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Introduction to Physical pharmacy; Matter, Properties of Matter: State of matter, change in the state of matter, latent heats and vapor pressure, sublimation-critical point, Eutectic mixtures, gases, aerosols-inhalers, relative humidity, liquid. complexes, liquid crystals, glassy state, solids- crystalline, amorphous and polymorphism. Micromeretics and Powder Rheology: Particle size and distribution, average particle size, number and weight distribution, particle number, methods for determining particle volume, methods of determining particle size- optical microscopy, sieving, sedimentation; measurements of particle shape, specific surface area; methods for determining surface area; permeability, adsorption, derived properties of powders, porosity, packing arrangement, densities, bulkiness & flow properties. Surface and Interfacial Phenomenon: Liquid interface, surface and interfacial tensions, surface free energy, measurement of surface and interfacial tensions, spreading coefficient, adsorption at liquid interfaces, surface active agents, HLB classification, solubilization, detergency, adsorption at solid interfaces, solid-gas and solid-liquid interfaces, complex films, electrical properties of interface. Viscosity and Rheology: Newtonian systems, Law of flow, kinematic viscosity, effect of temperature; non-Newtonian systems: pseudoplastic, dilatant, plastic; thixotropy, thixotropy in formulation, negative thixotropy, determination of viscosity, capillary, falling ball, rotational viscometers. Dispersion Systems: Colloidal dispersions: Definition, types, properties of colloids, protective colloids, applications of colloids in pharmacy; Suspensions and Emulsions: Interfacial properties of suspended particles, settling in suspensions, theory of sedimentation, effect of Brownian motion, sedimentation of flocculated particles, sedimentation parameters, wetting of particles, controlled flocculation, flocculation in structured vehicles, rheological considerations; Emulsions-types, theories, physical stability. Complexation: Classification of complexes, methods of preparation and analysis, applications. Kinetics and Drug Stability: General considerations & concepts, half-life determination, Influence of temperature, light, solvent, catalytic species and other factors, Accelerated stability study, expiration dating. Importance of microbiology in pharmacy; Structure of bacterial cell; Classification of microbes and their taxonomy: Actinomycetes, bacteria, rickettsiae, spirochetes and viruses; Identification of Microbes: Stains and types of staining techniques, electron microscopy; Nutrition, cultivation, isolation of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, viruses, etc; Microbial genetics and variation; Control of microbes by physical and chemical methods: Disinfection, factors influencing disinfectants, dynamics of disinfection, disinfectants and antiseptics and their evaluation; Sterilization: different methods, validation of sterilization methods & equipments; Sterility testing of all pharmaceutical products. Microbial assays of antibiotics, vitamins & amino acids.
Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 1970 & Rules 1975. adults and elderly patients. inhalations. jellies. capsules. antigens and heptans. isotonic solutions. Humulin. pills. streptomycins tetracyclines and vitamin B12. calculation of doses for infants. Introduction to pharmaceutical jurisprudence & ethics : Pharmaceutical Legislations . displacement value etc. diagnostic aids. acids. emulsions. Therapeutic incompatibilities. powders. A brief study of the various Prescription/Nonprescription Products. surface active agents. Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1960. Design of fermentation process. AICTE Act 1987. Genetic Recombination: Transformation. Hypersensitivity.A brief review. Pharmacy Act 1948.Immunology and Immunological Preparations: Principles. appliances available in the market.A brief review. Study of drugs produced by biotechnology such as Activase. pastilles. General dispensing procedures including labeling of dispensed products. lotions. standardization and storage. immune system. conjugation. ophthalmic. Medicinal & Toilet Preparations (Excise Duties) Act 1955. HB etc. amino acids. care required in dispensing procedures including labeling of dispensed products.A brief review. maintenance and drug store-dispensing of proprietary products. Community Pharmacy: Organization and structure of retail and whole sale drug store-types of drug store and design. creams. suppositories. liniments. Pharmaceutical Education . source of errors in prescription. Antimicrobial spectrum and methods used for their standardization. alcohol dilution. Development of hybridoma for monoclonal antibodies. Isolation of fermentation products with special reference to penicillins. Isolation of mutants. Purine bases. dyes. cellular/humoral immunity. immunological tolerance. lozenges. alkaloids. Introduction to dispensing and community pharmacy. quaternary ammonium compounds. States Shops & Establishments Act & Rules. Patents Act 1970. antigen-antibody reactions and their applications. Vaccines and sera: their preparation. Factories Act 1948. Prescription: Handling of prescription. Enlarging and reducing recipes percentage solutions. glycosides. Drugs Price Control Order. Principles involved and procedures adopted in dispensing of : Typical prescriptions like mixtures. alligation. A brief study of the following Acts with special reference to the main provisions and the latest amendments: Poisons Act 1919. active and passive immunization. Minimum Wages Act 1948. fermenter. Humatrope. Screening of soil for organisms producing antibiotics. . Antibiotics: Historical development of antibiotics. pastes. correction of incompatibilities. protoplast fusion and gene cloning and their applications. inorganic incompatibilities including incompatibilities of metals and their salts. etc. control of different parameters. Pharmaceutical calculations: Posology. factors influencing rate of mutation. solutions. organic incompatibilities. proof spirit. non-metals. transduction. paints sprays tablet triturates. Narcotic Drugs & Psychotropic Substances Act 1985 & Rules. Drugs & Pharmaceutical Industry . legal requirements for establishment. Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act 1954. carbohydrates. Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 and Rules 1945. alkalis. its design. anesthetics. pyrazolone derivatives. Insecticides Act 1968. An elaborate study of the followings: Pharmaceutical Ethics. ointments. Medical/Surgical accessories. Incompatibilities: Physical and chemical incompatibilities.
