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Additional Mathematics

Project Work 2

Written by: ALVIN SOO CHUN KIT I/C Num : Angka Giliran: School : Date :

Alvin Soo Chun Kit Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 TABLE OF CONTENTS Num. 1 Part I Part II ~ Question 1 ~ Question 2 (a) ~ Question 2 (b) 2 ~ Question 2 (c) ~ Question 3 (a) ~ Question 3 (b) ~ Question 3 (c) 3 4 Part III Further Exploration Question Page .

Cake decorating is one of the sugar arts requiring mathematics that uses icing or frosting and other edible decorative elements to make otherwise plain cakes more visually interesting. originated during the Renaissance. basic bread dough was sometimes enriched with butter. especially in the following actions: y y y y y Measurement of Ingredients Calculation of Price and Estimated Cost Estimation of Dimensions Calculation of Baking Times Modification of Recipe according to scale . and the cooking method. and honey. In many areas of the world. places and things. or anniversary. the precise classification has always been elusive. Sponge cakes. eggs. which produced a sweet and cake-like baked good.Early cakes in England were also essentially bread: the most obvious differences between a "cake" and "bread" were the round. banana bread may be properly considered either a quick bread or a cake.Alvin Soo Chun Kit Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 PART I History of cake baking and decorating Although clear examples of the difference between cake and bread are easy to find. decorated cakes are often a focal point of a special celebration such as a birthday. possibly in Spain. graduation. frying fritters in olive oil. while bread was left upright throughout the baking process. In ancient Rome. which turned cakes over once while cooking. Mathematics are often used to bake and decorate cakes. and cheesecakes using goat's milk. cakes can be moulded and sculpted to resemble three-dimensional persons.The Greeks invented beer as a leavener. bridal shower. wedding. For example. flat shape of the cakes. Alternatively. Tristia. leavened with beaten eggs. Latin poet Ovid refers to the birthday of him and his brother with party and cake in his first book of exile.

77672715 33.07364537 26.50120743 29.783 cm 2) Maximum dimensions of cake: d = 60.78339783 54.88049994 28. This is because a cake with these dimensions is more symmetrical and easier to decorate.15670556 h/cm 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 d/cm 38.49332645 58.18171919 46. .39169891 28. h > 45 cm This is because any heights lower than 7 cm will result in the diameter of the cake being too big to fit into the baking oven while any heights higher than 45 cm will cause the cake being too tall to fit into the baking oven b) ii) I would suggest the dimensions of the cake to be 29 cm in height and approximately 29 cm in diameter.93104113 29.68016921 34.92104198 25.79312339 77.0 cm h = 45.56613923 40.392 cm .88156297 37.39507881 h/cm 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 d/cm 27.15830831 32.76312594 69.2887347 25.93861056 33.89292932 44.5534543 63.72065671 36.90413158 24.84208396 49. d = 2r d = 58.2296896 24.Alvin Soo Chun Kit Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 PART II 1) 1 kg = 3800 cm3 h = 7 cm 5 kg = 3800 x 5 = 19000 cm3 V = r2h 19000 = 3.65788912 35.71753106 23.0 cm a) h/cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 d/cm 155.99822167 23.89656169 43.28911983 23.56835831 25.67253215 26.142 x r2 x 7 r2 = 19000 3.9736674 89.49341684 27.142 x 7 r2 = 863.44646466 23.10525037 30.5262519 109.42946528 31.93333944 27.98683368 51.59085959 24.74666323 31.872 r = 29.18448477 b) i) h < 7 cm .13522122 41.

0212 According to the graph.53 log10 h 1 2 3 4 log10 d 1.191814 0.142 x h . d = 155.2 when log10 d = 1. d2 = 76000 3. log10 h = 1.691814 0.5 cm.0212 Therefore. log10 h = 1. log10 d = 1.Alvin Soo Chun Kit Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 c) i) V = r2 h V = 19000 cm3 r = d/2 19000 = 3.6232 Therefore.53 x h-1/2 log10 d = -1/2 log10 h + log10 155. h = 15.191814 c) ii) a) When h = 10.142 x (d/2)2 x h d2 = 19000 4 3.7 when log10 h = 1.85 cm . log10 d = 1.691814 1. d = 50.6232 According to the graph.142 x (d2/4) .12 cm b) When d = 42 cm.

Alvin Soo Chun Kit Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 .

442 x 30 ± 19000 = 22471 ± 19000 = 3471 cm3 .142 x 15.44 cm 29 cm Diagram 1: Cake without Cream 1 cm 15.44 cm 14.44 cm 1 cm 30 cm Diagram 2: Cake with Cream To calculate volume of cream used.Alvin Soo Chun Kit Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 3) a) h = 29 cm r = 14. Vcream = 3. the cream is symbolised as the larger cylinder and the cake is symbolised as the smaller cylinder.

7 x 39.7 x 30 ± 19000 = 23641.8 cm3 b) ii) Triangle shaped cake Estimated volume of cream used = ½ x 39.6 x 27.6 .5) x 22 x 30 .Alvin Soo Chun Kit Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 3) b) i) Square shaped cake Estimated volume of cream used = 30 x 27.4 ± 19000 = 4641.19000 = 23265 ± 19000 = 4265 cm3 * All estimations in the values are based on the assumption that the layer of cream is uniformly thick at 1 cm c) Based on the values I have obtained.19000 = 22852.4 cm3 b) iii) Trapezium shaped cake Estimated volume of cream used = ½ x (28+42.8 ± 19000 = 3852. the round shaped cake requires the least amount of fresh cream (3471 cm3) .

