BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK

MINISTRY OF EXTERNAL RELATIONS

Foreign Minister Secretary General

Ambassador Celso Amorim Ambassador Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães

ALEXANDRE DE GUSMÃO FOUNDATION

President

Ambassador Jeronimo Moscardo

BUREAU OF DIPLOMATIC PLANNING Ambassador Maria Laura da Rocha Eugênio Vargas Garcia Patrícia Wagner Chiarello Camilo Licks Rostand Prates Henri Yves Pinal Carrières Christiana Lamazière Filipe Nasser

All rights reserved. Ministry of External Relations Bureau of Diplomatic Planning Esplanada dos Ministérios Palácio Itamaraty, Brasilia – DF CEP 70170-900 Telephones: (5561) 3411-6105/6106/8029 Fax: (5561) 3411-6993 E-mail: spd@mre.gov.br

BRAZILIAN MINISTRY OF EXTERNAL RELATIONS BUREAU OF DIPLOMATIC PLANNING

BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK

BRASÍLIA, 2008

Copyright © Ministry of External Relations

Printed in Brazil 2008 Brasil. Ministério das Relações Exteriores. Secretaria de Planejamento Diplomático. Brazilian Foreign Policy Handbook / Brazilian Ministry of External Relations, Bureau of Diplomatic Planning. - Brasília : Alexandre de Gusmão Foundation, 2008. 348 p. ISBN 978-85-7631-109-6 1. Política externa – Brasil. I. Ministério das Relações Exteriores (Brasil). II. Título. CDU 327 (81)

Book cover: Arthur Luiz Piza, Ovo, s.d., relevo sobre madeira pintada, 30 x 20cm Technical Advisors: Lílian Silva Rodrigues Maria Marta Cezar Lopes Graphic Project and diagram: Cláudia Capella e Paulo Pedersolli

All rights reserved. Ministry of External Relations Bureau of Diplomatic Planning Esplanada dos Ministérios Palácio Itamaraty, Brasilia – DF CEP 70170-900 Telephones: (5561) 3411-6105/6106/8029 Fax: (5561) 3411-6993 E-mail: spd@mre.gov.br

CONTENTS

Foreword ........................................................................................ 13 Principles and guidelines for Brazilian foreign policy ................. 15 International Politics – Overview ................................................ 29 South America ............................................................................... 41 South American Integration – Overview .................................. 43 The South American Community of Nations (CASA) and The Union of South American Nations (UNASUL) ................. 47 Infrastructure and energy ............................................................ 49 Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO) ............. 52 Argentina ...................................................................................... 54 Malvinas / The Falkland Islands ................................................. 56 Paraguay ........................................................................................ 57 Uruguay ......................................................................................... 58 Venezuela ...................................................................................... 60 Bolivia ........................................................................................... 64 Mercosur ........................................................................................ 69 The Mercosur Parliament ........................................................... 76 Dealing with Asymmetries ........................................................... 78 The Mercosur Structural Convergence Fund (FOCEM) .. 78 Paraguay ............................................................................... 79 Uruguay ................................................................................ 80

Central America, the Caribbean and Mexico ............................... 81 Haiti .............................................................................................. 86 Cuba .............................................................................................. 88 Mexico ............................................................................................ 91 North America ............................................................................... 93 The United States .......................................................................... 95 Canada .......................................................................................... 98 Multilateral Regional Fora ........................................................... 101 Organization of American States (OAS) ............................... 103 Hemispheric security .......................................................... 104 Democracy .......................................................................... 106 Human Rights .................................................................... 108 The Rio Group............................................................................ 108 The Ibero-American Conference ............................................... 110 Europe ........................................................................................... 113 The European Union .................................................................. 115 The Latin American and Caribbean – European Union Summit (LAC-EU) .................................................................... 118 Bilateral relations/Strategic partnerships ................................. 120 Germany ............................................................................. 120 Spain .................................................................................... 121 France .................................................................................. 123 Italy ..................................................................................... 125 Portugal ............................................................................... 126 The United Kingdom ......................................................... 128

......................................................... 170 Nigeria ......... 133 Forum for East Asia – Latin America Cooperation (FEALAC) .................................................................... 141 Japan ........................................................................................................................................ 168 The African Union .............................................................................................. 165 Africa–South America Summit (AFSA) ........... 155 Africa ................................................................ 149 Kazakhstan ............................................. 136 Taiwan ............................................................................ 135 China .................................................................................................................................... 150 The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) ............................. 169 South Africa ....................................................................... 140 India ................................... 153 Australia .. 131 Asia ................................................................................ 150 The Republic of Korea ............................................................................................................................. Brazil and South Africa Dialogue Forum (IBSA) .............................................................. 129 Scandinavian countries ................................ 149 Afghanistan ................................. 147 Central Asia ............................ 153 New Zealand ............................................................. 163 Africa – Overview ..................................................................... 146 East Timor .................................................................................................................. 153 India.................................................................................................... 152 Oceania .................................................................................................................... 172 ...................................Russia..................

. 184 The Palestine Question .... 179 The Sudan– Darfur ............................................................................................................................... 216 Peacebuilding Commission ......................... 186 Israel ........................................................... 177 Morocco .................................................................................................................................................................Comununity of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPLP) ....................... 203 General Assembly ........................................................... 176 Guinea-Bissau ................................ 213 Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) ............................................................................................................................. 195 Iraq .................................... 189 Lebanon ............................................................................................... 177 Western Sahara .................................................................................................................................................................................... 201 Reform of the United Nations – Overview ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 204 Security Council ................................................. 179 The Middle East .......... 210 Peace keeping Operations/ United Nations Mission to Stabilize Haiti (MINUSTAH) .................................................................................................... 196 United Nations ............. 173 Angola ............................................. 220 ........................ 178 Algeria .... 181 South American and Arab Countries Summit (SAAC) .................. 205 G-4 ... 191 Iran ............................... 175 Mozambique ............................................................... 218 Refugees ..............................................................................................

............................. 241 Internationl Monetary Fund (IMF) ........................................................................................................ 253 Mercosur – The European Union .......................................................... 233 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNCTAD ............................... 259 .........................................................................................................................................................................................................India .................. 258 Mercosur – The South African Customs Union (SACU) India ................................................ 221 International Trade............................................................. 223 World Trade Organization (WTO) – Overview ................................ 236 International Finances and Economic Organizations ....... 258 The Free Trade Area of the Americas – (FTAA) ..................... 225 The WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism .................................................................................................................................. 256 Mercosur – Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) .................................... 255 Mercosur – The Gulf Cooperation Council (CCG) ........................................................... 243 Intellectual Property Rights– World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) ............................................. 245 Trade Negotiations............................... 249 Mercosur – The Andean Community (CAN) ............................................................................International Criminal Court (ICC) ............................................... 230 G-20 ................ 243 G-8 ............................... 257 Mercosur ........ 239 The World Bank .................................. 242 The Inter-American Development Bank ....... 229 The Doha Round ....

............. 301 Fight Against Racism and Discrimination .............................................................................................................................. 301 National Commission for the Promotion & Implementation of Humanitarian Law .......... 305 Health ........ 263 Biofuels............................................................................................................................................................. 313 ....................... 284 Fighting hunger and poverty........ 293 Human Rights and social issues ............................................... 277 The Montreal Protocol ........................................................... 287 Innovative Mechanisms ..................................................................................... 297 Committee Against Torture (CAT) .............. non-proliferation and security .......................... 292 United Nations Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO) .............. 302 Millennium Development Goals .................................................................. 280 Biological Diversity ..................................................................................................................... 295 Council of Human Rights (CHR) .............................................................................................. 265 The Environment ....................... 281 International Whaling Commission ..................................................................................................... 269 Climate Change ....................................................... 279 Tropical Forests – Amazonia ..................................................................... 284 The Antarctic ...... 306 International Labor Organization (ILO) .......................... 311 Disarmament – Overview ...................... 304 Women .......................................................... 309 Disarmament..................................Energy ........... 273 Clean Development Mechanisms (CDMs) .................................................................

........................................................ Scientific & Cultural Organization (UNESCO) ...................................................................................... 333 Space cooperation . 322 Transnational Crime .................................. 327 The United Nations Educational....... 322 Cultural issues ......... 319 Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL) ...........................Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) ................................................................. scientific and technological cooperation .......... 316 Additional Protocol of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAAE) ............................................................. 320 Terrorism ............................................ 325 Cultural diplomacy – Overview ................................................................... 320 Triple Frontier (Brazil ...............................................................................................................Argentina – Paraguay) ....................................................... 330 Technical......... 338 Assistance to Brazilians abroad ......................... 341 .....

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All sources used were public and official documents: speeches. within and outside Itamaraty. Its aim is to make a composite view of the main positions defended by Brazilian diplomacy in recent years available to interested members of the public.FOREWORD This collection of statements aims at presenting an overall view of Brazilian foreign policy guidelines in regard to a wide variety of international issues. Brasilia. Brazil’s coming of age in world politics has made it necessary for the country’s diplomatic agenda to become broader and more complex. This document was put together in order to fulfill that task. This compilation is by no means a definitive account nor does it cover the whole range of issues that are part of the daily agenda of the Ministry of External Relations. 2007 13 . articles by and interviews with high level authorities. That is why it has become a real challenge to systematically keep track of the positions defended by Brazil abroad. amongst others. December. joint communiqués and press releases.

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PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES OF BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY .

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as an instrument for national development. internationally. whenever necessary. We will not turn back from our main commitment. Inaugural Speech given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the National Congress. *** The Brazilian people have shown a great example of their self-respect by demonstrating their belief in the power to bring about change through creative means. Brazilian diplomatic efforts will be guided by a humanistic perspective and will be used. our national interests and the values that inspire us. Our foreign policy shall also reflect the desire for change expressed by the ordinary people in the street. raising income levels and generating dignified employment. and must contribute towards 17 . doing justice to the struggle for the survival in which its children are engaged. We must use this same posture of responsible action at the level of our foreign relations. defending. Brazil can. affirming its sovereign and creative presence in the world.Brasilia. (…) Our external policy cannot be limited to a single region. through capacitybuilding in advanced technologies and by seeking productive investments.PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES OF BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY This Nation. needs to state what it stands. above all. In my Government. Brazilian external relations should contribute towards improving the living conditions of Brazilian women and men. nor can it be restricted to one single dimension. January 1. created under a tropical sky. 2003. Through foreign trade.

2003. hunger and misery are very often the cultural broth in which fanaticism and intolerance are developed. Our national program is not xenophobic. Peace is not just a moral objective. Preserving national interests is not incompatible with cooperation and solidarity.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK the construction of a peaceful and harmonious world order. it is universalistic. The new relationship we are establishing with our South American neighbors is based on mutual respect. We must recognize that poverty. founded on the Rule of Law and on the principles of multilateralism. economic and cultural importance. territorial. and of its vocation to become a great democracy in the process of social transformation. January 1. friendship and 18 .Davos. 2003. This is why we defend the position that conflicts should be resolved by pacific means and under the auspices of the United Nations. *** Brazil has consistently endeavored to carry out the principles it defends. January 26. *** Our foreign policy is firmly oriented towards the search for peace. for negotiated solutions to international conflicts and towards the intransigent defense of our national interests. conscious of its demographic. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the 33rd Economic World Forum . It is also imperative for rationality. Speech given by Minister Celso Amorim on taking office as Minister of External Relations.

guided by the principle of non-intervention as well as by a position of “non-indifference”. 2004. September 23. Brazil has helped to overcome the crises that threaten the constitutional order and stability of countries we regard as our friends. Whenever we have been called on. The instances of instability in the region have been resolved by respecting institutions. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the conference “Brazilian Foreign Policy in the 21st century and the role of the Sino-Brazilian Strategic Partnership”.PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES OF BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY cooperation. *** We are learning that development and social justice should be sought with determination and an open attitude towards dialogue. *** The growing approximation and the consolidation of Brazilian relations with (its) region require that situations of instability in countries on this Continent receive closer attention on the part of the Brazilian Government. at the University of Beijing. I will also use to seek international partnerships. tolerant and harmonious world. so as to attain a steady level of development and a peaceful. With the same determination that my companions and I are using to make Brazilian society more just and humane. (…) Democratic dialogue is the most effective instrument of change of all. We do not believe in interfering 19 . May 25. and to the extent of our possibilities. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 58th United Nations General Assembly . 2003.New York.

2004. We need to take control of our development as an independent Nation and reduce our dependency on the economic vulnerabilities imposed from outside.Rio de Janeiro.New York. *** When President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva took office. India. our countries play a fundamental role in forming new international economic and trade geography. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at “The Actuality of San Tiago Dantas” Seminar . a policy that is concerned with the country’s sovereign insertion. firmly anchored in the interests of the Brazilian Nation and in the integration of South America. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 59th United Nations General Assembly . September 27. Russia and South Africa. at once universal and humanistic. 2004. *** During the last two years. Brazil changed the tone of its foreign policy. All this has been achieved without prejudicing the excellent level of relations we have always maintained with our great partners from 20 . (…) We have fulfilled our promise to imprint a sense of strategy in our approximation with great emerging countries like China.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK in the internal affairs of other countries. we have sought to redefine Brazil’s place in the world. nor do we hide behind omission and indifference when facing problems that affect our neighbors. without succumbing to the temptations of isolationism. September 21.

. We have always provided our help and active solidarity in situations of crises. January 21. President Lula’s government has adhered to this basic principle with an attitude we refer to as “non-indifference”.Fort Lauderdale. Brazil will automatically be given a relevant role in an international sphere.PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES OF BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY the developed world: the United States. 2005. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim during the 35th General Assembly Meeting of the OAS . 21 . abundant natural resources and numerous population. whenever we have been called upon and whenever we feel this may achieve positive results. The first one is to believe that Brazil. which still persist on our continent (…). June 6.. just because of its vast territory. (. it is borne through dialogue. the European Union and Japan. 2005. a country with social problems and without effective means to project itself as an international military power. published in El País. as sanctioned by our Charter. Brazilian diplomacy is based on the principle of noninterference in the internal affairs of other countries. cannot aspire to becoming a full player at a global level.) The second mistake is to think that. *** The expression “global player” can create misunderstandings. Excerpt from the article “Brazil in the new international scene” by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. Some countries in the region have experienced recurring difficulties because of serious economic and social problems. *** Democracy cannot be imposed.

Let alone fall into a state of submission. Brazil is far from either of these two extreme perspectives. It has a utopian dimension without losing its pragmatism. *** Our diplomatic conduct is based on the defense of principles. (…) To give up the idea of “global action” would amount to leaving the future in the hands of market trends — where enormous economic and financial disorder proliferate — or yielding to the whims of the politics of power. The challenge we face is to attempt to understand. the ways through which Brazil can help construct a new relation of international forces. we have done this without pointless confrontations and by recognizing the importance of maintaining indispensable relationships with traditional partners in the industrialized world. wherever these may be.).Paris. Our diplomacy is experienced. We cannot allow ourselves to fall into a state of inertia or inactivity. cooperation and trade. We are no longer limited by imaginary boundaries or ready-made formulas. July 13. as a few like to advocate in the name of a questionable form of realism... well prepared and sufficiently lucid to be neither timid nor foolhardy (. but also on a search for results. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the debate “Brazil: A Global Player”. 22 .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Fortunately. We are exploring opportunities for dialogue. (…) Brazilian foreign policy has reached a new level of maturity. where the correlation of forces is adverse to the legitimate aspirations of developing countries. and assert. We live in a difficult world. According to the best traditions of our diplomacy. We have developed diverse partnerships and more balanced relations with all the regions of the world. 2005. dominated by unilateral positions.

2005. Underlying such objectives is the need to preserve our sovereign right to define the model of development that we wish for our Country. where questions of great interest to humanity are discussed. but also by participating more actively in economic and political forums. September 1. it is also necessary. Plenarium Magazine. 2005.PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES OF BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY Speech given by President Lula at the graduation ceremony of the “Celso Furtado” Class at the Rio Branco Institute (the Brazilian Diplomatic Academy) Brasilia. “Foreign Policy in the Lula Government – Two Years”. *** Brazilian diplomacy is presently going through a period of great dynamism. (…) Together we can become stronger. more creative and a stronger relationship between countries of the South. does not mean that we will abandon our relations with 23 . such as the World Trade Organization and the United Nations.. November 25. a more intense. *** The South-South relationship is not only possible. The South is not an amorphous complex of underdeveloped and dependent countries that have nothing to offer other than raw materials to wealthy countries. with a view to securing an international regulatory area that is fair and balanced. in accordance with priorities established by President Lula’s Government: to expand the geographical reach of Brazil’s foreign relations. to update elements that are part of our universalistic vocation. (…) Now. and to adopt a firm and active position in multilateral as well as regional negotiations. not only through the growth of our trade. article by Minister Celso Amorim.

Algiers. Speech given by Minister Celso Amorim at the Tiradentes Medal Award ceremony at the Legislative Assembly of the State of Rio de Janeiro. April 3. which are also important to all of us. A determined political attitude can make all the difference. A country’s foreign policy goes beyond its circumstances. *** There is a difference between the principles of international relations and the definition of foreign policy. The Itamaraty (Brazilian Ministry of External Relations) has always had a very good perception of how to defend national interests. *** Brazil has international credit because the Country is not afraid to fight for its rights and because it believes that its options are not pre-determined. February 7. The main lines of conduct are contained in the Constitution. Politics change according to the moment.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK developed countries. 24 . 2006. Assets of intangible value and symbolic elements are factors that should not be underrated in international relations. 2006. Press conference given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to media organizations in Algeria . take advantage of all opportunities and make our union our strength. Let’s do what developed countries do. in the ‘Webberian’ sense of the word. it is in fact an area that overcomes outside conditioning. The Itamaraty is a very qualified bureaucracy.

Inaugural Speech given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the ceremony of Constitutional Commitment at the National Congress . economic and trade relations with the great world powers and. required for the establishment of a world of peace and solidarity. *** Foreign policy is not just a question of focusing on short-term objectives.PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES OF BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY Interview given by Minister Celso Amorim . *** Strengthening our democratic system will further enhance Brazil’s presence in the world scene. to give priority to our ties with the Southern countries of the world. 2007. 2006. 2006.Carta Capital magazine. which are the same as those of our domestic policy: to guarantee the wellbeing of our people. at the same time. January 1. Interview given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the Expresso newspaper . For a country the size of Brazil and with its variety of interests and needs. was defined by a clear choice for multilateralism. not lose sight of its essential goals. July 27. at the same time.Lisbon. with economic and social development for all. which is the cause of some pride due to the excellent results it has brought to the Nation. *** 25 . Our foreign policy. This choice enables us to maintain excellent political.Brasilia. May 15. foreign policy has to be ambitious and.

Interview given by Ambassador Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães. where the principles of International Law are obeyed by the great powers. This was not achieved by supposedly “changing course” in our foreign policy. *** The rich and varied agenda which marked the meeting (between Presidents Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and George W. without any sort of grievances or demands being made. Bush) reflects a mature partnership. to economic and social development. With these objectives in mind. by observing the fundamental principles of self-determination and nonintervention as inscribed in the United Nations Charter.Paulo newspaper . to the Folha de S. such as the United Nations Security Council and the G-8. where each individual may develop his or her full potential. where economic differences between States are reduced. President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Minister Celso Amorim have defended the democratization of international decision-making instances. political. in such a way that each society. It is precisely because Brazil has a sovereign and universalistic foreign 26 .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Brazil can contribute towards preserving peace. to the construction of democracy at an international level.São Paulo. may move forward in its historical evolution. where the environment is preserved. without either side having to renounce their respective viewpoints. economic and social rights are respected. where poverty and misery are abolished. Brazilian diplomacy has not altered its position nor changed the priorities established by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva from the first day of his Government. Secretary-General of the Ministry of Exter nal Relations. February 26. A better world is one where disarmament pledges are delivered. where human. 2007.

São Paulo. article by Minister Celso Amorim in the Folha de S. rich or poor. the 27 . the fight against hunger and poverty. recognized both within the country and abroad. April 8. amongst others. Issues such as multilateral trade negotiations. May 2. are matters that increasingly affect the lives of each citizen. 2007. This requires commitment and selfreliance. human rights. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the graduation ceremony of the 2004-2006 Class of the Rio Branco Institute (the Brazilian Diplomatic Academy) . the environment. This is the great lesson of Camp David. The democratic Brazil we are constructing. *** We want a foreign policy that reflects the special characteristics of Brazil. 2007. sustainable development. that it also be a consubstantial element of our project for national development. Maintaining a dialogue with social movements.Paulo newspaper . *** The diplomatic agenda is becoming more complex every day.Brasilia. but also respect for other countries. (…) We have to take our rightful place in the world.PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES OF BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY policy. It is therefore of fundamental importance that our foreign policy be in tune with the concerns of our people. be they small or large. the press. that it be more than just a way of projecting ourselves in the world. so as to defend our national interests. that the country is so respected by both developing as well as developed countries. “Brazil and the USA: the reasons behind the visit”.

Brasilia. Strategic Guidelines of the Ministry of External Relations. 2007. May 4. Pluriannual Plan 2008-2011 . 28 .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK National Congress and the units of the Federation helps make the actions of the Ministry of External Relations more representative of national aspirations.

INTERNATIONAL POLITICS – OVERVIEW .

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to represent our interests and values in points on the international agenda.INTERNATIONAL POLITICS – OVERVIEW The democratization of international relations that are free of any hegemony is as important for the future of mankind as it is for the consolidation and development of democracy within each State. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at his the National Congress . Predatory commercial practices by wealthy countries deprive us of the benefits of our competitiveness. through perseverance. fed by intolerance and fanaticism. International crises such as those in the Middle East should be resolved by peaceful means and through negotiation. January 1. At a political level. (…) Despite many promises. *** As President Lula has already said. we need. Let us recognize the value of multilateral organizations. Terrorist acts of indescribable barbarism provoke reactions and give rise to attitudes 31 . especially the United Nations. suddenly intensify. Resolutions taken by the Security Council should be faithfully observed. (…) We face the present challenges of terrorism and organized crime through international cooperation and based upon the principles of multilateralism and International Law. which has the prime responsibility of maintaining international peace and security. The context in which we have to carry out this task is a complex one and not always a friendly one.Brasilia. conflicts that seemed to be on their way to being resolved. 2003. the markets of developed countries continue to be closed to most of our products.

It is not merely enough to proclaim values of humanism. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 33rd World Economic Forum . and principally. as the President (Lula) has said in his letter to the Pope. This moment demands dialogue. *** History confronts us with serious responsibilities regarding the reorganization of international relations. 2003.Davos.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK that can potentially affect the principles of multilateralism. negotiation. The risk of war once again haunts the world. political. *** The construction of a fairer and more democratic new international economic order is not only an act of generosity. an attitude of political intelligence. which tend to be more serious in poorer countries. All this is reflected in economic. but also. those who live with dignity from those who live on the streets or in squalid shanty towns. financial and political crises. it is necessary that these should prevail in relations between countries and societies. many “walls” still exist that separate those that have food from the hungry. diplomacy. January 1. moral and even spiritual leadership. 2003.Brasilia. 32 . More than ten years after the fall of the Berlin Wall. January 26. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim on taking office as Minister of State for External Relations . those who have access to education and humanity’s cultural heritage from those who are submerged in illiteracy and in situations of absolute alienation from society. those who have jobs from the unemployed. It is also necessary to establish a new code of ethics.

Evian. We need to demand that greater concern be shown for the situation of those who are destitute. lecture given by Minister Celso Amorim at the Rio Branco Institute (the Brazilian Diplomatic Academy) . 2003. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the extended talks at the G-8 Summit . September 18.INTERNATIONAL POLITICS – OVERVIEW (…) Our hopes for peace and solidarity must come as a result of our concern for the deprivations of those who are less fortunate. that trade regimes be more equitable. 2003. April 10. June 1.Brasilia. Speech given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at a luncheon offered to graduates of the Rio Branco Institute (the Brazilian Diplomatic Academy) .Brasilia. that decisive procedures be more democratic. *** At the level of international relations. that greater respect be shown for International Law. By doing this. irrespective of their economic dimensions and political and military weight. *** We need to fight for a fairer international system. multilateralism represents an advancement comparable to that of democracy in national terms. *** 33 . To recognize its value is an obligation of all nations committed to the progress of civilization. “Diplomacy in the Lula Government”. we will be defending our own interests in a world better prepared for peace and development. 2003.

The tragedies of Iraq and the Middle East will only be resolved within a multilateral process. September 23. under the strengthened leadership of the United Nations. the notion of collective responsibility on a humanitarian level – with which we fully identify ourselves. out of the dismantling of deadly arsenals and. so promising from a technological and material point of view. Real peace will grow out of democracy. 2003. between humanitarian intervention -involving potentially very high human and material costs and with questionable stabilizing effects – and.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Improving the multilateral system is a necessary counterpart of democratic relations within each nation. cannot sink into a process of political and spiritual retrogression. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 58th United National General Assembly . “Brazil and new concepts of global and hemispheric security”. article by Minister Celso Amorim. It is our duty to construct. Every nation that is committed to democracy internally must also ensure that. an international climate of peace and unity. above. on the other hand. decisive procedures are transparent. and not by the imposition of force. in which the United Nations plays a central role. *** We need to distinguish. (…) This century. presented during the series of debates on the modernization of Brazilian thinking in defense and security issues. out of respect for international law. The capacity of States to provide assistance should be encouraged in an atmosphere of international cooperation. outwardly. on the one hand.New York. legitimate and representative. 34 . out of the final eradication of hunger.

with self-appointed military alliances for collective defense. consecrated notions about legitimate defense. We are experiencing a serious 35 . We are committed to putting into effect public policies that will lay the foundations for sustainable growth and an equitable division of its benefits. 2003. but. the expansion of transnational organized crime. sovereignty.INTERNATIONAL POLITICS – OVERVIEW organized by the Ministry of Defense . October 11 and 12. possibilities and challenges that are unique to our countries at the beginning of the 21st century. The Consensus of Buenos Aires. *** We would like to express our conviction that. the intensification of terrorism. has generated models of economic concentration never seen before. humanitarian tragedies.Itaipava. our nations must define their future within the ambit of an agenda that answers the needs. doctrines that cause dangerous disorder. we are concerned about new roles that are being played in the area of security. *** Now that we are no longer under the illusion that the end of the Cold War will usher in an era of growing peace and development. signed by Presidents Lula and Néstor Kirchner. we are forced to admit that we live in a period of great instability. 2003.Buenos Aires. at the same time. territorial integrity and the authority of the United Nations Security Council. allowing for fairer revenue and taxation procedures. October 16. We watch the escalation of ethnic-religious conflicts. in a world context characterized by an accelerated process of globalization that has expanded the horizon of human possibilities. (…) At the political and strategic level.

*** Globalization is not synonymous with development. But globalization can be an instrument of development. encouraging sustainable development should be the concern of every country including.São Paulo. squeezes dry the sovereignty of States. October 28. an asymmetric globalization has enhanced the devastating legacy of misery 36 . which requires a collective reflection regarding the mechanisms that we are creating in the post. This is absolutely essential if we are to guarantee peace and the effective fulfillment of human rights. providing that its benefits are divided equally. 2004.Mexico City. Globalization is no substitute for development. this system revokes democratic decisions. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the 11th UNCTAD . *** Powerful and omnipresent. and demands the renouncement of legitimate national development projects.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK crisis of global governance.World War II period to promote peace and security. June 14. social welfare and development Speech by Minister Celso Amorim during the general debate at the OAS Special Security Conference . the wealthiest ones. The logic of draining the deprived to irrigate the privileged has been maintained. 2003. superimposes itself upon elected government. Eliminating hunger. an invisible apparatus commands the new order at a distance. reducing poverty. Often. During the last decades. in particular.

(…). If we really want to eliminate violence. in the end.New York. can hold back this savagery. 2005. July 13. To deny the plurality of opposites. September 21. claimed as being a “realist” viewpoint. 2004. that each player has their reasons and that.Paris. *** A plural world – or a “multi-polar” world. It is a demand imposed by the world we live in. *** 37 . practiced with common sense and determination. To be a democrat at a global level. Only the values of Humanism. as it is sometimes called – is not just the earnest desire of diplomats or idealistic intellectuals. is to believe that everyone has the right to be a player. then we should build it. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 59th United Nations General Assembly . from the people and their leaders. a new sense of individual and collective responsibility. reduces international relations to mere expressions of military force. it is necessary to recognize that the plurality of views is legitimate and that increasing space should be given to diplomatic actions.INTERNATIONAL POLITICS – OVERVIEW and social retrogression that is coming apart at the seams on the agenda of the 21st century. it is not always the reason of the strongest that is the strongest of reasons. then it we need to remove its deeper causes with the same tenacity that we confront the agents of hatred. The situation demands. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the Debate “Brazil – Global Player” . In order to establish democracy at an international level. If we really want peace.

we reiterate our proposal. India. That it is useless to try and transform things. July 15-17. The increased participation of developing countries in the decisionmaking processes of the United Nations and other international organizations is essential to guarantee that more balanced and legitimate results are achieved. education and infectious diseases can only be properly faced through more intense international coordination and cooperation. And refusing to give up the principles and values that we espouse.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK There are those who say that to be a realist is to accept things as they are. to establish new forms of international cooperation. Petersburg. *** 38 . the Republic of the Congo . 2006. Mexico. China. to be realistic means having the courage to defend national interests with serious attitudes and consequential actions. concrete results. centered on achieving duly evaluated. In this respect. Allow me to disagree.St. presented at Gleneagles last year. and taking into full account the perspectives and needs of developing countries. April 3. Document stating the position of developing countries participating in the Broad Dialogue at the G-8 Summit Meeting. 2006. Speech given by Minister Celso Amorim during the award ceremony to present the Tiradentes Medal at the Legislative Assembly of the State of Rio de Janeiro. Brazil. South Africa. In international politics. *** Present global challenges in the areas of energy security.

November 19. founded on a solid and consensual basis. maintain peace. Permanent solutions to resolve poverty are only going to come about if the poorer countries have the opportunity to achieve progress through their own efforts. promote sustainable development and construct negotiated settlements for common problems. sensitive to the needs of developing countries.INTERNATIONAL POLITICS – OVERVIEW The fight against hunger and poverty also involves establishing a world order that treats economic and social development as a first priority of concern. and a transparent World Trade Organization. There is no better way to bring States together. 2006. are the pillars that support the new world order we defend. The United Nations represents another pillar in the area of international peace and security. (…) Fair trade. 39 .New York. protect human rights. Brazil is a firm defender of multilateral organizations as the forums for cooperation and dialogue. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 51st United Nations General Assembly .

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SOUTH AMERICA .

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If called upon. prosperous and united. we will contribute towards finding peaceful solutions to resolve these situations of crises. cultural and scientific-technological dimensions in the process of integration. democratic principles and on the constitutional precepts of each country. as well as in the region’s relationship with the rest of the world. National Congress . so that a true Mercosur and South American sense of identity may flourish. The formation of a unified economic area. based on dialogue.Brasilia.SOUTH AMERICA SOUTH AMERICAN INTEGRATION – OVERVIEW The main priority of my Government’s foreign policy is to construct a South America that is politically stable. Several of our 43 . January 1. *** We believe it is essential to consolidate the integration among South American countries on many different levels. We will encourage joint ventures and stimulate a dynamic intellectual and artistic interchange among South American countries. and with the means that are available to us. 2003. We will support all necessary institutional arrangements. Several of our neighbors are today facing difficult situations. (…) We will also take care of the social. based on free trade and projects of infrastructure. based on democratic ideas and on social justice. will have positive repercussions internally. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at his Inaugural Ceremony.

January 1. in the same way that we defend our right to be respected by others. socially just and economically prosperous is an objective worth pursuing. 2003. increasing the flow of trade and seeking solutions to common problems. We earnestly respect the principle of non-intervention. but also because it is a means to ensure our own progress and welfare. The integration of the twelve countries on this continent will be based on establishing ever stronger ties between Governments and societies. But we will not balk at making our contribution towards finding solutions for situations of conflict. *** The construction of a democratic and prosperous South America is a prime objective of my government’s foreign policy. 2004.Brasilia.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK neighbors are experiencing difficult situations or even moments of crisis. A South America that is politically stable. Speech given by Minister Celso Amorim during the ceremony on taking office as Minister of External Relations. *** 44 . taking into account the primacy of democracy and constitutional principles. provided that we are invited to do so and only when we believe that we may play a useful role. The democratic process of change that Brazil is presently going through under the Lula Government may serve as an element of inspiration and stability to the whole of South America. not only as a normal expression of solidarity. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Conference “Brazilian Foreign Policy in the 21st Century and the Role of the Sino-Brazilian Partnership “ University of Beijing. May 25.

There is one superpower. The question is what type of integration we should have. Mercosur is not only formed 45 . as well as a proposal. This is why the entry of Venezuela into the Mercosur was so important.) In short. But South America could be a bloc of nations. and technological development. industrial development. which will have a powerful repercussion for our populations. based on global reality.. Talk given by Minister Celso Amorim during the closing speech at the Course for South American Diplomats Brasilia. 2006. I want to say that we see the integration of South America as a necessity. South America must be our priority because the world is uniting in blocs. other developing countries and even some very small and poor nations. It is not a question of why we should have integration. smuggling and guerilla warfare or if we are going to become integrated through economic development. but one that also has the possibility to form a great union with the ability to negotiate. Because then you have something that is a truly profound reality. one that is not homogeneous. but of the Ministry of External Relations (the Itamaraty) as a whole. And the question is whether this integration will come through drug trafficking. And it is very useful when you can transform a necessity into a project. (. The question is what type of integration will come. a world that can often be very hostile. I think this is the real question. August 25. And it is not a priority of just this government or my own..SOUTH AMERICA Integration will come. *** The integration of South America is our principal priority. organized crime. social development. which has its own conflicts. and which will naturally help us to live and position ourselves in a world that is not easy. and the Americas have not yet formed a bloc.

we want a South America that is just. closer to their people and sensitive to the Continent’s cultural diversity. Above all. 2006 *** We want a South America that is politically more united. (…) The stability and development of the region are conditions that are essential for Brazil. 2006. which can provide conditions for the development of all countries in the region. Interview given by Minister Celso Amorim to IstoÉ magazine. A policy of pro-integration. helping to overcome the great afflictions that exist on our Continent: poverty and social exclusion. Bolivia. 1936. (…) South American integration only makes sense if it is embraced by all members of society and if it extends its human and solidarity dimensions. issue No. *** In accordance with the Government’s Strategic Guidelines. union with South 46 . Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening ceremony of the Second Meeting of Heads of State and Government of the South American Community of Nations (CASA) .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK by South Cone countries and could become a bloc of nations representing countries from the Caribbean to Patagonia. November 29. Brazil seeks a real and effective form of integration in South America.Cochabamba. capable of reducing differences among our countries. stronger and more coordinated on an economic and trade level. the strengthening of South American integration is our prime objective. This is a commitment that has enabled us to intensify political dialogue and trade cooperation among South American countries. December 8.

whenever it is called upon to do so and in so far as it is within its possibilities. We have at our disposal three assets that are essential to the future of humanity: water.SOUTH AMERICA American partners. or the fruit of volunteerism. but also an undeniable determination to resolve these. the Pacific and Caribbean. THE SOUTH AMERICAN COMMUNITY OF NATIONS (CASA) AND THE UNION OF SOUTH AMERICAN NATIONS (UNASUL) The South American Community of Nations is much more than a political and legal edifice. We have a complex and diversified Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of more than one trillion dollars. We want to transform our Continent into a region of peace that is able 47 . At the same time. from the heights of the Andes to the Patagonian Plains. Brazil respects the choices made by neighboring countries and does not interfere in the sovereign right of each country to seek solutions for the problems they face. We have centers of teaching and universities that produce scientific and technological innovations of considerable importance. is a long-term national interest. from the exuberance of the Pantanal to the lunar landscapes of the Bolivian and Chilean deserts. A vast and diversified territory that extends from the Amazon to Tierra del Fuego. A region that is bathed by the Atlantic. Pluriannual Plan 2008-2011 Brasilia. 2007. May 4. Strategic Guidelines for the Brazilian Ministry of External Relations. food resources and multiple energy sources. We are 350 million men and women. Brazil is ready to collaborate in helping friendly countries in situations of political or social conflict. (…) We have serious social problems. We have a competitive industrial position in the world and our agriculture has the capacity to become the granary of the planet. determined to attain our full potential in a region endowed with immense natural and human resources.

Santiago. I believe that Brazil will not fully exist unless it is part of a union. September 29. 2006. November 24. A former Brazilian Minister of Foreign Relations. South America can join other great geographical groups in the world. This is our viewpoint. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the opening ceremony of the First Meeting of Heads of State of the South American Community of Nations . this is why we have also pushed forward the South American Community.Brasilia. in order to establish the physical integration of our region. even though Brazil is a large country. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the Third Meeting of Foreign Relations Minister of the South American Community of Nations . *** We have to do in South America in the 21stI century what North America did in the 19th century. used to say that Brazil was condemned to be a solitary giant in international relations. I do not believe so. who was also a businessman. I have to say that.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK to resolve its differences by using instruments of political negotiation. This is why we have worked together in Mercosur. of our Continent. 2005. (…) In all sincerity. And we are well aware of this. *** 48 . which we helped to create with other regions that are in attendance here. Chile. all of which have mechanisms at their disposal for political and economic deliberation. Like the United States of America. it is just a small one in a world such as ours. South America must be able to negotiate in the world. because we are not willing to speak only for ourselves (…).

No country. however large or expressive its economy may be. of the Plata Basin Treaty and the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization. 2006. 2004. with the full participation of all South American countries. Peru. *** 49 . can promote its national objectives in isolation. It is also a condition for our Continent to participate more competitively in a globalized economy. We must value existing integration mechanisms. we will also be integrating with the world. The construction of the South American Community of Nations is not a project of exclusion.Cochabamba. December 8. INFRASTRUCTURE AND ENERGY The integration of the physical infrastructure of South America does not only represent new opportunities for trade and closer relations between our countries.SOUTH AMERICA The present world is becoming increasingly more complex and competitive. We have historical affinities and close economic ties with the Andean Community of Nations. We belong to the Rio Group and the Latin American Integration Association (LAIA). The South American Community is not a substitute for these efforts. As we integrate inwardly. We are members of Mercosur. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the announcement of the Inter-Oceanic Highway Cusco. December 8. There is no space for isolation. We are jointly committed to the future of Central America and the Caribbean countries. Our integration is achieved on various levels. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening ceremony of the Second Meeting of Heads of State of the South American Community of Nations .

Montevideo. will be one of the driving forces behind the South American Community of Nations. *** We must (. *** We should support industrial. a concern for the preservation of the environment. and to enhance cooperation in matters of renewable energy sources. First. so that everyone 50 . (…) The integration of energy in South America should be based on guaranteed access. 2005. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Second Meeting of Heads of State of the South American Community of Nations . Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 29th Mercosur Summit . (…) Our agenda should initially include three fundamental aims. These and other incentives will help to give new economic dynamism to the region. to coordinate efforts for the exploitation and distribution of petroleum and gas. to expand the power grid between our countries. where investment and partnerships are part of a consolidating. together with matters related to infrastructure. For South America. September 29.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK The integration of energy. these two pillars have the same meaning as coal and steel had for the integration of Europe in the 1950’s. December 9.) ensure that Mercosur is seen as a truly extended economic region.Brasilia. 2005. biodiesel and H-bios. technological and infrastructure projects to overcome our production bottlenecks. such as ethanol. common industrial policy.. multiplying jobs and improving our capacity to play a leading role in the world.. social inclusion and the stability of juridical relations. fair payment.

July 21. (…) Once the technical. Our cooperation projects involving biofuels open up entirely new horizons that will boost the competitive advantages that our region has to offer. as well as the strengthening of the South American Community of Nations and of the Petrosur initiative. Bolivia. as is already reflected in the growing interchange of students among our countries. such as existing highways. The proposed course of the pipeline should be located near areas already impacted by man. The energy belt project is emblematic of our political determination. The important advances that we are making in the coordination of energy policies open up promising prospects. 2006.SOUTH AMERICA may benefit from economic growth.Cordoba. environmental and economic viability of this project has been guaranteed. which could be completed in four years. thereby reaffirming our social commitment to areas affected by the project. we will reinforce regional cooperation in the areas of science and technology. The next stages will include Argentina. 51 . economic and social integration of South America. a decision will be taken as to the starting date for construction. thus preserving the natural environment. The Great Southern Gas Pipeline is an all-embracing and unifying project for energy integration in the region. In order to do this. Paraguay and Uruguay. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the closing ceremony of the 30th Mercosur Heads of State Summit . as well as any other South American country that wishes to take part in this project. *** The conclusion of the Great Southern Gas Pipeline represents a strategic commitment between Venezuela and Brazil and a decisive step towards the energy.