different types of graphic representation. Stoichiometry: Unit processes material and energy balances. primary and secondary quantities. Hospital Formulary: Contents. Master formula Card. Pharmacoepidemiology: Definition and scope. Pharmacy and therapeutic committee.types of medication errors. Organization and Structure of hospital pharmacy: Organization of a hospital and hospital pharmacy. tie substance. communicable diseases. forced and natural convection. flow meters. mole fraction. Purchase order. Budget preparation and Implementation. Central Sterile Supply Unit and their Management: Types of materials for sterilization. applications of Fourier’s law. Dispensing of controlled drugs. Dispensing of ancillary supplies. basic equations of fluid flow. treatment schedules. preparation and revision of hospital formulary. personnel requirements. sterilization equipments. gas laws. boiling liquids. patient medication profile. steady and unsteady states. advantages & disadvantages of pharmacoepidemiological studies. Stefan Boltzmann equation. surface coefficients. Mathematical problems on evaporation. Supply of sterile materials. heat exchangers. . Importance of unit operations in manufacturing. dimensionless equations. Dispensing of drugs to in-patients. mathematical problems. production control. Dispensing of drugs to ambulatory patients. radioisotope committee. Types of materials stocked. Manufacturing records. factor affecting evaporation. Kirchoff’s law. Procurement and stocking. molecular units. Types of drug distribution systems. Charging policy. demand and costing. role of pharmacist in community health care and education (First aid. film evaporators. idiosyncratic cases. Fluid Flow: Types of flow. Evaporation: Basic concept of phase equilibria. methods adopted. Records and Reports: Prescription filling.maintenance of records of retail and wholesale. Distillation: method to conduct pharmacoepidemiological studies. single effect and multiple effect evaporators. Reynold's number. Medication error. equilibrium state. Manufacture of Sterile and Non-sterile Products: Policy making of manufacturable items. manometers and measurement of flow and pressure. purchase procedures. cases on drug interaction and adverse reactions. nutrition. patient counseling. family planning). Computerized services (e. Packing of materials prior to sterilization. Heat transfer: Concept of heat flow. Retrieval of information. mole volume. disease. black body. MEDLINE). condensing vapors.g. Drug distribution Systems in Hospitals: Out-patient dispensing. Concept of boundary layer. Purchase and Inventory Control principles. dimensionless formulae. rate process. Pharmacoeconomics: Introduction to pharmacoeconomics. procurement of information. dimensionless groups.. Viscosity. labeling. correction and reporting. valves. Drug Store Management and Inventory Control: Organization of drug store. radiation. heat interchangers. drug profile. evaporators. manufacturing practice. Nuclear Pharmacy: Methods of handling radioisotopes. storage conditions. Responsibilities of a hospital pharmacist. Drug Information Services: Sources' of Information on drugs. application of pharmacoeconomics. different methods of pharmacoeconomics.
Material and heat balances around Swenson Walker Crystallizer. Azeotropic and extractive distillation. circulating magma and Krystal Crystallizer. Hygrometric chart and measurement of humidity. forms size and factors affecting them. Factors affecting filtration. Caking of crystals and its prevention. crystal growth. Plant location: Layout. Electrical. fire and dust hazards. hammer mill. industrial filters including filter press. shape. sieves.Different types of pumps. classification and types of dryers. filtration. Swenson Walker. Accident records etc. rate of drying and time of drying calculations. factors affecting. Air transport. Filtration and Centrifugation: Theory of filtration. and centrifugal sedimenters. Study of various types of Crystallizers. pressure. edge filter. wet bulb and adiabatic saturation temperatures. blowers and compressors. Corrosion: Classification. temperature. solid-liquid and liquid-liquid mixing equipments. level and vacuum and their measurements. agitated batch. volatility. sedimentation tank. prevention and control. mechanism of corrosion. geometry. Conveyers. corrosion. Mc-Cabe Thiele method for calculations of number of theoretical plates. Solubility curves and calculation of yields. Material Handling Systems: Liquid handling . tanks. bag fillers etc. mechanisms of size reduction. Solid handling-Bins. Single vacuum. filter aids. Industrial dermatitis. Properties and applications of the materials of construction with special reference to stainless steel and glass. flow. etc. Gas handling-Various types of fans. continuous and batch filters. Principles of centrifugation. phase diagrams. dryers used in pharmaceutical industries and special drying methods. Automated Process Control Systems: Process variables. filter media. Crystallization: Characteristics of crystals like-purity. Mixing: Theory of mixing. Material of Construction : General study of composition. Bunkers. elements of automatic process control and introduction to automatic process control systems. equipments for dehumidificat4ion operations. utilities and services. rotary filter. Size Reduction: Definition. objectives of size reduction. Nucleation mechanisms. simple steam and flash distillations. cyclone separators. fluid energy mill. factors affecting size reduction. Supersaturation. Dehumidification and Humidity Control: Basic concepts and definition. principles of rectification. resistance. theory and its limitations.Roult's law. Size separation: Different techniques of size separation. size. optimum cleaning cycle in batch filters. solid-solid. . laws governing energy and power requirements of a mills including ball mill. sieve shakers. Drying: Moisture content and mechanism of drying. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning: Principle and applications of refrigeration and air conditioning. application of humidity measurement in pharmacy. habit. industrial centrifugal filters. Chemical. Numerical problems on yields. Industrial Hazards and Safety Precautions: Mechanical.
