CHAPTER VII

THE SUNNAH:

SlfARI 'AT AND TARlQAT

7. THE SUNNAH: SHARr~T
Among the Muslim mystics. Mujaddid emphasis on the Stomal: or the Tradition

AND TARIQAT
to he one who laid great of

alf-c Thrini is considered

of the Prophet (upon whom he peace and blessings
exponent and champion

Ail::.,,). In fact. he is regarded
sulis

as the greatest vic»

of the .'~lI1l/1n" muong the
writers. hilt also

or all

times. Contrary

to Fricdmanrs

not only among our contemporary stickler

in his own lime. he enjoyed the reputation this is by no means incorrect.

of being an uncompromising

for Sharinh,

And

In Mabda' 0 Ma £fld. Ma 'iiri] Ladunniyoh and ill Makflllu1I :It SCVCl'o\t which clearly reveal his stand on the issue. Early writings of his

places we come across statements

biographers throwing light on his thought nrc also replete on this point. But his concept of the Suunah; which. according to my thesis is derivable from his view of

wahdat al-shahud, has not been very clearly elaborated. further.

as we have already seen his viewhe differs

point

011

Shari/all

vis-n-vis

Tariqah

must also be kept in mind. since in many respects him.

from his predecessors

and also [rruu the sufis and scholars who succeeded

In Muslim literature,

the word "SlIIl11al(' has three distinct meanings:

first, it relates

In

the

svstem of beliefs (in the form of aphorisms and sayings) ,\ hom he peace and blessings of Allah) revealed followed.'

and actions which the Prophet and which after his PMlillg.,

[upon his

and adopted.

·PIIIIUllilll1s. led by the I iglucous. -Ijurisprudcncc
('-";Jr'1>.

Secondly , in the literature concerning

the principles
()11

the term "Sw1JIalr" connotes

rnnuers (other than the <)lIr'iill)

which The

he Prophet (upon ,vhom he peace and blessings of Allah) is reported to have said something.
vord also refers to Prophet's
',)111 ilia" "

practices

and his actions, even occasional.

means such desired commands is appreciated IISCSthe term

(0~~ryf o

,

Thirdly. in Fiqh, the worr!
(~lof:';).

Shari'ol, which are not incumbent

hu]

.ction accordingly
I

and is considered
"SlIIl11n/r"

desirable.' in his letters and other for right and wrong. ihc will be questioned he hids his lilr

Mujaddid

in nil the above three meanings
.

vritiugs; As against many sufis. lor him SlIIlIIah is the ultimate criterion
. lesirable and the undesirable.
nOli!

"011

the Daj of Resurrection",
IOS([11'1

.

he says.

"people

their adherence
[0

10

the Shnr(ah and not about

vuf",

In many of hisletters

.isciplcs

rend hooks onjurisprudence

and Islamic Law ( ;;';). for. such a study is essential addressed
0111

:~dillgrighteous

Islamic Ii fe. In one of his longestletters, he first bids them
'at, 10

to the sons

oj-

his late mentor tn those of

,h~\\"h,in Il~qi hi-Allah.
ic

straighten

their belief .. in confonnit):'

scholars of Ahl-e Stmna! () Jama

then he proceeds to detail extensively

all these beliefs one

117

by one. and in his characteristic

way explains them in the style of scholastic one's beliefs, it is necessary

and mystic sciences. of

lie then goes

011 10

say. "After correction

to learn the requirements command' and WiT;i"

Fiqh, There is no olhe~ way but to learn 110/111(lawful)

~./~;f.~I?;j)ar x' F
S1II1I1a( (Traditional ~.

'Divine

(Duty),

and Hariun (Prohibited),

practice)

And Mandnb

(required). and

Mtrslitabal: (Doubtful)

and Makruh (Abominable]".

For tha!,.a thorough he himsel f proceeds (ablution). advising sciences
tahiirat

study of the literature on Fiqh is required. regarding

Nevertheless.

in this letter of the
l1'IIZ II

to detail some Islamic injunctions (purity)
10

the requirements

and saliit (prayers).

Sufi though he is. yet he does not hesitate

ill

his disciples for, whatever

hold fast to Shari'ah and pny more attention <H1<1 achievements

to it than to the myst ic
(111

the mystic .. sciences
10

may he, they do 110t stand

the the

sure footings which are

he seen clearly in the Shari (air based on sunnah.

The experiencesin

tariqat (mystic experience) are to he subordinated
10

arc subject to error, while sunnah is incontrovertible: shari'ah. not that shari'ah is under such experiences:

"suf experiences for. ,awl'i'ah stands

on finn grounds, well defined and specific whereas [mystic) experiences unequivocally declares that "any [socallcd]
It is reported

are only speculative"." lie which is was

'Reality'

~)

lor mystic experience]

against shari'ah is heresy".' overwhelmed

hy one of his disciples

that when he [the disciple]

hy '/ral' ( J l~), Mujaddid

told him: 'Go: study your lesson for, an ignorant snf is a with such exhortations
and lead
II

fool [play thing] disciples

of satan!'~ Maktubh! <HId his other works abound to lake the Fiqh and the study principles
reflected

to his

and others,

or sunnah seriously

life based on

the agreed and recognized

in these sciences.
great

Hut what is Mujaddids

\' icw or Shari 'oh'! This quest ion assumes

i .nportance

not

only in the philosophical time of Mujaddid subsequent

system of Mujaddid,
SIS

hut also in mystical thought

:IS

such. both duriug life impac! nn

and after him,

he was one of those mystic thinkers whose powerful

thought cannot he underrated. matters pertaining to shari'oh and law, like a jurist. in rather mystical terms: of

Firstly we find him discussing Secondly shari
'(IIT;1S

at several places we see him Inking up the issue of J/w,./alr an "nppcnrnnce"

ku.) and also as u "hidden aspect" (dU- The traditional

dichotomy

shari (oITand tariqah is brought into focus with a reference to tile "form" (.::.: )and "essence" r" of the former. lie reiterates that
CVl:'Jl

t,~;'-)

after laying

great emphasis

Oil

slwr;'tlh

:tnd :1ppar"ntl~
ally

leading a life in accordance

with the canons or Islamic Law, most people do not hnvc
0r

access

10

ils) essence or spirit. a llho\1gh true expression

the gratitude

for this great blessings

(

C, ...~)"'I

h"

II~

r.) discuss and analyze. .e.0) will have related III 10 face the 'stare of life' ft!'L. This of state is the preamble of the coveted station. Ne~essily the'sl:1lion "1\ is IIptO the limitations of the frer achieving te) cont inues into the stations of (. flllt \\I11:1t re the limits. if the journey 13111 tl1:11 the limits of the ascensions conti ngent universe. ill the lower stations.. the' Form of knowledge' ( fuses with the 'RenliIY·.'" so that it may acquire a relation with this world. ' of shari'ah of shari '«:I ~ According M:1I1}'among the sufia have reached Gilly IIptO the 'shadows' l Ie believes that for each high station. Mujaddid' s concept of a great sufi' is that he should he well versed i in the Qur'iin and the Sunnah.Jr beyond and npostnsy. and what lies ahead? Mujaddid a of the (fonn' or outward of the shari'ah this station. · '1'1._~~~. for a suf devoid of such knowledge No doubt that a man. whereas its 'essence 10 gre:1t sufis' are distinguished".1 his gr:1nd <. only a few are blessed with of this lofty station. "Several &:1\"'1 the outer husk of 'Reality' itself is f./). Hut in fact they have touched jllst their reach.'l'1 ones' have gone down the pit of atheism and have themselves out or the 119 .mani fest legacy' legacy" obedience ( CJ/. by regulating 10 is an easy prey of Satnn.'~ other words real ascension hegins with the station In of knowledge. OIlC' (). But unlike other Sl1 fis.-) of the determination flut this again is IlP[ of the (upon whom he peace nnd hlcsnngs of the limit. u: ) of the sllO"i~a" is tbe one which the' scholars of the relates to those millie r" hy which the apparent I (..)... The gnostic finds himself outside of the parameters SllOri'at in these states. This station. according Prophethood to Mujaddid is the fountainhead 1\1\[lh).lltlstic ("'.:') and this hidden and to the Prophet (upon whom be peace and blessings of I\lliih)'"Q Mujaddid contends that "the form or r mani fest" ) /. hilt since he is the "saved of omission of thc commands this "fortune"..$ ~x: i.tiiJ:. ~ I the mailer of this state of fusion is upto v'c. the shari 'a"> "is that one .. r. :1S lurthcr stations lie ahead: "If there is progress beyond this point.':11 III no \\':1)' the world ill :1lly form: It is one of the stntes(~~~~i') which have nnl even been (if~~ touched by :1 particle of relation.should equip himself with "the hidden legacy cannot be acquired except through total submission M-:=-/.. there is a shadow among the shadows Most of the sufis at this slage feel 111:11 they have pllt their fool beyond the parameters :111<1 by trnuscending the shari'ah they have rruchcd while 'Reality" the Truth. the Form and Rcnlity nrc hoth left behind and the f'. 'impcrll. 10 he does not commit the slightest error Mujaddid." his life according to the canons of Shari 'air can ascend informs liS higher spiritual realms.t:1I i<.1.C'.11 ( \_.

