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June 2002

Virginia Semiconductor 1501 Powhatan Street, Fredericksburg, VA 22401-4647 USA Phone: (540) 373-2900, FAX (540) 371-0371 www.virginiasemi.com, tech@virginiasemi.com

A. Introduction This paper summarizes basic physical properties of Si, Ge, SiGe, SiO2 and Si3N4. It also lists several physical constants and conversion factors. The information is presented in table format with explanations of any approximations or equations used. B. The Basic Properties of Si, Ge, and SiGe The following table summarizes many of the basic physical properties of Silicon, Germanium, and Silicon Germanium at different concentrations. The concentrations are given in the form of Si1-xGex where x represents the percent composition of Germanium.

Properties Atoms/cm3 Atomic weight Breakdown field (V/cm) Crystal Structure Density (g/cm3) Dielectric constant Effective density of States in conduction band, Nc (cm-3) Effective density of States in valence band, Nv (cm-3) Effective Mass, m*/ m0

Electrons

Ge 4.42 x 1022

Ge

Si.25Ge.75 *4.415 x 1022 *61.4725 *1.5 x 105 Diamond *4.577 *14.975

Si.5Ge.5 *4.61 x 1022 *50.345 *2 x 105 Diamond *3.827 *13.95

Si.75Ge.25 *4.805 x 1022 *39.2175 *2.5 x 105 Diamond *3.078 *12.925

Si 5.0 x 1022

Si

72.60 Ge ~105

Ge

28.09 Si ~3 x 105

Si

**Diamond 5.3267 Ge 16.0 Ge 1.04 x 1019
**

Ge

**Diamond 2.328 Si 11.9 Si 2.8 x 1019
**

Si

6.0 x 1018

Ge

1.04 x 1019

Si

m*l= 1.64 m*t= 0.082 m*l h= 0.044 m*h h= 0.28 Ge 4.0

m*l= 0.98 m*t= 0.19 m*l h= 0.16 m*h h= 0.49 Si 4.05

Holes Electron affinity

*4.0125

*4.025

*4.0375

2 x 1013 *12.6 *1.5(hole) ***0.6 Ge 0.31 Ge 0. *** value was derived through quadratic approximation TABLE 1 lists physical properties of Si.X(V) Minimum Indirect Energy Gap (eV) at 300K Minimum Direct Energy Gap (eV) Intrinsic carrier concentration (cm-3) Intrinsic Debye length (µm) Intrinsic resistivity (Ω-cm) Lattice Constant (A) Linear coefficient of thermal expansion.6 x 1013 *18.804 1.5 x 10-3 Si 3900(electron) 1900(hole) Ge 0.765 1 at *1570°C 10-6 at *865°C 0.3 x 105 Si ***5.4 x 1013 Ge ***0.4 x 10-6 *1295.0 x 10-6 *1056.8 x 10-6 Ge 24 Si 2.945 2.11 *0.6025 0.6575 Ge 5.75 x 10-3 *7700(electron) *1175(hole) ***1.15 x 105 ***5. ** value was derived through subjective observation of graph/diagram [1].037 Ge 105 Ge 0.2 x 10-6 *1176 *1. Ge.7 Ge 2.63 1 at *1490°C 10-6 at *830°C *2100(electron) 1500(electron) *812.063 Si 76 (electron) 55 (hole) Si *.495 1 at *1410°C 10-6 at *795 *.5 *1.36 Ge 1 at 1330°C 10-6 at 760°C Ge *.05 3.085 1.66 Ge .68 Ge 47 Ge ***5. ∆L/L∆T (°C-1) Melting point (°C) Minority carrier lifetime (s) Mobility (drift) (cm2/V-s) Optical – phonon energy (eV) Phonon mean free path λ0(Å) Specific heat (J/g°C) Thermal conductivity at 300 K (W/cm-°C) Thermal diffusivity (cm2/s) Vapor pressure (Pa) Ge 0.5960 *5.5 *2.5 *1.575 x 105 ***5.083 *.34 *1.8 x 1013 *6.5 Si *.505 **.4075 **.375 x 10-3 *3300(electron) *1537.5373 *4.1 *0.12 Si 3.45 x 1010 Si 0.4310 Si 2.125 x 103 Si 1.9 Si 1 at 1650°C 10-6 at 900°C Si * value was derived through linear approximation .5(hole) 450(hole) Si 0.17 *1.4 Si 1.51 *.6 x 10-6 Si 937 Ge 10-3 Ge 1415 Si 2.7 Si **. and SiGe [2][3] .4825 *3.725 x 105 ***5.

