Design and Analysis of Modern Tracking Systems

Samuel Blackman Robert Popoli

Artech House Boston • London

Contents
Preface Acknowledgments

xxvii

xxxi
1
1

1
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.4

The Basics of Target Tracking Introduction Basic Processing Definitions Elements of a Conventional MTT System Measurement Data Processing Data Association Filtering and Prediction Overview of Data Association Issues and Methodologies Interpretation and Issues Unique-Neighbor Versus All-Neighbors Data Association Sequential Versus Deferred Decision Logic Incorporation of Group Information .. Use of Thresholding State Estimation Without Explicit Data Association Multiple Sensor Considerations System Design Issues Joint SensorlTracking System Design Performance Evaluation

4 5
6 8
11

1.3.3

1.4.2 1.4.3
1.4.4

1.4.1

12 12

15
16

1.4.5 1.4.6 1.5 1.6.1 1.6.2
1.6

17
18 19

19
21

22
23

vii

Design and Analysis of Modern Tracking Systems

1.7 2 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.2.6 2.2.7 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 2.3.6 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 2.3.11 2.3.12 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4 2.5 2.5.1

Related Background Reading References Sensor and Source Charactedstics Preliminaries Kinematic Measurements Attribute Measurements Signal-to-Interference Ratio and Measurement Availability and Quality Tracking Radar Sensor Systems Radar Sensor Overview Measurement Availability Measurement Quality False Measurements and Other Measurement Disturbances Further Measurement Signal Characteristics Sensor Agility Sensor Management Information Infrared Search and Track Systems Electro-Optical Sensor Overview IRST Sensor Overview The Nature of IR Radiation Target Energy Energy Propagation and Atmospheric Effects Background Energy Measurement Availability Increasing Measurement Availability With Signal Processing Kinematic Measurement Accuracy Attribute Measurement Capabilities Sensor Artifacts IR Processing Chain Electronic Support Measures Sensor Systems ESM Sensor Overview ESM Sensor Signal Processing ESM Measurement Availability ESM Measurement Utilization and Interpretation Laser Sensor Tracking Systems Laser Sensor Overview

24 24 29 32 32 33 35 36
36 39 68 73

76 80 81 85 85 86 89 94 100 104 107 112
115 115

117 117 119
119

121 122 123 124 124

Contents

ix

2.5.2 2.5.3 2.6 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.7 2.7.1 2.7.2 2.8

Laser Sensor Measurements Laser Sensor System Applications Bistatic Radar Tracking Systems Bistaric Radar Overview Bistatic Radar Measurements Bistatic Radar Tracking Acoustic Sensor Tracking Systems Acoustic Sensor Overview Acoustic Sensor Measurement Warning Sensor Systems References Appendix 2A: Radar PD and PFA Calculations Kinematic State Estimation: Filtering and Prediction Introduction Least Squares Estimation Linear Least Squares Nonlinear Least Squares Estimation Recursive Least Squares Observability Kalman Filtering Kalman Filter Definition Correspondence Between Kalman and Fixed-Gain Filters Example of a Two-State Kalman Filter System Driving Noise and Maneuver Model Extended Kalman Filtering Example Comparing Nonlinear Estimation Performance Problem and Method Definitions Results Nonlinear Filtering With Pseudomeasuremen ts Choice of Tracking Coordinate System Choice of Origin and Axes Cartesian Coordinate Tracking Spherical/Sensor Coordinate Tracking Cartesian Angle-Only Filtering

124 127 128 128 130 131 131 131 133 134 136 141

3

147
147 148 148 151 155 157 157 158 160 161 163 164 168 168 170 172 174 174 178 182 187