Declaration of Margarita – Building Souther n Energy Integration. Brazil is interested in strengthening ACTO. In this respect. April 17. in defense of the interest of all Amazon countries. 52 . Press release.Island of Margarita.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Brazil-Venezuela Declaration concerning the first stage of the Great Southern Gas Pipeline . 2007. as well as to improve political deliberations in environmental forums.Rio de Janeiro. we reaffirm a commitment to the universal access to energy as a right of every citizen. “The Secretar y-General of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO). and boasting the largest area of the Amazon forest located within its territorial boundaries. This will the Organization play a key role on an international level. final document at the South American Energy Summit . January 18. AMAZON COOPERATION TREATY ORGANIZATION (ACTO) As the base for the ACTO headquarters. reflecting the will of all Party States so as to promote a cooperation program for the sustainable development of the Amazon region. 2007. *** We (the South American Heads of State and Government) have agreed to underline that the energy integration of the South American Community of Nations should be used as an important tool to promote social and economic development and to eradicate poverty. Venezuela.

various river basins in the region are interconnected. takes Office”. not from the lack of. and I should go so far as to say within Latin America in a broader sense because these regions are not mutually exclusive. these South American States – and I also include here France. of course. without.Brasilia. (…) I feel that we have to work together. losing the strong. but as members of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization. *** Today. The fundamental objectives (of this Organization) are international cooperation and the affirmation of the sovereign responsibility of the countries in the region to promote sustainable development. we have a problem that results. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the inaguration of the Permanent Headquarters of the Secretariat of ACTO . and the early involvement of all these countries can only enrich the Organization. to how important it is for all other South American countries to participate.SOUTH AMERICA Rosalía Arteaga. 2004. here in South America. (…) Therefore. *** The Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization establishes a juridical landmark that will guide cooperation among Amazon countries. After all. January 11. May 4. because it is also part of this region – should consider themselves as associate States in practical terms. to 53 . we share several ecosystems. cultural and rich individual characteristics that are particular to the Amazon region. We really have to coordinate these instruments. not just as observers. (…) I would like to draw your attention. but from an excess of official instruments.Brasilia. as we have done in the past. 2005.

ARGENTINA The true partnership that we will build between Brazil and Argentina will depend largely on our capacity to mobilize hearts and minds – of young people. intellectual reserves. Press release. ACTO was able to count on an institutional mechanism to accelerate the process of Amazon cooperation and integration. including a Permanent Secretariat. 2003. In 1998. history. 2005. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Argentine Parliament during a ceremony to honor Brazil . (…) Brazil and Argentina have the economic potential. established in Brasilia in 2002. ethics and morals to move forward a great integration project that will preserve our identities while adding to them a new and enlightened dimension.Buenos Aires. “Ceremony to Commemorate the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization” Brasilia. October 16. ACTO is also one of the regional organisms that supported the creation of the Community of South American Nations (CASA).BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK improve the quality of life for the populations of Amazonas and to defend their immense natural heritage. above all – summoning everyone to build a great community that will have as its principal asset the extraordinary quality of our people. By these means. *** (Presidents Lula and Kirchner) Resolved to establish a system to exchange diplomatic civil servants between the Ministries of 54 . the Member States decided to create the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO). August 29.

and to find a better way to settle issues in various areas of mutual interest. in Foz do Iguaçu. in 1985. 2004. “November 30 and the Friendship between Brazil and Argentina”. article by Minister Celso Amorim and 55 . signed by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Néstor Kirchner . If we are able to strengthen our relations even further. we will not only have achieved a goal that is in both our national interests. but we will also have made a valuable contribution towards the consolidation of Mercosur and helped accelerate the process of South American integration. our respective Ministries of External Relations will instruct the acredited Heads of Mission to third countries to hold meetings every two moths to coordinate and exchange opinions and information. to commemorate the meeting that was held on this date. between Presidents Raúl Alfonsin and José Sarney. when they signed the “Iguaçu Declaration”. (…) We have agreed to establish a “Day of Argentina-Brazil Friendship” on November 30 of each year.SOUTH AMERICA External Relations of both countries with the objective of facilitating and ensuring that dialogue is exchanged more rapidly between both Governments. *** Relations between Brazil and Argentina are of vital necessity if the dream of an economically prosperous and socially just future is to become a tangible reality for everybody in this part of the world. Both realize the importance of establishing a mechanism for close cooperation between Diplomatic and Consular Representatives in both countries. March 16. To this end. The Act of Copacabana.Rio de Janeiro. which initiated the process of regional integration.

attracting investments and internationalizing our business interests (.. we are forging ties of integration that are centered on technological innovation and competitive gains. the stronger Brazil is. the stronger Argentina will become. 2005. the stronger Brazil will be. in the Folha de S.. *** Brazil wishes to have a strong and confident Argentina as its partner.) More than any other country.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Chancellor Rafael Vielsa. one that is guided by the creativity of its people and by the manufacturing talents and technical capacity of its industry. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the ceremony to mark the signing of acts and delivery of a press statement. promoted by Presidents José Sarney and Raúl Alfonsín . the stronger Bolivia will be and the stronger the whole of South America will become. Likewise.Paulo newspaper . By means of bi-national productive chains.Puerto Iguazú. Argentina needs to recover the productive capacity it once had on our Continent and.São Paulo. the stronger Uruguay will be. and the stronger Argentina and Brazil become. the stronger Paraguay will be. November 30. the stronger Argentina becomes. November 30. during the celebration of 20 years of approximation between Brazil and Argentina. of Argentina. THE MALVINAS / THE FALKLAND ISLANDS We (the Presidents of the Rio Group) hereby reaffirm our support in favor of the legitimate rights of the Argentine Republic in the sovereignty dispute relating to the question of the Malvinas Islands. we bear in mind the regional interest in obtaining a rapid solution to the prolonged 56 . We want Argentina to be our partner in opening up new foreign trade frontiers. 2005.

through our diplomatic and consular channels. in accordance with the resolutions and declaration of the United Nations and Organization of American States (OAS). working shoulder to shoulder with their Paraguayan brothers. it is there that Brazilian workers have established themselves in our common frontier region and who. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim during the formal session at the Paraguyan Centre for International Studies . to our fellow-countrymen who live in this Country. 2004. PARAGUAY With regard to our relations with Paraguay. *** 57 . 2003.Rio de Janeiro. and especially to those who come from the poorer social classes. without a doubt. there is little that can be said that will not sound commonplace. Paraguay.SOUTH AMERICA dispute between Argentina and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland with regard to the sovereignty of the aforementioned territories. an initial landmark in our process of integration. Joint Communiqué by the Presidents of the Rio Group concerning the Malvinas Islands . April 7. have managed to transform a good part of the Paraguayan interior into one of the most promising agricultural regions of South America.Asuncion. for us. But it would not be too much to reaffirm again that. is a very close and special ally. It is there that we have the Bi-national Itaipu (Hydroelectric Dam). While we are grateful to the Paraguayan people for the fraternal hospitality that they have offered to Brazilians who work here with determination for the prosperity of the country. November 5. one of our major priorities is to provide assistance.

URUGUAY We want the alliance between Brazil and Uruguay.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Our relationship with Paraguay is of special strategic importance. to be forged more than ever in the intransigent defense of democracy. (…) I have no doubt that. with the largest regional economy — with its partners. that produces 25% of all electricity consumed in Brazil. Ambassador Rúben Ramírez . on the other hand.Asuncion. from now on. November 23. With these principles in mind. Opening statement by Minister Celso Amorim at a press conference held jointly with the Paraguayan Minister of External Relations. 2006. Brazil and Uruguay will increasingly operate in a more coordinated way 58 .000 Brazilians who live in Paraguay – the second largest Brazilian community outside Brazil. This alone would be enough to demonstrate that the relationship between Brazil and Paraguay must be a strategic one. we are determined to offer a new quality to the relationship that exists between Brazil and Uruguay. and the 400. which have smaller economies. which is a historical alliance. the commitment to fight hunger and poverty and in the integration of our continent. but an ever-present reality). it did not take on its responsibility — as the largest country. a joint project (built in another era. It was never very ambitious on a global level and. in the search for sustained development. the protection of human rights. We need only mention two things (…): the Itaipu (Hydroelectric Dam). Furthermore. we also know – and I often say this when I am in Brazil – that Brazil has often seen itself as a smaller country than it really is – and in all regards.

. (…) Brazil must take on its responsibility as the largest economy in Mercosur and Brazil must therefore create conditions.Brasilia. 2005. *** International politics is always a two-way road. If we want to sell buses to Uruguay. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the ceremony to mark the signing of acts during the State Visit of the President of Uruguay. If we want to ensure that biodiesel is transformed into the fuel energy matrix.SOUTH AMERICA at international forums and I would like to take advantage of this occasion to welcome the entry of Uruguay into the G-20. If we want to create digital TV jointly with Uruguay. without extending any favors. then we must create the necessary conditions so that a part. Venezuela. Important foreign trade is not when one country gains a great advantage over another in matters related to the balance of trade. (. to ensure that trade is as fairly balanced as possible. (…).. we need to sell. but above all we need to buy. part of this process must be carried out with the participation of Uruguay. alongside Paraguay. April 1.) If we want Uruguay to participate as a member of Mercosur. so that development will also be as fairly balanced as possible. Our countries share a high level of interest in issues that are of the greatest importance. Bolivia and all other countries on an equal footing.Tabaré Vázquez . then we need to share this with our Uruguayan brothers. thereby guaranteeing that the Mercosur (countries) speak with one voice in multilateral trade negotiations. a component of these buses is produced here in Uruguay. or when one country is highly developed and the other is not. then we must ensure that our entrepreneurs also 59 .

with the signing of a “Declaration against Violence. so as to ensure a peaceful. constitutional and electoral solution to the situation. February 28. 60 . Spain. formed by Brazil. “Communiqué from the OAS Secretary General’s Group of Friends of Venezuela”. 2007. democratic. the United States of America. VENEZUELA The OAS Secretary General’s Group of Friends of Venezuela has stressed that progress has been made on February 18.Estância de Anchor ena. 2003. (…) The Group of Friends is concerned with any facts or attitudes that may bring negative influences to bear on the building of confidence between the Venezuelan Government and the opposition. and reiterates a call for moderate rhetoric and the avoidance of mutual recriminations. Chile.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK understand that they need to find partners — mainly in sectors that may boost our technological know-how — so as to justify the political blocs that are being created throughout the world. *** The OAS Secretary General’s Group of Friends of Venezuela. The Group will continue to work to encourage the Government of Venezuela and the opposition to continue along a path of understanding. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the signing of acts during his visit to Ur uguay . February 26. 2003. Ur uguay. for Peace and Democracy in Venezuela” by the Government and the opposition. Press release.

I wish to stress the enormous importance that our association represents in the field of energy.Brasilia. and promoting an atmosphere of confidence that will contribute towards consolidating the democratic conviviality amongst the Venezuelan people. has inestimable potential. What Petrobrás –(the Brazilian Petroleum Corporation) and PDVSA (the Venezuelan State Oil Company) can do together in Brazil. with regard to the implementation of this Agreement. within the ambit of the Negotiations and Agreement Table.SOUTH AMERICA Mexico and Portugal. “Communiqué of the OAS Secretary General’s Group of Friends of Venezuela regarding the Agreement between the Government and the opposition’s Democratic Coordinator” . 2003. *** Our strategic alliance is solidly supported on three pillars: political dialogue. in Venezuela and in third countries. Press release. The Group of Friends underlines the significance that this Agreement has in reinforcing a climate of peace and understanding in Venezuela. We are establishing partnerships in the areas of oil 61 . (…) The countries that form the Group of Friends reiterate their firm determination to continue to offer whatever support and collaboration that may be asked of them. May 27. We have just recently outlined ambitious objectives in all these areas. the increase in the trade of goods and services and the integration of infra-structure. expresses its great satisfaction with the conclusion of the Agreement between representatives of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and the political and social forces that support the government. and the political and civil society organizations that support the opposition’s Democratic Coordinator.

social and political thought. a plan and joint program that will satisfy the vital needs of their people. a rich cultural foundation.Caracas. In order to achieve this. human potential that has been expressed throughout history in the fields of science. both Governments have agreed to implement a strategy. We will endeavor to cooperate not only in the surveillance and defense of the Amazon and its resources. stable climates. refining. but also towards the joint development of science and technology. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the ceremony to mark the signing of Acts of Cooperation between Brazil and Venezuela. such as biodiesel and ethanol. education. 2005. This is our Great Homeland. health. transport and commercialization. natural resources. (…) Extensive common frontiers. We will also explore in depth the complementary nature of our systems to generate hydroelectric energy. and all that which sums up the possibilities that exist for the prosperity of our people.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK exploration. In contrast. February 14. of economic. These include enough food to eat. (…) We also have significant plans for the aeronautic sector and a platform for cooperation in the military area. extensive seas that open up routes of communication. vast territorial areas crossed by important river systems. valuable energy resources. such impressive physical and human potential today 62 .. We will work together to produce renewable fuels. *** Brazil and Venezuela understand that the fundamental objective they have in common is to reduce and eliminate the poverty that affects thousands of their citizens and is the greatest obstacle to the strengthening and prosperity of our nations. housing and access to cultural resources.

Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the ceremony to mark the signing of the Protocol of Accession to enable Venezuela to become a permanent Member of Mercosur . July 4. as well as to the exceptional growth of our nations in areas of trade. on a path leading towards union and posterity. we will join our voices to help change the rules and procedures that do not meet the needs of our region. We also want Venezuela to be part of Mercosur so as to contribute towards the present process to form a Community of South American Nations . 2006.SOUTH AMERICA serves as a mere background to the poverty that afflicts our people. *** The adherence of Venezuela to the Treaty of Asuncion is more that just a vote of confidence in the strength of our common project. February 14. The expansion of our political bloc of nations as far as the Caribbean reinforces the view that Mercosur is a Continental reality. Joint Communiqué regarding the implementation of a Strategic Alliance between Brazil and Venezuela Caracas. 2005.Caracas. In international forums. investment. 63 . The way to successfully face this challenge is to join forces to overcome and to triumph over these deprivations. such as the United Nations and the World Trade Organization. the accession of Venezuela to Mercosur will add to the Venezuela-Brazil Strategic Alliance.something we especially value. This will help Mercosur to be seen as the spinal cord of South American integration. and in matters related to energy cooperation. (…) From a Brazilian point of view. This is the main challenge for our nations and leaders.

. issues on the 64 . Bolivia” Brasilia. (. and legalization and migration issues. *** President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva has received today (13/01) at the Planalto Presidential Palace the visit of the elected President of Bolivia. 2004.) The agenda for the President’s visit will also include the financing of infrastructure projects to promote physical integration. including the installation of a Center for Gas Technologies in Bolivia. who has come to Brazil as part of a series of visits to different countries in the world. improvements in the living conditions of populations inhabiting towns along the border. near the cities of Corumbá and Puerto Suárez. Evo Morales. amongst other matters. (…) The visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to Santa Cruz de la Sierra therefore demonstrates the Brazilian Government’s interest in maintaining a preferential partnership with Bolivia. During this meeting. The Brazilian Government has made efforts to consolidate its relationship with Bolivia in the field of energy. founded on a solid process of physical and energy integration. During the visit (of President Lula to Bolivia). as well as a technological cooperation project involving natural gas. There is a proposal to implement a construction project for a chemical-gas plant to be located in the border region.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK BOLIVIA Brazil gives the highest priority to its relations with Bolivia. July 7. The frequent meetings held between officials from both countries testify to the importance of this relationship. the Bolivian debt with Brazil will be officially pardoned. “Working Visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to Santa Cruz de la Sierra. Press release. reciprocal access to ports and airports. a country with which it has its most extensive borders..

In accordance with the terms of its Constitution. “President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Evo Morales renew the partnership between Brazil and Bolivia” Brasilia. (…) President Lula also told Evo Morales of his renewed determination to establish closer cooperation relations between Bolivia and Mercosur.SOUTH AMERICA bilateral agenda were advanced. agricultural cooperation. as a result of negotiations undertaken by successive governments over the past fifty years. 2006. Brazil also exercises full control over its own rich underground resources. President Lula reiterated the efforts being made by the Brazilian Government to enhance its relations with Bolivia. January 13. as this involves an important element for the Brazilian energy matrix and for the development of Bolivia. Press release issued by the Planalto Presidential Palace. On this occasion. President Lula stressed the willingness of the Brazilian Government to consolidate this relationship. the expansion of investments and the development of social programs. so as to strengthen the industrialization of Bolivia and to turn gas into a means of generating employment and reducing the social inequalities that exist in both countries. The decision of the Bolivian Government to nationalize its rich underground resources and to control the industrialization. such as those involving trade. transport and sale of these. in order to preserve the interests of Petrobrás – the Brazilian Petroleum Corporation. The supply of gas to Brazil was highlighted as being strategic for the partnership that exists between both countries. *** The Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline has been in operation for seven years. infrastructure. is recognized by Brazil as being an inherent sovereign right. and to move forward with the necessary negotiations to guarantee an equal and 65 . The Brazilian Government will act with firmness and serenity in all tribunals.

the Bolivian people can count on. as well as by contractual precepts protected under International Law. The Presidents (of Brazil and Bolivia) should meet during the next few days to carefully examine questions concerning the relationship between Bolivia and Brazil and energy security in South America. we need to work on projects together. *** If we want Bolivia to join Mercosur then it will certainly join Mercosur.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK mutually advantageous relationship for both countries. Finally.Brasilia. justice. September 14. we have to be conscious of the fact that we need to help Bolivia. it was clarified that the issue of the price of gas will be resolved by means of bilateral negotiations. and will always count on. 2006. equality and progress for everyone and. above all. as has been reiterated by President Morales during a telephone conversation with President Lula. On this same occasion. the solidarity and support of 66 .Brasilia. 2006. *** Bolivia and Brazil are moving forward together in the search for a model of development which ensures greater democracy. the Brazilian Government wishes to clarify that the supply of natural gas to its market is guaranteed by the political will of both countries. On this journey. May 2.. we need to work on development. for those who are excluded from society. Press release issued by the Planalto Presidential Palace . (…) Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the session to constitute the Mercosur Parliament .

Brasilia. 67 . We have great potential for common initiatives that are yet to be explored. But these are small differences compared with that which unites us. Evo Morales . 2007.SOUTH AMERICA Brazil to help them find their own course. February 15. and not all our priorities and solutions will be the same. Press statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the State visit of the President of Bolivia. our points of view may not always coincide with one another. In such a strong relationship.

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MERCOSUR .

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In the World Trade Organization. 2003. (…). the recent elections in Argentina and Paraguay may be considered as auspicious for the consolidation project to unify customs practices so as to form a common market. The four members of Mercosur comprise the Cairns Group. May 21. we feel it is essential to preserve an adequate level of coordination among members of this bloc of nations in the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) negotiations. by supporting substantial investments by Brazilian companies in the region. which is a priority in its own right and the foundation of the integration project for South America.MERCOSUR The strengthening of Mercosur. should also be reflected in a coordinated action of our political bloc of nations in negotiations with partners outside the region. as the largest economy within Mercosur. Lecture by Minister Celso Amorim given by the interim Minister of State. Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães. Mercosur has put forward joint proposals to negotiating groups such as those involved in agriculture and the service industry. As well as demonstrating democratic vitality within the ambit of the bloc. Brazil is prepared to do its part. *** 71 . with a view to promoting discussions for a regional industrial policy. and leads the movement for the liberalization and elimination of distortions in agriculture. which brings together competitive agricultural exporters from the developed and developing worlds. At the same time. in so far as the new leaders are demonstrating their commitment to Mercosur. during the 15th National Forum . not allowing bureaucracy to overwhelm the politics involved in the process and.Rio de Janeiro.

BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK We have to make Mercosur democratic. But Mercosur must also be a place for the coordination of issues involving industrial. 2003. of well-coordinated social policies. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 24th Mercosur Summit . agricultural. (…) Mercosur is at the center of Brazil’s strategy to ensure our rightful place in the world. This is the Mercosur that our people want. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Argentine Parliamentary session in honor of Brazil Buenos Aires. participative. that also takes on a social dimension. We will enhance the creation of common institutions. We should follow a path of articulation between our systems of production. This is the Mercosur that our people want. so that a true sense of identity with Mercosur can blossom amongst the citizens of our countries. 2003. June 18. *** 72 . of partnerships in the areas of education and culture within our bloc of nations. and that guarantees the free circulation of our people. We understand that its success is a sign that it has fulfilled its role as a union of common customs practices. scientific and technological policies. October 16. We should propitiate a profound system of integration between our universities and scientific institutions and encourage cultural contacts between our societies. *** We have always believed in Mercosur. We have to make Mercosur into a participative democracy. And this is the Mercosur that we defended in our election campaign.Asuncion.

*** Mercosur cannot be reduced to just a free trade zone or even a unified Customs area. on the contrary. it constitutes an area that brings together values.Paris. In this respect. thereby increasing our capacity for negotiation. traditions and a shared future. 2003. Consensus of Buenos Aires. It is our understanding that regional integration is a strategic option that is needed to strengthen the inclusion of our countries on a world level. our Governments are working to strengthen Mercosur by improving its trade institutions and political aspects. Mercosur is destined to become an effective area of economic. social justice and the dignity of its citizens. Greater autonomy of decision will enable us to face the destabilizing movements of speculative financial capital more effectively. as well as by allowing new countries to join (the organization).Buenos Aires. signed by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Néstor Kirchner . October 16.MERCOSUR We reaffirm our deep conviction that Mercosur is not just a trade bloc but. we would like to stress that South American integration should be promoted in the interests of all. July 13. so that together our voices will be heard in various forums and multilateral organisms. For these reasons. as well as the opposing interests of more developed blocs of nations. political and cultural integration and to construct new and wider forms of citizenship. 2005. *** 73 . Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the Debate “Brazil: A Global Player” . with the objective of establishing similar systems of development that are associated with growth.

We recognize the particular importance of joint initiatives to consolidate financial strategies for our bloc of nations. such as the integration of South America and especially Mercosur. September 1. *** The Ministers of Finance of the Member and Associate States of Mercosur reaffirm (.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Combined difficulties are inherent to all innovative projects.. in support of the economic efficiency of the region as well as to improve the level of development of the respective economies.Caracas. financial and social areas directed towards the consolidation. July 4. Joint Communiqué from the Ministers attending the Meeting of Ministers of Finance of Member and Associate States of Mercosur . Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the ceremony to mark the Signing of the Protocol of Accession for Venezuela to become a Full-Member of Mercosur . 2006. We reaffirm (…) our confidence in Mercosur as an instrument to stimulate sustainable economic growth and the distribution of income and the strengthening of regional democratic institutions. *** 74 . These should serve to stimulate our creativity and political intelligence.Rio de Janeiro. 2006. which include coordinating and/or using the services of financing organisms for regional and national multilateral development. for regional production chains and to develop connected infrastructure projects.. strengthening and expansion of Mercosur (…).) the commitment of their respective countries to seek common denominators in economic.

The reasons that gave rise to our association still remain at the forefront. social development. the promotion of international security.Rio de Janeiro. *** Mercosur was created based on the conviction that. justice and social inclusion. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the 32nd Mercosur Summit . Memorandum of Understanding to Establish a Mechanism for the Political Dialogue and Cooperation between Member and Associate States of Mercosur and the Federation of Russia . 2007. in a complex and unequal world such as the one we live in. it was essential that countries such as ours joined together to face the difficulties imposed by asymmetric globalization from an economic. the prevention of conflicts. amongst others: an analysis of problems related to the defense of democracy and human rights. cooperation in the fight against terrorism. and cooperation in scientific and technological matters. Our union is necessary. *** 75 .Brasilia. disarmament and the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. 2006. cohesion and elimination of poverty. in particular within the ambit of the system of the United Nations. December 15. not even the strongest of our countries is able to resolve by itself the contradictions which afflict our societies.MERCOSUR Political dialogue will include the following issues. peace and international stability. drug trafficking and associated crimes. January 19. social inclusion. Our joint efforts are essential to promote development with decent employment. and are perhaps even more evident today. the strengthening of multilateralism. money laundering and other forms of transnational organized crime. political and social point of view.

to attain this level of approximation (within Mercosur). The presence of 11 South American Heads of State clearly demonstrates the priority that everyone gives to the process of integration. It represents a historical landmark in our bloc of nations. which have had a spectacular increase in recent years.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK A few days ago. Important decisions were taken to strengthen and expand Mercosur. 2007. involving a sum of approximately US$70 million. We approved the first 11 projects within the ambit of the Mercosur Structural Convergence Fund (FOCEM). THE MERCOSUR PARLIAMENT The creation of this Parliament is an initiative. Article by Minister Celso Amorim in Isto É magazine. Mercosur is no longer limited by governments and bureaucracies. 76 . thereby helping to tackle the regional imbalances among member countries. Rio de Janeiro played host to one of the most important Mercosur summit meetings ever held. and possibly the most relevant one. and has made a decisive step to place itself more and more at the service of its people. (…) The active participation of the Ministers of Finance gave a boost to discussions regarding the coordination of macroeconomic policies and the strengthening of regional financing mechanisms. The significant investment provided by the National Bank for Economic and Social Development (BNDES) to CAF will increase the number of projects directed towards the physical integration of South America. with direct trade benefits. in December. With the establishment of its Parliament. “Heading towards South American Integration”. January 29. Most of these projects will benefit Uruguay and Paraguay. We set up the Social Institute and the Training Institute. and of the Social Summit meeting.

*** The establishment of the Mercosur Parliament.Brasilia.. But it will play a decisive role in advancing the conciliation of national legislation in a variety of areas. It will not superimpose itself above the National Congresses of each Member State. And. 77 . following the great integration experiences that are taking place in the world today. when legislative approval is necessary. It therefore reinforces a common identity of our association. bringing together the communities and institutions of our people.MERCOSUR It helps strengthen the political dimension of integration. this Parliament will help make this process of integration more legitimate and democratic. inaugurated a new stage in the institutional history of our bloc of nations.) This Parliament will also make an enormous contribution towards the creation of a common area that can express the political pluralism and cultural diversity of our region. on December 14 of last year. at least not initially. We know that the Mercosur Parliament will not have a legislative function. It will consolidate our regional citizenship. This Parliament will consolidate the representative democracy and social legitimacy of the efforts we have made towards integration.. it will make it much easier to incorporate Mercosur rulings into domestic juridical actions. December 14. It will serve as an important political laboratory so that. As we reflect upon the pluralism and the diversity of our peoples. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the session to constitute the Mercosur Parliament . in the future. 2006. It contributes towards the consolidation of a sense of regional citizenship. depending on how deep the roots of Mercosur are planted within our societies. (. we can move ahead with our plan for a supra-nationality.

Brazil will continue to work to strengthen the institutions that will enable Mercosur to become an ever present reality in the world and. we will elect its members according to the concept of citizen representation.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the 32nd Mercosur Summit . we can safely say that the recent meeting held in Ouro Preto marked an important moment 78 . 2007 DEALING WITH ASYMMETRIES THE MERCOSUR STRUCTURAL CONVERGENCE FUND (FOCEM) Summing-up the advances that have been made. using standards still to be determined simultaneously and by direct universal vote in all its Member-States. *** The (Mercosur) Parliament will increase the juridical (legal) security of the (integration) process and will contribute. We created the office of the President of the Commission of Permanent Representatives. The Mercosur Parliament is a reality in evolution. above all. towards consolidating and perfecting our bloc of nations. We have the Mercosur Common Market Group . with its proposals. Now we have created this Parliament. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the Opening Session of the Mercosur Parliament . January 19. We already have a Permanent Review Court (Olivos).Rio de Janeiro. Brazil (…) will continue to do all that is within its power to help improve all instances of Mercosur. May 7. In 2010. its debates.Montevideo. 2007. on an executive level. which enabled Mercosur to have “its own identity”. increasingly more palpable to our people.CMC and its multiple bodies. in accordance with the will of society.

as well as stimulate Brazilian investments in Paraguay. within the ambit of the Brazilian Program for the Competitive Substitution of Imports (PSCI). promote Paraguayan products on the Brazilian market. “From Ouro Preto to Ouro Preto”. and which can be summarized by the following sentence: “the solution for Mercosur problems should be sought by furthering Mercosur”. in the institutional field and in foreign relations. 79 . particularly in the more deprived regions of our bloc of nations. to be created under this instrument. PARAGUAY (The Presidents of Brazil and Paraguay) effected the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding for Trade Promotion and Investment between both countries. 2004. (…) The initiative to create the Mercosur Structural Convergence Fund (FOCEM) in turn. in the O Estado de São Paulo newspaper. The Fund can also be used to help strengthen the institutional structure of Mercosur and to contribute towards the general process of integration. Article by Minister Celso Amorim. Bearing in mind the imbalances that exist in trade relations between Brazil and Paraguay. will help increase the entry of Paraguayan exports into Brazil. Significant progress has been made in economic-trade and political-social areas.MERCOSUR in the consolidation of Mercosur. the development of competitiveness and promotion of social cohesion. (…) Occasional differences. an initiative that has been recognized for the positive impact it has had on the bilateral economic agenda. will enable financing for projects. December 28. arising from economic imbalances. (the Presidents) expressed their hopes that the activities of the Working Group. will still be dealt with in the same spirit that has inspired us so far.

February 26. 2006. set up at the level of Vice-Ministers to discuss the matter . Joint Communiqué during the Visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to Uruguay – Montevideo.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Joint Declaration during the Visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to Paraguay . held in Asuncion on February 7.Asuncion. to serve as a basis for the preparation of “Guidelines for a Plan to Overcome Asymmetries in Mercosur”. URUGUAY (The Presidents of Brazil and Uruguay) reaffirmed their commitment to enhance the productive integration of Mercosur and to use efficient mechanisms to overcome any asymmetries. 2007. 80 . they noted with satisfaction the results of the First Meeting of the “Ad Hoc” Working Group. May 21. at their earliest convenience. In this respect. (…) The Brazilian Government reiterated its proposal to make the original rules more flexible so as to favor the smaller economies of Mercosur. they stressed the importance that Party States present concrete proposals. In the light of terms established in article 03 of CMC Decision 34/06.

CENTRAL AMERICA. THE CARIBBEAN AND MEXICO .

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We want to see biomasses generate sustainable development. only second to Nigeria. THE CARIBBEAN AND MEXICO I feel the time has come to establish a solid partnership between Brazil and the countries of the Caribbean. (…) We are mature enough for an alliance that can help us achieve our cooperation potential in the fight for a fairer and more united world. February 16. Like the Caribbean. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening session of the 16th Conference of Heads of Government of the Caribbean Community (Caricom) Paramaribo. Suriname. We have the second largest population of African descendents in the world. We will stimulate business and cooperation projects that go beyond our trade relations. 83 . 2005. with flexibility and generosity to further this association. Miscegenation and the harmonious co-existence (of our peoples) are a hallmark of our identities. We will encourage the circulation of goods and services and we will seek greater inter-regional agreements on all levels.CENTRAL AMERICA. social inclusion and to reduce poverty in many poor countries of the world. we are proud to have provided a refuge for a great many European and Asian immigrants. Central America. (…) Brazil is prepared to move boldly forward. *** The increased use of biofuels will be an inestimable contribution to generate income. above all in South America. Brazil is very similar to the Caribbean: a land of many cultures. in the Caribbean countries and in Africa.

84 .Santiago. *** In Davos. An option that also extends to the whole of Latin America and the Caribbean. We are conscious of the fact that the destiny of our countries is becoming more and more intertwined. Therefore. George W. countries belonging to the Central American Integration System (SICA) and with Mexico. South-South cooperation has a wider meaning: it helps to construct a new world geography. April 26. at the beginning of this year. Bush Guarulhos. I am convinced that our region is more and more prepared to deal with the challenges of globalization. one that is non-excluding and genuinely global. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the closing session of the World Economic Forum on Latin America . 2007. 2007. I said that Brazil had made an option for South America. Brazil wishes to have closer relations with the Caribbean Community (Caricom). São Paulo. *** In addition to South America. The universalistic mission of Brazilian foreign policy is reflected in the Brazilian Government’s interest in intensifying contacts and maintaining a mature and mutually beneficial relationship with countries of all regions. March 9. As well as encouraging direct contact and bringing together countries that share common views and interests.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Statement given to the press by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva after his visit to Transpetro with the President of the United States. Brazil is making every effort to diversify its partners and to get closer to developing countries.

August 7.CENTRAL AMERICA. Pluriannual Plan 2008-2011 . at great cost. *** I said to President Calderon: if we look at the map of Latin America we will see that. amongst ourselves. it was God. May 4. that will take me to Nicaragua. that will take me to Jamaica and to Panama. For once and for all. with victims. because I like all of them and want to maintain our good relations. And therefore. the men who rule the world now. 2007. And these same convictions will lead me to visit other countries during the next few months. THE CARIBBEAN AND MEXICO Ministry of External Relations Strategic Guidelines. above all. it was men who divided the Continent.Tegucigalpa. we have to learn how to discover. *** 85 . more salaries and. who joined our Continent. These were the convictions that brought me to Honduras. in all His omnipotence. into greater life and hope expectancy for our people. we no longer have the cold wars of the 20th century. And. And it is now necessary to transform those magical words “freedom and democracy” into enough food to fill the bellies of the poor who live on our Continent. into more education for poor people. and without any bias against wealthy countries. After all. we no longer have the same colonization policy of the 19th century. with sacrifices. in the 21st century. or in the region of Panama. during his visit to Honduras . we have conquered freedom. have to think differently from the men who ruled the world in the 19th century and in the 20th century. more jobs. 2007. the opportunities that we have to offer each other.Brasilia. however narrow our map is in this region. Statement given to the Press by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva.

This encourages us to work on the promotion of peace on a global level. Daniel Ortega . Brazil seeks to reflect the concerns of our region and interpret the interests of the Haitian people and of the international community. HAITI1 Peace and democracy are achievements which the governments and people of Latin American should be proud of. Instability.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK For my part. see article referring to the peace mission. because this history of hegemony is what led to our being colonized during so many centuries. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the ceremony to mark the departure of (Brazilian) military 1 For further information about MINUSTAH. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during his meeting with the President of Nicarágua. who conquered our independence. and this price is participation.Manágua. 86 . We want our own sovereignty. without any hegemonic aspects involved. we believe that the conditions required of a United Nations operation have been complied with. August 8. 2007. We must only ensure that we do justice to our heroes. we are exercising our responsibility in an international context. we want to maintain relations with all the countries in the world. you may be certain that Brazil can establish many partnerships with Nicaragua and. In the case of Haiti. but above all. we want this to be viewed as a partnership. When we express ourselves in the face of a crisis such as is occurring in Haiti. ends up generating a cost for us all. even when far away. As a member of the Security Council. Maintaining peace has its price. we want to govern by our own decisions.

amongst others. THE CARIBBEAN AND MEXICO troops on a peace mission to Haiti .Brasilia. November 25. 2005. The Brazilian Government has also urged other States to increase their cooperation with Haiti. The international community. social and economic empowerment of the country. *** Brazil has helped Haiti with bilateral cooperation in areas of food safety and security. in our understanding. May 31. especially with development resources that will directly or indirectly benefit the poorer members of the Haitian population. Brazil has mobilized efforts by regional and international organisms so that Haiti could obtain the necessary resources and support to resume its process of development. the establishment of dialogue between the different political factions.CENTRAL AMERICA. the first black republic in the world. There will be no reconciliation or peace in Haiti unless we adopt this integrated perspective. public administration. This Stabilization Mission is different from previous ones. “The Foreign Policy of the Lula Government: Two Years”. *** A concern for peace and social justice is reflected in the commitment undertaken by the Lula Government in support of the United Nations efforts in Haiti. technical training and the environment. should not be abandoned to a vicious circle of instability and conflict. In addition. should be based on three pillars: the promotion of stability. and. Our main motivation in assuming the leadership of the military forces of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) was that Haiti. 2004. and the institutional. in particular 87 . article by Minister Celso Amorim .Plenarium Magazine.

February 5. June 9. Brazil therefore proposes. has repeatedly shown its recognition and appreciation of Brazil’s contribution to MINUSTAH. 2003. as a sovereign state.Brasilia. Brazil has made every effort to ensure that Haiti again resumes dialogue and cooperation with its neighboring countries. and these projects should be included. We were very pleased to receive news of the normalization of relationships between Haiti and CARICOM.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Latin America and Caribbean countries. therefore.Brasilia. 2006. with the support of other countries. We are convinced that no country can live isolated from the region in which it is located. the concept of a State. January 16. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the 33rd OAS General Assembly .Santiago. . *** We need to think of Haiti as a country. Press release “Brazil’s Participation in the United Nations Mission in Haiti” . and not as a collection of projects. *** 88 . Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening of the “High Level Seminar on Peace-Keeping Missions” . We also consider this to be an anomaly and we also lament the fact that this is so. that dialogue is initiated with regard to this situation. within the concept of a nation. as from July 2006. CUBA Reference has been made here to an empty seat in our organization. 2007. which only the Haitians can decide themselves.

I have invited Brazilian entrepreneurs to visit Cuba. economically and industrially more developed. We cannot substitute the Cuban people and their leaders.. *** (. the more rigid their internal structures become. But there are certain limits that have to be respected. THE CARIBBEAN AND MEXICO The end of the United States embargo on Cuba would greatly help to open discussions concerning the re-democratization of that country. Interview given by Minister Celso Amorim to the Jornal do Brasil newspaper . for forty years has suffered an embargo with which we do not agree.. their industrial development potential. needs not only bolder trade policies but.Rio de Janeiro. 2003. For this reason. The more you isolate a country.CENTRAL AMERICA. We have discussed certain gestures. and their potential in the area of services and tourism. we maintain a policy of solidarity with a Latin American country which.) I believe that what we are doing in this Seminar is taking an exceptional step (forward) so that Cuba and Brazil can interact with all their (respective) scientific and technological knowledge. A policy of constructive cooperation is always better than one of isolation. we are against the death penalty. During recent months. 89 . but we can contribute towards (creating) a more positive atmosphere. as it stands now. For example. (…) The globalized world. above all. and build closer ties so as to mutually contribute towards the growth and development of both Cuba and Brazil. against summary judgments. so that we can increase. so that we can have the means to compete on a more equal footing with countries that are technologically. it requires the ability to bring together all that we have by way of our complementarities. July 24.

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Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the Cuba-Brazil Meeting of Entrepreneurs - Havana, September 27, 2003. *** The Brazilian Delegation decided to abstain from voting on the Resolution L31 project because it understands that this resolution does not, in the present circumstances, genuinely contribute towards improving the situation of human rights in Cuba. (…) In this respect, we wish to express our concern that the Commission has been used by some member-countries to criticize others or to avoid criticisms of their own situations, which reduces the contribution that this Commission can make towards the progressive development of human rights. Brazil reaffirms the importance that all States should guarantee the strict enforcement of all human rights, in accordance with the commitment undertaken in the 1993 Declaration of Vienna, in favor of universality, inter-independence and the indivisibility of human rights. During the on-going dialogue with the Cuban Government, the importance invested in the full observance of these principles will be duly expressed. In this respect, the advances seen in Cuba in the field of economic, social and cultural rights have been duly registered, as well as the recent decisions taken by the Cuban Government to free political prisoners and to encourage new measures to be adopted to ensure that full human rights are enforced in economic, social and cultural, as well as in civil and political issues. Declaration of Brazil’s vote at the United Nations Human Rights Commission in Geneva, transcribed in a press release dated April 14, 2005.
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MEXICO The Presidents (Lula and Felipe Calderón) reiterate their firm disposition, as expressed throughout various meetings held during this year, to raise their bilateral relations to a new level, encouraging political dialogue and enhancing their relationship within the economic, financial, trade, legal, consular, cultural, academic, technical and scientific-technological spheres. In this respect, they expressed their satisfaction with the results achieved so far in several of these areas, and established follow-up measures with a view to achieving a successful outcome and consolidation of concrete objectives. They recognize the importance that this bilateral relationship has for both Brazil and Mexico, not only because of its impact on each individual country, but also as a basis for the significant role that both countries carry out on a regional and world level. In this respect, they reaffirmed the profound Latin American vocation of their countries and expressed a firm determination to give special attention to (establishing) friendship, dialogue, political reconciliation and cooperation with all countries in the region. Joint Communiqué during President Lula’s State visit to Mexico - Mexico City, August 6, 2007. *** We are megadiverse and megacultural countries. In both countries, our people have increasingly proven to be active participants in bringing about great social and political processes of change. (…) President Calderón and I agree that we should actively and work together with our Latin American and Caribbean neighbors. To this end, we can count on the long tradition of political understanding (that exists) in regional and sub-regional mechanisms in South America, Central America and the Caribbean. For our part, we have supported a process
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to create an economically integrated, socially united and politically democratic area within South America. Mexico has developed integration projects with its southern neighbors, with an emphasis on the creation of a physical infrastructure. Declaration by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the ceremony to mark the signing of acts and press conference - Mexico City. August 6, 2007.

