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Fricton Factor of Pipe Flow|Views: 96|Likes: 2

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/71033458/Fricton-Factor-of-Pipe-Flow

03/30/2013

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**By LEWIS F. MOODY,l PRINCETON, N.
**

The object of this paper is to furnish the engineer with a simple means of estimating the friction factors to be used in com.putingthe loss of head in clean new pipes and in closed conduits runuing full with steady flow. The modern developmerrts in the application of theoretical hydrodynam.ics to the fluid.frictjon problem are impressive an41scattered through an extensive Iiterature. This paper is not intended as a critical sUrvey of this wide field.. For a concise review, Professor Bakhmeteff's (1)2 sm.an book on the :m.echanicsof fluid flow is an excellent reference. Prandtl and Tietjeris (21 and Rouse (3) have also made notable contributions to the subject .. The author does not claim to offer anything particularly new or original, his ann merely being to em.body the now accepted conclusions. in convenient form for engineering use.

J.

I

Nthe.' present pipe-.flow study, the friction factor,denoted by j in. the accompanying charts, .is the coefficient in the Darcy formula LP h'l = j- D2g

in which!),1 il;!the loss of head in friction, in feet of fluid column of the fluid flowing; L andD the length and internal diameter of t~pe:-in-feet; V the mean velocity of flow in feet per second; and g the acceleration of gravity in feet per second per second (mean value taken as ,32.16). The factor jis .a dimensionless quantity, and at ordinary velocities is a function of two, and only two, other dimensionless quantities, the relative roughness of the surface,~. (e being a linear quantity in feet representative of the

with numerical constants for the case of perfectly smooth pipes or those in which the irregularities are small compared to the thickness of the laminar boundary layer, and for the case of rough pipes where the roughnesses protrude sufficiently to break up the laminar layer, and the flow becoines completely turbulent. The analysis did not, however, cover the entire field but left a gap, namely; the transition zone between smooth and rough pipes, the region of incomplete turbulence. Attempts to fill this gap by the use ofNikuradse's results for artificial roughness produced by closely packed sand grains, were not adequate, since the re-: sults were clearly at variance from actual experience for ordinary surfaces encountered in practice. Nikuradse's curves showed a sharp drop followed by a. peculiar reverse curve," not observed with commercial surfaces, and nowhere suggested by the Pigott chart based on many tests. Recently Colebrook (11), in collaboration with C. M. White; developed a function which. gives a practical 'form, of traruiition curve to bridge the gap. This function agrees with the two extremes of roughness and gives values ill very satisfactory agreement with actual measureinents on most forms of commercial piping and usual pipe surfaces. Rouse (12)'has shown that it is a reasonable and practically adequate solution and has plotted a chart. based' upon it. In order to .simplify the plotting, Rouse adopted eo-ordinates inconvenient for ordinary engineering use, since j is implicit in both co-ordinates, and R values are represented by curved co-ordinates, so that interpolation is troublesome. ,The author has drawn up a new chart, Fig. 1, in the more conventional form used by Pigott, taking advantage of the functional relationships established in recent years. Curves of ! versus R are plotted to .logsrithmic scales for various constant, values ofrelative roughness

B;

and to permit easy selection of can be

**absolute roughness), and the Reynolds number
**

.

R

= VD (" being

the- coefficient of kinematic viscosity of the fluid in. square feet per second); Fig. 1 gives numerical values' of j as a function of ~and

"

.

~, an accompanying

chart, Fig. 2, is given from whichi

R:

read for any size.of pipe ofa given type of surface. In order to find the friction losam a pipe, the procedure is as follows: Find the appropriate

Ten years ago R. J. S..Pigott (4) published a chart for the same , friction factor, using the same co-ordinates as in 'Fig. 1 of this paper. His' chart has proved to be.most useful and practical .and has been reproduced in,ann.mb~r of texts (5). The Pigott chart was based upon analysis of some 10,000 experiments from various sources (6), but did not have the benefit, in plotting or fairing the curves,of later developments in functional forms of the curves. , ' In the same year Nikuradse (7) published his experiments on artificially roughened pipes. Based upon the tests of Nikuradse and others, von Karman' (8) and Prandtl (9) developed their theoretical analyses of pipe flow and gave us suitable formulas

n from

e

Fig. 2, then follow the

an

corresponding line, thus identified, in Fig. 1, to the. value of the Reynolds number R corresponding to the velocity of flow. The factor f is thus found, for use in the Darcy formula . hi

=f

n

LP 2g

1 Professor, Hydraulic Engineering, Princeton University. Mem. A.S;M.E. • Numbers in parentheses refer to the Bibliography at the end of the paper. ' Oontributed by the Hydraulic Division and presented at the Semi-Annual Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pa., June 19-22, 1944, of THE AMERWAN SOCIETY OF MECHAN10AL ENGINEERS.

NOTE: Statements and opinions advanced in papers are to be understood as individual expressions of their authors and not those of the Society. .

In Fig. 2, the scales at the top and bottom give values of the diameter in both feet and inches. Fig. 1 involv.esonly dimensionless quantities and is applicable in any system of units. To facilitate the calculation of R, auxiliary scales are shown at the top of Fig. 1, giving values of the 'product (VD") for two fluids, i.e., water and atmospheric air, at 60 F. (D" is the inside diameter in inches.) As a further auxiliary; Fig ..3 is given, from which R can be quicklyfound for water at ordinary temperatures, for any size of pipe and mean velocity V. Dashed lines on this chart have been added giving values of .the discharge or quantity of fluid flowing, Q = A V, expressed in both 'cubic feet per second and in U. S. gallons per minute.

• Rouse, reference (3), p. 250; and Powell, reference (10), p. 174.

671

. ..' I 3" 0' SS3NH9nOH ~AI. '/ iU): .l v rg IN ..rrW-+'-t-I~ I i'Q ICil . " '~.l i )(~.. q CD q 10 q. .tlcrt fJ) U) Q ..M..> t.. i-'-++-I-I-+-HH-+-H+f-H-+Il-+-+++--f-+H--+-+Ht-H-++H--I-+-IMI--+H--tt--+-I-'l--.. ~ '0 . Q CXI . I~ Ii= Ii. I'" v r<'I iQ~ ~ ~~' ~~~+4~+r~-+-H~++&+++~rH+-r+~rH~~~*+~~~-H!/~l/rr/~o~-r~~ ~ ~o~~~~~~~HH~4H~r#+-~~~+W++~+H+*-r~++~~n~~~~H :f J J I ~.f'-jr--l. i::i il. 'i- !!. . t~·~"~' ~1~~l$lffila~'~'ESlHati~V~!S"SEJ~I~JE8~ -.1\113~ (\l C\I q o 0 0 0 0 0 10 q 0 0 0 q o cf o :~ r= I lCD.0 I---: 0 0'1 R CXI q .S.. 1944 . .E.....: ~ CD . I'.. 0'1' 0 q q. NOVEMBER.672 TRANSACTIONS OF THE A. is.

