attributed to socioeconomic or be- havioral stress factors. Mogilev): pp. 5. It is reasonable to suggest that the state of public health in the affected territories may be even worse than that of the liquidators. fermentation-type metabolism and formation of pro-oxidation conditions (Vartanyan et al. In 58 children ages 7 to 14 from Stolinsk and Narovlya districts without clinical pathology. resulting in consequences ranging from impairment to death.550 5. Incidence (per 100.5-fold 96. In: Selected Scientific Papers (Mogilev University.100 1991 4.486 4.363 62.041 1. News 9: 80–84 (in Russian). K. Perinat.236 1.518 29.14. Med. V. In 153 pregnant women from the Bragin District.000) of Morbidity among Adults and Adolescents in Northern Ukraine. Tables 5. (2003).440 Increase 25. 2002).268 9. V.746 1992 16. Liquidators were the most comprehensively observed group after the catastrophe.78 and 5.145 15. There was widespread damage to the people living in the contaminated territories.

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A. I. Kil’chevskaya. A. B. Radiol. & Tararukhyna. High. E.. Characteristics of cerebrovascular disorders in persons who suffered ionizing radiation after the Chernobyl accident. & Baranovskaya. N. N. L. E. Chernobyl catastrophe and your health. S. G. O. High. Ryzhov. N. Kiev (Abstracts. P. Russian Chernobyl (www. V. . Zhavoronkova. D.. 116–117 (in Russian). Zakrevsky. (1995).. & Ryzhov. 50(1): 68–79 (in Russian). Kiev): pp. L. Zubovsky. Petrov.. O. A. N. & Kholodova. A.. N. The Health Effects on the Human Victims of the Chernobyl Catastrophe (Greenpeace International.. G. Yu. 1996. Bornstein. O. L. Koptelov. Human milk characters and babies’ health in radioactive contaminated areas of Belarus. L.. N.. & Tararukhyna. & Garmaev. & Mikhailovskaya. V. A. A. Content of vitamins A and E in blood of children and pregnant women living in radioactive contaminated territories. Kiev): pp.. Kalynin. Publ. Scientific and Practical Conference. Med. 18–24 (in Russian). Chernobyl and Public Health. Early postnatal adaptation of newborns whose mothers were impacted by radiation. (1999). Zhavoronok. A. Kalynin. The state of a hypophyseal-thyroid system during treatment with I-131. Zubovsky. Radiolog. May 7–10. J. 53(4): 410–419 (in Russian). & Kholodova. Zalutskaya. Health 5: 28–30 (in Russian). L. A. V.. G. Z. Okeanov. A... G. Barmakova.. A. K.php? subaction=snowfull&id) (in Russian). Acad.. 47: 147– 148. Zubovsky. (1994).. immune and molecular genetics: Monitoring of liquidators 1991–1996. N. Zieglowski. M. (2007). V. A. Gogytidze. Electroencephalographic correlates of neurological disorders in the late periods of exposure to ionizing radiation: The after-effects of the Chernobyl accident. M. In: Blokov... Nervous Activit. L. G..160 Zaitsev. N.. 147–151. Herald Rus. (Eds. Post-radiation changes in brain asymmetry and higher mental function of right. Scientific and Practical Conference. I. A. A. V. Mokhort. et al. V. Health 8: 46–48 (in Russian). G.. G markers in those suffering from the Chernobyl catastrophe. Gynecol. 3–4: 26–28 (in Russian).. Butenko. Zhavoronkova. M. 3: 32–35 (in Russian). Safety 43(5): cc. I. Zozulya. Med.. N. A. Health status of pregnant and lying-in women and newborns under low dose impacts. L. Morbidity among persons exposed to radiation as result of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Kuznetsova. F. Facial cleft birth defect rate in former East Germany before and after the reactor accident in Chernobyl. Yu. A. D. & Hemprich. Publ. (2000). B. E. Radiat.ru/modules/ecology/print. S. 386(3): 418–422 (in Russian). & Fedorova. A. Zhavoronkova. Nervous Activit. R. (1991). (2000). Nykulyna. & Ospovat. Pasechnik. A. Amsterdam): pp. N. Grimbaum.. Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir 3: 195199 (in German). I. Postradiation effect on inter-hemispheric asymmetry in EEG and thermography findings. B. G. Analysis of chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis morbidity in populations suffering after Chernobyl accident in Belarus. Petrenko. 1: 20–22 (in Russian). C. V. V. Zhavoronok. N. Nervous Activit. N. I. A.. B... Sci.. (2003). Publ. A. G. Zubovich. Ae. Health 4: 44–45 (in Russian). Did the Chernobyl incident cause an increase in Type 1 diabetes mellitus incidence in children and adolescents? Diabetolog. (1998b). Chernovetskyi. (1999). A.. Zhavoronkova. A. 1 (Abstracts. (1993). M. & Polischuyk. A. & Martynenko. Liver viruses B. B. M. Hematological. Obstetric. T. S. Pyliptsevich. Zhylenko. Zak. Doctor Pract. (1996). Gabova. 12–13 (in Russian). Sel’sky. V.. Zubovsky. (2002). et al. (1996). Kholodova.and left-handed subjects: A sequel of the Chernobyl accident. & Zemskov. A. N. J. et al. V. (1998a). Z.). S. L. I. J. High. B. O. Remote Consequences of Irradiation for Immune and Blood Forming Systems. V. K.portalus. (1998). A. V. D. A. Babarykyna. 44(2): 229–238 (in Russian). I. Abnormalities of EGG and cognitive functional disorders after radioactive Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences impact. Smirnov. M. (2004). S. & Smirnova.. Grimbaum. V. S. Beresten’.

000 in the rest of the world. information has not been included. Office 319 119071 Moscow. and rectal cancer—in 30 years 1986. Sr-90.” published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).000 deaths in Europe and 19. Pu. . Ru-103. It is officially accepted that: . Russian Academy of Sciences. In the first editions across the USSR . Leninsky Prospect 33. Yablokov@ ecopolicy. In last two editions of the collection. Yablokov. skin. Although there was not a single case due to direct exposure from the explosion that occurred in April Address for correspondence: Alexey V. The oncological diseases include neoplasms and malignant (cancerous) and nonmalignant tumors as common consequences of ionizing radiation.ru 161 . High levels of Te-132. and Am will generate new neoplasms for hundreds of years. .000 fatal cancers between 1986 and 2056. Oncological Diseases after the Chernobyl Catastrophe Alexey V. . Given the ten half-lives that have to occur before many of the isotopes decay to safe levels.and post-Chernobyl cancer levels. Data collected from the victims of Hiroshima and Nagasaki show radiation-induced malignancies becoming clinically apparent as follows: • • • • Leukemia (various blood cancers)—within 5 years Thyroid cancer—within 10 years Breast and lung cancers—in 20 years Stomach. and Cs-134 persisted months after the Chernobyl catastrophe and the continuing radiation from Cs-137. . the Russian and Ukrainian oncological statistics were low and grossly underestimated the cancer morbidity. Yablokov The most recent forecast by international agencies predicted there would be between 9. The initial forecasts insisted that there would be no significant increase in the occurrence of cancer after the catastrophe. Each five years. There are varying periods of latency between the exposure and the appearance of a tumor. obviously underestimating the risk factors and the collective doses. As is demonstrated by data in this chapter.CHERNOBYL 6. this means that Chernobyl radiation will engender new neoplasms for hundreds of years. data are included for Belarus. the main source of data for international statistics for cancer morbidity is the collection of papers “Cancer Disease on Five Continents. the first of these two collections also contained information from St. a more realistic figure is 212. Voice: +7-495-952-80-19. Petersburg and Kirghizia. these editions publish only those data which correspond to the established quality standards. fax: +7-495-952-80-19. Ru-106. containing data for 1983–1987 and 1988–1992. the ongoing irradiation in the wake of the meltdown is responsible for an increase in malignant diseases. On the basis of I-131 and Cs-137 radioisotope doses to which populations were exposed and a comparison of cancer mortality in the heavily and the less contaminated territories and pre.000 and 28. . Estonia and Latvia. . Russia. Nevertheless.000 to 245. the authors of the collection warn For people living in the areas contaminated by Chernobyl’s radioactive fallout the cancer situation is much more complicated. since 1960 .

2 with thyroid cancer. 6.6 ± 8. (UNSCEAR. A significant increase in morbidity for malignant and benign neoplasms occurred in girls aged 10 to 14 years born to irradiated parents in the years from 1993 to 2003 (National Belarussian Report. 33. 2.8 ± 14.400 women officially registered) sharply and significantly increased from 1993 to 2003 compared to individuals exposed to less contamination (Table 6.4 with all of the other malignant neoplasms. Ci/km2 <5 5–15 >15 ∗ Gomel Province 1977–1985 181.5∗ 304. an order of magnitude higher that of Hiroshima (Malko. Occurrence of Cancers (per 100. From 1987 to 1999 some 26.7 176. Imanaka. and 6.5 241. 6.3 with leukemia.9 ± 5. but does reflect the scope and the scale of the problem. who received lower doses (Table 6.1. 48).1.5∗ Mogilev Province 1977–1985 248.. The increase was a maximum in the most highly contaminated Gomel Province and lower in the less contaminated Brest and Mogilev provinces: 52. The average annual absolute risk of malignant disease calculated from these data is 434 per 10. 2006).2∗ 303.000 cases of radiation-induced malignant neoplasms (including leukemia) were registered. Cancer morbidity among liquidators who worked in May–June 1986 (maximal doses and dose rate) is above that of liquidators who worked in July–December 1986. is not an all-inclusive review. Increase in General Oncological Morbidity There are two ways to define the scale of cancer morbidity associated with the Chernobyl catastrophe: (1) on the basis of calculated received doses (with application of appropriate risk factors) and (2) by direct comparison of cancer morbidity in the heavily and less contaminated territories. and 32%.000) in Belarussian Territories Contaminated by Cs-137 before and after the Catastrophe (Konoplya and Rolevich. 4. 6.3% TABLE 6. 2004). item 234.000 person/Sv.0 to 26. 5. 6.8 ± 15.1 ± 16.1 deals with general oncological morbidity. The level of the cancer morbidity in Gomel and Mogilev provinces correlated with the level of contamination of the areas (Table 6.2).05. The relative risk for cancer is 3– 13 Sv−1 . as well as others in this book.162 that all data from former republics of the USSR (except for Estonia) underestimate the occurrence of disease. For the period 1990–2000 cancer morbidity in Belarus increased 40%. 2002). . p.0∗ 334.6 1986–1994 306.4 221.6 1986–1994 238. Cancer mortality in the Narovlia District. 1996. increased from 0. This chapter.0 194. 2000. 2002).9 ± 9. the lowest was in the least contaminated areas of the Vitebsk and Grodno provinces (Borysevich and Poplyko. 7.1. The highest level of general oncological morbidity among persons 0 to 17 years of age from 1986 to 2000 occurred in the most contaminated Gomel Province.3).0 ± 6. .6 ± 12. 6. Section 6.0 ± 26. 1999) Contamination. Belarus 1.1. 3.0 ± 8. 8. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences This chapter is divided into sections on the various cancers that have been found in territories contaminated by Chernobyl radionuclides. . Cancer morbidity among liquidators (57. respectively (Okeanov et al.440 men and 14. Gomel Province.8 248.1∗ P < 0.2 ± 18.4 ± 12.1).

6 ± 2.12 0. ∗∗ From the less contaminated Vitebsk Province (excluding liquidators and those who migrated to the province from the contaminated regions).8 Bladder 20.23 1.14 ± 0. Omelyanets and Klement’ev. and rose by 12% in the entire country (Omelyanets et al.4 ± 5.03 Controls∗∗ 4.5 ± 2.1).31 0.05 from controls.0 Regression coefficient Liquidators 13.10 −0.8 10.6 ± 2. For adults in the contaminated districts of Zhytomir Province cancer morbidity increased nearly threefold in 1986–1994: from 1.0∗ 13..2 10.9 ± 3.000).4 Rectal 18.26 to 0.12 −0.68 ± 0.25 to 0.69 ± 1. 2.24 ± 0.6 ± 1.1 ± 2.7 ± 2.0 Thyroid 40. Calculated on the basis of official data for the years 1990 to 2004.1 ± 0.26∗ 1.1 55. 1995).8 ± 0.2 Stomach 50.2 42.4 19.1∗ Controls∗∗ 366.4 ± 3.4 15.1 ± 0..38% (up 46%).5 13. TABLE 6.2 Lung 57. 2004) Liquidators May–June 1986 Liquidators July–December 1986 Controls All cancers 456. In the heavily contaminated territories cancer morbidity increased 18–22% in the 12 years following the catastrophe.500 radiation-induced cancers are predicted to occur in Belarus over a period of 70 years after the catastrophe (Malko.1∗ ∗ p < 0.1. Golubchykov et al.42% (up 68%).3∗ 366.1 25.2∗ 10. Cancer Morbidity of Belarussian Liquidators (per 10.2 16.1 ± 3. 3.91% (Nagornaya. from 0.8 ± 0. 6.3 42.2.59∗ 3.2 ± 2.99 ± 0.89 ± 0. in the years from 1986 to 1994 (Zborovsky et al.2. 2001..4 ∗ 16.000) in Two Belarussian Liquidator Groups Exposed in Different Periods in 1986.08 ± 1.05.2 ± 20.6 ± 5.6∗ 41. 9. 1993–2003 (Okeanov et al. 2007).99 ± 0.5∗ 10.7 67..4 Kidney 20.9∗ 16.38 ± 0. 1995).4 ± 5.4 53.6 ± 1.78 ± 0.1 ± 4. 1996.15 ± 5.2∗ 25. Up to 62. This marked deviation from the long-term trend of cancer mortality is very likely connected to the Chernobyl contamination (Figure 6.. The cancer morbidity of evacuees from the heavily contaminated territories is noticeably higher than in the rest of the country (Tsimliakova and Lavrent’eva.3 ± 2.9 ± 1. 2007).9 ± 1.3. 2001).Yablokov: Oncological Diseases after Chernobyl 163 TABLE 6.8 ± 0.1.34 to 3.4 ± 4.1 ± 10. 1993–2003 (Okeanov et al.1 ± 1.0 ± 3.8 ± 10.7 ± 1.16 0. 2004) Morbidity Liquidators All cancers Stomach Rectal Lung Kidney Bladder Thyroid 422.0∗ 20. Cancer Morbidity (per 10.6 ± 2.8 ± 0. Belarussian patients diagnosed with cancer for the first time has increased from 0. Ukraine 1.18 ∗ p < 0. Figure 6.2∗ 28.28 ± 0.1 ± 1. 10.7 ± 1.8 ± 0. 2002).29∗ 1.5∗ 53. Deviation from the trend after 1986 is very likely associated with additional Chernobyl-related cancers (Malko.92 1.27∗ 0.3 42.78 ± 1.19 0. First-time-registered cases of cancer in Belarus from 1975 to 2005. and in Gomel Province.2∗ 16.6 ± 3.3∗ 437. .

5. whereas the expected number for that period was 793 (Prysyazhnyuk et al. 2007).7-fold from 1995 to 1997 and was noticeably higher than in less contaminated areas (Table 6..4). Sweden. Within 5 years after the catastrophe the number of malignant neoplasms diagnosed for the first time in Bryansk and Oryol provinces increased 30% compared with the pre-Chernobyl period (Parshkov et al. 2007). 2006). Tula. “More than 1. 1994). 3. In 1997 childhood cancer morbidity in the contaminated provinces of Bryansk. A multifaceted epidemiological study based on a comparison of hundreds of administrative units with different levels of Chernobyl Cs-137 contamination revealed unequivocally an increased incidence of all malignancies in northern Sweden. and Smolensk markedly exceeded that in all of Russia (Ushakova et al. which will account for about 1–9% of all cancer-related deaths in the country (Green Brigade.2).8 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 4.164 TABLE 6. and Bryansk provinces was noticeably higher than in the less contaminated areas (Ushakov et al.396 cases of cancer from 1986 to 2004..2 18. 2.2.1. In 1995 cancer morbidity in the heavily contaminated districts of Kaluga. 1995–1997 (Ushakova et al.600 cancer-related deaths owing to the catastrophe. Other Countries 1. Russia 1. 2001) Districts “Clean” ≥3 Ci/km2 Morbidity 7. Childhood Cancer Morbidity (per 100. 2007).. 3. SWEDEN. According to official evaluations some 500 deaths were caused by Chernobyl-radiation-induced cancers (Dymitrova. 1997). Lipetsk. Oryol.3.. Comparison of the general cancer morbidity (per 100. 1997). 2002). 2007). It has been estimated that during the next 50 years there will be an annual additional 740 to 6. 2. POLAND. the most contaminated territory in that country (Tondel.7-fold higher than in the less contaminated areas (Ushakov et al. 6.000” cancer deaths in Norrland Province. 6. even according to official data (Figure 6. Cancer morbidity for both men and women liquidators increased significantly from 1990 to 2004 (National Ukrainian Report. Among male liquidators there were 5..000) in Tula Province under Various Levels of Contamination. 5. between 1986 and 1999 have been attributed to the Chernobyl fallout (Abdelrahman. Oryol. Nine years after the catastrophe general cancer morbidity in districts contaminated by Figure 6. 4.1.4. General cancer morbidity for solid tumors in Bryansk Province has exceeded the country average since 1987. 2006). Tula.4. . 6. 15 Ci/km2 or more in Bryansk Province was 2.000 for solid tumors) in heavily contaminated Bryansk Province to less contaminated Kaluga Province and to Russia (Ivanov and Tsyb.. BULGARIA. 2001). Cancer morbidity in children from areas contaminated by Cs-137 of 3 Ci/km2 or more in Tula Province increased 1.

4).Yablokov: Oncological Diseases after Chernobyl 165 6. then hundreds. Figure 6. Belarus 1. 2007). the gland’s dysfunction results in many other serious illnesses. Chernobyl thyroid cancers virtually always occur in the papillary form. After 20 years the incidence of thyroid cancer among individuals who were under 18 years 6. 3. How Many People Have Thyroid Cancer? In the first months after the catastrophe. Thyroid cancer morbidity in children and adults began to increase sharply after 1989. Annual thyroid cancer incidence rates in Belarus and Ukraine (per 100. Thyroid Cancer The initial reports of a rise in the incidence of thyroid cancer in 1991–1992 were criticized and the figures attributed to such factors as increased screening. The clinical and molecular features of thyroid cancers that developed following Chernobyl are unique.000) for individuals who were children and adolescents in 1986 (Fairlie and Sumner.. 4. and are frequently associated with thyroid autoimmunity.3).2. only several additional cases were predicted. and childhood morbidity reached a maximum in 1995–1996. Hatch et al. 2007). as it is the most prevalent of all malignant neoplasms caused by the catastrophe.3.. reflecting mostly real time changes but may also be due to more accurate diagnoses of the disease (Figure 6. random variation. 1996). As the thyroid is a critical part of the endocrine system. 2004. The incidence of thyroid cancer requires special attention.1. 2.. Figure 6. 2005. many have an unusual subtype with a large solid component.4. Furthermore.5).2.1. hypothyroidism.000) from 1989 to 1994 (Lomat’ et al.13 cases per 1. There is one common conclusion: without exception.003–0. Thyroid cancer morbidity in children and adults has increased sharply in the country since 1990 (Figure 6. and thyroid insufficiency. 1996). Childhood thyroid cancer morbidity increased 43-fold (∼ 0. whereas that for adults continued upward until 2003 (Figure 6.1. are more aggressive at presentation. They also often precede or are accompanied by radiation-induced benign thyroid nodules. and have high rates of local and remote metastases (Williams et al. Prospective (by pre-Chernobyl data) and real data of thyroid cancer morbidity (per 100. but then no more than several thousand.2. . The actual count of the thyroid cancer cases differs from one report and source to another. autoimmune thyroiditis.000) for children and adults in Belarus (Malko. and many others). 2006). and wrong diagnoses (for a review see Tondel. 6. numerous official forecasts were optimistic—all underestimated the figures for Chernobyl-induced thyroid cancers (Economist. grow rapidly.

2002). 2. Ukraine 1.5%) indicates very aggressive tumor development (Vtyurin et al.000..1-fold from 2002 to 2004 (Tronko et al. The prevalence of invasive forms of carcinoma (87.. and Rovno provinces (Komissarenko et al. in 1990.166 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 6.5. .9-fold. 1995).6% of patients developed remote lung metastases (Rybakov et al. 2006: fig. 2002). 2002). in teenagers.000 people who were children at the time of the catastrophe. Zhytomir.7). 10. General thyroid cancer morbidity for Belarussian children and adults after the catastrophe (National Belarussian Report. 6.000. Moreover. the number of cases of thyroid cancer increased 5.09 per 100. and 19.000 individuals undergo surgery for thyroid cancer (Borysevich and Poplyko.6. Chernygov. 7.2).000 persons. Regression Figure 6. 1995). By the year 2000. In these areas thyroid cancer morbidity reached 1. Cherkassk..6-fold (Belookaya et al. Compared to the pre-Chernobyl period.1). absence of general body signs or symptoms. Primary thyroid cancer morbidity among those age 0 to 18 years in 1986 (National Belarussian Report..2. The greatest increase in morbidity was recorded in young people living in the most heavily contaminated districts of Kiev. 3. Among 1. 4. by 2000 the number of cases of thyroid cancer in children had increased 88-fold.32 per 100. 6. which was fivefold higher than in other areas. Komissarenko et al. 2006: fig. and high lymphatic invasiveness. Clinically this is expressed by a short latency period. including more than 1.6).5. it was 0. Congenital thyroid cancers have been diagnosed in newborns (Busby. 8.9% of patients have their tumor spread beyond the thyroid. 2000.0% of patients and these required repeated operations to remove residual metastases that appeared shortly after the initial operation. 9. 100 had thyroid nodules and among them two or three had cancer (Krysenko. Annually some 3.63 per 100. 13. 4. Regional metastasis into neck lymph nodes occurred in 55. more than 7. Before the catastrophe.57–0. 2006). 5. afterward.. Summary data on some cases of thyroid cancer in Belarus are presented in Table 6. 2001). Some 46. Compared to the pre-Chernobyl period. There were more cases of thyroid cancer in provinces that had a higher level of I-131 contamination (Figure 6. 2002). of age at the time of the catastrophe increased more than 200-fold (Figure 6. 12. 11.2.000 people were registered as suffering from thyroid cancer.000 specially surveyed persons. and in adults.8-fold from 1996 to 2001..1.8-fold from 1990 to 1995. the occurrence of thyroid cancer among children and adolescents was 0. 4.

650 (4.05. and residents in the radioactively contaminated areas (Prysyazhnyuk et al. where I-131 fallout was recorded. average about 5.000).136 1990–1998 1986–2000 1986–2000 1986–2000 1997–2000 Up to 2001 1986–2004 1990–2004 Jan. 2006).670) 1. in males and females in 1998 and 1999 (Romanenko et al.399) 9.. 213 UNSCEAR. 3.000 8. 2005).03.560–6. Number of Thyroid Cancer Cases in Belarus from Various Sources (Radiogenic Cases in Parentheses) Number of cases...000 postsurgery cases annually (2.000 postsurgery (all ages) 12. 2006 In persons 0–18 years at the time of the meltdown In persons 0–14 years at the time of the meltdown In persons 0–14 years at the time of the meltdown Belarussian Ministry of Health data Based on official data coefficients that reflect time trends are: all of Ukraine. A survey of 26.Yablokov: Oncological Diseases after Chernobyl 167 TABLE 6. 6.601 children in 1998 revealed that for each case of thyroid cancer there were 29 other thyroid pathologies (Shybata et al. 0.161 (1.000.5.06. in males and females. 2000 Malko.470 (3. respectively. 2006∗ Malko.12 ± 0. Various estimations of the numbers of the thyroid cancer cases in Ukraine are presented in Table 6. 2007 Ostapenko.000. based on the pre-Chernobyl level) In persons aged 0–17 years at the time of the meltdown Including 700 in children In children aged 0–14 years Including 1. 2002 Comments Six most contaminated provinces (calculated by A. Truncated age-standardized incidence rates in territories with contamination less than 100 kBq/m2 did not exceed two and five cases per 100. n 5. 2002 Postoyalko.41 ± 0. . 2002 1986–2004 1986–2001 2002 alone 1988–2004 1987–2004 1986–2004 National Belarussian Report.409) (674) “More than 8. From 1980 to 1990 instances of this cancer were not tabulated and registered in the areas under study (Prysyazhnyuk et al.000” “About 6.600 children In persons aged 0–17 years at the time of the meltdown (1.430) (2. 5.748) Period 1987–1998 Author Ivanov & Tsyb.840. The first cases of thyroid cancer in children under 14 years of age living in contaminated territories were registered in 1990.000 operated” “More than 7. 0. 4. 0. Kiev.01 (per 100. 0. 2004 Lypik.000” (1. 2004.22 ± 0..700) About 7. 2004 Malko. Demidchik.6. 0. 2002 Drozd. 2002). Prysyazhnyuk et al. 7. and Zhytomir provinces from 1990 to 1999. evacuees from Pripyat City and the 30-km exclusion zone.000 per year). the incidence of thyroid cancer was dependent on the level of that fallout. 2001 Borysevich and Poplyko. In territories with contamination greater than 100 kBq/m2 the incidence was four and sixteen cases per 100. comm. p.067) (4. 2005). Kiev City. According to the Ukrainian State Register for the period from 1982 to 2003 the incidence of thyroid cancer rose significantly after 1991 for three different cohorts studied: liquidators who worked 1986–1987. pers. other contaminated territories. 2002 Demidchik et al... respectively. Zhytomir Province. 1987– Dec. In the Chernygov.. 2004 Nesterenko. 2002: tab.07.41 ± 0. Yablokov. 2002 Belookaya et al.1.055 new cases 2.200 postsurgery children More than 10.52 ± 0. Kiev Province. 3.

Russia 1. 2007).7. From 1986 to 2000 thyroid cancer morbidity for the entire population of Bryansk .3. 11.5-fold from 1991 to 1998 (Ivanov and Tsyb.2. 9. 10. A sharp increase in cases of thyroid cancer began after 1989 in persons who were 0 to 18 years of age at the time of the catastrophe (Figure 6. Thyroid cancer morbidity in five contaminated provinces of Belarus and Minsk compared to the least contaminated Grodno Province. 8. Thyroid cancer morbidity markedly increased in liquidators after 2001 (Law of Ukraine. 2. thyroid cancer morbidity was significantly higher in territories contaminated at a level higher than 100 kBq/m2 than in areas with levels of less than 100 kBq/m2 (Prysyazhnyuk et al.9). The increase in cancer cases in the rather less contaminated Vitebsk Province and the city of Minsk may reflect the inflow of evacuees and refugees (Malko. Thyroid cancer morbidity in the age group 0–30 years increased 1. 2007). In 1998–1999.10.168 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 6. Thyroid cancer morbidity for women in the heavily contaminated territories is more than fivefold higher than for men (Figure 6. 2002). 2006). 6.. Incidence of thy- roid cancer in various provinces is illustrated in Figure 6.1.8).

2004). 2006). In the 10 to 15 years after the catastrophe.2 Comments 169 Persons aged 0 – 15 years at the time of the meltdown Including 422 children Referring to official data Referring to official data Referring to official data Children aged 0–14 years Children aged 0–17 years at the time of the meltdown Children Children aged 0–18 years at the time of the meltdown (11 died) Province increased 4.2).11.8 cases per 100.914 (937) (1. 2005). Thyroid cancer morbidity in Bryansk Province was twice that in Russia from 1988 to 1998 and triple that from 1999 to 2004 (Malashenko. 1997). Thyroid cancer morbidity in children increased significantly in Tula Province from 1986 to 1997 compared with the years before the catastrophe (Ushakova et al. 2005). 2005 Prysyazhnyuk. 4. 1998). and higher for women (Zvonova et al. 2006: fig.. Thyroid cancer morbidity in both children and adults in Oryol Province increased sharply in the 6 to 8 years after the catastrophe (Kovalenko.8. 2004). 2006). 1998 Associated Press. 2001. Figure 6. 2000 Tronko et al.. 2004 Anonymous. There has been noticeable growth of thyroid cancer morbidity in children in the Ural region provinces since 1990 (Dobrynyna.7 cases in children in the heavily contaminated districts (Kukishev et al. The thyroid cancer morbidity in Lipetsk City increased 3.385 Years 1990–1997 1986–1996 1986–1997 1986–1999 1986–1999 1986–2000 1986–2002 1988–2004 1990–2004 1986–2004 Author UNSCEAR.6. Number of thyroid cancer cases in Ukraine among persons who were 0 to 18 years of age at the time of the meltdown (National Ukrainian Report. n 1. 2000 Reuters. thyroid cancer morbidity in Oryol Province increased eightfold (Parshkov et al. 2006: fig..674 postsurgery (585) 3.2-fold (3..4 times from 1989 to 1995 (Krapyvin.400) (572) 2. 5.. The real level of thyroid cancer in Bryansk Province might be up to four times higher than the official 13. The relative risk of the disease for adults is twice that for children. 8.000 (Pylyukova. Since 1991. 9. 2000 Dobyshevskaya et al. 2001). The absolute number of cases in the province is shown in Figure 6. 2001). Since 1995 thyroid cancer morbidity in the southwest districts contaminated at a level higher than 5 Ci/km2 has become significantly higher than the province’s average (Kukishev et al.3–13...Yablokov: Oncological Diseases after Chernobyl TABLE 6. 10.420 (585) 3. 6. . 2007 National Ukrainian Report.8 cases per 100. 1996 Interfax-Ukraine. thyroid cancer morbidity in Bryansk Province began to increase sharply among individuals who were under 50 years of age at the time of the catastrophe..371 postsurgery 2. Proshin et al. 3. 5. Number of Thyroid Cancer Cases in Ukraine (Radiogenic Cases Parentheses) Number of cases. 2002 Tsheglova.217) (1. 7.000) and to 20. 5.

From 1976 to 1990 thyroid cancer morbidity grew 2% a year. . Thyroid cancer morbidity (per 100.4. 2. CZECH REPUBLIC. From 1990 there was a significant increase in the rate of this cancer for both sexes to 4. The incidence of thyroid cancer in European Russia is presented in Table 6. Thyroid cancer morbidity (per 100. 6. AUSTRIA.. It is important to note that not only I-131. the percentage of malignant thyroid tumors smaller than 5 mm at diagnosis has increased 20% (from 7 to 27%) from 1975 to 2005.000) in heavily contaminated Kiev Province and Kiev City and less contaminated Zhytomir Province (Prysyazhnyuk. However. For example. 1. A common argument against the “Chernobyl effect” of increasing thyroid cancer morbidity is that it does not correlate with the most contaminated areas in 1986.2.12). the official view in France was that the I-131 contamination was primarily in the southeastern part of the county (Figure 6.1. An increase in the number of thyroid cancers began in 1990 and was especially high in the contaminated territories in 1995 (Weinisch.6% a year (95% CI: 1.7. The values for women are markedly higher than those for men.9. 2006).10. 2007).2–4.000) in Ukraine for men and women from 1962 to 2004 (Prysyazhnyuk et al. in the Marne-Ardennes French provinces. but other radionuclides can cause thyroid cancer. Small tumors are discovered incidentally while exploring and treating benign thyroid diseases. Other Countries Globally an increased incidence of thyroid cancer has been reported in the last 20 years. 11. which may be a reason for the increase.170 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 6. but this cannot account for most of the increase. but there are data showing that on some days there were heavier Chernobyl clouds over the northern part of the country. 2007). where there was increasing incidence of thyroid cancer several years later.0003).1. 2007). P = 0. including the Marne-Ardennes provinces. At the same time cancer incidence increased 360% in women and 500% in men (Cherie-Challine et al. this ar- gument is flawed. For example. Since Chernobyl there have been 426 Figure 6..

persons aged 0–17 years at the time of the meltdown Bryansk Province (more than 50 times higher than for 1975–1985) Bryansk Province Reference to A. 2000 Comments Four most contaminated provinces (calculated by A. 2000 Kukishev et al.100 (1.7. TABLE 6.591 2.173 (2. 2002). Yablokov based on the pre-Chernobyl level) Whole country. 2005 Tsheglova.800”) Years 1987–2000 1990–1998 1986–2000 1986–2005 1991–2003 1986–1999 Author Ivanov and Tsyb.801) (205) 1. Tsyb’s oral message .. Absolute number of thyroid cancer cases in children and teenagers who were newborn to 18 years of age at the time of the meltdown (above) and among the adult population (below) in the Oryol Province from 1986 to 2000 (Golyvets.071) (“Nearly 1.638 2. 2004 UNSCEAR. Number of Thyroid Cancer Cases in European Russia According to Various Sources (Radiogenic Cases in Parentheses) Number of cases.11. n 4. 2002 UNSCEAR. 2001 Malashenko. F.Yablokov: Oncological Diseases after Chernobyl 171 Figure 6.

2006). Analysis of records of 5. in the most contaminated areas of Cumbria. An increased incidence of papillary carcinomas was seen after 1995. for 1975–2004 (Cherie-Challine et al. was the rate noticeably higher for women in Calvados and for men in Douds.14).. 5. there was a significant increase in papillary thyroid cancer (more common in women).864 patients from the Israel National Cancer Figure 6.2 in men and 2. 2006). 4. 2007). where it was up 12.13).. 6. 2003). 2007). By 1997–2001 the rate was significantly higher in Corsica for men and in Tarn for women. For three years after the catastrophe.7 in women (Verger et al.2% (Cotterill et al. France. lower curve – women. as well as mixed forms of cancer (Figure 6.000) in the Marne-Ardenne provinces. u 2004. Isere. GREECE. .. GREAT BRITAIN. FRANCE. 2007). from 1987 to 1991. So. Total I-131 contamination of France originating from Chernobyl (CherieChalline et al. too. After the catastrophe.172 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 6. Frentzel-Beyme and Scherb. the thyroid cancer incidence reveals an additional annual increase of up to 5% depending on age and gender (FrentzelBeyme and Scherb. practically synchronous with the Belarussian data. but an association with the nuclear catastrophe was officially denied.. From 1975 to 1995. 3. Marne-Ardennes’ data are especially interesting because they show the sharply increased incidence of thyroid cancer soon after the catastrophe (Figure 6. Thyroid cancer morbidity noticeably increased in northern England and. more cases of thyroid cancer in the Czech Republic alone (95% CI: 187–688) than had been predicted prior to the meltdown (M¨ rbeth et al. especially.12. 2006). 2001). ISRAEL. and MarneArdennes provinces (Annual Report.. the incidence of thyroid cancer increased by a factor of 5. reaching the maximum value in the year 2000 and is likely associated with the Chernobyl fallout (Emmanuel et al. The thyroid cancer incidence (per 100. Upper curve – men.13..

5% of the Italian population.. 2006). it is noted that this conclusion was based on a cancer registry that included only 25. is not envisaged at this moment” (Pacini.15). . Lubyna et al. P < 0. 2007). 2002). 78%. not to Chernobyl-related factors. The maximum incidence rate for thyroid cancer in Cluj City was registered in 1996— 10 years after the catastrophe (Salagean et al. In spite of the author’s conclusion that the reasons for this rise “may relate partly to increased diagnostic vigilance and changes in clinical practice. POLAND. 9. There was a twofold increase in thyroid cancer morbidity from 1988 to 2002. 2004). Figure 6..” time trends. 2005). 8. Thyroid cancer morbidity (cases per 10. which “although possible.14. gender. However. especially expressed after 1992. and by 1997–1998 was much higher than during the pre-Chernobyl years (Davydescu. Thyroid cancer morbidity increased in the most contaminated areas of eastern Romania. and ethnicity do not preclude Chernobyl influence. 1998.000) in contaminated areas after the catastrophe in eastern Romania and the whole of Romania from 1982 to 1998 (Davydescu. Registry reveal a significant increase in the age-standardized incidence rate (per 100. The incidence of the thyroid cancer by different histological types and by gender in Greece in 1963–2000 (Ilias et al. 7.. Figure 6. There is a noticeable increase in thyroid cancer morbidity in contaminated territories among adolescents and adults (Szybinski et al. Owing to the Chernobyl catastrophe an additional 80–250 thyroid cancer deaths are estimated to occur annually (Green Brigade.15. ITALY. 2004). 1994). It was claimed that this increased incidence was most likely due to improved and more powerful diagnostic techniques.01. ROMANIA.. due primarily to papillary carcinoma diagnosed between 1992 and 1996 in comparison with patients diagnosed earlier: 1982–1986 (86 vs.000) for thyroid cancer. 2001. This increase started in 1990.Yablokov: Oncological Diseases after Chernobyl 173 Figure 6.

