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Razvan - Limba Rusa

Razvan - Limba Rusa

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The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. Most of these are reflexive
verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now, but it
is something to keep in mind. You don't need to learn these verbs now.

быть - to be, is, was
заниматься - to be engaged in, to be occupied with
интересоваться - to be interested in
оказываться - to turn out to be
оставаться - to remain as
пользоваться - to use, enjoy
становиться/стать - to become
увлекаться - to be keen on
управлять - control, manage, govern
являться - to seem, be

The verb “Быть” (to be, is, was) has no present tense. However when it is used in the past and
future tense with nouns, the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. (Example: Я был
врачом - I was a doctor). You will learn more about this in a later lesson.

Forming the Russian Instrumental Case

Masculine Nouns:

1. All consonants, add “ом”. Except...
2. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”, “ц”, “ч”, “ш” or “щ”, then add “ем”. (This is to comply with the

spelling rules)

3. Replace “й”, with “ем”, if stressed “ѐм”.
4. Replace “ь”, add “ем”, if stressed “ѐм”.

Feminine Nouns:

1. Replace “а” with “ой”. Except...
2. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”, “ц”, “ч”, “ш” or “щ”, replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with

the spelling rules)

3. Replace “я” with “ей”, if stressed “ѐй”.
4. Replace “ь” with “ью”.

Neuter Nouns:

1. Add “м”

Plurals

Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and...

1. All consonants, add "ами".
2. Replace "а", "о" with "ами".
3. Otherwise replace with "ями"

Examples

молоко - молоком (milk)
сметана - сметаной (sour cream)
карандаш - карандашом (pencil)
ложка - ложкой (spoon)
нож - ножом (knife)
муж - мужем (husband)
жена - женой (wife)
Иван - Иваном (Ivan)
Анна - Анной (Anna)
студенты - студентами (students)

Using the Intrumental Case: By means of

The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. In English this is normally
done using the words “using” or “with”. In English these words can have different meanings, so it‟s
important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”.

Examples.

Иван пишет карандашом - Ivan writes with a pencil.
Я ем суп ложкой - I eat soup with a spoon.
Олег режет мясо ножом - Oleg cuts the meat with a knife.

The preposition: „с‟ - With, Accompanied by.

The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. It expresses the concept of
“to be accompanied by” or “together with”. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next

word.

For ease of pronunciation, when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants, it is often written as
“со”. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following

word. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4:

Дайте, пожалуйста, кофе с молоком - Please give me coffee with milk.
Дайте, пожалуйста, кофе с молоком и с сахаром - Please give me coffee with milk and

sugar.

More examples:
Я ем борщ со сметаной - I eat borsh with sour cream.
Иван хочет чай с молоком - Ivan wants tea with milk.
Надя хочет чай с лимоном - Nadya wants tea with lemon.
Я люблю блинчики с икрой - I love pancakes with caviar

In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. In
English we would use the word “and”, but Russian generally uses “с” (with). Have a look at the

following Russian examples.

Иван с Анной идут в кафе. - Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe.
Иван с женой идут в кафе. - Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe.
Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. - Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe.
Анна с мужем идут в кафе. - Anna and her husband are going to the cafe.

Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. It is said as “Мы с Иваном”
(“we, with Ivan”). Here are some examples.

Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу - Ivan and I are going to school.
Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе - My husband and I are going to the cafe.
Мы с женой идѐм в кафе - My wife and I are going to the cafe.
Мы с вами - Me and you

Notes:
1. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. However it is followed by the genitive case.
2. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed
by the instrumental case.

Pronouns - Instrumental Case

Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case. Remember that these pronouns are very
often follow the preposition “с”. So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟, „with you‟, „with him‟.
It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start.

Мной - Me
Тобой - You
Им - Him
Ей - Her
Им - It
Нами - Us
Вами - You (plural)
Ими - Them

Seasons and parts of the day.

Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟. For example:

лето - summer
летом - in summer

осень - autumn
осенью - in autumn

зима - winter
зимой - in winter

весна - spring
весной - in spring

The same principal applies to parts of the day:

утро - morning
утром - in the morning

день - day, afternoon
днѐм - in the afternoon

вечер - evening
вечером - in the evening

ночь - night
ночью - at night

Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной - In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.

Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.

The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions. Remember that some of these
prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.

за - behind, beyond, for
между - between
над - above
перед - in front of
под - under

Examples:

За этим зданием - школа. - Behind this building there is a school.
Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. - Between lunch and dinner drink tea.
Над столом висит лампа. - The lamp is above the table.
Перед этой школой поверните налево. - In front of this school turn to the left.
Под столом сидит кот. - Under the table the cat is sitting.

Important Russian Expressions

Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia

С Рождеством - Merry Christmas
С днѐм рождения - Happy birthday
С новым годом - Happy new year

Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case.

The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. Most of these are reflexive

verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now, but it

is something to keep in mind. You don't need to learn these verbs now.

быть - to be, is, was
заниматься - to be engaged in, to be occupied with
интересоваться - to be interested in
оказываться - to turn out to be
оставаться - to remain as
пользоваться - to use, enjoy
становиться/стать - to become
увлекаться - to be keen on
управлять - control, manage, govern
являться - to seem, be

The verb “Быть” (to be, is, was) has no present tense. However when it is used in the past and
future tense with nouns, the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. (Example: Я был
врачом - I was a doctor). You will learn more about this in a later lesson.

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