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CHAPTER OVERVIEW

Memory

The Phenomenon of Memory (pp.349-353)
David Myers at times uses idioms that are unfamiliar to some readers. If you do not know the meaning of any of the following words, phrases, or expressions in the context in which they appear in the text, refer to pages 256-257 for an explanation: ... mind's storehouse, the

Chapter 9 explores human memory as a system that processes information in three steps. Encoding refers to the process of putting information into the memory system. Storage is the purely passive mechanism by which information is maintained in memory. Retrieval is the process by which information is accessed from memory through recall or recognition. Chapter 9 also discusses the important role of meaning, imagery, and organization in encoding new memories, how memory is represented physically in the brain, and how forgetting may result from failure to encode or store information or to find appropriate retrieval cues. The final section of the chapter discusses the issue of memory construction. How "true" are our memories of events? A particularly controversial issue in this area involves suspicious claims of longrepressed memories of sexual abuse and other traumas that are "recovered" with the aid of hypnosis and other techniques. As you study this chapter, try applying some of the memory and studyingtips dis, cussed in the text. NOTE: Answer guidelines for all Chapter 9 questions 'begin on page 248.

reserooir: the roots and fruits; medal winners in a memory Olympics; memory feats; shine theflashlight beam of our attention on.

Objective 1: Define memory, and explain how flashbulb memories differ from other memories. 1. Learning that persists over time indicates the existence of for that learning. 2. Memories for surprising, significant moments that are especially clear are called . ________ memories. Like other memories, these memories (can/ cannot) err. Objective 2: Describe Atkinson-Shiffrin's classic three-stage processing model of memory, and explain how the contemporary model of working memory differs. 3. Both human memory and computer memory can be viewed as _ ________ systems that perform three tasks: _ and __

skim this section, noting headings and boldface After you have read the section, review each )nlp"""",,, by completing the sentences and answering questions that follow it. As you proceed, evaluate performance by consulting the answers beginon page 248. Do riot continue with the next secuntil you understand each answer. If you need review or reread the section in the textbook before

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234

Chapter 9 Memory

4. The classic model of memory has been Atkinson and Shiffrin's _ ________ model. According to this model, we first record information as a fleeting _ _______ , from which it is processed into _ memory, where the information is ________ through rehearsal into ________ . memory for later retrieval. 5. The phenomenon of short-term memory has been clarified by the concept of _ memory, which focuses more on the processing of briefly stored information. This form of memory has both and subsystems, which are coordinated by a ________________ processor that, with the help of the buffer, allows us to process images and words
6. Brain scans show that the

Give examples of material that is typically encoded with little or no effort.

Objective 4: Contrast effortful processing with automatic processing, and discuss the next-in-line effect, the spacing effect, and the serial position effect. 2. Encoding that requires attention and effort is called _ 3. With novel information, conscious repetition, or ________ , boosts memory. 4. A pioneering researcher in verbal memory was ________ . In one experiment, he found that the longer he studied a list of nonsense syllables, the _ (fewer / greater) the number of repetitions he required to relearn it later. 5. After material has been learned, additional repetition, or , usually will increase retention.
6. When people go around a circle reading words,

_

_ ________ are active during complex thinking, whereas areas in the

_

and are active when auditory and visual information is in working memory.

their poorest memories are for the ________ (least/most) recent information heard. This phenomenon is called the _______ effect.

Encoding: Getting Information In
(pp.353-361) If you do not know the meaning of any of the following words, phrases, or expressions in the context in which they appear in the text, refer to pages 256-257 for an explanation: boost; non-

7. Memory studies also reveal that distributed rehearsal is more effective for retention; this is called the _ 8. The tendency to remember the first and last items in a list best is called the _ Following a delay, first items are remembered _______ (better/less well) than last items. Objective 5: Compare the benefits of visual, acoustic, and semantic encoding in remembering verbal information, and describe a memory-enhancing strategy related to the self-reference effect. 9. Encoding the meaning of words is referred to as ________ encoding; encoding by

sense syllables; a raw script ... finished stage production; mental snapshots; "talk until you are blue in theface"; "peg-word"; Motionless while learning the numbers.

Objective 3: Describe the types of information we encode automatically. 1. Encoding that does not require conscious attention or effort is called _ _______ . Some processing requires effort at first but with and ________ it becomes effortless.

Objective 8: Contrast two types of sensory memory.-and 15. with tongue only partly in cheek. 18. This memory fades _______ (more/less) rapidly than photographic memory. 14. London cabbie. When Sperling sounded a tone immediately after a row of letters was flashed to indicate which letters were to be recalled. 2. 10. One such device involves forming associations between a familiar series of locations and to-be-remembered words. 3. and describe some memoryenhancing strategies that use visual encoding. mirror-image writing .361-370) If you do not know the meaning of any of the following words. George Sperling found that when people were briefly shown three rows of letters. Craik and Tulving's study comparing visual. memory lasting about a few tenths of a second. " . which are composed of a few broad concepts divided into lesser concepts. In addition. Concrete. Our tendency to recall the high points of pleasurable events such as family vacations illustrates the phenomenon of _ 16.called the " _ " 17. low-imagery words. material may be processed into ________ . Storage: Retaining Information (pp. they aid 13. encoding the image of words is _______ encoding. such as the one that begins "one is a bun. the resulting _ 19. 11. Memory for concrete nouns is facilitated when we encode them --." is an example of the " system. Objective 6: Explain how encoding imagery aids effortful processing. the subjects were much _ (more/less) accurate. Stimuli from the environment are first recorded in memory.. Using a jingle. lasting for as long as devices. they could recall (virtually all/about half) of them. 1. acoustic. phrases. This suggests that people have a brief photographic. Memory aids are known as _ flashes. An example of this technique involves forming words from the first letters of to-be-remembered word is called an words. refer to pages 257-258 for an explanation: lightning on the use of . 12. Arousal can sear certain events into the brain. Because they tend to be highly memorable. Sherlock Holmes.Storage: Retaining Information 235 sound is called ~ encoding. this technique is. jigsaw puzzle.. champion memorist. or expressions in the context in which they appear in the text. or ________ . Saooring. and facts. high-imagery words tend to be remem- bered (better /less well) than abstract. Sensory memory for sounds is called ________ memory. Memory that consists of mental pictures is based Objective 7: Discuss the use of chunking and hierarchies in effortful processing. categories. Memory may be aided by grouping information into meaningful units called _______ . Our excellent recall of information that relates to ourselves is called the _ ________ effect. and semantic encoding showed that memory was best with _ encoding.