.J ~lo): and in the end comes the Reality or shari 'air. or the etiquette therefore without of shari'ah.. though even a spurious they rmy be quite or the "real matter". disobeys sril] pcrsisrs and continues station while affirming its desires In spur on apostasy The rnithrul who has nttaincd this soul. ~o At this stage.[.e... or the luminous shari 'ah. essence hut are only their "forms". If the mystical stales and ecstasies-'('{j'..1I). even though they may not of this state (i. prescribed and the rituals. still "receive their gnosis under some shadow out of the shadows they do not like missing unaware that or Wilo)'a!): "and since they arc "protected".I 7 those who are blessed with wiliiyat. it is a blessings otherwise they arc nothing except ruination kiter. and r:lstin)! SO\11' ("l. and blessed laith and actions.(~. and the requirement or 'SO\1l's sheer (ratificali(lll believing (~P'~) was considered was waived orr'. of the Master the thing that shall ns well as in the [inal stages./nlr (~.J) : i. count will he the obedience (upon whom since. "how can the reality or or faith and virtuous e-4"IJI) / he conceived at this stage? II is hUI the Grace or God thnl or the paradise even 011 I le has accepted [imperfect hem'!' even thc Form. (. his evil hidding rituals goes against yet these outward are not in lact genuine laith and worship.. and a greal and signs and mysteries fortune.Y or Judgment. tn and or the SII(I.. and the prescribed prayers nrc nothing but the" forms or prayers and fastings". Themselves they went astray and a lso misled many The right order of things according shari 'air.).. mystic he pence and or Allah)..~=-')':~are also combined with this following.. the Prophet.' and miracle-mongering the "form" or shari'nh prayers of an npostnre". that "in the heginning is the form of tariqat and haqiqat which nrc related to Wiltiyat and have aff nit}' with the r order' ( . he further explains (m. their stations. act out and But whatever he very perfect.. If. enough us with the tidings these or the and shadowy] In the matter or faith assuch.subordination others". in the early phase or their journey "tomorrow following blessings on the D:...." and identifies it with III yet another adherence whatever 10 the jurjdicnl matters or Islam.~_:.11 (if-:0t. At Ihis station. acts In the words of Mujaddid. the' evil bidding and disobedience. and apparently acts of faith and offering and temptations: prayers.c. then comes 'world 0 to Mujaddid is.1) [for redemption] 120 .) 'raith' (UI!') one has.:.1A or the secrets or gnosis any understanding Such considerations lead Mujaddid to advise his followers to always keep themselves 011 the track or the Slwri'alr. is merely the "form or faith".[ I sciences and gnosis ('~'L.

'~ Biu at thc StAgCof Ihl' obedient ( (.~~ Moheet. ~~ll"'f) Just like the Form and Essence Prnndisc paradise quite distinct And the masters there is An Essence of the form of the from its form. like nlaI.') . his exhortations with the shari (alT remain general to extreme". Mujaddid has no! Icft any speci fie book on Fiqh. is based he snvs. Its 121 .Thus ill Mujaddids system. nut whether form or Essence. the soul remains a rchcl- disobedient and adamant ill its r rejection of the Truth . and in other thc minutest all of juridical It i~ he says. available Shorb literature Mowiiqi]. of nnd becomes fruits of the Forms of Shar! ah and - . "a specific 10 legal question". "The people of its Essence of Form will enjoy (~·7C\) will he blessed with its Essencc". "Are extremely that while Sirhind] to comply rare in the Afaktub'lit of Sirhindi." was the authentic al-Mowaqi]. hut this is not because to him.rests on a rather superficial of the Islamic principles LAW.21 to Mujaddid. Mujaddid..c the perfections nrc the fruits of the Essence of Shnri'ah.rik. Still we find that at several places in the Alaktuhi1t Ire discusses problems of Fiqh and Sitar/tat 'lim al-Kalhm al-lslum and refers to books dealing with these.. never goes in the specifics the details problems". (III M(1(l. Fricdmanu: makes reference Maklubiif has dealt." SAYS he: "Epistle 191 of the first volume of is addressed 'Ahd al-Rahirn Khan-c KhrJnan. "Bricflv - with those rare cases". Sawn'iq al-Moharriqah ere. thc soul turns 10 he the tranquil '1 he perfections prophelhood of wiliiyat are the one"] _. and mystic phenomenon. a high official of the Mughal court. so rar as sunnah and shari 'all . Tt \\':1S rather due to the obvious had already No doubt Fiqh and Shnriral were of lesser importance fact Ihnt hy the nnd 10lh century A.that his brand of mysticism study of his philosophy. noteworthy nor docs he show any insight or erudition "Discussions works or even the general of ." while he is well of the Fricdmauus conversant juridical contention IC:1ds to n clear view that he has about Muiaddid: of esoteric sciences. al-M/lltaq.cah. "'. ssence of the Shari'nh. with the intricacies problems his knowledge and details of Fiqh is rather superficial. II1ya' ol-Uloam.nt the singe when one has only the Form of Slwr.i'a" arc concerned.H. ~2 of the submission to shari roll ~tCI)." This obviously faqa 'id and sharieaf in Mujaddids dAYS.~ha._). obedience Friedmann 011 to Shari'ah is of \II most importance contends thai Mujaddids however fame . 10 ill his 0\'Il1 words. quite n large amount of juridicnlliteraturc was available specific to the general come into existence public.t. Stili never wearies of describing details of experience. where Muinddid .

fasting and ."OIls beliefs" jurisprudence. as well as matters pertnining wholly consists to social life. receptive to Sirhindis and this is designed ideas on the necessity that Mujaddid 10 has laid "emphasis al-Rahim on the permissive Khanan) more make ~bd (Khnn-e of complying with the law as fully ns possible" ..il what the command and requirements that one should learn of of faith Me: there is not alternative to the sound knowledge 122 . il is not the compliance is miller to persuade of the laws of the shari'alt as such which is intended. first he advises the sons of his master with those of the "'idaI1l1P of ahl-e sunnat '. finds rukn: :111<1 believer. the angels. proceeds to say thaI "after selling right the articles of faith.Rkfit.. Friedmarmhas not dealt with any other "nne case" when Mujaddid delves in details in juridical problems. (which ) ~~ and legal commandments ( ~-s"" form an integral concerning part of Muslim prayers.!Jm (J :26()) almost discussion 10 of the detailed and exposition of the articles of faith and other legal 10 11111lters. As we sh:111 presently sec neither such calls towards the shari {air.that 10 with [lie Shari 'air.. Only one fortieth of property 'vas fixed as 7. po vcr and his relation to the contingent concerning universe. ah.'a "'/~i(lI1{al. Mujaddid extensively writes about detailed Fiqli).olher rituals. The shm·. legal commands "llfih" and prophets. s I{i 1/(/ comply with. principles of 111 fact. the Righteous Caliphs common Muslim folk. attributes. If he cannot perform the ablution with water. The longest letter thai we find in the Makf.'ah were prescribed.. Friedmnmconcludes nature of the shm·j'a"'·." Ilc then absent). .)1 he only reference T i I is in perfect harmony made mystic i-.. God. n ill the letter relates the Naqshhanrll order . and win over a high ranking and in lluentinl functionary of the Mughal court through the call of the shari'. only seventeen and these can he performed ill less than an hom. he can do so with sand. His the life after lire. 2'> Using this letter. Pilgrimage lifetime and only if transportation ! has to he performed only once in a and supplies <Ire available. streamline their beliefs ill accordance Then he derails fill those beliefs which include no less than ten articles of faith concerning existence'." references Almost each of these beliefs is discussed to mystical sciences arc not totally in the light of scholastic in his characteristic is necessary learning (though style. and so on and on goes f ricdmaun paraphrasi ng Mujndd id. the "friends of status in the order of their and their specified succession. and even then not all kinds of properly are taxable. j\.purpose is 10 convince the recipient is easy 10 that lslnrnic law does 110t impose di fficult dut ies on the of the daily roJQt/s.. For instance. in many or his leiters to his disciples "righH. the Heaven and the Hell.:1JJ hili the object Thus. If a Muslim to he difficult he can comply with hy perf onning them symbolically. roads [Ire safe . III this letter. nor detailed discussions in juridical questions are really <ISrare as he makes us believe.

