P. 1
Project Report on Fabric Faults(Arvind Mills 2010)

Project Report on Fabric Faults(Arvind Mills 2010)

3.0

|Views: 1,187|Likes:
Published by Deependra Kumar

More info:

Published by: Deependra Kumar on Nov 01, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

08/20/2013

pdf

text

original

UTTAR PRADESH TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE KANPUR

(Formerly Known as GCTI) 11/208, Souterganj, Parbati Bangla Road, Kanpur

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS
Fabric Defect is a serious problem in weaving department which detoriate the quality of fabric and overall production of fabric reduces. DEEPENDRA, DEEPAK, AJAY 7/26/2010

GUIDED BY:MR. VIJAY KUMAR GUPTA(WEAVING MANAGER)

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

AT ARVIND MILLS LTD. DIVISION OF ARVIND PRODUCT LTD. (SANTEJ, AHMEDABAD)  DURATION
15th June 2010 to 26th July 2010

2

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

 SUBMITTED BYAJAY KUMAR (TT) DEEPAK RATHOUR (TE) DEEPENDRA KUMAR (TE)

UTTAR PRADESH TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE, KANPUR (U.P.)

3

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First of all We are very thankful to our institute (U.P.T.T.I.) for providing us the opportunity for getting the practical knowledge as well, under the direction of our most respected director Mr. PRAMOD KUMAR Sir. We have got full support & instructions from Mr. M.K. SINGH Sir for the preparation of the project during training. We have also got full support from all professors & lecturers of Our institute. We are also very thankful to whole Arvind Group for providing us the best facility & good environment during the training period. We express our gratitude to each & every employee of Arvind Group for their co-operation & their most valuable time. We would like to express our gratitude towards Mr. Shubhanish Malhotra sir (Human Resource) for his co-operation. We pay our thanks to Mr. Vijay Kumar Gupta sir, Who gave his valuable time & attention during training. His instructions are very beneficial for getting the practical knowledge. Last but not the least, We would like to thank other employees also for their co-operation, guidance & providing useful data, namely Mr. S.A.

Bhatiya, Mr. Sandeep Banerjee, Mr. Partha, Mr. Vijay sir, Mr. Deepak Berman, Mr. Prajapati, Mr. Pankaj, & Others. (THANKS TO ALL)

AJAY KUMAR DEEPAK RATHOUR Deependra kumar

4

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

INDEX
S.NO TOPIC PAGE NO.

1.

MANAGEMENT

6

2.

ABOUT ARVIND MILL

7

3.

INTRODUCTION

9

4.

FABRIC DEFECTS

10

5.

FABRIC INSPECTION TEQNIQUES ARVIND MILL GRADING SYSTEM PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE OF LOOMS FOR REDUCTION OF FAULTS STUDY OF FABRIC DEFECTS

13

6.

16

7.

17

8.

25

9.

THANKING LETTER

58

5

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

MANAGEMENT

(Year of establishment-1997)

 founder’s name- Mr. SANJAY LAL BHAI (M.D./chairman)

Head of departments Mr. Pinakin Patel (weaving)  Mr. Kalyan Bhattacharya (Processing)  Mr. Vishwajeet Nanda (Q.A.)  Mr. Suhas Bhise (PPCN & commercial activities)

Others Mr. Vijay Kumar Gupta (weaving manager)  Mr. Pankaj Neve (weaving manager)  Mr. Manish (shift officer)  Mr. Deepak Verma (supervisor)
6

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

ABOUT ARVIND LTD.
Lifestyle Fabrics The Fabric of a Global Society In a world without boundaries, Arvind fabrics are equally universal in their appeal. Arvind aims to enrich lifestyles globally, inspiring diverse customers with the beauty of their fabric.
Denim-

There are many delightful features of Arvind denim: An annual capacity of 110 million meters; the position of 3rd largest producer of denim in the world; and an export network of 70 countries worldwide. Prominent products in this category include ring denim, indigo voiles, organic denim, bi-stretch denim and fair trade certified denim. This is apart from regular light, medium and heavy weight denims. They come in various shades of indigo, sulphur, yarn-dyeds, in 100% cotton and various blends. With a discerning clientele that includes GAP, VF Corporation, Levi Strauss, Abercrombie & Fitch, Calvin Klein to name a few, Arvind has to stay fashionably ahead. Their designers based out of Japan, Europe and USA create trend setting collections for the season, ensuring that heads keep turning for the Arvind name. Good from the outside and from within is the hallmark of a good product. Denim from Arvind offers reliability, quality and value-addition through services like shrink-film wrapping, bar-coded labeling of rolls, providing washed and unwashed shade blankets with every order, besides faster documentation. The facilities of Arvind Denim are accredited with ISO 9001, ISO 14001, OEKOTEX 100, GOTS, Organic exchange standard, FLO for fair trade and Lycra Assured. The labs are accredited by Dupont, Levi Strauss.
Shirting-

It is one of the most well-known products of Arvind Group, selling at a premium in the international market. It has an astonishing annual capacity of 34 million meters. Prominent products within this category include fabrics with non-iron properties, mechanical finishes, printed fabrics apart from the cotton and cotton blends in Linen, Lycra, Polyester, Modal, Silk etc. with varieties in yarn dyeds and solids. Arvind has a unique plant for manufacturing very light weight indigo dyed fabrics in yarn dyed and solids for top weights. Arvind Shirting has a liquid ammonia based fabric processing plant and a state-of-the-art print house – a first for India and one of the few in Asia. The clientele for the product include names like Polo, Ralph Lauren, ESPRIT, GAP, FCUK, Zara, Pull & Bear, Louis Philippe, Van Heusen, Allen Solly, Color Plus, Parx and Park Avenue. The plant is equipped for spinning company, lycra and super fine yarn up to 170’s count. This is in addition to an existing state-of-the- art yarn dyeing facility,

7

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

automatic drawing in unit and an automated fabric inspection and packing facility. And if that wasn’t enough, the division has the largest sampling plant in India for speedy churning out of desk looms and yardages for customers. Plus, there’s additional support from an in-house design studio and a team of designers, who in turn get continuous inputs on latest international trends from designers based in Italy and the UK.

Khaki-

The division provides the finest fabrics in the variants of 100% Cotton, Cotton Rich Polyester Blend, Cotton Lycra, Cotton Tencel, Cotton Linen, etc to name a few. The division has an integrated plant with weaving and processing facilities. The most prominent products in this range include Chinos, Canvas, Ribstop, HBT, Tussore, Cavalry, Structures and Dobbies. It’s easy to see why the most discerning customers flock here: The exalted list includes GAP, J Crew, Polo Ralph Lauren, Abercrombie & Fitch, Banana Republic, Ann Taylor, Liz Clairborne,(US), Marks and Spencer, Pull & Bear, Benetton, Grotto Gas, Diesel, Debenhams, (UK), Madura Garments, and Color Plus (India). To satisfy such quality conscious customers, the khaki division has a testing and Quality Control Laboratory, and a Product Development Cell, which not only undertakes valueengineering of the existing products but is also involved in creating new weaves, blends and dyeing and processing techniques. The plants are certified by OEKO TEX, Lycra, Teflon. Laboratory accredited by Marks and Spencers, Next, Dupont, Levi’s, INVISTA.

