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Module 1.Energy Methods in Structural Analysis.........................5

Lesson 1. Lesson 2. Lesson 3. Lesson 4. Lesson 5. Lesson 6. Principles General Introduction Principle of Superposition, Strain Energy Castigliano’s Theorems Theorem of Least Work Virtual Work Engesser’s Theorem and Truss Deflections by Virtual Work

**Module 2. Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Matrix Force Method................................................................107
**

Lesson 7. Lesson 8. Lesson 9. Lesson 10. Lesson 11. Lesson 12. Lesson 13. The Force Method of Analysis: An Introduction The Force Method of Analysis: Beams The Force Method of Analysis: Beams (Continued) The Force Method of Analysis: Trusses The Force Method of Analysis: Frames Three-Moment Equations-I The Three-Moment Equations-Ii

**Module 3. Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Displacement Method..............................................................227
**

Lesson 14. The Slope-Deflection Method: An Introduction Lesson 15. The Slope-Deflection Method: Beams (Continued) Lesson 16. The Slope-Deflection Method: Frames Without Sidesway Lesson 17. The Slope-Deflection Method: Frames with Sidesway Lesson 18. The Moment-Distribution Method: Introduction Lesson 19. The Moment-Distribution Method: Statically Indeterminate Beams With Support Settlements Lesson 20. Moment-Distribution Method: Frames without Sidesway Lesson 21. The Moment-Distribution Method: Frames with Sidesway

Lesson 22. The Multistory Frames with Sidesway

**Module 4. Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Direct Stiffness Method...........................................................398
**

Lesson 23. The Direct Stiffness Method: An Introduction Lesson 24. The Direct Stiffness Method: Truss Analysis Lesson 25. The Direct Stiffness Method: Truss Analysis (Continued) Lesson 26. The Direct Stiffness Method: Temperature Changes and Fabrication Errors in Truss Analysis Lesson 27. The Direct Stiffness Method: Beams Lesson 28. The Direct Stiffness Method: Beams (Continued) Lesson 29. The Direct Stiffness Method: Beams (Continued) Lesson 30. The Direct Stiffness Method: Plane Frames

**Module 5. Cables and Arches.................................................560
**

Lesson 31. Cables Lesson 33. Two-Hinged Arch Lesson 34. Symmetrical Hingeless Arch

**Module 6. Approximate Methods for Indeterminate Structural Analysis...................................................................................631
**

Lesson 35. Indeterminate Trusses and Industrial Frames Lesson 36. Building Frames

**Module 7. Influence Lines.......................................................681
**

Lesson 37. Lesson 38. Lesson 39. Lesson 40. Moving Load and Its Effects on Structural Members Influence Lines for Beams Influence Lines for Beams (Contd.) Influence Lines for Simple Trusses

Module 1

Energy Methods in Structural Analysis

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Lesson 1

General Introduction

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Instructional Objectives

After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. Differentiate between various structural forms such as beams, plane truss, space truss, plane frame, space frame, arches, cables, plates and shells. 2. State and use conditions of static equilibrium. 3. Calculate the degree of static and kinematic indeterminacy of a given structure such as beams, truss and frames. 4. Differentiate between stable and unstable structure. 5. Define flexibility and stiffness coefficients. 6. Write force-displacement relations for simple structure.

1.1 Introduction

Structural analysis and design is a very old art and is known to human beings since early civilizations. The Pyramids constructed by Egyptians around 2000 B.C. stands today as the testimony to the skills of master builders of that civilization. Many early civilizations produced great builders, skilled craftsmen who constructed magnificent buildings such as the Parthenon at Athens (2500 years old), the great Stupa at Sanchi (2000 years old), Taj Mahal (350 years old), Eiffel Tower (120 years old) and many more buildings around the world. These monuments tell us about the great feats accomplished by these craftsmen in analysis, design and construction of large structures. Today we see around us countless houses, bridges, fly-overs, high-rise buildings and spacious shopping malls. Planning, analysis and construction of these buildings is a science by itself. The main purpose of any structure is to support the loads coming on it by properly transferring them to the foundation. Even animals and trees could be treated as structures. Indeed biomechanics is a branch of mechanics, which concerns with the working of skeleton and muscular structures. In the early periods houses were constructed along the riverbanks using the locally available material. They were designed to withstand rain and moderate wind. Today structures are designed to withstand earthquakes, tsunamis, cyclones and blast loadings. Aircraft structures are designed for more complex aerodynamic loadings. These have been made possible with the advances in structural engineering and a revolution in electronic computation in the past 50 years. The construction material industry has also undergone a revolution in the last four decades resulting in new materials having more strength and stiffness than the traditional construction material. In this book we are mainly concerned with the analysis of framed structures (beam, plane truss, space truss, plane frame, space frame and grid), arches, cables and suspension bridges subjected to static loads only. The methods that we would be presenting in this course for analysis of structure were developed based on certain energy principles, which would be discussed in the first module. Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

1.2 Classification of Structures

All structural forms used for load transfer from one point to another are 3dimensional in nature. In principle one could model them as 3-dimensional elastic structure and obtain solutions (response of structures to loads) by solving the associated partial differential equations. In due course of time, you will appreciate the difficulty associated with the 3-dimensional analysis. Also, in many of the structures, one or two dimensions are smaller than other dimensions. This geometrical feature can be exploited from the analysis point of view. The dimensional reduction will greatly reduce the complexity of associated governing equations from 3 to 2 or even to one dimension. This is indeed at a cost. This reduction is achieved by making certain assumptions (like Bernoulli-Euler’ kinematic assumption in the case of beam theory) based on its observed behaviour under loads. Structures may be classified as 3-, 2- and 1-dimensional (see Fig. 1.1(a) and (b)). This simplification will yield results of reasonable and acceptable accuracy. Most commonly used structural forms for load transfer are: beams, plane truss, space truss, plane frame, space frame, arches, cables, plates and shells. Each one of these structural arrangement supports load in a specific way.

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Beams are the simplest structural elements that are used extensively to support loads. They may be straight or curved ones. For example, the one shown in Fig. 1.2 (a) is hinged at the left support and is supported on roller at the right end. Usually, the loads are assumed to act on the beam in a plane containing the axis of symmetry of the cross section and the beam axis. The beams may be supported on two or more supports as shown in Fig. 1.2(b). The beams may be curved in plan as shown in Fig. 1.2(c). Beams carry loads by deflecting in the Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

same plane and it does not twist. It is possible for the beam to have no axis of symmetry. In such cases, one needs to consider unsymmetrical bending of beams. In general, the internal stresses at any cross section of the beam are: bending moment, shear force and axial force.

In India, one could see plane trusses (vide Fig. 1.3 (a),(b),(c)) commonly in Railway bridges, at railway stations, and factories. Plane trusses are made of short thin members interconnected at hinges into triangulated patterns. For the purpose of analysis statically equivalent loads are applied at joints. From the above definition of truss, it is clear that the members are subjected to only axial forces and they are constant along their length. Also, the truss can have only hinged and roller supports. In field, usually joints are constructed as rigid by Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

welding. However, analyses were carried out as though they were pinned. This is justified as the bending moments introduced due to joint rigidity in trusses are negligible. Truss joint could move either horizontally or vertically or combination of them. In space truss (Fig. 1.3 (d)), members may be oriented in any direction. However, members are subjected to only tensile or compressive stresses. Crane is an example of space truss.

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Plane frames are also made up of beams and columns, the only difference being they are rigidly connected at the joints as shown in the Fig. 1.4 (a). Major portion of this course is devoted to evaluation of forces in frames for variety of loading conditions. Internal forces at any cross section of the plane frame member are: bending moment, shear force and axial force. As against plane frame, space frames (vide Fig. 1.4 (b)) members may be oriented in any direction. In this case, there is no restriction of how loads are applied on the space frame.

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**1.3 Equations of Static Equilibrium
**

Consider a case where a book is lying on a frictionless table surface. Now, if we apply a force F1 horizontally as shown in the Fig.1.5 (a), then it starts moving in the direction of the force. However, if we apply the force perpendicular to the book as in Fig. 1.5 (b), then book stays in the same position, as in this case the vector sum of all the forces acting on the book is zero. When does an object Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

move and when does it not? This question was answered by Newton when he formulated his famous second law of motion. In a simple vector equation it may be stated as follows:

∑F

i =1

n

i

= ma

(1.1)

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where

∑F

i =1

n

i

is the vector sum of all the external forces acting on the body,

m is

the total mass of the body and a is the acceleration vector. However, if the body is in the state of static equilibrium then the right hand of equation (1.1) must be zero. Also for a body to be in equilibrium, the vector sum of all external moments ( ∑ M = 0 ) about an axis through any point within the body must also vanish. Hence, the book lying on the table subjected to external force as shown in Fig. 1.5 (b) is in static equilibrium. The equations of equilibrium are the direct consequences of Newton’s second law of motion. A vector in 3-dimensions can be resolved into three orthogonal directions viz., x, y and z (Cartesian) coordinate axes. Also, if the resultant force vector is zero then its components in three mutually perpendicular directions also vanish. Hence, the above two equations may also be written in three co-ordinate axes directions as follows:

∑F

x

= 0;

∑F

y

= 0;

∑F

z

=0

(1.2a) (1.2b)

∑M

x

= 0 ;∑M y = 0;∑M z = 0

Now, consider planar structures lying in xy − plane. For such structures we could have forces acting only in x and y directions. Also the only external moment that could act on the structure would be the one about the z -axis. For planar structures, the resultant of all forces may be a force, a couple or both. The static equilibrium condition along x -direction requires that there is no net unbalanced force acting along that direction. For such structures we could express equilibrium equations as follows:

∑F

x

= 0 ; ∑ Fy = 0 ; ∑ M z = 0

(1.3)

Using the above three equations we could find out the reactions at the supports in the beam shown in Fig. 1.6. After evaluating reactions, one could evaluate internal stress resultants in the beam. Admissible or correct solution for reaction and internal stresses must satisfy the equations of static equilibrium for the entire structure. They must also satisfy equilibrium equations for any part of the structure taken as a free body. If the number of unknown reactions is more than the number of equilibrium equations (as in the case of the beam shown in Fig. 1.7), then we can not evaluate reactions with only equilibrium equations. Such structures are known as the statically indeterminate structures. In such cases we need to obtain extra equations (compatibility equations) in addition to equilibrium equations.

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8(c) and (d) are externally indeterminate to the 3rd degree. in many structures it is not possible to determine either reactions or internal stresses or both using equilibrium equations alone.4 Static Indeterminacy The aim of structural analysis is to evaluate the external reactions. Beams shown in Fig. The indeterminacy in a structure may be external. the deformed shape and internal stresses in the structure. Hence the beams in Figs. Similarly. However. A structure is said to be externally indeterminate if the number of reactions exceeds the number of equilibrium equations. Version 2 CE IIT. 1. If this can be accomplished by equations of equilibrium. the beam and frame shown in Figs. internal or both. Kharagpur .8(a) and (b) have four reaction components. 1. whereas we have only 3 equations of equilibrium.1.1. Such structures are known as the statically indeterminate structures.8(a) and (b) are externally indeterminate to the first degree. then such structures are known as determinate structures.

However. member forces can not be determined based on statics alone. In these structures. if one of the diagonal members is removed (cut) from the structure then the forces in the members can be calculated based on equations of equilibrium. reactions could be evaluated based on the equations of equilibrium. Version 2 CE IIT. In Fig. Thus.9(a).Now. Kharagpur . 1.9(a) and (b). consider trusses shown in Figs. 1.

1.9(a) and (b) are internally indeterminate to first degree.10(a) and (b) are both externally and internally indeterminate. Version 2 CE IIT. 1. Kharagpur .The truss and frame shown in Fig.structures shown in Figs.

So far. Let the number of unknown reaction components in the structure be r . Hence. The degree of indeterminacy may be calculated as i = (m + r ) − 2 j (1. At each joint we could write two equilibrium equations for planar truss structure. ∑ Fx = 0 and ∑ Fy = 0 . Kharagpur . Now. Hence total number of equations that could be written is 2 j . let us derive an algebraic expression for calculating degree of static indeterminacy. If 2 j = m + r then the structure is statically determinate as the number of unknowns are equal to the number of equations available to calculate them. we have determined the degree of indeterminacy by inspection. Consider a planar stable truss structure having m members and j joints. viz.4) Version 2 CE IIT.. Such an approach runs into difficulty when the number of members in a structure increases. the total number of unknowns in the structure is m + r .

1. 12 joints and 9 reaction components. the degree of indeterminacy of the structure is i = (15 × 3 + 9) − 12 × 3 = 18 Please note that here. space frame and grillage. at each joint we could write 3 equations of equilibrium for plane frame. Hence. the plane frame shown in Fig. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . plane frame. For example.We could write similar expressions for space truss.11 (c) has 15 members.

Usually. Version 2 CE IIT. for a propped cantilever beam we have to evaluate only rotation at B and this is known as the kinematic indeterminacy of the structure. Consider a propped cantilever beam shown in Fig. A fixed fixed beam is kinematically determinate but statically indeterminate to 3rd degree. The displacements at a fixed support are zero.5 Kinematic Indeterminacy When the structure is loaded. In the displacement based analysis. Hence.1. 1. the joints undergo displacements in the form of translations and rotations. these joint displacements are treated as unknown quantities.12 (a). A simply supported beam and a cantilever beam are kinematically indeterminate to 2nd degree. the axial rigidity of the beam is so high that the change in its length along axial direction may be neglected. Kharagpur .

Hence. we have 3 independent joint displacement as shown in Fig. rotations at B and C and one translation. The number of independent joint displacement in a structure is known as the degree of kinematic indeterminacy or the number of degrees of freedom. 1. Kharagpur .13 i. Version 2 CE IIT.The joint displacements in a structure is treated as independent if each displacement (translation and rotation) can be varied arbitrarily and independently of all other displacements. In the plane frame shown in Fig. 1. However if axial deformations of the members are neglected then u1 = u 4 and u 2 and u 4 can be neglected.e.13. the joints B and C have 3 degrees of freedom as shown in the figure.

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6 Kinematically Unstable Structure A beam which is supported on roller on both ends (vide. When a system of forces whose resultant has a component in the horizontal direction is applied on this beam. is unstable under a general type of loading conditions. the structure moves as a rigid body. Version 2 CE IIT. Such structures are known as kinematically unstable structure.1. Fig. 1. One should avoid such support conditions.14) on a horizontal surface can be in the state of static equilibrium only if the resultant of the system of applied loads is a vertical force or a couple. Although this beam is stable under special loading conditions. Kharagpur .

at a fixed support this requires that displacement and slope should be zero.8 Force-Displacement Relationship Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . For example.1. 1.7 Compatibility Equations A structure apart from satisfying equilibrium conditions should also satisfy all the compatibility conditions. These conditions require that the displacements and rotations be continuous throughout the structure and compatible with the nature supports conditions.

