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Fricton Factor of Pipe Flow

# Fricton Factor of Pipe Flow

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# Friction Factors for Pipe Flow

By LEWIS F. MOODY,l PRINCETON, N.
The object of this paper is to furnish the engineer with a simple means of estimating the friction factors to be used in com.putingthe loss of head in clean new pipes and in closed conduits runuing full with steady flow. The modern developmerrts in the application of theoretical hydrodynam.ics to the fluid.frictjon problem are impressive an41scattered through an extensive Iiterature. This paper is not intended as a critical sUrvey of this wide field.. For a concise review, Professor Bakhmeteff's (1)2 sm.an book on the :m.echanicsof fluid flow is an excellent reference. Prandtl and Tietjeris (21 and Rouse (3) have also made notable contributions to the subject .. The author does not claim to offer anything particularly new or original, his ann merely being to em.body the now accepted conclusions. in convenient form for engineering use.

J.

I

Nthe.' present pipe-.flow study, the friction factor,denoted by j in. the accompanying charts, .is the coefficient in the Darcy formula LP h'l = j- D2g

in which!),1 il;!the loss of head in friction, in feet of fluid column of the fluid flowing; L andD the length and internal diameter of t~pe:-in-feet; V the mean velocity of flow in feet per second; and g the acceleration of gravity in feet per second per second (mean value taken as ,32.16). The factor jis .a dimensionless quantity, and at ordinary velocities is a function of two, and only two, other dimensionless quantities, the relative roughness of the surface,~. (e being a linear quantity in feet representative of the

with numerical constants for the case of perfectly smooth pipes or those in which the irregularities are small compared to the thickness of the laminar boundary layer, and for the case of rough pipes where the roughnesses protrude sufficiently to break up the laminar layer, and the flow becoines completely turbulent. The analysis did not, however, cover the entire field but left a gap, namely; the transition zone between smooth and rough pipes, the region of incomplete turbulence. Attempts to fill this gap by the use ofNikuradse's results for artificial roughness produced by closely packed sand grains, were not adequate, since the re-: sults were clearly at variance from actual experience for ordinary surfaces encountered in practice. Nikuradse's curves showed a sharp drop followed by a. peculiar reverse curve," not observed with commercial surfaces, and nowhere suggested by the Pigott chart based on many tests. Recently Colebrook (11), in collaboration with C. M. White; developed a function which. gives a practical 'form, of traruiition curve to bridge the gap. This function agrees with the two extremes of roughness and gives values ill very satisfactory agreement with actual measureinents on most forms of commercial piping and usual pipe surfaces. Rouse (12)'has shown that it is a reasonable and practically adequate solution and has plotted a chart. based' upon it. In order to .simplify the plotting, Rouse adopted eo-ordinates inconvenient for ordinary engineering use, since j is implicit in both co-ordinates, and R values are represented by curved co-ordinates, so that interpolation is troublesome. ,The author has drawn up a new chart, Fig. 1, in the more conventional form used by Pigott, taking advantage of the functional relationships established in recent years. Curves of ! versus R are plotted to .logsrithmic scales for various constant, values ofrelative roughness

B;

and to permit easy selection of can be

absolute roughness), and the Reynolds number
.

R

= VD (" being

the- coefficient of kinematic viscosity of the fluid in. square feet per second); Fig. 1 gives numerical values' of j as a function of ~and

"

.

~, an accompanying

chart, Fig. 2, is given from whichi

R:

read for any size.of pipe ofa given type of surface. In order to find the friction losam a pipe, the procedure is as follows: Find the appropriate

Ten years ago R. J. S..Pigott (4) published a chart for the same , friction factor, using the same co-ordinates as in 'Fig. 1 of this paper. His' chart has proved to be.most useful and practical .and has been reproduced in,ann.mb~r of texts (5). The Pigott chart was based upon analysis of some 10,000 experiments from various sources (6), but did not have the benefit, in plotting or fairing the curves,of later developments in functional forms of the curves. , ' In the same year Nikuradse (7) published his experiments on artificially roughened pipes. Based upon the tests of Nikuradse and others, von Karman' (8) and Prandtl (9) developed their theoretical analyses of pipe flow and gave us suitable formulas

n from
e

an

corresponding line, thus identified, in Fig. 1, to the. value of the Reynolds number R corresponding to the velocity of flow. The factor f is thus found, for use in the Darcy formula . hi

