BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK

MINISTRY OF EXTERNAL RELATIONS

Foreign Minister Secretary General

Ambassador Celso Amorim Ambassador Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães

ALEXANDRE DE GUSMÃO FOUNDATION

President

Ambassador Jeronimo Moscardo

BUREAU OF DIPLOMATIC PLANNING Ambassador Maria Laura da Rocha Eugênio Vargas Garcia Patrícia Wagner Chiarello Camilo Licks Rostand Prates Henri Yves Pinal Carrières Christiana Lamazière Filipe Nasser

All rights reserved. Ministry of External Relations Bureau of Diplomatic Planning Esplanada dos Ministérios Palácio Itamaraty, Brasilia – DF CEP 70170-900 Telephones: (5561) 3411-6105/6106/8029 Fax: (5561) 3411-6993 E-mail: spd@mre.gov.br

BRAZILIAN MINISTRY OF EXTERNAL RELATIONS BUREAU OF DIPLOMATIC PLANNING

BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK

BRASÍLIA, 2008

Copyright © Ministry of External Relations

Printed in Brazil 2008 Brasil. Ministério das Relações Exteriores. Secretaria de Planejamento Diplomático. Brazilian Foreign Policy Handbook / Brazilian Ministry of External Relations, Bureau of Diplomatic Planning. - Brasília : Alexandre de Gusmão Foundation, 2008. 348 p. ISBN 978-85-7631-109-6 1. Política externa – Brasil. I. Ministério das Relações Exteriores (Brasil). II. Título. CDU 327 (81)

Book cover: Arthur Luiz Piza, Ovo, s.d., relevo sobre madeira pintada, 30 x 20cm Technical Advisors: Lílian Silva Rodrigues Maria Marta Cezar Lopes Graphic Project and diagram: Cláudia Capella e Paulo Pedersolli

All rights reserved. Ministry of External Relations Bureau of Diplomatic Planning Esplanada dos Ministérios Palácio Itamaraty, Brasilia – DF CEP 70170-900 Telephones: (5561) 3411-6105/6106/8029 Fax: (5561) 3411-6993 E-mail: spd@mre.gov.br

CONTENTS

Foreword ........................................................................................ 13 Principles and guidelines for Brazilian foreign policy ................. 15 International Politics – Overview ................................................ 29 South America ............................................................................... 41 South American Integration – Overview .................................. 43 The South American Community of Nations (CASA) and The Union of South American Nations (UNASUL) ................. 47 Infrastructure and energy ............................................................ 49 Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO) ............. 52 Argentina ...................................................................................... 54 Malvinas / The Falkland Islands ................................................. 56 Paraguay ........................................................................................ 57 Uruguay ......................................................................................... 58 Venezuela ...................................................................................... 60 Bolivia ........................................................................................... 64 Mercosur ........................................................................................ 69 The Mercosur Parliament ........................................................... 76 Dealing with Asymmetries ........................................................... 78 The Mercosur Structural Convergence Fund (FOCEM) .. 78 Paraguay ............................................................................... 79 Uruguay ................................................................................ 80

Central America, the Caribbean and Mexico ............................... 81 Haiti .............................................................................................. 86 Cuba .............................................................................................. 88 Mexico ............................................................................................ 91 North America ............................................................................... 93 The United States .......................................................................... 95 Canada .......................................................................................... 98 Multilateral Regional Fora ........................................................... 101 Organization of American States (OAS) ............................... 103 Hemispheric security .......................................................... 104 Democracy .......................................................................... 106 Human Rights .................................................................... 108 The Rio Group............................................................................ 108 The Ibero-American Conference ............................................... 110 Europe ........................................................................................... 113 The European Union .................................................................. 115 The Latin American and Caribbean – European Union Summit (LAC-EU) .................................................................... 118 Bilateral relations/Strategic partnerships ................................. 120 Germany ............................................................................. 120 Spain .................................................................................... 121 France .................................................................................. 123 Italy ..................................................................................... 125 Portugal ............................................................................... 126 The United Kingdom ......................................................... 128

........................................................ 153 Australia ... 172 ........................................................ 150 The Republic of Korea ................................................................................................................................................................Russia..... 168 The African Union ... 165 Africa–South America Summit (AFSA) ............................................................................................................................................ 140 India .............................................................................................................. 133 Forum for East Asia – Latin America Cooperation (FEALAC) .................................................................... 169 South Africa ................................ 152 Oceania ................................................................................................................................. 150 The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) ..................................................................................................................... 129 Scandinavian countries ................................... 163 Africa – Overview ........... 149 Kazakhstan .................. 153 New Zealand ................................................................................................................................................................. 131 Asia ............................................................ Brazil and South Africa Dialogue Forum (IBSA) .................... 136 Taiwan ............................................................... 135 China .......................................................... 153 India............................................................... 146 East Timor ............... 155 Africa ............................. 170 Nigeria ................................................ 141 Japan ................................ 149 Afghanistan ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 147 Central Asia ...

............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 195 Iraq ................. 204 Security Council ............................................................................................................. 176 Guinea-Bissau ...................... 210 Peace keeping Operations/ United Nations Mission to Stabilize Haiti (MINUSTAH) ..... 213 Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) ...................................................................................................................................................................... 216 Peacebuilding Commission . 203 General Assembly ...........Comununity of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPLP) ................................................................................................................................................ 181 South American and Arab Countries Summit (SAAC) .................................................................................................. 186 Israel ................................................................................................ 218 Refugees ............................................. 201 Reform of the United Nations – Overview .......................... 175 Mozambique ............. 177 Western Sahara .......................... 177 Morocco .................................... 179 The Sudan– Darfur .................................................................................................................................................................. 191 Iran ........................................ 189 Lebanon ............................................. 178 Algeria .................. 179 The Middle East .............. 196 United Nations ....... 184 The Palestine Question ........................................................................................ 220 ................ 173 Angola .......................................... 205 G-4 ..........................................................

...... 243 G-8 ...............................................India ............................. 253 Mercosur – The European Union .......................................... 258 Mercosur – The South African Customs Union (SACU) India ............................................................................................................................................................. 258 The Free Trade Area of the Americas – (FTAA) ................................................................ 241 Internationl Monetary Fund (IMF) ........................................ 236 International Finances and Economic Organizations ...................... 249 Mercosur – The Andean Community (CAN) ...................................................................................................................................................... 243 Intellectual Property Rights– World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) ................................................................ 259 .................................. 233 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNCTAD ..................................................................................... 229 The Doha Round ...... 255 Mercosur – The Gulf Cooperation Council (CCG) .......................... 257 Mercosur ............ 245 Trade Negotiations.......................................................................... 223 World Trade Organization (WTO) – Overview ............................................................................................................................................ 239 The World Bank ...................... 242 The Inter-American Development Bank ........... 221 International Trade.......................... 225 The WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism ................................................ 230 G-20 ........... 256 Mercosur – Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) ...........International Criminal Court (ICC) .......

. 265 The Environment .................................... 301 Fight Against Racism and Discrimination ..................... 304 Women ................... 284 The Antarctic ................................................................................................................................... 297 Committee Against Torture (CAT) .................................................................................................................................. 305 Health .................................Energy ......................... 309 Disarmament.... 306 International Labor Organization (ILO) ........................................................................................ 281 International Whaling Commission .... 295 Council of Human Rights (CHR) ................................... 293 Human Rights and social issues ......................................................... 313 .............................................................................................................................................. 301 National Commission for the Promotion & Implementation of Humanitarian Law .. 277 The Montreal Protocol ..... 269 Climate Change ............... 284 Fighting hunger and poverty.............................. 292 United Nations Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO) .......................... 279 Tropical Forests – Amazonia ..... 263 Biofuels........................................................................................................ 273 Clean Development Mechanisms (CDMs) .................................................................................................................................................................................. non-proliferation and security .................... 302 Millennium Development Goals ............. 280 Biological Diversity ............................................... 311 Disarmament – Overview .......................................................................................................................................... 287 Innovative Mechanisms ............................

....................................................... scientific and technological cooperation ...................................... 319 Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL) .......................... 333 Space cooperation ............................................................... 327 The United Nations Educational.............................. Scientific & Cultural Organization (UNESCO) ............................ 322 Cultural issues ................ 341 ......................................... 338 Assistance to Brazilians abroad ..........................Argentina – Paraguay) ................................................. 316 Additional Protocol of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAAE) ............................................... 322 Transnational Crime ........................Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) ................. 325 Cultural diplomacy – Overview ............................. 330 Technical................................................... 320 Terrorism ............ 320 Triple Frontier (Brazil ........................................................................................................................

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This compilation is by no means a definitive account nor does it cover the whole range of issues that are part of the daily agenda of the Ministry of External Relations. December. Brazil’s coming of age in world politics has made it necessary for the country’s diplomatic agenda to become broader and more complex. That is why it has become a real challenge to systematically keep track of the positions defended by Brazil abroad. 2007 13 . amongst others. articles by and interviews with high level authorities. Its aim is to make a composite view of the main positions defended by Brazilian diplomacy in recent years available to interested members of the public. This document was put together in order to fulfill that task. All sources used were public and official documents: speeches. Brasilia.FOREWORD This collection of statements aims at presenting an overall view of Brazilian foreign policy guidelines in regard to a wide variety of international issues. joint communiqués and press releases. within and outside Itamaraty.

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PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES OF BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY .

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PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES OF BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY This Nation. We must use this same posture of responsible action at the level of our foreign relations. affirming its sovereign and creative presence in the world. We will not turn back from our main commitment. our national interests and the values that inspire us. 2003. through capacitybuilding in advanced technologies and by seeking productive investments. raising income levels and generating dignified employment.Brasilia. above all. and must contribute towards 17 . whenever necessary. Our foreign policy shall also reflect the desire for change expressed by the ordinary people in the street. nor can it be restricted to one single dimension. as an instrument for national development. doing justice to the struggle for the survival in which its children are engaged. internationally. Brazil can. Brazilian diplomatic efforts will be guided by a humanistic perspective and will be used. In my Government. *** The Brazilian people have shown a great example of their self-respect by demonstrating their belief in the power to bring about change through creative means. January 1. Inaugural Speech given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the National Congress. Through foreign trade. needs to state what it stands. Brazilian external relations should contribute towards improving the living conditions of Brazilian women and men. (…) Our external policy cannot be limited to a single region. created under a tropical sky. defending.

2003. and of its vocation to become a great democracy in the process of social transformation. conscious of its demographic. We must recognize that poverty. founded on the Rule of Law and on the principles of multilateralism. January 1. January 26. Preserving national interests is not incompatible with cooperation and solidarity. This is why we defend the position that conflicts should be resolved by pacific means and under the auspices of the United Nations. 2003. The new relationship we are establishing with our South American neighbors is based on mutual respect. It is also imperative for rationality. hunger and misery are very often the cultural broth in which fanaticism and intolerance are developed.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK the construction of a peaceful and harmonious world order. friendship and 18 .Davos. for negotiated solutions to international conflicts and towards the intransigent defense of our national interests. economic and cultural importance. Peace is not just a moral objective. territorial. *** Our foreign policy is firmly oriented towards the search for peace. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the 33rd Economic World Forum . Our national program is not xenophobic. Speech given by Minister Celso Amorim on taking office as Minister of External Relations. *** Brazil has consistently endeavored to carry out the principles it defends. it is universalistic.

2003. Brazil has helped to overcome the crises that threaten the constitutional order and stability of countries we regard as our friends. tolerant and harmonious world. guided by the principle of non-intervention as well as by a position of “non-indifference”. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 58th United Nations General Assembly . (…) Democratic dialogue is the most effective instrument of change of all. Whenever we have been called on. I will also use to seek international partnerships. September 23. at the University of Beijing. 2004. With the same determination that my companions and I are using to make Brazilian society more just and humane. *** We are learning that development and social justice should be sought with determination and an open attitude towards dialogue. *** The growing approximation and the consolidation of Brazilian relations with (its) region require that situations of instability in countries on this Continent receive closer attention on the part of the Brazilian Government. We do not believe in interfering 19 . Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the conference “Brazilian Foreign Policy in the 21st century and the role of the Sino-Brazilian Strategic Partnership”. The instances of instability in the region have been resolved by respecting institutions. so as to attain a steady level of development and a peaceful.New York. May 25. and to the extent of our possibilities.PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES OF BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY cooperation.

Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 59th United Nations General Assembly . a policy that is concerned with the country’s sovereign insertion. All this has been achieved without prejudicing the excellent level of relations we have always maintained with our great partners from 20 . firmly anchored in the interests of the Brazilian Nation and in the integration of South America. India. *** During the last two years. September 21. 2004. Brazil changed the tone of its foreign policy.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK in the internal affairs of other countries. we have sought to redefine Brazil’s place in the world. at once universal and humanistic. our countries play a fundamental role in forming new international economic and trade geography. September 27. We need to take control of our development as an independent Nation and reduce our dependency on the economic vulnerabilities imposed from outside. without succumbing to the temptations of isolationism. 2004. nor do we hide behind omission and indifference when facing problems that affect our neighbors.New York. Russia and South Africa. *** When President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva took office. (…) We have fulfilled our promise to imprint a sense of strategy in our approximation with great emerging countries like China. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at “The Actuality of San Tiago Dantas” Seminar .Rio de Janeiro.

Some countries in the region have experienced recurring difficulties because of serious economic and social problems.. 2005. President Lula’s government has adhered to this basic principle with an attitude we refer to as “non-indifference”. (. 2005. which still persist on our continent (…). The first one is to believe that Brazil. Brazilian diplomacy is based on the principle of noninterference in the internal affairs of other countries. cannot aspire to becoming a full player at a global level. June 6. it is borne through dialogue. Excerpt from the article “Brazil in the new international scene” by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva.Fort Lauderdale. just because of its vast territory. a country with social problems and without effective means to project itself as an international military power. January 21. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim during the 35th General Assembly Meeting of the OAS . Brazil will automatically be given a relevant role in an international sphere. published in El País. *** The expression “global player” can create misunderstandings. the European Union and Japan. 21 .) The second mistake is to think that. whenever we have been called upon and whenever we feel this may achieve positive results.PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES OF BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY the developed world: the United States. abundant natural resources and numerous population. *** Democracy cannot be imposed. We have always provided our help and active solidarity in situations of crises.. as sanctioned by our Charter.

). We are exploring opportunities for dialogue.Paris. well prepared and sufficiently lucid to be neither timid nor foolhardy (. (…) Brazilian foreign policy has reached a new level of maturity. 2005. Our diplomacy is experienced. dominated by unilateral positions.. According to the best traditions of our diplomacy. July 13. we have done this without pointless confrontations and by recognizing the importance of maintaining indispensable relationships with traditional partners in the industrialized world. The challenge we face is to attempt to understand. Let alone fall into a state of submission. *** Our diplomatic conduct is based on the defense of principles. wherever these may be. as a few like to advocate in the name of a questionable form of realism. but also on a search for results. where the correlation of forces is adverse to the legitimate aspirations of developing countries. 22 . the ways through which Brazil can help construct a new relation of international forces. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the debate “Brazil: A Global Player”.. and assert. cooperation and trade. We have developed diverse partnerships and more balanced relations with all the regions of the world.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Fortunately. Brazil is far from either of these two extreme perspectives. (…) To give up the idea of “global action” would amount to leaving the future in the hands of market trends — where enormous economic and financial disorder proliferate — or yielding to the whims of the politics of power. We are no longer limited by imaginary boundaries or ready-made formulas. It has a utopian dimension without losing its pragmatism. We live in a difficult world. We cannot allow ourselves to fall into a state of inertia or inactivity.

(…) Now. (…) Together we can become stronger. more creative and a stronger relationship between countries of the South. 2005. in accordance with priorities established by President Lula’s Government: to expand the geographical reach of Brazil’s foreign relations. with a view to securing an international regulatory area that is fair and balanced. and to adopt a firm and active position in multilateral as well as regional negotiations. September 1.. does not mean that we will abandon our relations with 23 . such as the World Trade Organization and the United Nations. article by Minister Celso Amorim. to update elements that are part of our universalistic vocation. “Foreign Policy in the Lula Government – Two Years”. Plenarium Magazine. Underlying such objectives is the need to preserve our sovereign right to define the model of development that we wish for our Country. *** The South-South relationship is not only possible. not only through the growth of our trade. *** Brazilian diplomacy is presently going through a period of great dynamism. November 25. a more intense.PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES OF BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY Speech given by President Lula at the graduation ceremony of the “Celso Furtado” Class at the Rio Branco Institute (the Brazilian Diplomatic Academy) Brasilia. The South is not an amorphous complex of underdeveloped and dependent countries that have nothing to offer other than raw materials to wealthy countries. it is also necessary. 2005. where questions of great interest to humanity are discussed. but also by participating more actively in economic and political forums.

February 7. it is in fact an area that overcomes outside conditioning. A country’s foreign policy goes beyond its circumstances. The Itamaraty (Brazilian Ministry of External Relations) has always had a very good perception of how to defend national interests. 2006.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK developed countries. April 3. Let’s do what developed countries do. The main lines of conduct are contained in the Constitution. *** Brazil has international credit because the Country is not afraid to fight for its rights and because it believes that its options are not pre-determined. which are also important to all of us. Speech given by Minister Celso Amorim at the Tiradentes Medal Award ceremony at the Legislative Assembly of the State of Rio de Janeiro.Algiers. The Itamaraty is a very qualified bureaucracy. Press conference given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to media organizations in Algeria . A determined political attitude can make all the difference. Politics change according to the moment. *** There is a difference between the principles of international relations and the definition of foreign policy. take advantage of all opportunities and make our union our strength. 24 . in the ‘Webberian’ sense of the word. Assets of intangible value and symbolic elements are factors that should not be underrated in international relations. 2006.

May 15. Interview given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the Expresso newspaper . This choice enables us to maintain excellent political. 2006. July 27. *** 25 .Lisbon. *** Foreign policy is not just a question of focusing on short-term objectives. 2007. Inaugural Speech given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the ceremony of Constitutional Commitment at the National Congress . economic and trade relations with the great world powers and. which are the same as those of our domestic policy: to guarantee the wellbeing of our people. which is the cause of some pride due to the excellent results it has brought to the Nation. 2006. to give priority to our ties with the Southern countries of the world.PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES OF BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY Interview given by Minister Celso Amorim . foreign policy has to be ambitious and.Carta Capital magazine. required for the establishment of a world of peace and solidarity.Brasilia. at the same time. *** Strengthening our democratic system will further enhance Brazil’s presence in the world scene. at the same time. was defined by a clear choice for multilateralism. not lose sight of its essential goals. January 1. with economic and social development for all. For a country the size of Brazil and with its variety of interests and needs. Our foreign policy.

*** The rich and varied agenda which marked the meeting (between Presidents Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and George W. where the environment is preserved. such as the United Nations Security Council and the G-8.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Brazil can contribute towards preserving peace. to economic and social development. to the Folha de S. President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Minister Celso Amorim have defended the democratization of international decision-making instances. Interview given by Ambassador Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães. where economic differences between States are reduced. in such a way that each society. without any sort of grievances or demands being made. by observing the fundamental principles of self-determination and nonintervention as inscribed in the United Nations Charter. where each individual may develop his or her full potential.São Paulo. It is precisely because Brazil has a sovereign and universalistic foreign 26 . may move forward in its historical evolution. February 26. 2007. A better world is one where disarmament pledges are delivered. where poverty and misery are abolished. economic and social rights are respected.Paulo newspaper . With these objectives in mind. Secretary-General of the Ministry of Exter nal Relations. without either side having to renounce their respective viewpoints. Bush) reflects a mature partnership. to the construction of democracy at an international level. where human. political. where the principles of International Law are obeyed by the great powers. Brazilian diplomacy has not altered its position nor changed the priorities established by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva from the first day of his Government. This was not achieved by supposedly “changing course” in our foreign policy.

Brasilia. rich or poor. but also respect for other countries. *** We want a foreign policy that reflects the special characteristics of Brazil. sustainable development. article by Minister Celso Amorim in the Folha de S. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the graduation ceremony of the 2004-2006 Class of the Rio Branco Institute (the Brazilian Diplomatic Academy) .São Paulo.Paulo newspaper . This requires commitment and selfreliance. that it also be a consubstantial element of our project for national development. so as to defend our national interests. Maintaining a dialogue with social movements. (…) We have to take our rightful place in the world. the environment. the press. are matters that increasingly affect the lives of each citizen. It is therefore of fundamental importance that our foreign policy be in tune with the concerns of our people. April 8. This is the great lesson of Camp David. human rights. Issues such as multilateral trade negotiations. that it be more than just a way of projecting ourselves in the world. “Brazil and the USA: the reasons behind the visit”. 2007.PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES OF BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY policy. 2007. that the country is so respected by both developing as well as developed countries. recognized both within the country and abroad. the 27 . May 2. the fight against hunger and poverty. be they small or large. The democratic Brazil we are constructing. amongst others. *** The diplomatic agenda is becoming more complex every day.

BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK National Congress and the units of the Federation helps make the actions of the Ministry of External Relations more representative of national aspirations. 28 . 2007. Strategic Guidelines of the Ministry of External Relations.Brasilia. May 4. Pluriannual Plan 2008-2011 .

INTERNATIONAL POLITICS – OVERVIEW .

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Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at his the National Congress . to represent our interests and values in points on the international agenda. The context in which we have to carry out this task is a complex one and not always a friendly one. we need. (…) We face the present challenges of terrorism and organized crime through international cooperation and based upon the principles of multilateralism and International Law. 2003. Terrorist acts of indescribable barbarism provoke reactions and give rise to attitudes 31 . fed by intolerance and fanaticism. (…) Despite many promises.INTERNATIONAL POLITICS – OVERVIEW The democratization of international relations that are free of any hegemony is as important for the future of mankind as it is for the consolidation and development of democracy within each State. *** As President Lula has already said. International crises such as those in the Middle East should be resolved by peaceful means and through negotiation. through perseverance. which has the prime responsibility of maintaining international peace and security. the markets of developed countries continue to be closed to most of our products. suddenly intensify. Predatory commercial practices by wealthy countries deprive us of the benefits of our competitiveness. conflicts that seemed to be on their way to being resolved. Let us recognize the value of multilateral organizations.Brasilia. especially the United Nations. January 1. At a political level. Resolutions taken by the Security Council should be faithfully observed.

but also. *** History confronts us with serious responsibilities regarding the reorganization of international relations. All this is reflected in economic. those who have access to education and humanity’s cultural heritage from those who are submerged in illiteracy and in situations of absolute alienation from society. This moment demands dialogue. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim on taking office as Minister of State for External Relations .Davos. It is also necessary to establish a new code of ethics. and principally. 32 . moral and even spiritual leadership. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 33rd World Economic Forum . those who have jobs from the unemployed. an attitude of political intelligence. diplomacy. political.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK that can potentially affect the principles of multilateralism. 2003. many “walls” still exist that separate those that have food from the hungry. It is not merely enough to proclaim values of humanism. More than ten years after the fall of the Berlin Wall. *** The construction of a fairer and more democratic new international economic order is not only an act of generosity. 2003. it is necessary that these should prevail in relations between countries and societies.Brasilia. January 1. January 26. The risk of war once again haunts the world. financial and political crises. those who live with dignity from those who live on the streets or in squalid shanty towns. negotiation. which tend to be more serious in poorer countries. as the President (Lula) has said in his letter to the Pope.

INTERNATIONAL POLITICS – OVERVIEW (…) Our hopes for peace and solidarity must come as a result of our concern for the deprivations of those who are less fortunate. 2003. *** 33 . irrespective of their economic dimensions and political and military weight. September 18. To recognize its value is an obligation of all nations committed to the progress of civilization.Brasilia.Brasilia. multilateralism represents an advancement comparable to that of democracy in national terms. “Diplomacy in the Lula Government”. By doing this. we will be defending our own interests in a world better prepared for peace and development. June 1. April 10. 2003. *** We need to fight for a fairer international system. Speech given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at a luncheon offered to graduates of the Rio Branco Institute (the Brazilian Diplomatic Academy) . *** At the level of international relations. that trade regimes be more equitable. lecture given by Minister Celso Amorim at the Rio Branco Institute (the Brazilian Diplomatic Academy) . that decisive procedures be more democratic. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the extended talks at the G-8 Summit .Evian. that greater respect be shown for International Law. 2003. We need to demand that greater concern be shown for the situation of those who are destitute.

*** We need to distinguish. 34 . cannot sink into a process of political and spiritual retrogression. between humanitarian intervention -involving potentially very high human and material costs and with questionable stabilizing effects – and. decisive procedures are transparent. “Brazil and new concepts of global and hemispheric security”. presented during the series of debates on the modernization of Brazilian thinking in defense and security issues. in which the United Nations plays a central role. out of respect for international law. above. The capacity of States to provide assistance should be encouraged in an atmosphere of international cooperation.New York. Real peace will grow out of democracy. under the strengthened leadership of the United Nations. legitimate and representative. out of the final eradication of hunger. out of the dismantling of deadly arsenals and. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 58th United National General Assembly . and not by the imposition of force. outwardly. 2003. The tragedies of Iraq and the Middle East will only be resolved within a multilateral process. (…) This century. the notion of collective responsibility on a humanitarian level – with which we fully identify ourselves. an international climate of peace and unity. on the one hand. on the other hand.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Improving the multilateral system is a necessary counterpart of democratic relations within each nation. article by Minister Celso Amorim. September 23. It is our duty to construct. Every nation that is committed to democracy internally must also ensure that. so promising from a technological and material point of view.

We are experiencing a serious 35 .INTERNATIONAL POLITICS – OVERVIEW organized by the Ministry of Defense . territorial integrity and the authority of the United Nations Security Council. (…) At the political and strategic level. 2003. We watch the escalation of ethnic-religious conflicts. The Consensus of Buenos Aires. at the same time. has generated models of economic concentration never seen before. humanitarian tragedies. *** We would like to express our conviction that. we are forced to admit that we live in a period of great instability. October 11 and 12. with self-appointed military alliances for collective defense. October 16. *** Now that we are no longer under the illusion that the end of the Cold War will usher in an era of growing peace and development. doctrines that cause dangerous disorder.Itaipava. We are committed to putting into effect public policies that will lay the foundations for sustainable growth and an equitable division of its benefits. we are concerned about new roles that are being played in the area of security. 2003. signed by Presidents Lula and Néstor Kirchner. the intensification of terrorism. sovereignty. in a world context characterized by an accelerated process of globalization that has expanded the horizon of human possibilities.Buenos Aires. consecrated notions about legitimate defense. allowing for fairer revenue and taxation procedures. but. possibilities and challenges that are unique to our countries at the beginning of the 21st century. our nations must define their future within the ambit of an agenda that answers the needs. the expansion of transnational organized crime.

São Paulo. During the last decades. Globalization is no substitute for development. Eliminating hunger. October 28. The logic of draining the deprived to irrigate the privileged has been maintained. which requires a collective reflection regarding the mechanisms that we are creating in the post. and demands the renouncement of legitimate national development projects. *** Powerful and omnipresent. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the 11th UNCTAD . social welfare and development Speech by Minister Celso Amorim during the general debate at the OAS Special Security Conference . in particular. an invisible apparatus commands the new order at a distance. But globalization can be an instrument of development. encouraging sustainable development should be the concern of every country including.Mexico City.World War II period to promote peace and security. June 14. This is absolutely essential if we are to guarantee peace and the effective fulfillment of human rights. this system revokes democratic decisions. the wealthiest ones. reducing poverty. 2004. 2003. an asymmetric globalization has enhanced the devastating legacy of misery 36 .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK crisis of global governance. Often. providing that its benefits are divided equally. *** Globalization is not synonymous with development. superimposes itself upon elected government. squeezes dry the sovereignty of States.

can hold back this savagery. then we should build it. Only the values of Humanism. reduces international relations to mere expressions of military force. The situation demands. it is necessary to recognize that the plurality of views is legitimate and that increasing space should be given to diplomatic actions. September 21.Paris. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 59th United Nations General Assembly . 2005. In order to establish democracy at an international level. in the end. It is a demand imposed by the world we live in. that each player has their reasons and that. If we really want to eliminate violence. *** 37 . Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the Debate “Brazil – Global Player” . July 13. To deny the plurality of opposites. (…). *** A plural world – or a “multi-polar” world.INTERNATIONAL POLITICS – OVERVIEW and social retrogression that is coming apart at the seams on the agenda of the 21st century. as it is sometimes called – is not just the earnest desire of diplomats or idealistic intellectuals. practiced with common sense and determination. To be a democrat at a global level. from the people and their leaders. a new sense of individual and collective responsibility. claimed as being a “realist” viewpoint. it is not always the reason of the strongest that is the strongest of reasons. then it we need to remove its deeper causes with the same tenacity that we confront the agents of hatred. is to believe that everyone has the right to be a player. 2004.New York. If we really want peace.

India. education and infectious diseases can only be properly faced through more intense international coordination and cooperation. Brazil. *** 38 . centered on achieving duly evaluated. July 15-17. China. That it is useless to try and transform things. April 3. Speech given by Minister Celso Amorim during the award ceremony to present the Tiradentes Medal at the Legislative Assembly of the State of Rio de Janeiro. concrete results. presented at Gleneagles last year. we reiterate our proposal. Petersburg. to establish new forms of international cooperation. Mexico. The increased participation of developing countries in the decisionmaking processes of the United Nations and other international organizations is essential to guarantee that more balanced and legitimate results are achieved. Allow me to disagree. South Africa.St. In this respect. and taking into full account the perspectives and needs of developing countries.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK There are those who say that to be a realist is to accept things as they are. *** Present global challenges in the areas of energy security. Document stating the position of developing countries participating in the Broad Dialogue at the G-8 Summit Meeting. 2006. the Republic of the Congo . And refusing to give up the principles and values that we espouse. to be realistic means having the courage to defend national interests with serious attitudes and consequential actions. In international politics. 2006.

maintain peace. founded on a solid and consensual basis. 2006. Permanent solutions to resolve poverty are only going to come about if the poorer countries have the opportunity to achieve progress through their own efforts. 39 . promote sustainable development and construct negotiated settlements for common problems. are the pillars that support the new world order we defend. protect human rights.INTERNATIONAL POLITICS – OVERVIEW The fight against hunger and poverty also involves establishing a world order that treats economic and social development as a first priority of concern. and a transparent World Trade Organization. sensitive to the needs of developing countries. (…) Fair trade. The United Nations represents another pillar in the area of international peace and security. There is no better way to bring States together. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 51st United Nations General Assembly . November 19. Brazil is a firm defender of multilateral organizations as the forums for cooperation and dialogue.New York.

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SOUTH AMERICA .

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We will encourage joint ventures and stimulate a dynamic intellectual and artistic interchange among South American countries. National Congress . based on free trade and projects of infrastructure. will have positive repercussions internally. If called upon. based on democratic ideas and on social justice. and with the means that are available to us. *** We believe it is essential to consolidate the integration among South American countries on many different levels. we will contribute towards finding peaceful solutions to resolve these situations of crises. cultural and scientific-technological dimensions in the process of integration. (…) We will also take care of the social. Several of our 43 . Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at his Inaugural Ceremony. so that a true Mercosur and South American sense of identity may flourish. as well as in the region’s relationship with the rest of the world.Brasilia. January 1. Several of our neighbors are today facing difficult situations. The formation of a unified economic area. democratic principles and on the constitutional precepts of each country. We will support all necessary institutional arrangements.SOUTH AMERICA SOUTH AMERICAN INTEGRATION – OVERVIEW The main priority of my Government’s foreign policy is to construct a South America that is politically stable. prosperous and united. 2003. based on dialogue.

but also because it is a means to ensure our own progress and welfare. socially just and economically prosperous is an objective worth pursuing. But we will not balk at making our contribution towards finding solutions for situations of conflict. 2003. January 1. A South America that is politically stable. The democratic process of change that Brazil is presently going through under the Lula Government may serve as an element of inspiration and stability to the whole of South America. taking into account the primacy of democracy and constitutional principles. not only as a normal expression of solidarity. provided that we are invited to do so and only when we believe that we may play a useful role. We earnestly respect the principle of non-intervention. in the same way that we defend our right to be respected by others. May 25. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Conference “Brazilian Foreign Policy in the 21st Century and the Role of the Sino-Brazilian Partnership “ University of Beijing. The integration of the twelve countries on this continent will be based on establishing ever stronger ties between Governments and societies. *** 44 . *** The construction of a democratic and prosperous South America is a prime objective of my government’s foreign policy.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK neighbors are experiencing difficult situations or even moments of crisis. increasing the flow of trade and seeking solutions to common problems. 2004. Speech given by Minister Celso Amorim during the ceremony on taking office as Minister of External Relations.Brasilia.

2006. I think this is the real question. which will have a powerful repercussion for our populations. other developing countries and even some very small and poor nations. The question is what type of integration will come. industrial development. And it is very useful when you can transform a necessity into a project. August 25. based on global reality. Because then you have something that is a truly profound reality. and technological development. as well as a proposal. social development. *** The integration of South America is our principal priority. and the Americas have not yet formed a bloc. It is not a question of why we should have integration. (. Talk given by Minister Celso Amorim during the closing speech at the Course for South American Diplomats Brasilia.. organized crime.. and which will naturally help us to live and position ourselves in a world that is not easy. but of the Ministry of External Relations (the Itamaraty) as a whole. There is one superpower. But South America could be a bloc of nations. This is why the entry of Venezuela into the Mercosur was so important. The question is what type of integration we should have. And the question is whether this integration will come through drug trafficking. which has its own conflicts. smuggling and guerilla warfare or if we are going to become integrated through economic development. but one that also has the possibility to form a great union with the ability to negotiate. And it is not a priority of just this government or my own. I want to say that we see the integration of South America as a necessity. South America must be our priority because the world is uniting in blocs. a world that can often be very hostile.) In short.SOUTH AMERICA Integration will come. one that is not homogeneous. Mercosur is not only formed 45 .

capable of reducing differences among our countries. 2006 *** We want a South America that is politically more united. December 8. Bolivia. November 29. This is a commitment that has enabled us to intensify political dialogue and trade cooperation among South American countries. (…) South American integration only makes sense if it is embraced by all members of society and if it extends its human and solidarity dimensions. Interview given by Minister Celso Amorim to IstoÉ magazine. helping to overcome the great afflictions that exist on our Continent: poverty and social exclusion. *** In accordance with the Government’s Strategic Guidelines. Brazil seeks a real and effective form of integration in South America. issue No. closer to their people and sensitive to the Continent’s cultural diversity. we want a South America that is just.Cochabamba. Above all.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK by South Cone countries and could become a bloc of nations representing countries from the Caribbean to Patagonia. which can provide conditions for the development of all countries in the region. (…) The stability and development of the region are conditions that are essential for Brazil. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening ceremony of the Second Meeting of Heads of State and Government of the South American Community of Nations (CASA) . 1936. stronger and more coordinated on an economic and trade level. union with South 46 . A policy of pro-integration. 2006. the strengthening of South American integration is our prime objective.

but also an undeniable determination to resolve these. from the heights of the Andes to the Patagonian Plains. We are 350 million men and women. food resources and multiple energy sources. or the fruit of volunteerism. At the same time. (…) We have serious social problems. We want to transform our Continent into a region of peace that is able 47 . Strategic Guidelines for the Brazilian Ministry of External Relations. 2007. We have centers of teaching and universities that produce scientific and technological innovations of considerable importance. We have a complex and diversified Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of more than one trillion dollars. the Pacific and Caribbean. We have a competitive industrial position in the world and our agriculture has the capacity to become the granary of the planet. determined to attain our full potential in a region endowed with immense natural and human resources. We have at our disposal three assets that are essential to the future of humanity: water. THE SOUTH AMERICAN COMMUNITY OF NATIONS (CASA) AND THE UNION OF SOUTH AMERICAN NATIONS (UNASUL) The South American Community of Nations is much more than a political and legal edifice. May 4.SOUTH AMERICA American partners. Pluriannual Plan 2008-2011 Brasilia. whenever it is called upon to do so and in so far as it is within its possibilities. Brazil is ready to collaborate in helping friendly countries in situations of political or social conflict. Brazil respects the choices made by neighboring countries and does not interfere in the sovereign right of each country to seek solutions for the problems they face. A region that is bathed by the Atlantic. from the exuberance of the Pantanal to the lunar landscapes of the Bolivian and Chilean deserts. A vast and diversified territory that extends from the Amazon to Tierra del Fuego. is a long-term national interest.

this is why we have also pushed forward the South American Community. I believe that Brazil will not fully exist unless it is part of a union. 2005. Chile. it is just a small one in a world such as ours. This is why we have worked together in Mercosur. because we are not willing to speak only for ourselves (…). Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the Third Meeting of Foreign Relations Minister of the South American Community of Nations . And we are well aware of this. all of which have mechanisms at their disposal for political and economic deliberation. (…) In all sincerity. A former Brazilian Minister of Foreign Relations. *** We have to do in South America in the 21stI century what North America did in the 19th century.Santiago. in order to establish the physical integration of our region. which we helped to create with other regions that are in attendance here. September 29. even though Brazil is a large country. This is our viewpoint. who was also a businessman. I do not believe so. 2006. November 24. I have to say that. South America must be able to negotiate in the world. Like the United States of America. of our Continent. *** 48 . used to say that Brazil was condemned to be a solitary giant in international relations.Brasilia. South America can join other great geographical groups in the world. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the opening ceremony of the First Meeting of Heads of State of the South American Community of Nations .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK to resolve its differences by using instruments of political negotiation.

of the Plata Basin Treaty and the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization. We must value existing integration mechanisms. We are jointly committed to the future of Central America and the Caribbean countries. *** 49 . As we integrate inwardly. We have historical affinities and close economic ties with the Andean Community of Nations. Our integration is achieved on various levels. December 8. Peru.SOUTH AMERICA The present world is becoming increasingly more complex and competitive. INFRASTRUCTURE AND ENERGY The integration of the physical infrastructure of South America does not only represent new opportunities for trade and closer relations between our countries. 2006. The South American Community is not a substitute for these efforts. December 8. 2004. There is no space for isolation. It is also a condition for our Continent to participate more competitively in a globalized economy. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the announcement of the Inter-Oceanic Highway Cusco. The construction of the South American Community of Nations is not a project of exclusion. can promote its national objectives in isolation. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening ceremony of the Second Meeting of Heads of State of the South American Community of Nations . No country. We are members of Mercosur.Cochabamba. with the full participation of all South American countries. however large or expressive its economy may be. We belong to the Rio Group and the Latin American Integration Association (LAIA). we will also be integrating with the world.

a concern for the preservation of the environment. so that everyone 50 .Brasilia. these two pillars have the same meaning as coal and steel had for the integration of Europe in the 1950’s. and to enhance cooperation in matters of renewable energy sources.Montevideo. First. 2005. fair payment. such as ethanol. social inclusion and the stability of juridical relations. technological and infrastructure projects to overcome our production bottlenecks. September 29. biodiesel and H-bios.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK The integration of energy. (…) The integration of energy in South America should be based on guaranteed access. These and other incentives will help to give new economic dynamism to the region.) ensure that Mercosur is seen as a truly extended economic region. December 9. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Second Meeting of Heads of State of the South American Community of Nations . will be one of the driving forces behind the South American Community of Nations. where investment and partnerships are part of a consolidating. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 29th Mercosur Summit . to coordinate efforts for the exploitation and distribution of petroleum and gas. multiplying jobs and improving our capacity to play a leading role in the world. common industrial policy. (…) Our agenda should initially include three fundamental aims. to expand the power grid between our countries.. *** We must (. together with matters related to infrastructure. *** We should support industrial.. 2005. For South America.

