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Captain BS Duggal MNI Marine Manager, Sanko Kisen, USA
Note: an edited extract from this paper is published in Seaways, August 2006 Background
Arctic regions in Russia have the world’s biggest energy reserves of oil and gas resources outside the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Russia is among the top ten in proven oil reserves, is the largest exporter of natural gas, the second largest oil exporter and third largest energy consumer. As a non OPEC member the former Soviet Union (FSU) which includes Russia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan collectively averaged 11.56 mb/d in 2005 an increase of 0.41 mb/d over the previous year. Russian oil supply averaged 9.42 mb/d in 2005 an increase of 230,000 b/d from 2004 ( while in 2005 Saudi Arabia, the world’s largest producer of oil averaged of 9.6 mb/d ). Non OPEC supply in 2005 averaged 50.1 mb/d, representing an increase of 0.3 mb/d over 2004. While in 2005 OPEC members averaged 30.16 mb/d of oil. World oil demand during last quarter of 2005 stood at 85.9 mb/d. Most of Russia’s 60 billion barrels of proven oil reserves are located in Western Siberia, between the Ural Mountains and Central Siberian Plateau. Roughly 25% of Russia’s oil reserves and 6% of its gas reserves are on Sakhalin Island in the far eastern region of the country, just north of Japan. Almost three fourths of Russian crude oil production is exported. About two thirds of Russia’s 6.7 mb/d of crude oil exports in 2004 went to Belarus, Ukraine, Germany, Poland, and other destinations in Central and eastern Europe. The remaining one third of oil exports went to maritime ports and was sold in world markets. With proven reserves between 60 to 72.3 billion barrels, Russia will stay as a major player in the global oil market. Ice bound and low temperature ports of shipment in Russia. A large portion of Russia’s oil presently is shipped by tankers from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean and to Asia, mostly from port of Novorossiysk. However, shipments through the congested Bosporous Straits are limited by Turkey for environmental and safety reasons, limiting the effective capacity of lines to Novorossiysk. The Baltic Pipeline System (BPS) carries crude oil from Russia’s West Siberian and Tyumen – Pechora oil provinces westward to the newly completed port of Primorsk on the Russian Gulf of Finland. Throughput capacity at Primrosk was raised to 1 mb/d and is likely to be expanded to 1.2 mb/d. The BPS gives Russia a direct outlet to northern European markets, reducing dependence on routes through the Baltic countries. Low temperatures and ice infestation of waters in the north Baltic are a fact of life during the winter, typically November / December to March. Proposed lines would carry oil from Russia’s West Siberian and Tyumen – Pechora basins west and north to a deepwater terminal at Murmansk or Indiga on the Barent’s Sea. This would enable 1.6 – 2.4 mb/d of Russian oil to reach the United States via tankers in only nine days, much faster than the Middle East or Africa. Liquefied natural gas facilities at Murmansk also have been suggested allowing for gas exports to American markets. The Indiga route would be closer to the
Tyumen – Pechora oil fields and shorter. However , transshipment port in Murmansk is ice free all year due to its location . The large Chinese market for oil has led to serious consideration of building a pipeline from Russian city of Taishet (northwest of Angarsk) to Nakhodka ( near Sea of Japan). The Nakhodka route would provide a new Pacific port from which Russian oil could be shipped by tankers to Japan and other Asian markets and possibly to North America. In October 2005 Exxon Neftegas Limited, commenced production from the multiphase Sakhalin1 Project offshore Eastern Russia. The initial phase of the project will produce 50,000 barrels (6,300 metric tons) a day by year-end 2005 and 250,000 barrels (33,000 metric tons) a day of oil by year-end 2006 from the Chayvo field. Associated domestic gas sales will start at about 60 million cubic feet (1.7 million cubic meters) per day, and ultimately are expected to increase to about 250 million cubic feet (7.1 million cubic meters) per day by the end of the decade. The Sakhalin-1 project, involves the construction of both offshore and onshore facilities. It includes the world's largest land-based drilling rig to reach reserves six miles (10 kilometers) from shore, an offshore platform that provides drilling capacity for up to 20 wells, an onshore oil and gas processing facility and an associated 140-mile (225 kilometers) crude oil pipeline, and a marine export terminal providing year-round storage and tanker loading facilities on the Russian mainland at DeKastri.