It is likely that forgetting occurs because new experiences _ with our retrieval of old information. Two emotion-processing clusters. Without processing. 18. Objective 12: Discuss some ways stress hormones can affect memory. the neurotransmitter is released in _ _ greater amounts. 4. Hormones released when we are excited or under stress often (facilitate/ impair) learning and memory. or the neurotransmitter ________ . (remembered/forgot) (will/will not) wipe out recent experiences. 5. Drugs that boost production of the protein _ . 7. He found that no matter where he cut. rats the maze. Objective 10: Describe the capacity and duration of long-term memory. _ 11. Both children and adults have short-term recall for roughly as many words as they can speak in ____ . called ________ a specific . 12. making synapses more efficient. short-term memories have a limited life. an electric current passed through the brain not) disrupt old memories and to popular belief-the capacity of permanent memory is essentially _ 9. After LTP has occurred. or by genetic learning and memory. Researchers believe that memory involves a strengthening of certain neural connections. 10. Penfield's electrically stimulated patients _______ (do/do not) provide reliable evidence that our stored memories are precise and durable. and the physical memory trace _ with the passage of time. Blocking this process with engineering that causes the absence of an _______ . Short-term memory for random (digits/letters) _______ is slightly better than for random (digits/letters). Peterson and Peterson found that when Objective 11: Discuss the synaptic changes that accompany memory formation and storage. the. Kandel and Schwartz have found that when _______ was prevented by asking subjects to count backward. Rats given a drug that enhances ________ will learn a maze _______ (faster/more slowly). in the brain's system increase activity in the brain's memoryforming areas.236 Chapter 9 Memory Objective 9: Describe the duration and working capacity of short-term memory.__ (how many?) seconds. may be the neural basis for . This capacity was discovered by 6. In contrast to short-term memory-and contrary stimulates may increase. This phenomenon. and memory for information we hear is somewhat _______ (better/worse) than that for information we see. 8. 15. 13. 17. 14. which occurs at the _ _ between neurons. Our short-term memory capacity is about learning occurs in the sea snail Aplysia. (will/will _ 16. . the ________ . a sending neuron needs (more/less) promptit _ ing to fire. may enhance memory. and the number of ________________ _______ chunks of information. After learning has occurred. memory for letters was gone after 12 seconds. interferes with learning. Psychologist attempted to locate memory by cutting out pieces of rats' _______ after they had learned a maze.

If you have learned something and then forgotten it. 370-375) If you do not know the meaning of any of the following words. We do not have explicit memories of our first three years because the is one of the last brain structures to mature. Stress that is prolonged. recognition. The hippocampus is active during _ _____ -. i 19. they (are/are not) able to declare their memory.. phrases. as memories are processed for later retrieval. The hippocampus Retrieval: Getting Information Out (pp. (more/less) quickly than do not) migrate for storage elsewhere. __ sleep. and relearning measures of memory. Those with are incapable conditioning. people were not able to _ (recall/recognize) but were able to the names of their classmates _ seems to function as a zone (temporaristores the elements of a memo(do/ where the brain ly/permanently) ry. The rear part of this structure processes ________ memory. damage on the right side impairs memory for ________ designs and locations.Retrieval: Getting Information Out 237 i " ". which is called memory. The process by which associations can lead to retrieval is called _ ... memories (recall/recognize) 90 percent of their names and their yearbook pictures. 21. 4. rose-colored glasses. 24. Drugs that block the effects of stress hormones _______ (facilitate/ disrupt) memories of emotional events.. Objective 14: Contrast the recall. The dual explicit-implicit memory system helps explain amnesia. Although amnesia victims typically (have/have not) lost their capacity for learning. and describe the process of priming. 23. (is/is not) _ Studies of people who have lost their memory suggest that there a single unified system of memory. The ability to retrieve information not in conscious awareness is called _ 2. Bahrick found that 25 years after graduation. refer to page 258 for an explanation: bucqant mood . indicating Objective 13: Distinguish between implicit and explicit memory. however. 3. or expressions in the context in which they appear in the text. may cause an area of the brain (the _______ ) that is vital for laying down memories to _ oratory animals with a damaged cerebellum are incapable of simple _ ________ damage to the of conditioning. Damage on the left side of this structure impairs memory. and identify the main brain structure associated with each. Humans and lab_ Objective 15: Explain how retrieval cues help us access stored memories. suggesting a deficit in their ________ memory systems.. you will probably be able to _ it you did originally. The cerebellum is important in the processing of ________ memories. 22. 25. 1.. morph from devils into angels. However. 20. Amnesia patients typically have suffered damage to the of their limbic system. The loss of memory is called that this brain region is important in the formation of memories. Recalling past experiences activates various parts of the _______ and lobes. This brain structure is important in the processing and storage of _ memories.

Sheepishly. The first type of forgetting is caused by _________ failure. One reason for age-related memory decline is that the brain areas responsible for ________ new information are _________ (more/less) responsive in older adults. mental attic. and the _ Objective 19: Discuss the role of encoding failure in forgetting. may lie poised on the tip of the tongue. phrases. 375-381) If you do not know the meaning of any of the following words. Memory researcher Daniel Schader has identified the seven sins of memory. 4. People who are currently depressed may recall their parents as _ . Objective 16: Cite some ways that context can affect retrieval. Studies have shown that retention is best when learning and testing are done in _______ (the same/ different) contexts. and distinguish three general ways our memory fails us. divided into three categories that identify the ways in which our memory can fail: the three sins of _ the three sins of one sin of . 9. 7. refer to pages 258-259 for an explanation: applause for memory. Objective 18: Explain why we should value our ability to forget. Our tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with our current emotional state is called memory. The type of memory in which emotions serve as retrieval cues is referred to as memory. other Forgetting (pp. Summarize the text explanation of the deja vu experience.238 Chapter 9 Memory S. 3.~oods also influence how we people's behavior. The words relit a blownout candle in the mind. Objective 17: Describe the effects of internal states on retrieval. 1. Without the ability to . 6. 2. Describe the effects of mood on memory. we would constantly be overwhelmed by information. 8. This type of forgetting occurs because some of the information that we sense never actually S. The best retrieval cues come from the associations formed at the time we memory. a People who have recovered from depression typically recall their parents about the same as do people who _ __________________ . or expressions in the context in which they appear in the text.

Objective 23: Explain how misinformation and imagination can distort our memory of an event. The disruptive effect of previous learning on current learning is called ________ . _ memo- Memory Construction (pp. The disruptive effect of learning new material on efforts to recall material previously learned is called _ 11. that is. Research suggests that memories are also lost as a result of . A number of experiments have demonstrated that false memories ________ (can/cannot) be created when people are induced to imagine nonexistent events. 12. In some cases. sincerely wrong. Increasing numbers of memory researchers think that motivated forgetting is _ (less/more) common than Freud believed. The workings of these influences illustrate the process of memory 2. and describe Ebbinghaus' forgetting curve. they may experience a ________________ and misremember the event.Memory Construction 239 Objective 20: Discuss the concept of storage decay. 7. or expressions in the context in which they appear in the text. 10. 9. . and state whether this view is reflected in current memory research. This type of forgetting is known as ________________ . _ failure has occurred. Research has shown that recall of an event is often influenced by past experiences and present assumptions. and explain how they can cause retrieval failure. their memory for a list of nonsense syllables was _ (better/worse) than it was if they stayed awake. Objective 21: Contrast proactive and retroactive interference. Freud proposed that motivated forgetting. When witnesses to an event receive misleading information about it. Emotions and their associated ---:hormones generally ries. which 15. Studies by Ebbinghaus and by Bahrick indicate that most forgetting occurs _ (soon/a long time) after the material is learned. 6. "hypnotically refreshed". new material. 14. This is called If you do not know the meaning of any of the following words. or ________ . Jenkins and Dallenbach found that if subjects went to sleep after learning. refer to page 259 for an explanation: reconstruction as well as reproduction. these people later experience " _ ________ ." People who believe they have recovered memories of alien abduction and child sex abuse tend to have _ Describe what Loftus' studies have shown about the effects of misleading postevent information on eyewitness reports. may protect a person from painful memories. old information facilitates our learning of new information. When information that is stored in memory temporarily cannot be found. phrases. 1. Objective 22: Summarize Freud's concept of repression. which is especially possible if we simultaneously learn similar. 382-390) may be caused by a gradual fading of the physical _ 8. 13.