The energy belt project is emblematic of our political determination. The Great Southern Gas Pipeline is an all-embracing and unifying project for energy integration in the region. Our cooperation projects involving biofuels open up entirely new horizons that will boost the competitive advantages that our region has to offer. thereby reaffirming our social commitment to areas affected by the project. environmental and economic viability of this project has been guaranteed. Paraguay and Uruguay. which could be completed in four years. thus preserving the natural environment. 2006. The next stages will include Argentina. Bolivia. as is already reflected in the growing interchange of students among our countries. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the closing ceremony of the 30th Mercosur Heads of State Summit . such as existing highways. In order to do this.SOUTH AMERICA may benefit from economic growth. economic and social integration of South America. *** The conclusion of the Great Southern Gas Pipeline represents a strategic commitment between Venezuela and Brazil and a decisive step towards the energy. July 21. as well as any other South American country that wishes to take part in this project. The important advances that we are making in the coordination of energy policies open up promising prospects. as well as the strengthening of the South American Community of Nations and of the Petrosur initiative. (…) Once the technical. The proposed course of the pipeline should be located near areas already impacted by man. 51 . a decision will be taken as to the starting date for construction.Cordoba. we will reinforce regional cooperation in the areas of science and technology.

and boasting the largest area of the Amazon forest located within its territorial boundaries. “The Secretar y-General of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO). AMAZON COOPERATION TREATY ORGANIZATION (ACTO) As the base for the ACTO headquarters. April 17.Rio de Janeiro. reflecting the will of all Party States so as to promote a cooperation program for the sustainable development of the Amazon region. In this respect. we reaffirm a commitment to the universal access to energy as a right of every citizen. Declaration of Margarita – Building Souther n Energy Integration. Venezuela.Island of Margarita. January 18. *** We (the South American Heads of State and Government) have agreed to underline that the energy integration of the South American Community of Nations should be used as an important tool to promote social and economic development and to eradicate poverty. 2007.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Brazil-Venezuela Declaration concerning the first stage of the Great Southern Gas Pipeline . This will the Organization play a key role on an international level. 52 . Press release. 2007. as well as to improve political deliberations in environmental forums. in defense of the interest of all Amazon countries. Brazil is interested in strengthening ACTO. final document at the South American Energy Summit .

(…) I would like to draw your attention.SOUTH AMERICA Rosalía Arteaga. to how important it is for all other South American countries to participate. The fundamental objectives (of this Organization) are international cooperation and the affirmation of the sovereign responsibility of the countries in the region to promote sustainable development. losing the strong. not just as observers. not from the lack of. We really have to coordinate these instruments. cultural and rich individual characteristics that are particular to the Amazon region. here in South America. but from an excess of official instruments. May 4.Brasilia. *** The Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization establishes a juridical landmark that will guide cooperation among Amazon countries. because it is also part of this region – should consider themselves as associate States in practical terms. to 53 . (…) Therefore. but as members of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization. After all. as we have done in the past. and I should go so far as to say within Latin America in a broader sense because these regions are not mutually exclusive. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the inaguration of the Permanent Headquarters of the Secretariat of ACTO . and the early involvement of all these countries can only enrich the Organization. these South American States – and I also include here France. without. January 11. we have a problem that results. we share several ecosystems. takes Office”. 2005. 2004. (…) I feel that we have to work together. of course. *** Today.Brasilia. various river basins in the region are interconnected.

*** (Presidents Lula and Kirchner) Resolved to establish a system to exchange diplomatic civil servants between the Ministries of 54 . Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Argentine Parliament during a ceremony to honor Brazil . 2003. October 16. ARGENTINA The true partnership that we will build between Brazil and Argentina will depend largely on our capacity to mobilize hearts and minds – of young people.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK improve the quality of life for the populations of Amazonas and to defend their immense natural heritage. ACTO is also one of the regional organisms that supported the creation of the Community of South American Nations (CASA). history. ACTO was able to count on an institutional mechanism to accelerate the process of Amazon cooperation and integration. 2005. above all – summoning everyone to build a great community that will have as its principal asset the extraordinary quality of our people. intellectual reserves. established in Brasilia in 2002. “Ceremony to Commemorate the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization” Brasilia. In 1998. (…) Brazil and Argentina have the economic potential.Buenos Aires. including a Permanent Secretariat. the Member States decided to create the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO). Press release. ethics and morals to move forward a great integration project that will preserve our identities while adding to them a new and enlightened dimension. August 29. By these means.

article by Minister Celso Amorim and 55 . and to find a better way to settle issues in various areas of mutual interest. The Act of Copacabana. when they signed the “Iguaçu Declaration”. to commemorate the meeting that was held on this date. between Presidents Raúl Alfonsin and José Sarney. but we will also have made a valuable contribution towards the consolidation of Mercosur and helped accelerate the process of South American integration.Rio de Janeiro. our respective Ministries of External Relations will instruct the acredited Heads of Mission to third countries to hold meetings every two moths to coordinate and exchange opinions and information. To this end. in Foz do Iguaçu. *** Relations between Brazil and Argentina are of vital necessity if the dream of an economically prosperous and socially just future is to become a tangible reality for everybody in this part of the world. “November 30 and the Friendship between Brazil and Argentina”. Both realize the importance of establishing a mechanism for close cooperation between Diplomatic and Consular Representatives in both countries. in 1985. which initiated the process of regional integration.SOUTH AMERICA External Relations of both countries with the objective of facilitating and ensuring that dialogue is exchanged more rapidly between both Governments. signed by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Néstor Kirchner . (…) We have agreed to establish a “Day of Argentina-Brazil Friendship” on November 30 of each year. 2004. If we are able to strengthen our relations even further. we will not only have achieved a goal that is in both our national interests. March 16.

BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Chancellor Rafael Vielsa. Argentina needs to recover the productive capacity it once had on our Continent and. during the celebration of 20 years of approximation between Brazil and Argentina. We want Argentina to be our partner in opening up new foreign trade frontiers. promoted by Presidents José Sarney and Raúl Alfonsín . Likewise.Puerto Iguazú. the stronger Paraguay will be.. we bear in mind the regional interest in obtaining a rapid solution to the prolonged 56 . By means of bi-national productive chains. 2005. in the Folha de S. November 30. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the ceremony to mark the signing of acts and delivery of a press statement. November 30.Paulo newspaper . THE MALVINAS / THE FALKLAND ISLANDS We (the Presidents of the Rio Group) hereby reaffirm our support in favor of the legitimate rights of the Argentine Republic in the sovereignty dispute relating to the question of the Malvinas Islands. the stronger Uruguay will be. one that is guided by the creativity of its people and by the manufacturing talents and technical capacity of its industry. attracting investments and internationalizing our business interests (. *** Brazil wishes to have a strong and confident Argentina as its partner. we are forging ties of integration that are centered on technological innovation and competitive gains.São Paulo. and the stronger Argentina and Brazil become. the stronger Brazil is. 2005. the stronger Argentina will become.. the stronger Brazil will be. the stronger Bolivia will be and the stronger the whole of South America will become. the stronger Argentina becomes.) More than any other country. of Argentina.

It is there that we have the Bi-national Itaipu (Hydroelectric Dam). and especially to those who come from the poorer social classes.Asuncion. is a very close and special ally. PARAGUAY With regard to our relations with Paraguay. November 5. in accordance with the resolutions and declaration of the United Nations and Organization of American States (OAS).Rio de Janeiro. through our diplomatic and consular channels. it is there that Brazilian workers have established themselves in our common frontier region and who. an initial landmark in our process of integration. Joint Communiqué by the Presidents of the Rio Group concerning the Malvinas Islands . to our fellow-countrymen who live in this Country. *** 57 . have managed to transform a good part of the Paraguayan interior into one of the most promising agricultural regions of South America. April 7. there is little that can be said that will not sound commonplace. working shoulder to shoulder with their Paraguayan brothers. 2003. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim during the formal session at the Paraguyan Centre for International Studies . While we are grateful to the Paraguayan people for the fraternal hospitality that they have offered to Brazilians who work here with determination for the prosperity of the country. 2004. for us. without a doubt. But it would not be too much to reaffirm again that.SOUTH AMERICA dispute between Argentina and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland with regard to the sovereignty of the aforementioned territories. one of our major priorities is to provide assistance. Paraguay.

we are determined to offer a new quality to the relationship that exists between Brazil and Uruguay. which is a historical alliance. Ambassador Rúben Ramírez .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Our relationship with Paraguay is of special strategic importance. which have smaller economies. We need only mention two things (…): the Itaipu (Hydroelectric Dam). Opening statement by Minister Celso Amorim at a press conference held jointly with the Paraguayan Minister of External Relations. This alone would be enough to demonstrate that the relationship between Brazil and Paraguay must be a strategic one. 2006. we also know – and I often say this when I am in Brazil – that Brazil has often seen itself as a smaller country than it really is – and in all regards. the protection of human rights. but an ever-present reality). Brazil and Uruguay will increasingly operate in a more coordinated way 58 . on the other hand. Furthermore. the commitment to fight hunger and poverty and in the integration of our continent.000 Brazilians who live in Paraguay – the second largest Brazilian community outside Brazil. November 23.Asuncion. It was never very ambitious on a global level and. in the search for sustained development. it did not take on its responsibility — as the largest country. and the 400. from now on. a joint project (built in another era. that produces 25% of all electricity consumed in Brazil. to be forged more than ever in the intransigent defense of democracy. with the largest regional economy — with its partners. With these principles in mind. URUGUAY We want the alliance between Brazil and Uruguay. (…) I have no doubt that.

thereby guaranteeing that the Mercosur (countries) speak with one voice in multilateral trade negotiations. Our countries share a high level of interest in issues that are of the greatest importance. (…). Venezuela. April 1. part of this process must be carried out with the participation of Uruguay. Important foreign trade is not when one country gains a great advantage over another in matters related to the balance of trade. then we must create the necessary conditions so that a part. we need to sell. 2005. alongside Paraguay. without extending any favors. then we must ensure that our entrepreneurs also 59 . (. so that development will also be as fairly balanced as possible. If we want to ensure that biodiesel is transformed into the fuel energy matrix. or when one country is highly developed and the other is not. (…) Brazil must take on its responsibility as the largest economy in Mercosur and Brazil must therefore create conditions.. If we want to create digital TV jointly with Uruguay. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the ceremony to mark the signing of acts during the State Visit of the President of Uruguay.Brasilia. If we want to sell buses to Uruguay..SOUTH AMERICA at international forums and I would like to take advantage of this occasion to welcome the entry of Uruguay into the G-20. Bolivia and all other countries on an equal footing. a component of these buses is produced here in Uruguay.Tabaré Vázquez . but above all we need to buy. to ensure that trade is as fairly balanced as possible. then we need to share this with our Uruguayan brothers.) If we want Uruguay to participate as a member of Mercosur. *** International politics is always a two-way road.

60 . with the signing of a “Declaration against Violence. 2007. Ur uguay.Estância de Anchor ena. formed by Brazil. Spain. February 28. February 26. the United States of America. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the signing of acts during his visit to Ur uguay . constitutional and electoral solution to the situation. (…) The Group of Friends is concerned with any facts or attitudes that may bring negative influences to bear on the building of confidence between the Venezuelan Government and the opposition. democratic. The Group will continue to work to encourage the Government of Venezuela and the opposition to continue along a path of understanding. “Communiqué from the OAS Secretary General’s Group of Friends of Venezuela”. Press release. so as to ensure a peaceful. VENEZUELA The OAS Secretary General’s Group of Friends of Venezuela has stressed that progress has been made on February 18. *** The OAS Secretary General’s Group of Friends of Venezuela. 2003. Chile. for Peace and Democracy in Venezuela” by the Government and the opposition. 2003.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK understand that they need to find partners — mainly in sectors that may boost our technological know-how — so as to justify the political blocs that are being created throughout the world. and reiterates a call for moderate rhetoric and the avoidance of mutual recriminations.

“Communiqué of the OAS Secretary General’s Group of Friends of Venezuela regarding the Agreement between the Government and the opposition’s Democratic Coordinator” . 2003. We are establishing partnerships in the areas of oil 61 .Brasilia. has inestimable potential. We have just recently outlined ambitious objectives in all these areas. *** Our strategic alliance is solidly supported on three pillars: political dialogue. The Group of Friends underlines the significance that this Agreement has in reinforcing a climate of peace and understanding in Venezuela. Press release. the increase in the trade of goods and services and the integration of infra-structure. expresses its great satisfaction with the conclusion of the Agreement between representatives of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and the political and social forces that support the government. with regard to the implementation of this Agreement. I wish to stress the enormous importance that our association represents in the field of energy. in Venezuela and in third countries.SOUTH AMERICA Mexico and Portugal. May 27. and promoting an atmosphere of confidence that will contribute towards consolidating the democratic conviviality amongst the Venezuelan people. and the political and civil society organizations that support the opposition’s Democratic Coordinator. within the ambit of the Negotiations and Agreement Table. What Petrobrás –(the Brazilian Petroleum Corporation) and PDVSA (the Venezuelan State Oil Company) can do together in Brazil. (…) The countries that form the Group of Friends reiterate their firm determination to continue to offer whatever support and collaboration that may be asked of them.

We will endeavor to cooperate not only in the surveillance and defense of the Amazon and its resources. valuable energy resources. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the ceremony to mark the signing of Acts of Cooperation between Brazil and Venezuela. (…) Extensive common frontiers. social and political thought. such impressive physical and human potential today 62 . This is our Great Homeland. extensive seas that open up routes of communication. human potential that has been expressed throughout history in the fields of science. In contrast. and all that which sums up the possibilities that exist for the prosperity of our people. *** Brazil and Venezuela understand that the fundamental objective they have in common is to reduce and eliminate the poverty that affects thousands of their citizens and is the greatest obstacle to the strengthening and prosperity of our nations. February 14. a rich cultural foundation. of economic. (…) We also have significant plans for the aeronautic sector and a platform for cooperation in the military area. housing and access to cultural resources. These include enough food to eat. stable climates. We will also explore in depth the complementary nature of our systems to generate hydroelectric energy. health.. a plan and joint program that will satisfy the vital needs of their people. 2005. In order to achieve this. refining.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK exploration. both Governments have agreed to implement a strategy. natural resources. such as biodiesel and ethanol. but also towards the joint development of science and technology. vast territorial areas crossed by important river systems. transport and commercialization. We will work together to produce renewable fuels. education.Caracas.

on a path leading towards union and posterity. *** The adherence of Venezuela to the Treaty of Asuncion is more that just a vote of confidence in the strength of our common project. investment. as well as to the exceptional growth of our nations in areas of trade. 2006.Caracas. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the ceremony to mark the signing of the Protocol of Accession to enable Venezuela to become a permanent Member of Mercosur . We also want Venezuela to be part of Mercosur so as to contribute towards the present process to form a Community of South American Nations . This will help Mercosur to be seen as the spinal cord of South American integration. and in matters related to energy cooperation.SOUTH AMERICA serves as a mere background to the poverty that afflicts our people. In international forums. the accession of Venezuela to Mercosur will add to the Venezuela-Brazil Strategic Alliance. 63 . The expansion of our political bloc of nations as far as the Caribbean reinforces the view that Mercosur is a Continental reality. such as the United Nations and the World Trade Organization. February 14. 2005. This is the main challenge for our nations and leaders. Joint Communiqué regarding the implementation of a Strategic Alliance between Brazil and Venezuela Caracas. July 4. (…) From a Brazilian point of view. we will join our voices to help change the rules and procedures that do not meet the needs of our region. The way to successfully face this challenge is to join forces to overcome and to triumph over these deprivations.something we especially value.

founded on a solid process of physical and energy integration. July 7.) The agenda for the President’s visit will also include the financing of infrastructure projects to promote physical integration. “Working Visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to Santa Cruz de la Sierra.. During the visit (of President Lula to Bolivia). During this meeting. There is a proposal to implement a construction project for a chemical-gas plant to be located in the border region. and legalization and migration issues. near the cities of Corumbá and Puerto Suárez. *** President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva has received today (13/01) at the Planalto Presidential Palace the visit of the elected President of Bolivia. Press release. as well as a technological cooperation project involving natural gas. issues on the 64 . (.. 2004.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK BOLIVIA Brazil gives the highest priority to its relations with Bolivia. improvements in the living conditions of populations inhabiting towns along the border. the Bolivian debt with Brazil will be officially pardoned. reciprocal access to ports and airports. The Brazilian Government has made efforts to consolidate its relationship with Bolivia in the field of energy. amongst other matters. who has come to Brazil as part of a series of visits to different countries in the world. The frequent meetings held between officials from both countries testify to the importance of this relationship. a country with which it has its most extensive borders. including the installation of a Center for Gas Technologies in Bolivia. Bolivia” Brasilia. (…) The visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to Santa Cruz de la Sierra therefore demonstrates the Brazilian Government’s interest in maintaining a preferential partnership with Bolivia. Evo Morales.

In accordance with the terms of its Constitution. and to move forward with the necessary negotiations to guarantee an equal and 65 . January 13. is recognized by Brazil as being an inherent sovereign right. so as to strengthen the industrialization of Bolivia and to turn gas into a means of generating employment and reducing the social inequalities that exist in both countries.SOUTH AMERICA bilateral agenda were advanced. infrastructure. The decision of the Bolivian Government to nationalize its rich underground resources and to control the industrialization. in order to preserve the interests of Petrobrás – the Brazilian Petroleum Corporation. Brazil also exercises full control over its own rich underground resources. as this involves an important element for the Brazilian energy matrix and for the development of Bolivia. President Lula stressed the willingness of the Brazilian Government to consolidate this relationship. The supply of gas to Brazil was highlighted as being strategic for the partnership that exists between both countries. as a result of negotiations undertaken by successive governments over the past fifty years. transport and sale of these. Press release issued by the Planalto Presidential Palace. such as those involving trade. (…) President Lula also told Evo Morales of his renewed determination to establish closer cooperation relations between Bolivia and Mercosur. President Lula reiterated the efforts being made by the Brazilian Government to enhance its relations with Bolivia. On this occasion. The Brazilian Government will act with firmness and serenity in all tribunals. *** The Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline has been in operation for seven years. agricultural cooperation. 2006. the expansion of investments and the development of social programs. “President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Evo Morales renew the partnership between Brazil and Bolivia” Brasilia.

Brasilia.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK mutually advantageous relationship for both countries. *** Bolivia and Brazil are moving forward together in the search for a model of development which ensures greater democracy. we need to work on projects together. 2006. and will always count on. Press release issued by the Planalto Presidential Palace . the Brazilian Government wishes to clarify that the supply of natural gas to its market is guaranteed by the political will of both countries. On this journey. Finally. On this same occasion. May 2. equality and progress for everyone and. The Presidents (of Brazil and Bolivia) should meet during the next few days to carefully examine questions concerning the relationship between Bolivia and Brazil and energy security in South America. (…) Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the session to constitute the Mercosur Parliament . it was clarified that the issue of the price of gas will be resolved by means of bilateral negotiations. as well as by contractual precepts protected under International Law. the Bolivian people can count on.Brasilia. we have to be conscious of the fact that we need to help Bolivia. above all. we need to work on development.. the solidarity and support of 66 . justice. for those who are excluded from society. 2006. as has been reiterated by President Morales during a telephone conversation with President Lula. *** If we want Bolivia to join Mercosur then it will certainly join Mercosur. September 14.

Evo Morales . February 15. and not all our priorities and solutions will be the same. In such a strong relationship. 67 . But these are small differences compared with that which unites us.SOUTH AMERICA Brazil to help them find their own course. our points of view may not always coincide with one another. We have great potential for common initiatives that are yet to be explored. Press statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the State visit of the President of Bolivia. 2007.Brasilia.

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not allowing bureaucracy to overwhelm the politics involved in the process and. and leads the movement for the liberalization and elimination of distortions in agriculture. May 21. Mercosur has put forward joint proposals to negotiating groups such as those involved in agriculture and the service industry. with a view to promoting discussions for a regional industrial policy. Brazil is prepared to do its part. during the 15th National Forum . The four members of Mercosur comprise the Cairns Group.MERCOSUR The strengthening of Mercosur. 2003.Rio de Janeiro. As well as demonstrating democratic vitality within the ambit of the bloc. which brings together competitive agricultural exporters from the developed and developing worlds. which is a priority in its own right and the foundation of the integration project for South America. At the same time. Lecture by Minister Celso Amorim given by the interim Minister of State. (…). we feel it is essential to preserve an adequate level of coordination among members of this bloc of nations in the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) negotiations. by supporting substantial investments by Brazilian companies in the region. in so far as the new leaders are demonstrating their commitment to Mercosur. should also be reflected in a coordinated action of our political bloc of nations in negotiations with partners outside the region. Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães. as the largest economy within Mercosur. In the World Trade Organization. the recent elections in Argentina and Paraguay may be considered as auspicious for the consolidation project to unify customs practices so as to form a common market. *** 71 .

2003. participative. 2003. scientific and technological policies. This is the Mercosur that our people want. We understand that its success is a sign that it has fulfilled its role as a union of common customs practices. We should follow a path of articulation between our systems of production. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 24th Mercosur Summit . We have to make Mercosur into a participative democracy. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Argentine Parliamentary session in honor of Brazil Buenos Aires. that also takes on a social dimension. This is the Mercosur that our people want. We should propitiate a profound system of integration between our universities and scientific institutions and encourage cultural contacts between our societies. We will enhance the creation of common institutions. of partnerships in the areas of education and culture within our bloc of nations. But Mercosur must also be a place for the coordination of issues involving industrial.Asuncion. *** We have always believed in Mercosur.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK We have to make Mercosur democratic. agricultural. and that guarantees the free circulation of our people. (…) Mercosur is at the center of Brazil’s strategy to ensure our rightful place in the world. so that a true sense of identity with Mercosur can blossom amongst the citizens of our countries. *** 72 . June 18. of well-coordinated social policies. October 16. And this is the Mercosur that we defended in our election campaign.

Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the Debate “Brazil: A Global Player” . social justice and the dignity of its citizens. 2005. we would like to stress that South American integration should be promoted in the interests of all. political and cultural integration and to construct new and wider forms of citizenship. traditions and a shared future. so that together our voices will be heard in various forums and multilateral organisms. *** 73 . In this respect. on the contrary.Paris. as well as by allowing new countries to join (the organization). Consensus of Buenos Aires.Buenos Aires. as well as the opposing interests of more developed blocs of nations. our Governments are working to strengthen Mercosur by improving its trade institutions and political aspects. Mercosur is destined to become an effective area of economic. *** Mercosur cannot be reduced to just a free trade zone or even a unified Customs area. It is our understanding that regional integration is a strategic option that is needed to strengthen the inclusion of our countries on a world level. Greater autonomy of decision will enable us to face the destabilizing movements of speculative financial capital more effectively. July 13. October 16. For these reasons.MERCOSUR We reaffirm our deep conviction that Mercosur is not just a trade bloc but. signed by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Néstor Kirchner . thereby increasing our capacity for negotiation. it constitutes an area that brings together values. 2003. with the objective of establishing similar systems of development that are associated with growth.

July 4. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the ceremony to mark the Signing of the Protocol of Accession for Venezuela to become a Full-Member of Mercosur . strengthening and expansion of Mercosur (…).. *** 74 . 2006. We reaffirm (…) our confidence in Mercosur as an instrument to stimulate sustainable economic growth and the distribution of income and the strengthening of regional democratic institutions. such as the integration of South America and especially Mercosur. in support of the economic efficiency of the region as well as to improve the level of development of the respective economies. which include coordinating and/or using the services of financing organisms for regional and national multilateral development. for regional production chains and to develop connected infrastructure projects. These should serve to stimulate our creativity and political intelligence. September 1. Joint Communiqué from the Ministers attending the Meeting of Ministers of Finance of Member and Associate States of Mercosur . 2006. financial and social areas directed towards the consolidation.Rio de Janeiro.Caracas.. *** The Ministers of Finance of the Member and Associate States of Mercosur reaffirm (. We recognize the particular importance of joint initiatives to consolidate financial strategies for our bloc of nations.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Combined difficulties are inherent to all innovative projects.) the commitment of their respective countries to seek common denominators in economic.

amongst others: an analysis of problems related to the defense of democracy and human rights. cooperation in the fight against terrorism. *** 75 . Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the 32nd Mercosur Summit . drug trafficking and associated crimes. Our union is necessary. justice and social inclusion. social development. political and social point of view.MERCOSUR Political dialogue will include the following issues. the prevention of conflicts. Memorandum of Understanding to Establish a Mechanism for the Political Dialogue and Cooperation between Member and Associate States of Mercosur and the Federation of Russia . and cooperation in scientific and technological matters. money laundering and other forms of transnational organized crime. cohesion and elimination of poverty. the strengthening of multilateralism. and are perhaps even more evident today. peace and international stability.Brasilia. 2007. January 19. the promotion of international security. it was essential that countries such as ours joined together to face the difficulties imposed by asymmetric globalization from an economic. *** Mercosur was created based on the conviction that. December 15. 2006. Our joint efforts are essential to promote development with decent employment. social inclusion.Rio de Janeiro. disarmament and the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. not even the strongest of our countries is able to resolve by itself the contradictions which afflict our societies. The reasons that gave rise to our association still remain at the forefront. in particular within the ambit of the system of the United Nations. in a complex and unequal world such as the one we live in.

Mercosur is no longer limited by governments and bureaucracies. which have had a spectacular increase in recent years. and of the Social Summit meeting.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK A few days ago. It represents a historical landmark in our bloc of nations. THE MERCOSUR PARLIAMENT The creation of this Parliament is an initiative. Most of these projects will benefit Uruguay and Paraguay. 2007. With the establishment of its Parliament. and possibly the most relevant one. Rio de Janeiro played host to one of the most important Mercosur summit meetings ever held. to attain this level of approximation (within Mercosur). thereby helping to tackle the regional imbalances among member countries. Article by Minister Celso Amorim in Isto É magazine. Important decisions were taken to strengthen and expand Mercosur. involving a sum of approximately US$70 million. January 29. The presence of 11 South American Heads of State clearly demonstrates the priority that everyone gives to the process of integration. The significant investment provided by the National Bank for Economic and Social Development (BNDES) to CAF will increase the number of projects directed towards the physical integration of South America. We set up the Social Institute and the Training Institute. (…) The active participation of the Ministers of Finance gave a boost to discussions regarding the coordination of macroeconomic policies and the strengthening of regional financing mechanisms. with direct trade benefits. We approved the first 11 projects within the ambit of the Mercosur Structural Convergence Fund (FOCEM). 76 . in December. “Heading towards South American Integration”. and has made a decisive step to place itself more and more at the service of its people.

We know that the Mercosur Parliament will not have a legislative function. It will serve as an important political laboratory so that. December 14. on December 14 of last year. It therefore reinforces a common identity of our association.MERCOSUR It helps strengthen the political dimension of integration. inaugurated a new stage in the institutional history of our bloc of nations. in the future. at least not initially.Brasilia. bringing together the communities and institutions of our people. It will consolidate our regional citizenship. (.. It contributes towards the consolidation of a sense of regional citizenship.) This Parliament will also make an enormous contribution towards the creation of a common area that can express the political pluralism and cultural diversity of our region. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the session to constitute the Mercosur Parliament . But it will play a decisive role in advancing the conciliation of national legislation in a variety of areas. 77 . It will not superimpose itself above the National Congresses of each Member State. we can move ahead with our plan for a supra-nationality. As we reflect upon the pluralism and the diversity of our peoples. And.. this Parliament will help make this process of integration more legitimate and democratic. *** The establishment of the Mercosur Parliament. it will make it much easier to incorporate Mercosur rulings into domestic juridical actions. when legislative approval is necessary. 2006. depending on how deep the roots of Mercosur are planted within our societies. This Parliament will consolidate the representative democracy and social legitimacy of the efforts we have made towards integration. following the great integration experiences that are taking place in the world today.

in accordance with the will of society. Now we have created this Parliament. January 19. we will elect its members according to the concept of citizen representation. using standards still to be determined simultaneously and by direct universal vote in all its Member-States.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the 32nd Mercosur Summit . Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the Opening Session of the Mercosur Parliament . 2007. towards consolidating and perfecting our bloc of nations. on an executive level.Montevideo. The Mercosur Parliament is a reality in evolution. Brazil will continue to work to strengthen the institutions that will enable Mercosur to become an ever present reality in the world and. we can safely say that the recent meeting held in Ouro Preto marked an important moment 78 . increasingly more palpable to our people. In 2010. above all. with its proposals. which enabled Mercosur to have “its own identity”. *** The (Mercosur) Parliament will increase the juridical (legal) security of the (integration) process and will contribute. May 7. 2007 DEALING WITH ASYMMETRIES THE MERCOSUR STRUCTURAL CONVERGENCE FUND (FOCEM) Summing-up the advances that have been made. We already have a Permanent Review Court (Olivos).Rio de Janeiro. We have the Mercosur Common Market Group . We created the office of the President of the Commission of Permanent Representatives. its debates. Brazil (…) will continue to do all that is within its power to help improve all instances of Mercosur.CMC and its multiple bodies.

(…) Occasional differences. in the O Estado de São Paulo newspaper. within the ambit of the Brazilian Program for the Competitive Substitution of Imports (PSCI). PARAGUAY (The Presidents of Brazil and Paraguay) effected the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding for Trade Promotion and Investment between both countries. Bearing in mind the imbalances that exist in trade relations between Brazil and Paraguay. Article by Minister Celso Amorim. (the Presidents) expressed their hopes that the activities of the Working Group. “From Ouro Preto to Ouro Preto”. The Fund can also be used to help strengthen the institutional structure of Mercosur and to contribute towards the general process of integration. 79 . and which can be summarized by the following sentence: “the solution for Mercosur problems should be sought by furthering Mercosur”. (…) The initiative to create the Mercosur Structural Convergence Fund (FOCEM) in turn. will enable financing for projects. to be created under this instrument.MERCOSUR in the consolidation of Mercosur. promote Paraguayan products on the Brazilian market. particularly in the more deprived regions of our bloc of nations. the development of competitiveness and promotion of social cohesion. arising from economic imbalances. as well as stimulate Brazilian investments in Paraguay. in the institutional field and in foreign relations. will help increase the entry of Paraguayan exports into Brazil. December 28. an initiative that has been recognized for the positive impact it has had on the bilateral economic agenda. 2004. Significant progress has been made in economic-trade and political-social areas. will still be dealt with in the same spirit that has inspired us so far.

Asuncion. URUGUAY (The Presidents of Brazil and Uruguay) reaffirmed their commitment to enhance the productive integration of Mercosur and to use efficient mechanisms to overcome any asymmetries. at their earliest convenience. Joint Communiqué during the Visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to Uruguay – Montevideo. 2007. May 21.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Joint Declaration during the Visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to Paraguay . 2006. set up at the level of Vice-Ministers to discuss the matter . In the light of terms established in article 03 of CMC Decision 34/06. held in Asuncion on February 7. they noted with satisfaction the results of the First Meeting of the “Ad Hoc” Working Group. 80 . February 26. (…) The Brazilian Government reiterated its proposal to make the original rules more flexible so as to favor the smaller economies of Mercosur. to serve as a basis for the preparation of “Guidelines for a Plan to Overcome Asymmetries in Mercosur”. In this respect. they stressed the importance that Party States present concrete proposals.

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CENTRAL AMERICA. We want to see biomasses generate sustainable development. 2005. February 16. We will stimulate business and cooperation projects that go beyond our trade relations. THE CARIBBEAN AND MEXICO I feel the time has come to establish a solid partnership between Brazil and the countries of the Caribbean. Central America. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening session of the 16th Conference of Heads of Government of the Caribbean Community (Caricom) Paramaribo. with flexibility and generosity to further this association. above all in South America. We will encourage the circulation of goods and services and we will seek greater inter-regional agreements on all levels. Miscegenation and the harmonious co-existence (of our peoples) are a hallmark of our identities. only second to Nigeria. Suriname. we are proud to have provided a refuge for a great many European and Asian immigrants. 83 . We have the second largest population of African descendents in the world. Like the Caribbean. (…) Brazil is prepared to move boldly forward. (…) We are mature enough for an alliance that can help us achieve our cooperation potential in the fight for a fairer and more united world. social inclusion and to reduce poverty in many poor countries of the world. *** The increased use of biofuels will be an inestimable contribution to generate income. in the Caribbean countries and in Africa. Brazil is very similar to the Caribbean: a land of many cultures.

Bush Guarulhos. Therefore. As well as encouraging direct contact and bringing together countries that share common views and interests. The universalistic mission of Brazilian foreign policy is reflected in the Brazilian Government’s interest in intensifying contacts and maintaining a mature and mutually beneficial relationship with countries of all regions. April 26. one that is non-excluding and genuinely global.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Statement given to the press by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva after his visit to Transpetro with the President of the United States. 2007.Santiago. countries belonging to the Central American Integration System (SICA) and with Mexico. 84 . 2007. George W. We are conscious of the fact that the destiny of our countries is becoming more and more intertwined. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the closing session of the World Economic Forum on Latin America . I said that Brazil had made an option for South America. Brazil is making every effort to diversify its partners and to get closer to developing countries. South-South cooperation has a wider meaning: it helps to construct a new world geography. *** In addition to South America. March 9. at the beginning of this year. *** In Davos. São Paulo. An option that also extends to the whole of Latin America and the Caribbean. I am convinced that our region is more and more prepared to deal with the challenges of globalization. Brazil wishes to have closer relations with the Caribbean Community (Caricom).

during his visit to Honduras . the opportunities that we have to offer each other. with victims. that will take me to Nicaragua. we have conquered freedom. more salaries and. And therefore. we no longer have the cold wars of the 20th century. at great cost. however narrow our map is in this region. 2007. above all. it was God. THE CARIBBEAN AND MEXICO Ministry of External Relations Strategic Guidelines. the men who rule the world now. And.Tegucigalpa. Statement given to the Press by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva.Brasilia. August 7. more jobs. or in the region of Panama. amongst ourselves. These were the convictions that brought me to Honduras. that will take me to Jamaica and to Panama. with sacrifices. into more education for poor people. *** I said to President Calderon: if we look at the map of Latin America we will see that. 2007. Pluriannual Plan 2008-2011 . May 4. For once and for all. *** 85 . and without any bias against wealthy countries. who joined our Continent. it was men who divided the Continent.CENTRAL AMERICA. have to think differently from the men who ruled the world in the 19th century and in the 20th century. in all His omnipotence. And these same convictions will lead me to visit other countries during the next few months. After all. And it is now necessary to transform those magical words “freedom and democracy” into enough food to fill the bellies of the poor who live on our Continent. we have to learn how to discover. because I like all of them and want to maintain our good relations. we no longer have the same colonization policy of the 19th century. into greater life and hope expectancy for our people. in the 21st century.

We want our own sovereignty. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during his meeting with the President of Nicarágua. This encourages us to work on the promotion of peace on a global level. 2007. we want to maintain relations with all the countries in the world. we believe that the conditions required of a United Nations operation have been complied with. Brazil seeks to reflect the concerns of our region and interpret the interests of the Haitian people and of the international community.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK For my part. August 8. ends up generating a cost for us all. even when far away. In the case of Haiti. HAITI1 Peace and democracy are achievements which the governments and people of Latin American should be proud of. you may be certain that Brazil can establish many partnerships with Nicaragua and. Instability. As a member of the Security Council. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the ceremony to mark the departure of (Brazilian) military 1 For further information about MINUSTAH. When we express ourselves in the face of a crisis such as is occurring in Haiti. 86 . without any hegemonic aspects involved. and this price is participation.Manágua. see article referring to the peace mission. but above all. because this history of hegemony is what led to our being colonized during so many centuries. Daniel Ortega . we want to govern by our own decisions. we are exercising our responsibility in an international context. Maintaining peace has its price. who conquered our independence. We must only ensure that we do justice to our heroes. we want this to be viewed as a partnership.

the first black republic in the world. Our main motivation in assuming the leadership of the military forces of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) was that Haiti.CENTRAL AMERICA. May 31.Plenarium Magazine. article by Minister Celso Amorim . public administration. The Brazilian Government has also urged other States to increase their cooperation with Haiti. and the institutional. should not be abandoned to a vicious circle of instability and conflict. *** Brazil has helped Haiti with bilateral cooperation in areas of food safety and security. should be based on three pillars: the promotion of stability. November 25. There will be no reconciliation or peace in Haiti unless we adopt this integrated perspective. Brazil has mobilized efforts by regional and international organisms so that Haiti could obtain the necessary resources and support to resume its process of development. THE CARIBBEAN AND MEXICO troops on a peace mission to Haiti . The international community. technical training and the environment. social and economic empowerment of the country. amongst others. “The Foreign Policy of the Lula Government: Two Years”. 2004. especially with development resources that will directly or indirectly benefit the poorer members of the Haitian population. the establishment of dialogue between the different political factions. in particular 87 . *** A concern for peace and social justice is reflected in the commitment undertaken by the Lula Government in support of the United Nations efforts in Haiti.Brasilia. and. In addition. in our understanding. 2005. This Stabilization Mission is different from previous ones.

We are convinced that no country can live isolated from the region in which it is located. February 5.Santiago. has repeatedly shown its recognition and appreciation of Brazil’s contribution to MINUSTAH. June 9. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening of the “High Level Seminar on Peace-Keeping Missions” . January 16.Brasilia. 2003. *** 88 . as from July 2006. Brazil has made every effort to ensure that Haiti again resumes dialogue and cooperation with its neighboring countries. and not as a collection of projects. *** We need to think of Haiti as a country. the concept of a State. Brazil therefore proposes. 2007. within the concept of a nation. We also consider this to be an anomaly and we also lament the fact that this is so. CUBA Reference has been made here to an empty seat in our organization. Press release “Brazil’s Participation in the United Nations Mission in Haiti” . as a sovereign state. therefore. We were very pleased to receive news of the normalization of relationships between Haiti and CARICOM. . Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the 33rd OAS General Assembly . and these projects should be included. which only the Haitians can decide themselves. that dialogue is initiated with regard to this situation.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Latin America and Caribbean countries.Brasilia. 2006. with the support of other countries.

above all. the more rigid their internal structures become. economically and industrially more developed. During recent months. We have discussed certain gestures. for forty years has suffered an embargo with which we do not agree.CENTRAL AMERICA. We cannot substitute the Cuban people and their leaders. Interview given by Minister Celso Amorim to the Jornal do Brasil newspaper . 89 . we maintain a policy of solidarity with a Latin American country which. against summary judgments. needs not only bolder trade policies but.. For this reason. but we can contribute towards (creating) a more positive atmosphere. But there are certain limits that have to be respected. A policy of constructive cooperation is always better than one of isolation.. as it stands now. so that we can increase. it requires the ability to bring together all that we have by way of our complementarities. their industrial development potential. I have invited Brazilian entrepreneurs to visit Cuba. and build closer ties so as to mutually contribute towards the growth and development of both Cuba and Brazil. and their potential in the area of services and tourism.) I believe that what we are doing in this Seminar is taking an exceptional step (forward) so that Cuba and Brazil can interact with all their (respective) scientific and technological knowledge. THE CARIBBEAN AND MEXICO The end of the United States embargo on Cuba would greatly help to open discussions concerning the re-democratization of that country.Rio de Janeiro. (…) The globalized world. so that we can have the means to compete on a more equal footing with countries that are technologically. 2003. *** (. For example. we are against the death penalty. The more you isolate a country. July 24.

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Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the Cuba-Brazil Meeting of Entrepreneurs - Havana, September 27, 2003. *** The Brazilian Delegation decided to abstain from voting on the Resolution L31 project because it understands that this resolution does not, in the present circumstances, genuinely contribute towards improving the situation of human rights in Cuba. (…) In this respect, we wish to express our concern that the Commission has been used by some member-countries to criticize others or to avoid criticisms of their own situations, which reduces the contribution that this Commission can make towards the progressive development of human rights. Brazil reaffirms the importance that all States should guarantee the strict enforcement of all human rights, in accordance with the commitment undertaken in the 1993 Declaration of Vienna, in favor of universality, inter-independence and the indivisibility of human rights. During the on-going dialogue with the Cuban Government, the importance invested in the full observance of these principles will be duly expressed. In this respect, the advances seen in Cuba in the field of economic, social and cultural rights have been duly registered, as well as the recent decisions taken by the Cuban Government to free political prisoners and to encourage new measures to be adopted to ensure that full human rights are enforced in economic, social and cultural, as well as in civil and political issues. Declaration of Brazil’s vote at the United Nations Human Rights Commission in Geneva, transcribed in a press release dated April 14, 2005.
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MEXICO The Presidents (Lula and Felipe Calderón) reiterate their firm disposition, as expressed throughout various meetings held during this year, to raise their bilateral relations to a new level, encouraging political dialogue and enhancing their relationship within the economic, financial, trade, legal, consular, cultural, academic, technical and scientific-technological spheres. In this respect, they expressed their satisfaction with the results achieved so far in several of these areas, and established follow-up measures with a view to achieving a successful outcome and consolidation of concrete objectives. They recognize the importance that this bilateral relationship has for both Brazil and Mexico, not only because of its impact on each individual country, but also as a basis for the significant role that both countries carry out on a regional and world level. In this respect, they reaffirmed the profound Latin American vocation of their countries and expressed a firm determination to give special attention to (establishing) friendship, dialogue, political reconciliation and cooperation with all countries in the region. Joint Communiqué during President Lula’s State visit to Mexico - Mexico City, August 6, 2007. *** We are megadiverse and megacultural countries. In both countries, our people have increasingly proven to be active participants in bringing about great social and political processes of change. (…) President Calderón and I agree that we should actively and work together with our Latin American and Caribbean neighbors. To this end, we can count on the long tradition of political understanding (that exists) in regional and sub-regional mechanisms in South America, Central America and the Caribbean. For our part, we have supported a process
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to create an economically integrated, socially united and politically democratic area within South America. Mexico has developed integration projects with its southern neighbors, with an emphasis on the creation of a physical infrastructure. Declaration by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the ceremony to mark the signing of acts and press conference - Mexico City. August 6, 2007.