Ice class tankers tonnage requirements.
As late as in 1992, ice-class tankers formed only 3 per cent of the total global tanker fleet. In 2004 USD 4.5 billion was invested in ice class new buildings, mostly for high – specification, class 1A equivalent tonnage. At present, about 8 per cent of the global tanker fleet is ice-classed vessels, and it is estimated that by 2008 the share will cross the 10 per cent mark to 18 million deadweight tons. With rule driven accelerated phasing out of older single hull tankers, 1A, ice class fleet is expected to grow to 14 million deadweight tons by 2008. According to Clarkson Research the Ice Class fleet is expected to grow 15.7% to 34.25m at the end of 2006 as against 15.5% (23.82m) in 2004 and 24.3% (29.61m) in 2005. Although investment in ice class new buildings slowed in 2005, shipping investors have still invested in an order book that totals 211 vessels of 12.0m deadweight. In January 2006 Clarkson Research studies identified 281 Ice Class 1A ships as operational , which is equivalent to 6.92m deadweight, with 70–80% of them under 20,000dwt. Clarkson survey revealed that there were 144 vessels (8.87m deadweight) with ice class 1A and 7 vessels (0.37m deadweight) with ice class 1A Super on order. The fleet is undergoing massive growth which will see a flood of tonnage to the market particularly in the 1A/1AS sector. The tremendous development of Russian crude oil and future oil exports from the ice-stricken parts of the Baltic Sea will drive levels of investment in ice class tankers over the coming decade. Tonnage demands will be governed by actual oil output achieved, ports used for export and final destination of oil. The most effective trading markets which will influence the future capacity of ice class tonnage will be short voyage destinations from Baltic to western Europe, long voyage destinations to North America and in Pacific region from Sakhalin Island ( including De Kastri terminal) via Tartar Strait to Japan, China and India. Also it is to be noted that ice class vessels offer trading flexibility with added advantage of the fact that new building price premium for ice class tankers has reduced over the years specially for
1A class tankers. Therefore owning 1A class tonnage is good strategy in the long term, even if opportunities in ice regions become competitive.
Ice Class Rules.
Ice class rules are implemented by the coastal states experiencing seasonal or year round ice covered oceans and seas in their region. There are basically two main groups for ice class rules i.e requirements for navigation in first year ice (not more than one winter’s growth up to 120 cm thick and low ice strength property) and requirements for navigation in multi year ice (sea ice has survived at least one summer’s melt and up to 3m or more thick and high ice-strength properties). Baltic Sea. Bay and Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland covered by Finnish Swedish Ice Class Rules (FSICR) Gulf of Finland (Russian territorial waters) covered by Russian Maritime Register of Shipping (RMRS) Ice Class Rules (Non -Arctic Sea Area Requirements) Arctic Ocean. Barents, Kara, Laptev, East Siberian and Chukchi Seas covered by Russian Maritime Register of Shipping (RMRS) Ice Class Rules. Beaufort Sea, Baffin Bay covered by Canadian Artic Shipping Pollution Prevention Rules (CASPPR). Sea of Ohkotsk. Covered by Russian Maritime Register of Shipping (RMRS) Ice Class Rules (Non -Arctic Sea Area Requirements). Transportation route between the North Atlantic and North Pacific is often referred to as North Sea Route (NSR). Each Classification Society has a set of rules for the strengthening during navigation in ice, and at the time of writing these are in process of harmonization with introduction of the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) Polar Ship Rules. The IACS Polar Rules are created in line with the IMO Guidelines for Ships Operating in Artic Ice Covered Waters to provide comprehensive requirements for the safe navigation of ships in Arctic waters. In, addition Russian Maritime Register of Shipping will also retain rules for Arctic vessels and Finnish Swedish Ice Class Rules (FSCIR) for vessels operating in the Northern Baltic in winter where these have become de facto standard for the first year ice class vessels. The existence of three sets of rules is due to variations in design conditions and assumptions used in the determination of requirements. FSCIR are incorporated into the Rules of every IACS Class except RMRS. RMRS have intact and damage stability requirements in their Class Rules. When a vessel is built for operations in ice, the ice class is indicated in the classification notation. The notation is reflected in the ship’s certification as well as the Register Book. In practice administrations of the coastal states delegate authority to vessel’s classification society to verify design and build for ice class. This involves following process: Comparison of classification society ice class rules to administrations ice class rules. Publication of assessment table. During service of the vessel, periodic auditing and examination by inspectors from the maritime administration of the coastal state for which class has been assigned.