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THE UNITED STATES The fluid dialogue with the United States of America is of vital importance, not only in issues related to the economy and trade, which are of immediate interest to us, but also to ensure that we play a role in addressing the important issues on the international agenda, compatible with the size and values of our country. Speech given by Ambassador Celso Amorim on taking office as Minister of State for External Relations Brasilia, January 1, 2003. *** I could not fail to make a special reference to our relationship with the United States, distinguished today by its sense of maturity. I met with President Bush when I was still President-elect. This year we were together in Evian and, more recently, we met in Washington for a bilateral meeting that was attended by our Ministers. During the talks we have had these last few days, my willingness to continue to cooperate with the United States was reinforced, in a spirit of pragmatism, frankness and loyalty that has been a distinguishing feature of the talks held between both Governments. (…) I even told President Bush that here in Brazil we are open to the idea of initiating talks (on trade negotiations) either tomorrow or the day after tomorrow. The only thing that we do not want is to be treated like second-class citizens. We want to be treated like equals. The same
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96 . (…) Symbolism is extremely important in politics. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Council on Foreign Relations . is the image that best summed up this visit. are just as important as the interests of the United States are for the United States. do you think this would be the case? The facts speak for themselves. If the United States of America felt there was an anti-American feeling. for Brazil. who witnessed the “Oil is Ours” campaign. but a search for a dialogue about world matters. There is no anti-American feeling. 2007. for the global market and in matters of aid to other countries. *** Our attitude is a pragmatic one and we seek to defend Brazilian interests. with a biofuel and biodiesel sticker on the back. ethanol and biofuels were the focal point of interest.New York. it is the beginning of a great story. can appreciate the impact of this (image). Condoleezza (Rice) repeated the word “strategic” several times. It is also important that the Americans recognize the leadership of Brazil (in this area). wearing a Petrobrás hard hat. During this visit. we also want for ourselves. For those such as myself. when referring to the relationship between the United States and Brazil. But it is more than that. because the interests of Brazil. Paulo newspaper . Quite the contrary. September 25. February 11. The search for partnerships is not just a discussion about bilateral agreements involving issues such as ethanol.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK respect that we show others. Interview given by Minister Celso Amorim to the O Estado de S.São Paulo. This was seen as an association that is important for both countries. *** The President of the USA. 2003.

*** Presidents Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and George W. *** I mentioned to President Bush the important role that the United States can play in South American countries. cultural diversity. Press Statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. the defense of peace and international security and the promotion of development with social justice. Joint Declaration during the visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the United States . March 11. during his visit to the United States . human rights.Rio de Janeiro. free trade. based on shared values at the level of democracy. Bush reaffirmed their commitment to furthering strategic talks between Brazil and the United States. which translate into a determination to increase bilateral cooperation. especially in those that need trade benefits. 2007. Interview given by Minister Celso Amorim to the O Globo newspaper . We have to support them because this will guarantee regional stability. It is extremely important that the United States support these countries. March 31. which is of interest to Brazil and certainly of interest to the United States. 2007. when seen in a long-term perspective. multilateralism.Camp David. environmental protection. 31st March.Camp David. 2007.NORTH AMERICA The fact that Brazil is developing cooperation projects with the United States in Africa is important. *** 97 .

These efforts are crucial to guarantee the protection of food sources for large numbers of the world’s population. we are now developing closer our ties with the United States. 2007. especially in the area of biofuels.) is a decisive partner for Brazil in the search for sustainable development and equitable economic growth. 2004. April 2.Brasilia. I think that. now that we have established good policies with South America. Press statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the visit to Brazil of Prime Minister Paul Martin . *** The Foreign Affairs Ministers view with satisfaction the dynamic nature of the economic relations between both countries.Brasilia.. Another issue that unites Brazil and Canada is our firm commitment towards the environment. Statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the program “Breakfast with the President” . with Latin America. with Africa.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK My visit to Washington is almost a continuation of the visit that President Bush made to Brazil. which in 98 .. CANADA Canada (. which is something that I think in the next 15 to 20 years will change a little the history of humanity in matters related to fuels. with Asia and the European Union. Our concern with sustainable development is reflected in our search for greater international coordination in the campaign to prohibit overfishing of world stocks. November 23.

Press statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the State visit to Brazil of the Governor-General of Canada. July 11. and with a considerable increase in the flow of investments. and that multilateralism should serve to protect human rights in its fullest sense. Michaëlle Jean . In this respect. 99 .. Through a mature attitude.) Canada and Brazil have always conducted their international actions on the assumption that economic and social development is the greatest element of stability for peace and security. 2007. we have been able to overcome differences between our aeronautical industries and are now ready to build partnerships in strategic sectors. 2007. *** Canada has around US$ 7 billion invested in Brazil.NORTH AMERICA 2006 recorded a significant increase of over 14% in trade exchange compared to 2005. (. February 5.Brasilia. they express the commitment of Brazil and Canada in their endeavors to join forces to further intensify their trade links and reciprocal investments.. Joint Declaration during the visit to Brazil of the Canadian Minister of Foreign Affairs. Peter MacKay Brasilia. the country in the region that receives their largest investments.

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June 7. The fact that space has been allocated for their headquarters within the Itamaraty Palace reflects the great importance that Brazil gives to OAS organisms as well as to the activities developed by that Commission. is essential to the resolution of problems that are at the root of the crisis in Haiti. *** The Brazilian Government understands that the participation of the region. Press release “Minister Celso Amorim will inaugurate the new headquarters of the Inter-American Juridical Commission” . August 7.MULTILATERAL REGIONAL FORA THE ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES (OAS) The Inter-American Juridical Commission (IJC) is the only body of the inter-American system based in Brasilia. especially of Latin America and the Caribbean. the importance of the project initiated by the Brazilian 103 . The OAS certainly has.Quito. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the 34th OAS General Assembly . before the community of countries in the Hemisphere. 2003. 2004. Ecuador. and will have. a role in this process. *** During the course of the work of the General Assembly the Brazilian delegation will reiterate.Brasilia.

as the Organization’s highest political forum.Brazil defends that a clear distinction be made between defense and security matters and. June 1. We are prepared to discuss a new contingent structure for the Inter-American Defense Council and to more clearly define its juridical links with the OAS. that this matter requires a detailed examination on a political-diplomatic level. will provide an opportunity to promote debates under the heading of pluralism in connection with issues of common interest for the whole Continent. article written by Minister Celso Amorim and presented during the series of debates about contemporary Brazilian thought on matters related to defense and security. Press release. has supported maintaining the Inter-American Defense Council as the military and technical advisory body of the OAS. and to the protection of refugees and those repatriated within the Americas.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Government on issues related to the fight against racism and racial intolerance. without operational functions. and not the IDC. “36th Session of the OAS General Assembly” -Santo Domingo. organized by the Ministry of 104 . HEMISPHERIC SECURITY Together with the countries comprising ALADI . and that the Hemispheric Security Commission. We believe. in this respect. against extreme poverty. should remain as the focal point of the entire Inter-American security system.Latin American Integration Association . however. Holding one more regular meeting of the General Assembly of the OAS. 2006. enabling Brazil to reaffirm its international commitments towards the consolidation of multilateralism on a regional sphere. “Brazil and new Global and Hemispheric Concepts of Security”.

We recognize. *** 105 . should be reviewed. Brazil took the decision to activate the mechanisms provided for in the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Aid (ITRA).Itaipava. 2003. (…) The spirit of solidarity that exists in our hemispheric relations was quickly expressed in our response to the heinous terrorist attacks of September 11. which was formed under different historical circumstances.MULTILATERAL REGIONAL FORA Defense . 2001. Brazil wants to contribute towards the work of the Hemispheric Security Council in examining and evaluating this agreement. At that time. 2003. as well as promoting mutual confidence and transparency. State of Rio de Janeiro. we should also recognize the importance of individual national characteristics. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the general debate during the Special Security Conference.Mexico City. Latin America and the Caribbean have been part of a region that has spent less on armaments when compared to the rest of the world. as well as regional and sub-regional. Over the last decades. that the ITRA. Other instruments also require urgent reform. within the ambit of the OAS . October 11 and 12. We were also pioneers in adopting instruments in the area of disarmament and non-proliferation. *** Since we have confirmed the existence of common threats and challenges and the need to face these in a concentrated and united manner. however. In accordance with the mandate that will be approved by us. which enjoys the legitimate and exclusive authority in such matters. October 28. (…) We do not participate in military alliances whose scope of actions may conflict with the United Nations Security Council.

at the 37th OAS General Assembly.American Defense Council during its first year under the regime of the new Statute. Secretar y General of the Ministr y of Exter nal Relations. we should highlight the work carried out by the Inter. Institutions such as special magistrates. to whom I offer my congratulations on the ability he has shown in conducting the process of transition of the Council to the regime under the new Statute. Here. commissions and public attorneys for human rights have been created or consolidated.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK In the field of defense. first President of the Inter-American Defense Council in its new phase. DEMOCRACY Important advances have been recorded in our Continent in the area of democracy. the laws of many countries have incorporated important human rights principles and mechanisms to protect the individual and minority groups. In support of this transformation. Speech by Ambassador Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães. which sanctions the principle of civil supervision and the democratic reconciliation of its authorities. *** 106 . January 9. 2007. Non-governmental civil entities have begun to offer citizens greater recourse in the event of possible abuses by the State Speech by Minister Celso Amorim during the 33rd OAS General Assembly Santiago. 2003. in the person of General Armando Ribeiro.Panama City. June 4. The era of privileged regimes has come to an end. Brazil also feels honored in being able to make its contribution.

capable of complimenting and expanding values and principles established in the Democratic Charter. value and strengthen institutions and support solutions that can. We have provided support and solidarity in situations of crises. whenever we have been called on and if we believe that this will help in a positive way. based on concepts already sanctioned in the OAS Charter and by other commitments undertaken by our Government. we should reiterate Brazil’s commitment to a swift conclusion of the negotiations regarding the Social Charter of the Americas. we need to encourage dialogue between the different social sectors. which is an essential aspect of the process to strengthen democracy. at the 37th OAS General Assembly . especially as the result of the serious economic and social problems that still exist on our Continent. Secretary General of the Ministry of External Relations. Speech given by Ambassador Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães. 107 .Fort Lauderdale. The Government of President Lula has associated this basic principle with an attitude that we describe as “non-interference”. Faced with such situations. be found on a national level. this is a document of essential value for the Inter-American system. as I have already mentioned. *** In the context of the fight against social inequalities. 2005. June 4. Brazilian diplomacy is guided by the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs (of other countries). Speech by Minister Celso Amorim during the 35th OAS General Assembly . From our point of view. June 6. 2007. as sanctioned in our Charter. and must.Panama City.MULTILATERAL REGIONAL FORA Some of the countries in the region have experienced recurring difficulties.

“Inter-American Court of Human Rights” Brasilia. Press release.Panama City. March 17. Brazil has recognized the controversial jurisdiction of the Inter-American Court since December 2006. reaffirming its unequivocal support to the rulings of the American Convention on Human Rights. Secretary General of the Ministry of External Relations. at the same time. Speech given by Ambassador Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães. thereby demonstrating its total conviction of the legitimacy and effectiveness of the decisions that they issue and. and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights -. 2006. State officials and non-governmental institutions. In order to achieve common 108 .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK HUMAN RIGHTS Holding the session of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights in this country has reinforced Brazil’s commitment to the Inter-American system of human rights. THE RIO GROUP We accept our responsibilities. *** Within the specific ambit of the Inter-American system. the Brazilian Government has shown a high level of priority in maintaining intense and frank relations with its principal bodies – the Inter-American Commission of Human Rights (CIHD). which should serve as a principal guide towards maintaining the balance of the system itself. and constitutes an innovative instrument to increase knowledge about the system amongst those who practice Law. We have not relinquished our right to take the future into our own hands. June 4. 2007. at the 37th OAS General Assembly .

Peru. Paraguay. we count on our democratic convictions and our spirit of conciliation and tolerance. together with the search for economic development and social justice. Ecuador. Brazil. It is our duty to construct a more prosperous and democratic region.MULTILATERAL REGIONAL FORA objectives. the Rio Group began as an instrument for the consolidation of democracy and the practice of political debate which. March 1. 2007. Panama. Press release. Uruguay and Venezuela. *** A channel for presidential diplomacy between Member States and a forum for deliberations on Latin American and Caribbean positions in regional and international matters. Guyana. 2004. November 4. form the main points of action of those who are part of the Mechanism. and in accordance with the common regional viewpoint. Speech given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 18th Presidential Summit of the Rio Group .Brasilia. Bolivia. El Salvador . “19th Summit Meeting of the Rio Group” . Nicaragua. The Dominican Republic. constructing its own solutions that would allow for appeasement and reconciliation 109 . Chile. *** The Rio Group was created to resolve situations of crises. Honduras. Belize. The Rio Group is therefore an important instrument. Guatemala. Colombia. The Group is composed of Argentina.Rio de Janeiro. Guyana also represents the Caribbean Community in the Mechanism. Mexico. Costa Rica. The Latin American and Caribbean family of nations needs to use us as an adequate place for consultation and political deliberation thus enabling us to face our collective challenges.

The Rio Group was the seed that gave birth to a wide network of mechanisms of consultation and dialogue that are at our disposal today. democratizes the international system. read by Minister Celso Amorim . between rich and poor. Our history of struggles was also written in moments of conviviality and conciliation. the IberoAmericans.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK in regions shaken by conflict.. can and should be overcome through dialogue and mutual understanding. we now have a region that is peaceful and democratic. The Rio Group is a privileged forum to create understanding between the Latin American and Caribbean people in priority issues on the regional and international agendas. increased its representativeness and should be open to all countries in the region who wish to join. boosts sustainable development and the fight against hunger and poverty. 2007. This is the greatest contribution that we. We will only successfully overcome these challenges if we are able to defeat prejudice and a lack of confidence. As a result of this activity. The name of this response is tolerance. We are an example of how borders between North and South. This is nurtured by the rich quality of our differences and enables us to provide eloquent responses to contemporary world threats. This promotes peace. Our Community should 110 . cultures and civilizations. It has grown. between religions. diplomacy and political dialogue have proven to be decisive instruments to promote peace and development in Latin America and the Caribbean. March 3. Guyana. IBERO-AMERICAN CONFERENCE There is a line that runs across our countries and distinguishes our international conduct. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 19th Summit of the Rio Group. Since then. enables us to fight against terrorism. have to offer.. It is our “affinity in diversity”.Georgetown.

poverty. require economically consistent responses. This has been the challenge facing the Ibero-American Community. Castilian Spanish speakers.Salamanca. who have already expressed an interest in such a proposal. the greatest virtues that we have: the inexhaustible wealth represented by our people and the knowledge that we share a common history and destiny. Unemployment. The bitter experiences of the 1980s and s1990 taught us a hard. Only a democratic State can address these two dimensions. In this pursuit. We could begin with the Portuguese-speaking countries and with Equatorial Guinea. 2005. economic and social differences.November 9. “The International Projection of the Ibero-American Community”. However. *** The Heads of State and Ibero-American governments will meet in Santiago (Chile) to pursue the debate and advance proposals on the great issue of the day: the role of public policies in the promotion of social cohesion.MULTILATERAL REGIONAL FORA extend its international dialogue. Our proximity to one another is not just measured in values and aspirations. I am certain that we will know how to use. 111 . Article by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in the Folha de São Paulo newspaper . for our own benefit. 2007. without a doubt. the solutions must be socially just. it is necessary to reaffirm the commitment of our community with the values of solidarity and collective welfare. October 15. speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 15th Ibero-American Summit . In a world where the logic of globalized markets and the speed of technological transformations have called into question the effectiveness of public policies. Spain. “The Ibero-American Community”. particularly to Africa. but essential lesson.

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Press Release. *** At their historic first summit meeting. such as democracy. the protection of energy sources and 115 . climate change. regional and international agendas.EUROPE THE EUROPEAN UNION The raising of the level of our bilateral relations to the condition of a Strategic Partner reflects the dynamic nature and strengthening of relations between Brazil and the European Union. The Strategic Partnership enables us to reinforce the channel of privileged dialogue at the highest level. as well as a market economy. the primacy of Law.Brasilia. involving matters of peace and security. cultural and economic ties. July 3. Both sides agreed that it is necessary to identify and promote common strategies to face world challenges. the promotion of human rights and basic freedoms. Brazil and the European Union decided to establish an all-embracing strategic partnership. democracy and human rights. “Brazil-European Union Summit Meeting” and the Visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the European Commission” . technical cooperation and the fight against poverty and social exclusion. biological diversity. Both sides share essential values and principles. on topics of mutual interest on the bilateral. based on their close historical. in areas of energy. 2007. science and technology. climate change.

we exceeded the figure of US$ 50 billion in bilateral trade. Joint Declaration. *** Today we meet to initiate a new era in the relationship between Brazil and the European Union. July 4. Brazil and the European Union stressed the great economic and political importance that this agreement will have for both regions and its role in enhancing their respective processes of integration. Brazil and the European Union agreed that the best way to deal with questions of world order is through an effective form of multilateralism centered on the United Nations system. an 116 . the fight against poverty and social exclusion. we are raising our relationship to the level of its potential. and we are projecting a common view for a world in transformation. We are launching a new strategic partnership. Both parties are to be commended for establishing a political dialogue between Brazil and the EU. They are also in agreement with regard to the importance of fulfilling their present obligations resulting from international treaties that are still in force.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK sustainable development. Brazil and the EU give great importance to the strengthening of relations between the European Union and Mercosur and are determined to conclude the European Union-Mercosur Association Agreement. as well as promote initiatives in matters of cooperation. initiated under the German Presidency of the European Union. in matters of disarmament and non-proliferation. when a Portuguese friend is heading the European Commission. 2007. which will enable further development in economic relations between both regions and will intensify the political dialogue. “Brazil-European Union Summit” Lisbon. In 2006. It is significant that this process began in Lisbon and occurs at a time when Portugal is taking over the Presidency of the Council of the European Union.

*** The Brazil-European Union strategic partnership reflects the advancement of bilateral relations. and 60% in relation to 2003. *** 117 . I am convinced that we have much to gain from this association. social issues. such as energy/biofuels. “Proposal to establish a strategic partnership between Brazil and the European Union” Brasilia. . free of hegemonic influences. The total sum of European direct investment in Brazil is US$ 150 billion. June 1.I am also sure that a union of these two blocs will contribute towards the construction of a multi-polar world. 2007. (…) Our trade exchange with the European Union represents 22% of our foreign trade. which is of a strictly bilateral nature. the environment. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Plenary Session of the Brazil-European Union Business Summit .EUROPE increase of 13% in comparison with the previous year. technical cooperation. Press release. science and technology. July 4. (…) I also believe that our association should contribute towards ensuring that our negotiations involving the association agreement between Mercosur and the European Union should have a successful outcome. with a view to pursuing cooperation initiatives in different areas of mutual interest. 2007. regional development and maritime transport.Lisbon. can serve as a political boost to Mercosur-European Union negotiations. The Brazilian Government understands that this partnership. in the context of which the High Level Political Dialogue was formalized on April 30. provided that the needs and peculiarities of both blocs are taken into consideration.

(…) International cooperation is also needed for the eradication of hunger. They allow for the construction of a strategic association between the two Continents. Multilateralism is to international relations.Brussels. the elimination of poverty. which can enhance our efforts for development 118 . economic and trade relations and to contribute towards reducing social-economic disparities that exist in both regions. as well as the many other challenges and problems that afflict all humanity. THE LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN–EUROPEAN UNION SUMMIT (LAC – EU) Multilateralism and Social Cohesion – the topics being discussed at this Third Latin America and Caribbean–European Union Summit – are central to the political discussions we initiated in 1999. In accordance with the previous Ministerial meeting held in Lisbon. Multilateralism and international cooperation will encourage solidarity. as an instrument to bolster political. (…) The ability to rule democratically is strengthened when there is peace and security. Joint Communiqué from the Mercosur–European Union Ministerial Meeting . including a free trade zone in accordance with World Trade Organization norms. September 2. (environmental) preservation and the fight against AIDS. what democracy was and is to nations. They agreed.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK The Ministers (of Mercosur and the European Union) reaffirm the importance of the strategic relations between Mercosur and the European Union and the priority given to concluding an ambitious and equitable inter-regional Association Agreement. the Ministers recognized that substantial progress has already been made towards concluding the Association Agreement. however. 2005. that further endeavors are required to reach the desired level of ambition that will reflect the strategic importance of the Association Agreement.

*** It is our firm conviction that democracy. The Declaration of Vienna. social and economic development and respect for international law are essential for peace and security. and in the European Union. Further reiterating our common commitment to a solid and efficient multilateral system. Latin America and the Caribbean. not only of governments. we are thus determined to advance the multilateral agenda while this is a priority issue that cuts across our bi-regional relations. of our people. May 12. but above all. 2006. 119 . Mexico. respect. *** There are many values and projects that bind Europe. Guadalajara. Statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Working Meeting on Multilateralism at the 3rd Latin American and Caribbean – European Union Summit. during the 4th Latin America and Caribbean–European Union Summit -Vienna. the rule of law. Our regions have been consolidating their processes of integration. 2006. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 2nd Working Session of the 4th Latin America and the Caribbean – European Union Summit . May 28.EUROPE and the sustainable growth of our economies in Latin America and the Caribbean. the eradication of poverty. May 12.. the promotion and protection of human rights.Vienna. This is a major objective. 2004.

cultural and environmental issues. Press release.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK BILATERAL RELATIONS / STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIPS GERMANY Relations between Brazil and Germany are distinguished by a broad convergence of perceptions. as well as between members of parliament and with representatives of different sections of society from both countries. But we can do much more than this. German investments and technology have contributed towards the modernization of Brazil’s industry and the generation of jobs. educational. There are 9 billion dollars in direct investments in Brazil. economic and trade interests to scientific-technological. added to the high level of interchange and bilateral cooperation. a country with which we have had historical relations of friendship and business. There are 1. making Brazil the largest destination for German exports to South America. We need to diversify 120 . our trade exchange exceeded a new level of US$ 12 billion. Since the 1950s. November 16. Joschka Fischer”-Brasilia. 2004. values and interests in common which. Our relations are very strong. responsible for generating 8% of Brazil’s Gross Domestic Product. “The visit to Brazil of the German Federal Vice-Chancellor and Minister of External Relations. On a commercial level. In 2006. both on a government level. There are seven million Brazilians of German stock. give a particularly significant meaning to this partnership. *** Today [President Köhler] visits Brazil as President of Germany.200 companies based on German capital. involving very different fields. ranging from political. Germany is our principal partner in Europe.

2007. (…) We will widen our bilateral cooperation. The text is structured around three main topics: strengthening political dialogue. and we will move forward with our global agenda in the area of alternative sources of energy Press release from President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the State Visit to Brazil of the President of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Strategic Partnership Plan enhances bilateral 121 . This document translates the desire of both Governments to raise the level of their bilateral relationship. based on their common interest in strengthening it. signed the Brazil-Spain Strategic Partnership Plan today. adding greater value to Brazilian exports to Germany. should the latter undergo a reform. in parallel with the 13th Ibero-American Summit. José María Aznar. in Santa Cruz de la Sierra. In the preamble to this Plan. The decision to sign this document in Santa Cruz de la Sierra was taken during the Working Visit of President Aznar to Brazil. and is favorable the Brazilian Government’s aspiration. Horst Köhler . social development and economic growth. focusing on the transfer of technology. on October 29. SPAIN President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the President of the Government of Spain. both countries declared that the benefits of a wider collaboration should extend to their respective regions. especially to Ibero-American areas. The document signed by both leaders stated that Spain understands the reasons for Brazil’s bid for a permanent seat in the United Nations Security Council. In the same context.. March 8.EUROPE this trade profile. both Governments committed themselves to maintaining permanent consultation about the reform of the United Nations Security Council. widening and strengthening cooperation.Brasilia.

August 5. November 14. 2005. which has succeeded in mobilizing international attention to identify alternative financing for development and the fight against hunger.Brasilia. Maria Teresa Fernández de la Vega Sanz” . as shown by the fact that Spain is the European country with the largest investments in Brazil. 2003. As well as benefiting from forums. through educational and training programs. culture and education. solidly anchored in initiatives and actions that are of reciprocal interest. Both Governments pledged their commitment to support social development. *** Relations between Brazil and Spain have gained renewed and intense momentum in recent years. in January 2005. Both countries are amongst the leaders of the Action against Hunger and Poverty project. Press release. “The Visit to Brazil of the First VicePresident of the Government of Spain.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK economic relations. since the 90s. by the signing of the 122 . such as the Ibero-American Community of Nations and negotiations for the Mercosur-European Union Interregional Agreement. *** The importance given by both Governments to the policies to fight social inequalities on various levels resulted in several bilateral cooperation projects in the areas of science. both countries have been building a strategic partnership. “Brazil-Spain Strategic Partnership Plan” . Press Release. as well as cultural development. This association was further strengthened during the visit to Brazil of President Zapatero.Brasilia. as well as in the innovative proposal to exchange debt for investments in education.

with regard to the strengthening of democracy. have built affinities and convergences. Madrid . We believe in multilateralism and in dialogue as instruments to build a more prosperous and just world. the respect for human rights. they stressed their mutual commitment towards the dialogue of civilizations and the strengthening of multilateralism. *** Presidents Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero reaffirmed the values shared by both countries. We share the same perception regarding the advantages and risks of globalization. with less 123 . one of the pillars of the inherent diversity and tolerance shown today by both countries. in connection with the Consolidation of the Brazil-Spain Strategic Partnership Press release. the promotion of peace and development with social justice. They equally stressed the importance that their expatriate citizens receive proper and nondiscriminatory treatment. in the course of history. 2007. In the international sphere. “Visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to Spain” . FRANCE The Brazil Year in France (2005) is an encounter of two people who. 2007. during the former’s visit to Spain.September 17. September 14. during the course of their history.Brasilia. (…) Both Heads of Government testified that immigration was. so as to preserve the high level of relations that bind together the people of both countries.EUROPE Declaration of Brasilia. Joint Declaration by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and President José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero.

2006. *** 124 . space technology and cooperation with African countries. nuclear energy. but will serve as an operational platform for all our South American neighbors. May 23. Our working groups have been meeting and adopted programs with a view to bringing our bilateral cooperation closer in the areas of renewable energy sources. They can benefit from the mutual transfer of technology that will reach not only the vast Brazilian market. 2005. (…) Partnerships between our businesses will also benefit the French presence in Brazil. (…) Distinguished entrepreneurs. technological innovation.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK poverty and less hunger. I bring you a word of confidence and determination.Brasilia. “State Visit to Brazil of the President of the French Republic. July 13. in 2005. particularly in Africa and the Caribbean. It is worth stressing the mutual interest that exits in developing the international ethanol market and establishing trilateral cooperation to expand the production of biofuels in developing countries. your presence here is the best demonstration of the enormous potential that exists in the economic and business relations between our two countries. to create six working groups on topics linked to scientific and technological cooperation and their industrial applications. Press release. defense. *** Cooperation between Brazil and France has gained a new impetus with the decision of both Presidents. Jacques Chirac” . Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during a lunch with French and Brazilian business people Paris.

2006. This provides us with an opportunity to resume and consolidate bilateral issues of interest.EUROPE The visit of President Chirac is an opportunity to consolidate a favorable partnership that was launched during my visit to Paris. the Italian-Brazilian community includes nearly 25 million people. The greater area of São Paulo is the largest Italian city outside Italy. More than this. as well as to address those at a regional and international level. Press statement from President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the visit to Brazil of the President of France. we signed an agreement for the construction of a bridge crossing the Oiapoque River. while remaining one hundred percent Brazilian.. (. We have a little Italy in the heart of Brazil. in July 2005.) Today. This agreement has already been approved by the Brazilian National Congress. we are united by family and blood ties. Jacques Chirac . which links the State of Amapá to French Guiana. (…) In 2005. ITALY Brazil and Italy are linked by historical and cultural ties. An important part of our history was written with the help of the Italian immigrants who came here in search of a better future and ended up by “making America”.. France has been an important ally of ours in conducting crucial international issues.Brasilia. Our historical links should facilitate dialogue and cooperation in the 125 . and bolster the physical integration of the whole of South America. The immigrants and their descendents are very proud of their origins. This bridge will help to strengthen our cooperation efforts along the border region. I know we can count on the support of President Chirac for its speedy approval by the French legislature. (…) Brazilians and Italians see the world through the same lenses of their Latin and humanistic heritage. May 25. They fulfilled their dreams and helped to construct Brazil.

“Official visit to Brazil by the President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic. with a view to holding annual meetings to evaluate agreed commitments. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the Joint Declaration to the press during his visit to Italy . PORTUGAL The Heads of Government rejoiced over the excellent relations that exist between their sister nations.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK international scene. (…) What is so striking about the Brazil-Italy relationship are the solid human ties that unite our two people. signed in 2000. Cooperation and Consultation. many of whom hold dual citizenship. illustrated by the fact that there are 25 million Brazilians of Italian origin. 2005. Romano Prodi” .Rome. Romano Prodi. October 17. We share the same conviction that there will never be long-term peace and security until we have a more economically and socially balanced world. was a legal landmark of singular importance for the development of a bilateral 126 .Brasilia. 2007. to set new standards for their bilateral relationship and the coordination of positions on topics of mutual interest on the international agenda. They recognized that the Treaty of Friendship. Press release. March 23. *** President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the President of the Council of Ministers. are expected to reaffirm their commitment to establish a strategic partnership and both agreed to set up Consultation Mechanisms at the highest possible political level.

Trade between both countries exceeded US$ 1. 2006. (…) The partnership between Portugal and Brazil originated with the entrepreneurial spirit of our people and their penchant for solidarity. (…) International activities between Portugal and Brazil are guided by the same set of values. today many Brazilians are helping to forge a modern Portugal.Brasilia. March 8.EUROPE agenda. We have a fundamental commitment and respect for human rights and democracy. We are determined to strengthen multilateralism and promote international law as an instrument towards peace and security. August 9. involving all of the many dimensions that exist in the relationship between Brazil and Portugal.Brasilia. that is to say. during the 7th Brazil-Portugal Summit . The affection with which I have always been greeted Portugal is proof of this. it has doubled in just a few years. *** 127 . João Manuel Durão Barroso. I see with great satisfaction how far we have advanced in our interchange during recent years. *** Portugal and Brazil are united by permanent ties of friendship and history. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the visit to Brazil of the Prime Minister of Portugal.2 billion in 2005. Just like the millions of Portuguese that came to help build the greatness of our country. for the way it works to promote consultation and reconciliation. Joint Declaration from President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the Prime Minister of Portugal. 2004. We have the firm conviction that these ideals are best defended within the ambit of regional processes of integration. José Sócrates .

Press release. in the United Kingdom. it is diversified and modern. Prime Minister Blair and I are determined do unblock multilateral trade negotiations. “State Visit to Portugal of Presidente Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva” . is a top priority of the Governments of Brazil and the United Kingdom. THE UNITED KINGDOM The entrepreneurial nature and affinities of our peoples have provided momentum for a very productive relationship. going beyond its fundamental traditions. (…) I perceive. 2007. Also to be highlighted is the special nature of the strengthening of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPLP). regional and cultural issues. We will also unite forces in the fight 128 .Brasilia. We now have the possibility of joining forces to face the challenges of the modern world in many different areas. The successful completion of the Doha Round. particularly the poorest ones. Our countries have ties and special responsibilities in relation to Africa. and includes political. the potential of which we are only now beginning to tap into. economic. a diplomatic initiative with long-term objectives that also involves the efforts of both countries. in the G-8 and in the multilateral scene will contribute decisively towards the advancement of topics of mutual interest. The exceptional momentum of our present economies offers us many different opportunities. We need to develop mechanisms for trilateral cooperation that will enable the full potential of our joint experiences to be utilized to benefit African countries.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Our bilateral relationship is distinguished by a full agenda. July 9. the same spirit of renovation. during which high-level proposals for a genuine Agenda for Development were put into effect. We trust that the leadership of the United Kingdom in Europe. both on an internal as well as international level.

Nothing better expresses these possibilities than the space cooperation program. March 9. March 7. Joint Declaration by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Prime Minister Tony Bair -London. illicit drug trafficking and transnational criminal activities. the recognition of the ties that exist between development and peace. injustice and exclusion. the promotion of economic growth based on free trade. with renewed optimism and determination. announced during my inaugural speech. its program to use the Alcântara Base to launch commercial satellites. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the State Banquet offered by Queen Elizabeth II London. RUSSIA Your visit (President Putin’s) is the first of a Head of State of the Federation of Russia to our country. human rights and social justice. We are opening new horizons in our relations. With the valuable participation of Russia. to prioritize closer ties between Brazil and Russia. 2006. security. the determination to fight poverty. Today we have the opportunity to fulfill the decision.EUROPE against terrorism. the 129 . *** Our relations are based on common values: the crucial importance of democracy and the rule of law. (…) We agree to strengthen our multiple complementarities and explore the unlimited potential that the scientific ingenuity and technical capacity of our people will use to pave the way for full development. 2006. (…) Perhaps even more importantly. Brazil is resuming.

The Presidents highlighted the importance of cooperation in areas of high technology and the strengthening of bilateral cooperation relations. 2004. Both Presidents underlined that terrorism should not be identified with any nationality. *** The (Presidential) leaders (Lula and Putin) confirmed their firm proposal to promote cooperation between their two countries and with other members of the international community. so that the fight against terrorism should be conducted in a persistent manner and within legal boundaries.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK discussions that I have had with President Putin were an opportunity to reaffirm the values and proposals that unite us. of all different creeds and ethnic origins.Brasilia. the principles and rulings of the United Nations and universally recognized Human Rights. Vladimir Putin . development with justice and the promotion of human rights. Vladimir V. in their desire for freedom and justice. such as peace. *** 130 . region or cultural tradition and that international efforts in this area should be used to defend universal values that have been conquered by all peoples of the world. based on International Law. 2004. November 22. Putin . particularly cooperation that is destined for the peaceful use of outer space (…). the stability of democracy. Joint Declaration on the Outcome of the Official Talks held between President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the President of the Federation of Russia.Brasilia. November 22. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the visit of the President of the Federation of Russia.

I was. This relation was not born today. able to return the visits that leaders of all these countries have made to Brazil. SCANDINAVIAN COUNTRIES During the last week. The successful flight of our cosmonaut. therefore. We are territorial giants with an important influence in our respective continental contexts. Other areas in which we have moved forward are: metrology. in fact. (…) Normally seen as very different countries. We have identified new areas of cooperation. Sweden Denmark and Norway. Colonel Marcos Pontes. 2006. They 131 . in the Russian section of the International Space Station. Brazil and Russia. we are working with the Russian side to improve the Brazilian Satellite Launching Vehicle. Lt. This was the first time that a president of Brazil has officially visited Scandinavia. This trip has strengthened the relationship that Brazil has with a region that is a partner in strategic international negotiations. Interview given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the Interfax Agency . as well as having large. such as nanotechnology. July 13. As I have already said. Russia is a country that carries great weight in the world panorama and exerts a significant role in the political and economic bearings of its region. demonstrated the solid nature of the cooperation that exists between our space programs. food technology and astronomy.Moscow.EUROPE Recent initiatives make science and technology one of the most promising fields to achieve the “technological alliance” that President Putin and I have proposed. earth physics. have expressive similarities in common. ethnically-diverse populations. I have traveled to Finland. biotechnology. microelectronics and information technology. Russia. (…) The Scandinavian countries have always been the source of admiration and inspiration because of their models of social welfare and extremely high rates of human development.

For this reason. we share the same conviction that a robust and representative multilateral system is essential to construct a more united world. 2007 132 . Article President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in the Folha de São Paulo newspaper .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK know that economic prosperity and social justice are the greatest deciding factors for peace and security. September 19.Brasilia. “Brazil-Scandinavia: an ambitious partnership”.

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ASIA FORUM FOR EAST ASIA-LATIN AMERICA COOPERATION (FEALAC) Latin America and East Asia are extensive and diverse regions that need to come to know each other better. 2007. FEALAC can be a valuable instrument to promote closer relations. they nourish our dialogue. they enrich our interchange. In times of high-speed communications and increasingly sophisticated transportation systems. vital to combat hegemonies of any kind. We want these close ties to help create a more democratic and pluralistic world order that recognizes the diversity of societies. On the contrary. Such an excuse is no longer valid. *** We (Ministers of member-states of the Forum for East-Asia-Latin America Cooperation) recognize that FEALAC carries out an import 135 . Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening of the Third Ministerial Meeting at the Forum for EastAsia-Latin America Cooperation (FEALAC) . improve our understanding of the world. Our regions are seeking their place in a new configuration of forces that is emerging at the beginning of this century. This reinforces multi-polarity. August 22.Brasilia. geographical distances are no longer an impediment. We can establish constructive and innovative partnerships if we know how to explore the numerous points of convergence that exist between us. Cultural differences are no longer an obstacle either.

. all of us will always want to sell more than we buy. that is. so as to encourage reciprocal knowledge between the two regions and to produce palpable fruits for our people. prosperity and social inclusion for our peoples. Obviously. but it is important that our trade relation be balanced so that both countries may be happy and satisfied. through personal experience. We have decided to make cooperation our top priority in matters of trade and investment in FEALAC. Forum for East-Asia-Latin America Cooperation. In this regard. We recognize that. CHINA I have always said that our trade relations are a two-way road.August 23. with a view to dialogue and cooperation. (…) We are pleased to see that relations between East Asia and Latin America have evolved. technological and cultural nature. that a good business deal is one that contemplates both parties. All of us know. “Ministerial Declaration from Brasilia” . FEALAC should avoid duplicating the efforts already being carried out. we reaffirm our interest in carrying out joint projects. those who buy and those who sell. 2007. going from a political rapprochement to those that are increasingly invested with an economic. although carrying out an important role that is complimentary to the activities of other forums. I believe that we need to be prepared to buy and to sell because this relationship with 136 . as well as even more significant and substantial relations between our regions. We recognize that the best understanding between FEALAC member-states with respect to matters of mutual interest will be valuable for broaching topics in multilateral forums and particularly to ensure that we are better able to coordinate our convergent opinions. as a powerful means of promoting development.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK role in bringing together countries of very different regions.

Message written by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to President Hu Jintao. definitely. which are: to strengthen our mutual political trust. 2004. May 26. I can assure Your Excellency that the Brazilian Government gives the greatest importance to the harmonious development of ties of friendship that join the Governments and people of the Federative Republic of Brazil and the Popular Republic of China. to promote international cooperation. increase economic-trade interchange so as to obtain reciprocal benefits. with emphasis on coordinating negotiations. *** It is with the greatest satisfaction that I congratulate Your Excellency during the thirtieth anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between our two countries. but also to change unfair rules that currently hold sway over international trade. I believe that China and Brazil only have to gain from an improvement in our relations.. so as to enhance our mutual understanding. seeking to integrate ourselves into international trade and investment currents without giving up our autonomy and power of decision. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the closure of the Brazil-China Seminar: A Successful Partnership” . (…) I am confident that the future holds in store an even greater strengthening of this auspicious partnership between Brazil and China. and to encourage interchange between our respective civil societies. (…) We are both great countries that are in a process of development. based on the four principles that have guided our bilateral relationship.ASIA China is. China.Shanghai. based on dialogue and equality. This is why our strategic alliance is so important – not only to intensify our reciprocal relationship. a strategic relationship. during the 30th anniversary of 137 .