2006).2. Within-country geographical comparisons for current incidence rates by the Swiss Cancer Registries Network detected an increase over time for papillary cancers and a decrease for other types. Ru-103. and it is entirely possible that the determinations of collective doses were seriously underestimated (see. Papillary thyroid cancer incidence in women. official medical representatives from the Soviet Union indicated they expected 100 additional cases to be induced by the catastrophe’s radiation (e. which may partly be explained by Chernobyl radiation. As cautiously noted by F. From 1988 there was a marked increase in papillary thyroid cancer incidence in women (Figure 6.. whereas the cohort of people born between 1920 and 1939 were at increased risk of the papillary subtype.8.17).16). 2000). On this basis. but also by other isotopes of iodine including I129 and by Te-132. SWITZERLAND. with cases appearing 40 to 50 years afterward (Demidchik et al.174 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 6. In Connecticut there were two separate fallouts of Chernobyl radionuclides (in the middle of May and the second half of June.. e. The rate of thyroid cancer among Connecticut children under the age of 15 years rose sharply (from 0. Montanaro. United States from 1975 to 1997 (Wartofsky.g.000). 2006).16.31 per 100. Age-period-cohort analyses revealed that the youngest cohorts of men and women born after 1940 had an increased risk of all types of thyroid cancer.46 to 4.8 are based on the collective dose estimates and risk coefficients for I-131 by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). 1990). resulting in a 7.2. 6. when the serious increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in contaminated territories had already begun. after 10 previous years without change (Figure 6. During the same period rates of thyroid cancer for all age groups jumped to 23% (from 3.16 to 0. and Ru-106. 1996.g. The calculations in Table 6. Goncharova. One also has to consider that the thyroid cancers were caused not only by I-131. 10. a Chernobyl effect cannot be definitively excluded and continuous study of this topic should be encouraged” (Montanaro et al. 2006) and that the risk factors that were used were not reliable (Busby. as . Ilyin et al.. The added risk of thyroid cancer after Hiroshima and Nagasaki radiation was highest 10 to 15 years later. 11.to 28-fold increased level of I131 in milk.29 per 100.. it is predicted that the number of Chernobyl thyroid cancers will increase worldwide until 2011 (Tsyb. Fairlie and Sumner. Various forecasts for future additional radiogenic thyroid cancers are shown in Table 6. 1996). UNITED STATES. 1986). 2004).000) from 1985–1989 to 1990–1992.. How Many and When Will New Cases of Chernobyl Thyroid Cancer Occur? In 1990. “Assuming a higher sensitivity to ionizing radiation among the youngest people.

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Figure 6.17. Thyroid cancer incidence in children (per 1,000,000), age adjusted rate 1935–1992, and I-131 concentration in milk for Connecticut (Reid and Mangano, 1995). TABLE 6.8. Future Predicted Chernobyl-Induced Thyroid Cancers According to Various Sources Number of cases Belarus 1,100 in boys, 2,300 in girls (whole country); 730 in boys, 1,500 in girls (Gomel Province) 12,500 (whole country) 15,000 (whole country) 14,000–31,400 (whole country) 50,200 (Gomel province), “from above 5,000” (Mogilev Province) “Up to 50,000” (whole country) Russia 3,700 (Kaluga, Tula, and Oryol provinces) 659 (Bryansk, Tula, Kaluga, Oryol, Kursk, Ryazan, and Leningrad provinces) Belarus, Ukraine, Russia 50,330 93,00–131,000 Period Author Comments

Up to 2056

Demidchik et al., 1999

In persons aged 0–17 years at the time of the meltdown In persons aged 0–17 years at the time of the meltdown

All time Up to 2053 Up to 2056 All time

Ostapenko, 2002; Fedorov, 2002 National Belarussian Report, 2003 Malko, 2007 Brown, 2000

Data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) In today’s adolescents and young people Data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)

All time

Krysenko, 2002; Fedorov, 2002 Brown, 2000 Demidchik et al., 1996

All time All time

All time All time

Malko, 1998 Gofman, 1994b

Including 5,230 fatalities

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TABLE 6.9. Predicted Radiogenic Thyroid Cancer Cases and the Resultant Death Toll in Europe from 1986 to 2056 (Malko, 2007) Country Belarus Ukraine Russia Yugoslavia Italy Romania Poland Greece Germany Czech and Slovakia Bulgaria France Switzerland Austria Great Britain Finland The Netherlands Hungary Belgium Sweden Norway Ireland Spain Denmark Luxembourg Portugal European Total Included figures for Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia Number of cases, n 31,400 18,805 8,626 7,137 5,162 3,976 3,221 2,879 2,514 2,347 1,619 1,153 898 812 418 334 328 270 239 165 136 100 54 19 13 2 92,627 58,831 Included fatalities 9,012 5,397 2,476 2,048 1,481 1,141 924 826 721 674 465 331 258 233 120 96 94 78 69 47 39 29 15 5 4 1 26,584 16,885

well as being a result of the adverse effects of Cs-134 and Cs-137. Therefore, the forecasts in Table 6.8 should be considered minimal estimates. Based on real numbers of radiogenic cancers recorded for 1986–2000 in the contaminated territories of Belarus and Ukraine, V. Malko (2007) calculated a parity between the level of radiation and the number of additional cases due to the influence of that radiation (i.e., number of cancers vs. dose of radiation). This can also be done by comparing spontaneous, pre-Chernobyl and post-Chernobyl instances of cancer. The post-Chernobyl number is 5.5fold higher than was predicted by most known international forecasts (Cardis et al., 2006). Malko also recalculated the relative number of cases of cancer per dose of Chernobyl radionuclide fallout on populations of European countries. The results of these calculations (as future instances of cancer and the related death toll) for the total lifetime of the “Chernobyl generation” (1986–2056) are presented in Table 6.9. The confidence interval for all of Europe is 46,313–138,936 cases of thyroid cancer and 13,292–39,875 deaths (Malko, 2007: table 3). These calculations do not include the liquidators, of which a significant number (830,000) do not live in the contaminated territories. Malko’s numbers could be lower owing to severe restrictions on the consumption of vegetables and milk in many European countries on the second and third days after the catastrophe. Conversely the number of cases may increase owing to exposure of several new generations to continuing Cs-137 radiation. The prevalence and appearance of Chernobyl thyroid cancers differ widely from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki reference data. The Chernobyl thyroid cancers: (1) appear much earlier (not in 10, but in 3–4 years after irradiation); (2) develop in a much more aggressive form; and (3) affect not only children, but also adults at the time of irradiation. It is mistaken to think that this cancer is easily treated surgically (Chernobyl Forum, 2006).

In spite of the fact that the majority of victims undergo surgery, cancer continues to develop in approximately one-third of the cases (Demidchik and Demidchik, 1999). Moreover, without exception, despite surgical treatment, the person remains impaired for the rest of his/her life, completely dependent upon pharmacological supplements. Lastly, thyroid cancer is only the tip of the iceberg for radiogenic thyroid gland disorders (see Section 5.3.2): for each case of cancer, one finds hundreds of cases of other organic thyroid gland diseases.

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TABLE 6.10. Acute and Chronic Leukosis (Leukemia) Morbidity in Adults (per 100,000) in Gomel Province, 1993–2003 (National Belarussian Report, 2006) Whole province Leukosis Acute lymphoblastic Acute nonlymphoblastic Red cell leukemia All chronic leukoses All leukoses

Heavily contaminated districts Before 0.35 ± 0.08 1.07 ± 0.132 0.36 ± 0.13 5.91 ± 0.21 9.45 ± 0.40 After 0.96 ± 0.28∗ 2.30 ± 0.31∗∗ 1.25 ± 0.14∗∗∗ 9.94 ± 0.75∗∗∗ 13.44 ± 0.69∗∗∗

Before 0.28 ± 0.07 1.23 ± 0.14 0.59 ± 0.11 5.72 ± 0.32 9.05 ± 0.22

After 0.78 ± 0.11∗∗ 1.83 ± 0.11∗∗ 0.93 ± 0.12 8.83 ± 0.42∗∗∗ 11.79 ± 0.42∗∗∗

P < 0.05; ∗∗ P < 0.01; ∗∗∗ P < 0.001.

6.3. Cancer of the Blood—Leukemia Radiogenic leukemia was detected in Hiroshima and Nagasaki a few months after the bombing and morbidity peaked in 5 years. The latency period for radiogenic leukemia is several months to years with the highest incidence occurring between 6 and 8 years after exposure (Sinclair, 1996). Owing to the secrecy and the official falsification of data that continued for 3 years after the catastrophe (see Chapter 3 for details), unknown numbers of leukemia cases in Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia were not included in any registry. These distortions should be kept in mind when analyzing the following data. 6.3.1. Belarus 1. There were 1,117 cases of leukemia in children 0 to 14 years old from 1990 to 2004 (National Belarussian Report, 2006). 2. Since 1992 (7 years after the catastrophe) there has been a significant increase in all forms of leukemia in the adult population. The higher rate of morbidity compared with the pre-Chernobyl data was observed in 1992– 1994 (Ivanov et al., 1996). 3. Primary lymphatic and blood-forming cancers significantly increased among male evacuees from 1993 to 2003 (National Belarussian Report, 2006). 4. Leukemia morbidity in Gomel Province adults increased significantly after the catastrophe (Table 6.10).

5. Since 1996 the number of preleukemia cases has increased. For the 1986–1987 liquidators there was a statistically significant additional number of instances of acute leukemia in 1990–1991 (Ivanov et al., 1997). 6. There was a noticeable increase in lymphoid and blood-forming cancers in men and women across Belarus in the first 5 years after the catastrophe (Figure 6.18). 7. The highest incidence rate for acute and chronic leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease occurred in the first 5 years after the catastrophe. The maximum increase in red cell leukemias, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and, especially, myelodysplastic syndrome occurred 10 years after the catastrophe. Incidence of all forms of leukemic disease was significantly higher after the catastrophe (Table 6.11). 8. There were nearly 2,300 cases of leukemia between 1986 and 2004 (Malko, 2007).

Figure 6.18. Lymphoid and blood-forming tumors in Belarus, 1985–1998: (upper curve) men, (middle) both sexes, (lower) women (Okeanov et al., 2004).

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TABLE 6.11. Leukemia Morbidity (per 100,000) among the Adult Population of Belarus, 1979–1997 (Gapanovich et al., 2001) Leukemia types Acute leukemia Chronic leukemia Erythremia Multiple myeloma Hodgkin’s disease Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma Myelodysplastic syndrome

Number of cases, n 4,405 11,052 n/a 2,662 4,870 5,719 1,543∗∗

1979–1985 2.82 ± 0.10 6.09 ± 0.18 0.61 ± 0.05 1.45 ± 0.06 3.13 ± 0.10 2.85 ± 0.08 0.03 ± 0.01

1986–1992 3.17 ± 0.11∗ 8.14 ± 0.31∗ 0.8 ± 0.05∗ 1.86 ± 0.06∗ 3.48 ± 0.12∗ 4.09 ± 0.16∗ 0.12 ± 0.05∗

1993–1997 2.92 ± 0.10 8.11 ± 0.26∗ 0.98 ± 0.05∗ 2.19 ± 0.14∗ 3.18 ± 0.06 4.87 ± 0.15∗ 0.82 ± 0.16∗

P < 0.05 from pre-Chernobyl status; ∗∗ all cases of bone marrow depression.

9. There was a significant increase in leukemia morbidity for the elderly 15 years after the catastrophe (Medical Consequences, 2003). 10. After the catastrophe many forms of leukemic disease in adults significantly increased in Mogilev and Gomel provinces (Tables 6.12 and 6.13). 6.3.2. Ukraine 1. There was an increase in acute leukemia in children from the contaminated regions compared with clean areas 10 to 14 years after the catastrophe (Moroz, 1998; Moroz et al., 1999; Moroz and Drozdova, 2000). 2. For children, leukemia morbidity began to increase in 1987 and peaked in 1996 (Horishna, 2005). 3. Leukemia incidence in 1986–1996 among Ukrainian children born in 1986 and thus ex-

posed in utero in the contaminated areas of Zhytomir Province was compared with children born in the less contaminated Poltava Province. Risk ratios based on cumulative incidence show significant increases for all leukemia (rate ratio: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.9–3.8) and for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (rate ratio: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.1–10.4; Noshchenko et al., 2001, 2002). 4. From 1993 to 1997 there were 652 cases of acute leukemia (AL) in Kiev City and Kiev Province, including 247 cases in children (Gluzman et al., 1998). 5. Morbidity from leukemia in the heavily contaminated provinces was significantly elevated among children born in 1986 and the high morbidity continued for 10 years postexposure. Rates of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were dramatically elevated for males and to a lesser extent for females. For both genders combined, the morbidity for ALL was

TABLE 6.12. Leukosis (Leukemia) (per 100,000) among the Adult Population in Mogilev and Gomel Provinces before and after the Catastrophe∗ (National Belarussian Report, 2006: tables 4.2 and 4.3) Mogilev Province 1979–1985 Acute lymphoblastic leukosis Acute nonlymphoblastic leukosis Erythremia Others chronic leukoses All leukoses

Gomel Province 1979–1985 0.2 ± 0.07 1.2 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.05 9.1 ± 0.2 1993–2003 0.8 ± 0.1 1.8 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.1 1.0 ± 0.1 11.8 ± 0.4

1993–2003 0.8 ± 0.1 1.7 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.1 12.1 ± 0.4

0.5 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.1 9.8 ± 0.6

All differences are significant.

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TABLE 6.13. Multiple Myeloma, Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma, and Hodgkin’s Disease Morbidity in Adults in Gomel and Mogilev Provinces before and after the Catastrophe (National Belarussian Report, 2006: table 4.4.) Mogilev Province 1979–1985 Multiple myeloma Hodgkin’s disease Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Gomel Province 1979–1985 1.24 ± 0.12 2.95 ± 0.19 2.83 ± 0.20 1993–2003 2.22 ± 0.14∗∗ 3.21 ± 0.23 5.57 ± 0.30∗∗

1993–2003 2.39 ± 0.20∗ 3.06 ± 0.11∗∗ 5.73 ± 0.25∗∗

1.68 ± 0.15 3.90 ± 0.14 2.99 ± 0.21

P <0.05; ∗∗ P < 001.

more than threefold higher in the heavily contaminated provinces compared to those less contaminated (Noshchenko et al., 2001). 6. In the children born in 1986–1987 who developed acute leukemia, an increasing relative number of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases were reported (21.2 and 25.3% in 1986 and 1987, respectively; Gluzman et al., 2006). 7. During the first 4 years after the catastrophe, malignant blood diseases were significantly higher in the four most contaminated districts of Zhytomir and Kiev provinces compared with the pre-Chernobyl period and 1999–2000 (Figure 6.19). 8. Blood neoplasms were especially high in children during the first 5 years after the catastrophe, and among liquidators who worked in 1986–1987, the maximum incidence occurred 4 to 11 years after the catastrophe (Table 6.14). 9. During the first 4 years after the catastrophe there was an increase in myeloid leukemia in the first and third years; during the second 4 years there was a significant in-

crease in lymphosarcoma and reticulosarcoma (Table 6.15). 10. There was a significant increase in the number of leukemia cases in liquidators 15 years after the catastrophe (National Ukrainian Report, 2006; Law of Ukraine, 2006). 11. The incidence of multiple myeloma among liquidators was twice as high as in the general population (7.8 vs. 4.0%). Five 1986– 1987 liquidators were diagnosed with an unusual chronic lymphoproliferative disorder— large granular lymphocytic leukemia (Gluzman et al., 2006). 6.3.3. Russia 1. Childhood leukemia morbidity increased in the Tula Province after the catastrophe (Table 6.16) and significantly exceeded the Russian average. Acute leukemia in children was especially high (Ushakova et al., 2001). 2. In Bryansk Province all forms of leukemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma were

Figure 6.19. Leukemia and lymphoma morbidity (age adjusted, per 100,000, men and women) in Ukraine, 1980–2000 (Prysyazhnyuk et al., 2002).

180 TABLE 6.14. Leukemia Morbidity (Standardized Data, per 100,000) in Ukraine (Prysyazhnyuk et al., 2002) Person/ years Number of cases Observed Expected SIR (%)

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Years

Leukemia, children, contaminated districts of the Kiev and Zhytomir provinces 1980–1985 337,076 19 10.88 174.7 1986–1991 209,337 22 6.78 324.4 1992–1997 150,170 7 4.87 143.7 1998–2000 80,656 0 2.59 0.0 Leukemia and lymphoma, evacuees, men and women 1990–1993 208,805 43 30.0 143.4 1994–1997 200,077 31 29.6 104.7 Leukemia and lymphoma, liquidators (1986–1987), men 1990–1993 263,084 81 31.8 255.0 1994–1997 314,452 102 49.9 204.6

significantly higher 7 years after the catastrophe compared to the 6 years prior to the catastrophe (UNSCEAR, 2000). 3. A marked increase in acute lymphocyte leukemia occurred in the six most contaminated districts of Bryansk Province from 1986 to 1993 (Ivanov and Tsyb, 2002). 4. Since 1995 blood-related and lymphatic cancer morbidity in the southwest districts (contaminated by ≥5 Ci/km2 ) was significantly higher than the province’s average (Kukishev et al., 2001). 5. From 1990 to 1994, children in Tula Province became ill significantly more often with tumors of the bone, soft tissue, and the central nervous system (Ushakova et al., 2001).

6. In the city of Lipetsk, leukemia morbidity increased 4.5-fold from 1989 to 1995 (Krapyvin, 1997). 7. In 10 to 15 years after the catastrophe, lymphatic and blood-forming cancer morbidity doubled (Parshkov et al., 2006). 8. Among liquidators, the first case of leukemia was officially registered in 1986; by 1991 there were already 11 such cases (Ivanov et al., 2004: table 6.6). 9. In 10 to 12 years after the catastrophe the number of leukemia cases among 1986– 1987 liquidators was double the average for the country (Tsyb, 1996; Zubovsky and Smirnova, 2000). 10. By 2004, lymphatic and blood-forming cancer morbidity in liquidators was twice as high as the country average (Zubovsky and Tararukhyna, 2007). 6.3.4. Other Countries 1. GERMANY. There was 1.5-fold increase in the incidence of leukemia among infants born in West Germany between July 1, 1986, and December 31, 1987 (Pflugbeil et al., 2006). 2. GREAT BRITAIN. In 1987 in Scotland leukemia in children under the age of 4 years rose by 37% (Gibson et al., 1988; Busby and Scot Cato, 2000; Busby, 2006). 3. GREECE. Infants born between July 1, 1986, and December 31, 1987, and exposed to Chernobyl fallout in utero had 2.6 times the incidence of leukemia compared to children

TABLE 6.15. Leukemia and Lymphoma Morbidity (per 10,000) in Five of the Most Contaminated Districts of Zhytomir and Kiev Provinces (Prysyazhnyuk et al., 2002) Occurrence 1980–1985 Leukemia and lymphoma Lympho- and reticulosarcoma Hodgkin’s disease Multiple myeloma Lymphoid leukemia Myeloid leukemia 10.12 ± 0.75 1.84 ± 0.33 1.82 ± 0.34 0.54 ± 0.16 3.08 ± 0.40 0.49 ± 0.17 1986–1991 15.63 ± 1.06 2.70 ± 0.41 2.47 ± 0.48 1.03 ± 0.25 4.93 ± 0.59 1.99 ± 0.41 1992–1997 13.41 ± 1.10 3.70 ± 0.58 2.10 ± 0.48 0.78 ± 0.22 2.97 ± 0.49 1.06 ± 0.30 1998–2000 13.82 ± 1.52 3.36 ± 0.90 1.23 ± 0.50 1.38 ± 0.40 4.11 ± 0.75 2.32 ± 0.62

4.16.6–4.800 2. 6.” 1986–2056 (Malko. n 3.000 people died.512 918 517 500 423 140 373 289 196 186 174 158 151 131 121 95 91 71 62 62 42 37 13 11 8 7 7 6 2 12. 1988.. P = 0. 173. 20. Approximately 11. 1985.9 181 TABLE 6. 2006)..4 3.5%. From 1990 to 2003.904 8. Other Cancers There are many fragmentary reports about the increased occurrence of breast. and Russia Number of cases. Malignant and nonmalignant neoplasms in girls (0–14 years old) born to irradiated parents increased significantly from 1993 to 2003 (National Belarussian Report.Yablokov: Oncological Diseases after Chernobyl TABLE 6. and December 31. ROMANIA. approximately 26. lung.. Lung cancer morbidity among the evacuees (about 32.784 652 367 355 300 99 265 205 139 132 124 112 107 93 86 67 65 50 44 44 30 26 9 8 6 5 5 4 1 9.761 born between January 1. of which skin cancer accounted for 18.801 2. 2. Byrich et al.4 4.17. 2007) Country Ukraine Belarus Russia Germany Romania Austria Great Britain Czech Republic Italy Bulgaria Sweden Greece Poland Finland Switzerland Moldova France Slovenia Norway Slovakia Hungary Croatia Lithuania Ireland The Netherlands Belgium Spain Latvia Denmark Estonia Luxembourg European total Included figures for Belarus. 2004). Leukemia Morbidity (per 10. 2001) Years 1979–1985 1986–1997 Number of cases. breast cancer morbidity rates in the districts of Gomel Province . 1990.988 1. From 1987 to 1990 (3 years after the catastrophe) there was a doubling of admissions to the Minsk Eye Microsurgery Center to treat retinal glioma (retinoblastoma. From 1987 to 1999. 3.5%. 1979–1985 and 1986– 1997 (Ushakova et al.3% because of lung cancer and 18. n 2.000 examined) was fourfold higher than the country average (Marples. and stomach cancer 9. 2000).. 1996). The most noticeable effect is in the newborn to 1-year-old age group (Davydescu et al.4% from stomach cancer (Okeanov et al. and between January 1. and other tumors after the Chernobyl catastrophe.000) in Children of Tula Province.03). Goncharova.000 cases of radiation-induced malignant neo- plasms (including leukemia) were registered in the country.4. EUROPE. 1996.1 95% CI 2. 5. 1996).161 5. Realistic prognosis of blood cancer (all leukemias) morbidity and mortality is shown in Table 6. and December 31.1.4. The incidence of leukemia in children born between July 1986 and March 1987 was significantly higher than for those born between April 1987 and December 1987 (386 vs.113 Including fatalities 1..989 1. Ukraine. 5. Predicted Incidence of Radiogenic Blood Cancer (Leukemia) and the Resultant Death Toll in Europe for the “Chernobyl Generation. Belarus 1.17. 1994). 4. Elevated rates were also reported for children born in regions of Greece with higher levels of radioactive fallout (Petridou et al. 1980. 6.4–4.7% of the cases. lung cancer 10.

4%. breast. bladder. contaminated by Cs-137 at a level of 185–555 kBq/m2 and above were significantly higher compared with districts contaminated at levels lower than 185 kBq/m2 (respectively. 2000.182 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 6. 2006). p. 76 ± 12. The incidence of breast cancer in the most radioactively contaminated territories was almost stable from 1980 to 1992 and lower than in the large comparison areas (the whole of Ukraine. 1996. After the catastrophe there were significant increases in bladder cancer in men in the contaminated territories (Romanenko et al. and Zhytomir Province). Primary malignant intestinal neoplasms significantly increased among woman evacuees from 1993 to 2003 (National Belarussian Report. The makeup of cancer morbidity changed markedly after the catastrophe: the proportion of stomach tumors decreased. 2006). Figure 6. By 2002 breast cancer morbidity in women 45 to 49 years of age increased 2. The incidence of breast cancer increased significantly from 1986 to 1999 for the entire country (1.6. 1995. urogenital system.000. point 258. 12. 3.4. 2002). 10. breast.4 per 100. from 1992 to 2004. 2006). aged 0 to 6 years) from 1987 to 1991 increased 63. 1999).699 children. and lung cancers. Then. Putyrsky. colon. 9.6-fold for the whole country compared with 1982. respiratory organs.2.322 cases. 30.000) in Gomel Province with various levels of Cs-137 contamination (National Belarussian Report. Orlov and Sharevsky. National Belarussian Report. 2003. 6. 6. Figure 6.745 to 2.20). 52). lung. 2006). From 1993 to 2003 general cancer morbidity increased significantly among men and women from heavily contaminated territories. 1993. 2006). 1999). 2. colon. the rate increased . and the occurrences correlated with the level of Chernobyl contamination (Okeanov et al. whereas thyroid. and urinary tracts in men and woman liquidators (National Belarussian Report. per 100. Ukraine 1.. The number of children admitted to the Ukrainian Institute of Neurosurgery in Kiev with brain tumors (data on 1. In the more contaminated Mogilev Province breast cancer increased fourfold from 1993 to 1996 compared with the period from 1989 to 1992 (Putyrsky and Putyrsky.. The number of children with central nervous system neoplasms (including malignant forms) increased from 1987 to 1994.2 ± 1. 11. with the annual rate of increase being higher for women (18%) than for men (4. From 1993 to 2003 there was a significant increase in morbidity due to malignancies of the intestines.7% compared with the period from 1981 to 1985 (Orlov. 2002).2 ± 2.20. 8.21). Breast cancer morbidity (women. kidney. Okeanov and Yakymovich. In the heavily contaminated Gomel Province there was a marked increase in the number of cases of intestinal. and rectal cancers increased (Malko. For the second quinquennium after the catastrophe there was a 10-fold increase in the number of cases of pancreatic cancer compared with the first quinquennium (UNCSEAR. Kiev area. 7. and 23.

Since 1990–1994 the incidence of tissue. There was a noticeable increase in respiratory tract tumors in women in the most contaminated areas of Kaluga Province (Ivanov et al.2 to 39. an increase in the number of children suffering from tumors of the nervous system was observed (Orlov..3.. The rate of oncological illnesses in liquidators’ mortality increased from 9. Infant mortality in the contaminated provinces differs from the country as a whole. Central nervous system tumor cases (per 10.. 2001). The Kiev Interdepartmental Expert Commission revealed that for liquidators. 5. digestive system tumors were the most common type of cancer (33. 5.4.. 2002). and adrenal cancers in Tula Province children increased more than twofold from 1986 to 1997 compared to the period from 1979 to 1985 (Table 6..000) in children under 3 years of age. 1997). 6. bone. 2006). 2006).. and colon than the province average (Kukyshev et al. 6. Prysyazhnyuk et al. In the period from 1987 to 1994.. From 1999 to 2004 cancer mortality in liquidators exceeded similar parameters among the rest of the population (Law of Ukraine. National Ukrainian Report.2% during the period from 1987 to 2004.3%). 10. Prysyazhnyuk et al. Ukrainian Institute of Neurosurgery data for the period 1980–2005 (Orlov et al. 2003. Prysyazhnyuk et al. 3. in the contaminated territories (Prysyazhnyuk et al. followed by tumors of the respiratory system (25. For Ukrainian adults in 2004 the rate was 9.Yablokov: Oncological Diseases after Chernobyl 183 Figure 6. for which an almost threefold increase (from 11. pharyngeal.2-fold and across all of Ukraine 1. 2007).. 4. The incidence of oral cavity. and tumors of the urogenital tract (13. 1999). 2003).18).27–1.. The fastest increase in cancer pathology was for the urogenital tract. Russia 1.5%) was observed from 1993 to 1996 (Barylyak and Diomyna. compared with the general Ukrainian female population (standardized incidence ratio: 1. 2001).7%).6 to 25. 2006). there has been a significantly larger incidence of some cancers of the stomach.1%). 7. There is an increase in breast cancer in premenopausal women from contaminated areas of Ukraine close to Chernobyl. 2002. 2006).21. Morbidity due to breast cancer in women living in the contaminated areas and among those evacuated increased 1. 2. 9. A significant increase in urinary tract and bladder cancers was found in the contaminated territories of Ukraine (Romanenko et al. 2005).. with an increase in leukemia and brain tumors in both boys and girls (Fedorenko et al. 2005). 4.. and central nervous system cancers in Tula Province children has been significantly higher (Ushakova et al. 95% CI: 1. rectum. 2007). lung. 2006. Prostate cancer mortality increased in the contaminated territories up to 2. .9% (Horishna. Breast cancer morbidity in women in the contaminated territories and among liquidators and evacuees increased significantly from 1990 to 2004 (Moskalenko. 6. cited by Hatch et al. breast.. Melanoma of the skin increased fivefold and the incidence of brain cancer tripled in the first 10 to 15 years after the catastrophe (Parshkov et al. 2001).5fold from 1993 to 1997 (Moskalenko.73.. 8. Since 1995 in southwest districts contaminated at levels higher than 5 Ci/km2 . 2003. 1995).3-fold (Omelyanets et al.50.

5. double the country average of 7.368 present the results of more realistic mortality and morbidity calculations for Europe and the world. kidney and bladder cancers were the most prevalent malignancies among liquidators. and Tc-99. 2007).20. Gofman calculation as of 1994: 19.000 (Chernobyl Forum..512 475. accounting for 17. 1998) Cancer Thyroid—morbidity Thyroid—mortality Leukemia—mortality Malignant tumors.000 lethal cancers. the number of deaths had already risen. Cl-36.500 persons. The confidence limits for the incidence of cancer are between 62. estimated the future number of fatal cancers owing to Chernobyl irradiation to be between 22.550 15.786 18.6% of all malignant neoplasms. Entire world: 90. along with other international organizations loyal to the nuclear industry.611.700 16. M. 2.206 and 196.4 million person/rad. and European Russia∗ (Malko.2). At the time that report was issued.030 1.277 (Malko. 5) Number of cases Region Belarus.512 475.150 244. Table 6.000 and 28.050 ∗ On the basis of an expected collective dose “indefinitely” of 127. Ukraine. Predicted Cancer Morbidity and Mortality (Excluding Leukemia∗∗ ) Caused by the Chernobyl Cs-137 for Future Generations∗ (Gofman. Fairlie and Sumner.21 and those for leukemia were shown earlier in Table 6. TABLE 6. Sr-90.368 Nonlethal 212.427 and 121. but UNSCEAR unequivocally underestimated the number of deaths by basing its figures on false risk factors and understated collective doses (for details see Busby et al. Tables 6. Undoubtedly. Am-241. Predicted Additional Chernobyl Cancer Morbidity and Mortality in Belarus. ∗∗ Global death rate from Chernobyl leukemia by J.300 12.000 2.960 44.000 800 760 7. Zubovsky and Tararukhyna.150 244. 2006). the above forecasts are incomplete.18. ch.17. 2006). Pu-241. The fact is that for some years after the catastrophe. 2007).184 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 6. other than thyroid—mortality Total mortality ∗ Belarus 20. 24. 2001.300 2. These numbers could increase for many future generations because of continued radiation from the further release of Cs-137.20 TABLE 6. 1994b: vol.400 1. % Oral cavity and pharynx 225% Adrenal glands 225% Skin 188% Kidneys 164% Genitalia (male) 163% Bones and soft tissues 154% Bladder 150% All cancers 113% 7. Malko has made the most detailed prognosis of Chernobyl-related cancers in Europe and the consequent mortality over the lifespan of the “Chernobyl generation” (1986–2056). Using the methodology described above for analyses of thyroid cancers (see Section 6.19 and 6.000.100 19. Increase in Morbidity owing to Various Cancers in Children of Tula Province after the Catastrophe (Ushakova et al.400 8. Brain and laryngeal tumors also were widespread (Khrysanfov and Meskikh.. 6.786 18. 2003.030 Russia 8.040 Ukraine 24. 2001) Cancer site 1986–1997 compared with 1979–1985.5%. there was a marked increase. Prognoses for the solid cancers are given in Table 6. or even as few as 9. . As of 2004. p.19. Ukraine. Moldova Europe (without CIS) Other countries Total Lethal 212. Conclusions UNSCEAR.21 presents the average data. and the death toll is between 40.

300 28.chernobyl-portal.sante. 50. T. Genet. (2000). Ukraine. Pryasyaznjuk et al.21.000 deaths from leukemia. E.600 1. Study cites Chernobyl health effects in Poland. Brown.530 1. S.810 1.000 to 174.236 3. April 26.546 17. Belookaya. S. Annual Report (2006).300 25. A. Breeders 1: 107– 120 (in Ukrainian). (2002). Anonymous (2005). P.880 1.840 185 Nagasaki. Predicted Incidence of Cancer Caused by Chernobyl and the Resultant Death Toll in Europe from 1986 to 2056 (Malko. References Abdelrahman. April 26. B. Warsaw.org.400 9.980 1. St.050 4. In: Fourth International Congress on Integrated Anthropology (Materials. (2002). I. Even nowadays they are doing their best to cover the truth of Chernobyl.000–120.000– 40. where adequate studies have been carried out. (in Russian).754 3.g. Morbidity analysis among the participants of Chernobyl NPP accident liquidation.ua) (in Russian). 40.000 extra Chernobyl cancers predicted.220 5. and European Russia All 28. The Guardian.000 Fatalities 17. & Diomyna. Petersburg): pp. I. Soc. Borysevich. & Poplyko.000 additional deaths from thyroid cancer. Industrial Catastrophes and Long-Term Surveillance.se/7200/20070504/). V.337 1.220 960 920 715 630 625 420 375 135 110 80 75 70 60 15 130.410 1.405 82. for a total of 55. Barylyak.. 2007) Number of cases Country Belarus Ukraine Russia Germany Romania Austria Great Britain Italy Bulgaria Sweden Greece Poland Finland Switzerland Czech Republic Moldova France Slovenia Norway Slovakia Croatia Hungary Lithuania Ireland The Netherlands Belgium Spain Latvia Denmark Estonia Luxembourg European total Included figures for Belarus. The onset of many cancers began not after 20 years. R.280 3. The assumption (e. 24–25 (in Russian). S. (2007).166 1. Minsk): 44 pp.755 1. as in Hiroshima and .920 1. in the incidence of various malignant neoplasms in all of the territories subjected to Chernobyl fallout—that is.000–14. but in only a few years after the explosion. (//www. Medical effects of low doses of ionizing radiation. & Mel’nov.654 2. Poland 12:39:09.546 15.748 5. (2003).thelocal.000 deaths for the “Chernobyl generation” from 1986 to 2056. Bull. especially because of irradiation from internally absorbed radioisotopes. Ukr.. Surveillance of Thyroid Cancer: Twenty Years after Chernobyl. which is still in evidence.088 992 949 874 818 756 595 570 443 391 388 260 233 84 68 50 47 43 37 9 89.770 2.280 5. Even the incomplete data now available indicate the specific character of cancers caused by Chernobyl. and 5.. The number of illnesses and deaths determined by Malko’s (2007) calculations cannot be dismissed as grossly overestimated: 10. Year 2001 results (Radiology Institute. N.228 1. In Chernobyl’s contaminated territories the radioactive impact may be even greater because of its duration and character.fr/presentations/edito_en_htm). November 26 (www. Associated Press (2000).Yablokov: Oncological Diseases after Chernobyl TABLE 6. The Local-Sweden’s News in English (//www. Y.invs.851 50. French Institute for Public Health Surveillance. Swedes still dying from Chernobyl radiation. 2007) that Chernobyl’s radioactive influence on the incidence of malignant neoplasms will be much weaker than that of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki radiation is very doubtful.320 1.000 deaths from the other malignant tumors. Y. Scientific solution of Chernobyl problems.131 2. R. Koryt’ko.

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CHERNOBYL 7. Yablokov. Increase in Antenatal Mortality Irradiation has an adverse effect on the ovum and the sperm. so a change in that rate can only be determined indirectly from a reduction in the birth rate.1). Voice: +7-495-952-80-19. apart from several limited studies among specific groups and in isolated territories dealing primarily with the incidence of cancer (see Chapter 6). These effects can occur after exposure to very low doses.2). at whole body doses as low as 5 mSv (Loganovsky. Increased numbers of stillbirths and miscarriages are among the first effects of irradiation. 1972.0% of all deaths in the contaminated territories of Ukraine and Russia from 1990 to 2004 were caused by the Chernobyl catastrophe. spontaneous abortions are not registered. The major observable components of antenatal mortality are spontaneous abortions or miscarriages (spontaneous interruption of pregnancy until the 27th week) and stillbirths (after 27 weeks). Whyte.1. 192 . Tchasnikov. and economic factors but with different levels of radioactive contamination. and A.000 to 125. K¨ rblein. for reviews see C.1. Office 319. The lack of evidence of increased mortality in other affected countries is not proof of the absence of effects from the radioactive fallout. Yablokov@ecopolicy. 2003. Tkachev et al. social. that is. some 15% of the 830. Figure 7. 1996. fax: +7-495-952-80-19.1. 2002.. Durakoviˇ . Leninsky Prospect 33. Busby.. 119071 Moscow. The analysis in this chapter is based on studies of territories with comparable ethnic. A.8–4. The incidence of stillbirths in highly contaminated territories increased (Golovko and Izhevsky. From 112. As a rule. The calculations suggest that the Chernobyl catastrophe has already killed several hundred thousand human beings in a population of several hundred million that was unfortunate enough to live in territories affected by the fallout. Long before the Chernobyl catastrophe. 2005). Since the breakup of the Soviet Union. 1992. with a delay of only some weeks or months after exposure. A. Playford et al. as well as on the embryo. Russia. life expectancy there has decreased significantly (Figure 7. 1995. c o 2004b). but the reasons are not yet understood..000 members of the Chernobyl cleanup teams. 1996.ru 1. 1996. Belarus Address for correspondence: Alexey V.000 liquidators died before 2005—that is. Mortality after the Chernobyl Catastrophe Alexey V. Yablokov A detailed study reveals that 3. There is strong evidence of radiation effects on cancer and noncancer mortality based on the Hiroshima data (Preston et al. 2003). 7. 1992. but even as early as 1987. The number of Chernobyl victims will continue to grow over many future generations. there are no official publications on mortality in areas affected by the nuclear fallout. 7. mortality among liquidators has exceeded the mortality rate in corresponding population groups. Yablokov. Russian Academy of Sciences. Twenty years after the Chernobyl catastrophe. Since 1990. increases in antenatal mortality were found in the wake of the nuclear fallout from atmospheric weapons tests (Sternglass. and many others. whereas the decline in infant mortality has leveled off.