3.1 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.4
3.5

3.5.1 3.5.2 3.6 3.7 3.7.1 3.7.2 3.7.3 3.7.4

x

DesignandAnalysis ofModernTracking Systems

3.8 3.8.1 3.8.2 3.9
4

Filter Simplification State Reduction Filter Decoupling Conclusions and Future Directions References Modeling and Tracking Dynamic Targets Introduction Target Dynamic Models Singer Acceleration Model White Noise Constant Velocity and Constant Acceleration Dynamic Models Coordinated Turn Models Other Target Dynamic Modeling Approaches Kalman Filter Implementation Horizontal Turn Model With Velocity States Implementation of Pseudomeasurements Nearly Constant Speed Horizontal Turn Model Maneuver Adaptive Filtering Methods Single Filter Reactive Adaptation Variable Dimension Filtering Cascaded Filtering Multiple Model Filtering Interacting Multiple Model Filtering IMM Interaction/Mixing and Prediction Gating and Data Association Likelihood Calculation and Model Probability Update Combining Different State Models Choice of Markov Transition Probabilities Alternative Mixing Procedures Comparative Performance Study Choice of Methods to Compare Results Three-Dimensional Models Tracking Tactical Ballistic Missile Targets Boost-Stage Missile Dynamics Model Boost-Stage Filter Development

189 189 191 193 195
199

4.1 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.4.4 4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.5.4 4.5.5 4.5.6 4.6 4.6.1 4.6.2 4.7 4.8 4.8.1 4.8.2
4.5

199 200 200 203 205 207 208 209 211 212 214 214 216
216

221 221 224 225 226 227 229 232 232 233 235 240 241 242 244

Contents

xi

4.8.3 4.9
5 5.1

Multiple Model Approach Conclusions References Passive Sensor Tracking Methods Introduction Initial Orbit Determination Derivation of Laplace Method for rOD Example Results Methods to Reduce 100 Error State Estimation With Angle-Only Measurements and Ownship Maneuver Cartesian Filtering Approach Modified Polar and Spherical Coordinates Filter Approach Comparative Simulation Results Tracking With Frequency (Doppler) and Angle Measurement Data Extension of MPC to Frequency/Doppler Measurements Cartesian Coordinate State Estimation Using Angle and Frequency/Doppler Measurements Use of Measured IR Intensity Time-co-Go Estimation From Amplitude Rate Tracking Single Sensor Multispectral Ranging Use of Template/Profile Data to Determine Target Type and Boost-Stage Trajectory Overview of Profile Matching Procedure Iterative Search Procedure Use of Measured Intensity Target Image Tracking (Extended Target Tracking) Algorithm Elements Centroid and Edge Tracking Correlation Tracking Filtering and Data Association Laser Augmented Image Target Tracking Video Sensor Traffic Monitoring Vehicle Detection

247 251 253 259 259 262 262 264 267 268 269 271 275 280 282 283 286 286 290 293 294 299 302 303 304 309 310 313 315 315 316

5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.4 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.5 5.5.1 5.5.2 5.6 5.6.1 5.6.2 5.6.3 5.7 5.7.1 5.7.2 5.7.3 5.7.4 5.7.5 5.8 5.8.1

xii

Design and Analysis of Modern Tracking Systems

5.8.2 5.8.3 5.9
6

Object Tracking Use of Tracker Output Conclusion References Basic Methods for Data Association Introduction Track Score Function Likelihood Ratio Development Track Score Initiation Special Cases of Signal-Related Data Score-Based Track Confirmation and Deletion Gating Rectangular Gates Ellipsoidal Gates Maneuver Gating Global Nearest Neighbor Method Solution of the Assignment Problem The Auction Algorithm N-Best Solutions to the Assignment Problem The All-Neighbors Data Association Approach The PDA Method Extension to JPDA Combining PDA and IMM PDA Track Initiation and Deletion ]PDA Extensions and Modifications Multiple Hypothesis Tracking MHT Tracker Elements Alternative MHT Implementations Node Structure With N-Scan Pruning Presentation ofMHT Data GNN, JPDA, and MHT Performance Comparison Comparative Studies in Tracking Literature Simulation Study Results . Group Tracking Group Tracking Without Individual Tracks

317 318 318 319 325 325 327 328 330 331 332 334 335 336 338 338 342 343 346 350 350 353 356 357 359 360 364 365 367 369 369 370 371
374 374