2004. with satisfaction the high level of political understanding that has been reached in relations between Brazil and China.Brasilia. to promote international cooperation. *** 138 . 2004. August 15. of the highest authorities of our countries has enabled us to form and bolster a far-reaching strategic alliance that will serve to increasingly strengthen existing bonds of friendship between the Brazilian people and the people of China. founded on mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity and non-interference in the internal affairs of either parties. the foster the interchange between our respective civil societies.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK the establishment of diplomatic relations between Brazil and the Popular Republic of China . in recent years.Brasilia. so as to enhance mutual understanding. Message sent by Minister Celso Amorim to Chancellor Li Zhaoxing. with emphasis on the coordination of negotiations. The direct involvement. as well as on a common concern to contribute towards promoting peace and solidarity between nations in a multi-polar system and in accordance with the United Nations Charter. guided by four shared principles: to strengthen mutual policies. during the celebration of 30 years of diplomatic relations between Brazil and the Popular Republic of China . August 15. *** I note. to increase our economictrade interchange with a view to achieving reciprocal benefits. (…) A new level of cooperation is evident in our bilateral relations. based on a dialogue between equals.

ASIA Brazil and China have similar geographic extensions and levels of technological and industrial development. there is the perspective of important investments in areas of hydrorailway infrastructure. such as the adaptation to climate change. August 23. “Visit to Brazil of the President of the Popular Republic of China. *** In addition to the expressive growth already seen in bilateral trade. characteristics that also bring them closer in their respective actions and objectives in the context of the International Regime on Climate Change. (…) Amongst the initiatives that are being developed with particular success by both countries. Press release. *** 139 .Brasilia. Mr. as was evident by the meeting held in Brasilia. and cooperation in areas of energy. the largest high technology aerospace cooperation program between two developing countries.CBERS project. Press release. 10th November 10. This convergence of interests also translates into a dialogue that is increasingly closer in a bilateral context. special note is given to the China-Brazil Earth Recourses Satellite . especially in matters of particular interest to developing nations. 2004. which is expected to launch the CBERS 2B satellite and sell to third countries images generated by this system. and the search for joint actions for cooperation in areas of mutual interest.Brasilia. steel. Hu Jintao” . “First Meeting on the Brazil-China Common Agenda on Sustainable Development with Emphasis on Climate Change” . 2004.

China and Brazil maintain a model of horizontal cooperation within an international system marked by inequality.Brasilia. at the Itamaraty Palace (Ministry of External Relations) . This relation gives us the legitimacy to jointly promote an international agenda that favors the equitable distribution of power and of resources in the international scene. 2004. November 12.Brasilia. March 16. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the official dinner offered to the President of China. *** 140 . social justice and respect between societies.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK The strategic Sino-Brazilian alliance is based on the belief that we have interests in common in our search for a multi-polar and pluralistic world. TAIWAN Brazil reiterates its support for the “One-China Policy”. 2004. Only thus will the social and economic development of our people be ensured. We are convinced that it is only through dialogue and cooperation that we can respond to the challenge to promote peace and fight against terrorism. to preserve the environment and guarantee development and the welfare of all. Hu Jintao. The Brazilian Government expresses its support of the policy of peaceful territorial reunification conducted by the Chinese Government. and joins the manifestations of the international community that are contrary to unilateral movements that will alter the status quo and endanger the peace and stability of the region. “Declaration of support for the OneChina Policy . We want to build a world structure that favors understanding. Press Release.

“Final Act of the First Session of the Sino-Brazilian HighLevel Commission for Reconciliation and Cooperation” Brasilia.Visited on July 16. and is opposed to any activity that aims the partition and the increase of tensions in the Straights of Taiwan. in accordance with terms contained in the Joint Communiqué signed in 1974 between both countries. be given diplomatic status. Message on website of Brazil’s Trade Office in Taipei . *** Brazil recognizes the Popular Republic of China as “the single legal Government of China”. Economic and Cultural Offices. They share similar points of view about the international system and aspire to a greater 141 . however. Taiwan is authorized to maintain. which cannot. the Brazilian Government does not recognize Taiwan as an autonomous state. The Brazilian party stated that it is contrary to the admittance of Taiwan into international organizations that only admit sovereign states. the representative of the Taiwan office will not be accredited in Brazil as an Ambassador by the Brazilian Government. (…) Because it shares the PRC principle of “One-China”. (…) In the interests of clarification. The Brazilian party also reiterated its position that Tibet is an inalienable part of the Chinese territory. it is worth remembering that. even though it does not maintain diplomatic relations with Brazil. and in São Paulo. INDIA Brazil and India are developing countries with large territorial areas. Thus. They face similar challenges in economic and social terms. 2006. in Brasilia. March 24. 2007.ASIA The Brazilian party reiterated its commitment to the One-China principle.

As a friend of both India and Pakistan. Yashwant Sinha . Brazil rejoices in the decision taken to make this decisive commitment to reduce tensions in the region. the Ministers stressed the central role played by the United Nations in maintaining international peace and security. While they work towards development and improving their democratic institutions on an internal level. and pave the way for negotiations for both countries to resolve their differences peacefully. *** The Brazilian Government greeted with satisfaction the official announcement on November 25 issued by the Indian and Pakistani Governments. November 27. they also long for democracy to prevail equally in the international order. The Brazilian Government believes that this important decision. Brazil and India wish to develop and strengthen the close cooperation and consultation that they already maintain in international forums. Press release. will help increase mutual confidence between both countries. In this respect. economic and financial decisions. *** 142 . 2003. Based on their common views and desires. Joint Communiqué during the official visit to Brazil of the Minister of External Affairs of India. contribute towards lowering bilateral tensions. “Cease-fire between India and Pakistan” . June 5. 2003.Brasilia. (…) Brazil and India are amongst the largest democracies in the world.Brasilia. They further underlined the need to strictly observe the United Nations Charter and the principles and rules of International Law. concerning the military cease-fire that has come into effect along the Control Line border between India and Pakistan in the area of Kashmir.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK participation in the world’s political. together with other recent measures.

to be held sometime this year. held in Rio de Janeiro. there was an agreement to organize a Week of Indian Culture in Brazil and a Week of Brazilian Culture in India. creating conditions to establish air routes for cargo and passengers. negotiations of the Bilateral Agreement of Airline Services were concluded between Brazil and India. and as was provided for in the Memorandum of Understanding signed on that occasion. Both countries will also cooperate to promote interchange in areas of football and the training of Indian players and coaches. May 5. and reaffirmed that priority should be given to cooperation in areas such as graduate programs. The Agreement – which has been under negotiation ever since the visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to India last January– aims to increase bilateral relations.Brasilia. in 2007. India and Brazil announced that they will soon open Cultural Centers in São Paulo and in New Delhi. research. which will be designed during the first meeting of the Joint Working Group. at the close of the First Aeronautical Consultation Meeting between both countries. during the Mixed Commission Meeting in January 2006. They were pleased to stress the strengthening of relations between the universities of both countries. to link both countries with direct and regular flights in the near future. 2004. *** President Lula and Prime Minister Singh signed the Cooperation Interchange Program in areas of Education. Both sides will also seek to systematically encourage personal contacts and institutional and academic ties. Press release “Conclusion of the Brazil-India Air Agreement” .ASIA Today. professional education and distance learning. In addition. 143 .

September 12. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the act-signing ceremony and declaration to the press. in particular. 2006. Brazil and India are also working side by side in World Trade Organization negotiations. and situations of international security. such as energy security. in view of the need to update the United Nations. (…) Brazil and India are two great democracies in the developing world. in favor of a more balanced and equitable international system. Our corresponding positions are expressed in the partnership that we have built. with many interests and affinities in common regarding their views on great contemporary problems. This will be conducted by India’s National Security Adviser and by the corresponding Brazilian Government authorities. We have reiterated that any reform of the UN will not be complete unless there is also an expansion of the Security Council to include developing countries as its permanent members. We have come to address wealthy countries on an equal footing. Manmohan Singh Brasilia. Out democratic commitment has been reflected also in the positions we have assumed in multilateral forums. distance learning and professional education at graduate level. ethanol”. (…) We have strengthened our ties in areas of research. *** An important result of this meeting was the decision to initiate strategic bilateral discussions on regional and global topics of mutual interest.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Joint Communiqué during the official visit to Brazil of the Prime Minister of India. including the threat of terrorism. In the energy field. above all in the sector of renewable energy sources and. we are determined to promote a close association. 144 . Our joint actions in the creation of the G-20 changed the dynamics of trade negotiations and consolidated the role of developing countries as indispensable interlocutors to advance the Doha Round.

particularly in the area of infrastructure.Brasilia. in the next few years. An area that was identified as being of particular interest is the development of Brazilian and Indian interchange programs so that the culture and traditions of both countries may become better known and appreciated. They both equally welcomed the decision for cooperation that can be applied to the space sector. In this context. comprising representatives of the industry in both countries. Manmohan Singh . *** Both leaders stressed the importance of founding the strategic partnership on a solid economic base. 2006. between January and March 2008. as well as having the objective of reaching the mark of US$ 10 billion in trade e by 2010. they emphasized the importance of simultaneously developing a greater rapprochement between both countries and investments in both economies. they expressed their satisfaction with the launch of the Business Leaders Forum. in compliance with their international obligations. To this end. and the Festival of Indian Culture in Brazil. September 12. Both sides expressed their satisfaction with the development of cooperation in the area of science and technology and expressed their expectation to adopt a cooperation program for the period of 2007-2010. which can contribute towards furthering efforts being made by both countries. (…) Both leaders emphasized the need to hold the First Meeting of the Brazil-India Defense Commission and to develop a cooperation program in matters related to the peaceful use of nuclear energy. They 145 . joint campaigns to encourage bilateral economic-trade relations. Both leaders agreed to launch. Both leaders welcomed the decision to hold the Festival of Brazilian Culture in India.ASIA during the official visit to Brazil of the Prime Minister of India. from July to September 2008.

In this new phase of our historical association. JAPAN We have reasons to again believe in the promise that led the first Japanese immigrants to come to Brazil aboard the Kasato Marú. students. to become the preferential destiny of Japanese business. My visit coincides with a powerful recovery of the economic dynamism in both our countries. Joint Communiqué during the visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to India . June 4. in 1908.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK both supported encouraging the interchange of artists. software and clean energy. but as an efficient producer of value-added goods. Brazil harvests the fruits of this cooperation. youngsters and tourists between both countries. May 26. once more. Today. we want Japan to see Brazil. which have became entwined with the very history of modernization and industrialization in Brazil. 2007. Brazil increasingly wishes to become an exporter of airplanes. *** The Government and people of Brazil nurture great enthusiasm and confidence in our capacity to advance together on different 146 . Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during his visit to the Japanese Parliament .Tokyo.New Delhi. Our optimism is the same as that which led to Japanese investments in Brazil since the 60s. not just as a supplier of raw materials. 2005. We want Brazil to again become a priority landmark for Japanese investments. (…) We want.

we are proud of the fact that Japan boasts the largest world community of (Brazilian) nikkeis (descendants of Japanese immigrants born outside Japan) – 300. to support the reforms needed in the United Nations Security Council. fairer and united international order.7 million people. renewable energy sources and the fostering of sustainable development. 2002. agriculture and health.Brasilia. Message from President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the Prime Minister of Japan. comprising around 1. May 20. serving as a valuable example of discipline and business acumen. For our part. Shinzo Abe .000 people. The Japanese community in Brazil. education. 147 . United by values such as democracy. and should soon initiate cooperation in areas of justice and human rights. 2006. to the welfare and prosperity of Japanese society. I hope that these shared feelings will continue to guide our efforts. alongside India and Germany. EAST TIMOR Diplomatic relations between Brazil and East Timor were established on the same day that independence was celebrated in that country. as well as in new ventures. our nations celebrate a century of Japanese immigration to Brazil. human rights and the peaceful solution to conflicts. In 2008. Brazil and Japan can make important contributions in the construction of a more stable. September 26. considers itself perfectly integrated into national society. Brazil has cooperated with East Timor in areas of defense. in a spirit of peace and hard work. notably in the field of science and technology.who are contributing.ASIA topics that form part of our bilateral agenda.

Brazil nurtures a strong feeling of unity in relation to East Timor and has sought to collaborate to improve the welfare of the population and to strengthen the Timor State. José Ramos-Horta” . “The Situation in East Timor” . April 8. June 22. Brazil values the democratic path followed by East Timor since it became an independent State and will continue to act in favor of its prosperity and institutional stability. so as to provide them with all the assistance that they may require. 2004 *** The Ministry of External Relations is attentive to the evolution of the internal political situation in East Timor and its impact on the security of the local Brazilian community. education. Press release. Brazil has provided bilateral technical cooperation in areas of agriculture. February 13. 2007. legal assistance and health.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Press release.Brasilia. security and the training of manual workers. “Official Visit to Brazil of the Chancellor of East Timor.Brasilia. justice. Press release. Brazil has been providing cooperation in essential areas for the development of the newly-born Timor State. in fields such as education. “Legislative elections in East Timor” Brasilia. 148 . With this objective in mind. 2006. *** East Timor is the only country in Asia and Oceania where Portuguese is the official language. professional training.

São Paulo.London. 149 . particularly in areas such as the monitoring of foreign trade and public finances. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the London Conference on Afghanistan – “Political Perspectives: the Global Pact” . the removal of land mines and electoral assistance. The General Under-Secretariat of Political Affairs now has a department dedicated exclusively to this region. We are ready to share these experiences.ASIA CENTRAL ASIA Itamaraty (Brazilian Ministry of External Relations) is reorganizing itself to support the renewal of our relationship with countries in the Middle East and to establish bridges with Central Asia. 2006. agricultural research. We are ready to offer our cooperation to Afghanistan. (…) Diplomatic relations between Brazil and Afghanistan were re-established by Presidents Lula and Karzai in 2004. AFGHANISTAN Brazil has had the great satisfaction of supporting the last four resolutions taken by the United Nations Security Council on Afghanistan. January 31. 2003. Brazil has carried out a series of programs in areas of human rights. The unity of purpose provided a legitimate framework for international cooperation to the benefit of the Afghan people. article by Minister Celso Amorim in the Valor Econômico newspaper . so as to encourage more dynamic diplomatic activities with a region of the globe that is experiencing important political and economic redefinitions. for equality of gender and race and in the fight against hunger and poverty. December 3. “An agenda of cooperation with the Arab world”. population census.

The trade routes of Central Asia brought together the four corners of the old world. THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA This meeting confirms what we know already: that there is an immense potential to be explored in trade. in 2005. September 27. construction. Our exchanges have been growing in a sustained and balanced way. Korean investments have helped to strengthen important sectors of Brazil’s industrial park. 2007. Kazakhstan today represents a meeting point between peoples and of dialogue between cultures. trade between the two countries exceeded the sum of 3 billion US dollars. along roads traveled by merchants and explorers. ensuring the generation of income and jobs in both countries. (…) Korea is already Brazil’s third largest partner in Asia. explains the decision to open in Astana in 2006 the first resident Brazilian Embassy in Central Asia. telecommunications and transport. As the heir to this tradition. (…) The visit of president Nazarbayev to Brazil is also the first one of a Head of State from Central Asia to a Latin American country. The privileged location of Kazakhstan. in business and in investments between Brazil and South Korea. Nursultan Nazarbayev to Brazil . in the epicenter of Eurasia. (…) We are harvesting the fruits of an association that was initiated with the visit of the first Brazilian trade mission to Kazakhstan.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK KAZAKHSTAN The first visit of a Head of State of Kazakhstan to Brazil represents a historical landmark in the relations between two people who are beginning to know each other better. We are taking this partnership 150 .Brasilia. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the visit of the President of Kazakhstan. In 2004. such as the automobile and electronics industry.

*** My visit to the Republic f Korea completes a cycle that was initiated with the visit of President Roh to Brazil last year. Brazilian and Korean companies are developing strategic associations in the fields of energy and mining. May 24. Korea and Brazil have been responding positively to these challenges. 2005. electro-electronics and clean technology. Brazil supports the great efforts being made by the government of President Roh to reduce tensions in the region. (…) The “Special Partnership for the 21st Century” that we are launching will unite our efforts and resources for research and development in strategic areas such as aerospace. (…) The attention of the international community is turned towards the Korean Peninsula. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the close of the Brazil-Korea Seminar: Trade and Investment Opportunities . The size and importance of the business entourage present at this seminar confirm the decision taken to give a renewed sense to this partnership. Brazil and Korea have powerful complementary characteristics and affinities in common.Seoul. biotechnology. I have come here to reaffirm the commitments that we announced in Brasilia. launched when we established the Comprehensive Relation of Cooperation for Common Prosperity in the 21st Century. We share the same conviction that it will be through dialogue and constructive commitment that the definitive reconciliation of the Korean people will be reached. But I also came to harvest the first fruits of this new partnership. In spite of the distance between us. 151 . We face the same challenge to shape a future with security and prosperity for our people in the midst of uncertainties (created by a system) of globalization without fair rules or unity.ASIA to new frontiers.

The Brazilian Government equally calls on North Korea to adhere to the Treaty for Total Prohibition of Nuclear Tests (TPNT) as soon as possible.Seoul. *** The Brazilian Government exhorts the DPRK to rejoin. the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). dated February 10 of this year. “Announcement by North Kores about the Possesion of Nuclear Weapons” . regarding the decision to suspend their participation in the Six-Way talks. 2005. THE DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF KOREA (DPRK) The Brazilian government learnt of the declaration of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK).Brasilia. Press release. so as to favor solutions that strengthen the stability and confidence of the community of States.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the official dinner offered by the President of the Republic of Korea. May 25. and to strictly observe the moratorium on nuclear tests until the TPNT comes into force. 152 . Roh Moo-Hyun . (…) Brazil reaffirms the conviction that questions relative to international peace and security should be treated by means of negotiation. February 11. in a constructive spirit. 2005. The Brazilian Government regrets the decision announced by North Korea. unconditionally and as a country free of nuclear weapons. as well as the announcement that they possess nuclear weapons and that they intend to pursue their development.

which will celebrate 60 years of diplomatic relations in 2005. particularly in areas such as education. NEW ZEALAND Brazil and New Zealand maintain close coordination in multilateral forums on topics such as the environment and sustainable development (both support the Kyoto Protocol). the two Ministers (Celso Amorim and Alexander Downer) analyzed possible joint initiatives with the objective of strengthening relations between Brazil and Australia. They equally reaffirmed their commitment towards establishing a closer relationship between both countries. 2006. 2006. and increase the rapprochement between the two regional blocs. On the level of trade. which has greatly expanded in recent years. Brazil – Australia Joint Communiqué . as well as disarmament and the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons (both countries are part of the so-called Coalition of the New Agenda) and human rights.ASIA Press release.Brasilia. January 14.Brasilia. OCEANIA AUSTRALIA At the working meeting. October 9. (Both Chancellors) Expressed their support for efforts being made to activate Mercosur and CER – Closer Economic Relations between Australia and New Zealand. (…) Special attention was dedicated to increasing the level of contacts between citizens (of both countries). to hold constructive talks. “Announcement of nuclear tests in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea” . Brazil and New Zealand are part of the Group of 153 .

Press release. “Visit of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of New Zealand. February 27. which aims to put an end to the practices that distort international trade of agricultural products and to promote liberalization in this area. Both countries have sought ways to increase bilateral trade. Phil Goff ” Brasilia. 2004. New Zealand shares a commitment with Brazil for the re-launching of the Doha Round. 154 . and are determined to fly high in matters related to agriculture.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Cairns.

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Trilateral Meeting of the Foreign Ministers of Brazil. They decided to maintain regular political consultation on items on the international agenda. *** Ever since it was created. Even the political-diplomatic concertation on very different topics – whether the Doha Round. (…) The Ministers decided to call this group the “India. whenever necessary. so as to coordinate their positions on matters of common interest. Brazil and South Africa Dialogue Forum” (IBSA) Declaration of Brasilia. BRAZIL AND SOUTH AFRICA DIALOGUE FORUM (IBSA) This consists of a pioneering coming together of three countries with vibrant democracies in three regions in the world that are in the process of development and active on a global scale. IBSA has been notable for its pragmatism. (…) The Ministers will recommend to their respective Heads of State and/or Government that a Summit meeting be held between the three countries. so as to organize meetings of high-level officials and specialists responsible for questions of mutual interest. with the objective of examining themes on the international agenda that are of mutual interest. the promotion of peace and security or 157 . South Africa and India Brasilia.INDIA. as well as an exchange of information on questions of mutual cooperation. the importance and need for talks between countries and nations in development in the South have been noted. They have also decided to further intensify dialogue on all levels. During recent years. June 6. 2003.

*** IBSA is much more than just a diplomatic edifice. We are fully consolidated democracies that give an example of how the various ethnic groups and cultures that form our 158 . The IBSA Fund to Combat Hunger and Poverty wants to be an example of how relatively less development countries can benefit from the experiences of other developing countries. between three great multicultural and multiracial democracies of Asia. September 13. South America and Africa. Press release. It is also a concrete expression of the objectives shared by Brazil. India and South Africa. IBSA invests in the solidarity between countries of the South. It is a natural expression of particular views on great international issues. and contributes by projecting trilateral India-Brazil-South Africa cooperation in particular sectors.Rio de Janeiro.Brasilia. 2006. March 30. Even though it was not created by countries belonging to the traditional circuit of international donors. 2006. the IBSA Dialogue Forum carries out a role that is increasingly important to the foreign policies of India. Brazil and South Africa Dialogue Forum (IBSA)” .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK the fight against hunger and poverty – is directed towards obtaining concrete advances. It has become a useful instrument to promote even closer coordination on global issues. “IBSA Summit Meeting” . Press release. “Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening ceremony of the Ministerial Meeting of the India. *** Created in 2003. Brazil and South Africa.

BRAZIL AND SOUTH AFRICA DIALOGUE FORUM (IBSA) societies can co-exist in harmony. (…) What we want. 2006. Together. India. This does not mean that Brazil will neglect its relations with the developed world. destined to have an ever more relevant international presence. South Africa and Brazil can also offer a decisive contribution towards creating a more just.INDIA. with IBSA and other initiatives. These two sides of our foreign policy should not be seen as “no-win games”. we created the G-20. united and balanced international order. September 13. Latin America and Asia – further highlights the role that falls to the South in the principal international debates and decisions. They are complimentary. We defend multilateralism and an international order based on the rule of law and on the construction of consensus. is to take better advantage of previously unexplored South-South cooperation opportunities. We are countries that are also still facing the challenge of fighting extreme hunger and attaining sustainable development. we are working together to reform the United Nations. We are determined to move forward to construct societies that are fairer and more prosperous by means of responsible economic policies and an unrelenting commitment to improve the living conditions of our more vulnerable populations. We agree that the protection of the environment is an 159 .Brasilia. We are emerging economies. Our capacity for positive influence in our respective regions – Africa. first and foremost. with which we have a significant identification. one bolsters the other. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening session of the First IBSA Summit . We favor a reform of the United Nations Security Council to include developing countries amongst its permanent members. a mechanism of political deliberation on major topics on the international agenda. *** IBSA is.

We are developing countries that are joining forces to 160 . full of injustices and inequalities. It shows that developing countries can have a highly qualified international presence. science and technology. In the Doha Round. which Brazil had the honor to host. This is a concrete new proposal for international solidarity. accelerated the process and showed the certainty of our initiative. energy and transport. our alliance has attracted curiosity and faced skepticism. it has given rise to hope. our activities in the G-20 give absolute priority to (achieving) effective cuts in the agricultural subsidies in developed countries. article by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in the Valor Econômico newspaper . We formed a dialogue forum that ensures that our countries have an even more relevant presence in this world. We are convinced that it is necessary to achieve a balance between intellectual property protection rights and public health policies. amongst others. (…) The IBSA Fund to Fight Hunger and Poverty is a cause for pride. IBSA has shown its ability as an interlocutor in various issues on the global agenda. our diplomatic presence and our capacity to contribute towards the construction of a fairer and more democratic international order. During this Summit. This reflects our credibility. The first Summit.São Paulo. we will seek to move forward in trilateral understandings in these areas. *** Ever since it was created. trade. September 15. “The India-Brazil-South Africa South Alliance”.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK indissoluble part of the fight against poverty and of economic development. But. in 2003. above all. But IBSA is more than an instrument that strengthens the voice of developing countries in major world debates. 2006. It is also a privileged instrument for concrete trilateral cooperation initiatives in areas such as agriculture. IBSA expanded its activities and established itself as an instrument to bring our three countries closer together.

Initiatives are presently under study that will benefit Burundi and other poor countries in Africa. 2007. October 17. We have proved that it is not necessary to be wealthy to be united. BRAZIL AND SOUTH AFRICA DIALOGUE FORUM (IBSA) help the poorer ones. Asia and Latin America. 161 . Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening ceremony of the Second IBSA Summit Johannesburg. It was with justifiable satisfaction that we received the United Nations prize for projects developed by IBSA in Haiti and Guinea-Bissau.INDIA.

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AFRICA – OVERVIEW With 76 million Afro-descendents, we are the second largest Negro nation in the world, only behind Nigeria. I am personally committed to reflect this reality in our national and international actions. We have a political, moral and traditional commitment with Africa, and with those Brazilians who are descended from Africans. And we will honor this commitment. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the Special Session of the 61st International Conference on Labor - Geneva, June 2, 2003. *** Africa is an indispensable reference in the background of our people and of our culture. And it is also much more than this. It is a Continent which, like Brazil, yearns and fights for liberty, social justice, democracy and development. We have much to learn from one another; we have much to give each other. We have experiences to share. We have innumerable material, spiritual and symbolic riches to exchange. And I am sure that we are going to do this, more and more. I would like to leave here a message of great optimism in relation to the future of our friendship. The path between Africa and Brazil has in the past been a path of slavery. Let this route now be used to offer prosperity and happiness to the Brazilian people and to the African people.
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Radio message sent to Africa by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva - Brasilia, August 8, 2003. *** We know that Brazilian society was constructed with the work, with the efforts, with the sweat and blood of a great number of Africans; men and women who were free citizens in Africa and who became slaves, so as to provide labor in my own and other countries. The most appropriate means to return the sacrifice that Africans made is to establish the most perfect policy of harmony with Africa. (…) And this relationship that Brazil aims to maintain with countries in Africa is not the relationship of an imperialist country with hegemonic tendencies. We have tired of this; we were colonized, and we have already freed ourselves from hegemony. We now want partnerships, we want companionship, and we want to work arm in arm, to construct an equitable international policy, for multilateral democratic organisms and to ensure that we have equal opportunities. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the official dinner offered by the President of Mozambique, Joaquim Chissano - Maputo, November 5, 2003. *** Brazil has a debt with Africa. A debt that recognizes the contribution that millions of Africans made, in conditions of suffering and oppression, towards the construction of Brazil. We feel part of the African Continent’s renewed commitment to take into its own hands the responsibility to find answers to its problems. Speech given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the official dinner offered by President
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Thabo Mbeki of South Africa - Pretoria, November 8, 2003. *** We feel a special urgency in helping Africa in the fight against the dramatic cycle of poverty, violence and fatalism. We are modernizing systems of information and communication (in the country) and transferring technology and capital, so that the African Continent can compete in a increasingly globalized world. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the 5th Conference of Heads of State and Government, to present an account of the Brazilian Presidency of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries São Tomé, July 26, 2004. *** Brazil owes much to the African people. Free men and women, from this Continent, were enslaved and sold to the Americas. And there, with their suffering and labor, they helped build my country. But now it is pointless to simply cry about what happed in the past; we need to think about constructing the future. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the visit to the home of Chachá de Souza - Ouidah, Benin, February 10, 2006. *** My Government accepted, with great honor, the invitation to be the seat to the second part of this Conference (CIAD II). This forum of
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dialogue between African countries and communities of African descendents in the world is part of an indispensable bond of mutual discovery. Today, we face the challenge of identifying forms of (providing) reciprocal support and ways through which African culture can be valued in a globalized world. Brazil is committed to this task. During the last three and a half years, I have visited 17 African countries and stressed Brazil’s diplomatic presence on the African Continent. We have expanded and enhanced our cooperation programs in sectors of particular social interest, such as health, agriculture and education. A deep sense of identity and solidarity links Brazilians to the African people. We have a strong awareness of the contribution that Africa made to Brazil. We therefore want to help this Continent to fulfill its enormous potentiality. Brazil is not just a country of the African Diaspora. Brazil is also an African country, the second largest Negro nation in the world. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the official dinner for Heads of State and Government and Vice-Presidents, who participated in the Second Conference of Intellectuals from Africa and the Diaspora - Salvador, Bahia, July 11, 2006.

AFRICA-SOUTH AMERICA SUMMIT (AFSA) When I was here in 2005, President Obasanjo suggested the idea of an Africa-South America Summit. With the vision of a statesman, he perceived the potential for cooperation and solidarity between our two regions. (...) In our international activities, we have also made a long journey in common with African nations. At the United Nations, we defend the principle of de-colonization and the repudiation of apartheid. We were alongside our African partners in the process to create UNCTAD (United Nations Commission on
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Trade and Development). We suffered together during the periods of recession and disorder in the world economy, as well as from the perverse effects of protectionism practiced by wealthy countries. We joined our voices for a more just and equitable international economic order. Today, Africa is unarguably a priority for Brazil. Geology taught us that, millions of years ago, Africa and South America were joined in one great continent. Who has not wondered at how maps show the Northeast of Brazil and the Gulf of Guinea fitting together almost perfectly? The new geography that we are constructing will not move the planet’s tectonic plaques, to recreate that lost continual land mass, but it will certainly help to transform the reality of international politics and economics, bringing us politically, economically, socially and culturally closer together. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the opening of the Africa-South America Summit (AFSA) - Abuja, Nigeria, November 30, 2006.

THE AFRICAN UNION Brazilian talks with the African Union have seen a significant advance during the term of the President of the Commission, Alpha Konaré, especially since the reopening of the Brazilian Embassy in Ethiopia in 2005. The renewed cooperation between Brazil and the African Union was reflected in the organization of two important events last year: the Second Conference of Intellectuals from Africa and the Diaspora (CIAD II, in Salvador, July/2006) and the First Africa-South America Summit (AFSA, in Abuja, Nigeria, November/2006). During this visit, the Basic Technical Cooperation Agreement should be signed between Brazil and the African Union, the first legal instrument to be signed with that organization. This Agreement establishes a legal framework for the development of technical cooperation programs
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May 25. This without prejudicing redoubled efforts in areas such as agribusiness. the environment and energy. etc. SOUTH AFRICA South Africa has reached a level of development that permits us to explore cooperation opportunities. Press release. such as in the automobile. Alpha Konaré” Brasilia. aircraft and metallurgic sectors. February 27. the results of which I have already been able to see for myself. *** South Africa deserves our admiration for its role in launching and promoting the African Union and its working instrument. trade. 170 . We hope that our association can represent a contribution from Brazil towards the objectives of NEPAD. “Visit to Brazil of the President of the Commission of the African Union. with the possibility of establishing joint ventures.São Paulo.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK in areas of mutual interest. such as agriculture. education. article by Minister Celso Amorim in the Folha de S. 2003. the New Partnership for Africa’s Development – NEPAD. (…) There is a compatibility of views in relation to the international scene which makes us natural allies in the defense of political. “Brazil and the rebirth of Africa”. environment interests. health. as I found from my contacts with President Mbeki and Foreign Minister Zuma. (…) The political leadership and economic vigor of South Africa are forging an “African Renaissance” in Southern Africa.Paulo newspaper . 2007. where complementarities are proven to exist.

(…) While emphasizing their confidence in the benefits of international trade growth. both Presidents stressed the special meaning of the great cultural affinity that is a result of the contribution made by Africa towards the development of modern Brazil. investments and technological cooperation. was also discussed during these talks. the Brazilian President congratulated his South African colleague on the success of the political transition of South Africa and. The Presidents equally agreed to increment cooperation related to measures to fight various epidemics that afflict both countries in areas such as HIV/AIDS. both countries agreed to intensify trade. of South Africa . *** The two Presidents (Lula and Mbeki) discussed the economic. on the successful work carried out by the Commission of Reconciliation and Truth. malaria and dengue. President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva reaffirmed Brazil’s readiness to draw closer in its relations with Africa and. The Presidents also recognized the success of the first BrazilAfrica Forum. concluded in March 2003. the Presidents indicated that it was unacceptable that developing countries should be subject to the protectionist practices imposed by developed countries. (…) Furthermore. Cooperation in science and technology. November 8.AFRICA Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the official dinner offered by President Thabo Mbeki. in this respect.Pretoria. and welcomed the fact that this will become an annual event. especially. The Parties undertook a commitment to mutually cooperate in the fight against discrimination and to promote racial equality. In this respect. 2003. political and social situation of their countries. which greatly helped to heal the open wounds left from the apartheid period. held in Fortaleza in June 2003. as well as in defense. water-related diseases. They welcomed the present trade negotiations between the Southern African Development 171 .

which Nigeria proposed to host. Another important topic for both countries is the Africa-South America Summit (AFRAS). defense and health are considered. 2003. in areas such as agribusiness. Petrobrás .the Brazilian Petroleum Corporation .Pretoria. Press release. to Brazil” .has shown interest in expanding its activities in Nigeria.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Community (SADC) and Mercosur with the view to creating a free trade zone. The bilateral trade balance amounted to US$ 4 billion dollars and there is room for additional growth. September 6. Joint Communiqué during the visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to South Africa . Brazil and Nigeria share a vast field of common interests. Nigeria is one of Africa’s largest oil producers and the most important supplier of the product to Brazil.Brasilia. *** Brazil and Nigeria have developed an intense agenda of cooperation. in which such topics as agriculture. “Visit of the President of Nigeria. November 7-8. as well as those that involve the fight against the HIV/AIDS virus. during November of this year. Olusegun Obasanjo. in Abuja. Contacts between Nigerian and Brazilian economic operators have enabled respective export guidelines to diversify. 2005. services and hydro-carbonates. including their readiness to make the international community more sensitive to the importance of fighting 172 . NIGERIA Nigeria is one of Brazil’s most important Atlantic partners.

we have sought to translate the natural affinities and solidarity that we nurture for the people of each one of the member countries into diversified projects. We are eight countries. Today. 2006. COMMUNITY OF PORTUGUESE-SPEAKING COUNTRIES (CPLP) During our presidency of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries.AFRICA hunger and poverty and to promote sustainable development. Press release. “Diplomacy in the Lula Government” lecture given by Minister Celso Amorim at the Rio Branco Institute (the Brazilian Diplomatic Academy). both countries maintain an intense and fruitful working relationship in multilateral forums.Brasilia. April 10. Oluyemi Adeniji” . *** The Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries is more than a place for confraternity between brotherly societies. capable of reacting swiftly in situations of crises. (…) Our Community is united by values and principles that are borne of a 173 . It is an initiative of great strategic value. . especially the United Nations. On a political level. June 13. 2003.Brasilia. (…) The CPLP has been gaining voice and an international personality. with a population of 230 million inhabitants committed to democracy and social justice. with a range of action that covers four continents. “Visit to Brazil of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Nigeria. it is a mature organization. It enjoys the prestige of an institution that has a vocation for avoiding conflicts and tensions.

There are many examples of this. created by the India-Brazil-South Africa Dialogue Forum(IBSA).BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK common linguistic experience that we wish to preserve and to propagate. we are setting up a center for Professional Training in Cidade de Praia. we inaugurated a Center of Excellence for Business Development in Luanda. Article by Minister Celso Amorim in the ViaABC. in Cape Verde.CPLP . In Angola. In partnership with the National Service for Industrial Learning . I welcome the coming into force of the Orthographic Agreement of the Portuguese Language. *** Traditional Brazilian cooperation within the ambit of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries is also worth mentioning. 174 .SENAI. Strengthening the International Institute of the Portuguese Language. we are implementing a project to support the development of agriculture and livestock.June 2006. 2004. financed by the Fund to Combat Hunger and Poverty. July 26. “Cooperation as an Instrument of Brazilian Foreign Policy”. in July 2005. In Guinea-Bissau. the seed of the CPLP.São Tomé. was considered to be a priority during the term of the Brazilian Presidency. a publication produced by the Brazilian Cooperation Agency . which will make our dialogue even more agile and franker. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the 5th Conference of Heads of State and Government of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries . This initiative is the first activity of its kind undertaken by IBSA and represents a practical demonstration of the vitality of SouthSouth cooperation.

Angola is still the destination of a considerable amount of Brazilian foreign investments. A strong and prosperous Angola could be the powerhouse for a whole region. *** I feel at home in this country. to see up close the progress that has been made as a result of our association. The development of Angola will also be reflected in benefits to Brazil. 2003. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the opening of the Brazil-Angola Ministerial Meeting . Angola and Brazil are preparing to consolidate and strengthen their cooperation. Angola is the third largest African country to supply products to Brazil and the fourth largest importer of Brazilian goods in Africa. Brazilian financing made it possible to construct the Capanda Hydroelectric plant. is a diplomatic priority of ours. This is why our relations are happening in a context of spontaneous affinities and reciprocal solidarity. the most 175 .Luanda. I now return at the beginning of my second term of office. This country is today the principal beneficiary of Brazilian cooperation in technical assistance programs.AFRICA ANGOLA Partners over a long period of time. one of the cradles of our nation. Brazil was the first country to recognize Angola’s independence in 1975. and vice-versa. trade between us has grown almost fivefold. (…) Since my last visit. I came to Angola during my first visit to Africa. These circumstances explain why Angola. and can also count on a Brazilian Government credit system. with annual Angolan exports reaching the sum of US$) 460 million. November 3. ever since its independence. which has functioned in an efficient manner. We look forward to a future of peace. democracy and social and economic development.

These projects will help Mozambique to develop the technical capacity to respond to the challenges of sustainable development. sports. Brazil is doubling its efforts to meet this challenge. above all because we believe in Mozambique.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK important infrastructure project in the country.) The “Rebirth of Angola” will serve as an example and inspiration to other nations on the Continent of Africa who seek political stability and economic and social development. October 18.Luanda. agriculture.. Today.. we signed the agreement which consolidates a Brazilian commitment to reduce Mozambique’s debt with Brazil. MOZAMBIQUE The international community has begun to discover what Brazil has always known: the enormous potential of Mozambique and its people. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the solemn opening session of the bilateral meeting with the President of Angola. wants to get involved in the exploitation of coal in Moatize and in the social development of the Zambezi Valley. (. more than ever. This country has definitively become a route for great investments. the environment and public administration. With the same confidence. For these reasons. we are reinvigorating cooperation programs in the areas of education. 2007. We believe in the potential of these projects. Our lines of credit have helped to modernize the country. with financial support from the National Bank for Social and Economic Development – BNDES. Toast given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the luncheon in honor of the President of 176 . José Eduardo dos Santos . The Vale do Rio Doce Company.

2004. GUINEA-BISSAU The Brazilian Government has watched with attention the electoral process in Guinea-Bissau. of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPLP). Brazil has maintained a resident Embassy in Rabat. including technical cooperation projects in areas of health and professional training. as well as the priority shown by Brazil towards Africa in recent years. to whom we are linked by cultural. MOROCCO Relations between Brazil and Morocco are notable for their good political understanding.Brasilia.(…) Brazil’s support to the elections in Guinea-Bissau is part of a series of Brazilian Government initiatives in favor of political consolidation to recover the Country’s economic development. the King of Morocco and Foreign Minister Benaïssa visited Brazil. August 31. political and friendship ties. a member country. and agriculture and livestock development projects within the ambit of the India-Brazil-South Africa (IBSA) Forum Press release. like Brazil. June 17. In 2004. “Brazilian support in the presidential election in Guinea-Bissau” . 2005. The exchange of visits reflects the willingness of Morocco to seek a greater proximity with South America. The Moroccan Embassy in Brazil was established in 1967. Since 1963. cooperation to restructure the Armed Forces. The positions of both countries are convergent in various international 177 . Joaquim Chissano . and Chancellor Celso Amorim visited the Moroccan capital in March 2005.AFRICA Mozambique.Brasilia.