mushtabah .'J) is easy".who always lays great cmphnsi» on sunnalt - thc easy and lighter nature of the Islamic sl1O./. ablution leiters we find cither beliefs." requirements fact. the higher he soars into the realm of the spiritual.J) and 'miracles' ( . [arz wdjib..." The biographers -. :! So far as th e charge of Fpennissive' nature of Mujaddids concept to many ofslwri"nh 1\ is concerned sufi orders.hlighting the people not astonishing 10 lind Muiaddid . In side of the Mujnddid as we have seen earlier is opposed to this view.i(a". in many articles (/')~~ regarding other ... . Stills at least in theory if not in practice. although many of his fellow travelers of the Path hold those who of consensus among the mystics all religions (including the affairs declare adherence to Islam) is that the more one is drawn away from and pleasures the .:c:..:. nearer will he be to the acts t'_'V)j) will .:. The Qur' iin and points of reference. To S:lY that Islam does not want to surfer and indulge in deprivation 10 11Ilt allows them to enjoy the bounties 1101 which the Almighty has so graciously provided them.. we have already but it is certainly he the supreme declares: "God seen that his view may appear to be antagonistic not against the general direction authority intends . '. haM I and hardm ." It is thus hig. of the Prophet before (upon whom be peace and blessings him. prevalent of the Qur'an and the sunnah. nut even so.17: in fact Muinddid has never advised any of his disciples the pemlissihle'(\. For many life of celibacy and renunciation of the family is an ideal. which he holds to hut in real practice... and He does not want to put you tb. this against sunnah.!: and the more supernatural 12] . for prayers and other daily chores or a quite detailed J1 and rituals. sunnat jurisprudence and mandub.. !lUI and loftier is his station.l<) interest and IIsnry. the Prophet the least difficult (upon of A Ilah) tell us that among the two or more options whom be pence and blessings of Allah) always chose the one which was nndtaxing." Tn concerning a cursory general discussion of faith and fundamental Ramzan principles of Fiqh. .vorld. prayers and remembrance III and fm. is repugnant to the spirit of Islam. The general of Islam. it is not only a rich courtier who is shown the "permissive' to abandon shari (.. Muinddid 011 shares this view with the scholars a contrary helief. purity ( . He considers the case under discussion. and makruh ".II. J even those pertaining diseases" and shroud (UJ) and burial of the de:ld.JI) ami other lcgal mnucrs. hooks 011 . he details .W). (upon whom he peace and blessings of dilllcuities":-Il and according to a tradition the Prophet AII[lh) is reported to have said: "This Religion (~.tin~.. though he believes that the narrower the circle of the permissihlc.111d the more a man curtails down his needs to a bare minimum possibility of revelations ( f-'?~.the ..Ir-) within the limits of the shari ~". H The study of the the basic and Fiq" is n must for this purpose. to extend every facility not only verbally for you.

and unsound sufia of this and dancing This aloue their religion: is considered age._. It is enough that we \(1 l"J)""') and do 110treproach them and refer their matter Allah. These of the creatures and inform about the 'hidden matters' aiming at] purification people reveal [rnerclyj thc 'nppcnrnnces' r and not about Reality ns such] since they themselves are veiled away C-:-/) from God . lie docs not evaluate n I11n1l' and calls these who practice them as "the people of Riyu 01"' (./. is superior to those of others precisely due to this of the Prophet' (upon reason. But Mujaddid does not regard such mailers in powers are 110t necessarily nearer to OmL If Those wh» p('lssess s\1eh spiritual that were the criterion.tS commendable (:.). One who regards a forbidden act ( (~~). rcculsion and or the inner self.~) steps out of of evil inherent in the circle of lslam and is converted 10 apostasy.i').e.:.. and the righteous Iawlu I find the forbidden consider thcrn excusable authentic .).~) "These are the people who have made their rcl igion in object u).. the revelations and the miracles are s sIal ion hy these 1101of much importance phenomena.~Q or the Prophet (upon whom he pe. ritualistic rejected . C onccrni ng the ( 1.). they believe are the sure and godly status (0y.).tce and blessings of AIll"lh).such powers have nothing to do with n status proximate he believes.he witnessed of him. ecstasy ( p. case and because these supernatural Muinddids own brand of mysticism.dancing 10 uplift.. even of tHe other suf orders arc subjected only because they are [lot in coufonnityws+he for the spiritual practices . Loud invocations ~. the companions the largest number or miracles would have been witnessed in the lives of is not the to God.:.. the ascetics - those whoindulge [the exercises ill voluntary hardships. "The gnosis" of ascetics is due to hunger..though they might appear to be beneficial singing ( L . as were also his companions...!. I(~ But the appearance in Mujaddids or the supernatural.~. and 'miracles' which.') of the companions the practice and passion ( J"') are unconditionally scholars being (contrnry the practice rt. on the authority making the practices (obedience' ~.V).. Bakr Shibli nnd Abu Ilas:l11.0~). l lere the and not 01 word is that or Im1i11l Abu-Ilanifah. But.rJJj.) and worshi p (. u... and not due to the unioh with God. i. One must realize the magnitude dancing and singing. ~2 or play and sport"." 12<1 .. Imam Abu Yousuf and lmarn Muhammad.~_I. system.~1 He further says that some immature of their masters' or their masters practices an excuse have made singing for their actions. 10 obvious dislike and are of the sunnah. The wayfarers ill the Noqshbaudi order are related 10 'the sainthood whum he peace and blessings of Alliih) Many prevalent rejected hy Mujaddid practices ~. ~R Common people arc very much impressd by their revelations signs of divine inspiration nny \ v"y (divine'.\bll of the sufis is no! authority.

. the "luminous lie states 'f!J'.One of the disciples asked him. melodies in Na <cil and Qasflid (praise of the Prophet and the pious) call thinks that this gate should not he opened 110t reply \VaS: "My Master! This/akil' morbid desire {~I~) all..~4 these "innovations" process which introduced in the Tariqat as nothing to a perfection but tbc Some people defended outcome of the evolutionary were leading of the snf order. perfect ty in harmony one step in the Thus.. "if it is permissible to recite the Qur'jm with melodious tribute and praise in melodious reciting]. and every 'destitute' and innovations .. J of innovations. Mujnddid disagrees.-rIb') (lilt:' with the imperatives of the shari 'air should (. producing hilt with same restrictions be sung!" Mujaddid's "I tunes ami clapping etc. he advises: Tariqat.'. which in tUI'11is conducive "Oilly after fully irnnsfonuing the outer self ( yt). he tells us. according MlIsla(all'iah or the sufis and others who have in fact eclipsed to him is due to the "darkness" I sunnah . The scholars Striving for (the irnprovcrncm] a/wop with the imperatives of the shari'ah without the help only issue legal verdicts.. then why it may not be considered of the Prophet (upon whom be peace and tones? True that corruption proper to recite the poetry containing blessing!' of Allah).. .<r. These people do 110t realize. but the people of God act accordingly.:_. . "The beauty of the Mil/at-e practices (:1'. lie believes outv vard appearance rcnlm of the desired 1 that unless one makes upon himself incumbcm with the shari ~ah. i. and his companions and their alternation of the letters of the Qurhn I"hill- moving the voice. to he one which emerged n ner or A!lfih) and the l'ightco'llS caliphs The Tariiwih prayers during the 125 . nne inr liue toward the inlier self( s.:. he cannot proceed to the life of shori'ah..1I) are nothing. since the people with do slop at any specific stage... arc non-permissible while reciting the Qur'on.i'a".e. it will lead to so much (that is undesiredr.the bnd ones.. One who is attentive 10 with tire improvement of his inner sel]' ond is IIOt his external self is (III apostate (~!-) [italics mine). but itsedraj.:')) of innovated .the good . voice. ~~ l lasanah .! blow most of the 'Itlama'clnssiry inuovations into two categories: ones. that "evol ving find perfect ing a thing is not capable of additions to transform his is a task which canuot he done by every illiterate.-1)". upon the efforts for [improving) the of the inner self is incumbent preoccupied outer sel r.:). - has been destroyed hy the turbid i t)' (-. rectification The sign or the truth or the inner states is to he seen in the of the outer self. its conformity In111('n[sthe practices And this. and in his case the inner mystical to the commandments or the sha. if" lillie is permitted. and Sayre 'air ...I. A good innovnt ion is considered the advent of the Prophet (upou whom he peace and blessings and did not supersedeor cancel all already established sunnah.o t"a1 IlWy 1101 remain soiled with remission since it is rather difficult to gct embellished of thc inner self..