Memory construction makes it clear that memory . retrieval. storage. Objective 26: Give arguments supporting and rejecting the position that very young children's reports are reliable. 1. Research studies of children's eyewitness recall reveal that preschoolers _ (are/are not) more suggestible than older children or adults. 4. are often Discuss several memory. retrieval. storage. . At the heart of many false memories is ________________ occurs when we the wrong source. noting that people's initial ________ memories. encoding. 10. S. but also as a phenomenon. _ Improving Memory (pp. c. output. whether a child produces an accurate eyewitness memory depends heavily on how he or she is 9. d. Researchers compare memories to _______ . gist memories are more ~ 6. Memories of events that happened before age________ are unreliable. 7. of events influence their _ Objective 28: Explain how an understanding of memory can contribute to effective study techniques. The three steps in memory information processing are: a. Researchers increasingly agree that memories PROGRESS TEST 1 Multiple-CllOice Questions Circle your answers to the following questions and check them with the answers beginning on page 250. output. Objective 27: Discuss the controversy over reports of repressed and recovered memories of childhood sexualabuse. obtained under the influence of hypnosis or drugs (are/are not) reliable. Children are most accurate when it is a first interview with a person who asks ________ questions. Whereas real memories have more . input. The SQ3R study technique identifies five strategies for boosting memory: _ ________ .240 Chapter 9 Memory Objective 24: Describe source amnesia's contribution to false memories. read the explanation for why it is incorrect and then consult the appropriate pages of the text (in parentheses following the correct answer). storage. which an event to is best understood not only as a and biological event. Objective 25: List some differences and similarities between true and false memories. 1. refer to page 259 for an explanation: Sprinkled. For this reason. 3. processing.and specific strategies ~ for improving "refreshed" under inaccurate. input. The persistence of a memory (does/does not) reveal whether or not it derives from an actual experience. 391-392) If you do not know the meaning of the following word in the context in which it appears in the text. Memory construction explains why memories 11. If your answer is incorrect. This phenomenon is called _ 12. 5. Eyewitnesses' confidence in their memories ________ (is/is not) related to the accuracy of those memories. b. input.

declarative memory. research participants were shown three rows of three letters. In a study on context cues. acronyms. there are two distinct types of memory. learned the words on land. d. that learning causes permanent neural changes in the of animals' neurons. b. Memory techniques such as the method of loci. state dependency. c. . usually decay within about five years. learned the words and been tested on them in the same context. imagery techniques. retention is improved when encoding and retrieval are separated by no more than 1 hour. all the above memory experiment. d. priming. Visual sensory memory is referred to as: 241 a. c. c. 8. Our short-term c. distributed study yields better retention than cramming. mnemonic devices. a.Progress Test 1 2. only the middle row of letters. serotonin a. ACh d. The participants were able to report: a. encoding strategies. dopamine construction reveals that b. myelin c. 15. anyone of the three rows of letters. delaying retrieval until memory has consolidated improves recall. d. memory losses following brain trauma are unpredictable. a. c. of having been somewhere before is an example of: a. Which of the following is not a measure of retenc. even if long term. recall b. cell bodies d. the same for all words. One way to increase the amount of information in 13. 16. improved when participants developed their own mnemonic devices. consolidation devices. c. c. In Sperling's memory is to group it into larger. deja vu. are stored as exact copies of experience. 11. 10 6. retrieval a. memory is a single. c. Echoic memories fade after approximately: 4. memories: a. 2 b. prime memory. 17. d. learning causes a reduction in the size of the synaptic gap between certain neurons. or high tone. d. b. 1 minute. may be chemically transferred from one organism to another. that is. When Gordon Bower presented words grouped by category or in random order. encoding 'failure. echoic memory. b. d. d. chunking. familiar units. This process is referred to as: a. more of the neurotransmi tter _____ is released into synapses. 5 memory span is approximately items. c. in the more exotic context. 12. semantic memory. 1 second. noradrenaline b. d. c. iconic memory. learned the words underwater. b. c. recognition 5. b. relearning d. c. Research on memory b. In a later test of recall. Studies of amnesia victims suggest that: and Schwartz have found that when learning occurs. d. learned the words and been tested on them in different contexts. recall was: a. in the more familiar context. that is. photomemory. Memory for skills is called: a. followed immediately by a low. The spacing effect means that: 3. a. and the peg-word system are called: a. encoding. only the top row of letters. implicit memory. reflect a person's biases and assumptions. b. b. tion? a. 1 hour. d. medium. explicit memory. 10. people learned words while on land or when they were underwater. b. organization. unified system. c. better for the random words. Studies demonstrate _____ a. synapses b. all three rows with perfect accuracy. c. d. 3 to 4 seconds. consolidating. b. better for the categorized words. 7. Kandel 14. 7 d. b. there are three distinct types of memory. The eerie feeling d. 9. those with the best retention had: a.

bias Matching Items Match each definition or description with the appropriate term. the fading of unused information over time 14. Which area of the brain is most important in the processing of implicit memories? a. Which of the following terms does not belong with the others? a. relearning e. encoding failure. Hypnotically "refreshed" memories may prove inaccurate--especially if the hypnotist asks leading questions-because of: a. b. state-dependent memory. cerebellum d. c. matching each of a series of locations with a visual representation of to-beremembered items 9. misattributing the origin of an event 13. c. Atkinson and Shiffrin. 19. old knowledge interferes with new learning 12. proactive interference.242 Chapter 9 Memory 18. George Sperling. The three-stage processing model of memory was proposed by: a. g. I. hippocampus c. c. d. two is a shoe" mnemonic device 8. the process by which information gets into the memory system 3. h. i. amygdala 21.. Herman Ebbinghaus. suggestibility b. b. Definitions or Descriptions Terms . Loftus and Palmer. "one is a bun. a measure of memory 11. new learning interferes with previous knowledge 10. f. . the phenomenon in which one's mood can influence retrieval 6.: 1. memory for a list of words is affected by word order 7. repression b. 20. n. j. m. misattribution c. blocking d. the blocking of painful memories 5. memory construction. persistence k. sensory memory that decays more slowly than visual sensory memory 2. o. mental pictures that aid memory 4. serial position effect peg-word system method of loci proactive interference transience retroactive interference source amnesia suggestibility imagery mood-congruent memory echoic memory encoding d.' . hypothalamus b. a memory sin of intrusion a. the lingering effects of misinformation 15. d.

presumably because decay was reduced.. Lashley's studies. frontal lobes c. the items that were best recalled were at the beginning of the list.Progress Test 2 243 PROGRESS TEST 2 c. Long-term potentiation refers to: a. c. Multiple-Choice Questiolls 1. cerebellum d. at the beginning and the end of the list. showed that the memory: a. In a subsequent recall test. Repression is an example of: a.delay. relearning b. at the end of the list. Answer the following questions after you thoroughly understand the correct answers for the section reviews and Progress Test 1. 10. awake during the retention interval."PE~rlllner\telrs people a list of words to be gave recalled. 8. a steady. memory decay. Jenkins and Dallenbach and Tulving had research participants process words Visually. d. awake during the retention interval. visual b. When the participants were tested after . Acoustic and semantic processing were equally beneficial. d. The disruption 3. ::-C.ltrition in normal neural functioning. remained no matter which area of the brain was tampered with. which type of processing resulted in the greatest retention? a. or semantically. d. presumably because decay was reduced. Craik Progress Test 2 should be comple~ed dur~g a final chapter review. Which of the following measures of retention 4. consolidation in the formation of new memories. c. found that memory was better in subjects who were: a. thalamus b. c. was lost when any region of the brain was removed. the increased efficiency of synaptic transmission between certain neurons following learning.'h. asleep during the retention interval. b. motivated forgetting. was lost when surgery took place within 1 hour of learning. all of the above. b. presumably because interference was reduced. semantic d. b. They are equally sensitive. presumably because interference was reduced. asleep during the retention interval. encoding failure. acoustic c. in which rats learned a maze . b. slow decline in retention over time b. b. at the end of the list. hippocampus 5. IlJ. . rapid decline in retention over time c. d. 9. recognition d. of memory that occurs when football players have been knocked out provides evidence for the importance of: a. 11. a steady. when recalling a list of words you should have the greatest difficulty with those: a. Amnesia victims typically have experienced damage to the of the brain. . at the beginning of the list. c. d. acoustically. a slow initial decline in retention becoming rapid thereafter 2. recall c. all of the above. the disruptive influence of old memories on the formation of new memories. in the middle of the list. d. Which of the following best describes the typical forgetting curve? a. a. According to the serial position effect. consolidation in the retrieval of long-term memories. in the middle of the list. our tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with our current mood. a rapid initial decline in retention becoming stable thereafter d. c. at the end and in the middle of the list. the disruptive influence of recent memories on the retrieval of old memories. 7. is the least sensitive in triggering retrieval? a. was lost when surgery took place within 24 hours of learning. and then had various parts of their brains surgically removed.

