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© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Deploying IPv6 Networks
Session RST-231 Axel Clauberg email@example.com
© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Systems. 4 .Agenda • Why IPv6? • Current IPv6 Market & Some Examples • IPv6 Technology Update and Challenges • Deployment Scenarios • IPv6 @ Cisco • Conclusion RST-231 © 2002.
5 .Why IPv6? RST-231 © 2002. Inc. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.
6 . Inc. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.Why IPv6? • Addresses • Plug and play • Scalable Home Networking • Mobility • Not really a reason for IPv6: Security QoS RST-231 © 2002.
IP Address Allocation History 1981—IPv4 Protocol Published 1985 ~ 1/16 of Total Space 1990 ~ 1/8 of Total Space 1995 ~ 1/4 of Total Space 2000 ~ 1/2 of Total Space • This despite increasingly intense conservation efforts PPP/DHCP address sharing CIDR (classless inter-domain routing) NAT (network address translation) Plus some address reclamation • Theoretical limit of 32-bit space: ~4 billion devices. practical limit of 32-bit space: ~250 million devices (See RFC 3194) RST-231 © 2002. Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. 7 .
All rights reserved. trains. ships… • Consumer devices Billions of home and industrial appliances RST-231 © 2002. pen-tablet. ~945 million by 2004 (Source: Computer Industry Almanac) • PDA. notepad… ~20 millions in 2004 • Mobile phones Already 1 billion mobile phones delivered by the industry • Transportation 1 billion automobiles forecast for 2008 Internet access in planes. Cisco Systems.Playing with the Numbers • Internet users or PC ~530 million users in Q2 CY2002. Inc. 8 .
Cisco Systems. wireless • Plug and play mechanisms to decrease the operational costs Stateless auto-configuration CPE prefix delegation mechanisms DNS auto-discovery • New services adapted to “always-on” “Always-attacked” protection RST-231 © 2002.Home Area Networking Paradigm Internet Router • Deployment of key intra-home area networks layer 2 technologies Bluetooth. All rights reserved. Ethernet. IEEE 1394. Inc. 9 .
10 .Mobile Internet—Delivering Convergence RST-231 © 2002. Inc. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.
Inc. All rights reserved.Networks in Motion—Mobile Router • • • Extend IP connectivity to any kind of mobile environment Enables new services and applications Enhanced scalability of mobile environment MR IPv6 HA CN RST-231 © 2002. Cisco Systems. 11 .
12 . Cisco Systems.Current IPv6 Market & Some Examples RST-231 © 2002. Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Systems. Renater. All rights reserved. 6REN/6TAP. 6net • Wireless IPv6 still mandatory for UMTS rel. JGN. Euro6iX. vBNS+). DFN. GARR. 5 multimedia Not deployed before 2005 (+ ?) RST-231 © 2002. … • Government/military • Geographies and politics Japan. Inc. SURFnet. 13 .Who Is Using IPv6 Today? • Academic NRN Internet-II (Abilene. China EEC e-Europe document and IPv6 task force. Nordunet. Korea.
S. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.Enterprises? • Requires IPv6 support by O.x. Inc.4 & AIX 4. 14 . FreeBSD 4.. Microsoft Windows . HP. Microsoft Windows XP Pro SP1. • Waiting for killer environment… • …Addresses are a problem for several enterprises after a series of mergers RST-231 © 2002. and applications SUN Solaris 8+.NET Server. Linux.3+.. IBM z/OS 1.
Cisco Systems. Inc. 15 .Home Users? • Online peer-to-peer gaming might be the killer app Likely to take off in broadband access networks Avoid server-based gaming for scaling/performance Sony. Microsoft… • PC’s and application support • Home appliances/consumer products Still waiting for the IPv6 washing machine… Sony plans to support IPv6 in all future consumer products RST-231 © 2002. All rights reserved.
Cisco Systems. Inc. E-Japan. .… 16 RST-231 © 2002. North-America IPv6 Task Force.IPv6—Looking at the Crystal Ball 1996–2001 Cisco IOS® IPv6 EFT 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007–2010 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 X Early Adopters Application Port <= Duration 3+ Years => ISP Adoption <= Duration 3+ Years => Consumer Adoption d ute rib ist ming D a G <= Duration 5+ Years => Enterprise Adoption <= Duration 5+ Years => ’s on ati lic t p Ap ppor ide Su W E-Europe. All rights reserved.
Inc. Cisco Systems.IPv6—Working out the Timeline 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007–2010 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Identifying a Business Case Funding the Project Training Registering for an IPv6 Prefix Testing Deploying Production How Long Is Needed for Each Phase of an IPv6 Deployment Project? RST-231 © 2002. 17 . All rights reserved.
All rights reserved. dual-stack RST-231 © 2002.SURFnet • Dutch NRN. Inc. dedicated link. 18 . Cisco Systems. see http://www. which created a big opportunity to test new services • Dual-stack IPv4/IPv6 • IPv6 service offering via tunnel.nl • Currently 5th network generation • STM-64c/OC-192c core with mostly 12416 routers • SURFnet-4 and SURFnet-5 ran in parallel for a year.surfnet.
All rights reserved. 19 . Inc. Cisco Systems.SURFnet Topology Den Haag Eindhoven Amsterdam Leiden Delft 12416 12416 12416 12416 12416 7507 7507 Maastricht Rotterdam 12416 12416 7507 7507 7507 7507 7507 12008 POS OC192 POS OC48 GE International GEANT 12008 Amsterdam Sara 12008 Amsterdam Hempoint 7200 Chicago 12008 AMS-IX Startap and Starlight 7507 7507 7507 7507 7507 7507 7507 7507 12416 12416 12416 12416 12416 12416 12416 12416 Enschede Utrecht Hilversum Groningen Zwolle Nijmegen Tilburg Wageningen RST-231 © 2002.