Knits-

Arvind’s knits department has an annual knitting capacity of 10,000 tons. Apart from the basic knitting capabilities (jersey, pique, rib, and interlock), Arvind has mastered specialty knitting techniques such as yarn-dyed autostripers, jacquards, and stretch fabric. The knits vertical has a fabric dyeing capacity of 6500 tons per annum and yarn dyeing capacity of 3500 tons per annum. It has the ability to process both tubular and open-width fabric and offer specialty finishes like mercerization, singing and various forms of brushing and peaching. The department also boasts of a state-of- the art print shop equipped with fully automatic placement printing capabilities.

8

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

INTRODUCTION
One of the main functions of any weaving machine is to produce defect free fabric. The incidence of defects in the fabric is not only reduces the aesthetic appeal of the woven, fabric, butt also reduces the net value realization. The incidence of defects also varies between mill to mill from shuttle to shuttleless looms and depends upon the deficiencies in the material, machines and man responsible for it’s manufacture.

The operating feature of all shuttles less looms is that the weft is drawn from large fixed packages, mounted outside the side frame of the looms. Thus, the differences of fabric defect between shuttles less looms are mainly due to differences in picking mechanism. But, there are defects which are common for shuttle and shuttle less looms and arising from two other primary motions, i.e., shedding and beating up and also defects which are carried forward from the raw materials to different machines of weaving preparatory. These defects can be reduced through concerted efforts during the various stages of fabric manufacturing.

In Textile mills the fabric are inspected at the grey state after weaving and again after bleaching, dyeing / printing and finishing processes. In the grey inspection, the fabric defects are identified.

The mandible defects are mended and parched. At this stage the fabrics are often diverted depending upon the frequency and type of defects. But, there are defects which are common for shuttle and shuttle less looms and arising from two other primary motions i.e. shedding and beating up and also defects which are carried forward from the raw materials to different machines of weaving preparatory. These defects can be reduced through concerted efforts during the various stages of fabric manufacturing.

Even under the best possible conditions it is not possible to avoid certain defects e.g. certain floats / smashes. But majority of the defects are avoidable if certain precautions are taken.

9

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

FABRIC DEFECTS

CRITICAL DAMAGE

NON CRITICAL DAMAGE

NON MENDABLE

MENDABLE Bend Pick Oil Stain Black Stain

NON MENDABLE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Stop Mark Abrasion Tight Warp Reed Mark Wrong Pattern Temple Crack

MENDABLE Double Pick Weft loop Warp loop Double End Slough off

The following defects are common for any type of weaving machine : FABRIC DEFECTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO SPINNING – 1. Coarse end / pick 2. Fine end / pick 3. Slubs 4. Slubby / uneven yarn 5. Hairy yarn 6. Snarls 7. Neps

10

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS
8. Stains / contamination FABRIC DEFECTS RELATED TO THE DOUBLING – 1. Single yarn 2. Untwist / less twist yarn 3. Neppy / Fluffy yarn 4. Snarl 5. Stains 6. Knots / tail ends 7. Uneven singing / singing related faults 8. Uneven twist setting . FABRIC DEFECTS RELATED TO WINDING PACKAGE FAULTS – 1. Slough off 2. Gouts FABRIC DEFECTS RELATED TO WEAVING PREPARATORY – 1. Sizing patches 2. Pulled warp 3. Multiple breaks 4. Sizing stains 5. Wrong pattern / Drawing in 6. Gouts 7. Sticky ends 8. Mixed yarn

2010

9. Loose selvedge 10. Missing ends 11. Hairy yarn

11

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

TYPES OF DEFECTS
Defects are of three types : 1).         2).             3).        Minor Defects : Slubs Gout Stain Color Fly Mending impressions Snarls etc. Sticker Tear drop Major Defects : Broken picks Missing picks Thick place Starting mark Crlerk Coarse / fine pick Wrong weft Uneven weft Missing end Size patches etc. Stains Temple Mark Cut Table defects : Big crack Float Hole Bad selvedge Reed mark Less / more picks Missing ends ( more than 1.25 m )

12

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

FABRIC INSPECTION TECHNIQUES
 All fabric grading procedure is following by Four Point American System. POINT COUNT PROCUDURE: Sr. No. Damage Length 1.0 Weft Wise 1.1 0.1” to 3” 1.2 3” to 6” 1.3 6” to 9” 1.4 9” to above 2.0 Warp Wise 2.1 1/25th of the length 3.0 Partial Defect 3.1 =<5 mm Point Count 01 02 03 04 04 02

Note : All colour foreign Matter should be removed.  All Partial Defect More than 5 mm should be cut.  No piece is allowed 4 points defect at beginning 03 Mtrs and Ending 03 Mtrs.  Quality /Grading (for minimum 5000 mtrs shipment) 1) POINTS PER PIECE 15 POINTS PER 100 SQ. MTRS 2) POINTS PER SHIPMENT 12 POINTS PER 100 SQ. MTRS

 RECOGNITION OF DEFECTS FOR CHECKERS Specification & Appearance COVER Bumping Reediness Neppiness Hazyness Unevness Streakiness Kitty Level Fringe – Less than 4 mm Selvedge – 6 mm to 8 mm WEAVING RELATED DAMAGES Ball Formation Snarling Black Stain Stain Broken End Loose Pick Broken Pick Temple Cut Bump Mark Temple Mark Broken Pattern Thick & Thin Design Change Weft Bar Design Cut Weft Distortion Double End Wrong Denting Double Pick Wrong Drawing Double Weft Wrong pattern Fine End Wrong Weft

13

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS
Hanging Thread Starting Mark Thin Places Thick Place Knots Lashing In Leno Cut Less Width Let off Mark Light Starting Mark Light Thick Place Loom Fly Loops Loose Leno Binding Mending Impression Missing End Nozzle mark Oily Stain Pulled Warp Reed Cut Selvedge without Leno Short Pick Sizing Patches/ Crystal Sizing Stain Slack End Slough Off Slackness Yarn Lot Change Reed Mark Take off Mark Dobby Line Jumping End Floating Wrong End

2010

DYEING RELATED DAMAGES Patta Shade not matching Shade Variation Uneven dyeing Streaks

PARTIAL DEFECT CRACK HOLE FLOA KNOTTING MULTIPLAL BREAKAGE RUST STAIN SIZING MACHINE STOP (S.M.S.) TORN FABRIC TEAR DROP STITCHES

SPINNING RELATED DAMAGES Coarse Pick Cockled Yarn Colour Contamination Count Variation Dirty End Double Weft High Twist Yarn Knots Moisture Effect Neps Oily Weft Slub Slubby Weft Uneven Weft Yarn Three Ply Coarse end

 The Following System will be adopted for grading and packing of our grey fabric :1. Inspection Method:- The 100% cloth will be inspected as per four point American Systems on inspection machine at the speed of 16 to 18 mtrs / minute 2. Fabric Gradation:-

14

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS
Marketing / Grade “A” Pts/100 sq. Mtr. Pts/100 Lnr. Mtr/ Normal Width 24 Points Pts/100 Lnr Mtr. Wider Width 45 Points Fabric Length