) and dirt of Islam". nut Mujaddid <IS does not regard Tartiwih as He counts these prayers stmnah... of God finalized: my blessings I limsclf says: 'this day I have perfected you ami have chosen J nnd completed for YOII Islam as the Dec/·.c.IV.. when tomorrow il had led sense anything other than darkness of a myopic the perception nowhere .~1 126 .month of Ramzem nrc said n cnse of innovation... your Religion for and pleasure )'OU.·r.(. on the contrary he perceives is a shovel thaI digs and destroys k.) lend him towards totnl rind categorical rejection of all innovations These considerations in Religion and tarioat . ill them.. for..('(' it do~s not harbour ). does not agree some innovations as hasanah.M<I). Islam] what is cancels a tradition: and therefore il is \\Tong il is rejccl". There is no "goodness" ill an innovation in the past might have seen some goodness with them on this issue. "the deception of Saran" .Ii~ lie further that "every iunovntion is evil ( hold 111:11 only some do. but this/ahl' he declares. [\(1 though simple._. When al-Deen is declared as perfect. additions". innovation. ill lil vision an act or an innovation full of will be more acute he will see that the Prophet (upon whom he 1I0t 10 except for loss and shame (~~) 10 Jle quotes pence nnd blessings included ill of Allflh): "One who innovates Sri)' this affair of ours [i. fails 10 observe and beauty and light in any of these innovations turhidity.. is quite logical: every innovation in the Religion it is obviously must reject: to its basic practices or is an addition to them. these can never lend to the straight and docs 1101 path. Thus. yet. "This/ok. as good . Even before these innovations already perfected and the blessings [of God) completed. who approve "People 10 he an instance of this sort. freshness Even if today one sees. But he does not agree with the (/{Iamn' in an)' innovation.O.:" not to declare any innovation for it is probably in Religion as "light appears like the brightness of the dawn". ". If contrary was not perfect the implication would he that the Religion and needed some "good it needs This view would also he unacceptable.("' Thus. Thus sr-eing perfection of lslnm throllgh these innovations is in fact rejection rind denial of the very subject matter of this august verse".." Flahor:lting this I'oilll and critical or the (Ulama' who believe in certain "good innovations" the Deen was ns God "POll he says: '. Every innovation /. either he contrary if all addition.)) ~Q the very foundation mS{1l1all even if its He bids the t IIlam. ever)' innovation nlly "goodness or beauty" ( V I::. on account and fragrance. the argument. and docs not see any innovation only darkness (c. God lea-l them on to the right path.

master eating Khwaja is ngninst his lie recalls an incident [he COJllPf111Y Br. Khnwdjn Btiqi hi-AlIlIh rebuked him and showcrl extreme displeasure this rather minor deviation from the S/{fmalr". 1-Ia7.01l<... on the subject Sirhindi though general to him the treatment of hirl~alr is extremely of specific material "I lerc again we are faced with the scarcity exhortations innovations to follow sunnah and avoid innovation which nrc peculiar 10 are abundant. according in his criticism and rejection of vague and general in character. hut even those related peer Khwnjfl the Naqshbandiyah.!i) is desirable. 7~ in innovations which resulted only in the stoppage or lie was particularly concerned 10 and alarmed to see that not only the followers including the children of his own of Islam as elf others orders.. and other 'religious disciples and poetry'. like recitation sanction. "I have mysel f heard Ifiiiqi bi-Allahj tltat Hazrat K hwflja Naqshband . his the that at several occasions specific practices or the sufis.edmfll"lIl'sthesis is not supported Muiaddid criticizes by facts. 7.While Friedruaunndruits that Mujnddid is extremely critical of fill il1l1(W:11. that Mawlnd. he hili contends that he does not take up concrete instances of innovations hirl 'all.1 for the benefit or the spirits or the dead is rejected..in nfl<]i hi-Allah his displeasure fit Delhi l le informs master thc disciples of his the grand or Noqslmbandiyah from this 'master order had expressed over such pract ices.I<l1 of Bokhnra and led them to the Khrmqal: (Monastery) or IKa111i11Imm Zikr Jahr.) mental since trndirional: it distracts is rejected concentration it which is vital [or prayers.I\~ cxamp Ies 011 Iy to prove a genera 1point . and he agreed".'~ Giving alms (.:_. One or close friends uttered aloud the name rf Allnh heginning of the dinner.. B:i<]i hi-AII:ih and his disciples were \'iolntillB the clear commandments in certain practices expressed by the 'Ulnmii' and were indulging against the Shari 'all.nlioll) 17.)~: of his at the :11 before ." as are many other innovations Sufis. very rarely speaks of the Muslims of .:. . gathered the scholars (( [Jfm11ti.. lie also ill chWalrsl1 find expressed his displeasure rm!! ascetic practices over the practice of [he sufis who showed great enthusiasm the sill of omissions of Jatna 'nt Iprayer and "caru enngr('g. 10 prohibit him him that Zikr Jahr is fin innovation and rejects such practices the intention or pmyers and the argument and he should not as specifying certain also pinpoints recitations • ~ U ctc. is rarioual inSlen(1 of just rather than I affair ( ~.. adducing random Hindu people. . The '/}lmni'1'lold indulge in it.. hut this practice he details. master which he says have not religions Khwfl. )(. he claims were a lso indulging grace and blessings.7 .. LOII<l recitation in or '. III most cases he deals with the problem on the theoretical .m Vocalizing is also criticized 'J. Thus. This again is an instance where r:r.Indifl as a result of their lire in the midst of n level..qi hi-AII:1h. We have seen of Na't." the sunnnlr..(.-~)...~lle days for congregation keeping it a mental 0f amir Knlliil .

7R prayer offered with the Jama'u! Muhammnd with the in the is better than their thousand Offering two!aUJ To Khwaja. (irl or or I!he three] lt1lrniilfd odd numbered is n practice. the is on to master. 1flllsfal.~1 he places the sunnat and 1I111. have half the thawiih or those belief find practice blessings AlIllh)has or A IInh). It is assumed offered in standing position. "The relation of AJllIh) is superior all the Sunnah. is better than performing or nawi1fi' for a thousand In this direction under the category marked with the purity or intention1\.'') son of n Naqshbaudi account novcletics or its holding ('..diynh] fast to the SIIIIIIal1.'." is not even that which holds between a droplet 128 .." . prescribed 10 the Prophct (upon whom be peace and blessings and lI(11l'a(il.. "but in this order loo "the people have gi ven currency (V-"'J) 10 such an extent hid(nh and innovations that its opponents would not he wrong if in the they said that this order congregations Muslim Muiaddid the opinion permit such too purports and shuns Sunnah. 011 Many prnyers ground Mujaddid one find rituals or the sufis. are either yet they nr e rejected dropped that while severely pursuing criticizes mallY [ara'idh or or arc neglected.~r·. The far» . and two in the silting offered while silting so tim! these may count as one.z) nawl'ifil have no value. of offering thirteen and practices \vhich lead 10 God's arc either far« » sunnat or nofl. morning is better that the night long waking and prayers. and the odd number or the sahajjud prayers rak 'nl or 1'.ah and the ocean. (ar of the tahajjnd prayers.~I) Qasim. Performance years.lIiII the 'bright st The thirteen included Sunnah' of the Prophet (upon whom he pcnce and (upon whom be pence and blessings or rak 'nl that the Prophet vitr as well.jurists (J'_.~' that he points out concerns the mit.51allOb (~) such nil extent Ihnl hy or 11(111'(1ji/. They offer tohaijud prayers and regard this act to be good and call upon others to do the same . Nnqshbm._}r.. that people ~.I11111111a 1. and are agreed a congrcgnt jon inn on the point C1l1~we~ntioll or this sort witl: more than three rersolls Another These standing prayers prayers.) . the twelve rnk'jjt arc offered while that the "This consist position. specific people innovation suppose is undesirnhle". or thirteen mit.11'.a" .n Thus... he tells that "the supremacy or this order [i. or were this.Iamil(al [Friday congregation]: these people "do not realize that n farz: chi"ah~".RO they Ih:1I a admits that some jurists of Nap prayers..)11111 is on account mit. corner or the mosque..WI/nI. offered is also nl_:!. The prnyers according . justifications. even when these IIml'l1jil Mujaddid goes 10 /01" 1. "As compared to aja. to Mujncklid no! founded the practice in the pleasure . have religious . whereas consider such prayers have allowed in congregation congregation extremely abominable ( . ". may them. but even they are or "Moreover should not he called upon to come and join such prnyers. ~1f.e.

otherwise hope: who soever he may he and whatever good action he might hnve performed ..'/ _(.$ '~:. on juridical the traditional suf thesis that attention what the modem 'God consciousness" can be gained only through abandonment of the world... and rejecting The exaggerations all worldly goods is of fill the sufis in depriving astonishing themselves indced.. ahandonment of the world or l(ltal ahstincncc.::")[i." 129 .'J ·~J~ill"'.common however redemption scholars in the life hereafter people. ~The religion is easy".<lil Mujaddid very boldly rejects this attitude of life as alien to the real spirit of ill the Shar/ah. whose the issue.rot make such demands on humans. whereas The apparent belongs complete submission blessings 10 legacy pertains the hidden without the world or command submission is ? (/r I..h)] one mny hope of eternal redemption. differs. hc should 1 hem". "If this short span of life comprising 10 f~w days is lived in obedience Prophet (upon there is no and submission the Master of the 'r-irsl Ones' and the 'Last Ones' ( :".~~ Total necessary of the perfect love of the Prophet (upon whom be pence and only a of Allnh).s: . ~7 has always.'_').. altough 011 lslam and its practice ns expounded virtually [111 the suf writers before Inlier-day scholar and suf problems mystics call him rmt! even alter him arc unanimous M6111ann Ashraf defended ~Ii Tluinavi. To him the "greatest good" docs not come out of complete human nature.as the ultimate for judging object of desire.e..~ . S[I id the Prophet .::. E\'en a renowned fame mainly rests on his writings towards Allah.J(..'I"!. (.:. he counted among those whose worldly wcnlrh IlrIS no! caused :my harm 10 ~" This must he contrasted such an extreme hlcssi I1gs with the teachings or the early sufis who brought (upon whom asceticism 10 that the lives and altitudes CPI11P:lI1iIlIlS of even the Prophet be peace and of Allilh) and his [lppe[lr quite "worldly" of nil the carnal pleasures in comparison.'1. This will be against IsI<l111 which is the "untura] rel igion. legacy 101.itA can.~H . have rather and mystics alike . (upon whom he peace and blessings of AlIflh) and Muiaddid contends that even if one pays 7A'Ik?l! due to him. the whom he pence and blessings of Allll. been regarded bv all the Now the eternal Muslims mystics ultimate hereafter . ). candidature Some ror this hilt the more rigorous criteria a man's award of success ill the life hereafter.)'...This (upon hidden legacy cannot he acquired whom be peace and blessings and to the Proph:r outcome or Alliih)._f:.~).Occasioually /r1P) and "hidden" Mujnddid conceives the polarity of SlIm·i'at and tnriqat :l~ the "appnrcnr" of AIHill)..11 ( J' ~ ) legacy of the Prophet (upon whom he pence and blessings to the world of the creation (J~. Not only the "World" ( is to he abandoned find finally the ahandomncut Mujaddid itself is to he abandoned: .