evaluation of coated tablets. Application of different types of tablets. isotonicity and methods of its adjustment. formulation. Ophthalmic Preparations: Requirements. flavors and others. colors. Formulation details. coating process. Formulation of different types of tablets. vehicles. soft gelatin. polymerization complex emulsion. importance of base absorption and minimum/gm factors in soft capsules. importance of microencapsulation in pharmacy. eye lashes. air suspension technique. PVP. material for production of hard gelatin capsules. evaluation of clear liquids. Tablets: Advantages and disadvantages of tablets. Liquid Dosages Forms: Introduction. dry and soft liquid extracts. Pre-filling treatment. dextran etc. granulation. preparation and packaging of cosmetics for skin. multi-orifice. coating pan and other techniques. Capsules: Advantages and disadvantages of capsule dosage form. solubilizers. baby care products etc. General formulation of semisolids. routes of administration. preservatives.elements of computer aided manufacturing (CAM). water for injection. packaging and evaluation. human fibrin. Cosmeticology and Cosmetic Preparations: Fundamentals of cosmetic science. labeling. semisolid bases and their selection. stability testing and storage of capsule dosage forms. spray congealing. for control of blood pressure as per I. suspensions and emulsions official in pharmacopoeia. equipments for coating. mechanisms of drug penetration. Lipsticks.. processing and storage of whole human blood. washing of containers and . spray drying. clear gels manufacturing procedure. evaluation of tablets. emulsifying agents. human thrombin. Containers and closures and selection. Pharmaceutical Aerosols: Definition. Reactors and fundamentals of reactors design for chemical reactions. quality control. Blood Products and Plasma Substitutes: Collection. method of capsule filling. foam plasma substitutes. evaluation of micro capsules. microencapsulation by phase separation. Formulation. dried human plasma. structure and functions of skin and hair. nail polish remover. pyrogenicity. factors influencing penetration. types of additives used in formulations. and sterile water for injection. Extraction and Galenical Products: Principle and method of extraction. hair. human fibrinogen. suspending agents. general formulation. Stability kinetics and quality assurance. -ideal requirements. Parenteral Products: Pre-formulation factors. capsule shell and capsule content.P. Semisolid Dosage Forms: Definitions. technology on large-scale by various techniques. formulation. containers. displacement value. non aqueous vehicles. different types of tablet compression machinery and the equipments employed. dentifrice and manicure preparations like nail polish. Suppositories: Ideal requirements. tinctures. formulation of coating solution. bases. preparation of infusion. manufacturing' and packaging methods. pharmaceutical applications. film forming materials. concentrated human RBCs. methods of preparation. manufacturing packaging. Micro-encapsulation: Types of microcapsules. size of capsules. evaluation. labeling. types. human normal immunoglobulin. manufacturing procedure. coacervation. labeling. evaluation and packaging. propellants. Coating of Tablets: Types of coating. stabilizers.
and their influence on formulation and stability of products. Design of single dose bio-equivalence study and relevant statistics. Clearance concept. plasma protein binding. development and process validation methods for pharmaceutical operations involved in the production of pharmaceutical products with special reference to tablets. Extraction ratio. Design. stability aspects of packaging. physiological and pharmaceutical. surgical gauzes etc. protective cellulosic hemostastics. Pre-formulation studies: Study of physical properties of drug like physical form. biliary excretion. particle size.biological. Determination of pharmacokinetic parameters from plasma and urine data after drug administration by intravascular and oral route. polymerization etc. dissolution and organoleptic properties and their effect on formulation.. density. types. In vivo methods of evaluation Biopharmaceutics: Passage of drugs across biological barrier (passive diffusion.Zero order and first order absorption rate constant using Wagner-Nelson and residual methods. Sterility testing of pharmaceuticals. facilitated diffusion. hepatic clearance. . dielectric constant. official dressings. adhesive tape. filling and closing of ampoules. primary wound dressing. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions and their significance in combination therapy. Packaging of Pharmaceutical Products: Packaging components. Design of aseptic area. infusion fluids. surgical cotton. Volume of distribution and distribution coefficient.Definition and Scope. Study of pro-drugs in solving problems related to stability. lyophilization & preparation of sterile powders. equipment for large scale manufacture and evaluation of parenteral products. legal and official requirements for containers. Surgical products: Definition. Designing of dosage forms. determination of renal clearance. reduction. production and evaluation of controlled/sustained/extended release formulations. Design.. Performance evaluation methods: In-vitro dissolution studies for solid dosage forms methods. ICH Guidelines for stability testing of formulations. Packaging equipments. Pharmacokinetics of drug absorption . clearance ratio. Compartment kinetics. Solubility. oxidation. vials. absorbable and non-absorbable sutures. bioavailability and elegancy of formulations. package testing. ion-pair formation and pinocytosis). Nonlinear pharmacokinetics with special reference to one compartment model after I. extra-hepatic circulation.One compartment and two compartment models.closures. suspensions. specifications and methods of evaluation. active transport. Bioavailability and bioequivalence: and statistical treatment. absorbents. Clinical Pharmacokinetics: Definition and scope: Dosage adjustment in patients with and without renal and hepatic failure. Study of chemical properties of drugs like hydrolysis. Drug distribution in the body. shape. bandages. Bioavailability studies and bioavailability testing protocol and procedures. wetting. physico-chemical. racemization. Stabilization and stability testing protocol for various pharmaceutical products. development. ligatures and catguts.V. factors influence choice of containers. Laminar flow bench services and maintenance. stability and bioavailability. interpretation of dissolution data. Aseptic Techniques-source of contamination and methods of prevention. preparation of solution and suspensions. Factors influencing absorption. drug administration. Quality audit. Compartment model. GMP and quality assurance. Pharmacokinetics: Significance of plasma drug concentration measurement. mechanism of renal clearance.