2010

15 Points

“B” “C” “D” (Cut Pieces) “E” (Cut Pieces) “F” GRADE “G” GRADE

22 Points 31.25 Points No Bar

35 Points 50 Points NO Bar (> 1 Mtrs to <10 Mtrs) No Bar (>11 Mtrs to <20 Mtrs) NO Bar

67 Points 95 Points NO Bar ( >1 Mtrs to > 5) No bar ( >5 Mtrs to > 20 Mtrs) All continuous Defect (Warp + Weft) NILL

>= 20 Mtrs & above for domestic >=40 Mtrs & above for export >= 20 Mtrs & above >= 20 Mtrs & above >= 1 Mtrs to =< 10 Mtrs >= 11 Mtrs to < 20 Mtrs >20 MTRS AND ABOVE >20 MTRS AND ABOVE

No Bar

All continuous Defect (Warp + Weft) 47 Points

75 POINTS

Note: All remaining qualities less than one mtrs will be designated as under :Market Length Packing Chindi 0 Cm to 25 Cm In Kg Fents 25 Cm to 99 Cm In Kg 1. FORMULA  Total Points x39.37x100 Width / Total Mtrs

= Points per 100 Sq. Mtrs.

2. FORMULA  Step-1 --Width /39.37 = Width in Mrs. Example – 120/39.37 = 3.04 Step- 2 --Points / 100 Sq. Mtrs  Total Poits / Total Mtrs/WIDTH. = Points per 100 Sq. mtrs. Example – 45/100/3.04 WIDTH IN MTRS = 15 Points per Sq. Mtrs. Note: All fabric will be packed as grade wise only.

15

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

3. Folding/ Plaiting:- Fabric cut looking is done on inspection m/c in roll form at time of inspection. 4. Folding plating m/c for normal & wider width having for future reference as per customer demand. 5. Packing:- As per customer requirement

IN ARVIND INTERNATIONAL MILL 4 POINT SYSTEMS
0 9 17 8 CMS 16 CMS 24 CMS 24 CMS : : : : 1 POINTS 2 POINTS 3 POINTS 4 POINTS

ABOVE

NOTE:-Per 100mtrs only four 4 points damage is allowed.

Maximum points 32/100 Lmt(Linear meter) Grading:4Point 4Point 4Point : : : 4Places in 100mtrs (A) 5Times in 100mtrs (B) 6Times in 100mtrs (C)

M. & S. STANDARD 6 POINTS SYSTEM
0 26 51 76 101 25 CMS 50 CMS 75 CMS 100 CMS 125 CMS 125 CMS : : : : : : 1 POINT 2 POINTS 3 POINTS 4 POINTS 5 POINTS 6 POINTS

ABOVE

Maximum Points 26/100 sq. Mtrs(32/100 LMts) Maximum 1 Point per 100 sq. Mtrs -7.5 Avg. Maximum 1 Point per 100 sq. Mtrs - 5 Avg. (22/100 LMtrs)

16

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

1. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE OF LOOMS FOR REDUCTION OF FAULTS Today cloth quality standards are rising. Unless the loom is in top condition it is impossible to get consistent high quality of performance.  CLOTH QUALITY LOSS In respect of quality, following problems are usually due to poor maintenance of looms : Broken Picks / Mispicks Starting Marks Let-off Marks Slough-off Oil Stains or streak in fabric  PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE Sulzer documents contain following schedules : Oiling Monthly Maintenance Six-monthly Maintenance  OILING & LUBRICATION It is to be carried out by a person given a small briefing by the technical staff. It is essential that oil and grease should reach the part which they are intended to lubricate. The staff should monitor it regularly.  MONTHLY MAINTENANCE It involves removal, cleaning and % checking of regular parts of the picking and receiving side. Knowledge of machine and understanding of procedure is a must. Worn out parts can be changed.  SIX-MONTHLY MAINTENANCE It implies to carry out a through check as Sulzer recommendations and checklist. It requires proper training & experience of technician as well as monitoring by staff. Good maintenance practices are easily adaptable and can systematically be practiced. All unit owners should recognize the need for the same & implement with all diligence. 2. IMPROVING WEAVABILITY Improving weavability means making fabric defect free & looms end breakage free. The Weavability of the warp yarns produced from same raw material can be improved by changing spinning parameters, spinning technology & to some extent by choice of

17

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

winding parameters. However the yarn must have a certain minimum quality. Besides this, the weavability can be substantially improved by making a choice of suitable size materials and size process.

FACTORS AFFECTING WEAVABILITY GREY YARN QUALITY  FIBER TYPE The type of fiber affects yarn packing density, nature of yarn surface, yarn cohesion, inter fiber friction etc. & thereby weaving performance. Short fibers lead to more yarn breakage.  YARN QUALITY It depends upon raw material, spinning technology, process parameters, machine conditions & climate conditions. The first three factors mainly decide yarn structure. They reflects yarn tensile properties, abrasion resistance, frictional properties, hairiness and unevenness and yarn faults.  SPINNING TECHNOLOGY It decides yarn structure & nature of the yarn surface which in turn influence yarn performance during weaving. Ring spun yarn has highest strength & elongation followed by rotor & Dref-3 yarns. Dref-3 yarns have the best appearance in spite of high hairiness followed by ring and rotor yarns. For successful weaving of a warp yarn minimum strength value is necessary to sustain weaving stresses.  YARN PROCESS PARAMETERS Yarn structure can be altered to some extent by changing process parameters such as twist, which decides packing density, migration, fiber extent etc. This in turn is reflected in yarn properties and yarn behavior. In case of rotor yarn, abrasion resistance increases as twist factor increase. This reflects in yarn properties, yarn tenacity, breaking extension and abrasion resistance.  MECHANICAL CONDITION OF SPINNING MACHINE & CLIMATIC CONDITIONS They influence end breakage during spinning. This in turn affects yarn faults due to excessive knotting and thus creates fabric faults. WARP PREPARATION  EFFECT OF WINDING

18

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

Majority of yarn breaks and fabric defects are caused due to lumps on the yarn such as knot tails, slubs, neps or other protuberances which affects movement of adjacent yarns during shed change. If these faults persist during opening of shed, tension in these yarns becomes abnormally high leading to short picks. So it is necessary to remove these thick places. But every thick place is replaced by another fault called knot or splice as they are thicker than parent yarn. So the knot should have least resistance to slippage and minimum possible length of tails ends.  EFFECTS OF WARPING The warpers beam should be of uniform density, with no cross slack, or broken ends. Also warp stops should be less for satisfactory weaving.  EFFECT OF SIZING Yarn abrasion resistance is affected not only by the yarn properties but also by the type of sizing agent employed. The abrasion resistance is dependent on the cohesion of the fibers and the adhesive power of sizing agent. The sizing agent forms a film, which is flexible joint between the fiber. The extensibility of this film should not be too low, as it has to follow the extension of the yarn on the loom. Also stickiness & softness of this film is undesirable. Besides the other variables which affects warp breakage at weaving are :     Yarn Structure Sizing conditions Machine conditions Size recipe

EFFECT OF WEAVING CONDITIONS  EFFECT OF FABRIC PARAMETERS Various fabric parameters which affect fabric faults and warp breakage also are reed count and end density. Basic yarn tension plays a vital role in deciding proper weavability. Increase in basic tension causes increase in abrasion subsequently.  LOOM CODITIONS Warp stresses and strains can be divided into :  Cyclical yarn pulling force

19

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS
   Bending and friction forces at deflections Abrasion and friction Threads getting caught and tangled.