=f

n

LP 2g

1 Professor, Hydraulic Engineering, Princeton University. Mem. A.S;M.E. • Numbers in parentheses refer to the Bibliography at the end of the paper. ' Oontributed by the Hydraulic Division and presented at the Semi-Annual Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pa., June 19-22, 1944, of THE AMERWAN SOCIETY OF MECHAN10AL ENGINEERS.

NOTE: Statements and opinions advanced in papers are to be understood as individual expressions of their authors and not those of the Society. .

In Fig. 2, the scales at the top and bottom give values of the diameter in both feet and inches. Fig. 1 involv.esonly dimensionless quantities and is applicable in any system of units. To facilitate the calculation of R, auxiliary scales are shown at the top of Fig. 1, giving values of the 'product (VD") for two fluids, i.e., water and atmospheric air, at 60 F. (D" is the inside diameter in inches.) As a further auxiliary; Fig ..3 is given, from which R can be quicklyfound for water at ordinary temperatures, for any size of pipe and mean velocity V. Dashed lines on this chart have been added giving values of .the discharge or quantity of fluid flowing, Q = A V, expressed in both 'cubic feet per second and in U. S. gallons per minute.
• Rouse, reference (3), p. 250; and Powell, reference (10), p. 174.

671

. ..' I 3" 0' SS3NH9nOH ~AI. '/ iU): .l v rg IN ..rrW-+'-t-I~ I i'Q ICil . " '~.l i )(~.. q CD q 10 q. .tlcrt fJ) U) Q ..M..> t.. i-'-++-I-I-+-HH-+-H+f-H-+Il-+-+++--f-+H--+-+Ht-H-++H--I-+-IMI--+H--tt--+-I-'l--.. ~ '0 . Q CXI . I~ Ii= Ii. I'" v r<'I iQ~ ~ ~~' ~~~+4~+r~-+-H~++&+++~rH+-r+~rH~~~*+~~~-H!/~l/rr/~o~-r~~ ~ ~o~~~~~~~HH~4H~r#+-~~~+W++~+H+*-r~++~~n~~~~H :f J J I ~.f'-jr--l. i::i il. 'i- !!. . t~·~"~' ~1~~l\$lffila~'~'ESlHati~V~!S"SEJ~I~JE8~ -.1\113~ (\l C\I q o 0 0 0 0 0 10 q 0 0 0 q o cf o :~ r= I lCD.0 I---: 0 0'1 R CXI q .S.. 1944 . .E.....: ~ CD . I'.. 0'1' 0 q q. NOVEMBER.672 TRANSACTIONS OF THE A. is.