3. 21. b. active rehearsal b. b. is constructed during encoding. 8. 16. Textbook chapters are often organized into in order to facilitate information c. It is easier to recall information that has just been presented when the information: a. d. chunks 18. when quizzed immediately. Which of the following was 19. memory for pictures is better than memory for words. mnemonic devices b. storage. due to the reliability of such reports. hierarchies d. encoding meaningful associations as 20.244 Chapter 9 Memory 12. Recall of childhood abuse through hypnosis indicates that memory is permanent. blocking occurs when: a. such experiences usually are vividly remembered. but we can't get it out. their memory was very inaccurate. recognizable units processing. b. Studies by Loftus and Palmer. 4. c. rehearsal. d. c. 2. 15. 1. Recall of newly acquired knowledge is no better after sleeping than after being awake for the same period of time. and associating material with what you already know is more effective than time spent repeating information again and again. True-False Items Indicate whether each statement is true or false by placing Tor F in the blank next to the item. c. is heard rather than seen. 7. people can recall very little. indicate that: a. memories of events happening before about age 3 are especially unreliable. d. our inattention to details produces encoding failure. distributed study c. in which people were quizzed about a film of an accident. is seen rather than heard. 5. when questioned as little as one day later. d. 6. The misinformation effect provides evidence that memory: a. . echoic memories. most people had very accurate memories as much as 6 months later. is experienced in an unusual context. a. b. speed reading d. c. retrieval. we confuse the source of information. retrieved. 13. 17. information is on the tip of our tongue. d. Studies by Ebbinghaus show that most forgetting takes place soon after learning. encoding. b. b. iconic or echoic. The persistence of a memory is a good due as to whether or not it derives from an actual experience. of all of the above reasons. consists of random letters rather than words. According to memory researcher Daniel Schacter. d. d. b. is highly resistant to misleading information. c. implicit memories. such memories are unreliable and easily influenced by misinformation. Most people do not have memories of events that occurred before the age of 3. b. explicit memories. chunking. Time spent in developing imagery. c. Amnesia patients typically experience disruption of: a. is unchanging once established. due to the stress of witnessing an accident. iconic memories. 14. Information is maintained in short-term memory only briefly unless it is: a. encoded. people's recall may easily be affected by misleading information. Generally speaking. may be reconstructed during recall according to how questions are framed. Memory researchers are suspicious of longrepressed memories of traumatic events that are "recovered" with the aid of drugs or hypnosis because: a. c. Studying that is distributed over time produces better retention than cramming. d. The process of getting information out of memory storage is called: a. our beliefs influence our recollections. c. 0- not recommended a strategy for improving memory? a. rehearsed.

b. d. recall is to recognition. recognition is to recall. 3. exercise. test c. In an effort to remember the name of the classmate who sat behind her in fifth grade. Tom's experience showed the role of: a. context effects. listen to music. test 6. retrieval failure. b. the contexts were different. d. Which of the following sequences would be best to follow if you wanted to minimize interferenceinduced forgetting in order to improve your recall on the psychology midterm? a. deja vu. 0~----4-------4-1 20 10 Position of item in list Susan could think of nothing positive in her life. the words were studied and retrieved in the same context. b. b. Tom experienced a flood of old memories. After finding PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED Answer these questions the day before an exam as a final check on your understanding of the chapter's terms and concepts. relearning. In A. retroactive interference. . study. 8. c. c. d. Janice can't remember its combination because she keeps confusing it with the combination of her new lock. Overlearning material by continuing to restudy it beyond mastery often disrupts recall. b. proactive interference. In B. and j. study. state-dependent memory. b. retroactive interference. sleep. echoic memory. u. mood-congruent memory. and k. the contexts were different. c. storage is to encoding. encoding failure. memory construction. d. Although repression has not been confirmed experimentally. 7. most psychologists believe it happens. b. priming. encoding is to storage. study. He later recalled these letters as e. c. Walking through the halls of his high school 10 years after graduation. storage failure. Which of the following best describes the difference between the conditions? a. Complete this analogy: Fill-in-the-blank test questions are to multiple-choice questions as: a. 100 5. eat. Multiple-Choice Questions her old combination lock. visually. semantically. d. d. 2. study. priming. encoding. in A. the words were studied and retrieved in the same context. d.Psychology Applied 245 ___ 9. This is best explained as an example of: a. test b. The delay between presentation of the last word and the test of recall was longer for B than for A. Being in a bad mood after a hard day of work. 1. 10. c. automatically. suggesting that the original letters had been encoded: a. test d. Martina mentally recited the names of other classmates who sat near her. y. q. She is experiencing: a. The delay between presentation of the last word and the test of recall was longer for A than for B. Martina's effort to refresh her memory by activating related associations is an example of: a. Darren was asked to memorize a list of letters that included v. in B. c. c. acoustically. The above figure depicts the recall of a list of words under two conditions. i. 4.

12. 11. c. chunking flashbulb memory? a. recalling the name of someone from high school while looking at his or her yearbook . state-dependent memory. explicit. EVidently. Flanagan's __ memory is better than his __ memory. Brenda evidently has an impaired implicit memory. Nine digits are at or above the upper limit of most people's short-term memory capacity. proactive interference. That she had little difficulty in doing so illustrates: a. automatic semantic. retrieval failure. illustrating the effects of: a. When Carlos was promoted. b. the method of loci b. b. but he cannot remember the name of the president of the United States. can easily remember how to wire a light switch. implicit. According to Freud. Every time he is asked for his phone number. A Ithough you can't recall the answer to a question on your psychology midterm. Your failure to remember is most likely the result of: a. The first thing Karen did when she discovered that she had misplaced her keys was to re-create in her mind the day's events. Which of the following is the best example of a 14. has many gaps in her memory. he moved into a new office with a new phone extension. What is the most likely explanation for the difficulty Brenda is having? a. d. automatic visual. master chef Giulio often associates them with the route he walks to work each day. Harvey. repression. retrieval failure. Janice keeps calling her new boyfriend byher old boyfriend's name. a retired electrician. snapshot c. flashbulb memory. elated Kareem has a flood of good memories from his younger years. declarative. 17. 15. b. The extra four digits cannot be organized into easily remembered chunks. Although elderly Mrs. semantic. d. a. effortful visual. Elderly Mr. retroactive interference. who has Alzheimer's disease. remembering to make an important phone call d. d. state-dependent memory. implicit c. 18. To help him remember the order of ingredients in difficult recipes. Carlos first thinks of his old extension. At your high school reunion you cannot remember the last name of your homeroom teacher. acronyms d. state-dependent memory. explicit. Lewis's failure to remember these painful memories is an example of: a. remembering what you were doing on September II. b. 10. c. suddenly remembering to buy bread while standing in the checkout line at the grocery store b. d. explicit b. you have a clear mental image of the textbook page on which it appears. priming. b. encoding failure. storage failure. your encoding of the answer was _ a. automatic processing. c. b. d. Evidently. Flanagan. storage failure. declarative 13. Which of the following illustrates the constructive nature of memory? a. c. peg-word system c. effortful . b. c. c. d. After studying all afternoon and then getting drunk in the evening. Don can't remember the material he studied. Mr. procedural d. c. After getting some good news. effortful processing. encoding failure. Giulio is using which mnemonic technique? a.246 Chapter 9 Memory 9. she invents sensible accounts of her activities so that her family will not worry. d. Brenda has trouble remembering her new fivedigit ZIP plus four-digit address ~ode. 2001. 16. Lewis cannot remember the details of the torture he experienced as a prisoner of war. Nine digits are at or above the upper limit of most people's iconic memory capacity. when terrorists crashed planes into the World Trade Center towers.