7.. the rate of spontaneous abortions increased significantly 5 years after Chernobyl in the three most contaminated districts (Medvedeva et al. the most contaminated region of Belarus (Kulakov et al. there was a significant increase in the incidence of stillbirths.. Until 2004.. 2001). 1961–2000. and Belarus (K¨ rblein. and Greece combined (EAST). 2. Germany.ru/weekly/ssp/geO. 5.000 (Lypic.2. 3. In Kaluga Province. and Russia (//www. in Belarus.Yablokov: Mortality after Chernobyl 193 Figure 7. 2003). In the three most contaminated districts of Kaluga Province the stillbirth rate increased significantly from 1986 to 1990 relative to the rate before Chernobyl.. . a significant increase in spontaneous abortions was found in the more highly contaminated areas. In the Ukrainian districts of Polessk and Cherkassk. After 1986. Poland. Excess stillbirth rate in 1987 in Sweden. 1996)... the number of spontaneous abortions increased significantly in the Narodychy District (Buzhievskaya et al. Russia 1. Hungary. and it continued to be higher than in less contaminated districts for the whole 15-year study period (Figure 7. 1995). 2. 7. the estimated total number of miscarriages and stillbirths in Ukraine as a result of Chernobyl was about 50. 4.3). Average life expectancy for newborn males.3. In 1987. The study was based on 66.1. In Kiev Province.php?c2). 2. The study was based on more than 7. After Chernobyl.9 (Auvinen et al.379 pregnancies from 1999 to 2003 (Timchenko et al. The error bars show one standard deviation.000 pregnancies 3 years before and 5 years after Chernobyl (Kulakov et al.. the prevalence of ovarian hypofunction (one of the main causes of spontaneous abortion) increased by a factor of 2. 1993). 2006).2.1. 2004). a significant reduction in the birth rate was observed in Gomel Province. The number of spontaneous abortions in the contaminated territories increased significantly after Chernobyl (Buldakov et al. which was associated with the level of Cs-137 ground contamination. 2001). 3. Ukraine. Ukraine 1.1.demoscope. 1993). o 2000. Figure 7.

000 live births plus stillbirths) with higher and lower contamination in districts of the Kaluga Province. and 1996–2000 (Tsyb et al.6. In 1988 in the German Democratic Republic plus West Berlin. 2004). In the sex ratio of newborns the percentage of males was higher than 50% each month between 1950 and 1999.. In 1987 in the 10 most affected districts of Bavaria (average Cs-137 ground level. Other Countries 1. CZECH REPUBLIC. In the former Federal Republic of Germany (excluding Bavaria and West Berlin).4% (Figure 7. GERMANY.4. which was presumably a consequence of the consumption of contaminated canned beef imported from the Soviet Union (Scherb et al. K¨ rblein. there was a 45% increase in the proportion of stillbirths (P = 0. CROATIA.5). 2006). the perinatal mortality rate exceeded the expected figure by 7. Stillbirth rate (per 1. and 8. 2000). 2008). and in Russia.2 kBq/m2 ).016).2. when it was significantly reduced (Figure 7.. during 1981–1986.194 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 7. Berchtesgaden.). 3.1. 37. o . and Garmisch Partenkirchen). 7. 2. The second peak in 1988 may have resulted from the consumption of contaminated beef.5%. Stillbirth rates from 1985 to 1990 show significant peaks observed at the end of 1986 and the beginning of 1987 and around September 1988 (Figure 7. except in November 1986. 7.4. Deviation of stillbirth rates in Croatia 1985 to 1991 from the long-term trend in units of standard deviation (standardized residuals. the area of the former German Democratic Republic (including West Berlin). in the three most contaminated Bavarian districts combined (Augsburg City.3.4. 1991–1995. the excess perinatal mortality in 1987 was 2.4). the stillbirth proportion in that year was more than double relative Figure 7. 1986– 1990. respectively.. and Bavaria alone. The hypothesis is that there is a negative effect of the Chernobyl catastrophe on male fetuses during the third month of prenatal development (Peterka et al.

1989). 1988). The observed increase for 36 months after Chernobyl is statistically significant. GREAT BRITAIN. 1990). GREECE. that is. but rather was due to family planning (Auvinen et al.. 7. the ratio of stillbirth odds of males to the stillbirth odds for females. 13. HUNGARY. Greece. FINLAND. Perinatal mortality in Germany..9). some 10 months after the catastrophe in the three most contaminated counties of England and Wales: Cumbria. Clwyd.. Birth rates were reduced in February and March 1987 (Czeizel et al. 14. 2000)...0004. 2001). NORWAY.. 8. 2007). Germany. 2001). Findings of increased rates of spontaneous abortions after the Chernobyl catastrophe in several European countries are summarized in Table 7. and Sweden and visible but not statistically significant for Iceland (Figure 7.8). found a change in 1986 or 1987 (P = 0. however. some 23% of early pregnancies were aborted for fear of an adverse pregnancy outcome (Trichopoulos et al. A significant increase in perinatal mortality occurred in March 1987. 2000). Hungary. and Finland in the first year after Chernobyl might not have been caused by radiation.6. Switzerland. Norway.1.Yablokov: Mortality after Chernobyl 195 Figure 7.01) in several European countries (Figure 7. Italy. the Federal Republic of Germany. Only in November 1986 is the figure less than 50% (Peterka et al. to the expected figure (P = 0..5. and Bavaria (Scherb et al. 9. The percentage of infant boys born in the Czech Republic each November from 1950 to 2005... 12. 5. 11. It should be noted that the reduction in birth rate in Sweden. 10. ITALY. There was a significant rise in preterm deliveries among infants who were exposed to radiation in utero during the first trimester of pregnancy (Harjulehto et al.2.” Pregnancies temporarily decreased in the second half of 1986. 1991). A change point analysis of stillbirth odds ratios for gender. 1991). and Gwynedd (Figure 7. Poland. 1987). Scherb et al. A 10% reduction in the birth rate was observed from January to March 1987.7). Literature on increased stillbirth rates after Chernobyl in several European countries is listed in Table 7. uary 1987. which. . which was attributed to the Chernobyl fallout.. In Lombardia there was a 20% increase in first-trimester spontaneous abortions among fetuses conceived during the main fallout period (Semisa. whereas there was no increase in induced abortions (Irgens et al. Latvia. was not significant (Auvinen et al. Changes in the sex ratio and the stillbirth odds ratio for gender were significant for Denmark. There was an increase in stillbirth rates from December 1986 through Jan- Figure 7. In May 1986. during a period in which pregnancies usually increase. 6. 4. A higher incidence of spontaneous abortions was observed for pregnancies conceived during the first 3 months after the catastrophe (Ulstein et al. “but a causal relationship with the radiation exposure cannot be proved.

neonatal mortality (0–27 days).7. Belarus. infant mortality (0–364 days). which presents a problem in timetrend analyses. Scherb et al.196 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 7. 2006). and Childhood Mortality Reports about the most probable adverse impacts of the Chernobyl contamination on childhood mortality include: perinatal mortality (stillbirths plus early neonatal deaths. 1999).8. and childhood mortality (0–14 years). and Ukraine up to 2003 is more than 100.000.2. 0–6 days).000 additional antenatal deaths in other European countries and in the rest of the world. if the number of miscarriages and stillbirths resulting from the Chernobyl fallout was 50. In a number of European countries the definition of stillbirth changed around 1994. Infant. Over an 18-year period after Chernobyl.000 cases (Rosen. Sex ratio and stillbirth odds ratio by gender in several European countries (male stillbirths/male live births)/(female stillbirths/female live births. 2004). . the data for neonatal and infant mortality were Figure 7. it is likely that the total antenatal death toll from Chernobyl in Russia. In the Former Soviet Union.. Increased Perinatal. 1995. 7. based on Bentham.000 in Ukraine alone (Lypik. As these three countries received only about 43% of the radioactive fallout from Chernobyl (see Chapter 1 for details) one can expect another 100. Thus the total antenatal death toll from Chernobyl adds up to 200. 1991). Trends of stillbirth rate and neonatal and perinatal mortality in England and Wales (Busby.

1. stillbirth rate. Poland. The additional mortality is o associated with the average calculated Sr-90 burden on pregnant women (Figure 7.0 per 1. o 2003). and Sweden). Comparison of perinatal mortality in the most contaminated regions of Ukraine (Zhytomir and Kiev provinces and Kiev City) with the mortality in the rest of Ukraine shows significantly higher figures 1991–1999 (Figure 7.2.9. and Hungary).2. The increases in perinatal mortality in Ukraine and Belarus are associated with the Sr-90 burden on pregnant women (K¨ rblein. and 1989 (Norway). During the 1990s there is a rise and fall relative to the expected trend with a maximum number from 1993 to 1994 (K¨ rblein. the two most highly contaminated regions of Belarus (Petrova et al. 7. 1997). which makes the figures unreliable (Losoto.3.12).. and 17. 2.5.2. Ukraine 1. In the three most contaminated districts of Kaluga Province. 2. 7.10). Denmark.1. Perinatal Mortality 7. 2004). 21. Russia 1. Belarus 1.11).1. determined with a spatial–temporal trend model by Scherb and Weigelt (2000). infant mortality rates in 1986–1990 and 1991–1995 were higher than in less contaminated districts and in the Kaluga Province as a whole: 25.1. 2002). An analysis of pregnancy outcomes before and after the catastrophe (1982 to 1990) revealed that neonatal mortality increased in Gomel and Mogilev.. 7. respectively (Tsyb et al. The latter increase may be connected to consumption of locally contaminated food. Relative risks (RR with 95% confidence limits) for change points for the stillbirth odds ratio in 1986 (Iceland.2.000 live births.1. . 3. habitually underreported to “improve” health statistics.2.2. Latvia.Yablokov: Mortality after Chernobyl 197 Figure 7. in 1987 (Germany. and early neonatal mortality in Zhytomir and Kiev provinces were noticeably higher in the first year after the catastrophe and again 3 years later (Figure 7. Perinatal mortality. Perinatal mortality in Gomel Province increased after 1988. 2006).

. Perinatal mortality increased significantly in 1987 relative to the long-term trend of the data. 2001 and K¨ rblein..3% the year after in six contaminated counties Increased for fetuses under 17 weeks at the time of the Chernobyl catastrophe Lombardy. July. 1986 1986 Greece.005) of the expected proportion of perinatal deaths. Hungary. 2006 o Perucchi and Domenighetti. 1990 Spinelli and Osborn. 1987 June 1986 Scherb et al. 2.4. Other Countries 1. 2000).5% (P = 0. Sweden Poland Sweden Denmark Hungary Iceland Germany 1986 20% increase in first-trimester spontaneous abortions Increased compared to 1985 Ericson and Kallen. Associated with the Cs-137 ground contamination 13% decrease in birth rate in southern Bavaria Birth rate decreased by 50% in Ticino Canton Frentzel-Beyme and Scherb.. 1991 Norway Sweden Italy 1986 July 1986 June.. 1990 Irgens et al. Perinatal mortality was significantly increased in 1987 relative to the . 1999 From 1986 Up to 5% Up to 10%.. including West Berlin.2% (P < 0..198 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 7. 1986 From 1986 1986–1988 1986 Comments Increased in the territories with high level of Cs-137 ground contamination Up to 20% In 1986 for conceptions during the first 3 months after Chernobyl in the contaminated territories Rate of spontaneous abortions increased from 7. 2006a) o Country Finland Period July to Dec.2% before Chernobyl to 8.05) and 8. 2007 Ulstein et al. 1988 Semisa.. Spatial-temporal analyses of the proportion of stillbirths and perinatal deaths with Cs-137 deposition after the Chernobyl catastrophe in Bavaria on a district level reveal significant exposure–response relationships (Scherb et al. A highly significant association of perinatal mortality with the Cs-137 burden during pregnancy is found in the combined data from West and East Germany (K¨ rblein and o Kuchenhoff. POLAND. GERMANY. 2007 1987 Feb. 1988 Scherb et al.. 2001 Frentzel-Beyme and Scherb. 1980–1993. 1990 Switzerland 7. 1991.8% (P < 0.1. Sept. Even more pronounced levels of 8. in some parts of the country Up to 20% Up to 30% Up to 30% Increased in Bavaria..1. The 1987 increase was 4. 2000 K¨ rblein. Poland.0702) can be found in the more heavily contaminated areas of the former German Democratic Republic.2. 2000). Increase of the Rate of Spontaneous Abortions after Chernobyl (from Reviews by Auvinen et al. 1994 Bertollini et al.. 1997). respectively (Scherb and Weigelt. and Bavaria. increased 3% Increased for whole country Author Auvinen et al. Parazzini et al..

10.7). 2001). Schmitz-Feuerhake. 2003 Harjulehto et al. 1999. 2003. o u 2003. 1997. Infant Mortality 7. 1995 Frentzel-Beyme and Scherb. 2007 Frentzel-Beyme and Scherb. 1989.. Infant mortality monthly data. 2006).Yablokov: Mortality after Chernobyl 199 TABLE 7. 2006) Country Greece Sweden Poland Norway Hungary Finland Germany Comments Increased. Scherb and Weigelt. 2007 Bentham. 2007 Increased ca. 5% References Scherb and Weigelt. 2007 K¨ rblein and K¨ chenhoff. 2003.. 7..3).2. 1999. 2006). 10% Stillbirth rate increased ca. Ulstein et al. show a significant correlation with the Cs-137 burden during pregnancy (K¨ rblein. Increased Stillbirth Rates. L¨ ning et al. A significant increase in infant mortality was found in 1987–1988 in highly contaminated territories (Grodzinsky. Ten months after the catastrophe. 2003 Scherb and Weigelt. 20% England and Wales Denmark Iceland Hungary Increased twofold in February 1987 Increased 20% Increased 30% Increased 30% long-term trend. Frentzel-Beyme and Scherb. 2003a. GREAT BRITAIN. 1991. Frentzel-Beyme and Scherb..2. 1991. in some parts up ca. a significant increase in perinatal mortality was found in the two most contaminated areas of the country—England and Wales (Bentham. 2003. 1990 Czeizel and Billege. Omelyanets and Klement’ev. o 3. Busby. 1995.2. Infant Mortality Rates.. 1991. o Frentzel-Beyme and Scherb. 2003.2. 2007 Frentzel-Beyme and Scherb. 1988. and Low Birth Weight Associated with In Utero Exposure from Chernobyl (mostly by I. 1997. 1985–1991. Scherb and Weigelt. Ukraine 1. Scherb and Weigelt. 2007. 2007 K¨ rblein. Deviation of perinatal mortality from the long-term trend in Gomel Province from 1985 to 1998. The columns show the average calculated Sr-90 burden in pregnant women (K¨ rblein. K¨ rblein. Grosche et al. The main causes of infant death were antenatal pathologies and congenital malformations (Table 7.2. see Figure 7. o . 1989. Figure 7. u Scherb et al.1. o Frentzel-Beyme and Scherb. Busby. 2003. Scherb and Weigelt.

at the beginning and at the end of 1987 (Figure 7.000 live births and stillborns) in Zhytomir and Kiev provinces noticeably increased the first year and again after 3 years after the catastrophe (Dzykovich et al. whereas in other districts it declined (Utka et al. show two significant postChernobyl peaks.. and Belarus. Deviation of perinatal mortality from the expected long-term trend in the combined Zhytomir and Kiev provinces and Kiev City. Infant mortality increased immediately after the catastrophe and Figure 7..4 and 6. 2. Perinatal mortality. stillbirth rate. GERMANY.200 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 7. Infant mortality monthly data. Russia.2. Figure 7. 2.11. show peaks at the beginning and at the end of 1987 (Figure 7.15).2.2..3. respectively (Baleva et al.16). o 2008). 1985–1991. 3. and early neonatal mortality (per 1.4).2. SWEDEN. 1980–1994.12. Other Countries 1.3 per 1. Russia 1. 7.2.14). 7.13 shows the deviation of infant mortality in 1987–1989 from a declining longterm trend in Ukraine. 2005). In 1996 neonatal mortality in more highly contaminated districts of Bryansk Province was greater than in the province as a whole: 7. 2004). POLAND.000. 1985–2004 (K¨ rblein and Omelyanets. 2001). 3. . In the southwest districts of Bryansk Province with higher contamination. Infant mortality increased significantly immediately after the catastrophe and continued to rise until 1993 (Figure 7. infant mortality increased after 1986 (see Table 7. FINLAND. Infant mortality monthly data.

7. However. and Russia. and Belarus (//www. Childhood Mortality (0–14 Years of Age) 7. Infant mortality rose to some extent in 1988 and increased significantly in 1989 and 1990 (Figure 7.ru/weekly/vote/fig_imr11png).2. Childhood mortality increased from 0.26 1. As noted above (Section 7. Main Causes of Infant Death (per 1.84 4. Mortality among Liquidators The registration of deaths among liquidators in Ukraine.45 1. According to official data. no study will be able to determine the exact number of added deaths because the putative trend without the Chernobyl catastrophe is unknown. childhood cancers are registered twice as often in the mortality statistics as in Belarus as a whole and 20-fold more often than in the least contaminated Vitebsk Province (Bogdanovich. 7. 1998). However.7 Figure 7. 4. 7.6% among children born to parents who had been irradiated (TASS.3. 1990–1995 (Grodzinsky. 1999). demoscope. 1999). the liquidators were healthy young adults (average age 33 years) so a lower than .4. The childhood death toll from the Chernobyl catastrophe will never be determined precisely.000 4.2. In Gomel Province. 1994.6 201 increased significantly in 1989–1992 (Figure 7.3. 1999.3. 1997).2.2 1996 17.2). Section 1.000 additional childhood deaths can be expected in Belarus.2.000 Live Births) in Ukraine.3.Yablokov: Mortality after Chernobyl TABLE 7. Komogortseva.3. In districts of Tula Province with higher levels of contamination. 2.13.2.18). Russia. Infant Mortality (per 1.8 for details). Death from diseases of the nervous system and the sense organs increased by a factor of five and congenital malformations by more than a factor of two (Grodzinsky. Russia.1.000 live born) in 1987 up to 1. Russia 1.6 1997 17.3.9 7.2.000 Live Births) in Highly Contaminated Districts of Bryansk Province. Trend of infant mortality (from top down) in Ukraine.7 1998 20. 1999) Cause Antenatal pathologies Congenital malformations Respiratory diseases Infections Rate per 1. Belarus 1.0 9. based on the existing fragmentary data.0 Province 1998 15. 7.17).7% in 1997 and 9. some 10. childhood mortality was higher than in less contaminated districts (Khvorostenko. a total number of several thousand additional infant deaths might be expected following the Chernobyl catastrophe in Europe and other parts of the world. childhood mortality in highly contaminated territories was 4. 1995–1998 (Fetysov.0 29. and Belarus was not complete in the first years after the Chernobyl catastrophe (see Chapter 1. Ukraine. 2006) Highly contaminated districts Years Infant mortality 1995 17. Ukraine 1. As a rule.12 % 33. Russia. SWITZERLAND.2% in TABLE 7.5% (per 1.3.

Deviation of infant mortality from the long-term trend in Germany.14. Trend of infant mortality rates in Finland.202 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 7. o Figure 7. 1980–2006. o . o Figure 7. Based on official statistical data (K¨ rblein. The peaks of mortality follow peaks of the Cs-137 burden with a time lag of 7 months (K¨ rblein. 2006). 1980– 1994.15. and undisturbed trend line. 2006).16. 1985– 1991. Deviation of infant mortality from the long-term trend in Poland. The peaks of mortality follow peaks of the Cs-137 burden with a time lag of 7 months (K¨ rblein. 2008).

3. 4. the mortality of liquidators exceeded the mortality of the corresponding population group (Law of Ukraine.Yablokov: Mortality after Chernobyl 203 Figure 7.20). from 3. 2006). 2. 2008). 2002).000. 7. and undisturbed trend line. 1980–2006.19).3. o average mortality rate among them should be expected. and undisturbed trend line.3. Figure 7. Russia 1. Belarus 1. 7. Based on official statistical data (K¨ rblein.1 to 6. Ten years after the Chernobyl catastrophe.1. 2002). Trend in infant mortality rates in Sweden.2. 2005).3. The mortality among male Ukrainian liquidators increased more than fivefold from 1989 to 2004.18. Ukraine 1.6 per 1. 2008). o . Trend of infant mortality rates in Switzerland.0 to 16. Total mortality in contaminated territories and among liquidators increased significantly from 1987 to 2005 (Figure 7.17. 7. Based on official statistical data (K¨ rblein.0 per 1. The mortality rate of the Ukrainian liquidators from nonmalignant diseases increased steadily from 1988 to 2003 (Figure 7. 3. as compared to mortality rates of 4. the mortality rate among liquidators employed in 1986 was significantly increased (Ecological Security. After 1995. 1980–2006.000 among other men of working age (Horishna. Mortality of male liquidators who worked in 1986 is higher than liquidators who worked in 1987 (Borysevich and Poplyko.

700 Russian liquidators.19. by 2005 more than 31. Total mortality (from all causes. per 1. 3. 2006). 2. 1990–1999 (Ivanov et al. Only 216 cases (not counting 24 deaths from leukemia from 1986 to 1998) are officially accepted as radiation induced (Ivanov et al. Figure 7. Figure 7. 2001). 2002).. Grishin.. comm.000 liquidators who were exposed (according to official data) to radiation doses of about 100 mSv (Maksyutov. According to the nongovernmental organization Chernobyl Union.204 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 7. V. Chernobyl Union Chairman. Trend of standardized mortality ratios (SMR) from nonmalignant diseases in liquidators. had died (V. 2004: fig.000 liquidators” had died up until 2001 (National Russian Report. 6. 5.” and “traumas and poisonings” and does not differ from corresponding groups of the general population.” malignant neoplasm.136 deaths were registered from 1991 to 1998 in a cohort of 52. from nonmalignant diseases from1988 to 2003 (National Ukrainian Report.21.000) of Ukrainian liquidators employed in 1986–1987. According to official data. 4.000) in contaminated territories of Ukraine and among liquidators. .7). 1986 to 2006 (Petruk. 2002). 2004).20. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) among this cohort ranges between 0. Similar results are reported for employ- ees of the Kurchatov Institute (Shykalov et al.78 and 0.). 8. pers. 2006). Trend of mortality (per 1. or 13%. In the Russian National Register.88 for the categories “all causes.21 shows data obtained from the National Register on mortality of liquidators from nonmalignant causes. “all causes except malignant neoplasm. Figure 7. 4. already “more than 10. A significant increase in cancer mortality was found in 1991–1998 in a cohort of 66.714 liquidators.700 out of 244..

which indicates that they are of questionable quality (Table 7. The data from various sources for causes of liquidator mortality differ considerably. circulatory diseases (29%). The increased mortality results in a comparatively low life expectancy for liquidators (Table 7. mortality in male liquidators was 1. 7. Samara Province Workers in the nuclear industry Karelian Republic Number of deaths 163 169 644 Average age at death. According to data from the National Register. mortality among liquidators exceeded the rate in corresponding population groups. and atomic scientific institutes) was 16. or about 15% of a total cadre of 830. Belarus 1. 12. In 1993. the three main causes of death among liquidators were trauma and poisonings (46%).4 to 2.6). Average Age of Deceased Liquidators Group Tolyatti City. 25. 2000). 11. 2001). 17. 2001). In 2001. 2008). 2007).Y.827 men and 2. In 1998.208 liquidators 1.5. 15. 14.9% from blood diseases..5 43 Comments 205 1995–2005. The data presented above show that. Ecological Security. 9.1. other nuclear installations. according to the National Register. Siberia) up to the year 2007 only about 300 out of 1. 2001).. Overall Mortality The Chernobyl contamination undoubtedly caused an increase in overall mortality in the contaminated areas. The decline in life expectancy among the Chernobyl liquidators who were employees of the nuclear industrial complex (NPPs. 13. According to the 1999 Registry.Yablokov: Mortality after Chernobyl TABLE 7.6% from trauma and poisonings (Ignatov et al.825 women) a significantly increased mortality rate was only found in the groups with circulatory and vegetovascular (autonomic nervous system) diseases (Tukov. In the Karelian Republic. years 46. 2001). By 2005 some 112. .3% from malignant neoplasms. In Angarsk City (Irkutsk Province. from 1987 to 1996 mortality from malignant neoplasm of the urogenital tract was significantly higher in liquidators under the age of 50 years than in the corresponding age group in the general population (Kochergyna et al.000. and malignant neoplasm (13%. 2000) 1986–2008 (Stolitsa on Onego. 8. 2008) 7. of 3.113 (34.000 liquidators had died.204 liquidators 644 had died (53%) by the year 2008 (Stolitsa on Onego. 1999).7%) have died (source: letter from regional branch of the Chernobyl Union). the mortality from malignant neoplasms for inhabitants of the territories contaminated by Cs-137 at levels higher than 555 kBq/m2 (15 Ci/km2 ) as well as for those who left such territories after the catastrophe started to exceed the mortality in the country as a whole (Antypova and Babichevskaya.000 to 125. 2002). since 1990.3 45. 10.5).300 liquidators were still alive (Rikhvanova. A. among the Russian liquidators who were employees of the nuclear industrial complex (14. and 39.4. calculations from Tymonin data (2005) 1986–1990 (Tukov. 7. 16.4.3 times higher than in corresponding age groups of the general population (Gil’manov et al. of 1.. In Kaluga Province 87% of all liquidators who died in the first 12 years after the catastrophe were 30 to 39 years old (Lushnykov and Lantsov. In the Voronezh Province.

3..2. 2002b 45 32 – – 14 – 1 8 Gil’manov et al.5 Data of the official Russian Interdepartmental Advisory Council on the Establishment of a Causal Relationship of Diseases.22). 1999). 2. After 1986. b Data of the Moscow branch of the nongovernmental organization “Widows of Chernobyl” (559 cases). mortality is significantly higher than in less contaminated areas and higher than in the rest of Belarus. Physical Disability and Death of Irradiated Persons. c Data of the official Russian National Registry of Liquidators. The general mortality rate in Belarus increased from 6. 2002). by 43%. 1999.000) in several regions of Belarus. 2007). Golubchykov et al.000.206 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 7. Ukraine 1. The average life expectancy of populations living in territories with Cs-137 ground contamination above 555 kBq/m2 (15 Ci/km2 ) was 8 years less than the national average (Antypova and Babichevskaya.3 – 26. 2001. 7. Trends in mortality rates (per 1. 2001a 63 31 7 5 5 3 – – Loskutova. Mortality from prostate cancer increased by a factor Figure 7. In contaminated territories and among evacuees. Kashyryna. the general mortality increased significantly in the contaminated territories (IPHECA. from 1990 to 2004 (Malko. 2001). and the increase after 1989 was greatest in Gomel Province (Rubanova.4. Causes of Death (%) of Russian Liquidators in 2000 According to Various Sources Percentage of the total deaths Causes of death Blood and circulatory system pathology Malignant neoplasm Gastrointestinal tract pathology Lung pathology Trauma and suicide Tuberculosis Radiation sickness Other a Khrysanfov and Meskikh. that is.9 5. 2001. The highest mortality rates are found in the most contaminated districts of Gomel Province. According to official data. In highly contaminated districts of Gomel Province. Sergeeva et al. cancer mortality increased by 18 to 22% from 1986 to 1998 as compared to 12% in Ukraine as a whole (Omelyanets and Klement’ev. 4. the general mortality rate in the heavily contaminated territories was 18. 2000). and the liver (Bandazhevsky. . 2005.3 5.22.8 per 1.3 – – 12. 2001c 50. the kidneys. 2.000 (Reuters. some 28% higher than the national average of 14..6.3 per 1.3 per 1. Grodzinsky. the mortality rate started to rise in 1989 (Figure 7. 2003). 3.5 to 9.. Omelyanets and Klement’ev. 2005).000 in 1999. 1996. The concentration of radionuclides in the bodies of most (98%) of the 285 persons who died suddenly in Gomel Province was significantly increased in the heart. 5.

Table 7.5%. and in Russia. Therefore. The general mortality in Lipetsk City.7). and others).5.3 in Ukraine as a whole (Omelyanets and Klement’ev.2 207 lated with Cs-137 ground contamination. and in the heavily contaminated Gomel Province by 59.8 . the only difference is in the level of contamination.2 13.7 2.9 cover a range that spans two orders of magnitude.9). primarily in the age group 45–49 years. 2005. Oryol. Khudoley et al. 3. 7. This wide range far exceeds the usual scientific uncertainty. 2005.7 mortality Province Russia 1998 16.000. Calculations of General Mortality An estimate of the additional mortality from Chernobyl is possible on the basis of a comparison of mortality rates in highly contaminated territories and in less contaminated ones— so called “clean” areas (Rubanova. 2006. 2005. 7.3 1997 13.4 to 43. 1997). where Cs-137 ground contamination is less than 5 Ci/km2 . The general mortality in highly contaminated districts was 23 to 34% higher than the province average (Kashyryna. 2. 4. 2003. was correTABLE 7. Principal causes of the increased mortality were cardiovascular diseases (60%) and cancers (10. estimates of the damage to health from exposure to radiation should be interpreted with due caution given the existing state of knowledge (see Chapter 2 for details).6. 7. 1995–1998 (Fetysov. increased by 67% from 1986 to 1995 (from 7.3 6.0 18.6%.7. 1999) Highly contaminated districts Year 1995 1996 1997 1998 General 16. From 1985 to 2001. From 1994 to 2004. Calculations of General Mortality Based on the Carcinogenic Risks Based on different risk factors (excess risk per unit dose). Sergeeva et al.2 in contaminated territories and by a factor of 1.8). various authors have estimated the number of additional cancer deaths due to Chernobyl (Table 7. 2003). 2004). the general mortality in highly contaminated districts of Bryansk Province increased by 22. the standardized mortality ratio increased in the less contaminated Grodno and Vitebsk provinces of Belarus by 37.4.000) in the Three Most Contaminated Districts of the Bryansk Province. The estimates presented in Table 7.. There are essentially six Russian provinces with considerable contamination from the Chernobyl fallout (Tula..8. the primary causes of death among inhabitants of contaminated territories were circulatory and oncological diseases (Table 7.3. The socioeconomic and ethnic conditions in these areas are similar. Sukal’skaya et al. Therefore. where it increased by 87%.6%.Yablokov: Mortality after Chernobyl TABLE 7. 1996 (Grodzinsky. 2001). In 1996. the observed differences in mortality increase (16 to 22%) can be attributed to the Chernobyl radiation (Rubanova. General Mortality (per 1.5 to 12. 1999) Cause of death Blood diseases Oncological diseases Traumas Respiratory diseases Diseases of the digestive tract Percentage 61. Bryansk. General mortality in the Klintsy district of the Bryansk Province.7 17..2 9. Causes of Death in Contaminated Territories of Ukraine.6 per 1. of 2. Russia 1.2 17. Sergeeva et al.1%. 1997 to 1999. Krapyvin..

1996) Fairlie and Sumner (2006) Malko (2007) Malko (2007) Gofman (1994a. The total number of additional deaths from Chernobyl in the area under study.9 19.000 30. reveals the true dimension of the death toll from the Chernobyl catastrophe.000 in 2002 (control region.786. entire world 50 years.920).880 to 65.832. In Figure 7.310–1.6 20. The resulting number of about 60. Khudoley et al. all radionuclides.418. European part of Russia 90 years.657 ∗ Author Press release to the Chernobyl Forum (2005) Chernobyl Forum (2006) Nuclear Regulatory Commission.10 shows the raw and the age-standardized mortality rates in the six contaminated provinces. (1988) U.208 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 7. Department of Energy (Goldman.000∗ 30.3 18. Estimates of the Number of Cancer Deaths Resulting from the Radionuclides Cs-134. Cs-137. and Sr-90 Released from the Chernobyl Reactor Number of deaths 4.000–60. USA Anspaugh et al.000∗ 17. entire world For all time. Sumner (2006: table 6.2 Standardized 19.000 in 2002 (study region).000 93. entire world 70 years. TABLE 7. calculated on the basis of the standardized mortality rates. exceeded the Russian average. all Chernobyl causes For all time.1 19. In the region under study the general mortality. and Kaluga).9.2). Ukraine.7 .6 19. Observed (Raw) and AgeStandardized Mortality Rates (per 1. 2006) Mortality Region Tula Bryansk Oryol Ryazan Kursk Kaluga Total Observed 21. which had a total population of 7. Figure 7.000 899. entire world 50 years. Belgorod.000) in the Six Most Contaminated Regions of Russia.400 (95% CI: 54. entire world For all time.3 18. European part of Russia For all time.0 18.000 495.2% for Ukraine given in the National Ukrainian Report for 2006. The mortality rates in these regions were compared with the Russian average and with the rate in six neighboring (officially) less contaminated provinces with similar geographical and socioeconomic status (Smolensk.24 shows the standardized mortality rates for the neighboring Tula and Lipetsk provinces.5 17.8 16. Fairlie and D.000.400 28. Lipetsk. Kursk.6 18. Table 7. From 1990 to 2004 the number of additional deaths represents 3.400 additional deaths from 1990 to 2004 in the area under study.S. 2006).000 8. entire world From J. is estimated at 60.930 14.10. entire world For all time. Tambov. Ukraine. In 1999. as well as the increased rate in mortality... corresponding to 34 persons per 1.b) Bertell (2006) Comments 90 years. Both the observed and the age standardized mortality rates exceed the Russian average (Table 7. Belarus.75% of the entire population of the contaminated territories.080 180. Belarus. Ryazan. more than 5% of this population lived in highly contaminated districts. entire world 70 years.10). A similar result is obtained when highly and less contaminated regions are compared. This finding agrees well with the figure of 4.3 18. and Vladimir provinces and the Republic of Mordova) with a total population of 7. 1987) UNSCEAR (Bennett.23 the standardized mortality rates in the six contaminated provinces combined are compared with the mortality rates in the control region. 2002 (Khudoley et al.