. In Fig.1'\.. instead of using Fig. N~ rlS ~ I"\~ 1". 6 in.. the corresponding R may be read at the top of the auxiliary graph. complete turbulence.0005 z .0006 .3 .000p()8 .0 I . 016 :::I ILLI D- i ~ ':::1 'n: '~" . In Fig. 0 :05 . 012 B ""'~ " I'.. ~.For any value of v in. • Reference (13) and reference (5). ~~ "'/ 'I'\.4 .005 1'\1" .000p2 ~.0004 J: .5·9 . . G. 1.diam(left-handmargin). since f varies only slowly With changes in R. ::l o:: ffi o "r-... in the right-hand margin of Fig. for 6in.<I>!i: . diam (bcttomseals).ofcompleteturbulenoe above and to the right of thedashed line in Fig.pll FlG. ~ ~ ~" KI" I'\.1" " 0 K.J :000..04 . compute VD" = 6 X 6 = 36). values of f for rough pipes and. '~ '"rI'. a o . 6" 014 .000p06 '\:b. 2.MOODY~FRICTroN FACTORS FOR PIPE FLOW' 673 PIPE DIAMETER IN FEET. -...000. which gives R for various values of the product VD' shown by the diagonal lines .000 I . locate from the right- .000. further reference to. . Prof.0008 (left-hand . For other fluids. and in the rough-pipe zone. F. ~ > UJ '" r-..08 ~ .03 . i'" RV 1"- I' .... I"\..~. 4To enable R to be quickly found for various fluids.02 1"..004 DP3 .5 (10') (bottom seale) (or.} is independent of R.' asphaIted cast-iron pipe carrying water with a mean velocity of 6 fps:ln Fig. I"- IEL "- "- 03 '\ (J) lLI I" D- I'\.0003 (!) . Datigherty's kind permission . I-. an approximate figure for R is sufficient. the lefthand diagramyby following a horizontal line to the appropriate diagonal at the right. l'\ 1"I" 04 035 !'\.. lOver a large part of' Fig. .2 . 2 will give the value of f directly Without. I' I"- :"\.L..the diagonal for V = 6 fps gives R = 2..0008 . I - ""\. 1<1: "- r-.. '.0002 .~ 2 ~ 4 51? I) 2O~5 07 06 05 ..:< I. " I"'\ 1'.002 . 008 IX 810 1'\ . the diagonal for "asphaItedcast iron" gives D e = 0. 4.that the conditions of any problem clearly fall in th~ aone. Nf. 'From the last eonsideration. I' 'tii' 0:: . 01 009 .06 '.- r.has been reproduced.001 "" 0.1 .6' 025 I"- 0:: 02 .' margin). 2. 200 300 PIPE DIAMETER IN'INGH.' . which With. it becomes possible to show. If it is seen .. for. ..01 .006 I~ . then Fig.r1 "- ft ~ ~I .\: 018 tAl'. 1. '4 includes !tn auxiliary diagram constructed by Dr. ' ILLUSTRATION OF USE OF CHARTS ExampZel: To estimate the 10S8 of head in 200 ftof 6-in. R.ES.005 I 2 34 'q6 '20 3040 0 80 GO. 3.03 . Fig. Wislicenus. 10q.2 .. I?' " l'. tpe other charts..09°. ~ 1'. the Kinematic viscosity p may be found from Fig. I'\" I' ~. 3.008 .OOOpS ~000P4 ~ 1'\0.' .J 'I'.000.1'\ .