Apply a force P1 at the end of spring and measure the deformation u1 . As an example consider a simply supported beam subjected to a unit concentrated load at the centre. a= 1 k (1. Result may be represented in the form of a graph as shown in the above figure where load is shown on y -axis and deformation on abscissa. The inverse of the stiffness is known as flexibility...7) the equation (1. It is usually denoted by a and it has a unit of displacement per unit force.8) The above relations discussed for linearly elastic spring will hold good for linearly elastic structures. Pn . The slope of this graph is known as the stiffness of the spring and is represented by k and is given by k= P2 − P1 P = u 2 − u1 u (1.. The stiffness has a unit of force per unit elongation. Now the deflection at the centre is given by u= PL3 ⎛ 48 EI ⎞ or P = ⎜ 3 ⎟ u 48 EI ⎝ L ⎠ (1..1. the value of stiffness for the beam is equal to k= 48 EI L3 Version 2 CE IIT.6) may be written as P = ku ⇒ u= 1 P = aP k (1.Consider linear elastic spring as shown in Fig.9) The stiffness of a structure is defined as the force required for the unit deformation of the structure. Likewise repeat the experiment for different values of load P1 .6) P = ku The spring stiffness may be defined as the force required for the unit deformation of the spring.5) (1. P2 . Now increase the load to P2 and measure the deformation u 2 . Hence.. Kharagpur . Let us do a simple experiment.15.

10) may be written as u =a P (1. Usually it is denoted by a ij 3EI zz the flexibility coefficient at i due to unit force applied at j . cables. Suggested Text Books for Further Reading • Armenakas. plane frame. and moment of inertia I ZZ the deflection is directly proportional to the applied load. arches. ISBN 0-07-100120-4 • Hibbeler. The way in which the load is supported by each of these structural systems are discussed. ISBN 81-7808-750-2 Version 2 CE IIT.11) Where a is the flexibility coefficient and is a = L3 . Kharagpur .As a second example. PL3 u= 3EI zz (1.12) Summary In this lesson the structures are classified as: beams. the beam deflects and from first principles the deflection below the load ( u ) may be calculated as. The equation (1. consider a cantilever beam subjected to a concentrated load ( P ) at its tip. E. the stiffness of the beam is k11 = 1 3EI = 3 a11 L (1. Classical Structural Analysis – A Modern Approach. Ltd. Hence. plane truss. space frame. R. Compatibility equations and force-displacement relationships are discussed.6. Delhi. Pearson Education (Singapore) Pte. The term stiffness and flexibility coefficients are defined. plates and shell depending on how they support external load. Young’s modulus E .8. The kinematically unstable structures are discussed in section 1. length L . space truss. the procedure to calculate stiffness of simple structure is discussed.. C. (2002). A brief description of static indeterminacy and kinematic indeterminacy is explained with the help simple structural forms. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Structural Analysis. (1988). Equations of static equilibrium have been stated with respect to planar and space and structures. Under the action of load. In section 1.10) For a given beam of constant cross section. NY. A.

R. S. H. Chapman & Hall. Wilbur. and Shah. and Jangid. New Delhi. Mechanics of Structures – Vol. Fundamentals of Structural Analysis. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. ISBN 0-07-462304-4 • Norris. New York. S. Elementary Structural Analysis. by Weaver and Gere Publishe. (1991). H. J. K. B.S. C. New York. (2003). J. II. Charotar Publishing House. and Utku.• Junarkar. 3-rd Edition. • Leet. Kharagpur . New Delhi. ISBN 0-07058116-9 • MATRIX ANALYSIS of FRAMED STRUCTURES. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. M. Structural Analysis. L. ISBN 0-07-058208-4 • Negi. (2003). and Uang. 1990 Version 2 CE IIT. B. S. New Delhi. C-M. Tata McGrawHill Publishing Company Limited.. (1999). Anand.

Module 1 Energy Methods in Structural Analysis Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Strain Energy Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .Lesson 2 Principle of Superposition.

In this lesson two of the very important concepts i. When non-linear behaviour of the structure is considered then such an assumption is not valid as the structure is appreciably distorted.. then only the relative values of EA. 6. 2. Explain strain energy concept. Kharagpur . In general deflections are small compared with the dimensions of structure but for clarity the displacements are drawn to a much larger scale than the structure itself.e.Instructional Objectives After reading this lesson. This is Version 2 CE IIT. it is assumed not to cause gross displacements of the geometry of the structure so that equilibrium equation can be based on the original configuration of the structure. Derive an expression for elastic strain energy stored in a circular shaft under torsion. Derive an expression for strain energy stored in one-dimensional structure under axial load. This is applicable when there exists a linear relationship between external forces and corresponding structural displacements. Differentiate between elastic and inelastic strain energy and state units of strain energy. 2. 3. Derive an expression for elastic strain energy stored in a beam in bending. Since. then it is necessary to know actual values of E and G . principle of superposition and strain energy method will be introduced. 2. The principle of superposition may be stated as the deflection at a given point in a structure produced by several loads acting simultaneously on the structure can be found by superposing deflections at the same point produced by loads acting individually. State and use principle of superposition. 7. 5. Several methods are available for the calculation of displacements of structures. the student will be able to 1. If displacements are required to solve statically indeterminate structures. EI and GJ are required.2 Principle of Superposition The principle of superposition is a central concept in the analysis of structures.1 Introduction In the analysis of statically indeterminate structures. if displacements at only a few locations in structures are required then energy based methods are most suitable. However. If actual value of displacement is required as in the case of settlement of supports and temperature stress calculations. Derive an expression for elastic strain energy stored in a beam in shear. Knowledge of displacements is also required in the design of members. 4. the knowledge of the displacements of a structure is necessary. displacements are small.

which states that the tangential deviation of point c from the tangent at point A is equal to the first moment of the M area of the diagram between A and C about C .1.illustrated with the help of a simple beam problem. Kharagpur . From moment-area theorem we can evaluate deflection below C . Now consider a cantilever beam of length L and having constant flexural rigidity EI subjected to two externally applied forces P1 and P2 as shown in Fig. Since. Hence. 2. in this case the tangent at A is horizontal. u = A1 x1 + A2 x 2 + A3 x3 (2.1) where u is the tangential deviation of point C with respect to a tangent at A . the deflection u below EI C due to loads P1 and P2 acting simultaneously is (by moment-area theorem). the tangential deviation of point Version 2 CE IIT.

u= P2 L3 5 P1 L3 + 3EI 48EI (2.2) After simplification one can write.C is nothing but the vertical deflection at C . P2 L2 A2 = 4 EI A3 = ( P1 L + P2 L) L 8EI u= P2 L2 2 L P2 L2 ⎡ L L ⎤ (P1 L + P2 L) L ⎡ 2 L L ⎤ + + + ⎢3 2 + 2 ⎥ 8EI 3 2 4 EI ⎢ 2 4 ⎥ 8 EI ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (2. ⎛ L L⎞ x2 = ⎜ + ⎟ ⎝2 4⎠ x1 = 2L 32 x3 = 2L L + 32 2 P2 L2 A1 = 8 EI Hence. x2 and x3 are the distances from point C to the centroids of respective areas respectively.3) Now consider the forces being applied separately and evaluate deflection at C in each of the case. x1 . Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .u 22 = P2 L3 3EI (2.4) where u 22 is deflection at C (2) when load P1 is applied at C (2) itself. And.

Also. 2.. This is known as the Principle of Superposition.3) and (2. there will be 3 additional bending moment due to P at C .. Let the compressive force P be less than the Euler’s buckling load of the structure.3(b). P2 . Now the total deflection at C when both the loads are applied simultaneously is obtained by adding u 22 and u 21 . the total deflection caused by forces P1 .6) Hence it is seen from equations (2. u = u 22 + u 21 = P2 L3 5 P1 L3 + 3EI 48 EI (2.. Kharagpur . the net deflection u c will be 1 more than the sum of deflections u c and u c2 .. As 3 per the principle of superposition. 1 Then deflection at an arbitrary point C (say) u c is zero..Hence.. the same beamcolumn be subjected to lateral load Q with no axial load as shown in Fig. Pn at any point in the structure is the sum of deflection caused by forces P1 .. Pn acting independently on the structure at the same point.. However this is not so in the present case. the deflection at the centre u c must be the sum of deflections caused by P and Q when applied individually.. Because of lateral deflection caused by Q .6) that when the structure behaves linearly. Next. Let the deflection of the beam-column at C be u c2 . Version 2 CE IIT.1 P1 L L ⎡ L 2 L ⎤ 5P1 L3 + = u 21 = 2 2 EI 2 ⎢ 2 3 2 ⎥ 48EI ⎣ ⎦ (2. 2. it is not valid in cases where the geometry of structure changes on application of load. For example.3(a). Now consider the case when the same beam-column is subjected to both axial load P and lateral load Q . The method of superposition is not valid when the material stress-strain relationship is non-linear.5) where u 21 is the deflection at C (2) when load is applied at B (1) . consider a hinged-hinged beam-column subjected to only compressive force as shown in Fig. P2 ..

When the spring is pulled by a force. the spring is a mathematical idealization of the rod being pulled by a force P axially.2. When the load is removed from the spring.2. Wext = 1 1 P1u1 = ( force × displacement ) 2 2 (2. it does some work and this can be calculated once the load-displacement relationship is known. Kharagpur . 2. Now.7) Version 2 CE IIT.4. as there are no inertial effects due to motion. work done by the external force may be calculated as.3 Strain Energy Consider an elastic spring as shown in the Fig. When the spring is slowly pulled. it deflects by a small amount u1 .5. Such a load is called static loading. It is assumed here that the force is applied gradually so that it slowly increases from zero to a maximum value P . It may be noted that. it goes back to the original position. Let the load-displacement relationship be as shown in Fig.

the work done by gradually applied loads is equal to energy stored in the structure.e. Kharagpur . Here it is assumed that the energy is conserved i.The area enclosed by force-displacement curve gives the total work done by the externally applied load.8) U = P u1 1 2 Version 2 CE IIT. Now strain energy stored in a spring is 1 (2. This internal energy is known as strain energy.

σ z .τ zx ) and {ε } = ( ε x .10) Version 2 CE IIT. Now strain energy may be written as.6. Kharagpur .e. the unit of work and energy is the joule (J). ε y . There are normal stresses (σ x . ε yz . ε zx ) T (2. Corresponding to normal and shear stresses we have normal and shear strains.τ yz and τ zx ) acting on the element. The strain energy may also be defined as the internal work done by the stress resultants in moving through the corresponding deformations. In the most general case.τ xy .τ yz . ε z .. 2. In SI system. σ y .m). {σ } T = (σ x . the state of stress acting on such an element may be as shown in Fig.9) in which σ T is the transpose of the stress column vector i. U= 1 T σ ε dv 2∫ v (2. ε xy .Work and energy are expressed in the same units. which is equal to one Newton metre (N. σ y and σ z ) and shear stresses (τ xy . Consider an infinitesimal element within a three dimensional homogeneous and isotropic material.

Then we obtain the load-displacement curve OABCDO as shown in Fig. In the present case. The shaded area BCD is known as the elastic strain energy. However. The area OABDO represents the inelastic portion of strain energy. then on removal of load. The complementary energy has no physical meaning. a permanent set of OD is till retained. The area OABCDO corresponds to strain energy stored in the structure. The definition is being used for its convenience in structural analysis as will be clear from the subsequent chapters. Kharagpur . The area OABEO is defined as the complementary strain energy. If the elastic limit of the material is exceeded. the spring regains its original shape.7.e. Version 2 CE IIT.7.The strain energy may be further classified as elastic strain energy and inelastic strain energy as shown in Fig. 2. This can be recovered upon removing the load. When the elastic limit of the spring is not exceeded. If the force P is removed then the spring shortens. load the spring beyond its elastic limit. Strain energy = Complementary strain energy This is not the case always as observed from Fig. the spring gradually shortens. the load is removed.7. For the linearly elastic structure it may be seen that Area OBC = Area OBE i. 2. a permanent set will remain on removal of load. Now if at B. 2.

In this section. subjected to axial force P as shown in Fig.1 Strain energy under axial load Consider a member of constant cross sectional area A . which is applied through the centroid of the cross section.11) Now the total elongation of the member of length L may be obtained by integration u=∫ 0 L P dx AE (2. the applied force P is resisted by P uniformly distributed internal stresses given by average stress σ = as shown A by the free body diagram (vide Fig. This may be calculated as follows. Knowing internal stresses due to individual forces. Under the action of axial load P applied at one end gradually. shear and torsional deformations. axial force and twisting moment. du = ε dx = σ E dx = P dx AE (2. After knowing internal stresses and deformations. Now. Let the member be under equilibrium under the action of this force. the internal stresses induced in the structure due to external forces and the associated displacements are calculated for different actions.8).3. shear force. 2. one could calculate the resulting stress distribution due to combination of external forces by the method of superposition. the beam gets elongated by (say) u . The member resists these external actions by internal stresses. 2. The incremental elongation du of small element of length dx of beam is given by. 2.12) Version 2 CE IIT. bending.Usually structural member is subjected to any one or the combination of bending moment. Let E be the Young’s modulus of the material. one could easily evaluate strain energy stored in a simple beam due to axial.8. Kharagpur .

U= 1 Pu 2 (2. Kharagpur .13) Pu 2 In a conservative system. the strain energy stored in the bar in axial deformation is.Now the work done by external loads W = 1 (2. Hence. Version 2 CE IIT.14) we get. the external work is stored as the internal strain energy.12) in (2.14) Substituting equation (2.

2 Strain energy due to bending Consider a prismatic beam subjected to loads as shown in the Fig.9.15) 2. Kharagpur . remain plane and perpendicular to the centroidal axis of beam (as shown in Fig 2.9).U =∫ L P2 dx 2 AE 0 (2. which are perpendicular to centroidal axis. 2. It is assumed that the transverse cross sections (such as AB and CD). Version 2 CE IIT.3. The loads are assumed to act on the beam in a plane containing the axis of symmetry of the cross section and the beam axis.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

18) Now.Consider a small segment of beam of length ds subjected to bending moment as shown in the Fig. Now the work done by the moment M while rotating through angle dθ will be stored in the segment of beam as strain energy dU . U =∫ L M2 ds 2 EI 0 (2. Hence.19) Version 2 CE IIT. Now one cross section rotates about another cross section by a small amount dθ . we get. Thus.16) where R is the radius of curvature of the bent beam and EI is the flexural rigidity of the beam.17) dU = M dθ 2 Substituting for dθ in equation (2. 1 (2. the energy stored in the complete beam of span L may be obtained by integrating equation (2. From the figure. 1 M2 dU = ds 2 EI (2. 2. dθ = 1 M ds ds = R EI (2. Kharagpur .18).9.17).