January 19. “Official visit to Brazil of the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of Morocco. 2004. in addition to having promoted the preparatory meeting of the first event. Mohammed VI . Joint Communiqué of the visit to Brazil by the King of Morocco. March 8. has also offered to be the host to the second meeting of the Forum Summit in 2008. Since the very beginning. Morocco has supported the initiative of the South American and Arab Countries Summit (held in Brasilia in May 2005) and. Press release. 178 .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK matters. Mohamed Benaïssa” . President Lula reiterated the Brazilian support for the decisions of the United Nations Security Council to reach a negotiated political settlement. in Marrakech.Brasilia. Press release.Brasilia. by means of dialogue between the parties involved in the dispute. WESTERN SAHARA Brazil expressed the expectation of the continuity of the measures to construct trust between the Kingdom of Morocco and the Polisario Front. 2004. *** With regard to the situation in Western Sahara. “The Situation in Western Sahara” Brasilia. November 26. which will enable peace negotiations to be unlocked and result in the definitive resolution of conflict in the region. 2006.

financing and exports.. by mobilizing the capacities of both countries. electronic government. (…) Both Presidents rejoiced in the decision taken by their Governments to promote regular. February 9. advanced technology and skilled labor. To this end.Algiers.AFRICA ALGERIA The two Presidents (Lula and Abdelaziz Bouteflika] underlined (. Joint Communiqué during the State Visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to Algeria .) that the closeness and diversification of bilateral relations require the qualitative promotion of exchanges. 2006. THE SUDAN– DARFUR The Brazilian Government recognizes the complexity of the crisis in Darfur and the urgent need for a political solution to be reached. health. parallel to efforts being made to increase international aid to overcome 179 .. which will allow for the continuity of mutually beneficial consultation work maintained by both countries when they were non-permanent members of the United Nations Security Council in the biennium 2004-2005. support to micro and small businesses. notably in areas related to privatization. political consultation within the framework of the Memorandum of Understanding signed by both Ministries of External Relations in 2005. agriculture and technical cooperation. they stressed that real opportunities for cooperation and interchange exist in areas of energy. (…) Presidents Abdelaziz Bouteflika and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva reiterated their support to the efforts carried out within the ambit of the United Nations to obtain a solution to the question of Western Sahara in accordance with international rules and based on the pertinent resolution of the General Assembly of the United Nations Security Council.

contribute towards the pacification of Darfur. Press release.Brasilia. 2004. and. Brazil supports the efforts of the Secretary General of the United Nations with a view to alleviating the humanitarian crisis (in the country) and to ensure the safety of the population of Darfur. In this respect. “Situation in Darfur – Sudan “ . the Brazilian Governments hopes that both parties resolve their disputes by pacific and negotiated means and exhorts the Darfur rebels to renew negotiations with the Government of Khartoum.the humanitarian crisis affecting the country. . in this way. July 28. Brazil believes that the Security Council should support the efforts of the African Union. which has undertaken the task of monitoring the cease-fire.

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the protection of cultural diversity and the preservation of national and regional traits. Arab Countries and Brazil have profound historical and cultural ties. because of the powerful influence 183 . the right to development and to the use of national natural resources. The adaptation of immigrants to the conditions of the country that gave them shelter equals the ability of the Brazilian people to impregnate themselves with their values and customs.THE MIDDLE EAST We are linked to Arab counties as much by Brazil’s Iberian roots. Press release. On a political level. the value attributed to the sovereignty of States and the self-determination of people. 2003. as by the important immigration originating in Lebanon and Syria. They contribute. These are bonds that we are proud of. “Visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to Arab Countries” . common values have developed during the course of time.Brasilia. the need to respect international Law and to strengthen world order. *** It is an honor to speak as the first head of the Brazilian State to visit this noble institution. They explain the cordiality and respect in the way we relate to one another. strongly influenced by an Islamic presence. This is an example of a beneficial form of integration into Brazilian nationality. nowadays. towards forging new commonalities between Brazil and Arab countries: the search for long-term peace. December 2. The rich heritage of the Arab-Islamic civilization was present in the primordial origins of Brazil.

This is a significant step so that Brazil may . cultural cooperation. the Summit will also include in its agenda such topics as economic and trade cooperation. The admittance of Brazil as an observer to the Arab League – which we proudly greeted – is a sign that this process has begun. Egypt. These men and women gave a decisive contribution to the formation of the Brazilian identity. SOUTH AMERICAN AND ARAB COUNTRIES SUMMIT (SAAC) The fundamental proposal of the Summit is to promote mechanisms of bi-regional proximity within the ambit of South-South cooperation and to encourage cooperation between two regions with historical affinities. In addition to the bi-regional political dialogue. Political will is needed to move forward and expand our proximity. 2003. thousands of Arab immigrants disembarked on Brazilian soil seeking a new life. remain abreast of the positions of the Arab World on the most important topics on the international agenda. on a regular basis. December 9. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during his visit to the headquarters of the League of Arab States -Cairo. as well as to our economic and social development and the enrichment of our culture. scientific-technological cooperation.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK it had on the Iberian Peninsula. Mercosur and the Arab World boast enormous markets. our dialogue. coordination in multilateral 184 . (…) Brazil. with populations of 210 million and 200 million inhabitants. from where our Portuguese colonizers came. The more than 10 million Brazilian descendants of these immigrants that today live in my country maintained their connections with their original civilization. which face similar challenges in relation to the promotion of development. respectively. Later.

they expressed their appreciation for the positive role carried out by the citizens of South America of Arab descent in promoting biregional relations. “Preparation of the South American and Arab Countries Summit” . 2005. 2005. Opening Statement by Minster Celso Amorim at the Meeting of Foreign Ministers of South America and Arab Countries . of fine arts. Press release. of the cinema. on attendance are our artists. They reaffirmed the growing importance of culture as a bridge of integration between their people and as an 185 . that was very clearly expressed in the Iberian Peninsula. On attendance are our businessmen and women.THE MIDDLE EAST economic and trade forums and collaboration in social and development issues. May 9. *** I believe that this is the main meaning of this Summit: that we are capable of looking at ourselves directly. *** They (the Heads of State and Government of South American and Arab countries) emphasized the importance of cultural interaction between their societies for the enrichment of Civilization and recognize that the South America and Arab Countries Summit constitutes an opportunity to strengthen the mutual understanding between the people of both regions and their cultures. of dance. developing our maritime connections.Brasilia. in the years that our Arab brothers were also there. all this in addition to the philosophy of tolerance that has already served to greatly inspire us. of music.Brasilia. In this regard. developing our air connections. March 21.

defended. September 14. As Your Excellency knows. we value our relations with Israel. 2007. THE PALESTINE QUESTION Brazil has historically. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the Seminar for Peace and Reconciliation . supported by the Basic Law of Palestine. to overcome the present political crisis. co-existing in peace with Israel. to preserve existing institutions and to put an end to the suffering that afflicts the population in the Occupied Territories of Palestine. The creation of a 186 . 2005. I have given special importance to the relations with the Palestine National Authority. safe.Brasilia.Oslo. We are in a singular position to dialogue with both sides. the first Summit of Arab and South American countries was held in Brasilia. the realization of the legitimate aspirations of the Palestine people for a united. signed by the countries taking part in the South American and Arab Countries Summit .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK economic activity that provides a boost for development and mutual cooperation. Brazil has strengthened its relations with the Arab world. I have been able to appreciate the attempts made by Your Excellency. It was the first Latin American country to be given the status of an observer by the Arab League. At the same time. and in particular during my Government. *** In recent years. Declaration of Brasilia. (…) In May 2005. The Brazilian Government appointed a special envoy for Middle Eastern affairs. democratically and economically viable State. May 11.

in 2005. (…) Brazil’s multilateral actions have sought to favor peace negotiations and condemn actions that result in greater suffering for the Palestinian people. and the frequent visits of Brazilian authorities to the Occupied Territories. in one form or another. From a Brazilian viewpoint. (…) It would be worth considering widening the international dimension of the process. of all the relevant players involved in the process. at the last General Assembly of the United Nation I raised the idea of summoning an international conference on the situation in the Middle East. under the auspices of the United Nations. including the visit of the Minister of External Relations. I firmly believe that the initiatives of the international community will benefit from the formation of a group of countries. to promote dialogue and peace. (…) Brazil understands that this matter transcends its regional dimension and directly affects several of the major problems confronting the international community. With this intention in mind.THE MIDDLE EAST Representation Office in Brazil and in Ramallah. including developing countries. I express to Your Excellency the genuine willingness of the Brazilian Government to take part in a “Group of Friends for Peace in the Middle East”. especially in the Gaza Strip. and would serve to add to the efforts being made by the players already directly involved. In the event that such a proposal should be considered useful. demonstrates the priority that Brazil gives to its relationship with the people and Government of Palestine. Its balanced. which could involve other countries outside the region. we believe that peace will only be sustained with the involvement. to be formed by 187 . In addition. representing different regions. fair and ultimate settlement could represent the beginning of a powerful new cycle that can positively affect the outcome of other situations of conflict. the far-reaching and determined involvement of the international community is an appropriate way that will enable the peace process in the Middle East to be conducted under good terms. these should have a conciliatory profile and with a credibility that is recognized internationally.

with the participation of countries from the region. Russia). There will never be long-lasting peace in the Middle East without a permanent solution for this division. with a view to ensuring that the path of dialogue. as well as to the QUARTET Committee for the Middle East (United States. not confrontation. our willingness to participate more actively in international efforts with a view to establishing peace. and delivered to him in Ramallah. on August 21. We have to involve more countries in this process. (…) As we know. President Lula suggested the possibility of convoking a large-scale Conference. Unfortunately. We need new ideas and renewed proposals. Europe. is followed. (…) Last August. *** The conflict between Israelis and Palestinians represents an open wound in the world today. Unilateral initiatives are not the answer. Maybe the time has come to discuss this proposal more carefully. a well as other nations. The international community as a whole has the obligation to work with the parties involved. We express to both parties. (…) Brazil wishes to expand its contribution towards peace in the Middle East. Ideally. no solution at all has been reached until now. including developing countries.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK countries with the aforementioned characteristics. Letter from President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva addressed to the President of the Palestine National Authority (PNA). matters involving the Middle East have always been treated exclusively by the great powers. during his speech at the General Assembly of the United Nations. Last year. under the auspices of the United Nations. in a letter addressed to the Palestinian President 188 . Mahmoud Abbas. the Group will be coordinated by the Secretary General of the United Nations. 2007. United Nations. in addition to the countries directly involved.

Prime Minister Ehud Olmert made an official visit to Brazil in March 2005. Luiz Fernando Furlan. During the last two years of the first term of the Lula Government. President Lula raised the matter and suggested that – ideally – this Group of Friends should be coordinated by the Secretary General of the United Nations. Brazilian exports to that country grew 26.Oslo. September 14. Jacques Wagner. Perhaps a bit of fresh air will benefit the peace process. ISRAEL Under the Lula da Silva Administration. and the Minister of Education. This Group could be formed by interested countries that have a constructive profile of consensus. Recently. four Ministers of State visited Israel. the Minister of Development. international credibility and good relations with all parties. On the part of Israel. relations with the Arab World have been intensified without damaging the good relationship that exists with the State of Israel. In fact.THE MIDDLE EAST Mahmoud Abbas. the Minister of Institutional Relations. there has likewise been a growing dynamism in the relations between Brazil and Israel. Celso Amorim. 58%. Industry and Foreign Trade. the Minister of External Relations. when he was Minster of Industry. during the course of this Government. as can be verified by the successive records obtained in the exchange of trade and by the increase in the number of visits of authorities at the highest level. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the Seminar for Peace and Reconciliation . agreements relative to bilateral cooperation have 189 . Fernando Haddad. There are good prospects for intensifying the institutional framework of Brazil-Israel bilateral exchanges in the most diverse areas. 2007. Employment and Trade.

or are in the final stages of negotiations. irrigation and the fight against drought and desertification. 190 . industrial policy and in fostering cutting-edge technology. traditionally marked by strong ties of friendship and cooperation. 2007. Ambassador Sarkis Karmirian.Brasilia. with meetings already held in Brasilia and Jerusalem. a Memorandum of Understanding will be signed to establish mechanisms for annual political consultations between the Foreign Ministers of both countries. “The Visit of Minister Celso Amorim to Israel” . 2005. Brazil was Israel’s second largest trade partner in the Americas. at the Brazilian Military Academy (Escola Superior de Guerra) . education. a framework agreement was signed with a view to creating a free trade area between Mercosur and Israel. the peaceful use of outer space. June 15.Rio de Janeiro.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK been signed. In December 2005. *** Relations between Brazil and Israel. Brazil and Israel further maintain cooperation initiatives in areas such as civil and military aviation. Press release. Lecture given by the Director of the Department of the Middle East and Central Asia. During this visit. in agriculture. have been strengthened during the last two years by a significant increase in bilateral trade exchange Two-way trade increased from US$ 505 million in 2003 to US$ 715 million in 2004 an increment of more that 40% in one year. Last year. May 27. mechanisms were created for annual political consultations between the Foreign Ministers of both countries. health. In May 2005. The visit of Minister Celso Amorim to Israel will be the first of a Brazilian Foreign Minister to that country in the last ten years and will constitute an opportunity to examine initiatives and new cooperation projects.

Two months later. Brazil was profoundly moved by the military conflict in Lebanon during the current month of July. living in peace and safety alongside Israel. we announced a contribution of US$ 500. health.000 to the UNDP Fund. as well as with the participation of some extra-regional 191 . But there will be no long-lasting solution to the Lebanese question as long as there is no solution to the Palestine problem. (…) Brazil vigorously supports the full execution of Resolution 1701. with its territorial integrity and independence respected by all. amongst others. We are now pleased to announce a further donation of US$1 million. We wish to see Lebanon united in diversity. to be used to finance Brazilian cooperation projects with Lebanon. We praise the efforts of Prime Minister Siniora for maintaining the multi-denominational character of Lebanese society and the secular nature of the Government. nearly three thousand Brazilians and Lebanese nationals with family bonds in Brazil. expressed during the 61st Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations. The sorrow of the Lebanese people was perceived by Brazilians. they organized an unprecedented operation to remove.THE MIDDLE EAST LEBANON Having provided shelter for the largest Lebanese community in the world. We are developing bilateral projects in agriculture. based on an independent and viable State. I reiterated here the suggestion of President Lula. from areas most affected by the conflict. education and housing. destined to finance projects of reconstruction in Lebanon. with regard to holding an international conference with the presence of the parties directly involved. respecting different religious denominations. in 2006). we sent a multidisciplinary cooperation mission to Lebanon. who were swift to react: right at the beginning (of the conflict between Hezbollah and Israel. (…) During the Conference of Stockholm. Brazilian businesses are equally committed to promoting trade and investments in Lebanon.

2004. January.000 Brazilian citizens live in Lebanon. Lecture by Minister Celso Amorim at the International Conference in Support of Lebanon (“Paris III”) . The Brazilian Government exhorts (those responsible) to avoid further aggressions and calls for the pertinent United Nations 192 . “Visit of the President of the Lebanese Republic. who participate significantly in the most varied sectors of society. On the other hand. with the purpose to discuss the resumption of the peace process in the Middle East. many of whom maintain family and professional ties with Brazil. we have the largest community of Lebanese descendants outside Lebanon. *** The Brazilian Government condemns with vehemence the attacks perpetrated by the Lebanese Hezbollah movement against areas to the north of Israel. Émile Lahoud” . *** The relationship between both countries is historically very close.Paris. In Brazil. February 20.Brasilia. Press release. 2007.000 to 60. (…) All efforts will be made to increase the level of trade exchange between the two countries in the certainty that regular business meetings will facilitate bilateral trade and stimulate cooperation in the area of services and infrastructure works. which wounded and killed several soldiers of the Israeli Defense Forces and resulted in the kidnapping of two Israeli soldiers. numbering 6 to 7 million individuals.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK players. The High Level Bilateral Commission should encourage meetings between government and business representatives. 40.

As Your Excellency is aware.THE MIDDLE EAST Security Council Resolutions to be observed. The Brazilian Government is watching. We repudiate terrorism. irrespective of justification. 2006. Similarly.Brasilia. in the most vehement terms. The harmonious co-existence between Jews and Arabs in our country is the cause of great pride and satisfaction to us. including 193 . Brazil laments the incursion of the Israeli Defense Forces in south Lebanon and the attack on local facilities and reiterates its opposition to disproportionate acts of retaliation. whose first victims will be their respective civilian populations. and have to condemn. the escalade of violence in the region. which can seriously endanger prospects of resuming the peace process. A significant community of Brazilian nationals lives in Lebanon. as well as numerous Brazilians living in Israel. with apprehension. Press release “Situation on the Israeli-Lebanon Border” . which can contribute towards an even greater deterioration of the regional political and humanitarian situation. which resulted in casualties amongst seven Brazilian citizens. including children. to avoid engaging in a new cycle of confrontations. The Brazilian Government presents its most sincere condolences to the families of the victims and makes an appeal in support of the swift and unconditional release of the Israeli soldiers. July 12. Brazil feels itself directly affected by the violence against civilians in the region. *** The Brazilian people have been watching with extreme concern the events in Lebanon. there is an important Jewish community in Brazil. the disproportionate and excessive use of force that has resulted in the death of a great number of civilians. Brazil has the largest population of Lebanese and their descendants living outside Lebanon. The Brazilian Government calls on all sides involved to endeavor to make the greatest possible effort to practice self-restraint and dialogue.

Brasilia. who will visit Beirut on August 15. and by the Israeli Cabinet. Brazil extends its support to the diplomatic initiatives that are being taken to help ensure the immediate suspension of hostilities. *** The Brazilian Government greeted with satisfaction the unanimous formal approval. Brazil has closely watched the United Nations negotiations.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK women and children. Since the beginning of the conflict. will convey a message of solidarity from the Brazilian Government and people to their sister-nation Lebanon and express our hopes that. (…) It is essential that the UN Security Council act swiftly to put an end to this conflict. following the tragic occurrences last month. the Brazilian Government. efforts will be redoubled by the international community and by the parties directly involved in search of a comprehensive solution to the conflicts in the Middle East. of the United Nations Security Council’s Resolution 1701 (2006). (…) Minister Celso Amorim. on August 13. Brazil hopes that the formal adoption of Resolution 1701 (2006). has supported diplomatic efforts to obtain a cease-fire. may open a secure and promising path to obtain a just and longlasting negotiated peace. Letter from President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the United Nations Secretary General on the situation in Lebanon . approved by the Council of Ministers of Lebanon. we welcome the cease-fire which came into effect at 02:00 hours today. and in the destruction of the infrastructure of Lebanon. between Israel and Lebanon. on August 12. August 3. 194 . Brasilia time. 2006. in line with our tradition in favor of peaceful solutions to conflicts. on the night of August 11. With a feeling of relief and hope. Even though it is not yet a member of the Security Council. which calls for an end to hostilities between Israel and the Hezbollah.

737” . August 14. as sanctioned in Article IV in the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT). February 23. regional and multilateral nature.Brasilia. *** The 5th Meeting of the Mechanism of Political Consultation between the Federative Republic of Brazil and the Islamic Republic of Iran was held in Teheran. which has ever since been held on a regular basis.New York. and agreed on the possibility of expanding economic and trade links.THE MIDDLE EAST Press release. as prescribed by the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) safeguard agreements. on April 16 2007. 2007. 2006. Press release. 2007. They stressed the great potential that exists in diplomatic relations between both countries. April 20. established in 1903. Press release. However. “The situation in the Middle East” Brasilia. “Political Consultation Meeting BrazilIran” . (…) The two delegations revised topics of a bilateral. Brazil understands that the exercise of this right implies an obligation to provide to the international community concrete guarantees of the peaceful intentions of such activities. This consisted of a forum for bilateral talks established in 1999. 195 . IRAN The Brazilian Government recognizes Iran’s right to develop the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. “Implementation in Brazil of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1.

(…) When I myself was made Minister of External Relations. the treatment of prisoners and the protection of the rights of victims. February 27. Statement by Minister Celso Amorim at the Commission of External Relations and National Defense of the Federal Senate .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK IRAQ The crisis (in Iraq) presents itself basically under two aspects: how to disarm Iraq in accordance with the resolutions of the Security Council and how to deal with the possibility of a military option with or without the authorization of the Security Council. Brazil adopts the clear position in support of a peaceful solution to this question. 2003. under any pretext. under the risk of perpetuating the suffering of the populations involved and unleashing uncontrollable forces with enormous destabilizing potential. I declared that Brazil viewed the matter in the following manner: that it is not possible. the Brazilian Government calls for the observance of international humanitarian rights. commercial or humanitarian. *** The Brazilian Government profoundly regrets the start of military operations in Iraqi territory and that a search has not continued for a peaceful solution for the disarmament of Iraq. Parliaments and of civilian society on all continents. (…) I believe that the war is of no interest to us from any point of view. economic.Brasilia. within the framework of the United Nations Charter and the resolutions of the Security Council. The Brazilian Government makes an appeal for 196 . in accordance with innumerable Heads of State. especially those which refer to the protection of civilian populations. or because of our adhesion to multilateralism. While lamenting the suffering that armed intervention inevitability causes to innocent citizens. to abandon the path of peace and dialogue. be it political.

we believe that it is possible. with the sponsorship of the Brazilian-Iraqi Chamber of Commerce. for example. *** 197 . At the South AmericaArab Countries Summit. Press release. we will hold a trade fair related to the reconstruction of Iraq. Brazil has a serious commitment to raise the level of its relations with Iraq to the same high degree they reached in the past.THE MIDDLE EAST the ceasing of hostilities. Brazil is ready to offer electoral assistance. with the participation of all ethnic. The process of transition needs to be conducted in an inclusive and transparent manner. Next September. We are presently planning to reopen our Embassy in Baghdad.Brussels. the restoration of peace and the respect for the territorial integrity of Iraq. Strict observance of human rights and humanitarian rights is imperative. to explore formulas to use part of the official debt of Iraq as the initial capital of such a bank. 2005. “Declaration on the Conflict in Iraq” Brasilia. In the event that we are called on by the United Nations. without harm to the positions of principle. in this respect. the recent agreement which permits an increase in the Sunnite presence in the drafting of the Constitution. We welcome. 2003. President Talabani proposed the creation of a biregional bank to stimulate trade between South America and the Arab world. June 22. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim during the International Conference on Iraq . political and religious groups. *** It is important that Iraqi forces be in a position to assume total responsibility for maintaining peace and security. a domain in which we have widely recognized experience. March 20.

the object of the trial in question. The assassination of 148 people in the city of Dujail. The UN.. President Lula talked with various international leaders and sent messages to the General Secretary of the UN and to Pope John Paul II in support of an alternative that could avoid prolonged armed conflict. without a doubt. A peaceful. (.) The deposition of Sadam Hussein. united and stable Iraq requires a system of government that is inclusive and democratic. December 29. did not take place as a result of an action authorized by the UN Security Council. as well as an attempt to preserve the sovereignty and integrity of Iraqi territories. Brazil and South Africa) emphasized the necessity of a return to peace and stability in Iraq. 2006. in 1982. *** The Ministers (of Foreign Affairs of India. Press release”. The Brazilian Government made efforts to the last moment to find a peaceful solution to the Iraqi question. is one of those examples. we note that the reason that has been given for the invasion of Iraq – the existence of weapons of mass destruction – has never been proven. Death sentence of Saddam Hussein” Brasilia. in 2003. together with the International 198 . Independently of the dictatorial nature of the Iraqi regime.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK The regime imposed by ex-President Saddam Hussein was. marked by a series of acts of violence against the population of his country and by the brutal restriction of freedom. The intransigence of reciprocal errors made it difficult to seek initiatives capable of containing the government of Sadam Hussein by peaceful means. the only multilateral body with the legitimacy to determine the use of force on an international level. essential for the development and prosperity of the country. (…) Any solution for the sequence of events leading to conflict and violence should arise from dialogue and an understanding between the political forces of that country.

Joint Communiqué of the 4th Mixed Commission of the IBSA Forum . The launch of the International Package for Iraq and the discussions held in March and May 2007.New Delhi. 2007.THE MIDDLE EAST Community. The Ministers reiterated their support to Iraq for its efforts towards reconstruction and development. July 17. 199 . the G-8 and the five permanent members of the Security Council. has an important role to play in relation to this issue. are notable developments. with the UN. with the participation of Iraq’s neighbors.

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(…) Today. 2005. At the same time. Profound changes. In the journal Política Externa. or not. Bringing together the absolute majority of countries around the common objective pf promoting peace. Article by Minister Celso Amorim. “The United Nations at Sixty”. volume 14. It is a question of deciding if it is in the interest of the majority of States that an organization such as the United Nations continues to function as a guarantee of a stable political order capable of promoting the development of all its members. which represented almost all the independent countries of the time. however. a reform. The choice facing the international community. contributed significantly towards an international order founded on the rule of law. is not simply a question of choosing between carrying out. The UN was created by 51 States (including Brazil). 2.UNITED NATIONS REFORM OF THE UNITED NATIONS – OVERVIEW Created in 1945 to avoid a repetition of the traumatic experiences of two world wars. for sixty years. the great majority of which are developing countries. 203 . No. (…) The challenge facing members of the United Nations is not a small one. the UN continues to be an international organization par excellence. to become irrelevant. There exists a growing awareness that the UN runs the risk of seeing its influence eroded in the absence of a reform. the Organization has. in conditions of freedom. worse. however. the Organization is liable to lose its dynamic force or. the international agenda has evolved and expanded. have altered the international scene during the course of the last six decades. the UN has 191 members. If it continues as it is.

February 24. also needs to change. as well as in discussions under way for the expansion of the Security Council (UNSC). the strengthening of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). The UN Organization has already completed sixty years of activities. Interview given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to The Economist magazine . but so is ECOSOC. the AGNU and ECOSOC. Bipolarity is over. and the administrative reform of the Secretariat. that it represent today’s political world more faithfully not just the Security Council. The Security Council is a rite. So. We are participating in negotiations to create a Commission for the Construction of Peace and the Council of Human Rights. which discusses economic questions. the world and the conflicts for which it was created do not exist any more or at least not in the proportion that justified the creation of the UN. (…) Brazil is striving to promote a profound reform of the UN.London. as part of the process to strengthen and democratize the United Nations. 2006. And the UN needs to take into account the new geopolitics of the world.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK *** We support the extensive reform of the Organization proposed by Secretary General Kofi Annan. what is it that we want? That the UN Organization become more representative. GENERAL ASSEMBLY Brazil supports greater interaction between the CSNU. 204 . and democracy is consolidated in many countries. the revitalization of the General Assembly (UNGA). The Delegation should intervene in the debate. the Cold War is over. we need to give the UN the instruments that will give it the credibility to take decisions.

security. women’s rights. September 23. development and social justice are indispensable to society. Instructions handbook for the Brazilian Delegation at the 58th United Nations Security Meeting .. population. The General Assembly has carried out a relevant role in convoking the great Conferences and other meetings on issues such as human rights. social development.UNITED NATIONS taking into account the perspective of Brazil’s participation as an elected member in 2004-2005 as well as Brazil’s bid for a permanent seat. in the context of a reform of the United Nations Security Council. racial discrimination. 2003. 2003. *** The General Assembly (.. without wasting its efforts.) needs to be politically strengthened in order to dedicate to priority issues.Brasilia. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 58th General Assembly of the United Nations .New York. SECURITY COUNCIL We do not participate in military alliances whose scope of action may conflict with the legitimate and exclusive authority enjoyed by the United Nations Security Council in such matters. the environment. Peace. But it should not hesitate to take up its responsibilities in the administration of international peace and security. 205 . The UN has already shown that there are legal and political alternatives for the veto paralysis and for actions taken without multilateral endorsement. AIDS.

we have the right to make such a claim. alongside other countries equally capable of acting on a global level and contributing towards peace and international security. by Africa.Brasilia. by Asia. Press interview given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Planalto Presidential Palace . “Foreign Policy in the Lula Government: Two Years”. by South America. Brazil did not enter. when the UN was created. March 2005. held within the ambit of the OAS . 2005. No. Análise de Conjuntura OPSA (IUPERJ). 4. November 28. because it is the largest country in South America. 2003. the country with the largest territorial area. *** Brazil has already indicated its willingness to immediately assume its responsibilities as a permanent member. well.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the general debate of the Special Security Conference. *** 206 .Mexico City. above all. April 29. *** Brazil should have been (in the UN Security Council) ever since 1945. defended the democratization of the Security Council. And we are making it. Brazil defended the democratization of the United Nations Organization and. and Brazil formally now claims a seat for itself. because it is a country with the largest number of inhabitants. Article by Minister Celso Amorim. which can have two (representatives). defended the participation of representation by continent.

Entire continents are now represented in the United Nations. Russia. is exactly the same Security Council of 1945. which form the largest international community. during the 61 st anniversary of the United Nations Organization . Human Rights and Development in a New International Scene”. We cannot have a Security Council that. July 18. The attention that the world now gives to events is completely different.Brasilia. These credentials include our long tradition in favor of peaceful solutions to conflicts and the observance of international law and our actions in promoting the interests of developing countries. We have already made significant advances in the process of administrative reform and the creation of the Council of Human 207 . It is not possible today to have a Security Council with the same structure it had in 1945. Statement by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening of the Seminar “The United Nations: Peace. radically since then.Moscow. the United Nations needs to see its authority strengthened. Interview given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the Interfax Agency .UNITED NATIONS Brazil has the credentials to occupy a permanent seat and thereby influence decision-making processes which affect the whole international community. *** The Security Council must be reformed. aside from the addition of a few non-permanent members. The world has changed enormously. 2006. October 24. 2006. The number of countries has quadrupled. *** More than ever.

as the Secretary General has already said himself. arms and drug trafficking. amongst which is the question of the Middle East and. in particular. the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction). the so-called new threats (terrorism. November 19. Madame President. We go around the world teaching democracy to others. (…) Brazil wants the Security Council to be expanded so that we can encourage greater attention to security based on the connection between peace. a body charged with looking after issues of peace. which to many is an unacceptable privilege.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Rights and the Peacebuilding Commission. The great majority of member-States also agrees with this viewpoint and recognizes the urgency in the matter.New York. it is now time to apply this to ourselves and show that an effective form of representation exists in the political forums of the United Nations. But the work will remain incomplete without changes to the Security Council. A more representative. legitimate and efficient Council will be important to put a stop to the temptation to use unilateral resources by force and could also give a renewed impetus towards dealing in a more balanced way with issues that have the greatest impact on international peace and security. we should all open a way to democratize the power to decide international petitions. This would make the body more democratic. maintains that the expansion of the Council should consider the entry of developing countries into its permanent framework. legitimate and representative. I do not believe 208 . together with G-4 countries. Brazil. development and social justice. We cannot deal with new problems using outdated structures. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 61st United Nations General Assembly . 2006. Sooner or later. *** One of the central problems of the work of the Council is the veto power.

article by Minister Celso Amorim in the Folha de S. in resolutions of a purely declaratory nature. in our view. could result in new world conflict. without this necessarily implying a veto of a resolution project. standards of representation and effectiveness. 2006. the right of veto could be understood as a means to avoid decisions which. It would be unrealistic to think that the current permanent members would relinquish this power. The country that vetoes an initiative should assume full moral responsibility for such action. It is necessary that the 209 . Brazil defends that each vote should be subject to explanation. because they affected the national interests of one of the great powers. But the veto has very often been used in an almost futile fashion. such as those involving international peace and security. Another idea is to interpret the United Nations Organization Charter to allow permanent members of the Council to give a negative vote. “The Mission of Kofi Annan’s successor is the complete reform of the United Nations”. The changes we seek for the Security Council. This does not mean we should have the pretension of legislating for eternity. which inspired the thoughts of Rui Barbosa. December 17. with the need to have an organ ism with the capacity for rapid and efficient decision-making involving issues that demand solutions that are very often of an urgent nature. in the best possible way. it is difficult to conciliate the ideal of democracy in its purest form. What we can hope for in the present stage of evolution in relations between States is a system that seeks to balance.UNITED NATIONS that it will be possible to eliminate this in the short term. Paulo newspaper . *** Naturally. During the Cold War. have this feature. I honestly do not believe that there are absolute or irrefutable answers to these intrinsic contradictions.São Paulo.

The Group of 4 fully supports the appeal for an all-encompassing approach towards 210 . new permanent members should not dispute the right of veto.New York. September 21.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK reforms that the Security Council undergoes should be subject to revision. without any form of pre-judgment. “Brazil’s Multilateral diplomacy: a tribute to Rui Barbosa”. support each other‘s bid reciprocally. Germany. a mechanism that. Lecture given by Minister Celso Amorim during the Second National Conference of Foreign Policy and International Policy . November 5. together with our member-States. 2007. We will work collectively. G-4 Brazil.Rio de Janeiro. based on a firm mutual recognition that they are legitimate candidates to permanent membership of an expanded Security Council. Joint Press Release from the G-4 . so as to carry out a significant reform of the United Nations that includes the Security Council. we will continue striving to eliminate gradually or to reduce. 2004. India and Japan. within a reasonable period of time. within the bounds of reality. Africa should be represented amongst the permanent members of the Security Council. Obviously. *** The Group of 4 welcomes the report as one more sign of the strong leadership of the (United Nations) Secretary General to promote a multilateral system that will prepare the international community to effectively face the challenges of the 21st century.

the Vice-Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs of Germany. from the Secretary General of the United Nations . the threats that we face at this time. (…) In the light of recent decisions taken at the African Union Summit. met today at the Brazilian Embassy in London. 2005. with the aim of examining the developments of the African Union Summit in Sirte and to discuss prospects for joint action in the immediate future with relation to the expansion and reform of the United Nations Security Council. Development and Human Rights for All”. Celso Amorim. and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Communication from the G-4 regarding the Report “Greater Freedom – towards Security. Brazil. in a collective manner. with the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ghana. the Ministers reiterated their willingness to continue to maintain dialogue with the African Union. The five Ministers of Foreign Affairs 211 . Today’s threats are inter-related. in Sirte. it is true to say that its institutions need to be adapted to reflect present political realities. in his capacity as a member of the contact group of the mechanism to follow-up the reform of the UN Organization established by the African Union. At the same time. *** The Brazilian Minister of External Relations. An individual threat is a collective threat.UNITED NATIONS this reform. Nana Addo Dankwa AkufoAddo. NatwarSingh. Joschka Fischer.New York. Machimura Nobutaka. India and Japan share the opinion of the Secretary General that the United Nations are the appropriate forum to confront. and at the Caribbean Community (Caricom) Summit. with the Caribbean Community (Caricom) and with the co-sponsors of the draft resolution. held in Santa Lucia. the Minister of Foreign Affairs of India. March 21. as well as with all other members of the United Nations Organization. Germany.

once more. 2007.New York. *** The reform of the Security Council is the most important project pending amongst those adopted by the Heads of State and Government at the World Summit in 2005. the G-4 remains committed to a significant reform based on the expansion of the permanent and non-permanent categories. that any reform of the United Nations will not be complete without the reform of the Security Council.London. November 1. and will work together to produce a successful outcome. including those achieved through inter-governmental negotiations. The G-4 firmly believe that a Security Council that fully reflects the present political realities will be more representative and. to include both developed and developing countries. The G-4 London Declaration . 2005. 212 . therefore.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK maintained their commitment to the reform of the United Nations Organization. Recent debates show. the leaders expressed their support for the swift reform of the Council. especially with regard to the reform of the Security Council. On that occasion. The G-4 welcomes the new impetus created during the 61st Session of the General Assembly. more legitimate and effective. Declaration by the G-4 regarding reform of the United Nations Security Council . during the 61st Session of the General Assembly. July 8. and to adopt improved working methods. so as to increase the number of non-permanent and permanent members. With a flexible and open spirit. The G-4 countries will continue to participate actively and constructively in the process of reform with a view to achieving concrete results.

Estratégia e Política Magazine. Year 1. or exempt oneself from the obligation of giving an opinion or of taking action in the face of a crisis may mean becoming excluded from the decision-making process or. To be omissive. as well as other Latin American countries. promoting economic and social development. encouraging political dialogue with a view to achieving national reconciliation.UNITED NATIONS PEACE KEEPING OPERATIONS / UNITED NATIONS MISSION TO STABILIZE HAITI (MINUSTAH) Our participation in the United Nations Organization’s Mission in Haiti. 1. moreover. No. both in terms of the presence of 213 . *** The involvement in Haiti of Brazil. keeping the peace has its price. becoming dependent in relation to other countries or regions. what is worse. 2005. originates in the principle that peace is not a free international benefit. This price is one of participation. *** The success of the United Nations Stabilizing Mission in Haiti is based on three independent and equally important pillars: maintaining order and security. October-December 2004. Diplomacia. January 12. article by Minister Celso Amorim. is without precedent. “Concepts and strategies of diplomacy in the Lula Government”. Speech by MinisterCelso Amorim at the Special Meeting of the United Nations Security Council about Haiti New York.

*** 214 . 2) the promotion of dialogue between political forces.New York. whose Charter has as its fundamental principles the collective action to prevent threats to peace and the promotion of human rights. with greater loss of innocent lives. without international help. The real aim of this Mission is that the people of Haiti should themselves recover the full sovereignty of their country. 2005.Brasilia. Furthermore.. Press release. Brazil fulfilled its obligation as a founder member of the United Nations.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK military forces as well as regarding political coordination. Added to these pillars of Brazilian foreign policy is the need to show solidarity towards a nation in the Americas that has suffered terrible tribulation and which. and. the defense of peace and cooperation between people for the progress of humanity. September 17. “The Participation of Brazil in the United Nations Mission in Haiti” . 3) effective international support for the social and economic reconstruction of Haiti. the Brazilian Government observed the constitutional principles expressed in Article 4 of the Federal Constitution – amongst which the prevalence of human rights. would suffer a worsening of its conflicts. by means of democratic elections in conformity with the Constitution of Haiti. 2006. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening of the general debate at the 60th United Nations General Assembly . with a view to a truly democratic transition. January 16. *** On accepting the invitation of the United Nations to appoint a Commander of the Military Force and to provide troops. We are prompted by three principal objectives: 1) the creation of a climate of security.

that force. related to a much more serious problem involving poverty. on its own. military forces represent the most important aspect and. therefore. We have learnt. The arrival of resources promised by the international community is essential for the task of reconstruction. *** The international community has already learnt much from peacekeeping missions. The original reasons that led to the security crisis. is not enough to maintain peace and security in the long-term. We should. inequalities. the most decisive of a peacekeeping mission. May 23. It is obvious that. generally linked to poverty. in our view. as well as institutional fragility. promote the construction of solid institutions. which Brazil commands. *** When we responded to the call of the United Nations Organization. Brazil understood that the situation in Haiti was not just a problem of restoring public safety. 2006. 2006. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening session of the High Level International Meeting on Haiti Brasilia. social injustice and the debilitation of the structure of the State. The success of the process of pacification of that country does not only depend on the United Nations troops. in the first instance. for example.UNITED NATIONS We have a firm commitment with Haiti. March 7. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the State Banquet offered by Queen Elizabeth II London. But these efforts will only be successful if the actions of the international community involve the more profound causes of the crisis. which will 215 . at certain times.

in order to restore economic activities and social life in general. at the G-8 Summit held in Gleneagles. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening of the general debate at the 60th United Nations General Assembly . in an atmosphere free of prejudice and dogmatism. ECOSOC should also contribute towards promoting stability and peace. *** 216 . To work with the private sector. Build hospitals. 2005.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK permit the full exercise of democracy. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL (ECOSOC) The Economic and Social Council should again become a vibrant and influential organism. This year. streets. February 5. It is also necessary to create effective conditions for social and economic recovery. for example.New York. President Lula suggested that we could begin to lift the stature of ECOSOC. September 17. finances and development. highways. with non-governmental organizations. and respect for human rights.Brasilia. To develop projects that generate employment and income. 2007. It should serve so that we can find convergence on questions related to trade. of the Minister of Economy of the rotating presidency of the G-8. organizing a high-level division with the participation. as established in Article 65 of the Charter. schools. in partnership with the Security Council. ECOSOC should offer privileged deliberation in the search for conciliation between the objectives of economic growth and the reduction of the inequalities of an asymmetric globalization. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim during the High Level Seiminar on Peace-Keeping Missions .

because it is one less organism for ECOSOC to supervise. ECOSOC could also occupy to a large extent the space reserved today for the “Group of Donors”. The problems of ECOSOC are not due to its excessive size. 2005. but to its reduced sphere of activity. Brazil does not agree with the proposal to reduce the size of ECOSOC. According to the Charter. the G-8 and the Forums of Porto Alegre and Davos. in close coordination with the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development -UNCTAD. (…) In addition to this. vol. strategies to mobilize resources to reach these goals. Then. should ensure that better use is made of the inherent advantages of the United Nations. the scope of ECOSOC’s field of action is wide. No. which does not represent the international community. in partnership with the country in question. Política Externa. compared to Bretton Woods institutions. but the Council does not have the power or resources it needs.ECOSOC. perhaps all 217 . within the context of a general reform of the United Nations. arrticle by Minister Celso Amorim. *** It is good that the Council of Human Rights has been created. the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) and the regional economic commission. (…) The revitalization of ECOSOC. to grant executive powers the ECOSOC presidency or to transform the body into a “Council of Economic Security”. 2. “The United Nations Organization at Sixty”. As a multilateral body.UNITED NATIONS Much can still be done to revitalize the United Nations Economic and Social Council . the World Trade Organization. These Partnership Chambers would examine the progress of each country towards the Millennium Development Goals and would design. 14. ECOSOC could conduct voluntary inquiries into the economic and social situation of countries who request this (similarly to what occurs in the WTO’s Trade Policy Review Mechanism on trade).

BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK these bodies should report directly to the General Assembly and let ECOSOC deal with the matters it has to deal with: how world economic and social development should be conducted and to inspire organisms that are really influential in this area. efforts to maintain peace and the construction stage of post-conflict peace. Not to negotiate. 2006.New York. Poverty. Statement by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening of the seminar “The United Nations: Peace. disease. September 22. 2004. the IMF and the WTO. during the 61 st anniversary of the United Nations . which are the World Bank. Human Rights and Development in a New International Scene”. (…) For my part. Naturally. These are some of the causes of conflict. *** 218 . I wish to insist on the need to develop new and better tools to face the structural problems that are at the root of the tensions that lead to violence and conflict. the lack of opportunity. inequality. but to inspire. which unfortunately are increasingly becoming part of our agenda.Brasilia. particularly those inside countries. We must also face the question of the duration and intensity of these efforts. it is necessary to rapidly deploy all the troops required by the Security Council resolutions. We are facing this necessity in Haiti at this exact moment. PEACEBUILDING COMMISSION We must ensure continuity between actions of prevention. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the United Nations Security Council session on Civilian Aspects of the Management of Conflict and Peacebuilding” . October 24.

for which Brazil has just been elected with a record vote. Press release. such as Haiti. with political-institutional stability and economicsocial development. Política Externa. The creation of an organism such as a Peacebuilding Commission was the subject of a proposal made by Brazil ever since the mid 90s and represents the fulfillment of a longterm ambition of developing countries. the creation of the Peacebuilding Commission will be one more significant step in the process of a reform of the United Nations. *** The Peacebuilding Commission Peace has the primary objective of helping countries that have recently emerged from armed conflict to achieve long-lasting political and economic stability. Brazil supports the establishment of this Commission. 219 . As a member of the Peacebuilding Commission. This represents an important step forward in the reform of the UN. Concerned by the fact that no organism presently exists to assist countries that have recently emerged from conflicts. Annan suggested giving greater attention to sectors such as institutional recovery and the financing of reconstruction. 2005.UNITED NATIONS The suggestion of the Secretary General to create a Peacebuilding Commission aims to support the process of transition from conflict to long-lasting peace in contexts of social-economic and institutional fragility. “Brazil is elected to the United Nations Peacebuilding Commission” . “The United Nations Organization at Sixty”. No. volume 14. As with the recently created Council of Human Rights.Brasilia. article by Minister Celso Amorim. by contributing towards the strengthening of the system of the United Nations in economic and social areas. 2006. Mr. are able to follow a sustainable path towards peace. Brazil will be committed to help countries that are victims of conflict. 2. May 16.

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REFUGEES The UNHCR (the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) has expressed its recognition of Brazil’s efforts in the international protection of refugees. At the moment, Brazil shelters 3,200 refugees, from 54 countries. (…) The Brazilian policy for the protection and resettlement of refugees, which is implemented by the National Committee for Refugees (CONARE), has expanded in recent years. The efforts of the Brazilian Government, in coordination with the UNHCR, are concentrated on seeking durable solutions for the question of refugees, above all based on the institutional strengthening of the regime of partnership and sharing of responsibilities between the Federal Government and civilian agencies – an indispensable aspect of the consolidation of public policies of humanitarian importance. Press release. “Visit to Brazil of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees” - Brasilia, November 4, 2005. *** The National Committee for Refugees decided, in May 2007, to resettle in Brazil a group of Palestinian refugees originating from a refugee camp in Ruweished, in Jordan, nearly 70 km from the border with Iraq, where they had been living since 2003. The first contingent of 35 refugees arrived today, September 21, in Brazil, initiating the first stage of an operation of resettlement. In October of this year, another two contingents are expected to arrive in the country, totaling approximately 177 persons. As a signatory of the 1951 Convention on the Statute of Refugees, Brazil already has a consolidated history in this area, with actions
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that stand out in Latin America, and are substantiated in the Solidarity Resettlement Program. (,,,) This is an important decision on the part of the Brazilian Government, which reflects Brazil1s commitment to the International Law of Refugees and through this humanitarian gesture translates Brazil’s solidarity towards the Palestinian people. Press release. “Ar rival in Brazil of a group of Palestinian refugees” - Brasilia, September 21, 2007.

INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT (ICC) Since the adoption of the Rome Statute, 105 States have become Parties to this laudable international community initiative. During the last five years, the ICC was firmly consolidated in The Hague, beginning investigations in various countries, issuing arrest warrants and creating its first Pre-Trial Chamber, a step of the greatest importance for its institutional development and a hallmark in the history of international relations. The Brazilian Government, as one of the first to support the ICC, takes this opportunity to reaffirm its commitment to the ideals of the Statute. We will continue to defend the ICC in all forums. (…) The principle of complementarities makes the interdependence between the Court and the States a necessity. I would like to reiterate how important it is that all States, whether Parties of the Rome Statute or not, fully cooperate with the Court. (…) Brazil is in favor of adopting in the near future a definition for the crime of aggression, so that the Court may have jurisdiction over this. We are ready to support a definition that adequately preserves the independence of the Court as a legal body, and conveys, as a useful indication, the elements established in Resolution 3314 of the General Assembly. The moment has come
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to move forward in this matter and pave the way for a Revision Conference of the Rome Statute. According to our understanding, the definition of a Crime of Aggression should be a priority on the agenda. Speech by the Brazilian Permanent Representative at the United Nations Organization, Ambassador Maria Luiza Ribeiro Viotti, at the 6th Assembly of Member States of the ICC - New York, December 3, 2007.

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INTERNATIONAL TRADE

WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO) – OVERVIEW We fight against protectionist practices that so greatly harm our agriculture and our industry. We will seek to expand our markets of raw materials or semi-finished goods that continue to play an important part in our actions. We will give special emphasis to those goods and services of greater added value and built-in known-how. In order to do this in a sustainable way, we will have to deeply commit ourselves to the real fight to eliminate tariffs and subsidies, which today brutally distort trade and deprive developing countries of their comparative advantages (natural ones or those obtained through effort and creative ingenuity). Speech given by Minister Celso Amorim on taking office as Minister of State for External Relations Brasilia, January 1, 2003. *** Brazil’s performance in the WTO will be guided by the construction of a more equitable multilateral trade system, by correcting distortions and reducing restrictions that affect our capacity to stimulate policies aimed at development. This involves a real struggle, which is being faced with determination, to eliminate tariff barriers and subsidies and by balancing the rules of the game. (…) We all know that trade can be very effective in generating economic growth and wealth. However, in practice, the more developed countries do not hesitate
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April 10. “Diplomacy in the Lula Government”. the WTO is presently engaged in an all-encompassing round of negotiations that involves. of special interest to developing countries. delivered by Ambassador Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães. the relationship between trade and the environment and a series of issues called the “implementation of the results of the Uruguay Round”. 2003. industrial goods and services. Russia. We are aware that (…) the solution for agricultural trade will be achieved to a greater measure through the WTO – above all with regard to the elimination of subsidies and greater discipline with regards to domestic support. The anomalies of agricultural trade consist of a particularly intolerable dysfunction. Secretary 226 . steel. the WTO will gain a truly universal character. textiles – precisely those in which developing countries show comparative advantages. With the assent of China and.) a central role in our endeavors for a more affirmative participation in international trade. soon. Lecture by Minister Celso Amorim. such as agriculture. lecture given by Minister Celso Amorim at the Rio Branco Institute (the Brazilian Diplomatic Academy) .Brasilia. but also various regulatory aspects – from the revision of anti-dumping rules to the creation of a registry for the so-called “geographical indicators”. As an institution that embodies a multilateral trade system.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK to maintain their own idea of free trade and at the same time surround themselves with regulations that favor sectors that are shown to be vulnerable. not only the liberalization of trade barriers for agricultural products.. *** The WTO has acquired (.. Brazil is extremely competitive and loses billions of dollars annually in exports in this sector.

The WTO is a vital platform for our integration into the global economy. Their alluring power does not contribute towards increasing productivity and generating wealth. to show that free trade and a more fair distribution of wealth are not only compatible. the expansion of trade is essential for the creation of new jobs and to obtain higher rates of economic growth. we can create a new spirit. September 11. and deprivation. 2003. Distortions in agricultural trade are not only harmful to developing countries by denying them opportunities to reach other markets. Mexico. (…) Perhaps no other area of trade is subject to so much discrimination as agriculture. at the 15th National Forum . Domestic and export subsidies in developed countries lower prices and revenues across the world.INTERNATIONAL TRADE General of the Ministry of External Relations. based on rules and market-oriented. 2003. *** Here in Cancun. May 21. on the other. making it possible to improve living conditions for millions of people who live below the poverty line. Subsidies produce dependence.Rio de Janeiro. reduce the profits of competitive exports and increase food insecurity in developing countries. Brazil continues to unequivocally support the existence of a multilateral trade system that is equitable.Cancun. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the 5th WTO Ministerial Conference . *** Free trade can lead to prosperity as long as this occurs in a balanced way and takes into consideration the differential needs 227 . on one hand. but are also mutually beneficial.

2005. is omission by convenience. This has not happened so far. December 14. *** Permanent solutions to misery will only exist if the poorer countries have the opportunity to progress through their own efforts. The launching of the Doha Development Agenda four years ago was a recognition of this fact.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK of poorer countries. This is a political situation that is morally unsustainable. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the 6th World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference .Hong Kong. as long as the distorted support (in subsidies) of developing countries reaches the shameful sum of US$ 1 billion per day.New York. It is essential that we free ourselves from the chains of protectionism. The subsidies of wealthy countries. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 61st United Nations General Assembly . distribute income and create jobs. are heavy fetters that immobilize progress and relegate poor countries to backwardness. 228 . international trade will be a valuable instrument to generate wealth. Provided it is free and fair. It is widely accepted that the multilateral trade system suffers from a development deficit. 2006. Worse than inaction through ignorance. (…) If successful. above all in the area of agriculture. November 19. I tire of repeating that. The old geography of international trade needs to be profoundly reformed. 900 million people survive with less that US$ 1 per day in poor and developing countries. the WTO negotiations will help raise millions of people out of extreme poverty.

as an unequivocal sign of their respect for the multilateral rules of trade. Australia and Thailand. it stresses the legitimacy of 229 . It gives renewed legal force to the appeals of African cotton-producing countries. 2004.INTERNATIONAL TRADE THE WTO DISPUTE SETTLEMENT MECHANISM Brazil greeted with great satisfaction the final report from the WTO panel that examined. Finally. (…) The panel condemned. (…) As was the case of the dispute with cotton. The Brazilian Government hopes that the European Union will carry out the determinations of the panel as soon as possible. October 15. (…) The manifestation of the Appellate Body does not favor Brazil alone. the two elements of the European sugar rules that Brazil had questioned. most of which were examined for the first time in the present case. “World Trade Organization: BrazilEuropean Union controversy – Sugar export Subsidies” . for which the subsidies had a dramatic influence on poverty-related figures. which was circulated today in Geneva. the conformity of the sugar rules of the European Union with multilateral trade standards. at the request of Brazil. The ruling also clarifies the content and range of important multilateral controls over agricultural trade. and underlined the importance of securing full integration of agriculture withWTO rules. The document. should be adopted by the Dispute Settlement Body within the WTO in up to 30 days. together with the panel’s report. clearly and substantively. *** Brazil greeted with satisfaction the report from the WTO Appellate Body regarding US subsidies for cotton production and exportation. the conclusion of the panel with regard to the sugar issue was an important step towards ending the distortions in world agricultural trade.Brasilia. Press release.

As Your Excellency has put so well. have to open agricultural markets and eliminate the distortions of subsidies that prevent poorer countries from competing on an equal footing and thereby enjoy the 230 . 2005. the needs of developing countries and. *** I agree with your (Prime Minister Blair’s) judgment according to which it was the realization that trade could bring effective benefits to the poorer populations of the world. can we integrate millions of human beings into the dynamic sphere of world economy. taking into account. in particular. THE DOHA ROUND I reaffirm our willingness to seek convergent paths. June 14. free of unfair and unjustifiable distortions. by means of a pragmatic and mutually respectful negotiation. above all.UNCTAD . of those who are the poorest. We will only combat poverty by building the security that everyone seeks and only through trade. where less than 2% of the active population.São Paulo. March 3. in the midst of a somber atmosphere following the tragic events of September 11.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK countries. “Brazil-USA Controversy on cotton subsidies” -Brasilia. 2004. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the 11th United Nations Conference on Trade and Development . are employed in the countryside. which motivated the launching of the (Doha) Round. Press release. the wealthy countries. groups and citizens who defend an end to distortions in world agricultural trade.

the Conference enabled the creation. Article by Minister Celso Amorim in the Folha de São Paulo newspaper. Message from President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. for the first time. *** 231 . “The advances of Hong Kong”. such as agriculture. November 15. such as industry and services.Brasilia. 2005. The definition of a date to eliminate export subsidies was an effective gain. Tony Blair . resulting mainly from the conduct of Brazil and the G20. respecting the criteria of proportionality and flexibility that are at the core of the special and differential treatment sanctioned by the WTO and reinforced in Doha. to be celebrated by all those who want more justice and less distortion in agricultural trade. (…) Similarly. I had no great expectations about what would be possible to achieve at the WTO Ministerial Conference. 2005. has already done for the poorer countries. (…) I am certain that developing countries will do their part in favor of our common objective to strengthen the multilateral system and make trade freer and fairer. *** When I left for Hong Kong. Brazil is fully aware of what it needs to do and.INTERNATIONAL TRADE wealth generated by new technologies. as in those where we aim to preserve space for development policies. in fact. meeting Brazilian interests both in sectors in which we have greater comparative advantages. of explicit links of proportionality between tariff cuts for agricultural and industrial products. December 26. which will ensure that the negotiations will be balanced. (…) The result was even more positive than I had hoped for.

of South Africa. *** The multilateral trade system of the WTO is facing the most serious crisis since it was first established.. It is a political crisis.. to create conditions so that the poorer populations of our planet can enjoy the progress of our time. Petersburg. Brazil will certainly choose the second option. continue to export misery and hunger to less developed nations. not to accept failure.) What is at stake in these negotiations is not just a handful of concession in matters of trade.) Members (of the WTO) should continue to engage in discussions about how to move 232 . that is. India. China. (. (. It is. about development. with obvious repercussions on social and political levels. Brazil. the subsidies. Mexico and the Republic of the Congo . (…) In agriculture. above all. We can recognize that millions of lives in the whole world. July 17. It is the very future of multilateralism in the economic sphere. for the first time the word “Development” has appeared in the heading of a Round. especially in developing countries. which represents the way of life of the greater part of the poorest populations in the world. forbidden for decades in the industrial sector. This is not just about trade. (…) It’s not just by chance that nearly sixty years after the creation of the GATT/WTO system... often obtained at their expense. We can also take a decision to keep going.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Negotiations for a Development Agenda at the WTO are in jeopardy. This is not a technical crisis. 2006.St. We can contemplate passively the progressive erosion of its credibility and legitimacy. It is a crisis caused by the lack of leadership. could be improved as a result of this Development Round. even in the wider sense that the word has come to mean over the last decades. Russia. Statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the meeting of the G-8 countries and of Heads of State and/or Government.

This also involves an essential condition to make agricultural trade more just and equitable. 26% of total agricultural exports and 17% of worldwide imports of agricultural products. in particular countries who 233 . Countries belonging to the Group also account for nearly 20% of the world’s agricultural production. Such talks could be held in different formats and ways: bilateral. (…) The Group will act in close coordination during the Ministerial Conference. 2006.Geneva. G-20 The G-20 is an informal group of developing countries that emerged in Geneva during the final stages of the preparations for Cancun. The Group reaffirms that its proposal is still on the table and invites members of the WTO to support this. The Group includes a good representation of WTO members. Most of the poor populations in developing countries live in rural areas.INTERNATIONAL TRADE this process forward. There is an undeniable relationship between agriculture and development. In order to transform the Doha Development Agenda into reality. We should reflect on possible solutions and advances in these negotiations. The added approaches will not be enough. in Geneva or somewhere else. production and agricultural trade: 63% of all farmers and 51% of the world’s population live in 20 of the member (States) of the Group. Notes written by Minister Celso Amorim during the session of the WTO Committee for Trade Negotiations . and comprises a substantial portion of the world’s population. agriculture should be fully incorporated into the rules of the multilateral trade system with the objective of eliminating prevailing distortions in trade and agricultural products. July 24. but there is also no space for unreasonable demands that totally disregard the realities of the other partners. plurilateral and multilateral.

Cancun. Mexico. I would say without false modesty that Brazil changed the dynamics of WTO negotiations. amongst other countries. Everyone recognizes that Brazil took the leadership and assumed the risks of the G-20. 2003. 234 . This was the reason for the birth of the G-20 and of the continuation of its battle. Statement by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening session of the G-20 High Level Meeting.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK shared its commitment with the two central objectives of the Doha Round: development and agrarian reform. . *** We all know that the distortions and restrictions imposed by the wealthy countries on agriculture are central elements of the negative impact that afflicts international trade. It is the Geography books in France. it wasn’t. Today it seems easy and even obvious. it constitutes and continues to be at the center of negotiations about agriculture. It is no longer President Lula who says that the G-20 changed the trade geography of the world. Ministerial Communiqué from the G-20 during the 5th World Trade Organization .Rio de Janeiro. The G-20 is a conjunction of developing countries that act in a way that is nonconfrontational. September 9. At the time. But Brazil led the G-20 and is sought – I would say almost courted – by the USA. *** The decision to create the G-20 was a very daring move. September 9. As the proposal of the Group fully reflects the integrity and level of ambition of Doha. the European Union and Japan.WTO Ministerial Conference . but purposeful. 2006. It was not Brazil alone.

But today there is a new perception of the diplomatic geography of the world. if we hadn’t created the G-20. October 19. This does not mean we have reached the much desired balance.São Paulo. *** 235 . nor are we close to the end of a long battle against the distortions in international trade that are so harmful to developing countries. We would have reached an agreement in Cancun (2003) totally unfavorable to us and we would have had to wait another 20 or 30 years to have another agricultural negotiation. Interview given by Minister Celso Amorim to Época magazine . we would not be where we are today. above all. (help) each one of our countries to reach a better level of development.São Paulo. my hope is that this new diplomatic geography can help alter to a broad extent the economic geography of the world and. our challenge is to maintain unity. 2006. But they forget to say that. in spite of these differences. *** The G-20 changed forever the panorama of WTO negotiations. As you begin to get closer to a final decision. Many people like to transform these nuances into enormous disagreements. December 17.Algiers. So. February 7. 2006. subtle differences begin to appear.INTERNATIONAL TRADE Interview given by Ministro Celso Amorim to the Gazeta Mercantil newspaper . 2006. Interview given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the Algerian press . *** I have no doubts that the G-20 changed the game at the WTO and generated a new confidence in developing countries as to their ability to influence the game.

b) its capacity to translate the interests of developing countries into concrete and consistent proposals.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Since its creation. And this strengthens us in our negotiations with rich countries.UNCTAD There is no ‘third-world’ strategy on the part of Brazil. We do not want to exchange the First for the Third World. Brazilian Ministry of External Relations Strategic Guidelines. In order to attain a more just and equitable international trade. And we have achieved results thereby. 2007. We do not want to recreate the old UNCTAD (the United Nations Conference for Trade and Development. Until then there were 236 . objectives involving social justice and free trade were brought together for the first time. We are participating in the negotiations of the World Trade Organization. Brazil will continue its efforts for a successful conclusion of the Doha Round. WTO. which in the 1970’s became a global forum of opposition to the United States). Brazil wants to widen its partnerships. 70% of the rural population in the whole world and 26% of world agricultural exports. cause confrontation. in 2003. We export to China.Brasilia. May 4. so that the results will benefit above all developing countries and the poorer countries. The G-20 was consolidated as a central interlocutor in the negotiations for three main reasons: a) the importance of its members in the production and trade of agricultural products. the G-20 has sought to create conditions for an effective liberalization of the agricultural sector in the Doha Round of Development. to India. to start shouting. UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT . and c) its ability to coordinate its members and interact with other groups in the WTO. representing nearly 60% of the world’s population. Pluriannual Plan 2008-2011 . At the last meeting of the WTO.

(…) UNCTAD has helped and can continue to help. UNCTAD and the G-77 gave intellectual and political momentum to the Global System of Preferential Trade – in its time a real milestone of the common. It requires study.. Herein lies one of the great contributions of UNCTAD. by identifying areas in which developing countries can reap the benefits of free trade and by supporting the relative efforts of the developing countries to fully participate in the Round. democratic debates and political determination.São Paulo. We are not against any country. *** We know very well that the model of development that we seek does not occur automatically. 2004.. and we want to negotiate in a balanced way. ideas are germinated.. but in favor of our own interests. nor will it be the result of the spontaneous generation of market forces.São Paulo. Here. We are changing the geography of trade negotiations in the world. policies are discussed. *** Even UNCTAD (. though differentiated. responsibilities of developed and developing countries. January 28. June 11. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the Ministerial Meeting of the G-77 and China . Interview given by Minister Celso Amorim to the Veja magazine .INTERNATIONAL TRADE those who said that free trade was good and that after that would come social justice.) would not have been capable of maintaining its vital role – as a coordinating forum and as an originator of new ideas – if it had not been for the active support of the G-77. 237 . 2004..

Today. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of 11th UNCTAD . 238 . UNCTAD has helped us also to identify the external constraints that limited our efforts.São Paulo. June 14.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK and experiences are exchanged. 2004. enabling us to better face them conceptually and politically. we understand better what works and what should be avoided in matters of trade and development policies. thanks mostly to UNCTAD.

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. *** Since joining the World Bank in January 1946. as from next February.000 from the World Bank and a Brazilian contribution of US$ 125. of social projects in Haiti.INTERNATIONAL FINANCES AND ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS THE WORLD BANK Taking the opportunity of the next visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to Davos. last December.. The program will count with a sum of US$ 500. will sign an instrument of co-financing for the implementation. Chancellor Celso Amorim and the VicePresident of Foreign Affairs of the World Bank. Brazil has had a history of collaboration and the sharing of similar ideas on economic development and the reduction of poverty that now inspire this 241 . Switzerland. January 27.) This is the second initiative of this type developed with Haiti. During the mission that the Brazilian government carried out in Port-au-Prince. 2005. Ian Goldin. The project – the first one carried out by the World Bank with a developing country in benefit of another developing country – has as its objective the implementation of school kitchens and the daily supply of balanced and nutritious meals to approximately 35.000 primary school children from the poorer areas.Brasilia. (.000. “Signature of a co-financing program between Brazil and the World Bank for Haiti” . Press release. Brazil and the World Bank have concluded a project of co-financing to strengthen the institutional capacity and distribution of school meals in Haiti.

Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during a meeting with the Director General of the IMF. Zoellick .. For this reason. (…) A country only finds the path to sustainable development when it creates the mechanisms to walk on its own two feet. *** 242 . in conjunction with Your Excellency. All these issues remain on Brazil’s list of priorities. I reaffirm my willingness to continue to work. (. when it manages to achieve solid growth using its own resources. the path followed during the last three years by the Brazilian economy has led to a strong reduction in the Country’s vulnerability before internal risks and threats from abroad. for the strengthening of the role of this Bank as a multilateral agent of financing towards development. Robert B.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK distinguished financial institution. We have also defended the advisability of having mechanisms of financing to avoid financial crises provoked by sudden changes in the habits of international investors. For years. June 28. including our own. 2006. INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF) In short. It was in this powerful context that we took the carefully pondered decision to anticipate the repayment to the International Monetary Fund of financial loans to Brazil – thereby avoiding also having to pay relative interest payments..) Brazil desires to have an even more active presence in the IMF. Message from Minister Celso Amorim to the President of the World Bank. Rodrigo de Rato .Brasilia. both at the domestic level as well as in its interaction with the world. in the organism. 2007. we have indicated the need to increase quotas and the influence of developing countries. January 10. This is the central meaning of this act today.Brasilia.

Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the Course for South American Diplomats . 2006. Our concern has always been to encourage. South 243 . 2006.Brasilia. with the support of Argentina. or Latin American. we need to use the IDB. South American businesses. Brazilian companies to associate themselves with local companies. we also need to have our own mechanisms. August 25.INTERNATIONAL FINANCES AND ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS The Heads of State and of Government expressed the view that the legitimacy of the IMF depends on a fundamental reform of quotas and a more representative voice for developing countries. in 2004. furthermore if we want a good deal of this space to be occupied by Brazilian. Joint Declaration of the First Summit of the IndiaBrazil-South Africa (IBSA) Dialogue Forum . but are creating true joint ventures. INTER-AMERICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK It’s wonderful that the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) exists. so we are not restricted to exporting Brazilian services. September 13. but in some cases IDB resources are not unlimited and.Brasilia. whenever possible. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS – WORLD INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ORGANIZATION (WIPO) The “Development Agenda” was presented by Brazil at the General Assembly of WIPO. and the unsatisfactory participation of developing countries. The reform should effectively reduce the serious imbalance that exists between the great majority who have the power to vote. now held by advanced economies.

Egypt. culture and towards a sustainable environment. They also reaffirmed the need to reach a solution to the problem created by the assignment of intellectual property rights to biological and/or traditional knowledge that are linked to these. b) public interest should be preserved at the different negotiations at WIPO. they greeted with satisfaction the launching of an “Agenda for Development in the World Intellectual Property Organization” and reaffirmed the importance of giving continuity to these debates so as to effectively secure the incorporation of the dimension of development in all its organisms. “The WIPO Development Agenda” Brasilia. but an instrument for development. the Dominican Republic. which are now predominately directed towards topics of essential interest to developed countries. Iran. Cuba. In this context. d) it is necessary to rebalance the scope of WIPO activities. economic and social development. c) the adoption of new intellectual property right rules should be preceded by a critical assessment of the impact on policies of technological. Ecuador. Bolivia. Press release. Peru. 2003. *** The Heads of State and Government [of IBSA] underlined the importance of incorporating aspects of development into international debates relative to intellectual property. The central ideas of the initiative can be summarized thus: a) intellectual property is not an end to itself. Kenya. as a way of making a significant contribution towards economic and social dimensions in developing countries and preserve necessary political space to ensure access to knowledge.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Africa. the promotion of public objectives in healthcare. Tanzania. 244 . Uruguay and Venezuela – the so-called “Friends of Development” group of countries. March 1. Sierra Leone. without due observance of the pertinent Convention of Biological Diversity provisions.

without harming formal multilateral instances. some of which have been with us for a long time: hunger and poverty.) Informal mechanisms such as the G-7/8 do not evade the need to strengthen the multilateral system and widen channels to enable developing countries to participate in cases of formal decision-making.INTERNATIONAL FINANCES AND ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS Joint Declaration of the First Summit of the IndiaBrazil-South Africa (IBSA) Dialogue Forum . April 27. the degradation of the environment. social exclusion.. Ideally. Today we are going through a period of serious challenges in the international scene.São Paulo. “Group of Seven”. 2006.. as well as to exchange impressions on various relevant international issues. 2007. (.. this process will lead to the creation of a new “G” (if this is to be G-11. September 13.) during the sessions of widened dialogue at the G-8 Summit. G-8 The original format of the G-7. Our world continues to be profoundly unequal and unjust. (…) The extended dialogue of the G-7/8 should be improved and structured on more permanent bases.Brasilia. The five countries will also participate in the G-8 Summits in Gleneagles (2005) and St.. human rights abuses. as a “club of rich countries”. we still do not know). weapons of mass destruction and conflicts in different regions. article by Minister Celso Amorim in the Valor Econômico newspaper . obviously is no longer adequate for the 21st century. G-12 or G-13. Petersburg (2006). *** The proposal for this meeting was to share views and converge on topics that will be discussed (. 245 .

And here I refer to a participation that is real and concrete. used to legitimize decisions taken by others. President Felipe Calderón. climate change. based on their undeniable political and economic force. of Brazil. of Mexico. *** There is a growing perception amongst the wealthy countries that major global issues can no longer be properly managed without the participation of developing countries. energy and development. taking into consideration the interests and capacities of the different States. research and innovation. can contribute decisively to increase the participation of developing countries in this process. They agreed that their five countries. On questions to be discussed at Heiligendamn with G-8 countries. Joint Communiqué from the G-5. the leaders shared points of view about the future of their participation in the Extended-Based Dialogue and on the convenience of guaranteeing coordination and follow-up to talks between the five countries. reaffirmed their common conviction that the developing countries should participate more actively in the consolidation of strategies and initiatives that deal effectively with the challenges of a globalized and increasingly interdependent world. and President Thabo Mbeki. regional and multilateral perspective. and not just figurative. 2007. The leaders agreed to maintain consultation on a regular basis. June 7. the leaders were pleased to see the opportunities for collaboration in the fields of trans-border investments. on matters of common interest and to coordinate their positions. of South Africa.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva.Berlin. (…) At the meeting in Berlin. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. The consensus view was that all these challenges should be dealt with from a bilateral. President Hu Jintao. curing the Heiligendamn G-8 Summit . I recall the words of President 246 . of China. of India.

The other is that there is no order or governance on an international level without involving the overwhelming majority of humanity in its management.INTERNATIONAL FINANCES AND ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS Lula at the recent IBSA Summit in Pretoria: “It is of little interest to be invited to share the dessert at the banquet of the powerful”. November 5. 247 . One is that these mechanisms (such as the G-8). (…) But two things are certain. Lecture given by Minister Celso Amorim during the Second National Conference of International Foreign Policy .Rio de Janeiro. 2007. although useful. cannot take the place of formal multilateral instances. “Brazil’s multilateral diplomacy: a tribute to Rui Barbosa”.

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What is essential is all these forums is to preserve flexible spaces for our development policies in social and regional. which hit our producers and deprive them of their comparative advantages. in the World Trade Organization. With equal determination.TRADE NEGOTIATIONS Trade negotiations are today of vital importance. In relation to the Free Trade Area of the Americas . 2003. *** 251 . which nowadays go far beyond mere tariff reductions and encompass a wide normative spectrum. we will make all efforts to remove the unjustifiable obstacles to the exportation of industrial products. Brazil will fight protectionism and will endeavor to obtain fairer and more adequate rulings for our condition as a developing Country. There is little point in our participating in such a wide effort and on so many fronts if no direct benefits result for our people. January 1. our understanding between Mercosur and the European Union. We will not lose sight of the fact that it is human beings who will ultimately suffer the consequences of the results of these negotiations. We will also pay heed so that these negotiations. industrial and technological areas. which.Brasilia. We will seek to eliminate the scandalous agricultural subsidies of developed countries. Inaugural Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the National Congress .FTAA. environmental. agricultural. do not create unacceptable restrictions of the sovereign right of the Brazilian people to decide the model for development they want.

bearing in mind the vast range of interests involved and the complex consultations required. we will negotiate to expand markets for our competitive goods and services. environmental. *** The Government of President Lula will not adhere to agreements which are incompatible with Brazilian interests. on an international level. without pre-judgment.Brasilia. Even though a final agreement has not yet been reached. starting within the ambit of Mercosur. President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva stated that trade negotiations are today of vital importance to Brazil In addition to an internal effort to increase the competitiveness of our products and to diversify our export activities. January 1.FTAA. Despite the uncomfortably narrow deadlines of some of these negotiations. 252 . he made it clear that he could not renounce the battle. 2003. When he assumed command of the Nation. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim on taking office as Minister of State for External Relations .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK We do not want Brazil to be closed in on itself. these should be analyzed with careful attention. workers and other social sectors and with the National Congress about the positions that we should adopt. the projects on which these processes of negotiation are based go far beyond mere tariff reductions. immune to the winds of progress and competition. industrial and technological policies. seeking to correct past distortions and to avoid excessive restrictions that affect our capacity to foster social. we intend to have ample discussions with entrepreneurs. to open up new markets and to obtain fairer rulings. in the Mercosur-European Union negotiations and at the World Trade Organization. They involve normative aspects in practically all fields of economic activity. For this very reason. In the Free Trade Area of the Americas .

by the end of 2003. In this context. “A Free Trade Area of the Americas . the free trade agreements that already exist with Bolivia and Chile are fundamental.TRADE NEGOTIATIONS respecting the sovereign right of the Brazilian people to decide their own model of development. Asuncion. in the FTAA process. I would equally highlight the agreement signed in April with Venezuela. so as to establish an integrated South American economic area. explore new trade partners – above all with developing countries – and actively participate in the negotiations presently in progress: in the World Trade Organization – WTO. Mercosur needs to be the size of the whole of South America. promote the integration of South America. with the purpose of establishing. 2003. and between Mercosur and the European Union.FTAA that is possible”. *** 253 . in Brasilia. July 8. a free trade zone between Andean Community countries and Mercosur. 2003. Article by Minister Celso Amorim in the Folha de São Paulo newspaper. which we want to see fully integrated and prosperous. In this spirit. in Recife. and in May with Ecuador. June 18. The new South America will be created through the connection between Mercosur and the Andean Community of Nations. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 24th Mercosur Summit. MERCOSUR – THE ANDEAN COMMUNITY (CAN) Mercosur is part of this South America. as well as the agreement with Peru that is in its concluding phase. the Lula Government has sought to strengthen Mercosur.

the agreement creates a new level in the process of regional integration. the historical importance of this agreement. on my behalf and that of my fellow Ministers in Mercosur. who knew how to demonstrate the necessary flexibility in favor of a greater project. (…) There is no contradiction – on the contrary. This will serve as a base to form a Community of South American Nations. The presence of Mexico and Cuba amongst us and the perception that we also have similar free trade agreements with them. (…) The success of the conclusion of negotiations with the Andean Community culminated in the convergence of two of the main South American blocs. 2004. fight inequalities. a fundamental stage for the establishment of an integrated economic area of continental dimensions. (…) I believe we are taking a major step of the greatest importance to make South America a free trade zone. May 4. I would also like to say that this act culminates the efforts made by all of us. *** I do not want to let this moment pass without highlighting. which is our integration. of all the countries involved. consolidate democracy and guarantee our sovereign presence in the world. Lecture by Minister Celso Amorim. promote inclusion. By linking Mercosur with an area of nearly 112 million people and with a Gross National Product (GNP) of US$ 270 billion. together with the one which we also signed definitively with Peru.Belo Horizonte.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK The unity between Mercosur and South America will allow us to renew growth. which must also develop institutionally. at the Minas Gerais Federation of Industry . this is a sign of a complementary relationship – between the step we are taking in the integration of South America and the greater objective which is Latin American and Caribbean integration. encourage us to believe in a truly strong and truly developed 254 .

Mercosur and the European Union agreed to intensify the Inter-Regional Association Agreement negotiations. MERCOSUR – THE EUROPEAN UNION During the Second Meeting of Economic-Trade Negotiators at Ministerial Level. June 12. including recent evolutions.Montevideo. economic. 2003.CAN . held in Brussels on November 12.TRADE NEGOTIATIONS Latin America. October 18. 2004. *** The Parties reaffirmed having given strategic priority to reaching an ambitious and equitable Agreement of Inter-regional Association that consists of an instrument to strengthen political. They evaluated the situation of the negotiations in progress for a bi-regional trade agreement. (…) Both parties recognized that the offers presented were a good basis for the continuation of negotiations. Statement by Minister Celso Amorim at the 13th Meeting of the Council of Ministers of the Latin American Association for Integration (ALADI). and committed to proceed with additional improvements to the respective offers.Mercosur-European Union” . trade and cooperation relations and to contribute towards reducing existing social and economic disparities. Press release. 2004. and expressed their expectation that negotiations 255 . with a much greater capacity to negotiate in international forums. “Agreement of Inter-regional Association Negotiations . Protocolization of the Mercosur-Andean Community of Nations .Brasilia.

which will allow an even greater enhancement of economic relations between the two regions and intensify political dialogue. as well as initiatives in matters of cooperation. The Parties expressed their support to advancing talks with the aim of calling a new trade negotiations meeting.Vienna. May 13. giving them the incentive to continue to meet and enrich the inter-regional dialogue between the EU and Mercosur.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK would lead to a suitable and successful conclusion of a wide-ranging and balanced Agreement of Association. at Ministerial level. 2006. they highlighted the importance of maintaining high-level contacts between business representatives from both regions. July 4. Brazil and the EU underline the great economic and political importance that the agreement will have for both regions and its role in strengthening respective processes of integration. In addition. Brazil-European Union Summit. Joint Communiqué from the Mercosur-European Union Ministerial Meeting . 2007. *** Brazil and the EU give great importance to strengthening relations between the EU and Mercosur and are engaged in the conclusion of the EU-Mercosur Association Agreement. Austria. Joint Declaration Lisbon. MERCOSUR – THE GULF COOPERATION COUNCIL (GCC) The Ministers (of Foreign Affairs of Mercosur and the SubSecretariat of the Cooperation Council of Arab States] expressed 256 . with suggestions and constructive contributions.

in May 2005. in Brasilia. for the Third Ministerial Meeting of the Latin America – East Asia Cooperation Forum.Rio de Janeiro.TRADE NEGOTIATIONS their great satisfaction at the progress already achieved in the Mercosur-Gulf Cooperation Council negotiations for a Free Trade Zone. MERCOSUR – ASSOCIATION (ASEAN) OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS The participants (Heads of Delegations of member states of Mercosur and of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations). 2007. who have met three times during the last three months to make this result possible. They reiterated that this effort is one of the main priorities on the negotiation agenda of each region. bearing in mind its global significance. 2007. Both sides will actively explore means to enhance and expand their contacts. agreed in their understanding that closer cooperation between Mercosur and ASEAN will bring important benefits to both regions. held in Brasilia. The Ministers welcome the efforts of the negotiating groups of both regions. trade and investment cooperation. which were initiated in the context of the Framework Agreement signed during the Summit of countries of South American and Arab countries. Declaration from the Mercosur-Council of Cooperation of the Arab Gulf States (CGC) . Both groups launched processes of consultation with the objective of expanding economic. 257 . Press release. “Mercosur-ASEAN Cooperation” Brasilia. the economic dimensions of both blocs and the concrete opportunities for trade which will open up as a result of this Agreement. August 22. January 18.

SACU. when the Forum of CEOs was launched. more creative and competitive position in relation to countries in the North. were signed. 2007. with the objective of increasing trade interchange to US$ 10 billion by 2010. in June 2007. we are negotiating preferential agreements which will enable us to expand our trade. at the TCU Seminar on Brazilian Foreign Trade Policy (core text) . Speech by Minister Celso Amorim. The most notable examples of this are the negotiations with countries that comprise the Southern African Customs Union . significant complementarities between the Brazilian and Indian economies. in September 2006. 258 . a Bilateral Scientific and Technological Agreement and an Agreement on Airline Services. also. Obviously this will take time. and with India. During the visit of Prime Minister Singh to Brazil.Brasilia. There are. but it will place us in a better. Everyone recognizes the enormous economic potential of this country which. (…) India is a case that should be highlighted. My dream is to make it happen so that countries like India. Brazilian exports to India more than quadrupled during the last four and a half years.can form one great economic area. for several years has been growing at a rate of around 9% a year and should continue at this rapid rate of growth during the next few years. strategic relationship between Brazil and India will only help Mercosur. We signed a preferential tariff Agreement in 2005 [MERCOSUR-India] and are expanding our cooperation in various areas. Brazil and South Africa – and all of Mercosur and SACU .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK MERCOSUR . MERCOSUR – THE SOUTH AFRICAN CUSTOMS UNION (SACU)-INDIA I believe that a good. August 28. President Lula again visited India.INDIA Still within the South-South context.