b. Frank's false memory is an example of which "sin" of memory? a. misattribution d. lose memory for skills such as bicycle riding. long-term memory 9. suggestibility Essay. flashbulb memory 3. we would expect that Jan would be most likely to forget: a. her telephone number.Key Terms 19. During . the name of her teammates. effortful processing 12. today 19-year-old Frank "remembers" the counselor touching him inappropriately. b. d. lose the ability to store new facts. be incapable of being classically conditioned.basketball practice Jan's head was painfully elbowed. implicit memory 26. iconic memory 22. Even though he was not. explicit memory 27. storage 5. on a separate piece of paper write a brief definition or explanation of each of the following terms. molested by the counselor. rehearsal 13. hippocampus 28. Frank was questioned by the police about a summer camp counselor suspected of molesting children. then write the essay on a separate piece of paper. echoic memory 23. amnesia 25. acoustic encoding 17. encoding 4. the details of events that happened shortly after the incident. If the trauma to her brain disrupts her memory. blocking b. After suffering damage to the hippocampus. sensory memory 7. in fact. memory 2. spacing effect 14. a person would probably: a. transience c. c. visual encoding 16. recognition 30. semantic encoding 18. serial position effect 15. chunking 21. 21. (Use the space below to jot down notes for your essay. mnemonics 20. 1. short-term memory 8. retrieval 6. When he was 8 years old. d. long-term potentiation (LTP) 24.) 247 KEY TERMS Writing Definitions Using your own words. 20. automatic processing 11. relearning 31. Qllestion Discuss the points of agreement among experts regarding the validity of recovered memories of child abuse. the name of the play during which she was elbowed. deja vu . recall 29. experience all of the above changes. priming 32. working memory 10. c. imagery 19.

21._ I-I-- 18 I-I-- 1 19 1 1 r-'-- r20 I 1 -I 1 1I 1 1 21 T1 I I-l- I I IT DOWN 1. Encoding that uses imagery to process information into memory. 6. The false sense of having already experienced a situation. 18. 8. I-14. Loss of memory. 7. I19. ACROSS 1 3 14' 5 11 2 1 J 8 I-I-- I-I-- r6 1 9 I-:___ ] 10 I-I-I-- I-I-- 7 '-- I-I-I-I-- I-I-- I-I-- I-I-- 11 12 I-I-- I-I-- I-I15 13 ~ I-I-- 1. ANSWERS TIre Phenomenon of Memory 1. Type of memory of skills. preferences.. . Relatively permanent memory that-is unlimited in capacity. Brain area that processes explicit memories for storage. meaningful units. 14 I-lI- I-'-- I-l- I-I-- I-- I-- l- I- - V 1 - . Mental pictures. After you have wri~ten the definitions of the key terms in this chapter. 4. Believed to be the neural basis 22 for learning and memory. 15. and dispositions. 17. Unconscious encoding of incidental information into memory.. An effect in which eyewitnesses to an event incorporate misleading information in their memories. repression 37. Visual sensory memory. Type of interference in which old knowledge interferes with new learning. A measure of retention that requires identifying previously learned material. . 13. 9. reviewing and overlearning of material are important to the learning process. Unusually vivid memory of an emotionally important moment. 11. The immediate. Memory aids.248 Chapter 9 Memory 33. given the definition. 20. 3. flashbulb. 2. retroactive interference effect Cross-Check As you learned in the Prologue. mood-congruent memory 36. Encoding of information I-according to it" meaning. Effortful repetition of information. 4. Organizing material into familiar.. memory 2. initial recording of information in memory. Example of motivated forgetting. 12. you should complete the crossword puzzle to ensure that you can reverse the processrecognize the term. source amnesia 34. 5. Sensory memories of auditory 'i6 stimuli. can . Type of processing that requires attention and some degree of work. proactive interference 35. 10. Encoding of information into memory according to its sound. misinformation 38. 22. . 16. Activating associations in I-order to retrieve a specific memory.

unlimited (limitless) 9. letters. slow-wave. CREB. recognize 3.lobes Encoding: Getting Information In 1. recall 2. facilitate 4. implicit. tive. disrupt. prolong our good mood. enzyme. long-term 5. storage: 7. visual-spatial. semantically. semantic 11. George Miller 6. amnesia. 18. serial position effect. encoded. rehearsal 4. digits. have not. hippocampus. in tum. recall. we perceive things in a positive light and recall happy events. . the current situation may present cues that unconsciously help us to retrieve the earlier experience. 7. the same The deja vu experience is most likely the result of being in a context similar to one that we have actually been in before. simultaneously central execu- 6. serotonin 14. temporal. hippocampus. is not 21. imagery. practice. mnemonic. 3 or 4 seconds 4. 2 8. amygdala. a type of to be learned. glutamate 16. experience Automatic processing mation about space. spatial 23. method of loci 17. implicit. these perceptions and memories. and frequency. state-dependent 8. rehearsal. frontal lobes. better 9. acronym 19. auditory. temporal 24. visually 15. effortful processing 13. fewer 5. LTP. Ebbinghaus. next-in-line 7. better 14. retrieval encoding. working. about half. temporarily. priming 5. eye-blink. verbal. faster 15. will not. fear. overlearning 6. sensory memory. episodic. Karl Lashley. It also of word meaning. receptor sites. effortful processing 3. will 17. relearn. for example. acoustic. less. information-processing. visual. better 25. automatic processing. less. more 4. hierarchies Storage: Retaining Information 1. implicit 8. more. hippocampus Retrieval: Getting Information Out 1. shrink 20. long-term potentiation. If we have previously been in a similar situation. synapses 13. rosy retrospection 16. do not 10. self-reference 12. spacing effect includes the encoding of infortime. includes the encoding encoding that appears 2. drug. three-stage processing. amygdala. interfere. infantile.Answers 249 3. iconic 3. encode 6. semantic. sensory 2. frontal. parietal. shortterm. explicit 22. 7. peg-word 18. most. echoic. visual 10. mood-congruent When happy. chunks. decays 12. do. arc not. remembered 11. active 5. explicit. though we cannot recall what it was. Moods also influence how we interpret other people's behavior. limbic 19. cortexes.