All rights reserved. 20 .6net. CESNET.euro6ix. SONY. ACONET). Cisco Systems. GARR. Inc. Hungarnet.org RST-231 © 2002. NTT – recently added: ETRI. UKERNA. PSNC www. SURFnet. NorduNET. DFN. some universities Without involvement of traditional IXP operators See www. Terena. 34 Partners Dante.New EU-Funded (IST) Projects • Euro6IX Link IPv6 exchange points Mostly incumbent carriers. 9 NRNs (Renater.org • 6net Coordinated by Cisco. Universities. GRNET. SWITCH. IBM.
RST-231 © 2002. Inc.6net Main goals • To build and operate a dedicated international IPv6 network. and use this network to validate that the demands for the continuous growth of the global Internet can be met with the new IPv6 technology. • To help European research and industry to play a leading role in defining the next generation of networking and application technologies that go beyond the current state of the art. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. 21 .
interworking & migration WP5: IPv6 application trials WP3: Basic Network Services WP1: Build & operate the IPv6 network WP4: Application & service support WP0 .Dissemination and exploitation RST-231 © 2002. All rights reserved.6net Workflow WP6: IPv6 network management architecture & tools WP2: IPv4-IPv6 coexistence. Cisco Systems. Inc. 22 .Project management and technical management WP7 .
23 . Cisco Systems.The actual 6net network NREN POP NREN POP NorduNET Denmark Norway NREN POP United Kingdom Sweden Finland Sweden NREN POP France The Netherlands Germany Greece NREN POP NREN POP Austria Italy Switzerland ATM Link Gigabit Ethernet STM16 POS STM1 POS/ATM STM1 Tunnel L2-ISIS Neighborship NREN POP NREN POP NREN POP RST-231 © 2002. Inc. All rights reserved.
24 . All rights reserved. Inc.6net Equipment • Hardware 6net PoP: 12404 NRN PoP: 12404 or 7206 • Initial software Cisco 12404: IOS 12.2(8)T RST-231 © 2002. Cisco Systems.0(22)S Cisco 7206: IOS 12.
IPv6 Technology Update and Challenges RST-231 © 2002. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. 25 .
Inc. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Integrated Service MLD/PIM/Multicast BGP. Works End-to-End Mobile IP with Direct Routing Differentiated Service. . Integrated Service IGMP/PIM/Multicast BGP IPv6 Solution 128-bit. ZeroConf. Scope Identifier 26 © 2002. NAT-PT Serverless. DHCP IPSec Mandated. Reconfiguration.IPv6 Technology Scope IP Service Addressing Range Autoconfiguration Security Mobility Quality of Service IP Multicast RST-231 IPv4 Solution 32-bit. Network Address Translation DHCP. ZeroConf IPSec Mobile IP Differentiated Service.
27 .IPv6 Update • Flow label • Addresses • DNS • IPv6 multicast • Security • Mobility RST-231 © 2002. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Systems.
Cisco Systems. Len Type of Service Identification Time to Protocol Live Source Address Destination Address Options… Total Length Flg Fragment Offset Header Checksum Next Payload Length Header Source Address Destination Address Potential use for the Flow Label finally described in http://www. Inc.IPv6 Flow Label Ver. Traffic Class Flow Label Hop Limit Hdr Ver. All rights reserved.ietf.org/internet-drafts/ draft-ietf-ipv6-flow-label-03.txt RST-231 © 2002. 28 .
or path MTU in some cases © 2002.IPv6 Header Options (RFC 2460) IPv6 Header Next Header = TCP TCP Header + Data IPv6 Header Next Header = Routing Routing Header Next Header = TCP TCP Header + Data IPv6 Header Next Header = Routing Routing Header Next Header = Fragment Fragment Header Next Header = TCP Fragment of TCP Header + Data • Processed only by node identified in IPv6 destination address field => much lower overhead than IPv4 options Exception: Hop-by-hop options header • RST-231 Eliminated IPv4’s 40-octet limit on options In IPv6. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. limit is total packet size. Inc. 29 .
Cisco Systems. non-self-encoding (like CIDR) • TLAs may be assigned to providers or exchanges RST-231 © 2002. Inc. All rights reserved. 30 .Global Unicast Addresses (RFC 2374) 001 TLA NLA* Public Topology (45 Bits) SLA* Site Topology (16 Bits) Interface ID Interface Identifier (64 Bits) • TLA = Top-Level Aggregator NLA* = Next-Level Aggregator(s) SLA* = Site-Level Aggregator(s) • All subfields variable-length.
All rights reserved. 31 . Cisco Systems.6Bone Addressing /28 3ffe pTLA Prefix Site Prefix LAN Prefix /48 /64 • The 6Bone uses the 3ffe::/16 range: A pTLA receives a /28 prefix A site receives a /48 prefix A LAN receives a /64 prefix RST-231 © 2002. Inc.
All rights reserved.Initial Address Allocation /23 2001 Registry ISP Prefix Site Prefix LAN Prefix 0410 /35 /48 /64 • The allocation process was: IANA allocates 2001::/16 to registries Each registry got a /23 prefix from IANA Registry allocated a /35 prefix to IPv6 ISP/LIR Policy is that an ISP allocates a /48 prefix to each customer RST-231 © 2002. Cisco Systems. 32 . Inc.