0 ~5.155 – 0.014 1014 -1016 - .5431 (nm)[9].05 7. The lattice constants were determined using the following quadratic expression where x represents the percent of Germanium in the composition: a(x) = 0. All values in the above table for SiGe are %atm values.3 9 5 x 10-7 0.0206x2 )eV and Eg(x)= (2.5 107 11.01992x + 0. The values for the minimum indirect energy gap were determined from both a graph[1][8] and also from the following quadratic expression where x represents the fractional composition of Germanium: Eg(x)= (1.1 2.2 1.5 – 12. CGe represents the Germanium value.9 107 9.0 ~1014 ~2 x 1013 ~1600 2.27x)eV for 0.[6].002733x2 + 0.46 3.85 [1][5] The values for the minimum direct energy gap were determined from references [1].The linear approximations were calculated using the following function where CSi represents the Silicon value. The values for the thermal conductivity were taken from a graph[1][7].010 – 1. C. The Basic Properties of SiO2 and Si3N4 Insulator: Structure Melting Point (°C) Density (g/cm3) Refractive index Dielectric constant Dielectric strength (V/cm) Infrared absorption band (µm) Energy gap Thermal Expansion coefficient (°C-1) Thermal conductivity (W/cm-K) dc resistivity (Ω-cm) at 25 °C at 500 °C SiO2 Amorphous Si3N4 Amorphous 3.43x + 0.85 < x < 1 [1][5] for 0 < x < 0. and x represents the fractional composition of Germanium: a(x)= CSi (1-x) + CGe (x).

854 x 10-14 F/cm 1.602 x 10-19 J .602 x 10-19 C 9.109 x 10-31 kg 8.381 x 10-23 J/K 8.2 µm2 = 6.02586 eV (T = 27 °C) 0.) HF. Physical Constants Symbol Name Value q M0 Eo k h KT magnitude of electronic charge electron mass in free space permittivity of vacuum Boltzmann’s constant Planck’s constant thermal energy 1.02526 eV (T = 20 °C) 0. 58.45 x 10-6 cm2 1 eV = 1.625 x 10-34 J-s 4. [ 2] D.026 eV ( room temperature) TABLE 3 lists the symbols for several common physical constants and gives their value.135 x 10-15 eV-s 0. Conversion Factors 1Å = 10-8 cm = 10-10 m 1 µm = 10-4 cm = 10-6 m 1 mil = 10-3 in = 25.6% H20 TABLE 2 lists physical properties of SiO2 and Si3N4. [4] E.617 x 10-5 eV/K 6.4 µm 1 mil2 = 645.8% (wt.Etch rate in Buffered HFa (Å/min) a 1000 5-10 Buffered HF: 34.6% (wt. 6.) NH4F.

10292]. Kircher. References [1] E. Massachusetts. 47 (1993) p.3021-7 ] . G.S. B (USA) vol. (USA) vol. Rev. L. 1989)] [5] J. London. Conclusion In this paper the basic properties of Si. 109 (1958) p. Sunset Beach. Braustein.68 (1964) p. D. Kircher. Moor.. J. SiGe. Paff [ J.F. Appl. B (USA) vol.M. Beers [ J. (USA) vol. Grein [ Phys. California. 1981)] [3] S. Reading. M. Steigmeier. [7] J. 35 (1964) p.P. Tauber [ Silicon Processing for the VLSI Era (Lattice Press.R. Etchegoin. J. M.TABLE 4 list several common conversion factors. Herman [Phys. 11721]. SiO2 and Si3N4 were reviewed along with useful physical constants and conversion factors. Ekstrom. C. Sze [ Physics of Semiconductor Devices (John Wiley and Sons. Phys. Cardona. I. B (USA) vol. 40 (1989) p. 2899] [8] R. P. Dismukes. 5683] [6] P. Phys. Chem. Weber. (USA) vol. L. Rev. Inc. Etchegoin. Ge. Cardona[ Phys.[4] F. F. Alonso [ Phys. Rev.J. Wolf. Rev.I. Neudeck [ The PN Junction Diode ( Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Ekstrom.695] [9] J. R. 1986)] [4] G. E. R. 45 (1992) p. Kasper [ Properties of Strained and Relaxed Silicon Germanium (INSPEC. 1995)] [2] S. New York. Dismukes. M. Some data was taken directly from reference while other values were derived using linear and quadratic expressions. A.P. Kudman.

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