misinformation have Suggestions for improving memory include rehearsing material over many separate and distributed study sessions with the objective of overlearning material. 7. 358-359) a. are. relating material to what is already known. Encoding refers to the processing of information into the memory system. Question. never suffered depression. d. does not. (pp. rejecting. cognitive. Echoic memories last 3 to 4 seconds. is the answer. Semantic memory is memory for meaning. (p. before possible misinformation is encountered. positive transfer 13. is the answer. d. 351) 2. or located and gotten out when needed. & c. intrusion 3. Organizing information. retroactive interference 11. (p. (p. infantile amnesia 12. and retrieved. such as acronyms and the peg-word system. but it does so through hierarchies. There is no such term as "consolidation techniques. retrieval 9. . repression 14. memory trace 8. 3. (p.250 Chapter 9 Memory 9. 362) 4. stress. imagination vivid imaginations inflation. Retrieval refers to the process of remembering. interpretations 5.i il f I effect. Read. (p. perceptions. details. phrasing of questions affected answers. :. such as the context and mood in which the original learning occurred. Progress T~st 1 Multiple-Choice Qllestiolls t \ 1. Studying should also be arranged to minimize potential sources of interference. is the answer. storage decay. Studying should also involve active rehearsal. d. hypnosis 8. interference 10. and guilt-promoting. 359) a. or retained over time. 3. not grouping. less 6. Survey. and using mnemonic devices that incorporate vivid imagery are helpful too. misattribute 4. stored. c. as can recalling events while they are fresh. source amnesia. Review ~. forgetting. can also help strengthen memory. interpret Forgetting 1. 370) 5. is the answer. a. There is no such thing as photomemory. punitive. Iconic memory is our fleeting memory of visual stimuli. soon 7. 362) 6. is not 7. made viewers mistakenly think they had seen broken glass. Frequent activation of retrieval cues. Echoic memory is auditory sensory memory. durable 6. enters the memory system 5. the word "smashed. 362) b. c. Information must be encoded. can." for instance. Rehearse. Imagery and encoding strategies are important in storing new memories. encoding. c. questioned 9. (p. not a form of sensory memory. rather than mindless repetition of information. d. There is no such process of "consolidating. but mnemonic device is the general designation of techniques that facilitate memory. social-cultural Improving Memory 1. developing numerous retrieval cues. less 15. encoding 4." b. d. neutral. forget 2. -better 12. Finally. strengthen Memon) Construction 1. distortion. nonJeading 10. are not 11." b. proactive interference. d. Organization does enhance memory. is the answer. is the answer. construction 2. or put into appropriate form. 3. When people viewed a film of a traffic accident and were quizzed a week later. self-tests in the same format (recall or recognition) that will later be used on the actual test are useful. is the answer.

Loftus and Palmer conducted influential research studies of eyewitness memory. 377) Matching Items 1. recall was two to three times better. The hippocampus is a temporary processing site for explicit memories. a. 16. (p. Many long-term memories are apparently unlimited in duration. c. is the answer. c. b. 21. In general. 351) I (p. is the answer. & d. 351) 10. is the answer. is the answer. not during questioning by the hypnotist. 354) b. 359) f (p. (p. State-dependent. being in a context similar to that in which you experienced something will tend to help you recall the experience. 367) a. This showed that they had a brief photographic memory-so brief that it faded in less time than it would have taken to say all nine letters. (p. 12. 376) k (p. is the answer. & b. Blocking is an example of retrieval failure. (p. d. As studies of amnesia victims show. There is no such thing as prime memory. (p. d. 10. 8. c. d. the original experiences. indicating the benefits of hierarchical organization in memory. 20. (p. Kandel and Schwartz found that 251 when learning occurred in the sea snail Aplysia. Herman Ebbinghaus conducted pioneering studies of verbal learning and memory. as well as with our subsequent experiences. Encoding failure occurs when a person has not processed information sufficiently for it to enter the memory system. serotonin was released at certain synapses. When asked to recall all the letters. 11. 374) 6. c. which then became more efficient at signal transmission. 15. we construct our memories. 382-383) a. 4. are retrieved (p. 380) m (p. (p. is the answer. 379) b (p. is the answer. memories may deviate significantly from. 9. When the words were organized into categories. 373) b. b. 365) 13. 370) 11." in which memories. 369) a. 2. d. 17. b. 3. is the answer. is the answer. c. if immediately after the presentation they were signaled to recall a particular row. There is no evidence that such chemical transfers occur. (pp. 376) d (p. These areas of the brain are not directly involved in the memory system. memory is the phenomenon in which information is best retrieved when the person is in the same emotional or physiological state he or she was in when the material was learned . In essence. (p. d. a. 15. If this were true. 367) d. (p. their recall was near perfect. is the answer. 362) (p. is the answer. & b. 5. is the answer. participants could recall only about half. c (p. c. is the answer. 358) a (p. Each of the others is an example of a "sin of distortion. leading questions affect people's memory construction. d. 356) e (p. a. The text does not suggest that there is an optimal interval between encoding and retrieval. 385) a. 7. Explicit memory (also called declarative memory) is memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare. it would mean that memory construction does not occur. b. The memory encoding occurred at the time of the event in question. but not by altering the size of the synapse. 13. although inaccurate. 379) j (p. Priming is the process by which a memory is activated through retrieval of an associated memory. State-dependent memory refers to the influence of one's own emotional or physiological state on encoding and retrieval. 19. c. This study did not examine the use of mnemonic devices. Through memory construction. 14. 12. d. b. . however. 376) . and as Loftus' studies showed. c. 365) 9. 358) i (p. b. 0 n (p. (p. it appears that human memory can be divided into two distinct types. (pp. Learning increases the efficiency of synaptic transmission in certain neurons. 362) 14. bringing them into line with our biases and assumptions. b. Proactive interference is the interfering effect of prior learning on the recall of new information. The learning environment per se-and its familiarity or exoticness-did not affect retention. g (p. It is in both encoding and retrieval that we construct our memories. memory losses following damage to the hippocampus are quite predictable. George Sperling is known for his research studies of iconic memory. c. & d. (p. 372-373) a. is the answer. 18. and would not apply here. 384) h (p. Because amnesia victims lose their fact (explicit) memories but not their skill (implicit) memories or their capacity to learn. 360) d.Answers 8.

and other memory techniques that facilitate retention. 356) 6. is the answer. (p. Retrieval is the process of getting material out of storage and into conscious. is the answer. Short-term recall is slightly better for information we hear rather than see. (p. The fact that repressed memories can sometimes be retrieved suggests that they were encoded and have not decayed with time. As Ebbinghaus and Bahrick both showed. 15. Delayed recall erases the memory facilitation for items at the end of the list. (p. is the answer. 351) a. is the answer. d. 7. c. 360) a. This study did not find evidence that memories fade (decay) with time. hierarchies facilitate information processing.252 Chapter 9 Memory Progress Test 2 Multiple-Choice Questions 1. is the answer. (pp. is the answer. is the answer. d. c. (p. acronyms. b. 357) 8. rather than the retrieval. Surprisingly. c. c. (p. of memories. Mnemonic devices are the method of loci. is the answer. & d. d. d. is the answer. 377) 2. d. subjects incorrectly recalled details of the film and even "remembered" objects that weren't there. is the answer. Amnesia patients generally do not experience impairment in their iconic and echoic sensory memories. c. 387-388) 19. these are processed in the more ancient parts of the brain. In the serial position effect. 10. (p. is the answer. the items in the middle of the list always show the poorest retention. Amnesia patients typically have suffered damage to the hippocampus. Encoding is the process of getting information into memory. & b. 18.380) a. When misled by the phrasings of questions. is the answer. (pp. 9. 365) 11. is the answer. (p. (pp. Such injuries disrupt the formation. Thus. most of. there are many more potential sources of memory interference than when one is asleep. all material in short-term memory has either already been retrieved or is about to be placed in storage. & b. 367. According to the serial position effect. a. 363) a. A blow to the head wipes out recent experiences because information in STM did not have time to consolidate into LTM. (p. b. c. (p. c. yields poor retention. c. is the answer. Recognition is a measure of retention. b. (p. Iconic and echoic are types of sensory memory. c. d. 364) a. 382-383) 13. & d. Information in short-term memory has already been encoded. is the answer. (p. According to Freud. a brain structure involved in processing explicit memories for facts. When one is awake. items at the beginning and end of a list tend to be remembered best. . is the answer. 370) 4. b. Meaningful stimuli. 3. the forgetting that is going to occur happens soon after learning. d. (pp. is the answer. Storage is the maintenance of encoded material overtime. which entails little active rehearsal. c. Processing a word in terms of its meaning (semantic encoding) produces much better retention than does visual or acoustic encoding. Amnesia patients do retain implicit memories for how to do things. a. 366) b. is the answer. such as random letters. & b. 354) a. is the answer. Speed reading. (p. d. By breaking concepts down into subconcepts and yet smaller divisions and showing the relationships among these. c. 356) b. short-term memory. we repress painful memories to preserve our self-concepts. Lashley found that no matter where he cut" the rats had at least a partial memory of how to solve the maze. 379-380) a. 368) a. c. d. 16. Although nutrition plays an important role in neural functioning. because echoic memory momentarily outlasts iconic memory. Use of main heads and subheads is an example of the organization of textbook chapters into hierarchies. manageable units. Rehearsal is the conscious repetition of information in order to maintain it in memory. the effects of such injuries are independent of nutrition. such as words. (p. a. Lashley's studies did not investigate the significance of the interval between learning and corticallesioning. (p. Chunks are organizations of knowledge into familiar. are usually remembered more easily than meaningless stimuli. d. (pp. A test of recall presents the fewest retrieval cues and usually produces the most limited retrieval. 17. 12. 368) S. 391-392) 14.