solutions of gases in liquids. radioisotopes. uses. An outline of methods of preparation.and Extra-cellular Electrolytes: Physiological ions. Concept of free energy. Protectives and Adsorbents. lead.Measures of bioavailability. Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) of drugs. Essential and Trace Elements: Transition elements and their compounds of pharmaceutical importance. Diluents. Design of single dose bioequivalence study and relevant statistics. heavy metals. dosage. tmax. absolute temperature scale. Major Intra. mineral supplements. preparation. Second and Third laws. acid-base balance and combination therapy. enthalpy and entropy. arsenic. deviation from ideal behavior and explanation. clinical applications. Inorganic poisons and antidotes. conductance and its measurement. PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY Importance of inorganic compounds in pharmacy and medicine. radiopharmaceuticals. buffers in pharmaceutical systems. stability. Anti-caries agents. The Liquid State: Physical properties (surface tension. measurement of activity. Behaviour of Gases: Kinetic theory of gases. Antacids. Electrolytes used for replacement therapy. Complexing and chelating agents used in therapy. Debye Huckel theory. Expectorants. Importance of basic fundamentals of physical chemistry in pharmacy. Inorganic Radiopharmaceuticals: Nuclear reaction. Keli and Area Under the Curve (AUC). Acids. viscosity. measurements of tonicity. Solutions: Ideal and real solutions. Cathartics. sources of impurities. Pharmaceutical Aids Used in Pharmaceutical Industry: Anti-oxidants. Excipients. Anesthetics (inorganic) and Respiratory stimulants. . parachor. refractive index. Zeroth law. Suspending agents. half-life. Gases and Vapors: Oxygen. Methods of obtaining their standards and units of activity. Thermodynamics: First. chloride. Dental Products: Dentifrices. Emetics. sulphate and special tests if any. Filter aids. calculations and methods of adjusting isotonicity. tests for purity and identity. Astringents and Anti-infectives. colligative properties. Iron and haematinics. Topical Agents: Protectives. Bases and Buffers: Buffer equations and buffer capacity in general. Cmax. partition coefficient. including limit tests for iron. of the following classes of inorganic pharmaceuticals included in Indian Pharmacopoeia: Gastrointestinal Agents: Acidifying agents. Cationic and anionic components of inorganic drugs useful for systemic effects. Adsorbents. hazards and precautions. Nomenclature. Water. Miscellaneous Agents: Sclerosing agents. Preservatives. dipole moment). Colorants. buffered isotonic solutions. Review of regulatory requirements for conducting bioequivalent studies.
Intramolecular forces. Elimination reactions. The concept of free energy: Determination of change in free energy . the Schrodinger wave equation. and Glyoxalic acid cycle. Alcohols. Quantum efficiency. Phenols. operators in quantum mechanics. Gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Benzilic acid. Reactive intermediates. Ethers. Molecular orbitals. Stereochemistry: Nomenclature. bioenergetics. Biochemistry in pharmaceutical sciences. characteristics of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. wave equation. enzyme kinetics and their mechanism of action. Glycolysis. isomerism. and Pentose phosphate pathway. Neighboring group effects. Dienes. Heterocyclic Compounds: Nomenclature. . Benzene. Langmuir’s theory of adsorption. Role of sugar nucleotides in biosynthesis. Importance of fundamentals of organic chemistry in pharmaceutical sciences. Quantum Mechanics : Postulates of quantum mechanics. Epoxides. Carbohydrate Metabolism: Conversion of polysaccharides to glucose-1-phosphate. preparation. optical activity. S. Jabolenski diagram. Metabolism of galactose and galactosemia. complex reactions. Nucleophilic and Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions: Reactivity and orientation. Enzymes: Nomenclature. 5. Stereoselective and stereospecific reactions. Cyclic analogs. isotherms. Structure and physical properties. Alkyl halides. chirality. Polarity of bonds. Alkenes. N. First and Second order reactions. Functional derivatives of' carboxylic acids. production of ATP and its biological significance. Bonding and Anti-bonding orbitals. theories of reaction kinetics. Amines. Acids and bases. carbanions. Aldehydes and ketones. Polynuclear aromatic compounds. enzymes and iso-enzymes in clinical diagnosis. 4. stereoisomerism. pinacole-pinacolone and Beyer-Villiger). Hoffman. Alkynes. 6 & 7-membered heterocycles with one or two heteroatoms like 0. Adsorption: Freudlich and Gibbs adsorption. Rearrangements (Beckman. properties and reactions of 3. The Citric Acid Cycle: Significance. Chemistry of lipids. Molecular orbital theory. Arenes. Atomic orbitals.from equilibrium constant and reduction potential. acid base and enzyme catalysis. Nomenclature. a. conformations. Metals as cofactors and their significance. conformational and configurational isomerism. Covalent bond. carbenes and nitrenes. Structure. Carboxylic acids. fermentation and their regulation. Carbohydrates and Proteins. Polarity of molecules. Photochemistry: Consequences of light absorption. specification of configuration. Conservation of Orbital Symmetry and Rules: Electrocyclic. Hybrid orbitals. mechanism of inhibition. Chemical Kinetics: Zero. Amphibolic role of the cycle. Bond dissociation energy. Cycloaddition and Sigmatropic reactions.ß-Unsaturated carbonyl compounds.carbocations.Thermochemical equations. Co-enzymes: Vitamins as co-enzymes and their significance. reactions and energetics of the cycle. Electrophilic and Nucleophilic Addition Reactions. Catalysis by transition metal complexes. Phase rule. Preparation and Reactions of: Alkanes. Structure and Properties: Atomic structure. Reactions involving stereoisomers. Intermolecular forces.