Mujaddids concept or the from the aliens on sohbnt of A life in conformity "li le of seclusion' and 1)01 is di [fcrcnt [rom that or other sufis.Ql Paradoxical in accordance years" may appear. is to he·rcjeeted.f aI I.. con fonni III onmty self [han nil the hardships yenrs which arc . should be within the limits prescribed An acceptance hy the Sliari'ah.Mujaddicl agrees with the general I contention or the sufis that the material and ascendancy world or carnal Q2 pleasures. the invitations DO . of the S1In".) . Now these "duties" ill wilderness. in such [I man is living in a society nor visits 10 and is not leading a lire of for. A house with extravagantly environment or luxury and lavishness draperies of must he avoided.Q~ with the Sunnalt is possible only in society. Moreover. for. and that ror example it ill fact is the real mujahedah according 11111s1 be assured to Muiaddid. but without in nothing and development or their animal sOIlI" . according with the intimates. but the place or invitation in accordance fumishiugs. the utensils. invitation. there are neither salutations Q1 the sick. It as it J (. requirements and a general should also be necessarily costly utensils. 'nil. "The Brahmins in such "hardshi ps" and "battles" except strengthening [with the soul and Yogis have not any gain.'_l:.'l(I The Naqshbandi way.. Offering two rnkn'iiI more va luable congregation. of an invitation.). Hilt SOli I his conception I1I11s1 [rrun that of the sufis. of seclusion invitations prescribed by thc Prophet (upon whom be peace and blessings [0 " even for the performance or Allfih) for accepting an like responding salutation.::. (~J. however. that not only thc meals nrc lawfully crockery and the fumishiiu.) 1(11"1.s earned ( Jl. he contends thai eating and drinking 011 the day or'eid with the on one's Shari (air is more useful in suppressing 0\"11 wish. denials and inflicting pain over one's spared anything resulted self will bring about any good in this regard. or power and pride. Muslim. which will hanker "hardship" after more in the worldly and more.lIhjugatillg the animal not . He also agrees with the sufis that indulgence pleasures contrary can only strengthen the animal soul. imply that visiting [I the sick. nor acceptance case.b). to him lays great emphasis (Company) Social lire ill fact is necessitated certain "duties C"CI). etc. only such juridical can "break" the power or the animal SOIlI.. But to the sufis he does 1I0t think that self prescribed ('=-'. "Seclusion is to be sought from the rriends". al-fitr. The social life. or the with the venue. 1 IC C-I Wit I t I . wealth and comforts or this "rejection" is different to rule. than praying the carnal desires prayers than "fasting for several or morning the whole in congregation.'. which is just onc S1II1!In/ is far prayers away from the in night and offering the morning Thus he concludes that obcying just OIlC command and deprivations or the Slmri'ah is more helpful of a thousand <.{ ~). The desires or the animal sanctions be fended orr only-through the canons of the SImril. attending the funeral.ah.

. and when it Appears on the lip it shari 'a/ as mani fest. .101. needs and demands 1101 of the body. Mnstcris thm they should follow the "The nest advice luminous of the friends Sunnah .:.insl the 1\\'0 sides of the sallie Reality As Shnykh Aim l?ilih Mnkki puts it. making arc all rejected.9~ Thus. 'i~c-. ·'I/aqiqol . and non-Muslim and deprivation docs not bear the Mujnddid is and dramatic IC:lSI effects that we find in the likes of fa mons Muslim Voluntary poverty..n It l lujwniri docs IIot S\'t' inrcrcsrim. one should run after the pleasures this is also against and "gains" of this world. Ire ds given III opuonn No doubt '.SISniH I • OIlC wny IS Ihc among II IC IIInny ways ·11 HIS.'1' c IWilly (.those with a fame for transgression be <lvoided. as the knowledge becomes so long asit in the heart is hidden.1"1 . 1I!Il( and pflying a penny in Zakat as prescribed J by thc SITar/a" than I ' . Mnny writers had pointed 0 f t I rc S I Inn. Mujaddid 10> - even before some suf writers did not regard the shari 'rn find the Ihfll~"(/I'i«(11 am] tariqat as two antagonistic or rival stands. if the lifestyle I he and sin. is gained only through the tmiqml"'. Nevertheless to the exotic or public the genera I trend ~1110ng 1he sufis has been 10 regard knowledge As Shaykh and 10 think of tariqat as related pertaining 10 some esoteric.. these the sole objectives of li fe. concerned. differentiation of the Manifest is concealed and the Hidden in knowledge is not legitimate.I. noll' [h. or elaborate formalities and unnecessary show off may [of a righteous sufi or n common Muslim J reflective of the Sunnah 01" Prophet (upon whom be peace and blessings of A llah) and his companions. [which 10 pill il: "The cOI11I11f1nd the Shuri 'a/l of . I~ n g_'1(.)) . aClOI"( " III!?. and there cannot 131 .. . lOO The importance nlmndoncd of Sunnah to Mujaddid that one who revives The juridical aspect an of SlIIlIIah ~J. J lujwairi from that of the Haqiqat. he upon its lind shun the undesired innovationsT" is such that he claims of n hundred martyrs. reclusion from the people. \hari 'al knowledge. IS IS <ccrct or mysterious 'IIlile different however. out before tariqat were .\' 11('11\\"·" At one place he claims that "No suf shari '01 is not perfected has ever made without any diflcrcmintion he between shari 'm and tariqat . self torture. Iat .n"~. hunger abstinence mystics.r"). d('a\":l~I.may peace and blcssing .10 some SII f'IS. find /(11'.11 elsewhere Shnykh .?) shall have a reward by pointing the Islmnic life is emphasized extracted unjustly in a1lns:I01 out that 10 return a half penny 10 a person from whom it wns 1:l\VS and against of the Shari '(I" is "better than doling out two hundred is better dirhams . of the genuine legitimate True.. since tariqat . because the way of the Prophet worthy (upon whom be peace and of good fort line blessings of Allah) and his companions.

... just as Ma'rifot is a branch of H~qiqa(·.s lie nlso snys tha: "When canuot differentiate God himsel f has united them. yet even the scholars of Islnm. vision is Ilull it whereas .the by the culal11ii' (Ihc to slavehood t~'(1 }\}..I the ' vision of Rabubiyat of" higher degree. 1. ecstasy (~.l'" would (tA-). Shari 'ah. The former is just an and importance is merely for gaining of these two are concerned. Thus.. a means the shari'nt instrument to reach the dcstinv the later.::.. In fact t.received n portion from Ihe 'esoteric are inclined to a dichotomy of the Manifest and the l liddcn in.4 ~:. which is the real end or goal. ronn.~.c. 'I in suf literature we do comc':acr~ss " passages asserting that the .) ns " real it~ of Ihie.. the . which can hardly be judged to be in conformity Then find ill the last part of his work he devotes audit ion (Lv).1) and tearing of clothes (often mentioned f~~).the ()IIT' :111.:1IlV l laqiqat without shari 'OI... IInditlt and Fiqlt . -' ) of Alliih and through His commandment 1M prayer is a product Although tariqat of the will of the slave and is thus purely his action. the saints between Haqiqat between if we see any the other./oI and the who -hesides the (Ire the two fnces of one and the MOle Rea lily..~/IO.A and the Reality is nothing less than Ihe vision of the Rabuhiyat itself: " . toriqat and Haqiqat .{ ( rejection of the slrar/ol pure find rejection is shirk. quite Almost And events with the mimes of the sufis) be definitely by the scholars of the shari (olr. one reason for the superiority only by the wi II consent ( t. to worship Him is shari 'at and 10 gain f lis vision is tariqat. difference Ami shari'at one had to be rejected is apostasy in order to accommodate of Haqiqat And remember: thc SIUl.'2 . So far as [he relative the suf writers have mostly made it clear that which is Haqiqat . i. Deen.!l sciences sciences.i'l71 is the name for the regimen (:.~IrO.' If we regard lmam Qushairi according 10 it becomes mystics in general.well known nIH1 obscurewith the shari'ot practices and the illdlllg_ing in SIIIIIIOII.-?) is nil offshoot to note that narrates of Hoqiqat.).. cognizance and practice of the laws of Shari 'ah .II>(' Btlt it is the Author throughout the interesting in spite of his high estimation stories Ami anecdotes of the Shori(ah bonk approvingly practices of sufis . laws which scholars) me derived from the Qur 'an and the S1II11Ialt and are testified (the jurists) come under the category of 'Slicking and the foqah.~' The thing which is more valuable and of a higher category is Haqiqot which is Another name for to prayers (. 'o~ clear Ih. According of slavehood 10 Qushairi.. is obtained (-:7-. a fair representative of suf philosophy. since even the shari '01.lo.{.. Out it is di fferent with the sufis. dancing all the practices disapproved position much SpACCto certain the sufis like singing approvingly. vision is placed in opposition According OT 10 some writers.