2007. In this respect. 2007. They also welcomed the significant progress made in Mercosur-SACU negotiations. in Pretoria. the leaders of the three countries expressed their support to the proposal to hold a Trilateral Ministerial Meeting in 2008. (…) After 259 . between October 8 and 9.New Delhi. which is. 2007. July 17. Negotiations between Mercosur-SACU. October 17. They reaffirmed the need to strive in their endeavors with a view to reaching a free trade agreement involving India-Mercosur-SACU. the Trilateral Free Trade Agreement. Declaration of the Second Summit of Heads of State and Government at the IBSA Dialogue Forum Tshwane. The leaders noted with satisfaction the fact that all Parties agreed with regard to the need to maintain talks on an eventual trilateral trade agreement. Mercosur and India during the talks which developed in Pretoria on October 6. *** The leaders of the three countries (from IBSA) reaffirmed their commitment to creating a framework for an India-Mercosur-SACU Trilateral Free Trade Agreement. FREE TRADE AREA OF THE AMERICAS (FTAA) In the way that negotiations have been developing.TRADE NEGOTIATIONS Interview given by Minister Celso Amorim to the Indian newspaper The Hindu . as well as those held between SACU and India.SACU. the FTAA project goes far beyond the term “free trade” in its strictest sense. 2007. Mercosur-India and India-SACU are a basis for successfully achieving the principal objective. 2007. in Pretoria during October 5 and 6. and welcomed the first meeting of representatives from the South African Customs Union .

phytosanitary rules and trade facilities. . such as the normative side of intellectual property.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK a process of refection within the Government. was the object of close consultation with our Mercosur associates and put before our North American partners.. which involved debates with the Legislative power and civil society. terms and conditions are negotiated for 260 . which conciliates. President Lula approved the main lines of Brazil’s position in negotiations concerning the FTAA. for which consensus seemed unattainable. special and differential treatment for developing countries. July 8. “An FTAA that is possible”. When a country wishes to join the World Trade Organization (WTO). compensation funds. to services and investments will be treated by a 4+ 1 negotiation between Mercosur and the USA. such as agricultural subsidies and antidumping laws.) Therefore. Article by Minister Celso Amorim in the Folha de São Paulo newspaper. government investments and purchases. as was the case of China recently. 2) the FTAA process is focused on some basic elements. such as the solution of disputes. in a more productive way. *** The FTAA is an in fieri project that does not exist as a finished reality. 3) the more sensitive topics and those which represent new obligations for Brazil. the necessary differentiated objectives of the 34 participating countries. we preferred to concentrate on “an FTAA that is possible”. services. in a limited way. will be transferred to the WTO. instead of trying to establish an unrealistic concept of a Free Trade Area of the Americas. This “three-lane” focus. In a succinct way. this position – obviously always subject to some adjustments during the process of negotiation – can be described in the following way: a) the substance of the terms of access to markets and goods and. following the example proposed by the USA in relation to more sensitive issues. 2003. (.

which go beyond the conception of GATT or even the WTO service agreement. the Middle East. “The FTAA and the Game of Seven Errors”. technological policies etc. The country in question accepts the regulations. . if it persists in its strategy to review the framework of the FTAA. orange juice.São Paulo. it should be clarified initially that the model of the USA-Chile agreement is not advantageous to a country with the characteristics of Brazil. the negotiations in which it does not have a voice. conciliating “offensive” interests. It must also be added that we are actively participating in the Doha Round in the WTO. India. the very term “free trade” is open to misunderstanding. which is still. (…) It is not by chance that most of the population has a very unclear view of the FTAA. access to the US market for products such as steel. in accordance with its main proponent – and others who have already signed bilateral agreements of this kind – involves much more that the liberalization of “trade”. (…) There is a mistaken perception that Brazil could be running risks. shoes. *** 261 . sugar – and “defensive “ concerns – government autonomy to adopt industrial.in the case of Brazil. as it were. In this respect. August 24. Paulo newspaper . The main reason that motivates US interests in negotiating the FTAA is precisely because they wish to obtain greater advantages than those that would be possible for them to get on a global scale.TRADE NEGOTIATIONS entry. not to mention the environment and employment clauses. The FTAA project. issues such as investments. with South America. Russia and. in exchange for the advantages – real or imaginary – of participating in a multilateral trade system. In a very different case to that which occurred in the FTAA. article by Minister Celso Amorim for the O Estado de S. above all. we are negotiating a Mercosur-European Union agreement and developing other initiatives with Africa. In accordance with this trend. in the assembly line. China. government purchases and intellectual property should be discussed in the FTAA. 2003.

In the same way. 2006. From the above. Mercosur announced that it has signed agreements with China. If any other negotiation is to be made in the future. *** The FTAA should have a totally new conceptual base. Bolivia and the Andean Community. 2005. the delegations agreed that all these negotiations should converge to obtain their objective to expand free trade. various processes of negotiation have been initiated by Mercosur with Canada.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK As a result of the talks that have been held. the Central American System of Integration (SICA) and the Community of Caribbean Countries. December 17. which is why Mercosur reiterates its willingness to establish with the other countries of the hemisphere bilateral trade relations giving access to markets. February 18. Interview given by Minister Celso Amorim to Época magazine . and thereby contributing effectively towards the general evolution of the FTAA negotiating process. the delegations recalled that other countries or groups of countries involved in FTAA negotiations have already also concluded or moved ahead with bilateral trade negotiations.São Paulo. the delegations jointly decided to reiterate that Mercosur continues to be wiling to negotiate a balanced agreement with a view to establishing a Free Trade Area of the Americas. 262 . Mexico. Communiqué from Mercosur regarding negotiations for a Free Trade Area in the Americas . all of which involve access to markets. Similarly. The FTAA is not a form of negotiation that is suitable for Brazil. it will have to be a negotiation between Mercosur and the United States.Asuncion. In this regard. which is coherent and in keeping with the objectives of the FTAA.

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Now we need to work so that all our hydroelectric capacity. add value to agricultural products. renewable and clean alternative resources. We can help countries in Africa. As well as being cheap. We should work together to promote the use of biofuels on a global scale. our abundant petroleum and gas reserves and the potential of biofuels are fully used to our advantage. BIOFUELS Both ethanol and biodiesel are a safe alternative from the energy and environmental point of view and are economically viable. South America is one of the few regions in the world that is self-sufficient in energy.Santiago.ENERGY We are working (…) to establish the basis to design regional energy policies that are essential for sustainable development. at the same time. 2007. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the closing session of the Economic World Forum for Latin America . for example. April 26. to use this technology to overcome their energy dependence and. They generate employment in the countryside. ethanol and biodiesel are providing an efficient and innovative response to some of the main challenges of our time. generate employment and income. Statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the closing ceremony of the Brazil-United 265 . diversify our range of exports and help protect our environment.

The option (of using biofuels) is especially dramatic for poorer countries that do not have the resources to adopt such technologies and. to increase investments in health and education. improving their trade balance and saving revenues. March 8. contributes towards the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases. biofuels avert the serious dilemma of whether to adopt high-cost technology or reduce the rate of world growth.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Kingdom Business Seminar .London. The use of biofuels brings advantages to both developing and developed countries. February 28. 2007. Biofuels have the potential to mobilize investments in research and associated technological development. *** Biofuels are economically viable alternatives and have an immediate use to partially substitute oil by-products and to diversify the world energy matrix. the use of biofuels is also attractive because it reduces dependence on fossil fuels. By reducing these emissions. at the same 266 . In addition to offering environmental benefits. For developed countries. the use of biofuels means reducing their dependence on imported oil. which gives further momentum to the process of changing established patterns of energy use on a global scale. besides guaranteeing greater energy safety. Press release. For developing countries. “Launching of the International Forum on Biofuels” .Brasilia. *** Biofuels are a low-cost option of proven efficiency in the transition to an economy based on low-carbon emissions. producing biofuels promotes the generation of income and contributes to keeping the labor force in the countryside. 2006.

that is to say. Biofuels contribute directly towards helping to combat hunger and misery and to create the conditions for a sustainable economic growth.4% of the entire national territory. the solution is to encourage the establishment of an international market for ethanol and biodiesel. By using biofuels. the cultivation of sugar cane in Brazil occupies less than 10% of the land cultivated in this Country. urgently need to create jobs. 2007. thereby making access to energy more democratic. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the International Conference on Biofuels . more than 100 countries will be able to produce energy. Planting sugar cane does not endanger or redirect the production of foodstuffs. We would be reducing imbalances and inequalities between consumer and energy producing countries and thereby reduce possible conflicts arising from the competition for infinite energy resources.Brussels. Hunger in my country has been reduced during the same period that the use of biofuels has increased. In fact. The Brazilian experience shows that it is wrong to create conflict between forms of agriculture that produce food and another that produces energy. (…) The inclusion of biofuels in the international energy matrix will also help eliminate another worrying element of instability: 20 countries produce energy for approximately 200 countries. For all these reasons.ENERGY time. I should add that this land is very distant from the Amazon. July 5. 267 . a region that is not suitable for the cultivation of sugar cane. less than 0. wealth and income.

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Brazil has actively participated in negotiations and in the implementation of international conventions and programs which address the environment and sustainable development. In order to do this, the Ministry of External Relations (Itamaraty) has acted in close coordination with the Ministry of Environment and other interested Ministries. In order to develop this cooperation, the Itamaraty has also had talks with organizations representing civil society. Diplomatic actions have helped establish international and bilateral agreements and treaties, and advanced a wide environmental agenda that includes biodiversity, sustainable development, renewable energy sources, climate change, forests, chemical and toxic residue safety, desertification, and the protection of the peoples’ traditional knowledge, amongst other topics. Promoting conservation and the sustainable use of natural resources and the environment have also been put into practice through bilateral cooperation programs that include high technology projects, as is the case of the construction of remote-sensing China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) system. The start of operations of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO) has also been a valuable element to enhance the activities of Amazonian countries in favor of knowledge, conservation, sustainable management and to improve the processing techniques of natural products of the Amazon area (especially by increasing their sales value and placing them on the consumer market). Just a few days ago, the Mercosur countries agreed to adopt preventative measure to protect the Guarani Aquifer, the largest trans-border source of subterranean water in the world, with an estimated capacity to supply 360 million people, which is of incalculable social and economic worth. (…) Brazil is part of the majority of international treaties that control
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international cooperation in environmental matters and which seek to promote sustainable development. Press relase. “World Environment Day” - Brasilia, June 4, 2003. *** Brazil favors the institutional strengthening of international environmental governance and supports an exercise of reflection without preconceived ideas on the subject. The creation of a new organization or agency within the system of the United Nations, which could result from this reflection, should contribute towards the cohesion and efficiency of existing issues. Such an organization should be based on the environmental, economic and social pillars, which are an indissoluble part of the concept of sustainable development, the great achievement of Rio-92. So there should be no doubt, this connection should – in my view – be recognized even in the name of the organization that is to be created. Its conception should also adequately incorporate the perspectives, the needs and the specific circumstances of developing countries. Within this framework, consideration should also be given to the special situation of the African Continent. One of the ways of thinking within this new structure would be to conceive it as an umbrella organization, with responsibilities in normative dimensions, in cooperation and financing, making the maximum use possible of existing organisms. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim during the Ministerial Meeting on Environment and Sustainable Development: Challenges facing Inter national Governance - Rio de Janeiro, September 3, 2007. ***
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Social equitability is the best weapon against the degradation of the planet. Each one of us must do our part in this task. But it is inadmissible that the greatest onus of the shortsightedness of the privileged should fall upon those who are dispossessed of Land. The more industrialized countries should give an example. It is absolutely vital that they fulfill the commitments established in the Kyoto Protocol. Nevertheless, this is not enough. We need more ambitious standards as from 2012. And we should continue to act firmly to ensure that there is universal adhesion to the Protocol. Developing countries should also participate in the struggle against climate change. It is essential to establish clear national strategies that require government responsibility before the people of each country. (…) It is very important that the whole environmental agenda should be treated as an integrated policy. Brazil was host to the United Nations Conference for the Environment and Development, otherwise known as Rio-92. We need to evaluate the path we have taken and establish new lines of action. To this end, I propose that a new Conference be held in 2012, which Brazil offers to host, called Rio + 20. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the General Debate at the 62nd United Nations General Assembly - New York, September 25, 2007.

CLIMATE CHANGE At the conclusion of the “Brazil-United States Seminar on Science and Technology in the area of Climate change”, held in São José dos Campos, Brazil, from May 18 to 20, 2004, Brazil and the United States announced their intention to expand and intensify existing bilateral efforts to discuss scientific and technological issues related to
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climate change in areas of mutual interest, with the objective of producing positive and balanced results. To this end, the seminar was the first step to identify joint projects of mutual interest. At the seminar, specialists and government officials from both countries discussed ways to improve scientific and technological cooperation in areas such as: science of climate modeling; energy and technology; use of the land, changes in the use of the land; forests and agriculture; inventories of emissions and modeling; impacts; vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. Specific areas of cooperation will continue to be considered. Brazil reiterated its commitment to the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol, based on the principle of common, though differentiated responsibilities and the respective capacity of the Parties to discuss climate change. In this context, Brazil is willing to explore all possibilities to deal with the challenges of sustainable development related to climate change. Press release. “Brazil-United States Seminar on Science and Technology Cooperation in the area of Climate change” - Brasilia, May 24, 2004. *** Within the ambit of the commemorations to mark 30 years since diplomatic relations were established between Brazil and the People’s Republic of China, the First Meeting of a Common Agenda on Sustainable Development between both countries was held at the Itamaraty Palace (Ministry of External Relations), on August 23 of this year. The central topic on the agenda was Climate Change and the perspectives of the International Regime. (…) Brazil and China have similar geographic dimensions and levels of technological and industrial development, features that bring them together also in their respective activities and objectives in the context of the
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International Regime on Climate Change. (…) Both countries are amongst the principal players in negotiations for the development of renewable energy resources and in the use of the Kyoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism, matters that were also the subject on the agenda of talks in Brasilia. Brazil and China took advantage of the occasion to express their support for the efforts of the Government of Argentina to hold, in Buenos Aires, the 10th Session of the Conference of Parties – the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 10 – Buenos Aires, December 6-10, 2004), and expressed their determination to contribute to the success of the of COP 10. Both countries expressed their concern with the future of the International Regime on Climate Change, in the current context of uncertainties about the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol. Press release. “First Meeting of the Joint Brazil-China Agenda on Sustainable Development with Emphasis on Climate Change” Brasilia, August 23, 2004. *** Brazil considers that the entry into force, today, February 16, of the Kyoto Protocol represents a historical landmark, contributing to the strengthening and credibility of multilateral efforts to confront the causes of climate change The Kyoto Protocol supplements the principles and directives of the policies of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed in Rio de Janeiro, in 1992, by establishing quantitative standards to limit and reduce the emission of greenhouse gases on the part of industrialized nations, which have the greatest historical responsibility for global warming. The Protocol stipulates that signatory industrialized countries should, between 2008 and 2012, reduce by 5% the aggregated emission of greenhouse gases in relation to 1990 levels.
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Press release. “The entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol” - Brasilia, February 16, 2005. *** Climate Change is a real problem to which Brazil gives great importance. There is a world consensus that this phenomenon is being accelerated by human activities. It is a cumulative process, resulting from the progressive concentration of gases over the last 150 years, which has created a greenhouse effect in the atmosphere It is therefore wrong and unfair to focus attention principally on those now responsible for the emission of gases. Some of these emissions – above all from emerging economies have little or no responsibility for global warming, the effects of which we are only beginning to feel. The main cause of climate change is well known: at least 80% of the problem originated in the burning of fossil fuels – especially coal and petroleum – from the middle of the Nineteenth Century. Only a small part of this problem results from changes in the use of the land, including deforestation. Actual deforestation on a global scale is worrying for various reasons, but the battle against Climate Change should focus on an alteration in the energy matrix and a more intensive use of clean energy. The Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol are clear: those responsible for causing this problem (the industrialized countries) should be subject to mandatory methods of reduction and an obligation to act first. “Amazonia is not for sale”, article by Ministers Celso Amorim, Marina Silva and Sergio Rezende in the Folha de S.Paulo newspaper - São Paulo, October 17, 2006. *** Reiterating their commitment to reinforce the multilateral regime in matters of climate change, Brazil and the European Union are making
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Joint Declaration Lisbon. though differentiated. State of Rio de Janeiro. July 4. a Reduction of Carbon Certificate will be 277 . in Nova Iguaçu. Both Parties recognized that substantial progress could be attained if they were guided by the last objective of the Convention and by the principle of common. checked and published. since it is expected to collect methane – a powerful greenhouse gas .THE ENVIRONMENT every effort to draw up an ambitious agreement during the second part of the period of execution of the Kyoto Protocol. and reiterated their commitment to ensure the success of the Bali Conference. In addition.from the landfill and use it to run a small thermoelectric power plant. This announcement was made on the same day that Russia officially handed to the United Nations the instrument of ratification of the Kyoto Project – which ensured its entry into force on February 16. CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM (CDM) The Executive Council for the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol announced on November 18 the first project in the world based on that Mechanism: The NovaGerar Project. as well as to develop additional actions under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. thereby substituting the use of fossil fuels. the project has a two-fold contribution towards mitigating global warming. As a result of the project. to be held in December 2007. Brazil-European Union Summit. The NovaGerar project involved the closing down of the old rubbish dump of Marambaia” and the construction of a modern sanitary landfill with significant environmental and social benefits for the local population. responsibilities. amongst which are incentives to ensure that developing countries take a variety of measures that can be measured. 2007.

under the coordination of the Inter-ministerial Commission on Global Climate Change. having adjusted. which originated from a Brazilian proposal presented during the Kyoto negotiations in 1997 made it possible for industrialized countries to meet part of their carbon caps by implementing projects in developing countries that contribute to balance the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse carbon gas. derived from a Brazilian proposal presented in 1997 during the negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol. The fact that this is the first project of its kind in the world highlights the pioneering actions of Brazil in the area of climate change. an Inter-ministerial Climate Change Commission. administered by the World Bank – in fulfillment of part of the standards for the limitation and reduction of emissions attributed to industrialized countries by the Kyoto Protocol. The projects should provide a significant contribution in areas such as 278 . which can be used by investors – the Dutch Fund for Clean Development Mechanism. November 19.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK issued. the Country’s legal and institutional structure in order to implement the Climate Convention and Kyoto Protocol.Brasilia. “A Brazilian Project is the first initiative to be approved within the ambit of the Clean Development Mechanism” . responsible for the approval in Brazil of projects based on that Mechanism. *** The Brazilian Government attributes great importance to the Clean Development Mechanism project. (…) The Clean Development Mechanism. Brazil was also the first developing country to establish a National Designated Authority for the CDM. 2004. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). both in an international and domestic sense. Press release. coordinated by the Ministry of Science and Technology.

Developed and developing countries have a differential timetable to implement the Montreal Protocol. the ozone layer will revert to levels similar to those recorded at the beginning of the 1980s. In the case of HCFC gases. January 24. developing countries should benefit from the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol. by the middle of this century. “Brazil and Spain sign a Memorandum of Understanding for cooperation projects within the ambit of the Clean Development Mechanism and Kyoto Protocol” . 2005. as well to replace these with economically viable alternatives.THE ENVIRONMENT renewable energy. 2003. industrial processing. of which the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (ratified by Brazil in 1989). Press release. sanitary landfills and reforestation.Brasilia. established control methods and timetables to eliminate the consumption and production of substances such as hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFs). With the implementation of the Montreal Protocol (ratified by Brazil in 1987). with the possibility of exemptions for essential uses. For their part. In addition.Brasilia. it is hoped that. which are less harmful to the ozone layer. in their activities to replace substances with those that do not destroy the ozone layer. is also a part. developed countries undertook to totally eliminate the consumption and production of these by 1996. 279 . by 2010. developing countries should no longer consume these substances. THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL The international regime for the protection of the ozone layer. Press release. “15th Meeting of Parties of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Destroy the Ozone Layer” . November 5.

especially the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and the Convention on Biodiversity. This Program. On par with satellite monitoring programs. in 2000. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim on taking office as Minister of State for External Relations .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK TROPICAL FORESTS – AMAZONIA We will support international cooperation for the environment. the country adopted the National Forest Stewardship Program. the fight against hunger and the promotion of food safety. Brazil has strict legislation to prevent deforestation and to promote the sustainable management of its forests. (…) Brazil has had a role of great importance in international talks about forests because it has the largest area of tropical forests in the world. 2003.Brasilia. In April 2000. It is important to stress that discussions about forests within the ambit of United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization FAO also focused on the relationship between forests. the prevention of fires and others carried out by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources – IBAMA. is in consonance with the action proposals adopted by the United Nations Intergovernmental Forestry Forum (IFF). as well as having policies and institutions dedicated to dealing with the forestry issue in its multiple dimensions. which includes activities in different areas for the conservation and sustainable use of its forestry resources. which are priority issues for the Brazilian Government. *** Brazil is one of the countries that has advanced most in formulating and implementing policies directed at conservation and the sustainable use of its forests. January 1. 280 .

article by Ministers Celso Amorim. “Amazonia is not for sale”. with the objective of preserving biological diversity. through the exchange of experiences and assistance in technical training. (…) Sustainable forest management is a propitious field for cooperation. we have achieved an important reduction in the rate of deforestation. The Conference came into force on December 29. to value the forests that are growing and to support the social and economic development of the communities who depend on them for their livelihood. in 1992. in Brazil’s case. since it holds the largest area of tropical forest in the world.São Paulo. Marina Silva and Sergio Rezende in the Folha de S. 2003. 2006. This involves a multi-sector and long-term effort. 1994. which occurred in Rio de Janeiro.. with the greatest 281 . 1993 and. Brazil gives great importance to the issue of environmental diversity.Paulo newspaper .) implementing an integrated policy to combat deforestation. We are open to such cooperation. *** Brazil is (. BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) was open for signature during the United Nations Environment and Development Conference.Brasilia. October 17.. During recent years. promoting the sustainable use of its components and stimulating the fair and equitable sharing of benefits that result from the use of its genetic resources. entered into force as of May 28. 16th Session of the FAO Committee on Forestry . always within the strict observance of our laws and sovereignty. March 7.THE ENVIRONMENT Press release.

is the greatest treasure of our planet. Everything that can threaten it or conspire against the equitable sharing of its resources should be rejected as a threat to the survival of Humanity and of Earth. the complex whole of different forms of life. (…) Nothing that threatens life or monopolizes the survival of its resources can serve the common cause of humanity.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK biodiversity on the planet (nearly 22% of all living species). so as to identify national interests which will define the Country’s actions in the matter. On the contrary. May 22. It is necessary to derive political and legal consequences from this paradigm. the adequate exploitation of its resources is a great way to proceed for the construction of new patterns of progress which will. International Day for Biological Diversity” .Brasilia. is part of this course. link the economic equation to quality of life and to environmental balance. At the same time. once and for all. which result from allowing access to its genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge. especially those who hold the world’s natural heritage. (…) The Ministry of External Relations (Itamaraty) has actively participated in meetings within the ambit of the CDB and organized coordination meeting with different internal sectors. it involves working to establish regulatory limits to protect the biodiversity and legitimate aspiration for development of poor countries. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the High Level segment of the Eighth 282 . Press release”. *** Biodiversity. 2004. (…) Biodiversity is not the unoccupied frontier of the 21st century. The battle to adopt an international rule for the sharing of benefits.

including those attained through proper access to genetic resources and the proper transfer of pertinent technology. September 19. “Brazil-European Union Summit Lisbon. and by means of proper financing. taking into account all rights covering such resources and technologies. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 61st United Nations General Assembly . in May 2008. the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits derived from the use of genetic resources. specifically.Curitiba. in areas such as the forests and the management of water resources. July 4. *** We defend the fight against biopiracy and the negotiation of an international regime for the sharing of benefits resulting from access to genetic and traditional knowledge resources. 2007 – Joint Declaration” .THE ENVIRONMENT Conference of Parties at the Biological Biodiversity Convention (COP 8) . They will also strengthen cooperation between what has been established between them. Press release. They will also cooperate. 2007 283 . at the next Conference of Parties at the Convention on Biological Diversity and at the meeting of Parties at the Cartagena Protocol on Bio-security.Brasilia. March 27. July 4. so as to push forward the implementation of the Protocol’s Convention. 2006. 2006.New York. which will take place in Bonn. *** Brazil and the European Union will cooperate more closely in areas of conservation and biological biodiversity.

scientific research without slaughtering the animals.Brasilia. which is part of this group of countries (against the hunting of whales).BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK INTERNATIONAL WHALING COMMISSION Amongst the terms on the agenda (of the Annual Meeting of the International Whaling Commission) which are of the greatest interest to Brazil. with the aim of 284 . co-authored by Argentina. Brazil again presented a proposal. it was decided to hold the 4th International Polar Year. In Berlin. is a strategy to strengthen the Commission’s conservationist guidelines. in 2007-2008. by the CBI. the nonalimentary use of the cetaceans. 2003. THE ANTARCTIC At the initiative of the International Council of Science (ICSU) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). and (d) written statements of threats to the environment and studies on the behavior of whales. amongst others). the following aspects of the initiative are of more immediate interest: (a) the formal recognition. of the legitimacy of the non-lethal use of whaling resources (whale watching tourism. (c) the establishment of a fund to meet the demands of this process of redirection. “Annual Meeting of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) in Berlin” . For Brazil. June 9. (b) the opening and redirection of the Scientific Committee for non-lethal research. Press release. (…) Brazil believes that this form of tourism (whale watching) is an economic activity that has been proven to be responsible for (obtaining) revenues as high or even higher than those obtained through the trade of products and by-products of whale hunting. to the IWC. to establish a sanctuary to protect whales in the South Atlantic. which will be the object of a specific resolution project (…).

by which it expresses total support for Brazilian scientific activities included in the 4th International Polar Year calendar of events. developed by ICSU and OMM Press release. 2007. (…) The National Commission for Antarctic Affairs (CONANTAR). the results of which contributed towards the creation of SCAR and the celebration of the same Treaty. This inter-ministerial collegiate adopted a resolution for the participation of Brazil in the present International Polar Year. (…) The scientific coordination of the International Polar Year will be carried out within the ambit of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR). as was the case of the 3rd Polar Year (1957-1958). as provided for in the various National Committee on Antarctic Research (CONAP) projects. as well as other organizations of civil society. With reference to the Antarctic. should have implications within the ambit of the Antarctic Treaty System. and will encourage agencies that are active in CONANTAR. presided by the Minister of External Relations. 285 . in 1959.Brasilia. “International Polar Year” . March 1. the scientific proposals will study topics that range from climate change to the role of the Southern continent in the balance of terrestrial ecosystems. in the near future. which. which will be executed through international partnerships.THE ENVIRONMENT fostering scientific research work in all areas of investigation related to the Polar Regions. the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM) has dedicated great attention to the preparations and possible evolution of this initiative. to ensure that the Brazilian participation is both extensive and consistent with the 4th International Polar Year program of scientific activities. On a political level. was created in 1982 with the aim of serving at an advisory capacity to the President of the Republic for the formulation and obtainment of the National Policy for Antarctic Affairs.

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FIGHTING HUNGER AND POVERTY .

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January 30. direct investment. and in favor of social justice and sustainable development. Three developing countries. Political will is a vital element in this equation. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at a press conference on the World Fund to Fight Hunger and Poverty . relief from foreign debt. It comprises fighting against exclusion and inequality.) This global alliance to fight hunger and poverty should enable developing countries to receive continued support through more liberal international trade. within the ambit of the UNDP. an increase in international aid and alternative mechanisms for financing.. We invite world leaders to unite in this effort of political mobilization.. This is not an easy task.FIGHTING HUNGER AND POVERTY Fighting hunger and poverty is not just a utopian goal. 2004. *** The IBSA Fund created last year by Brazil. was a pioneering initiative. political and economic obligation to help their partners to overcome 289 . (. but the leverage of growth. I propose a change in attitude. It requires great transformations in the structure of society and profound changes in the organization of our system of production. in which the redistribution of wealth will not be the result. cognizant of the fact that they also have a moral.Geneva. The challenge of our time is to fuse economic stability with social inclusion. India and South Africa. I am making an ethical and political call on the international community to work in support of a new concept of development.

It dramatically reduces the production capacity of the elderly. The Fund was idealized to finance best practices and successful projects that can be extended and reproduced in other developing countries. which is a cause that we in Brazil are dedicated to. claims the lives of 11 children a minute. so that governments. Solidarity has to take the form of a global partnership. It should redirect development priorities and policies.000 people a day.. thus fueling violent solutions to social and political problems. It is essential that our actions be successful in each one of our countries. There can be no real economic development without a distribution of income. but it is not enough. the United Nations system. It kills 24. by eliminating the different forms of subsidies that hinder free trade. May 26.) I am convinced that it is necessary to join international cooperation with national will and efforts in this battle to eradicate hunger and poverty. *** Economic development is a necessary requirement. China. It should seek to reduce economic and trade differences. 2004. led the way and inaugurated a fund that will meet the central theme of this Conference in Shanghai. (.Shanghai. It affects almost a quarter of all humanity. It seriously jeopardizes possibilities for learning. Poverty is the most powerful weapon of mass destruction. capable of mobilizing political decisions and financial support. International cooperation has an important role to play in meeting this challenge. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the World Bank Conference on Fighting Poverty . This creates a context that breeds resentment.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK poverty. without social justice. 290 . international financial and trade institutions take more energetic steps to resolve these issues.

we still have not evolved to the point where we are able to share our meals around the planet. It is a powerful and concrete gesture towards a world alliance in the prevention of hunger and poverty. leaders of 50 societies and nations. *** The fact that we. Hunger is a social problem that urgently needs to be faced as a political problem. if they neglect to do this themselves. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the meeting of world leaders to launch the “Action to Prevent Hunger and Poverty” campaign.Guadalajara. Humanity has achieved spectacular levels of scientific and technological progress.FIGHTING HUNGER AND POVERTY Statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Working Meeting on Social Cohesion at the Third Latin America and Caribbean – European Union Summit . World production is more than sufficient to satisfy the hunger of the populations. if they have done their part. 2004. so that all may at least have the necessary food they need to survive. Unfortunately.New York. Hunger takes away dignity. Poor countries and developing nations have the moral authority to make demands on wealthy countries. (…) It is not just a question of demanding from the wealthy countries what we can and should demand from them: a radically new stance and greater efforts to face the absurd tragedy of hunger and poverty. *** 291 . September 20. if they have applied their own resources honestly and efficiently to prevent hunger and poverty. Mexico. 2004. at the UN headquarters . destroys self-esteem and violates the most basic human right: the right to life. May 28. are here already raises our hopes.

2007. INNOVATIVE MECHANISMS We believe that the world should do more against poverty and disease and ensure that adequate education and health be guaranteed to all. May 4. March 9.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Fighting hunger and poverty – one of the main priorities during the first term of the Government of President Lula – will continue to receive the decisive support of the Ministry of External Relations. As a founder of the group of countries that has promoted the Action to Prevent Hunger and Poverty. *** 292 . 2006. article by President Lula in the Folha de S.São Paulo. demonstrates our determination to find innovative focal points to help mobilize the public and private sectors to face the challenges of our time.Paulo newspaper . Ministry of External Relations Strategic Guidelines. Brazil seeks to mobilize civil society organizations toward the proposals made by the Pilot Group of the Innovative Financing Mechanism. “More than ever a Globalized world demands international cooperation”. Pluriannual Plan 2008-2011 . such as a tax on international financial transactions and a tax on the commerce of weapons.Brasilia. Malaria and Tuberculosis (UNITAID). (…) Brazil will continue to work to put into effect other proposals. Our support to the International Financing Mechanism for Immunization and the contribution made by the introduction of a solidarity tax on airline tickets. such as the International Central Office for the Purchase of Drugs to Treat AIDS. Brazil supports all efforts that may help to achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. Concrete initiatives are being implemented.

2006. as we move forward. Sudden variations in aid put cooperation projects at risk and. since they are not subject to budgetary fluctuations due to political or any other reasons.FIGHTING HUNGER AND POVERTY It is already clear that the present levels of foreign aid are not sufficient to enable the poorer countries to reach the Millennium Development Goals. malaria and tuberculosis. as a result. which is not a mere coincidence. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the Plenary Meeting of the Pilot Group on Innovative Financing Mechanisms . “Launching of the International Central Office for the purchase of Drugs to treat AIDS. Additional resources obtained by means of innovative mechanisms will have the advantage of being made on a regular and predicable basis. A world of peace and security is 293 . other countries will join the 44 which today form this Pilot Group.Brasilia. The objective of this Central Office is to facilitate access to drugs to treat the three diseases that most affect developing countries: AIDS. the lives of millions of people. September 19. I am certain that. Press release. *** UNITAID represents the concrete result of an initiative launched in 2004 by President Lula to establish the International Action for the Prevention of Hunger and Poverty. 2006. as it seeks alternative mechanisms to supplement official development aid.Brasilia. UNITED NATIONS FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION (FAO) FAO came into being in the same year we created the United Nations. malaria and tuberculosis – UNITAID” . This is why this political and intellectual work is so important. July 6.

BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK inseparable from efforts to guarantee full access to one of the most basic of human rights – the right to food. to ensure that it becomes a political issue. 2005. governments and civil society organizations. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the ceremony to celebrate the 60th anniversary of FAO Rome..) Brazil has contributed a great deal to FAO during these last 60 years. The fight against hunger and poverty is at the center of the international agenda. and not just a statistic. a great intellect in hunger related issues. are committed to this struggle. Geographer Josué Castro. And this has only been made possible because many of us.. 294 . October 17. (. had a notable career as President of the Council of FAO.

HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL ISSUES .

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2005 *** Brazil has renewed its commitment to human rights. which is to build a consensus in favor of improving the international system on human rights. Brazil’s participation in the United Nations Commission on Human Rights — almost consecutively since 1978 — is based on the same objective. dialogue and non-selectivity. will contribute towards increasing credibility in the United Nations system to protect Human Rights. covering all countries and situations. issues that will hopefully be overcome with this reform.New York. We support the creation of a Council of Human Rights which is based on principles of universality. We are signatories of the principal treaties and have worked together with all international organisms to promote and protect human rights. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening of the general debate of the 60th United Nations General Assembly . In this respect. The design of a global report on human rights.HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL ISSUES COUNCIL OF HUMAN RIGHTS (CHR) The structures and mechanism of the Organization in the sphere of human rights should be reinforced and improved. democracy and the rule of law. Brazil has expressed its concern with regard to the selectivity and the politicization that endanger the credibility and efficiency of the Commission. under the responsibility of the High Commissioner. (…) The creation of a Human Rights Council is consistent 297 . September 17.

and development. No. but as a way of ensuring that each individual – man and woman. And ideas – 298 . *** Hunger and diseasecan also be seen in the effects they cause as anonymous forms of torture. Política Externa. 2005. Cooperation must prevail over victimization. social origins. not as a chase after political victories in one form or another. age. old or young – can take advantage of a life free from fear. To prevent hunger and disease is also a way to promote human rights and strengthen democracy. (…) Human rights must be safeguarded from all forms of discrimination. Nevertheless. The importance given to this issue within the ambit of the United Nations should be the same as that given to peace and security. Those affected by such misfortunes are not in a position to make use of other civil or political rights. (…) The creation of a Human Rights Council gives us a unique opportunity to inject new life in the way human rights are treated within the system of the United Nations. 14. whether related to race. imposed on individuals by unjust societies – or at least by the international community itself. not so much as a condemnation. color. political opinions. physical capacity or sexual orientation. volume. article by Minister Celso Amorim. hunger and disrespect. religion. gender. “The United Nations Organization at Sixty”. but more as a form of encouragement.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK with Brazilian foreign policy to ensure predominance is given to human rights. it may seem premature to establish a Human Rights Council as the Organization’s principal body already at this early stage. 2. We could consider linking it directly to the General Assembly and proceed with a process of revision in fifteen years’ time. Our objective should be seen.

a global report on human rights. clear and transparent? A global report. furthermore. whereby countries undergo a sort of “peer review” on human rights. *** Right from the first moment. accompanied by a system similar to that which exists in the ILO. Statement by Minister Celso Amorim during the 6 th Mercosur Meeting of High Authorities on Human Rights . will bring us closer to an impartial discussion that is. in the field of human rights.HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL ISSUES precisely those that were sanctioned in the Universal Declaration – must prevail over political convenience. as I see it. *** And what. June 19. One idea we have defended is that the state of human rights in the world should be the object of a “Global Report”. but on a voluntary basis onlyto begin with. which even exists in the WTO for trade matters. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the High Level Segment of the First Session of the Human Rights Council . we have supported the creation of the Human Rights Council. We trust that the Council will contribute towards the effective promotion and protection of human right across the world and that.Brasilia. December 5. will put an end to the selectivity and politicization that was such a characteristic of the old Commission on Human Rights.Geneva. After all. 2006. Brazil’s participation has been of special importance in the negotiations for its formation. more than any 299 . 2006. to the extent possible.

at the High Level Segment of the 4th Regular Session of the Human Rights Council . March 12. the Global Report will reinforce the universal nature and transparency of its activities. The consolidation of all reports in one single document. and a stage for interactive dialogue. *** The Universal Periodic Review Mechanism is at the heart of the Council. with suggestions and recommendations to the State in question. Minister Paulo Vannuchi. it is essential that all countries cooperate with the system and participate in its operation. without exception. To this end. The mechanism should produce a report. will generate a Global Report on Human Rights. written by experts and which will be submitted for the approval of the Council. at the end of each four-year cycle. the Biblical saying that “it easier to see the splinter in the eye of your neighbor than the wooden beam in your own eye” is applicable.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK other perhaps. Speech by the Presidency’s Special Secretary on Human Rights. Since it is universal. it will permit a global vision of all States. Lecture given by Ministro Celso Amorim during the Second National Conference on Foreign Policy and International Policy . As one of Brazil’s long-standing ambitions. 300 . to be carried out by independent experts. “Brazil’s multilateral diplomacy: a tribute to Rui Barbosa”.Rio de Janeiro.Geneva. which should be carried out preferably between States. November 5. It is the central instance that can make all the difference in relation to the old Commission. Brazil envisages a broad participation – including that of NGOs — comprising two stages: a preparatory phase. 2007. 2007.

Brasilia. Press release. notably the Geneva Convention of 1949 and the Additional Protocols I and II of 1977. we recognize the competence of the Commission and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. Brazil already accepts the competence to examine individual cases of important human rights mechanics within the United Nations system. (…) At the 28th International Conference of the 301 . with the objective of proposing to the competent authorities the measures needed to implement and promote international humanitarian rights in Brazil. “Brazil’s Declaration recognizes the competence of the Committee Against Torture to receive accusations” . In the inter-American system. which include accusations of possible violations of the Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish Torture. such as the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination and the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. 2006. who will now be able to use an additional mechanism to protect them against future violations. the Brazilian government created the National Commission to Promote and Implement Human Rights in Brazil.HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL ISSUES COMMITTEE AGAINST TORTURE (CAT) The acceptance of the competence of the Committee Against Torture to receive and analyze individual petitions reinforces the recognition by Brazil of the legitimate nature of international concern towards human rights and a higher interest in protecting possible victims. The establishment of a National Commission will give Brazil a necessary instrument with which to effectively apply Humanitarian Law. June 26. NATIONAL COMMISSION HUMANITARIAN LAW TO THE PROMOTE AND IMPLEMENT By means of a Decree dated November 27. 2003.

social and cultural aspects of society. February 11. xenophobia and correlated intolerance. training programs and Armed Forces operational manuals. we created today a Special Secretariat of Policies for the Promotion of Racial Equality. Press release. The Brazilian Government reiterates its unequivocal determination to implement the commitments undertaken at the Durban Conference and thereby reaffirms the importance attributed to the adoption of measures that ensure the participation of persons who are victims of discrimination in all political. In this context. economic. 2004 THE FIGHT AGAINST RACISM AND DISCRIMINATION We encourage the universal promotion of human rights and the fight against all forms of discrimination.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Red Cross and the Red Crescent societies.Brasilia. January 1. (…) Brazil committed to promote the integration of international humanitarian law rules at the level of teaching. *** The Brazilian Government associates itself with the worldwide commemorations now being held to express the international community’s repudiation of racism. “Setting up a National Commission to Promote and Implement Humanitarian Law in Brazil” . Speech by Minister Celso Amorim on taking office as Minister of State for External Relations . 2003. racial discrimination.Brasilia. with the objective of responding to the aspirations of the Brazilian people in their support 302 .