6.1 6.2 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.2.4 6.3 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.4 6.5 6.5.1 6.5.2 6.6 6.6.1 6.6.2 6.6.3 6.6.4 6.6.5 6.7 6.7.1 6.7.2 6.7.3 6.7.4 6.8 6.8.1 6.8.2 6.9 6.9.1

Contents

xiii

6.9.2 6.9.3 6.10 6.10.1 6.10.2 6.10.3 6.10.4 6.10.5 6.11 6.12 6.12.1 6.12.2 6.13 6.13.1 6.13.2 6.13.3 6.14 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 7.3.4 7.3.5 7.4 7.4.1 7.4.2 7.5

Group Tracking Plus Simplified Individual Tracks Individual Target Tracking Supplemented by Group Information Compensation for Sensor Resolution Limitations Probability of Observation Merging Updated Track Score and State Estimates Using Merged Observations Example Score and Probability Calculation 1mplementation Warm Start Track Initiation (Track Splitting) Kalman Filter Covariance Increase for Missed Detections Global Nearest Neighbor Enhancements Modified GNN Update Simplified Delayed Decision Logic Choice of Detection Threshold Choice of Global Threshold Adaptive Threshold Setting Summary of Results Conclusions References

376 376 377 378 380 383 385 386 386 389 389 389 392 392 393 394 395 396 403 403 404 408 408 410 414 418 422 423 425 426 427

Advanced Methods for MIT Data Association
Introduction The Integer Programming Approach (Morefield's Method) Multidimensional Assignment Approach Formulation 3D Application of Lagrangian Relaxation Example of Lagrangian Relaxation Extension to N-D Assignment (N?::.. 4) Multiscan Assignment Approach toMHT Dynamic Programming Algorithm Single-Target (Single-Path) Solution Multiple- Target Solution Approach JPDA Extensions

xiv

Design and Analysis of Modern TrackingSystems

7.6.1

7.5.1 7.5.2 7.6

7.7 7.7. ] 7.7.2

7.6.2

7.7.3
7.7.4 7.9.~ 7.9.3 1.10

7.8 7.9

7.9.2

Mixture Reduction Algorithms Multiple Scan ]PDA Augmented. State Vector Approach to MTT Coupling Due to Common Target Dynamics and Measurement Error Image Tracking of Crossing Targets Stare Estimation Without Data Association The Symmetric Measurement Equation Filter Event-Averaged Maximum Likelihood Estimation Batch Processing Maximum Likelihood Estimation Methods Bayesian State Space Estimation Track -Befo re- Detect Knowledge-Based Methods Neural Network Applications Genetic Algorithms Use of Qualitative/Heuristic Information Conclusions References

428 431 433 433 439 440
440

445 450 451 455 458 458 463 469 473 475
4\$3

s
8.1 8.U 8.1.2 8.1.3 8.2 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.3
8.4 8.4.1

~wlTiibJlJlfte

[[]l<lltOli

flJlsn!DIirn

8.4.2 8.4.3

Introduction The Role of Attribute Data Fusion Comments on Selecting an Inferencing Approach Chapter Overview The ID Problem and the Nature of Available A Priori Information A Priori Target ID Modeling Target Attribute Dynamics Modeling Measurement Process Modeling Voting or Set Intersection Techniques for Attribute Data Fusion Classical Statistical Methods Bayesian Inference Maximum A Posteriori Inference and the MAP Techniques Likelihood Inferencing and the Maximum Likelihood Technique

483 484 485 485 486 487 488 489 490 495
496

503 505

Contents

XV

8.5 8.5.1 8.5.2 8.5.3 8.5.4 8.5.5 8.5.6 8.5.7 8.5.8 8.5.9 8.6 8.6.1 8.6.2 8.6.3 8.6.4