obedience it may be noted that all mauers pertaining impression 011 and acts of or which cast positive the heart . sl nee (upon arc two roads Gor]: is that has the mediation of the Prophet whom be peace r and blessings or I\llah) come to the public". and therefore enacted shunned. the Shari'all supreme has ll'te( relates Action (~ ) and Purity (~r)."!' Yet.afegmml thc public norms which writings: "The Muhammadan aspect So far ns the manifest interest This of Religion its objective is obtained hy making effective those commandments ArL' instrumcntnl for public interest. 11. 'at as mere husk or chaff as compared because. Knowledge or Gnosis ( t~) To him.'!" which IS (j( . The knowledge 133 . Tariqat. rest of the other sufis hc also concedes to thc duality of these sciences lind practices: "We do not independent claim that the science of S/rari'ah itself is the science of Haqiqat. like Shflh Willi I\llah and the . laws and teachings". prayers bel ween the shari 'al and the tariqat and regarded aspects of the dIG". "The second channel is that which is direct between them". ritua Is . <. [10 societal should he good] should he [or secret] This is the manifest Now so far as its irncrnal to good deeds . wha! he says one manifest is to and in one of his "mystic" and the nthcr hidden. obedience It is the nppnrcnt word of thc Qllr 'ftll.are the concern of the inner aspect '.For example.h.nI1:111~Ashraf I\li Thanvi is critical . these inlier or "noumcnal" cxtcrna 1 or "phenomenal" which through aspects objectives arc not dependent 10 upon the OIlC of the shari r.d and his slnvc.. Ma'rifat and Haqiqat. and enforced: on the other hand those which are antagonisticor external aspect of Religion."~ Thus.virtues aspect is concerned. di ffcrcmiarcd and thc esoteric considered pertain 10 M. 1 Religion. shari 'at nml Haqiqat (the end/goal Sh:ih Wali I\IHih whose image as a suf is rather overshadowed of lariqal) hy his position schola r.fr?) is enough it makes a of '·:1111 other books. should have been w the last to agree to the of the manifest mid the hidden. a jurist hif(lrcatioll :111<1 nil authority 011 the Tradition. ·1he g()nl and the objective is 10 looknfter and promote their conditioning of Religion "there For the sufis.l1l1 The pure Shari'oh (• (?) . and the o5ll1l11all and 1~ gnincd through to thc Shari 'ah. though Om claim "the is that the science of I/a1i1(11 is 1I0t in discord with the science of Slwri'al!" contents of each one are nrc not one. But such is not the case. This is precisely Religion (~~) has two aspects: is concerned. he says. as a musliru d i lfcreut from the other" .II places of those sufis who have the external acts. and in fact there is nor a single intermediary Muiaddid components: offers different between [I scheme. "the to the tariqat which they matters I11nn as Kernel. <!II these and sufficient: 5I1al"i'(1/ alone".

11<1 Mujaddid In informs us that after a journey him. Without appropriate the right way."~ In another letter. Since these sufis they remain confined to and luminntions 0i) ..) . people= generally that of the Muslim Urmnah as a whole. the achievement or which requires something 01. nrc nothing.. 111ld "the beloved of no less than ten years on this path.'':_. hut this love and respect has always..IS the real objectives. II can be safely concluded that in Mujnddids (I system. of this fact: " . their purpose being the completion the point by explaining in one's .~).c. was this Reality revealed in fILII charm" .."~ which to Mujaddid. been the mark of distinction worldly therefore..1)' I which and disl inguish them mnxc perfect I. show to the Prophet (upon whom be peace and blessings of Allah). me has no access to this [fact] .c. 'Il hut arc ignorant - I i.1111 are so loudly pronounced to the shar(al. 1 There exists no objective. but is on ly segment of it..-j'"al. non-reality]' and of the perfections of are Ihe Whnt do they know Shari 'air? What trnce do they have of the Tariqat and Haqiqat'! They regard shari (al to he the husk <1IHI Tariqat (IS the Kernel. All physical belief system one cannot expect to find Action relates to all affairs worships (':"''-. he elaborates of the Slw. shari'a: be squarely of God t 'r rooted in man's life. The tariqat and the Haqiqat Iwhich .'") and a life based on Shari at e« well as wayfaring . which is more valuable than all the goods and gains of this world the felicitations of this world and thc other limn the and the other one as well.. ~{) great respect and reverence of the Sha. (.. Thus shari 'at alone guarantees hereafter....lah are properly soaked unless these "three cannot be thought gains the pleasure components 10 person ... in the life hereafter.. "When one gains the shari'at he in fact L. hy the sufis and as they 01'. ("' Ifrum other people] (Ire subordinated - complete its I lIT I' d component . J".).) (the stl1ti()IlS)". on the path of toriqat are just the offshoots of action. Their understanding thl' world have found solace with dreams and their imngiuarions contented with IIIltS and raisins li. punty ._. and even the most non-sufisdo II()I lag behind in their deep emotional from the common attachment 101 10 him. the "State of Purity" is nothing alien or hell parallel to the shari oblivious (at... tri Ilcs ]. Most of the people of (J'. But most of thc sufis... The)' pride over tile' and fascianatcd over ahwii! (the rhaposodicnl talk of the sufis and me channed ecstatic slates) and reg..-1~t:. non-sensical of what the real fact is. and imageries. 5"W'. and are thus deprived of the perfections of the Shari (all.. It is 10 astonishiug 10 distinguish themselves or as n reaction the .'ah appeared Although Muhammad the su fis as 11 clnss .ard the visions ( illusions A1l1qillllli( 2. nor is there any hope of Redemption and aspects of life.purilY··. Therefore (gnosis of the Reality) are in fact subordinate shari 'al's third component "tariqat (wayfaring) and Hoqiqat of that to the Sha.to Beliefs or Articles of Faith (::. in his opinion..::.

c. IHIVC SOIll~ sufis have not only exhibited a kind of of the for the Shari 'all bill i. hilt them for the sake or their salvation. Slm/. exhibit satisfied languor of the Islamic law and are finite happy and other than Shari 'all.. The ~11'/ path leading is the one paved hy the prophets. it would be said. II is is against the Shari '(III . of Alliih) yel they do 110t exhibit with him . [they are all] other ~1 ~I than the lovers of Allah _ since they would be call cd oul as '0' the Lovers o~ "IHlh' The "Lovers of the Prophet of God" are thus distinguished <111(1 from the common of Allah) Muslim folk. "scholar 10 it is not Sirri Saqti alone who might be regarded as an "intoxicated two distinct sufl".ining and of is rejected.calcified disregard 1 attitude of the jurists and "scholars". seclusion of Allah) did not seclude from the people... All else the last and the foremost of Allah). 'Tltis point is always his wish to abandon very clc . Thus.i'alr himself members (upon whom be pence and blessings Th011gh of the "Umrnah of the Prophet rel a tional identity (upon whom he pe a ce and blessings identity. of Allah). in Muiadoids When the world 10 lend a life of his remarks But before we cite him.. the followers his Ummah. the Prophet also shown a sort of "dissociation" with the hearer of Allah) himself. nd seek n different the Nations With pride unbr idlcd.. [thcyl rhink that the real objective is something hy no means true.. _..s over this state . tradition... (upon whom he peace and blessings in the hereafter. The blessings different Ii fe of S/wri'(lh based on the Sunnah of the Prophet his view of moral (upon whom be peace excellence and is The- of Allah) is desirable to him because and spiritual from that of a suf who seeks it in seclusion and strives for his personal salvation.. let us make it clear thnt this 135 . In this (upon whom be peace blessings who constitute kind of thinking. "Ill . '0' Nation of Moses' ami '0' Nation of Muhammad (upon \vhom be pence and blessings 'o Nation of Jesus". Mnv Alinh save us from such evil belief.. That I lis tradition is why inspire Muhammad alone leads to success of his sufi education. The roads leading sufi" no less than Shah Wali Almh a lso differentiates is paved by the teachings between God: the one which of the Prophets and the other rnarked by the [direct] revelations and gnosis of the saints. he is critical of the sufis who "try to free themselves in obeying the commands from the bonds of the hardship Shari 'air... one of his disciples are interesting expressed indeed. Whatever reject . Sirr i will he e a llcd out hy the and Snqti declines: "011 thc Day of Judgment and the peoples names of their prophets . himself Prophet (upon whom he peaee rind blessings lived antnng thought..'~1 to Allah and to the ultimate among whom is Prophet salvation Muj addid rejects such views. in this life and tr .