Ukraine. the radioactive contamination from Chernobyl had adverse health effects before 1990 and will continue for many years into the future.9 showed forecasts of the expected number of additional instances of cancer owing to the Chernobyl catastrophe. Ukraine. .23.75% determined in Russia. (2006) might actually be more pronounced.. It means that the differences in mortality between contaminated and noncontaminated populations that were found by Khudoley et al. This calculation seems straightforward. and Russia that can be attributed to the Chernobyl catastrophe for a period of 90 years after the meltdown. This means that the total death toll for Russia is higher than estimated by Khudoley et al.000 (2001). in Belarus 1. Table 7. However. and the European part of Russia is estimated to be 212. however. 1983–2003. Standardized mortality rates.7).24. e. but it might underestimate the real figures for several reasons: • • in the six regions mentioned above but also in 16 regions of the European part of Russia. and in Ukraine 2.11). and based on the additional rate in Russia.000 for the first 15 years after the catastrophe (Table 7. All projections are based on risk factors for cancer.. and in Russia as a whole (Khudoley et al. • Official data about the radioactive contamination for Belgorod and Lipetsk provinces do not correlate with corresponding changes in health statistics after Chernobyl. “Zero” is the Russian average (Khudoley et al. Table 7.2% for the mortality rate may be more realistic than the 3. the total number of extra deaths from Chernobyl in Belarus.000 (1999). 2006). All the calculations by Khudoley et al..Yablokov: Mortality after Chernobyl 209 Figure 7. For the populations in all the contaminated territories together (in European Russia 1. (2006). Figure 7.290. in the more contaminated Tula Province.g. What Is the Total Number of Chernobyl Victims? The Chernobyl Forum (WHO. 2006).. 2006) calculated a total number of 9. that cancer is not the only and not even the most frequent lethal effect of radiation (see. It is well known. (2006) cover a 15-year period (1990–2004).000 (2002.000 cancer deaths in Belarus. the Ukrainian figure of 4. Difference in standardized mortality rates in the combined six most contaminated provinces and in the control region. If so.571. Khudoley et al. the less contaminated Lipetsk Province.7.789. It is well known (see Chapter 1 for details) that there was considerable contamination (sometimes more than 1 Ci/km2 ) not only 7. 2006)).

and Tc-99 will remain practically the same virtually forever (half-lives consequently more than 20.210 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 7..000 in 1990– 2004).500. Then we can expect 150. that Can Be Attributed to the Chernobyl Catastrophe (Khudoley et al. and they are likely to be more realistic than calculations that only use individual and/or collective doses together with risk factors for fatal cancers. that is.000 inhabitants (better food and better medical and socioeconomic situations). Cl-36.571.e.000 86.000 additional deaths. A projection for a much longer period—for many future generations—is very difficult. we can expect an additional 170. it is possible to estimate the total death toll from the Chernobyl catastrophe: • • • • When we apply the additional mortality of 34 extra deaths per 1. Thus the overall mortality for the period from April 1986 to the end of 2004 from the Chernobyl catastrophe was estimated at 985. and Russia was estimated to be 237.7 deaths per 1.000 212.290. The concentrations of Pu.000 Ukraine 2. to the evacuees and to people who moved away from contaminated areas (350.000 cancer deaths outside Europe until 2004.650.000 Total 5. Assuming that 20% of the radionuclides released from the Chernobyl reactor were deposited outside Europe (see Chapter 1) and that the exposed population was 190 million. 17 deaths per 1.7 per 1.08 Ci/km2 ) and that the mortality risk is only half that determined in the Chernobyl region. Number of Additional Deaths in Belarus. which was derived above. to the cohort of liquidators not living in contaminated zones (400. with a risk factor of 1.000 and 200. Ukraine. . live in territories with a Cs-137 ground contamination higher than 40 kBq/m2 (>1.000 × 1. Assuming that 10 million people in Europe. we could have expected an additional 323. The overall number of Chernobyl-related deaths up until 2004 in Belarus.000 Belarus 1. 2006) Region/Country European Russia Population living in highly contaminated territories Number of additional deaths 1.6. which is a decay product of Pu-241. up until 2004. Ukraine.000 as before.000 years).000). outside the Former Soviet Union.500 deaths in this period. 1990–2004.789.11.000 deaths in Europe outside the Former Soviet Union owing to Chernobyl. and the European Part of Russia.000 population within 15 years (1990–2004).7 or 255. Based on data presented in Section 7. This estimate of the number of additional deaths is similar to those of Gofman (1994a) and Bertell (2006). will increase over several generations. the radionuclide load in the contaminated territories will decrease about 50% for each human generation.000 67.000 more deaths in the rest of Europe.. and the concentration of Am-241. then we expect another 25.000 The assumptions concerning nonmalignant radiation risks differ even more than for radiation-induced cancers. Some counterdirected aspects of such prognoses are as follows: • Given the half-life of the two main radionuclides (Cs-137 and Sr-90) of approximately 30 years each. 1. Let us further assume that for the other 150 million Europeans living in territories with a Cs-137 ground contamination below 40 kBq/m2 (see Chapter 1 for details) the additional mortality will be 10-fold less (i. Risk projections based on observed increases in the general mortality are more meaningful.000 59.000).

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but also because the doctors collected and published these facts (Godlevsky and Nasvit.000 Neonatal mortality (0–6 days after birth): Years 1984–1987: 25–75 per 1.5 per 1. frequent fevers. 1999).9 per 1. The population in 1986: 29. Lugini is unique not only because the same medical staff used the same medical equipment and followed the same protocols that were used before and after the catastrophe.000 Years 1995–1996: 41.2 months Initial diagnosis of active tuberculosis (percentage of primary diagnosed tuberculosis): Years 1985–1986: 17.000 Endocrine system diseases in children: Years 1985–1990: 10 per 1. 6. South Germany.552 (including 4. and other European countries. There was an increase in the number of such cases seen despite a 25% decrease in the total of Lugini population from 1986 to 1996. Cases of goiter.5. European Russia. Finland.7 per 100. However. In the radioactive-contaminated territories there is a noticeable increase in the incidence of a number of illnesses and in signs and symptoms that are not in official medical statistics. Out of 50 villages 22 were contaminated in 1986 at a level 1–5 Ci/km2 and 26 villages at a level under 1 Ci/km2 . Norway. The box below documents the health of the population in the small Ukrainian district of Lugini 10 years after the catastrophe.000 Years 1994–1995: 90–97 per 1. etc.276 persons. children: Up to 1988: not found Years 1994–1995: 12–13 per 1. in 1996: 22. Lifespan from the time of diagnosis of lung or stomach cancer: Years 1984–1985: 38–62 months Years 1995–1996: 2–7. among them: • • The syndrome known as “vegetovascular dystonia” (autonomic nervous system dysfunction): functional disturbance of nervous regulation of the cardiovascular system with various clinical findings arising on a background of stress.000 Year 1991: 15. There are tens of similarly contaminated territories in Belarus. Section 5. Among them there are abnormally poor increase in children’s weight.000 live births Years 1995–1996: 330–340 per 1. and 7 still do not give a complete picture of the state of public health in the territories affected by Chernobyl.000 Life expectancy: Years 1984–1985: 75 years Years 1990–1996: 65 years DETERIORATION IN PUBLIC HEALTH IN ONE UKRAINIAN DISTRICT 10 YEARS AFTER THE CATASTROPHE District Lugini (Ukraine). endocrine. delayed recovery after illnesses. The syndrome known as “incorporated long-living radionuclides” (Bandazhevsky. and other systems as the result of the 217 .CHERNOBYL Conclusion to Chapter II Morbidity and prevalence of the separate specific illnesses as documented in Chapter II.7–50. reproductive. Ukraine.2–28. 5. Turkey. Lugini is located about 110 km southwest of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Zhytomir Province and has radioactive contamination at a level above 5 Ci/km2 . Sweden. nervous.0 per 100.000 live births General mortality: Year 1985: 10. (see Chapter II.000 Figure 1 presents data on the annual number of newborns with congenital malformations in Lugini districts. parts 4. 1999) that includes pathology of the cardiovascular. Austria.227 children).2). The Chernobyl catastrophe has endowed world medicine with new terms.

Zhytomir Province. periodic depression and dysphoria. These include: (a) the syndrome called “lingering radiating illness” (Furitsu et al. Chernobyl’s contribution to the general morbidity is the determining factor in practically all territories with a level of contamination higher than 1 Ci/km2 . It is postulated that these symptoms are a result of impaired immune system function in combination with disorders of the temporal–limbic parts of the central nervous system. scratchy throat. the mortality is about 0..” Chernobyl’s radioactive contamination at levels in excess of 1 Ci/km2 (as of 1986–1987) is responsible for 3. 1999. • accumulation of more than 50 Bq/kg of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in a person.218 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 1. the presence of multiple diseases in the same individual.. Ukraine.000. It appears that the Chernobyl cancer toll is one of the soundest reasons for the “cancer . Among them is the syndrome known as “chronic fatigue” (Lloyd et al. In several other European countries with contamination levels around 0. fatigue without cause. 1988).8–4. Pshenichnykov. trembling. a combination of unusual weariness. frequent mood changes. Among conditions awaiting full medical description are other constellations of diseases. and decreased body mass.” “Chernobyl AIDs. Absolute number of the congenital developmental anomalies in newborns in Lugini District.7% (see Chapter II. Polymorbidity. which manifests as tiredness.5 Ci/km2 (as of 1986–1987). Ukraine. The syndrome known as “sharp inhalation effect of the upper respiratory path” (Chuchalin. 2002). dry cough. and a humeral belt. called “incipient chestnut syndrome” and “diffraction grating syndrome” (Fedirko. diffuse muscular pains. 1999). 2002): a combination of a rhinitis. including “hot particles. including “irradiation in utero. impaired memory. and that is only for the first 15 years after the Chernobyl catastrophe. and Belarus brings the estimated death toll to about 900.” and “Chernobyl legs. pains in large joints. from 1983 to 1996 (Godlevsky and Nasvit. disturbed dreams. has become a common feature in the contaminated territories. and Belarus.4% of the overall mortality in areas of Russia. Ukraine.” Some of the earlier known syndromes have an unprecedented wide incidence of occurrence. changes in retinal vessels. originally described in the hibakusha (survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki) and (b) the syndromes comprising choreoretinopathy. and shortness of breath with physical activity connected to the impact of inhaled radionuclides. Reasonable extrapolation for additional mortality in the heavily contaminated territories of Russia. 1992.” “Chernobyl dementia. shivering. Chronic diseases of various etiologies became typical not only for liquidators but also for the affected populations and appear to be exacerbated by the radioactive contamination. 1996). dizziness.3–0. pains in the back. cervical lymph node sensitivity.7).” “Chernobyl heart.

A. medical. P. I. Turkey. There are several signals to alert public health personnel in territories that have been contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout in Belarus. Minsk): 136 pp. Yu. The constantly growing volume of objective scientific data about the negative consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe for public health. Pulmonology 4: 66–71 (in Russian). • An absence of a correlation between current average annual doses with doses received in 1986–1987. The Czech Republic. and Russia: As a result of prolonged immune system suppression there will be an increase in many illnesses. ascertain personal behavior and habits. Clinical and epidemiological studies of eye occupational diseases in the Chernobyl accident victims (peculiarities and risks of eye . Perform comparative analyses of monthly medical statistics before and after the catastrophe (especially for the first years after the catastrophe) for the administrative units (local and regional) that were contaminated with various levels of particular radionuclides.Yablokov et al. France. As a result of radio-induced chromosomal mutations a spectrum of congenital illnesses will become widespread. (2002). the full picture of the catastrophe’s health impact is still far from complete. As a result of radiation damage to the central nervous system in general and to temporal–limbic structures in the brain there will be more and more people with problems of intellectual development that threatens to cause loss of intellect across the population. G. Chernobyl Forum (2005). the Chernobyl-related diseases linked to contamination that began some 23 years ago will continue to increase. not reduce. Ophthalmology 2: 69–73. Vienna): 47 pp. Chuchalin. P. Chernobyl’s Legacy: Health. Increasing (instead of decreasing as was logically supposed) levels of individual irradiation for many people in the affected territories. Functional condition of liquidators’ pulmonary system: 7-years follow up study. not only in the contaminated territories but also with migration over many areas and over several generations. Chernobyl accident and the eye: some results of a prolonged clinical investigation. Obtain correct reconstruction of individual doses. Juvenile victims are an obvious example. Switzerland. etc. Environmental and Socio-economic Impacts. To ascertain the total complex picture of the health consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe we must. Moldova. biological. Ukraine. Despite the enormous quantity of data concerning the deterioration of public health in the affected territories. breast. (1999). Romania. first of all: • • • • • Expand. (1999). Fedirko. as was recently done in Russia. differentiated by the contribution of various radionuclides from both internal and external irradiation levels. Pathology of incorporated ionizing radiation (Belarussian Technological University.). (2002). Finland. (in Russian). and Belarus. References Bandazhevsky. lung. and radiological studies. Germany. parts 4–7). not only for the Former Soviet Union but also in Sweden. A noticeable growing contribution to a collective dose for individuals in zones with a low level of contamination. Fedirko. Highlights of the Chernobyl Forum Studies (IAEA. Italy. Without special largescale programs of mitigation and prevention of morbidity and consequent mortality.: Conclusion to Chapter II 219 • epidemic” that has been afflicting humankind since the end of the 20th century. and other countries are not a cause for optimism (details in Chapter II. and have a mandatory requirement to determine correct doses based on chromosome and tooth enamel analysis. Different cancers have different latencies following exposure to various and differing carcinogenic exposures. A need to end the demand for a 20-year latency period for the development of cancer (skin. Ukraine.

(in Ukrainian). C. Underestimated radiation risks and ignored injuries of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (1996). (1988). Muscle strength.). P. The Investigative Committee of Hibakusha of Hannan Chuo Hospital: 24 pp. endurance and recovery in the postinfection fatigue syndrome. (Ed. Kiev): 42 pp. Godlevsky. T. & Murata S. Neurosurg. prognosis).D.. Lloyd.. & Gandevia S. Pshenichnykov. Thesis (Institute of Occupational Health. O. M. Inomata. Dynamics of Health Status of Residents in the Lugini District after the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Accident at the ChNPS. Sadamori. B. . (1992). J. Hales. KURRI-KR-79 (Kyoto University. J. Recent Research Activities about the Chernobyl NPP Accident in Belarus. M. K. I. Psychiat. V. Neurol.. In: Imanaka.220 pathology formation. Ukraine and Russia. Low dose radioactive irradiation and radiation sclerosis (“Soborna Ukraina. 149–157. Kyoto): pp. 51(10): 1316–1322. (in Russian). A. K. (1999). & Nasvit. R.” Kiev): 40 pp. Furitsu.

N. References Konoplya. Radioecological. Kudryashov. Chernobyl radioactive contamination has adversely affected all biological as well as nonliving components of the environment: the atmosphere. & Grynevich. and migrating animals. Moscow. both directly and via the food chain. Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe for the Environment Alexey V. In: Fifth Congress of Radiation Research on Radiobiology. F. Nesterenkob b Russian Academy of Sciences.. International Scientific and Practical Conference. Kutlachmedov and Polykarpov 1998. bioaccumulation. and many others). plants. surface and ground waters. Acad. S. radiolysis. V. 101–102 (in Russian). We emphasize that like the consequences for public health. Chernobyl: Ann. Kozubov and Taskaev. V. (Eds.Y. Ecological. e. Konoplya et al. doi: 10. & Rolevich. Nesterenko.) (1996). the reviews by Konoplya and Rolevich. F.1749-6632. wind. In Chapter III as well we have included only part of the material concerning the impact of the catastrophe on the biosphere—on fauna and flora. 1998. 221 . 2000. Sokolov and Kryvolutsky. 2006. Konoplya. I. P. Moscow) 2: pp. Many Russian-language publications have documented such radionuclide transfers. E. Sr-90 and Am-241 are moving through the food chains much faster than predicted because they are so water soluble (Konoplya. the consequences for nature are neither fully documented nor completely understood and may also not decline. 1181: 221–286 (2009). Medical. Patterns of radioactive contamination essentially change when the radionuclides are transferred by water. as well as changes in concentration and bioaccumulation in soil and water affecting various animals and plants (see. 1996. “Hot” particles have disintegrated much more rapidly than expected. medical and biological consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. Konoplya. soil.. water ecosystems.04830.a Vassily B. but only selected parts to reflect the many problems and to show the enormous scale of the contamination. Cs-137 is removed from ecological food chains a hundred times more slowly than was predicted right after the catastrophe (Smith et al. transition ratio. leading to unpredictable secondary emissions from some radionuclides.b and Alexey V. on water. Biological. E. V.x c 2009 New York Academy of Sciences. air. and soil.. Formation of air radioactive contamination in Belarus after the Chernobyl catastrophe. Sci.g. radiomorphosis The level of radioactivity in the atmosphere. (in Russian). Moscow. which are not declining but rather increasing in scope and severity. F. Radioecology and Radiation Safety. radionuclides. 2002). E. In Chapters I and II we repeatedly emphasize that we do not present all of the available data on the consequences of Chernobyl. and soil. Sociological and Economic Consequences of Chernobyl Catastrophe in Belarus (Minsk): 281 pp. 2006. Minsk.. Yablokov.1111/j. 2006. water.CHERNOBYL Chapter III. Belarus a Key words: Chernobyl. and microorganisms is well documented. Land and bodies of water that were exposed to little or no contamination can become much more contaminated owing to secondary transfer. and others).2009. and soil in the contaminated territories will determine the eventual level of radiation of all living things. (2006). Russia Institute of Radiation Safety (BELRAD). The influence of Chernobyl radionuclide fallout on ecosystems and populations of animals. (2006). (Abstracts. April 10–14.

R. J. (1998). 91–96 (//www. Radiobiological Study of Conifers in a Chernobyl Catastrophic Area (“DIK. W. D. A..pdf) (in Russian). N. E. Comans. N. & Kryvolutsky. & Polykarpov. G. J. (1998). Kutlachmedov.” Kiev): 172 pp. June 5. A. S. Kozubov. A.. Wright. T. A. Yu. Med- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences ical and Biological Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident (“Medecol. (in Russian). Nature 405: p. J. Moscow): pp. 2006. . C. Change in Ecology and Biodiversity after a Nuclear Disaster in the Southern Urals (“Pentsoft. Howard. B. (2000). V.” Sofia/Moscow): 228 pp.ru/upload/File/conferencebook_2006.. Moscow (Materials. I.. M. G. 141. Smith. (in Russian). Sokolov. (2002). G. & Camplin. & Taskaev.” Moscow): 272 pp. ecopolicy. Contamination: Chernobyl’s legacy in food and water.222 Twenty Years of Chernobyl Catastrophe: Ecological and Sociological Lessons. Beresford. M.

and animals. Office 319.. and Alexey V. Leninsky Prospect 33. Ukraine. The Chernobyl radionuclides concentrate in sediments.000 times more than the local background level. Nesterenko. the concentrations of the primary radionuclides changed drastically from place to place and from day to day (Table 8. that leads to increased doses of internal irradiation among people in the contaminated territories. within a 7-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP. etc. and gas structure of the surface air in the catastrophe zone. and Russia There are many hundreds of publications about specific radionuclide levels in the Former Soviet Union territories—of which the data below are only examples. 3. Russia. lowland moors.1. Yablokov@ecopolicy. 8. 1986. aerosol. Voice: +7-495-952-80-19. peat bogs. aerosol. is about 2–4 cm/year.ru April 26. water. A year later. plants with deep root systems absorb them and carry the ones that are buried to the surface again. Ukraine.1. and Zhytomir Province. 119071 Moscow. as measured by electroconductivity and air radiolysis. Nesterenko Air particulate activity over all of the Northern Hemisphere reached its highest levels since the termination of nuclear weapons testing—sometimes up to 1 million times higher than before the Chernobyl contamination. observed in recent years. 1. the electroconductivity of the air at ground level was 240–570 times higher than in the less contaminated territories several hundred kilometers away (Smirnov. plants. The speed of vertical migration of different radionuclides in floodplains. There were essential changes in the ionic. Yablokov. Table 8.to 200-fold (Kryshev and Ryazantsev. sometimes 100. As a result of this vertical migration of radionuclides in soil. Immediately after the first explosion in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) on Address for correspondence: Alexey V. This transfer is one of the important mechanisms. 8. Russia. Secondary contamination of freshwater ecosystems occurs as a result of Cs-137 and Sr-90 washout by the high waters of spring. by 130. Vassily B.1). Outside of the 30-km zone air radiolysis depressed the ecosystems. 2. Atmospheric. Russian Academy of Sciences. Chernobyl’s Contamination of Surface Air Data below show the detection of surface air contamination practically over the entire Northern Hemisphere (see Chapter I for relevant maps). 2000). and Soil Contamination after Chernobyl Alexey V. fax: +7-495-952-80-19.2 indicates the dynamics of the average annual concentration of some radionuclides in the atmosphere near the Chernobyl NPP. and gas structure of the surface air in the heavily contaminated territories.CHERNOBYL 8. 1992). Belarus. The consequences of such a shock on aquatic ecosystems is largely unclear. There were essential changes in the ionic. 223 .1. Many years after the catastrophe aerosols from forest fires have dispersed hundreds of kilometers away. Water. Concentrations of ionized surface air in the contaminated territories near the Chernobyl NPP repeatedly exceeded this level in Kaluga Province. Yablokov.

Oryol. 7. water. Kaluga. In Russia beta-activity originating from Chernobyl was detected several days after April 26.224 TABLE 8. when there were raging forest fires over all of Belarus.000 times higher than precatastrophe concentrations. April 30–May 1 3.3 × 10−6 Bq/m3 and for Minsk it was 1. 2006). The incidental component was strongly demonstrated in 1992. Midyear concentration of Pu-239 and Pu-240 in surface air in 1986 for Khoinyki was 8. April 28–29 74 320 27 93 48 – – 3 16 Baryshevka. connected with seasonal changes (e. Smolensk. especially during dry weather. In territories with a high density of ground-level radioactive contamination (in soil. There was a subsequent gradual decrease until the end of 1986 and then the rate fell sharply. Tambov. Kiev Province (Kryshev and Ryazantsev. 1986. 1986. harrowing. and for Cs-137 it took up to 40 months (Nesterenko. etc. 2000) Minsk City. Surface atmospheric radioactivity rises markedly after some agricultural work (tilling.. Noticeably high levels of radionuclides in surface air were detected many years after the catastrophe (Figure 8. levels that are 1.) and other dust-creating activities. 1997). July– December 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 Sr-90 n/a n/a 430 130 52 52 Ru-106 13. 1994) Year 1986. The half-life period to cleanse the surface air of Pu-239 and Pu-240 was 14. Voronezh. Levels of radioactive contamination of the surface air in Belarus has three dynamic components: (1) the general radioecological situation.400 160 – – Radionuclide Te-132 I-131 Ba-140 Cs-137 Cs-134 Se-141 Se-144 Zr-95 Ru-103 4. 1986. and (3) incidental. in Belarus (Minsk City) and Ukraine.1).2 months. Tula.2 × 10−2 Bq/m3 and in Minsk it was 3. respectively. From April to May 1986 surface air radioactivity in Belarus increased up to 1 million times.300 300 230 78 52 26 26 24 24 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 8. as a consequence of numerous anthropogenic and natural factors. which were below 10−6 Bq/m3 . and in the far eastern sector (Khabarovsk and Vladivostok).g. (2) cyclical.000 4. and Penza provinces in the Karelia Republic in the European part of the county.. In the Berezinsk Nature Reserve (400 km from Chernobyl) on April 27–28.9 Bq/m3 . Kiev Province. which were measured at less than 10−9 Bq/m3 (Gres’. the concentrations of I131 and Cs-137 in the air reached 150– 200 Bq/m3 and 9.8 × 10−3 Bq/m3 .000 400 – – – Cs-137 5..1. Their impact on the radioactive level in the atmosphere was so great that it led to a significant increase in the midyear concentration of radionuclides in surface air and most probably in human contamination via inhalation.000 1. In 1986 in Khoinyki.2.000 times higher than the precatastrophe concentrations.000 12. and in .000 to 10. and Nizhni Novgorod (Gor’ky). Concentration (Bq/m3 ) of Some Radionuclides on April 29–May 1. the midyear concentration of Cs-137 in the surface air was 3.000 2. levels that were 1. agricultural activities). 1986–1991 (Kryshev et al. 5. There is a tendency for radionuclide levels in surface air to increase during the spring and summer months. in Bryansk.1 × 10−6 Bq/ m3 .000 600 90 80 100 Se-144 34. 6. Dynamics of the Concentration of Some Radionuclides (Bq/m3 ) in the Chernobyl City Atmosphere. vegetation) the hot air resulting from the fires caused radionuclides to be carried up to a height of 3 km and transported over hundreds of kilometers (Konoplia et al. 2005). also in Rostov. in Ural (Sverdlovsk Province).

Zr-95. including Cs-137. Three Chernobyl clouds entered eastern Canada: the first on May 6.200 7. radioactive aerosols lifted by a strong wind from the 30-km Chernobyl zone reached the vicinity of Vilnius. Several years after the catastrophe.500 m in the first days of May 1986 and the other at a height of more than 6. Fe-59. 2000).740 1. 2. Pu-239 + Pu-240. 1990–2004 (Konoplya et al. DENMARK.1.440 2.: Atmospheric. FINLAND. Nurmijarvi.900 7. 5. Cs-137. Other Countries Below are some examples of Chernobyl’s radioactive contamination of the atmosphere in the Northern Hemisphere. Water. and Ru-103. secondary radioactive contamination from dust and aerosols became the important factor. 1. Mn-54. I-131..000 48.650 630 570 400 380 253 240 150 130 . and Cs-137 in the surface air in Khoiniky.3). 8. La-141. 1987) Nuclide I-131 I-133 Te-132 Cs-137 Cs-134 Ba-140 Te-129m Ru-103 Mo-99 Cs-136 Np-239 Activity 223.000 11. 1988). Airborne Radioactivity (mBq/m3 ) of 19 Radionuclides in Finland. 1988). Ru-103. Ce-141. Up to 20 radionuclides were detected in the surface air. The same scale of radionuclide dispersion occurs in the wake of forest fires that at times rage over large areas of the contaminated territories of Belarus.. Dynamics of the radionuclides Pu-239. where the Cs137 concentration increased 100-fold (Ogorodnykov. Pu-240. Nb-95. Two Chernobyl radioactive clouds were detected over Japan: one at a height of about 1. Ru-106. 5. On September 6.000 4. I-131.3..000 2. The most detailed accounting of the Chernobyl radionuclide fallout during the first days after the catastrophe was in Sweden and Finland (Table 8.000 m at the end of May (Higuchi et al. and Ukraine. 2006). 1988). 3. 2002). the third on May 25–26. 8. The fallout included: Be-7. 51 Bq/m3 . JAPAN. and Am-241.880 2. the second around May 14. Belarus.000 times higher than the precatastrophe levels (Kryshev and Ryazantsev. 1986. 1992. Zn65.900 Nuclide Te-131m Sb-127 Ru-106 Ce-141 Cd-115 Zr-95 Sb-125 Ce-143 Nd-147 Ag-110m Activity 1.2 μBq/m3 (Aarkrog. CANADA. Lithuania (about 300 km away) in 5–7 h.700 1.1. Russia. and Soil Contamination 225 Figure 8. Ce-144. some places was more than 10. TABLE 8. Co-60. 1986 (Sinkko et al.7 mBq/m3 . and Ba-140 (Roy et al.24 Bq/m3 .Yablokov et al. Sr-90. From April 27 to 28 the mean air concentration of Cs-137 was 0.000 33. April 28.. 4.2.

ID Portland. Pripyat. SCOTLAND.7 fCi/m3 28. Sozha. Don. HI New York.. and the Zapadnaya/DvinaDaugava. The Chernobyl fallout on the evening of May 3 included Te-132. including the water basins of the Dnepr.031 pCi/m3 14. 1986. The term “atmospheric radiotoxins” appeared after the catastrophe (Gagarinsky et al. Table 8. AL Portland.. confirms that Chernobyl was the source (Mani-Kudra et al. Cs-131. 1988). NY Barrow. and Lithuanian rivers were shown to be contaminated after the catastrophe. the total activity in Pripyat River water near the Chernobyl NPP exceeded 3. HI Barrow. 1991). The pathways of the Chernobyl plumes crossed the Arctic within the lower troposphere and the Pacific Ocean within the mid-troposphere. Volga. Cs-137. days. 1986). Chernobyl’s radioactive clouds were noted in the Bering Sea area of the north Pacific (Kusakabe and Ku. 1986. 1986. UNITED STATES. . 5. AL Mauna Loa. 1986. US EPA. NY Rexburg. However. 1986. 1986) Radionuclide I-131 Location New York.2. The second phase yielded much higher Ru-103 and Ba-140 activity relative to Cs-137 (Bondietti et al. Toppan.. Modern science is far from understanding or even being able to register all of the specific radiogenic effects for each of the Chernobyl radionuclides. the effects of the products of radiolysis from such huge atmospheric radiation fallout demands close attention. Examples of Surface Air Concentrations of I-131.6 fCi/m3 22.5 fCi/m3 9. Latvian..6 fCi/m3 1. May 1986 (Larsen and Juzdan. Larsen et al.. and Russia 1. ME Augusta. and Ba-140/La140 (Martin et al. Ukraine.5 summarizes some examples of surface air contamination in several countries resulting from the Chernobyl catastrophe. 1995). 1986). The maximum concentration of Pu-239 in the Pripyat River was 0. As noted earlier.9 pCi/m3 0. Only by the end of May 1986 had it decreased to 200 Bq/liter. Cs-134.9 fCi/m3 11.720 μBq/m3 11.37 Bq/liter. 1986.3 pCi/m3 0. I131. Ooe et al. Examples of Chernobyl’s atmospheric contamination are presented in Table 8. AL Mauna Loa. and there was a second peak on May 20–23. Bondietti and Brantley.113 pCi/m3 Concentrations of Cs-131/Cs-134/Cs-137 in the surface air northwest of Japan increased more than 1. Ru-103.720 μBq/m3 27.4. Many Belarussian. HI Mauna Loa. Gebbie and Paris. 1988... 7. Russian. The air particulate activity in the United States reached its highest level since the termination of nuclear weapons testing (US EPA.1. The increase in Pu-238/ P239-240 ratios in surface air at the VincaBelgrade site for May 1–15.2. ME Barrow. and weeks after the catastrophe. Feely et al. 1988). Cs-137. Neman. ME Lincoln. 6.2 fCi/m3 18.. NE Vermont Activity 20. and soon ended up in bodies of water—rivers. lakes.000 Bq/liter. Ukrainian. and reached North America. Noticeable atmospheric Cs137 fallout was marked in Japan up through the end of 1988 (Aoyama et al.226 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 8. and Cs-134 over the United States after the Chernobyl Catastrophe. 1986. 1994). Belarus. radionuclide air dispersion may occur secondarily as a result of forest fires.390 μBq/m3 2. 1988. In the first days after the catastrophe (the period of primary aerosol contamination). Chernobyl’s Contamination of Aquatic Ecosystems Chernobyl contamination traveled across the Northern Hemisphere for hours.4. I-132. YUGOSLAVIA. Vermont.000 times (Aoyama et al.. The first measured radiation arrived in the United States on May 10. was deposited via rain and snow. 8. and seas. Cs-137 Cs-134 Gross beta 8.80 pCi/m3 218. 1988).

In the Pripyat River floodplains in the territories with land contamination greater than 1. Examples of Surface Air Concentrations of Some Radionuclides in the Northern Hemisphere after the Catastrophe. 2000. More than 90% of the Pu + Am in aquatic ecosystems is in the sediment (Borysevich and Poplyko.. 30 May Apr. 2002). 5. In contaminated territories with Cs-137 levels of 0. 1–10% in gastropod mollusks. 1986 During 1984.5 Bq/m3 160 Bq/m3 100 Bq/m3 89 μBq/m3 0.3 kBq/kg).480 kBq/km2 ground water activity reached 3. about 2% in fish.C. Canada Quebec. 29–30 Reference RADNET.7 Bq/m3 0. and less than 1% in plankton (Gudkov et al. 30 May 1 Apr.2 Ci/km2 the rate of transfer from water into turf plants can vary 15. invertebrate. 1986 Irlweck et al. 9. 1993 Pourchet et al. the amount of radionuclides can be thousands of times higher in plants. 1998).300 Bq/liter and on May 4. the primary dose-forming radionuclides in clay in the bodies of water near the Chernobyl NPP were Ni-98 (27 kBq/kg).. 1–8% in zoobenthos. 1986 Radionuclide I-131 Concentration 223 Bq/m3 251 Bq/m3 176 Bq/m3 20.7 Bq/liter) was observed in rivers that ran through the heavily contaminated territories. 2002).: Atmospheric. In the years that followed bodies of water became secondarily contaminated as a result of the washout of Cs-137 and Sr-90 by spring high waters and from woodland fire fallout (Ryabov. 4.. 10–40% concentrated in aquatic plants. and Zr-96 (19. The Sr-90 contamination in the Dnepr River floodplain–lake ecosystem was concentrated primarily in bivalve mollusks.000-fold less (10–40 nBq/m3 ).0 Bq/liter of Cs-137 and . 3. 6. 1993 Thomas and Martin. Canada New York..Yablokov et al.5. and Soil Contamination 227 TABLE 8. 28 May 13 May 5–6 May May 5 Apr.. In March–April 1987 the concentration of Ni-95 in aquatic plants there reached 29 kBq/kg and Zr-95 levels in fowl were up to 146 kBq/kg (Kryshev et al. Water. 1997 Hotzl et al.∗ Location Nurmijarvi Revelstoke.to 60-fold from year to year (Borysevich and Poplyko. In July 1986. was 1. 2006). NY Japan Vienna Bulgaria Munich Vienna Paris Date Apr. it was 740 Bq/liter (Kryshev and Ryazantsev.. During the first period after the catastrophe the littoral zone was heavily contaminated with radioactivity.4 μBq/m3. 1986. The Cs-137 and Sr-90 concentrations increased in underground water and correlated with the density of land contamination and zones of aeration. Blynova. 2. total Pu-239 + Pu-240 activity was 1. and fishes compared with concentrations in water (Table 8. The Cs-137 in the Dnepr River floodplain–lake ecosystem was distributed as follows: 85–97% in aquatic plants. and about 1% in gastropod mollusks (Gudkov et al. 2006). 2004).8 Bq/m3 9.. 1986. 1992)..6). 2004).7 Bq/m3 62. 1987 Irlweck et al. Concentration of I-131 in surface water in Leningrad Province (Sosnovy Bor City) on May 2. 2008 Cs-137 Ru-103 Gross beta Pu-239 + Pu-240 ∗ Imanaka and Koide.000 times higher than the precatastrophe level (Ryabov. From May to July 1986 the level of radiation in the northern part of the Kiev water reservoir was 100. 10. Owing to bioaccumulation. 1–8% in fish. B. 7. Ce-144 (20. The highest level of Sr-90 (up to 2. 11. 8.1 kBq/kg).

Gudkov et al. with Ru-103 being the most prevalent isotope (Kempe and Nies.8. Owing to its higher solubility. 0. 1988). in aquatic plants upto 3.000 11.000 98 1. Data on some radionuclide concentrations in rainfall and surface water in Finland. AND CANADA. Up to 99% of Sr-90 migrates in a dissolved state (Konoplia and Rolevich. 12. 9. Other Countries 1.458 60 Fishes (bream. 1996).000–4. Cs-134. 5..7 Bq/liter.000 20.14. Coefficients of Accumulation for Some Live Organisms∗ of Chernobyl Radionuclides in the Dnepr River and the Kiev Reservoir. France. whereas Ru-106 and Ag-110 lingered in the spume (Martin et al. In the 5 to 9 years after the catastrophe. 1986.000 22. Cs-137. In a North Sea sediment trap. Sr-90 leaves river ecosystems much faster than Cs137. the highest Chernobyl activity reached 670.000–17. 14. in heavily weeded bodies of water there was a decrease in Cs-137 and Sr-90 in the water itself but a simultaneous increase in radioactivity in the sediment (Konoplia and Rolevich. During spring high waters Cs-137 that has accumulated in bottom sediments becomes suspended and leads to noticeably increased radioactivity in water.2. GREECE.700–3.900 3. More intensive radionuclide accumulation occurs in lake sediments owing to annual die-off of vegetation and the absence of drainage.000 Bq/kg. NORTH SEA.600 750–1.. Composition of doseforming radionuclides and their activity in Greece in May 1986 are presented in Table 8. Ce-144 Ru-103. but it has increased in aquatic plants and sediments (Konoplia and Rolevich. 1996). Cs-137 and Cs-134 quickly migrated to the sediments.000 — — 120 Water plants 20.13. Ru-103. 13. and Ru-103 were measured in rainwater in the Nijmegen area during May 1–21. 8. FINLAND. The amount of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in water has decreased over time.. GREAT BRITAIN (SCOTLAND). and Canada are presented in Table 8.000 240 4. total radionuclide concentration in water measured 8. 1988). The total activity on the first rainy day was of 9 kBq/liter . Belarus). 16.000 Bq/kg (Konoplia and Rolevich. silver bream) 500–900 120–130 100–1. 1986–1989 (Kryshev and Ryazantsev.000 178–500 2. In the Svjetsko Lake (Vetka District. and Ba-140/La140 totaling 7.667 2–40 Concentration in aquatic flora and fauna as compared with concentration in water. and in fish up to 39. Ru-106 Cs-134. Cs-134. 2000: tables 9. 1996).175 7. Radionuclide levels in sea spume were several thousand times higher than in seawater in June of 1986. Cs-137 Zr-95 Ni-95 Sr-90 Pu Am I-131 ∗ Mollusks 3.228 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 8. Cs-137.100 190 220 50–3. On the evening of May 3. 2.2. Te-132.12.000–24.6. La-140.7. 3. 1996). I-132. roach.700 Bq/kg. I-131.700 440–3. 2002). 9. At the same time Cs-137 can accumulate up to 93 × 10−9 Ci/kg in grass and sod on flooded land (Borysevich and Poplyko. FRANCE. 1996). one of the Chernobyl clouds contaminated the sea with Te-132/I-132. sander. 4. 2004) Radionuclide Ce-141. THE NETHERLANDS.000 2. 1987). 15. I131.000 Bq/liter (Martin et al.7 Bq/liter of S-90 (Konoplia and Rolevich.