2010

The third and fourth can be removed by improving sizing and by improving design of weaving machine. However first and second are unavoidable as they depend on loom motions like let-off, take-up, back rest position, back rest motion, heald frame motion and movement of cloth. An appropriate size of shed can reduce warp breakage rate and also fabric faults.  EFFECT OF CLIMATE CONDITIONS Increase un humidity generally lowers the warp breakage rate. Changes in the temperature are least effective than relative humidity changes, which affect warp breakage rate substantially.

3. YARN QUALITY REQUIREMENTS FOR SHUTTLE LESS LOOMS Shuttle Less looms are capital intensive. The techno-economics of these machines require that their productivity should be high and only fault free high value fabrics can be produced on these machines. For them to be cost-effective, machine efficiency should be 90%. It increases with reduction in the time of machine stoppages.

SUGGESTED VALUES OF YARN QUALITY REQUIREMENTS FOR RAPIER AND PROJECTILE LOOMS COUNT 60s 20.00 9.00 5.00 150.00

YARN QUALITY 1. Yarn Quality 2. CV% of RKM 3. Breaking Elongation 4. Imperfections Per Km

40s 18.00 8.5 5.25 125.00

80s 20.00 10.00 4.70 300.00

4. FABRIC DEFECTS ATTRIBUTABLES FROM SPINNING TO WEAVING

20

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

The faults in fabric do not occur just due to weaving. They can be traced back to spinning, post spinning ( Doubling ), winding as well as weaving preparatory also. Any anomaly in the product of any of these processes result in the fault of the fabric. The various attributable to the various processes are as follows :  FABRIC DEFECTS DUE TO SPINNING : Spinning influences majority of yarn properties like abrasion resistance, tensile strength, hairiness properties, yarn tenacity etc. that is why many fabric faults are traceable to spinning like :  Yarn count variation in fabric      Slubs Hairy yarn Snarls Neps Stains / Contamination

Due to count variation, the dye uptake of fabric is changed. Hence patches are formed in the fabric during dyeing. Slubs, snarls and neps cause uneven thickness of the fabric. Hairy yarn creates problem in wet processing while stains reduce the value of the fabric.  FABRIC DEFECTS RELATED TO POST SPINNING / DOUBLING Doubling is a process of twisting two yarns together. Plied and corded both type of yarns come under this category. It affects yarn properties like twist level in he yarn and knots in the yarn. Doubling should ensure that there should not be longer lengths of untwisted yarn. Also there should be smaller lengths of tail ends of knots. The main faults related with post spinning are as follows :  Untwisted yarn     Lesser twisted yarn Long tail ends Uneven twist setting Short tail ends and hence slipping of knots.

Uneven twisted yarns lead to differential dye take up and also differential tensile strengths. Longer tail ends of knots entangle in the shed and hence cause end breakage. Slipping of knots lead to breaking of warp and hence cause frequently loom stoppages.

21

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS
 FABRIC DEFECTS RELATED TO WINDING

2010

Winding is the first preparatory process of weaving department. It is aimed at producing long length of fabrics with reduced faults or rather no faults at all, a condition difficult to achieve. It is very important process as it saves a lot of cost in warping and weaving department. The main fabric defects attributable to winding are :  Slough off  Gouts

 FABRIC DEFECTS RELATED TO WEAVING PREPARATORY Warping and sizing are the main processes of weaving preparatory. Also drawing in is an important step before beam gaiting. Warping requires proper attention as the incidence of cross ends and lappers reduces fabric quality as well as increases the incidence of loom stoppages due to warp breaks. Even sizing requires attention a man defects are created due to uneven size take-up as well as wrong size adds-on percentage. In drawing in proper care is required as wrong denting also creates many fabric defects. The main defects due to weaving preparatory are :  Sizing patches        Pulled Warp Sizing stains Sticky ends Wrong patterning Loose selvedge Missing ends Hairy yarn

 FABRIC DEFECTS RELATED TO WEAVING In weaving, loom condition as well as loom settings have a great impact on the quality of fabric. Even under best possible conditions it is not possible to avoid certain defects like floats, smashes, etc but majority of the defects are unavoidable if certain precautions are taken. Fabric defects can be classified into three groups – Avoidable and Unavoidable, Minor and Major and Mendable and Unmendable. The major fabric defects related to weaving are :  Missing end   Missing pick Warp streak / reed mark

22

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS
         Readiness Bad selvedge Weft crack Crammes / Double pick Thick and thin places Dropped pick Weft bars Stitches or bumping marks Temple marks

2010

Weft stop motions, weft fork motions and warp protectors are used to detect and trace weft and / or warp to avoid ant type of cracks in the fabric. Slub catches on the principles of capacitance and photo electricity are used to detect ant think / thin places. Measuring motion on unconventional looms is an effective way of controlling the length of pick. Also specialized nozzles in air-jet and water-jet control motion of the weft very effectively. 5. CONTROL OF FABRIC QUALITY AT LOOM STAGE The two aspects of fabric quality in the loom shed are :  Meeting the design specification of fabric  Ensuring that the fabrics are free from defects that originate during weaving.

 DESIGN SPECIFICATION In order to make the fabric as per the design specifications, the following factors should be checked :  Type of fibers / yarns used     Count and twist of warp and weft End and pick density Weave and colour pattern Width of fabric at the reed

23

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS
  Gray width of fabric Length of a cut  FIRST PIECE INSPECTION

2010

After gaiting the beam, all the above mentioned parameters excepting the last one should be checked at the loom stage by supervisors and jobbers. Additionally the first piece from the newly gaited loom is taken to gray folding departments and is inspected for design specifications. The first piece report should be immediately sent to the weaving department. If the piece does not confirm to the require standard, necessary changes should be carried out and the next piece should again be sent for inspection.  WEAVING DEFECTS The first point to be noted is that the quality of the fabric at the loom is dependent by the entire sequence of operations from weaving preparatory to weaving. The approach should, therefore, be to consider each process in relation to the manner in which it affects which subsequent process and not in isolation. In this context, it should be remembered that though the preparatory departments and loom shed both contribute substantially to the fabric quality and loom productivity. The conversion at the loom shed is greater than that of preparatory and so maximum emphasis should be given to the quality of preparation at the preparatory rather than its .  GREY INSPECTION Grey inspection is the examination of the fabric after weaving. There should be a continuous liaison between the gray cloth inspection and weave loom personnel. Looms constantly giving defects like missing ends, cracks, thin places, wrong drawing, double ends, defective pattern, etc. can be immediately rectified by strict inspection programme. It ids recommendation that 100% inspection should be followed at gray stage.