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THE UNITED STATES The fluid dialogue with the United States of America is of vital importance, not only in issues related to the economy and trade, which are of immediate interest to us, but also to ensure that we play a role in addressing the important issues on the international agenda, compatible with the size and values of our country. Speech given by Ambassador Celso Amorim on taking office as Minister of State for External Relations Brasilia, January 1, 2003. *** I could not fail to make a special reference to our relationship with the United States, distinguished today by its sense of maturity. I met with President Bush when I was still President-elect. This year we were together in Evian and, more recently, we met in Washington for a bilateral meeting that was attended by our Ministers. During the talks we have had these last few days, my willingness to continue to cooperate with the United States was reinforced, in a spirit of pragmatism, frankness and loyalty that has been a distinguishing feature of the talks held between both Governments. (…) I even told President Bush that here in Brazil we are open to the idea of initiating talks (on trade negotiations) either tomorrow or the day after tomorrow. The only thing that we do not want is to be treated like second-class citizens. We want to be treated like equals. The same
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New York. The search for partnerships is not just a discussion about bilateral agreements involving issues such as ethanol. September 25. 96 .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK respect that we show others. is the image that best summed up this visit. Interview given by Minister Celso Amorim to the O Estado de S. do you think this would be the case? The facts speak for themselves. because the interests of Brazil. for the global market and in matters of aid to other countries. This was seen as an association that is important for both countries. are just as important as the interests of the United States are for the United States. But it is more than that. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Council on Foreign Relations . for Brazil. If the United States of America felt there was an anti-American feeling. but a search for a dialogue about world matters. (…) Symbolism is extremely important in politics. it is the beginning of a great story. Paulo newspaper . when referring to the relationship between the United States and Brazil. Quite the contrary. *** The President of the USA. wearing a Petrobrás hard hat. For those such as myself. we also want for ourselves. with a biofuel and biodiesel sticker on the back. 2007.São Paulo. There is no anti-American feeling. ethanol and biofuels were the focal point of interest. who witnessed the “Oil is Ours” campaign. During this visit. 2003. Condoleezza (Rice) repeated the word “strategic” several times. It is also important that the Americans recognize the leadership of Brazil (in this area). February 11. can appreciate the impact of this (image). *** Our attitude is a pragmatic one and we seek to defend Brazilian interests.

environmental protection. It is extremely important that the United States support these countries. during his visit to the United States . *** Presidents Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and George W. cultural diversity. free trade. based on shared values at the level of democracy. Bush reaffirmed their commitment to furthering strategic talks between Brazil and the United States.Camp David. human rights. especially in those that need trade benefits. when seen in a long-term perspective. March 31.Rio de Janeiro. Interview given by Minister Celso Amorim to the O Globo newspaper . We have to support them because this will guarantee regional stability. which is of interest to Brazil and certainly of interest to the United States. Press Statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. which translate into a determination to increase bilateral cooperation. multilateralism. March 11.NORTH AMERICA The fact that Brazil is developing cooperation projects with the United States in Africa is important. 2007. the defense of peace and international security and the promotion of development with social justice. *** I mentioned to President Bush the important role that the United States can play in South American countries. Joint Declaration during the visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the United States .Camp David. 2007. 2007. 31st March. *** 97 .

with Africa. 2004. with Latin America. Press statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the visit to Brazil of Prime Minister Paul Martin . These efforts are crucial to guarantee the protection of food sources for large numbers of the world’s population.. Another issue that unites Brazil and Canada is our firm commitment towards the environment. *** The Foreign Affairs Ministers view with satisfaction the dynamic nature of the economic relations between both countries. with Asia and the European Union. Our concern with sustainable development is reflected in our search for greater international coordination in the campaign to prohibit overfishing of world stocks. I think that. we are now developing closer our ties with the United States. CANADA Canada (. 2007. November 23.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK My visit to Washington is almost a continuation of the visit that President Bush made to Brazil. April 2. especially in the area of biofuels. Statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the program “Breakfast with the President” .Brasilia.) is a decisive partner for Brazil in the search for sustainable development and equitable economic growth. which in 98 .. now that we have established good policies with South America. which is something that I think in the next 15 to 20 years will change a little the history of humanity in matters related to fuels.Brasilia.

In this respect.. the country in the region that receives their largest investments. 2007. Press statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the State visit to Brazil of the Governor-General of Canada.Brasilia. Through a mature attitude. *** Canada has around US$ 7 billion invested in Brazil. July 11. they express the commitment of Brazil and Canada in their endeavors to join forces to further intensify their trade links and reciprocal investments. Peter MacKay Brasilia. February 5. we have been able to overcome differences between our aeronautical industries and are now ready to build partnerships in strategic sectors. Michaëlle Jean . Joint Declaration during the visit to Brazil of the Canadian Minister of Foreign Affairs. 99 . 2007.) Canada and Brazil have always conducted their international actions on the assumption that economic and social development is the greatest element of stability for peace and security.. and that multilateralism should serve to protect human rights in its fullest sense.NORTH AMERICA 2006 recorded a significant increase of over 14% in trade exchange compared to 2005. and with a considerable increase in the flow of investments. (.

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Brasilia. The OAS certainly has. 2003. August 7. The fact that space has been allocated for their headquarters within the Itamaraty Palace reflects the great importance that Brazil gives to OAS organisms as well as to the activities developed by that Commission. Press release “Minister Celso Amorim will inaugurate the new headquarters of the Inter-American Juridical Commission” . is essential to the resolution of problems that are at the root of the crisis in Haiti. before the community of countries in the Hemisphere. the importance of the project initiated by the Brazilian 103 . especially of Latin America and the Caribbean. June 7. a role in this process. *** The Brazilian Government understands that the participation of the region. 2004. *** During the course of the work of the General Assembly the Brazilian delegation will reiterate. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the 34th OAS General Assembly . Ecuador. and will have.Quito.MULTILATERAL REGIONAL FORA THE ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES (OAS) The Inter-American Juridical Commission (IJC) is the only body of the inter-American system based in Brasilia.

Brazil defends that a clear distinction be made between defense and security matters and.Latin American Integration Association . We believe. and to the protection of refugees and those repatriated within the Americas. however. will provide an opportunity to promote debates under the heading of pluralism in connection with issues of common interest for the whole Continent.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Government on issues related to the fight against racism and racial intolerance. HEMISPHERIC SECURITY Together with the countries comprising ALADI . Holding one more regular meeting of the General Assembly of the OAS. that this matter requires a detailed examination on a political-diplomatic level. “36th Session of the OAS General Assembly” -Santo Domingo. and not the IDC. and that the Hemispheric Security Commission. June 1. should remain as the focal point of the entire Inter-American security system. without operational functions. has supported maintaining the Inter-American Defense Council as the military and technical advisory body of the OAS. We are prepared to discuss a new contingent structure for the Inter-American Defense Council and to more clearly define its juridical links with the OAS. “Brazil and new Global and Hemispheric Concepts of Security”. article written by Minister Celso Amorim and presented during the series of debates about contemporary Brazilian thought on matters related to defense and security. Press release. as the Organization’s highest political forum. organized by the Ministry of 104 . in this respect. 2006. against extreme poverty. enabling Brazil to reaffirm its international commitments towards the consolidation of multilateralism on a regional sphere.

Itaipava.Mexico City. Brazil wants to contribute towards the work of the Hemispheric Security Council in examining and evaluating this agreement. however. within the ambit of the OAS . October 28. that the ITRA. State of Rio de Janeiro. (…) We do not participate in military alliances whose scope of actions may conflict with the United Nations Security Council. (…) The spirit of solidarity that exists in our hemispheric relations was quickly expressed in our response to the heinous terrorist attacks of September 11. as well as regional and sub-regional. 2003.MULTILATERAL REGIONAL FORA Defense . 2001. In accordance with the mandate that will be approved by us. We recognize. October 11 and 12. which was formed under different historical circumstances. Latin America and the Caribbean have been part of a region that has spent less on armaments when compared to the rest of the world. At that time. we should also recognize the importance of individual national characteristics. 2003. *** Since we have confirmed the existence of common threats and challenges and the need to face these in a concentrated and united manner. We were also pioneers in adopting instruments in the area of disarmament and non-proliferation. Other instruments also require urgent reform. Brazil took the decision to activate the mechanisms provided for in the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Aid (ITRA). which enjoys the legitimate and exclusive authority in such matters. Over the last decades. *** 105 . should be reviewed. as well as promoting mutual confidence and transparency. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the general debate during the Special Security Conference.

Brazil also feels honored in being able to make its contribution. June 4. commissions and public attorneys for human rights have been created or consolidated. January 9. 2003. Here. Speech by Ambassador Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães. Non-governmental civil entities have begun to offer citizens greater recourse in the event of possible abuses by the State Speech by Minister Celso Amorim during the 33rd OAS General Assembly Santiago.Panama City.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK In the field of defense. 2007. at the 37th OAS General Assembly. DEMOCRACY Important advances have been recorded in our Continent in the area of democracy. which sanctions the principle of civil supervision and the democratic reconciliation of its authorities.American Defense Council during its first year under the regime of the new Statute. Secretar y General of the Ministr y of Exter nal Relations. to whom I offer my congratulations on the ability he has shown in conducting the process of transition of the Council to the regime under the new Statute. *** 106 . we should highlight the work carried out by the Inter. In support of this transformation. the laws of many countries have incorporated important human rights principles and mechanisms to protect the individual and minority groups. Institutions such as special magistrates. in the person of General Armando Ribeiro. The era of privileged regimes has come to an end. first President of the Inter-American Defense Council in its new phase.

Fort Lauderdale. which is an essential aspect of the process to strengthen democracy. Speech given by Ambassador Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães. 107 . We have provided support and solidarity in situations of crises. be found on a national level.MULTILATERAL REGIONAL FORA Some of the countries in the region have experienced recurring difficulties. at the 37th OAS General Assembly . as I have already mentioned. Brazilian diplomacy is guided by the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs (of other countries). we should reiterate Brazil’s commitment to a swift conclusion of the negotiations regarding the Social Charter of the Americas. whenever we have been called on and if we believe that this will help in a positive way. 2007.Panama City. we need to encourage dialogue between the different social sectors. 2005. as sanctioned in our Charter. Faced with such situations. The Government of President Lula has associated this basic principle with an attitude that we describe as “non-interference”. Secretary General of the Ministry of External Relations. From our point of view. capable of complimenting and expanding values and principles established in the Democratic Charter. *** In the context of the fight against social inequalities. value and strengthen institutions and support solutions that can. June 6. based on concepts already sanctioned in the OAS Charter and by other commitments undertaken by our Government. and must. June 4. especially as the result of the serious economic and social problems that still exist on our Continent. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim during the 35th OAS General Assembly . this is a document of essential value for the Inter-American system.

State officials and non-governmental institutions. THE RIO GROUP We accept our responsibilities.Panama City. reaffirming its unequivocal support to the rulings of the American Convention on Human Rights. thereby demonstrating its total conviction of the legitimacy and effectiveness of the decisions that they issue and. at the 37th OAS General Assembly . In order to achieve common 108 . the Brazilian Government has shown a high level of priority in maintaining intense and frank relations with its principal bodies – the Inter-American Commission of Human Rights (CIHD). Brazil has recognized the controversial jurisdiction of the Inter-American Court since December 2006. June 4. Speech given by Ambassador Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK HUMAN RIGHTS Holding the session of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights in this country has reinforced Brazil’s commitment to the Inter-American system of human rights. *** Within the specific ambit of the Inter-American system. 2007. and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights -. and constitutes an innovative instrument to increase knowledge about the system amongst those who practice Law. 2006. “Inter-American Court of Human Rights” Brasilia. Press release. at the same time. Secretary General of the Ministry of External Relations. We have not relinquished our right to take the future into our own hands. which should serve as a principal guide towards maintaining the balance of the system itself. March 17.

2004.Brasilia. Nicaragua. Guyana. Bolivia. Panama. The Group is composed of Argentina. The Latin American and Caribbean family of nations needs to use us as an adequate place for consultation and political deliberation thus enabling us to face our collective challenges. Guyana also represents the Caribbean Community in the Mechanism. El Salvador . together with the search for economic development and social justice. form the main points of action of those who are part of the Mechanism. Speech given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 18th Presidential Summit of the Rio Group . Costa Rica.MULTILATERAL REGIONAL FORA objectives. *** The Rio Group was created to resolve situations of crises. Uruguay and Venezuela. “19th Summit Meeting of the Rio Group” . Press release. the Rio Group began as an instrument for the consolidation of democracy and the practice of political debate which. *** A channel for presidential diplomacy between Member States and a forum for deliberations on Latin American and Caribbean positions in regional and international matters. Peru. Guatemala. Brazil. Belize. Honduras. March 1. Paraguay. Chile. Colombia. constructing its own solutions that would allow for appeasement and reconciliation 109 .Rio de Janeiro. The Dominican Republic. Mexico. Ecuador. and in accordance with the common regional viewpoint. The Rio Group is therefore an important instrument. It is our duty to construct a more prosperous and democratic region. November 4. we count on our democratic convictions and our spirit of conciliation and tolerance. 2007.

enables us to fight against terrorism. democratizes the international system.. It has grown. The Rio Group is a privileged forum to create understanding between the Latin American and Caribbean people in priority issues on the regional and international agendas. It is our “affinity in diversity”. cultures and civilizations. 2007.. can and should be overcome through dialogue and mutual understanding. read by Minister Celso Amorim . This promotes peace. increased its representativeness and should be open to all countries in the region who wish to join. the IberoAmericans. between religions.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK in regions shaken by conflict. We are an example of how borders between North and South. The Rio Group was the seed that gave birth to a wide network of mechanisms of consultation and dialogue that are at our disposal today. The name of this response is tolerance. Our history of struggles was also written in moments of conviviality and conciliation. IBERO-AMERICAN CONFERENCE There is a line that runs across our countries and distinguishes our international conduct. Our Community should 110 . Guyana. diplomacy and political dialogue have proven to be decisive instruments to promote peace and development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Since then. We will only successfully overcome these challenges if we are able to defeat prejudice and a lack of confidence. This is nurtured by the rich quality of our differences and enables us to provide eloquent responses to contemporary world threats.Georgetown. As a result of this activity. boosts sustainable development and the fight against hunger and poverty. between rich and poor. March 3. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 19th Summit of the Rio Group. we now have a region that is peaceful and democratic. This is the greatest contribution that we. have to offer.

it is necessary to reaffirm the commitment of our community with the values of solidarity and collective welfare. The bitter experiences of the 1980s and s1990 taught us a hard. I am certain that we will know how to use. This has been the challenge facing the Ibero-American Community. “The International Projection of the Ibero-American Community”. October 15. Unemployment. who have already expressed an interest in such a proposal. but essential lesson. economic and social differences. Castilian Spanish speakers. the solutions must be socially just. the greatest virtues that we have: the inexhaustible wealth represented by our people and the knowledge that we share a common history and destiny. 2005. *** The Heads of State and Ibero-American governments will meet in Santiago (Chile) to pursue the debate and advance proposals on the great issue of the day: the role of public policies in the promotion of social cohesion. without a doubt. Spain. In this pursuit.MULTILATERAL REGIONAL FORA extend its international dialogue. 111 .November 9. “The Ibero-American Community”. However. We could begin with the Portuguese-speaking countries and with Equatorial Guinea. 2007. for our own benefit. In a world where the logic of globalized markets and the speed of technological transformations have called into question the effectiveness of public policies. poverty. Our proximity to one another is not just measured in values and aspirations. Only a democratic State can address these two dimensions. particularly to Africa. speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 15th Ibero-American Summit . Article by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in the Folha de São Paulo newspaper . require economically consistent responses.Salamanca.

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July 3. Both sides share essential values and principles. Press Release. biological diversity. climate change. involving matters of peace and security. “Brazil-European Union Summit Meeting” and the Visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the European Commission” . based on their close historical. cultural and economic ties.Brasilia. democracy and human rights. on topics of mutual interest on the bilateral. the primacy of Law. in areas of energy. Both sides agreed that it is necessary to identify and promote common strategies to face world challenges. Brazil and the European Union decided to establish an all-embracing strategic partnership. regional and international agendas. as well as a market economy. climate change. the protection of energy sources and 115 . 2007. *** At their historic first summit meeting. science and technology. technical cooperation and the fight against poverty and social exclusion.EUROPE THE EUROPEAN UNION The raising of the level of our bilateral relations to the condition of a Strategic Partner reflects the dynamic nature and strengthening of relations between Brazil and the European Union. The Strategic Partnership enables us to reinforce the channel of privileged dialogue at the highest level. such as democracy. the promotion of human rights and basic freedoms.

In 2006. Joint Declaration. the fight against poverty and social exclusion. “Brazil-European Union Summit” Lisbon. an 116 . They are also in agreement with regard to the importance of fulfilling their present obligations resulting from international treaties that are still in force. we are raising our relationship to the level of its potential. Brazil and the European Union stressed the great economic and political importance that this agreement will have for both regions and its role in enhancing their respective processes of integration. when a Portuguese friend is heading the European Commission. as well as promote initiatives in matters of cooperation. we exceeded the figure of US$ 50 billion in bilateral trade. It is significant that this process began in Lisbon and occurs at a time when Portugal is taking over the Presidency of the Council of the European Union.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK sustainable development. and we are projecting a common view for a world in transformation. Brazil and the European Union agreed that the best way to deal with questions of world order is through an effective form of multilateralism centered on the United Nations system. initiated under the German Presidency of the European Union. 2007. Both parties are to be commended for establishing a political dialogue between Brazil and the EU. in matters of disarmament and non-proliferation. July 4. We are launching a new strategic partnership. which will enable further development in economic relations between both regions and will intensify the political dialogue. Brazil and the EU give great importance to the strengthening of relations between the European Union and Mercosur and are determined to conclude the European Union-Mercosur Association Agreement. *** Today we meet to initiate a new era in the relationship between Brazil and the European Union.

The Brazilian Government understands that this partnership. 2007. “Proposal to establish a strategic partnership between Brazil and the European Union” Brasilia. Press release. . in the context of which the High Level Political Dialogue was formalized on April 30.I am also sure that a union of these two blocs will contribute towards the construction of a multi-polar world. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Plenary Session of the Brazil-European Union Business Summit . 2007. regional development and maritime transport. can serve as a political boost to Mercosur-European Union negotiations. with a view to pursuing cooperation initiatives in different areas of mutual interest. science and technology. such as energy/biofuels. which is of a strictly bilateral nature. technical cooperation. June 1. The total sum of European direct investment in Brazil is US$ 150 billion. July 4. *** 117 .Lisbon. the environment. (…) Our trade exchange with the European Union represents 22% of our foreign trade. I am convinced that we have much to gain from this association. free of hegemonic influences. *** The Brazil-European Union strategic partnership reflects the advancement of bilateral relations. social issues. provided that the needs and peculiarities of both blocs are taken into consideration. (…) I also believe that our association should contribute towards ensuring that our negotiations involving the association agreement between Mercosur and the European Union should have a successful outcome. and 60% in relation to 2003.EUROPE increase of 13% in comparison with the previous year.

BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK The Ministers (of Mercosur and the European Union) reaffirm the importance of the strategic relations between Mercosur and the European Union and the priority given to concluding an ambitious and equitable inter-regional Association Agreement.Brussels. Multilateralism and international cooperation will encourage solidarity. the elimination of poverty. that further endeavors are required to reach the desired level of ambition that will reflect the strategic importance of the Association Agreement. They allow for the construction of a strategic association between the two Continents. 2005. economic and trade relations and to contribute towards reducing social-economic disparities that exist in both regions. (environmental) preservation and the fight against AIDS. what democracy was and is to nations. Multilateralism is to international relations. as an instrument to bolster political. Joint Communiqué from the Mercosur–European Union Ministerial Meeting . September 2. (…) The ability to rule democratically is strengthened when there is peace and security. the Ministers recognized that substantial progress has already been made towards concluding the Association Agreement. (…) International cooperation is also needed for the eradication of hunger. THE LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN–EUROPEAN UNION SUMMIT (LAC – EU) Multilateralism and Social Cohesion – the topics being discussed at this Third Latin America and Caribbean–European Union Summit – are central to the political discussions we initiated in 1999. as well as the many other challenges and problems that afflict all humanity. They agreed. which can enhance our efforts for development 118 . including a free trade zone in accordance with World Trade Organization norms. however. In accordance with the previous Ministerial meeting held in Lisbon.

119 . Mexico. the promotion and protection of human rights. Our regions have been consolidating their processes of integration. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 2nd Working Session of the 4th Latin America and the Caribbean – European Union Summit . May 12. social and economic development and respect for international law are essential for peace and security. May 12. 2006.Vienna. not only of governments. 2004. respect. *** It is our firm conviction that democracy. 2006.EUROPE and the sustainable growth of our economies in Latin America and the Caribbean. May 28. and in the European Union.. we are thus determined to advance the multilateral agenda while this is a priority issue that cuts across our bi-regional relations. This is a major objective. of our people. The Declaration of Vienna. during the 4th Latin America and Caribbean–European Union Summit -Vienna. but above all. the rule of law. Latin America and the Caribbean. Statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Working Meeting on Multilateralism at the 3rd Latin American and Caribbean – European Union Summit. Guadalajara. *** There are many values and projects that bind Europe. the eradication of poverty. Further reiterating our common commitment to a solid and efficient multilateral system.

We need to diversify 120 . There are seven million Brazilians of German stock. In 2006. give a particularly significant meaning to this partnership. making Brazil the largest destination for German exports to South America. economic and trade interests to scientific-technological. added to the high level of interchange and bilateral cooperation. “The visit to Brazil of the German Federal Vice-Chancellor and Minister of External Relations. our trade exchange exceeded a new level of US$ 12 billion. values and interests in common which. On a commercial level.200 companies based on German capital. as well as between members of parliament and with representatives of different sections of society from both countries. involving very different fields. November 16. But we can do much more than this. ranging from political. *** Today [President Köhler] visits Brazil as President of Germany. 2004. Joschka Fischer”-Brasilia. a country with which we have had historical relations of friendship and business. cultural and environmental issues. Germany is our principal partner in Europe. Press release. both on a government level. Our relations are very strong. German investments and technology have contributed towards the modernization of Brazil’s industry and the generation of jobs. There are 1. Since the 1950s.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK BILATERAL RELATIONS / STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIPS GERMANY Relations between Brazil and Germany are distinguished by a broad convergence of perceptions. educational. responsible for generating 8% of Brazil’s Gross Domestic Product. There are 9 billion dollars in direct investments in Brazil.

adding greater value to Brazilian exports to Germany. The decision to sign this document in Santa Cruz de la Sierra was taken during the Working Visit of President Aznar to Brazil. widening and strengthening cooperation. based on their common interest in strengthening it. (…) We will widen our bilateral cooperation. in Santa Cruz de la Sierra. especially to Ibero-American areas. José María Aznar.. In the same context. in parallel with the 13th Ibero-American Summit. This document translates the desire of both Governments to raise the level of their bilateral relationship. SPAIN President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the President of the Government of Spain. signed the Brazil-Spain Strategic Partnership Plan today. both Governments committed themselves to maintaining permanent consultation about the reform of the United Nations Security Council. In the preamble to this Plan.EUROPE this trade profile. Horst Köhler .Brasilia. social development and economic growth. on October 29. focusing on the transfer of technology. should the latter undergo a reform. 2007. both countries declared that the benefits of a wider collaboration should extend to their respective regions. and we will move forward with our global agenda in the area of alternative sources of energy Press release from President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the State Visit to Brazil of the President of the Federal Republic of Germany. and is favorable the Brazilian Government’s aspiration. March 8. The Strategic Partnership Plan enhances bilateral 121 . The text is structured around three main topics: strengthening political dialogue. The document signed by both leaders stated that Spain understands the reasons for Brazil’s bid for a permanent seat in the United Nations Security Council.

August 5. through educational and training programs. in January 2005. 2005. Maria Teresa Fernández de la Vega Sanz” . such as the Ibero-American Community of Nations and negotiations for the Mercosur-European Union Interregional Agreement. Press release. both countries have been building a strategic partnership. This association was further strengthened during the visit to Brazil of President Zapatero. *** Relations between Brazil and Spain have gained renewed and intense momentum in recent years. as shown by the fact that Spain is the European country with the largest investments in Brazil. by the signing of the 122 . as well as cultural development. “The Visit to Brazil of the First VicePresident of the Government of Spain.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK economic relations.Brasilia. Press Release. Both Governments pledged their commitment to support social development. solidly anchored in initiatives and actions that are of reciprocal interest. *** The importance given by both Governments to the policies to fight social inequalities on various levels resulted in several bilateral cooperation projects in the areas of science. culture and education. as well as in the innovative proposal to exchange debt for investments in education. since the 90s. Both countries are amongst the leaders of the Action against Hunger and Poverty project. which has succeeded in mobilizing international attention to identify alternative financing for development and the fight against hunger. November 14.Brasilia. “Brazil-Spain Strategic Partnership Plan” . As well as benefiting from forums. 2003.

Madrid . “Visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to Spain” . They equally stressed the importance that their expatriate citizens receive proper and nondiscriminatory treatment.Brasilia. We share the same perception regarding the advantages and risks of globalization. In the international sphere. 2007. with regard to the strengthening of democracy. the respect for human rights. in connection with the Consolidation of the Brazil-Spain Strategic Partnership Press release. FRANCE The Brazil Year in France (2005) is an encounter of two people who.September 17. they stressed their mutual commitment towards the dialogue of civilizations and the strengthening of multilateralism. so as to preserve the high level of relations that bind together the people of both countries. with less 123 . We believe in multilateralism and in dialogue as instruments to build a more prosperous and just world. during the former’s visit to Spain. one of the pillars of the inherent diversity and tolerance shown today by both countries. in the course of history. September 14.EUROPE Declaration of Brasilia. 2007. have built affinities and convergences. during the course of their history. (…) Both Heads of Government testified that immigration was. the promotion of peace and development with social justice. Joint Declaration by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and President José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero. *** Presidents Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero reaffirmed the values shared by both countries.

to create six working groups on topics linked to scientific and technological cooperation and their industrial applications. Press release. in 2005.Brasilia. *** Cooperation between Brazil and France has gained a new impetus with the decision of both Presidents. July 13. your presence here is the best demonstration of the enormous potential that exists in the economic and business relations between our two countries. defense.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK poverty and less hunger. It is worth stressing the mutual interest that exits in developing the international ethanol market and establishing trilateral cooperation to expand the production of biofuels in developing countries. Our working groups have been meeting and adopted programs with a view to bringing our bilateral cooperation closer in the areas of renewable energy sources. particularly in Africa and the Caribbean. 2005. I bring you a word of confidence and determination. nuclear energy. May 23. technological innovation. They can benefit from the mutual transfer of technology that will reach not only the vast Brazilian market. *** 124 . (…) Partnerships between our businesses will also benefit the French presence in Brazil. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during a lunch with French and Brazilian business people Paris. but will serve as an operational platform for all our South American neighbors. “State Visit to Brazil of the President of the French Republic. space technology and cooperation with African countries. Jacques Chirac” . (…) Distinguished entrepreneurs. 2006.

we signed an agreement for the construction of a bridge crossing the Oiapoque River. An important part of our history was written with the help of the Italian immigrants who came here in search of a better future and ended up by “making America”. May 25. 2006. we are united by family and blood ties. This agreement has already been approved by the Brazilian National Congress. while remaining one hundred percent Brazilian. Press statement from President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the visit to Brazil of the President of France. France has been an important ally of ours in conducting crucial international issues. We have a little Italy in the heart of Brazil. ITALY Brazil and Italy are linked by historical and cultural ties.) Today. and bolster the physical integration of the whole of South America. They fulfilled their dreams and helped to construct Brazil. the Italian-Brazilian community includes nearly 25 million people. Our historical links should facilitate dialogue and cooperation in the 125 . This provides us with an opportunity to resume and consolidate bilateral issues of interest. (. This bridge will help to strengthen our cooperation efforts along the border region.Brasilia. (…) In 2005. which links the State of Amapá to French Guiana.EUROPE The visit of President Chirac is an opportunity to consolidate a favorable partnership that was launched during my visit to Paris. as well as to address those at a regional and international level. in July 2005. (…) Brazilians and Italians see the world through the same lenses of their Latin and humanistic heritage.. Jacques Chirac . The immigrants and their descendents are very proud of their origins. The greater area of São Paulo is the largest Italian city outside Italy. I know we can count on the support of President Chirac for its speedy approval by the French legislature.. More than this.

BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK international scene. *** President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the President of the Council of Ministers.Brasilia. We share the same conviction that there will never be long-term peace and security until we have a more economically and socially balanced world. 2005. 2007. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the Joint Declaration to the press during his visit to Italy . March 23. (…) What is so striking about the Brazil-Italy relationship are the solid human ties that unite our two people. Press release. was a legal landmark of singular importance for the development of a bilateral 126 . “Official visit to Brazil by the President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic. are expected to reaffirm their commitment to establish a strategic partnership and both agreed to set up Consultation Mechanisms at the highest possible political level. signed in 2000. with a view to holding annual meetings to evaluate agreed commitments.Rome. many of whom hold dual citizenship. Cooperation and Consultation. PORTUGAL The Heads of Government rejoiced over the excellent relations that exist between their sister nations. illustrated by the fact that there are 25 million Brazilians of Italian origin. October 17. Romano Prodi” . They recognized that the Treaty of Friendship. to set new standards for their bilateral relationship and the coordination of positions on topics of mutual interest on the international agenda. Romano Prodi.

August 9. during the 7th Brazil-Portugal Summit . 2004. Just like the millions of Portuguese that came to help build the greatness of our country.EUROPE agenda. today many Brazilians are helping to forge a modern Portugal. for the way it works to promote consultation and reconciliation.2 billion in 2005. (…) International activities between Portugal and Brazil are guided by the same set of values. involving all of the many dimensions that exist in the relationship between Brazil and Portugal.Brasilia. *** 127 . that is to say. Joint Declaration from President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the Prime Minister of Portugal. it has doubled in just a few years. I see with great satisfaction how far we have advanced in our interchange during recent years. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the visit to Brazil of the Prime Minister of Portugal. We have the firm conviction that these ideals are best defended within the ambit of regional processes of integration. The affection with which I have always been greeted Portugal is proof of this. We have a fundamental commitment and respect for human rights and democracy. 2006. *** Portugal and Brazil are united by permanent ties of friendship and history. José Sócrates . João Manuel Durão Barroso. Trade between both countries exceeded US$ 1. We are determined to strengthen multilateralism and promote international law as an instrument towards peace and security. (…) The partnership between Portugal and Brazil originated with the entrepreneurial spirit of our people and their penchant for solidarity.Brasilia. March 8.

We trust that the leadership of the United Kingdom in Europe. We now have the possibility of joining forces to face the challenges of the modern world in many different areas. a diplomatic initiative with long-term objectives that also involves the efforts of both countries. regional and cultural issues. in the G-8 and in the multilateral scene will contribute decisively towards the advancement of topics of mutual interest. it is diversified and modern.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Our bilateral relationship is distinguished by a full agenda. July 9. We will also unite forces in the fight 128 . The exceptional momentum of our present economies offers us many different opportunities. Also to be highlighted is the special nature of the strengthening of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPLP). is a top priority of the Governments of Brazil and the United Kingdom. during which high-level proposals for a genuine Agenda for Development were put into effect. and includes political. both on an internal as well as international level.Brasilia. We need to develop mechanisms for trilateral cooperation that will enable the full potential of our joint experiences to be utilized to benefit African countries. in the United Kingdom. particularly the poorest ones. “State Visit to Portugal of Presidente Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva” . going beyond its fundamental traditions. 2007. the same spirit of renovation. Our countries have ties and special responsibilities in relation to Africa. the potential of which we are only now beginning to tap into. Prime Minister Blair and I are determined do unblock multilateral trade negotiations. THE UNITED KINGDOM The entrepreneurial nature and affinities of our peoples have provided momentum for a very productive relationship. (…) I perceive. Press release. economic. The successful completion of the Doha Round.

injustice and exclusion. announced during my inaugural speech.EUROPE against terrorism. With the valuable participation of Russia. 2006. We are opening new horizons in our relations. security. 2006. March 7. RUSSIA Your visit (President Putin’s) is the first of a Head of State of the Federation of Russia to our country. (…) We agree to strengthen our multiple complementarities and explore the unlimited potential that the scientific ingenuity and technical capacity of our people will use to pave the way for full development. Nothing better expresses these possibilities than the space cooperation program. with renewed optimism and determination. (…) Perhaps even more importantly. to prioritize closer ties between Brazil and Russia. the 129 . Joint Declaration by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Prime Minister Tony Bair -London. Today we have the opportunity to fulfill the decision. Brazil is resuming. the promotion of economic growth based on free trade. March 9. human rights and social justice. its program to use the Alcântara Base to launch commercial satellites. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the State Banquet offered by Queen Elizabeth II London. the recognition of the ties that exist between development and peace. illicit drug trafficking and transnational criminal activities. the determination to fight poverty. *** Our relations are based on common values: the crucial importance of democracy and the rule of law.

so that the fight against terrorism should be conducted in a persistent manner and within legal boundaries. region or cultural tradition and that international efforts in this area should be used to defend universal values that have been conquered by all peoples of the world. *** The (Presidential) leaders (Lula and Putin) confirmed their firm proposal to promote cooperation between their two countries and with other members of the international community. Vladimir Putin .Brasilia. Vladimir V. The Presidents highlighted the importance of cooperation in areas of high technology and the strengthening of bilateral cooperation relations. *** 130 . based on International Law. development with justice and the promotion of human rights. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the visit of the President of the Federation of Russia. Both Presidents underlined that terrorism should not be identified with any nationality. November 22. of all different creeds and ethnic origins. November 22. such as peace. the principles and rulings of the United Nations and universally recognized Human Rights. particularly cooperation that is destined for the peaceful use of outer space (…). in their desire for freedom and justice.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK discussions that I have had with President Putin were an opportunity to reaffirm the values and proposals that unite us. 2004. 2004. the stability of democracy. Putin .Brasilia. Joint Declaration on the Outcome of the Official Talks held between President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the President of the Federation of Russia.

I have traveled to Finland. We have identified new areas of cooperation. SCANDINAVIAN COUNTRIES During the last week. As I have already said.EUROPE Recent initiatives make science and technology one of the most promising fields to achieve the “technological alliance” that President Putin and I have proposed. earth physics. (…) The Scandinavian countries have always been the source of admiration and inspiration because of their models of social welfare and extremely high rates of human development. as well as having large. This trip has strengthened the relationship that Brazil has with a region that is a partner in strategic international negotiations. we are working with the Russian side to improve the Brazilian Satellite Launching Vehicle. Other areas in which we have moved forward are: metrology. biotechnology. have expressive similarities in common. The successful flight of our cosmonaut. Lt. in the Russian section of the International Space Station. in fact. This relation was not born today. Russia. We are territorial giants with an important influence in our respective continental contexts. Russia is a country that carries great weight in the world panorama and exerts a significant role in the political and economic bearings of its region. This was the first time that a president of Brazil has officially visited Scandinavia. Sweden Denmark and Norway. July 13. such as nanotechnology. Colonel Marcos Pontes. demonstrated the solid nature of the cooperation that exists between our space programs. (…) Normally seen as very different countries. Brazil and Russia. therefore. able to return the visits that leaders of all these countries have made to Brazil. microelectronics and information technology. ethnically-diverse populations. 2006.Moscow. Interview given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the Interfax Agency . food technology and astronomy. They 131 . I was.

BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK know that economic prosperity and social justice are the greatest deciding factors for peace and security.Brasilia. Article President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in the Folha de São Paulo newspaper . “Brazil-Scandinavia: an ambitious partnership”. we share the same conviction that a robust and representative multilateral system is essential to construct a more united world. 2007 132 . September 19. For this reason.

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We want these close ties to help create a more democratic and pluralistic world order that recognizes the diversity of societies. *** We (Ministers of member-states of the Forum for East-Asia-Latin America Cooperation) recognize that FEALAC carries out an import 135 . Such an excuse is no longer valid.ASIA FORUM FOR EAST ASIA-LATIN AMERICA COOPERATION (FEALAC) Latin America and East Asia are extensive and diverse regions that need to come to know each other better. In times of high-speed communications and increasingly sophisticated transportation systems.Brasilia. vital to combat hegemonies of any kind. FEALAC can be a valuable instrument to promote closer relations. improve our understanding of the world. they nourish our dialogue. geographical distances are no longer an impediment. We can establish constructive and innovative partnerships if we know how to explore the numerous points of convergence that exist between us. August 22. Our regions are seeking their place in a new configuration of forces that is emerging at the beginning of this century. Cultural differences are no longer an obstacle either. 2007. This reinforces multi-polarity. On the contrary. they enrich our interchange. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening of the Third Ministerial Meeting at the Forum for EastAsia-Latin America Cooperation (FEALAC) .

Forum for East-Asia-Latin America Cooperation. we reaffirm our interest in carrying out joint projects.. so as to encourage reciprocal knowledge between the two regions and to produce palpable fruits for our people. going from a political rapprochement to those that are increasingly invested with an economic. although carrying out an important role that is complimentary to the activities of other forums.August 23. as well as even more significant and substantial relations between our regions. but it is important that our trade relation be balanced so that both countries may be happy and satisfied. technological and cultural nature. We recognize that the best understanding between FEALAC member-states with respect to matters of mutual interest will be valuable for broaching topics in multilateral forums and particularly to ensure that we are better able to coordinate our convergent opinions. (…) We are pleased to see that relations between East Asia and Latin America have evolved. I believe that we need to be prepared to buy and to sell because this relationship with 136 . Obviously. We have decided to make cooperation our top priority in matters of trade and investment in FEALAC. as a powerful means of promoting development. All of us know. “Ministerial Declaration from Brasilia” . FEALAC should avoid duplicating the efforts already being carried out. In this regard. those who buy and those who sell. through personal experience. We recognize that. with a view to dialogue and cooperation. prosperity and social inclusion for our peoples. all of us will always want to sell more than we buy. that a good business deal is one that contemplates both parties.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK role in bringing together countries of very different regions. 2007. that is. CHINA I have always said that our trade relations are a two-way road.

*** It is with the greatest satisfaction that I congratulate Your Excellency during the thirtieth anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between our two countries. I believe that China and Brazil only have to gain from an improvement in our relations. during the 30th anniversary of 137 . definitely. seeking to integrate ourselves into international trade and investment currents without giving up our autonomy and power of decision. but also to change unfair rules that currently hold sway over international trade. increase economic-trade interchange so as to obtain reciprocal benefits. I can assure Your Excellency that the Brazilian Government gives the greatest importance to the harmonious development of ties of friendship that join the Governments and people of the Federative Republic of Brazil and the Popular Republic of China.ASIA China is.Shanghai. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the closure of the Brazil-China Seminar: A Successful Partnership” . with emphasis on coordinating negotiations. a strategic relationship. This is why our strategic alliance is so important – not only to intensify our reciprocal relationship. (…) I am confident that the future holds in store an even greater strengthening of this auspicious partnership between Brazil and China. based on dialogue and equality. May 26.. which are: to strengthen our mutual political trust. and to encourage interchange between our respective civil societies. (…) We are both great countries that are in a process of development. so as to enhance our mutual understanding. to promote international cooperation. based on the four principles that have guided our bilateral relationship. China. Message written by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to President Hu Jintao. 2004.

with emphasis on the coordination of negotiations. August 15. the foster the interchange between our respective civil societies. with satisfaction the high level of political understanding that has been reached in relations between Brazil and China. to promote international cooperation. based on a dialogue between equals. (…) A new level of cooperation is evident in our bilateral relations. as well as on a common concern to contribute towards promoting peace and solidarity between nations in a multi-polar system and in accordance with the United Nations Charter. to increase our economictrade interchange with a view to achieving reciprocal benefits. August 15. so as to enhance mutual understanding. Message sent by Minister Celso Amorim to Chancellor Li Zhaoxing. *** I note. 2004. *** 138 . guided by four shared principles: to strengthen mutual policies. 2004. founded on mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity and non-interference in the internal affairs of either parties.Brasilia.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK the establishment of diplomatic relations between Brazil and the Popular Republic of China . of the highest authorities of our countries has enabled us to form and bolster a far-reaching strategic alliance that will serve to increasingly strengthen existing bonds of friendship between the Brazilian people and the people of China.Brasilia. The direct involvement. in recent years. during the celebration of 30 years of diplomatic relations between Brazil and the Popular Republic of China .