For an ice class to be granted, the ship’s draught on the load line must be within the limits of the ship’s maximum (LWL) and minimum (BWL) ice class draughts and in accordance with the ship’s Tonnage Certificate. The maximum and minimum ice class draughts fore and aft and minimum engine output corresponding to the ice class is stated in the classification certificate. Approximate equivalence of class symbols for ice strengthening between classification societies: Classification Society Finnish Swedish Ice Class Rules Russian Maritime Register Shipping (Rules 1995) Russian Maritime Register Shipping (Rules 1999) American Bureau of Shipping. Bureau Veritas CASPPR, 1972. China Classification Society. Det Norske Veritas Germanischer Lloyd Korean Register of Shipping. Lloyd’s Register of Shipping. Nippon Kaiji Kyokai. Registro Italiano Navale of of IA Super UL LU5 IAA IA Super A Ice Class B1* ICE-1A* E4 ISS 1AS IA Supper IAS IA L1 LU4 IA IA B Ice Class B1 ICE-1A E3 IS1 1A IA IA IB L2 LU3 IB IB C Ice Class B2 ICE-1B E2 IS2 1B IB IB IC L3 LU2 IC IC D Ice Class B3 ICE-1C E1 IS3 1C IC IC Category II L4 LU1 D0 ID E Ice Class B ICE-C E IS4 1D ID ID
Commonly accepted nominal equivalencies for FSICR, RMRS and Polar Class:
IA Super – Ice thickness 1.0m (Year round operation every where in Baltic. Designed for independent navigation in old navigation channels and therefore consolidated layer of 10cm is added to channel brash ice thickness). IA- Ice thickness 0.8m (Year round operation every where in Baltic. Designed for independent operation in newly broken channels and therefore consolidated layer thickness is not added to the requirement).
RMRS (Rules 1995) UL (Independent summer / autumn navigation in the Artic in light ice, year-round in nonArctic seas).
Polar Class PC6 (Summer / autumn operation in medium first year ice which may include old ice inclusions).
L1 PC7 (Summer in Arctic in broken (Summer / autumn operation ice, light ice conditions in in thin first year ice which non-Artic seas). may include old ice inclusions).
IACS Polar Rules – Harmonization of Ice class. Classification ice rules are based on the ice thickness the vessel is intended to navigate in. Depending upon ice conditions, ice class rules are categorized into various levels. Thicker the ice, greater the hull reinforcement strength, propeller increase and steering gear strengthening the vessel will need to navigate in these waters. Class rules also take into account independent or escorted navigation. The IACS Polar Rules are based on Arctic and Antarctic navigation, although the IMO Guidelines are presently for the Arctic only. Polar rules also take into account the limited icebreaker assistance and hence on glancing impact with an ice floe. These rules are mainly applicable to navigation in multi year ice. The rules are divided into three sets of unified requirements: UR I1 (Polar Class Descriptions and Application). Defines the division of IACS Polar Rules as indicated in the below table. The number of classes covers full range of ships in operation. The lowest classes PC6 and PC7 have been aligned with the highest Finnish Swedish Ice Classes, IAS and IA respectively.
PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4 PC5 PC6 PC7
Ice description (follows WMO Sea Ice Nomenclature). Year round operation in Polar waters. Year round operation in moderate multi – year ice conditions. Year round operation in second year ice. May include multi year ice inclusions. Year round operation in thick first year ice. May include old ice inclusions. Year round operation in medium first year ice. May include old ice inclusions. Summer/autumn operation in medium first year ice. May include old ice inclusions. Summer/autumn operation in thin first year ice. May include old ice inclusions.
UR I2 (Structural Requirements for Polar Class Ships). The objective of the UR I2 is to provide structural requirements to enable ship operating in polar regions to withstand the effect of ice load and temperature. Includes strength requirements based on a glancing impact with an ice floe to determine plating framing structural requirements. For ships of all Polar Classes, a glancing impact on the bow is the design scenario for determining the scantlings required to resist ice loads. Additionally, global hull girder longitudinal strength assessment is made based on an ice – ramming scenario. UR I2 contains material requirements, corrosion / abrasion allowances, direct calculations and welding requirements. Hull structure should be designed reflecting the magnitude of the load that is acting upon the hull in ice waters. UR I3 (Machinery Requirements for Polar Class Ships). At the time of writing UR I3 rules were due for submitting to IACS WPG. It includes technical requirements of main propulsion, steering gear, emergency and other auxiliary systems. UR I3 rules were developed as a result of extensive research and development on propeller damages, propeller and shaft load measurements and propeller and ice interaction. It addresses materials exposed to sea water / sea water temperature. The introduction of IACS Polar Ship rules will be a significant step in the rule harmonization process. Rules will be adopted by all IACS member Classification Societies. Russian Maritime Register of Shipping Ice Class Rules (RMRS). For the Russian Artic it is essential to consider the Russian Maritime Register of Shipping (RMRS) ice class rules, which are currently stipulated in the “Guide for Navigation through the Northern Sea Route”. These rules were developed under International Northern Sea Program and have a long service experience for ships operating in the Russian Arctic. The provisions of the Guide apply both to the North Sea Route (NSR) and to the Barents and Bering Sea areas covered by ice. The Structure of the “Guide to navigation through the NSR”. General Review
(All vessels navigating on the seaway of the NSR are operational subordinate to the Marine Operations Headquarters of the Western (Murmansk) and Eastern (Pevek) arctic Districts).
Navigational geographical Hydro -meteorological
Rules of navigation Regulations for Navigation in NSR Regulations for icebreakerassisted pilotage vessels in NSR
(Supplemented by nautical charts and sailing instructions for general use published for all Arctic seas. Navigational satellite systems: Russian – GLONASS and American – NAVSTAR are deployed along entire waterway of the NSR). Description of optical and electronic Main advised ship routes.
Kara Sea Laptev Sea East Siberian Sea Chukchi Sea navigation aids
(Practice of ice navigation, salvage support to vessels operating in ice and the “Requirements for Design, equipment and Supply of Vessels Navigating the NSR”). Practice of ice navigation
(Generalized extensive experience gained by the Russian polar seafarers and results of long term investigations). Icebreaking leading Non-icebreaking navigation of transit vessels in ice condition. Emergency-rescue ensuring of vessels working in ice. “Requirements for Design Equipment, and Supply of Vessel Navigating the NSR.