24

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

STUDY OF LOOM STOP MARK(LSM) 1. LOOM PARTICULERS:Loom No. Loom Type Loom rpm Fabric Type Warp Count Weft Count
Ends / Inch

623 JAT 710 800 Shirting 60s
60s 172

Picks / Inch Reed Space Reed Used Denting Order No. of Healds Shedding Type Warp Tension Shim Used Weave

96 64.5 inch 171.8 3 ends/dent 8(capacity 16) E-Dobby Shedding 220 Kg-F 4 mm Dobby

SAMPLE

LOOM STOP MARK SETTING:ICS SETTING:S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. CHECK POINT Warp × Weft Beam Dia Drawing width Measuring Band mark Number of sub nozzles T0-Tw WF1 Sensitivity Main Pressure Sub Pressure SETTING 60×60 440mm 162.8cm(act. 160cm) 16 28 90-240 6 400kPa 450kPa

25

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

MECHANICAL SETTING:Back rest Height & Depth WSM Height Easing Amount & Timing Heald frame Height & Amount
S.No. Height 1. 2. 3. 4.

0–6

-1 3 – 300o

104 102 100 98

Cross Dwell angle B.R* 0/30 300 0/30 300 0/30 300 0/30 300

Cross angle A.R.* 330 330 330 330

S. No. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Height Dwell 100 98 96 94
0/30 0/30 0/30 0/30

Cross angle B.R* 290 290 310 310

Cross angle A.R.* 330 330 320 320

*B.R.=Before repairing; *A.R.=After repairing

LSM SETTING:S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. DELTA SETTING Running Starting Angle Running Stop Angle High speed Starting(Delta) Motor Acceleration(on starting) No weft Beating Pick Inching Repeat on Starting WEFT STOP 300 300 ON AUTO 0 0 WARP STOP 300 300 ON AUTO 0 0

26

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS
LET OFF S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. SETTING NAME Kick back Shake On Start Times Time correction WARP 0.00mm 0.00mm 1 0 WEFT 0.00mm 0.00mm 1 0 WARP 0.00mm 0.00mm 1 0 TAKE UP

2010

WEFT 0.00mm 0.00mm 1 0

2. LOOM PARTICULARS:Loom No. Loom Type Loom rpm Fabric Type Warp Count Weft Count
Ends / Inch

663 JAT 710 erotech 880 Shirting 60sC
60sC 132

Picks / Inch Reed Space Reed Used Denting Order No. of Healds Shedding Type Warp Tension Shim Used Weave

88 69 inch 132 2ends/dent 4(Capacity 8) Staubli cam shedding 200 Kg-F 2mm PLAIN

SAMPLE

LOOM STOP MARK SETTING:ICS SETTING:S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. CHECK POINT Warp × Weft Beam Dia Drawing width Measuring Band mark SETTING 60×60 390mm 175.2cm(act.169 cm) 24

27

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS
5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Number of sub nozzles T0-Tw WF1 Sensitivity Main Pressure Sub Pressure Tension in Kg-F 30 90-240 6 300Kg/cm2 350 Kg/cm2 250

2010

MECHANICAL SETTING:Back rest Height & Depth WSM Height Easing Amount & Timing Heald frame Height & Amount
S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4.

0–5 -2 6 – 300o Height 76 74 72 70 Amount 138 140 137 129 Dwell 0/60 0/60 0/60 0/60 Cross 310o 310o 290o 290o

LSM SETTING:S.NO. DELTA SETTING B.R.* 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Running Starting Angle Running Stop Angle High speed Starting(Delta) Motor Acceleration(on starting) No weft Beating Pick Inching Repeat on Starting 300o 300o ON AUTO 2 0 A.R.* 300o 300o ON AUTO 0 0 WEFT STOP B.R.* 300o 300o ON AUTO 2 A.R.* 200o 300o ON AUTO 0 0 WARP STOP

28

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS
LET OFF S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. SETTING NAME Kick back Shake On Start Times Time correction WARP 0.00 0.00 1 0 WEFT 0.00 0.00 1 0 WARP 0.00 0.00 1 0 TAKE UP

2010

WEFT 0.00 0.00 1 0

3. LOOM PARTICULERS:Loom No. Loom Type Loom rpm Fabric Type Warp Count Weft Count
Ends / Inch

603 JAT710 768 Shirting 60s
60s 200

Picks / Inch Reed Space Reed Used Denting Order No. of Healds Shedding Type Warp Tension Shim Used Weave

100 69 inch 80/5 5 ends/dent 12 (Capacity 16) Dobby E- Shedding 440 Kg-F 2mm Dobby

SAMPLE

29

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

LOOM STOP MARK SETTING:ICS SETTING:S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. CHECK POINT Warp × Weft Beam Dia Drawing width Measuring Band mark Number of sub nozzles T0-Tw WF1 Sensitivity Main Pressure Sub Pressure Tension in Kg-F SETTING 60×60 520mm 175.2cm(act.171cm) 24 28 90-240 6 350 Kg/cm2 400 Kg/cm2 480

MECHANICAL SETTING:Back rest Height & Depth WSM Height Easing Amount & Timing
S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

12 - 6 +1 3 – 300o Height 108 mm 106 mm 104 mm 102 mm
100 mm 98 mm 96 mm 94 mm 92 mm 90 mm 88 mm 86 mm

Amount 48 56 63 64
75 80 47 52 58 63 67 62

Heald frame Height & Amount

Dwell 0/60 0/60 0/60 0/60 0/60 0/60 0/60 0/60 0/60 0/60 0/60 0/60

Cross 300o 300o 300o 300o 300o 300o 300o 300o 300o 300o 300o 300o

30

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

LSM SETTING:S.NO. DELTA SETTING B.R.* 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Running Starting Angle Running Stop Angle High speed Starting(Delta) Motor Acceleration(on starting) No weft Beating Pick Inching Repeat on Starting 300o 300o ON AUTO 2 0 A.R.* 340o 300o ON AUTO 0 0 WEFT STOP B.R.* 300o 300o ON AUTO 2 A.R.* 340o 300o ON AUTO 0 0 WARP STOP

LET OFF S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. SETTING NAME Kick back Shake On Start Times Time correction WARP 0.00 0.00 1 WEFT 0.00 0.00 1 WARP 0.00 0.00 1

TAKE UP WEFT 0.00 0.00 1

MARK SETTING:S.No. 1. 2. 3. FELL FORWARD Fell forward amount Shake on Start Times WEFT STOP 0.00mm -3.00mm 1 WARP STOP 0.00mm -3.00mm 1

31

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

4. LOOM PARTICULERS:Loom No. Loom Type Loom rpm Fabric Type Warp Count Weft Count
Ends / Inch

621 TOYATA JAT 710 805 Shirting 2/121s
60s 162

Picks / Inch Reed Space Reed Used Denting Order No. of Healds Shedding Type Warp Tension Shim Used Weave

94 64.50 108/3 3 ends/dent 4 Cam sedding 240 Kg-F 2 mm Plain

SAMPLE

LOOM STOP MARK SETTING:ICS SETTING:S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. CHECK POINT Warp × Weft Beam Dia Drawing width Measuring Bandmark Number of sub nozzles T0-Tw WF1 Sensitivity Main Pressure Sub Pressure Tension in Kg-F SETTING 2/121×60 536 1631 18 27 90-240 6 350kPa 400kPa 240

32

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

MECHANICAL SETTING:Back rest Height & Depth WSM Height Easing Amount & Timing Heald frame Height & Amount
S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4.