Hu Jintao” . such as the adaptation to climate change.ASIA Brazil and China have similar geographic extensions and levels of technological and industrial development. 10th November 10. Press release. Press release. *** In addition to the expressive growth already seen in bilateral trade.CBERS project. 2004.Brasilia.Brasilia. there is the perspective of important investments in areas of hydrorailway infrastructure. steel. especially in matters of particular interest to developing nations. “Visit to Brazil of the President of the Popular Republic of China. 2004. and the search for joint actions for cooperation in areas of mutual interest. (…) Amongst the initiatives that are being developed with particular success by both countries. Mr. which is expected to launch the CBERS 2B satellite and sell to third countries images generated by this system. the largest high technology aerospace cooperation program between two developing countries. as was evident by the meeting held in Brasilia. characteristics that also bring them closer in their respective actions and objectives in the context of the International Regime on Climate Change. August 23. This convergence of interests also translates into a dialogue that is increasingly closer in a bilateral context. and cooperation in areas of energy. special note is given to the China-Brazil Earth Recourses Satellite . “First Meeting on the Brazil-China Common Agenda on Sustainable Development with Emphasis on Climate Change” . *** 139 .

We want to build a world structure that favors understanding. Press Release. 2004. 2004. TAIWAN Brazil reiterates its support for the “One-China Policy”.Brasilia. *** 140 . China and Brazil maintain a model of horizontal cooperation within an international system marked by inequality. and joins the manifestations of the international community that are contrary to unilateral movements that will alter the status quo and endanger the peace and stability of the region. Hu Jintao. social justice and respect between societies. The Brazilian Government expresses its support of the policy of peaceful territorial reunification conducted by the Chinese Government. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the official dinner offered to the President of China. November 12. at the Itamaraty Palace (Ministry of External Relations) . We are convinced that it is only through dialogue and cooperation that we can respond to the challenge to promote peace and fight against terrorism. Only thus will the social and economic development of our people be ensured.Brasilia. This relation gives us the legitimacy to jointly promote an international agenda that favors the equitable distribution of power and of resources in the international scene. to preserve the environment and guarantee development and the welfare of all.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK The strategic Sino-Brazilian alliance is based on the belief that we have interests in common in our search for a multi-polar and pluralistic world. “Declaration of support for the OneChina Policy . March 16.

They share similar points of view about the international system and aspire to a greater 141 .Visited on July 16. Message on website of Brazil’s Trade Office in Taipei . The Brazilian party also reiterated its position that Tibet is an inalienable part of the Chinese territory. and is opposed to any activity that aims the partition and the increase of tensions in the Straights of Taiwan. “Final Act of the First Session of the Sino-Brazilian HighLevel Commission for Reconciliation and Cooperation” Brasilia. (…) Because it shares the PRC principle of “One-China”. March 24.ASIA The Brazilian party reiterated its commitment to the One-China principle. 2006. INDIA Brazil and India are developing countries with large territorial areas. it is worth remembering that. the Brazilian Government does not recognize Taiwan as an autonomous state. however. *** Brazil recognizes the Popular Republic of China as “the single legal Government of China”. Taiwan is authorized to maintain. 2007. the representative of the Taiwan office will not be accredited in Brazil as an Ambassador by the Brazilian Government. They face similar challenges in economic and social terms. in accordance with terms contained in the Joint Communiqué signed in 1974 between both countries. even though it does not maintain diplomatic relations with Brazil. (…) In the interests of clarification. in Brasilia. The Brazilian party stated that it is contrary to the admittance of Taiwan into international organizations that only admit sovereign states. which cannot. Thus. Economic and Cultural Offices. and in São Paulo. be given diplomatic status.

Joint Communiqué during the official visit to Brazil of the Minister of External Affairs of India. they also long for democracy to prevail equally in the international order. Based on their common views and desires. concerning the military cease-fire that has come into effect along the Control Line border between India and Pakistan in the area of Kashmir. will help increase mutual confidence between both countries. (…) Brazil and India are amongst the largest democracies in the world. As a friend of both India and Pakistan. economic and financial decisions. While they work towards development and improving their democratic institutions on an internal level. 2003. Yashwant Sinha . June 5. and pave the way for negotiations for both countries to resolve their differences peacefully.Brasilia.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK participation in the world’s political. The Brazilian Government believes that this important decision. 2003. November 27. “Cease-fire between India and Pakistan” . They further underlined the need to strictly observe the United Nations Charter and the principles and rules of International Law. contribute towards lowering bilateral tensions. Brazil rejoices in the decision taken to make this decisive commitment to reduce tensions in the region. *** 142 . the Ministers stressed the central role played by the United Nations in maintaining international peace and security. together with other recent measures. *** The Brazilian Government greeted with satisfaction the official announcement on November 25 issued by the Indian and Pakistani Governments. Press release.Brasilia. In this respect. Brazil and India wish to develop and strengthen the close cooperation and consultation that they already maintain in international forums.

2004. negotiations of the Bilateral Agreement of Airline Services were concluded between Brazil and India. to be held sometime this year. held in Rio de Janeiro. India and Brazil announced that they will soon open Cultural Centers in São Paulo and in New Delhi. and as was provided for in the Memorandum of Understanding signed on that occasion. there was an agreement to organize a Week of Indian Culture in Brazil and a Week of Brazilian Culture in India. Both sides will also seek to systematically encourage personal contacts and institutional and academic ties. during the Mixed Commission Meeting in January 2006. to link both countries with direct and regular flights in the near future. 143 . professional education and distance learning. creating conditions to establish air routes for cargo and passengers.ASIA Today. and reaffirmed that priority should be given to cooperation in areas such as graduate programs. *** President Lula and Prime Minister Singh signed the Cooperation Interchange Program in areas of Education. at the close of the First Aeronautical Consultation Meeting between both countries. They were pleased to stress the strengthening of relations between the universities of both countries. Both countries will also cooperate to promote interchange in areas of football and the training of Indian players and coaches. research. The Agreement – which has been under negotiation ever since the visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to India last January– aims to increase bilateral relations. May 5. Press release “Conclusion of the Brazil-India Air Agreement” . which will be designed during the first meeting of the Joint Working Group. in 2007.Brasilia. In addition.

In the energy field. Our corresponding positions are expressed in the partnership that we have built.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Joint Communiqué during the official visit to Brazil of the Prime Minister of India. in favor of a more balanced and equitable international system. Our joint actions in the creation of the G-20 changed the dynamics of trade negotiations and consolidated the role of developing countries as indispensable interlocutors to advance the Doha Round. Manmohan Singh Brasilia. This will be conducted by India’s National Security Adviser and by the corresponding Brazilian Government authorities. *** An important result of this meeting was the decision to initiate strategic bilateral discussions on regional and global topics of mutual interest. distance learning and professional education at graduate level. We have come to address wealthy countries on an equal footing. in particular. such as energy security. we are determined to promote a close association. (…) Brazil and India are two great democracies in the developing world. and situations of international security. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the act-signing ceremony and declaration to the press. We have reiterated that any reform of the UN will not be complete unless there is also an expansion of the Security Council to include developing countries as its permanent members. with many interests and affinities in common regarding their views on great contemporary problems. September 12. Brazil and India are also working side by side in World Trade Organization negotiations. including the threat of terrorism. (…) We have strengthened our ties in areas of research. ethanol”. Out democratic commitment has been reflected also in the positions we have assumed in multilateral forums. above all in the sector of renewable energy sources and. in view of the need to update the United Nations. 2006. 144 .

particularly in the area of infrastructure. as well as having the objective of reaching the mark of US$ 10 billion in trade e by 2010. in the next few years. (…) Both leaders emphasized the need to hold the First Meeting of the Brazil-India Defense Commission and to develop a cooperation program in matters related to the peaceful use of nuclear energy. September 12. in compliance with their international obligations. from July to September 2008. they emphasized the importance of simultaneously developing a greater rapprochement between both countries and investments in both economies. Manmohan Singh . Both sides expressed their satisfaction with the development of cooperation in the area of science and technology and expressed their expectation to adopt a cooperation program for the period of 2007-2010. 2006. and the Festival of Indian Culture in Brazil. between January and March 2008. they expressed their satisfaction with the launch of the Business Leaders Forum. They 145 . Both leaders agreed to launch. They both equally welcomed the decision for cooperation that can be applied to the space sector. which can contribute towards furthering efforts being made by both countries. Both leaders welcomed the decision to hold the Festival of Brazilian Culture in India. An area that was identified as being of particular interest is the development of Brazilian and Indian interchange programs so that the culture and traditions of both countries may become better known and appreciated. joint campaigns to encourage bilateral economic-trade relations. comprising representatives of the industry in both countries.ASIA during the official visit to Brazil of the Prime Minister of India. To this end. *** Both leaders stressed the importance of founding the strategic partnership on a solid economic base.Brasilia. In this context.

June 4. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during his visit to the Japanese Parliament .Tokyo. once more. which have became entwined with the very history of modernization and industrialization in Brazil. May 26. but as an efficient producer of value-added goods. We want Brazil to again become a priority landmark for Japanese investments. not just as a supplier of raw materials. Today. 2005. software and clean energy. JAPAN We have reasons to again believe in the promise that led the first Japanese immigrants to come to Brazil aboard the Kasato Marú. we want Japan to see Brazil. to become the preferential destiny of Japanese business. (…) We want. 2007. In this new phase of our historical association. Our optimism is the same as that which led to Japanese investments in Brazil since the 60s. My visit coincides with a powerful recovery of the economic dynamism in both our countries. Joint Communiqué during the visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to India . *** The Government and people of Brazil nurture great enthusiasm and confidence in our capacity to advance together on different 146 . Brazil increasingly wishes to become an exporter of airplanes. students. Brazil harvests the fruits of this cooperation.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK both supported encouraging the interchange of artists.New Delhi. youngsters and tourists between both countries. in 1908.

2006. I hope that these shared feelings will continue to guide our efforts. and should soon initiate cooperation in areas of justice and human rights. agriculture and health. The Japanese community in Brazil. Brazil has cooperated with East Timor in areas of defense. 2002. In 2008. Shinzo Abe .000 people. alongside India and Germany. comprising around 1. human rights and the peaceful solution to conflicts.ASIA topics that form part of our bilateral agenda. education.who are contributing. Brazil and Japan can make important contributions in the construction of a more stable. to support the reforms needed in the United Nations Security Council. in a spirit of peace and hard work. renewable energy sources and the fostering of sustainable development.7 million people. our nations celebrate a century of Japanese immigration to Brazil.Brasilia. notably in the field of science and technology. For our part. as well as in new ventures. September 26. fairer and united international order. we are proud of the fact that Japan boasts the largest world community of (Brazilian) nikkeis (descendants of Japanese immigrants born outside Japan) – 300. considers itself perfectly integrated into national society. 147 . EAST TIMOR Diplomatic relations between Brazil and East Timor were established on the same day that independence was celebrated in that country. serving as a valuable example of discipline and business acumen. to the welfare and prosperity of Japanese society. Message from President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the Prime Minister of Japan. United by values such as democracy. May 20.

“Official Visit to Brazil of the Chancellor of East Timor. justice.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Press release. Press release. “Legislative elections in East Timor” Brasilia. security and the training of manual workers. Press release. With this objective in mind. Brazil has provided bilateral technical cooperation in areas of agriculture. education.Brasilia. so as to provide them with all the assistance that they may require. April 8. “The Situation in East Timor” . 2007. February 13. Brazil has been providing cooperation in essential areas for the development of the newly-born Timor State. in fields such as education.Brasilia. 2006. 2004 *** The Ministry of External Relations is attentive to the evolution of the internal political situation in East Timor and its impact on the security of the local Brazilian community. Brazil values the democratic path followed by East Timor since it became an independent State and will continue to act in favor of its prosperity and institutional stability. Brazil nurtures a strong feeling of unity in relation to East Timor and has sought to collaborate to improve the welfare of the population and to strengthen the Timor State. 148 . José Ramos-Horta” . professional training. *** East Timor is the only country in Asia and Oceania where Portuguese is the official language. June 22. legal assistance and health.

“An agenda of cooperation with the Arab world”. We are ready to offer our cooperation to Afghanistan.London. particularly in areas such as the monitoring of foreign trade and public finances. The unity of purpose provided a legitimate framework for international cooperation to the benefit of the Afghan people. 2006.ASIA CENTRAL ASIA Itamaraty (Brazilian Ministry of External Relations) is reorganizing itself to support the renewal of our relationship with countries in the Middle East and to establish bridges with Central Asia. January 31. AFGHANISTAN Brazil has had the great satisfaction of supporting the last four resolutions taken by the United Nations Security Council on Afghanistan. so as to encourage more dynamic diplomatic activities with a region of the globe that is experiencing important political and economic redefinitions. Brazil has carried out a series of programs in areas of human rights. (…) Diplomatic relations between Brazil and Afghanistan were re-established by Presidents Lula and Karzai in 2004. article by Minister Celso Amorim in the Valor Econômico newspaper . the removal of land mines and electoral assistance. for equality of gender and race and in the fight against hunger and poverty. 2003. December 3.São Paulo. population census. The General Under-Secretariat of Political Affairs now has a department dedicated exclusively to this region. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the London Conference on Afghanistan – “Political Perspectives: the Global Pact” . agricultural research. We are ready to share these experiences. 149 .

THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA This meeting confirms what we know already: that there is an immense potential to be explored in trade.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK KAZAKHSTAN The first visit of a Head of State of Kazakhstan to Brazil represents a historical landmark in the relations between two people who are beginning to know each other better. Korean investments have helped to strengthen important sectors of Brazil’s industrial park. (…) We are harvesting the fruits of an association that was initiated with the visit of the first Brazilian trade mission to Kazakhstan. telecommunications and transport. (…) The visit of president Nazarbayev to Brazil is also the first one of a Head of State from Central Asia to a Latin American country. in the epicenter of Eurasia. September 27. We are taking this partnership 150 . Kazakhstan today represents a meeting point between peoples and of dialogue between cultures. in business and in investments between Brazil and South Korea. in 2005. The trade routes of Central Asia brought together the four corners of the old world. such as the automobile and electronics industry. Our exchanges have been growing in a sustained and balanced way. along roads traveled by merchants and explorers. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the visit of the President of Kazakhstan. In 2004. trade between the two countries exceeded the sum of 3 billion US dollars.Brasilia. 2007. As the heir to this tradition. construction. Nursultan Nazarbayev to Brazil . (…) Korea is already Brazil’s third largest partner in Asia. explains the decision to open in Astana in 2006 the first resident Brazilian Embassy in Central Asia. ensuring the generation of income and jobs in both countries. The privileged location of Kazakhstan.

electro-electronics and clean technology. We share the same conviction that it will be through dialogue and constructive commitment that the definitive reconciliation of the Korean people will be reached. (…) The “Special Partnership for the 21st Century” that we are launching will unite our efforts and resources for research and development in strategic areas such as aerospace. May 24. The size and importance of the business entourage present at this seminar confirm the decision taken to give a renewed sense to this partnership. biotechnology. 151 . launched when we established the Comprehensive Relation of Cooperation for Common Prosperity in the 21st Century. I have come here to reaffirm the commitments that we announced in Brasilia. In spite of the distance between us.ASIA to new frontiers. Brazilian and Korean companies are developing strategic associations in the fields of energy and mining. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the close of the Brazil-Korea Seminar: Trade and Investment Opportunities . *** My visit to the Republic f Korea completes a cycle that was initiated with the visit of President Roh to Brazil last year. We face the same challenge to shape a future with security and prosperity for our people in the midst of uncertainties (created by a system) of globalization without fair rules or unity. (…) The attention of the international community is turned towards the Korean Peninsula. Brazil and Korea have powerful complementary characteristics and affinities in common. 2005. Korea and Brazil have been responding positively to these challenges. But I also came to harvest the first fruits of this new partnership.Seoul. Brazil supports the great efforts being made by the government of President Roh to reduce tensions in the region.

unconditionally and as a country free of nuclear weapons. Roh Moo-Hyun . “Announcement by North Kores about the Possesion of Nuclear Weapons” . The Brazilian Government equally calls on North Korea to adhere to the Treaty for Total Prohibition of Nuclear Tests (TPNT) as soon as possible. as well as the announcement that they possess nuclear weapons and that they intend to pursue their development.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the official dinner offered by the President of the Republic of Korea. May 25. 2005. THE DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF KOREA (DPRK) The Brazilian government learnt of the declaration of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). 152 . The Brazilian Government regrets the decision announced by North Korea. Press release. the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). February 11. regarding the decision to suspend their participation in the Six-Way talks. dated February 10 of this year. (…) Brazil reaffirms the conviction that questions relative to international peace and security should be treated by means of negotiation.Seoul.Brasilia. *** The Brazilian Government exhorts the DPRK to rejoin. 2005. and to strictly observe the moratorium on nuclear tests until the TPNT comes into force. in a constructive spirit. so as to favor solutions that strengthen the stability and confidence of the community of States.

Brasilia. OCEANIA AUSTRALIA At the working meeting. as well as disarmament and the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons (both countries are part of the so-called Coalition of the New Agenda) and human rights. (Both Chancellors) Expressed their support for efforts being made to activate Mercosur and CER – Closer Economic Relations between Australia and New Zealand. and increase the rapprochement between the two regional blocs. which will celebrate 60 years of diplomatic relations in 2005. which has greatly expanded in recent years.ASIA Press release. Brazil – Australia Joint Communiqué . Brazil and New Zealand are part of the Group of 153 . particularly in areas such as education. October 9. NEW ZEALAND Brazil and New Zealand maintain close coordination in multilateral forums on topics such as the environment and sustainable development (both support the Kyoto Protocol). (…) Special attention was dedicated to increasing the level of contacts between citizens (of both countries). to hold constructive talks. the two Ministers (Celso Amorim and Alexander Downer) analyzed possible joint initiatives with the objective of strengthening relations between Brazil and Australia. They equally reaffirmed their commitment towards establishing a closer relationship between both countries. 2006. “Announcement of nuclear tests in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea” .Brasilia. 2006. January 14. On the level of trade.

which aims to put an end to the practices that distort international trade of agricultural products and to promote liberalization in this area.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Cairns. Press release. “Visit of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of New Zealand. February 27. 2004. Phil Goff ” Brasilia. and are determined to fly high in matters related to agriculture. 154 . New Zealand shares a commitment with Brazil for the re-launching of the Doha Round. Both countries have sought ways to increase bilateral trade.

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with the objective of examining themes on the international agenda that are of mutual interest.INDIA. whenever necessary. During recent years. the importance and need for talks between countries and nations in development in the South have been noted. as well as an exchange of information on questions of mutual cooperation. so as to organize meetings of high-level officials and specialists responsible for questions of mutual interest. They decided to maintain regular political consultation on items on the international agenda. the promotion of peace and security or 157 . *** Ever since it was created. Brazil and South Africa Dialogue Forum” (IBSA) Declaration of Brasilia. South Africa and India Brasilia. June 6. so as to coordinate their positions on matters of common interest. Even the political-diplomatic concertation on very different topics – whether the Doha Round. (…) The Ministers will recommend to their respective Heads of State and/or Government that a Summit meeting be held between the three countries. 2003. They have also decided to further intensify dialogue on all levels. Trilateral Meeting of the Foreign Ministers of Brazil. IBSA has been notable for its pragmatism. (…) The Ministers decided to call this group the “India. BRAZIL AND SOUTH AFRICA DIALOGUE FORUM (IBSA) This consists of a pioneering coming together of three countries with vibrant democracies in three regions in the world that are in the process of development and active on a global scale.

Press release. The IBSA Fund to Combat Hunger and Poverty wants to be an example of how relatively less development countries can benefit from the experiences of other developing countries. 2006. Brazil and South Africa Dialogue Forum (IBSA)” . It is also a concrete expression of the objectives shared by Brazil. *** Created in 2003.Rio de Janeiro. between three great multicultural and multiracial democracies of Asia. March 30. 2006. South America and Africa. Brazil and South Africa. It has become a useful instrument to promote even closer coordination on global issues. It is a natural expression of particular views on great international issues. “Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening ceremony of the Ministerial Meeting of the India. September 13.Brasilia. Even though it was not created by countries belonging to the traditional circuit of international donors. India and South Africa. “IBSA Summit Meeting” . *** IBSA is much more than just a diplomatic edifice. the IBSA Dialogue Forum carries out a role that is increasingly important to the foreign policies of India. IBSA invests in the solidarity between countries of the South. Press release. We are fully consolidated democracies that give an example of how the various ethnic groups and cultures that form our 158 . and contributes by projecting trilateral India-Brazil-South Africa cooperation in particular sectors.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK the fight against hunger and poverty – is directed towards obtaining concrete advances.

September 13. Together. a mechanism of political deliberation on major topics on the international agenda. BRAZIL AND SOUTH AFRICA DIALOGUE FORUM (IBSA) societies can co-exist in harmony. India. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening session of the First IBSA Summit . We defend multilateralism and an international order based on the rule of law and on the construction of consensus. Our capacity for positive influence in our respective regions – Africa. We agree that the protection of the environment is an 159 . This does not mean that Brazil will neglect its relations with the developed world. we created the G-20. first and foremost. We are determined to move forward to construct societies that are fairer and more prosperous by means of responsible economic policies and an unrelenting commitment to improve the living conditions of our more vulnerable populations. We are countries that are also still facing the challenge of fighting extreme hunger and attaining sustainable development.INDIA. is to take better advantage of previously unexplored South-South cooperation opportunities. with IBSA and other initiatives. These two sides of our foreign policy should not be seen as “no-win games”. one bolsters the other. we are working together to reform the United Nations. (…) What we want.Brasilia. united and balanced international order. 2006. We favor a reform of the United Nations Security Council to include developing countries amongst its permanent members. We are emerging economies. destined to have an ever more relevant international presence. South Africa and Brazil can also offer a decisive contribution towards creating a more just. with which we have a significant identification. Latin America and Asia – further highlights the role that falls to the South in the principal international debates and decisions. *** IBSA is. They are complimentary.

We are convinced that it is necessary to achieve a balance between intellectual property protection rights and public health policies. “The India-Brazil-South Africa South Alliance”. amongst others. it has given rise to hope. our activities in the G-20 give absolute priority to (achieving) effective cuts in the agricultural subsidies in developed countries. science and technology. our diplomatic presence and our capacity to contribute towards the construction of a fairer and more democratic international order. This reflects our credibility.São Paulo. energy and transport. This is a concrete new proposal for international solidarity. IBSA expanded its activities and established itself as an instrument to bring our three countries closer together. We formed a dialogue forum that ensures that our countries have an even more relevant presence in this world. But IBSA is more than an instrument that strengthens the voice of developing countries in major world debates. IBSA has shown its ability as an interlocutor in various issues on the global agenda. But. (…) The IBSA Fund to Fight Hunger and Poverty is a cause for pride. full of injustices and inequalities. *** Ever since it was created. our alliance has attracted curiosity and faced skepticism. in 2003. article by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in the Valor Econômico newspaper . 2006. trade. above all. which Brazil had the honor to host. During this Summit. September 15. We are developing countries that are joining forces to 160 . The first Summit. we will seek to move forward in trilateral understandings in these areas. It is also a privileged instrument for concrete trilateral cooperation initiatives in areas such as agriculture. In the Doha Round. accelerated the process and showed the certainty of our initiative.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK indissoluble part of the fight against poverty and of economic development. It shows that developing countries can have a highly qualified international presence.

October 17. BRAZIL AND SOUTH AFRICA DIALOGUE FORUM (IBSA) help the poorer ones. 161 . We have proved that it is not necessary to be wealthy to be united. 2007.INDIA. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening ceremony of the Second IBSA Summit Johannesburg. Initiatives are presently under study that will benefit Burundi and other poor countries in Africa. Asia and Latin America. It was with justifiable satisfaction that we received the United Nations prize for projects developed by IBSA in Haiti and Guinea-Bissau.

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AFRICA .

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AFRICA – OVERVIEW With 76 million Afro-descendents, we are the second largest Negro nation in the world, only behind Nigeria. I am personally committed to reflect this reality in our national and international actions. We have a political, moral and traditional commitment with Africa, and with those Brazilians who are descended from Africans. And we will honor this commitment. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the Special Session of the 61st International Conference on Labor - Geneva, June 2, 2003. *** Africa is an indispensable reference in the background of our people and of our culture. And it is also much more than this. It is a Continent which, like Brazil, yearns and fights for liberty, social justice, democracy and development. We have much to learn from one another; we have much to give each other. We have experiences to share. We have innumerable material, spiritual and symbolic riches to exchange. And I am sure that we are going to do this, more and more. I would like to leave here a message of great optimism in relation to the future of our friendship. The path between Africa and Brazil has in the past been a path of slavery. Let this route now be used to offer prosperity and happiness to the Brazilian people and to the African people.
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Radio message sent to Africa by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva - Brasilia, August 8, 2003. *** We know that Brazilian society was constructed with the work, with the efforts, with the sweat and blood of a great number of Africans; men and women who were free citizens in Africa and who became slaves, so as to provide labor in my own and other countries. The most appropriate means to return the sacrifice that Africans made is to establish the most perfect policy of harmony with Africa. (…) And this relationship that Brazil aims to maintain with countries in Africa is not the relationship of an imperialist country with hegemonic tendencies. We have tired of this; we were colonized, and we have already freed ourselves from hegemony. We now want partnerships, we want companionship, and we want to work arm in arm, to construct an equitable international policy, for multilateral democratic organisms and to ensure that we have equal opportunities. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the official dinner offered by the President of Mozambique, Joaquim Chissano - Maputo, November 5, 2003. *** Brazil has a debt with Africa. A debt that recognizes the contribution that millions of Africans made, in conditions of suffering and oppression, towards the construction of Brazil. We feel part of the African Continent’s renewed commitment to take into its own hands the responsibility to find answers to its problems. Speech given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the official dinner offered by President
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Thabo Mbeki of South Africa - Pretoria, November 8, 2003. *** We feel a special urgency in helping Africa in the fight against the dramatic cycle of poverty, violence and fatalism. We are modernizing systems of information and communication (in the country) and transferring technology and capital, so that the African Continent can compete in a increasingly globalized world. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the 5th Conference of Heads of State and Government, to present an account of the Brazilian Presidency of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries São Tomé, July 26, 2004. *** Brazil owes much to the African people. Free men and women, from this Continent, were enslaved and sold to the Americas. And there, with their suffering and labor, they helped build my country. But now it is pointless to simply cry about what happed in the past; we need to think about constructing the future. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the visit to the home of Chachá de Souza - Ouidah, Benin, February 10, 2006. *** My Government accepted, with great honor, the invitation to be the seat to the second part of this Conference (CIAD II). This forum of
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dialogue between African countries and communities of African descendents in the world is part of an indispensable bond of mutual discovery. Today, we face the challenge of identifying forms of (providing) reciprocal support and ways through which African culture can be valued in a globalized world. Brazil is committed to this task. During the last three and a half years, I have visited 17 African countries and stressed Brazil’s diplomatic presence on the African Continent. We have expanded and enhanced our cooperation programs in sectors of particular social interest, such as health, agriculture and education. A deep sense of identity and solidarity links Brazilians to the African people. We have a strong awareness of the contribution that Africa made to Brazil. We therefore want to help this Continent to fulfill its enormous potentiality. Brazil is not just a country of the African Diaspora. Brazil is also an African country, the second largest Negro nation in the world. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the official dinner for Heads of State and Government and Vice-Presidents, who participated in the Second Conference of Intellectuals from Africa and the Diaspora - Salvador, Bahia, July 11, 2006.

AFRICA-SOUTH AMERICA SUMMIT (AFSA) When I was here in 2005, President Obasanjo suggested the idea of an Africa-South America Summit. With the vision of a statesman, he perceived the potential for cooperation and solidarity between our two regions. (...) In our international activities, we have also made a long journey in common with African nations. At the United Nations, we defend the principle of de-colonization and the repudiation of apartheid. We were alongside our African partners in the process to create UNCTAD (United Nations Commission on
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Trade and Development). We suffered together during the periods of recession and disorder in the world economy, as well as from the perverse effects of protectionism practiced by wealthy countries. We joined our voices for a more just and equitable international economic order. Today, Africa is unarguably a priority for Brazil. Geology taught us that, millions of years ago, Africa and South America were joined in one great continent. Who has not wondered at how maps show the Northeast of Brazil and the Gulf of Guinea fitting together almost perfectly? The new geography that we are constructing will not move the planet’s tectonic plaques, to recreate that lost continual land mass, but it will certainly help to transform the reality of international politics and economics, bringing us politically, economically, socially and culturally closer together. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the opening of the Africa-South America Summit (AFSA) - Abuja, Nigeria, November 30, 2006.

THE AFRICAN UNION Brazilian talks with the African Union have seen a significant advance during the term of the President of the Commission, Alpha Konaré, especially since the reopening of the Brazilian Embassy in Ethiopia in 2005. The renewed cooperation between Brazil and the African Union was reflected in the organization of two important events last year: the Second Conference of Intellectuals from Africa and the Diaspora (CIAD II, in Salvador, July/2006) and the First Africa-South America Summit (AFSA, in Abuja, Nigeria, November/2006). During this visit, the Basic Technical Cooperation Agreement should be signed between Brazil and the African Union, the first legal instrument to be signed with that organization. This Agreement establishes a legal framework for the development of technical cooperation programs
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2007. “Brazil and the rebirth of Africa”. article by Minister Celso Amorim in the Folha de S. education. 2003. Alpha Konaré” Brasilia. the results of which I have already been able to see for myself. the environment and energy. 170 . (…) The political leadership and economic vigor of South Africa are forging an “African Renaissance” in Southern Africa. as I found from my contacts with President Mbeki and Foreign Minister Zuma. with the possibility of establishing joint ventures. where complementarities are proven to exist. aircraft and metallurgic sectors.São Paulo. This without prejudicing redoubled efforts in areas such as agribusiness. health. etc. May 25. We hope that our association can represent a contribution from Brazil towards the objectives of NEPAD. February 27. “Visit to Brazil of the President of the Commission of the African Union. Press release. *** South Africa deserves our admiration for its role in launching and promoting the African Union and its working instrument.Paulo newspaper . environment interests. (…) There is a compatibility of views in relation to the international scene which makes us natural allies in the defense of political. the New Partnership for Africa’s Development – NEPAD. such as in the automobile. SOUTH AFRICA South Africa has reached a level of development that permits us to explore cooperation opportunities. trade.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK in areas of mutual interest. such as agriculture.

the Brazilian President congratulated his South African colleague on the success of the political transition of South Africa and. President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva reaffirmed Brazil’s readiness to draw closer in its relations with Africa and.Pretoria. the Presidents indicated that it was unacceptable that developing countries should be subject to the protectionist practices imposed by developed countries. water-related diseases. (…) Furthermore. which greatly helped to heal the open wounds left from the apartheid period. on the successful work carried out by the Commission of Reconciliation and Truth. both countries agreed to intensify trade. in this respect.AFRICA Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the official dinner offered by President Thabo Mbeki. *** The two Presidents (Lula and Mbeki) discussed the economic. especially. both Presidents stressed the special meaning of the great cultural affinity that is a result of the contribution made by Africa towards the development of modern Brazil. Cooperation in science and technology. In this respect. The Parties undertook a commitment to mutually cooperate in the fight against discrimination and to promote racial equality. 2003. November 8. (…) While emphasizing their confidence in the benefits of international trade growth. They welcomed the present trade negotiations between the Southern African Development 171 . of South Africa . investments and technological cooperation. political and social situation of their countries. concluded in March 2003. held in Fortaleza in June 2003. as well as in defense. malaria and dengue. The Presidents equally agreed to increment cooperation related to measures to fight various epidemics that afflict both countries in areas such as HIV/AIDS. and welcomed the fact that this will become an annual event. The Presidents also recognized the success of the first BrazilAfrica Forum. was also discussed during these talks.

Joint Communiqué during the visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to South Africa .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Community (SADC) and Mercosur with the view to creating a free trade zone. 2003. which Nigeria proposed to host. Nigeria is one of Africa’s largest oil producers and the most important supplier of the product to Brazil. Contacts between Nigerian and Brazilian economic operators have enabled respective export guidelines to diversify.the Brazilian Petroleum Corporation . *** Brazil and Nigeria have developed an intense agenda of cooperation. during November of this year. services and hydro-carbonates.Brasilia. to Brazil” . NIGERIA Nigeria is one of Brazil’s most important Atlantic partners. November 7-8. September 6. 2005.has shown interest in expanding its activities in Nigeria. in which such topics as agriculture. as well as those that involve the fight against the HIV/AIDS virus. Olusegun Obasanjo. in areas such as agribusiness. Petrobrás .Pretoria. The bilateral trade balance amounted to US$ 4 billion dollars and there is room for additional growth. “Visit of the President of Nigeria. Another important topic for both countries is the Africa-South America Summit (AFRAS). Press release. Brazil and Nigeria share a vast field of common interests. including their readiness to make the international community more sensitive to the importance of fighting 172 . in Abuja. defense and health are considered.

It is an initiative of great strategic value. Oluyemi Adeniji” . On a political level. (…) Our Community is united by values and principles that are borne of a 173 . we have sought to translate the natural affinities and solidarity that we nurture for the people of each one of the member countries into diversified projects. June 13. COMMUNITY OF PORTUGUESE-SPEAKING COUNTRIES (CPLP) During our presidency of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries. capable of reacting swiftly in situations of crises. with a range of action that covers four continents. especially the United Nations. both countries maintain an intense and fruitful working relationship in multilateral forums.Brasilia.Brasilia.AFRICA hunger and poverty and to promote sustainable development. 2003. Today. Press release. (…) The CPLP has been gaining voice and an international personality. “Visit to Brazil of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Nigeria. April 10. . *** The Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries is more than a place for confraternity between brotherly societies. with a population of 230 million inhabitants committed to democracy and social justice. “Diplomacy in the Lula Government” lecture given by Minister Celso Amorim at the Rio Branco Institute (the Brazilian Diplomatic Academy). it is a mature organization. We are eight countries. It enjoys the prestige of an institution that has a vocation for avoiding conflicts and tensions. 2006.

In partnership with the National Service for Industrial Learning . financed by the Fund to Combat Hunger and Poverty. *** Traditional Brazilian cooperation within the ambit of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries is also worth mentioning. we inaugurated a Center of Excellence for Business Development in Luanda. the seed of the CPLP. In Guinea-Bissau. which will make our dialogue even more agile and franker. “Cooperation as an Instrument of Brazilian Foreign Policy”. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the 5th Conference of Heads of State and Government of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries . 174 . I welcome the coming into force of the Orthographic Agreement of the Portuguese Language. a publication produced by the Brazilian Cooperation Agency . In Angola.SENAI.São Tomé. July 26.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK common linguistic experience that we wish to preserve and to propagate. in Cape Verde. There are many examples of this. created by the India-Brazil-South Africa Dialogue Forum(IBSA). 2004. Strengthening the International Institute of the Portuguese Language.CPLP . we are setting up a center for Professional Training in Cidade de Praia. Article by Minister Celso Amorim in the ViaABC. we are implementing a project to support the development of agriculture and livestock. This initiative is the first activity of its kind undertaken by IBSA and represents a practical demonstration of the vitality of SouthSouth cooperation. in July 2005.June 2006. was considered to be a priority during the term of the Brazilian Presidency.

November 3. 2003. with annual Angolan exports reaching the sum of US$) 460 million. Angola is the third largest African country to supply products to Brazil and the fourth largest importer of Brazilian goods in Africa. We look forward to a future of peace. democracy and social and economic development. I came to Angola during my first visit to Africa. This country is today the principal beneficiary of Brazilian cooperation in technical assistance programs. I now return at the beginning of my second term of office. Angola and Brazil are preparing to consolidate and strengthen their cooperation. The development of Angola will also be reflected in benefits to Brazil. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the opening of the Brazil-Angola Ministerial Meeting . (…) Since my last visit. This is why our relations are happening in a context of spontaneous affinities and reciprocal solidarity. one of the cradles of our nation.Luanda. These circumstances explain why Angola. and can also count on a Brazilian Government credit system. Angola is still the destination of a considerable amount of Brazilian foreign investments. is a diplomatic priority of ours. which has functioned in an efficient manner. A strong and prosperous Angola could be the powerhouse for a whole region. *** I feel at home in this country. and vice-versa. Brazil was the first country to recognize Angola’s independence in 1975. ever since its independence. the most 175 .AFRICA ANGOLA Partners over a long period of time. Brazilian financing made it possible to construct the Capanda Hydroelectric plant. to see up close the progress that has been made as a result of our association. trade between us has grown almost fivefold.

.Luanda. wants to get involved in the exploitation of coal in Moatize and in the social development of the Zambezi Valley. with financial support from the National Bank for Social and Economic Development – BNDES. 2007. Brazil is doubling its efforts to meet this challenge.. José Eduardo dos Santos . Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the solemn opening session of the bilateral meeting with the President of Angola. more than ever. Our lines of credit have helped to modernize the country. October 18. (. MOZAMBIQUE The international community has begun to discover what Brazil has always known: the enormous potential of Mozambique and its people. sports. For these reasons. This country has definitively become a route for great investments. The Vale do Rio Doce Company. agriculture. We believe in the potential of these projects. Toast given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the luncheon in honor of the President of 176 . above all because we believe in Mozambique. Today.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK important infrastructure project in the country. These projects will help Mozambique to develop the technical capacity to respond to the challenges of sustainable development. we are reinvigorating cooperation programs in the areas of education. we signed the agreement which consolidates a Brazilian commitment to reduce Mozambique’s debt with Brazil. the environment and public administration.) The “Rebirth of Angola” will serve as an example and inspiration to other nations on the Continent of Africa who seek political stability and economic and social development. With the same confidence.

and agriculture and livestock development projects within the ambit of the India-Brazil-South Africa (IBSA) Forum Press release. of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPLP). political and friendship ties. including technical cooperation projects in areas of health and professional training. The exchange of visits reflects the willingness of Morocco to seek a greater proximity with South America. In 2004. like Brazil. Brazil has maintained a resident Embassy in Rabat. as well as the priority shown by Brazil towards Africa in recent years. GUINEA-BISSAU The Brazilian Government has watched with attention the electoral process in Guinea-Bissau.AFRICA Mozambique. and Chancellor Celso Amorim visited the Moroccan capital in March 2005. “Brazilian support in the presidential election in Guinea-Bissau” . June 17. 2004. to whom we are linked by cultural. The Moroccan Embassy in Brazil was established in 1967.Brasilia. Joaquim Chissano . August 31. Since 1963.Brasilia. 2005. The positions of both countries are convergent in various international 177 . a member country. MOROCCO Relations between Brazil and Morocco are notable for their good political understanding. the King of Morocco and Foreign Minister Benaïssa visited Brazil. cooperation to restructure the Armed Forces.(…) Brazil’s support to the elections in Guinea-Bissau is part of a series of Brazilian Government initiatives in favor of political consolidation to recover the Country’s economic development.