The Owner or Master of a vessel intending to navigate through the Northern Sea Route shall submit to the Administration (Marine Operations Headquarters) a notification and request for leading through the Northern Sea Route as well as the information on guarantee of payment of the icebreaking dues. The inspection of the vessels shall be carried out at any place at the Owners request and at his expense. Certificate of financial security with respect to civil liability of the owner for pollution damage is mandatory. A vessel that has been admitted for leading through the NSR shall navigate following the seaway that has been assigned to the vessel and adhering to the routes recommended by the Marine Operations Headquarters. Compulsory icebreaker – assisted pilotage is established in the Vil’kitskogo Strait, Shokal’skogo Strait, Dmitriya Lapteva Strait and Sannikova Strait. In legal respect, the NSR as defined by the Russian legislation, is a national transportation line. The Russian maritime administration establishes minimum ice classes of various classification societies required for navigation along NSR, assuming that vessels with equivalent ice classes have the same level of safety for operation in ice – covered waters. RMRS has ice strengthening notations for navigation in small open ice to close perennial ice.
Ice description . Independent navigation in the Arctic in summer and autumn in light ice conditions and in the non-arctic freezing seas all the year round. Independent navigation in the Arctic in summer in broken open ice and in the non arctic freezing seas all year round in light conditions. Independent navigation in the non-arctic seas in small open ice. Independent navigation in the non-arctic seas in small open ice. Independent navigation in the non-arctic seas in small open ice, short period. Independent navigation in small open ice in the non-arctic seas, short period and in compact ice up to 0.4m thick in a navigable passage astern an icebreaker. Independent navigation in small open ice in the non-arctic seas, and in compact ice up to 0.55m thick in a navigable passage astern an icebreaker. Independent navigation in small open ice in the non-arctic seas, and in compact ice up to 0.70m thick in a navigable passage astern an icebreaker. Independent navigation in young open arctic ice up to 0.6m thick in winter and spring, and up to 0.8m thick in summer and autumn. Navigation in a navigable passage astern an ice breaker in young arctic ice up to 0.7m thick in winter and
UL L1 L2 L3 L4 LU1 LU2 LU3 LU4
spring and up to 1.0m thick in summer and autumn. Independent navigation in young open arctic ice up to 0.8m thick in winter and spring, and up to 1.0m thick in summer and autumn. Navigation in navigable passage astern an icebreaker in young arctic ice up to 0.9m thick in winter and spring and up to 1.2m thick in summer and autumn. Independent navigation in young open arctic ice up to 1.1m thick in winter and spring, and up to 1.3m thick in summer and autumn. Navigation in navigable passage astern an icebreaker in young arctic ice up to 1.2m thick in winter and spring and up to 1.7m thick in summer and autumn. Independent navigation in young open arctic ice up to 1.1m thick in winter and spring, and up to 1.3m thick in summer and autumn. Navigation in navigable passage astern an icebreaker in young arctic ice up to 1.2m thick in winter and spring and up to 1.7m thick in summer and autumn. Independent navigation in close young and biennial arctic ice up to 2.1m thick in winter and spring and up to 3.1m thick in summer and autumn. Ramming rammer of ice ridges. Navigation in a navigable passages astern an ice breaker in biennial arctic ice up to 3.4m thick in winter and spring and in perennial ice in summer and autumn with no restrictions. Independent navigation in close perennial arctic ice up to 3.5m thick in winter and spring, and up to 4.0m thick in summer and autumn. Ramming rammer of ice ridges. Short ramming rammer of the young and biennial close ice segments.
Notations numbered LL1 to LL9 are icebreaker category notations intended for all kinds of icebreaking operations ranging from compact ice field over 2.0m thick to up to ice thickness of 4.0m in winter and spring. Notations also specify total shaft power from 47807 kW to total shaft power of not less than 48mW.