33 .8 Picked for New Proposal Desirable HD Ratio = 0. RIPE) Grow on HD Ratio /32 /48 /64 2001 Initial LIR 0410 Site Prefix LAN Prefix IXP Prefix (Not Announced to Peering ISPs) HD Ratio = Log (Number of Allocated Objects) Log (Max Number of Allocatable Objects) 0.8 . Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.85 RST-231 © 2002. APNIC.. 0. Inc.Address Allocation—New Scheme Adopted Globally (ARIN.
34 . draft-ietf-ipngwg-addr-arch-v3-10. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Inc.Link-Local & Site-Local Unicast Addresses.txt • Link-local addresses for use during auto-configuration and when no routers are present: 0 interface ID 1111111010 • Site-local addresses for independence from changes of TLA / NLA*: 1111111011 SLA (54 bit) interface ID RST-231 © 2002.
30. Cisco Systems.0 .test RST-231 © 2002.inaddr.test 3FFE:B00:C18:1::2 AAAA A6 record (now experimental) www. Inc.192. PTR www.0.test A6 0 3FFE:B00:C18:1::2 IP Address PTR record: to Hostname 1.0.test A 192.1.abc.0.0.arpa.0.1.abc.f.0.b.abc.0.f.arpa.int . (experimental) \[x3ffe0c000c180001000000000 0000002 /128].8.0.abc.0.0. PTR www.0.abc.188.8.131.52.0. PTR www.e.0.0.c.ip6.test.IPv6 and DNS IPv4 Hostname to IP Address A record:www.abc.0.ip6.0.0. All rights reserved.0. 35 .1 IPv6 AAAA record: www.30.168.0.test PTR record: 2.
One Domain Name System • Every IP device must have a domain name Nobody wants to type an IPv6 address Sub-domain offers the “Region/Applications” flexibility • Today. inadequate www. e. Cisco Systems.cisco. no root DNS server can answer over an IPv6 transport Transition rules require more developments as dual-stack is a real challenge—more thinking is needed “Preferred protocol version” has to be defined for application’s dual-stack servers • Uniqueness can only be guaranteed by keeping one and only one root Non-unique domain name has also legal issue. Inc.com registration RST-231 © 2002. All rights reserved.g. 36 .
Cisco Systems.Multicast Addresses (RFC 2373) 11111111 Flags Scope 0 80 Bits Group ID 32 8 4 4 • Low-order flag indicates permanent/transient group. All rights reserved. 37 . three other flags reserved • Scope field: 1—node local 2—link-local 5—site-local 8—organization-local B—community-local E—global (All other values reserved) RST-231 © 2002. Inc.
38 . Plen Prefix 64 Group ID 32 8 4 4 8 8 • New flag P: 0—address not assigned on prefix 1—prefix based assignment • P == 1: Plen—length of network prefix Prefix—network prefix. Inc.Multicast Addresses / RFC3306 11111111 00PT Scope Res. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. at most 64 bits SSM: plen = 0. prefix = 0 FF3X::/96 • See also RFC 3307 RST-231 © 2002.
Inc.charters/magma-charter. Cisco Systems.org/html. 39 .ietf.html RST-231 © 2002. needed for SSM See draft-vida-mld-v2-01.Multicast Listener Discover—MLD • MLD is equivalent to IGMP in IPv4 • MLD messages are transported over ICMPv6 • Version number trouble MLDv1 corresponds to IGMPv2 See RFC 2710 MLDv2 corresponds to IGMPv3.txt • MLD and IGMP are now standardized in the IETF MAGMA working group http://www. All rights reserved.
txt. SSM. All rights reserved. 40 . Cisco Systems.txt (SSM needs MLDv2) RFC 2858 • Bidir PIM also applicable • Currently no MSDP work for IPv6 • Strong doubts that BGMP will ever make it as inter-domain protocol • For the time being. it is assumed that SSM solves the inter-domain IPv6 multicast problem (?) RST-231 © 2002.IPv6 Multicast Routing • PIM. Inc. MBGP cover IPv4 and IPv6 draft-ietf-pim-sm-v2-new-04. draft-ietf-ssm-overview-02.
Inc. 41 . All rights reserved.Security • IPv6 specifications mandates IPSec Taking benefits of the global address space to allow end-to-end deployment • But No global IKE distribution mechanism is in place on the Internet Firewalls are largely in use • Central versus distributed security model • IPv6 helps against DoS/port scans Would take 1M years to do a full /64 port scan… RST-231 © 2002. Cisco Systems.
42 . Cisco Systems. Type. Inc. All rights reserved. Services MN HA IPv6 RD: Agent Solicitation: Lifetime. Services MN Registration • No foreign agent in IPv6 mobile IP • Route optimization built-in • Problem was authentication… IPSec AH problems due to missing PKI IETF mobile IP WG finally coming close to consensus draft-ietf-mobileip-ipv6-18.txt RST-231 © 2002.Mobile IPv6 Correspondent IPv6 RD: Agent Advertisement: Lifetime.
All rights reserved. work hopefully continued by v6ops RST-231 © 2002. Inc. 43 .Other IETF IPv6 News • IPv6 is considered operational now • NGtrans WG EOL • New v6ops WG • Multi6 Working group practically dead. Cisco Systems.
IPv6 Deployment Scenarios RST-231 © 2002. Cisco Systems. Inc. 44 . All rights reserved.