3 Strain energy due to transverse shear Version 2 CE IIT.2. Kharagpur .3.

the angle between the lines which are originally at right angle will change. b is the width of the rectangular cross-section and I zz is the moment of inertia of the cross-sectional area about the neutral axis. the shear stress distribution is different for different shape of the cross section. the total deformation of the beam due to the action of shear force is u=∫ k 0 L V ds AG (2. 2 L kV 1 U = Vu = ∫ ds 0 2 AG 2 (2. Kharagpur .24) Version 2 CE IIT. the deformation du as du = Δγ ds (2.21) where Δγ is the shear strain and is given by Δγ = τ G =k V AG (2. Consider a segment of length ds subjected to shear stress τ . One could write. However. The shear stress varies across the height in a parabolic manner in the case of a rectangular cross-section. The shear stress across the cross section may be taken as τ =k V A in which A is area of the cross-section and k is the form factor which is dependent on the shape of the cross section. to simplify the computation shear stress is assumed to be uniform (which is strictly not correct) across the cross section. Also.The shearing stress on a cross section of beam of rectangular cross section may be found out by the relation τ= VQ bI ZZ (2.20) where Q is the first moment of the portion of the cross-sectional area above the point where shear stress is required about neutral axis.22) Hence. V is the transverse shear force. Due to shear stress.23) Now the strain energy stored in the beam due to the action of transverse shear force is given by.

3. Hence the strain energy stored in the shaft is. Thus the error induced in assuming a uniform shear stress across the cross section is very small. Under the action of torque one end of the shaft rotates with respect to the fixed end by an angle dφ . Kharagpur . 2.25) U = Tφ 2 Version 2 CE IIT. 1 (2.4 Strain energy due to torsion Consider a circular shaft of length L radius R . 2.The strain energy due to transverse shear stress is very low compared to strain energy due to bending and hence is usually neglected.11). subjected to a torque T at one end (see Fig.

we obtain T2 dU = ds 2GJ (2.27) where.26). Due to shear U3 = ∫ 4. Now the strain energy stored in the elemental length is. Kharagpur . the total strain energy stored in the beam may be obtained by integrating the above equation.27) in equation (2.29) 0 2GJ Hence the elastic strain energy stored in a member of length s (it may be curved or straight) due to axial force.28) Now. shear force and torsion is summarized below.26) dU = Tdφ 2 We know that dφ = Tds GJ (2. 1. Due to bending M2 ds 2 EI 0 V2 ds 2 AG 0 T2 ds 2GJ 0 s s 3. 1 (2.Consider an elemental length ds of the shaft. Substituting for dφ from (2. Due to torsion U4 = ∫ Version 2 CE IIT. Due to axial force P2 U1 = ∫ ds 2 AE 0 U2 = ∫ s s 2. bending moment. 2 L T U =∫ ds (2. G is the shear modulus of the shaft material and J is the polar moment of area. Let the one end rotates by a small amount dφ with respect to another end.

In the end. Complementary strain energy is discussed. expressions are derived for calculating strain stored in a simple beam due to axial load.3. In this lesson.Summary In this lesson. it has been shown that the elastic strain energy stored in a structure is equal to the work done by applied loads in deforming the structure. The strain energy expression is also expressed for a 3dimensional homogeneous and isotropic material in terms of internal stresses and strains in a body. Kharagpur . bending moment. the difference between elastic and inelastic strain energy is explained. transverse shear force and torsion. the principle of superposition has been stated and proved. Also. Version 2 CE IIT. In section 2. its limitations have been discussed.

Kharagpur .Module 1 Energy Methods in Structural Analysis Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .Lesson 3 Castigliano’s Theorems Version 2 CE IIT.

the complementary energy is equal to the strain energy. State and prove Castigliano’s second theorem.2 Castigliano’s First Theorem For linearly elastic structure. 1. Version 2 CE IIT. Calculate deflections of a statically determinate structure in any direction at a point where the load is not acting by fictious (imaginary) load method. 4. the Castigliano’s first theorem may be stated as the first partial derivative of the strain energy of the structure with respect to any particular force gives the displacement of the point of application of that force in the direction of its line of action. where external forces only cause deformations. The Castigliano’s theorem can be applied when the supports of the structure are unyielding and the temperature of the structure is constant. 3.1 Introduction In the previous chapter concepts of strain energy and complementary strain energy were discussed. 2. the reader will be able to. 3. For such structures. Calculate deflections along the direction of applied load of a statically determinate structure at the point of application of load.Instructional Objectives After reading this lesson. Kharagpur . Castigliano’s first theorem is being used in structural analysis for finding deflection of an elastic structure based on strain energy of the structure. State and prove first theorem of Castigliano. 3.

.. P2 . u n be the displacements at the loading points P1 . assume that the material obeys Hooke’s law and invoking the principle of superposition.. Pn be the forces acting at x1 . Pn respectively as shown in Fig... + Pn u n 2 2 2 (3. the work done by the external forces is given by (vide eqn. u 2 ... Kharagpur ...1) Version 2 CE IIT. 3. P2 ...Let P1 . x n from the left end on a simply supported beam of span L ..... Let u1 ...8 of lesson 1) W = 1 1 1 P1u1 + P2 u 2 + .. 1.... x 2 . Now...1........

Hence.6) Now. Hence... u i = ai1 P1 + ai 2 P2 + .. Substituting the values of u1 .. u1 may be expressed as... P2 ..... for determinate structure within linear elastic range the partial derivative of the total strain energy with respect to any external load is equal to the Version 2 CE IIT.....] + ..5) 2 2 2 We know from Maxwell-Betti’s reciprocal theorem a ij = a ji . differentiating the strain energy with any force P1 gives.] (3. + a1n Pn In general......... U= 1 1 1 P1u1 + P2 u 2 + . we get....5) may be simplified as..2) from equation (3..4) (3.Work done by the external forces is stored in the structure as strain energy in a conservative system.3) where a ij is the flexibility coefficient at i due to unit force applied at j ... x n respectively from left support.4)... + Pn [ a n1 P1 + a n 2 P2 + ...... U= 1 1 1 P1 [ a11 P1 + a12 P2 + ..... ∂U (3....8) = un ∂Pn Hence..7) is nothing but displacement u1 at the loading point... In general.2) Displacement u1 below point P1 is due to the action of P1 ..n (3.. the strain energy of the structure is.2.. U= 1 ⎡ a11 P 2 + a22 P22 + . + a1n P Pn ] + . + ain Pn i = 1..] + P2 [ a 21 P1 + a 22 P2 + . x 2 . equation (3... + Pn u n 2 2 2 (3... Hence. u 2 . 1 1 1 1 ⎦ 2⎣ (3... + a1n Pn ∂P1 (3. Kharagpur ... u1 = a11 P1 + a12 P2 + ... Pn acting at distances x1 ...7) It may be observed that equation (3......... ∂U = a11 P1 + a12 P2 + . + ann Pn2 ⎤ + [ a12 P P2 + a13 P P3 + .. u n in equation (3....

Example 3.displacement of the point of application of load in the direction of the applied load. Kharagpur . 3. Assume the flexural rigidity of the beam EI to be constant for the beam. provided the supports are unyielding and temperature is maintained constant. we get. This theorem is advantageously used for calculating deflections in elastic structure.1 Find the displacement and slope at the tip of a cantilever beam loaded as in Fig.10). The procedure for calculating the deflection is illustrated with few examples.2. Moment at any section at a distance x away from the free end is given by M = − Px Strain energy stored in the beam due to bending is U = ∫ L (1) M2 dx 2 EI 0 (2) Substituting the expression for bending moment M in equation (3. ( Px) 2 P 2 L3 U =∫ dx = 2 EI 6 EI 0 L (3) Version 2 CE IIT.

14) we get the slope at A. As there is no moment at A . The radius of curvature of curved beam is R . ∂U PL3 = uA = ∂P 3EI (4) To find the slope at the free end. we get slope at A . 3. Now moment at any section at a distance x away from the free end is given by M = − Px − M 0 Now.3. θA = PL2 2 EI (7) Example 3. Young’s modulus of the material is E and second moment of the area is I about an axis perpendicular to the plane of the paper through the centroid of the cross section. according to Castigliano’s theorem. apply a fictitious moment M 0 at A .2 A cantilever beam which is curved in the shape of a quadrant of a circle is loaded as shown in Fig. the first partial derivative of strain energy with respect to external force P gives the deflection u A at A in the direction of applied force. Find the vertical displacement of point A on the curved beam. ( Px + M 0 ) 2 P 2 L3 M 0 PL2 M 0 L U =∫ dx = + + 2 EI 6 EI 2 EI 2 EI 0 L 2 (5) Taking partial derivative of strain energy with respect to M 0 . Thus.Now. Hence substitute M 0 = 0 in equation (3. strain energy stored in the beam may be calculated as. we need to differentiate strain energy with respect to externally applied moment M at A . Kharagpur . ∂U PL2 M 0 L = θA = + ∂M 0 2 EI EI (6) But actually there is no moment applied at A . Version 2 CE IIT.

Assume the flexural rigidity of the beam EI to be constant through out the member.The bending moment at any section θ of the curved beam (see Fig.4. Neglect strain energy due to axial deformations. 3.3) is given by M = PR sinθ Strain energy U stored in the curved beam due to bending is. P we get uA = Example 3. 3.3 Find horizontal displacement at D of the frame shown in Fig. ∂U b π PR 3 = 4 EI ∂P (3) Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . M2 U =∫ ds = 2 EI 0 s (1) π /2 ∫ 0 P 2 R 2 (sin 2 θ ) Rdθ P 2 R 3 π π P 2 R 3 = = 8 EI 2 EI 2 EI 4 (2) Differentiating strain energy with respect to externally applied load.

U= L ( Px) 2 ( PL) 2 dx + ∫ dx 2 EI 2 EI 0 0 L (1) P 2 L3 P 2 L3 5P 2 L3 + = 3EI 2 EI 6 EI (2) Differentiating strain energy with respect to P we get. Castigliano’s theorem. Total strain energy stored in the frame due to bending U = 2∫ After simplifications. ∂U 5 P L3 5 P L3 = uD = 2 = ∂P 6 EI 3EI Version 2 CE IIT. The beam segments BA and DC are subjected to bending moment Px ( 0 < x < L ) and the beam element BC is subjected to a constant bending moment of magnitude PL .The deflection D may be obtained via. Kharagpur .

5. Assume the flexural rigidity EI and torsional rigidity GJ to be constant for the structure. x is measured from B) . 3. The strain energy stored in the beam ABC is. x is measured from C )and the beam element AB is subjected to torsional moment of magnitude Pa and a bending moment of Px ( 0 ≤ x ≤ b . U =∫ After simplifications. Kharagpur . P 2 a 3 P 2 a 2b P 2b3 + + 6 EI 2GJ 6 EI (2) ∂U Pa 3 Pa 2 b Pb 3 + = uA = + ∂P 3EI GJ 3EI (3) Version 2 CE IIT.4 Find the vertical deflection at A of the structure shown Fig. The beam segment BC is subjected to bending moment Px ( 0 < x < a .Example 3. 2 b ( Px) M2 ( Pa) 2 dx + ∫ dx + ∫ dx 0 2 EI 2 EI 2GJ 0 0 a b (1) U= Vertical deflection u A at A is.

U =∫ a ( Px) 2 ( Pa + Qy) 2 dx + ∫ dy 2 EI 2 EI 0 0 b (1) Differentiating strain energy with respect to Q . The beam segment CB is subjected to bending moment Px ( 0 < x < a ) and beam element AB is subjected to moment of magnitude Pa . ∂U 2( Pa + Qy ) y = uC = ∫ dy ∂Q 2 EI 0 b (2) 1 uC = Pay + Qy 2 dy EI ∫ 0 b (3) Version 2 CE IIT.6. introduce a imaginary vertical force Q at C . vertical deflection at C is obtained. Now.Example 3. 3.5 Find vertical deflection at C of the beam shown in Fig. Kharagpur . To find the vertical deflection at C . the strain energy stored in the structure is. Assume the flexural rigidity EI to be constant for the structure.

Hence. U= 1 1 1 u1[k11u1 + k12u2 + ...uC = 1 ⎡ Pab 2 Qb 3 ⎤ + ⎢ ⎥ 3 ⎦ EI ⎣ 2 (4) But the force Q is fictitious force and hence equal to zero.5) that Pi = ki1u1 + ki 2u2 + .. n (3.. + un [k n1u1 + kn 2u2 + .... ∂u j j = 1.. Hence. 2.. Pab 2 uC = 2 EI (5) 3. + Pn u n 2 2 2 (3.. U= 1 2 2 ⎡ k11u12 + k22u2 + ...] + . vertical deflection is. ⎣ ⎦ 2 (3. Kharagpur ...12) may be simplified as. if strain energy is expressed in terms of displacements then n equilibrium equations may be written as follows......] + u2 [ k21u1 + k22u2 + . + knn un ⎤ + [ k12u1u2 + k13u1u3 + ..3 Castigliano’s Second Theorem In any elastic structure having n independent displacements u1 . 2...... strain energy may be written as. u n corresponding to external forces P1 . ∂U = Pj ..... P2 .] 2 2 2 (3. + k1n u1un ] + .11) where kij is the stiffness coefficient and is defined as the force at i due to unit displacement applied at j .10) We know from Lesson 1 (equation 1.13) Version 2 CE IIT..12) We know from reciprocal theorem kij = k ji . The strain energy of an elastic body may be written as U= 1 1 1 P1u1 + P2 u 2 + ....9) This may be proved as follows.... + kinun . Pn along their lines of action.. n (3. u 2 .... Hence.... i = 1. equation (3.......

n (3. 2.... ∂U = Pj .15) Summary In this lesson. The Castigliano’s second theorem is stated for elastic structure and proved in section 3. the procedure to calculate deflections in a statically determinate structure at a point where load is applied is illustrated with examples.4.. The procedure to calculate deflections of a statically determinate structure at the point of application of load is illustrated with examples... Hence. + k1n un ∂u1 (3. Kharagpur . Also. Castigliano’s first theorem has been stated and proved for linearly elastic structure with unyielding supports. differentiating the strain energy with respect to any displacement u1 gives the applied force P at that point...Now. 1 ∂U = k11u1 + k12 u2 + .. Version 2 CE IIT. ∂u j j = 1.14) Or...

Module 1 Energy Methods in Structural Analysis Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .Lesson 4 Theorem of Least Work Version 2 CE IIT.