In addition to ice class rules and notations, vessel will also have a document called “Ice Certificate” (or “Ice Passport”). Development of Ice Passports for vessels operating in ice conditions was recognized by the Russian Maritime Register of Shipping and Northern Sea Route Administration (NSRA). Ice Passport gives safe limits for the vessel’s operation. These limits are defined by the capability of the vessel to move in different ice conditions and by capability of the hull structure to withstand the ice loads at different speeds in different ice conditions. Ice Passport includes following: Concise information on vessel’s ice performances obtained from the design documentation, delivery trials and results of operation of similar vessels. Ice performance curves, diagrams of safe speed, distances and circular turn radius in the channels. Assessment of shipside compression strength. Two categories of diagrams constitute the basis of Ice passport: 1. Diagrams for determination of safe speed in ice. 2. Diagrams for determination of the safe distance between the icebreaker and the escorted ship. An Ice Passport is valid for 10 years. Upon expiry it is subject to renewal after Class survey.
Finnish Swedish Ice Class Rules (FSICR) The Finnish Maritime Administration (FMA) and the Swedish Maritime Administration (SMA) have developed the Finnish – Swedish Ice Class Rules (FSICR) in cooperation with classification societies. The FSCIR ice classes are given in the table below. The FSCIR are primarily intended for the design of merchant ships trading in first year ice conditions in the Northern Baltic, during winter. Due to limited salt content of the Baltic a strong ice forms, resulting in high strength requirements for vessels operating in these waters. The Finnish and Swedish administrations provide icebreaker assistance to ships bound for ports in these two countries during winter season. The Finnish and Swedish Maritime Administrations also provide navigational limitations, although on a weekly basis dependent on ice conditions. Ice Class. IA Super Ice Description. First year ice thickness 1.0m. Special ice class IA Super, ships whose structural strength in essential areas affecting their ability to navigate in ice essentially exceeds the requirements of ice class IA and which as regards hull form and engine output are capable of navigation under difficult ice conditions without the assistance of ice breakers. Engine output will not be less than 2800kW. Escorted operation in all Baltic ice conditions. First year ice thickness 0.8m. Ships with such structure, engine output and other properties that they are capable of navigating in difficult ice conditions, with the assistance of icebreakers when necessary. Escorted operation medium (smaller vessels) and severe Baltic ice conditions. Engine output will not be less than 1000kW. First year ice thickness 0.6m. Ships with such structure, engine output and other properties that they are capable of navigating in moderate ice conditions. Escorted operation in medium ice conditions. First year ice thickness 0.4m. Ships with such structure, engine output and other properties that they are capable of navigating in light ice conditions. Escorted operation in light ice conditions. Ships that have a steel hull and that are structurally fit for navigation in the open sea and that, despite not being strengthened for navigation in ice, are capable of navigating in very light ice conditions with their own propulsion machinery. Ships that do not belong to ice classes mentioned above.
IB IC II III
Ships with ice class 1A and 1A super are intended for year round operation in the Baltic Sea area. Administrations do not set traffic restrictions for these ice classes. However, size restrictions may apply for ice class 1A. Ships having ice class 1B and 1C may have limited access to Finnish and Swedish ports for part of the year, pending on ice conditions. The first version of Guidelines for the Application of Finnish – Swedish Ice Class Rules was published on 20th December 2005. These guidelines will be updated and complemented as the development of rules continues.
FSCIR determines ship’s ice class basis the class notation issued for the ship by a recognized classification society and the list of equivalent ice classes certified by the FMA. If the ship does not have a class notation issued by a recognized classification society, FMA will, on application of the ship owner, certify the ship’s ice class basis structure, engine output and other ice navigation properties of the ship. The ship owner shall provide FMA with the information and details necessary for certifying the ice class. A notation in the record of ice classes remains valid as long as there are no changes in the ship’s class notation or the matters used as a basis for certifying the ice class. If there are changes in the ship’s class notation or a matter used as basis for certifying the ship’s ice class, the ship owner must submit a notification of the matter to the FMA which will enter a notation of the ship’s new ice class in the record of ice classes or if necessary, certify a new class for the ship and enter a notation of it in the record of ice classes. If the ship has been damaged or its structural condition has otherwise deteriorated, the FMA will, when necessary, withdraw the ice class notation issued for the ship and issue it with a new, lower ice class notation that is in accordance with its ice navigation properties and structural condition. Ship owner shall notify the FMA of ice damage and of other weakening the condition of the ship. From 1st January 2006 Ice Class Certificates are no longer issued by the inspector of the FMA at Finnish ports. Validity of Ice Class Certificates issued before 1st January 2006 will expire on 31st December 2006. SMA does not issue ice class certificates. Ice Class of a ship is determined on the basis of the Classification Certificates of the ships. FMA and SMA are responsible authorities for giving icebreaker assistance for ships entering the Finnish and Swedish ports respectively. FMA includes the assistance service in fairway due. SMA does not charge for icebreaker assistance for ships entering the Swedish ports. Swedish icebreakers only assist ships that meet the FSICR. Sweden also applies the same equivalencies to the FSICR as Finland.