686 48. 1987 Thomas and Martin. As in the previous review. 1992). Water. 1986 Saxen and Aaltonen. 1986– 1987 Radionuclide Cs-137 Maximum concentration 5. 29–30. 1994). Bq/m2 ). Greece.7 kBq/liter for I-131 and 2.2. . Paris Finland France..3). Chernobyl’s Contamination of the Soil Mantle The soil mantle will accumulate Chernobyl’s radionuclides with long half-lives for centuries. May 5–6. and up to 80 times higher than the highest values after the nuclear weapons test period in the 1960s. with the Sr-90 activity ranging from 1. 1987 Joshi.256 35.8. 1995). (2.278 70.: Atmospheric. 6.4 to 40 kBq/m2 (Salbu et al. Plowed and natural pastures located 50 to 650 km from the Chernobyl site have levels of Cs-137 activity in the 1. 8. 1986 Reference Saxen and Aaltonen. and Soil Contamination 229 TABLE 8. The total Cs-137 loading of Lake Sniardwy was estimated to average 6. and Russia 1.3.100 Bq/m2 (Robbins and Jasinski. Levels of contamination are higher in natural pastures as compared with plowed pastures. Ukraine. The annual mean concentration of Cs-137 (in Bq/kg) in surface water near Gotland Island from 1984 to 2004 is shown in Figure 8. 8. 7.3. Ontario France.3 kBq/liter each for Te-132 and I-132).000 to 25 kBq/m2 range in the upper soil layers (0–5 cm). 1988 Thomas and Martin..000 times higher than the precatastrophe concentration. which delivered 192 MBq of Chernobyl’s Pu-239 + Pu-240 to the Baltic Sea in 1989 (Skwarzec and Bojanowski.Yablokov et al. Radionuclides on sod-podzol and heavily podzolized sandy clay soils move from the surface to the bottom soil layer during the course of time. The highest concentration of Pu in sediment probably came from the Vistula River. Paris Date 1986 May 1986 Apr. POLAND. It is in this way that soils with low surface contamination transfer radioactivity to the vegetative (and edible) parts of plants (Borysevich and Poplyko. 1987).700 64.276 8. Rainfall and Surface Water Radionuclide Concentrations in Several Countries. resulting in the concentration of radionuclides in the root zone. (Total Wet Deposition. 1986 Sr-89 Te-132 ∗ About 1. TABLE 8.7.580 23. 2002). 2. Average values of Pu-239 + Pu240 in the Polish economic zone of the Baltic Sea ranged from 30 to 98 Bq/m2 in three sampling locations. 1986 (Papastefanou et al. Belarus. 29–30.300 Bq/m3∗ 325 mBq/liter 700 Bq/liter 11. The total activity precipitated per square kilometer in this period was about 55 GBq (Beentjes and Duijsings.470 12.000 Bq/m3 7.900 15. Composition and Activity of the Chernobyl Radioactive Fallout in Thessaloniki. SWEDEN. 1988) Radionuclide I-131 Te-132 I-132 Ru-103 Ba-140 Cs-137 La-140 Cs-134 Maximum concentration 117. 1986 1986 Apr. this material is only a representative selection from the very large body of existing data.1. Concentration of Cs137 in surface water of the Tyrrhenian Sea rose significantly immediately after the catastrophe (Figure 8. TYRRHENIAN SEA.400 Bq/liter Location Finland Canada.

6. 7. or sandy (Borysevich and Poplyko.11 Bq/kg) in the degree of Cs137 transition from soil to beetroots depending on whether the soil is sod-podzol. Figure 8. 4. eastern Belarus. 2000). In humid environments such as flood planes. and nearby provinces of Russia. but some “spots” of radioiodine soil contamination have been detected in many areas. The annual mean Cs-137 concentrations (in Bq/liter) in surface waters of East and West Gotland (sampling depth ≤10 m) from 1984 to 2004. 3.3. loamy. The soils most highly contaminated by I-131 are in northern Ukraine. and peat bogs vertical migration is activated at different speeds for different radionuclides (Table 8. Straight line—average pre-Chernobyl (1984–1985) level (HELCOM.. There is roughly a 10-fold variation (from 0. 1960–1995 (Europe Environmental Agency. In many areas up to hundreds of kilometers to the west. northwest. . 2005). lowland moors.01 to 0. 1999). The granular composition of soil and agrichemical soil characteristics modifies the transfer coefficient for Cs-137 (see Chapter 9). sandy-clay. 2002).489 kBq/m2 (Kryshev and Ryazantsev. 1992). Self-cleansing of soils by vertical migration of radionuclides can reach 2 to 4 cm/year (Bakhur et al.230 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 8. 5. Concentration of Cs-137 (mBq/liter) in surface waters of the Tyrrhenian Sea.9). 2006). including Kaliningrad Province on the Baltic shore (Makhon’ko. and northeast of the Chernobyl NPP the levels of Cs-137 soil contamination exceed 1.2.

. Most of the debris was deposited in the first half of May. 7. Surface soil Cs-137 activity was up to 81. In 1986 Cs-137 fallout deposit c reached 6. Concentration of Cs-137 in soil 0–5 cm deep declined only 20% in the first 5 years after the catastrophe (Velasko et al. 2. 3. AUSTRIA.12). 19. The initial Chernobyl fallout owing to Cs-137/Cs-134 reached a concentration of 14. The alpine regions were among the most heavily contaminated territories outside of the Former Soviet Union. Ten years after the catastrophe 54% of Chernobyl-derived Cs-137 was 2 cm deeper into the soil layer in a spruce forest stand. 1994).11). CROATIA. Floodplain loading of Cs-137 in soil was up to 100 times greater than in soils above the floodplain (Walling and Bradley. 10. The Years Needed to Achieve a 50% Reduction in the Amount of Each Radionuclide in the Top (0–5 cm) Soil Layer in Areas 50 and 200 km from the Chernobyl NPP (National Belarussian Report. In the mountain area of FriuliVenezia Giulia deposition of Cs-137 from Chernobyl ranged from 20 to 40 kBq/m−2 . 13. GERMANY. JAPAN.9. 2008). 1996).3 and 38 Bq/m2 .: Atmospheric. 1987). In May 1986 in Salzburg Province the median Cs-137 surface deposition was about 31 kBq/m2 with maximum values exceeding 90 kBq/m2 (Lettner et al. and concentration of radionuclides in the southern part of the country was much higher (Table 8. DENMARK... 2008).. 8.3 kBq/m2 (Frani´ et al. FRANCE..8 kBq/m2 in the most contaminated territories. 4. as a result of Chernobyl. Pu-240 Am-241 Sr-90 Cs-137 Up to 50 km 6–7 6–7 7–12 10–17 Up to 200 km >50 >50 7–12 24–27 231 8. which is eight times higher than the cumulative amount deposited during the peak period of weapons testing (Pourchet et al. and maximum Cs-134 + Cs-137 ground deposition was up to 200 kBq/m2 (Energy. one of the Chernobyl clouds . with resulting levels of 414. Average ground deposition for total Cs was 6 kBq/m2 (Energy. 1997). and Soil Contamination TABLE 8. Up to 20 radionuclides were detected on the ground. Other Countries 1. NORWAY. 2006) Years Radionuclide Pu-239. 11. UNITED KINGDOM. 1997).. IRELAND. 1988).1989). The average retention half-life of Cs137 was 5. The maximal Cs-137 Chernobyl soil contamination reached up to 545 kBq/kg (CRII-RAD.2.13. 2000).3 years in the 0–5 cm layer. 1988) and radioactivity from Chernobyl fallout in the French Alps reached 400 Bq/m2 (Pinglot et al. ITALY. 9. SWEDEN. Many places in Norway were heavy contaminated after the catastrophe (Table 8. 12. respectively (Aoyama et al. and 1. Water. 2007) or even 200 kBq/m2 (Energy...200 Bq/m2 . BULGARIA. some 20-fold higher than the pre-catastrophe level (McAuley and Moran. Examples of radioactive contamination in soil are presented in Table 8. I-131. ESTONIA. 2008). The total mean Cs-137 and Sr90 deposits over Denmark reached 1.Yablokov et al. and Ru-103. 14. including Cs-137..9 years in the 5–10 cm layer.10). and 1 Bq/m2 . 9. Soil in central Poland was contaminated by a wide spectrum of the Chernobyl radionuclides (Table 8. On May 3. 1988). In the northeastern part of the country Cs-134 + Cs-137 ground deposition levels were up to 30 kBq/m2 and I131 and I-132 deposition was up to 1 MBq/m2 (Energy. 5.3. The mean deposition of Chernobyl Cs-137 in the forest soils was above 50 kBq/m2 (McGee et al.78 years in layers deeper than 10 cm (Strebl et al. respectively. In the Faeroe Islands the mean deposition of Cs-137 was 2 kBq/m2 and in Greenland it was up to 188 Bq/m2 (Aarkrog. 1995). 6. The ground deposition from Chernobyl for Cs-137 was 40 kBq/m2 (Realo et al. POLAND. with less than 3% having reached layers deeper than 20 cm. 2006). 2008).

. Ce-141. 16. cumulative dry and wet deposition. Observations of radionuclide contamination of U. and European Russia. 1986.10. TABLE 8. I-131. Spectrum and Activity of Chernobyl Radionuclides in Soil Samples (kBq/m2 in 0–5 cm Layer) in the Krakov Area. 1995 Blakar et al. grazing areas Soils in affected areas Reference Hongve et al. UNITED STATES. 1986 June 3.. max 43 1. 1992 Staaland et al. Cs-137.5 2. 1987) Radionuclide Te-132 I-132 I-131 Te-129m Ru-103 Cs-137 Cs-134 Activity 29.12. and Ce-144 (Larsen et al. and Ba-140/La-140 totaling 41 kBq/m2 (Martin et al.4. Zr-95...14. May 1.3 0. Ru-103.1 5.S. Modern science is far from understanding or even being able to register all of the radiological effects on the air. 1986 Maximum radioactivity 22 kBq/kg∗ 500 kBq/m2∗ 22 Bq/kg 80 kBq/m2 54 kBq/m2 (mean) 200 kBq/m2∗ ∗ Location Stream gravel Average in sediment Svalbard glaciers Dovrefjell Southern Norway. Ukraine.0 6.. 1988). 1990 Energy.7 1. soils from Chernobyl are listed in Table 8. Cs-134. Table 8. Ba140..8 0. 1988).3 25. Conclusion Chernobyl’s radioactive contamination has adversely affected all biological as well as nonliving components of the environment: the atmosphere. water. 2008 Gogolak et al.7 Up to 360 . Levels of Chernobyl’s radioactive contamination even in North America and eastern Asia are above the maximum levels that were found in the wake of weapons testing in the 1960s. TABLE 8. 1992 Cs-134 + Cs-137 contaminated the Scottish landscape with Te132/I-132. 1994 Solem and Gaare.38 60 120 Reference Bilo et al. the surface and the bottom soil layers. 1993 Clooth and Aumann. Ru-106.232 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 8.2 2. Ground Deposition (kBq/m2 ) of Some Chernobyl Radionuclides in Germany. 1986 Radionuclide Cs-137 Cs-134 + Cs-137 Te-132 ∗ Location Upper Swabia Bonn South Germany Munich∗ Concentration. surface and ground waters. La-140. 8.4 1. Cs-136.11. 1986). Examples of Cs-137 Ground Contamination after the Chernobyl Catastrophe in Norway. Mo-95. 1986 (Broda.6 8. Ground deposition for Cs-137 comes close to or exceeds the total weapons’ testing fallout (Dibb and Rice. Cs-134. 1995 Hongve et al. 15. especially in the heavily contaminated areas of Belarus.7 23. Cs-137. I-132. 1995 Pinglot et al.7 Radionuclide Ba-140 La-140 Mo-99 Ru-106 Sb-127 Cs-136 Total Activity 2.. The spectrum of Chernobyl’s soil contamination in the United States included Ru-103.. and soil ecosystems due to anthropogenic radioactive contamination.15 presents data on Cs-137 + Cs-134 contamination in several European countries..

1993 Nair and Darley. 1988. MD Chester.. Undoubtedly there are such changes and. they accumulate in plants with deep root systems. Shetland Holmrook. Dreicer et al.8 7. Water.8 Cs-137.tripod.13. owing to the amount of Chernobyl radionuclides that were added to the biosphere. 1987 Fulker.46 Bq/m2 15 Bq/m2 47. NJ Chester. NJ Solomons Island. 1986) Radionuclide Cs-137 Cs-134 Ru-103 Location Solomons Island. 1989 RADNET.. NJ Portland.htm) Location Czech (Prague) Hungary (Budapest) Yugoslavia (Belgrade) Romania (Bucharest) Poland (Warsaw) Cs-134.14.4 2. MD Solomons Island.. in soil microfilms. Absorbed by the roots. Contrary to the common view that the Chernobyl plumes contained mostly light and gaseous radionuclides.250 Bq/m2 9.6 1.6 100 88.000 Bq/m2 22. the changes will continue for many decades. 1986. MD Chester. kBq/m2 2.9 8..2 Bq/m2 9. 1987 Rafferty et al. which would disappear without a trace into the Earth’s atmosphere. This transfer is one of the more important mechanisms observed in recent years that leads to increased internal irradiation for people in the all of the territories contaminated by nuclear fallout. Level of Ground Radioactive Contamination after the Chernobyl Catastrophe on British Embassy Territory in Some European Countries (http://members. As a result of vertical migration of radionuclides through soil. 1986 Wynne. NJ Chester. through bioconcentration (for details see Chapters 9 and 10). and Soil Contamination 233 TABLE 8. I-131 and Cs-134/Cs-137 Soil Contamination (kBq/m2 ) from Chernobyl Radionuclides in Some Parts of the United Kingdom.Yablokov et al. This means that harmless looking “average” levels of radionuclides inevitably have a powerful impact on living organisms in the contaminated ecosystems.9 5.15. OR Date.40 Bq/m2∗ 2.3 4. 2008 Cs-134/Cs-137 Gross beta TABLE 8.4 15 0.000 Bq/m2 18.: Atmospheric. in sea spume. Miller and Gedulig. kBq/m2 4. 1986 Radionuclide I-131 Cs-137 Activity 26 41 7. Scotland Date May 1–6 May 1986 May May May 6 Reference Cambray et al. the buried radionuclides again rise to the surface and will be incorporated in the food chain.3 4. the available facts indicate that even Pu TABLE 8. Gebbie and Paris. .3 2.4 Location Lerwick. etc. 1986.157 pCi/m2 I-131 ∗ Deposition on grass. 1986 May 8–June 20 May 17 May 8–June 20 May 8–June 20 June 3 May 23 May 23 May 11 Activity 4. Cumbria Ireland Berkeley.com/∼BRuslan/ win/energe1. Common estimates of the level of radioactivity per liter or cubic or square meter mask the phenomenon of radionuclides concentrating (sometimes many thousands of times) in sediments. Examples of Ground Deposition of Chernobyl Radionuclides (Dibb and Rice. Cumbria Sellafield.7 concentrations increased thousands of times at distances as far as many thousands of kilometers away from Chernobyl. Gloucestershire Scotland Strathclyde.

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Walling. J. (1994). S. US EPA (1986). Toso. J.. Supplement 5. Radioact. Chernobyl fallout radionuclides in Lake Sniardwy. Feed selection and radiocesium intake by reindeer. (1993).. (1995). 31(2): 10–39.. & Candaudap. Env. R. & Realo. Papastefanou. J. October 15–17. Spatial distribution of Chernobyl contamination over Bulgaria. 6: 121–130 (cited by RADNET. Ionization in the Troposphere (“Gydrometeoizdat.. 2008). Augusta. V. In: Interagency Coordination Council on Scientific Provision of Chernobyl Programme. In: Chernobyl: Duty and Courage (Collected Papers. H.. F. Mustonen. 2008). Saxen. 1991. Radioact. (1988). 29(1): 39–56. I. I. org/cbm/Rad12. Strebl. et al. Minsk): 55 pp.. K. W. 17(1): 1–12. Staaland. Vermont state environmental radiation surveillance program. Rafferty.. (1995). J. 29: 111–120. Koch.. Environm. Sheep farming after Chernobyl. (1992). Geochem. Env. 1997. Radiation measurements and radioecological aspects of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident. Vermont (1986). Pinglot. Transport and redistribution of Chernobyl fallout radionuclides by fluvial processes: Some preliminary evidence. J. O. R. B. Radiocesium in aquatic invertebrates from Dovrefjell. H. RADNET (2008). B. S. J. V. Airborne radioactivity in Finland after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. & Aaltonen. J. Information about source points of anthropogenic radioactivity: A Freedom of Nuclear Information Resource (Center of Biological Monitoring. Dietary intake of radiocesium by free ranging mountain sheep. N. J. (in Russian). V. 2008). J. Sci.htm) (in Russian). 25: 161–176. & Juutilainen. & Turcotte. Env. 6: 219–223 (cited by RADNET. Poland. after the Chernobyl fall-out. 26: 157–184.. Report No. A. Gerzabek.. & Ikeda. Radioact. Studies on radiocesium in Estonian soils. (in Russian). A. C. R. Karg. Seki.. Pourchet. R. Env. B. Radioact. Cs-137 migration in soils and its transfer to roe deer in an Austrian forest stand. & Charamlambous. Hagen... Env. Manager. Department of Human Services.. Colgan. M. Radiocesium in the northeastern part of Italy after the Chernobyl accident: Vertical soil transport and soil-to-plant transfer.. ME (cited by RADNET. Borovets.. Petersburg): 197 pp. Radioact. 21(1): 33–46. 26–30 (www. First assessment of Chernobyl radioactive plume over Paris. J. Pourchet. Report No. . Belarus. (1986). (1989). Zhygareva. (1997). Bulgaria (cited by RADNET. 181(3): 237–247. Radioact. In: International Symposium OM2 on Observation of the Mountain Environment in Europe. N. (1992). C. et al. (1988).. Taipale. J. Env. Total Env. B.. Norway. A. J. B. Radioact. S. K. Garmo. J. P.. Radioact.. A. Radioact. J. & Jasinski. D. Report. On the transport of Chernobyl radioactivity to Eastern Canada. Natural and artificial radioactivity in the Svalbard glaciers. (1997). R. 15(3): 249–264. Env. Helsinki) (cited by RADNET. R. J. Division of Occupational Radiation Health (Vermont State Department of Health.. Ogorodnykov.. D. Solem. Radioact. S. E. (1987). E. Smirnov. Manolopoulou. Thomas. & Sansone. Wynne. 2008). (1996). Villeneuve. Montpelier) (cited by RADNET. H. Moscow) 1: pp. Washington) (cited by RADNET. Sinkko. & Bojanowski.” Moscow): 216 pp. & Bradley. M. B. K. H. K. M. Liberty) (www. Chernobyl: Fifteen Years Later. Hove. (1986)... A.. J. J. J.236 pectin-containing food additives. J. 2008). Salbu. Kruglov. Veltchev. J.html) (accessed March 4. Gaare. Helsinki) (cited by RADNET. B. sheep and goats grazing on alpine summer habitats in southern Norway. 2008).. H. Env. K. 7: 49–64. Robbins. O. (1995). Realo. E. January 4. Vaikmae. Belli. Aaltonen. T. H. T. J. Roy. (2002). Mahfoud. M. STUK-A56 (Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. M. & Tataruch. Env. F. Jogi.. 1986. J. & Synnott. & Martin. E. EPA520/5-87-004 (US EPA. 1986 to 1989. A.” St. Ratnykov. 37(1): 73– 83. Memos released May 9–13. O. (1987). V. Radioecology of fishes from the Chernobyl zone (“KMK. Environmental radiation data: April– June 1986. N. J. 2008).. Health Physics 67(5): 518– 528. U. (1994). Toppan. (1988). Ryabov. P. Annual Report STUK-A55 (Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. Particle-size distribution of fission products in airborne dust collected at Tsukuba from April to June 1986. 2005 (National Belarussian Academy.. 2008). Ooe. F. The mobility from Cs-137 and Sr-90 in agricultural soils in the Ukraine. (in Russian). Update on DHS radiation monitoring. 2008). V. Skwarzec.davistownmuseum. Health 10(2): 35–39. McGee.niiit/book4/glav-2-24. Oughton. Lefauconnier. J. (1988). & Pedersen. M. R. Velasko. Env. C.. Nature 321: 817–819. and Russia. (2004).iss. Env. T. Distribution of plutonium in selected components of the Baltic ecosystem within the Polish economic zone. Radioactivity of surface water in Finland after the Chernobyl accident Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences in 1986. L. E. (1992). Radioact. A. H. Cote. Env. J. H.

the season.. 2006. Grodzinsky et al. Chernobyl’s Radioactive Impact on Flora Alexey V. sometimes continuing for many years.ru 237 . 1999. CA = (Bq/kg of plant biomass)/(Bq/kg of soil)]. Sr-90. 1998. and life-support Address for correspondence: Alexey V. Parfenov and Yakushev. Radionuclide levels in plants depend on the transfer ratio (TR. Leninsky Prospect 33. 1995.. The Chernobyl fallout has ruined the pine forests near the nuclear power plant. Russia.1. fax: +7-495-952-80-19. Soon after the catastrophe plants and fungi in the contaminated territories became concentrators of radionuclides. 9. Unique pathologic complexes are seen in the Chernobyl zone. and many others). Ipat’ev 1994.. Office 319. etc. 1992. Yablokov Plants and mushrooms accumulate the Chernobyl radionuclides at a level that depends upon the soil. Orlov. if not impossible. Pu-238. Radioactive Contamination of Plants. spotty radioactive contamination. Voice: +7-495-952-80-19. to predict the actual levels of Cs-137. and a thousand times less than that for Ce-144). and other changes in plants caused by Chernobyl radiation. such as a high percentage of anomalous pollen grains and spores. Yablokov@ecopolicy. Krasnov. 1991. which were not able to withstand the powerful radioactive impact.1). levels of accumulation for Sr-90 are much higher than for Cs-137. and the particular species and populations (subspecies. medicinal. and Am-241 at each place and time and for each individual plant or fungus. immunological. and Lichens The level of radionuclide incorporation (accumulation) in a living organism is a simple and reliable mark of the potential for damage to the genetic. There is also an extensive body of literature on genetic. Aleksakhin. Mushrooms. There are thousands of papers about agricultural. In this chapter we present only a relatively small number of the many scientific papers that address Chernobyl’s radioactive impact on flora. Chernobyl’s irradiation has led to genetic disorders. transition coefficient) and the coefficient of accumulation (CA)—the relationship of specific activity of a radionuclide in a plant’s biomass to the specific activity of the same radionuclide in soil: [TR = (Bq/kg of plant biomass)/(kBq/m2 for soil contamination). and it appears that it has awakened genes that have been silent over a long evolutionary time. Russian Academy of Sciences. the particular biosphere. morphological. cultivars). Pu-240. 2001.” the soil and plants surfaces became contaminated and a cycle of absorption and release of radioisotopes from soil to plants and back again was put into motion (Figure 9. where contamination in the first weeks and months after the catastrophe reached several thousand curies per square kilometer. Pu239. Chernobyl irradiation has caused structural anomalies and tumorlike changes in many plant species. g. Yablokov.CHERNOBYL 9. 119071 Moscow. Coefficients of accumulation and transition ratios vary so much in time and space that it is difficult. and other plants and mushrooms contaminated after the Chernobyl catastrophe (Aleksakhin et al. pulling them from the soil via their roots and sending them to other parts of the plant. With the catastrophe’s initial atmospheric radiotoxins (see Chapter 8) and the powerful irradiation caused by “hot particles. Each radionuclide has its own accumulation characteristics (e. the climate.

9.650 – 312. Plants 1.400 1. (A.350 14. E.400 18. There were high levels of radionuclide accumulation in aquatic plants (Table 9. 2. ∗∗ near underground station “Lesnaya. In annual plants such as absinthe (Artemisia absinthium).290 400 11.100 4.” .100 18.1. Table 9.1). After the catastrophe the levels of incorporated radionuclides jumped in all of the heavily contaminated territories.350 400 399.930 – – 36.800 6. dry weight) of Leafage in Three Species in Kiev City at the End of July 1986 (Grodzinsky.3 indicate the level of plant radionuclide contamination that was reached worldwide after the catastrophe.600 Betula verrucosa∗∗ 10.800 18.1.540 10. Bakhur photo.500 – 101.300 1.000 Tilla cordata∗∗ 146.800 660 4.1.700 6.800 63. Spots of the raised radioactivity are visible.1.150 – – 1.2 presents data on radionuclide accumulation in the pine needles in Finland after the catastrophe.800 61.4). The first part of this section presents data regarding radioactive contamination in plants and the second relates to the levels of contamination in mushrooms and lichens.900 – 70.100 7.180 5. The levels of surface contamination of three species of plants in Kiev City reached 399 kBq/kg and varied by specific location and particular radionuclide (Table 9.600 53. Chernobyl Radioactivity (Bq/kg. 1995b) Nuclide Pm-144 Ce-141 Ce-144 La-140 Cs-137 Cs-134 Ru-103. 4.050 94. C-14 TABLE 9.300 2.800 390 3. Rh-103 Ru-106 Zr-95 Nb-95 Zn-65 Total activity ∗ Aesculus hippocastanum∗ 58.300 Near underground station “Darnitza”. 5.600 35. 1991.500 9.238 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 9.500 21.400 Pinus silvestris∗∗ – 4. Radioautographs of plants with Chernobyl radionuclides: (A) leaf of common plantain (Plantago major ). with permission. Russia.600 41. (B) aspen leaf (Populus tremula) Bryansk Province.030 2. Data in Table 9. 3.) systems of that organism.000 18.

Hylocomium splendens Moss Plants Edible seaweed Grass Pine needles Pine needles Hair moss Herbs Hair moss ∗∗ ∗∗∗ Activity 40. 1987 Clark..370∗∗∗ 44. 11. Russian northwest (more than 1. 1995 Elstner et al. Cs-137 accumulation in the various grain crops varied to an even greater degree than that in vegetative masses. Concentration of Cs-137 in the vegetative mass in different lupine (Lupinus) varieties was on average fivefold more than in maize (Zea). 1987 Gedikoglu and Sipahi. Krasnov and Orlov. The leaves of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) during fruiting (July) contain 31% of the general Cs-137 activity. May– December 1986 (Lang et al. 1995 Ilus et al. There was a marked increase in the total amount of radionuclides in tree rings of pine (Pinus silvestris) in the Karelia Republic.000 30.. Concentration of Three Radionuclides in Pine Needles in Central Finland. 1998). .. The Belarussian berries. 1987 I-131 Ce-141 Ru-103 Te-132 Sr-89 ∗ 1987. and rhizomes with roots 18% (Korotkova and Orlov.. are characterized by a maximum intensity of Cs-137 accumulation (Mukhamedshin et al. and clover (Trifolium) and vetch (Vicia) had intermediate levels.. 1987 Rantavaara. 1996). More radionuclides accumulated in the root system (up to sevenfold more than in above-ground parts of plants). There are wide intraspecies variations in specific Sr-90 activity: from 2–3 up to 555 Bq/kg in fresh bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) in mertyllus-type pinewoods (Orlov et al. Jacob and Likhtarev.5 Ci/km2 . 8. It is important to note that Karelia officially characterized the level of contamination as very moderate (<0. 1988 Ilus et al.. The coefficient of accumulation of Cs-137 in cranberries (Oxycoccus palustris) is up to 1. semifrutex of the Vacciniaceae species.000 20. 1997. up to 139 times higher than in 1985.000 239 concentrations increased as much as fivefold in 1986 (Grodzinsky et al....000 730 3.500 Country Norway Finland Norway Germany Turkey Norway Germany Japan Japan UK Finland Finland Finland Finland Finland Reference Staaland et al.028 (Orlov and Krasnov. 1996.000 40. 1988..000 40. Thea sinensis Moss. 1995. In above-ground parts.300 15. 1988 Lang et al. 1988) Radionuclide Cs-137 Ce-141 Ru-103 Concentration. 9.290∗∗ 12. stalks have 26%. Bq/kg 30. 1988 Ishida et al. 6.2 shows the concentration of C-14 in three rings (percent compared to the 1950 level) of pine (Pinus silvestris) from the 10-km zone.180∗ 28..000 Bq/m2 40.Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Flora TABLE 9. 1987 Staaland et al. berries 25%. 1999). Examples of the Worldwide Contamination of Plants (Bq/kg) in 1986 Nuclide Cs-137 Subject Moss Hair moss Moss Moss Tea. Figure 9.3. 1986 Lang et al. the higher radionuclide concentration is in the leaves and lower levels in the flowers (Grodzinsky et al.200 km from Chernobyl) after the catastrophe (Figure 9.000 35..100 1. 1995c). 1993 Heinzl et al. 1996).000 18.. 1988 Hisamatsu et al. 1989 Steinnes and Njastad.000 35. 2006). Cort and Tsaturov.2. 1987 Ilus et al.. 1995a). 7.3).000 2.. 10. Kenigsberg et al.. in dernopodzolic soils by a factor of 38 and in chernozem by a factor of 49 (Kuznetsov TABLE 9..

Bulavik. 2000.240 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 9.9) in Belarus.900 66.000 3. The Cs-137 CA of 120 plant species increases in the following order of ecotopes: boggy forest (425) > oakwood (241) > depressions between hill-forest of flood plain (188) > pinewood (94) > undrained lowland swamp (78) > hill forest of flood plains (68) > upland meadows (21) > drained peat-bog soil (11) > long-term fallow soil (0.800 3.800 1. 13. Plants growing on hydromorphic landscapes accumulate 10-fold more Cs-137 than those in automorphic soil.330 Sr-90 925 5 2. 1993). 17. 1990. Transfer ratios from soil to plants are different for each species and also vary by season and habitat (Table 9. Ukraine. There is up to a 50-fold difference in the Cs-137 TR between an automorphic and a hydromorphic environment: intensity of accumulation of Cs-137 in berries is much lower on richer and dry soils as compared with poor and wet soils (Tsvetnova et al. Levels of Radionuclide Accumulations (Bq/kg. 2002).84.700 13. The level of incorporated radionuclides tends to correlate with the density of radioactive contamination in the soil (Figure 9.900 20. 1998).300 8.700 Cs-134 8.000 Ru-106. 14.. Rh-106 33.400 270 et al. percent difference from the level in the year 1950) from the 10-km Chernobyl zone (Grodzinsky et al.89) and the specific activity of Cs-137 in the soil (r = 0. Wirth et al. 16. The transfer coefficient for Cs-137 from scrub forests is up to three times higher for half-submerged soil as compared with drier soil and up to twice that for mixed vegetation as compared with pinewoods (Borysevich and Poplyko.900 129.4). The Cs137 transfer ratio in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) is threefold higher than that for wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca. Korotkova. Rh-103 4. There are strong correlations between specific Cs-137 activity in a phytomass of Convallaria majalis and both the density of ground contamination (r = 0. 1994. and others). 1996.400 26. 18. Figure 9.2. Ipat’ev.100 4..04. underwater parts Narrow-leaved cat’s-tail (Typha angustifolia) Ce-144 44.5). above-water parts Common reed grass (Phragmites communis). Concentration of C-14 in tree rings of pine (Pinis silvestris. Dry Weight) by Some Aquatic Plants. The maximum transfer ratio (from soil to plant) of Sr-90 was measured in wild strawberries (TR 14–15). 1995c).800 21. There are heavy accumulations of Cs137 in a plant’s above-ground biomass in the Ukrainian wet pine subor for the cowberry family species (Vacciniaceae): TR is about 74 . 2000).. Elyashevich and Rubanova. 12.700 6. Elyashevich and Rubanova.000 99. The most active transfer of radionuclides from soil to plants occurs on peatbog soil. 15. Zr-95 63.700 1.700 7.800 Cs-137 12. and the minimum was in bilberry (TR 0.4.6–0.500 24.370 Nb-95. 1986–1993 (Bar’yakhtar. 1993).350 Ru-103. 1995) Species Shining pondweed (Potamogeton natans) Common reed grass (Phragmites communis).600 3..600 12.

1998). Orlov. fresh sudubrava.4 Species Rubus nessensis Rubus caesius Fragaria vesca Sorbus aucuparia Viburnum opulus TR 6. Krasnov. in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus).0 0.Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Flora 241 Figure 9. Total radioactivity in tree rings of pine (Pinus silvestris) near Petrozavodsk City. 2001) Figure 9. For nonwood medicinal plants the decreasing order of Cs-137 incorporation is as follows: berries (Vaccinium myrtillus) > leaf (Vaccinium myrtillus) > grass (Thymus serpyllum) > grass (Convallaria majalis) > grass (Fragaria vesca) > flowers (Helichrysum arenarium) > grass (Hypericum perforatum and Betonica officinalis) > grass (Origanum vulgare.6 1. C 3 .1 8. uliginosum Oxycoccus palustris Rubus idaeus TR 3. C 2 . In mossy pine forests the concentration of Cs-137 in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) fruit TABLE 9. dry sudubrava).0–16. 19. 21. fruits (Vaccinium myrtillus) 159. from 1991 to 1999 the amount of Cs-137 in bilberry fruit (Vaccinium myrtillus) fluctuated greatly (Orlov. 2000). Bq/kg.7 13. The maximum TR values are: wild plants (Ledum palustre) 451. 2001).3. 67 in cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea). (horizontal axis) soil contamination. B 3 .9 1.4–11. grass (Polygonum hydropiper) 122. In the Ukrainian Poles’e. kBq/m2 (B 2 .6 0. vitis-idaea V. 2001).0 2.0–10. 20. leaves (Fragaria vesca) 73 and (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) 79. fresh subor. Ukraine (Orlov.3 . Species Vaccinium myrtillus V.9 9. dry subor. and 63 in blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum. 1993).4–16.5. for the period 1975–1994 (Rybakov. 22. 2001): (vertical axis) specific activity. In other data. Cs-137 in fresh berries and air-dried bilberry offsets decreased fivefold in 1998 in comparison with 1991 (Korotkov.8–8. 2000). Cs-137 TR from Soil to Fresh Fruits of the Principal Wild Ukrainian Berries (Orlov. Correlation between the amount of Cs-137 in fresh bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) (Bq/kg) and the level of soil contamination (kBq/m2 ) for four different biospheres in Central Poles’e.3–12.4. and buds (Pinus sylvestris) 61 and (Betula pendula) 47 (Elyashevich and Rubanova. Karelia.