Let P1 ... 4. u n be the displacements at the loading points P1 . State and prove theorem of Least Work.. Analyse statically indeterminate structure... 4. The forces developed in a redundant framework are such that the total internal strain energy is a minimum. x n from the left end of the beam of span L . the partial derivative of strain energy with respect to external force is equal to the displacement in the direction of that load at the point of application of load. 4. Kharagpur .1a. P2 ... This theorem when applied to the statically indeterminate structure results in the theorem of least work. This can be proved as follows. Invoking the principle of superposition...1b. In this chapter theorem of least work and reciprocal theorems are presented along with few selected problems. P2 . Pn be the forces acting at distances x1 ... Let u1 ... 4. 4... 4.2b) Version 2 CE IIT.. 4. we obtain a simple cantilever beam as shown in Fig. State and prove Maxwell-Betti’s Reciprocal theorem.2a and Fig. Pn and a cantilever beam with redundant force Ra (see Fig... P2 .Instructional Objectives After reading this lesson. Pn respectively as shown in Fig. 3.1 Introduction In the last chapter the Castigliano’s theorems were discussed.. x 2 . viz.... this may be treated as the superposition of two cases. the partial derivative of strain energy of a statically indeterminate structure with respect to statically indeterminate action should vanish as it is the function of such redundant forces to prevent any displacement at its point of application.2 Theorem of Least Work According to this theorem.1a. We know that for the statically determinate structure... the reader will be able to: 1... 2. This is a statically indeterminate structure and choosing Ra as the redundant reaction. a cantilever beam with loads P1 . Consider a beam that is fixed at left end and roller supported at right end as shown in Fig. u 2 .

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

+ Pn u n + Qu a 2 2 2 2 (4... x 2 .1) It is known that the displacement u1 below point P1 is due to action of P . Now the strain energy U s stored in the determinate structure (i...... Hence.. Since there is no load applied at A . the support A removed) is given by..e.In the first case (4.2a). obtain deflection below A due to applied loads P1 ... Pn 1 acting at x1 ... u1 may be expressed as. Version 2 CE IIT. P2 . Kharagpur . 4.. P2 . US = 1 1 1 1 P1u1 + P2 u 2 + ....... apply a fictitious load Q at A as in Fig.... Pn ..2. This can be easily accomplished through Castigliano’s first theorem as discussed in Lesson 3... x n respectively and due to Q at A . Let u a be the deflection below A .

un and ua in equation (4.u1 = a11 P + a12 P2 + ... + a1n Pn + a1a Q 1 (4..7) 2 Ra L3 6 EI (4..6) The deflection due to Ra should be in the opposite direction to one caused by superposed loads P .. ∂U ∂Us = ua = − r ∂Q ∂Ra (4...1) from equation (4.. From 1 equation (4.....ann Pn + ana Q] + Q[aa1 P + aa 2 P2 + ..... + aan Pn 1 ∂Q Now the strain energy stored in the beam due to redundant reaction RA is. Version 2 CE IIT. aij is the flexibility coefficient at i due to unit force applied at j ..... we get.. US = 1 1 P [a11 P + a12 P2 + . Kharagpur .a2 n Pn + a2 a Q ] + .. so that the net deflection at A is zero. un and ua .. one could as well replace it by Ra . Pn ...7) one could write. P2 .... Substituting for u2 . u3 .....5) and (4. Hence... u3 ......... we get deflection at A .... + aan Pn + aaa Q] 1 1 2 2 Taking partial derivative of strain energy U s with respect to Q . ∂U s = ua = aa1 P + aa 2 P2 + ..2).... + aan Pn + aaa Q 1 ∂Q Substitute Q = 0 as it is fictitious in the above equation.3) 1 1 + Pn [an1 P + an 2 P2 + . + a1n Pn + a1a Q ] + P2 [a21 P + a22 P2 + . Similar equations may be written for u2 .4) (4.8) Since Q is fictitious. Ur = Now deflection at A due to Ra is R L3 ∂U r = −ua = a ∂Ra 3EI (4....5) (4. 1 1 1 2 2 (4. ∂U s = aa1 P + aa 2 P2 + ..2) where.

. Assume the flexural rigidity of the beam EI to be constant throughout its length.9) or. ∂U =0 ∂Ra (4..1 Find the reactions of a propped cantilever beam uniformly loaded as shown in Fig. 1 Example 4. P2 .10) This is the statement of theorem of least work.. Kharagpur . Pn and redundant reaction Ra ... 4. Version 2 CE IIT. Where U is the total strain energy of the beam due to superimposed loads P .∂ (U s + U r ) = 0 ∂Ra (4.3a.

the internal strain energy of the beam due to applied loads and redundant reaction. considering only bending deformations is. Version 2 CE IIT. U =∫ 0 L M2 dx 2 EI (1) According to theorem of least work we have. This is a statically indeterminate structure and choosing Rb as the redundant reaction. we obtain a simple cantilever beam as shown in Fig. Kharagpur . Rb and M b as shown in the figure. We have only two equation of equilibrium viz. 4..There three reactions Ra . ∑F y = 0 and ∑ M = 0 . Now.3b.

2 A ring of radius R is loaded as shown in figure.∂U M ∂M =0=∫ ∂Rb EI ∂Rb 0 L (2) wx 2 2 (3) Bending moment at a distance x from B . Version 2 CE IIT. Determine increase in the diameter AB of the ring. ( R x − wx 2 / 2) x ∂U =∫ b dx ∂Rb 0 EI L (5) ∂U ⎡ RB L3 wL4 ⎤ 1 =⎢ − =0 ⎥ ∂Rb ⎣ 3 8 ⎦ EI Solving for Rb . Kharagpur . Young’s modulus of the material is E and second moment of the area is I about an axis perpendicular to the page through the centroid of the cross section. M = Rb x − ∂M =x ∂Rb (4) Hence. we get. 3 RB = wL 8 Ra = wL − Rb = (6) wL2 5 wL and M a = − 8 8 (7) Example 4.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

182 PR Now. M = M0 − PR (1 − cos θ ) 2 (1) Now strain energy stored in the ring due to bending deformations is. Thus. 2π U = M 2R ∫ 2 EI dθ 0 (2) Due to symmetry.The free body diagram of the ring is as shown in Fig. Kharagpur . increase in diameter Δ . the slopes at C and D is zero. ⎛1 1⎞ M 0 = PR ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝2 π ⎠ (6) M 0 = 0. one could consider one quarter of the ring. Due to symmetry. 4. The value of redundant moment M 0 is such as to make slopes at C and D zero. may be obtained by taking the first partial derivative of strain energy with respect to P . The bending moment at any section θ of the beam is. According to theorem of least work. 2π M ∂M ∂U =0=∫ Rdθ 0 EI ∂M ∂M 0 0 (3) ∂M =1 ∂M 0 ∂U = ∂M 0 π 2π ∫ EI Rdθ 0 M (4) 0= 4R 2 PR ∫ [M 0 − 2 (1 − cosθ )] dθ EI 0 (5) Integrating and solving for M 0 .4. Δ= ∂U ∂P Version 2 CE IIT.

U= 2R EI π /2 ∫{ 2 0 PR 2 PR ( − 1) − (1 − cosθ )}2 dθ π 2 (7) Now the increase in length of the diameter is.3 Maxwell–Betti Reciprocal theorem Consider a simply supported beam of span L as shown in Fig. Substituting the value of M 0 and equation (1) in (2). Let this beam be loaded by two systems of forces P1 and P2 separately as shown in the figure.149 EI 4 π EI (9) 4. we get. Version 2 CE IIT.5. Δ= PR 3 π 2 PR 3 { − ) = 0. Kharagpur . when only load P2 is acting on the beam. Similarly let u12 be the deflection below load P1 .Now strain energy stored in the ring is given by equation (2). ∂U 2 R = ∂P EI π /2 ∫ 2{ 2 0 PR 2 PR R 2 R ( − 1) − (1 − cosθ )}{ ( − 1) − (1 − cosθ )}dθ π 2 2 π 2 (8) After integrating. Let u 21 be the deflection below the load point P2 when only load P1 is acting. 4.

Let u1 .. Version 2 CE IIT... δ n be the displacements due to system of forces Q1 ... Q2 . u n be the displacements caused by the forces P1 . Substituting the values of u12 and u 21 in equation (4.. P2 ... δ 2 . u 2 . Qn only acting on the beam as shown in Fig.... P2 . Pn only and δ 1 . Pn and the second system of forces is given by Q1 .6.. This is also valid even when the first system of forces is P1 . P1 × u12 = P2 × u 21 (4..... according to reciprocal theorem... Hence. Qn ......... 4..27) we get....12) Hence it is proved. Q2 . u12 and u 21 can be calculated using Castiglinao’s first theorem.The reciprocal theorem states that the work done by forces acting through displacement of the second system is the same as the work done by the second system of forces acting through the displacements of the first system. P1 × 5 P2 L3 5 P L3 = P2 × 1 48 EI 48 EI (4. Kharagpur .11) Now.

In this chapter the theorem of Least Work has been stated and proved. Pi δ i = Qi u i i = 1.13) Summary In lesson 3. Kharagpur . the partial derivative of strain energy with respect to external force is equal to the displacement in the direction of that load at the point of application of the load. Couple of problems is solved to illustrate the procedure of analysing statically indeterminate structures. the Castigliano’s first theorem has been stated and proved.2... This theorem when applied to the statically indeterminate structure results in the theorem of Least work. In the Version 2 CE IIT.. For statically determinate structure. n (4..Now the reciprocal theorem may be stated as..

Version 2 CE IIT. the celebrated theorem of Maxwell-Betti’s reciprocal theorem has been sated and proved.end. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .Module 1 Energy Methods in Structural Analysis Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .Lesson 5 Virtual Work Version 2 CE IIT.

Fn at co-ordinates 1... then the virtual work done by the F − system of forces as ‘it rides’ along these virtual displacements is zero. This may be stated as: if a rigid body is in equilibrium under the action of a F − system of forces and if it continues to remain in equilibrium if the body is given a small (virtual) displacement. δFn in equilibrium as shown in Fig. State unit displacement method... From Castigliano’s theorem it follows that for the statically determinate structure. the partial derivative of strain energy with respect to external force is equal to the displacement in the direction of that load. the principle of virtual work is discussed.. let the beam be subjected to second system of forces (which are virtual not real) δF1 . 5.. 3. 2.5. δF2 ... it produces real internal stresses σ ij and real internal strains ε ij inside the beam.. This principle can be applied to both linear and nonlinear structures. The second system of forces is called virtual as they are imaginary and they are not part of the real loading.. the student will be able to: 1. Now. 4.. Define Virtual Work. Calculate deflections of a statically determinate structure using unit load method.... Differentiate between external and internal virtual work... u 2 . F2 . In this lesson.. 5. 5.2...1b. Kharagpur .2 Principle of Virtual Work Many problems in structural analysis can be solved by the principle of virtual work.Instructional Objectives After studying this lesson. Fn ... Sate principle of virtual displacement and principle of virtual forces... Calculate stiffness coefficients using unit-displacement method..1a.. 7. 6.... The principle of virtual work as applied to deformable structure is an extension of the virtual work for rigid bodies. Drive an expression of calculating deflections of structure using unit load method. which is in equilibrium under the action of real forces F1 . Also..1 Introduction In the previous chapters the concept of strain energy and Castigliano’s theorems were discussed. u n be the corresponding displacements due to the action of forces F1 . This produces a displacement Version 2 CE IIT. n respectively. As compared to other methods..5.. Let u1 .. virtual work methods are the most direct methods for calculating deflections in statically determinate and indeterminate structures. F2 .... Consider a simply supported beam as shown in Fig..

The product ∑ F δu i i is known as the external virtual work. the external loads Fi and internal stresses σ ij do virtual work by moving along δ ui and δε ij .. Kharagpur ... the external virtual work must be equal to the internal virtual work.configuration δu1 .. δu 2 . apply the second system of forces on the beam which has been deformed by first system of forces. Version 2 CE IIT.. δu i is not due to Fi . the beam is in equilibrium.. Similarly the product ∑σ δε ij ij is the internal virtual work. one needs to consider both internal and external virtual work to establish equations of equilibrium. Hence.. ∑ Fi δu i is equal to the total internal virtual work for every kinematically admissible (consistent with the constraints) virtual displacements. It may be noted that the above product does not represent the conventional work since each component is caused due to different source i.e. both external and internal forces do work.. Then. Since.. δu n . In the case of deformable body.. The virtual loading system produces virtual internal stresses δσ ij and virtual internal strains δε ij inside the beam. Now. 5.e.3 Principle of Virtual Displacement A deformable body is in equilibrium if the total external virtual work done by the system of true forces moving through the corresponding virtual displacements of the system i.

The first system of forces refers to the actual forces acting on the structure.. As stated earlier.. Fn causing displacements u1 . ∑ δF u = ∫ δσ i i ij ε ij dv (5.5 Unit Load Method The principle of virtual force leads to unit load method. In the next lesson. bending moment ( M ) and shearing force ( V ).. the total external complementary work is equal to the total internal complementary work for every system of virtual forces and stresses that satisfy the equations of equilibrium. F2 .4 Principle of Virtual Forces For a deformable body... which is in equilibrium under the action of a first system of forces F1 .. the principle of virtual forces and unit load method are discussed in the context of framed structures.2) where δσ ij are the virtual stresses due to virtual forces δFi and ε ij are the true strains due to the true displacements u i . It is assumed throughout our discussion that the method of superposition holds good. Kharagpur .2a. Let the stress resultants at any section of the beam due to first system of forces be axial force ( P ). u2 . ∑ F δu = ∫ σ i i ij δε ij dv (5. we consider two systems of loads. 5. 5.. Hence. For the derivation of unit load method. Consider a cantilever beam. the truss deflections are calculated by the method of virtual work...1) where σ ij are the true stresses due to true forces Fi and δε ij are the virtual strains due to virtual displacements δu i . un as shown in Fig.. flexural deformation ( dθ ) and shearing deformation ( dλ ) respectively. In this section. 5.. For a conservative system the external work done by the applied forces is equal to the internal strain energy stored. Also the corresponding incremental deformations are axial deformation ( dΔ ). the principle of virtual work may be advantageously used to calculate displacements of structures. Version 2 CE IIT..That is virtual displacements should be continuous within the structure and also it must satisfy boundary conditions. In the next section let us see how this can be used to calculate displacements in a beams and frames.

.1 2 ∑ Fu i =1 i n i = 1 2 ∫P L dΔ + 1 2 ∫M L dθ + 1 V dλ 2∫ =∫ 0 L P 2 ds M 2 ds V 2 ds +∫ +∫ 2 EA 0 2 EI 2 AG 0 (5.2c... by second system of forces δF1 . (u2 + δu2 ).... 5.. we could write 1 n δP ds δM v ds δVv ds ∑ δFiδui = ∫ 2vEA + ∫ 2 EI + ∫ 2 AG 2 i =1 0 0 0 L 2 L 2 L 2 (5.2b). which has been deformed.3) Now. δFn as shown in Fig 5. δFn . consider a second system of forces δF1 ... now the deflections will be (u1 + δu1 ).. (un + δun ) respectively Version 2 CE IIT. bending moment and shear force respectively. δun respectively (see Fig.4) where δPv .. apply the first system of forces on the beam.... For this system of forces.. δF2 ........ In the third case. From the principle of superposition. δM v and δVv are the virtual axial force. Let the virtual stress resultants caused by virtual forces be δPv . Kharagpur . which are virtual and causing virtual displacements δu1 ... δF2 . δM v and δVv at any cross section of the beam. δu2 ..

n δ Pv 2 ds δ M v 2 ds δ Vv 2 ds P 2 ds 1 n 1 n ∑ Fj u j + 2 ∑ δ Fjδ u j + ∑ δ Fj u j = ∫ 2 EA + ∫ 2 EI + ∫ 2 AG + ∫ 2 EA + 2 j =1 j =1 j =1 0 0 0 0 L L L L M 2 ds V 2 ds +∫ ∫ 2 EI 0 2 AG + ∫ δ Pv d Δ + ∫ δ M v dθ + ∫ δ Vv d λ 0 0 0 0 L L L L L (5. Since virtual forces act Version 2 CE IIT.5). Kharagpur .Since the energy is conserved we could write. the term on the left hand side (∑ δF u ).5) In equation (5. represents the work j j done by virtual forces moving through real displacements.