(100) (20)2 = 8. Between Reynolds numbers of 2000 and 3000 or 4000" the conditions depend upon the initial turbulence due to such extraneous factors as sudden changes in section. and.o.5 ft friction loss = Example B:To estimate the 10~s of head per 100 ft in a Ifi-in.25) 64:3 It.0008. I '25 -.within about ='=5per cent (14). but. since the rapidity of deterioration with age. corner prior to the reach of' pipe considered. we Jack the primary .curve for e 15 = 0. " . 171/ /' IX i7 .5 (106) on the bottom scale (or below v. rough pipes.a) 5 Q " = " " X " " :.t. . IN FEU. 0. 2 might be more graphically represented by broad bands rather than single lines. engineering problems rarelyrequire more than this. 1 divides itself into four areas representing distinct flow characteristics.~ Iqj liIiJ 2 1.1 8 " e. permitting a completely rational solution. ' between 0. a variation within about ='=10per cent. In Fig... I~ I~ I~ IOJ ~ b'lKl n" I~ Itq.02 (left-hand margin).018 (1.fortunately.. fairly reasonable estimates of friction loss can be made. 0 0040 ~ C 60 50 ~ ~ oJ.018 (left-hand margin). Until such a technique is developed. or a. the diagonal for V =' 20 fps gives R = 2 (106). The lines in Fig. and f can then be found directly from the right-hand margin in Fig.2 QI 5 ." Here R or VD' need only he approximated sufficiently to see that the point falls in the complete turbulence region. in the transition and rough-pipe regions. a probable variation ui] .30 -0.and obvious essential. In the rough-pipe region.M. this is not practical due to overlapping. diam (bottom scale). the diagonal for "cast iron" gives~ 'diam (left-hand margin). In Fig. at.6850 vo·) . the values. new cast-iron pipe. The values ofl are here given by a single curve.: 4 3 o 11..S. find the absolute roughness corresponding to its performance. Q " ~ I~ IX 7- . 0..! = ~. FOR WATER AT GO°F (V FIG: 3 " INS~.DS NUMBER R. making an estimate of performance speculative.then from a test of such a pipe in any size we can. 1. VD" = 20 X 15 == 300). It will be noted from the charts that a wide variation in estimating the roughness affects I to a much smaller degree. say.95 or.P' = 36 on the top scale). 2 without further reference to Fig.8 W' I0.. The field covered by Fig. a technique for measuring the roughness of a pipe mechanically. . good degrees of accuracy are obtainable. sharp.. can only be guessed in most cases. must be recognized that any high degree of accuracy in determining f is not to be expected. The first is the region of laminar flow.. however. This point gives f = 0. off cannot be relied upon within a range of the order of at least 10 per cent. independent of roughness. V=I. 1.E. then ' hI = I 15 L V2 (200) (6)2 ' . obstructions. for the reasons just explained. Here the flow is fully' stabilized under the control of viscous forces which damp out turbulence. instead of using Fig.130 ::I: 20 ~ rg~ . margin). 1944 point above R = 2. top scale) gives I = 0. 2. (or. The scale of the absolute roughness e used in plotting the charts is arbitrary. NOVEMBER. 9 ft friction loss = 0. 1 falls just on the boundary of theregion of "complete turbulence. W . in old piping.= ~. The charts apply only to new and clean piping.6 w 0. and for commercial steel and wrought-iron piping. it is true. right-hand margin). 3.. In this case the point on Fig. . 0.5) 64.3' = 4.0007 (left-hand '. the . Even with this handicap.0008 ' TRANSACTIONS and follow this curve to a OF THE A.0007 (interpolating D = 0. up to the critical Reynolds number of 2000. in any case where we have a sample of pipe of the same surface 'texture available for test in the laboratory orin the field. Although we have no accepted method of direct measurement of the roughness.0006 and 0. 3.. representing the Hagen-Poiseuille law. " . dependent upon the quality of the water or fluid and that of the pipe material. and naturally this' leaves much latitude. compute. R.based' upon the sand-grain diameters of Nikuradse's experiments. ~ 7 REYNOI. LX / I)<~ ~ ~ ~ ::E 25 « 5 4 3 2 6 -0.'for 15 in.J 4« I d- d 2 3 4 56 8 ~ 2 3 4 56 8 " d D 2 3 4 56 8 ~ 2 3 4 56 8. for 15 in. I'~ . 211. and in addition to the variation in roughness there may be. ~..5 I - ~ It: 10 11. carrying water With a mean velocity of 20 fps: In Fig.216(10-S). Thus we have a means for measuring theroughness hydraulically._ edged entrance. With smooth tubing.674 hand margin the curve for e 15 = 0. an appreciable reduction in effective diameter.02 (0. a point above R = 2 (106) (bottom scale) (or below VD" = 300.. then hi = 115 2g LP . we 300 200 100 80 have to get along with descriptive terms to specify the roughness. But.5::i! a:: " 1/ r2 3'4 56 8 r-. by aid of the charts.

L > ~ > 0 lLI en ~ '<I' 3 ~ ci .MOODY-FRICTION FACTORS FOR PIPE FLOW 675 VALUES OF (VOu) (V IN:El x 0" IN INCHES) iJ) w ~ ..~ ~~ ~~ Q3 ~ 'T" N "~as J.H'O~S!" ~!f"W"U!>i .d IJ "bs '}. I ~ ~ I ..~ ::I: U =0 ~10 "-lW X =0 I.

