Outline for My Paper in Cities and Suburbs Introduction Why Is Density Important o Productivity  Alfred Marshall 1920 talks

about industrial organization  E.S. Mills 1967 An Aggretative Model of Resource Allocation in a metropolitan Area  One reason for cities is transportation costs (3)  Cities exist for two reasons in places o Some land is more valuable then others (Baltimore) (4) o Agglomeration economies (4)  Economies of scale (4)  Some industries have such little demand that a city is needed to sustain it (4) o However,  If you double the population by heightening buildings, u then need more space dedicated to moving people around, where there were once buildings, so you need to grow the city outwards by moving more buildings outside the city (4-5)  Also eventually there are limits to efficient production and you need more space if you double the pop to get double the production (5)  Basically made a model for resource allocation  J Vernon Henderson Systems of Cities and Inter-city trade  Ciccone & Hall 1996 Productivity and the Density of Economic Activity  Found the doubling of employment density increases average labor productivity by around 6%. More than half of the variance of output per worker across states can be explained by differences in density of economic activity (abstract/3)  Possible reasons o Transportation costs (2) o Externalities related to physical proximity of production (2) o A higher degree of beneficial specialization (2)  Accounting for density at the county level is crucial for explaining productivity at the state level (3)  o Efficiency  Less dependent on foreign oil  Less expensive roadways o Environmental

- -  Less commute  Less greenspace eaten up by sprawl o Housing Prices What are some of the barriers to density o Lack of Urban Growth Boundary o Fractured local government o Strict zoning laws o Nimby groups o Historical preservation society What are some ways that we can overcome these barriers o The Free Market Way o New Urbanism and Transit Oriented Development o Zoning Commission Procedures .

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