178 .Brasilia. has also offered to be the host to the second meeting of the Forum Summit in 2008. Mohamed Benaïssa” . November 26.Brasilia. January 19. by means of dialogue between the parties involved in the dispute. which will enable peace negotiations to be unlocked and result in the definitive resolution of conflict in the region. Mohammed VI . Joint Communiqué of the visit to Brazil by the King of Morocco. Press release. 2006. Press release. “Official visit to Brazil of the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of Morocco. in addition to having promoted the preparatory meeting of the first event. 2004. in Marrakech. March 8. WESTERN SAHARA Brazil expressed the expectation of the continuity of the measures to construct trust between the Kingdom of Morocco and the Polisario Front. President Lula reiterated the Brazilian support for the decisions of the United Nations Security Council to reach a negotiated political settlement.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK matters. Morocco has supported the initiative of the South American and Arab Countries Summit (held in Brasilia in May 2005) and. 2004. *** With regard to the situation in Western Sahara. Since the very beginning. “The Situation in Western Sahara” Brasilia.

financing and exports. (…) Presidents Abdelaziz Bouteflika and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva reiterated their support to the efforts carried out within the ambit of the United Nations to obtain a solution to the question of Western Sahara in accordance with international rules and based on the pertinent resolution of the General Assembly of the United Nations Security Council. 2006. which will allow for the continuity of mutually beneficial consultation work maintained by both countries when they were non-permanent members of the United Nations Security Council in the biennium 2004-2005. they stressed that real opportunities for cooperation and interchange exist in areas of energy.AFRICA ALGERIA The two Presidents (Lula and Abdelaziz Bouteflika] underlined (.) that the closeness and diversification of bilateral relations require the qualitative promotion of exchanges. political consultation within the framework of the Memorandum of Understanding signed by both Ministries of External Relations in 2005. health. THE SUDAN– DARFUR The Brazilian Government recognizes the complexity of the crisis in Darfur and the urgent need for a political solution to be reached. support to micro and small businesses.Algiers. by mobilizing the capacities of both countries. electronic government. February 9.. advanced technology and skilled labor. agriculture and technical cooperation. To this end.. parallel to efforts being made to increase international aid to overcome 179 . notably in areas related to privatization. Joint Communiqué during the State Visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to Algeria . (…) Both Presidents rejoiced in the decision taken by their Governments to promote regular.

In this respect. July 28. . 2004. Press release. which has undertaken the task of monitoring the cease-fire.the humanitarian crisis affecting the country. “Situation in Darfur – Sudan “ . the Brazilian Governments hopes that both parties resolve their disputes by pacific and negotiated means and exhorts the Darfur rebels to renew negotiations with the Government of Khartoum. and. Brazil supports the efforts of the Secretary General of the United Nations with a view to alleviating the humanitarian crisis (in the country) and to ensure the safety of the population of Darfur. in this way. contribute towards the pacification of Darfur.Brasilia. Brazil believes that the Security Council should support the efforts of the African Union.

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because of the powerful influence 183 . The adaptation of immigrants to the conditions of the country that gave them shelter equals the ability of the Brazilian people to impregnate themselves with their values and customs. The rich heritage of the Arab-Islamic civilization was present in the primordial origins of Brazil. This is an example of a beneficial form of integration into Brazilian nationality. strongly influenced by an Islamic presence. common values have developed during the course of time. They contribute. the right to development and to the use of national natural resources. Press release. 2003. the protection of cultural diversity and the preservation of national and regional traits. “Visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to Arab Countries” . On a political level.Brasilia. nowadays. They explain the cordiality and respect in the way we relate to one another. *** It is an honor to speak as the first head of the Brazilian State to visit this noble institution. December 2. Arab Countries and Brazil have profound historical and cultural ties. as by the important immigration originating in Lebanon and Syria. the value attributed to the sovereignty of States and the self-determination of people. towards forging new commonalities between Brazil and Arab countries: the search for long-term peace.THE MIDDLE EAST We are linked to Arab counties as much by Brazil’s Iberian roots. the need to respect international Law and to strengthen world order. These are bonds that we are proud of.

Political will is needed to move forward and expand our proximity. which face similar challenges in relation to the promotion of development. The more than 10 million Brazilian descendants of these immigrants that today live in my country maintained their connections with their original civilization. Egypt. as well as to our economic and social development and the enrichment of our culture. coordination in multilateral 184 . remain abreast of the positions of the Arab World on the most important topics on the international agenda. 2003. SOUTH AMERICAN AND ARAB COUNTRIES SUMMIT (SAAC) The fundamental proposal of the Summit is to promote mechanisms of bi-regional proximity within the ambit of South-South cooperation and to encourage cooperation between two regions with historical affinities. thousands of Arab immigrants disembarked on Brazilian soil seeking a new life. scientific-technological cooperation. our dialogue. These men and women gave a decisive contribution to the formation of the Brazilian identity. This is a significant step so that Brazil may . In addition to the bi-regional political dialogue. with populations of 210 million and 200 million inhabitants. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during his visit to the headquarters of the League of Arab States -Cairo. (…) Brazil. cultural cooperation. respectively. Mercosur and the Arab World boast enormous markets. on a regular basis. December 9. The admittance of Brazil as an observer to the Arab League – which we proudly greeted – is a sign that this process has begun.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK it had on the Iberian Peninsula. the Summit will also include in its agenda such topics as economic and trade cooperation. Later. from where our Portuguese colonizers came.

On attendance are our businessmen and women. “Preparation of the South American and Arab Countries Summit” . March 21. 2005. *** They (the Heads of State and Government of South American and Arab countries) emphasized the importance of cultural interaction between their societies for the enrichment of Civilization and recognize that the South America and Arab Countries Summit constitutes an opportunity to strengthen the mutual understanding between the people of both regions and their cultures. of dance. In this regard. Opening Statement by Minster Celso Amorim at the Meeting of Foreign Ministers of South America and Arab Countries .Brasilia.THE MIDDLE EAST economic and trade forums and collaboration in social and development issues. all this in addition to the philosophy of tolerance that has already served to greatly inspire us. they expressed their appreciation for the positive role carried out by the citizens of South America of Arab descent in promoting biregional relations. of music. that was very clearly expressed in the Iberian Peninsula.Brasilia. *** I believe that this is the main meaning of this Summit: that we are capable of looking at ourselves directly. Press release. of fine arts. in the years that our Arab brothers were also there. 2005. developing our maritime connections. developing our air connections. They reaffirmed the growing importance of culture as a bridge of integration between their people and as an 185 . May 9. on attendance are our artists. of the cinema.

to overcome the present political crisis. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the Seminar for Peace and Reconciliation . defended. signed by the countries taking part in the South American and Arab Countries Summit . May 11. 2007. we value our relations with Israel. co-existing in peace with Israel.Brasilia. I have given special importance to the relations with the Palestine National Authority. We are in a singular position to dialogue with both sides. *** In recent years. democratically and economically viable State. It was the first Latin American country to be given the status of an observer by the Arab League. 2005. Brazil has strengthened its relations with the Arab world. the first Summit of Arab and South American countries was held in Brasilia. As Your Excellency knows. At the same time. safe. The creation of a 186 . supported by the Basic Law of Palestine.Oslo. and in particular during my Government. the realization of the legitimate aspirations of the Palestine people for a united. to preserve existing institutions and to put an end to the suffering that afflicts the population in the Occupied Territories of Palestine. THE PALESTINE QUESTION Brazil has historically. Declaration of Brasilia.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK economic activity that provides a boost for development and mutual cooperation. September 14. (…) In May 2005. The Brazilian Government appointed a special envoy for Middle Eastern affairs. I have been able to appreciate the attempts made by Your Excellency.

including the visit of the Minister of External Relations. and the frequent visits of Brazilian authorities to the Occupied Territories. of all the relevant players involved in the process. From a Brazilian viewpoint. in 2005. (…) It would be worth considering widening the international dimension of the process. (…) Brazil understands that this matter transcends its regional dimension and directly affects several of the major problems confronting the international community. demonstrates the priority that Brazil gives to its relationship with the people and Government of Palestine. Its balanced. (…) Brazil’s multilateral actions have sought to favor peace negotiations and condemn actions that result in greater suffering for the Palestinian people. to promote dialogue and peace. which could involve other countries outside the region. fair and ultimate settlement could represent the beginning of a powerful new cycle that can positively affect the outcome of other situations of conflict. representing different regions. With this intention in mind. including developing countries. we believe that peace will only be sustained with the involvement. the far-reaching and determined involvement of the international community is an appropriate way that will enable the peace process in the Middle East to be conducted under good terms. especially in the Gaza Strip. I firmly believe that the initiatives of the international community will benefit from the formation of a group of countries. to be formed by 187 . at the last General Assembly of the United Nation I raised the idea of summoning an international conference on the situation in the Middle East. I express to Your Excellency the genuine willingness of the Brazilian Government to take part in a “Group of Friends for Peace in the Middle East”. In the event that such a proposal should be considered useful.THE MIDDLE EAST Representation Office in Brazil and in Ramallah. these should have a conciliatory profile and with a credibility that is recognized internationally. under the auspices of the United Nations. in one form or another. In addition. and would serve to add to the efforts being made by the players already directly involved.

Ideally. There will never be long-lasting peace in the Middle East without a permanent solution for this division. United Nations. the Group will be coordinated by the Secretary General of the United Nations. in addition to the countries directly involved. including developing countries. We express to both parties. Unfortunately. We need new ideas and renewed proposals. Mahmoud Abbas. Last year. not confrontation. President Lula suggested the possibility of convoking a large-scale Conference. on August 21. in a letter addressed to the Palestinian President 188 . is followed. (…) As we know. our willingness to participate more actively in international efforts with a view to establishing peace. no solution at all has been reached until now. a well as other nations. as well as to the QUARTET Committee for the Middle East (United States. We have to involve more countries in this process.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK countries with the aforementioned characteristics. Maybe the time has come to discuss this proposal more carefully. matters involving the Middle East have always been treated exclusively by the great powers. Unilateral initiatives are not the answer. Russia). with a view to ensuring that the path of dialogue. during his speech at the General Assembly of the United Nations. and delivered to him in Ramallah. Europe. The international community as a whole has the obligation to work with the parties involved. (…) Last August. under the auspices of the United Nations. with the participation of countries from the region. (…) Brazil wishes to expand its contribution towards peace in the Middle East. *** The conflict between Israelis and Palestinians represents an open wound in the world today. 2007. Letter from President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva addressed to the President of the Palestine National Authority (PNA).

and the Minister of Education. agreements relative to bilateral cooperation have 189 . Industry and Foreign Trade. 58%. This Group could be formed by interested countries that have a constructive profile of consensus. Employment and Trade. international credibility and good relations with all parties. the Minister of Institutional Relations. Luiz Fernando Furlan. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the Seminar for Peace and Reconciliation . 2007. ISRAEL Under the Lula da Silva Administration. During the last two years of the first term of the Lula Government.THE MIDDLE EAST Mahmoud Abbas. There are good prospects for intensifying the institutional framework of Brazil-Israel bilateral exchanges in the most diverse areas. Recently. during the course of this Government. the Minister of External Relations. On the part of Israel. the Minister of Development.Oslo. September 14. President Lula raised the matter and suggested that – ideally – this Group of Friends should be coordinated by the Secretary General of the United Nations. four Ministers of State visited Israel. Prime Minister Ehud Olmert made an official visit to Brazil in March 2005. Jacques Wagner. Brazilian exports to that country grew 26. Celso Amorim. In fact. when he was Minster of Industry. there has likewise been a growing dynamism in the relations between Brazil and Israel. relations with the Arab World have been intensified without damaging the good relationship that exists with the State of Israel. Fernando Haddad. Perhaps a bit of fresh air will benefit the peace process. as can be verified by the successive records obtained in the exchange of trade and by the increase in the number of visits of authorities at the highest level.

“The Visit of Minister Celso Amorim to Israel” . irrigation and the fight against drought and desertification. In May 2005. 190 . education. have been strengthened during the last two years by a significant increase in bilateral trade exchange Two-way trade increased from US$ 505 million in 2003 to US$ 715 million in 2004 an increment of more that 40% in one year. traditionally marked by strong ties of friendship and cooperation. a Memorandum of Understanding will be signed to establish mechanisms for annual political consultations between the Foreign Ministers of both countries. a framework agreement was signed with a view to creating a free trade area between Mercosur and Israel. at the Brazilian Military Academy (Escola Superior de Guerra) . Lecture given by the Director of the Department of the Middle East and Central Asia. During this visit. May 27.Brasilia. Brazil and Israel further maintain cooperation initiatives in areas such as civil and military aviation. the peaceful use of outer space. *** Relations between Brazil and Israel. Brazil was Israel’s second largest trade partner in the Americas. in agriculture. Press release. Last year. 2005. June 15.Rio de Janeiro. industrial policy and in fostering cutting-edge technology. health. mechanisms were created for annual political consultations between the Foreign Ministers of both countries.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK been signed. Ambassador Sarkis Karmirian. The visit of Minister Celso Amorim to Israel will be the first of a Brazilian Foreign Minister to that country in the last ten years and will constitute an opportunity to examine initiatives and new cooperation projects. with meetings already held in Brasilia and Jerusalem. In December 2005. 2007. or are in the final stages of negotiations.

living in peace and safety alongside Israel. Brazilian businesses are equally committed to promoting trade and investments in Lebanon. But there will be no long-lasting solution to the Lebanese question as long as there is no solution to the Palestine problem. in 2006). to be used to finance Brazilian cooperation projects with Lebanon. (…) Brazil vigorously supports the full execution of Resolution 1701. nearly three thousand Brazilians and Lebanese nationals with family bonds in Brazil. based on an independent and viable State. Brazil was profoundly moved by the military conflict in Lebanon during the current month of July. amongst others. with regard to holding an international conference with the presence of the parties directly involved. health. we sent a multidisciplinary cooperation mission to Lebanon. We are developing bilateral projects in agriculture. as well as with the participation of some extra-regional 191 . education and housing. destined to finance projects of reconstruction in Lebanon. they organized an unprecedented operation to remove. respecting different religious denominations. The sorrow of the Lebanese people was perceived by Brazilians. We are now pleased to announce a further donation of US$1 million. from areas most affected by the conflict. (…) During the Conference of Stockholm. we announced a contribution of US$ 500. expressed during the 61st Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations. with its territorial integrity and independence respected by all.000 to the UNDP Fund. We praise the efforts of Prime Minister Siniora for maintaining the multi-denominational character of Lebanese society and the secular nature of the Government. who were swift to react: right at the beginning (of the conflict between Hezbollah and Israel. We wish to see Lebanon united in diversity.THE MIDDLE EAST LEBANON Having provided shelter for the largest Lebanese community in the world. I reiterated here the suggestion of President Lula. Two months later.

BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK players. On the other hand. Lecture by Minister Celso Amorim at the International Conference in Support of Lebanon (“Paris III”) . with the purpose to discuss the resumption of the peace process in the Middle East. *** The relationship between both countries is historically very close. many of whom maintain family and professional ties with Brazil. Press release.000 to 60. 2007. The Brazilian Government exhorts (those responsible) to avoid further aggressions and calls for the pertinent United Nations 192 . The High Level Bilateral Commission should encourage meetings between government and business representatives. February 20. who participate significantly in the most varied sectors of society. we have the largest community of Lebanese descendants outside Lebanon. numbering 6 to 7 million individuals. January. *** The Brazilian Government condemns with vehemence the attacks perpetrated by the Lebanese Hezbollah movement against areas to the north of Israel. 40. In Brazil.Paris. (…) All efforts will be made to increase the level of trade exchange between the two countries in the certainty that regular business meetings will facilitate bilateral trade and stimulate cooperation in the area of services and infrastructure works. 2004.000 Brazilian citizens live in Lebanon. Émile Lahoud” . which wounded and killed several soldiers of the Israeli Defense Forces and resulted in the kidnapping of two Israeli soldiers. “Visit of the President of the Lebanese Republic.Brasilia.

Brazil laments the incursion of the Israeli Defense Forces in south Lebanon and the attack on local facilities and reiterates its opposition to disproportionate acts of retaliation. July 12. which can contribute towards an even greater deterioration of the regional political and humanitarian situation. A significant community of Brazilian nationals lives in Lebanon. Brazil has the largest population of Lebanese and their descendants living outside Lebanon. including children. to avoid engaging in a new cycle of confrontations. whose first victims will be their respective civilian populations. the escalade of violence in the region. and have to condemn.THE MIDDLE EAST Security Council Resolutions to be observed. Press release “Situation on the Israeli-Lebanon Border” . The harmonious co-existence between Jews and Arabs in our country is the cause of great pride and satisfaction to us. including 193 . As Your Excellency is aware. *** The Brazilian people have been watching with extreme concern the events in Lebanon. Brazil feels itself directly affected by the violence against civilians in the region. Similarly. The Brazilian Government presents its most sincere condolences to the families of the victims and makes an appeal in support of the swift and unconditional release of the Israeli soldiers. which can seriously endanger prospects of resuming the peace process. the disproportionate and excessive use of force that has resulted in the death of a great number of civilians. there is an important Jewish community in Brazil. in the most vehement terms. The Brazilian Government is watching. irrespective of justification. as well as numerous Brazilians living in Israel. which resulted in casualties amongst seven Brazilian citizens.Brasilia. 2006. with apprehension. We repudiate terrorism. The Brazilian Government calls on all sides involved to endeavor to make the greatest possible effort to practice self-restraint and dialogue.

Brasilia time. *** The Brazilian Government greeted with satisfaction the unanimous formal approval. we welcome the cease-fire which came into effect at 02:00 hours today. Since the beginning of the conflict. and by the Israeli Cabinet. (…) It is essential that the UN Security Council act swiftly to put an end to this conflict.Brasilia. of the United Nations Security Council’s Resolution 1701 (2006). who will visit Beirut on August 15. has supported diplomatic efforts to obtain a cease-fire. August 3. Brazil hopes that the formal adoption of Resolution 1701 (2006). Brazil extends its support to the diplomatic initiatives that are being taken to help ensure the immediate suspension of hostilities. Even though it is not yet a member of the Security Council. on the night of August 11. efforts will be redoubled by the international community and by the parties directly involved in search of a comprehensive solution to the conflicts in the Middle East. may open a secure and promising path to obtain a just and longlasting negotiated peace.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK women and children. on August 12. the Brazilian Government. will convey a message of solidarity from the Brazilian Government and people to their sister-nation Lebanon and express our hopes that. following the tragic occurrences last month. Letter from President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the United Nations Secretary General on the situation in Lebanon . 194 . Brazil has closely watched the United Nations negotiations. approved by the Council of Ministers of Lebanon. which calls for an end to hostilities between Israel and the Hezbollah. With a feeling of relief and hope. between Israel and Lebanon. in line with our tradition in favor of peaceful solutions to conflicts. and in the destruction of the infrastructure of Lebanon. (…) Minister Celso Amorim. 2006. on August 13.

195 . regional and multilateral nature. “The situation in the Middle East” Brasilia. (…) The two delegations revised topics of a bilateral. 2007. They stressed the great potential that exists in diplomatic relations between both countries. which has ever since been held on a regular basis. However. on April 16 2007.Brasilia. as prescribed by the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) safeguard agreements. IRAN The Brazilian Government recognizes Iran’s right to develop the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Press release. as sanctioned in Article IV in the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT). April 20. *** The 5th Meeting of the Mechanism of Political Consultation between the Federative Republic of Brazil and the Islamic Republic of Iran was held in Teheran. August 14.THE MIDDLE EAST Press release. “Political Consultation Meeting BrazilIran” .New York. established in 1903. 2006. “Implementation in Brazil of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1. Brazil understands that the exercise of this right implies an obligation to provide to the international community concrete guarantees of the peaceful intentions of such activities.737” . This consisted of a forum for bilateral talks established in 1999. and agreed on the possibility of expanding economic and trade links. 2007. February 23. Press release.

BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK IRAQ The crisis (in Iraq) presents itself basically under two aspects: how to disarm Iraq in accordance with the resolutions of the Security Council and how to deal with the possibility of a military option with or without the authorization of the Security Council. Parliaments and of civilian society on all continents. economic. be it political. under any pretext. February 27. under the risk of perpetuating the suffering of the populations involved and unleashing uncontrollable forces with enormous destabilizing potential. in accordance with innumerable Heads of State. the treatment of prisoners and the protection of the rights of victims. *** The Brazilian Government profoundly regrets the start of military operations in Iraqi territory and that a search has not continued for a peaceful solution for the disarmament of Iraq. While lamenting the suffering that armed intervention inevitability causes to innocent citizens. or because of our adhesion to multilateralism. The Brazilian Government makes an appeal for 196 . (…) I believe that the war is of no interest to us from any point of view. commercial or humanitarian. Statement by Minister Celso Amorim at the Commission of External Relations and National Defense of the Federal Senate . the Brazilian Government calls for the observance of international humanitarian rights. to abandon the path of peace and dialogue. Brazil adopts the clear position in support of a peaceful solution to this question. especially those which refer to the protection of civilian populations. (…) When I myself was made Minister of External Relations. 2003. I declared that Brazil viewed the matter in the following manner: that it is not possible. within the framework of the United Nations Charter and the resolutions of the Security Council.Brasilia.

2003. a domain in which we have widely recognized experience. Brazil is ready to offer electoral assistance. the recent agreement which permits an increase in the Sunnite presence in the drafting of the Constitution. *** 197 . President Talabani proposed the creation of a biregional bank to stimulate trade between South America and the Arab world. with the sponsorship of the Brazilian-Iraqi Chamber of Commerce.Brussels. March 20. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim during the International Conference on Iraq . We welcome. political and religious groups. Brazil has a serious commitment to raise the level of its relations with Iraq to the same high degree they reached in the past. In the event that we are called on by the United Nations. We are presently planning to reopen our Embassy in Baghdad. 2005. we believe that it is possible. with the participation of all ethnic. *** It is important that Iraqi forces be in a position to assume total responsibility for maintaining peace and security. “Declaration on the Conflict in Iraq” Brasilia. for example. Strict observance of human rights and humanitarian rights is imperative. the restoration of peace and the respect for the territorial integrity of Iraq. without harm to the positions of principle. we will hold a trade fair related to the reconstruction of Iraq.THE MIDDLE EAST the ceasing of hostilities. The process of transition needs to be conducted in an inclusive and transparent manner. to explore formulas to use part of the official debt of Iraq as the initial capital of such a bank. in this respect. At the South AmericaArab Countries Summit. Next September. Press release. June 22.

the only multilateral body with the legitimacy to determine the use of force on an international level. is one of those examples. December 29. essential for the development and prosperity of the country. Press release”. the object of the trial in question. *** The Ministers (of Foreign Affairs of India. united and stable Iraq requires a system of government that is inclusive and democratic. together with the International 198 . in 2003.) The deposition of Sadam Hussein. The assassination of 148 people in the city of Dujail. (. without a doubt. as well as an attempt to preserve the sovereignty and integrity of Iraqi territories. Brazil and South Africa) emphasized the necessity of a return to peace and stability in Iraq. The intransigence of reciprocal errors made it difficult to seek initiatives capable of containing the government of Sadam Hussein by peaceful means. in 1982. The Brazilian Government made efforts to the last moment to find a peaceful solution to the Iraqi question. did not take place as a result of an action authorized by the UN Security Council. we note that the reason that has been given for the invasion of Iraq – the existence of weapons of mass destruction – has never been proven. President Lula talked with various international leaders and sent messages to the General Secretary of the UN and to Pope John Paul II in support of an alternative that could avoid prolonged armed conflict.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK The regime imposed by ex-President Saddam Hussein was. A peaceful. 2006. Death sentence of Saddam Hussein” Brasilia. The UN.. Independently of the dictatorial nature of the Iraqi regime. marked by a series of acts of violence against the population of his country and by the brutal restriction of freedom. (…) Any solution for the sequence of events leading to conflict and violence should arise from dialogue and an understanding between the political forces of that country.

THE MIDDLE EAST Community. 2007. are notable developments. has an important role to play in relation to this issue. the G-8 and the five permanent members of the Security Council. with the participation of Iraq’s neighbors. The Ministers reiterated their support to Iraq for its efforts towards reconstruction and development.New Delhi. July 17. Joint Communiqué of the 4th Mixed Commission of the IBSA Forum . with the UN. The launch of the International Package for Iraq and the discussions held in March and May 2007. 199 .

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“The United Nations at Sixty”. If it continues as it is. the great majority of which are developing countries. The UN was created by 51 States (including Brazil). to become irrelevant. however. (…) The challenge facing members of the United Nations is not a small one. In the journal Política Externa. At the same time. is not simply a question of choosing between carrying out. worse. There exists a growing awareness that the UN runs the risk of seeing its influence eroded in the absence of a reform. 2005. It is a question of deciding if it is in the interest of the majority of States that an organization such as the United Nations continues to function as a guarantee of a stable political order capable of promoting the development of all its members. Profound changes. The choice facing the international community. (…) Today. the Organization has. Article by Minister Celso Amorim. or not.UNITED NATIONS REFORM OF THE UNITED NATIONS – OVERVIEW Created in 1945 to avoid a repetition of the traumatic experiences of two world wars. have altered the international scene during the course of the last six decades. the UN continues to be an international organization par excellence. No. in conditions of freedom. which represented almost all the independent countries of the time. the Organization is liable to lose its dynamic force or. 2. the international agenda has evolved and expanded. however. 203 . volume 14. contributed significantly towards an international order founded on the rule of law. a reform. the UN has 191 members. for sixty years. Bringing together the absolute majority of countries around the common objective pf promoting peace.

We are participating in negotiations to create a Commission for the Construction of Peace and the Council of Human Rights.London. And the UN needs to take into account the new geopolitics of the world. February 24. what is it that we want? That the UN Organization become more representative. Interview given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to The Economist magazine . as part of the process to strengthen and democratize the United Nations. but so is ECOSOC. which discusses economic questions. the Cold War is over. So. 2006. the revitalization of the General Assembly (UNGA). 204 . the strengthening of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). (…) Brazil is striving to promote a profound reform of the UN. The UN Organization has already completed sixty years of activities. GENERAL ASSEMBLY Brazil supports greater interaction between the CSNU. the world and the conflicts for which it was created do not exist any more or at least not in the proportion that justified the creation of the UN. and democracy is consolidated in many countries. that it represent today’s political world more faithfully not just the Security Council.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK *** We support the extensive reform of the Organization proposed by Secretary General Kofi Annan. we need to give the UN the instruments that will give it the credibility to take decisions. The Security Council is a rite. also needs to change. and the administrative reform of the Secretariat. Bipolarity is over. as well as in discussions under way for the expansion of the Security Council (UNSC). the AGNU and ECOSOC. The Delegation should intervene in the debate.

Brasilia. racial discrimination.) needs to be politically strengthened in order to dedicate to priority issues. Peace. September 23.UNITED NATIONS taking into account the perspective of Brazil’s participation as an elected member in 2004-2005 as well as Brazil’s bid for a permanent seat. women’s rights. SECURITY COUNCIL We do not participate in military alliances whose scope of action may conflict with the legitimate and exclusive authority enjoyed by the United Nations Security Council in such matters. security. 2003. social development.. 2003. *** The General Assembly (. AIDS. without wasting its efforts. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 58th General Assembly of the United Nations .New York. the environment. But it should not hesitate to take up its responsibilities in the administration of international peace and security. population. Instructions handbook for the Brazilian Delegation at the 58th United Nations Security Meeting . development and social justice are indispensable to society. The UN has already shown that there are legal and political alternatives for the veto paralysis and for actions taken without multilateral endorsement. in the context of a reform of the United Nations Security Council. The General Assembly has carried out a relevant role in convoking the great Conferences and other meetings on issues such as human rights. 205 ..

Mexico City. No. 2003. Análise de Conjuntura OPSA (IUPERJ). above all. Brazil defended the democratization of the United Nations Organization and. we have the right to make such a claim. by Asia. Article by Minister Celso Amorim.Brasilia. November 28. defended the democratization of the Security Council. 4. “Foreign Policy in the Lula Government: Two Years”. Brazil did not enter. And we are making it. alongside other countries equally capable of acting on a global level and contributing towards peace and international security. held within the ambit of the OAS . 2005. when the UN was created. because it is a country with the largest number of inhabitants. by Africa. because it is the largest country in South America. April 29. *** Brazil should have been (in the UN Security Council) ever since 1945. by South America. Press interview given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Planalto Presidential Palace . *** Brazil has already indicated its willingness to immediately assume its responsibilities as a permanent member. defended the participation of representation by continent. well. *** 206 . the country with the largest territorial area. which can have two (representatives). and Brazil formally now claims a seat for itself.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the general debate of the Special Security Conference. March 2005.

which form the largest international community. 2006. Human Rights and Development in a New International Scene”. aside from the addition of a few non-permanent members. The number of countries has quadrupled. during the 61 st anniversary of the United Nations Organization .Moscow. The attention that the world now gives to events is completely different.Brasilia. is exactly the same Security Council of 1945. Interview given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the Interfax Agency . the United Nations needs to see its authority strengthened. These credentials include our long tradition in favor of peaceful solutions to conflicts and the observance of international law and our actions in promoting the interests of developing countries. July 18. Entire continents are now represented in the United Nations. 2006. Russia. *** The Security Council must be reformed. *** More than ever. We cannot have a Security Council that. We have already made significant advances in the process of administrative reform and the creation of the Council of Human 207 . radically since then. Statement by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening of the Seminar “The United Nations: Peace. The world has changed enormously. October 24. It is not possible today to have a Security Council with the same structure it had in 1945.UNITED NATIONS Brazil has the credentials to occupy a permanent seat and thereby influence decision-making processes which affect the whole international community.

as the Secretary General has already said himself. A more representative. it is now time to apply this to ourselves and show that an effective form of representation exists in the political forums of the United Nations. Madame President. *** One of the central problems of the work of the Council is the veto power. a body charged with looking after issues of peace. which to many is an unacceptable privilege. (…) Brazil wants the Security Council to be expanded so that we can encourage greater attention to security based on the connection between peace. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 61st United Nations General Assembly . we should all open a way to democratize the power to decide international petitions. Brazil. legitimate and representative. We cannot deal with new problems using outdated structures. the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction). I do not believe 208 . maintains that the expansion of the Council should consider the entry of developing countries into its permanent framework. But the work will remain incomplete without changes to the Security Council. 2006. the so-called new threats (terrorism. November 19. Sooner or later. We go around the world teaching democracy to others. The great majority of member-States also agrees with this viewpoint and recognizes the urgency in the matter.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Rights and the Peacebuilding Commission. in particular. together with G-4 countries. amongst which is the question of the Middle East and.New York. development and social justice. arms and drug trafficking. legitimate and efficient Council will be important to put a stop to the temptation to use unilateral resources by force and could also give a renewed impetus towards dealing in a more balanced way with issues that have the greatest impact on international peace and security. This would make the body more democratic.

because they affected the national interests of one of the great powers. What we can hope for in the present stage of evolution in relations between States is a system that seeks to balance. 2006. *** Naturally. December 17. the right of veto could be understood as a means to avoid decisions which.São Paulo. with the need to have an organ ism with the capacity for rapid and efficient decision-making involving issues that demand solutions that are very often of an urgent nature. article by Minister Celso Amorim in the Folha de S. in our view. During the Cold War. I honestly do not believe that there are absolute or irrefutable answers to these intrinsic contradictions. This does not mean we should have the pretension of legislating for eternity.UNITED NATIONS that it will be possible to eliminate this in the short term. Paulo newspaper . which inspired the thoughts of Rui Barbosa. Brazil defends that each vote should be subject to explanation. could result in new world conflict. it is difficult to conciliate the ideal of democracy in its purest form. in the best possible way. Another idea is to interpret the United Nations Organization Charter to allow permanent members of the Council to give a negative vote. such as those involving international peace and security. have this feature. It is necessary that the 209 . The changes we seek for the Security Council. without this necessarily implying a veto of a resolution project. But the veto has very often been used in an almost futile fashion. The country that vetoes an initiative should assume full moral responsibility for such action. “The Mission of Kofi Annan’s successor is the complete reform of the United Nations”. in resolutions of a purely declaratory nature. standards of representation and effectiveness. It would be unrealistic to think that the current permanent members would relinquish this power.

September 21. November 5. India and Japan.New York. we will continue striving to eliminate gradually or to reduce. without any form of pre-judgment. The Group of 4 fully supports the appeal for an all-encompassing approach towards 210 . Lecture given by Minister Celso Amorim during the Second National Conference of Foreign Policy and International Policy . *** The Group of 4 welcomes the report as one more sign of the strong leadership of the (United Nations) Secretary General to promote a multilateral system that will prepare the international community to effectively face the challenges of the 21st century. Africa should be represented amongst the permanent members of the Security Council. Obviously.Rio de Janeiro. Germany. 2007. so as to carry out a significant reform of the United Nations that includes the Security Council. new permanent members should not dispute the right of veto. within a reasonable period of time. 2004. Joint Press Release from the G-4 . We will work collectively. “Brazil’s Multilateral diplomacy: a tribute to Rui Barbosa”. a mechanism that. based on a firm mutual recognition that they are legitimate candidates to permanent membership of an expanded Security Council. within the bounds of reality.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK reforms that the Security Council undergoes should be subject to revision. G-4 Brazil. support each other‘s bid reciprocally. together with our member-States.

March 21. the Vice-Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs of Germany. Celso Amorim. with the aim of examining the developments of the African Union Summit in Sirte and to discuss prospects for joint action in the immediate future with relation to the expansion and reform of the United Nations Security Council. 2005. Joschka Fischer. Machimura Nobutaka. the Minister of Foreign Affairs of India. The five Ministers of Foreign Affairs 211 . (…) In the light of recent decisions taken at the African Union Summit.New York. in Sirte. with the Caribbean Community (Caricom) and with the co-sponsors of the draft resolution. in a collective manner. Nana Addo Dankwa AkufoAddo. *** The Brazilian Minister of External Relations. with the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ghana. and at the Caribbean Community (Caricom) Summit. in his capacity as a member of the contact group of the mechanism to follow-up the reform of the UN Organization established by the African Union. from the Secretary General of the United Nations . met today at the Brazilian Embassy in London. At the same time. Germany. as well as with all other members of the United Nations Organization. Today’s threats are inter-related. and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Japan. NatwarSingh. the threats that we face at this time. it is true to say that its institutions need to be adapted to reflect present political realities. held in Santa Lucia. Communication from the G-4 regarding the Report “Greater Freedom – towards Security. the Ministers reiterated their willingness to continue to maintain dialogue with the African Union. Development and Human Rights for All”.UNITED NATIONS this reform. Brazil. An individual threat is a collective threat. India and Japan share the opinion of the Secretary General that the United Nations are the appropriate forum to confront.

therefore.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK maintained their commitment to the reform of the United Nations Organization. 2007. *** The reform of the Security Council is the most important project pending amongst those adopted by the Heads of State and Government at the World Summit in 2005.New York. 2005. July 8. once more. On that occasion. The G-4 countries will continue to participate actively and constructively in the process of reform with a view to achieving concrete results. The G-4 firmly believe that a Security Council that fully reflects the present political realities will be more representative and. during the 61st Session of the General Assembly. the leaders expressed their support for the swift reform of the Council. Declaration by the G-4 regarding reform of the United Nations Security Council .London. The G-4 London Declaration . more legitimate and effective. so as to increase the number of non-permanent and permanent members. and will work together to produce a successful outcome. 212 . especially with regard to the reform of the Security Council. to include both developed and developing countries. November 1. including those achieved through inter-governmental negotiations. the G-4 remains committed to a significant reform based on the expansion of the permanent and non-permanent categories. Recent debates show. that any reform of the United Nations will not be complete without the reform of the Security Council. The G-4 welcomes the new impetus created during the 61st Session of the General Assembly. With a flexible and open spirit. and to adopt improved working methods.

both in terms of the presence of 213 . October-December 2004. To be omissive. Year 1. No. becoming dependent in relation to other countries or regions. is without precedent. originates in the principle that peace is not a free international benefit. Diplomacia. Speech by MinisterCelso Amorim at the Special Meeting of the United Nations Security Council about Haiti New York. 1. or exempt oneself from the obligation of giving an opinion or of taking action in the face of a crisis may mean becoming excluded from the decision-making process or. January 12. *** The success of the United Nations Stabilizing Mission in Haiti is based on three independent and equally important pillars: maintaining order and security. This price is one of participation. encouraging political dialogue with a view to achieving national reconciliation. “Concepts and strategies of diplomacy in the Lula Government”. 2005. keeping the peace has its price. *** The involvement in Haiti of Brazil. promoting economic and social development. as well as other Latin American countries. what is worse. article by Minister Celso Amorim. moreover.UNITED NATIONS PEACE KEEPING OPERATIONS / UNITED NATIONS MISSION TO STABILIZE HAITI (MINUSTAH) Our participation in the United Nations Organization’s Mission in Haiti. Estratégia e Política Magazine.

whose Charter has as its fundamental principles the collective action to prevent threats to peace and the promotion of human rights. 2) the promotion of dialogue between political forces. with a view to a truly democratic transition. We are prompted by three principal objectives: 1) the creation of a climate of security. by means of democratic elections in conformity with the Constitution of Haiti. September 17. *** 214 . January 16. would suffer a worsening of its conflicts.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK military forces as well as regarding political coordination. Press release.New York.Brasilia. the defense of peace and cooperation between people for the progress of humanity. Added to these pillars of Brazilian foreign policy is the need to show solidarity towards a nation in the Americas that has suffered terrible tribulation and which. “The Participation of Brazil in the United Nations Mission in Haiti” . The real aim of this Mission is that the people of Haiti should themselves recover the full sovereignty of their country. *** On accepting the invitation of the United Nations to appoint a Commander of the Military Force and to provide troops. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening of the general debate at the 60th United Nations General Assembly . 3) effective international support for the social and economic reconstruction of Haiti. the Brazilian Government observed the constitutional principles expressed in Article 4 of the Federal Constitution – amongst which the prevalence of human rights.. Furthermore. 2005. Brazil fulfilled its obligation as a founder member of the United Nations. without international help. 2006. and. with greater loss of innocent lives.

Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening session of the High Level International Meeting on Haiti Brasilia. Brazil understood that the situation in Haiti was not just a problem of restoring public safety. But these efforts will only be successful if the actions of the international community involve the more profound causes of the crisis. as well as institutional fragility. in the first instance. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the State Banquet offered by Queen Elizabeth II London. It is obvious that. The original reasons that led to the security crisis. at certain times. social injustice and the debilitation of the structure of the State. related to a much more serious problem involving poverty. 2006. *** When we responded to the call of the United Nations Organization. We have learnt. The success of the process of pacification of that country does not only depend on the United Nations troops. that force. on its own. in our view. generally linked to poverty. inequalities. We should. which will 215 . *** The international community has already learnt much from peacekeeping missions. the most decisive of a peacekeeping mission. 2006. May 23. March 7. which Brazil commands. is not enough to maintain peace and security in the long-term. therefore.UNITED NATIONS We have a firm commitment with Haiti. promote the construction of solid institutions. for example. The arrival of resources promised by the international community is essential for the task of reconstruction. military forces represent the most important aspect and.

BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK permit the full exercise of democracy. finances and development. in partnership with the Security Council. schools. at the G-8 Summit held in Gleneagles. President Lula suggested that we could begin to lift the stature of ECOSOC. Build hospitals. of the Minister of Economy of the rotating presidency of the G-8. highways. September 17. in an atmosphere free of prejudice and dogmatism. with non-governmental organizations. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL (ECOSOC) The Economic and Social Council should again become a vibrant and influential organism. in order to restore economic activities and social life in general. as established in Article 65 of the Charter. *** 216 . and respect for human rights. ECOSOC should also contribute towards promoting stability and peace.New York. organizing a high-level division with the participation.Brasilia. It is also necessary to create effective conditions for social and economic recovery. streets. 2005. 2007. To work with the private sector. ECOSOC should offer privileged deliberation in the search for conciliation between the objectives of economic growth and the reduction of the inequalities of an asymmetric globalization. This year. for example. It should serve so that we can find convergence on questions related to trade. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening of the general debate at the 60th United Nations General Assembly . February 5. To develop projects that generate employment and income. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim during the High Level Seiminar on Peace-Keeping Missions .