8.6.5 8.6.6 8.7 8.8

Evidential Reasoning for Attribute Data Fusion Evidential Reasoning Primer Implementation of Evidential Reasoning Partial Probability Models Partial Probability Models and Evidential Reasoning Bayes's Rule With Parametric Probability Models and Relation to Dempster's Rule of Combination Partial Transitional Probability Models for Evidential 10 Techniques Power Set Approach Typical Set Approach Comparative Example of Bayesian and Evidential Reasoning for Target 1D More on the Relation Between Evidential Reasoning and Probability Basic Mass Assignment Procedure for Complete Transitional Models Correspondence Between Bayesian and Evidential Reasoning Under Complete Probability Models Three Prisoner Problem Example Under Complete Probability Models Correspondence Between Bayesian and Evidential Reasoning Under Complete Transitional and Partial Prior Probability Models Relation of Lower and Upper Probabilities to the Support and Plausibility Three Prisoner Problem Example Under Partial Probability Models Implementing Dempster-Shafer Reasoning Conclusions References Appendix 8A: Derivation of Maximum and Minimum Bayesian A Posteriori Probabilities Under Partial Prior Distributions

507 509 513 514 517

521 533 544 547

551 564 565

567 569

570 574 575 578 578 582

585

xvi

DesignandAnalysis Modern Tracking of Systems

9 9.1

Multiple Sensor Tracking: Issues and Methods Introduction Basic Principles of Multiple Sensor Tracking System Design Multiple Sensor System Architectures Central-Level Tracking, Centralized Track File Central-Level Tracking, Distributed Track File Sensor- Level Tracking, Centralized Track File Sensor-Level Tracking, Distributed Track File Hybrid System Application Examples Multiple Passive Sensor System Tracking Internetted Multisensor Systems General Expression for Multisensor Data Association Derivation Examples Generalized Assignment Matrix Multisensor Data Association Methods Centralized Architectures Distributed Architectures Overview of Track-to- Track Association Implementations of Track-to- Track Association Extension to MHT and ]PDA Distributed Multisensor Detection and Track Initiation Global Detection Test System Detection Performance Optimization Information Transmission to the Fusion Center Other Issues in Multisensor Detection Multiple Sensor Track Confirmation Multiple Sensor Filtering Handling Differing RatesIOut-of-Sequence Data Ensuring That More Is Better Use of Complementary Sensor Data

595 595 598 599 602 607 608 610 611 612 612 613 616 616 620 624 626 626 627 628 629 637 637 639 641 643 645 646 649 649 650 650

9.2

9.3 9.3.1 9.3.2 9.3.3 9.3.4 9.3.5 9.4 9.5

9.4.1 9.4.2

9.5.1 9.5.2 9.5.3 9.6 9.6.1 9.6.2 9.6.3 9.6.4 9.6.5 9.7 9.7.1 9.7.2 9.7.3 9.7.4 9.7.5 9.8.1 9.8.3
9.8.2 9.8

Contents

xvii

9.9 10 10.1 10.2 10.2.1 10.2.2 10.3 10.3.1 10.3.2 10.4 10.4.1 10.4.2 10.4.3 10.5 10.5.1 10.5.2 10.5.3 10.5.4 10.5.5 10.6 10.6.1 10.6.2 10.6.3 10.6.4 10.6.5 10.7 10.7.1 10.7.2 10.8

Conclusions and Further Reading References

651 654

Multiple Sensor Tracking: System Implementation and Applications
Introduction Multiple Sensor Measurement Transformation The Stereographic Coordinate System Nonlinear Measurement Input Form Central-Level Track Filtering Alternative Central-Level Track Updating Methods Filtering Out-of-Sequence Observations: Optimal Filter Development Multiple Sensor Track Fusion Fusion Methods/Error Sources Use of Cross Covariance Use of Equivalent Measurements Multiple Sensor Registration/Misalignment Estimation Registration Error Sources Matching Method to Application Least Squares Estimation Approach Registration Error Estimation via Kalman Filtering Combined Registration and Data Association Distribured Multiple Passive Sensor Systems Choice of Tracking Architecture State Estimation Using Distance of Closest Approach Triangulation Gating and Association Statistics Estimation Accuracy Varad Hinge (Inclination) Angle Method Angle-Only (2D)-to-Position (30) Track Gating and Fusion Gating and Fusion Relationships Gating and Fusion Example Stereo Track Formation and Maintenance