0-6 -1 6-320 Height 108 106 104 102 Amount Dwell 0/30 0/30 0/30 0/30 Cross 290 290 310 310

LSM SETTING:S.NO. DELTA SETTING B.R.* 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Running Starting Angle Running Stop Angle High speed Starting(Delta) Motor Acceleration(on starting) No weft Beating Pick Inching Repeat on Starting 300o 300o ON AUTO 2 0 A.R.* 320o 300o ON AUTO 0 0 WEFT STOP B.R.* 300o 300o ON AUTO 2 A.R.* 320o 300o ON AUTO 0 0 WARP STOP

LET OFF S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. SETTING NAME Kick back Shake On Start Times Time correction WARP 0.00 0.00(A.R. -2) 1 0 WEFT 0.00 0.00(A.R. -2) 1 0 WARP 0.00

TAKE UP WEFT 0.00 0.00(A.R. -2) 1 0

0.00(A.R. -2) 1 0

33

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

5. LOOM PARTICULERS:Loom No. Loom Type Loom rpm Fabric Type Warp Count Weft Count
Ends / Inch

616 JAT 710 800 shirting 50s
50s 128

Picks / Inch Reed Space Reed Used Denting Order Drawing Order No. of Healds Shedding Type Warp Tension Shim Used Weave

96 69inch 64 4 ends/dent 1357 2468 10 Dobby E-Shedding 240Kg-F 3mm Dobby(4/4 Twill)

SAMPLE

LOOM STOP MARK SETTING:ICS SETTING:S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. CHECK POINT Warp × Weft Beam Dia Drawing width Measuring Band mark Number of sub nozzles T0-Tw WF1 Sensitivity Main Pressure Sub Pressure Tension in Kg-F SETTING 50×50 360mm 175.2cm(act.173cm) 22 29 90-240 6 350Kg/cm2 400Kg/cm2 240

34

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

MECHANICAL SETTING:Back rest Height & Depth WSM Height Easing Amount & Timing
S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

0–6 -1 3 – 300o Height 104 102 100 98
96 94 92 90

Heald frame Height & Amount

Amount 48 56 63 69
75 80 47 52

Dwell

Cross 300o 300o 300o 300o 300o 290o 310o 310o

LSM SETTING:S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. DELTA SETTING Running Starting Angle Running Stop Angle High speed Starting(Delta) Motor Acceleration(on starting) No weft Beating Pick Inching Repeat on Starting WEFT STOP 300 300 ON AUTO 0 (A.R. 2) 0 WARP STOP 300 300 ON AUTO 0 (A.R. 2) 0

35

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010
TAKE UP WEFT 0.00 0.00 1 0 WARP 0.00 0.00 1 0 WEFT 0.00 0.00 1 0

LET OFF S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. SETTING NAME Kick back Shake On Start Times Time correction WARP 0.00 0.00 1 0

MARK SETTING:S.No. 1. 2. 3. FELL FORWARD Fell forward amount Shake on Start Times WEFT STOP 0.00mm -3.00mm 1 WARP STOP 0.00mm -3.00mm 2

CAUSES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. High rpm of loom. Shim is not correct. Running starting angle is not correct. Back rest height and depth is not correct. Warp stop motion (WSM) height is not correct. Easing amount and time is not correct. Heald frames height and stroke is not correct. Delta and Mark settings are not correct.

REMIDIES         
Ist Note down the running rpm of the loom.E.g. 900rpm Then stop the loom in Filling stop. Re-start the loom. Again stop the loom after 4-5 pick insertion. Go in per pick menu. Check the rpm of the loom after it showing TW=0.E.g.-810rpm Go in ICS/Machine. Feed the rpm found(810rpm). Send the data for RUNSET / DELTA / MARK.

36

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

      

Again go in ICS / Machine. Feed the initial rpm(900rpm). Send the data for RUNSET only. Do marking for stop mark for weft and warp stops. Check the for stop mark. If it is OK, then Run the Machine. If it is not then do as given below-

If there is a thick place(patti) at temple only. 1. Set cross angle early. 2. Take back rest down. 3. Reduce easing amount. 4. Delay easing timing. If there is a thin place (crack) at temple only. 1. Use shake on start(It is must for temple crack.) If there is a thick place (patti) in whole width. 1. Delay start angle. 2. Set cross angle early. 3.Take back rest up. If there is a thin place (zirki) in whole width. 1. use no weft beating. 2. Start angle early. 3. Delay cross angle. 4. Take back rest down. Note:-Do not use fell forward and time correction for CLASSICAL SHIRTING PRODUCTS

37

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

STUDY OF BROKEN END LOOM PARTICULERS:Loom No. Loom Type Loom rpm Fabric Type Warp Count Weft Count
Ends / Inch

625 JAR 710 Eurotech 806 Shirting 40s
40s 108

Picks / Inch Reed Space Denting Order Drawing Order No. of Healds Shedding Type Warp Tension Shim Used Weave

68 68 inch 2 ends/dent 1,2 3,4 4 Staubli Cam 240Kg-F 4mm PLAIN

SAMPLE

This defect is caused by broken end woven in the fabric. MINOR MAJOR Not Prominent Prominent

SERIOUS Not reckoned

CAUSES  Failure of the weaver in attending to the warp breaks properly.  Loose fly in warp.  Defective reed REMIDIES The broken end can be removed by using a plucker and the resulting loose threads should be cut with a trimmer. As a result, a bare patch occurs and combing in both direction with a metallic comb can mend this.

38

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

STUDY OF BROKEN PICK(BP) LOOM PARTICULERS:Loom No. Loom Type Loom rpm Fabric Type Warp Count Weft Count
Ends / Inch

607 TOYATA JAT710 720 Shirting 2/82s
60sC 162

Picks / Inch Reed Space Reed Used Denting Order No. of Healds Shedding Type Warp Tension Shim Used Weave

74 63 inch 108/3 3 ends/dent 6(Capacity 16) Dobby E-Shedding 350Kg-F 3mm Dobby

SAMPLE

39

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

2. LOOM PARTICULERS:Loom No. Loom Type Loom rpm Fabric Type Warp Count Weft Count
Ends / Inch

631 JAT 710 Eurotech 850 Shirting 40 MCL
60sC 72

Picks / Inch Reed Space Reed Used Denting Order No. of Healds Shedding Type Warp Tension Shim Used Weave

86 72 inch 72/2 2 ends/dent 4 Staubli Cam Shedding 250Kg-F 2mm PLAIN

SAMPLE

CAUSES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. WF2 sensitivity is low. WF2 detect angle is not correct. WF2 is not clean. Wrong pressure setting. Bolls formation.

REMIDIES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Set the WF2 sensitivity as standard. Set the WF2 pulse at 4 Do not disturb the detect angle of WF2. Clean the feeler head regularly. Set the pressure as per requirement. Reduce boll formation.

40

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

STUDY OF BEND PICK 1. LOOM PARTICULERS:Loom No. Loom Type Loom rpm Fabric Type Warp Count Weft Count
Ends / Inch

628 JAT 710 Eurotech 800 Shirting 50s
50s 120

Picks / Inch Reed Space Reed Used Denting Order No. of Healds Shedding Type Warp Tension Shim Used Weave

102 71.5inch 80/3 3 ends/dent 4 Staubli Cam Shedding 240Kg-F 2mm Twill

SAMPLE

CAUSES
1. 2. 3. 4. Sub nozzles are not aligned. Incorrect pressure setting. Incorrect ABS setting. Catch cord drawing is not correct.