7) ⎛1⎞ Note that ⎜ ⎟ does not appear on right side of equation (5. dθ = . Subtracting equation (5.. n ) .10) The equation (5. ∑ δFju j = ∫ δPvdΔ + ∫ δM vdθ + ∫ δVvdλ j =1 0 0 0 n L L L (5. (5. ⎜ ⎟ does not appear in the equation.⎛1⎞ at its full value.. lesson 3. In the present case δPv = 0 and if we neglect shear forces then we could write equation (5..8) If the value of a particular displacement is required. Kharagpur ...6) From Module 1. Then the above expression may be written as.7) as ∑ δFju j = ∫ j =1 0 n L δM v Mds EI (5. The unit load method is extensively used in the calculation of deflection of beams.. (unit virtual load ) unknown true displacement = ∫ ( virtual stress resultants )( real deformations ) ds.2.3) ⎝2⎠ and (5. we know that dΔ = Pds Mds Vds and dλ = ..5) we get. Theoretically this method can be used to calculate deflections in Version 2 CE IIT.9) where δM v are the internal virtual moment resultants corresponding to virtual force at i-th co-ordinate. i + 1. then choose the corresponding force δFi = 1 and all other forces δF j = 0 ( j = 1.. frames and trusses. i − 1.9) is known as the unit load method. Here the unit virtual load is applied at a point where the displacement is required to be evaluated.. (1)ui = ∫ 0 L δM v Mds EI (5. δFi = 1 . EA EI AG ∑ δF u = ∫ j =1 j j 0 n L δPv Pds EA +∫ 0 L δM v Mds EI +∫ 0 L δVvVds AG (5. Hence.4) from equation (5.7) as the virtual system ⎝2⎠ resultants act at constant values during the real displacements.. The above equation may be stated as.

1 A cantilever beam of span L is subjected to a tip moment M 0 as shown in Fig 5.3b and 5. θc is calculated as. However it is extensively used in evaluation of deflections of statically determinate structures only as the method requires a priori knowledge of internal stress resultants. Let θc be the rotation at C due to moment M 0 applied at tip. Kharagpur .3c respectively. a virtual unit moment is applied at C as shown in Fig 5.3a.statically determinate and indeterminate structures. According to unit load method. Version 2 CE IIT. ⎛ 3L ⎞ Evaluate slope and deflection at a point ⎜ ⎟ from left support. Example 5. Slope at C To evaluate slope at C . the rotation at C . Assume EI of the ⎝ 4 ⎠ given beam to be constant.3c. The bending moment diagrams are drawn for tip moment M 0 and unit moment applied at C and is shown in fig 5.

Kharagpur . 5.(1)θ c = ∫ 0 L δM v (x )M ( x )dx EI (1) resultant at any section x .3d and the bending moment is also shown in the diagram. Assume EI to be constant for all members. Substituting the value of δM v (x ) and M (x ) in the above expression. (1)u A = ∫ 0 L δM v ( x )M ( x )dx EI (3) In the present case.4a by unit load method.2 Find the horizontal displacement at joint B of the frame ABCD as shown in Fig. a unit virtual vertical force is applied ac C as shown in Fig 5. and 3L 4 δM v (x ) = −⎜ ⎞ ⎛ 3L − x⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ M (x ) = + M 0 ⎛ 3L ⎞ −⎜ − x ⎟M 4 ⎠ dx uA = ∫ ⎝ EI 0 M =− EI ∫ 3L 4 0 ⎛ 3L ⎞ − x ⎟dx ⎜ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 3L M ⎡ 3L x2 ⎤ 4 =− ⎢ x− ⎥ 2 ⎦0 EI ⎣ 4 9 ML2 =− (↑ ) 32 EI (4) Example 5. we get where δM v (x ) and M (x ) are the virtual moment resultant and real moment (1)θ c = 3L / 4 ∫ 0 (1)Mdx + EI 3ML 4 EI 3L / 4 ∫ L (0)Mdx EI (2) θc = Vertical deflection at C To evaluate vertical deflection at C . Version 2 CE IIT. According to unit load method.

Since.4d. Kharagpur .4b and Fig 5. it is required to calculate horizontal deflection at B. 5.4d.The reactions and bending moment diagram of the frame due to applied external loading are shown in Fig 5. Version 2 CE IIT.4c respectively. apply a unit virtual load at B as shown in Fig. The resulting reactions and bending moment diagrams of the frame are shown in Fig 5.

5 − x ) dx ∫ EI 0 2 = 625 312. Assume EI to be constant for all members.5 − x )dx + 0 EI ∫ 0 EI =∫ 0 5 (5x )dx + 2 2.5 − x )10(2.5 2(2.5 EI 20(2.3 Find the rotations of joint B and C of the frame shown in Fig. (2) Example 5. Version 2 CE IIT.5 ( →) 3EI Hence.5 + = 3EI 3EI 3EI uA = 937.Now horizontal deflection at B. u B may be calculated as (1) × u = ∫ B H D δM v (x )M (x )dx EI (1) A =∫ B δM v (x )M (x )dx EI A 5 +∫ B C δM v (x )M (x )dx EI +∫ C D δM v ( x )M ( x )dx EI =∫ 0 (x )(5 x )dx + 2.5 937.4a. 5. Kharagpur .

the relevant equation is.Rotation at B Apply unit virtual moment at B as shown in Fig 5.5a. Version 2 CE IIT. For the unit load method. δ M v ( x) is the virtual stress resultant in the D M ( x) frame due to the virtual load and ∫ dx is the actual deformation of the frame A EI due to real forces. θ B is the actual rotation at B. (1) × θ B = ∫ D δM v ( x )M ( x )dx EI (1) A wherein. Kharagpur . The resulting bending moment diagram is also shown in the same diagram.

.. δu2 . F2 ..5 (2) For evaluating rotation at C by unit load method. M and V be the stress resultants at section of the beam.5 − x ) dx 2 0 4 ⎡ 5 x 2 x3 ⎤ 62. bending moment and shear force respectively at any section of the beam. From the principle of virtual displacements we have... (1) × θC = ∫ 2. F2 ... u2 .. Fn . Let u1 .Now. which is in equilibrium under the action of a system of forces F1 ..6 Unit Displacement Method Consider a cantilever beam..... Hence.5 − x )(0. un be the corresponding displacements and P. δF2 ... M (x ) = 10(2...5 = + ⎥ = ⎢6. δM v and δVv be the virtual axial force.5b..5 4 ⎡ 2. δF2 ..11) Version 2 CE IIT.....5 − x ) and δM v ( x ) = 0.25 = − ⎥ = ⎢ EI ⎣ 2 3 ⎦0 3EI (4) 5.4 x ) dx EI 0 2. 4 θB = EI 2.5 − x ) Substituting the values of M ( x) and δ M v ( x) in the equation (1)..5 x 2 x3 ⎤ 31. δFn .. Let δPv . ∑ F δu = ∫ j =1 j j V n M ( x )δM v ( x )ds EI (5. δun . δFn causing virtual system of forces (virtual) displacements δu1 . Consider a second δF1 .4(2.... which has been previously bent by virtual forces δF1 ... Apply the first system of forces F1 .. Fn on the beam.. Kharagpur = ∫ σ T δε δv .5 ∫ (2.. apply unit virtual moment at C as shown in Fig 5.25 x − EI ⎣ 2 3 ⎦0 3EI Rotation at C 2...5 D δM v ( x )M (x )dx EI (3) A θC = ∫ 10(2..

(δM v )1 is the internal virtual stress resultant for δu1 = 1 ..11) refers to the external virtual work done by the system of true/real forces moving through the corresponding virtual displacements of the system. From equation (5.14) Summary In this chapter the concept of virtual work is introduced and the principle of virtual work is discussed.11) becomes kij i. The above equation is more commonly used in the evaluation of stiffness co-efficient kij . n) . The terms internal virtual work and external virtual work has been explained and relevant expressions are also derived.11). we get F1 = ∫ (δM v )1 Mds EI (5.e. The principle of virtual displacement states that the external virtual work of the real forces multiplied by virtual displacement is equal to the real stresses multiplied by virtual strains integrated over volume.. force at 1 due to displacement at 2.12) where.. (1) k12 = ∫ (δM v )1 M 2ds EI (5.8) refers to internal virtual work done. Transposing the above equation... In that set u2 = 1 and the other all displacements ui = 0 (i = 1.. Apply real displacements u1 . Principle of virtual forces has been stated.. Few problems have been solved to show the application of unit load method for calculating deflections in a structure.. Kharagpur .. If the value of a particular force element is required then choose corresponding virtual displacement as unity.. Now according to unit displacement method. it is required to evaluate F1 ..The left hand side of equation (5. one could write. Apply virtual displacement δu1 = 1 . then choose δu1 = 1 and δui = 0 i = 2..3. An expression for calculating deflections at any point of a structure (both statically determinate and indeterminate structure) is derived... un in the structure. (1) F1 = ∫ M (δM v )1 ds EI (5. Let us say.13) The above equation is the statement of unit displacement method. Version 2 CE IIT.3.. n . It has been shown how the principle of virtual load leads to unit load method. The right hand side of equation (5.. For such a case the quantity F j in equation (5....

Kharagpur .Module 1 Energy Methods in Structural Analysis Version 2 CE IIT.

Lesson 6 Engesser’s Theorem and Truss Deflections by Virtual Work Principles Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Instructional Objectives After reading this lesson. 3. In this lesson. When the complementary strain energy is equal to the strain energy (i. Kharagpur . we derived unit – load method from the principle of virtual work and unit displacement method from the principle of virtual displacement.1) is nothing but the statement of Castigliano’s first theorem in terms of complementary strain energy. we discussed the principle of virtual work and principle of virtual displacement. Derive equations for calculating deflections in trusses subjected to temperature loads.2) Note that Engesser’s theorem is valid for both linear and non-linear structures. 2. 6. 4. Initially the Engesser’s theorem. which is more general than the Castigliano’s theorem. Also. Version 2 CE IIT. the unit load method is employed to calculate displacements of trusses due to external loading.2 Crotti-Engesser Theorem The Crotti-Engesser theorem states that the first partial derivative of the complementary strain energy U * expressed in terms of applied forces F j is ( ) equal to the corresponding displacement. 6.e.1) For the case of indeterminate structures this may be stated as. in case of linear structures) the equation (6. is discussed. few examples are solved to demonstrate the power of virtual work. Compute deflections in trusses using unit-load method due to fabrication errors. In the end.1 Introduction In the previous lesson. the reader will be able to: 1. ∂U * =0 ∂F j (6. n ∂U * = ∑ a jk Fk = u j ∂Fj k =1 (6. State and prove Crotti-Engesser theorem. Derive simple expressions for calculating deflections in trusses subjected to mechanical loading using unit-load method.

Kharagpur .6) Version 2 CE IIT. dU * =u dF (6.5) Differentiating complementary strain energy with respect to force F .In the above figure the strain energy (area OACO) is not equal to complementary strain energy (area OABO) Area OACO = U = ∫ F du 0 u (6. dU =F du (6. U * = ∫ u dF 0 F (6.4) This is the statement of Castigliano’s second theorem.3) Differentiating strain energy with respect to displacement. Now the complementary energy is equal to the area enclosed by OABO.

7) may be written as. When the load displacement relationship is linear..7) wherein.2. P ds 0 EA is the actual internal deformation of the frame due to real forces.9) where. Also. uj = ∑ i =1 m (δPv ) ij Pi Li Ei Ai (6.3 Unit Load Method as applied to Trusses 6. then member i due to unit virtual load at j and ( u j = ∑ (δPv ) ij Δ i i =1 m (6. In the above equation L. the above equation coincides with the Castigliano’s first theorem given in equation (3.7) may be written as. Δ i is the true change in length of member i due to real loads. if the cross sectional area A of truss remains constant throughout.3. This in turn produces joint deflections in the truss. E .. u j are the actual deflections of the truss. ∑ δF j u j = ∫ j =1 0 n L δPv Pds EA (6. 6. (δPv ) ij is the internal virtual axial force in Pi ) Li is the total deformation of Ei Ai member i due to real loads. the truss members either expand or shrink. equation (5.. then integration may be replaced by summation and hence equation (6. Hence. and all other components of virtual forces δF j = 1 δ Pv is the virtual stress resultant in the frame due to the virtual load and ∫ L δFi (i = 1.8). δ F j is the external virtual load.. cross-sectional area of a member and modulus of elasticity of a member. A respectively represent length of the member.3.This gives deflection in the direction of load. In the unit load method. Kharagpur . n) are zero.1 External Loading In case of a plane or a space truss. This may be Version 2 CE IIT.. If we represent total deformation by Δ i .8) where m is the number of members.. j − 1. j + 1..2 Temperature Loading Due to change in the environmental temperature. 6. the only internal forces present are axial as the external loads are applied at joints..

The application of equation (6. First.calculated by equation (6.3 Fabrication Errors and Camber Sometimes. Now. In some cases. In such instances. 6. Δi = ei (6. Li is the length of member and T is the temperature change. In this case. using equation (6. evaluate the j-th joint deflection u j .9). consider the virtual load system such that only a unit load is considered at the joint either in the horizontal or in the vertical direction. Usually camber is provided in bridge truss so that its bottom chord is curved upward by an equal to its downward deflection of the chord when subjected to dead. Here. 2.8) is shown with the help of few problems. ei is the fabrication error in the length of the member. Now. then determine the actual deformation ( Δ i ) in each member from the equation Δ i = αTLi . 4. 6. also. If deflection of a joint needs to be calculated due to temperature change. the truss joint deflection is calculated by equation (6. Kharagpur .11) where. 3. Δ i = αTLi (6.3. Calculate virtual forces (δPv )ij in each member due to the applied unit load at the j-th joint.10) where α is the co-efficient of thermal expansion member. the truss members are fabricated slightly longer or shorter in order to provide camber to the truss.9).9). calculate the real forces in the member of the truss either by method of joints or by method of sections due to the externally applied forces. ei is taken as positive when the member lengths are fabricated slightly more than the actual length otherwise it is taken as negative. From this PL determine the actual deformation ( Δ i ) in each member from the equation i i . Ei Ai Assume tensile forces as positive and compressive forces as negative. there will be errors in fabricating truss members. where the deflection is sought.4 Procedure for calculating truss deflection 1. Version 2 CE IIT. the change in length of member Δ i is calculated from the relation.