. or can exist. a system that I believe can also help the candidates’ own self-esteem. “International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination” . *** Affirmative action is nothing more than an attempt to provide equal possibilities for those who have had less favorable conditions during their childhood and adolescence. Next July. here at Itamaraty (Ministry of External Relations) who need them as members of our Ministry. so that our country may be adequately represented.HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL ISSUES of the fight against racism.Brasilia. Statement by Minister Celso Amorim during the opening of the International Panel “Affirmative Actions and Millennium Goals” .. Press release. At a regional level. March 21. the feeling that there exists. some form of discrimination is. racial discrimination. June 29. a form of discrimination. When we create an affirmative action program. Brazil will host the Regional Conference of the Americas against Racism. we have also been at the forefront to establish a new and stronger Convention on Racism. 2003. 303 . here at Itamaraty. xenophobia and any form of intolerance.Brasilia. when I say this. it is not because persons of African descent need to have access to the Ministry of External Relations. (. *** We are particularly engaged in efforts to fight racism and promote social equality for the majority of Afro-descendants in our Country. in itself. It is we. we are really tackling the problem head on.) Often. to provide a system of scholarships (for people of African descent). 2005. to make another person have this feeling. (…) And.

The United Nations Organization brought the topic to the center of its agenda. one of the needs of Itamaraty. We are working so that the Millennium Goals are attained. This debate and the parallel events related to the Millennium Goals reflect the strength of mobilization.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Speech by Minister Celso Amorim.the Brazilian Diplomatic Academy) programs of affirmative action designed in a very special way.Brasilia. The 304 . (…) This is not (a question of) doing a favor to individuals of African descent. 2006. The Sachs Report showed that these objectives are possible. MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS Today we are continuing a debate that began at the Millennium Summit. during the High Level Segment of the First Session of Human Rights Council . that reflects what sort of Brazil we represent. but also sees itself as an institution that reflects what we really are. a need of the institution. of Afro-descendents in our institution. We have managed to increase the number of Blacks. which should not only recognize itself as a body endowed with the highest technical and intellectual skills. June 19. the IMF and the G-8 are sensitive to the question.Geneva. The debate on innovative sources of development financing is no longer a taboo subject. Speech by Minster Celso Amorim in the class graduation ceremony at the Rio Branco Institute (the Brazilian Diplomatic Academy) . May 2. 2007. This relates to one of the Country’s needs. because they envisage to acknowledge merit while providing (…) scholarship programs. *** We have had (at the Rio Branco Institute . The IBD.

Brazil has actively participated in deliberations in the international sphere with the purpose of promoting the full exercise of the civil. Last year. As a signatory of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. They need to transform words into action. businesses and civil society. we suggested mechanisms to obtain additional funding. to reach the desired goal of effective gender equality. social and cultural rights of women around the world. “International Women’s Day” . to enable aid to be given faster. March 8.Brasilia. economic. political. Press release. They need to consolidate partnerships between government.HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL ISSUES international community needs to commit itself so that these objectives may be attained. 2004. is cause for satisfaction and an encouraging demonstration of the progress made on the path to eliminate prejudice. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening session of the High Level Meeting of the United Nations General Assembly (Millennium Goals) . on stable and foreseeable bases. September 14. They need to work faster. 2005. in performing increasingly more important positions in politics and in the economy. *** 305 . The remarkable participation of women in the Ministry of External Relations and in Brazilian diplomatic life in general is internationally recognized.New York. WOMEN The remarkable contribution of women to the development of this country.

the promotion and sponsorship of tobacco products. *** 306 . (…) Brazil’s prominent role (in the negotiations of the Framework Convention) was always based on the recognized effectiveness of the Brazilian program on tobacco control. The program includes legislative measures against publicity.Brasilia. June 16. reflects international recognition of the advances made towards the rights of women. Press release. As the first multilateral public health instrument to be negotiated within the ambit of the WHO. environmental and economic consequences of the consumption of tobacco and of exposure to tobacco fumes. 2004. considered exemplary by the WHO.Brasilia. October 29. protect the population from passive smoking and intensify support programs to stop the habit of smoking. HEALTH In a ceremony held today. and also reaffirms Brazil’s interest in contributing more actively to debates on the subject in multilateral forums. in Geneva.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK The choice of Minister Nilcéa Freire for the Presidency of the InterAmerican Commission of Women (a body of the OAS). Brazil signed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. the objective of the Framework Convention is to protect present and future generations against the devastating health. 2003. June 16. social. restrict access to tobacco products by persons under the legal age. “Election of Minister Nilcéa Freire as President of the Inter-American Commission of Women (CIM) . as well as strategies and actions designed to reduce the social acceptance of the habit of smoking. at the headquarters of the World Health Organization. “Signature of a Framework Convention on Tobacco Control” . Press Release.

The Brazilian Government worked with total transparency and in perfect harmony with society and is proud of having contributed so decisively to reach a decision of consensus around such an essential issue for developing countries. Press release. We have a program to fight AIDS that is recognized worldwide as an answer to one of the worst dramas that humanity has had to live through in our time. The National STD/ AIDS Program. The decision taken today consolidates an understanding that members are entitled to use. But. The Declaration recognizes. We have managed to organize the distribution of retroviral drugs on a large scale. if this is to be a viable option in a country with few 307 . so that they may successfully reach their objectives in public health. “Patents and public health: a decision on paragraph 6 of the Doha Declaration” . will continue to use such flexibility to its own advantage. remains a basic instrument for public health policies in Brazil. *** A country like Brazil cannot afford to live on the fringes of global developments. the rights of members of the WHO to grant compulsory licenses and to determine the grounds upon which such licenses are granted. in an unequivocal form. (…) The decision taken today extends the possibility of recourse to a compulsory license by countries without the necessary production capacity. I will give you an example. in their totality. the success of which has been recognized worldwide and that now serves as a model for developing countries. 2003. enabling them to take advantage of cheaper imports to meet their needs. the integrity of which has been maintained and strengthened. August 30.HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL ISSUES The Doha Declaration.Brasilia. the flexibility that is inherent in the TRIPS Agreement (Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) to deal with problems of public health.

the Ministerial Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health stated that the TRIPS Agreement “does not prevent and should not prevent Members from taking measure to protect public health”.. 2007. the program is dependent on the price of drugs not going over certain reasonable limits. The TRIPS agreement itself recognizes this fact. *** Healthcare is at the center of the Action against Hunger and Poverty. 308 . But the rules of intellectual property. (. (…) Brazil has scrupulously adhered to its commitments in matters of intellectual property. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the debate “Brazil: a Global Player” . without exaggeration. they are global rules. We also want to expand our trilateral cooperation with developing countries to benefit poorer nations. We have all taken part in its design.Paris. a question of life and death. interpretation and execution. when related to public health.Geneva. such as the WHO.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK resources. July 13.. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the 60th World Health Assembly .) Brazil wants to explore possibilities of cooperation with international organizations. (…) The rules on patents are not established on an individual basis in each country. in 2004. In the case of AIDS. launched by President Lula and other world leaders in New York. In addition. we are supporting a program of vaccination against hepatitis B in Haiti. May 15. In partnership with Canada. such participation is. 2005. said President Lula at the United Nations General Assembly last year. Healthcare is crucial to development and to fight against poverty. “Hunger and disease are twin sisters”. should serve public interests.

HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL ISSUES INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION (ILO) The Declaration of Basic Labor Principles and Rights.Buenos Aires. In Brazil.Geneva. This involves giving the worker not just any job. but ensuring the right to a fair salary. the elimination of forced labor. Consensus of Buenos Aires. the concept of a “decent job” guides the actions of the Ministry of Labor and Employment. equal pay and non-discrimination at the work place. respect for his rights. the eradication of child labor. The term captures the humanistic spirit that characterize our national and international mobilization efforts. 2003. October 16. a working life that is not arduous but creative. June 2. established a commitment around proposals that my Government fully supports: the freedom of association. security for his family. 309 . and hope that from its results there will emerge lines of action that will giver our community satisfactory levels of social cohesion and dignity to the worker and his/her family. adopted in June 1998. is the most effective instrument to promote living conditions for our people and to ensure that they share the fruits of material and human progress. the right to collective negotiation. *** We reaffirm our conviction that decent work. as conceived by the ILO. We welcome the next Mercosur Regional Conference on Employment. signed by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Néstor Kirchner . in March 2004. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the special session at the 61 st Inter national Labor Conference . 2003. attention to his demands.

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DISARMAMENT. NON-PROLIFERATION AND SECURITY .

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especially with Argentina. which have enabled us to overcome rivalries. NON-PROLIFERATION AND SECURITY DISARMAMENT – OVERVIEW The intrinsic links between foreign policy and defense are of particular relevance in the case of a country such as ours. dialogue and cooperation. on the moder nization of Brazilian thinking in matters of defense and security . Foreign policy resulted in strategic projects. Moreover. *** 313 . disarmament and non-proliferation issues.DISARMAMENT. Rio de Janeiro. giving us the possibility to concentrate on economic and social development. but one that is definitely based on cooperative international security. notably those of regional integration. Article by Minister Celso Amorim presented at the circle of debates organized by the Ministr y of Defense. (…) Brazil has benefited from its unique international prominence: that of a country of undeniable importance that does not defend an exclusivist or self-centered viewpoint. and that had as their main objective the consolidation of the South America statute as an area of peace. we have taken the lead in various initiatives in multilateral forums that deal with security.Itaipava. which has benefited from living in peace with all of its neighbors for more than one hundred and thirty years. 2003. “Brazil and new global and hemispheric concepts of security”. October 11 and 12.

within the ambit of the United Nations.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Both Presidents reaffirmed the right to development and the use of technology for pacific ends and reaffirmed their commitment to the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. 3) support the actions of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). chemical or biological weapons. such as small arms and light weapons and landmines. in consonance with International Law.Brasilia. In this regard. 5) encourage the implementation of the United Nations Action Program for the Prevention. 6) Cooperation. 4) cooperation. within the ambit of multilateral efforts to prevent the illicit traffic of nuclear. 2) strengthen effective trade control mechanisms . which remains a priority for the international community. the two leaders [Presidents Lula and Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi] reaffirmed their determination to work together to strengthen the international regime on disarmament and non-proliferation. missile launch vehicles and related materials. Combat and Eradication of Ilicit Traffic of Small Arms and Light Weapons in all its Aspects. Joint Communiqué during the official visit to Brazil of the President of Pakistan. November 20. by means of the following measures: 1) the universalization of international treaties and rules on disarmament and non-proliferation and strengthening the domestic implementation of these treaties and rules. 2004. they expressed the view that nonproliferation cannot be disassociated from nuclear disarmament. and in particular nuclear weapons. to promote nuclear disarmament and the fight against excessive stocks of conventional weapons. *** With the aim of confronting the threat of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and missile launch vehicles. following the example of cooperation to guarantee the implementation 314 . Pervez Musharraf . in areas of disarmament and non-proliferation.

*** The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and missile launch vehicles constitute a growing threat to international peace and security. Brazil and South Africa (IBSA) Dialogue Forum . March 30. including material support by means of cooperation initiatives. Joint Communiqué at the Third Trilateral Mixed Commission at the India.Rio de Janeiro. *** The Ministers (of Foreign Affairs of India. NON-PROLIFERATION AND SECURITY of Security Council Resolution 1540. we are determined to collaborate to prevent the illicit traffic of nuclear. The international community shares the responsibility to actively prevent such a risk. and in agreement with authorities and national legislation and in consonance with international law. 2005.DISARMAMENT. chemical and biological weapons. Brazil and South Africa) expressed their conviction that multilateral institutions created within the ambit of multilateral disarmament agreements should continue to be the primary institutions and mechanisms used in international community efforts to reach common objectives in the area of disarmament and non-proliferation. 2006. May 26. 7) efforts directed towards providing assistance to countries devastated by landmines. To this end. Joint Declaration regarding cooperation between Brazil and Japan and on international matters . Declaration from the Heads of State and Government of the European Union-Latin America and the 315 .Tokyo. their launch vehicles and related materials.

legally binding instruments that eliminated chemical and biological weapons and are contributing towards the total elimination of these weapons. They recalled that similar approaches led to the establishment of international. and to determine their destruction. for the total elimination of nuclear weapons. within a timeframe specifically (designed) to eliminate nuclear weapons. transfer. Press Communiqué Brasilia. They emphasized the need to begin negotiations to establish a program. First Summit Meeting of IBSA. to be carried out in stages. universal. as well as various other disarmament and non-proliferation 316 . storage. prohibit their development. 2006.Vienna. use or threat to use. and reaffirmed in this respect that the objective of non-proliferation would be better served by the systematic and progressive elimination of nuclear weapons in an all-inclusive. production. September 13. Brazil is part of the NPT. and reaffirmed their commitment to make efforts in relevant multilateral forums to seek a universal instrument to prohibit nuclear weapons and achieve their total elimination. acquisition. May 12.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Caribbean at the 4th LAC-EU Summit . non-discriminatory and verifiable manner. 2006. *** (The leaders of IBSA) emphasized that nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation are processes that are reinforced mutually and demand continual and irreversible progress on both fronts. TREATY ON THE NON-PROLIFERATION OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS (NPT) Brazil defends the proposition of the irreversibility of international disarmament and non-proliferation commitments.

January 12. in accordance with what is established in Article 6 of the NPT. at the Conference for Revision of 2000.DISARMAMENT. Press release. Brazil vigorously supports the total elimination of nuclear weapons. 2003. which determine that “all nuclear activity within the National territory will only be allowed for pacific ends and through the approval of National Congress”. *** The Ministers (for the Coalition of the New Agenda) expressed their profound concern with the lack of progress until the present moment in the implementation of the “13 steps” to achieve nuclear disarmament. and that at all times and in all circumstances the Member States should be considered responsible for the strict execution of the respective obligations arising from the Treaty.Brasilia. Brazil defends the use of nuclear energy exclusively for pacific ends. and the fulfillment of the unequivocal commitment undertaken by nuclear countries at the last Conference for the Revision of NPT. chemical and biological weapons. involving nuclear. the Ministers emphasized that each one of the NPT articles is mandatory for each one of the Member States. “Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons” . (…) The Ministers emphasized that the recent international debate on weapons of mass destruction in any place. as agreed by Party States of the Treaty of NonProliferation of Nuclear Weapons. including nuclear weapons. The Ministers recalled that continued and irreversible progress in the reduction of nuclear weapons is a basic pre-requisite for the promotion of non-proliferation. and their total elimination is a safeguard to ensure that they will never be used or produced again. which it scrupulously respects. in accordance with the precepts inscribed in the Constitution of 1988. and reiterated that the implementation of the obligations undertaken within the ambit of the Treaty remain imperative. 317 . NON-PROLIFERATION AND SECURITY treaties.

New York. as provided for by the Constitution — is safeguarded by the Brazilian-Argentinean Agency for the Accountability and Control of Nuclear Material (ABACC) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since 1994. New Zealand. as well as their deep concern with the slow progress being made on nuclear disarmament. of which Brazil is a full Party: the Treaty of Tlatelolco and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Ireland. even though the latter is not yet in force. 2003. Egypt. Mexico. as well as the Comprehensive Nuclear-TestBan Treaty (CTBT). Press release. *** They (Heads of State and Government of South American and Arab countries) reiterated their positions of principle on nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation and of other weapons of mass destruction. They further reaffirmed the illegitimacy of using or threatening to use nuclear weapons by any State and emphasized the importance of providing safety 318 . September 23. “Brazilian Nuclear Program” .Brasilia. without ever having given rise to any form of doubt with respect to the total fulfillment of our obligations. South Africa and Sweden) . *** The Country’s nuclear program – which can only be used for strictly pacific ends. 2004. April 5. including nuclear armaments. because it has not been ratified by countries that have advanced technology at their disposal. in the light of international instruments to regulate matters of disarmament and non-proliferation.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Declaration of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Coalition of New Agenda Countries (Brazil.

Brasília Declaration. September 18 .22. Head of the Brazilian Delegation at the 50th Session of the General Conference of the IAEA Vienna. ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL OF THE INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA) From Brazil’s point of view. signed by Countries taking part in the South American and Arab Countries Summit Brasilia. 319 . May 11. of effective actions to adhere to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). and of the progress made for the universalization of other relevant agreements negotiated multilaterally in areas of disarmament and nonproliferation. 2006. We are also concerned by the fact that the updating of the Agency’s procedures of verification have contributed to the incorporation of elements of the Additional Protocol to the inspection procedures. Brazil is concerned with the element of doubt that may hover over those countries that are not armed with nuclear weapons and which did not sign an Additional Protocol. 2005. but rigorously fulfill their respective obligations under the NPT.DISARMAMENT. in this respect. NON-PROLIFERATION AND SECURITY guarantees to countries that do not possess nuclear weapons and. Statement by Ambassador Antônio José Vallim Guerreiro. My delegation therefore considers that it is necessary to recall that this instrument was negotiated and approved in accordance with the understanding that its adoption would occur under strictly voluntary terms. the review conferences of the NPT are the most appropriate forum for talks on possible changes to the status of the Additional Protocol.

2005. objectives and obligations (of the Treaty) of Tlatelolco. (…) In this respect. 320 . remove or modify the interpretive declarations that they formulated during the signature or ratification of Additional Protocols I and II of the Treaty of Tlatelolco. (…) The NuclearWeapons-Free Zones are a powerful political instrument that can contribute in a decisive way to stimulate the nuclear disarmament agenda. at the 19th General Conference of OPANAL . Ambassador Gelson Fonseca Júnior. TERRORISM The fight against terrorism cannot be seen as being incompatible with the promotion and strengthening of human rights. November 7. Brazil understands that we should continue our efforts to demand that the great powers that are armed with nuclear weapons. including the right to a life of dignity. This notion has not been emphasized firmly enough. Chile.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK AGENCY FOR THE PROHIBITION OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN (OPANAL) The strengthening of OPANAL should become a landmark in the principles.Santiago. (…) We should (…) not allow the legitimate bolstering of security measures – against bio-terrorism. Speech by the Head of the Brazilian Delegation. with the aim of re-vindicating the central role that is due to the Agency and thereby avoid duplicating the efforts already made by other regional and multilateral organisms. for example – to be transformed into an enforced new category of disguised non-tariff barriers to international trade. It is necessary to work together to transform this potential into reality.

under any guise or pretext. The fight against terrorism cannot be seen strictly in terms of repression by institutions of the police force. severe social and economic problems . These efforts should respect international law and human rights. Although there is no automatic link between poverty and terrorism. We will continue to offer our support to greater international cooperation to combat terrorism and to eliminate its most profound causes. *** Barbaric acts of terrorism continue to be perpetrated against the innocent and defenseless.DISARMAMENT.and in particular. the promotion of development and the intransigent defense of human rights. *** Brazil vehemently rejects these abominable acts that are an outrage to our very notion of humanity. We have to reject prejudice and discrimination. But we will not defeat (terrorism) only by means of repression. 2003. NON-PROLIFERATION AND SECURITY Statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Conference “Fighting Terrorism in favor of Humanity” . Neither can such actions result in deaths that are as absurd and indiscriminate as those provoked by the terrorists themselves. when combined with the absence of civil and political freedom – are factors that can expose communities to the extreme attitudes of fanatical 321 . Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the United Nations Security Council Summit . 2005.New York. September 22. The fight against this scourge demands firmness.New York. We need to prevent terrorism from growing roots in the midst of despair. September 14. In the fight against irrational violence our best weapons are the culture of dialogue.

transnational organized crime.New York. TRIPLE PRONTIER (BRAZIL–ARGENTINA–PARAGUAY) The Brazilian Government understands that.Brasilia. “Triple Frontiers” . I want to express the willingness of Brazilians to work intensely so that a swift agreement can be reached in this wide-reaching convention on terrorism. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening of the general debate at the 60th United Nations General Assembly . 2005. This position is shared by the Governments of Argentina and Paraguay. in the light of available information. Brazil reiterates its commitment to international cooperation as an instrument to prevent and to fight terrorism and the financing of terrorism. in accordance with a Joint Communiqué adopted at the end of the meeting in Buenos Aires.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK groups. of due process of law and ample defense. September 17. As from this moment. Unilateral initiatives and declarations that arbitrarily single out the Triple Frontier zone only results in unjustified prejudice against the region. there are no signs to confirm that an incident has occurred involving activities linked to terrorism or the financing of terrorism in that region (Triple Frontier zone). December 7. which should fall within the framework of the strict observance of International Law and Human Rights.. Press release.. 2006.) the need to further international cooperation to fight terrorism. the 322 . TRANSNATIONAL CRIME The Presidents emphasized (.

Press release.DISARMAMENT. *** 323 . 2005.Brasilia. the Governments of Argentina and Paraguay accepted the invitation of the Brazilian Government to designate national police institutions to form part of the RCO in Foz de Iguaçu. NON-PROLIFERATION AND SECURITY traffic of weapons and ammunition. December 14. the world problem of drugs and related offences. Members of the Center will be employees originating from the Brazilian Federal Police. So as to further cooperation in the area of public security in general. kidnappings and human traffic. from the Federal Police of Argentina and the National Police force of Paraguay. of the Republic of Argentina and the Republic of Paraguay decided to initiate the investigation activities of police intelligence and exchange information in the present facilities of the Regional Central Intelligence Office (RCO) of Foz de Iguaçu. Joint Declaration by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the President of the Republic of Colombia. 2006. Argentina and Paraguay to strengthen the coordination of police investigation activities. and especially in the region of the triple frontier zone. The creation of the RCO is part of a series of initiatives that have been taken by the Governments of Brazil. within a perspective of shared responsibility.Bogota. Álvaro Uribe . as well as their negative effects on the economic and social development of the countries involved. so as to prevent and combat illicit practices in that region. *** The Governments of the Federative Republic of Brazil. “Regional Central Intelligence Office in Foz de Iguaçu” . which is able to operate from the building of the Federal Police Station of that region. December 1.

such as drug trafficking. July 4.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Brazil and the European Union have agreed to work together to meet the most pressing world challenge in matters of peace and security. 324 . transnational organized criminal activities. moneylaundering. as well as terrorism and illegal immigration. light weapons and ammunition. as well as their launch vehicles. the traffic of small caliber weapons. chemical and biological weapons. 2007. Both parties expressed their commitment to the Coordination and Cooperation Mechanism in matters involving Drugs between the European Union and Latin America and the Caribbean. Brazil-European Union Summit. the traffic of human beings. Joint Declaration Lisbon. non-proliferation and the control of weapons. involving questions of disarmament. in particular with respect to nuclear.

CULTURAL ISSUES .

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But this trade is still not equitable. individual and collective growth. 2003. The international trade of cultural goods today amounts to nearly US$ 2 trillion a year.Porto Alegre. In this double condition. *** Culture and cultural goods should also be seen as elements that generate income and employment. According to UNESCO. without a doubt. a man in government cannot fail 327 .CULTURAL ISSUES CULTURAL DIPLOMACY – OVERVIEW Culture is. It is through a unique mixture of reason and emotion that art eliminates barriers and defenses. (…) We cannot forget (. we first need to come to know one another better. October 5. an essential link that brings human and spiritual values closer together. social inclusion. No other process of integration can leave aside the involvement of the population. The arts are the most beautiful windows of the human soul in a social sense. a group of five countries is responsible for more than 50% of all international interchange of cultural goods. generating employment and wealth.) the economic dimension of an artistic event.. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the Mercosur Fourth Biennial on Visual Arts . and the sovereign participation in the globalization process. We cannot forget that culture is also an economic activity. So that we may walk hand in hand (in the region). citizenship..

José Sócrates . such as India. provide encouragement and support to the Community of PortugueseSpeaking Countries and are involved in specific negotiations (in these matters) with other developing countries. by their very universal nature. Mexico and Australia. Brazil is not isolated from 328 . June 29. as much within the domestic life of countries as well as in international relations. *** One of the functions of the Ministry of External Relations. August 9. To this end. is to contribute towards the promotion of Brazilian art and culture abroad. (…) At the Multilateral forums we have attended. through its Cultural Department. 2004.São Paulo. We reactivated the Mercosur Cultural (division). we have defended the principle that cultural goods and services should be treated as an exception that merit differential treatment. Itamaraty (Ministry of External Relations) has produced exhibitions of fine arts. can contribute much towards helping the people of brother-countries in Africa and East Timor to also prosper in our increasingly globalized world. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the formal opening of the World Cultural Forum . *** The Portuguese culture and language.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK to understand the fundamental role that culture and cultural production play in the context of economic and political negotiations in our times. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the visit to Brazil of the Prime Minister of Portugal. Nevertheless.Brasilia. photography and other forms of expression. South Africa. 2006.

the art exhibitions promoted by Itamaraty aim to enhance the creativity not only of Brazilian artists. we have fifteen units in operation. *** 329 . seminars etc. the organization of visual arts exhibitions and theatrical productions. as well as other forms of Brazilian cultural expression. such as lectures. neighbors or otherwise. In order to do this. and three on the African continent. the co-edition and distribution of texts written by Brazilian authors.Visited on September 12. 2007. the promotion of Brazilian literature. the promotion of Brazilian cinematographic production. but also of their South American colleagues. the promotion of our classical and popular music. and are the principal instruments used to carry out Brazilian cultural policies abroad. 2007. the distribution of informative material about Brazil. distributed as follows: nine on the American Continent. Internet Site of the Cultural Department of the Ministry of External Relations (MRE) . three on the European Continent. values and traditions that bring Brazilians closer to other societies.visited on September 12. On the contrary. At the moment.CULTURAL ISSUES the rest of the world. The activities (of these Centers) are concerned with the systematic teaching of the Portuguese Language as spoken in Brazil. *** The Centers of Brazilian Studies (CBSs) are institutions directly subordinated to the Brazilian Head of the Diplomatic Mission or Consular Department in each country.. we share with other countries the customs. (…) The Internet Site of the Cultural Department of the Ministry of External Relations (MRE) .

330 . the Cultural Department of Itamaraty (Ministry of External Relations) coordinates and subsidizes the activities of 33 lecturers. the academic community and opinion makers. In addition. facilitating exchange projects and the donation of cultural material. Leiden.Visited on September 12. Brazilian literature and culture. S CIENTIFIC ORGANIZATION (UNESCO) AND C ULTURAL We (the Heads of State and Government of the European Union and Latin America and the Caribbean) recognize the importance of cultural diversity as an element of development. Internet Site of the Cultural Department of the Ministry of External Relations (MRE) . Itamaraty’s Cultural Department collaborates with various other foreign academic institutions that develop projects directed towards studies on Brazilian issues. reaching a qualified segment of the local populations.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK The Lectureship network brings together teachers who are specialized in the Portuguese language. and are selected by the Ministry of External Relations and by the Coordination on the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel at the Ministry of Education (CAPES/MEC). T HE U NITED N ATIONS E DUCATIONAL . who are working in respected foreign universities. Caracas and Montevideo. The growing number of students enrolled in courses offered by the lecturers demonstrate the success of this model used to promote Brazilian language and culture. distributed amongst some of the best and most prestigious universities in 22 different countries. The Department also provides financial assistance to the Brazilian Study Centers in Austin. At the moment. the Cultural Department seeks to contribute towards activities that are being developed (by these centers). growth and stability. In addition to providing financial support. 2007.

May 12. a methodology – a National Inventory of Cultural References – an institutional framework. of 08/04/2000 -. of the UNESCO Convention for the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. We recognize that cultural cooperation is essential to encourage intercultural dialogue and mutual understanding. Furthermore. 4th LAC-EU Summit . development and promotion of cultural diversity. a systematic and consistent policy.CULTURAL ISSUES as exemplified by the approval. Vienna Declaration . 2006. Brazil already has specific legislation for the recognition and appreciation of its intangible heritage . within the ambit of the Institute of National Historical and Artistic Heritage (IPHAN). drafted as early as 1936 by Mário de Andrade. We support its rapid ratification and implementation. and the interchange of knowledge and best practices within this domain. in this field. supported by wide previous experience. the origins of which go back to the bill of law to protect national cultural heritage. but also within LAC. we reaffirm our conviction that cultural activities and industries play an important role in the defense. We undertake to seek means to allow for the strengthening. Two Brazilian manifestations – “the Oral and Graphic Expressions of the Wajãpi” and the “Circle Samba of Recôncavo Baiano” (“Samba de Roda do Recôncavo Baiano”) – have already been proclaimed by 331 . We have developed. in October 2005. *** Brazil is internationally recognized as one of the countries that is at the forefront in matters of the protection of its intangible heritage – those expressions and living practices that are rooted in our daily way of life.Decree 3.Vienna.551. as well as to increment cooperation between the European Union and LAC within the UNESCO framework. not only of the European Union–Latin America and Caribbean cooperation.

BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK UNESCO as Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.Brasilia. and recognize the importance of the Monterrey Declaration issued by the E-9 countries. Press release. July 16. UNESCO and all international organisms to intensify cooperation so as to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and the Dakar Goals. June 27. India. destined to reach the central objectives of the “Education for All” (project). Petersburg. 332 . members of the G-8.St. Brazil. Mexico and the Republic of the Congo. 2006. China. *** We appeal to the whole international community. we applaud and support the UNESO Global Action Plan. Position Document signed by South Africa. creation and oral traditions” presently under discussion UNESCO” . “Assembly of Partner States of the Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage – the Preservation of “knowledge. 2006. issued during the G-8 Summit . In this context.

SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COOPERATION .TECHNICAL.

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and cooperation in the area of sports (soccer). When offering cooperation opportunities Brazil does not aim profit or commercial gain. *** Cooperation is a fundamental instrument of Brazilian foreign policy. This knowledge should inspire technological development that takes into account diverse factors of sustainable development. biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel). Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening ceremony of the Meeting “Brazil-India Sustainable Development: Prospects and Possibilities” . amongst others. 2004. I would like to mention in particular those in the areas of agriculture. SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COOPERATION Scientific knowledge is strategic for a wider participation of our countries in the world today. especially in the developing world. January 27. providing training to technical personnel. electoral logistics (electronic voting booths). Neither is there any form of “conditionality” involved. Amongst the more intense activities of ABC cooperation. The Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC).TECHNICAL. giving priority to sectors in which we can offer an expressive contribution. We seek to transform into reality 335 . healthcare (HIV/AIDS treatment). has carried out a task of extreme relevance to bring Brazil closer to other countries. (…) We are seeking to meet the growing demands for cooperation. education (literacy programs). integrated within the organizational structure of the Ministry of External Relations.New Delhi.

*** The Brazilian System of Digital Television is further proof of the creative capacity of Brazilians. (…) Just as important is the triangular cooperation that Brazil has been pursuing with developing countries and international bodies. It will enable us to have an effective industrial policy that contemplates an association between Brazilian and Japanese companies. our talent to establish partnerships and intellectual exchanges which are healthy and advantageous. Article by Minister Celso Amorim in the ViaABC magazine. 2006.Brasilia. June 29. “Cooperation as an instrument of Brazilian foreign policy”. in partnership with our Japanese brothers.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK a new vision of relations between developing countries. *** The Prime Minister of India and the Presidents of Brazil and South Africa underlined the importance of working together towards an Information Society centered on people. inspired by a communion of interests and mutual support. June. an affirmation of our power to choose and our independence to decide. 2006. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the ceremony to sign the decree for the implementation of the Brazilian Digital Television System . one that is inclusive and 336 . The implementation of Digital TV provides an opportunity to develop Brazilian technologies to be adopted by the Brazilian Digital Television System. published by the Brazilian Cooperation Agency. The objective of these initiatives is to establish partnerships that will benefit poorer countries.

1September 13. respectively. 2007. 2006. and renewed their support to the outcome of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS). signing agreements and carrying out prospecting. held in Geneva and in Tunis. especially in the area of biofuels. execution and evaluation missions. professional training and energy. May 4. scientific and technological cooperation. Ministry of External Relations Strategic Guidelines. with the aim of increasing the competitiveness of national goods and services and give greater autonomy and technological capacity to the Country. Cooperation partnerships that stimulate invention and industrial development will be bolstered.Brasilia. SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COOPERATION guided by the interests of development.TECHNICAL. ICTs. both for development as well as for government and electronic governance as a means to reduce the digital divide that exists in their societies. In the specific area of technical cooperation. They agreed to continue to coordinate their towards the implementation of WSIS monitoring mechanisms. in 2003 and 2005. Pluriannual Plan 2008-2011 . amongst others. the Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC) has carried out activities in the areas of healthcare. Joint Declaration at the First India-Brazil-South Africa (IBSA) Dialogue Forum Summit . 337 . such as executing projects.Brasilia. The Heads of State and Government emphasized the need to promote and heighten close trilateral cooperation and training between the three countries in areas of digital inclusion. as well at towards other forums and organisms related to the International Consultants on Targeted Security (ICTs). *** Another objective of the Brazilian Government is to intensify its technical. agriculture.

the development of which is under the responsibility of the National Institute of Space Research – INPE. and the imposed obligation to sign new safeguard agreements with other countries.Brasilia. therefore. 338 . does not contain the so-called “political” clauses included in the Agreement with the USA in 2000 and which were considered unacceptable by the (Brazilian) National Congress. the French SPOT and the Indian Resource Sat programs. in Brazil. together with the North American LANDSAT. November 11. The Agreement with the Ukraine is. possibility of a unilateral political veto. Press release. *** The CBERS Program that has been developed jointly by Brazil and China since 1988 represents a successful example of South-South cooperation in matters of high technology and is one of the pillars of the strategic partnership between both countries. “Brazil-Ukraine Agreement on Technological Safeguards” .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK SPACE COOPERATION The Agreement between Brazil and the Ukraine about Technological Safeguards Related to the Participation of the Ukraine in the Launching Operations from the Alcântra Launch Center (AST BrazilUkraine). 2004. involves elements of great importance in the context of the National Program of Space Activities (PNAE) coordinated by the Brazilian Space Agency (AEB). The CBERS satellites. prohibition to cooperate with countries that are not members of the MTCR (Missile Technology Control Regime). distinct from the Agreement with the USA in 2000 and does not include the following precepts: prohibition to use revenues from the launches to develop launch vehicles. The CBERS program is today one of the principal remote-sensing programs in the whole world.

September 17.TECHNICAL. 2007. (…) In addition. 339 . Brazil and China are distributing CBERS images free of charge to neighboring countries and promoting projects for technical training in their use. the CBERS program generates employment in a high technology sector that is fundamental to the growth of the country.Brasilia. Press release. “Launching of the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite CBERS-2B” . SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COOPERATION In addition to promoting the innovation and development of the Brazilian space industry.

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ASSISTANCE TO BRAZILIANS ABROAD .

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visited on October 26. 2007. We should not forget that consular services are the calling card of Itamaraty (Ministry of External Relations) abroad. Whenever situations of instability occur. the Brazilian Government granted a new instrument to the Ministry of External Relations (MRE) to deal with the growing presence of Brazilians abroad as well as with the increasing flow of people between Brazil and other countries. with the duty to “take care of issues related to Brazilians abroad and foreigners who wish to enter Brazil. created in Annex I. *** The growing number of Brazilians living abroad presents new challenges to the consular services. special operations will be set up to provide assistance to Brazilian nationals who need protection or wish to return to Brazil. which should be prepared to provide services of assistance to an increasing number of individuals. 2006. of December 6. General Under-Secretariat of Brazilians Communities Abroad. 5. such as those we are seeing now in the Gulf. which approve the regimental structure of the Ministry of External Relations (Itamaraty). (…) With the creation of the SGEB. which include those involved in international legal cooperation”. It is 343 . which have multiplied demands made on our consular services. the General Under-Secretariat of Brazilian Communities Abroad (SGEB).ASSISTANCE TO BRAZILIANS ABROAD Decree No.979. Internet Site of the Ministry of External Relations.

and this morning with the Secretary of State of the United States. accompanied by images that have had a powerful impact. July 19. 2005. Condoleezza Rice. August 18. increase the sense of indignation felt by the Brazilian government. together with the Israeli authorities. 2003. *** Last night. Press release. Minister Celso Amorim had a meeting in London with Mr. Lecture given by Minister Celso Amorim at the Rio Branco Institute (the Brazilian Diplomatic Academy) . relating to the tragic circumstances which led to the death of the Brazilian citizen.Brasilia.Brasilia. As early as July 25. the containment of 344 . With specific reference to the situation of the Brazilian citizens. Minister Celso Amorim spoke by telephone with the Secretary General of the United Nations. Foreign Secretary of the United Kingdom. *** The recent news reports. when he expressed the shock and perplexity of the Brazilian Government. Minister Amorim stressed the disproportionate nature of Israel’s military reaction. “Following up investigations on the death of the Brazilian citizen Jean Charles de Menezes in London” .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK essential that we show courtesy and interest in the problems and inquiries of those who seek the services of a Brazilian Consulate. Both parties declared the importance of an immediate cease-fire. Jean Charles de Menezes. on July 22. he requested their collaboration to ensure. Jack Straw. “Diplomacy in the Lula Government”. April 10. to discuss the crisis in Lebanon and the situation of Brazilian citizens in that country. Kofi Annan.

Through talks with the Institutional Security Office and other bodies of the government. he requested that the Israeli military forces not attack those areas identified as having great concentrations of Brazilian inhabitants or where convoys travel to transport Brazilian nationals being evacuated from Lebanon. Minister Amorim also spoke today with Turkey’s Minister of Foreign Affairs.2 tons of medication were sent by the 345 . Press release. and 4. The remaining 272 people are those who returned to Brazil by their own means or who decided to remain in the regions out of the combat zone. In addition.Brasilia. which began on July 18.950 Brazilians have been evacuated. August 21. and thanked him for the support given by the Turkish authorities to the evacuation of Brazilians from that region. The Brazilian evacuation operation from Lebanon was accompanied by humanitarian assistance. of which. of the Brazilian Air Force (FAB) flight from Aden. as well as with leaders of the Lebanese community in Brazil. Minister Celso Amorim called an urgent meeting at his office this morning with the Israeli Ambassador to Brazil. carrying 102 passengers aboard. as a way of reducing the risk of Brazilian nations being affected. GOL. “Situation of Brazilian citizens in Lebanon” . 2. 2. Abdullah Gul. Itamaraty (Ministry of External Relations) will continue to act with the objective of evacuating Brazilian citizens from that region. 2006. so as to return later to Lebanon. July 20. the evacuation of Brazilian citizens from Lebanon. Tzipora Rimon. to whom he showed great concern with the escalade of the military conflict in Lebanon and with the situation of Brazilian citizens in that country. *** With the arrival yesterday. BRA and VARIG. In all. has been concluded.ASSISTANCE TO BRAZILIANS ABROAD military activities.678 were transported on 14 Brazilian Air Force flights and on four flights by the Brazilian airline companies TAM.

the number of Brazilian nationals who have emigrated has grown significantly in recent years. Joint Declaration during the visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the United States. *** With regard to assistance provided to Brazilian communities living abroad.Brasilia. Press release. The Brazilian Consulate-General in Beirut remains on the ready to provide normal consular services to Brazilian citizens who have decided to remain in Lebanon. 346 . as was seen from the successful operation to evacuate Brazilian citizens from Lebanon. The Brazilian Government should be prepared to meet the needs of their nationals in situations of emergency. and will include the opening of new Consulates. the Consular services are being renovated. August 22. *** The Presidents recognized the importance of the role played by Brazilians in the United States and by US citizens in Brazil.Camp David. nearly 3. 2007. In the light of this new reality. March 31. on July 15. with the aim of providing protection to Brazilians who live outside the Country. during the July-August 2006 conflict.2 tons of supplies and foodstuffs collected by the Lebanese community in São Paulo. including the flight which took Minister Celso Amorim to Beirut. They committed to improve bilateral cooperation and consular activities. In addition. through the expansion of their respective consular services. This aid was transported by FAB flights. 2006.2 tons of donations colleted by the Lebanese community were transported by a VARIG flight. “Operation to evacuate Brazilians from Lebanon” .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK Ministry of Health and 5.

2007. Pluriannual Plan 2008-2011 .Brasilia. May 11. May 4. The Ministry of External Relations renews its solidarity and the support of the Brazilian Government to the family of Jean Charles de Menezes and will continue to watch the case and provide all assistance possible.ASSISTANCE TO BRAZILIANS ABROAD Ministry of External Relations Strategic Guidelines. “Police officers involved in the death of Jean Charles de Menezes are Acquitted” .000 pounds for having circumvented security regulations and the health of the population in an operation that killed the Brazilian Jean Charles de Menezes. Even though they did not identify the individuals responsible for the tragedy. 2007.000 pounds sterling plus the costs of the case. the decision recognizes the responsibility of the Metropolitan Police in the case and paves the way for new initiatives in favor of the family of that innocent Brazilian citizen. Press release. 385.Brasilia. 347 . *** The Ministry of External Relations received the news that the Metropolitan Police of Scotland Yard has been sentenced to pay a fine of 175.

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