REMIDIES
1. Sub nozzles should be aligned. 2. Pressure should be correct as per requirement. 3. Correct ABS setting. 4. Correct the Catch cord drawing is not.

41

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

STUDY OF WEFT CUTS OR REED MARKS 1. LOOM PARTICULERS:Loom No. Loom Type Loom rpm Fabric Type Warp Count Weft Count
Ends / Inch

621 TOYATA JAT 710 805 Shirting 2/121s
60s 162

Picks / Inch Reed Space Reed Used Denting Order No. of Healds Shedding Type Warp Tension Shim Used Weave Loom No.

94 64.50 108/3 3 ends/dent 4 Cam sedding 240 Kg-F 2 mm Plain 621

SAMPLE

CAUSES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Weak yarn in weft is used. Early cross angle. Beam TENSION is more (weft cuts). Beam tension is less (Reed cuts). Dwell is less. Shed angle is more (Weft cuts). Shed angle is lees (Reed cuts).

REMIDIES
1. 2. 3. 4. Change the weak yarn. Delay the cross angle. Decrease the TENSION (weft cuts). Increase the TENSION (Reed cuts).

42

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS
5. Set bigger Dwell. 6. Decrease the Shed angle (Weft cuts). 7. Increase the Shed angle (Reed cuts).

2010

NOTE:-Difference between weft cuts and reed cuts is that weft cuts are at random in full width of fabric and reed cuts are confined in temple area only.

STUDY OF WEFT LOOPS 1. LOOM PARTICULERS:Loom No. Loom Type Loom rpm Fabric Type Warp Count Weft Count
Ends / Inch

603 JAT710 768 Shirting 60s
60s 200

Picks / Inch Reed Space Reed Used Denting Order No. of Healds Shedding Type Warp Tension Shim Used Weave

100 69 inch 80/5 5 ends/dent 12 (Capacity 16) Dobby E- Shedding 440 Kg-F 2mm Dobby

SAMPLE

LOOM STOP MARK SETTING:ICS SETTING:S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. CHECK POINT Warp × Weft Beam Dia Drawing width Measuring Band mark Number of sub nozzles SETTING 60×60 520mm 175.2cm(act.171cm) 24 28

43

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS
6. 7. 8. 9. 10. T0-Tw WF1 Sensitivity Main Pressure Sub Pressure Tension in Kg-F 90-240 6 350 Kg/cm2 400 Kg/cm2 480

2010

CAUSES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Sub nozzles are not aligned. Incorrect pressure settings. Incorrect To – Tw setting. Cross angle either too early or too delayed. To little staggering. Frame height is not ok.

REMIDIES If weft loops are at left hand side (LHS)
1. Set correct pressure settings. 2. Reduce the rpm of loom. 3. Set Cross angle delayed.

If weft loops are at Centre
1. Set correct pressure settings. 2. Set Cross angle delayed.

If weft loops are at right hand side(RHS)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Align the sub nozzles. Set the Tw early. Set the correct pressure. Increase the beam tension. Correct the catch –cord drawing. Set Cross angle delayed.

44

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

STUDY OF TEMPLE MARK 1. LOOM PARTICULERS:Loom No. Loom Type Loom rpm Fabric Type Warp Count Weft Count
Ends / Inch

669 JAT 710 eurotech 900 Shirting 2/101s
50s 108

Picks / Inch Reed Space Reed Used Denting Order No. of Healds Shedding Type Warp Tension Shim Used Weave

92 66 inch 108/2 2 ends/dent 4 Staubli cam shedding 250 Kg-F 2 mm PLAIN

SAMPLE

ICS SETTING:S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. CHECK POINT Warp × Weft Beam Dia Drawing width Measuring Bandmark Number of sub nozzles T0-Tw WF1 Sensitivity Main Pressure Sub Pressure SETTING 2/101 × 50 480mm 167.6cm(act.161cm) 18 28 90-240 6 400 450

45

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

2. LOOM PARTICULERS:Loom No. Loom Type Loom rpm Fabric Type Warp Count Weft Count
Ends / Inch

647 JAT 710 eurotech 805 Shirting 60sC 60sC
120

Picks / Inch Reed Space Reed Used Denting Order Drawing Order No. of Healds Shedding Type Warp Tension Shim Used Weave

98 69 inch 120/2 2ends/dent 1,2 3,4 4(capacity 8) Staubli cam shedding 220 Kg-F 3mm PLAIN

SAMPLE

ICS SETTING:S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. CHECK POINT Warp × Weft Beam Dia Drawing width Measuring Band mark Number of sub nozzles T0-Tw WF1 Sensitivity Main Pressure Sub Pressure SETTING 60×60 556mm 175.2cm(act.166cm) 24 28 90-240 6 350kPa 400kPa

46

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

CAUSES
1. Temple Ring angle is not correct. 2. Ring type is not correct. 3. Drawing width is more.

REMIDIES
1. Correct the ring style. 2. Correct the inclination of ring. 3. Correct the position of temple.

STUDY OF LESS & MORE PICK LOOM PARTICULERS:Loom No. Loom Type Loom rpm Fabric Type Warp Count Weft Count
Ends / Inch

663 JAT 710 erotech 880 Shirting 60sC
60sC 132

Picks / Inch Reed Space Reed Used Denting Order No. of Healds Shedding Type Warp Tension Shim Used Weave

88 69 inch 132 2ends/dent 4(Capacity 8) Staubli cam shedding 200 Kg-F 2mm PLAIN

SAMPLE

47

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

LOOM STOP MARK SETTING:ICS SETTING:S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. CHECK POINT Warp × Weft Beam Dia Drawing width Measuring Band mark Number of sub nozzles T0-Tw WF1 Sensitivity Main Pressure Sub Pressure Tension in Kg-F SETTING 60×60 390mm 175.2cm(act.169 cm) 24 30 90-240 6 300Kg/cm2 350 Kg/cm2 250

CAUSES
1. 2. 3. 4. FDP selection is not correct. Due to the more stoppage of loom. Setting of main nozzle is not correct. Due to carelessness of weaver.

REMIDIES
1. 2. 3. 4. Change the setting of FDP selection. Reduce the RPM of loom. Correct the Setting of main nozzle. Train the weavers.

48

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

STUDY OF ABRASION LOOM PARTICULERS:Loom No. Loom Type Loom rpm Fabric Type Warp Count Weft Count
Ends / Inch

663 JAT 710 erotech 880 Shirting 60sC
60sC 132

Picks / Inch Reed Space Reed Used Denting Order No. of Healds Shedding Type Warp Tension Shim Used Weave

88 69 inch 132 2ends/dent 4(Capacity 8) Staubli cam shedding 200 Kg-F 2mm PLAIN

SAMPLE

LOOM STOP MARK SETTING:ICS SETTING:S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. CHECK POINT Warp × Weft Beam Dia Drawing width Measuring Band mark Number of sub nozzles T0-Tw WF1 Sensitivity Main Pressure Sub Pressure Tension in Kg-F SETTING 60×60 390mm 175.2cm(act.169 cm) 24 30 90-240 6 300Kg/cm2 350 Kg/cm2 250

49

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

MECHANICAL SETTING:Back rest Height & Depth WSM Height Easing Amount & Timing Heald frame Height & Amount
S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4.