01 3888.92 3382.07 4585. r = 18.Alvin Soo Chun Kit Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 PART III Method 1: By comparing values of height against volume of cream used volume of cream used/cm3 19983.02 3402.62 3319.72 h/cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 h/cm 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 h/cm 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 According to the table above.66 3304. When h = 18cm.65 3947.80 3471.14 3424.04 3976.38 3533. the minimum volume of cream used is 3303.13 4217.79 3859.28 3335.3 cm .88 4035.46 4005.61 10546.96 3363.12 3346.86 3332.03 3458.30 3917.41 3634.97 volume of cream used/cm3 3629.73 3307.81 3771.66 cm3 when h = 18cm.47 3521.04 7474.12 3574.13 3742.20 3771.94 3363.46 3685.70 3317.31 4064.98 3548.67 3800.54 3657.67 3714.67 3829.00 3958.53 volume of cream used/cm3 3303.89 3447.42 5987.98 3310.37 5130.71 3496.74 3403.81 3601.

dy = 0 dx dy = 2 r ± (38000/r 2) dx 0 = 2 r ± (38000/r 2) 0 = 6. ~ the total surface area of the cake is 4114.94 When r = 20.22 = r When r = 18.142r 2) = r2 + (38000/r) The values.284r3 6047. * The above conjecture is proven by the following When r = 10.104 = r3 18.2 cm3 ~ the ratio of total surface area of cake to amount of fresh cream needed is 0. I would bake a cake of such dimensions because the cake would not be too large for the cutting or eating of said cake.142r 2 Surface area in contact with cream = r2 + 2 r(19000 / 3.2 cm in radius. and it would not be too big to bake in a conventional oven.22 cm The dimensions of the cake that requires the minimum amount of fresh cream to decorate is approximately 18. the above conjecture is proven to be true.5 cm3 ~ the ratio of total surface area of cake to amount of fresh cream needed is 0.Alvin Soo Chun Kit Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 Method 2: Using differentiation Assuming that the surface area of the cake is proportionate to the amount of fresh cream needed to decorate the cake.2 cm in height and 18.22 cm. when plotted into a graph will from a minimum value that can be obtained through differentiation.2 cm2 ~ the amount of fresh cream needed to decorate the cake is 4381.284r3 ± 38000 38000 = 6.* Formula for surface area = r2 + 2 rh h = 19000 / 3.94 Therefore.8 cm2 ~ the amount of fresh cream needed to decorate the cake is 3308. h = 18. ~ the total surface area of the cake is 3156. .

9)2 x 6 = 14676.371 < 0.629 > 1-0.9 x 0.995 = 0.772 . 14676.0.772 ( 1-0.81 11886.9 x 31)2 x 6 = 3.8n log 0.2 11400 > 18116.8n -0.772 cm3 Volume of cake 2 = r2 h = 3.11)2 x 6 = 11886.142 x (27.142 x 31 x 31 x 6 = 18116.444 n=4 <n .Alvin Soo Chun Kit FURTHER EXPLORATION Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 a) Volume of cake 1 = r2 h = 3.81 18116.142 x (0.9 x 0.772(1-0.585.371 < n log 0.8n) 0.9 x 31)2 x 6 = 3.585 9627.8n) 1-r 1-0.9 x 31)2 x 6 = 3.414.8n 0.772(1-0.371 < n log 0.995 form a number pattern. r = 0. 11886.8 4.142 x (25.414 = 0.585 cm3 Volume of cake 4 = r2 h = 3.81 14676.599) 2 x 6 = 9627. The pattern formed is a geometrical progression. This is proven by the fact that there is a common ratio between subsequent numbers.772.371 > . 9627.8 log 0. 14676.142 x (22.142 x (0.81.414 b) Sn = a(1-rn) = 18116.414 cm3 The values 118116.585 = 0.995 cm3 Volume of cake 3 = r2 h = 3.9 x 0.8n) 0. 11886.142 x (0.8 15 kg = 57000 cm3 57000 > 18116.

995 cm3 + 7798.414 cm 3 + 9627. Therefore.995 cm3 = 54307.585 cm3 + 11886.29 kg If n = 5 Total volume of 5 cakes = 18116.772 cm3 + 14676.772 cm3 + 14676.Alvin Soo Chun Kit Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 Verification of answer If n = 4 Total volume of 4 cakes = 18116.414 cm 3 + 9627. maximum number of cakes needed to be made = 4 .766 cm3 Total mass of cakes = 14.442 cm3 Total mass of cakes = 16.34 kg Total mass of cakes must not exceed 15 kg.585 cm3 + 11886.676 cm3 = 62106.

succeeding in completing this project work has been reward enough. especially when you obtain a just reward for all your hard work.Alvin Soo Chun Kit Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 Reflection In the process of conducting this project. I have also learnt that mathematics is used everywhere in daily life. to designing and building monuments. . Besides that. I have learned many moral values that I practice. I have learnt that perseverance pays off. This project work had taught me to be more confident when doing something especially the homework given by the teacher. from the most simple things like baking and decorating a cake. I also learned to be a more disciplined student who is punctual and independent. For me.

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