. In Fig.1'\.. instead of using Fig. N~ rlS ~ I"\~ 1". 6 in.. the corresponding R may be read at the top of the auxiliary graph. complete turbulence.0005 z .0006 .3 .000p()8 .0 I . 016 :::I ILLI D- i ~ ':::1 'n: '~" . In Fig. 0 :05 . 012 B ""'~ " I'.. ~.For any value of v in. • Reference (13) and reference (5). ~~ "'/ 'I'\.4 .005 1'\1" .000p2 ~.0004 J: .5·9 . . G. 1.diam(left-handmargin). since f varies only slowly With changes in R. ::l o:: ffi o "r-... in the right-hand margin of Fig. for 6in.<I>!i: . diam (bcttomseals).ofcompleteturbulenoe above and to the right of thedashed line in Fig.pll FlG. ~ ~ ~" KI" I'\.1" " 0 K.J :000..04 . compute VD" = 6 X 6 = 36). values of f for rough pipes and. '~ '"rI'. a o . 6" 014 .000p06 '\:b. 2.MOODY~FRICTroN FACTORS FOR PIPE FLOW' 673 PIPE DIAMETER IN FEET. -...000. which gives R for various values of the product VD' shown by the diagonal lines .000 I . locate from the right- .000. further reference to. . Prof.0008 (left-hand . For other fluids. and in the rough-pipe zone. F. ~ > UJ '" r-..08 ~ .03 . i'" RV 1"- I' .... I"\..~. 4To enable R to be quickly found for various fluids.02 1"..004 DP3 .5 (10') (bottom seale) (or.} is independent of R.' asphaIted cast-iron pipe carrying water with a mean velocity of 6 fps:ln Fig. I"- IEL "- "- 03 '\ (J) lLI I" D- I'\.0003 (!) . Datigherty's kind permission . I-. an approximate figure for R is sufficient. the lefthand diagramyby following a horizontal line to the appropriate diagonal at the right. l'\ 1"I" 04 035 !'\.. lOver a large part of' Fig. .2 . 2 will give the value of f directly Without. I' I"- :"\.L..the diagonal for V = 6 fps gives R = 2..0008 . I - ""\. 1<1: "- r-.. '.0002 .~ 2 ~ 4 51? I) 2O~5 07 06 05 ..:< I. " I"'\ 1'.002 . 008 IX 810 1'\ . the diagonal for "asphaItedcast iron" gives D e = 0. 4.that the conditions of any problem clearly fall in th~ aone. Nf. 'From the last eonsideration. I' 'tii' 0:: . 01 009 .06 '.- r.has been reproduced.001 "" 0.1 .6' 025 I"- 0:: 02 .' margin). 2. 200 300 PIPE DIAMETER IN'INGH.' . which With. it becomes possible to show. If it is seen .. for. ..01 .006 I~ . then Fig.r1 "- ft ~ ~I .\: 018 tAl'. 1. '4 includes !tn auxiliary diagram constructed by Dr. ' ILLUSTRATION OF USE OF CHARTS ExampZel: To estimate the 10S8 of head in 200 ftof 6-in. R.ES.005 I 2 34 'q6 '20 3040 0 80 GO. 3.03 . Fig. Wislicenus. 10q.2 .. I?' " l'. tpe other charts..09°. ~ 1'. the Kinematic viscosity p may be found from Fig. I'\" I' ~. 3.008 .OOOpS ~000P4 ~ 1'\0.' .J 'I'.000.1'\ .

(100) (20)2 = 8. Between Reynolds numbers of 2000 and 3000 or 4000" the conditions depend upon the initial turbulence due to such extraneous factors as sudden changes in section. and.o.5 ft friction loss = Example B:To estimate the 10~s of head per 100 ft in a Ifi-in.25) 64:3 It.0008. I '25 -.within about ='=5per cent (14). but. since the rapidity of deterioration with age. corner prior to the reach of' pipe considered. we Jack the primary .curve for e 15 = 0. " . 171/ /' IX i7 .5 (106) on the bottom scale (or below v. rough pipes.a) 5 Q " = " " X " " :.t. . IN FEU. 0. 2 might be more graphically represented by broad bands rather than single lines. engineering problems rarelyrequire more than this. 1 divides itself into four areas representing distinct flow characteristics.~ Iqj liIiJ 2 1.1 8 " e. permitting a completely rational solution. ' between 0. a variation within about ='=10per cent. In Fig... I~ I~ I~ IOJ ~ b'lKl n" I~ Itq.02 (left-hand margin).018 (1.fortunately.. fairly reasonable estimates of friction loss can be made. 0 0040 ~ C 60 50 ~ ~ oJ.018 (left-hand margin). Until such a technique is developed. or a. the diagonal for V =' 20 fps gives R = 2 (106). The lines in Fig. and f can then be found directly from the right-hand margin in Fig.2 QI 5 ." Here R or VD' need only he approximated sufficiently to see that the point falls in the complete turbulence region. in the transition and rough-pipe regions. a probable variation ui] .30 -0.and obvious essential. In the rough-pipe region.M. this is not practical due to overlapping. diam (bottom scale). the diagonal for "cast iron" gives~ 'diam (left-hand margin). In Fig. at.6850 vo·) . the values. new cast-iron pipe. The values ofl are here given by a single curve.: 4 3 o 11..S. find the absolute roughness corresponding to its performance. Q " ~ I~ IX 7- . 0..! = ~. FOR WATER AT GO°F (V FIG: 3 " INS~.DS NUMBER R. making an estimate of performance speculative.then from a test of such a pipe in any size we can. 1. VD" = 20 X 15 == 300). It will be noted from the charts that a wide variation in estimating the roughness affects I to a much smaller degree. say.95 or.P' = 36 on the top scale). 2 without further reference to Fig.8 W' I0.. The field covered by Fig. a technique for measuring the roughness of a pipe mechanically. . good degrees of accuracy are obtainable. sharp.. can only be guessed in most cases. must be recognized that any high degree of accuracy in determining f is not to be expected. The first is the region of laminar flow.. however. This point gives f = 0. off cannot be relied upon within a range of the order of at least 10 per cent. independent of roughness. V=I. 1.E. then ' hI = I 15 L V2 (200) (6)2 ' . obstructions. for the reasons just explained. Here the flow is fully' stabilized under the control of viscous forces which damp out turbulence. instead of using Fig.130 ::I: 20 ~ rg~ . margin). 1944 point above R = 2. top scale) gives I = 0. 2. (or. The scale of the absolute roughness e used in plotting the charts is arbitrary. NOVEMBER. 9 ft friction loss = 0. 1 falls just on the boundary of theregion of "complete turbulence. W . in old piping.= ~. The charts apply only to new and clean piping.6 w 0. and for commercial steel and wrought-iron piping. it is true. right-hand margin). 3.. In this case the point on Fig. . 0.5) 64.3' = 4.0007 (left-hand '. the . Even with this handicap.0008 ' TRANSACTIONS and follow this curve to a OF THE A.0007 (interpolating D = 0. up to the critical Reynolds number of 2000. in any case where we have a sample of pipe of the same surface 'texture available for test in the laboratory orin the field. Although we have no accepted method of direct measurement of the roughness.0006 and 0. 3.. representing the Hagen-Poiseuille law. " . dependent upon the quality of the water or fluid and that of the pipe material. and naturally this' leaves much latitude. compute. R.based' upon the sand-grain diameters of Nikuradse's experiments. ~ 7 REYNOI. LX / I)<~ ~ ~ ~ ::E 25 « 5 4 3 2 6 -0.'for 15 in.J 4« I d- d 2 3 4 56 8 ~ 2 3 4 56 8 " d D 2 3 4 56 8 ~ 2 3 4 56 8. for 15 in. I'~ . 211. and in addition to the variation in roughness there may be. ~..5 I - ~ It: 10 11. carrying water With a mean velocity of 20 fps: In Fig.216(10-S). Thus we have a means for measuring theroughness hydraulically._ edged entrance. With smooth tubing.674 hand margin the curve for e 15 = 0. an appreciable reduction in effective diameter.02 (0. a point above R = 2 (106) (bottom scale) (or below VD" = 300.. then hi = 115 2g LP . we 300 200 100 80 have to get along with descriptive terms to specify the roughness. But.5::i! a:: " 1/ r2 3'4 56 8 r-. by aid of the charts.