conditions again become reasonably determinate." '.f'2 log (D/2e) . in which 0' is tlie' la:minar layer thickness. and at the right. Here we find two regions. . As he . for completely turbulent flow in rough pipes. which the equation is . 2." with complete turbulence established practically throughout the flow{' Viscous forces then become negligible 'compared to inertia forces..LOG ~ " 1/".. the flow conditions pass over into tlie zone of "rough pipes. k = e. namely. This region has been called a critical zone...: I" . . becoming indistinguishable from the constant I lines for rough 'pipe...s absolute or dynamic viscosity.: --. .8 its FIG.' '1'0 being the shearing stress at the pipe wall." I---. 5. f"' r/ ~ .. and the rough-pipe curves merge in a single horizontal line.: ill W hiCh V. initiating instability. Accordingly. compared to the surface irregularities. The minimum limit' for I values is tb. On the other hand.M._ " '. 1. 6._ r<. .! - 1~74~'210g (~).<'l ~ ~ r-.points out.'-2 log(~+~) -j--j-t--f--+-+-++-+-l C:olebmokanaWhllo'. the smooth-pipe curve becomes an inclined straight line. He found that each class of commercial pipe gave a curve of the same form. I/.versus e/O.L it. giving.affected bypressurewaves.relative roughness..! plotted in his Fig.S. 001 -~ ~ . reference 12)..676 TRANSACTIONS OF 'THE A. merging with. and while these curves are quite different from Nikuradse's sandgrain results.···3. here reproduced as Fig. . with I values falling practically on the "smooth pipe" line of Fig.Prandtl.. .:~ ~ ~ .. This in combination with the large diameter gave a. log (D/2e) is equal to '. .::.. asymptotic at one end to the smooth pipe line and at tlie other to the horizontal lines of the rough-pipe zone. the deviation of the points from the Colebr~ok curve "is evidently not much greater. *". " FIG. the results of many groups of tests on various types of commercial pipe surfaces./= - 2 log R v/-0.... a Reynolds number of 3000 or 4000.. . . r-- Rough"" l- t\ l/v! = ~~ log (~~ + ~~j) " ~~r- <. . SmoDth C <. a .~. beyond the dashed line. The basis of the Colebrook function may be briefly outlined. 1.I/."!D<l hn!!lSV .:1 9 .1 = 210glO --j Rv''l..Using logarithmic scales. '/ II Gaivanllodlliln WlDUghllllln Tar·coaled fast·IIDn "~ ~. NOVEMBER. has plotted in: his Fig. Nikuradse had represented his experimental results on artificially roughened pipes by plotting I/".'e/a may be expressed in alternative forms as proportional to Rvj. Above. or. 2 log 'e' --. In the transition zone the curves follow the Colebrook function 1 R E I I = .E.. THE COLEBROOK FuNCTION .· By . for. Such specially fabricated welded-steel pipe lines as those of the Colorado aqueduct system would probably give values along the same curve...horizontallines of constant I in the chart. . \' " . These lines agree with the von Karman rough-pipe formula .e ROUGHNESS REVNOLDS Rough law -r 1"\ 10 II I NU~BER: . v'J = 200D (following.i is equal to . p the. N. Actually"the curves converge rapidly to these limits.. ill wni r = D/ 2. raising the f values somewhat.51 or1/".i ~ 2Ibg·(:i~).zero: . ~ ~ ~ k . that the laminar fl()w is broken up into . . here reproduced as' Fig. they agree closely with each other and with a curve representing his transition function. In the transition region of incomplete turbulence von Karman's expression is not equal to a constant but to' some function of the ratio of the size of the roughnesses to the thickness of the Taminar boundary layer.e dotted continuation of the laminar-flow line. I' .. where metal forms and specially laid concrete produced a very smooth example of concrete surface.mass density of the fluid and J. (Karmdil.. . Colebrook. becomes so small. ' . These curves are.When the thickness of the laIllinar layer" which decreases with increasing Reynolds number. as expressed by . than the experimentalseatterof the 'fudividual measurements in anyone series. Since I depends upon the relative roughness.the transition zone and the rough-pipe zone. the' flow in the" critical zone is likely to be pulsating (2)rather than steady. relative roughness comparable to drawn brass tubing.. 1944 and the conditions are probably also . 6 .7D constant (1. . hioh V*k. 6.the smooth pipe line at the left. the results for all. turbulence. at very high velocities in drawn tubing of .74). The transition zone extends upward from the line for perfectly smooth pipes. ~ . types of flow and degrees of roughness were shown to fallon a single curve. also usingequivalent co-ordinates... Rouse '(12).the corresponding line in Rouse's chart. the expression 1!. the ratio of the absolute roughness to the pipe diameter. I'~" c.this method of plotting.j"'_ 2. corresponcling to very smooth and steady initial flow..Fa rlk *=. using equivalent co-ordinates. Colebrook (11). Von Karman had" shown that.10 1 " ..large number of points each of which represents a series of tests on a given size of commercial pipe.ijolil ~i'. together with the Colebrook 'curve.. plotted from the relation' ' -.. and the indefiniteness of behavior in this region has been indicated' by a hatched area without definite I lines.and I ceases to be a function of the Reynolds number and depends only upon the relative roughness. or II". as far as to a Reynolds number 'of about 1200. a.. Thus Colebrook plots the results obtained on the penstocks of the Ontario Power Company. Nikuradse) to the dash~d line indicating upper limit. ' . or to p --. li . even a fairly rough surface in a very large pipe gives a small. When there is clistinct turbulence in -the entering fluid. The effects of strong initial turbulence may even extend into the laminar-flow zone. ~ I-+-I--!-I~-l-+"".