According to the Charter. but the Council does not have the power or resources it needs. ECOSOC could also occupy to a large extent the space reserved today for the “Group of Donors”. because it is one less organism for ECOSOC to supervise. Then. 2005. 2. The problems of ECOSOC are not due to its excessive size. Política Externa. to grant executive powers the ECOSOC presidency or to transform the body into a “Council of Economic Security”. in close coordination with the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development -UNCTAD. strategies to mobilize resources to reach these goals. which does not represent the international community. perhaps all 217 . No. the World Trade Organization. (…) In addition to this. compared to Bretton Woods institutions. Brazil does not agree with the proposal to reduce the size of ECOSOC. 14. arrticle by Minister Celso Amorim. within the context of a general reform of the United Nations. vol. in partnership with the country in question. *** It is good that the Council of Human Rights has been created. These Partnership Chambers would examine the progress of each country towards the Millennium Development Goals and would design. the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) and the regional economic commission. but to its reduced sphere of activity. should ensure that better use is made of the inherent advantages of the United Nations. the scope of ECOSOC’s field of action is wide. “The United Nations Organization at Sixty”. the G-8 and the Forums of Porto Alegre and Davos.ECOSOC. As a multilateral body. ECOSOC could conduct voluntary inquiries into the economic and social situation of countries who request this (similarly to what occurs in the WTO’s Trade Policy Review Mechanism on trade).UNITED NATIONS Much can still be done to revitalize the United Nations Economic and Social Council . (…) The revitalization of ECOSOC.

particularly those inside countries. the IMF and the WTO. it is necessary to rapidly deploy all the troops required by the Security Council resolutions. which unfortunately are increasingly becoming part of our agenda.New York. October 24. disease. Human Rights and Development in a New International Scene”. Poverty.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK these bodies should report directly to the General Assembly and let ECOSOC deal with the matters it has to deal with: how world economic and social development should be conducted and to inspire organisms that are really influential in this area. PEACEBUILDING COMMISSION We must ensure continuity between actions of prevention. Naturally. inequality. which are the World Bank. Not to negotiate. We are facing this necessity in Haiti at this exact moment. We must also face the question of the duration and intensity of these efforts. (…) For my part. I wish to insist on the need to develop new and better tools to face the structural problems that are at the root of the tensions that lead to violence and conflict. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the United Nations Security Council session on Civilian Aspects of the Management of Conflict and Peacebuilding” . 2006. during the 61 st anniversary of the United Nations . *** 218 .Brasilia. Statement by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening of the seminar “The United Nations: Peace. 2004. efforts to maintain peace and the construction stage of post-conflict peace. the lack of opportunity. September 22. These are some of the causes of conflict. but to inspire.

Annan suggested giving greater attention to sectors such as institutional recovery and the financing of reconstruction. for which Brazil has just been elected with a record vote. Concerned by the fact that no organism presently exists to assist countries that have recently emerged from conflicts. *** The Peacebuilding Commission Peace has the primary objective of helping countries that have recently emerged from armed conflict to achieve long-lasting political and economic stability. 2005. Mr. Brazil supports the establishment of this Commission. such as Haiti. article by Minister Celso Amorim.UNITED NATIONS The suggestion of the Secretary General to create a Peacebuilding Commission aims to support the process of transition from conflict to long-lasting peace in contexts of social-economic and institutional fragility. This represents an important step forward in the reform of the UN. volume 14. are able to follow a sustainable path towards peace. Brazil will be committed to help countries that are victims of conflict. No. Press release. The creation of an organism such as a Peacebuilding Commission was the subject of a proposal made by Brazil ever since the mid 90s and represents the fulfillment of a longterm ambition of developing countries. by contributing towards the strengthening of the system of the United Nations in economic and social areas.Brasilia. Política Externa. 219 . the creation of the Peacebuilding Commission will be one more significant step in the process of a reform of the United Nations. As with the recently created Council of Human Rights. 2006. “The United Nations Organization at Sixty”. 2. As a member of the Peacebuilding Commission. “Brazil is elected to the United Nations Peacebuilding Commission” . with political-institutional stability and economicsocial development. May 16.

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REFUGEES The UNHCR (the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) has expressed its recognition of Brazil’s efforts in the international protection of refugees. At the moment, Brazil shelters 3,200 refugees, from 54 countries. (…) The Brazilian policy for the protection and resettlement of refugees, which is implemented by the National Committee for Refugees (CONARE), has expanded in recent years. The efforts of the Brazilian Government, in coordination with the UNHCR, are concentrated on seeking durable solutions for the question of refugees, above all based on the institutional strengthening of the regime of partnership and sharing of responsibilities between the Federal Government and civilian agencies – an indispensable aspect of the consolidation of public policies of humanitarian importance. Press release. “Visit to Brazil of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees” - Brasilia, November 4, 2005. *** The National Committee for Refugees decided, in May 2007, to resettle in Brazil a group of Palestinian refugees originating from a refugee camp in Ruweished, in Jordan, nearly 70 km from the border with Iraq, where they had been living since 2003. The first contingent of 35 refugees arrived today, September 21, in Brazil, initiating the first stage of an operation of resettlement. In October of this year, another two contingents are expected to arrive in the country, totaling approximately 177 persons. As a signatory of the 1951 Convention on the Statute of Refugees, Brazil already has a consolidated history in this area, with actions
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that stand out in Latin America, and are substantiated in the Solidarity Resettlement Program. (,,,) This is an important decision on the part of the Brazilian Government, which reflects Brazil1s commitment to the International Law of Refugees and through this humanitarian gesture translates Brazil’s solidarity towards the Palestinian people. Press release. “Ar rival in Brazil of a group of Palestinian refugees” - Brasilia, September 21, 2007.

INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT (ICC) Since the adoption of the Rome Statute, 105 States have become Parties to this laudable international community initiative. During the last five years, the ICC was firmly consolidated in The Hague, beginning investigations in various countries, issuing arrest warrants and creating its first Pre-Trial Chamber, a step of the greatest importance for its institutional development and a hallmark in the history of international relations. The Brazilian Government, as one of the first to support the ICC, takes this opportunity to reaffirm its commitment to the ideals of the Statute. We will continue to defend the ICC in all forums. (…) The principle of complementarities makes the interdependence between the Court and the States a necessity. I would like to reiterate how important it is that all States, whether Parties of the Rome Statute or not, fully cooperate with the Court. (…) Brazil is in favor of adopting in the near future a definition for the crime of aggression, so that the Court may have jurisdiction over this. We are ready to support a definition that adequately preserves the independence of the Court as a legal body, and conveys, as a useful indication, the elements established in Resolution 3314 of the General Assembly. The moment has come
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to move forward in this matter and pave the way for a Revision Conference of the Rome Statute. According to our understanding, the definition of a Crime of Aggression should be a priority on the agenda. Speech by the Brazilian Permanent Representative at the United Nations Organization, Ambassador Maria Luiza Ribeiro Viotti, at the 6th Assembly of Member States of the ICC - New York, December 3, 2007.

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WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO) – OVERVIEW We fight against protectionist practices that so greatly harm our agriculture and our industry. We will seek to expand our markets of raw materials or semi-finished goods that continue to play an important part in our actions. We will give special emphasis to those goods and services of greater added value and built-in known-how. In order to do this in a sustainable way, we will have to deeply commit ourselves to the real fight to eliminate tariffs and subsidies, which today brutally distort trade and deprive developing countries of their comparative advantages (natural ones or those obtained through effort and creative ingenuity). Speech given by Minister Celso Amorim on taking office as Minister of State for External Relations Brasilia, January 1, 2003. *** Brazil’s performance in the WTO will be guided by the construction of a more equitable multilateral trade system, by correcting distortions and reducing restrictions that affect our capacity to stimulate policies aimed at development. This involves a real struggle, which is being faced with determination, to eliminate tariff barriers and subsidies and by balancing the rules of the game. (…) We all know that trade can be very effective in generating economic growth and wealth. However, in practice, the more developed countries do not hesitate
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The anomalies of agricultural trade consist of a particularly intolerable dysfunction.Brasilia. the relationship between trade and the environment and a series of issues called the “implementation of the results of the Uruguay Round”. but also various regulatory aspects – from the revision of anti-dumping rules to the creation of a registry for the so-called “geographical indicators”. *** The WTO has acquired (. We are aware that (…) the solution for agricultural trade will be achieved to a greater measure through the WTO – above all with regard to the elimination of subsidies and greater discipline with regards to domestic support. 2003. “Diplomacy in the Lula Government”. As an institution that embodies a multilateral trade system. such as agriculture. Lecture by Minister Celso Amorim. soon. textiles – precisely those in which developing countries show comparative advantages.) a central role in our endeavors for a more affirmative participation in international trade.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK to maintain their own idea of free trade and at the same time surround themselves with regulations that favor sectors that are shown to be vulnerable. With the assent of China and... Russia. Secretary 226 . delivered by Ambassador Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães. Brazil is extremely competitive and loses billions of dollars annually in exports in this sector. industrial goods and services. not only the liberalization of trade barriers for agricultural products. April 10. the WTO will gain a truly universal character. the WTO is presently engaged in an all-encompassing round of negotiations that involves. of special interest to developing countries. steel. lecture given by Minister Celso Amorim at the Rio Branco Institute (the Brazilian Diplomatic Academy) .

Domestic and export subsidies in developed countries lower prices and revenues across the world. reduce the profits of competitive exports and increase food insecurity in developing countries. on one hand. based on rules and market-oriented. but are also mutually beneficial. we can create a new spirit. The WTO is a vital platform for our integration into the global economy. 2003. Their alluring power does not contribute towards increasing productivity and generating wealth. Subsidies produce dependence. on the other. to show that free trade and a more fair distribution of wealth are not only compatible. *** Here in Cancun. (…) Perhaps no other area of trade is subject to so much discrimination as agriculture. *** Free trade can lead to prosperity as long as this occurs in a balanced way and takes into consideration the differential needs 227 .Rio de Janeiro.Cancun. Brazil continues to unequivocally support the existence of a multilateral trade system that is equitable. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the 5th WTO Ministerial Conference . September 11. and deprivation. at the 15th National Forum .INTERNATIONAL TRADE General of the Ministry of External Relations. making it possible to improve living conditions for millions of people who live below the poverty line. 2003. Mexico. the expansion of trade is essential for the creation of new jobs and to obtain higher rates of economic growth. Distortions in agricultural trade are not only harmful to developing countries by denying them opportunities to reach other markets. May 21.

I tire of repeating that. It is widely accepted that the multilateral trade system suffers from a development deficit. The subsidies of wealthy countries. *** Permanent solutions to misery will only exist if the poorer countries have the opportunity to progress through their own efforts. Worse than inaction through ignorance. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the 6th World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference . the WTO negotiations will help raise millions of people out of extreme poverty. 900 million people survive with less that US$ 1 per day in poor and developing countries. international trade will be a valuable instrument to generate wealth. This has not happened so far. November 19. 228 . This is a political situation that is morally unsustainable. distribute income and create jobs. 2005.New York. above all in the area of agriculture. The old geography of international trade needs to be profoundly reformed. December 14. as long as the distorted support (in subsidies) of developing countries reaches the shameful sum of US$ 1 billion per day. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 61st United Nations General Assembly . It is essential that we free ourselves from the chains of protectionism.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK of poorer countries. are heavy fetters that immobilize progress and relegate poor countries to backwardness. Provided it is free and fair. 2006. The launching of the Doha Development Agenda four years ago was a recognition of this fact. (…) If successful. is omission by convenience.Hong Kong.

“World Trade Organization: BrazilEuropean Union controversy – Sugar export Subsidies” . The ruling also clarifies the content and range of important multilateral controls over agricultural trade. The document. Press release. should be adopted by the Dispute Settlement Body within the WTO in up to 30 days. most of which were examined for the first time in the present case. for which the subsidies had a dramatic influence on poverty-related figures. It gives renewed legal force to the appeals of African cotton-producing countries.INTERNATIONAL TRADE THE WTO DISPUTE SETTLEMENT MECHANISM Brazil greeted with great satisfaction the final report from the WTO panel that examined. *** Brazil greeted with satisfaction the report from the WTO Appellate Body regarding US subsidies for cotton production and exportation.Brasilia. and underlined the importance of securing full integration of agriculture withWTO rules. the two elements of the European sugar rules that Brazil had questioned. 2004. together with the panel’s report. The Brazilian Government hopes that the European Union will carry out the determinations of the panel as soon as possible. which was circulated today in Geneva. Finally. the conclusion of the panel with regard to the sugar issue was an important step towards ending the distortions in world agricultural trade. October 15. Australia and Thailand. at the request of Brazil. the conformity of the sugar rules of the European Union with multilateral trade standards. (…) The manifestation of the Appellate Body does not favor Brazil alone. (…) The panel condemned. clearly and substantively. it stresses the legitimacy of 229 . as an unequivocal sign of their respect for the multilateral rules of trade. (…) As was the case of the dispute with cotton.

of those who are the poorest. March 3. *** I agree with your (Prime Minister Blair’s) judgment according to which it was the realization that trade could bring effective benefits to the poorer populations of the world. “Brazil-USA Controversy on cotton subsidies” -Brasilia. groups and citizens who defend an end to distortions in world agricultural trade. can we integrate millions of human beings into the dynamic sphere of world economy. 2004. in particular. are employed in the countryside.São Paulo.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK countries. THE DOHA ROUND I reaffirm our willingness to seek convergent paths. free of unfair and unjustifiable distortions.UNCTAD . Press release. above all. in the midst of a somber atmosphere following the tragic events of September 11. which motivated the launching of the (Doha) Round. 2005. We will only combat poverty by building the security that everyone seeks and only through trade. the needs of developing countries and. have to open agricultural markets and eliminate the distortions of subsidies that prevent poorer countries from competing on an equal footing and thereby enjoy the 230 . As Your Excellency has put so well. where less than 2% of the active population. taking into account. June 14. by means of a pragmatic and mutually respectful negotiation. the wealthy countries. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the 11th United Nations Conference on Trade and Development .

(…) Similarly. Article by Minister Celso Amorim in the Folha de São Paulo newspaper. respecting the criteria of proportionality and flexibility that are at the core of the special and differential treatment sanctioned by the WTO and reinforced in Doha. such as industry and services. (…) I am certain that developing countries will do their part in favor of our common objective to strengthen the multilateral system and make trade freer and fairer. Brazil is fully aware of what it needs to do and. November 15. The definition of a date to eliminate export subsidies was an effective gain. 2005. December 26.INTERNATIONAL TRADE wealth generated by new technologies. resulting mainly from the conduct of Brazil and the G20. has already done for the poorer countries. as in those where we aim to preserve space for development policies. (…) The result was even more positive than I had hoped for. for the first time. 2005. I had no great expectations about what would be possible to achieve at the WTO Ministerial Conference. Tony Blair . of explicit links of proportionality between tariff cuts for agricultural and industrial products. to be celebrated by all those who want more justice and less distortion in agricultural trade. the Conference enabled the creation. *** 231 . meeting Brazilian interests both in sectors in which we have greater comparative advantages. such as agriculture.Brasilia. “The advances of Hong Kong”. *** When I left for Hong Kong. Message from President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. which will ensure that the negotiations will be balanced. in fact.

. This is not a technical crisis. with obvious repercussions on social and political levels. Brazil. *** The multilateral trade system of the WTO is facing the most serious crisis since it was first established. even in the wider sense that the word has come to mean over the last decades.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Negotiations for a Development Agenda at the WTO are in jeopardy. which represents the way of life of the greater part of the poorest populations in the world. Brazil will certainly choose the second option. We can also take a decision to keep going.) What is at stake in these negotiations is not just a handful of concession in matters of trade.St. We can recognize that millions of lives in the whole world.. China. It is a political crisis. Statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the meeting of the G-8 countries and of Heads of State and/or Government. It is. (. (. July 17. to create conditions so that the poorer populations of our planet can enjoy the progress of our time. This is not just about trade. of South Africa.) Members (of the WTO) should continue to engage in discussions about how to move 232 . Russia. (…) It’s not just by chance that nearly sixty years after the creation of the GATT/WTO system. the subsidies. about development. (…) In agriculture. not to accept failure. 2006. Mexico and the Republic of the Congo . that is.. We can contemplate passively the progressive erosion of its credibility and legitimacy. continue to export misery and hunger to less developed nations. forbidden for decades in the industrial sector. It is a crisis caused by the lack of leadership. for the first time the word “Development” has appeared in the heading of a Round. above all. especially in developing countries. could be improved as a result of this Development Round. India.. often obtained at their expense. Petersburg. It is the very future of multilateralism in the economic sphere.

INTERNATIONAL TRADE this process forward. The added approaches will not be enough. 26% of total agricultural exports and 17% of worldwide imports of agricultural products. G-20 The G-20 is an informal group of developing countries that emerged in Geneva during the final stages of the preparations for Cancun. The Group reaffirms that its proposal is still on the table and invites members of the WTO to support this. Most of the poor populations in developing countries live in rural areas. Notes written by Minister Celso Amorim during the session of the WTO Committee for Trade Negotiations .Geneva. This also involves an essential condition to make agricultural trade more just and equitable. 2006. plurilateral and multilateral. and comprises a substantial portion of the world’s population. There is an undeniable relationship between agriculture and development. production and agricultural trade: 63% of all farmers and 51% of the world’s population live in 20 of the member (States) of the Group. Countries belonging to the Group also account for nearly 20% of the world’s agricultural production. July 24. (…) The Group will act in close coordination during the Ministerial Conference. In order to transform the Doha Development Agenda into reality. in Geneva or somewhere else. in particular countries who 233 . agriculture should be fully incorporated into the rules of the multilateral trade system with the objective of eliminating prevailing distortions in trade and agricultural products. but there is also no space for unreasonable demands that totally disregard the realities of the other partners. Such talks could be held in different formats and ways: bilateral. The Group includes a good representation of WTO members. We should reflect on possible solutions and advances in these negotiations.

it wasn’t. 234 . *** The decision to create the G-20 was a very daring move. It is the Geography books in France. amongst other countries. Ministerial Communiqué from the G-20 during the 5th World Trade Organization . Everyone recognizes that Brazil took the leadership and assumed the risks of the G-20. It is no longer President Lula who says that the G-20 changed the trade geography of the world.Cancun. September 9.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK shared its commitment with the two central objectives of the Doha Round: development and agrarian reform.Rio de Janeiro. Statement by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening session of the G-20 High Level Meeting. . but purposeful. *** We all know that the distortions and restrictions imposed by the wealthy countries on agriculture are central elements of the negative impact that afflicts international trade.WTO Ministerial Conference . This was the reason for the birth of the G-20 and of the continuation of its battle. the European Union and Japan. I would say without false modesty that Brazil changed the dynamics of WTO negotiations. But Brazil led the G-20 and is sought – I would say almost courted – by the USA. 2003. At the time. Today it seems easy and even obvious. As the proposal of the Group fully reflects the integrity and level of ambition of Doha. Mexico. it constitutes and continues to be at the center of negotiations about agriculture. September 9. 2006. It was not Brazil alone. The G-20 is a conjunction of developing countries that act in a way that is nonconfrontational.

my hope is that this new diplomatic geography can help alter to a broad extent the economic geography of the world and. our challenge is to maintain unity. we would not be where we are today. 2006. *** I have no doubts that the G-20 changed the game at the WTO and generated a new confidence in developing countries as to their ability to influence the game. nor are we close to the end of a long battle against the distortions in international trade that are so harmful to developing countries. (help) each one of our countries to reach a better level of development. in spite of these differences.Algiers. if we hadn’t created the G-20. above all. This does not mean we have reached the much desired balance. February 7. 2006. But they forget to say that. Interview given by Minister Celso Amorim to Época magazine .INTERNATIONAL TRADE Interview given by Ministro Celso Amorim to the Gazeta Mercantil newspaper . *** The G-20 changed forever the panorama of WTO negotiations. 2006.São Paulo. *** 235 . We would have reached an agreement in Cancun (2003) totally unfavorable to us and we would have had to wait another 20 or 30 years to have another agricultural negotiation. As you begin to get closer to a final decision. Many people like to transform these nuances into enormous disagreements. October 19. Interview given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the Algerian press . subtle differences begin to appear.São Paulo. So. December 17. But today there is a new perception of the diplomatic geography of the world.

and c) its ability to coordinate its members and interact with other groups in the WTO. And we have achieved results thereby. We export to China. We do not want to recreate the old UNCTAD (the United Nations Conference for Trade and Development. At the last meeting of the WTO.Brasilia. Brazil will continue its efforts for a successful conclusion of the Doha Round. 2007. WTO. b) its capacity to translate the interests of developing countries into concrete and consistent proposals. Until then there were 236 . And this strengthens us in our negotiations with rich countries. in 2003. In order to attain a more just and equitable international trade. The G-20 was consolidated as a central interlocutor in the negotiations for three main reasons: a) the importance of its members in the production and trade of agricultural products.UNCTAD There is no ‘third-world’ strategy on the part of Brazil. We do not want to exchange the First for the Third World. Pluriannual Plan 2008-2011 . Brazilian Ministry of External Relations Strategic Guidelines. cause confrontation. so that the results will benefit above all developing countries and the poorer countries. representing nearly 60% of the world’s population. May 4.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Since its creation. 70% of the rural population in the whole world and 26% of world agricultural exports. which in the 1970’s became a global forum of opposition to the United States). Brazil wants to widen its partnerships. to India. to start shouting. UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT . We are participating in the negotiations of the World Trade Organization. the G-20 has sought to create conditions for an effective liberalization of the agricultural sector in the Doha Round of Development. objectives involving social justice and free trade were brought together for the first time.

*** Even UNCTAD (. democratic debates and political determination. UNCTAD and the G-77 gave intellectual and political momentum to the Global System of Preferential Trade – in its time a real milestone of the common. 2004. Herein lies one of the great contributions of UNCTAD. policies are discussed. We are changing the geography of trade negotiations in the world. responsibilities of developed and developing countries. (…) UNCTAD has helped and can continue to help. *** We know very well that the model of development that we seek does not occur automatically. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the Ministerial Meeting of the G-77 and China . 2004. but in favor of our own interests.São Paulo. Here.. and we want to negotiate in a balanced way. June 11.. 237 . We are not against any country. though differentiated. by identifying areas in which developing countries can reap the benefits of free trade and by supporting the relative efforts of the developing countries to fully participate in the Round. ideas are germinated..São Paulo.INTERNATIONAL TRADE those who said that free trade was good and that after that would come social justice. January 28. It requires study.) would not have been capable of maintaining its vital role – as a coordinating forum and as an originator of new ideas – if it had not been for the active support of the G-77. Interview given by Minister Celso Amorim to the Veja magazine . nor will it be the result of the spontaneous generation of market forces..

238 . June 14. UNCTAD has helped us also to identify the external constraints that limited our efforts. we understand better what works and what should be avoided in matters of trade and development policies. thanks mostly to UNCTAD. 2004. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of 11th UNCTAD . Today.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK and experiences are exchanged. enabling us to better face them conceptually and politically.São Paulo.

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2005. Chancellor Celso Amorim and the VicePresident of Foreign Affairs of the World Bank.000 primary school children from the poorer areas. The program will count with a sum of US$ 500. The project – the first one carried out by the World Bank with a developing country in benefit of another developing country – has as its objective the implementation of school kitchens and the daily supply of balanced and nutritious meals to approximately 35. Brazil has had a history of collaboration and the sharing of similar ideas on economic development and the reduction of poverty that now inspire this 241 . as from next February.) This is the second initiative of this type developed with Haiti. January 27.000 from the World Bank and a Brazilian contribution of US$ 125. of social projects in Haiti. Press release. Switzerland. last December. “Signature of a co-financing program between Brazil and the World Bank for Haiti” . *** Since joining the World Bank in January 1946.. (. Brazil and the World Bank have concluded a project of co-financing to strengthen the institutional capacity and distribution of school meals in Haiti.000.INTERNATIONAL FINANCES AND ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS THE WORLD BANK Taking the opportunity of the next visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to Davos.Brasilia. Ian Goldin.. During the mission that the Brazilian government carried out in Port-au-Prince. will sign an instrument of co-financing for the implementation.

Message from Minister Celso Amorim to the President of the World Bank. (. in conjunction with Your Excellency. (…) A country only finds the path to sustainable development when it creates the mechanisms to walk on its own two feet. We have also defended the advisability of having mechanisms of financing to avoid financial crises provoked by sudden changes in the habits of international investors..Brasilia. January 10. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during a meeting with the Director General of the IMF. INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF) In short. in the organism.Brasilia. both at the domestic level as well as in its interaction with the world. All these issues remain on Brazil’s list of priorities. for the strengthening of the role of this Bank as a multilateral agent of financing towards development. June 28. including our own..) Brazil desires to have an even more active presence in the IMF. Robert B. 2007. For this reason.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK distinguished financial institution. *** 242 . I reaffirm my willingness to continue to work. Rodrigo de Rato . For years. Zoellick . when it manages to achieve solid growth using its own resources. It was in this powerful context that we took the carefully pondered decision to anticipate the repayment to the International Monetary Fund of financial loans to Brazil – thereby avoiding also having to pay relative interest payments. the path followed during the last three years by the Brazilian economy has led to a strong reduction in the Country’s vulnerability before internal risks and threats from abroad. we have indicated the need to increase quotas and the influence of developing countries. 2006. This is the central meaning of this act today.

in 2004.Brasilia. with the support of Argentina. we also need to have our own mechanisms. August 25. and the unsatisfactory participation of developing countries. Joint Declaration of the First Summit of the IndiaBrazil-South Africa (IBSA) Dialogue Forum . or Latin American. but are creating true joint ventures. South 243 .INTERNATIONAL FINANCES AND ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS The Heads of State and of Government expressed the view that the legitimacy of the IMF depends on a fundamental reform of quotas and a more representative voice for developing countries. furthermore if we want a good deal of this space to be occupied by Brazilian. 2006. The reform should effectively reduce the serious imbalance that exists between the great majority who have the power to vote. we need to use the IDB. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS – WORLD INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ORGANIZATION (WIPO) The “Development Agenda” was presented by Brazil at the General Assembly of WIPO. 2006. so we are not restricted to exporting Brazilian services. Our concern has always been to encourage. now held by advanced economies. but in some cases IDB resources are not unlimited and. whenever possible.Brasilia. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the Course for South American Diplomats . Brazilian companies to associate themselves with local companies. September 13. INTER-AMERICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK It’s wonderful that the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) exists. South American businesses.

Sierra Leone. economic and social development. Press release. culture and towards a sustainable environment. Cuba. the promotion of public objectives in healthcare. They also reaffirmed the need to reach a solution to the problem created by the assignment of intellectual property rights to biological and/or traditional knowledge that are linked to these. “The WIPO Development Agenda” Brasilia. which are now predominately directed towards topics of essential interest to developed countries. Ecuador. 2003. In this context. Bolivia. c) the adoption of new intellectual property right rules should be preceded by a critical assessment of the impact on policies of technological. the Dominican Republic. The central ideas of the initiative can be summarized thus: a) intellectual property is not an end to itself. *** The Heads of State and Government [of IBSA] underlined the importance of incorporating aspects of development into international debates relative to intellectual property. without due observance of the pertinent Convention of Biological Diversity provisions. March 1. 244 . b) public interest should be preserved at the different negotiations at WIPO. they greeted with satisfaction the launching of an “Agenda for Development in the World Intellectual Property Organization” and reaffirmed the importance of giving continuity to these debates so as to effectively secure the incorporation of the dimension of development in all its organisms. Kenya. d) it is necessary to rebalance the scope of WIPO activities. Peru. Egypt. Tanzania. Iran. Uruguay and Venezuela – the so-called “Friends of Development” group of countries. but an instrument for development. as a way of making a significant contribution towards economic and social dimensions in developing countries and preserve necessary political space to ensure access to knowledge.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Africa.

we still do not know). article by Minister Celso Amorim in the Valor Econômico newspaper .) Informal mechanisms such as the G-7/8 do not evade the need to strengthen the multilateral system and widen channels to enable developing countries to participate in cases of formal decision-making. Ideally. Today we are going through a period of serious challenges in the international scene. (.) during the sessions of widened dialogue at the G-8 Summit. without harming formal multilateral instances. social exclusion. weapons of mass destruction and conflicts in different regions.Brasilia. (…) The extended dialogue of the G-7/8 should be improved and structured on more permanent bases. September 13. 245 . the degradation of the environment. “Group of Seven”. 2007. Petersburg (2006). human rights abuses.. 2006. Our world continues to be profoundly unequal and unjust. *** The proposal for this meeting was to share views and converge on topics that will be discussed (. as well as to exchange impressions on various relevant international issues.São Paulo.INTERNATIONAL FINANCES AND ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS Joint Declaration of the First Summit of the IndiaBrazil-South Africa (IBSA) Dialogue Forum .. G-8 The original format of the G-7. as a “club of rich countries”. The five countries will also participate in the G-8 Summits in Gleneagles (2005) and St... obviously is no longer adequate for the 21st century. some of which have been with us for a long time: hunger and poverty. G-12 or G-13. this process will lead to the creation of a new “G” (if this is to be G-11. April 27.

based on their undeniable political and economic force. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. The leaders agreed to maintain consultation on a regular basis. regional and multilateral perspective. (…) At the meeting in Berlin. Joint Communiqué from the G-5. President Hu Jintao. of China.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. And here I refer to a participation that is real and concrete. the leaders shared points of view about the future of their participation in the Extended-Based Dialogue and on the convenience of guaranteeing coordination and follow-up to talks between the five countries. curing the Heiligendamn G-8 Summit . of Brazil. taking into consideration the interests and capacities of the different States. can contribute decisively to increase the participation of developing countries in this process. energy and development. June 7. of Mexico. 2007. climate change. on matters of common interest and to coordinate their positions. and not just figurative. On questions to be discussed at Heiligendamn with G-8 countries. *** There is a growing perception amongst the wealthy countries that major global issues can no longer be properly managed without the participation of developing countries.Berlin. The consensus view was that all these challenges should be dealt with from a bilateral. the leaders were pleased to see the opportunities for collaboration in the fields of trans-border investments. President Felipe Calderón. I recall the words of President 246 . reaffirmed their common conviction that the developing countries should participate more actively in the consolidation of strategies and initiatives that deal effectively with the challenges of a globalized and increasingly interdependent world. They agreed that their five countries. research and innovation. used to legitimize decisions taken by others. of South Africa. and President Thabo Mbeki. of India.

2007.INTERNATIONAL FINANCES AND ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS Lula at the recent IBSA Summit in Pretoria: “It is of little interest to be invited to share the dessert at the banquet of the powerful”. One is that these mechanisms (such as the G-8). 247 . Lecture given by Minister Celso Amorim during the Second National Conference of International Foreign Policy . although useful. (…) But two things are certain.Rio de Janeiro. cannot take the place of formal multilateral instances. The other is that there is no order or governance on an international level without involving the overwhelming majority of humanity in its management. “Brazil’s multilateral diplomacy: a tribute to Rui Barbosa”. November 5.

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With equal determination.Brasilia. industrial and technological areas. January 1. We will not lose sight of the fact that it is human beings who will ultimately suffer the consequences of the results of these negotiations. in the World Trade Organization. 2003. There is little point in our participating in such a wide effort and on so many fronts if no direct benefits result for our people. which. our understanding between Mercosur and the European Union. do not create unacceptable restrictions of the sovereign right of the Brazilian people to decide the model for development they want. We will also pay heed so that these negotiations. We will seek to eliminate the scandalous agricultural subsidies of developed countries. In relation to the Free Trade Area of the Americas . agricultural.FTAA. *** 251 . Brazil will fight protectionism and will endeavor to obtain fairer and more adequate rulings for our condition as a developing Country. Inaugural Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the National Congress . which hit our producers and deprive them of their comparative advantages. which nowadays go far beyond mere tariff reductions and encompass a wide normative spectrum. we will make all efforts to remove the unjustifiable obstacles to the exportation of industrial products. What is essential is all these forums is to preserve flexible spaces for our development policies in social and regional. environmental.TRADE NEGOTIATIONS Trade negotiations are today of vital importance.

In the Free Trade Area of the Americas . we intend to have ample discussions with entrepreneurs.FTAA. starting within the ambit of Mercosur. environmental. workers and other social sectors and with the National Congress about the positions that we should adopt. these should be analyzed with careful attention. on an international level. industrial and technological policies. to open up new markets and to obtain fairer rulings. immune to the winds of progress and competition. When he assumed command of the Nation. he made it clear that he could not renounce the battle. *** The Government of President Lula will not adhere to agreements which are incompatible with Brazilian interests. seeking to correct past distortions and to avoid excessive restrictions that affect our capacity to foster social. the projects on which these processes of negotiation are based go far beyond mere tariff reductions. President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva stated that trade negotiations are today of vital importance to Brazil In addition to an internal effort to increase the competitiveness of our products and to diversify our export activities. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim on taking office as Minister of State for External Relations .Brasilia. bearing in mind the vast range of interests involved and the complex consultations required. For this very reason. without pre-judgment. Even though a final agreement has not yet been reached. They involve normative aspects in practically all fields of economic activity. 252 .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK We do not want Brazil to be closed in on itself. 2003. January 1. we will negotiate to expand markets for our competitive goods and services. Despite the uncomfortably narrow deadlines of some of these negotiations. in the Mercosur-European Union negotiations and at the World Trade Organization.

and between Mercosur and the European Union.FTAA that is possible”. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 24th Mercosur Summit. a free trade zone between Andean Community countries and Mercosur. MERCOSUR – THE ANDEAN COMMUNITY (CAN) Mercosur is part of this South America. *** 253 . by the end of 2003. so as to establish an integrated South American economic area. promote the integration of South America. 2003. in Recife. I would equally highlight the agreement signed in April with Venezuela. which we want to see fully integrated and prosperous. Asuncion. as well as the agreement with Peru that is in its concluding phase. with the purpose of establishing. in Brasilia. the Lula Government has sought to strengthen Mercosur. in the FTAA process. July 8. Article by Minister Celso Amorim in the Folha de São Paulo newspaper. 2003. and in May with Ecuador.TRADE NEGOTIATIONS respecting the sovereign right of the Brazilian people to decide their own model of development. “A Free Trade Area of the Americas . June 18. explore new trade partners – above all with developing countries – and actively participate in the negotiations presently in progress: in the World Trade Organization – WTO. Mercosur needs to be the size of the whole of South America. In this context. the free trade agreements that already exist with Bolivia and Chile are fundamental. The new South America will be created through the connection between Mercosur and the Andean Community of Nations. In this spirit.

at the Minas Gerais Federation of Industry . this is a sign of a complementary relationship – between the step we are taking in the integration of South America and the greater objective which is Latin American and Caribbean integration. the agreement creates a new level in the process of regional integration. the historical importance of this agreement. May 4. I would also like to say that this act culminates the efforts made by all of us. promote inclusion. This will serve as a base to form a Community of South American Nations. fight inequalities. on my behalf and that of my fellow Ministers in Mercosur. of all the countries involved. By linking Mercosur with an area of nearly 112 million people and with a Gross National Product (GNP) of US$ 270 billion. Lecture by Minister Celso Amorim. which is our integration. consolidate democracy and guarantee our sovereign presence in the world. which must also develop institutionally. (…) The success of the conclusion of negotiations with the Andean Community culminated in the convergence of two of the main South American blocs. together with the one which we also signed definitively with Peru. a fundamental stage for the establishment of an integrated economic area of continental dimensions.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK The unity between Mercosur and South America will allow us to renew growth. (…) I believe we are taking a major step of the greatest importance to make South America a free trade zone. encourage us to believe in a truly strong and truly developed 254 . 2004. (…) There is no contradiction – on the contrary.Belo Horizonte. *** I do not want to let this moment pass without highlighting. who knew how to demonstrate the necessary flexibility in favor of a greater project. The presence of Mexico and Cuba amongst us and the perception that we also have similar free trade agreements with them.

Brasilia. Statement by Minister Celso Amorim at the 13th Meeting of the Council of Ministers of the Latin American Association for Integration (ALADI). trade and cooperation relations and to contribute towards reducing existing social and economic disparities. “Agreement of Inter-regional Association Negotiations . October 18. and committed to proceed with additional improvements to the respective offers. 2004. *** The Parties reaffirmed having given strategic priority to reaching an ambitious and equitable Agreement of Inter-regional Association that consists of an instrument to strengthen political. They evaluated the situation of the negotiations in progress for a bi-regional trade agreement. 2003. MERCOSUR – THE EUROPEAN UNION During the Second Meeting of Economic-Trade Negotiators at Ministerial Level.Mercosur-European Union” . (…) Both parties recognized that the offers presented were a good basis for the continuation of negotiations. and expressed their expectation that negotiations 255 . 2004. Press release. held in Brussels on November 12. Protocolization of the Mercosur-Andean Community of Nations . economic. including recent evolutions.CAN .Montevideo. with a much greater capacity to negotiate in international forums. Mercosur and the European Union agreed to intensify the Inter-Regional Association Agreement negotiations. June 12.TRADE NEGOTIATIONS Latin America.

The Parties expressed their support to advancing talks with the aim of calling a new trade negotiations meeting. as well as initiatives in matters of cooperation. In addition. MERCOSUR – THE GULF COOPERATION COUNCIL (GCC) The Ministers (of Foreign Affairs of Mercosur and the SubSecretariat of the Cooperation Council of Arab States] expressed 256 . Austria. Brazil-European Union Summit. which will allow an even greater enhancement of economic relations between the two regions and intensify political dialogue. 2007. Joint Communiqué from the Mercosur-European Union Ministerial Meeting . giving them the incentive to continue to meet and enrich the inter-regional dialogue between the EU and Mercosur. July 4.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK would lead to a suitable and successful conclusion of a wide-ranging and balanced Agreement of Association. May 13. they highlighted the importance of maintaining high-level contacts between business representatives from both regions. with suggestions and constructive contributions. at Ministerial level. 2006. Joint Declaration Lisbon. *** Brazil and the EU give great importance to strengthening relations between the EU and Mercosur and are engaged in the conclusion of the EU-Mercosur Association Agreement.Vienna. Brazil and the EU underline the great economic and political importance that the agreement will have for both regions and its role in strengthening respective processes of integration.

which were initiated in the context of the Framework Agreement signed during the Summit of countries of South American and Arab countries. Both sides will actively explore means to enhance and expand their contacts. Press release. agreed in their understanding that closer cooperation between Mercosur and ASEAN will bring important benefits to both regions. trade and investment cooperation. for the Third Ministerial Meeting of the Latin America – East Asia Cooperation Forum. who have met three times during the last three months to make this result possible.TRADE NEGOTIATIONS their great satisfaction at the progress already achieved in the Mercosur-Gulf Cooperation Council negotiations for a Free Trade Zone. 257 . August 22. 2007. the economic dimensions of both blocs and the concrete opportunities for trade which will open up as a result of this Agreement. Declaration from the Mercosur-Council of Cooperation of the Arab Gulf States (CGC) . in May 2005. 2007. in Brasilia. “Mercosur-ASEAN Cooperation” Brasilia. The Ministers welcome the efforts of the negotiating groups of both regions. January 18.Rio de Janeiro. held in Brasilia. MERCOSUR – ASSOCIATION (ASEAN) OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS The participants (Heads of Delegations of member states of Mercosur and of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations). bearing in mind its global significance. They reiterated that this effort is one of the main priorities on the negotiation agenda of each region. Both groups launched processes of consultation with the objective of expanding economic.

President Lula again visited India. a Bilateral Scientific and Technological Agreement and an Agreement on Airline Services. Brazilian exports to India more than quadrupled during the last four and a half years. and with India. in June 2007. in September 2006. also. strategic relationship between Brazil and India will only help Mercosur. when the Forum of CEOs was launched.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK MERCOSUR . at the TCU Seminar on Brazilian Foreign Trade Policy (core text) . with the objective of increasing trade interchange to US$ 10 billion by 2010. We signed a preferential tariff Agreement in 2005 [MERCOSUR-India] and are expanding our cooperation in various areas. for several years has been growing at a rate of around 9% a year and should continue at this rapid rate of growth during the next few years. During the visit of Prime Minister Singh to Brazil. My dream is to make it happen so that countries like India. There are. 2007.Brasilia. Everyone recognizes the enormous economic potential of this country which.can form one great economic area.INDIA Still within the South-South context. Obviously this will take time. but it will place us in a better. Brazil and South Africa – and all of Mercosur and SACU . (…) India is a case that should be highlighted. MERCOSUR – THE SOUTH AFRICAN CUSTOMS UNION (SACU)-INDIA I believe that a good. significant complementarities between the Brazilian and Indian economies. 258 . The most notable examples of this are the negotiations with countries that comprise the Southern African Customs Union . more creative and competitive position in relation to countries in the North. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim. we are negotiating preferential agreements which will enable us to expand our trade. were signed.SACU. August 28.