L > ~ > 0 lLI en ~ '<I' 3 ~ ci .MOODY-FRICTION FACTORS FOR PIPE FLOW 675 VALUES OF (VOu) (V IN:El x 0" IN INCHES) iJ) w ~ ..~ ~~ ~~ Q3 ~ 'T" N "~as J.H'O~S!" ~!f"W"U!>i .d IJ "bs '}. I ~ ~ I ..~ ::I: U =0 ~10 "-lW X =0 I.

conditions again become reasonably determinate." '.f'2 log (D/2e) . in which 0' is tlie' la:minar layer thickness. and at the right. Here we find two regions. . As he . for completely turbulent flow in rough pipes. which the equation is . 2." with complete turbulence established practically throughout the flow{' Viscous forces then become negligible 'compared to inertia forces..LOG ~ " 1/".. the flow conditions pass over into tlie zone of "rough pipes. k = e. namely. This region has been called a critical zone...: I" . . becoming indistinguishable from the constant I lines for rough 'pipe...s absolute or dynamic viscosity.: --. .8 its FIG.' '1'0 being the shearing stress at the pipe wall." I---. 5. f"' r/ ~ .. and the rough-pipe curves merge in a single horizontal line.: ill W hiCh V. initiating instability. Accordingly. compared to the surface irregularities. The minimum limit' for I values is tb. On the other hand.M._ " '. 1. 6._ r<. .! - 1~74~'210g (~).<'l ~ ~ r-.points out.'-2 log(~+~) -j--j-t--f--+-+-++-+-l C:olebmokanaWhllo'. the smooth-pipe curve becomes an inclined straight line. He found that each class of commercial pipe gave a curve of the same form. I/.versus e/O.L it. giving.affected bypressurewaves.relative roughness..! plotted in his Fig.S. 001 -~ ~ . reference 12)..676 TRANSACTIONS OF 'THE A. merging with. and while these curves are quite different from Nikuradse's sandgrain results.···3. here reproduced as Fig. . with I values falling practically on the "smooth pipe" line of Fig.Prandtl.. .:~ ~ ~ .. This in combination with the large diameter gave a. log (D/2e) is equal to '. .::.. asymptotic at one end to the smooth pipe line and at tlie other to the horizontal lines of the rough-pipe zone. the deviation of the points from the Colebr~ok curve "is evidently not much greater. *". " FIG. the results of many groups of tests on various types of commercial pipe surfaces./= - 2 log R v/-0.... a Reynolds number of 3000 or 4000.. . . r-- Rough"" l- t\ l/v! = ~~ log (~~ + ~~j) " ~~r- <. . SmoDth C <. a .~. beyond the dashed line. The basis of the Colebrook function may be briefly outlined. 1.I/."!D<l hn!!lSV .:1 9 .1 = 210glO --j Rv''l..Using logarithmic scales. '/ II Gaivanllodlliln WlDUghllllln Tar·coaled fast·IIDn "~ ~. NOVEMBER. has plotted in: his Fig. Nikuradse had represented his experimental results on artificially roughened pipes by plotting I/".'e/a may be expressed in alternative forms as proportional to Rvj. Above. or. 2 log 'e' --. In the transition zone the curves follow the Colebrook function 1 R E I I = .E.. THE COLEBROOK FuNCTION .· By . for. Such specially fabricated welded-steel pipe lines as those of the Colorado aqueduct system would probably give values along the same curve...horizontallines of constant I in the chart. . \' " . These lines agree with the von Karman rough-pipe formula .e ROUGHNESS REVNOLDS Rough law -r 1"\ 10 II I NU~BER: . v'J = 200D (following.i is equal to . p the. N. Actually"the curves converge rapidly to these limits.. ill wni r = D/ 2. raising the f values somewhat.51 or1/".i ~ 2Ibg·(:i~).zero: . ~ ~ ~ k . that the laminar fl()w is broken up into . . here reproduced as' Fig. they agree closely with each other and with a curve representing his transition function. In the transition region of incomplete turbulence von Karman's expression is not equal to a constant but to' some function of the ratio of the size of the roughnesses to the thickness of the Taminar boundary layer.e dotted continuation of the laminar-flow line. I' .. where metal forms and specially laid concrete produced a very smooth example of concrete surface.mass density of the fluid and J. (Karmdil.. . Colebrook. becomes so small. ' . These curves are.When the thickness of the laIllinar layer" which decreases with increasing Reynolds number. as expressed by . than the experimentalseatterof the 'fudividual measurements in anyone series. Since I depends upon the relative roughness.the transition zone and the rough-pipe zone. the' flow in the" critical zone is likely to be pulsating (2)rather than steady. relative roughness comparable to drawn brass tubing.. 1944 and the conditions are probably also . 6 .7D constant (1. . hioh V*k. 6.the smooth pipe line at the left. the results for all. turbulence. at very high velocities in drawn tubing of .74). The transition zone extends upward from the line for perfectly smooth pipes. ~ . types of flow and degrees of roughness were shown to fallon a single curve. also usingequivalent co-ordinates... Rouse '(12).the corresponding line in Rouse's chart. the expression 1!. the ratio of the absolute roughness to the pipe diameter. I'~" c.this method of plotting.j"'_ 2. corresponcling to very smooth and steady initial flow..Fa rlk *=. using equivalent co-ordinates. Colebrook (11). Von Karman had" shown that.10 1 " ..large number of points each of which represents a series of tests on a given size of commercial pipe.ijolil ~i'. together with the Colebrook 'curve.. plotted from the relation' ' -.. and the indefiniteness of behavior in this region has been indicated' by a hatched area without definite I lines.and I ceases to be a function of the Reynolds number and depends only upon the relative roughness. or II". as far as to a Reynolds number 'of about 1200. a.. Thus Colebrook plots the results obtained on the penstocks of the Ontario Power Company. Nikuradse) to the dash~d line indicating upper limit. ' . or to p --. li . even a fairly rough surface in a very large pipe gives a small. When there is clistinct turbulence in -the entering fluid. The effects of strong initial turbulence may even extend into the laminar-flow zone. ~ I-+-I--!-I~-l-+"".

by B.000005. PIPE FRICTION FACTORS APPLIED TO OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW Since civil engineers usually classify surface roughness by the Kutter . and between open-channel and pipe-friction formulas. 2 "Applied Hydro. divided by the surface breadth.' The presence of a free surface. Colebrook. Rouse. for which'a formula such as Manning's better represents the available information. Oonsequentlyysuch formulas as Manning's are recommended for open channels in preference to the use of values of C derived from the pipe friction factors.. Proceed6 Assistant in Mechanical Prinqeton. The Macmillan Company. McGraw-Hill Book. and the tubing becomes in effecta "rough pipe. This proposed criterion defines whether the flow falls in the "tranquil. the Chezy coefficient C being convertible into by the relation f = ~. Inc. by using an equivalent diameter ' voa V_: in which . 2gm vgm a denotes the average depth or.012 0. even when theflow is uniform.."bylI. Ab. H. whi ch can b e expressed as -or _ I . 0125 smooth ..156. for open channels. 1933.0005 0. Fig. 5 "Hydraulics. Surface and i oint~ O. Fachgruppe I. J.l/mS in which V is the mean velocity. pp. paper Hyd-55-2. 2 for' concrete may be somewhat more definitely described' as follows: '0. The neglect of this factor may at least partially. with surf~ce waves or disturbances." by E. ("Mechanical Similitude and Turbulence.011 0. vol:l1. 6 '. 133-.03 Pipe friction factors have sometimes been applied to openchannel flow. 1940.A:C.003 0. Mem. J. but by applying the Colebrook function to the available data _ (14." by L. pp.005 0. England).105-114..t practical grade of concrete. Y. 1933. P. in closed-conduit flow. N.pp. fairly smooth 'joints or roughly troweled 0. corresponding to large Reynolds numbers and falling in the zone of complete turbulence.S. and casts particular doubt on accepted formulas for open-channel friction in the critical or shooting-flow regions." by C.0105 0. however. The charts can however be. 77. pp.) " . 12 "Evaluation of Boundary Roughness.001 0.and Aeromechanics." byR." Very few experiments have carried the velocities and Reynolds numbers high enough to permit a close estimate of E for drawn brass.002 0." Tech." by R. 3 "Fluid Mechanics for Hydraulic Engineers.DJ. E was . and a line corresponding to this value has been drawn in Fig. the problem is highly complex. 1933.1938-1939. Ino. 0. vol. the loss of head divided bylength of channel.02 0. or more stnct y ' Accordingly.. Daugherty. Bakhmeteff. 1937. A. Rouse. 4 "The Flow of Fluids in Closed Conduits. 1931. sectional .01.MOODY~FRICTION FACTORS . on the basis of Scobey's data the lines given in Fig. Y. S the slope.W.014 0. Pigott. New York. Open channels dealt with in engineering practice -are usually rough-surfaced and of large cross section. however. 1936. Engineering Societies Monographs.' . Princeton University Press. McGraw-Hill Book Company.014 Concrete surface with alight form marks. Tietjens. in similar manner to the plotting of f as a function of the relative roughness and the Reynolds number for closed conduits. Mathematik. 'With Particular Reference to the Transition Region Between the Smooth and Rough Pipe Laws. pp. N.encountered in practice.00015 0. applied.. for the smoothest surfaces reported upon... vol.. 9 "Neuere Ergebnisse der Turbulenzforschung. 1938.. Nikuradse." the sectional area divided by the wetted perimeter. F.." byTh. the Froude number relating the velocity head' and V2 V . N. G.' by L. von Karman.01 0." 'by J. 611.' 8 "MechanischeAhnlichkeit und 'I'urbulens.03 0.has applied the Colebrook function to the test data collected by Scobey (16) and finds the following values of e corresponding to the Kutter n ratings given by Scobey. 1933. 1 is not reco=ended with much confidence for general application to open channels.. it would be helpful in selecting a value of e for such variable surfaces as concrete.'A Study of the Data on the Flow of Fluid in.1 0. 58-76. . we should replace it by a new criterion. or similar tubing. Prandtl.016 0. L. Mechanical Engineering.. area Engineering. Forschungsheft 361. N. no. even the smaJl absolute roughness is sufficient to break up the laminar boundary layer. introduces a consideration not involved." "shooting.M. S." by. so that the friction factors are practically independent of Reynolds number...Wissenschaften pu Gottingen. It is therefore the author's view that while. :powell.FOR PIPE FLOW D = 4m = 4 ( Sectional area ) . 2. Nachrichten von der GBfJellschaft der.' m the hydraulic mean depth or "hydraulic radius.A. Princeton University. The Chezy formula is equivalent to the Darcy formula for pipes. far from circular in shape. Y.olute roughnes 0. Prandtl and O. vol. 497-501. copper.. to noncircular closed conduits of not too eccentric a form or not too different from a circularsection.1-22.." or critical state. V. Trans. that the Chezy coefficients havebeen derived principally from observations on relatively wide and' shallow channels of large area and rough bottoms. Panagos. Kemler. pp." by R. Inc.and Manning roughness factor n.. 515. . A.account for inconsistencies 'between various open-channel formulas.013 0. ZeitBchrift des Vereines deuucher Itujenieure. 1934. so that. Journal 0/ the Institution of Civil Erurineers (London. if we could correlate e and n. 7 "Stromungsgesetze in Rauhen Rohren. and more commonly the friction losses in large pipes and other closed' conduits have been computed from openchannel formulas.0115 {Highe.015 0.estimated as of the order of 0. at least as an approximation. and C a eoefficient. The Chezy formula for open channels is V = C". the latter form representing the 'ratio of mean velocity to the gravitational critical velocity or velocity of propagation of surface waves. 11 "Turbulent Flow in Pipes.no. Engineering Societies Monographs. . Company.Pipea. Length of perimeter' 677 small diameter. 7-32.' It should be considered.".016 Prominent form marks or deposits of stones on bottom n f BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 "The Mechanics of Turbulent Flow. and that they involve a free water surface not present in closed conduits. 5. 10 "Mechanics of Liquids.. Berlin. which may be at least tentatively utilized: Kuttern ..E. These considerations suggest the plotting of openchannel friction factors as a function of the relative roughness and the Froude number. 15). 55. N. For the foregoing reasons. N. 1930. we can drop the Reynolds number as an index of performance. 55. New York..I 'depth. Y. New York. serving as a minimum limit for surfaces likely to be. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York.