661
661 662 663 665 667 667 670 678 678 681 684 689 689 692 692 696 697 699 700 702 706 711 716 719 719 722 724

xviii

Design and Analysis of Modern Tracking Systems

10.8.1 10.8.2 10.9

Angle-Only Tracking Deghosting Problem Deghosting for Closely Spaced Ballistic Targets Conclusions References Appendix lOA: Derivation of Hinge Angle Statistics Reasoning Schemes for Situation Assessment and Sensor Management

725 728 729 730 735 737 737 739 740 742 743 746 746 748 753 756 756 760 767 768 776 781 794 794 797 797 798 801

11 11.1 11.2

Introduction An Introduction to Fuzzy Set Theory and Inexact Reasoning Systems 11.2.1 A Fuzzy Set Primer Rule-Based Systems and Inexact 11.2.2 Reasoning 11.2.3 Implementing Inexact Reasoning 11.3 Introduction to More Sophisticated Fuzzy Set Theory 11.4 Some Preliminaries 11.5 T-Norms, T-Conorms, and Negation Operators 11.6 The Extension Principle 11.7 Relations, Composition, and Partial Orderings 11.7.1 Fuzzy Relation Basics and Composition 11.7 .2 Fuzzy Partial Ordering 11.8 Linguistic Variables and Linguistic Approximation 11.9 Implication and Inferencing 11.10 Ranking Objects Using Fuzzy Partial Orderings 11.11 . Fuzzy State Machines 11.12 Conclusions References

12
12.1

Situation Assessment Introduction The Role of Situation Assessment Chapter Organization

12.1.1
12.1.2

Contents

xix

12.2 12.2.1 12.2.2 12.2.3 12.2.4 12.3 12.3.1
12.3.2

12.3.3 12.3.4 12.4 12.4.1
12.5
12.6

12.6.1 12.6.2 12.7
12.8 12.9 U

Domain-Specific Knowledge ofWeapol1 Systems Overview of Tactical Missile Guidance Missile Delivery Methods Missile Guidance Laws Tactical Missile Launch Envelopes Domain-Specific Knowledge of Tactical Intercepts Basic Concepts of Tactical Intercepts Forward Quarter Intercept Stern Conversion Intercept Variations on the Forward Quarter and the Stem Conversion Intercepts Situation Assessment System Architecture Situation Assessment Data Processing Block Diagram Simple or Static Recognition Temporal Recognition or Capturing Tactical Intercept Domain-Specific Knowledge Automated Temporal Recognition ofTacrical Air Intercepts Temporal Reasoning as a Methodology for Event Fusion Partial Ordering and Prioritization Ancillary Situation Assessment Functions Conclusions References J~aclldOil!£J S1fs~em lPerrifOll'mallniCe jplll'e[Jil(;~uOlOil
aJOiJI[fllE\i'i@~ILa<il~nODiJ

801 802 802 804 808 811 812 814 821 821 832 833 837 845 847 849 852 860 862 863 855 865 866 871
872

13.]
13.2

13.3 13.3.1 13.3.2 13.3.3 13.3.4 13.3.5
13.4

Introduction Tracking Filter Performance Prediction Predicting Track Confirmation Performance Limits on Track Confirmation Feasibility Application of SPRT to Track Confirmation SPRT Analysis of Track Confirmation Simplified Monte Carlo Simulation IRST Example Analytical Expressions for Predicting Data Association Performance

873 874 877 878 882

xx

Design and Analysis of Modern TrackingSystems

13.4.1 13.4.2 13.5 13.5.1 13.5.2 13.5.3 13.6 13.6.1 13.6.2 13.6.3 13.6.4 13.6.5 13.7 14 14.1 14.2 14.2.1 14.2.2 14.3 14.3.1 14.3.2 14.4 14.4.1 14.4.2 14.4.3 14.4.4 14.5 14.5.1 14.5.2

Probability of Correct Association/Decision Probability of Resolution Generalizing Covariance Analysis to Include Data Association Generalized Covariance Equation Application of Generalized Covariance Analysis Predicting Fundamental Limits (Computing Cramer-Rao Bounds for MTT) MTT System Evaluation Metrics Track-to- Truth Assignment Computation of Track Statistics Measures of Effectiveness A Taxonomy of Target Tracks Implementation Issues Conclusions References