45 . Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.IPv6 Deployment Scenarios • Many ways to deliver IPv6 services to end users End-to-end IPv6 traffic forwarding is the key feature Minimize operational upgrade costs • Service providers and enterprises may have different deployment needs Incremental upgrade/deployment ISP’s differentiate core and edge infrastructures upgrade Enterprise campus and WAN may have separate upgrade paths RST-231 © 2002.
All rights reserved. 46 .Integration and Transition IPv6-IPv4 Communication Mechanisms • Dual-Stack • Translation NAT-PT (RFC 2766) TCP-UDP Relay (RFC 3142) • DSTM (Dual Stack Transition Mechanism) • API BIS (Bump-In-the-Stack) (RFC 2767) BIA (Bump-In-the-API) • ALG SOCKS-based Gateway (RFC 3089) NAT-PT (RFC 2766) RST-231 © 2002. Inc. Cisco Systems.
Dual Stack Approach Application IPv6-enable Application TCP UDP TCP UDP Pre Ap ferred plic atio metho n’s d ser on ver s IPv4 IPv6 IPv4 IPv6 0x0800 0x86dd 0x0800 0x86dd Frame Protocol ID Data Link (Ethernet) Data Link (Ethernet) • Dual stack node means: Both IPv4 and IPv6 stacks enabled Applications can talk to both Choice of the IP version is based on name lookup and application preference RST-231 © 2002. Cisco Systems. 47 . Inc. All rights reserved.
48 .1.com =*? 3ffe:b00::1 10.a.1 IPv4 DNS Server IPv6 3ffe:b00::1 • In a dual stack case.Dual Stack Approach & DNS www. connects to the IPv6 address RST-231 © 2002.1. for example. All rights reserved. an application that: Is IPv4 and IPv6-enabled Asks the DNS for all types of addresses Chooses one address and. Cisco Systems. Inc.
1 Dst: 172. Cisco Systems.1 2 Src: 172.Integration and Transition NAT-PT Overview ipv6 nat prefix 2010::/96 IPv4-only network IPv4 Host 184.108.40.206. 49 . All rights reserved. Inc.1 Dst: 172.1 NAT-PT IPv6-only network IPv6 Host 2001:0420:1987:0:2E0:B0FF:FE6A:412C 1 Src: 2001:0420:1987:0:2E0:B0FF:FE6A:412C Dst: PREFIX::1 4 Src: PREFIX::1 Dst: 2001:0420:1987:0:2E0:B0FF:FE6A:412C PREFIX is a 96-bit field that allows routing back to the NAT-PT device RST-231 © 2002.16.17.1 3 Src: 220.127.116.11.17.1.
255.168.100 2010::1 ! ipv6 nat v6v4 source route-map map1 pool v4pool1 ipv6 nat v6v4 pool v4pool1 192. Cisco Systems. .18.104.22.168.1. Inc.0/24 .1.10 prefix-length 24 ! route-map map1 permit 10 match interface Ethernet-1 50 NATed prefix 2010::/96 Ethernet-1 LAN1: 2001:2::/64 2001:2::1 RST-231 © 2002.1 192.1 255.2.2.200 LAN2: 192.Integration and Transition Configuring Cisco IOS NAT-PT DNS Network Address Translation-Protocol Translation RFC 2766 • IP Header and Address translation • Support for ICMP and DNS embedded translation • Auto-aliasing of NAT-PT IPv4 Pool Addresses .1. All rights reserved.100 Ethernet-2 interface ethernet-1 ipv6 address 2001:2::10/64 ipv6 nat prefix 2010::/96 ipv6 nat ! interface ethernet-2 ip address 192.0 ipv6 nat ! ipv6 nat v4v6 source 192.168.
Inc. 51 . Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.IPv6 Transition—Tasks and Methods • Connect IPv6 nodes with IPv4 nodes Dual-stacked for servers NAT-PT close to IPv6-only clients (do they exist today ??) RST-231 © 2002.
52 . All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.2S Currently EFT • IP header and address translation • Support for ICMP and DNS embedded translation • Auto-aliasing of NAT-PT IPv4 pool addresses • Future developments will add ALGs support 1st implementation does not support FTP ALG RST-231 © 2002.2(5th)T/12. Inc.Cisco IOS NAT-PT Features • NAT-PT support is scheduled for 12.
ISATAP… IPv6 over dedicated link-layer: ATM/FR/SDH/WDM or AToM/L2TPv3 Dual-stacked network IPv6 over MPLS: 6PE RST-231 © 2002. All rights reserved. Inc. 53 . Cisco Systems.IPv6 Transition—Tasks and Methods • Connect IPv6 islands/nodes over existing infrastructure with IPv6 nodes Tunneling: Manually or automagically configured— 6to4.
168. 54 . Cisco Systems.1 tunnel destination 192.1 tunnel mode ipv6ip • Manually Configured tunnels require: Dual stack end points Both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses configured at each end RST-231 © 2002.Integration and Transition Manually Configured Tunnel (RFC 2893) Dual-Stack Router1 Dual-Stack Router2 IPv6 Network IPv4 IPv6 Network IPv4: 192. Inc.1 tunnel mode ipv6ip IPv4: 192.168.30. All rights reserved.99.1 IPv6: 3ffe:b00:c18:1::3 router1# interface Tunnel0 ipv6 address 3ffe:b00:c18:1::3/64 tunnel source 192.168.168.99.168.1 IPv6: 3ffe:b00:c18:1::2 router2# interface Tunnel0 ipv6 address 3ffe:b00:c18:1::2/64 tunnel source 192.30.1 tunnel destination 22.214.171.124.