Operational Guidelines. Ice class assigned by a classification standard requires a minimum level of ice strengthening of the hull structures. This level is assumed to be sufficient for normal operations of ships in the ice conditions associated with the ice class. Practically, ice class ships operate in ice according mainly to accumulated experience and established traditions within the limits of governmental regulations wherever they exist. Ships operating in Arctic ice-covered waters should carry onboard at all times an Operating Manual and Training Manual. Ship’s operational control should not permit operations outside the worst intended conditions and design limitations. Operating Manual. Operating manual should contain at least the following information directly related to operations in Arctic ice – covered waters. 1. Principal particulars of the ship.
Operating in ice.
Ice navigation poses additional stability concerns that require higher stability levels than open water vessels. As the vessel proceeds in ice it is subject to movements from ramming and ice impacts. As a result suitable calculations should be carried out to demonstrate the ship can maintain sufficient positive intact stability. Damage stability criterion concerns the ability for a ship to be able to withstand flooding resulting from hull penetration due to ice damage, and to provide a condition of equilibrium after such damage. IMO Arctic Guidelines give criteria for the extent and location of damage. Loading procedures including maximum operational weight, position of center of gravity and distribution of load necessary for operation in Arctic ice covered waters. Carriage of hot cargoes in cold air create large thermal stress in the hull, the permissible still water bending moments should be reduced to take account of the increased thermal stress. In conditions where the temperature of exposed surfaces of a ship are below the freezing point of sea water, rapid icing occurs as large quantities of sea spray hit the ship. These result in topside ice accumulations of sometimes above 10cm. This may adversely effect ship’s stability specially small vessels. Sever cold climates may cause a reduction in standard operating procedures for radio and navigational equipment. Acknowledgement of these changes should be available. Safety of ships operating in ice-choked waters depends, among other factors, on operational aspects (primarily speed) and on the structural capability of the ship. Classification standards of ice strengthening usually do not include speed as parameter in selecting the ice class and in determining ice loads on hull structures. Successful passage through ice will depend upon freedom of maneuver. Manual should specify three basic ship handling rules in ice concentrations: Keep moving , even if very slow. Work with ice movement and not against it. Excessive speed leads to ice damage. Maximum towing speeds and towing loads as applicable. 3. Risk management.
Procedures for checking the hull integrity. Operation of fire protection systems including fire and foam line suitably fitted with drainage points to prevent freezing. Fire and emergency fire pumps installed in heated compartments. Wet hoses used during drills replaced with dry ones. Description and operation of fire detection and fire extinguishing equipment in Arctic environment available. Passage planning procedures accounting for anticipated ice conditions. Anticipated limitations imposed by ice conditions and temperatures on operations of essential systems like main propulsion system, cooling water systems, deck piping, inert gas systems, electrical generation, electrical cables, compressed air systems and sewage. Deviation in standard operating procedures.