0–5 -2 6 – 300o Height 76 74 72 70 Amount 138 140 137 129 Dwell 0/60 0/60 0/60 0/60 Cross 310o 310o 290o 290o

CAUSES
1. Reed is tight and too hard. 2. Reed is defective. 3. Normal yarn is used in place of compact yarn.

REMIDIES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Re- tight the reed with torque wrench. Change the defective reed. Set early cross angle. Increase the staggering. Increase the shed angle.

NOTE:1. Abrasion due to the defective reed is sharp line. 2. Abrasion due to the hard tight reed is looks like wrong denting. 3. Abrasion due to the normal yarn is spresding and looks like pressure drop.

50

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

STUDY OF OIL STAIN LOOM PARTICULERS:Loom No. Loom Type Loom rpm Fabric Type Warp Count Weft Count
Ends / Inch

613 JAT 710 Eurotech 800 Shirting 50s
50s 124

Picks / Inch Reed Space Reed Used Denting Order No. of Healds Shedding Type Warp Tension Shim Used Weave

96 72 76/2 2 ends/dent 10 Staubli Cam Shedding 350 Kg-F 3mm PLAIN

SAMPLE

CAUSES
1. Machine cleaning is not proper. 2. Oiling is not proper.

REMIDIES
1. Machine cleaning should be done weekly and monthly. 2. Oiling must be proper proper.

51

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

STUDY OF LOOSE FLUFF KNOT 1. LOOM PARTICULERS:Loom No. Loom Type Loom rpm Fabric Type Warp Count Weft Count
Ends / Inch

631 JAT 710 Eurotech 850 Shirting 40 MCL
60sC 72

Picks / Inch Reed Space Reed Used Denting Order No. of Healds Shedding Type Warp Tension Shim Used Weave Loom No.

86 72 inch 72/2 2 ends/dent 4 Staubli Cam Shedding 250Kg-F 2mm PLAIN 631

SAMPLE

ICS SETTING:S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. CHECK POINT Warp × Weft Beam Dia Drawing width Measuring Band mark Number of sub nozzles T0-Tw WF1 Sensitivity Main Pressure Sub Pressure Tension in Kg-F SETTING 40MCL×60 536mm 163.1cm 18 27 90-240 6 350kPa 400kPa 240

52

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

2.
Loom No. Loom Type Loom rpm Fabric Type Warp Count Weft Count
Ends / Inch

621 TOYATA JAT 710 805 Shirting 2/121s
60s 162

Picks / Inch Reed Space Reed Used Denting Order No. of Healds Shedding Type Warp Tension Shim Used Weave

94 64.50 108/3 3 ends/dent 4 Cam sedding 240 Kg-F 2 mm Plain

SAMPLE

53

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

ICS SETTING:S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. CHECK POINT Warp × Weft Beam Dia Drawing width Measuring Bandmark Number of sub nozzles T0-Tw WF1 Sensitivity Main Pressure Sub Pressure Tension in Kg-F SETTING 2/121×60 536 1631 18 27 90-240 6 350kPa 400kPa 240

CAUSES
1. It is weavers mistake. 2. Knotting is not proper.

REMIDIES
Weaver should take care at the time of knotting.

54

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

STUDY OF BOLLS FORMATION LOOM PARTICULERS:Loom No. Loom Type Loom rpm Fabric Type Warp Count Weft Count
Ends / Inch

623 JAT 710 800 Shirting 60s
60s 172

Picks / Inch Reed Space Reed Used Denting Order No. of Healds Shedding Type Warp Tension Shim Used Weave

96 64.5 inch 171.8 3+4 8(capacity 16) E-Dobby Shedding 220 Kg-F 4 mm Dobby

SAMPLE

LOOM STOP MARK SETTING:ICS SETTING:S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. CHECK POINT Warp × Weft Beam Dia Drawing width Measuring Band mark Number of sub nozzles T0-Tw WF1 Sensitivity Main Pressure Sub Pressure SETTING 60×60 440mm 162.8cm(act. 160cm) 16 28 90-240 6 400kPa 450kPa

55

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

MECHANICAL SETTING:Back rest Height & Depth WSM Height Easing Amount & Timing Heald frame Height & Amount
S.No. Height 1. 2. 3. 4.

0–6 -1 3 – 300o Cross Dwell angle B.R* 0/30 300 0/30 300 0/30 300 0/30 300 Cross angle A.R.* 330 330 330 330
S. No. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Height Dwell 100 98 96 94
0/30 0/30 0/30 0/30

104 102 100 98

Cross angle B.R* 290 290 310 310

Cross angle A.R.* 330 330 320 320

*B.R.=Before repairing; *A.R.=After repairing

CAUSES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Soft Beam Normal Yarn Small Shed Angle Incorrect Frame Height Incorrect WSM Setting Delayed Cross Angle

REMIDIES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Highlight Soft Beam problem to your shift manager. Increase the Shed Angle Set bigger dwell. Increase the tension. Do correct setting of Frame Height Do correct Setting of WSM Set early Cross Angle Reduce the RPM of loom.

56

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

STUDY OF TIGHT WARP
Warp end or ends shifted to its right or left.

LOOM PARTICULERS:Loom No. Loom Type Loom rpm Fabric Type Warp Count Weft Count
Ends / Inch

614 JAT 710 805 Shirting 102/2s
50s 108

Picks / Inch Reed Space Reed Used Denting Order No. of Healds Shedding Type Warp Tension Shim Used Weave
WSM Height

92 66.0 inch 171.8 2 ends/dent 8(capacity 16) Dobby E-shedding 240 Kg-F 4 mm Dobby
-1

SAMPLE

CAUSES
1. 2. 3. 4. Cross Ends Sticky Ends Bolls Formation Missing Ends from Beam

REMIDIES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Straighten the Cross Ends. Set the WSM so as it should not touch the warp sheet. Set the WSM so as it become parallel to warp sheet. Train the Weaver to take regular patrolling of missing ends beam. Reduce the RPM of Loom.

57

A PROJECT REPORT ON FABRIC DEFECTS

2010

: 0512-2530199 : 05122-2531814 E-Mail : info@uptti.ac.in Website : www.uptti.ac.in UTTAR PRADESH TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE (Formerly Known as GCTI) 11/208, Souterganj, Parbati Bangla Road, Kanpur ________________________________________________________________________ ____

Ph(0)

To, Mr. Subhanish Malhotra Senior H.R. Arvind mills Ltd. Santej Ahmedabad. Dear Sir, This serves to acknowledge with thanks, the affection received by us from your end. It gives us great pleasure to share with you that we have achieved our objective to get the student acquainted with latest development in various technical and industrial fields .It was possible due to the efforts of our team as well as the moral support from the people from industry like you. As the training has completed successfully we wish to request you to keep your blessing on our efforts in future also. Thanking You, Yours Truly, Ajay Kumar Deepak Rathour Deependra Kumar

Date- 26-07-2010

58

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->