Psychopharmacological agents (Neuroleptics. geometrical) aspects of drug molecules and biological action. Opioid analgesics. Androgens and anabolic agents. Anxiolytics). Essential fatty acids & eicosanoids (prostaglandins. energetics of oxidative phosphorylation. Computer Aided Drug Designing (CADD) and molecular modeling. Structure Activity Relationships including Physicochemical Properties of the Following Classes of Drugs: Drugs acting at synaptic and neuro-effector junction sites: Cholinergics. Local Anesthetics. Estrogens and Progestational agents. Antispasmodic and anti-ulcer drugs. Oral contraceptives. DNA repair mechanism. The respiratory chain. Uses. progesterone. Synthetic Procedures. Steroidal Drugs: Steroidal nomenclature (IUPAC) and stereochemistry. QSAR approaches. Anti-inflammatory (non-steroidal) agents. Autacoids: Antihistamines. Pyrimidine biosynthesis: and formation of deoxyribounucleotides. estrogens corticosteroids and bile acids. Mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation. Drug metabolism and Concept of Prodrugs. enzymes and co-enzymes involved in oxidation reduction & its control. Applications of quantum mechanics. Purine biosynthesis: Purine nucleotide inter-conversions. its role in energy capture and its control. Cardiovascular drugs: Biosynthesis eicosanoids. Genetic Code and Protein Synthesis: Genetic code. Diuretics. Biosynthesis of RNA.Lipids Metabolism : Oxidation of fatty acids. biosynthesis of ketone bodies and their utilization. Drug-receptor interactions including transduction mechanisms. Components of protein synthesis and Inhibition of protein synthesis. of thromboxanes and leukotrienes). phospholipids. androgens. Biosynthesis of DNA and its replications. Metabolism of ammonia and nitrogen containing monomers: Nitrogen balance. ß-oxidation & energetics. Adrenocorticoids. Anticonvulsants. Anti-Parkinsonian drugs. metabolic disorders of urea cycle. Biosynthesis of Nucleic Acids: Brief introduction of genetic organization of the mammalian genome. cholesterol. and sphingolipids. Control of lipid metabolism. Bioisosterism. Antitussives. Hypnotics and Sedatives. Anti-depressants. alteration and rearrangements of genetic material. Basic Principles of Medicinal Chemistry: Physico-chemical and stereoisomeric (Optical. anti-cholinergics and cholinesterase inhibitors. Metabolism of sulphur containing amino acids. . Inhibitors of respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Catabolism of amino acids. Biological Oxidation: Redox-potential. Drugs acting on the central nervous system: General Anesthetics. Assimilation of ammonia. Biosynthesis of amino acids. Principles of Drug Design (Theoretical Aspects): Traditional analog and mechanism based approaches. Analgesic-antipyretics. Conversion of amino acids to specialized products. Adrenergic drugs. Mode of Action. Neuromuscular blocking agents. Eicosanoids. Mutation: Physical & chemical mutagenesis/carcinogenesis. cycle. CNS stimulants. Urea. biosynthesis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.