October 17. in Pretoria. which is. 2007. 2007. They reaffirmed the need to strive in their endeavors with a view to reaching a free trade agreement involving India-Mercosur-SACU.TRADE NEGOTIATIONS Interview given by Minister Celso Amorim to the Indian newspaper The Hindu . the leaders of the three countries expressed their support to the proposal to hold a Trilateral Ministerial Meeting in 2008. and welcomed the first meeting of representatives from the South African Customs Union . The leaders noted with satisfaction the fact that all Parties agreed with regard to the need to maintain talks on an eventual trilateral trade agreement.New Delhi. in Pretoria during October 5 and 6. the FTAA project goes far beyond the term “free trade” in its strictest sense. 2007. They also welcomed the significant progress made in Mercosur-SACU negotiations. Mercosur-India and India-SACU are a basis for successfully achieving the principal objective. Declaration of the Second Summit of Heads of State and Government at the IBSA Dialogue Forum Tshwane. In this respect. 2007. Negotiations between Mercosur-SACU. July 17.SACU. FREE TRADE AREA OF THE AMERICAS (FTAA) In the way that negotiations have been developing. *** The leaders of the three countries (from IBSA) reaffirmed their commitment to creating a framework for an India-Mercosur-SACU Trilateral Free Trade Agreement. Mercosur and India during the talks which developed in Pretoria on October 6. the Trilateral Free Trade Agreement. (…) After 259 . between October 8 and 9. 2007. as well as those held between SACU and India.

following the example proposed by the USA in relation to more sensitive issues. services. government investments and purchases. such as agricultural subsidies and antidumping laws. which involved debates with the Legislative power and civil society. 3) the more sensitive topics and those which represent new obligations for Brazil.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK a process of refection within the Government. compensation funds.. such as the solution of disputes. for which consensus seemed unattainable. was the object of close consultation with our Mercosur associates and put before our North American partners. this position – obviously always subject to some adjustments during the process of negotiation – can be described in the following way: a) the substance of the terms of access to markets and goods and. instead of trying to establish an unrealistic concept of a Free Trade Area of the Americas. phytosanitary rules and trade facilities. Article by Minister Celso Amorim in the Folha de São Paulo newspaper. President Lula approved the main lines of Brazil’s position in negotiations concerning the FTAA. we preferred to concentrate on “an FTAA that is possible”. in a limited way. This “three-lane” focus. . 2) the FTAA process is focused on some basic elements. (. When a country wishes to join the World Trade Organization (WTO).) Therefore. July 8. special and differential treatment for developing countries. terms and conditions are negotiated for 260 . 2003. such as the normative side of intellectual property. which conciliates. “An FTAA that is possible”. as was the case of China recently. in a more productive way. In a succinct way. will be transferred to the WTO. the necessary differentiated objectives of the 34 participating countries. to services and investments will be treated by a 4+ 1 negotiation between Mercosur and the USA. *** The FTAA is an in fieri project that does not exist as a finished reality.

The main reason that motivates US interests in negotiating the FTAA is precisely because they wish to obtain greater advantages than those that would be possible for them to get on a global scale. The country in question accepts the regulations.in the case of Brazil. the Middle East. in the assembly line. (…) It is not by chance that most of the population has a very unclear view of the FTAA. (…) There is a mistaken perception that Brazil could be running risks. if it persists in its strategy to review the framework of the FTAA. China. India. Russia and. In a very different case to that which occurred in the FTAA. 2003. sugar – and “defensive “ concerns – government autonomy to adopt industrial. It must also be added that we are actively participating in the Doha Round in the WTO. shoes. access to the US market for products such as steel. as it were. the negotiations in which it does not have a voice.São Paulo. *** 261 . issues such as investments. orange juice. In accordance with this trend. Paulo newspaper . which go beyond the conception of GATT or even the WTO service agreement. in exchange for the advantages – real or imaginary – of participating in a multilateral trade system. technological policies etc. article by Minister Celso Amorim for the O Estado de S. the very term “free trade” is open to misunderstanding. above all. not to mention the environment and employment clauses. conciliating “offensive” interests.TRADE NEGOTIATIONS entry. which is still. August 24. “The FTAA and the Game of Seven Errors”. in accordance with its main proponent – and others who have already signed bilateral agreements of this kind – involves much more that the liberalization of “trade”. . The FTAA project. government purchases and intellectual property should be discussed in the FTAA. In this respect. with South America. it should be clarified initially that the model of the USA-Chile agreement is not advantageous to a country with the characteristics of Brazil. we are negotiating a Mercosur-European Union agreement and developing other initiatives with Africa.

BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK As a result of the talks that have been held. and thereby contributing effectively towards the general evolution of the FTAA negotiating process. Mexico. the delegations agreed that all these negotiations should converge to obtain their objective to expand free trade. all of which involve access to markets. 262 . February 18. which is coherent and in keeping with the objectives of the FTAA. 2006. Communiqué from Mercosur regarding negotiations for a Free Trade Area in the Americas . Interview given by Minister Celso Amorim to Época magazine . The FTAA is not a form of negotiation that is suitable for Brazil. the Central American System of Integration (SICA) and the Community of Caribbean Countries. In the same way. various processes of negotiation have been initiated by Mercosur with Canada. it will have to be a negotiation between Mercosur and the United States. the delegations recalled that other countries or groups of countries involved in FTAA negotiations have already also concluded or moved ahead with bilateral trade negotiations. From the above. Mercosur announced that it has signed agreements with China. In this regard.São Paulo. the delegations jointly decided to reiterate that Mercosur continues to be wiling to negotiate a balanced agreement with a view to establishing a Free Trade Area of the Americas. Similarly. which is why Mercosur reiterates its willingness to establish with the other countries of the hemisphere bilateral trade relations giving access to markets. 2005. Bolivia and the Andean Community. If any other negotiation is to be made in the future. December 17.Asuncion. *** The FTAA should have a totally new conceptual base.

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We can help countries in Africa. 2007. diversify our range of exports and help protect our environment. for example. to use this technology to overcome their energy dependence and. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the closing session of the Economic World Forum for Latin America . add value to agricultural products. Now we need to work so that all our hydroelectric capacity. at the same time. BIOFUELS Both ethanol and biodiesel are a safe alternative from the energy and environmental point of view and are economically viable.Santiago. renewable and clean alternative resources. We should work together to promote the use of biofuels on a global scale. As well as being cheap. Statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the closing ceremony of the Brazil-United 265 . ethanol and biodiesel are providing an efficient and innovative response to some of the main challenges of our time. our abundant petroleum and gas reserves and the potential of biofuels are fully used to our advantage.ENERGY We are working (…) to establish the basis to design regional energy policies that are essential for sustainable development. South America is one of the few regions in the world that is self-sufficient in energy. generate employment and income. April 26. They generate employment in the countryside.

contributes towards the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Kingdom Business Seminar . In addition to offering environmental benefits. February 28.Brasilia. Biofuels have the potential to mobilize investments in research and associated technological development. Press release. improving their trade balance and saving revenues. producing biofuels promotes the generation of income and contributes to keeping the labor force in the countryside. at the same 266 . 2006. For developing countries. the use of biofuels means reducing their dependence on imported oil. the use of biofuels is also attractive because it reduces dependence on fossil fuels. besides guaranteeing greater energy safety.London. “Launching of the International Forum on Biofuels” . which gives further momentum to the process of changing established patterns of energy use on a global scale. For developed countries. 2007. to increase investments in health and education. March 8. The option (of using biofuels) is especially dramatic for poorer countries that do not have the resources to adopt such technologies and. *** Biofuels are a low-cost option of proven efficiency in the transition to an economy based on low-carbon emissions. The use of biofuels brings advantages to both developing and developed countries. *** Biofuels are economically viable alternatives and have an immediate use to partially substitute oil by-products and to diversify the world energy matrix. biofuels avert the serious dilemma of whether to adopt high-cost technology or reduce the rate of world growth. By reducing these emissions.

more than 100 countries will be able to produce energy. the cultivation of sugar cane in Brazil occupies less than 10% of the land cultivated in this Country. that is to say. July 5. less than 0. In fact. Planting sugar cane does not endanger or redirect the production of foodstuffs. wealth and income. I should add that this land is very distant from the Amazon.Brussels. Hunger in my country has been reduced during the same period that the use of biofuels has increased.4% of the entire national territory. By using biofuels. urgently need to create jobs. We would be reducing imbalances and inequalities between consumer and energy producing countries and thereby reduce possible conflicts arising from the competition for infinite energy resources. the solution is to encourage the establishment of an international market for ethanol and biodiesel. For all these reasons. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the International Conference on Biofuels . a region that is not suitable for the cultivation of sugar cane. Biofuels contribute directly towards helping to combat hunger and misery and to create the conditions for a sustainable economic growth. 2007. thereby making access to energy more democratic. (…) The inclusion of biofuels in the international energy matrix will also help eliminate another worrying element of instability: 20 countries produce energy for approximately 200 countries.ENERGY time. 267 . The Brazilian experience shows that it is wrong to create conflict between forms of agriculture that produce food and another that produces energy.

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Brazil has actively participated in negotiations and in the implementation of international conventions and programs which address the environment and sustainable development. In order to do this, the Ministry of External Relations (Itamaraty) has acted in close coordination with the Ministry of Environment and other interested Ministries. In order to develop this cooperation, the Itamaraty has also had talks with organizations representing civil society. Diplomatic actions have helped establish international and bilateral agreements and treaties, and advanced a wide environmental agenda that includes biodiversity, sustainable development, renewable energy sources, climate change, forests, chemical and toxic residue safety, desertification, and the protection of the peoples’ traditional knowledge, amongst other topics. Promoting conservation and the sustainable use of natural resources and the environment have also been put into practice through bilateral cooperation programs that include high technology projects, as is the case of the construction of remote-sensing China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) system. The start of operations of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO) has also been a valuable element to enhance the activities of Amazonian countries in favor of knowledge, conservation, sustainable management and to improve the processing techniques of natural products of the Amazon area (especially by increasing their sales value and placing them on the consumer market). Just a few days ago, the Mercosur countries agreed to adopt preventative measure to protect the Guarani Aquifer, the largest trans-border source of subterranean water in the world, with an estimated capacity to supply 360 million people, which is of incalculable social and economic worth. (…) Brazil is part of the majority of international treaties that control
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international cooperation in environmental matters and which seek to promote sustainable development. Press relase. “World Environment Day” - Brasilia, June 4, 2003. *** Brazil favors the institutional strengthening of international environmental governance and supports an exercise of reflection without preconceived ideas on the subject. The creation of a new organization or agency within the system of the United Nations, which could result from this reflection, should contribute towards the cohesion and efficiency of existing issues. Such an organization should be based on the environmental, economic and social pillars, which are an indissoluble part of the concept of sustainable development, the great achievement of Rio-92. So there should be no doubt, this connection should – in my view – be recognized even in the name of the organization that is to be created. Its conception should also adequately incorporate the perspectives, the needs and the specific circumstances of developing countries. Within this framework, consideration should also be given to the special situation of the African Continent. One of the ways of thinking within this new structure would be to conceive it as an umbrella organization, with responsibilities in normative dimensions, in cooperation and financing, making the maximum use possible of existing organisms. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim during the Ministerial Meeting on Environment and Sustainable Development: Challenges facing Inter national Governance - Rio de Janeiro, September 3, 2007. ***
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Social equitability is the best weapon against the degradation of the planet. Each one of us must do our part in this task. But it is inadmissible that the greatest onus of the shortsightedness of the privileged should fall upon those who are dispossessed of Land. The more industrialized countries should give an example. It is absolutely vital that they fulfill the commitments established in the Kyoto Protocol. Nevertheless, this is not enough. We need more ambitious standards as from 2012. And we should continue to act firmly to ensure that there is universal adhesion to the Protocol. Developing countries should also participate in the struggle against climate change. It is essential to establish clear national strategies that require government responsibility before the people of each country. (…) It is very important that the whole environmental agenda should be treated as an integrated policy. Brazil was host to the United Nations Conference for the Environment and Development, otherwise known as Rio-92. We need to evaluate the path we have taken and establish new lines of action. To this end, I propose that a new Conference be held in 2012, which Brazil offers to host, called Rio + 20. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the General Debate at the 62nd United Nations General Assembly - New York, September 25, 2007.

CLIMATE CHANGE At the conclusion of the “Brazil-United States Seminar on Science and Technology in the area of Climate change”, held in São José dos Campos, Brazil, from May 18 to 20, 2004, Brazil and the United States announced their intention to expand and intensify existing bilateral efforts to discuss scientific and technological issues related to
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climate change in areas of mutual interest, with the objective of producing positive and balanced results. To this end, the seminar was the first step to identify joint projects of mutual interest. At the seminar, specialists and government officials from both countries discussed ways to improve scientific and technological cooperation in areas such as: science of climate modeling; energy and technology; use of the land, changes in the use of the land; forests and agriculture; inventories of emissions and modeling; impacts; vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. Specific areas of cooperation will continue to be considered. Brazil reiterated its commitment to the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol, based on the principle of common, though differentiated responsibilities and the respective capacity of the Parties to discuss climate change. In this context, Brazil is willing to explore all possibilities to deal with the challenges of sustainable development related to climate change. Press release. “Brazil-United States Seminar on Science and Technology Cooperation in the area of Climate change” - Brasilia, May 24, 2004. *** Within the ambit of the commemorations to mark 30 years since diplomatic relations were established between Brazil and the People’s Republic of China, the First Meeting of a Common Agenda on Sustainable Development between both countries was held at the Itamaraty Palace (Ministry of External Relations), on August 23 of this year. The central topic on the agenda was Climate Change and the perspectives of the International Regime. (…) Brazil and China have similar geographic dimensions and levels of technological and industrial development, features that bring them together also in their respective activities and objectives in the context of the
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International Regime on Climate Change. (…) Both countries are amongst the principal players in negotiations for the development of renewable energy resources and in the use of the Kyoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism, matters that were also the subject on the agenda of talks in Brasilia. Brazil and China took advantage of the occasion to express their support for the efforts of the Government of Argentina to hold, in Buenos Aires, the 10th Session of the Conference of Parties – the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 10 – Buenos Aires, December 6-10, 2004), and expressed their determination to contribute to the success of the of COP 10. Both countries expressed their concern with the future of the International Regime on Climate Change, in the current context of uncertainties about the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol. Press release. “First Meeting of the Joint Brazil-China Agenda on Sustainable Development with Emphasis on Climate Change” Brasilia, August 23, 2004. *** Brazil considers that the entry into force, today, February 16, of the Kyoto Protocol represents a historical landmark, contributing to the strengthening and credibility of multilateral efforts to confront the causes of climate change The Kyoto Protocol supplements the principles and directives of the policies of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed in Rio de Janeiro, in 1992, by establishing quantitative standards to limit and reduce the emission of greenhouse gases on the part of industrialized nations, which have the greatest historical responsibility for global warming. The Protocol stipulates that signatory industrialized countries should, between 2008 and 2012, reduce by 5% the aggregated emission of greenhouse gases in relation to 1990 levels.
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Press release. “The entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol” - Brasilia, February 16, 2005. *** Climate Change is a real problem to which Brazil gives great importance. There is a world consensus that this phenomenon is being accelerated by human activities. It is a cumulative process, resulting from the progressive concentration of gases over the last 150 years, which has created a greenhouse effect in the atmosphere It is therefore wrong and unfair to focus attention principally on those now responsible for the emission of gases. Some of these emissions – above all from emerging economies have little or no responsibility for global warming, the effects of which we are only beginning to feel. The main cause of climate change is well known: at least 80% of the problem originated in the burning of fossil fuels – especially coal and petroleum – from the middle of the Nineteenth Century. Only a small part of this problem results from changes in the use of the land, including deforestation. Actual deforestation on a global scale is worrying for various reasons, but the battle against Climate Change should focus on an alteration in the energy matrix and a more intensive use of clean energy. The Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol are clear: those responsible for causing this problem (the industrialized countries) should be subject to mandatory methods of reduction and an obligation to act first. “Amazonia is not for sale”, article by Ministers Celso Amorim, Marina Silva and Sergio Rezende in the Folha de S.Paulo newspaper - São Paulo, October 17, 2006. *** Reiterating their commitment to reinforce the multilateral regime in matters of climate change, Brazil and the European Union are making
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thereby substituting the use of fossil fuels. July 4. amongst which are incentives to ensure that developing countries take a variety of measures that can be measured. checked and published. Brazil-European Union Summit. Both Parties recognized that substantial progress could be attained if they were guided by the last objective of the Convention and by the principle of common. This announcement was made on the same day that Russia officially handed to the United Nations the instrument of ratification of the Kyoto Project – which ensured its entry into force on February 16.from the landfill and use it to run a small thermoelectric power plant. though differentiated. State of Rio de Janeiro. CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM (CDM) The Executive Council for the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol announced on November 18 the first project in the world based on that Mechanism: The NovaGerar Project. In addition. as well as to develop additional actions under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. to be held in December 2007. Joint Declaration Lisbon. the project has a two-fold contribution towards mitigating global warming. The NovaGerar project involved the closing down of the old rubbish dump of Marambaia” and the construction of a modern sanitary landfill with significant environmental and social benefits for the local population.THE ENVIRONMENT every effort to draw up an ambitious agreement during the second part of the period of execution of the Kyoto Protocol. and reiterated their commitment to ensure the success of the Bali Conference. a Reduction of Carbon Certificate will be 277 . 2007. As a result of the project. since it is expected to collect methane – a powerful greenhouse gas . in Nova Iguaçu. responsibilities.

derived from a Brazilian proposal presented in 1997 during the negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol. coordinated by the Ministry of Science and Technology. both in an international and domestic sense. (…) The Clean Development Mechanism. which originated from a Brazilian proposal presented during the Kyoto negotiations in 1997 made it possible for industrialized countries to meet part of their carbon caps by implementing projects in developing countries that contribute to balance the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse carbon gas. responsible for the approval in Brazil of projects based on that Mechanism. “A Brazilian Project is the first initiative to be approved within the ambit of the Clean Development Mechanism” . Press release. an Inter-ministerial Climate Change Commission. The fact that this is the first project of its kind in the world highlights the pioneering actions of Brazil in the area of climate change. 2004. administered by the World Bank – in fulfillment of part of the standards for the limitation and reduction of emissions attributed to industrialized countries by the Kyoto Protocol. November 19.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK issued. The projects should provide a significant contribution in areas such as 278 . the Country’s legal and institutional structure in order to implement the Climate Convention and Kyoto Protocol.Brasilia. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). which can be used by investors – the Dutch Fund for Clean Development Mechanism. Brazil was also the first developing country to establish a National Designated Authority for the CDM. under the coordination of the Inter-ministerial Commission on Global Climate Change. having adjusted. *** The Brazilian Government attributes great importance to the Clean Development Mechanism project.

November 5. developing countries should benefit from the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol. by 2010. is also a part. Press release. In the case of HCFC gases. 2005. as well to replace these with economically viable alternatives. industrial processing. by the middle of this century. “15th Meeting of Parties of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Destroy the Ozone Layer” . developed countries undertook to totally eliminate the consumption and production of these by 1996. which are less harmful to the ozone layer. sanitary landfills and reforestation. of which the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (ratified by Brazil in 1989).Brasilia.THE ENVIRONMENT renewable energy. In addition. With the implementation of the Montreal Protocol (ratified by Brazil in 1987). 279 .Brasilia. the ozone layer will revert to levels similar to those recorded at the beginning of the 1980s. “Brazil and Spain sign a Memorandum of Understanding for cooperation projects within the ambit of the Clean Development Mechanism and Kyoto Protocol” . with the possibility of exemptions for essential uses. in their activities to replace substances with those that do not destroy the ozone layer. established control methods and timetables to eliminate the consumption and production of substances such as hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFs). January 24. For their part. 2003. it is hoped that. developing countries should no longer consume these substances. Press release. Developed and developing countries have a differential timetable to implement the Montreal Protocol. THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL The international regime for the protection of the ozone layer.

which includes activities in different areas for the conservation and sustainable use of its forestry resources. the prevention of fires and others carried out by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources – IBAMA. is in consonance with the action proposals adopted by the United Nations Intergovernmental Forestry Forum (IFF). On par with satellite monitoring programs. 280 . *** Brazil is one of the countries that has advanced most in formulating and implementing policies directed at conservation and the sustainable use of its forests. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim on taking office as Minister of State for External Relations . the fight against hunger and the promotion of food safety. Brazil has strict legislation to prevent deforestation and to promote the sustainable management of its forests. especially the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and the Convention on Biodiversity. in 2000. which are priority issues for the Brazilian Government. (…) Brazil has had a role of great importance in international talks about forests because it has the largest area of tropical forests in the world.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK TROPICAL FORESTS – AMAZONIA We will support international cooperation for the environment.Brasilia. It is important to stress that discussions about forests within the ambit of United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization FAO also focused on the relationship between forests. This Program. In April 2000. as well as having policies and institutions dedicated to dealing with the forestry issue in its multiple dimensions. the country adopted the National Forest Stewardship Program. January 1. 2003.

2006. 16th Session of the FAO Committee on Forestry . since it holds the largest area of tropical forest in the world. with the objective of preserving biological diversity. we have achieved an important reduction in the rate of deforestation. Brazil gives great importance to the issue of environmental diversity. *** Brazil is (. to value the forests that are growing and to support the social and economic development of the communities who depend on them for their livelihood. The Conference came into force on December 29. “Amazonia is not for sale”. This involves a multi-sector and long-term effort. 1993 and.THE ENVIRONMENT Press release.São Paulo.. We are open to such cooperation.) implementing an integrated policy to combat deforestation.. 2003. which occurred in Rio de Janeiro. in 1992.Brasilia. promoting the sustainable use of its components and stimulating the fair and equitable sharing of benefits that result from the use of its genetic resources. October 17. entered into force as of May 28. in Brazil’s case. March 7. through the exchange of experiences and assistance in technical training. During recent years. (…) Sustainable forest management is a propitious field for cooperation. 1994. Marina Silva and Sergio Rezende in the Folha de S. article by Ministers Celso Amorim. always within the strict observance of our laws and sovereignty. with the greatest 281 .Paulo newspaper . BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) was open for signature during the United Nations Environment and Development Conference.

On the contrary. which result from allowing access to its genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge. The battle to adopt an international rule for the sharing of benefits. (…) Nothing that threatens life or monopolizes the survival of its resources can serve the common cause of humanity. (…) Biodiversity is not the unoccupied frontier of the 21st century. the adequate exploitation of its resources is a great way to proceed for the construction of new patterns of progress which will.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK biodiversity on the planet (nearly 22% of all living species). is the greatest treasure of our planet. Press release”. so as to identify national interests which will define the Country’s actions in the matter. It is necessary to derive political and legal consequences from this paradigm. the complex whole of different forms of life. link the economic equation to quality of life and to environmental balance. once and for all. (…) The Ministry of External Relations (Itamaraty) has actively participated in meetings within the ambit of the CDB and organized coordination meeting with different internal sectors. May 22. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the High Level segment of the Eighth 282 . it involves working to establish regulatory limits to protect the biodiversity and legitimate aspiration for development of poor countries. *** Biodiversity. At the same time. is part of this course. 2004.Brasilia. Everything that can threaten it or conspire against the equitable sharing of its resources should be rejected as a threat to the survival of Humanity and of Earth. International Day for Biological Diversity” . especially those who hold the world’s natural heritage.

the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits derived from the use of genetic resources. 2007 283 . 2006. *** Brazil and the European Union will cooperate more closely in areas of conservation and biological biodiversity. September 19. *** We defend the fight against biopiracy and the negotiation of an international regime for the sharing of benefits resulting from access to genetic and traditional knowledge resources. specifically. They will also strengthen cooperation between what has been established between them. July 4. at the next Conference of Parties at the Convention on Biological Diversity and at the meeting of Parties at the Cartagena Protocol on Bio-security.Curitiba. They will also cooperate. Press release. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 61st United Nations General Assembly . 2007 – Joint Declaration” .Brasilia.New York. which will take place in Bonn. taking into account all rights covering such resources and technologies. “Brazil-European Union Summit Lisbon. 2006. in areas such as the forests and the management of water resources. March 27. in May 2008. and by means of proper financing. so as to push forward the implementation of the Protocol’s Convention. July 4.THE ENVIRONMENT Conference of Parties at the Biological Biodiversity Convention (COP 8) . including those attained through proper access to genetic resources and the proper transfer of pertinent technology.

in 2007-2008. June 9. (…) Brazil believes that this form of tourism (whale watching) is an economic activity that has been proven to be responsible for (obtaining) revenues as high or even higher than those obtained through the trade of products and by-products of whale hunting. (c) the establishment of a fund to meet the demands of this process of redirection. to the IWC. it was decided to hold the 4th International Polar Year. In Berlin. Brazil again presented a proposal. THE ANTARCTIC At the initiative of the International Council of Science (ICSU) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). is a strategy to strengthen the Commission’s conservationist guidelines. co-authored by Argentina. to establish a sanctuary to protect whales in the South Atlantic. by the CBI. Press release. scientific research without slaughtering the animals. with the aim of 284 .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK INTERNATIONAL WHALING COMMISSION Amongst the terms on the agenda (of the Annual Meeting of the International Whaling Commission) which are of the greatest interest to Brazil.Brasilia. which will be the object of a specific resolution project (…). of the legitimacy of the non-lethal use of whaling resources (whale watching tourism. amongst others). and (d) written statements of threats to the environment and studies on the behavior of whales. For Brazil. the nonalimentary use of the cetaceans. (b) the opening and redirection of the Scientific Committee for non-lethal research. 2003. the following aspects of the initiative are of more immediate interest: (a) the formal recognition. which is part of this group of countries (against the hunting of whales). “Annual Meeting of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) in Berlin” .

“International Polar Year” . should have implications within the ambit of the Antarctic Treaty System. On a political level. 285 . (…) The National Commission for Antarctic Affairs (CONANTAR). 2007. by which it expresses total support for Brazilian scientific activities included in the 4th International Polar Year calendar of events. which will be executed through international partnerships. the scientific proposals will study topics that range from climate change to the role of the Southern continent in the balance of terrestrial ecosystems.THE ENVIRONMENT fostering scientific research work in all areas of investigation related to the Polar Regions. This inter-ministerial collegiate adopted a resolution for the participation of Brazil in the present International Polar Year. in the near future. With reference to the Antarctic.Brasilia. as was the case of the 3rd Polar Year (1957-1958). in 1959. to ensure that the Brazilian participation is both extensive and consistent with the 4th International Polar Year program of scientific activities. the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM) has dedicated great attention to the preparations and possible evolution of this initiative. as well as other organizations of civil society. was created in 1982 with the aim of serving at an advisory capacity to the President of the Republic for the formulation and obtainment of the National Policy for Antarctic Affairs. (…) The scientific coordination of the International Polar Year will be carried out within the ambit of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR). developed by ICSU and OMM Press release. the results of which contributed towards the creation of SCAR and the celebration of the same Treaty. presided by the Minister of External Relations. and will encourage agencies that are active in CONANTAR. March 1. as provided for in the various National Committee on Antarctic Research (CONAP) projects. which.

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cognizant of the fact that they also have a moral.) This global alliance to fight hunger and poverty should enable developing countries to receive continued support through more liberal international trade.FIGHTING HUNGER AND POVERTY Fighting hunger and poverty is not just a utopian goal. an increase in international aid and alternative mechanisms for financing.. within the ambit of the UNDP. relief from foreign debt.. in which the redistribution of wealth will not be the result. 2004. Three developing countries. (. *** The IBSA Fund created last year by Brazil. direct investment. I am making an ethical and political call on the international community to work in support of a new concept of development. This is not an easy task.Geneva. and in favor of social justice and sustainable development. It comprises fighting against exclusion and inequality. Political will is a vital element in this equation. We invite world leaders to unite in this effort of political mobilization. I propose a change in attitude. political and economic obligation to help their partners to overcome 289 . It requires great transformations in the structure of society and profound changes in the organization of our system of production. was a pioneering initiative. The challenge of our time is to fuse economic stability with social inclusion. but the leverage of growth. India and South Africa. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at a press conference on the World Fund to Fight Hunger and Poverty . January 30.

. There can be no real economic development without a distribution of income. 2004. so that governments. It kills 24. by eliminating the different forms of subsidies that hinder free trade. May 26. 290 . This creates a context that breeds resentment. It affects almost a quarter of all humanity. Poverty is the most powerful weapon of mass destruction. led the way and inaugurated a fund that will meet the central theme of this Conference in Shanghai.) I am convinced that it is necessary to join international cooperation with national will and efforts in this battle to eradicate hunger and poverty. International cooperation has an important role to play in meeting this challenge.Shanghai. *** Economic development is a necessary requirement. It seriously jeopardizes possibilities for learning. Solidarity has to take the form of a global partnership. without social justice. which is a cause that we in Brazil are dedicated to. It dramatically reduces the production capacity of the elderly. the United Nations system. It is essential that our actions be successful in each one of our countries. It should seek to reduce economic and trade differences. thus fueling violent solutions to social and political problems.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK poverty. The Fund was idealized to finance best practices and successful projects that can be extended and reproduced in other developing countries. claims the lives of 11 children a minute. but it is not enough. international financial and trade institutions take more energetic steps to resolve these issues. (. China.000 people a day. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the World Bank Conference on Fighting Poverty . It should redirect development priorities and policies. capable of mobilizing political decisions and financial support.

World production is more than sufficient to satisfy the hunger of the populations. Mexico. if they have applied their own resources honestly and efficiently to prevent hunger and poverty. Hunger is a social problem that urgently needs to be faced as a political problem. Poor countries and developing nations have the moral authority to make demands on wealthy countries.Guadalajara. Humanity has achieved spectacular levels of scientific and technological progress. 2004. at the UN headquarters . September 20. we still have not evolved to the point where we are able to share our meals around the planet. are here already raises our hopes. *** The fact that we. leaders of 50 societies and nations. *** 291 . if they neglect to do this themselves. It is a powerful and concrete gesture towards a world alliance in the prevention of hunger and poverty. if they have done their part.New York. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the meeting of world leaders to launch the “Action to Prevent Hunger and Poverty” campaign.FIGHTING HUNGER AND POVERTY Statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Working Meeting on Social Cohesion at the Third Latin America and Caribbean – European Union Summit . Unfortunately. (…) It is not just a question of demanding from the wealthy countries what we can and should demand from them: a radically new stance and greater efforts to face the absurd tragedy of hunger and poverty. 2004. so that all may at least have the necessary food they need to survive. destroys self-esteem and violates the most basic human right: the right to life. May 28. Hunger takes away dignity.

Brazil supports all efforts that may help to achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. March 9. 2007. *** 292 . Our support to the International Financing Mechanism for Immunization and the contribution made by the introduction of a solidarity tax on airline tickets. such as the International Central Office for the Purchase of Drugs to Treat AIDS.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Fighting hunger and poverty – one of the main priorities during the first term of the Government of President Lula – will continue to receive the decisive support of the Ministry of External Relations. (…) Brazil will continue to work to put into effect other proposals. Ministry of External Relations Strategic Guidelines. INNOVATIVE MECHANISMS We believe that the world should do more against poverty and disease and ensure that adequate education and health be guaranteed to all.Paulo newspaper . Pluriannual Plan 2008-2011 . such as a tax on international financial transactions and a tax on the commerce of weapons. Brazil seeks to mobilize civil society organizations toward the proposals made by the Pilot Group of the Innovative Financing Mechanism. Malaria and Tuberculosis (UNITAID). article by President Lula in the Folha de S. May 4.São Paulo. As a founder of the group of countries that has promoted the Action to Prevent Hunger and Poverty. “More than ever a Globalized world demands international cooperation”. demonstrates our determination to find innovative focal points to help mobilize the public and private sectors to face the challenges of our time. 2006. Concrete initiatives are being implemented.Brasilia.

I am certain that. malaria and tuberculosis. 2006. as it seeks alternative mechanisms to supplement official development aid. Press release. UNITED NATIONS FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION (FAO) FAO came into being in the same year we created the United Nations. A world of peace and security is 293 . which is not a mere coincidence. other countries will join the 44 which today form this Pilot Group. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the Plenary Meeting of the Pilot Group on Innovative Financing Mechanisms . This is why this political and intellectual work is so important. the lives of millions of people. Sudden variations in aid put cooperation projects at risk and. 2006. “Launching of the International Central Office for the purchase of Drugs to treat AIDS. *** UNITAID represents the concrete result of an initiative launched in 2004 by President Lula to establish the International Action for the Prevention of Hunger and Poverty. July 6.Brasilia. Additional resources obtained by means of innovative mechanisms will have the advantage of being made on a regular and predicable basis. as we move forward.FIGHTING HUNGER AND POVERTY It is already clear that the present levels of foreign aid are not sufficient to enable the poorer countries to reach the Millennium Development Goals. The objective of this Central Office is to facilitate access to drugs to treat the three diseases that most affect developing countries: AIDS. September 19. as a result. malaria and tuberculosis – UNITAID” .Brasilia. since they are not subject to budgetary fluctuations due to political or any other reasons.

had a notable career as President of the Council of FAO. and not just a statistic. to ensure that it becomes a political issue. The fight against hunger and poverty is at the center of the international agenda. And this has only been made possible because many of us. (..BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK inseparable from efforts to guarantee full access to one of the most basic of human rights – the right to food.. 2005. governments and civil society organizations. a great intellect in hunger related issues. are committed to this struggle.) Brazil has contributed a great deal to FAO during these last 60 years. October 17. 294 . Geographer Josué Castro. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the ceremony to celebrate the 60th anniversary of FAO Rome.

HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL ISSUES .

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dialogue and non-selectivity. Brazil has expressed its concern with regard to the selectivity and the politicization that endanger the credibility and efficiency of the Commission. will contribute towards increasing credibility in the United Nations system to protect Human Rights. which is to build a consensus in favor of improving the international system on human rights. Brazil’s participation in the United Nations Commission on Human Rights — almost consecutively since 1978 — is based on the same objective. The design of a global report on human rights. (…) The creation of a Human Rights Council is consistent 297 . We support the creation of a Council of Human Rights which is based on principles of universality. We are signatories of the principal treaties and have worked together with all international organisms to promote and protect human rights. covering all countries and situations. 2005 *** Brazil has renewed its commitment to human rights. September 17. In this respect.HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL ISSUES COUNCIL OF HUMAN RIGHTS (CHR) The structures and mechanism of the Organization in the sphere of human rights should be reinforced and improved. under the responsibility of the High Commissioner. democracy and the rule of law. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening of the general debate of the 60th United Nations General Assembly . issues that will hopefully be overcome with this reform.New York.

physical capacity or sexual orientation. not as a chase after political victories in one form or another. 2. Cooperation must prevail over victimization. And ideas – 298 . 14. (…) Human rights must be safeguarded from all forms of discrimination. The importance given to this issue within the ambit of the United Nations should be the same as that given to peace and security. gender. it may seem premature to establish a Human Rights Council as the Organization’s principal body already at this early stage. To prevent hunger and disease is also a way to promote human rights and strengthen democracy. Our objective should be seen.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK with Brazilian foreign policy to ensure predominance is given to human rights. Those affected by such misfortunes are not in a position to make use of other civil or political rights. but as a way of ensuring that each individual – man and woman. “The United Nations Organization at Sixty”. No. and development. old or young – can take advantage of a life free from fear. age. volume. color. We could consider linking it directly to the General Assembly and proceed with a process of revision in fifteen years’ time. *** Hunger and diseasecan also be seen in the effects they cause as anonymous forms of torture. hunger and disrespect. whether related to race. Política Externa. (…) The creation of a Human Rights Council gives us a unique opportunity to inject new life in the way human rights are treated within the system of the United Nations. but more as a form of encouragement. political opinions. 2005. article by Minister Celso Amorim. Nevertheless. religion. imposed on individuals by unjust societies – or at least by the international community itself. social origins. not so much as a condemnation.

December 5. in the field of human rights. Brazil’s participation has been of special importance in the negotiations for its formation. After all. 2006.Brasilia. whereby countries undergo a sort of “peer review” on human rights. but on a voluntary basis onlyto begin with. clear and transparent? A global report. we have supported the creation of the Human Rights Council. more than any 299 . 2006. will put an end to the selectivity and politicization that was such a characteristic of the old Commission on Human Rights. furthermore. accompanied by a system similar to that which exists in the ILO. One idea we have defended is that the state of human rights in the world should be the object of a “Global Report”. which even exists in the WTO for trade matters. as I see it. *** Right from the first moment. *** And what. Statement by Minister Celso Amorim during the 6 th Mercosur Meeting of High Authorities on Human Rights . Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the High Level Segment of the First Session of the Human Rights Council . a global report on human rights. will bring us closer to an impartial discussion that is.HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL ISSUES precisely those that were sanctioned in the Universal Declaration – must prevail over political convenience.Geneva. We trust that the Council will contribute towards the effective promotion and protection of human right across the world and that. June 19. to the extent possible.

without exception. the Global Report will reinforce the universal nature and transparency of its activities. “Brazil’s multilateral diplomacy: a tribute to Rui Barbosa”. and a stage for interactive dialogue. To this end. at the High Level Segment of the 4th Regular Session of the Human Rights Council . the Biblical saying that “it easier to see the splinter in the eye of your neighbor than the wooden beam in your own eye” is applicable. at the end of each four-year cycle. *** The Universal Periodic Review Mechanism is at the heart of the Council. 300 . The mechanism should produce a report. 2007. November 5. 2007. March 12. Speech by the Presidency’s Special Secretary on Human Rights. it will permit a global vision of all States. it is essential that all countries cooperate with the system and participate in its operation.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK other perhaps. which should be carried out preferably between States. written by experts and which will be submitted for the approval of the Council. to be carried out by independent experts.Geneva. will generate a Global Report on Human Rights.Rio de Janeiro. Since it is universal. Lecture given by Ministro Celso Amorim during the Second National Conference on Foreign Policy and International Policy . with suggestions and recommendations to the State in question. It is the central instance that can make all the difference in relation to the old Commission. As one of Brazil’s long-standing ambitions. Brazil envisages a broad participation – including that of NGOs — comprising two stages: a preparatory phase. Minister Paulo Vannuchi. The consolidation of all reports in one single document.

with the objective of proposing to the competent authorities the measures needed to implement and promote international humanitarian rights in Brazil. who will now be able to use an additional mechanism to protect them against future violations. the Brazilian government created the National Commission to Promote and Implement Human Rights in Brazil. notably the Geneva Convention of 1949 and the Additional Protocols I and II of 1977. Press release. (…) At the 28th International Conference of the 301 . The establishment of a National Commission will give Brazil a necessary instrument with which to effectively apply Humanitarian Law. In the inter-American system. “Brazil’s Declaration recognizes the competence of the Committee Against Torture to receive accusations” . June 26. 2006.Brasilia. NATIONAL COMMISSION HUMANITARIAN LAW TO THE PROMOTE AND IMPLEMENT By means of a Decree dated November 27. Brazil already accepts the competence to examine individual cases of important human rights mechanics within the United Nations system. 2003. such as the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination and the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. we recognize the competence of the Commission and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights.HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL ISSUES COMMITTEE AGAINST TORTURE (CAT) The acceptance of the competence of the Committee Against Torture to receive and analyze individual petitions reinforces the recognition by Brazil of the legitimate nature of international concern towards human rights and a higher interest in protecting possible victims. which include accusations of possible violations of the Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish Torture.

Press release. xenophobia and correlated intolerance.Brasilia. with the objective of responding to the aspirations of the Brazilian people in their support 302 . February 11. The Brazilian Government reiterates its unequivocal determination to implement the commitments undertaken at the Durban Conference and thereby reaffirms the importance attributed to the adoption of measures that ensure the participation of persons who are victims of discrimination in all political. training programs and Armed Forces operational manuals. (…) Brazil committed to promote the integration of international humanitarian law rules at the level of teaching.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Red Cross and the Red Crescent societies. “Setting up a National Commission to Promote and Implement Humanitarian Law in Brazil” . *** The Brazilian Government associates itself with the worldwide commemorations now being held to express the international community’s repudiation of racism. 2003. In this context. social and cultural aspects of society. January 1. racial discrimination. we created today a Special Secretariat of Policies for the Promotion of Racial Equality.Brasilia. economic. 2004 THE FIGHT AGAINST RACISM AND DISCRIMINATION We encourage the universal promotion of human rights and the fight against all forms of discrimination. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim on taking office as Minister of State for External Relations .

HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL ISSUES of the fight against racism. a form of discrimination. to make another person have this feeling. June 29. (. here at Itamaraty. the feeling that there exists.. “International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination” . At a regional level. 2005. some form of discrimination is. xenophobia and any form of intolerance. Press release.) Often.Brasilia. a system that I believe can also help the candidates’ own self-esteem.Brasilia. When we create an affirmative action program. or can exist.. March 21. Brazil will host the Regional Conference of the Americas against Racism. we have also been at the forefront to establish a new and stronger Convention on Racism. *** We are particularly engaged in efforts to fight racism and promote social equality for the majority of Afro-descendants in our Country. in itself. when I say this. to provide a system of scholarships (for people of African descent). (…) And. it is not because persons of African descent need to have access to the Ministry of External Relations. It is we. Next July. we are really tackling the problem head on. 303 . here at Itamaraty (Ministry of External Relations) who need them as members of our Ministry. *** Affirmative action is nothing more than an attempt to provide equal possibilities for those who have had less favorable conditions during their childhood and adolescence. racial discrimination. so that our country may be adequately represented. Statement by Minister Celso Amorim during the opening of the International Panel “Affirmative Actions and Millennium Goals” . 2003.

of Afro-descendents in our institution. Speech by Minster Celso Amorim in the class graduation ceremony at the Rio Branco Institute (the Brazilian Diplomatic Academy) . The IBD. during the High Level Segment of the First Session of Human Rights Council . The United Nations Organization brought the topic to the center of its agenda. MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS Today we are continuing a debate that began at the Millennium Summit. We have managed to increase the number of Blacks. 2006. June 19. This relates to one of the Country’s needs. *** We have had (at the Rio Branco Institute . because they envisage to acknowledge merit while providing (…) scholarship programs. 2007.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Speech by Minister Celso Amorim. The 304 .the Brazilian Diplomatic Academy) programs of affirmative action designed in a very special way. (…) This is not (a question of) doing a favor to individuals of African descent. the IMF and the G-8 are sensitive to the question.Geneva. that reflects what sort of Brazil we represent. a need of the institution.Brasilia. The Sachs Report showed that these objectives are possible. This debate and the parallel events related to the Millennium Goals reflect the strength of mobilization. which should not only recognize itself as a body endowed with the highest technical and intellectual skills. The debate on innovative sources of development financing is no longer a taboo subject. We are working so that the Millennium Goals are attained. May 2. but also sees itself as an institution that reflects what we really are. one of the needs of Itamaraty.

2004.Brasilia. to enable aid to be given faster. As a signatory of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. political. social and cultural rights of women around the world. to reach the desired goal of effective gender equality. we suggested mechanisms to obtain additional funding.New York. March 8. They need to transform words into action.HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL ISSUES international community needs to commit itself so that these objectives may be attained. economic. September 14. Last year. “International Women’s Day” . Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening session of the High Level Meeting of the United Nations General Assembly (Millennium Goals) . 2005. WOMEN The remarkable contribution of women to the development of this country. They need to consolidate partnerships between government. Press release. The remarkable participation of women in the Ministry of External Relations and in Brazilian diplomatic life in general is internationally recognized. Brazil has actively participated in deliberations in the international sphere with the purpose of promoting the full exercise of the civil. businesses and civil society. is cause for satisfaction and an encouraging demonstration of the progress made on the path to eliminate prejudice. They need to work faster. in performing increasingly more important positions in politics and in the economy. *** 305 . on stable and foreseeable bases.

at the headquarters of the World Health Organization. 2003. in Geneva. social. October 29. and also reaffirms Brazil’s interest in contributing more actively to debates on the subject in multilateral forums. 2004.Brasilia. June 16. reflects international recognition of the advances made towards the rights of women. (…) Brazil’s prominent role (in the negotiations of the Framework Convention) was always based on the recognized effectiveness of the Brazilian program on tobacco control. “Signature of a Framework Convention on Tobacco Control” . “Election of Minister Nilcéa Freire as President of the Inter-American Commission of Women (CIM) . the objective of the Framework Convention is to protect present and future generations against the devastating health. protect the population from passive smoking and intensify support programs to stop the habit of smoking. considered exemplary by the WHO. Brazil signed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. environmental and economic consequences of the consumption of tobacco and of exposure to tobacco fumes.Brasilia. as well as strategies and actions designed to reduce the social acceptance of the habit of smoking. HEALTH In a ceremony held today. The program includes legislative measures against publicity. Press release.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK The choice of Minister Nilcéa Freire for the Presidency of the InterAmerican Commission of Women (a body of the OAS). Press Release. the promotion and sponsorship of tobacco products. restrict access to tobacco products by persons under the legal age. *** 306 . June 16. As the first multilateral public health instrument to be negotiated within the ambit of the WHO.

enabling them to take advantage of cheaper imports to meet their needs. in their totality. remains a basic instrument for public health policies in Brazil. so that they may successfully reach their objectives in public health. The Declaration recognizes. August 30. the integrity of which has been maintained and strengthened. “Patents and public health: a decision on paragraph 6 of the Doha Declaration” . *** A country like Brazil cannot afford to live on the fringes of global developments. I will give you an example. the flexibility that is inherent in the TRIPS Agreement (Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) to deal with problems of public health. The National STD/ AIDS Program. in an unequivocal form. Press release. We have managed to organize the distribution of retroviral drugs on a large scale. But. will continue to use such flexibility to its own advantage. the success of which has been recognized worldwide and that now serves as a model for developing countries.Brasilia. We have a program to fight AIDS that is recognized worldwide as an answer to one of the worst dramas that humanity has had to live through in our time. 2003. if this is to be a viable option in a country with few 307 . The decision taken today consolidates an understanding that members are entitled to use. the rights of members of the WHO to grant compulsory licenses and to determine the grounds upon which such licenses are granted. The Brazilian Government worked with total transparency and in perfect harmony with society and is proud of having contributed so decisively to reach a decision of consensus around such an essential issue for developing countries.HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL ISSUES The Doha Declaration. (…) The decision taken today extends the possibility of recourse to a compulsory license by countries without the necessary production capacity.

July 13.. such participation is. said President Lula at the United Nations General Assembly last year. a question of life and death. In partnership with Canada. when related to public health. The TRIPS agreement itself recognizes this fact. in 2004. without exaggeration.) Brazil wants to explore possibilities of cooperation with international organizations.Paris. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the debate “Brazil: a Global Player” . In the case of AIDS. 2007.Geneva. launched by President Lula and other world leaders in New York. we are supporting a program of vaccination against hepatitis B in Haiti. the Ministerial Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health stated that the TRIPS Agreement “does not prevent and should not prevent Members from taking measure to protect public health”. such as the WHO. 2005. *** Healthcare is at the center of the Action against Hunger and Poverty. Healthcare is crucial to development and to fight against poverty. they are global rules. We also want to expand our trilateral cooperation with developing countries to benefit poorer nations. “Hunger and disease are twin sisters”. interpretation and execution. We have all taken part in its design.. (. But the rules of intellectual property. should serve public interests. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the 60th World Health Assembly . May 15. (…) Brazil has scrupulously adhered to its commitments in matters of intellectual property. 308 . (…) The rules on patents are not established on an individual basis in each country. the program is dependent on the price of drugs not going over certain reasonable limits.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK resources. In addition.

signed by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Néstor Kirchner .Geneva. 2003. June 2. respect for his rights.Buenos Aires. the right to collective negotiation. The term captures the humanistic spirit that characterize our national and international mobilization efforts. Consensus of Buenos Aires. as conceived by the ILO. but ensuring the right to a fair salary. and hope that from its results there will emerge lines of action that will giver our community satisfactory levels of social cohesion and dignity to the worker and his/her family. the concept of a “decent job” guides the actions of the Ministry of Labor and Employment. in March 2004. 309 .HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL ISSUES INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION (ILO) The Declaration of Basic Labor Principles and Rights. the eradication of child labor. is the most effective instrument to promote living conditions for our people and to ensure that they share the fruits of material and human progress. adopted in June 1998. This involves giving the worker not just any job. We welcome the next Mercosur Regional Conference on Employment. In Brazil. *** We reaffirm our conviction that decent work. 2003. established a commitment around proposals that my Government fully supports: the freedom of association. equal pay and non-discrimination at the work place. a working life that is not arduous but creative. security for his family. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the special session at the 61 st Inter national Labor Conference . the elimination of forced labor. attention to his demands. October 16.

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especially with Argentina. dialogue and cooperation. *** 313 .Itaipava. and that had as their main objective the consolidation of the South America statute as an area of peace. we have taken the lead in various initiatives in multilateral forums that deal with security. 2003. NON-PROLIFERATION AND SECURITY DISARMAMENT – OVERVIEW The intrinsic links between foreign policy and defense are of particular relevance in the case of a country such as ours.DISARMAMENT. giving us the possibility to concentrate on economic and social development. disarmament and non-proliferation issues. notably those of regional integration. on the moder nization of Brazilian thinking in matters of defense and security . but one that is definitely based on cooperative international security. “Brazil and new global and hemispheric concepts of security”. which has benefited from living in peace with all of its neighbors for more than one hundred and thirty years. (…) Brazil has benefited from its unique international prominence: that of a country of undeniable importance that does not defend an exclusivist or self-centered viewpoint. Rio de Janeiro. Foreign policy resulted in strategic projects. Article by Minister Celso Amorim presented at the circle of debates organized by the Ministr y of Defense. Moreover. which have enabled us to overcome rivalries. October 11 and 12.

Combat and Eradication of Ilicit Traffic of Small Arms and Light Weapons in all its Aspects. in consonance with International Law. missile launch vehicles and related materials. *** With the aim of confronting the threat of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and missile launch vehicles. which remains a priority for the international community. such as small arms and light weapons and landmines.Brasilia. within the ambit of multilateral efforts to prevent the illicit traffic of nuclear. November 20. In this regard. chemical or biological weapons. within the ambit of the United Nations. in areas of disarmament and non-proliferation. they expressed the view that nonproliferation cannot be disassociated from nuclear disarmament. to promote nuclear disarmament and the fight against excessive stocks of conventional weapons. 6) Cooperation. 5) encourage the implementation of the United Nations Action Program for the Prevention. by means of the following measures: 1) the universalization of international treaties and rules on disarmament and non-proliferation and strengthening the domestic implementation of these treaties and rules. and in particular nuclear weapons. 3) support the actions of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). following the example of cooperation to guarantee the implementation 314 . Joint Communiqué during the official visit to Brazil of the President of Pakistan. 2004. 2) strengthen effective trade control mechanisms . Pervez Musharraf . 4) cooperation.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Both Presidents reaffirmed the right to development and the use of technology for pacific ends and reaffirmed their commitment to the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. the two leaders [Presidents Lula and Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi] reaffirmed their determination to work together to strengthen the international regime on disarmament and non-proliferation.

7) efforts directed towards providing assistance to countries devastated by landmines. Declaration from the Heads of State and Government of the European Union-Latin America and the 315 . May 26. chemical and biological weapons. and in agreement with authorities and national legislation and in consonance with international law. Brazil and South Africa (IBSA) Dialogue Forum . Joint Declaration regarding cooperation between Brazil and Japan and on international matters . March 30. *** The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and missile launch vehicles constitute a growing threat to international peace and security.Tokyo. NON-PROLIFERATION AND SECURITY of Security Council Resolution 1540. Brazil and South Africa) expressed their conviction that multilateral institutions created within the ambit of multilateral disarmament agreements should continue to be the primary institutions and mechanisms used in international community efforts to reach common objectives in the area of disarmament and non-proliferation. we are determined to collaborate to prevent the illicit traffic of nuclear.DISARMAMENT. 2006. their launch vehicles and related materials. To this end. including material support by means of cooperation initiatives. *** The Ministers (of Foreign Affairs of India. 2005. Joint Communiqué at the Third Trilateral Mixed Commission at the India. The international community shares the responsibility to actively prevent such a risk.Rio de Janeiro.

legally binding instruments that eliminated chemical and biological weapons and are contributing towards the total elimination of these weapons. and reaffirmed their commitment to make efforts in relevant multilateral forums to seek a universal instrument to prohibit nuclear weapons and achieve their total elimination. May 12. *** (The leaders of IBSA) emphasized that nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation are processes that are reinforced mutually and demand continual and irreversible progress on both fronts. prohibit their development. use or threat to use. as well as various other disarmament and non-proliferation 316 . Brazil is part of the NPT. storage. within a timeframe specifically (designed) to eliminate nuclear weapons. to be carried out in stages. They emphasized the need to begin negotiations to establish a program. TREATY ON THE NON-PROLIFERATION OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS (NPT) Brazil defends the proposition of the irreversibility of international disarmament and non-proliferation commitments. for the total elimination of nuclear weapons. universal. production. They recalled that similar approaches led to the establishment of international. Press Communiqué Brasilia. non-discriminatory and verifiable manner. and reaffirmed in this respect that the objective of non-proliferation would be better served by the systematic and progressive elimination of nuclear weapons in an all-inclusive. First Summit Meeting of IBSA. September 13. transfer. 2006. 2006.Vienna. acquisition. and to determine their destruction.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Caribbean at the 4th LAC-EU Summit .

and reiterated that the implementation of the obligations undertaken within the ambit of the Treaty remain imperative.DISARMAMENT. which determine that “all nuclear activity within the National territory will only be allowed for pacific ends and through the approval of National Congress”. Brazil defends the use of nuclear energy exclusively for pacific ends. and the fulfillment of the unequivocal commitment undertaken by nuclear countries at the last Conference for the Revision of NPT. Press release. in accordance with what is established in Article 6 of the NPT. chemical and biological weapons. January 12. as agreed by Party States of the Treaty of NonProliferation of Nuclear Weapons. “Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons” . *** The Ministers (for the Coalition of the New Agenda) expressed their profound concern with the lack of progress until the present moment in the implementation of the “13 steps” to achieve nuclear disarmament. and their total elimination is a safeguard to ensure that they will never be used or produced again. and that at all times and in all circumstances the Member States should be considered responsible for the strict execution of the respective obligations arising from the Treaty.Brasilia. 2003. NON-PROLIFERATION AND SECURITY treaties. 317 . at the Conference for Revision of 2000. involving nuclear. which it scrupulously respects. the Ministers emphasized that each one of the NPT articles is mandatory for each one of the Member States. (…) The Ministers emphasized that the recent international debate on weapons of mass destruction in any place. The Ministers recalled that continued and irreversible progress in the reduction of nuclear weapons is a basic pre-requisite for the promotion of non-proliferation. Brazil vigorously supports the total elimination of nuclear weapons. including nuclear weapons. in accordance with the precepts inscribed in the Constitution of 1988.

because it has not been ratified by countries that have advanced technology at their disposal. *** The Country’s nuclear program – which can only be used for strictly pacific ends. including nuclear armaments. Egypt. as provided for by the Constitution — is safeguarded by the Brazilian-Argentinean Agency for the Accountability and Control of Nuclear Material (ABACC) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since 1994. in the light of international instruments to regulate matters of disarmament and non-proliferation. even though the latter is not yet in force.New York. Press release. Ireland. of which Brazil is a full Party: the Treaty of Tlatelolco and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). September 23. as well as the Comprehensive Nuclear-TestBan Treaty (CTBT). 2004. “Brazilian Nuclear Program” . Mexico. They further reaffirmed the illegitimacy of using or threatening to use nuclear weapons by any State and emphasized the importance of providing safety 318 . April 5. as well as their deep concern with the slow progress being made on nuclear disarmament. South Africa and Sweden) . without ever having given rise to any form of doubt with respect to the total fulfillment of our obligations. *** They (Heads of State and Government of South American and Arab countries) reiterated their positions of principle on nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation and of other weapons of mass destruction. 2003.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Declaration of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Coalition of New Agenda Countries (Brazil. New Zealand.Brasilia.

We are also concerned by the fact that the updating of the Agency’s procedures of verification have contributed to the incorporation of elements of the Additional Protocol to the inspection procedures. 319 . the review conferences of the NPT are the most appropriate forum for talks on possible changes to the status of the Additional Protocol. May 11. Brazil is concerned with the element of doubt that may hover over those countries that are not armed with nuclear weapons and which did not sign an Additional Protocol. Head of the Brazilian Delegation at the 50th Session of the General Conference of the IAEA Vienna. Brasília Declaration. 2005. signed by Countries taking part in the South American and Arab Countries Summit Brasilia. in this respect. ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL OF THE INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA) From Brazil’s point of view. but rigorously fulfill their respective obligations under the NPT.DISARMAMENT. 2006. and of the progress made for the universalization of other relevant agreements negotiated multilaterally in areas of disarmament and nonproliferation.22. of effective actions to adhere to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). NON-PROLIFERATION AND SECURITY guarantees to countries that do not possess nuclear weapons and. Statement by Ambassador Antônio José Vallim Guerreiro. My delegation therefore considers that it is necessary to recall that this instrument was negotiated and approved in accordance with the understanding that its adoption would occur under strictly voluntary terms. September 18 .

including the right to a life of dignity. November 7. Brazil understands that we should continue our efforts to demand that the great powers that are armed with nuclear weapons. for example – to be transformed into an enforced new category of disguised non-tariff barriers to international trade. Ambassador Gelson Fonseca Júnior.Santiago. Chile. with the aim of re-vindicating the central role that is due to the Agency and thereby avoid duplicating the efforts already made by other regional and multilateral organisms. (…) The NuclearWeapons-Free Zones are a powerful political instrument that can contribute in a decisive way to stimulate the nuclear disarmament agenda. TERRORISM The fight against terrorism cannot be seen as being incompatible with the promotion and strengthening of human rights. It is necessary to work together to transform this potential into reality. Speech by the Head of the Brazilian Delegation. This notion has not been emphasized firmly enough.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK AGENCY FOR THE PROHIBITION OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN (OPANAL) The strengthening of OPANAL should become a landmark in the principles. objectives and obligations (of the Treaty) of Tlatelolco. (…) In this respect. remove or modify the interpretive declarations that they formulated during the signature or ratification of Additional Protocols I and II of the Treaty of Tlatelolco. 2005. 320 . at the 19th General Conference of OPANAL . (…) We should (…) not allow the legitimate bolstering of security measures – against bio-terrorism.

and in particular. The fight against terrorism cannot be seen strictly in terms of repression by institutions of the police force. Neither can such actions result in deaths that are as absurd and indiscriminate as those provoked by the terrorists themselves. We need to prevent terrorism from growing roots in the midst of despair. severe social and economic problems . Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the United Nations Security Council Summit . the promotion of development and the intransigent defense of human rights.New York. But we will not defeat (terrorism) only by means of repression. Although there is no automatic link between poverty and terrorism.New York. NON-PROLIFERATION AND SECURITY Statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Conference “Fighting Terrorism in favor of Humanity” . 2003. under any guise or pretext.DISARMAMENT. September 22. September 14. These efforts should respect international law and human rights. The fight against this scourge demands firmness. In the fight against irrational violence our best weapons are the culture of dialogue. We have to reject prejudice and discrimination. *** Brazil vehemently rejects these abominable acts that are an outrage to our very notion of humanity. 2005. We will continue to offer our support to greater international cooperation to combat terrorism and to eliminate its most profound causes. when combined with the absence of civil and political freedom – are factors that can expose communities to the extreme attitudes of fanatical 321 . *** Barbaric acts of terrorism continue to be perpetrated against the innocent and defenseless.

Brasilia. in accordance with a Joint Communiqué adopted at the end of the meeting in Buenos Aires. 2005. there are no signs to confirm that an incident has occurred involving activities linked to terrorism or the financing of terrorism in that region (Triple Frontier zone). Brazil reiterates its commitment to international cooperation as an instrument to prevent and to fight terrorism and the financing of terrorism. which should fall within the framework of the strict observance of International Law and Human Rights.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK groups. transnational organized crime.. of due process of law and ample defense. in the light of available information. As from this moment. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening of the general debate at the 60th United Nations General Assembly . the 322 .. I want to express the willingness of Brazilians to work intensely so that a swift agreement can be reached in this wide-reaching convention on terrorism. Unilateral initiatives and declarations that arbitrarily single out the Triple Frontier zone only results in unjustified prejudice against the region. TRIPLE PRONTIER (BRAZIL–ARGENTINA–PARAGUAY) The Brazilian Government understands that. “Triple Frontiers” .) the need to further international cooperation to fight terrorism. December 7. TRANSNATIONAL CRIME The Presidents emphasized (. This position is shared by the Governments of Argentina and Paraguay.New York. September 17. Press release. 2006.

of the Republic of Argentina and the Republic of Paraguay decided to initiate the investigation activities of police intelligence and exchange information in the present facilities of the Regional Central Intelligence Office (RCO) of Foz de Iguaçu. the world problem of drugs and related offences. from the Federal Police of Argentina and the National Police force of Paraguay. kidnappings and human traffic. The creation of the RCO is part of a series of initiatives that have been taken by the Governments of Brazil. December 14. “Regional Central Intelligence Office in Foz de Iguaçu” . 2005. So as to further cooperation in the area of public security in general. and especially in the region of the triple frontier zone.DISARMAMENT. 2006. Argentina and Paraguay to strengthen the coordination of police investigation activities. Joint Declaration by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the President of the Republic of Colombia. Press release. *** The Governments of the Federative Republic of Brazil. so as to prevent and combat illicit practices in that region. Álvaro Uribe . as well as their negative effects on the economic and social development of the countries involved. which is able to operate from the building of the Federal Police Station of that region. *** 323 . NON-PROLIFERATION AND SECURITY traffic of weapons and ammunition.Brasilia. December 1. Members of the Center will be employees originating from the Brazilian Federal Police. within a perspective of shared responsibility.Bogota. the Governments of Argentina and Paraguay accepted the invitation of the Brazilian Government to designate national police institutions to form part of the RCO in Foz de Iguaçu.

involving questions of disarmament. light weapons and ammunition.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Brazil and the European Union have agreed to work together to meet the most pressing world challenge in matters of peace and security. such as drug trafficking. Joint Declaration Lisbon. Both parties expressed their commitment to the Coordination and Cooperation Mechanism in matters involving Drugs between the European Union and Latin America and the Caribbean. as well as their launch vehicles. in particular with respect to nuclear. 324 . 2007. the traffic of small caliber weapons. non-proliferation and the control of weapons. transnational organized criminal activities. the traffic of human beings. as well as terrorism and illegal immigration. chemical and biological weapons. moneylaundering. Brazil-European Union Summit. July 4.

CULTURAL ISSUES .

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2003. social inclusion.. *** Culture and cultural goods should also be seen as elements that generate income and employment. citizenship. According to UNESCO. No other process of integration can leave aside the involvement of the population. The international trade of cultural goods today amounts to nearly US$ 2 trillion a year. (…) We cannot forget (. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the Mercosur Fourth Biennial on Visual Arts . In this double condition. October 5. a group of five countries is responsible for more than 50% of all international interchange of cultural goods.Porto Alegre. It is through a unique mixture of reason and emotion that art eliminates barriers and defenses. We cannot forget that culture is also an economic activity. generating employment and wealth. So that we may walk hand in hand (in the region).CULTURAL ISSUES CULTURAL DIPLOMACY – OVERVIEW Culture is. a man in government cannot fail 327 . But this trade is still not equitable. we first need to come to know one another better. The arts are the most beautiful windows of the human soul in a social sense. without a doubt. and the sovereign participation in the globalization process. individual and collective growth. an essential link that brings human and spiritual values closer together.) the economic dimension of an artistic event..

*** The Portuguese culture and language. August 9. Mexico and Australia. (…) At the Multilateral forums we have attended.Brasilia. José Sócrates . Brazil is not isolated from 328 . 2006. photography and other forms of expression. 2004. South Africa.São Paulo. To this end. as much within the domestic life of countries as well as in international relations.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK to understand the fundamental role that culture and cultural production play in the context of economic and political negotiations in our times. we have defended the principle that cultural goods and services should be treated as an exception that merit differential treatment. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the visit to Brazil of the Prime Minister of Portugal. *** One of the functions of the Ministry of External Relations. June 29. such as India. is to contribute towards the promotion of Brazilian art and culture abroad. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the formal opening of the World Cultural Forum . Nevertheless. through its Cultural Department. Itamaraty (Ministry of External Relations) has produced exhibitions of fine arts. can contribute much towards helping the people of brother-countries in Africa and East Timor to also prosper in our increasingly globalized world. provide encouragement and support to the Community of PortugueseSpeaking Countries and are involved in specific negotiations (in these matters) with other developing countries. We reactivated the Mercosur Cultural (division). by their very universal nature.

visited on September 12. as well as other forms of Brazilian cultural expression. distributed as follows: nine on the American Continent. and three on the African continent. *** The Centers of Brazilian Studies (CBSs) are institutions directly subordinated to the Brazilian Head of the Diplomatic Mission or Consular Department in each country. we share with other countries the customs. we have fifteen units in operation. (…) The Internet Site of the Cultural Department of the Ministry of External Relations (MRE) . the promotion of Brazilian literature. but also of their South American colleagues. the promotion of our classical and popular music. The activities (of these Centers) are concerned with the systematic teaching of the Portuguese Language as spoken in Brazil. the co-edition and distribution of texts written by Brazilian authors. In order to do this. the organization of visual arts exhibitions and theatrical productions. At the moment. the promotion of Brazilian cinematographic production. On the contrary. seminars etc. three on the European Continent. Internet Site of the Cultural Department of the Ministry of External Relations (MRE) . 2007. and are the principal instruments used to carry out Brazilian cultural policies abroad..CULTURAL ISSUES the rest of the world. neighbors or otherwise.Visited on September 12. 2007. the art exhibitions promoted by Itamaraty aim to enhance the creativity not only of Brazilian artists. values and traditions that bring Brazilians closer to other societies. the distribution of informative material about Brazil. *** 329 . such as lectures.

the Cultural Department seeks to contribute towards activities that are being developed (by these centers).BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK The Lectureship network brings together teachers who are specialized in the Portuguese language. T HE U NITED N ATIONS E DUCATIONAL . the academic community and opinion makers. reaching a qualified segment of the local populations. 330 . Itamaraty’s Cultural Department collaborates with various other foreign academic institutions that develop projects directed towards studies on Brazilian issues. At the moment. 2007. The Department also provides financial assistance to the Brazilian Study Centers in Austin. the Cultural Department of Itamaraty (Ministry of External Relations) coordinates and subsidizes the activities of 33 lecturers. growth and stability. distributed amongst some of the best and most prestigious universities in 22 different countries. The growing number of students enrolled in courses offered by the lecturers demonstrate the success of this model used to promote Brazilian language and culture. Brazilian literature and culture. In addition. who are working in respected foreign universities. Leiden. Caracas and Montevideo.Visited on September 12. facilitating exchange projects and the donation of cultural material. S CIENTIFIC ORGANIZATION (UNESCO) AND C ULTURAL We (the Heads of State and Government of the European Union and Latin America and the Caribbean) recognize the importance of cultural diversity as an element of development. and are selected by the Ministry of External Relations and by the Coordination on the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel at the Ministry of Education (CAPES/MEC). In addition to providing financial support. Internet Site of the Cultural Department of the Ministry of External Relations (MRE) .

May 12.551. as well as to increment cooperation between the European Union and LAC within the UNESCO framework. Vienna Declaration . a methodology – a National Inventory of Cultural References – an institutional framework. in October 2005. the origins of which go back to the bill of law to protect national cultural heritage. We undertake to seek means to allow for the strengthening. but also within LAC. of 08/04/2000 -. We recognize that cultural cooperation is essential to encourage intercultural dialogue and mutual understanding. Furthermore. Brazil already has specific legislation for the recognition and appreciation of its intangible heritage . within the ambit of the Institute of National Historical and Artistic Heritage (IPHAN). drafted as early as 1936 by Mário de Andrade. in this field. a systematic and consistent policy. We have developed. supported by wide previous experience.Vienna. *** Brazil is internationally recognized as one of the countries that is at the forefront in matters of the protection of its intangible heritage – those expressions and living practices that are rooted in our daily way of life. we reaffirm our conviction that cultural activities and industries play an important role in the defense. 2006.CULTURAL ISSUES as exemplified by the approval. 4th LAC-EU Summit . and the interchange of knowledge and best practices within this domain. development and promotion of cultural diversity. Two Brazilian manifestations – “the Oral and Graphic Expressions of the Wajãpi” and the “Circle Samba of Recôncavo Baiano” (“Samba de Roda do Recôncavo Baiano”) – have already been proclaimed by 331 . not only of the European Union–Latin America and Caribbean cooperation. of the UNESCO Convention for the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. We support its rapid ratification and implementation.Decree 3.

China. In this context. UNESCO and all international organisms to intensify cooperation so as to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and the Dakar Goals. 332 . and recognize the importance of the Monterrey Declaration issued by the E-9 countries. Brazil.Brasilia. 2006. “Assembly of Partner States of the Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage – the Preservation of “knowledge. July 16. issued during the G-8 Summit . *** We appeal to the whole international community. creation and oral traditions” presently under discussion UNESCO” . we applaud and support the UNESO Global Action Plan. India.St. Position Document signed by South Africa. Press release. June 27.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK UNESCO as Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. members of the G-8. Petersburg. 2006. Mexico and the Republic of the Congo. destined to reach the central objectives of the “Education for All” (project).

TECHNICAL. SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COOPERATION .

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amongst others. *** Cooperation is a fundamental instrument of Brazilian foreign policy. January 27. This knowledge should inspire technological development that takes into account diverse factors of sustainable development. (…) We are seeking to meet the growing demands for cooperation. Amongst the more intense activities of ABC cooperation. I would like to mention in particular those in the areas of agriculture. SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COOPERATION Scientific knowledge is strategic for a wider participation of our countries in the world today. has carried out a task of extreme relevance to bring Brazil closer to other countries.New Delhi. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening ceremony of the Meeting “Brazil-India Sustainable Development: Prospects and Possibilities” . providing training to technical personnel. healthcare (HIV/AIDS treatment). biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel). especially in the developing world. electoral logistics (electronic voting booths). We seek to transform into reality 335 . integrated within the organizational structure of the Ministry of External Relations.TECHNICAL. education (literacy programs). The Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC). and cooperation in the area of sports (soccer). giving priority to sectors in which we can offer an expressive contribution. When offering cooperation opportunities Brazil does not aim profit or commercial gain. Neither is there any form of “conditionality” involved. 2004.

June 29. an affirmation of our power to choose and our independence to decide. *** The Brazilian System of Digital Television is further proof of the creative capacity of Brazilians. 2006. our talent to establish partnerships and intellectual exchanges which are healthy and advantageous. *** The Prime Minister of India and the Presidents of Brazil and South Africa underlined the importance of working together towards an Information Society centered on people. in partnership with our Japanese brothers. June. 2006. It will enable us to have an effective industrial policy that contemplates an association between Brazilian and Japanese companies. (…) Just as important is the triangular cooperation that Brazil has been pursuing with developing countries and international bodies. one that is inclusive and 336 . The objective of these initiatives is to establish partnerships that will benefit poorer countries.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK a new vision of relations between developing countries. “Cooperation as an instrument of Brazilian foreign policy”. published by the Brazilian Cooperation Agency. inspired by a communion of interests and mutual support. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the ceremony to sign the decree for the implementation of the Brazilian Digital Television System . The implementation of Digital TV provides an opportunity to develop Brazilian technologies to be adopted by the Brazilian Digital Television System. Article by Minister Celso Amorim in the ViaABC magazine.Brasilia.

especially in the area of biofuels. Ministry of External Relations Strategic Guidelines. such as executing projects. signing agreements and carrying out prospecting. May 4. execution and evaluation missions. scientific and technological cooperation. and renewed their support to the outcome of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS). 2006. professional training and energy. ICTs. SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COOPERATION guided by the interests of development. as well at towards other forums and organisms related to the International Consultants on Targeted Security (ICTs). In the specific area of technical cooperation. amongst others. Pluriannual Plan 2008-2011 .TECHNICAL. held in Geneva and in Tunis.Brasilia. the Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC) has carried out activities in the areas of healthcare. both for development as well as for government and electronic governance as a means to reduce the digital divide that exists in their societies. Cooperation partnerships that stimulate invention and industrial development will be bolstered. in 2003 and 2005. with the aim of increasing the competitiveness of national goods and services and give greater autonomy and technological capacity to the Country. Joint Declaration at the First India-Brazil-South Africa (IBSA) Dialogue Forum Summit . They agreed to continue to coordinate their towards the implementation of WSIS monitoring mechanisms. The Heads of State and Government emphasized the need to promote and heighten close trilateral cooperation and training between the three countries in areas of digital inclusion. *** Another objective of the Brazilian Government is to intensify its technical.Brasilia. agriculture. respectively. 337 . 1September 13. 2007.

2004. The CBERS program is today one of the principal remote-sensing programs in the whole world. prohibition to cooperate with countries that are not members of the MTCR (Missile Technology Control Regime).Brasilia. the development of which is under the responsibility of the National Institute of Space Research – INPE. possibility of a unilateral political veto. November 11. distinct from the Agreement with the USA in 2000 and does not include the following precepts: prohibition to use revenues from the launches to develop launch vehicles. The CBERS satellites. 338 . “Brazil-Ukraine Agreement on Technological Safeguards” . involves elements of great importance in the context of the National Program of Space Activities (PNAE) coordinated by the Brazilian Space Agency (AEB). Press release. *** The CBERS Program that has been developed jointly by Brazil and China since 1988 represents a successful example of South-South cooperation in matters of high technology and is one of the pillars of the strategic partnership between both countries. does not contain the so-called “political” clauses included in the Agreement with the USA in 2000 and which were considered unacceptable by the (Brazilian) National Congress. the French SPOT and the Indian Resource Sat programs. The Agreement with the Ukraine is. in Brazil. together with the North American LANDSAT.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK SPACE COOPERATION The Agreement between Brazil and the Ukraine about Technological Safeguards Related to the Participation of the Ukraine in the Launching Operations from the Alcântra Launch Center (AST BrazilUkraine). therefore. and the imposed obligation to sign new safeguard agreements with other countries.

SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COOPERATION In addition to promoting the innovation and development of the Brazilian space industry. September 17. 339 . (…) In addition. the CBERS program generates employment in a high technology sector that is fundamental to the growth of the country.TECHNICAL.Brasilia. Brazil and China are distributing CBERS images free of charge to neighboring countries and promoting projects for technical training in their use. 2007. Press release. “Launching of the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite CBERS-2B” .

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ASSISTANCE TO BRAZILIANS ABROAD .

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which should be prepared to provide services of assistance to an increasing number of individuals. such as those we are seeing now in the Gulf. created in Annex I. *** The growing number of Brazilians living abroad presents new challenges to the consular services. which approve the regimental structure of the Ministry of External Relations (Itamaraty). which include those involved in international legal cooperation”. visited on October 26.ASSISTANCE TO BRAZILIANS ABROAD Decree No.979. Whenever situations of instability occur. special operations will be set up to provide assistance to Brazilian nationals who need protection or wish to return to Brazil. It is 343 . 2006. the Brazilian Government granted a new instrument to the Ministry of External Relations (MRE) to deal with the growing presence of Brazilians abroad as well as with the increasing flow of people between Brazil and other countries. (…) With the creation of the SGEB. which have multiplied demands made on our consular services. 2007. 5. of December 6. We should not forget that consular services are the calling card of Itamaraty (Ministry of External Relations) abroad. with the duty to “take care of issues related to Brazilians abroad and foreigners who wish to enter Brazil. Internet Site of the Ministry of External Relations. General Under-Secretariat of Brazilians Communities Abroad. the General Under-Secretariat of Brazilian Communities Abroad (SGEB).

“Diplomacy in the Lula Government”. on July 22. Condoleezza Rice. accompanied by images that have had a powerful impact. and this morning with the Secretary of State of the United States. Lecture given by Minister Celso Amorim at the Rio Branco Institute (the Brazilian Diplomatic Academy) . *** The recent news reports.Brasilia.Brasilia. July 19.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK essential that we show courtesy and interest in the problems and inquiries of those who seek the services of a Brazilian Consulate. Kofi Annan. Both parties declared the importance of an immediate cease-fire. Jean Charles de Menezes. Minister Celso Amorim spoke by telephone with the Secretary General of the United Nations. *** Last night. Press release. 2003. Foreign Secretary of the United Kingdom. August 18. Jack Straw. April 10. Minister Celso Amorim had a meeting in London with Mr. when he expressed the shock and perplexity of the Brazilian Government. With specific reference to the situation of the Brazilian citizens. together with the Israeli authorities. “Following up investigations on the death of the Brazilian citizen Jean Charles de Menezes in London” . increase the sense of indignation felt by the Brazilian government. the containment of 344 . relating to the tragic circumstances which led to the death of the Brazilian citizen. As early as July 25. to discuss the crisis in Lebanon and the situation of Brazilian citizens in that country. he requested their collaboration to ensure. Minister Amorim stressed the disproportionate nature of Israel’s military reaction. 2005.

*** With the arrival yesterday.2 tons of medication were sent by the 345 . “Situation of Brazilian citizens in Lebanon” . August 21. Abdullah Gul. The remaining 272 people are those who returned to Brazil by their own means or who decided to remain in the regions out of the combat zone.ASSISTANCE TO BRAZILIANS ABROAD military activities. of the Brazilian Air Force (FAB) flight from Aden. as a way of reducing the risk of Brazilian nations being affected. and 4. the evacuation of Brazilian citizens from Lebanon. In all. Through talks with the Institutional Security Office and other bodies of the government. BRA and VARIG. 2. 2006.Brasilia. GOL. he requested that the Israeli military forces not attack those areas identified as having great concentrations of Brazilian inhabitants or where convoys travel to transport Brazilian nationals being evacuated from Lebanon. 2. which began on July 18. In addition.950 Brazilians have been evacuated. Minister Celso Amorim called an urgent meeting at his office this morning with the Israeli Ambassador to Brazil. so as to return later to Lebanon. Tzipora Rimon. The Brazilian evacuation operation from Lebanon was accompanied by humanitarian assistance. Press release. Minister Amorim also spoke today with Turkey’s Minister of Foreign Affairs. carrying 102 passengers aboard. July 20. has been concluded.678 were transported on 14 Brazilian Air Force flights and on four flights by the Brazilian airline companies TAM. of which. and thanked him for the support given by the Turkish authorities to the evacuation of Brazilians from that region. as well as with leaders of the Lebanese community in Brazil. Itamaraty (Ministry of External Relations) will continue to act with the objective of evacuating Brazilian citizens from that region. to whom he showed great concern with the escalade of the military conflict in Lebanon and with the situation of Brazilian citizens in that country.

In addition.2 tons of donations colleted by the Lebanese community were transported by a VARIG flight. August 22. and will include the opening of new Consulates. nearly 3. 2007. *** With regard to assistance provided to Brazilian communities living abroad. This aid was transported by FAB flights. through the expansion of their respective consular services. The Brazilian Consulate-General in Beirut remains on the ready to provide normal consular services to Brazilian citizens who have decided to remain in Lebanon. with the aim of providing protection to Brazilians who live outside the Country.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Ministry of Health and 5. during the July-August 2006 conflict. In the light of this new reality. as was seen from the successful operation to evacuate Brazilian citizens from Lebanon.Camp David. the number of Brazilian nationals who have emigrated has grown significantly in recent years. 2006. Joint Declaration during the visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the United States. on July 15. *** The Presidents recognized the importance of the role played by Brazilians in the United States and by US citizens in Brazil. March 31. 346 . the Consular services are being renovated. They committed to improve bilateral cooperation and consular activities. “Operation to evacuate Brazilians from Lebanon” . The Brazilian Government should be prepared to meet the needs of their nationals in situations of emergency. Press release.Brasilia. including the flight which took Minister Celso Amorim to Beirut.2 tons of supplies and foodstuffs collected by the Lebanese community in São Paulo.

ASSISTANCE TO BRAZILIANS ABROAD Ministry of External Relations Strategic Guidelines.000 pounds for having circumvented security regulations and the health of the population in an operation that killed the Brazilian Jean Charles de Menezes. 2007. the decision recognizes the responsibility of the Metropolitan Police in the case and paves the way for new initiatives in favor of the family of that innocent Brazilian citizen. 385. Pluriannual Plan 2008-2011 .Brasilia. “Police officers involved in the death of Jean Charles de Menezes are Acquitted” . 2007. Even though they did not identify the individuals responsible for the tragedy. *** The Ministry of External Relations received the news that the Metropolitan Police of Scotland Yard has been sentenced to pay a fine of 175. May 11. Press release. 347 .000 pounds sterling plus the costs of the case. The Ministry of External Relations renews its solidarity and the support of the Brazilian Government to the family of Jean Charles de Menezes and will continue to watch the case and provide all assistance possible. May 4.Brasilia.

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