1 IPv6 Network Network prefix: 2002:c0a8:1e01::/48 = = router2# interface Loopback0 ip address 192.30.30. All rights reserved.126.96.36.199.168.Integration and Transition 6to4 Tunnel (RFC 3056) 6to4 Router1 6to4 Router2 IPv6 Network Network prefix: 2002:c0a8:6301::/48 E0 192.0 ipv6 address 2002:c0a8:1e01:1::/64 eui-64 interface Tunnel0 no ip address ipv6 unnumbered Ethernet0 tunnel source Loopback0 tunnel mode ipv6ip 6to4 ipv6 route 2002::/16 Tunnel0 • 6to4 Tunnel: Is an automatic tunnel method Gives a prefix to the attached IPv6 network 2002::/16 assigned to 6to4 Requires one global IPv4 address on each Ingress/Egress site RST-231 © 2002.1 IPv4 E0 192. Inc. 55 .255.1 255. Cisco Systems.
99.0 ipv6 address 2002:c0a8:6301:1::/64 eui-64 interface Tunnel0 no ip address ipv6 unnumbered Ethernet0 tunnel source Loopback0 tunnel mode ipv6ip 6to4 ipv6 route 2002::/16 Tunnel0 ipv6 route ::/0 2002:c0a8:1e01::1 RST-231 IPv4 IPv6 Internet IPv6 address: 2002:c0a8:1e01::1 IPv6 Network • 6to4 relay: Is a gateway to the rest of the IPv6 Internet Default router Anycast address (RFC 3068) for multiple 6to4 Relay © 2002. 56 .168.1 255.99.Integration and Transition 6to4 Relay 6to4 Router1 6to4 Relay IPv6 Network 192.1 Network prefix: 2002:c0a8:6301::/48 = router1# interface Loopback0 ip address 192.168.255.255. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.
Cisco Systems.ISATAP • Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Adressing Protocol • Connect IPv6 nodes to IPv6 routers within a predominantly IPv4 environment • Ideal for sparse distribution of IPv6 nodes • E. Campus Networks with IPv4-only L3-Switches • See draft-ietf-ngtrans-isatap-04. SRI. co-authored by Cisco) RST-231 © 2002. All rights reserved.txt (Fred Templin.g. Inc. 57 .
. All rights reserved.ISATAP Details • Use IANA‘s OUI 00-00-5E and encode IPv4 address as part of EUI-64 64-bit Unicast Prefix 0000:5EFE: 32-bit IPv4 Address 32-bit Interface Identifier (64 bits) • Automatic discovery of ISATAP routers DNS "isatap.domainname" A record lookup Automatic deprecation when end system receives native IPv6 router advertisements RST-231 58 © 2002. Inc. Cisco Systems.
g. Cisco Systems.100. Campus Supported in Windows XP Pro SP1 Supported in Cisco IOS EFT ISATAP-gw# interface Ethernet0 ip address 192.255.10 ISATAP-gw 2001:0420:ACAC:3101: 0000:5EFE:C0A8:640A IPv4 Network E0 192. Inc. 59 .168.Integration and Transition ISATAP 192.99. e.99. All rights reserved.168.0 interface Tunnel0 ipv6 address 2001:0420:ACAC:3101::/64 eui-64 no ipv6 nd suppress-ra tunnel source Ethernet0 tunnel mode ipv6ip isatap RST-231 © 2002.1 255.255.168.1 IPv6 Network • 6to4 Tunnel: Is an automatic tunnel method Ideal for sparse distribution.
IPv6 over IPv4 Tunnels Case Study • ISP scenario Configured tunnels between IPv6 core routers Configured tunnels to IPv6 customers MP-BGP4 peering with other 6Bone users Connection to an IPv6 IX 6to4 tunnels to IPv6 customers 6to4 relay service IPv6 Site A 6Bone • Enterprise scenario 6to4 tunnels between sites ISATAP in campus Configured tunnels between sites or to 6Bone users Service Provider IPv4 Backbone IPv6 over IPv4 Tunnels UNIVERSITY IPv6 IX IPv6 Site B • Home 6to4 RST-231 © 2002. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Inc. 60 .
as well as Cisco 12000 Internet series routers Same applies to UTI or AToM • No impact on IPv4 infrastructure Only upgrade the appropriate network paths IPv4 traffic and revenues are separated from IPv6 • Network management done through IPv4 • OpEx? RST-231 © 2002. 61 . Inc. SONET/SDH. Cisco Systems.2T. dWDM Lambda. Ethernet All of the above are supported on Cisco IOS 12. All rights reserved.Native IPv6 over Dedicated Data Links • Native IPv6 links over dedicated infrastructure ATM PVC. Serial. Frame Relay PVC.
… RST-231 © 2002. Ping.168. SSH.1 IPv6: 2001:410:213:1::/64 eui-64 • Cisco IOS is IPv6-enable: If IPv4 and IPv6 are configured on one interface. Cisco Systems. Traceroute.168.1 255.99. the router is dual-stacked Telnet. Inc.99. All rights reserved. DNS client. TFTP.0 ipv6 address 2001:410:213:1::/64 eui-64 Dual-Stack Router IPv6 and IPv4 Network IPv4: 192.255.Cisco IOS Dual Stack Configuration router# ipv6 unicast-routing interface Ethernet0 ip address 192. 62 .255.