2b along with member forces which are determined by equations of static equilibrium. arrows have been drawn indicating the direction in which the force in the member acts on the joint. The tensile forces are shown as +ve and compressive forces are shown as –ve. Version 2 CE IIT. The reactions are as shown in Fig 6. all members have the same axial rigidity. Assume that. At each end of the bar.2c and evaluate the virtual forces δPv in each member. apply a unit load as shown in Fig 6.1 Find horizontal and vertical deflection of joint C of truss ABCD loaded as shown in Fig. Kharagpur . 6.Example 6.2a. The given truss is statically determinate one. The magnitudes of internal forces are also shown in the respective figures. To evaluate horizontal deflection at ‘C’.

uc . This may be stated as.6. apply a unit load at the joint C as shown in Fig. Kharagpur . The calculations are self explanatory. Version 2 CE IIT. The whole calculations are shown in table 6.1. 1 × u cH = ∑ (δPv ) ic Pi Li Ei Ai (1) For calculating horizontal deflection at C.Horizontal deflection at joint C is calculated with the help of unit load method.2c.

a unit vertical load is applied at joint C of the truss as shown in Fig.m 0 0 60/AE 0 0 60 AE (4) v (1)(u C ) ↓= 60 60 = AE AE Version 2 CE IIT.2 Computational details for vertical deflection at C Member units AB BC CD DA AC Length m 4 4 4 4 4 2 Li / Ai Ei m/kN 4/AE 4/AE 4/AE 4/AE 4 2 /AE Pi kN 0 0 -15 0 5 2 (δPvv ) i kN 0 0 -1 0 0 ∑ (Downwards) (δPv ) i Pi Li Ei Ai kN. v 1× uc = ∑ 6.569 = AE AE (Towards right) Vertical deflection at joint C (δPvv ) ic Pi Li (3) E i Ai In this case.Table 6.1 Computational details for horizontal deflection at C Member units AB BC CD DA AC Length m 4 4 4 4 Li / Ai Ei m/kN 4/AE 4/AE 4/AE 4/AE Pi kN 0 0 -15 0 (δPv ) i kN 0 0 -1 0 (δPv ) i Pi Li Ei Ai kN.m 0 0 60/AE 0 4 2 4 2 /AE 5 2 ∑ 2 40 2 /AE 60 + 40 2 AE (2) H (1)(u C ) →= 60 + 40 2 116. Kharagpur .2d. Table 6.

Example 6. E = 2. The cross sectional areas of the 75000 members in square centimeters are shown in parentheses. Assume 1 α= per °C . 6.00 × 10 5 N / mm 2 .3a due to a) Applied loading as shown in figure. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT.2 Compute the vertical deflection of joint b and horizontal displacement of joint D of the truss shown in Fig. b) Increase in temperature of 250 C in the top chord BD.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

68 0.The complete calculations are shown in the following table.750 +0.12 0.3 Computational details for example 6.13 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1.187 -0. Table 6.5 +37.5 -112.51 -0.m 0 0 0 0 -1.250 -0.35 1.17 0.5 +67.5 +67.416 +0.312 1 0 kN +0.m 1.47 0.750 -0.17 0.0 1.13 0.13 0.47 0 0 0.5 +60.12 0.38 (10-3) kN.16 0.5 -67.13 (10-3) kN.5 +37.0 2.5 +67.002 0 0 0 0 0 0 (δPvH )i Pi Li Ei Ai (δPvv ) i Δ ti (δPvH ) i Δ ti units aB ab bc Bc BD cD cd de De Bb Dd m (10-5) m/kN 5 3 3 5 6 5 3 3 5 4 4 1.0 2.0 1.0 1.5 +67.0 kN -112.68 (10-3) kN.187 +0.416 0 0 (10-3) kN.51 0.38 -0.2 0 4.250 +0.312 -0. Kharagpur .416 +0.562 -0.562 +0.0 1.16 -0.500 +0.0 1.2 Mem Li Li / Ai Ei Pi (δPvv ) i (δPvH ) i Δ ti = αtLi (δPvv ) i Pi Li Ei Ai m 0 0 0 0 0.05 0.312 +0.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 +60.562 +0.m -0.416 +0.0 kN -0.m 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 ∑ Version 2 CE IIT.38 0.76 0.937 +0.

68 mm → Version 2 CE IIT.a) Vertical deflection of joint b Applying principle of virtual work as applied to an ideal pin jointed truss. v 1× ub = ∑ (δPvv ) i Pi Li E i Ai (2) 1) Due to external loads + 0. Then the above equation may be written as.00068 m 1 KN = 0.38 mm ↓ 2) Due to change in temperature t (1)(u b ↓) = ∑ (δPvv ) i Δ ti u b ↓= t u b ↓= − 0. Kharagpur .m = −0. ∑ δ Fj u j = ∑ j =1 i =1 1 m (δ Pv )ij PLi i Ei Ai (1) For calculating vertical deflection at b .13 mm ↑ b) Horizontal displacement of joint ‘D’ 1) Due to externally applied loads (δPvH ) i Pi Li =∑ E i Ai 1× u H u D →= H b + 0.00438 KNm = 0.001125 KN .00068 KNm = 0.00113m 1 KN t u b = 1. apply a unit virtual load δ Fb = 1 .00438 m 1 KN = 4.

2) Due to change in temperature Ht (1)(u D →) = ∑ (δPvH ) i Δ ti Ht u D →= 0.m = 0.001 KN .001m 1 KN Ht u D = 1. The unit load method is applied statically determinate structure for calculating deflections when the truss is subjected to various types of loadings such as: mechanical loading. temperature loading and fabrication errors. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .00 mm → Summary In this chapter the Crotti-Engessor’s theorem which is more general than the Castigliano’s theorem has been introduced.

Module 2 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Matrix Force Method Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .Lesson 7 The Force Method of Analysis: An Introduction Version 2 CE IIT.

the other forces are calculated satisfying the compatibility conditions and force displacement relations. In the displacement method of analysis. method of consistent deformation. flexibility matrix method) 2. 7. compatibility equations are used to evaluate the unknown reactions and internal forces in statically indeterminate structure. Displacement method of analysis (also known as stiffness matrix method). In the force method of analysis. Solving these equations. For example. In the analysis of indeterminate structure it is necessary to satisfy the equilibrium equations (implying that the structure is in equilibrium) compatibility equations (requirement if for assuring the continuity of the structure without any breaks) and force displacement equations (the way in which displacement are related to forces). The displacement-based method is amenable to computer programming and hence the method is being widely used in the modern day structural analysis. consider two beams of identical cross section and span carrying uniformly distributed load as shown in Fig. the number of reactions or the number of internal forces exceeds the number of static equilibrium equations. redundant forces are calculated. Kharagpur .Since twentieth century.1a and Fig. In addition to equilibrium equations. in the case of indeterminate structures either the reactions or the internal forces cannot be determined from equations of statics alone.1b. Once the redundant forces are calculated. It may be recalled that. Force method of analysis (also known as flexibility method of analysis. We have two distinct method of analysis for statically indeterminate structure depending upon how the above equations are satisfied: 1. first force -displacement relations are computed and subsequently equations are written satisfying the equilibrium conditions of the structure. the maximum deflection and the maximum stresses are small as compared to statically determinate structure. indeterminate structures are being widely used for its obvious merits. 7. In this method compatibility equations are written for displacement and rotations (which are calculated by force displacement equations). primary unknown are forces. In this method. After determining the unknown displacements. Version 2 CE IIT. the remaining reactions are evaluated by equations of equilibrium. the primary unknowns are the displacements. In such structures. In general.

In the first case.fixed beam ⎜ ⎜ 384 EI ⎟ is five times smaller than that ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 5wL4 ⎞ of simply supported beam ⎜ ⎜ 384 EI ⎟ . there is redistribution of stresses in the ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ case of redundant structure. Kharagpur .The loads are also the same in both cases. However. The remaining members carry the load. The determinate structural system collapses if one member fails. 7. structure does not collapse suddenly. the ⎛ wL4 ⎞ deflection in the case of fixed. Due to support settlement. Version 2 CE IIT. The maximum bending moment in case wL2 wL2 (which occurs at the supports) as compared to of fixed.fixed beam is 12 8 (at the centre) in case of simply supported beam. Also. the beam is fixed at both ends and thus is statically indeterminate. The simply supported beam in Fig. Hence if one member fails. Also in the present case. there are disadvantages in using indeterminate structures.1b is a statically determinate structure.

there will be additional stresses in the case of redundant structures where as determinate structures are not affected by support settlement. The beam is statically indeterminate i. temperature change and fabrication errors etc.1 Introduction. Since flexibility method requires deflection of statically determinate structure. To solve the above problem by force method proceeds as follows. 7. The flexibility method of analysis or force method of analysis (or method of consistent deformation) was originally developed by J. Able to state advantages and limitations of force method of analysis.2a. b) Stresses are developed in indeterminate structure due to support settlements..2 Simple Example Consider a propped cantilever beam (of constant flexural rigidity EI . elastic properties are also required. which is carrying uniformly distributed load of w kN/m. a table of formulas for deflections for various load cases and boundary conditions is also given in this lesson for ready use. The analysis of indeterminate structure differs mainly in two aspects as compared to determinate structure. However it is very useful for hand computation. Mohr in 1874. Maxwell in 1864 and O. Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be 1. In this lesson. 3. a) To evaluate stresses in indeterminate structures. Initially the method is introduced with the help of a simple problem and subsequently it is discussed in detail. Further. Able to analyse statically indeterminate structure of degree one. apart from sectional properties (area of cross section and moment of inertia). this method would be applied to statically indeterminate beams. its reaction cannot be evaluated from equations of statics alone. 7. Able to solve the problem by either treating reaction or moment as redundant. as shown in Fig. 7. and span L ). Able to draw shear force and bending moment diagram for statically indeterminate beams. Version 2 CE IIT. The force method of analysis is not convenient for computer programming as the choice of redundant is not unique. In the next lesson. 2.e. a general introduction is given to the force method of analysis of indeterminate structure is given. C. Kharagpur . 4. the bandwidth of the flexibility matrix in the force method is much larger than the stiffness method.

Kharagpur . it will be shown how to attack the problem by treating M A as redundant. Selecting RB as the redundant. Version 2 CE IIT. Identify the reaction. the procedure is illustrated. Subsequently. which can be treated as redundant in the analysis. In the present case it is one.1) Determine the degree of statical indeterminacy. In the present case RB or M A can be treated as redundant.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

7.Solution with RB as the redundant 2) After selecting RB as redundant.2b) From the principle of superposition. the deflection at B . Thus.1a) (7. The released structure with the external loads is also sometimes referred as the primary structure. apply uniformly distributed load w and the redundant reaction RB as shown in Fig. (Δ B ) .2b. (Δ B )1 and (Δ B )2 are given by. calculate the deflection at B due to unit load at B acting in the direction of RB and is denoted by (Δ B )2 as shown in In the present case the positive direction of redundant and deflections are assumed to act upwards. Now on the resulting cantilever beam (please note that the released structure is statically determinate structure). Kharagpur . which is denoted by (Δ B )1 as shown in Fig.1b) 3) Now release the restraint corresponding to redundant reaction RB . First. Since RB is redundant. 7. is the sum of deflection due to uniformly distributed load (Δ B )1 and deflection R B (Δ B )2 due to redundant RB . R A = wL − RB and MA = wL2 − RB L 2 (7. 4) The deflection at B of the released structure (cantilever beam. in the present case) due to uniformly distributed load and due to redundant reaction RB could be easily computed from any one of the known methods (moment area method or unit load method). express all other reactions in terms of the redundant RB . (Δ B )1 = − wL and 4 8 EI L3 3EI (7. For the present case. Hence. Releasing restraint in the present case amounts to removing the support at B . This can be accomplished with the help of equilibrium equations.2a) (Δ B )2 = − (7.2c. consider only uniformly distributed load and evaluate deflection at B . However it is easier to compute deflection at B due to uniformly distributed load and RB in two steps. Version 2 CE IIT.

the redundant RB can be evaluated as. other reaction components can be easily determined from equations of statics. Hence. For the present case.3a) Solving the above equation. Thus.3b) Substituting values of (Δ B )1 and (Δ B )2 . Version 2 CE IIT. in the original structure. 6) Once RB is evaluated. MA = wL2 8 3wL 5wL = 8 8 (7. Solution with M A as redundant 1) As stated earlier. the value of RB is obtained as.4a) R A = wL − (7.3d) The displacement at B due to unit load acting at B in the direction of RB is known as the flexibility coefficient and is denoted in this course by a BB .4b) 7) Once the reaction components are determined.2c) 5) It is observed that. Hence the compatibility equation can be written as. the bending moment and shear force diagram are shown in Fig. Kharagpur .Δ B = (Δ B )1 + RB (Δ B )2 (7. 7. RB = − (Δ B )1 (Δ B )2 (7. RB = 3wL 8 (7. the deflection at B is zero. In this section the above problem is solved by taking M A as redundant reaction. in the above problem instead of RB one could choose M A as the redundant reaction. the bending moment and shear force at any cross section of the beam can be easily evaluated from equations of static equilibrium.2e. Δ B = (Δ B )1 + R B (Δ B )2 = 0 (7. in the force method the choice of redundant is arbitrary.

This can be done by replacing the fixed support at A by a pin. Kharagpur . Since M A is redundant. due to two different cases may be written as. 7. First consider only uniformly distributed load (see Fig. 7. the slope at A .3c.3b) and compute slope at A . (θ A )1 from force displacement relations. 3) Calculate the slope at A due to external loading and redundant moment M A . care must be taken to see that the released structure is stable and statically determinate.3b and Fig.3c. Taking anticlockwise moment and anticlockwise rotations as positive. i. Version 2 CE IIT. While releasing the structure.2) Now release (remove) the restraint corresponding to redundant reaction M A . calculate the slope at A due to unit moment acting at A in the direction of M A which is denoted by (θ A )2 as in Fig. This is done in two steps as shown in Fig.7.e. 7.