Kessler's and Freeman's data do not give a single value that high in all their runs.E. The author calls attention to the well-known fact that in the transition zone the Nikuradse curves for his artificial sand-grain roughness are quite different from those obtained with commercial pipes. The tests. had previously experienced this effect with similar coatings.S:N.R. 1920. roughness for different types and sizes of pipes is' a step forward. California Institute of ·Technology. Daugherty. -{ 10Numbers in parentheses throughout the discussion refer to the at the end of the author's paper. Pasadena.. 28. A. U.M.5. R. The fainiliar functions for the pipe. The writer' has computed two comprehensive sets of data .s This paper is of interest to." by J.74-210g [1] R the wavy type which cannot be evaluated on the same basis as the same magnitude of roughness which is of the granular type. . Bethlehem. 16 "The Flow of Water in Concrete Pipe. Freeman and other by L. L. E .678 TRANSACTIONS OF THE A. 56-72.S. pipe" and "rough-pipe" flow had been established separately. The author has presented the latest theory combined with the available experimental data in a manner which makes it more convenient for use than has been the case heretofore. where finally the critical velocity for all roughness bodies is the There seems to be little published material on the friction loss same in the ideal case of completely uniform size. Kessler.to 8 in. The former completed his experiments during the years 1889 to 1893 and hi~ data were 'published by this Society in a special volume (15)10 ill 1941. HUBBARD. • Assistant Professor. 2 allows a quantitative wall roughtion problem was possible only after the concepts of "smoothness estimated from the type of wall to be used. Trans.ow = 1. particularly those consisting of certain bitumastransition curves than are obtained from tests with the statistical tic constituents which required them to be applied thickly to the roughness patterns encountered on most commercial pipe surwall. pp. cleared up the concepts of energy dissipation in conduits and channels. U. B. by R. roughness coefficient varies with the size of pipe and is difficult to This fact easily explains why a final solution of the pipe-fricestimate. C. McAdams. transition range where the friction loss is dependent upon Reyn1 ' 1&6 olds number.to rough-pipe flow along a line corresponding to a ratio of absolute roughness e to the laminar boundary-layer thickness jJ of 6. W. Rouse and Moody in their f versus R curves terminate the transition range from smooth.08.The second set of data was obtained from pipe-friction experiments at the Wisconsin Experimental Station. 'October. Drew. the more the roughness irregularities are tion of the coating. It must be remembered that Kessler's data were obtained 40 years after those of Freeman and that it can hardly be assumed that manufacturing processes remained identical during that period. . A.74-210g. 1943. H. During some recent tests made to select a protective paint for While Nikuradse's results on uniformly sand-coated pipe were steel which would also have a low friction loss. produced by various protective paints .9 The author has ably satisfied the object of his paper stated in the beginning with an extremely timely and practical summary of the latest information available on pipe friotion. IpPEN.. Apparently the roughness of such surfaces is of =1. However.7The writer has nothing but eommenda.K. University of Iowa Bulletin' 27. Ordinarily the Manning type of formula is preferred. made in 3-in. . showed roughness values of the order of those statistically distributed as far as size and shape are concerned obtained with drawn-brass tubing." by F. H." 13 "Some Physical Properties of Water and Other Fluids. Department of Agriculture. . 7 1 Vi for rough-pipe :fl. Bibliography .friction factor f may be particularly on small pipes when the flow is likely to occur in the written in the following form d . 14 "The Friction Factors for Clean Round Pipes. NOVEMBER. Mem. Koo. pp. It is to be hoped that developments in this field may be made along the lines suggested by the author.tion for this excellent paper. vol. determining the pipe friction factor as presented by Colebrook is rather as.S. their highest an- vi v'!···:···· e A. Calif. 193-196. Under practical co~ditionS lems. Some experiences in this connection may be contribut~d here. The Colebrook universal function seems to fit the better pipes. E. Academic research in this field over the last 30 years conProfessor of Mechanical Engineering. Discussion R. Scobey. . which were.E. Bulletin 852. 1941.M.282. Both experimenters performed tests on 1/4 in. The writer would like to know if the author has any explanation to offer for this marked difference. one by John R. The author's Fig. . Trans.engineers who must estimate fluid-friction loss closely for certain types of probvalues obtained were about ~ = 2. . jJ since the roughness value may be determined from the type of ' of use therefore the flow of water in pipes occurs well in the surface of the wall as contrasted to the Darcy formula where the transition range from smooth. While this paper deals primarily with pipe friction it is interesting to note the suggestions made concerning the treatment of the flow in open channels. S.. • Lieutenant Commander.. L. faces. Pa.to rough-pipe flow.)932. they also resulted in more complicated several coatings. DA~GHERTY. Lehigh University. : [3] for laminar boundary-layerthicknesa. 57. Hydraulic Laboratory.M.on pipe friction. 1935. [2] :0 = 0. T. His evaluation of relative.8._ 15' "Experiments Upon the Flow of Water in Pipes and Pipe Fittings. the appearance and vice 'Versa. published by THE AMERIOAN SOCIETYOF MECHANIOALNGINEERS.. The latter has not been given the attention from the standpoint of rational analysis that has been devoted in the past to pipes. diam wrought-iron pipes in new condition covering the maximum range in Reynolds numbers possible under their experimental conditions. The writer larities the closer Nikuradse's transition curves are approached. and W. runs shows essentially the f versus R curve indicated by Colebrook and e values calculated for all the various sizes come aut very close to the average value stated for wrought-iron pipe in the present paper. for smooth-pipe flow ducted on a fundamental basis has finally yielded a satisfactory explanation of the nature of the laws of pipe friction and has ." by T.and coatings on pipe walls. 1944 ings Second Hydraulic Conference. the more regular the size and pattern of the irreguof the coating was not as smooth as drawn tubing. it was found that helpful in this respect. vol. C. C. American Institute of Chemical Engineers. split longitudinally to allow proper applicain this transition range. tanishing. gave low flow-resistance values. ' Another fact of importance to the practical engineer from this analysis of Freeman's and Kessler's data is worth mentioning. Freeman. After plotting these' results every one of their. The evidence for the adoption of the methods for. the results of which were published in 1935.