by B.000005. PIPE FRICTION FACTORS APPLIED TO OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW Since civil engineers usually classify surface roughness by the Kutter . and between open-channel and pipe-friction formulas. 2 "Applied Hydro. divided by the surface breadth.' The presence of a free surface. Colebrook. Rouse. for which'a formula such as Manning's better represents the available information. Oonsequentlyysuch formulas as Manning's are recommended for open channels in preference to the use of values of C derived from the pipe friction factors.. Proceed6 Assistant in Mechanical Prinqeton. The Macmillan Company. McGraw-Hill Book. and the tubing becomes in effecta "rough pipe. This proposed criterion defines whether the flow falls in the "tranquil. the Chezy coefficient C being convertible into by the relation f = ~. Inc. by using an equivalent diameter ' voa V_: in which . 2gm vgm a denotes the average depth or.012 0. even when theflow is uniform.."bylI. Ab. H. whi ch can b e expressed as -or _ I . 0125 smooth ..156. for open channels. 1933.0005 0. Fig. 5 "Hydraulics. Surface and i oint~ O. Fachgruppe I. J.l/mS in which V is the mean velocity. pp. paper Hyd-55-2. 2 for' concrete may be somewhat more definitely described' as follows: '0. The neglect of this factor may at least partially. with surf~ce waves or disturbances." by E. ("Mechanical Similitude and Turbulence.011 0. vol:l1. 6 '. 133-.03 Pipe friction factors have sometimes been applied to openchannel flow. 1940.A:C.003 0. Mem. J. but by applying the Colebrook function to the available data _ (14." by L. pp.005 0. England).105-114..t practical grade of concrete. Y. 1933. P. in closed-conduit flow. N.pp. fairly smooth 'joints or roughly troweled 0. corresponding to large Reynolds numbers and falling in the zone of complete turbulence.S. and casts particular doubt on accepted formulas for open-channel friction in the critical or shooting-flow regions." by C.0105 0. however. The charts can however be. 77. pp.) " . 12 "Evaluation of Boundary Roughness.001 0.and Aeromechanics." byR." Very few experiments have carried the velocities and Reynolds numbers high enough to permit a close estimate of E for drawn brass.002 0." Tech." by R. 3 "Fluid Mechanics for Hydraulic Engineers.DJ. E was . and a line corresponding to this value has been drawn in Fig. the problem is highly complex. 1933.1938-1939. Ino. 0. vol. the loss of head divided bylength of channel.02 0. or more stnct y ' Accordingly.. Daugherty. Bakhmeteff. 1937. A. Rouse. 4 "The Flow of Fluids in Closed Conduits. 1931. sectional .01.MOODY~FRICTION FACTORS . on the basis of Scobey's data the lines given in Fig. Y. S the slope.W.014 0. Pigott. New York. Open channels dealt with in engineering practice -are usually rough-surfaced and of large cross section. however. 1936. Engineering Societies Monographs.' . Princeton University Press. McGraw-Hill Book Company.014 Concrete surface with alight form marks. Tietjens. in similar manner to the plotting of f as a function of the relative roughness and the Reynolds number for closed conduits. Mathematik. 'With Particular Reference to the Transition Region Between the Smooth and Rough Pipe Laws. pp. N.encountered in practice.00015 0. applied.. for the smoothest surfaces reported upon... vol.. 9 "Neuere Ergebnisse der Turbulenzforschung. 