. whereas in other areas there was a threefold decrease in the TR in 1989–1990 as compared with 1987–1988 (Parfenov and Yakushev.0 1. Long-term dynamics of Cs-137 TR from soil to plants revealed all possible variations: for the grass Convallaria majalis there was a significant decrease over time. Variation of the transfer ratio for Cs137 for three species of wild forest berries in Belarus: raspberry (Rubus idaeus). 1998).1–12. Inter.9 13–16. strawberry (Fragaria vesca).7).6 9. 2002).7 6.4 2. 1996). Average data for 28 stations in Ukrainian Poles’e (Krasnov. 29. 28.7.5. 27.3 1.1 8. Maximum Cs-137 activity in the vegetative parts of undershrubs and trees is observed in May and June (Korotkova and Orlov. for the grass Hypericum perforatum there was a marked decrease from 1991 to 1992. 23.3 Max/min 10.5).9 3.2 Figure 9. 1995).6). and for strawberries there was a sharp increase followed by a slower one (Figure 9. Dynamics of Cs-137 contamination of various parts of pine (Pinus silvestris) are presented in Figure 9.6 1. 1999). 25.4–16. 26.3 1. There are wide inter.and Intraspecific Variations of TR (m2 /kg × 10–3 ) from Soil to Fresh Wild Edible Berries in Belarussian. The lognormal distribution of the TR in the same species in a similar ecological ambience makes it impossible to correctly estimate specific TR by sporadic observations (Jacob and Likhtarev.4–11.5 5. for the bark Frangula alnus there was a steady total threefold decrease in 1995 as compared with 1991 (Figure 9.242 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 9.6.0 0. and Russian Forest Zones Affected by Chernobyl Fallout (Based on Many References from Orlov. and blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) in the same area from 1990 to 1998 (Ipat’ev.5 5.0–10. Variations of the transfer ratio for Cs137 for three medicinal plants: the grasses Convallaria majalis and Hypericum perforatum and the bark Frangula alnus over several years (1991–1995).6 1. Ukrainian. Borysevich and Poplyko.8–8. but more than a twofold increase from 1993 to 1995.6). branches. and needles were nearly stable over 12 years.6. 24. The levels of contamination in the trunk. 2001). 1999.and intraspecies variations in TR for the edible wild berries (Table 9. from 1987 to 1990 was practically stable in some places. Figure 9. for blueberries there was a slight decrease over 9 years. Specific Sr-90 activity in the fresh fruits of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) in the Ukrainian pine forests varied from 2 to 555 Bq/kg (Orlov. 2001) Species Rubus idaeus Fragaria vesca Vaccinium myrtillus Vaccinium vitis-idaea Oxycoccus palustris Vaccinium uliginosum Rubus nessensis Rubus caesius Sorbus aucuparia Viburnum opulus TR (Lim) 0. TR differs for the same species for different biotopes (Table 9.

and Pu-240 were significantly higher in the surface phytomass of wild strawberry .. 1997). 33. quercus bark 7.Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Flora TABLE 9. Ipat’ev. The following order of TR for medicinal undershrubs is: rhamn (Rhamnus) and mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia). moderate accumulation (TR 10–50). Figure 9. 1995b). 36. Calendula officinalis) and Hypericaceae (Hypericum perforatum.9). among root vegetables: carrot < beetroot < radish. and radishes (Borysevich and Poplyko. The concentrations of Sr-90 and Pu-238. radish and carrot < beetroot (Borysevich and Poplyko. branch of raspberry (Rubus idaeus) 11. 0. In automorphic landscapes the Cs-137 TR decreased in grass species from 1988 to 1995.9 for raspberry (Rubus idaeus.00 243 30. For Sr-90 levels the order was: wheat < oats < barley. 31.8). Table 9. Average TR in Fresh Blueberries (Vaccinium myrtillus ) in Three Different Types of Pine Forests in 1995 (Ipat’ev and Bulko. 2002).. The highest intensity of Cs-137 accumulation according to species was found in the families Ericaceae and Fabaceae.9 for blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus). somewhat less in the families Boraginaceae and Caryophyllaceae. 1999).0–15.).7. and 0. branch of European dewberry (Rubus caesius) 13. 41. branches of aglet (Corylus avellana) and buckthorn (Frangula alnus) 7–9. 38. 1999). 32. In the Ukrainian Poles’e intensity of accumulation of Sr-90 in berry species is as follows: Fragaria vesca > Vaccinium myrtillus > Vaccinium vitis-idaea > Vaccinium uliginosum > Viburnum opulus. 1999). Aleksenyzer et al. Salvia officinalis.19 14. The TR for Sr-90 was 14. and minimal in species of the families Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium. 34. strong accumulation (TR 50–100). In Belarus in increasing order for Cs-137 levels in cereal grains that were studied: spring wheat < barley < oats. The TR for Sr-90 from soil to plants is 10 to 20 times higher than the TR of Cs-137 in the same habitat and the same species (Orlov et al. There are marked differences in the amount of incorporated radionuclides even for different cultivars of the same species among carrots..1 for wild strawberry (Fragaria).7.6–0. still less in the species of the family Lamiaceae (Origanum vulgare.. and very weak accumulation (TR <1. 2002). 2002). Total incorporated gamma-activity in various populations of lupinus (Lupinus luteus) differed by as much as 20-fold (Grodzinsky et al. fresh hydrotops 3– 4. 2000) Type of pine forest Bilberry Polytric Ledum TR 5. 39. 2006). The intensities of Cs-137 accumulation in herbs that were studied are divided into five groups: very strong accumulation (average TR >100).00 24. Dynamics of Cs-137 transfer ratio (TR × 10–3 ) for branches and wood of pine (Pinus silvestris) from 1993 to 2004 (Averin et al. 35. beetroots. In hydromorphic landscapes there was gradual increase in this coefficient beginning in 1992 (Tscheglov. Thymus sp. The TR for Sr-90 in wild forest berries depends on the level of soil contamination: it appears that the TR is lower under conditions of higher contamination (Table 9. and branch of mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia) in the wet biotopes 13–18 (Borysevich and Poplyko. 40. Pu-239. weak accumulation (TR 1–10). 37.

TR for Sr-90 in Three Wild Berry Species under Various Levels of Soil Contamination (Ipat’ev.4 ±1.6 22.1 10.9 ± 0.64 ± 0.6 4.8 ± 0.9.9 0. .2 ± 1. Intensity of Cs-137 Accumulation in Several Species of Herbs in Ukraine (Krasnov and Orlov.36 ± 0.27 ± 0. 1990).244 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 9.05 0. kBq/m2 1. 1996) Group Very strong accumulation Species Inonotus obliquus Vaccinium myrtillus Lycopodium clavatum Vaccinium vitis-idaea Ledum palustre Chelidonium majus Vaccinium myrtillus Pinus sylvestris Centaurium erythraea Viola tricolour Potentilla alba Hypericum perforatum Sambucus nigra Convallaria majalis Frangula alnus Tanacetum vulgare Potentilla alba Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Convallaria majalis Urtica dioica Oryganum vulgare Quercus robur Helichrysum arenarium Thymus serpyllum Digitalis grandiflora Leonurus cardiaca Achillea millefolium Juniperus communis Valeriana officinalis Acorus calamus Plant part Fruit body Berries Spores Leaf Branches Grass Leaf Buds Grass Grass Rhizomes Grass Inflorescences Inflorescences Bark Inflorescences Grass Leaves Grass Grass Grass Bark Inflorescences Grass Grass Grass Grass Galberry Rhizomes Rhizomes TR (M ± m) 130 ± 30 125 ± 18 120 ± 20 94 ± 14 82 ± 18 79 ± 14 78 ± 6 77 ± 11 61 ± 6 27 ± 4 20 ± 3 18 ± 2 18 ± 2 16 ± 2 15.0 to 1990 was Cs-137. reflect the Chernobyl fallout (Garrec et al. Mushrooms and Lichens 1.0 ± 1.8 7.5 2.7 28.6 0.5 4. 2002).7 3.8.10 presents data on radionuclide accumulation in lichens and mushrooms after the catastrophe.0 9.4 ± 0. 43.8 15.4 ± 0.2 5.. 1995). those of the pea family (Leguminosae) tend to concentrate Pu and Am (Borysevich and Poplyko.2. France. Among annual plant species.. The main radioactive contaminants in most species of medicinal herbs in Belarus prior TABLE 9.6 ± 0.7 7.8 14. Concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in tree rings of French white fir (Abies concolor) from the French–German border near Nancy.2 12.5 9. 1995).1 1.8 8. 42.03 Strong accumulation Moderate accumulation Weak accumulation Very weak accumulation (Fragaria vesca) as compared with bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) in the bilberry pine forests (Parfenov and Yakushev.4 12.6 ± 0. Table 9. 44.1. 9. but with Ce-144 and Ru106 being found in the bark (Tsvetnova et al.05 0. 1999) Species Blueberry Raspberry Wild strawberry Level of soil contamination.5 ± 1.9 ± 0.1 ± 2.4 ± 2.

680 60. The specific Cs-137 activity in the fruit of mushrooms Lactarius necator. Krasnov et al. 1988 Grodzinsky. Sr-90. ∗∗ up to 75-fold higher than in 1985. 1998). 6.. 1998) TR 1–10 Species Honey mushroom (Armialliela mellea).114 16.1991. pine forests. Pu-239. 1988 Seaward et al. to predict the actual levels of the Cs-137.300 14.000 Country Norway Poland Norway Japan Greece Germany Finland Norway France Poland Poland Poland Ukraine Reference Staaland et al. The level of radionuclide accumulation in plants and mushrooms depends upon the soil. 1998.) a difference between Cs-137 accumulation in sudubravas (mixed oak forests).. There is correlation between the specific activity of Cs-137 in the fruit of the mushrooms and the radioactive density of soil contamination (Krasnov et al.000 18.1993 Coles. 2002).... Pu-238.10. Examples of the Worldwide Contamination of Mushrooms and Lichens (Bq/kg) in 1986 Nuclide Cs-137 Subject Lichen Lichen Reindeer lichen Mushrooms Lichen Mushrooms Mushrooms Lichen. etc. 1988 Solem and Gaare. 1995 Seaward et al. the species.630 25. 1998). 1998).000 24. 7.. Armillariella mellea. 1987 Brittain et al. if not impossible.. The Cs-137 accumulation in the fruit of mushrooms is lower in richer environmental conditions: in russulas (Russula sp. the particular biosphere..560 8.). and in lurid boletus (Boletus luridus) about threefold. and subors are up to fourfold.300∗∗∗ 6. 1995b Cs-135/Cs-137 Ce-144 Nb-95 Ru-106/Rh-106 Total activity ∗ 1987. the climate.570 400. The Cs-137 accumulations in the fruit bodies of the edible boletus (Boletus edulus) were noticeably low in pine forests and for the Polish mushroom (Xerocomus badius) in subors (Krasnov et al. Various species of mushrooms have different TR characteristics (Table 9. Pu-240. ∗∗∗ up to 93-fold more than in 1985. spotty radioactive contamination. blue boletus (Gyroporus cyanescens) Paxill (Paxilus sp. edible boletus (Boletus edulis). Each radionuclide has its own accumulation characteristics. 1994 Papastefanou et al. TABLE 9. green boletus (Xerocomus subtomentosus) Birch mushroom (Leccinum scabrum).Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Flora 245 TABLE 9..11). 1988 Elstner et al. Cladonia stellaris Mushrooms Lichen Lichen Lichen Lichen.040∗ 36. cultivars). Kubert. chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius)...11.500 8. aspen mushroom (Boletus versipellis) Black milk mushroom (Lactarius sp. yellow boletus (Suillus luteus) 1–50 50–100 >100 5. 1998. Coefficients of accumulation and transition ratios vary so much in time and space that it is difficult. Cladonia silvatica Activity 40. Polish mushroom (Xerocomus badius). the season. Steinnes et al. Kubert.1987 Rantavaara.). 4. 1988 Seaward et al... and Am-241 in . 2.... and the population (subspecies. 1997. The concentration of Cs-137 in mushrooms of the same species differs more than 500-fold depending on the levels of radionuclide concentration in the soil (Shatrova et al.000∗∗ 16. russula marsh (Russula). 3. TR of Cs-137 in Mushrooms in the Ukrainian Poles’e Ecosystems (Orlov et al. 1987 Seaward et al. 1992 Yoshida et al. and Xerocomus badius increased exponentially with increased density of radioactive soil contamination (Krasnov et al.

and others). flowers.13 presents examples of radiationinduced morphologic changes in pine (Pinus silvestris) and spruce (Picea abies). Anomalies. etc. 1999c. Radiomorphosis arises primarily because of the impaired duplication process in live cells under the influence of external and/or internal irradiation. In 1987 and the years following. 4. Table 9. Gudkov and Vinichuk. 2006. which under normal conditions are in a resting state and are more radioresistant. Gudkov and Vinichuk.12). the number of such abnormalities increased and were observed mainly in coniferous trees. When top buds. 2006) Part Leaves Morphological changes Increase or decrease in size and quantity Shape change Twists Wrinkles Nervation break Asymmetry Thickening Leaf plates inosculation Fasciations and swellings Appearance of necrotic spots Loss of leaf plate Premature defoliation Additional vegetative lateral and apex shoots Impairment of geotopical orientation of the shoots “Bald” shoots Speedup or inhibition of growth Phyllotaxis failure (order of leaf placing) Color change Loss of apical dominance Dichotomy and fasciations Change of intercepts Swellings Speedup or inhibition of growth Splitting of main root Death of main root Trimming of meristem zone Absence of lateral roots Swellings and twists Appearance of aerial roots Heliotropism break Speedup or inhibition of flowering Color change Increase or decrease of quantity Shape change Defoliation of flowers and floscules Swellings Sterility each place and time for each individual plant or mushroom. which in turn provokes growth of some above-ground organs. Radioinduced Morphology. Radiation-induced death of the main root meristem in plants with pivotal root systems results in more active development of lateral roots.12. twists.2. there is a loss of apical domination and transfer of activity to axial buds. 9. leaves.. 2. stems. Several years after the catastrophe there was a significant rise in the incidence . on which needles are replaced once every few years and on perennial shoots and branches (Figure 9. 2000). roots. 1999. and Tumors Changes from the normal morphological structure of plants under the impact of irradiation (radiomorphosis) are typical manifestations in the heavily contaminated territories (Grodzinsky et al. and other organs also appeared as the result of irradiation in the 30-km zone in 1986. Swelling-like excrescents on leaves.8). 1991. intercepts. Some Radiation-Induced Morphological Changes in Plants in Heavily Contaminated Territories after the Catastrophe (Grodzinsky. 1. and flowers (Gudkov and Vinichuk. wrinkling. abnormal flattening of stems. (Table 9. 6.246 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 9. which contain the actively dividing cells die. Shoots Stems Roots Flowers 5. The number of pollen structural anomalies in winter wheat increased in the heavily contaminated territories (Kovalchuk et al. bifurcations. The newly active buds produce extra shoots. Radiation-induced changes that have been observed in plants in the Chernobylcontaminated territories include alterations in shape. 2006). 3. Grodzinsky..

causing morphogenetic breaks. Tumorlike tissue is found in 80% of individual milk thistle (Sonchus arvensis) plants growing in heavily contaminated soil (Grodzinsky et al. Chernobyl radiation. 9. the frequency of nine other morphologic characteristics (Group 2) increased in subsequent generations (Table 9. Active development of such tumors is seen in some plants. including Hieracium murorum. 2002.. and Rubus caesius. The incidence of two morphologic characteristics in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) increased after the catastrophe and decreased in the next two generations (Group 1). 1991). Chernobyl’s Irradiation Impact on Pine (Pinus silvestris ) and Spruce (Picea abies ) Morphometrics (Sorochinsky. Anomalies in the shoots of pine (Pinus silvestris: A. provokes the development of tumors caused by the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens. B) and spruce (Picea excelsa: C–G) in the 30-km zone in 1986–1987 (Kozubov and Taskaev.13. 8. 1991).Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Flora 247 Figure 9. mm Weight of needles. in the heavily contaminated territories (Grodzinsky et al. 1998)∗ Characters Pine Spruce ∗ Low contamination 60 ± 4 80 ± 3 16 ± 2 5±1 Heavy contamination 19 ± 3 14 ± 2 40 ± 3 95 ± 5 Length of needles..14).8. mg Length of needles. TABLE 9. mm Weight of needles. 7. 1991). 1993). Rubus idaeus. 10.15). . Grodzinsky et al. Hieracium umbellatum... mg All differences are significant. Irradiation in the contaminated territories caused a noticeably stronger influence on barley pollen than did experimental gamma- irradiation done under controlled conditions (Table 9. of various teratological characteristics in plantain seedlings (Plantago lanceolata) growing within the 30-km zone (Frolova et al.

mSv 1. Grodzinsky.4 4. and the increase was maintained at a high level for several years (Tables 9.6 100.% 0 23 79 86 90 0 43 45 59 57 72 with radioactivity has been confirmed experimentally (Table 9.81 0.8 5.. var. Frequency of Some Morphologic Changes in Three Generations of a Species of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the ChernobylContaminated Territories (Grodzinsky et al.4 4.16.9 9..960 29. and Rye (Secale seriale ) in the 30-km Zone with Cs-134.7 24.35 0. Frequency (%) of Chlorophyll Mutations in Barley (Hordeum vulgare ). 1991) Dose rate.63 0.11) 5 50 500 5.7 3.7 1.8 11. There is some tendency toward normalization of the number of gametogenetic anomalies in soft wheat (Triticum aestivum) in four to six generations after the Chernobyl irradiation. 13.0 29.9 0.16).8 5.7 1.9 23. Genetic Changes 1.600 Abnormal grains. 1995a).9 0.18). 9.4 % 100 98 100 140.1 3.71 Experimental gamma-field .248 TABLE 9. var.02 0.20 1. Cs137.0 29. the frequency of plant mutations in the contaminated territories increased sharply.9 1.0 1.4 74.7 38.40 0. Grodzinsky.8 1.000 Dose.7 Cells.71 0.0 32.4 1.8 14.01 0. per callus n × 105 78.6 100 122. Influence of a Chernobyl Soil Extract (Cs-137 and Ce-144 with Total Activity of 3. 2006) Cells.000 50. “Kiev-80” Rye..91 0.000.. the number of lethal and chlorophyll TABLE 9.14 0. but there was an accumulation of mutations in some wheat populations (Grodzinsky et al.5 2.0 4.4 4.7 14.1 2. “Kharkov-03” Barley. 1999.3. var.99 1. In the heavily contaminated territories there was a significant increase in gall formation on oak (Quercus) leaves (Grodzinsky et al.5 91. In the first 2–3 years after the catastrophe. 12.17 and 9.3 75 422 528 680 0.80 0.9 29.17.5 % 100 127. 1991).8 4. per 1 g tissue. 2. μSv/h 30-km zone Control (0.9 4.4 11.8 9.9 2.4 2.14 0.0 10.7 Normal tissue With an extract Tumorous tissue With an extract 39.. Frequency of Abnormal Barley (Hordeum vulgare ) Pollen Grains (per 1. Formation of tumoral tissue (callus) in plants under the influence of soil contaminated TABLE 9.000) after 55 Days of Irradiation around Chernobyl’s NPP and in the Experimental Gamma-Field (Bubryak et al.4 4.6 296 2. 2006) Year Characters Group 1 Infertile zones in spike Truncated spike Lengthened stem Scabrous beard Group 2 Split spike Lengthened beard Angular forms Change of stalk color Spike gigantism Stem plate Additional spikelets 1986 1987 1988 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 9. Immediately after the catastrophe. # 2 0. 1991) Contamination Years Control 1986 1987 1988 1989 Rye. and Ru-106 Ground Contamination (Grodzinsky et al.1 × 104 Bq/kg) on Growth and Cell Division of a Stramonium (Datura stramonium.5 14.14.70 0.15. n × 105 49.96) 59 320 400 515 Background (0. Ce-144.

6. gold birch (Solidago virgaurea).275 29. 2006) Percent of control Soil activity. Some 13 years after the catastrophe the frequency of chromosome aberrations in two wheat cultivars in the 30-km zone was significantly higher than the spontaneous frequency (Yakimchuk et al.9 1987 20. autumnal hawkbit (Leontodon autumnalis). kBq/kg Control 37 185 370 Number of cells..9 14. Frequency of Chromosomal Aberrations (%) in Root Meristems of Some Cultivated Plants in the Chernobyl-Contaminated Territories.18.2 0.9 0. Only devil’s-bit (Succisa pratensis) showed increased resistance to radioactivity (Dmitryeva.. 7. Damage of Apical Root Meristem (Growing Tip) of Onions (Allium cepa) under Different Levels of the Chernobyl Soil Contamination (Grodzinsky. wall lettuce (Mycelis muralis). 3.19). In the 6 to 8 years after the catastrophe.7 0.9 17. 5. gosmore (Hypochoeris radicata). 2006)∗ Years Control Lupinus alba Pisum sativum Secale cereale Triticum aestivum Hordeum vulgare ∗ 249 1986 19.... 1996).8 All differences from controls are significant. Artyukhov et al.8 0. anaphase.290 23.325 Mitotic index.. 2004). and field wormwood (Artemisia camprestris) collected in the 30km zone (gamma-activity at ground level 130– 3.4 4. 2001).9 7.1 18.188 Ci/km2 ) and after additional intense irradiation developed significantly more mutations than in controls (i. In acorns of the oak Quercus robur and the pine Pinus silvestris in Voronez City areas contaminated by Chernobyl fallout there was significantly increased mitotic activity.. 9. 1995).e.19.7 19.4 117 Aberrant cells 100 240 216 150 Cells with micronucleus 100 171 129 229 Degenerate cells 100 250 500 900 .0 9.3 11. the number of meiosis anomalies in microspore formation (the number of anomalies in a root meristem) and the number of pollen grain anomalies documented in 8–10% of TABLE 9. 1986–1989 (Grodzinsky..2 9. The significantly increased mutation level in pine (Pinus sylvestris) seeds from the 30-km zone persisted for 8 years after the catastrophe (Kal’chenko et al. and telophase and with multinucleated cells persisting “many years” after the catastrophe (Butoryna et al.4 12. mutations in all studied populations of Arabidopsis thaliana in the 30-km zone increased significantly.7 14. demonstrated by increased frequency of cells with a residual karyo nucleus at metaphase.1 17. bloodwort (Achillea millefolium). the number of chromosomal aberrations is correlated with the density of contamination).9 0.4 14.1 4.% 4. Progeny tests of plantain (Plantago lanceolata). The frequency of mutations in wheat (Triticum aestivum) was sixfold higher in the contaminated territories (Kovalchuk et al. 4.1 17. 2000. The level of chromosomal aberrations in onions was correlated with the density of radioactive contamination of the territory (Table 9.7 9. 1996).9 16. 2000).Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Flora TABLE 9. and in the 30-km zone was 10-fold higher than in control locations (Shevchenko et al.005 33. 8.5 1989 15. In areas with gamma-radiation levels up to 130 mR/h the level of mutations was up to eightfold higher than the spontaneous level for 8 years after the catastrophe (Abramov et al. 1995). The average frequency of mutations in pine (Pinus silvestris) correlated with the density of radiation contamination in an area.9 14. The original spontaneous level of mutation was reached in 6 years in areas with gamma-radiation levels up to 10 mR/h. n 15.7 1988 14.

I. 1995). change in number of chromosomes. Radiosensitivity of some plant species increases under chronic low-rate irradiation in the 30-km zone owing to a gradual loss of the ability to repair DNA (Grodzinsky.20. 1998). 2004). & Shevchenko. 2000). by year. It appears that the Chernobyl irradiation awakened genes that had been quiescent for long evolutionary periods. 2. and corn cultivars in the 30-km zone during the 6 years after the catastrophe (Fedenko and Struzhko. by season. V. 2000). Chernobyl irradiation has caused many structural anomalies and tumorlike changes in many plant species and has led to genetic disorders. Some phenolic compounds with altered qualitative structure accumulated in all winter wheat. and by landscape.250 TABLE 9. and its virulence is greater than in the control form (Dmitryev et al. V. The radial growth in trees in the heavily contaminated territories was slowed (Kozubov and Taskaev.4. 11. A new form of stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis) is present in the Chernobyl zone. Shmatov et al. In natural populations of Crepis tectorum from the 30-km zone. Unique polynoteratogenic complexes are seen in the 30-km Chernobyl zone: a high percentage of pollen grains and spores with different genetic anomalies (underdeveloped pollen grains/spores.5 Gy Chronic irradiation. 9. 0. Some metabolic processes in plants are disturbed in the contaminated territories (Sorochin’sky.) is significantly higher than in controls (Shevchenko et al. The levels of such uptake and the transition of radionuclides from soil to plants and mushrooms are specific for each radionuclide and vary from species to species. 1996). 1994. Coniferous forests have suffered most strongly from irradiation (so-called “Red for- est”) as compared with mixed and deciduous forests (Kryshev and Ryazantsev. V. Genetic consequences of .. We are far from knowing all of the consequences for flora resulting from the catastrophe.. sometimes continuing for many years. etc. and polynomorphs that diverge from the norm in several morphological characters). translocations. 5. 2006). 3. 4.20 lists examples of such impairments. The number of sterile pollen grains in violets (Viola matutina) correlates with the level of radioactive soil contamination (Popova et al. 10. 2005). the sprouting of seeds did not exceed 50%. The number of a growing root cells with chromosome disorders (inversions. 13.. 6. Rubanovich. 1997). More than a 10-fold lower frequency of extrachromosomal homologous recombinations are found in native Arabidopsis thaliana plants from radioactively contaminated territories (Kovalchuk et al.. It is clear that plants and mushrooms became natural accumulators of Chernobyl radionuclides. Change in Anthocyanin Concentration in Irradiated Plants (Grodzinsky. References Abramov.5 Gy Anthocyanin (% of control) 119 157 173 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 94 plant species correlate with the level of gamma-irradiation (Kordyum and Sydorenko.. winter rye. etc. (1995). 2006) Levels of irradiation Corn (Zea mays). dwarf and ultradwarf forms. 0. 1991). sprouts Mung (Phaseolus aureus) Arabidopsis thaliana Soil 975 Bq/kg Chronic irradiation. This indicates that the Chernobyl catastrophe caused a “geobotanical catastrophe” (Levkovskaya. V. 1999). Table 9. expressed in changes of anthocyanin (purple color) concentration. Other Changes in Plants and Mushrooms in the Contaminated Territories 1. S. A. Dyneva. 12. A. Twenty-three years after the catastrophe it is still too early to know if the whole spectrum of plant radiogenic changes has been discerned...

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I.pdf) (in Russian). V. K. K. Shevchenko. Regularity of Cs-137 concentration of edible mushrooms in Central Ukrainian Poles’e forests. (Ed. A. 169–176 (in Russian). V. Z. A.. B. I.. Characters and Quality of Timber. N. Sci. Manolopoulou. T. J. Radioact. (2002). E. September 11–14. Kalashnykov. Green. Kuznetsov. Third International Symposium on Structure. V. I. (in Russian). V. 2000. V. (2005). A. Kharkov) 4: pp. In: Problems of Forest and Forestry Ecology in Ukrainian Poles’e (Collection of Scientific Papers. I. Rybakov. R. Papastefanou. Sci. Krasnov. (1998). A. V. N. & Charamlambous. N. Aerosol. 72–75. (2000). Raunemaa. J. frequencies and karyotypic changes in 3rd and 4th year . A. In: Agrochemistry and Pedology (Collection of Papers. Lang. V. (1988). & Aleksakhin.. N. (2000). M. A. Bezuglov. Kubert. 129–133 (//www. Petrozavodsk (Karelian Scientific Center.. S. Env. & Rubanovich. In: Forestry under Radiation (All-Russian Center LESRESURS. V. M. 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Radioactive Contamination of Belarussian Plants Connected to the Chernobyl Accident (Scientific Technical Publications. P. M.. Orlov. Levkovskaya.paleo.htm) (in Russian).Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Flora Abroad. G. Cs-137 accumulation intensity under soil cover in quercus and pinequercus forests sugrudoks of Ukrainian Poles’e. A. B. M. 55–64 (in Ukrainian). 6 (Minsk) (// www. Genetic consequences of radioactive contamination of the environment connected with the Chernobyl accident to plant populations. A. S. Report No. A. D. V. P. Quantitative estimation of soil characters and intensity of Cs-137 migration in “soil–plant” and “soil–mushroom” chains based on a phytoecological approach. A.) (1995). & Rauhamaa. J. (1999). Ecology and Youth.. In: Zakharov. & Ryazantsev. I. 4: 448–451 (in Russian). V.. 51–61 (in Russian). Cs-137 accumulation in crop products depending on species and cultivar abnormalities of agricultural crops. Moscow): pp. (2000). 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S. Feed selection and radio-cesium intake by reindeer. E. Genet. E. Tsvetnova.. T. & Tikhomyrov. Radioact. Yoshida. Norway. (1993). 29(1): 39–56.. (1995). Biol. & Logvinenko. & Ogawa. F. Radionuclide contents in row medicinal plant materials from radioactive contaminated forests. Biochem. O. H.). & R¨ hm. & Njastad. & Pedersen. Tcheglov. Garmo. (2001). Staaland.. Sorochin’sky. A. 32(5): 35–40 (in Russian). Biogeochemistry of Technogenic Ra- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences dionuclides in Forest Ecosystems: Results of 10 Years of Studies in Chernobyl Zone (“Nauka.. Behavior of Radionuclides in Natural and Semi-Natural Environments (Final Report of ECP-9. Luxembourg): pp. J. V. A. O. Tscheglov. Ivanov. J. 21(1): 65– 74. (1999). Env. (in Russian). Kammerer. 1986 to 1989. J. Yakimchuk. A.. Why do spruce get dry? “Bryansk Worker” (Bryansk). K. V. S. & Chernov. (2000). V. O. Cultivars 33(3): 226– 231 (in Russian). I. H. Wirth. Y. Moregun. Protein characters in anomalous needles of spruce (Picea abies) and pine (Pinus silvestris) from 1-km Chernobyl zone. sheep and goats grazing alpine summer habitats in southern Norway. 1 (in Russian). V. 27–28 (in Russian). 35(5): 695–701 (in Russian). 17(1): 1–12. Radioact. S. J. M. In: Belli. (1996). January 2: p.254 after accident. M. 22(2): 141–154. Env. Hove. Uptake of u radionuclides by understorey vegetation and mushrooms. Radiocesium concentrations in mushrooms collected in Japan. Radioact. Genetic consequences of radionuclides contamination in exclusion zone 13 years after the Chernobyl accident. (1994). F. V. J. & Smirnov. Use of mosses and lichens for regional mapping of Cs-137 fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Radiat.. Gomel): pp. & Gaare. Shmatov. Scientific and Practical Conference. L. O. Steinnes. (Ed. I. W. B. Radio-cesium in aquatic invertebrates from Dovrefjell. . V. 69– 73. Basic Foundations of Forestry under Radioactive Contamination (Abstracts. Env. Physiol. B. R. after the Chernobyl fall-out.” Moscow): 268 pp. Solem. (1990). Env. Radioact. Cytol. (1992). Radioecol.. Muramatsu. E. A. (1998).

It is well to remember that Homo sapiens are a part of the animal kingdom and suffer the same kinds of health consequences that are observed in animals. and chickens in the areas contaminated by Chernobyl. The second section addresses reproductive impairment in animals in the contaminated territories and the resultant genetic changes. 119071 Moscow. 1996. Twenty-three years after the catastrophe levels of incorporated radionuclides remain dangerously high for mammals. and invertebrates. Office 319.. and others. 2002. physiologic. birds. birds. 2000. but several monographic reviews have been included: Frantsevich et al. the presence of such wildlife is likely the result of immigration and not from locally sustained populations. fish. only a small part of the available scientific literature is presented here. As in the earlier chapters. Yablokov. Apart from zoological studies. The order of presentation is mammals.CHERNOBYL 10. transition coefficient) and the coefficient Address for correspondence: Alexey V. and Russia that show deterioration in the health of cows. Leninsky Prospect 33. Russian Academy of Sciences. These populations exhibit a wide variety of morphological deformities not found in other populations. Incorporation of Radionuclides The level of radionuclides maintained in an animal’s body depends on the transfer ratio (TR. Goncharova. 1998. Chernobyl’s Radioactive Impact on Fauna Alexey V.ru 255 . and genetic disorders in every animal species that has been studied—mammals. Sokolov and Kryvolutsky. Mutation rates in animal populations in contaminated territories are significantly higher and there is transgenerational genomic instability in animal populations. with effects ranging from changes in population vitality to abnormal reproductive and genetic disorders. Russia. and other factors that compromise health. fax: +7-495-952-80-19.1. fish. there are many hundreds of studies published by veterinarians in Ukraine. birds. sheep. Belarus. 1991. 10. changes in blood and the circulatory system. The Chernobyl catastrophe has impacted on fauna and will continue to have an impact for many decades to come. Long-term observations of both wild and experimental animal populations in the heavily contaminated areas show significant increases in morbidity and mortality that bear a striking resemblance to changes in the health of humans—increased occurrence of tumor and immunodeficiencies. Yablokov The radioactive shock when the Chernobyl reactor exploded in 1986 combined with chronic low-dose contamination has resulted in morphologic. Zakharov and Krysanov. manifested in adverse cellular and systemic effects. Despite reports of a “healthy” environment in proximity to Chernobyl for rare species of birds and mammals.. and invertebrates. and fish in some areas of Europe. Voice: +7-495-952-80-19. 1995. amphibians. early aging. Ryabov. amphibians. boars. Yablokov@ ecopolicy. amphibians. decreased life expectancy. The first section of this chapter is devoted to levels of Chernobyl radionuclide accumulations in various species. malformations. Sutshenya et al.

1987 Rantavaara et al. 1987 Strand. 2002 Great Britain. 2.500 3.000 187..750 48. 2005∗ Ryabokon’ et al.. Table 10.. 2005∗ Strand. on the relationship between the specific activity of a radionuclide in a body and the specific activity of the same radionuclide in the environment [TR = (Bq/kg of animal biomass)/(kBq/m2 for background contamination).2 Species Bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) Bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) Wild swine (Sus scrofa) Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) Common shrew (Sorex araneus) Little shrew (Sorex minutus) Yellow neck mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) Brown hare (Lepus europaeus) Moose (Alces alces) White tailed deer Arctic hare (Lepus timidus) Moose (Alces alces) Moose (Alces alces) Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) Bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) Sheep (Ovis ammon) Sheep (Ovis ammon) Country Belarus Belarus Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Finland Finland Finland Sweden Reference Ryabokon’ et al.355 42. 1.. Fresh Weight) of Some Radionuclides after the Catastrophe Nuclide Sr-90 Cs-137 Bq/kg 1. Animals.)..1 presents the maximum concentrations of some radionuclides in mammals after the catastrophe. The health and survival of the animals provide a view into environmental radiation levels and effects. 1988 Ryabokon’ et al... soil. 2006 Pel’gunov et al.000 79.w. 1996 Ushakov et al. 1987 Johanson and Bergstr¨ m. 2 10. 1987 Ryabokon’ et al.... 1996 Pel’gunov et al.000 113.1. 2006 Rantavaara. Maximum Concentration (Bq/kg.610 7601 720 60.630 7.000 74. 1988 ∗ 1 Calculation from figure (A. and insects. 1989 o Rissanen et al. 2005∗ Pel’gunov et al..Y.3 0. or water)]. 1997 Scotland.000 15. 1989). 2006 Ushakov et al.. from mammals to birds. 1996 Ushakov et al. 1986 Western Europe Eriksson et al. July 1986 Mason and MacDonald.320 1.000 24..01 74 58. 1988 Cs-134 Cs134/Cs-137 Pu-239 + Pu-240 Pu-238 Am-241 Finland Belarus Norway Norway Great Britain (Cumbria) Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) Germany Bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) Belarus Bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) Belarus Bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) Belarus Wild boar (Sus scrofa) Belarus Ag-110m Total gamma Cow (Bos taurus) Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) Wild boar (Sus scrofa) Otter scats Heinzl et al. 2006 Pel’gunov et al.7 times higher than the pre-Chernobyl peak concentration.. 2005∗ Ryabokon’ et al...000 100. Indicator species such as the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) and the yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollus) that inhabit the natural forest ecosystems of Belarus showed maximum levels of Cs-134 and Cs-137 for 1 to .200 1.000 3. that is. fish.6 12 <0. Up to 33 times higher than pre-Chernobyl level (Danell et al...954 1.870 400. of accumulation (CA).500 d. 2005∗ Borysevich and Poplyko. worms. depend upon whatever food they can catch or forage. 2005∗ Ryabokon’ et al.888 1..898 3. 1986 Jones et al. 1987 Sherlock et al. 1996 France Tchykin.. CA = (Bq/kg of animal biomass)/(Bq/kg of air.256 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 10. 1987 Rantavaara et al..

Cs-137 accumulation did not differ between young and adult birds or between the sexes. the level of Cs-137 accumulation in mice species (Muridae) and the internal organs of fawns increased 11-fold (Krasnov et al.1. Study of 44 bird species in the Chernobyl 5-km zone from 2003 to 2005 revealed that the greatest contamination was present during nesting and hatching. Ten years after the catastrophe. in contaminated areas of Western Europe.3). Tchykin. However. 2000).4. Radionuclide level accumulation for roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) can vary from 10. Eriksson et al.2). 2 years after the catastrophe. oak. 6. In Belarus.000 Bq/kg and that in wild boar (Sus scrofa) was up to 113. and in coots (Fulica atra) it was more than 4.. 1997). The greatest contamination in fawns was due to grazing on aspen. crecca) exceeded 13. . Standard deviations of mean values are indicated: p < 0.01 in comparison with previous year (Ryabokon’ et al. 1996.Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Fauna 257 Figure 10.000 Bq/kg.000 Bq/kg. 1997).. 2005). 2005). The level of Cs-137 incorporation is significantly different in cattle (Bos taurus) in the heavily and less contaminated areas in Ukraine (Table 10.to 30fold according to seasons (McGee et al. and heather (Krasnov et al.. 10 years after the catastrophe. and Am-241 in the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) populations living in contaminated territories of Belarus (Figure 10.2) (Ryabokon’ et al.. followed by an exponential decrease.. Sr-90. Accumulation of Cs-137 shows significant individual variation in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and is more homogeneous in moose (Alces alces).. 13. but also upon spotty radioactive contamination (see Chapter 1 for details) and on activity in a specific area (Table 10. Decrease in Cs-137 concentration in cattle (Bos taurus) in the contaminated territories is occurring more slowly than was predicted by all of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) models (Thiessen et al. Pu. Five years after the meltdown. and the increased uptake occurred despite lower levels of ambient radioactive contamination in some areas (Figure 10.. 1995). 8.3). 2005). 3. Maximum levels of Sr-90 and Cs-137 accumulation are shown in Table 10. 5. 1998). and nestlings and juveniles accumulate more than females. incorporated Sr-90 concentrations increased up to 10 years after the catastrophe (Figure 10.1). 1995. depending not only upon species-specific food chains. Cs-137. bilberry. 1997). There is marked individual variability in the incorporation of Cs-134. 9. radioactivity in the meat of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) reached an average of 58. During the autumn in Ukraine.000 Bq/kg (Eriksson and Petrov. 11. Females accumulate more Sr-90 than males. Time course of Sr-90 activity concentration (Bq/kg) in two Belarussian populations of bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) in 1991 and 1996 (5 and 10 years after the catastrophe). 12. significant Am-241 activity was detected in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) from areas with high levels of contamination..000 Bq/kg (Sutchenya et al.. in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) it was about 10. 10. 7. The concentration of Cs-137 in wild ungulates in the contaminated territories increased for 7 to 20 years after the catastrophe. 4. Levels increased up to the 10th year and are expected to increase further (Ryabokon’ et al. levels of total gamma-radionuclides in the bodies of teals (Querquedula querquedula and Q.