882 886 890 891 892 896 899 899 901 903 904 905 905 906
911

Multiple Target Tracking With an Agile Beam Radar
Introduction Detection: Observation Generation ,and Processing Enhancing Detection and Measurement Performance Reducing the Effects ofJer Engine Modulation Efficient Search for New Targets Trade-O ff Issues Example Search Allocation Optimization Track Update Resource Allocation Minimizing Track Update Resource Allocation Requirements Simulation of Track Update Resource Allocation Update of High-Priority Targets Target Cross-Section Estimation Allocation Among Multiple Functions Determining Task Figures of Merit Scheduling Methodology

911 913 913 916 916 917 919 924 925 927 930 931 933 935 936

Contents

xxi 937 941 941 942 942 943 944 944 945 945 945 946 949 950 951 952 954 955 955 958 959 963

14.5.3 14.6 14.6.1 14.6.2 14.6.3 14.7 14.7.1 14.7.2 14.7.3 14.7.4 14.7.5 14.8 14.8.1 14.8.2 14.8.3 14.8.4 14.9 14.9.1 14.9.2 14.10

Other Allocation Issues Filtering and Prediction Choice of Tracking Coordinates and States Tracking Filters for Maneuvering Targets Adaptive Sampling Methods Data Association Conventional Data Association Multiple Hypothesis Tracking Joint Probabilistic Data Association Group Tracking Other Data Association Issues Results From Benchmark Tracking Problem Data Association Conclusions Filtering Conclusions Resource Allocation Conclusions Allocation Robustness to Target Maneuvers Combining IRST and Agile Beam Radar Data Increased Track Confirmation Range Multisensor Resource Allocation Conclusions References Appendix 14A: Expected Power Loss Due to Track Offset From Antenna Pointing Angle
Sensor Management

15

967
967 968 971 973 974 974 977 982 983 983 984 987 995

15.1 15.1.1 15.1.2 15.1.3 15.2 15.2.1 15.2.2 15.2.3 15.3 15.3.1 15.3.2 15.3.3 15.3.4

Introduction Chapter Goals Related Studies Chapter Scope and Organization Exploring the Sensor Management Imperative The Role of Sensor Management Cataloging the Sensor Management Imperative Addressing the Sensor Management Imperative Understanding What Is to Be Managed Two Views of Managing Sensors Parameter View of What Is to Be Managed Mode View of What Is to Be Managed Closing Remarks

xxii

DesignandAnalysisof Modern Tracking Systems

15.4 15.4.1 15.4.2 15.4.3 15.5 15.5.1 15.5.2 15.5.3 15.5.4 15.5.5 15.5.6 15.5.7 15.5.8 15.5.9 15.6 15.6.1 15.6.2 15.7 15.7.1 15.7.2 15.7.3 15.8
16

Understanding What Is to Be Optimized Role of Tracking System Figures of Merit in Sensor Management Optimization Target Acquisition Figures of Merit Other Figures of Merit Sensor Management Implementation Issues and Principles Architecture for Sensor Management The Macro/Micro Architecture Scheduling Techniques Decision-Making Techniques Overview of a Prototype Implementation of Sensor Management Overview of Prototype Implementation of Macro Sensor Management Overview of Prototype Implementation of Micro Sensor Management An Illustrative Example of the Sensor Management Process Overview of Sensor Management Operation Policies of Operation Example of Policies of Operation for Synergistic Sensor Utilization Some Important Policies Distributed IR Sensor System Management System Overview Macro Commands Micro Sensor Management Conclusions References Multiple Hypothesis Tracking System Design and Application Introduction MHT Algorithm Description Track Formation and Maintenance Track-Level Pruning and Confirmation Clustering Hypothesis Formation and Pruning Global- Level Track Pruning

995 996 997 1003 1004 1005 1006 1009 1014 1015 1018 1029 1039 1044 1053 1055 1060 1063 1063 1064 1064 1065 1065
1069