Diagnostic agents. Measurement of electrode potential. Relative strengths of acids and bases. Organic precipitants. Common ion effect. Preliminaries and definitions: Significant figures. Cell representations. Mean deviation. Acid-base indicators. penicillinase. pH. Oxidation-reduction curves. and barium sulphate. viral. Fundamentals of volumetric analysis: methods of expressing concentration. indicators. Specific examples like barium sulphate. The colloidal state. Henderson-Hasselbach equation. Role of solvents. Argentometric titrations and titrations involving ammonium or potassium thiocyanate. Selection of sample. Digestion. potassium bromate. Immobilization of bacteria and plant cells. mercuric nitrate. Types of errors. Anti-arrythmic agents. Filter papers and crucibles. streptokinase. titanous chloride. Precision and accuracy. Supersaturation. selection of organisms. Redox indicators. Redox reactions. Titrations involving cerric ammonium sulphate. Study of enzymes such as hyaluronidase. design of biotransformation processes. types of reactions mediated by micro-organisms. stannous chloride and Sodium 2. Law of mass action. anti-anginal agents. Pharmaceutical Aids. washing of the precipitate. Enzyme Immobilization: Techniques of immobilization. Insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents. Immunosuppressives and immunostimulants. Non-aqueous titrations: Acidic and basic drugs. ß-Lactam. Polyamine and amino acid systems. Cardiotonics. Oxidation Reduction Titrations: Concepts of oxidation and reduction. Ionization. Mixed indicators. Amino acid titrations. Rules for retaining significant digits. amylases and proteases. Indicators. Iodimetry and Iodometry. parasitic and other infections. Thyroid and Anti thyroid drugs. Statistical treatment of small data sets. Co-precipitation. Effect of acids. Post-precipitation. Choice of indicators. Precipitation Titrations: Precipitation reactions. protozoal. Antibiotics: Anti-metabolites (including sulfonamides). Methods of end point determination (GayLussac method. Masking and demasking. fluoroquinolones. Hydrolysis of salts. Anti-neoplastic agents. biotransformation process and its improvements with special reference to steroids. Neutralization curves. Theory of indicators. Volhard's method and Fajan's method). polypeptide antibiotics. Polyprotic systems. Ionic product of water. temperature and solvent upon the solubility of a precipitate. aluminium as aluminium oxide. Microbial Transformations: Introduction. fungal. Solvents used. calcium as calcium oxalate and magnesium as magnesium pyrophosphate. tetracyclines. Mohr’s method. Anticoagulants and Anti-platelet drugs. Standard deviation. potassium permanganate. Anti-viral agents (including anti–HIV). Chemotherapeutic Agents used in bacterial. Strengths and equivalent weights of oxidizing and reducing agents. Anti-hyperlipedemic agents. Indicators. potassium iodate.Anti-hypertensives.6-dichlorophenolindophenol. Buffer solutions. Complexing agents used as titrants. . macrolides. Solubility product. aminoglycosides. primary and secondary standards: Acid Base Titrations: Acid base concepts. factors affecting enzyme kinetics. Ignition. Gravimetric Analysis: Precipitation techniques. Filtration. Thermogravimetric curves. Different techniques of pharmaceutical analysis. Complexometric titrations. Theory of redox titrations.
and Applications (quantitative and qualitative) of the Following Analytical Techniques: Ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry. chemical mediators of inflammation. Dropping mercury electrode. Pathophysiology of Common Diseases: Asthma. antigen presenting cells. Amperometry: Rotating platinum electrode. ulcerative colitis. van Deemter equation. Graphite electrode. MHC proteins. Basic Principles of Cell Injury and Adaptations: Causes of Cellular injury. tuberculosis. Quality assurance: GLP. myocardial infarction. Flame Photometry. Fundamentals of general pharmacology: . The Theoretical Aspects. anemias. Basic Instrumentation. autoimmune diseases. psychosis. Coulometry: Coulomb’s law. hepatic disorders. Radioimmunoassay. adaptations and cell death. Quality Review and Quality documentation. congestive heart failure. Wherever applicable the molecular basis should be discussed. Regulatory control. acute and chronic renal failure. Extraction procedures including separation of drugs from excipients. Chromatography: Theory of chromatography. AIDS. Ilkovic equation. mania. X-ray Diffraction Analysis. validation of analytical procedures. Oxygen flask combustion method. HPTLC. Polarography: Decomposition polarography. morphology of cell injury. Infrared spectrophotometry. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. immune tolerance. Fluorimetry. hypertension. plate theory. TQM. Amyloidosis. neoplasia. GLC. Cathodic/anodic polarography. Half-cell potential. Amperometric titrations. diabetes. pathogenesis of hypersensitivity reactions. Basic Mechanisms involved in the process of inflammation and repair: Vascular and cellular events of acute inflammation. congestive heart failure. conductometric titrations. peptic ulcer. HPLC. urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases. Paper Chromatography and Column potential. Half-wave potential. Gasometry. brief outline of the process of repair. quality audit: quality of equipment. pathogenesis. atherosclerosis. interpretation of analytical data. Organic PHARMACOLOGY Pathophysiology of common diseases. Factors affecting resolution. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Conductometry: Specific and equivalent conductance. gout. pathogenesis of chronic inflammation. Nernst equation. Karl-Fischer aquametry. angina. Elements of Interpretation of Spectra. ISO 9000.Miscellaneous Methods of Analysis: Diazotization titrations. depression. The following chromatographic techniques (including instrumentation) with relevant examples of Pharmacopoeial Chromatography. potentiometric titrations. Standard and indicating electrodes. Immunopathophysiology: T and B cells. products: TLC. Potentiometry: Standard redox potential. Diffision/migration/migration current. Kjeldahl method of nitrogen estimation. validation of equipment. Validation. Mass Spectrometry (EI & CI only). regulatory drug analysis. Coulometric titrations at fixed potential/current. rheumatoid arthritis. epilepsy.