2002). Individual variability in the level of incorporated radionuclides in the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) population in Belarus: Cs-137 and Cs-134 (3 years after the catastrophe) and Pu-238.). The transfer rate (TR) from substrate to animal measured in Bq/kg demonstrated that the TR is higher for Sr-90 and less for Cs-137 in all the amphibians studied. The TRs for Sr-90 in decreasing order were: red-bellied toad (Bombina bombina). 44. 14. 34. 15.. tree frog (Hyla sp.258 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Figure 10. accumulations of Cs137 and Sr-90 reached 5. Pu-240. and Sr-90 (10 years after) (Ryabokon’ et al.6. and true frogs (Rana sp.4 (Bondar’kov et al.2.). Pu-239. Intraspecies (individual) variations of Cs-137 concentrations are greater than interspecies ones (Table 10. spade-footed toad (Pelobates fuscus). respectively. 20. and 20. 2005).3 kBq/kg in some amphibians.5).. Am–241.4.1. In the 30-km zone. .

. Figure 10.3.3 ± 4.3 ± 2.900 Bq/kg of Np-239 (Ikaheimonen et al.2∗ 17.600 Bq/kg (gross-beta) and 3.001.3 ± 1.120 ± 3.7 provides data on Chernobyl radionuclide concentrations in zooplankton that reflect both high levels of bioaccumulation and the wide range of contaminated waters. TABLE 10.4 4. 2000)... for three periods after the catastrophe (Pel’gunov et al. . Zhytomir Province. Average concentration of Cs-137 (Bq/kg fresh weight) in moose (Alces alces) in contaminated territories of Bryansk Province.2.3.9 and the moor frog (Rana arvalis). Bq/liter) in Amniotic Membranes. p < 0. Cs-137 Incorporation (Bq/kg. 1988).750 240–3.320 504–7.9 ± 0. 1992–2006 (Pel’gunov et al. Reproductive Abnormalities Regular biological observations in the heavily contaminated territories of Ukraine.410 n = 59 Roe deer (Capreolus 12. 19. n = 8 ∗ 20. radionuclide concentration in raptorial fish reached 300 × 103 Bq/kg (Gudkov et al. Ukraine. 17. 1.1 ± 0.4∗ Data for Ci/km2 – summarized for two farms by A. 18. honey in Germany was heavily contaminated with I-131 (>14 × 103 Bq/kg) and by Ru-193 (>750 Bq/kg.660 ± 1. 21..500 Wild boar (Sus scrofa). Up until 1994 the level of Cs-137 in perch (Perca fluviatilis) in Swedish and Finnish lakes exceeded the official safe level (Kryshev and Ryazantsev. The highest TR for Cs-137 was found in the European common toad (Bufo bufo). Cs-137 Accumulation (Bq/kg of Wet Weight) in the Muscles of Several Species of Game Mammals from Bryansk Province Areas Contaminated at a Level of 8–28 Ci/km2 . and European Russia were not begun Russian permissible level = 320 Bq/kg.900∗ 800–74. lowering of contamination levels slowed drastically (Figure 10. Y.. 10. Russia. 10. and Colostral Milk of Cows from More Heavily and Less Contaminated Areas. 23.500 Bq/kg (Zarubin. Initial forecasts of a rapid Cs-137 elimination from fishes (in 7 to 8 years) appear to be inaccurate: after 3 to 4 years of fast decline. 22. 16. 2004). 1997–1999 (Karpuk.340 capreolus).860 ± 160 n = 30 Brown hare (Lepus 2. 2006).140 to 6. Bunzl and Kracke.560 europaeus).Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Fauna TABLE 10. Belarus.1 Ci/km2 3. 2004). 24.4 ± 0.2.1∗ 36. In landlocked bodies of water in the contaminated areas. 2002). 2006) Species M ±m Min–max 250–187. Several hours after the catastrophe. Radioactive contamination of Baltic plankton in 1986 reached 2. Table 10. Levels of contamination after the catastrophe in some fishes are listed in Table 10.1 4.6. 1988). 2001)1 Level of contamination 5–15 Ci/km2 Afterbirth and amniotic membranes Placentas (cotyledons) Colostral milk 1 ∗ 259 < 0. 12.5 24. From 1987 to 2002 the amount of Cs-137 in catfish (Silurus glanis) muscle in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) cooler reservoir increased from 1.4). Placentas. n = 97 Moose (Alces alces).0 (Bondar’kov et al. 13.

2006) Species Mallard duck (Anas platyrynchus).. 1995). 2008 Rantavaara et al. crecca) Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhyncha) Coots (Fulica atra) Country Ukraine Ukraine Ukraine Ukraine Ukraine Ukraine Russia Russia Russia Netherlands Netherlands Finland Finland Netherlands Netherlands Belarus Belarus Belarus Reference Gaschak et al..000 305.. A significantly high prenatal mortality has persisted despite a decrease in the level of ground contamination (Goncharova and Ryabokon’. 1987 De Knijff and Van Swelm.) Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) Robin (Erithacus rubecola) Robin (Erithacus rubecola) Teal (Quercuedula quercuedula and Q.. which resulted in a reduction in the number of inseminated females. 1995 Sutchenya et al.000 85. There was an increasing incidence of embryo deaths over 22 generations of bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) from the contaminated territories that correlated with the radionuclide levels in monitored areas. data concerning the harmful effects of the Chernobyl contamination on cattle and other farm animals were collected from many veterinarians (Il’yazov. 1.930 280–450 270–470 Russian permissible level—180 Bq/kg.. Konyukhov et al. n = 11 ∗ Average 920 350 370 Min–max∗ 314–1..000 10.. The mortality of laboratory mice (Mus musculus) that remained in the 10-km zone from 1 to 14 days increased significantly and is associated with additional radiation (Nazarov et al.469 6. Concentration of Some Radionuclides (Bq/kg. 4. 3.292 >13... 5. the population of murine species in the heavily contaminated Ukrainian territories had decreased up to fivefold (Bar’yakhtar. 2006 De Knijff and Van Swelm.. 1994.b. TABLE 10. Observations in farm hog sires (Sus scrofa) with Cs-137 contamination levels of 1–5 Ci/km2 plus Sr-90 at a level of 0. and many others). reduced fertility. For 1. 1995 Cs-137 Cs-134 Cs-134. 2008 Sutchenya et al... 2008 Gaschak et al.. 2000). 2007).5 months sexually active male rats (Rattus norvegicus) within the 30-km zone demonstrated suppressed sexual motivation and erections.5.000 367. 2008 Gaschak et al.666 467 1..000 226.. n = 14 Woodcock (Scopolas rusticola)..000 Species Great tit (Parus major) Long-tailed tit (Aegithalos caudatus) Nightingale (Luscinia luscinia) Great tit (Parus major) Blackbird (Turdus merula) Song thrush(Turdus philomelos) Mallard duck (Anas platyrynchus) Gray partridge (Perdix perdix) Woodcock (Scopolas rusticola) Robin (Erithacus rubecola) Robin (Erithacus rubecola) Waterfowl (Anas sp.930 450 470 350 112 10. Fresh Weight) in Several Bird Species after the Catastrophe Radionuclide Sr-90 Bq/kg 1.000 556.04– 0. 2006 Pel’gunov et al.08 Ci/km2 demonstrated significantly fewer . 2008 Pel’gunov et al.. 2006 Pel’gunov et al.635. during that time. Novykov et al. 2002. and an increase in preimplantation deaths (Karpenko.260 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 10. 2008 Gaschak et al. 1995 Sutchenya et al. 2006. 2008 Gaschak et al. 2008 Gaschak et al.. 2008 De Knijff and Van Swelm.000 >4. 2.4. Fortunately. By September 1986. Cs-137 Zr-95 Nb-95 Total gamma until 2 months after the explosion. n = 28 Gray partridge (Perdix perdix). 1998a.000 1. 1987 Rantavaara et al. 1992–2006 (Pel’gunov et al. 1997). 2008 De Knijff and Van Swelm. Smolich and Ryabokon’. Cs-137 Accumulation (Bq/kg of Wet Weight) in Three Game Bird Species from Bryansk Province Areas Contaminated at a Level of 8–28 Ci/km2 .

1987 Ushakov et al. and morbidity and mortality were higher in the heavily contaminated areas (Table 10. Ukraine (Cs-137 levels of 5–15 Ci/km2 ) were significantly different from the same species bred in the less contaminated (<0. as well as widening. 2004 120 times that of pre-Chernobyl level. About five times the pre-Chernobyl level. 1987 Zarubin. The weight of the amniotic tissues and placental lobule characteristics were significantly lower in cows (Bos taurus) in contaminated areas (Table 10. (Oleinik. Zhytomir Province.000 12.. and gigantic heads.000 10. 8. Calving problems included delayed delivery of the placenta and amniotic membranes.1 Ci/km2 ) Baranovka District. 1996 Gudkov et al.000 Species Perch (Perca fluviatilis) Pike (Esox luceus) Whitefish (Coregonus sp.6. Dotted line. solid line. legs.. 6. and unusual positions of sex cells within the channels (Table 10..500 4. 1987 Saxen and Rantavaara. forecast. House mice (Mus musculus) populations in the heavily contaminated areas decreased Figure 10. 1996 Robbins and Jasinski.9).000 708 493 190 15–30 55. anus. 1987 Saxen and Rantavaara. There was a marked decrease in insemination and 1. Concentration (Bq/kg) of Some Radionuclides in Fishes after the Catastrophe Nuclide Cs-137 Concentration 16.500 2.Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Fauna TABLE 10.. 9.4. 1987 Brittain et al. 1995 Ilus et al.500 157 300.100 6. 1987 Ikaheimonen et al.5% of the piglets were born dead or with congenital malformations involving the mouth. 1999).10). necrosis. 1987 Saxen and Rantavaara. 1988 Strand. More calves had abnormal weights.8 to 2. etc.. . Pregnancy outcomes and some health characteristics of calves (Bos taurus) (a Poles’e breed) in the heavily contaminated Korosten and Narodnitsky districts. 7.8).000 7. 1991 Ushakov et al. Dynamics of concentration of Chernobyl Cs-137 in lake trout (Salmo trutta) and charr (Salvelinus alpinus) in lakes in northern Norway from 1986 to 1998.. 2005). 2006 Saxen and Rantavaara. semen channels (especially for hogs 2 to 4 years old)..) Catfish (Silurus glanis) Bream (Abramis brama) Vendace (Coregonus albula) Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) Bream (Abramis brama)∗ “Fish” “Pike and cod”∗∗ “Freshwater fish” Brown trout (Salmo trutta) Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) Raptorial fish Country Finland Finland Finland Ukraine Finland Finland Russia Poland Baltic Baltic Norway Norway Russia Ukraine Reference 261 Cs-134/137 Sr-90 Total gamma ∗ ∗∗ Saxen and Rantavaara. actual concentration (Jonsson et al.

7. 200 m depth. both of which are associated with premature aging and reduced life expectancy (Kudryashova et al.8∗ 21.11). mkm Contaminated 178.5 ± 0.5 ± 26.9 ± 0.6 Control 63.4 ± 0.3 ± 22. The sex ratio of bank voles (Clethrionomys sp. 2002) Sea North Sea off Norway Mediterranean off Corsica Black Sea North Pacific and Bering Sea Date May–June May 8–15 (rainfall on May 4–5).3 349.0 Contaminated 39. 2004).7∗ 335.2 ± 0. 1987 Fowler et al.8 19.. 1986 June–July. 2005) Specific numbers of semen channels Age 5 months 8 months 2 years 4 years ∗ Thickness of white envelopes. 16.7 572. 1991. as well as to abnormal spermatozoa (Pomerantseva et al. 1986 Notes At depth of 222 m.9∗ 21. Radiation contamination caused bank vole populations (Clethrionomys sp. Some Recorded Chernobyl Radionuclides in Zooplankton (after J... Sokolov and Krivolutsky. 11.0 ± 18.2 ± 11.81∗ 380.0 ± 8.) in the first years after the catastrophe in the heavily contaminated areas owing to pathologic changes in the urogenital tract and embryo resorption in the early stages of development (Medvedev..) as a percent of the current year of breeding young deviated significantly in the heavily contaminated territories (Kudryashova et al.071 m (Emiliania huxleyi) From 110 to 780 m Reference Kempe and Nies.1 428. In October 1986 in Chernobyl City. Long-term studies of small-rodent populations (Clethrionomys glareolus and others) in TABLE 10. 1990.2 Control 465. The reproductive rate (number of litters during the reproductive period and number of newborns in each litter) of laboratory mice (Mus musculus) line CC57W of a Chernobyl experimental population steadily decreased over seven generations. 1986 May–June.. 12. Fecal pellets in sediment traps Ce-141 and Ce-144.0 ± 0.7 20..4 12.0 ± 12. . 2004). Kempe et al.0 ± 8. 1987 Buesseler et al.05. 1996). 10.262 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 10. Higher antenatal mortality was observed in field mice (Clethrionomys and Microtus sp. 2004).) in contaminated areas (Kudryashova et al.0 ± 17. 15. 1996). Histological Characteristics of Hog Testes Associated with Sr-90 and Cs-137 Contamination (Oleinik. >70% composed of copepod fecal pellets At a depth of 1. 14.8. After the catastrophe there was a significant decrease in the average life span of laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) in animal facilities in both Chernobyl and Kiev (Table 10. 1988 owing to sterility. Irradiation caused increased prenatal and postnatal mortality and reduced breeding success for bank vole populations (Clethrionomys sp.2 ± 0. 1998). Turner.9 13.7 ± 2. 13.5∗ 231.4 ± 0.. At the same time the number that died in the first month postnatal period and preimplantation period significantly increased (Stolyna and Solomko.) to mature early and intensified reproduction. 1987 Kusakabe and Ku. a special animal facility was established for laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) from the breeding group that originated in the Kiev laboratory colony. 1987.9∗ p < 0.

) in barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) occurred at significantly higher frequencies in heavily contaminated areas (Møller et al. two tails. 2005). Some Characters of Afterbirth Membranes in Cows (Bos taurus ) from Greater and Lesser Contaminated Areas. Weight. Russia. 2001)1 Contamination level 5–15 Ci/km2 Weight amniotic membranes. p < 0. 20. about 40% in control populations in Ukraine.6 ± 0. Millpointer. Average Life Span of Laboratory Rats (Rattus norvegicus ) under Heavy Irradiation in Chernobyl City.. 2005). 1997–1999 (Karpuk.05.9. Italy. Washington. Decreased clutch size of some bird species was found in the United States in California. and sick foals occurred in a horse-breeding center in the Gomel area (Belarus) from 1993 to 1999 when contamination levels were up to 40 Ci/km2 .5∗ Mortality 7 12∗ 13. annual survival is less than 25% (vs. and Oregon in June– July 1986. 1995) October 1986 to 1989 Kiev before April 1986 28.3 ± 0. Zhytomir Province.11. and the fewest problems occurred in a horse-breeding center in the Smolensk area. uncontaminated populations. Survival rates of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) in the most contaminated sites near the Chernobyl NPP are close to zero.043 ± 118 Chernobyl City Life span months 20. Total Morbidity. indicated that the success of breeding free-range horses (Equus caballus) correlated with the level of farm radioactive contamination: the greatest number of abortions. 1987.0 4. delay in the “population clock” run.9 ± 4. most probably connected with the Chernobyl fallout (DeSante and Geupel.3 20 p < 0.and postcatastrophe revealed disturbances in ecological balance.2 ± 0. the Kanev Natural Reserve pre. 1991). Y. and biotic turnover (Mezhzherin and Myakushko.7 65 Total morbidity 34 50. 21. covering 5. with contamination levels less than 1 Ci/km2 (Yakovleva..5 Data for Ci/km2 —summarized for two farms by A. kg Placental lobules Number cm2 1 ∗ 5 Ci/km2 . 22. 2001) Weight Less than 26 kg Heavy contamination Low contamination ∗ More than 35 kg 10 15 Normal 76. 1997–1999 (Karpuk. Abnormal spermatozoa (head deviations.1 Ci/km2 5.6 ± 0. Observations from 1978 to 1999. with background radiation levels of 1– TABLE 10. 18.Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Fauna 263 TABLE 10. Russia.8 Kiev 21. Overall. 1998).853 ± 206∗ ∗ 4.10. In areas of moderate contamination. 1998).6 <0.7 4. Ukraine. etc. two heads. . Spain. The Chernobyl barn swallow populations are only sustained via immigration from adjacent.01. Chernobyl bird populations show dramatically reduced reproductive rates and lower offspring survival rates (Møller et al. and Less Irradiation in Kiev (Serkiz.3∗ 88. and Denmark). 17. Stable TABLE 10.427 horse-breeding years. The litter size of wolves (Lupus lupus) in Russian contaminated territories correlates with the level of radioactive contamination and specific activity of Cs-137 in their fur (Adamovich.3 76.6 ± 0. An intermediate level of problems was in a horsebreeding center in the Bryansk area. and Mortality (%) of Calves from Heavily (5–15 Ci/m2 ) and Lower (<1 Ci/km2 ) Contaminated Districts of Zhytomir Province.0 ± 2. Ukraine. 2005). 19. stillbirths.

) was found in bream (Abramis brama) and small fry (Rutilus rutilus) from the Pripyat River and Smerzhov Lake (Gomel Province. Nine years after the catastrophe in bodies of water with heavy radioactivity.900 Bq/kg in 1995) the thickness of the radial membrane in egg cells reached 25 − 30 μm. thickening of the follicular wall. compared with a thickness of about 10 μm for egg cells from the Pripyat River (875 Bq/kg in 1992. 33. 20% of . 32. Changes were correlated with the level of radiation contamination of the reservoirs (Petukhov and Kokhnenko. 26. 30. Kokhnenko. Abundance of birds decreased by about 66% in the most contaminated areas as compared to sites with typical (control) background radiation levels (Møller and Mousseau. Reproductive characteristics of carp (Cyprinus carpio) correlated with levels of incorporated radionuclides in sperm and eggs (Figure 10..800 Bq/kg in 1991. hatching success was depressed as radioactive contamination increased (Møller and Mousseau. A significant decrease in volume and concentration of seminal fluids and destruc- tive changes in the testes were observed in several generations of white silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from the breeding stock at a Chernobyl NPP reservoir-cooler (Verygin et al. and increased numbers of abnormal spermatozoa were found in motley silver carp (Aristichthys nobilis) that were radiated in 1986 at the age of 1–2 years and then lived under conditions of chronic low-dose radiation (Makeeva et al. Concentrations of total carotenoids and vitamins A and E in the yolks of the great tit (Parus major) were depressed in the 10-km zone as compared to concentrations in a less contaminated Ukrainian area or in France... Belarus). Krivolutsky and Pokarzhevsky. Brightly colored and migratory bird species appear to be particularly sensitive to radioactive contaminants (Møller and Moussaeu. 23. 2006). Species richness and abundance of forest birds declined by more than 50% as contamination levels increased. 2007b). 24. 2000). In gonads of fish from two lakes within the 30-km zone (Smerzhov Lake with Cs-134 and Cs-137 levels of 5. changes in normal oocytes and nucleus size.e. 1993.e. Deviation in gametogenesis (i. 2007a). and Perstok Lake. developmental abnormalities of oocytes. decreased sperm concentration. resulting in negative consequences for hatching and reproductive success (Møller et al.. Adult earthworms dominated in heavily contaminated sites during the first period after the catastrophe. 1996). 1998). etc. Great tit (Parus major) and pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) species avoided nest boxes in the heavily contaminated areas to a marked degree. Abnormal growth of testicular connective tissue. whereas in control areas there was parity between adult and young individuals (Victorov. 25. 31. Where it interacted with habitat for the great tit and with the laying date for the pied flycatcher. 29.5). 1992). 1996). immigrants) than is observed in control populations or in populations collected from the Chernobyl region prior to the disaster (Møller et al. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that radioactive contamination reduces levels of dietary antioxidants in yolks. 2008b). Degenerative morphological changes were seen in oocytes of pike (Esox lucius) during vitellogenesis in heavily contaminated waters. Egg-laying dates were advanced and clutch sizes increased in nest boxes with high dose rates.264 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences isotope analyses on current and past specimens (from museums) have indicated that current Chernobyl populations are composed of a more diverse group of individuals (i.. decomposition of the nucleus. Detailed surveys of birds indicate that many species are either absent or present in very low numbers in the Chernobyl region. 27. 2007a). 28.. There was reduced hatching in boxes with high levels of radiation. with levels up to 199. which eventually eliminated and even reversed the differences in reproductive success associated with early reproduction and large clutch size.

Wild populations of house mice (Mus musculus) living in the contaminated territories have a significantly increased level of dominant lethal mutations and chromosome translocations. (10) frequency of chromosome aberrations at late blastula stage. 1999). Smolitch and Ryabokon’. 10. 5. 1997. 1999). (9) mitotic index. The number of genomic mutations in a population of bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) increased to the 12th generation after the catastrophe (from 1986 to 1991) despite a decrease in background radioactivity (Ryabokon’. In all the studied populations of bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) in heavily contaminated Belarussian territories. 1998a. (7) larva survival. whereas normally this species reproduces asexually (Tsytsugyna et al. %. The offspring of female bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) captured in the contaminated territories and raised under contamination-free conditions showed the same enhanced level of chromosomal aberrations as the contaminated mothers (Ryabokon’ and Goncharova. %. The number of polyploidy cells in all studied populations of bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) in heavily contaminated Belarussian territories correlates with the level of incorporated radionuclides (Ryabokon’. 4. In 1989 there was a significantly higher frequency of cytogenetic disorders in somatic and germinal cells (number of chromosomes and aberrations in marrow cells) in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) and yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) in territories with Cs-137 levels of 8–1. (8) frequency of morphological abnormalities.b. (5) number of prelarvae (thousands per female). Ryabokon’. %. 2. 2005). (2) amount of milt (ml per male).526 kBq/m2 and in laboratory mice (Mus musculus) lines CBA × C57Bl/6j (F1) in the heavily contaminated areas. oligochaete (Stylaria lacustris) specimens have sex cells. 1997).Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Fauna 265 Figure 10. which increased from 1986 until 1991/1992 in all the populations studied. 1999).. Coefficients of correlation between reproductive characteristics of carp (Cyprinus carpio) and radionuclide concentration in their eggs and sperm (milt. 1999a). (6) number of larvae (thousands per female). 3.5. 6. These abnormalities were maintained at high levels for no fewer than 22 generations.3. (3) quality of milt. polyploidy cells occurred in an excess of up to three orders of incidence as compared with precatastrophe frequencies (Ryabokon’. % (Goncharova. %. (4) fertilization. Genetic Changes 1. despite a decrease in contamination (Goncharova and Ryabokon’. 2006). coefficients of correlation are given in absolute values): (1) number of eggs (thousands per female). The frequency of reciprocal translocations in spermatocytes was higher in areas with more intensive contamination during the .

Hillis.006 0. 1990. whereas the whole-body absorbed dose rates decreased exponentially after 1986 (Goncharova et al.02 . Frequency of Aberrant Cells in Bank Voles (Clethrionomys glareolus ) under Various Levels of Radioactive Contamination. The rate of chromosome aberrations and embryonic lethality noticeably increased for more than 22 generations of bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). and translocations Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 10.02 0. The number of aberrant alveolar macrophage cells in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) was significantly higher in the populations living in heavily contaminated territories (Yelyseeva et al. The frequency of mutations through several generations in both somatic and germinal cells of house mice (Mus musculus) remained significantly higher after irradiation as compared to nonradiated descendants (Dubrova et al. 14.. 9. 2006) Chromosomal aberrations Percent of cells Controls After exposure Up to 3 Up to 24. 1996)... 1996.. In laboratory mice (Mus musculus). were found to have a wide spectrum of cytogenetic anomalies (Glazko et al. Russia (Krysanov et al. BALB/C. The level of both somatic and genomic mutations in a population of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) in the Chernobyl zone was two to ten times greater than in other populations in Ukraine or in Italy (Ellegren et al. 2005).11 ± 0.06 ± 0. 11. 7.000 5.29 ± 0. 1997).000 Cells with micronucleus 0..008 0. TABLE 10. 15. 1996) Contamination level 20 μR/h 60 μR/h 180 μR/h 220 μR/h Cells studied n 229 593 325 864 Aberrant cell frequencies 0. 1996.06 ± 0. The frequency of mitochondrial DNA mutations in voles in the 30-km zone was significantly increased in the first years after the catastrophe (Freemantle. n 5. 2000). cell fibroblast cultures originating from embryos conceived in the 10-km zone demonstrate significantly increased numbers of cells with chromosomal aberrations.53 ♂ ♀ ♂ ♀ All significantly different from controls. Abnormalities in Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus ) Fibroblast Cell Cultures after 5 Days of Exposure in the 10-km Zone (Pelevyna et al.14. Number of Micronuclei in Polychromatic Erythrocytes of Bone Marrow in Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus ) after 12 Weeks in 30-km Chernobyl Zone (Sushko et al.000 5. 2007. fragments.266 TABLE 10. Keeping laboratory mice (Mus musculus) for 4 months in the 30-km zone resulted in a sharp and significantly increased incidence of micronuclei in polychromatic cells of the bone marrow (Table 10. 1996). 10..04 ± 0.000 5. 1993. Table 10. including cells with multiple aberrations (Nazarov et al. 16. The micronuclear frequencies in laboratory mice (Mus musculus) increased significantly after a 10-day stay in the “Red Forest” (10-km zone) for the BALB/c line and after 30 days for the C57BL/6 line (Wickliffe et al.34 ± 0.. The number of chromosome aberrations in the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) was higher in a more radioactively contaminated environment (Table 10.45 4.13.09 4. Bryansk Province. Baker.1 ± 0. 8.. 13. 2002).5 Types Deletions Deletions. 2006)∗ Sex Controls 30-km zone ∗ Studied cells.11 0.. 1996). 1996). 12.13).13 ± 0..14)..12. period from 1986 to 1994 (Pomerantseva et al.12). CC57W/Mv contained within the 30-km zone and other rodents caught in 1995 in the 10-km zone. Laboratory mice (Mus musculus) lines C57BL/6.

2007). 21... The Frequency of Micronuclei in Erythrocytes in Frog Hybrid Complex (Rana esculenta) in Three Populations in Bryansk Province. photo by T. Brown frogs (Rana temporaria.Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Fauna 267 Figure 10. 18. 1998). Mousseau). 2001. high linearity. From 2005 to 2006 there were significant differences in motility and morphology of live sperm of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) breeding in heavily radioactively contaminated areas (390 mR/h) around Chernobyl as compared to sperm from swallows in two less contaminated (0. The incidence of erythrocytes with micronuclei was higher in the hybrid frog complex (Rana esculenta) in the more contaminated areas in Bryansk Province (Table 10. and fingerlings was significantly higher in more contaminated ponds in Belarus (Slukvin and Goncharova. 22.25 and 0.. 1996) Contamination. Italy. 1996)..22% ∗ 60 μR/h 1. 2007). larvae. TABLE 10.006 mR/h) areas in Ukraine.33% 220 μR/h 1. 17. and Denmark (Møller and Mousseau. 24.15. Barn swallow populations (Hirundo rustica) that originated in the Ukrainian Chernobyl zone after the catastrophe have significantly more (up to 15%) albino mutations (Figure 10.05. 1996). Spain.. Colorado beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) wing color pattern mutations occurred with greater frequency in the more contaminated territories in Belarus (Makeeva et al. Mutation rates seen in Chernobyl populations have significantly higher numbers of morphological defects as compared to control populations in Ukraine. R.15). Normal barn swallow (left) and partial albino (right. arvalis) from the heavily contaminated territories showed a significantly higher number of aberrant bone marrow and intestinal epithelial cells and an increased number of micronuclei in peripheral blood (Yelyseeva et al. 1995). The frequency of chromosome aberrations and genomic mutations in carp (Cyprinus carpio) populations was significantly higher in more contaminated ponds in Belarus (Goncharova et al. The incidence of sperm with low motility. and low track velocity increased with increasing background radiation levels (Møller et al. . 20. 1993 (Chubanishvyli. small amplitude. 2008b).55∗ p < 0. dose 15 μ R/h 0.6).6.. The frequency of morphological anomalies (congenital malformations) in carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos. 23. 19. There are positive correlations between the number of abnormalities in black redstart (Phoenicurus ochruros) and house sparrows (Passer domestica) and the level of background radiation in Ukraine (Møller et al. lateral head displacement. Møller et al.

66 p < 0.16. 2002 Dubrova..64 ± 1. 1990. Examples of Genetic Changes in Animals as a Consequence of the Chernobyl Catastrophe (Based on Møller and Mousseau. The highest level of mutations was observed in aquatic crustaceans Amphipoda and Platyhelminth worm populations in the Chernobyl 10-km zone as compared with populations from the Black and Aegean seas and the Danube and Dnieper rivers (Tsytsugyna and Polycarpov. Neutrophilic phagocytic activity to Staphylococcus aureus in the blood serum and the Blymphocytic system was significantly lower in 25.05.268 TABLE 10. The Frequency of Dominant Lethal Mutations (DLM) and Recessive Sex-Linked Lethal Mutations (RLM) in Natural Drosophila (Drosophila melanogaster ) Populations from the Vetka District in Gomel Province as Compared with the Population from the Less Contaminated Berezinsk Reserve.15∗∗ 42. 1992 Tsytsugyna and Polycarpov. 2003 Not statistically significant. 10. 28. 1995). as a result of increased radioresistance in the irradiated population (Table 10.17. Wickliffe et al. In natural drosophila (Drosophila melanogaster) populations from the Vetka District.88 6. .4. 2000 Baker et al.17 presents some additional data on genetic changes in animals associated with the Chernobyl contamination. 1998). 26. Gomel Province (radiation level of 24 Ci/km2 ).65 ± 0. Changes in Other Biological Characteristics 1. 1996 Matson. 2..001. nated Berezinsky Reserve. Table 10.. Heteroplasmy—mixed mitochondria in a single cell.. 1997 Snugg. 2007).76 ± 0. 1999 Hirundo rustica Icterus punctatus Carassius carassius Four fish species Drosophila melanogaster Three Oligochaete species ∗ ∗∗ Wickliffe et al. 1997 Dallas. and Microtus sp.16).) from the contaminated areas showed impaired brain development and deformed limbs (Sokolov and Kryvolutsky. 2003. 1995 Pomerantseva et al. comments Increase by a factor of 3–7 Increase by a factor of 15 Increased∗ Only from Chernobyl samples Increased∗ Increased∗ Increased by a factor of 2–10 Increased rate Changes Increased Increased Increased by a factor of ∼2 Reference Savchenko. 1999) Vetka District DLM RLM ∗ Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Berezinsky Reserve 63.. 27.91∗ 12. the incidence of dominant lethal and recessive sex-linked lethal mutations is significantly lower than in the less contami- TABLE 10. Voles (Clethrionomys sp. ∗∗ p < 0. 2006) Species Apodemus flavicollis Mus musculus Clethryonomys glareolus Genetic marker Chromosome aberrations Reciprocal translocations Somatic mutation Multiple substitutions in Cytochrome-b and transversions Mutation and heteroplasmy∗∗ Point mutations Microsatellites DNA breakage I DNA content Frequency of aneuploidy Sex-linked lethal mutations Chromosomal aberrations Effect.. 1998 Zainullin. The frequency of lethal and semilethal mutations in drosophila (Drosophila melanogaster) populations is significantly higher in the Belarussian contaminated territories (Makeeva et al.. Belarus (Glushkova et al. 2002 Ellegren et al.09 ± 0. 1996 Lingerfelser.

Nazarov et al. Karpuk. 3. After 20 weeks of exposure in the 30-km zone the incidence of lung neoplasms in laboratory mice (Mus musculus) was significantly greater (Table 10.001.3 Data for Ci/km2 —summarized for two farms by A. 1998).77 ± 0. Hypoplasia and degenerative-dystrophic changes developed in the thymus glands of 20day-old laboratory albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) whose pregnant mothers lived for 25 days in an area with a Cs-137 level of 116 Ci/km2 and an Sr-90 level of 26 Ci/km2 . 8. 10. 2001)1 5–15 Ci/km2 <0.05 and p < 0. 1996). Zhytomir Province. There was coarsening of reticular fibrous structures and dispersed and reduced lymph nodes in the cortex (Velykanov and Molev.3 ± 0.01.3 5. 13. . 2002). 2006.8 ± 0.19).18.8∗ 1. Some Hematological Characteristics of Calf-Bearing Cows from Heavily and Less Contaminated Areas. 9.26 ± 0.3 ± 0. 6..5 3. There was a decreased density of endotheliocytes in various parts of the brain in laboratory mice (Mus musculus) after they had lived in the 10-km zone for 1 month (Pelevyna et al. Y.8 ± 0.2∗ 4.1 Ci/km2 Erythrocytes (thousands/liter) Leucocytes (g/liter) Hemoglobin (g/liter) Basophiles.3 91. Asymmetry of yellow-neck mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) skulls was significantly higher in populations from more contaminated territories (Smith et al.5 ± 0.9 ± 0.6 ± 2. 7.19. Changes included accelerated cytolysis and lowered mitotic activity. Such thymus gland changes led to immune disorders (Amvros’ev et al.2 ± 0. 11.. % Segmented neutrophiles.8 ± 0.1 6.. 4.4 ± 2. Ukraine. ∗ p < 0.. cows from more contaminated areas (p < 0.18). There was increased sensitivity to viral infections in laboratory mice (Mus musculus) after they had been in the 10-km zone (Savtsova et al. 1997–1999 (Karpuk. 1991). 2001).7 ± 1. % Lymphocytes. Large horned livestock (Bos taurus) in contaminated areas had lowered lysozymic activity in whey and lowered resistance to skin infections. 2004). 2002).6 ± 0. 1993. Endogenous activity changed significantly in spinal cord nerve cells and in the cerebrum of laboratory mice (Mus musculus) lines C57BI/6 after they were in the Chernobyl zone for 40 days with background radiation of 100–120 mR/h (Mustafin et al. which indicated the development of immunodeficiency (Il’yazov. There was a significantly increased frequency of tumors in laboratory mice (Mus musculus) experimentally inoculated with tumor cells after they had been in the 10-km zone (Savtsova et al.2 10..4 78. 1991). Dairy cows (Bos taurus) in areas with contamination levels of 15–40 Ci/km2 developed indurated spleens with reduced volume and sharply reduced white pulp area.8∗ 4.7 ± 1. % 1 269 TABLE 10.06 0.9 ± 0. % Monocytes. Frequency of Lung Neoplasms in Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus ) after 20 Weeks Exposure in the 30-km Zone (Sushko et al.0 24..Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Fauna TABLE 10.17 4.3 32 ± 0. Hematological characteristics differ significantly in cattle (Bos taurus) from areas with different levels of contamination (Table 10. Resistance to skin infections is lowered in wild murine rodents in heavily contaminated territories (Kozynenko and Zavodnykova.0 ± 1. 2007).2∗ 6. 14. % Eosinophils.. 1993). and they demonstrated abnormal connective tissue growth 4 years after the catastrophe (Velykanov and Molev. 5. 2004).9∗ 60.. 2006) Neoplasms per mouse Control 30-km zone 0.5 57.0 0. 12. Dairy cows (Bos taurus) from areas contaminated at levels of 15–40 Ci/km2 developed inflammatory and atrophic changes in lymphoid tissue accompanied by decreased T-lymphocyte functional activity.