376) a. 354) c. is the answer. d. & d. d. & b. when recall is delayed. 353) b. T (p. it is caused by the mood-congruent effect. c. rather than an encoding. This defines absent-mindedness. 392) 9. As researchers found. both the first and last items are recalled more accurately. is the answer. 9. 5. Retroactive interference would involve difficulties in retrieving old memories. F (p. c. is more disruptive than sleeping. b. & d. Proactive interference occurs when old information makes it difficult to correctly remember new information. 377) 6. Iconic memory does not last as long as echoic memory in short-term recall. only the first items in a list are recalled more accurately than the others. & b.. c. Relearning is a measure of retention based on how long it takes to relearn something already mastered. 355) T (p. With multiple-choice questions. Martina is recalling her former classmates' names. c. Janice's problem is at the level of retrieval. 370) a. 373) a. Involvement in other activities. 382-383) a. is the answer. is the answer. d. 6. (p. 356) a. True-False Items 1. That all four mistakes are based on a sound confusion suggests that the letters were encoded acoustically. d. d. Priming is the conscious or unconscious activation of particular associations in memory. State-dependent memory and priming Psychology Applied Multiple-Choice Qllestio1ls 1. a. Being back in the context in which the original experiences occurred triggered memories of these experiences. 374) a. That she had little difficulty indicates that the processing was automatic. Although context is a powerful retrieval cue.. 20. (p. In order to correctly answer either type of question. (pp. not relearning them. F (p. 5. & d. That Martina is able to retrieve her former classmates' names implies that they already have been encoded. even just eating or listening to music. 3. F (p. c. This is bias. c. 7. phenomenon. is the answer. Semantic encoding would have been suggested by errors based on similarities in meaning. 2. 372) b. (p. T (p. b. c. d. 380) 8. c. 388) T (p. 2. the misinformation effect is a retrieval. Although Susan's difficulty in recalling the good could be considered retrieval failure. (pp. Priming refers to the conscious or unconscious activation of particular associations in memory. Interference produces forgetting even when the forgotten material was effectively encoded and stored. Susan's memories are affected by her bad mood. 4. rather than effortfuI. is the answer. This is misattribution. 8. Memory' construction refers to changes in memory as new experiences occur. 385) T (p. rather than automatic. 379) a. b. 4. The mistakes do not involve letters that are similar in appearance. Time and space-and therefore sequences of events-are often automatically processed. the knowledge must have been encoded and stored. 3. c. The memories were triggered by Similarity of place. the answer must be recalled with no retrieval cues other than the question. (p. (p. (p. 363) F (p. Loftus and Palmer found that eyewitness testimony could easily be altered when questions were phrased to imply misleading information. Deja vu is the false impression of having previously experienced a current situation. . b. the correct answer merely has to be recognized from among several alternatives. processing. A serial position effect would presumably occur whether the study and retrieval contexts were the same or different. is the answer. b. (p. With fill-in-the-blank questions. which is therefore the best explanation. b. (pp. Memorizing a list of letters would involve effortfuI. Retroactive interference is the disruption of something you once learned by new information. b. c. F (p. not mood. is the answer. (p. & d. 381) 10. is the answer. With immediate recall. a. Although memories are constructed during encoding. 379-380) a.Answers 253 b. is the answer. 356-357) a. there is no general facilitation of memory in an unusual context. d. d. is the answer. just the opposite is true. Echoic memory refers to momentary memory of auditory stimuli. 385) 7. In fact. 21.

(pp. on the formation of new memories. This answer is incorrect because it is clear that Lewis fails to remember these experiences because they are painful memories and not because he is in a different emotional or physiological state. 362) b. Although experts all accept the fact that recovered memories are commonplace. Blows to the head usually disrupt the most recent experiences. Chunking is the organization of information into meaningful units. & b. Flashbulb memories are unusually clear memories of emotionally significant moments in life. it is caused by repression. a. a. which you probably heard at least once each day of school. Lewis has no memory at all. (p. 15. Memory for digits is an example of explicit. 366) 20.379) b. 357) a. In this example. the questions Frank was asked to answer created misinformation that later became part of his memory. d. c. c.. c. was surely processed into memory (encoded) and maintained there for some time (stored). is the answer. Acronyms are words created from the first letters of to-be-remembered words. such as this one. The final four digits should be no more difficult to organize into chunks than the first five digits of the address code. is the answer. & d. c. 12. (p. d. indicating that these aspects of memory are controlled by more primitive regions of the brain.. or new learning such as that in choice d. d. (p. a. (p. 376) a. Flashbulb memories are especially vivid memories for emotionally significant events. memory. he's just having problems retrieving it. d. (p. The name of your homeroom teacher. is the answer. Because iconic memory lasts no more than a tenth of a second." 13. & d. is an ordinary part of life. this answer would be correct. is the answer. The peg-word system involves developing associations between rhyming words in a jingle and to-be-remembered items. c. c. such as alcohol. (p. such as the location of an answer (but not the actual answer) on a textbook page. Essay Questio" Experts agree that child abuse is a real problem that can have long-term adverse effects on individuals. d. & c.. Carlos has successfully encoded and stored the extension.254 Chapter 9 Memory have nothing to do with the automatic processing of space and time. It is unlikely that a single state was associated with learning your homeroom teacher's name. they warn that memories "recovered" under hypnosis or with the use of . 14. (p. (p. Although Lewis' difficulty in recalling these memories could be considered retrieval failure. b. is the memory of facts that one can consciously "declare. (p. & d. rather than long-term memories like those in choices a. b.. Your failure to recall the answer indicates that it was never encoded semantically. c. If Carlos were having trouble remembering the old extension. d. is the answer. is often encoded automatically. this cannot be the explanation for Brenda's difficulty. (p. 367) b. 351) 11. This is an example of the disruptive effects of depressant drugs. 380) b. Spatial information. is the answer. Short-term memory capacity is approximately seven digits. This answer would have been correct if Frank had been molested but the memory trace had faded with time. The hippocampus is involved in processing new facts for storage.. both good and bad. 368) a. They also acknowledge that forgetting of isolated events. rather than implicit. c. 356. 18. which is therefore the best explanation. Proactive interference occurs when old information makes it difficult to recall new information. d. is the answer. d. such as acronyms. 17. c. is the answer. 358) a. is the answer. This answer would have been correct if Frank had been molested by the counselor but had failed to encode it in his memory. also called declarative memory. (p. 19. 378) a. This is mood-congruent memory. a. 10. b. State-dependent memory is the tendency to recall information best in the same emotional or physiological state as when it was learned. and b. is the answer. Studies of amnesia victims with hippocampal damage show that neither classical conditioning nor skill memory are impaired. c. Misattribution might have occurred if Frank had witnessed another camper being molested and later recalled himself as the actual victim. regardless of how much material is experienced. b. 21. 16. is the answer. b. is the answer. Explicit memory. This is an example of proactive interference. 382) a.