16.1 16.2 16.2.1 16.2.2 16.2.3 16.2.4 16.2.5

1069 1070 1071 1072 1072 1073 1074

Contents

xxiii

16.2.6 16.2.7 16.3 16.4 16.4.1 16.4.2 16.5 16.5.1 16.5.2 16.5.3 16.5.4 16.5.5 16.5.6 16.6 16.6.1 16.6.2 16.6.3 16.7 16.7.1 16.7.2 16.7.3 16.7.4 16.8 16.8.1 16.8.2 16.8.3 16.8.4 16.9 16.9.1 16.9.2 16.9.3 16.10 16.10.1

Track Updating and Merging User Presentation Logic Track and Hypothesis Scoring and Probability Computations Presentation of MHT Data Coordinated Presentation of MHT Data Continuous-Time Representation ofMHT Data Ensuring MHT Computational Feasibility Gating and Filtering Efficiencies Track Branch Limiting/Pruning Bilevel Processing Fail-Safe Logic Parallel Processing Timing/Sizing Results Combining MHT and IMM Filtering Alternative IMM/MHT System Methods An IMM/MHT Implementation Comparative Results Multiradar Air Defense System Application System Description Handling Multiradar Asynchronous Data Handling Different Measurement Information Content False Target Density, Track Confirmation, and Maintenance MHT Compensation for Possibly Unresolved Measurements A Priori MHT Hypotheses Augmentation Bayesian PDF Propagation Method A Posteriori MHT Hypothesis Augmentation MHT With Group and Object Tracking MHT Applications to Agile Beam Radar MHT-Based Agile Beam Radar Allocation Track Score Computation IMM/MHT Application to Agile Beam Radar Benchmark Problem MHT Applied to Agile Beam RadarlIRST Tracking IRST Sensor-Level Tracker

1074 1075 1075 1076 1077 1080 1083 1083 1084 1086 1086 1087 1089 1090 1090 1092 1093 1096 1096 1096 1098 1099 1100 1101 1102 1103 1103 1104 1105 1106 1106 1108 1109

xxiv

DesignandAnalysisofModern Tracking Systems

16.10.2 16.11 17 17.1 17.2 17.2.1 17.2.2 17.2.3 17.2.4 17.2.5 17.3 17.3.1 17.3.2 17.3.3 17.4 17.4.1 17.4.2 17.4.3 17.4.4 17.4.5 17.5 17.5.1 17.5.2 17.5.3 17.6 17.6.1 17.6.2 17.7 17.7.1 17.7.2 17.8 17.8.1 17.8.2

Central-Level MHT Tracker Conclusions References Detection and Tracking of Dim Targets in Clutter Introduction Signal Processing Methods for Detecting Dim Targets Maximum Likelihood/Matched Filter Detection Adaptive Detection Signal Integration Along Target Paths Sequential Detection Nonlinear Detection and Feature Utilization Data Association Methods Multiscan Processing MHT ]PDA System Performance Optimization and Implementation SNR Contribution to Score Function Optimization of Signal Contribution Signal Processing Versus Tracking Resource Allocation Issues IR Clutter Track Suppression Use of All MHT Branches Track-Before-Detect Hough Transform Application to TBD DPA Implementation ofTBD Noncellular TBD Track Confirmation Comparison Example Study Description Results Two-Stage Detection and Tracking Use of Segments for Track Update Application of Equivalent Measurements Multiple Sensor Applications Overview of Potential Architectures/Methods Proposed Mulrisensor Architecture

1110 1111

1111 1117
1117 1119 1119 1124 1126 1128 1129 1129 1130 1130 1131 1132 1133 1137 1141 1142 1143 1144 1145 1148 Jl53 1154 1154 1156 1158 1158 1159 1160 1160 1163

Contents

xxv 1164 1165 1172 1174

17.9

Conclusions References Appendix 17A: Target Anomaly Detection Using Combined Space and Spectral Filtering Appendix 17B: Determination of Tracker SNRGain Acronyms and Abbreviations About the Authors

1177
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Figure 9.5 Sensor-level tracking with centralized track file.

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Figure 9.6 Sensor-level tracking with distributed track file.

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