1 31. Until October 1986 free-range cattle (Bos taurus) living 3–6 km from the Chernobyl NPP had high eosinophil and low lymphocyte counts. Low red cell counts. laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) developed significant mitotic growth activity (sometimes accompanied by an increase in the number of bone marrow cells) and then had a subsequent decrease in mitotic activity. The most common immediate causes of death for laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) in the animal facilities in Chernobyl City and Kiev after the catastrophe were inflammatory processes of the lungs and intestines (Serkiz. Similar processes were observed in wild murines living in the 10-km zone (Serkiz et al. 1990).5 11. and myelokaryocytes. granulocytopenia with very high levels of eosinophils.3 to 2. 1995) Cause of death Pneumonia. 1993).4% (Oleinik. Serkiz et al..0%). 1995. 2003): • • • Decreased numbers of bone marrow cells. 1996). Cause of Death (%) in Laboratory Rats (Rattus norvegicus ) from the Experimental Animal Facilities in Chernobyl City (Heavy Background Radiation) and Kiev (Less Background Radiation). hemoglobin was lower (up to 45. Tumors developed in 74% of laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) in the Chernobyl and Kiev experimental breeding colonies . 25. Mammary adenofibromas and malignant lung and intestinal tumors appeared at earlier ages in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) in the Chernobyl animal facility from 1987 to 1989 and included lymphoid and connective tissue tumors. and blood levels of alpha. and multinucleated lymphocytes. 1995). 16.20 presents data on their mortality from 1986 to 1989.04–0. 2003).20. 19. and eosinophilia. Hypochromatic anemia. 21.and gammaglobulins decreased up to 44.21). and decreased percentage of neutrophils and monocytes were seen in cattle (Bos taurus) that remained in the 12-km zone for 2 months after the catastrophe (Il’yazov.4 Chernobyl City 35.3 8. from 1997 to 2001. including lymphatic sarcoma (Table 10. where Cs-137 contamination levels were 1–5 Ci/km2 and Sr-90 levels were 0. 23.1 10. Increased numbers of abnormal cells (huge hypersegmented neutrophilic leukocytes. Ukraine. After being in the 10-km zone for 3 to 6 months..2 4.08 Ci/km2 . leukocytopenia (onset during the third month of being in the radioactive zone). decreased hemoglobin levels. 22.. as well as undifferentiated cells.4 19. Laboratory mice (Mus musculus) kept in the 30-km zone for 1 month had significantly increased numbers of lymphocytes and leukocytes (Pelevyna et al.0%). broken cell forms..4 15. 1993. Table 10.. Animals in the Chernobyl zone had accelerated aging of the immune system (Savtsova. 1990). cells with shaggy chromatin structure.8 times. cytoplasm nuclear inclusions.270 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 10. Il’yazov et al.1 13. peripheral blood leukocytes. Laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) kept in the 10-km zone from 1986 to 1993 were found to have (Pinchuk and Rodionova. cells with fragmented nuclei. ery- throcyte counts were significantly lower (up to 15. Laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) kept in the 30-km zone for 1 month had significantly increased leukocytes and have a tendency toward increased numbers of marrow cells (Izmozherov et al.3 2. and hyperchromic anemia (Glazko et al. 24.. 20. lung hemorrhage Pulmonitis Colitis Lymph node hyperplasia Thymus gland/spleen hyperplasia Kiev 10. 1995). October 1986–December 1989 (Serkiz. In farm-raised hog sires (Sus scrofa) in Mlinivs’sk and Sarnens’k districts of Rivne Province. 2005). 18. 17. the percentage of young and stick hearted leukocytes increased 1.

Russia (Table 10. 29. 1995) After 1986 Chernobyl Kiev 1985 Average age for malignant tumors.1 Between 1986 and 1989 the animals in Kiev had no such tumors.7 6. Average Age of Occurrence and Probability of Occurrence (%) of Malignant Tumors in Laboratory Rats (Rattus norvegicus ) under Different Levels of Contamination before and after the Catastrophe (Pinchuk.78 ± 0. but such tumors did develop in 4. The level of fluctuating asymmetry in populations of the common shrew (Sorex araneus) was higher in the more radioactively contaminated environment in Bryansk Province.24 ± 0.016 ± 0. 1995) Chernobyl City Thymus gland tumor∗ Adrenal cortex adenoma Thyroid gland tumor Cellular adenoma of islet of Langerhans ∗ From the total number of animals. Occurrence (% of Total Tumors) in Laboratory Rats (Rattus norvegicus ) from 1986 to 1992 in Chernobyl City and Kiev Experimental Animal Facilities (Pinchuk. Occurrence and Features of Breast Neoplasms in Laboratory Rats (Rattus norbegicus ) from 1989 to 1992 in Chernobyl City and Kiev Experimental Animal Facilities (Pinchuk.23. 1995). dose 60 μR/h 0. Carbohydrate metabolism and lipid balance were noticeably abnormal in some birds from the Chernobyl zone.57 in the controls).Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Fauna TABLE 10.24. Bryansk Province. the β-adrenergic link level of ACS in cardiomyocytes in animals exposed to radiation (Komar et al.22. reflecting endocrine system impairment (Mykytyuk and Ermakov. .2 34. 2000).48 ± 0.26 ± 0.03 180 μR/h 0..2 43. 1990). Female rats (Rattus norvegicus) age 4–5 months with hyperthyroidism kept in the 30-km zone for 30 days had significantly reduced basal activity of myocardial adenyl cyclase (ACS.5 27 20.9 43.24). Endocrine gland tumors (Table 10. %∗ Animals with multiple mammary tumors.8 15.8 Kiev 9. 27.21.7 1 15. 14.03 220 μR/h 0.03 Kiev 2. months 10 35 14 17 16 5 Breast adenofibroma with malignancy.. months Probability of occurrence of tumors. The data point to the possibility of modulating hyperthyroid effects at TABLE 10. The level of developmental stability (by fluctuating asymmetry of many morphological characters) in barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) was significantly higher in the contaminated areas (Møller. 1995) Chernobyl City 14.23) were typical for rats from Chernobyl. 1992 (Zakharov et al. Adenocarcinoma and epithelial tumors in Chernobyl rats were not observed in rats in the Kiev group and were not seen as spontaneous tumors in this breeding line before the catastrophe (Pinchuk. 30. The percentage of dead cells in the spleen and bone marrow of moor frogs (Rana arvalis) TABLE 10. 28. From number of animals with mammary gland tumors.7 29 58.3 from 1989 to 1992. A test of F-dependent enzyme activation revealed a significant reduction in the stimulative effect of ACS activity on myocardium in animals kept under irradiation. 1993). Level of Fluctuating Asymmetry (Asymmetric Cases per Character) in Three Populations of Common Shrew (Sorex araneus ) with Different Levels of Radioactive Contamination. 26.22) in combination with mammary tumors (Table 10.8% of all the animals in the Chernobyl facility. %∗∗ Animals with a breast tumors combined with other tumors∗∗ ∗ ∗∗ 271 TABLE 10. 1996b) Contamination.78 nMol/mg protein/min as compared with 20.

33. The level of developmental stability (by number of asymmetric cases per character) in three populations of frogs (Rana esculenta) was lower in less contaminated environments (Table 10.001) than from less contaminated areas (in some cases by a factor of 30). In the 5 to 6 years after the catastrophe the species diversity of large soil invertebrates was significantly lowered. % 47. 2. 2008). and Galve) and southern Switzerland (Melano near Ticino)...45 ± 0.2 ± 1.5 ± 0.9 ± 0.55 26. Afonin et al.03 220 μR/h 0. Additional gamma-irradiation-induced apoptosis of bone marrow cells was discovered in narrow-muzzled frogs (Rana arvalis) inhabiting the 30-km zone. 8 (Kryvolutsky.03 Leukocytes.6 ± 1.0 28. 2000).99 Lymphocytes. 38.9 ± 1.59 Rosette-forming 22. 34.67 61.46 ± 0.08 ± 1.32 ± 0. there were many malformed specimens of true insect (Heteroptera) species collected in areas with the most radioactive contamination in eastern Sweden (Gysinge.1 ± 1. arvalis) frogs inhabiting radiation-contaminated areas have increased cytogenetic damage in bone marrow cells and erythrocytes and a change in the ratio of erythrocytes in peripheral blood (Voitovich. 35. inhabitants on pine bark and the lichen Hypogymnia physodes significantly declined on radioactively contaminated trees 2–3 km from the Chernobyl NPP. 1994 (Isaeva and Vyazov. μR/h Index 60 220 21. % from populations living under heavy radiation for 7–8 years differed significantly from controls after exposure to additional experimental radiation (Afonin and Voitovich.. near the 30-km zone. 1999).05) in animals from the 30-km zone (Afonin et al.272 TABLE 10..11 T lymphocytes. Both brown (R.49 Year 1994 1993 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences TABLE 10.25. 6. After the catastrophe. were malformed (Hesse-Honegger.56 Zero-cells. 37.25). temporaria) and narrow-muzzled (R. % 32.22 neutrophiles.54 ± 0.45 B lymphocytes. and 2002. and even 13 to 15 years after there were also fewer small-sized species (Pokarzhevsky et al. The Level of Developmental Stability (Asymmetric Cases Per Character) in Populations of Frog Hybrid Complex Rana esculenta with Different Levels of Radioactive Contamination.54 ± 0. 4.03 — 60 μR/h 0. 1992–1993 (Chubanishvyli et al.0 ± 1. Bryansk Province. The initial level of cells with chromatin changes was significantly higher (p < 0. 1996) Contamination. 32.83 11. 2. % 20.7 ± 1. 0. 2001.03 0. 2004). 1987.38 17. 1998. % 47. The number of micronucleated erythrocytes in all the populations of brown frogs (Rana temporaria) from heavily contaminated areas caught before 1991 was significantly higher (p < 0. The intensity of nematode and cestode invasions was higher in more radioactively contaminated environments (Table 10.26.03 0.26). 2006). afterward the numbers were: 1986. Immune Status of the Frog Hybrid Complex Rana esculenta in Two Populations with Different Contamination Levels. there were 16 species. . Osterfarnebo. 36. In 1990 up to 22% of all insects collected in the Polessk District. Hesse-Honegger and Wallimann. 39. Russia (Table 10.9 ± 1.28). 1988. Changes were demonstrated in the functional immune status activity in the frog hybrid (Rana esculenta) in the more contaminated areas (Table 10. 1999). 31.16 ± 0. The number of oribatid mite species.03 12.27).41 Neutrophils.8 ± 1. The level of fluctuating asymmetry and the number of phenodeviations in populations of crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and wild goldfish (Carassius auratus) were higher in those living in water with more radioactive contamination in Bryansk Province. 1999. dose 15 μR/h 0.64 ± 0. 106 /liter 6. Before the catastrophe. 106 /liter 15.7 ± 0. 1996) Contamination. Bryansk Province. 1991.

04 2.1 Predominant species: Heligmosomum mixtum.88 ± 0. 1996a) Species C.07 1. decreasing life expectancy. % Index of abundance Cestodes∗∗ Intensity.71 3.0 1. .57 ± 0. Levels of incorporated radionuclides were sometimes hundreds of times higher than precatastrophe ones.0 3. In the 10 years after the catastrophe the biodiversity of soil protozoa did not exceed 50% of the precatastrophe level (Pokarzhevsky et al. 10. 23 years after the catastrophe. malformations. This first radioactive shock together TABLE 10. amphibians. water. and invertebrates.37 ± 0.61 0.4 2. carassius C.27 180 μR/h 0.53 1. early aging. and air. Russia. and Syphacia obvelata.04 4. Conclusion In 1986 in the contaminated territories. Some bird species may persist in the 30-km Chernobyl zone only via immigration from uncontaminated areas.5. immunodeficiencies. “Chernobyl” populations exhibit a wide variety of morphological deformities that are not found in normal populations of domestic animals.1 0. Heligmosomoides glareoli. ∗∗ Predominant species: Catenotaenia cricetorum and Paranoplocephala omphalodes. There is transgenerational accumulation of genomic instability in animal populations.1 40. an enormous amount of many different radionuclides was absorbed by animals through food.. Bryansk Province. the levels of incorporated radionuclides in some areas of Europe remain dangerous for mammals.30 - 40.29 80 μR/h 0. Despite reports of a “healthy” Chernobyl environment for rare species of birds and mammals. and genetic disorders in all of the animals studied— mammals. Bryansk Province.06 4.31 ± 0. Mutation rates in animal populations in contaminated territories are significantly higher.0 ± 0. 2005). auratus Character Asymmetric cases per character Phenodeviation per specimen Asymmetric cases per character Phenodeviation per specimen 60 μR/h 0.. 1992– 1995 (Pel’gunov.26 ± 0. birds.5 3. Now.9 220 μR/h 48. amphibians. and fish.93 ± 0.28. even beetles.0 3. long-term observations of both wild and experimental animal populations in the heavily contaminated areas show serious increases in morbidity and mortality that bear striking resemblance to changes in the public health of humans—increasing tumor rates. living in the contaminated territories.42 ± 0. 2006). These long-term effects may be even more detrimental because the genomes of animals in subsequent generations are more sensitive to the impact of very low doses of radiation (Goncharova. physiologic. their existence there is likely the result of immigration and not from locally sustained populations. Since the catastrophe.6 0. and other compromises to health. manifested as adverse cellular and systemic effects. % Index of abundance ∗ 180 μR/h 5. Level of Fluctuating Asymmetry and Number of Phenodeviation in Populations of Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius ) and Wild Goldfish (Carassius auratus ) with Different Levels of Radioactive Contamination of the Water. 1996) 60 μR/h Nematodes∗ Intensity.10 ± 0. fish. changes in blood formation.26 0. 1992 (Zakharov et al. with chronic low-dose contamination has resulted in morphologic.03 2.Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Fauna 273 TABLE 10. birds.45 ± 0.27. Intensity of the Invasion of Bank Voles (Clethrionomys glareolus ) by Nematodes and Cestodes.

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Impact of low dose chronic ionizing radiation on some characteristics of reproduction in mice CC57W/Mv from the Chernobyl experimental population. Toxicol. & Gashchak. V. F. S. N. O. (2006). M. Voitovich. Wickliffe. E.) 4: 42–46 (in Belarussian). Doses to the Norwegian population from naturally occurring radiation and from the Chernobyl fallout. G. A. & Ryabokon’. A.. A.. J. E. G. March 26. Assessing the genotoxicity of chronic environmental irradiation by using mitochondrial DNA heteroplasty in the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) at Chernobyl. P. 36(2): 248–259 (in Russian). E. Aquatic Microb. E. Ecol. Makeeva. L. Rad. E. Viktorov. & Molev. Moscow): pp. 279 Tsytsugyna. V. Yu. V. 131–133 (in Russian). 31(8): 358–363. I. (1996). 1: 183–187 (in Russian). (2004). Toxicol. Belar.ru/upload/File/conferencebook_ 2006. 66 (1/2): 141–154. (1997). Smith. Sci.. Emel’yanova. Herald Nat. (1996). E. A. Sutshenya. Velykanov. The criteria of identification of “critical” populations in aquatic radiochemoecology. T. G. Yelyseeva. J. Chem. G. (1997). (2005). J.. M. I. Hoffman. Env. B. J. (1997). Characteristics of spleen and lymph nodes in cattle kept in areas contaminated by Chernobyl fallout. & Polykarpov. Chem. A. G. G.) 3: 60−63 (in Belarussian). V. DNA damage and radiocesium in channel catfish from Chernobyl. I. V. p. 15: 1057–1063. Thiessen. G. Micronucleus frequencies in somatic cells of red vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) from radioactive exposed populations. Environ. & Gorbenko.. H. Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe: Environment Health (Center for Russian Environmental Policy. Ushakov.. Rate of adaptation to antropogenic contamination of populations of hydrobionts with different reproductive strategies. K. Tech.. Sci.. Sci. Belova. Petersburg (Materials. Sugg. M. D.. Sci. G. & Ryabov. Health (Gomel) 2(6): 56–57 (in Russian). Moscow): 12–16 (in Russian). Probl. (in Russian). & Krysanov.. M.. M. S. Aspects Chernobyl (Slavutich) 4: 492–503 (in Russian). Kartek. 30(1): 53–58 (in Russian). V. R. 46 (2): 200– 207 (in Russian). Vybornov. Herald Nat. S. Chernobyl spots on map of France. Acad. N. 21(6): 1249–1254. M. 60–62 (in Russian). (1998). Biol.. N. I. A. Tech.T. Smolich. Stolyna. . (Eds. Zooplankton fecal pellets. A. 227–231 (//www. M. F. Strand. A.Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Fauna Slukvin. Fluctuating asymmetry of shape in rodents from radioactively contaminated environments in Chernobyl. K. Verygin. Doc Dissert (National Institute of Radiation Hygiene. Sofia/Moscow): 228 pp.ecopolicy. E. 27: 57–102. M.).W. (1993). Env. Sushko. N. I. Acad.. Medical and Biological Problem Radiation and Chemical Protection. N. A. Oslo) (cited by RADNET. Moscow (Materials. P. R. Petersburg): pp. T. & Polikarpov. V. I. Radioact. (2000). All-Russian Scientific Conference. M. Radioecol. Sh. G. May 20–21. & Krupnova. 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V. Baranov. (in Russian). E. I. V. (Eds. International Conference. Zarubin. Ukraine (Abstracts. Genet.. Zakharov. Zakharov. Borysov. (Eds. Kiev. Mammals: Developmental stability. & Valetsky. Fish: Developmental stability. (1996b). 39–46 (in Russian). & Krysanov. Dynamics of radionuclide incorporation in fishes from large bodies of water in Kiev Province (1986–2005). M. (1996). O.. Conse- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences quences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe: Environmental Health (Center for Russian Environmental Policy. V.. V. (2006). In: Zakharov. Zakharov. Sci. (Eds. Belyaev. V. April 24–26. A. Moscow): 160 pp. Volkova.) (1996). E. 30(4): 20–24 (in Russian). (1996a). The mutation frequency of Drosophila melanogaster populations living under conditions of increased background radiation due to the Chernobyl accident. Borysov. 37– 44. 62–72 (in Russian). N. 245–246 (in Russian). . E. Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident: Future Outlook. V. Zainullin.280 E. S. & Zalissky.. M.. Kiev): pp. V. & Krysanov.).. V. Moscow): pp. M. A. M. Chromosome aberrations in some tissues of murine rodents and amphibians from Belarussian radionuclide contaminated territories. S. Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe: Environmental Health (Center for Russian Environmental Policy. A. A. 2006. 112: pp. Moscow): pp. L. & Valetsky. V.G. Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe: Environmental Health (Center for Russian Environmental Policy. E. & Krysanov. (1992). V. V. Yu. M. Yu. A. Borysov. In: Zakharov. Cytol. Yu. V. I. A.). Total Environ. V.

C. cytomegalovirus. 1992). Yablokov. There is evidence of increased susceptibility to Pneumocystis carinii and cytomegalovirus in children whose immune systems were suppressed in the contaminated territories of Novozybkov District.CHERNOBYL 11. Herpes viruses were activated in the heavily contaminated territories of Belarus 6 to 7 years after the catastrophe (Matveev. 1996). Belarus (Matveev. 8. microfungi. Voice: +7-495-952-80-19. 119071 Moscow. 1993. Russian Academy of Sciences. D. fax: +7-495-952-80-19. 6. Borschevsky et al. Yablokov Of the few microorganisms that have been studied.b).. Chernobyl’s Radioactive Impact on Microbial Biota Alexey V. 7. the profound changes that take place among these small live organisms with rapid reproductive turnover do not bode well for the health and survival of other species. In spite of the fact that these represent such important and fundamentally live ecosystems there are only scarce data on the various microbiological consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. and microfungi.500.. Bryansk Province (Lysenko et al. Compared to humans and other mammals. 3. 1995. 1996).000. 2. 1996). 1996). Prevalence of Pneumocystis was noticeably higher in the heavily contaminated territories of Bryansk Province (Lavdovskaya et al. 1.. 10. and soil micromycetes and bacteria were activated in various ways. hepatitis. Organisms such as tuberculosis bacilli. 1993. Soon after the catastrophe studies observed activation of retroviruses (Kavsan et al.. Address for correspondence: Alexey V. and G became noticeably activated in the heavily contaminated areas of Belarus (Zhavoronok et al... Belookaya. 5. and protozoa). Office 319. In some heavily contaminated areas of Belarus and Russia there was a markedly higher level of cryptosporidium infestation (Lavdovskaya et al. The ultimate long-term consequences for the Chernobyl microbiologic biota may be worse than what we know today. Matveev et al. The number of saprophytic bacteria in Belarussian sod-podzolic soils is at maximum in areas with radioactivity levels of 15 Ci/km2 or less and minimal in areas 281 ... One gram of soil contains some 2. From 1993 to 1997 the hepatitis viruses B... Leninsky Prospect 33. 1996). Yablokov@ecopolicy. all underwent rapid changes in the areas heavily contaminated by Chernobyl. Tuberculosis became more virulent in the more contaminated areas of Belarus (Chernetsky and Osynovsky. 2003). 9. Voropaev et al. was significantly higher in the heavily contaminated areas of Bryansk Province (Rudnitsky et al. 1993. Up to 3 kg of the mass of an adult human body is made up of bacteria.000 microorganisms (bacteria. viruses. herpes. caused by the fungus microsporia Microsporum sp. The prevalence and severity of Gruby’s disease (ringworm). Russia. Activation of cytomegalovirus was found in the heavily contaminated districts of Gomel and Mogilev provinces. 1998a. 1993). Several incidences of increased morbidity owing to certain infectious diseases may be due to increased virulence of microbial populations as a result of Chernobyl irradiation. and tobacco mosaic viruses.ru 4.

There is a wide range of radionuclide bioaccumulations in soil micromycetes. Characteristics of Oocysts of Coccidia (Eimeria cerna) in Voles (Clethrionomys glareolus ) from Two Differently Contaminated Sites. 1995).. Kovalchuk et al. Oryol. 18. Bryansk Province (Pel’gunov. (256. the prevalence of black microfungi has dramatically increased in contaminated soil surrounding Chernobyl (Zhdanova et al. Cs137. In all soil samples from the 10-km Chernobyl zone the abundance of soil bacteria (nitrifying. The accumulation factor of Cs-137 in Stemphylium (family Dematiaceae) is 348 and in Verticillium (family Muctdinaceae) 28 (Zymenko et al. 2003).. 19. Among soil bacteria that most actively accumulate Cs-137 are Agrobacterium sp. more anomalous. coli has been noted in the intestines of evacuee children living in Ukraine (Luk’yanova et al. and Russia it was revealed that in areas with a high level of radioactive contamination (740–1. Ukraine. 1994).2 180–220 μR/h 76. 2006). 2007. 14. In a long-term study (1954 to 1994— before and after the catastrophe) in Belarus. Sharp reduction in the abundance of bifidus bacteria and the prevalence of microbes of the class Escherichia.1).480 kBq/m2 and higher) in Bryansk. sulfate-reducing. 16. Infection of tobacco plants with tobacco mosaic virus and oilseed rape mosaic virus was shown to induce a threefold increase in homologous DNA recombination in noninfected tissues (Boyko et al. 20. and no sporulated oocysts of coccidia Eimeria cerna in voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) in Bryansk Province (Table 11. 15. 1998).2 17. 13. 21.. lightly contaminated soils (Ivanova et al. Enterobacter sp.3 kBq/kg of Cs-134. and Paecilomyces lilacinus) from the heavily contaminated Chernobyl areas have aggregated growth of threadlike hyphae. There are fewer than normal. Sutchenya et al. 1995). 1998).6 6. and cellulose-fermenting bacteria. a sharp increase in E. in particular. Zymenko et al. Sr-90. Gomel. 1995). In contaminated areas several new variants of tobacco mosaic virus appeared that affect plants other than Solanaceous species. Since the catastrophe.. Mogilev. 1995). whereas the same species from soil with low radionuclide contamination show normal growth. 1996) Level of contamination 20 μR/h Normal Anomalous Nonsporulated 94.. Mucorhiemalis. and Pu-106) in Kiev Province . 1991.. Rodents in the heavily contaminated territories of Belarus have been extensively invaded by coccids (obligate intracellular protozoan parasites from the phylum Apicomplexa.3 12. and their virulence is most likely correlated with the level of radioactive contamination in the areas. and Klebsiella sp. Chernygov. (60–288).1.. Smolensk. All the strains of microfungi species that were studied (Alternaria alternata. (accumulation factor 587). and Kursk provinces.. with up to 40 Ci/km2 (Zymenko et al.. practically no cases of rabies in wild animals have been reported since the catastrophe (Adamovich. nitrogenfixing. Only slowly growing Cladosporium cladosporioides has aggregated growth both in contaminated and TABLE 11. 1995). Six years after the catastrophe a population of Eimeria cernae from Clethrionomys glareolus living in heavily contaminated soil (up to 7.. Kaluga. 12. and heterotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria) was reduced by up to two orders of magnitude as compared to control areas (Romanovskaya et al. This suggests that the rabies virus has either disappeared or become inactivate.282 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 11. Sumy.5 0 5.

M. N. Ivanova. Y.. (1993). Acids Res. A. E. November 18– 22. V. M.. The mechanism of such changes is well known: inclusion and increase in the frequency of mutations by natural selection and preservation of beneficial novel genes that for whatever reason appear more viable under the new conditions.. & Zhdanova. endocolitis. Phenotypical characteristics of microfungi from the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP.. 1992). et al. Kaposi’s sarcoma. Pathogen-induced systemic plant signal triggers DNA rearrangements. F. References Adamovich. Med. Zemp. O.ru/ conf_program/1992rus. The “host-opportunistic protozoa” system: Effect of ionizing radiation on incidence of cryptosporidiosis and pneumocystosis. Kathyria. N. Karpenko. and protozoa) and microbiological communities as a whole undergo rapid changes after any additional irradiation. I.. Helicobacter pylori. Scientific and Practical Conference.. protozoa. Nature 423: 760–762. AIDs. Kavsan. & Bogomazova. Frolov. V. Aslanydi. Dynamics of Belarussian children’s health status under modern ecological conditions.biomed. Petersburg (//www. chronic intestinal diseases. Med. Scientific and Practical Conference. J. Kalck. 22. Medical and Psychological Rehabilitation of Sufferers (Materials. V. and various pathologies of pregnancy.mycology. 33–37 (in Russian). 2003). dermatitis. (1996). A. but also many other illnesses are connected with viruses and bacteria. see Sreelekha et al. Kovalchuk.pdf. N. V. All but a few microorganisms that have been studied in Chernobylaffected territories underwent rapid changes in heavily contaminated areas. E. 35(5): 1714–1725. 3–10 (in Russian). St. M. lungs. L. Yu. F. O. D..) (in Russian). I. and ischemia). Kovalchuk. Epstein–Barr virus. F.. bacteria. T. Ecolog 3: 237– 240 (in Russian). Belozerskaya. Boyko. (2003).ru/nam/pdf/vol7.pdf) (in Russian). and herpes virus) provides another reason why the cancer rate increased in areas contaminated by Chernobyl irradiation (for a review. and cells of human beings. 1992. International Conference. Minsk): pp. Cancer and Human Retroviruses. Borschevsky.. & Osynovsky. & Kovalchuk. (1998). (1993). Kalechits. Mycol.. A. Baleva. Filkowski. Ya. & Rybalkina. K. blood.. P. 100–104 (in Russian). I. Transgenerational changes in genome stability and methylation in pathogeninfected plants (virus-induced plant genome instability). vaginitis. pyelonephritis. V. D. Minsk): pp. Belookaya. Chernobyl Catastrophe: Diagnostics and Medical and Psychological Rehabilitation of Sufferers (Materials. G. Activation of human retroviruses after the Chernobyl accident. V. Lysenko.. Aspects Chernobyl Accident (Slavutich) 1: pp. Boyko. Course of tuberculosis morbidity after the Chernobyl catastrophe in Belarus. & Antonenko. L. V.. S. Basova. Epidemiological abnormalities of tuberculosis in a region with a low level of radioactive contamination. Hydrophobia in animals on radioactively contaminated territories. There was a significant decline in the Shannon diversity index of infusoria species and a concomitant increase in their abundance in the Pripyat River mouth from 1986 to 1988 (Nebrat. N. 7: 10–11 (//www. 1994). V. B. Not only cancer. V. asthma. Yao. and fungi that inhabit the intestines. A.. This microevolutionary mechanism has been activated in all radioactively contaminated areas and leads to activation of old and the occurrence of new forms of viruses and bacteria. V. All microorganisms (viruses. Adv.. S. A. fungi. J. T. (1996). Our contemporary knowledge is too limited to understand even the main consequences of the inevitable radioactive-induced genetic changes among the myriad of viruses. Lavdovskaya. The long-term consequences for microbial biota may be worse than what we understand today. A. Pogribny. inflammatory diseases of bacterial and viral origin (influenza.. (1992). V. Radiologically induced pathologic changes in the microflora in humans can increase susceptibility to infections. Parasitology 30(2): 153–157 (in Russian). T. (2007). Lozovaya.. bacteria. Biol. (2006). Nucl. A. . V.spb. cystitis. organs. hepatitis virus.. Chernobyl Catastrophe: Diagnostics. The strong association between carcinogenesis and viruses (papilloma virus. Chernetsky.Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Microbial Biota 283 had anomalous oocysts (Soshkin and Pel’gunov..

Health 8: 46–48 (in Russian). 53: 3–9 (in Russian). & Mokhova... N. Activation of VPGinfections after the Chernobyl accident. G. & Krysanov. S. C..).. Animals in the Chernobyl Zone (“Nauka Tekhn. Chennai): pp. J.. Voropaev. A. Publ. Rudnitsky. Zhdanova. V. J. N.. Yu. Plankton infusorias from downstream in the Pripyat River. Herald Nat. Sobolev. Fyliptsevich. Kalynin. M.. B. F. Analyses of chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis in a population in Belarus. E. Chernobyl Catastrophe: History. Sect 3. G. Zhavoronok. Zhavoronok. Vasylevskaya. B. Lashko. J. A. ca/bunchmj/ICEH/proceedings/Sreelekha_TT_ ICEH_papers_502to511. & Ospovat. 65–66 (in Russian).). L. (1998).) 4: 69–72 (in Belarussian).slavutich. Lozovaya. V.. E. India (Proceedings. (1996). L. Economical. A. & Sadovnikov. Belar. A. (1992). Voropaev. Incidence of human microsporia in radionuclide contaminated areas.. M. K. Geochemical. Radiat. December 15–17. O. Radiol. Hareendran. E. (2003). Vitebsk): pp. (in Russian). N. Denysova. et al. & Artyshkova. et al. N. (1991). A. V. L. T.. Sci. Greenbaum. Pel’gunov. A. Ten Years after Chernobyl Catastrophe: Scientific Aspect of Problems (Abstracts. T. M. Greenbaum.ua/23-19. Hepatoviruses B. V. A. M... Z. & Chernaya.. In: Collected Transactions (Vitebsk Medical Institute. G. 5(2): 68–69 (in Russian). Social.. A. Moscow): pp. Basova. (Biol. V. S. Sreelekha. V. T. A. . Microbiologic complex in radioactively contaminated sod-potboil soils. (Eds. A.stopatom. Lavdovskaya. M. Matveev..kiev.pdf). V. V. A. Okeanov. N. N. & Pel’gunov. F. Zhavoronok. In: Zakharov. Role of the herpes virus infections in infant mortality of Gomel province areas with different densities of radionuclide contamination.19. & Lapshin. A.yorku. L. (1996). Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe: Environmental Health (Center for Russian Environmental Policy. I. M. M.. Vasylevskaya. (1996).. Three-years of morphological monitoring of Eimeria cernae (Eucoc- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences cidiida. Abnormalities in soil mycobiologic composition around Chernobyl NPP. N. Soshkin. E. Safety 43(5): 18–24 (in Russian). V. N. L. Chernovetsky.. and G markers in those suffering from the Chernobyl catastrophe. Shkol’nyi. In: Bar’yakhtar. M. I. A. A. Effect of radionuclides environmental contamination on the population health: Clinical and experimental study.. Romanovskaya. Ecological consequences of radioactive contamination for soil bacteria in the 10km Chernobyl zone. K. S. N. F. Hydrobiol. V. Medical and Biological Consequences (//www. E. V. Jansy. 28(6): 27–31 (in Russian). Zool.. G. Grodno): pp. V.” Minsk): 263 pp. N. Microbiol. Third Congress of the Belarussian Scientific Society of Immunology and Allergy. Minsk): pp.) (1995). D. P. Zakharenko. Environmental contamination impact on carcinogenesis. A. T. Rokitko. Med. A. N. Med.284 Luk’yanova. (1994).htm) (in Russian). I. & Naralenkov. A. Ukr.. A. 30(3): 223–228 (in Russian). L.. The host-opportunistic protozoa system. (1995). & Rybalkyna. A. V. 2003. S. (2003). Scientific Conference. Yu. Zymenko... Parasitological study of rodents.. Microbiology 67(2): 274–280 (in Russian). Cricetidae) in a low level radioactive contaminated territory. E.. J. M. A.. suffering from the Chernobyl accident. Sokolov. Probl. (1995).. V. (1993). Parasitol. (1998a).. Eimeriidae) from red voles Clethrionomys glareolus (Rodentia. Nebrat. Kalynin. O. V. 136–143 (in Russian). Thankappan. A. Artyshkova. J. Acad. Bot. N.. Children’s digestive systems. Activity of cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women as an index of herd immunity in the radionuclide contaminated regions resulting from the Chernobyl accident. 51: 134–143 (in Russian). 90–91 (in Russian). Zhdanova. Actual Problems of Immunology and Allergy (Abstracts. Bency. A. (1994).. D. and the incidence of mixed infections (Pneumocystis and cytomegalovirus) in children living in radionuclide contaminated areas. Mycol. V. E. Nakonechnaya. (Eds. N. Matveev. Gavrylyuk. Chernetsova. N. Babarykyna. V. Complexes of soil micromycetes in the area influenced by the Chernobyl NPP. & Kyseleva. Pikulik. Lysenko. T. L.. Baleva. S. Matveev. (1998b). D. O. 97–100 (in Russian). & Plenin.. & Kolomiets. A. S.. Chennai. (1995). L. Third International Conference on Environment and Health. V. Sutchenya. I. V. 73(7–8): 5–7 (in Russian).. 502–511 (//www. (Ed. V. T. A. V. N. E.

Affected populations exhibited a wide variety of morphological deformities that were extremely rare or not known before the catastrophe. Conversely. 1996). The data presented in Chapter III. manifested by abnormal cellular and systemic effects. and other isotopes results in bioaccumulation that will present unforeseen surprises for decades to centuries to come. and mammalian populations reveal deterioration in all the organisms that were studied in detail (For review see Grodzinsky. fish. as compared to the genomes of animals that were exposed in the first few generations (Goncharova. and bacteria. and east Asia. chemical. and other anthropogenic pressures on wildlife in the heav- ily contaminated areas eased. North America. The active migration of Sr-90. in the contaminated territories there are also active processes of natural selection for the survival of less radiosensitive individuals—the processes of a radioadaptation. and the levels were often hundreds of times higher than previous background levels that were considered “normal. fish. and microorganisms in the Chernobyl-contaminated territories are much higher than elsewhere. animals. including eagles—are living in the Chernobyl zone of contamination. Pu. 2007). Large mammals—wolves. adverse effects were evident in all the plants and animals that were studied. Without exception. elk. 2000. Chernobyl’s overall radioactive effect on water. geologic. Morphologic. 2006 and Zakharov and Krysanov.. including introduction into multiple food chains. wild boars. and genetic disorders in all living organisms: plants.” This huge outpouring of highlevel radioactivity together with the ensuing low-level chronic irradiation resulted in morphologic. birds. mammals. Radioadaptation in a population under conditions of chronic contamination will lead to diminish radiosensitivity over many generations. show that the Chernobyl catastrophe has had and will continue to have multiple impacts upon flora and fauna. cytogenic.CHERNOBYL Conclusion to Chapter III The 1986 radioactive fallout from Chernobyl impacted fauna and flora over the entire Northern Hemisphere. atmosphere. amphibians. Mutation loads and mutation rates in plants. Cs-137. 2006). wildlife began to be restored and even appeared to flourish. Elevated radiation levels were documented in plants and animals (including microorganisms) in Western Europe. and immunological studies of plant. Twenty-plus years later. As soon as industrial. These transgenerational long-term effects are detrimental because the genomes of animals in more distant generations are more sensitive to very low radiation doses. however varied. invertebrates. Chronic low-dose exposure to Chernobyl irradiation has resulted in transgenerational accumulation of genomic instability. and birds. Pelevyna et al. and soil is dynamic from both the radionuclide decay transformations as well as from biologic. as well as viruses. physiologic. Some plants and animals in the Chernobyl zone 285 . deer. and other ecological processes such as migration and accumulation of radionuclides throughout the ecosystems. the Arctic. and evolutionary theory predicts that this will result because of special adaptation accompanied by elimination of sensitive genotypes and pauperization of the gene pool. but the prosperity of this wildlife is deceptive. amphibian. Am. Studies of birds indicate that some species may be found in the contaminated regions only because of migration from uncontaminated areas (Møller and Moussaeu. agricultural. game animals and livestock in some Chernobyl-contaminated areas far from Ukraine continue to have dangerous levels of absorbed radionuclides.

(in Russian). Soc. V. M. and Russia). Grodzinsky. pp. The material presented in Chapter III testifies to the fact that it is dangerous and shortsighted to consider the Chernobyl radioactive zone as a natural reserve where plants and animals can develop and thrive. Lett. Genetic effects in natural populations of animals from the Belarussian radiocontaminated areas: Biological effects of low doses. We. ECRR Doc 1 (Green Audit Book. T. I. Low Doses of Radiation: Are They Dangerous? (NOVA. C.. Yu. A. Minsk): pp. B. (2006). Gorlib. I. Remote consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: Assessment after 13 years. Chernobyl is. predict. More than 70% of all experimental rats raised under conditions of Chernobyl contamination developed cancer within the next few years and suffered multiple other diseases and impaired immunological competence. In: International Scientific Practical Conference. The material in Chapter III demonstrates a sharply increasing mutational load. (Eds. but must be supported. actively transforming the gene