Mr. the foregoing expression K =--2 .250. Italite cement-asbestos pipe (predecessor of Transite) 4-in. the values of f did show a tendency to become constant. on the viscosity of the fluid. and K V22 2g K is the coefficient of h = . X 'Is-in. The writer has found in varied from 0. The maximum value of R was about 1. of decreasing. The writer has not conducted a sufficient number of tests on pipes and is far from a pundit on this subject. 1c ~4 . 247. du Pont de Nemoms ..M. the proportional roughness varies inversely as the 'diameter Or the coefficient increases with the diameter.0435 (d2")0. Pardoe. A.-(1. University .318 CfOro. and B-in. I. '2 "Effect of High Temperatures and Pressures on Cast-Steel Venturi Tubes. thus checking Williams' and Hazen's formula = 1. This must be due to the smoothness of the 11 Department of Civil Engineering. vol.p. By use of Equation [3]. It will be found in practical calculations that this influence is very seldom absent. It must be remembered here that this change in e represents only about a 20 per cent increase in the Darcy-Weisbach factor t. since the evalue is a much more sensitive indicator of pipe roughness than the factor f. This value ofe was doubled within 3 years as a result of the change in surface conditions with aging under moderate conditions of use." by W. 6-in.03S0. In the last case. the'Oolebrook function may be written in the alternative form V _< f materials and the low value of Reynolds number.ll In the following tests on pipes of various diameters and materials.000 forS-in. result of the heat being conducted away more rapidly." The tests included: .Solving. Ruberoid cement-asbestos. PARDOE. . From experiments on galvanized steel pipe of 4 ill.~4) Hence a constant value of c gives a constant K.08. Rvf 18. dY dv In no case except the last did the exponent n show even a tendency. even if he must use a bit of 4-in.~ 1-~4+ K This' equation clearly brings out the dependence of the pipe friction phenomena upon the thickness of the laminar boundary layer. thu~ fu. = 1. turberculated cast-iron pipe. This the writer will check in future experiments.P As a variati~n of 1/2 per cent in c requires a variation of 25 per cent in k it seems to the writer the effect of a difference of temperature of 20 deg F onf at low value of R might be considerable. In conclusion.dicating there is such A' . the exponent n in the exponential formula' K . S. Neoprene dock-loading hose for E. the value of e/ D being quite large. The value of K on the flat part of tests of 85 cast-iron Venturi meters approximates o It is evident that aging of pipes under varying conditions of use will result in new values of absolute roughness which at present are not easily' predicted. of Pennsylvania. If Q is kept constant dv/dy will also be constant. into the following universal function 1( _r.00045 ft Was obtained. and p.546.5 or complete turbulence.MOODY-FRICTION According to Oolebrook..54 v his work on Venturi meters a variation of over 1/2 per cent. Neoprene dock-loading hose (very smooth) which is much below the "complete turbulence zone. The effect is a function of Reynolds and Pra:ndtl's or Nusselt's numbers. if either the influence of the relative roughness disappears or when the viscous influence becomes insignificant.74 f 21~g: (1 r + 0. 2-in. corresponds to the temperature of the inside wall of the pipe. diam at the Hydraulic Laboratory of Lehigh University.'I to a value of ~ of 6. The tests ran to quite high values of Reynolds number in terms of V2rhP.25 As the absolute roughness is constant. .to 12-in. or 111 varies asV2. p. which will lie between the ambient temperature and that of the water. helical metal band on inside = --S = p. steel pipe B-in.e. Professor Moody says f is a function of "two and only two'. . This is of course arguing from the writer's experience with Venturi meters to make up for his lack of adequate experimental knowledge of the subject under discussion. an initial average value of e = 0.S. fiber conduit 6-in. This coefficient may be approximated by the formula = 1.535 to 0. i. Pigott in his discussion has mentioned my insistence on the fact that the coefficients of Venturi meters become constant. e) +r · [4] This function reverts to either Equation [1] or Equation [2]. . Equations. Philadelphia. W.S.74-210g· FAOTORS'FOR PIPE FLOW 679 [1] and [2] are combined vf . it may throw some light on the upper limit of the critical or unstable zone. he will attempt to work-into the "complete turbulence zone. thing as complete turbulence. This effect is brought about by a change in the boundary shear.. dimensionless quantities e/D and VDp. p." if such there is. may be hoped that this paper will bring the general adoption of this relatively easy and reliable method of determining pipe friction and thereby establish a standard procedure in practice which is based upon sound analytical and experimental evidence. Pa. At some time in the future. rubber dock-loading hose with I-in. let alone approaching a value of 0.6 _ r. = 0. .E. it. and the writer is not certain "what the price :of cheese in Denmark does to effect [:" . The prop~sed ultimate value ofRr~j = 400 is equivalent in which ~ is the diameter ratio loss in rh/ d. thuB fpV2 'TO very closely. extruded pipe 4-in. It will decrease as the velocity increases as a. 61.due to the effect of the ambient temperature. 1939.282~) e [5] C- 1-~4 . Trans.