(θ A )1 = − (θ A )2 = wL3 24 EI (7.6b) Version 2 CE IIT. the value of M A is calculated as MA = − − wL3 L 24 EI 3EI wL2 8 (7.5a) L 3EI (7. the slope at A . RA = RB = 5wL 8 3wL 8 (7. (θ A ) = (θ A )1 + M A (θ A )2 = 0 Solving for M A . Hence M A = (θ A )1 + M A (θ A )2 (7.5e). it is seen that the slope at A is zero. Kharagpur . Hence the required compatibility equation or geometric condition may be written as. (7.5e) Substituting the values of (θ A )1 . θ A is the sum of slopes (θ A )1 due to external load and M A (θ A )2 due to redundant moment M A .5b) From the principle of superposition.6a) (7. Thus.5d) MA = − (θ A )1 (θ A )2 (7.5c) 4) From the geometry of the original structure. and (θ A )2 in equation (7.5f) MA = 5) Now other reaction components can be evaluated using equilibrium equations.

If the redundant force is an internal one.3 Summary The force method of analysis may be summarized as follows. For example. The compatibility conditions for the redundant internal forces are the continuity conditions. evaluate all other reactions and internal forces from the equilibrium equations. Version 2 CE IIT. calculate deflection corresponding to redundant action. Step 1. calculate the total deflection due to applied loading and the redundant force by applying the principle of superposition.7. Step 3. By choosing RB as the redundant. The total number of equations equals the number of unknown redundants.e. release the redundants one by one so that a statically determinate structure is obtained.e. then releasing the structure amounts to introducing discontinuity in the corresponding member. In this step. As in the above propped cantilever beam. This computed total deflection along the redundant action must be compatible with the actual boundary conditions of the original structure. That would be discussed further in subsequent lessons. Hence. either reactions RB or M A can be treated as unknown redundant. Kharagpur . the deflections due to redundant force can be obtained by simply multiplying the unknown redundant with the deflection obtained from applying unit value of force. Since the method of superposition is valid. Determine the degree of statical indeterminacy of the structure. If there is more than one redundant force then one could construct a set of equations with redundant forces as unknowns and flexibility coefficients as coefficients of the equations. apply a unit load in the direction of redundant force and determine the corresponding deflection. In the last step. Now. truss and frames or combination of these structures. a simply supported beam) by turning the fixed support into a hinged one. Releasing the redundant reactions means removing constraint corresponding to that redundant reaction. Step 4. i. the deflection corresponding to the redundant reaction is zero then the total deflection must be equal to zero. It is applicable for all general type of loadings. if in the original structure. The method of superposition or the force method as discussed above is applied to any type of structures. Similarly by choosing moment as the redundant reaction. beams. Identify the redundants that would be treated as unknowns in the analysis. the propped cantilever beam can be converted into a cantilever beam (statically determinate) by releasing the roller support. Deflection due to redundant force cannot be evaluated without knowing the magnitude of the redundant force. the indeterminate structure can be released into a determinate structure (i. Step 2. Now. separately due to applied loading and redundant forces from force displacement relations.

Kharagpur .The deflection of statically determinate structure can be obtained by unit-load method or by moment-area theorem or by any method known to the reader. However the students are strongly advised to practice deriving them instead of simply memorizing them. These values will be of help in solving the problems of the present and subsequent lessons. However. the deflections of few prismatic beams with different boundary conditions and subjected to simple loadings are given in Fig. 7. Version 2 CE IIT.4.

1 A continuous beam ABC is carrying a uniformly distributed load of 1 kN/m in addition to a concentrated load of 10 kN as shown in Fig. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . Assume EI to be constant for all members.5a.Example 7. Draw bending moment and shear force diagram.7.

84 − EI EI −3229. Now. This is accomplished by unit load method.5c). 7.17 EI (1) In the next step. Thus (see Fig. deflection at B in the primary structure due to redundant RB is.67 × RB EI (3) In the actual structure. compute the deflection at B. the deflection at B is zero.33 1145. RBy as the redundant.5b. Hence. Kharagpur . The primary structure is a simply supported beam as shown in Fig.It is observed that the continuous beam is statically indeterminate to first degree. ΔL = ΔL = −2083. L3 166. apply a unit load at B in the direction of RBy (upwards) and calculate the deflection at B of the following structure. in the released structure due to uniformly distributed load and concentrated load.7. (2) ΔB = 166. Choose the reaction at B. Thus.67 a11 = = 48 EI EI Now. the compatibility equation may be written as Version 2 CE IIT.

EI to be constant throughout.5e and Fig. Kharagpur .8125 kN RB = 2.17 166.2 A propped cantilever beam AB is subjected to a concentrated load of 60 kN at 3m from end A as shown in Fig.375 kN The other two reactions are calculated by static equilibrium equations (vide Fig.5d) RA = 7. Example 7. 7. (5) RB = 19. Draw the bending moment and shear force diagrams by the force method. 7.6a. 7. Assume that the flexural rigidity of the beam.5f respectively.ΔL + ΔB = 0 Substituting for Δ L and Δ B in equation (4). Version 2 CE IIT.67 + RB = 0 EI EI Thus.8125 kN The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in Fig. 7. (4) −3229.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

After releasing the redundant. the determinate structure. Kharagpur . a cantilever beam in this case is obtained. R1 as the redundant. The deflection of the released structure is. ( Δ L )1 = − 60 × 33 60 × 32 × 6 − 3EI 2 EI −2160 EI ( Δ L )1 = (1) The deflection at point B due to unit load applied in the direction of redundant R1 is (vide Fig 7. Choose the reaction at B .The given problem is statically indeterminate to first degree.6b.6c) Version 2 CE IIT. The cantilever beam with the applied loading is chosen in Fig 7.

The advantages and limitations of flexibility matrix method have been discussed.99 kN. Only simple indeterminate beam problem has been solved to illustrate the procedure. 7.11 kN R3 = 99. R2 = 51.89 kN (5) The vertical reaction and fixed end moment at A can be determined from equations of statics.6d and Fig. the compatibility condition for the problem may be written as. 7.6e respectively.m (6) Shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in Fig. Version 2 CE IIT.a11 = 93 243 = 3EI EI (2) Now the deflection at B due to redundant R1 is (Δ )1 = 243R1 EI (3) From the original structure it is seen that the deflection at B is zero. Kharagpur . R1 = 2160 243 = 8. The principle of superposition has been used to solve statically indeterminate problems. − 2160 243R1 + =0 EI EI (4) Solving equation (4). the redundant R1 is obtained. Hence. Thus. Summary In this lesson flexibility matrix method or the method of consistent deformation or the force method of analysing statically indeterminate structures has been introduced with the help of simple problems.

Kharagpur .Module 2 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Matrix Force Method Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .Lesson 8 The Force Method of Analysis: Beams Version 2 CE IIT.

consider a two-span continuous beam as shown in Fig. a general procedure for analyzing statically indeterminate beams is discussed. Solve statically indeterminate beams of degree more than one. In the present lesson. To compute reactions at all the supports. then the approach presented in the previous example needs to be organized properly. beams. were considered. 8. 8. it is required to identify two redundant reaction components. which need be released to make the beam statically determinate. the beam is statically indeterminate to second degree. Version 2 CE IIT. If the structure is statically indeterminate to a degree more than one. a general introduction to the force method of analysis is given. 2. To solve the problem in matrix notation.1 Introduction In the last lesson. 8. Only. To compute internal resisting bending moment at any section of the continuous beam. Kharagpur . 4.1a. 3. Since. which are statically indeterminate to first degree.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. The flexural rigidity of this continuous beam is assumed to be constant and is taken as EI .2 Formalization of Procedure Towards this end.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

The deflection of primary structure at B and C due to applied loading is denoted by (Δ L )1 and (Δ L )2 respectively.8.1b. a 21 at C .1a) (Δ L )2 = − 7 wL 24 EI (8. It may be recalled that the flexibility coefficient a ij is the deflection at i due to unit value of force applied at j . a 22 as shown in Fig 8. it should be kept in mind that the positive sense of the redundant can be chosen arbitrarily. a11 at B .2a) (8. the subscript 1 and 2 represent. Now deflections of the primary structure (released structure) at B and C due to redundant R2 is (Δ R )12 = a12 (Δ R )22 = a 22 R2 R2 (8. 8. and deflection.1c. (Δ L )1 = − wL 4 8 EI − 4 7 PL3 12 EI − 27 PL3 16 EI (8. as shown in Fig.3b) Version 2 CE IIT. Now deflections at B and C of the given released structure due to redundant R1 are. In the present and subsequent lessons of this module. apply unit load in the direction of redundant R2 and compute deflection at B (point 1).2b) In the second step. in the first step apply a unit load in the direction of R1 and compute deflection. Kharagpur . The deflection at B and C due to external loading can be computed easily. The released structure (statically determinate structure) with applied loading is shown in Fig. In the present case R A (= R1 ) and RB (= R2 ) respectively. (Δ R )11 = a11 (Δ R )21 = a 21 R1 R1 (8. However. locations of redundant reactions released. the deflections and the reactions are taken to be positive in the upward direction. it is required to know deflection of the released structure at B and C due to external loading and due to redundants.1b) In fact. The deflection of the point of application of the redundant should likewise be considered positive when acting in the same sense. Since redundants R1 and R2 are not known.3a) (8. For writing compatibility equations at B and C .1d. a12 and deflection at C . Throughout this module (Δ L )i notation is used to denote deflection at i th redundant due to applied loads on the determinate structure.The redundant reactions at A and B are denoted by R1 and R2 respectively.

4a) (8. one could obtain the values of redundants.5a) (8. ⎧( Δ ) ⎫ ⎡a {( Δ ) } = ⎪( Δ ) ⎪ . the compatibility condition can be written as. {R} = −[A]−1 {Δ L } (8. ⎧ (Δ L )1 ⎫ ⎡ a11 + ⎨ (Δ L )2 ⎬ ⎢a 21 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ a12 ⎤ ⎧ R1 ⎫ ⎧0⎫ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ a 22 ⎥ ⎩ R2 ⎭ ⎩0⎭ ⎦ (8.5b) may be written in matrix notation as follows. [ A] = ⎢a ⎨ ⎬ L 1 L 1 (8. Kharagpur .It is observed that. Now the total deflections at B and C of the primary structure due to applied external loading and redundants R1 and R2 is.6b) 11 21 ⎪ ⎩ L 2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ a12 ⎤ ⎧ R1 ⎫ ⎥ and {R} = ⎨ R ⎬ a22 ⎦ ⎩ 2⎭ Solving the above set of algebraic equations. 2) Displacement at B due to the redundant reaction R1 acting in the positive direction at B (point 1) and 3) Displacement at B due to the redundant reaction R2 acting in the positive direction at C .7) Version 2 CE IIT.6a) {(Δ L )1 } + [A]{R} = {0} In which. The second equation (8. Δ 1 = (Δ L )1 + a11 R1 + a12 R2 Δ 2 = (Δ L )2 + a 21 R1 + a 22 R2 (8.4a) represents the total displacement at B and is obtained by superposition of three terms: 1) Deflection at B due to actual load acting on the statically determinate structure. in the actual structure. R1 and R2 .4b) similarly represents the total deflection at C . the deflections at joints B and C is zero. From the physics of the problem.4b) The equation (8.5a) and (8.5b) The equation (8. Δ 1 = (Δ L )1 + a11 R1 + a12 R2 = 0 Δ 2 = (Δ L )2 + a 21 R1 + a 22 R2 = 0 (8.

the structure is indeterminate to second degree and the size of flexibility matrix is 2 × 2 .1a) and (8.In the above equation the vectors {Δ L } contains the displacement values of the primary structure at point 1 and 2. To demonstrate the procedure to evaluate deflection. a11 = L3 .8c) The negative sign indicates that both deflections are downwards.7) the inverse of the −1 flexibility matrix is denoted by [A] .8a) Now.8e) Similarly when the unit load is acting at C .1a. with loading as given below w=w. 8. In the above example. Thus. In equation (8. a12 = 5L3 .8f) The flexibility matrix can be written as. consider the problem given in Fig. then the flexibility matrix is of the order n × n . [A] = L3 6 EI ⎡2 5 ⎤ ⎢5 16⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (8.8b) 7 wL4 27 wL4 95wL4 =− − =− 24 EI 16 EI 48EI (8. Hence the vector {Δ L } is given by wL4 {Δ L } = − 48 EI ⎧34⎫ ⎨ ⎬ ⎩95⎭ (8.8d) The flexibility matrix is determined from referring to figures 8. 3EI a 21 = 5 L3 6 EI (8. when the unit load corresponding to R1 is acting at B . the deflections are. Then.1c and 8. the deflection (Δ L )1 and (Δ L )2 of the released structure can be evaluated from the equations (8. [A] is the flexibility matrix and {R} is column vector of redundants required to be evaluated.8g) Version 2 CE IIT.1d. if the structure is redundant to a degree n . P = wL (8. In general.1b) respectively. Kharagpur . (Δ L )1 = − wL (Δ L )2 4 8 EI − 7 wL4 17 wL4 =− 12 EI 24 EI (8. 6 EI a 22 = 8L3 3EI (8.

R1 = ⎡ 16 − 5⎤ ⎧34⎫ ⎢− 5 2 ⎥ ⎨95⎬ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ (8.2a. Example 8. Thus. Kharagpur .7) the redundants are evaluated. Thus.8i) 69 20 wL and R2 = wL 56 56 Once the redundants are evaluated. [A]−1 = 6 EI ⎡ 3 ⎢ 16 − 5⎤ ⎥ 7 L ⎣− 5 2 ⎦ (8. Version 2 CE IIT. Assume EI to be constant throughout. the other reaction components can be evaluated by static equations of equilibrium.The inverse of the flexibility matrix can be evaluated by any of the standard method. ⎧ R1 ⎫ 6 EI wL4 ⎨ ⎬= 3 × ⎩ R2 ⎭ 7 L 48 EI Hence.8h) Now using equation (8. 8.1 Calculate the support reactions in the continuous beam ABC due to loading as shown in Fig.

In the present case. and R2 = 3.875 =− EI (1) For the present problem the flexibility matrix is.2b.m Version 2 CE IIT. (Δ L )1 = − 819.609kN Using equations of static equilibrium.Select two reactions viz.755 kN. R1 = 10.75 ⎣− 312. a11 R1 + a12 R2 + (Δ L )1 = 0 a 21 R1 + a 22 R2 + (Δ L )2 = 0 (3) ⎧ R1 ⎫ 3EI ⎡ 1000 − 312.16 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ ⎩2311. since the given beam is statically indeterminate to second degree. the deflections (Δ L )1 .5⎤ 1 × ⎨ ⎬= ⎢ 125 ⎥ EI ⎦ ⎩ R2 ⎭ 27343.16 and (Δ L )2 EI 2311. Thus the compatibility conditions for the problem may be written as. The primary structure with a given loading is shown in Fig.5 ⎧ 819. Thus.771 kN and R4 = −0.620 kN R3 = 0. In this case the primary structure is a cantilever beam AC . a11 = a12 = 125 3EI 625 6 EI a 21 = 625 6 EI 1000 3EI a 22 = (2) In the actual problem the displacements at B and C are zero. Kharagpur . and (Δ L )2 of the released structure at B and C can be readily calculated by moment-area method. at B(R1 ) and C (R2 ) as redundants. 8.875⎭ (5) Substituting the value of E and I in the above equation.