parathormone. Local anesthetic Agents. Bioassay of Drugs and Biological Standardization. Narcotic analgesics and antagonists. Pharmacology of Cardiovascular System: Drugs used in the management of congestive cardiac failure. Blood and plasma volume expanders. ACTH and corticosteroids. Distribution. incretins. Anti-secretory and Anti-ulcer drugs. Bioavailability and bioequivalence studies. Anti-anxiety agents and Centrally acting muscle relaxants. Angiotensin. fluoroquinolones malaria. Drugs Acting on the Respiratory System: Anti-asthmatic stimulants. HIV and AIDS. Antidepressants. Sedatives. Anti-epileptics drugs. C. Prostaglandins. Analgesics. Anti-hyperlipedemic drugs. Principles of Basic and Clinical pharmacokinetics. stimulants. Sulfonamides and cotrimoxazole. Autacoids: Histamine. digestants..N. antibiotics. Bacterial resistance. Alcohols and disulfiram. Hypnotics.its agonists and antagonists. protectives. Chemotherapy of protozoal infections and drugs including bronchodilators. Antihypertensive drugs. factors modifying drug action. Antipyretics. Drugs used in the therapy of shock. Anticoagulants. Thyroid hormones and anti thyroid drugs. and Miscellaneous amoebiasis and Chloramphenicol. Drugs acting on urinary system: Fluid and electrolyte balance.N. Principles of Toxicology: . Drugs acting on the uterus. Antihistaminic drugs. combined effect of drugs. Psychopharmacological agents (anti-psychotics). Emetics and anti-emetics. Chemotherapy: General Principles of Chemotherapy. 5-HT. Diuretics. Anti-tussives and expectorants. glucagons. Insulin. tolerance and dependence. Parasympatholytics. Respiratory tuberculosis. Parasympathomimetics. Estrogens. Pharmacology of Peripheral Nervous System: Neurohumoral transmission (autonomic and somatic). Pharmacology of Endocrine System: Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones. Laxatives and anti-diarrhoeal drugs. adsorbents. Drug Addiction and Drug Abuse. Appetite Stimulants and Suppressants. Fibrinolytic and anti-platelet drugs. calcitonin and Vitamin D. AntibioticsTetracyclines. anti-maniacs and hallucinogens. mechanism of action. Drugs Acting on the Hemopoietic System: Hematinics. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-gout agents. Adverse Drug Reactions. thromboxanes and leukotrienes. Discovery and development of new drugs. Cephalosporins. Aminoglycosides. Sympathomimetics. Bradykinin and Substance P and other vasoactive peptides. Anti-Parkinsonian drugs. viral diseases. Androgens and anabolic steroids. sexually Penicillins. Anti-anginal and Vasodilator drugs. Pharmacogenetics. Ganglion stimulants and blocking agents. astringents. Quinolones. Pharmacology of Central Nervous System: Neurohumoral transmission in the C. including calcium channel blockers and beta adrenergic antagonists.Dosage forms and routes of administration. absorption. Macrolides. Neuromuscular blocking Agents. General Anesthetics. Adrenergic receptor and neuron blocking agents.S. progesterone and oral contraceptives. Antiarrhythmic drugs.S. Drugs acting on the Gastrointestinal Tract: Antacids. leprosy. urinary tract infections and transmitted diseases. Chemotherapy of malignancy and immunosuppressive agents. fungal diseases. Vitamin K and hemostatic agents. enzymes and mucolytics. Miscellaneous: Carminatives. demulcents. oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin analogs. Metabolism and Excretion of drugs. other Anthelmentics.
Cardiac arrhythmias. Drugs used during infancy and in the elderly persons (Pediatrics & Geriatrics). Parkinsonism. Drug induced diseases. mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants. classification and properties. Gout and Hyperuricemia. The basics of drug interactions. Liliaceae. marine. Drug delivery systems and their Biopharmaceutic & Therapeutic considerations. microscopic. Cruciferae. Classification of Drugs: Morphological. Schizophrenia. Quality Control of Crude Drugs: Adulteration of crude drugs and their detection by organoleptic. Graminae. Cirrhosis. Types of soils and fertilizers of common use. Cultivation. Joint and Connective tissue disordersRheumatic diseases. Solanaceae. mineral and plant tissue cultures as sources of drugs. Ulcerative colitis. Papaveraceae. Introduction to Active Constituents of Drugs: Their isolation. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. Pest management and natural pest control agents. Hematopoietic Disorders. Angina. Endocrine DisordersDiabetes mellitus and Thyroid disorders. Systems and their Management: Cardio-vascular disorders. Infectious DiseasesTuberculosis.Anemias. Neoplastic DiseasesAcute Leukaemias. organophosphorous and atropine poisoning. opioids. . Umbelliferae. Hodgkin's disease. Depression Respiratory diseaseAsthma. Urinary tract infections. Enteric infections. Basic Concepts of Pharmacotherapy: Clinical Pharmacokinetics and individualization of Drug therapy. Collection. Congestive heart failure. Important Disorders of Organs. chemical and biological methods and properties. Processing and Storage of Crude Drugs: Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants. Upper respiratory infections. Rubiaceae. Concept of Essential Drugs and Rational Drug use. General principles of clinical toxicology. Study of medicinally important plants belonging to the families with special reference to: Apocynacae. Common clinical laboratory tests and their interpretation. Labiatae. chemical and pharmacological classification of drugs. general principles of treatment of poisoning with particular reference to barbiturates. CNS Disorders: Epilepsy.Definition of poison. Plant hormones and their applications. PHARMACOGNOSY Sources of Drugs: Biological. Polyploidy.Hypertension. Drugs used during pregnancy. Leguminosae. Hepatitis. physical. Acute myocardial infarction. Rutacease. taxonomical. Heavy metals and heavy metal antagonists. Gastrointestinal DisordersPeptic ulcer.