Dual Stack IPv4-IPv6 Infrastructure
• Seems to be a natural approach…but
On WAN, is generally a long term goal, when IPv6 traffic and users will be rapidly increasing On LAN: No L3 switches support IPv6 today…
• Can be configured on Cisco IOS > 12.2(2)T/12.0(19)ST but have to consider
Memory size for IPv4 and IPv6 routing tables IGP options: Integrated versus “ships in the night” Full network upgrade
• IPv4 and IPv6 traffic should not impact each other
Require more feedback and experiments
© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
IPv6 over MPLS Infrastructure
• Service Providers have already deployed MPLS in their IPv4 backbone for various reasons
MPLS/VPN, MPLS/QoS, MPLS/TE, ATM + IP switching
• Several IPv6 over MPLS scenarios
IPv6 over AToM (no impact on IPv6) IPv6 provider edge router (6PE) over MPLS (no impact on MPLS core) Native IPv6 MPLS (require full network upgrade)
© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
IPv6 over AToM (Same for UTI)
AToM (E.g. ATM VC, FR PVC, Ethernet…)
• • • •
No impact on existing IPv4 or MPLS Core (v6 unaware) Edge MPLS routers need to support AToM Mesh of PE-to-PE connections PE routers can be regular IPv6 routers (V6 over ATM, v6 over FR, v6 over Ethernet…) or forward just the L2 VC (e.g. Ethernet) to the IPv6 router
© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
66 . All rights reserved.Native MPLS Support of IPv6 v6 IPv6 P MPLS Label Switch Paths for IPv6 IPv6 v6 v6 P IPv6 v6 IPv6 IPv6 MPLS IPv6 All Routers Are IPv6-Aware • Core infrastructure requires full control plane upgrade to IPv6 IPv6 routing in core IPv6 label distribution protocol in core • Dual control plane management if IPv4 and IPv6 services RST-231 © 2002. Inc. Cisco Systems.
0.0 CE IPv6 • IPv4 or MPLS core infrastructure is IPv6-unaware • PEs are updated to support dual stack/6PE • IPv6 reachability exchanged among 6PEs via iBGP (MP-BGP) • IPv6 packets transported from 6PE to 6PE inside MPLS RST-231 © 2002.0 v4 CE 6PE IPv6 IPv4 MPLS 6PE v4 192. Inc.0 2001:0621:: v6 MP-iBGP Sessions CE v6 2001:0420:: 2001:0421:: v4 6PE v6 CE P P P P v6 6PE Dual Stack IPv4-IPv6 Routers 192. Cisco Systems.IPv6 Provider Edge Router (6PE) over MPLS 2001:0620:: Dual Stack IPv4-IPv6 Routers 188.8.131.52.254. All rights reserved.10. 67 .
0. All rights reserved.10.0 v4 CE 6PE Dual Stack 6PE Dual Stack IGPv4 MPLS V4: • LDPv4 • (TE v4) IPv6 Unaware No Core Upgrade V6: IGP/BGP V6: IGP/BGP RST-231 © 2002. 68 . Cisco Systems.0 2001:0621:: v4 6PE v6 CE P P P P v6 6PE v4 184.108.40.206.0 CE 192.95.6PE Overview 2001:0620:: v6 MP-iBGP Sessions CE v6 2001:0420:: 2001:0421:: 145. Inc.
254.17 6PE-2 P1 P2 220.127.116.11. All rights reserved. Inc.10. Cisco Systems.17 192.13 2001:0421:: 6PE-1 LDPv4 Binds Label to 192.10. 69 .17 • Translation of v6 BGP Next_Hop into v4address • Recursion of this address via IGPv4 RST-231 © 2002.17 2001:0420:: IGPv4 Advertises Reachability of 18.104.22.168.6PE Routing MP-BGP Advertises 2001:0421:::: and Binds a (2nd Level) Label IPv6 Next Hop Is an IPv4 Compatible IPv6 Address Built from 192.10.
Cisco Systems.10.17 IGPv6 or MP-BGP Advertising 2001:0421:: (*) The 2nd Label Allows Operations with Penultimate Hop Popping (PHP) (which Is Typically Used in Current MPLS Networks)—It Is an Aggregate Label RST-231 © 2002.6PE Routing/Label Distribution IGPv6 or MP-BGP Advertising 2001:0421:: 2001:0420:: 6PE-2 Sends MP-iBGP Advertisement to 6PE-1 which Says: 2001:0421:: Is Reachable via BGP Next Hop = 192. Inc.170. All rights reserved.10.17 22.214.171.124.10.254.254.13 6PE-2 P1 P2 LDPv4 Binds Label to 192.254.17 (6PE-2) Bind BGP Label to 2001:0421:: (*) IGPv4 Advertises Reachability of 192. 70 .17 2001:0421:: 6PE-1 192.
6PE Forwarding 2001:0420:: IPv6 Packet to 2001:0421:: 126.96.36.199. 71 .10.13 2001:0421:: 6PE-1 6PE-2 P1 P2 192. Cisco Systems. Inc.17 RST-231 © 2002. All rights reserved.
17 RST-231 © 2002. Inc. Cisco Systems.10.254. All rights reserved.13 6PE-1 LDP/IGPv4 Label1 to 6PE-2 MP-BGP IPv6 Packet Label to to 2001:421:: 2001:421:: P1 P2 192.6PE Forwarding (6PE-1) 2001:0420:: IPv6 Forwarding and Label Imposition: • 6PE-1 receives an IPv6 packet • Lookup is done on IPv6 prefix • Result is: 2001:0421:: Labelz Binded by MP-BGP to 2001:0421:: Label1 Binded by LDP/IGPv4 to the IPv4 Address 6PE-2 of BGP Next Hop (6PE-2) IPv6 Packet to 2001:0421:: 192.72. 72 .170.