1938.. Nikuradse." the sectional area divided by the wetted perimeter. F.." byTh. the Froude number relating the velocity head' and V2 V . N. G.' by L. von Karman.01 0." 'by J. 611.' 8 "MechanischeAhnlichkeit und 'I'urbulens.03 0.has applied the Colebrook function to the test data collected by Scobey (16) and finds the following values of e corresponding to the Kutter n ratings given by Scobey. 1933. 1 is not reco=ended with much confidence for general application to open channels.. it would be helpful in selecting a value of e for such variable surfaces as concrete.'A Study of the Data on the Flow of Fluid in.1 0. 58-76. . we should replace it by a new criterion. or similar tubing. Prandtl.016 0. L. Mechanical Engineering.. area Engineering. Forschungsheft 361. N. no. even the smaJl absolute roughness is sufficient to break up the laminar boundary layer. introduces a consideration not involved." "shooting.M. S." by. so that the friction factors are practically independent of Reynolds number...Wissenschaften pu Gottingen. It is therefore the author's view that while. :powell.FOR PIPE FLOW D = 4m = 4 ( Sectional area ) . 2. Nachrichten von der GBfJellschaft der.' m the hydraulic mean depth or "hydraulic radius.A. Princeton University. The Chezy formula is equivalent to the Darcy formula for pipes. far from circular in shape. Y.olute roughnes 0. Prandtl and O. vol. 497-501. copper.. to noncircular closed conduits of not too eccentric a form or not too different from a circularsection.1-22.." or critical state. V. Trans. that the Chezy coefficients havebeen derived principally from observations on relatively wide and' shallow channels of large area and rough bottoms. Panagos. Kemler. pp." by R. Inc.and Manning roughness factor n.. 515. . A.account for inconsistencies 'between various open-channel formulas.013 0. ZeitBchrift des Vereines deuucher Itujenieure. 1934. so that. Journal 0/ the Institution of Civil Erurineers (London. if we could correlate e and n. 7 "Stromungsgesetze in Rauhen Rohren. and more commonly the friction losses in large pipes and other closed' conduits have been computed from openchannel formulas.0115 {Highe.015 0.estimated as of the order of 0. at least as an approximation. and C a eoefficient. The Chezy formula for open channels is V = C". the latter form representing the 'ratio of mean velocity to the gravitational critical velocity or velocity of propagation of surface waves. 11 "Turbulent Flow in Pipes.no. Engineering Societies Monographs. . Company.Pipea. Length of perimeter' 677 small diameter. 7-32.' It should be considered.".016 Prominent form marks or deposits of stones on bottom n f BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 "The Mechanics of Turbulent Flow. and that they involve a free water surface not present in closed conduits. 5. 10 "Mechanics of Liquids.. Berlin. which may be at least tentatively utilized: Kuttern ..E. These considerations suggest the plotting of openchannel friction factors as a function of the relative roughness and the Froude number. 15). 55. N. For the foregoing reasons. N. 1930. we can drop the Reynolds number as an index of performance. 55. New York..I 'depth. Y. New York. serving as a minimum limit for surfaces likely to be. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York.