so common among "the people or the as "scclnsion is So Mujaddid docs not categorically ( ~~)..:. only in a social lire as already referred to.~. . He reminds the sufi the heart... sneezing.~.."~ 1.'~(.:11 ion and keeping in the worldly the front ( . These nrc deceptions should carefully or [he lIa/s.1 say 'no ' to the desire or his disciple. as "keeping company (i .. who have [reed themselves from their baser self and carnal desires..Y. But even thc seclusion ?-{'Ilernlly practised he so reluctantly permits has n connotation different Irorn Ilwl nnrl nul hy the snfis.-~) have desires assumed the form of the worldly people... s in a Muslim accept an invitation These are the etiquette for the wi ldcrness: society. is not the mere form or thc seclusion Mujaddid reiterates to [I which relates to bony.11. 13(.I:l'·Kh\\". . of sinking to God and be more attentive to his prayers. disnster". ) or this suhl ime wny •J .::2.-. Elsewhere fond the point i 11 an interesting of the Prophet to answer 10 or seclusion that according tradition (upon whom he peace and blessings the greetings.vl'akc great care in setting right the intention lest there mny be some selfish motive hidden \lnperceivcd··. I 1n • 10 follow [I funeral procession. th(l wish or the siddiqccn seclusion but "socialization" yet he makes it clear that the way or the Naqshbmu! is not paradoxically "in seclusion lies fame. -. and in fame is ( ..c. trading Naqshband firty thousand 'In the market yet 1\01 at Mina ' I saw a businessman to the tune or about or Almighty for a single moment was his hear! oblivious GOd:·'~~ The important thing therefore.ljn from the III the midst or relations they nrc unrelated.:3). but the rcnl freedom of manlier. Busincss and trading does 1I0t shun them Iln7..-. shoulr] he [rom III(" "enemies' lrom the I friends wi th the confidants order). Ihcrv ix a section or Masters ( on some righteous L G-). or his mind 10 see as to what his desire really is.:.(') is the emphni ic Sunnah Soc ial i 7. to visit and ask after thc and to respond to or Allah) a Muslim has fi ve rights over a Muslim: health or a sick person... nut these presuppose that one has not C~111 left the society indeed one cannot These are possible praet ice salutation there. hut he can save himself from in the lire or sin and transgression.Ii Ie or seclusion and "rejection or the world" has always been very much desirable il arnong the sufis of all sects and orders: and they had a point in this regard: in such a lire man can 1I0t only devote himself wholc-heartcdly the possibility world".'~~ hearts il I lc thinks IlInl those who reject the world and seek seclusion and praised often harbour in their hidden desire' [hilt they would he revered 10 hy the people .iry indulgence pmsllils .' ~l (u!. One who intends enter into the lire or seclusion make n scrutiny ( ~). I lc ex plains Ihat'seclllsion . Naqshbandiyal: or n man or the world doc". yet in fact are [rce and I iberated [From worldly rcuicmbrnncc relates: dinars. of nnd. nor he visit a sick person or accept an invitation. hili intentions (. since. not necessarily sir .

... and it is when he is assigned the the disaster to do so.. The noble sages who received towards The chief concern a portion of the prophet :IS ":. is therefore ) .' and is the highest realizes or stations. or course). is several times better than that (attention to Mujaddid own sake". ~ i) which is for nne's J.c. 'yeen (i. for 1111 his attention (c1~). or ill essence.) ) which according public from the slavery or the other [than God (.r.'J. In fact [his alone is the to the following of the SIIIIIIO" criterion ( .the Sunnalt._. AI several places has emphasized the point: "Ovais Qarani assumed 1101 the posture of scc lusion nne! aloofness ( i.\ This is the "station or the call1ing.. I .I\. is like "The receives in the sky.Another renders possible reason.. association for man's them ill imitating "Superiority his \'\'ays . what should or save the hlind? No doubt saving the blind man is to be preferred or prayed."'~ upon nne who can prevent the blind man is not.m Now association spncio-tcmporal companions mankind Ihis with the l'rophct (upon whom be peace and blessings a mail's stntus in the spiritual or AIHih) whether hicrarchv. according 10 Mujaddid for preferring society over seclusion is thnt it an affinity with the main task of Pruphethood.1Vethem from the path or TGgl1llf [the Rebel i.ih) are the best of the (with the exception also helped greatness. given great importance ill the system or wherein PHC'S Mujnddid.::. whereas God is free from the need to be remembered incumbent 1ask. or Alliih) and therefore ranked with the could not gain the perfections tab.c.~) related is and 137 . As a result or this he could not achieve the perfections or the first order and was thrown ill the second rank". personal Mujnddid since this way aligns salvntion is dependent better with the Sill 111011 and d{/woh (the calling) UpOII his efforts for the salvatiou or others. since they were graced with his companv.od' (if.. his for a ditch and is very likely to fall into it. (upon determines Wh0111 The of the Prophet he peace and blessings or AII.1J1 This station.·. and whatever The wayfarer is not attentive Grace ( J--! ) 'anyone is is even to God. "There should he aims fit selling free the towards Still doubt Ih1l1 the sort of ~f1l1ention towards the public' ( d'. nf the prophets. the followers find consequently companions). Satan] and lead them to the way of 110 Allah... out or this station legacy from the prophets" ro arc attentive the public in order 10 guide them and S. has been guidance or mankind..'l~ the people the whole world.. ' . specially "Socialization" nud company (0 ... which illuminates through towards this point alone". The point is illustrated proceeding prayers towards with a simile: If some one busy in prayers that a blind man is he do? Continue over the prayers.e. the Prophet that go of the [from the society' and could attended the company or the Best of Mankind "POll whom be peace and blessings wi th the company.

which is commanded hy the Shari'nh is in conformity to better than perpetual fasting ngainst the Shari/air. system. To spend a Jeetal [i. ). remuneration whose of the Shari '(1h Me like jewelers who work wi th precious The payment stones and rare jewels. lni n Musl im. all law. Now. punishment I (ow cnn one hope for 'good reward' in such cases".li' 138 ..{//. superiority is better than giving awny a mountain is determined h)Yhis following or gold as per one's own wish".II1Y voluntary hardships crusades" the nafs. rOT an hour's in earnings. they arc all worthless work and toil is greatest.I'R of a person the Islamic law." Silllilnrly caring on the day of' Eid al-fitr. created to love God. a nap III the of to which is on account or obedience to "millions [to the Prophet -upon whom be peace find blcssinps which are not in conformity AlIiihJ is preferable his obedience. on account hut the worth of all his actions gain something on account "low wages" against is to be judged or other religions or their self-denial [or hnrdshi ps. The 'I heir thcy arc not in accordance nre like the sweepers followers with the Shari 'alT.t. a penny] the orders or the Slwri(ah Thus. for example. work can eq 11r1 I the to years 10il"'.. of his proximity to the Prophet On Not only man s superiority (upon whom he pence and blessings this criterion and voluntary alone. In rae! the very purpose and true attention towards God. hut their rind degraded. nlll of the [unctions realized these objectives unless the Prophet (upon whom be peace and blessings or Allnh) is followed in totality. hut their wages wages or a million is that "actions are highest.1insl act? On the contrary the it arc disapproved. ( . for.1'. hut since '1 hese people is lowest. man is p subordinate his will and actions or salvchood. but tn obcv l lim nnd to or creation is the fulfillment cannot he to His will. labour is not much. Prophet of the status or the beloved ones. If the mystics is to he determined of Allah). of God. "The Hindus have undertaken m. The argument is the beloved Muhammad whom he peace rind blessings or Allah) the loving <lod who finds'pcople imitating his beloved in manners and habits regards them too as his dear ones".e. or the ohicct ivc or .10 is expected In Mujaddids Allah) acquire (upon the followers or the Prophet (upon whom be peace rind blessings is quite simple.greatness atrcrnoon. performed with the Shari 'nil me approved [or a disapproved hy God. their achievements arc in fact extremely rind made I their toi l. and superior or "Nighi-wakings.I~1 It is therefore 110t the love of Got! or l lis vision which should he the ultimate 1I0t goal of a sufi. rind those rlf!.11'IThe secret or this difference in accordance according Muiaddid.) is dependent 011 the obedience to SI.

IJ.\ [39 .dirferent from most schoolmen and he is in disagreement with most suf masters ill relative position or the Slrnl'i'nh. Cf1v) that "the springfield or all fortunes is to he sought in conformity to the Sunnah and the root cause or all evils and strife is the opposition to the Shari 'n/r'·.Thus. though in his own way. with the 'great majority yet he is in agreement. although his concept or the SII1111nh is somewhat .