254. All rights reserved.72.13 6PE-1 LDP/IGPv4 Label1 to 6PE-2 MP-BGP IPv6 Packet Label to to 2001:421:: 2001:421:: LDP/IGPv4 Label2 to 6PE-2 P2 P1 192.10. Cisco Systems.17 MP-BGP Label to 2001:421:: IPv6 Packet to 2001:421:: RST-231 © 2002.170. Inc. 73 .6PE Forwarding (P1) 2001:0420:: IPv6-UNaware MPLS Label Switching: • P1 receives an MPLS packet • Lookup is done on Label1 • Result is Label2 6PE-2 2001:0421:: IPv6 Packet to 2001:0421:: 192.
72.10. All rights reserved.13 IPv6 Packet to 2001:0421:: 6PE-1 • Lookup is done on Label2 • Result includes pop label (PHP) 6PE-2 2001:0421:: LDP/IGPv4 Label1 to 6PE-2 MP-BGP IPv6 Packet Label to to 2001:421:: 2001:421:: P2 P1 192.170. Inc.17 MP-BGP Label to 2001:421:: IPv6 Packet to 2001:421:: MP-BGP Label to 2001:421:: IPv6 Packet to 2001:421:: LDP/IGPv4 Label2 to 6PE-2 RST-231 © 2002.6PE Forwarding (P2) 2001:0420:: IPv6-UNaware MPLS Label Switching: • P2 receives an MPLS packet 192.254. Cisco Systems. 74 .
Inc.72. 75 .170.17 MP-BGP Label to 2001:421:: IPv6 Packet to 2001:421:: MP-BGP Label to 2001:421:: IPv6 Packet to 2001:421:: LDP/IGPv4 Label2 to 6PE-2 IPv6 Packet to 2001:421:: RST-231 © 2002.10.254.6PE Forwarding (6PE-2) MPLS Label Pop and IPv6 Forwarding: 2001:0420:: IPv6 Packet to 2001:0421:: 192. All rights reserved.13 6PE-1 • 6PE-2 receives an MPLS packet • Lookup is done on Label • Result is: Pop the Label and Do IPv6 Lookup on IPv6 Destination 6PE-2 2001:0421:: LDP/IGPv4 Label1 to 6PE-2 MP-BGP IPv6 Packet Label to to 2001:421:: 2001:421:: P2 P1 192. Cisco Systems.
Cisco Systems.255 ipv6 address 2003::/64 eui-64 ! router bgp 100 no synchronization no bgp default ipv4-unicast bgp log-neighbor-changes neighbor 10.255.10.255.1 send-label redistribute connected redistribute rip ripv6CE1 exit-address-family ! 76 .10.20.1 remote-as 100 neighbor 10.20.6PE configuration 6CE 6PE Staticv6 RIPv6 ISISv6 eBGPv6 ipv6 cef mpls label protocol ldp mpls ipv6 source-interface Loopback0 P ip cef mpls label protocol ldp tag-switching tdp router-id loopback0 ! interface Serial2/0 ip address 10.10.20.10.255.252 ip router isis mpls label protocol ldp tag-switching ip ! RST-231 © 2002.1 activate neighbor 10.1 update-source Loopback0 ! address-family ipv6 neighbor 10.10. Inc.2 255.2 255.10.20. mpls ldp router-id loopback0 ! interface Loopback0 ip address 10. All rights reserved.255.20.10.
6PE Standardization • See <draft-ietf-ngtrans-bgp-tunnel-04. Inc.txt>: “BGP Tunnelling” • Co-authored by Cisco • Generic solution for transport of IPv6 over any tunnelling technique (including MPLS) using MPBGP • IETF working group document • 6PE is Cisco IOS implementation of “BGP Tunnelling” over MPLS • FCSed on Cisco 12000 series with Cisco IOS 12.2(11)S RST-231 © 2002. 77 . All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. on Cisco 7200/7500 with 12.0(22)S.
Inc. future: native IPv6 Configured Tunnels. All rights reserved. 6PE Future: Dual-Stack & 6PE RST-231 © 2002.So What ? • Home Users 6to4. Cisco Systems. 78 . ISATAP future: Dual-Stack • SP Offer 6to4 & 6to4 relay. future: native IPv6 • Enterprises Start with Configured Tunnels.
IPv6 @ Cisco RST-231 © 2002. 79 . Inc. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.
S. DHCPv6 WG (co) chair… • Control plane focus to build large scale end-to-end infrastructures IPv6 deployment is not just a single box consideration • Technology innovation IPv6 over MPLS (6PE) architecture—GMPLS-ready IPv6 access feature set development to enable IPv6 to the home deployment More to be expected RST-231 © 2002. All rights reserved. Inc.Cisco IPv6 Initiative • Integration and co-existence As stated in March 2000 at the U. Cisco Systems. IPv6 Forum Telluride • Standardization’s involvement IETF IPv6. 80 . NGTrans.
) • Interoperability verification and testing Before 12. All rights reserved.2T release. Inc. Cisco Systems. ETSI interoperability events Participation to IPv6 showcases in JP • Investment protection Cisco IOS IPv6 statement of direction published in June 2000 Cisco IOS routers are “IPv6-enabled” through software upgrade RST-231 © 2002. 81 .Cisco IPv6 Initiative (Cont. Cisco IOS IPv6 EFT software was free access on CCO for 3 years Cisco IOS IPv6 6Bone connection is operational since 10/1996 Participation to TAHI.