D represents. In food industries. this situation corresponds toflat final value of f at complete turbulence. 123. that have thixotropic properties (quoted from the rheologists).S. pipe friction. = CPI (VD) -.. 5) shows them straight and intercepting. S." by Hunter Rouse. Pittsburgh 30. criticism of the one point of view must necessarily involve a de. . and a decrease of the value of f with decrease of roughness.M. Bines most Venturis above rather small sizes are made with cast approach cones and the losses are substantially represented by. He has been pointing out for years that the coefficient reaches a constant value at some Reynolds number that increases with size. Iowa. 23. in form for direct application generally. a . Hazen.. For those interested. but at any rate the resulting chart worked well and has been growing in use. wandering all the way from Kutter. is the basis of the Karnllm-Prandtl analysis of the turbulent zone.greases. 1. . behave like true liquids of rather low viscosity. congratulated on producing a very of friction factors which in due time may replace the Kemler curves which have. then on the writer's staff.. 16 the writer adopted co-ordinates inconvenient for ordinary engineering use. LV' = CP a r : (2gh/D3) L. The point at which this condition obtains is plainly shown to be a function of relative roughness.j The combination now most familiar to the engineer. OF THE A. paint and varnish operations. the specific form 16 Director. the author has drawn his dotted line of complete turbulence somewhat in advance of the Reynolds number values 13 Chief Engineer. did the laborious part of the job. The paper under discussion is a very commendable endeavor to make recent experimental findings immediately useful to the engineer. when they finally reach turbulent flow.however. NOVEMBER. Fellow A. HUNTER ROUSE. to date been extensively used by engineers.'(RV f) _ . New York. introducing the roughness effect by rather strong-arm empirics. of course. which is reproduced herewith in slightly modified form. But this constant value of f is confumed by Professor Pardoe's 'findings on Venturi discharge coefficients. on the other hand. Kemler and the writer had. one gets tomato ketchup and pea soup. Thus do we progress. in correlating some of the test material. is the first.paper14 by the writer presents more or less a rational solution that has been quite satisfactorily supported by tests. p. 91-103. S. The writer summarized this work. and ball bearings involve such materials. and various queer materials in the 'rayon and plastics industries. but the writer feels that it still caters to a regrettable degree to the engineer's innate conservatism. Although Blasius' original dimensional analysis of the variables involved led to his adoption of the form VDj" as the most significant. PIGOTT. this paper is intended to fulfill the same purpose as that which prompted the writer to present a somewhat similar paper (12) and resistance chart at the Second Hydraulics Conference in 1942. ref. It is curious and probably only accidental ·that the value 3500 corresponds about to the upper limit of the critical zone. fl.yield a linear plot on logarithmic paper for only the laminar zone. It often happeas. Such activities as oil-well drilling. and Williams tables. 1. [= 2gh/D. although it has long since been proved that it will.13 Thi. 1939. glue and soap solutions. that once engineers have accepted a new idea they are loath to modify it in any way.~ study of friction factor in pipes is particularly interesting to the writer. 16 "Elementary Mechanics of Fluids. 1941. The great value of the author's study is that it puts the roughness effect.'N. Another important point settled by the author is that the lines for all roughnesses finally reach a constant value. that is.M.v. it must be realized that the following three different combinations of the same variables are all equally valid for the basic case ofa smooth pipe:" . 14 "Mud Flow in Drilling. J.' f . The author claims thatIn this chart." by.. There was great need to prepare a formulation that would work satisfactorily for all kinds of conduit.' quantity. ' The later material used by the. Stodola (Fig. Ine. . I.LV' -:-CPa _ 2gh/D _ \ (2g~Qa). vol. Buckingham (Fig. in correlating the results of all the experiments published up to that time..680 Professor usable plot Pigott and quoted and T:EtANSACTIONS Moody is to be. ' the same as the author now shows them. . Dr. A. cement slurries. culling all those with incomplete data (6). which did not come into general engineering use until perhaps a decade ago. Y. fense of the other..E. = CPI(R) _ r: ":"cp. Kemler.grouping of terms upon which f should depend. ' If the writer's belief is correct. University of Iowa..R.'and Development Company.E. = 2gh/D . At the time the writer's own correlation (4) was presented (1933) there was almost complete lack of uniformity between various formuiations ill general use. Pigott. from brass tubing to brick ducts.P. " A salient case in point is the discovery by Blasius in 1913 of the dependence of the Darcy-Weisbach resistance coefficient f upon the Reynolds number R. as closely as can be determined from the small-scale diagram. For example. to Aisenstein's averaged values. cement-gun and grouting operations. and for all fluids. the general functional relationship simplybeing written in. and so solves a difficulty Dr. . John Wiley & Sons. 17 "Solving Pipe Flow Problem With Dimensionless Numbers. Gulf Research . but.S. on' a much better justified basis.. reference 5) drew the lines for different sizes of steel pipe curved as they approached the viscous region. 1/.5. automotive greasing equipment." by A. (in Press). All these materials. Iowa City.have apparent viscosities' which decrease with increase of shear rate. Kalinski. 1944 The at which the friction factor becomes a constant writer finds that the expression 3500 = ~ E e 'R. In Fig. Pa. A. Engineering News-Record. The second. muds. L. as it is a valuable further rationalization of a situation which has been unsatisfactorily empirical. . pp. at last. the point at which the friction factor becomes absolutely constant. Iowa Institute of Hydraulic Research.CPa (Rf ) LV' " f . Such criticism resulted from the writer's deliberate advancement beyond the now familiar Blasius f-versus-R notation in the belief that both greater convenience and greater significance would be attained thereby. Some engineers may be interested in the flow of queer materials like. Some of the experimental results showed rather flat coefficients that were unexpected in regions of moderate roughness. Since these two papers of identical purpose thus differ in their basic method of approach.15 Important results of laboratory research frequently do not reach the hands of practicing engineers untii many years' after the original papers have been published. etc. Drilling and Production: Practic. J. author shows that they are curved.r. they have plasticity mixed in with viscosity.

008.-'-r~IO.MOODY-FRICTION FACTORS FOR PIPE FLOW 681 10 Cast iron Wood stave Concrete Riveted steel 0.010 1-I--+-l-l-l--H--l_-l--+-+--1-l-+++I--+-+--r--r~~~ 0. R-'f 1J = 01 v 2ghl = 8 R!/t 2gS Lv. Solution by. otherwise the desired coefficient may be evaluated from the graph only through the inconvenient process of trial and error. not only' will the smooth-pipe relationship plot as . but the adoption of a similar function for the case of rough surfaces will still require a trial-anderror solution unless the graph is made hopelessly complex.~-'4[---J~6:-l-t8.te~IO::. 7 1/v'j = A + B log (RY!) Despite the author's indication to the contrary. i FIG. but an transition curves from the smooth to the rough relationship will be geometrically similar. before the relative roughness may be evaluated.as may be seen from the identity RVt = (2uh.:4L-LLL. log (R would still have required sloping lines in the grid. therefore... as in the accompanying figure.I~O:S5'-'-:~t--'-~T.curved lines over a portion of the writer's chart.0.:~Z=:::C=+4::::I+L1JJ-::. The writer's second reason will be evident after further inspection of the foregoing functional relationships. such choice therefore involvesno particular advantage over the writer's but rather defeats the writer's purpose owing to the accompanying distortion of the entire system of transition curves. trial might therefore proceed just as well from either of the other two functional relationships contained in the writer's diagram. . In order to provide a single chart which would satisfy both sets of requirements. It would appear to the writer -that this combines ease in interpolation (and hence convenience) with greater significance than the Blasius plot will permit.~. BrIef mention might . If the velocity or rate of flow is not known. such a plot will be of use. So long as the pipe is smooth. Such a graph would therefore have its greatest value when prepared as Vi) . but notes with interest that this plot is consistent with the writer's rather than the author's choice of basic parameters. . is . f is not inextricably embodied in the second term of this relationship. of course contains no secondary grid system simply because it permits direct solution for only one of the several variables.be made of the third possible combination of variables which is evidently applicable to problems in which the diameter is the unknown quantity.one of the writer's two reasons for continuing to recommend the . Since V Vi the parameters 1/Vt and log . The author's graph. The writer commends the author's presentation in graph form of the values of absolute roughness given ill the writer's paper. the alternative abscissa parameter log R is neeesearilyrepresented by .+-'--. (RVj) were selected by the writer for the primary ordinate and abscissa scales.:::.009 IIILO":z =r:.. the KaI'1Iuin~Prandtl parameters are chosen as the basis of a aemilogarithmio chart..-_J_I. the writer supplied ordinate scales of both f and 1 (the latter being proportional to the Chezy C) and abscissa scales of both R = VDll' and RV! =V2u hIlL D'!:l'.newer type of chart in preference to that of the author.tD3ILv2) If .-1.. The first relationship will be directly useful in graph form only if the velocity or rate of flow is known. owing to the fact that for a given boundary material the pipe diameter must be known. Had log f and log R been chosen as the primary parameters.~0--'-:4i--:-Y6~.a straight line. This. on the other hand. a graph of the second functional relationship will make the desired coefficient immediately available.