358) 20. 354) 12. (p. 354) 13. Finally. the cerebellum. (p. Explicit memories are memories of facts. 362) 23. Retrieval is the process of bringing to consciousness information from memory storage. 7. 351) . they agree that memories can be traumatic. verv brief recording of sensory information in the mernorv system. etc. The hippocampus is a neural center located in the limbic system that is important in the processing of explicit memories for storage. including names. 370) 30. A flashbulb memory is an unusually vivid memory of an emotionally important moment in one's life. Imagery refers to mental pictures and can be an important aid to effortful processing. Mnemonics 2. (p. (p. (p. Sensory memory is the immediate. 367) 26. Semantic encoding 356) 18. The spacing effect is the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than massed study or practice. (p. Working memory is the newer way of conceptualizing short-term memory as a work site for the active processing of incoming auditory and Visual-spatial information. (p. images. the more that information has been retained. acronyms. (p. 351) 3. (p. rapid stimulation. Visual encoding is the use of imagery to process information into memory: (p. (p. Iconic memory is the visual sensory memory consisting of a perfect photographic memory.p~sistence of learning over time via the storage and retrieval of information. 365) 24. Rehearsal is the conscious. (p. 351) are memory aids (the method of loci. effortful repetition of information that you are trying either to maintain in consciousness or to encode for storage. (p. Recall is a measure of retention in which the person must remember. 362) Memory aid: leoti means "image" or "representation. Relearning is also a measure of retention in that the less time it takes to relearn information. Acoustic encoding is the processing of information into memory according to its sound. 368) 28. long-term memory is the relatively permanent and unlimited capacity memory system into which information from short-term memory may pass. 349) 17. (p. Automatic processing refers to our unconscious encoding of incidental information such as space. Chunking is the memory technique of organizing material into familiar. long-term potentiation (LTP) is an increase in a synapse's firing potential following brief. Implicit memories are memories of skills. . (p. These memories are evidently processed. 359) 21. 351) 6. (p. (p. 351) 4. Echoic memory is the momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli. (p. (p. (p. and of information retrieved from long-term memory. Short-term memory is conscious memory. 351) 9. 356) is the processing of information into memory according to its meaning. 367) 25. 356) 16. peg-words. 367) 27. preferences. as are memories of events before age 3. (p. (p. 355) 14. information is translated into some form that enables it to enter our memory system. 352) 10. lasting about 3 or 4 seconds. Key Terms Writing Definitions 1. Storage is the process by which encoded information is maintained over time. 22. (p. !he serial position effect is the tendency for Items at the beginning and end of a list to be more easily retained than those in the middle. Encoding is the first step in memory. and dispositions. information learned earlier.). which lasts no more than a few tenths of a second. Recognition is a measure of retention in which one need only identify. (p. (p. not by the hippocampus. time. 353) 11. meaningful units. rather than recall. (p. Memory is the. but by a more primitive part of the brain. 370) 8. LTP is believed to be the neural basis for learning and memory. They are also called declarative memories. (p. whether real or false. which can hold about seven items for a short time. (p. Amnesia is the loss of memory. Effortful processing is encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.Answers 255 drugs are unreliable. and frequency and of well-learned information. They are also called procedural or nondeclaralive memories." Iconic memory consists of brief visual images. previously learned information. with few retrieval cues. 15. and events. (p. (p. 356) . 370) 29. 351) 5. which often use vivid imagery and organizational devices. 358) 19.

imagery 14. 18. semantic 7. Deja vu is the false sense that you have already experienced a current situation. Mood-congruent memory is the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with our current mood. particularly new (novel) or important stimuli.-_--:_-_--_. amnesia 22. 3. sensory misinformation effect effortful hippocampus implicit mnemonics acoustic automatic proactive long term visual deja vu FOCUS ON VOCABULARY AND LANGUAGE The Phenomenon of Memory Page 349: Your memory is your mind's storehouse. food. 374) 34.. At the heart of many false memories. 16._-:::-=. S. rehearsal DOWN 1. echoic 6. the reservoir of your accumulated learning. repression 4. Some researchers have examined the origins and causes (roots) of memory loss. recognition 2. medal toinners in a memory Olympics . Page 350: Do S's memory feats make your own memory seem feeble? Myers is pointing out that although S may have demonstrated spectacular abilities in remembering all sorts of things (memonJ feats). 379) 35. 9. our ordinary memory accomplishments.-. Myers is using an analogy to help you understand the general concept of memory. which we tend to take for granted. actively repeating some new information (such as a stranger's name or new terminology) will help strengthen (boost) our ability to remem- . 17. . The misinformation effect is the tendency of eyewitnesses to an event to incorporate misleading information about the event into their memories.383) 38. source amnesia refers to misattributing an event to the wrong source.) until we need them. 13. boost .'' Retroactive interference is "backward-acting" interference. Retroactive interference is the disruptive effect of something recently learned on old knowledge. We can also locate and bring back stored information from long-term memory (LTM) into short-term memory (STM). 12. . . Proactive interference is the disruptive effect of something you already have learned on your efforts to learn or recall new information. 8. iconic 19. it is the basic defense mechanism. your memory system retains most of the things you experienced (accumulated learning). (p. 4. (p. 384) Cross-Check ACROSS 1. (p. . In psychoanalytic theory. 5. (p. and others have noted the benefits (fruits) of not having a perfect memory for everything that happens. (p.. -===-===-""'~====:!!!!!!!!~~-------Chapter 9 Memory 256 31. Likewise. 373) 33. would clearly receive the top prize (medal winner) in any competition in which remembering vast amounts of information was being tested (memory Olympics). (p.379) Memory aid: Retro means ''backward. Pages 351-352: Instead we shine tile flashlight beam of our attention on certain incoming stimuli-often novel or important stimuli. priming 11. . for example. (p. Both storehouses and reservoirs are used to keep materials (water. and items can be recalled or retrieved as required. etc. 10. often unconscious.. Page 350: . One way to improve and increase the power of our memory is to use rehearsal. 36.----- _--. 372) 32. Despite our occasional failures. (p. flashbulb 21. People with exceptional memories are being likened or compared to the top athletes in the Olympic Games. Page 349: Some studies have explored the roots and fruits of memory loss. LTP 15.. normal memory in the average person is no less astounding in many ways (pretty staggering). are quite remarkable (they are far from being feeble). chunking 20. Encoding: Getting Information Itt Page 354: . One model of memory suggests that we only focus on (shine the flashlight beam of our attention on) and process one part or aspect of the total sensory input. Repression is an example of motivated forgetting in that painful and unacceptable memories are prevented from entering consciousness. 381) 37. . Priming is the activation. Thus. of a web of associations in memory in order to retrieve a specific memory..

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