82 .Cisco IPv6 Initiative (Cont.) • IPv6 Forum member since May 1999 • Customer’s support Worldwide TAC IPv6 support IPv6 training available from Cisco learning partners IPv6 deployment scenarios documented on CCO • Learning and supporting large scale deployment European 6NET project ISP trial and commercial services IT internal deployment RST-231 © 2002. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Inc.
83 . goi 12.2(2)T. (4)T Market Target Early ne Adopter Deployment Do Production Backbone ng IOS 12. Cisco Systems. Inc.0S Deployment On en t lopm eve rD eEnhanced IPv6 Services Phase III Und H2 CY 2002 and later Phase II RST-231 © 2002.2T. All rights reserved. 12.2S.Cisco IOS IPv6: 3 Phases Roadmap Cisco IOS Release Phase I IOS 12.
2T. Traceroute. from Cisco 800 to Cisco 7500 IP Plus. TFTP 84 Phase I Any Router Able to Run 12. Telnet.2(2)T. All rights reserved. Inc. PPP (Serial.Cisco IOS IPv6 Phase I Cisco IOS Release Early Adopters Cisco IOS 12. Cisco HDLC. . ATM and FR PVC. ISDN) Ping. Cisco Systems. POS. Neighbor Discovery Stateless Auto-configuration RIPv6 (RFC 2080) Multi-Protocol Extensions for BGP4 (RFC 2545 and 2858) Configured and Automatic Tunnels 6to4 Tunnel Standard Access List IPv6 over Ethernet (10/100/1000Mb/s). FDDI. Enterprise and SP images RST-231 © 2002. (4)T Cisco IOS Upgrade = Free IPv6 IPv6 Features Supported IPv6 Basic Specification (RFC 2460) ICMPv6.
SSH.2T.0(22)S 12. 85 .2S. 12.Cisco IOS IPv6 Phase II Cisco IOS Release Phase II Backbone Deployment IPv6 Features under Development i/IS-ISv6 CEFv6/dCEFv6 AAA/Dialer Pool. Cisco Systems.2(8)T RST-231 © 2002. 12.0S 12. Inc. IPv6 MIB Phase I Sustaining E Now FT 12. All rights reserved. NAT-PT Extended Access Control List IPv6 over IPv4 GRE Tunnels IPv6 Provider Edge Router (6PE) over MPLS DNS AAAA client Link-Local BGP Peering CDP.
Extensive Platform Support
Check latest release number & availability with your local Cisco team
Cisco IOS 12.2T
Cisco 800 series Routers Cisco 1400 series Routers Cisco 1600 series Routers Cisco 1700 series Routers Cisco 2500 series Routers [12.2(4)T] Cisco 2600 series Routers Cisco 3600 series Routers Cisco 3700 series Routers Cisco 4500/4700 series Routers [12.2(2)T only] Cisco 7100 series Routers Cisco 7200 series Routers Cisco 7500 series Routers Cisco IOS 12.0ST
Cisco 12000 series Routers
Cisco IOS Cable Routers
Cisco ubr7100, ubr7200, IPv6 over IPv4 Tunnels only
Cisco IOS 12.2S
Cisco 7100 series Routers Cisco 7200 series Routers Cisco 7400 series Routers Cisco 7500 series Routers Cisco 7600 series Routers Catalyst 6500 series
Cisco IOS 12.2B
Cisco 7200, 7400
Cisco IOS IPv6 EFT only
© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco IOS IPv6 Release Trains
• Cisco IOS 12.2T
Current version is 12.2(11)T, no new IPv6 features compared to 12.2(8)T Next release with new IPv6 feature set is 12.2(5th)T scheduled for Q4 CY02
• Cisco IOS 12.2S
New release is 12.2(11)S – CCO July 1st, 2002
• Cisco IOS 12.0S for Cisco 12000 series
New release is 12.0(22)S – CCO July 22nd, 2002
© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco IOS IPv6 Phase II Status
12.2T IS-IS for IPv6 CEFv6/dCEFv6 Extended ACL 6PE NAT-PT Access MIB
12.0S/ST 12.0(21)ST1 12.0(21)ST1 12.0(23)S 12.0(22)S N/A N/A 12.0(22)S
12.2S 12.2(9)S 12.2(11)S 12.2(11)S 12.2(11)S H1 CY03
12.2(8)T H2 CY02 H2 CY02 H1 CY03 H2 CY02 H2 CY02 H1 CY03
© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
89 .Conclusion RST-231 © 2002. Inc. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.
cisco. and deployment work • Application. applications inventory. and IPv6 deployment planning • Cisco is committed to deliver advanced IPv6 capabilities to the Internet industry http://www. implementation.com/go/abc RST-231 © 2002.IPv6—Conclusion IPv6 Ready for Production Deployment? • Core IPv6 specifications are well-tested and stable Some of the advanced features of IPv6 still need specification.com/ipv6 and http://www. middleware and scalable deployment scenario are IPv6 focus and challenge • Service development for service providers • Plan for IPv6 integration and IPv4-IPv6 co-existence Training.cisco. All rights reserved. Inc. 90 . Cisco Systems.
All rights reserved.Deploying IPv6 Networks Session RST-231 RST-231 © 2002. 91 . Cisco Systems. Inc.
All rights reserved. 92 . Inc. Cisco Systems.Please Complete Your Evaluation Form RST-231 RST-231 © 2002.
Inc. 93 . All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.Session Number Presentation_ID © 2002.
94 . All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Inc.RST-231 © 2002.