but it is also true that the effect of surnumber. etc. If the entry is smooth and rounded and rameter for open-channel flow. the length is not nearly enough for P. the rules controlling turbulence are different. ' concerned. State College. then the critical and it may be turbulent or semiturbulent at Reynolds Froude number may well become an appropriate' resistance number below the critical. it is hard to predict the characplace the Reynolds number as the fundamental resistance pater of the ensuing flow.) never damp out. therefore the Reynolds number a rather narrow strip in the total range covered by the flow of alone will determine the character qf the flow. the flow is either completely laminar or decidedly turbunar layer increases and the turbulent inner portion decreases lent. a change from turbulent to laminar flow takes mine the state of turbulence at the exit of the short tube. Schweitzer. laIIliilar approach. for short tubes or that the change from turbulent to laminar flow (or vice versa) nozzles it is not." relative-roughness computations would have to be made. Pa. be used indiscriminately. as it already is for cases of channel transition. Eorschnmqsarbeiien. in both long and short tubes. greater than the critical Reynolds number. absence of curvature and disturbopen-channel resistance lies irl the fact that few open-channel ances. ignoring the rather thin laminar-boundary layer. A83. ' Lest the author's charts. or nozzles. and air above which the flow generally or in a particular case is turbulent. It is known.000. Mem. an it would appear to the writer that a general resistance graph for originally laminar flow Will remain laminar if R is lower than the . laminar if the tube is straight. the author states that such relationships from turbulent tb laminar flow or the reverse takes place in a' as the Manning formula shouldbe used in open-channel computashort tube so gradually that the intermediate stage usually tions in preference to values derived from pipe tests. Even that represents can be considered the same.E. State College. the phenomena of slug flow. is considered wholly independent of the Froude number. and Reynveloped. The open-channel problem is. the liquid viscosity. but the slightest disturbance will ultimately cause turface waves upon the internal resistance to flow has not yet been bulence if the Reynolds number is above the critical. that the familiar empirical open-channel formulas are inherently Of course. as was shown by the writer. large tube size.rturbulent flow is promore valid. delightfully handy forms. The change tal importance: First. divergence of the tube. 19 "Mechanism of Disintegration of Liquid Jets. which may be visualized as a turbulent core in the center and a So far as the author's 'discussion of open-channel resistance is laminar envelope near the periphery.682 TRANSACTIONS OF THE A. V. criterion. ex. The thickness of the concerned. It is peculiar to nozzles or short tubes While this is true of relatively long tubes. entrainment prove to govern the resistance in the comparatively The flow is frequently laminar at Reynolds numbers above the infrequent case of supercritical flow in open channels. 513~521. definitely established. and sufficiently The writer's second objection to the author's closing section is long. 376). H. reasonably smooth. vol. it is perhaps a Reynolds number higher than critical will have atendeney toin order to add one note of caution. School of Engineering. Most of the statements. Laminar flow is promoted by high author's paper is based. Outside of this indeterminate With decreasing Reynolds number. is . only reason pipe tests could not generally be used in evaluating slight convergence of the tube. such liquids as water or light oil. Under the circumstances. this has been done inthe ber in the tube is lower than the critical. pp. It is true that viscous shear is of In a complete absence of all disturbances. The combination If the velocity of flow in a long tube is' decreased below the of these factors in addition to the ReYnolds number will deter"critical" value. no matter how. the flow Will tUrn purely present form of the writer's chart.' little significance in comparison with boundary roughness in most ply never turns turbulent. 248. rounded entrance to the tube. For short 60 times diameter before a stable velocity distribution is depipes. 1937.S. So far as the writer can ascertain. but it may take a tube travel of formulas. In short tubes. Conversely. to In a short tube the critical Reynolds number is not the one be sure. 1910.E. Above the critical Reynolds number' disturbances (apparameter whenever it. if its Reynolds number R= vd/. Journal olAppliedPhysics. the flow will remain laminar even at Reynolds numbers'" as high as 15. ' 21 "Untersuchungen uber Iaminareund turbulente Btromung. (which the empirical open-channel formulas in no way answer). The actual flow in the nozzle Will be influenced conolds number is not the sole or deciding criterion for the state of siderably by the state of flow before the orifice and the disturbflow. H. until it finally disappears. the gous to that ofship resistance. The Pennsylvania. implying covers the whole practical region." by P. in that it could lead to serious misinterpretation proach.M. laminar flow at R = 97. SCHWEITZER.S.The critical Reynolds number so defined was found by S~hillerll to be approximately 2320. the influence of the nozzle factors between 2000 and 4000 Reynolds number. no matter how long the of those few principles of boundary resistance which have been tube is. however. the writer takes exception to two points of fundamenlaminar envelope may vary between wide limits.19 Professor of Engineering Research. boundary surfaces are suitable to testing in pipe form. ances in the approach and within the lJiozzle. So far as boundary resistance is the tube free from disturbances and irregularities. " by L. If the flow at the entry of the tube is laminar but its Reyn. in fact.DI. If.. and charts are valid only for "long" pipes. the writer can see no possibility of the Froude number playing a comparable role. rapid changes in direction and crosswith the logarithmic -law of relative. ' . atmospheric drag.M. that the . . In a short tube. the thickness of the lamiregion. ward turbulence and vice versa. NOVEMBER.'number. Schiller. high its Reynolds open-channel problems. in' a imply that it should replace the Reynolds number as a resistance straight long cylindrical tube. A. vol. disturbances in the flow will damp out. in regard to his implication that the Froude number should reolds number is above the critical. p. 1922. entry. Aside Irrespective of the length of the tube an originally turbulent from the moot question of the effect of cross-sectional shape flow/Will remain turbulent.Manning formula moted by high flow velocity. roughness upon which the sectional area of the tube.000. For place rather abruptly. presented in IS the flow to assume a stable condition. curvature of the (not to mention those of Basin and Kutter) is not in accordance tube. vol. IS 10 With a convergent tube of 10-deg cone angle Gibson (Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. free surface exists seems rather untimely to the writer. cept in that the familiar parameters C and S might conveniently If the flow at the entrance is turbulent but its Reynolds numbe included in the co-ordinate scales. 8. in which the matter of surface drag shorter the tube travel necessary for turbulence to set in. quite analohigher the Reynolds number the greater the disturbance. a laminar flow proba. observed. The ascertained. for then no the normal state may be described as "semiturbulent flow. uniform open channels should differ little from that for pipes. The author sets the indeterminate region a given short tube or nozzle. 1944 a marginal extension of the writer's resistance chart. But to The critical Reynolds number is the one below which.

the lower Reynolds numbers and with material temperature differences. so that on the basis of the Colebrook function there is no definite boundary to the rough pipe region. and that both sets of points seem to merge with the. such that one particle may lie in the wake behind another. and !k the value for complete turbulence according to von Karnllln. Under usual conditions of pipe flow only the two dimensionless ratios mentioned need be considered. Pigott reviews the progress in charting friction factors-and gives evidence supporting the laws adopted. or to the uniformity of Nikuradse's particles in contrast to the usual commercial surface. due to ambient currents which would increase the momentum transfer in similar manner to turbulent mixing . Ippen mentions the rate of increase of roughness from corrosion and gives some useful test information. 1marking the boundary of the' rough pipe zone for complete turbulence. . . rough pipe line at about RD~ = 400. which is probably a mixture of large and small roughnesses distributed at random~ The latter explanation seems particularly plausible. while ordinary commercial pipes give points which approach the rough pipe line from above. In closed conduits at very high velocities or with rapidly varying pressures it depends . with an established regime of flow. . Thus Nikuradse's curve clings closely to the smooth pipe line much farther than the curve for commercial surfaces.v-fhe relative roughness of the surface and the Reynolds number. but the rubber dock-loading hose with helical internal band will probably follow a curve similar to curve V in Fig. If. At any rate the artificial character of Nikuradse's surfaces weighs against the use of his values in the region where the discrepancies appear. muds. The paper was intended for application to normal conditions of engineering practice and specifies a number of qualifications limiting the scope of the charts. which Colebrook and White obtained for spiralriveted pipe. His own studies of the problem had. Professor (now Oommander) Hubbard and Professor Pardoe mention some unusual forms of pipe surfaces. such as their restriction to round (straight) new and clean pipes. and it is possible to present the relations between the factors in a chart such as Fig. 6. Referring to Figs. At very. running full." Under abnormal conditions f could of course be affected by other dimensionless criteria. a region in which the majority of engineering problems fall. Capillary forces while important to insects. strictly speaking the Colebrook curves never completely merge with the constant f lines but are asymptotic to them. we adopt the Oolebrook function for the transition region to the left of this boundary curve. the author has analyzed the Oolebrook equation from this point of view. the inconsistencybetween Nikuradse's tests in the transition zone and those from commercial pipe is usually attributed either to the close spacing of the artificially applied sand grains. Dr. Professor Schweitzer calls attentionto the point that the pipe must be long. 1.With his gift for detecting relationships he arrives at a modified equation for this curve.51) + . Professor Pardoe reminds us that a considerable temperature difference between the fluid and pipe wall may have a measurable effect on the shear stresses. At the end of his discussion he brings up an interesting question. make it logically dependent on Froude's number. as pointed out. cement slurries" and mixtures with suspended solids. Pigott reminds us that the scope is limited to simple fluids and does not cover "queer materials like greases. . it seems hardly justifiable to draw fine distinctions from an extrapolation of this function. Fortunately we are seldom concerned with close estimates offriction loss in short tubes. Dr. >\Thich Rouse accordingly adopted as the equation of the boundary of the rough pipe zone.AUTHOR'S OLOSURE e '. however. as to a fly on flypaper. Practically however the Colebrook function converges so rapidly to the horizontal! lines that beyond Rouse's dashed curve the differences are insignificant.MOODY-FRICTION FACTORS FOR PIPE FLOW 683 takes place gradually rather than abruptly. and the fact that the Oolebrook function is partly empirical and merely a satisfactory approximation. Pigott's suggestion. other dimensionless quantifies. Un:der such conditions it was stated. and with steady flow. Ippen's discussion admirably summarizes the basic structure of the charts and gives supporting evidence. "I'his effect would probably be of importance only at . theoretic structure./D R Vi .. free surface phenomena. since a few large protuberances mixed with smaller ones could project far enough into the laminar boundary layer to break it up. including paint coatings. Mr. are negligible to us in problems of engineering magnitude. and only two. Oonsidering the practical difficulties of measurement and consequent scatter of the test points. The author thinks that most of these. beyond which the friction factors become practically horizontal. led him independently to conclusions similsr to Oolebrook's. In open channels. and at ordinary velocities is a function of two.. while a uniform layer of projections of average size would all remain well within the same thickness of layer. The Colebrook function has given us a practically satisfactory formulation bridging the previous gap in our. . The discussions have brought out a number of other departures from' normal conditions and further limitations to' the scope of the charts. particularly in the evaluation of the boundary roughness. and that the charts do not apply to the entrance or "smocthing section" which require separate allowances. It has the further useful property of covering in a single formula the whole field of pipe flow above the laminar and critical zones} and throughout the field agrees with observations asclosely as can be reasonably demanded within therange of accuracy available in the measurements.that the friction factor f "is a dimensionless quantity. where friction is a minor element in the totall~ss of head. r: !k - 1/ V '. as noted by Professor Par: doe. gravity 'waves.on the Mach or Oauchy number introducing the acoustic velocity. Prompted by Mr. low velocities in shallow open troughs it would conceivably be controlled also by the Weber number for surface tension and capillsry waves. The semiturbulent state extends over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. 5 and 6 it will be noted that Nikuradse's experiments on artificial roughness gave a curve' which dropped below the "rough pipe" line and then approached it from below.and location of the dashed line in Fig. the author believes. Referring toa question raised by Professor Daugherty. 1. the Oolebrook equation can be expressed 1/ V . differing only in the relative thickness of the turbulent core and laminar envelope. the dashed line shown in Fig.7X2. If the function could be accepted as completely rational it would be more logical to locate the boundary curve so that it would correspond to 'some fixed percentage of excess in! over the! for complete turbulence. Oalling j' the value of the friction factor according to Oolebrook. will follow the lines of the charts closely enough for practical purposes if the proper roughness figures are determined. Mr. Oolebrook found that corrosion usually increases the value of • at substantially a uniform rate with respect to time.-' f = 2 log (' 1 3.the form .