.' he the "share (If the Rigbtcous / Makllihat. also H:46..i. 1. 7.lUO Ibid. ._:. This theme is repealed in different Wllys ill many other letters 5.vvn.' 1:160. elsewhere he assigns the knowledge of the essence 10 1O. I: 172.27. 1-10 .I:272. 9. II.J 7. I: 172: . Sirhiruli. 11:50 Ibid. 1975.NOTES I.I:185: Ihid. I:-ill.266. p. al-Qiuls.~".na'. JI:23. .. Rarnpur.397.~ ( .. 1:. Abbasi.0.1. ') . 1(. 11:50._t. Ibid. cl. 1:172. Abu al-Fazl Muhammad lhsan AII~h: Hazrat Mujaddid Alf-e 1l1tl/l. See.:. 71. Ihid. II. J'J"" .lso 1:2(. scholllTS·<V. [' ... See Maktll/:J1lt. Ihid. Ihid. Maktuhi1t. ')') tu«.II:IIW. Ihid. -1. al~{11:2S. IR II) 20. . 'hid.Lahore. . lbid.I..t 'hid. I: 172. I: 172.18.id. Ibid.. VoU!' 1'. II :50 2~.~/it11l.J1).:_·' . 15. 1:200. tua. Da'irah Afri1J"i[r 1. 11. 11:13. 6. k!lIkt"f.. 3S well. .. 12. I: 165: also I: 190. 't . I: 172: Ibid. .13 f{t/zrilt 8.

12-'U.I:191.ci! .89 .ndy". 286ele . 1:2(\5 (D.36. 111:24. pA2. . 235. : (1p.\7.13. 1:79.. : Op.\1(1/(1111'(/1: 1:2(. 221.cit. 26. 39. H.701 AIL) p. Ihid. . Friedman. 91. I ('S. 69.::-0) or the four Righteous ('(lli['ll<. 2. Sec Mllkluhlil. 1.lJln. Ihitf. 92.lIldid [0 the sons or his Master Khwaja lJil'li hi-Allah . 261.. J:R5.ro 141 . Ihi(/. III convey the basic articles or faith 10 .I:2('('. 2!l8 .162. Ibid. : p. or their succession. he likewise includes the issue of the status those pertaining 10 of the caliphs in the discussion unity or God. 29. 231. believes thai the spil itunl stat us (. !hid. 35.1~. :lOR etc. l07. The letter is addressed Muj. Ihirl.67. Ibid.l:llt1. Also see III:24. 2R(j.6. (III: 17). is strictly in rhe order 33.n..l:l02..11. 41.nl.".7.Y . 1:2()(\. 91. MaAful.193: 1I:()7. 11:67. 1:251 - lR. . prophethood of the articles or faith. to the Mughal Court Emperor. .. alongside the existence and and the life hereafter.193. op. Illso 11:(\7.24.513) 7. addressed "Pious l. 105.t [IS derailed in the letter addressed another letter. . Ibid. rtiedJlJ.'13. 1:266 (d. R2. lbid. Slrm·kh Ahnuul Sirhintli. !hid. II: 15. w.94.16. a fairly detailed letter where he requests [0 courtier of the to him. Khhn-e Jchan (I . 1:75..189. Ihid. Y.

Ihid. I: 1(. . MlI/ctllh1rf.I:260..II. '17. foretelling events to come and matters beyond the perception ()R. )1'1. Ihid. ~. Ihid.17. lhid. tu«... p 0·· 0-)- . uses the word . ' \ .III:72. UI..::f' . 52. 1-12 . III 22 III :R(.' .. Muiaddid w. J IJ ." . 51.. ~O.. I: 107.. Mokluhii/l: !llnJrflllJ(-. . 1111. I: 160." and probably of normal cognitive he means .-1. [:266 also 1:!6f!.. Ihid.II:16..I v. 167. Ihid. 5(i Mnkfllhnf.' 45.. 't9.I!. 11:23.I:291. 54. _. lhkl. Ibid. Ihid..T. 5<) 611. 5<. 11:2.. '12.. /(.. . Ihid.J ...\ n lso 1:5.._. [1:19. )7..1.266. 53. 61.J _./. II:IP.0.. .I:266. Ihid. _.II:16.::. llud.I »> __. faculties.

1:266. I: I R6. 7<1. 313. 'forty': [he.cif: (iR.1:26O. 266. lhid. Ihid. 143 .II Mnkllll>ar. I hid. 1:260. II: I 9. 7. Ibid. 69.R. 1:29. 186. Ihirl.e. INtI. 11/1.. 7R. 70. Ibid. R-t. 260. I hid.' i. R2. 76. I :2(i0. lhid. [6R. 67. FrielimOitlOp. I: 168. 72_ p. Ihid. lhid. Rl. 1:]67. 273.term refers to a certain ritual in seclusion lasting for forty days.. 1:100. I: 186. 1:260.I:266. 65.286. 79. 260. R2. also 1:273. (d.285. Ibid. 1:29. 77. lbu}. I: IR6. I: loll. lhid. T:16S. hom the Persian' J. 111:72 etc.. Ihid. 11:23: 111:72 etc. 81.I:1611. Maktubt«. 71. Ibid.43. 6(. Maklllh'i't'. R1. I: InR. Ibid. RO. I: I (.<10.

the Prophet be peace nnd blessings or I\1I11h) has praised the widow who refrains from marriage for of orphaned children are 50 the sake of her children: and if considerations valued. lhid.1. Ro. " 89. tn«. lhid.60·(. Ashrnf Takashshuf (lin Muhiunufit nl·1'n5. 9.lslmnir. . cit. Hujwairi. V 01. also 11:66. Abu Tfilih : (jill (l1. . 1:52. According (upon .I1:87.ahore.1\\<'\\I1If. Io:? 101 104. 1 92..d.I:105. p.. 1.28R. 90. Ihid. for. lie believes that durveshs be found in ..~hr(lI-. 2M)..liS. p:.. [:165. 'hid. II:R2. \101. M{lkiIlMil. in J . I.~~I ~ '-:'-' . p.\Il10tl1 him only the fools will regard such celibacy against the surmah.205. n.lIh.. An extensive discussion affairs is 10 regarding the attitude of the sufis towards economic activities. ~ issue 54.Qllluh.I:265. lbid.2(}S. I\UgHSI. 97 1I1id. JUn. if . 91 abstain from marriage of attention 10 save themselves from the "disasters of relatedness". pp. Makki.D2. l 308. Ihid. I: I os. J 00.Lahore.'I.\f(1h. J.I:165.}. pp..: Kn. nook Foundanou. the one who 1\1· abstains from marriage for the sake of God must be more praiseworthy! Thfinvi.. and the distractions 10 from God. Ihul.288-2R9. which such indulgence in family life may cause. 1I:!!7. lbid.l. Sh.~ " ~ . Ibid...44.. Iydcrabnd (On). I. 95. 98 99. 'hid. 19811. lbi. 101..8. Ihid. I: 52.1 I. 1:105. Ihid.. and IT1II11(Innc Al'C!(·II. lsluinq Ahmed Zilli. 07. . "Ii : pp . by Dr. 2(.20. lOS. R7 RR. J'jJj'~'J. 90. 0". 106. <" :" L G .

ol-lIm·(IIII. Ihid.'. 1. ( 3'1 : .. ShAh: AI-TlllhimM ol-llayiah.1'I't 114. 12<1. 126. II J. 1..I:)6. :-'J\ J" / r. ~. Ihiel. I ~IJ.~iila" lbid. 1\ favourite Lahore. 1:36. 110. 116. p. p.. 1'...II. I:!I 122.. 1355/1936. 1\ 1I11h.d . tu«: p..Bijnour. Thannvi. Wnli I\II~h.. lOR. 119. ibid. Mndinah Prcss.d. ':1 :_'.54.1. 11:.. and cookies! I ~O. p. ":.• p.. .5 .1:36. cr~ "':' ~ )~ '~)' \"". 1:2()'i to :'111./~ tj. 12R.'. 10<. .I:265. "1'1'./'..1 ~ -.54..2. He regards them children's I j R.. 1:36 : ()l1olcd hy (ihn!~li ill lltva". 1) 0 13 1. Ibid.l .'. 132 In .11 . I ..'.2R. Il :46 Ihid.1301\. 125.5: Ihid.4. 127.'/ ~ V" " -" ... I: 2(. •P ~. lbisl. Ibid.117. '~. 115.. at-Qushyrivval). Shah: Fuyu MaUl/hilt. lbid.1:2(. An allusion Ihid. 1:"'0. . 11(1111 I 12. n.p. p. Ibid.5. expression playthings of Mujnddid for mystic experience!': and revelations..107. IV.. I I I.. 117.' ~ 'I . AI-Ri. Vol.2S't Wali I\lliih.• p.IPlt of the Q"r '(111: . f. n. Ibid." _.50. Misr. Karachi.. rr.16 1. Wali Ta'ulcem al-Din. I :2r:l5.Shrlh: a '(ir.601-632.

r 41. I: 114. lbid. 1:44: also see 1:41.I:II'1. lhid.:l0. 1. Ill. lbu]. 1. lbid.II:46 M(/!UII!>'iif. 1-16 . Ibid. ' rw. Ihid.l6 IJ7. I: 110. I: 114.115. Ihid.I:267. 1:114. 13R.

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