Deviation in standard damage control procedures made necessary by operations in Arctic ice covered waters. With crew exposed to continuous freezing temperatures, crew performance will deteriorate, which will reduce safety of the vessel. Training Manual. The training manual should include following operational aspects in Arctic ice – covered waters and additionally should have information considered necessary by the Administration: approaching and ice recognition. Master’s duty regarding ice. ice reports. navigation in ice. icebreaker assistance.
Training of crew for ship’s evacuation, fire and damage control appliances should include specific appropriate training to standards procedures made necessary during operations in Arctic icecovered waters. As far as safely practical rescue boats should be launched each month as part of evacuation drill with assigned crew and maneuvered in water taking note of dangers of launching into Arctic icecovered waters. Each crew member should be familiar with problems of hypothermia, first aid treatment of hypothermia and other appropriate first aid procedures. Crew should be well aware of special instructions necessary for use of the ship’s life saving appliance in severe weather and severe sea conditions on the ice or in a combination of water and ice cover. Fire drills should include elements required by SOLAS convention plus additional elements made necessary by operations in an Arctic environment. Damage Control drills should simulate damage conditions with emphasis to those conditions resultant from Arctic ice-covered waters. Crewing While crewing ships for operations in Arctic ice-covered waters due consideration should be given to relative lack of shore support infrastructure which may be available to assist in any operations. All of ships officers and crew should be made familiar with cold weather survival by company’s in house training program or by onboard self study of course material or publications or training video cassettes. All ships operating in Arctic ice-covered waters should carry at least one Ice Navigator ( an individual who, in addition to being qualified under STCW Convention, is specially trained and otherwise qualified to direct the movement of a ship in ice covered conditions). Ice navigator should have documentary evidence of having satisfactorily completed an approved training program in ice navigation. Such training program should provide knowledge, understanding and proficiency required for operating a ship in Arctic ice – covered waters including recognition of ice formation and characteristics; ice indications; ice maneuvering; use
of ice forecasts, atlases and codes; hull stress caused by ice; ice escort operations; ice-breaking operations and effect of ice accretion on vessel stability. A minimum of two crew members should be trained in the use of low frequency radio equipment where fitted. Conclusion The IACS Polar Ship Rules, Russian Maritime Register of Shipping ice class rules and Finnish Swedish Ice Class Rules primarily address a measure of safety for navigation in ice and matters directly relevant to the capability of a ship to advance in ice without incurring any damage to vessel and surrounding environment. The basic philosophy of the rules is that the structural strength of hull and propulsion machinery should be able to withstand ice loads with minimum safety margin. For economic reasons excessive ice strengthening is avoided. Many challenges are present for vessels to survive in the harsh environment of the Russian Arctic. However by selecting an appropriate ice class and compliance with National Administrative regulations these will ensure safe navigation in this region. The intended operation of the vessel, icebreaker assistance and operational scenario should always be used to gain appropriate ice class and application of the suitable regulations, to enable the marine transportation to operate efficiently and safely. References: • The data / figures entered were checked as follows: Ice Class tankers tonnage requirements by Clarkson Research London. • Ice Class Rules RMRS by RMRS office in St.Petersburg, Russia. • FSCIR by FMA in Helsinki, Finland. Other references 1.ARCOP - Recommendation for practical implementation of rules and regulations. 2.ARCOP - Legal and administrative issues of Arctic transportation. 3.Helsinki University of Technology (HUT – Current hull and machinery ice class rules requirements and impact of IACS polar rules. 4.Finnish Maritime Administration (FMA) – Bulletin no 16/27.11.2002 Bulletin no 13/1.10.2002. Guidelines for application of the FSCIR. 5.IMO Guidelines for ships operating in Arctic ice-covered waters. MSC / Circ 1056 MEPC / Circ 399. 6. Lloyds Register - Ice Class tankers presentation by Niels Overgaard (Business Management), Rob Tustin (Manager Planning approval),Robert Bridges(R & D). 7.Rules to be followed on Northern Sea Route by A.G.Gorshkovsky, Chief of the Administration of the NSR.
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