It was not theintention to imply that at low velocities in relatively smooth open channels the friction loss would be independent of Reynolds humber. which however is within the range of ordinary practice. and also to thank Mr. proportional change in t. supplemented by' further exPeriments. and a statistical analyais of availa. corresponding to large Reynolds numbers and falling in the zone of complete turbulence. .05 or less in the region of the boundary curve) then log (1 0. easier to construct. ~~~.7 X 2.8686x = E/D R VI E/DR 16. may yield working' charts or formulas of great value to engineers.he commends such a project particularly to the civil engineers.M.8686x. Putting 8 = . Willi 'for his able presentation of the paper at the Pittsburgh meeting on behalf of the author. s= .•. and the losses at entrance and in fittings. 1. the author. 'j' . 1. .e effect of surface waves upon ' the internal resistance to flow has not yet been ascertained-'" which calls on us to investigate the effect rather than to ignore it. obscures a final answer. In plotting Fig. Richard B.8686 X 3. and the choice seems more. That is.. Pigott's deduction. and . his objection to including the Fronde number is merely that "tb. in thepresence of a free surface.3200 .2x3 2' + 3' -:. c r: 8/2 V t = 0. 8 the If now we denote by f . and in open channel flow in the region of the gravitational critical velocity. The author still. Professor Rouse recognizes that free-surface phenomena comprise a factor in the problem. and changes in section._ 1. Colebrook formula only to the transition zone.8. charts nor such formulas as Manning'!'!. adopted the compromise ofignoring the variation when it fell below about one half of one per cent. • As noted in numerous references in the paper the author has been indebted to Professor Rouse for his contributions to the subject. expanding by the binomial formula. a measurable effect. 19« e/D the order of 0. Neither the f versus R. pipe zone. still may have.' 'a general resistance graph for uniform open channels should difier little from that for pipes. is a useful addition to the material here collected. who has 'been serving in the British Army since 1939. and it may well be found that in this region the logarithmiclaws may continue to apply. and . . .THE A. instead of continuing indefinitely with the insignificant effect of the small term.in the rough.\ It is regretted t. bends. the· questions raised by Professor Rouse are probably due mainly to the omission of fuller explanation in the paper. Even in tranquil flow it. particularly his valuable paper ~t th\l Iowa HYdraulic Conference...• . ..on open channel friction is much needed. and we can seldom assign in advance the value of the friction head or slope of the hydraulic gradient. to use . . Kutter's or Bazin's are believed to take. 16 . . the location of the maximum velocity point below rather'than at the surface suggests 'an influence of this factor. 7.51 = x a' small quantity TRANSACTIONS compared to 1 (of OF.. into aocount all ofthe major' controlling factors. the scatter of test observations . then. that is 8= 8 being small compared to 1. this is of no help where the velocity is given and the friction loss is to be found. considers it less convenient for usual engineer. "open channels dealt with in engineering practice. ...' The co-ordinates selected for this chart bring out the fun~tiollal relationships ina simple manner." The author was speaking of another region. and those who prefer to adopt this form of chart now have it at hand. '. While the horizontal scale of Fig. . nor is it of much help in usual engineering problems where the total head' is given and the velocity is to be found. Fig.7 X 2. It might be more logical. . While Rouse's chart is. ing problems than his Fig.. so that successive approximations or trialand-error solutions are still required. and in the region of complete turbulence we can fortunately afford to omit the Reynolds number as a controlling factor so that we do not have toomany variables to handle. . the chart applied the. = 1/Vfk-1/VI =1/v1(~-I) (1 +8/2 - I/Vj(v'f/fk-1) which. . .4343 R'VJ ' + x) can be expanded ( in :a series giving :1. • . Professor'.. ". ' The two curves difier but little. and favoring the view that f should become substantially constant . 7 can be expressed in terins of the frictional loss of headin place off.1 is the proportional change inf caused by the Colebrook function. .fk = ik fl<' t. . _ Regarding the author's suggestions as to openchannels.ble data along the lines suggested.tliis formula for the boundary curve instead of Rouse's form . is very nearly 1/ v'i Hence I) = 8/2 0 . '. as Professor Rouse states. The author wishes to thank all of the discussers for. and )' neglecting and higher powers 1/.their useful contributions. dimensional considerations require us to include the Froude number as a criterion. for the reasons explained the author adopted the form of Fig. RoUse's inclusion in his diacuseion of his chart. at least in modified form.005= E/DR' we have R = e/D' practically confirming Mr. . corresponding to large Reynolds numbers. Certainly wave-making resistance is a very real factor both in ship resistance. The ll-uthor' is confident that Professor RoUse will a:gree with his belief tha~ further research .2 x- :i.684 Calling 3. 1 as easier to use. and that.. waa llDlible to submit a discussion. If we adopt a one per cent variation of f as a reasonable allowance. and beyond this point the f lines were drawn horizontally at the Karman value.51 0. the boundary curve could be plotted from R =.hat Professor (now Major) Colebrook. NOVEMBER. . The author did not intend to imply that the Froude number "should replace the Reynolds number as a resistanceJactor whenever a free 8urface exists" but only in the region described. usually rough-surfaced and of large cross section. from the_ latter paper." With fairly high velocities.01<-1/ VI = 0. to be con- sistent with the Colebrook function..' . The total head almost always includes not only the friction loss in a pipe system. but also the exit loss.E. a IDlLtt~rof academic preference than practical importance.

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