Steroidal: Veratrum and kurchi. Palmarosa. hyoscyamus. Coriander. Tropane: Belladonna. flavonoids FIBERS: Study of fibers used in pharmacy such as cotton. sterculia and Tragacanth. Gaultheria. Anthraquinone cathartics: Aloe. rauwolfia. Ammi visnaga. areca and lobelia. Screening of alkaloids. Orange peel. Spearmint. ALKALOID CONTAINING DRUGS: Pyridine-piperidine: Tobacco. cynogenetic glycosides. duboisia. cardenolides and bufadienolides. asafoetida. Hydnocarpus oil. strophanthus and thevetia. Valerian. ipecac. Rice. Starch. coca and withania. Chenopodium. anthraquinones. Caraway. adulterants. Sandal wood. cannabis. Linseed oil. polyester and asbestos. Cardioactive glycosides: Digitalis. chemical constituents. catharanthus. Ammi majus. saponins. Cinnamon. Nutmeg. nylon. . Cocoa butter. jalap. tannins and polyphenols. Bran oil. Castor oil.Systematic pharmacognostic study of the followings: CARBOHYDRATES and derived products: agar. Honey. substitutes. and senega. uses. glass-wool. squill. pectin. myrrh. Codliver oil. Cassia. Phytochemical Screening: Preparation of extracts. Eucalyptus. senna. RESINS: Study of Drugs Containing Resins and Resin Combinations like Colophony. Musk. black catechu. Dill. balsam of Peru. turmeric. nux-vomica and physostigma. Shark liver oil and Wool fat. dioscorea. Lemon peel. diagnostic macroscopic and microscopic features and specific chemical tests of following groups of drugs: GLYCOSIDE CONTAINING DRUGS: Saponins : Liquorice. benzoin. podophyllum. Lard. Study of volatile oils of Mentha. ginseng. commercial varieties. quassia. and leucoanthocyanidins. amino acids in plant extracts. wool. datura. balsam of Tolu. rhubarb and cascara. opium. VOLATILE OILS: General methods of obtaining volatile oils from plants. Kokum butter. Study of the biological sources. guar gum acacia. Clove. collection. capsicum. chirata. Fennel. ginger. sarsaparilla. Citronella. Lipids: Bees wax. silk. Others: Psoralea. gentian. Quinoline and Isoquinoline: Cinchona. cultivation. saffron. TANNINS: Study of tannins and tannin containing drugs like Gambier. Imidazole: Pilocarpus. Isabagol. Cardamom. gall and myrobalan. Indole: Ergot. Lemon grass.
Apamarg. digoxin. geranium oil and eucalyptus oil. Papaverine. pepsin. Utilization of aromatic plants and derived products with special reference to sandalwood oil. Ephedrine. Kalijiri. WHO guidelines for the standardization of herbal drugs. cinchona. Utilization and production of phyto-constituents such as quinine. Ashoka. . Gutikas. Guggal.Alkaloidal Amine: Ephedra and colchicum. Papain. calcium sennosides. Satavari. morphology. solasodine. Lignans. Ipecac. Xanthophylls of medicinal importance. Herbal cosmetics. Tylophora. ß-carotenes. Plant Tissue Culture: Historical development of plant tissue culture. Kantkari. Asvas. chemical nature of chief constituents. mentha oil. trypsin. types of cultures. diterpenes. taxol (Taxus sps) digitalis. Lahsun. Chitrack. Ergot and Vinca alkaloids. Bach. Liquorice. and tropane alkaloids. papain. General Techniques of Biosynthetic Studies and Basic Metabolic Pathways/Biogenesis: Brief introduction to biogenesis of secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance. Plant bitters and sweeteners. lemon grass oil. World-wide trade in medicinal plants and derived products with special reference to diosgenin (disocorea). diosgenin and sarasapogenin. Quinine. Morphine. Glycosides: Digitoxin. Lehyas and Bhasmas. quassanoids and flavonoids. categories and common uses and marketed formulations of following indigenous drugs: Amla. Tailas. Brahmi. hecogenin. Valerian. nutritional requirements. vitamin A. pancreatin. Reserpine. Nagarmotha and Neem. Shilajit. Studies of Traditional Drugs: Common vernacular names. tropane alkaloid containing plants. pharmacology. Glycoalkaloid: Solanum. Carotenoids: a-carotenoids. diosgenin. sennosides. Purines: Coffee. Gokhru. botanical sources. and triterpenoids. Herbs as health foods. Gymnema. Standardization and quality control of herbal drugs. Ginseng. vetiver oil. Chumas. Rasna. preparation. tea and cola. Palash. Bhilawa. identification tests and uses of the following enzymes: Diastase. Role of plant-based drugs on National economy: A brief account of plant based industries and institutions involved in work on medicinal and aromatic plants in India. Introduction to ayurvedic preparations like Arishtas. Marine pharmacognosy: Novel medicinal agents from marine sources. Methi. Natural allergens and photosensitizing agents and fungal toxins. Terpenes: monoterpenes. The holistic concept of drug administration in traditional systems of medicine. Alkaloids: Atropine and related compounds. Adusa. Biological sources. podophyllotoxin. Rauwolfia and plants containing laxatives. Applications of plant tissue culture in pharmacognosy. growth and their maintenance. Aloe. Shankhapushpi. Atjuna. sesquiterpenes. Punamava.
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