Kharagpur . The positive directions of the selected redundants are shown in Fig.2 A clamped beam AB of constant flexural rigidity is shown in Fig.3b. calculate deflection at B due to only applied loading. Now. Let (Δ L )1 be the transverse deflection at B and (Δ L )2 be the slope at B due to external loading. Version 2 CE IIT. 8.Example 8. The R1 is assumed to be positive in the upward direction and R2 is assumed to be positive in the counterclockwise direction. Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams by force method.3a. Select vertical reaction (R1 ) and the support moment (R2 ) at B as the redundants. The beam is subjected to a uniform distributed load of w kN/m and a central concentrated moment M = wL2 kN.m . The primary structure in this case is a cantilever beam which could be obtained by releasing the redundants R1 and R2 . 8.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

The deflection (Δ L )1 and (Δ L )2 of the released structure can be evaluated from unit load method. Thus.3d). L3 a11 = 3EI L2 and a 21 = 2 EI (4) Similarly. (Δ L )1 = − wL 4 8EI − 3wL4 wL4 =− 8EI 2 EI (1) and (Δ L )2 = − wL 3 6 EI − wL3 2 wL3 =− 2 EI 3EI (2) The negative sign indicates that clockwise.3c. 8. one could evaluate flexibility coefficients a12 and a 22 as shown in Fig. applying unit load in the direction of redundant R2 . Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT. Thus. 8. [A] = L ⎡2 L2 ⎢ 6 EI ⎣ 3L 3L ⎤ ⎥ 6⎦ (6) The inverse of flexibility matrix is formulated as. Hence the vector {Δ L } is given by (Δ L )1 is downwards and rotation (Δ L )2 is wL3 {Δ L } = − 6 EI ⎧3L ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ ⎩4⎭ (3) The flexibility matrix is evaluated by first applying unit load along redundant R1 and determining the deflections a11 and a 21 corresponding to redundants R1 and R2 respectively (see Fig. a12 = L2 2 EI and a 22 = L EI (5) Now the flexibility matrix is formulated as.

Summary In this lesson. Hence.[A]−1 = 6 EI ⎡ 3 ⎢ − 3L ⎤ 6 ⎥ 3L ⎣− 3L 2 L2 ⎦ The redundants are evaluated from equation (8. Towards this end matrix notation is adopted. wL2 R4 = M A = − and R1 = R A = − wL (8) 6 The bending moment and shear force diagrams are shown in Fig.3g and Fig. statically indeterminate beams of degree more than one is solved systematically using flexibility matrix method. reactions are calculated and bending moment diagrams are drawn. Kharagpur . − 3L ⎤ ⎛ wL3 ⎞⎧3L ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ 6 EI ⎡ 6 ⎟⎨ ⎬ =− 3 ⎢ ⎨ ⎬ ⎥ ×⎜− 3L ⎣− 3L 2 L2 ⎦ ⎜ 6 EI ⎟⎩ 4 ⎭ ⎩ R2 ⎭ ⎠ ⎝ = w ⎧ 6L ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ 3 ⎩− L2 ⎭ R1 = 2wL and R2 = − wL2 3 (7) The other two reactions ( R3 and R4 ) can be evaluated by equations of statics. Version 2 CE IIT. After analyzing the continuous beam. Thus.3h respectively.8. 8. Few illustrative examples are solved to illustrate the procedure.7).

Kharagpur .Module 2 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Matrix Force Method Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .Lesson 9 The Force Method of Analysis: Beams (Continued) Version 2 CE IIT.

9. 3. Sketch the deflected shape of the member.1 Introduction In the last lesson. Calculate additional stresses developed in statically indeterminate structures due to support settlements. Kharagpur .Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. in case of determinate structures no stresses are developed due to settlement of supports. it is required to make necessary provision for future unequal vertical settlement of supports or probable rotation of supports. In the design of indeterminate structure. construction of determinate structures is easier than indeterminate structures. 4. It is however. Analyse continuous beams which are supported on yielding supports. the force method of analysis of statically indeterminate beams subjected to external loads was discussed.1). The whole structure displaces as a rigid body (see Fig. 2. Version 2 CE IIT. Hence. It may be observed here that. assumed in the analysis that the supports are unyielding and the temperature remains constant. Draw banding moment and shear force diagrams for indeterminate beams undergoing support settlements. 9.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

support settlement can also be easily included in the force method of analysis. In the present case. It is assumed that deflections and reactions are positive in the upward direction. The equation (9. Hence. Since.2a) (9. there is no external force system acting on the structures. In this example.2).1a) and (9. as shown in Fig. Version 2 CE IIT. when there was no support settlement (vide section 8. choosing reaction at B and C as the redundant.2. and (Δ L )1 . the support B settles by an amount Δ b in the direction of the redundant R1 .2.The statically determinate structure changes their shape due to support settlement and this would in turn induce reactions and stresses in the system. the support settlement Δ b must be negative as it is displaces downwards. Kharagpur .1b) may be written in compact form as. R1 and R2 are the redundants at B and C respectively. This problem was solved in the last lesson.2 Support Displacements Consider a two span continuous beam. Δ1 = (Δ L )1 + a11 R1 + a12 R2 Δ 2 = (Δ L )2 + a 21 R1 + a 22 R2 (9. In section 8. 9. the total deflection of the primary structure due to applied external loading and redundant R1 and R2 is written as. concerning the effect of support settlement are solved to illustrate the procedure. these forces form a balanced force system by themselves and the structure would be in equilibrium. 9.1b) wherein.1a) (9.2b) Δ2 = 0 It must be noted that. and (Δ L )2 are the deflections of the primary structure at B and C due to applied loading. This support movement can be readily incorporated in the force method of analysis. Assume the flexural rigidity of this beam to be constant throughout. the support B is assumed to have settled by an amount Δ b as shown in the figure. From the physics of the problem the total deflection at the support may be equal to the given amount of support movement. Δ1 = −Δ b (9. the compatibility condition may be written as. In this lesson few problems. The effect of temperature changes. which is statically indeterminate to second degree.

3 Temperature Stresses Internal stresses are also developed in the statically indeterminate structure if the free movement of the joint is prevented.5(a) and (b). then the beam will deform as shown by dotted lines.5c. Now.5b) Version 2 CE IIT. α is the coefficient of thermal expansion of the material and T is the change in temperature.⎡ a11 ⎢a ⎣ 21 a12 ⎤ ⎧ R1 ⎫ ⎧ Δ1 ⎫ ⎧ (Δ L )1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬−⎨ ⎬ a 22 ⎥ ⎩ R2 ⎭ ⎩Δ 2 ⎭ ⎩(Δ L )2 ⎭ ⎦ (9.3. However if the end B is restrained to move as shown in Fig 9. T1 at the top and T2 at the bottom as shown in Fig. The deformation of this small element is shown in Fig. the top surface elongates by Δ T1 = α T1 dx (9. subjected to a different temperature. one could evaluate redundants R1 and R2 due to external loading and support settlement. Δ T is the change in the length of the member due to temperature change. If the top temperature T1 is higher than the bottom beam surface temperature T2 . consider a cantilever beam AB as shown in Fig. Next consider a cantilever beam AB .3b) Solving the above algebraic equations. For example. 9. Due to rise in temperature T1 °C on the top surface. The elongation (the change in the length of the member) and increase in temperature are taken as positive. 9. then the length of the member is increased by an amount ΔT = α L T (9. Consider a small element dx at a distance x from A .4.5a) Similarly due to rise in temperature T2 . then the beam deformation is prevented. 9. Kharagpur . This would develop an internal axial force and reactions in the indeterminate structure. the bottom fibers elongate by Δ T2 = α T2 dx (9.3a) [A]{R} = {Δ}− {(Δ L )} (9. 9.4) In which. if the temperature of the member is increased uniformly throughout its length.

Now the compatibility equation for statically indeterminate structure of order two can be written as ⎡ a11 ⎢a ⎣ 21 a12 ⎤ ⎧ R1 ⎫ ⎧ Δ1 ⎫ ⎧ (Δ L )1 ⎫ ⎧ (Δ T )1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬−⎨ ⎬−⎨ ⎬ a22 ⎥ ⎩ R2 ⎭ ⎩Δ 2 ⎭ ⎩(Δ L )2 ⎭ ⎩(Δ T )2 ⎭ ⎦ [A]{R} = {Δ}− {(Δ L )}− {(ΔT )} wherein.6) where. then the differential change in temperature would develop support bending moment and reactions.1 Calculate the support reactions in the continuous beam ABC (see Fig. E = 200 GPa and I = 4 × 10−4 m 4 .7) can be solved to obtain the unknown redundants. 9.6a) having constant flexural rigidity EI throughout. Calculate the deflection corresponding to redundant actions separately due to applied loading. Version 2 CE IIT. Example 9. due to vertical settlement of the support B by 5 mm as shown in the figure. {Δ L } is the vector of displacements in the primary corresponding to redundant reactions due to external loads. Kharagpur . The effect of temperature can also be included in the force method of analysis quite easily. Equation (9.4. If the end B is fixed as in Fig. due to rise in temperature (either uniform or differential change in temperature) and redundant forces. 9. the relative angle of rotation dθ between two cross sections at a distance dx is given by dθ = α (T1 − T2 )dx d (9. d is the depth of beam.As the cross section of the member remains plane. (9. This is done as follows. The deflection in the primary structure due to temperature changes is denoted by (Δ T )i which denotes the deflection corresponding to i th redundant due to temperature change in the determinate structure.7) structure is the {ΔT } displacements in the primary structure corresponding to redundant reactions and due to temperature changes and {Δ} is the matrix of support displacements corresponding to redundant actions.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

a11 R1 + a12 R2 = −5 × 10 −3 (3) a21 R1 + a22 R2 = 0 The redundant reactions are. Kharagpur . a12 = 625 6 EI and a 22 = 1000 3EI (2) The compatibility condition for the problem may be written as. Version 2 CE IIT. the redundant reactions are evaluated. The first column of flexibility matrix is evaluated by first applying unit load along the redundant R1 and determining deflections a11 and a 21 respectively as shown in Fig. one could evaluate flexibility coefficients a12 and a 22 (see Fig. −3 ⎧ R1 ⎫ −1 ⎧− 5 × 10 ⎫ = [A] ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ 0 ⎩ R2 ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ (4) ⎧ R1 ⎫ 3EI ⎡ 1000 − 312.6b. R1 = −43.5⎤ ⎧− 5 × 10 −3 ⎫ = ×⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎢ 125 ⎥ ⎩ 0 ⎦ ⎩ R2 ⎭ 27343.As the given beam is statically indeterminate to second degree.71 kN R1 acts downwards and R2 acts in the positive direction of the reaction i.6c). upwards. On the determinate beam only redundant reactions are acting.75 ⎣− 312.e. The remaining two reactions R3 and R4 are evaluated by the equations of equilibrium. In this case the cantilever beam AC is the basic determinate beam (primary structure).885 kN and R2 = 13.5 ⎭ (5) Substituting the values of E and I in the above equation. a11 = a 21 = 53 125 = 3EI 3EI 125 25 625 + ×5 = 3EI 2 EI 6 EI (1) Simply by applying the unit load in the direction of redundant R2 . 9. 9. choose reaction at B ( R1 ) and C ( R2 ) as the redundants.

7a. Assume.6d and 9.325 kN. A = 0 ⇒ R4 + 5 × R1 + 10 × R2 = 0 R4 = 82.35 × 10 −3 m 4 .6e respectively. 0. E = 200GPa .m (counter clockwise) The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in Figs. 9.2 Compute reactions and draw bending moment diagram for the continuous beam ABCD loaded as shown in Fig. I = 1. Kharagpur . 9. 0. Version 2 CE IIT.∑F Hence R3 = 30. Example 9. Support C .175 kN y = 0 ⇒ R1 + R2 + R3 = 0 ∑M Solving for R4 .005 m vertically downwards. Support B . due to following support movements.01 m vertically downwards.

Select vertical reactions at B(R1 ) and C (R2 ) as redundants.7b.The given beam is statically indeterminate to second degree. The deflection (Δ L )1 and (Δ L )2 of the released structure are evaluated from unit load method. Kharagpur . The primary structure in this case is a simply supported beam AD as shown in Fig. Thus. Version 2 CE IIT. 9.

01 Solving for redundant reactions. a11 = 444. Thus. 9.005 (3) − 0.169 + a11 R1 + a12 R2 = −0.7c. ⎧ R1 ⎫ ⎡ 444. Kharagpur .89 EI (2) a 22 = a12 = 444.169 m 200 × 10 9 × 1.44 EI a 21 = 388.48kN and R2 = 40.44 EI 388.169 + a21 R1 + a22 R2 = −0.44 ⎦ ⎩0.48 ⎣− 388.159⎭ (4) Substituting the value of E and I in the above equation. by first applying unit load corresponding to the redundant R1 and determining deflections a11 and a 21 respectively as shown in Fig.(Δ L )1 = − 45833.89⎤ ⎧0. i.89 444.35 × 10 −3 3 (Δ L )2 = − 45833.44 − 388. R1 = 64.33 × 10 EI = −0. − 0.169 m (1) The flexibility matrix is evaluated as explained in the previous example.33 × 10 EI 3 = − 45833.174 kN Version 2 CE IIT.164⎫ EI ⎨ ⎬= ⎬ ⎢ ⎥×⎨ ⎩ R2 ⎭ 46291.33 × 10 3 = −0.89 EI In this case the compatibility equations may be written as.e.

The remaining two reactions R3 and R4 are evaluated by the equations of static equilibrium. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT.7e and 9.Both R1 and R2 acts in the upward direction.622 kN The shear force and bending moment diagrams are now constructed and are shown in Figs.724 kN ∑F Hence y =0 R3 + R1 + R2 + R4 − 5 × 30 = 0 (5) R3 = 18. 9.7f respectively. ∑M Hence A =0 10 × R1 + 20 × R2 + 30 × R4 − 5 × 30 ×15 = 0 R4 = 26.

Version 2 CE IIT. the effect of support settlements on the reactions and stresses in the case of indeterminate structures is discussed.Summary In this lesson. A formula is derived for calculating stresses due to temperature changes in the case of statically indeterminate beams. Kharagpur . The procedure to calculate additional stresses caused due to yielding of supports is explained with the help of an example.

Kharagpur .Module 2 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Matrix Force Method Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .Lesson 10 The Force Method of Analysis: Trusses Version 2 CE IIT.

10. Example 10. the resulting truss is statically determinate and stable.1 Determine the forces in the truss shown in Fig. Following examples illustrate the analysis procedure. Analyse the planar truss for camber and lack of fit of a member. Finally a truss is both internally and externally indeterminate if it has more than three reaction components and also has more than (2 j − 3) members.3). Analyse the planar truss for temperature loads 4. The redundants must be so selected that when the restraint corresponding to the redundants are removed. the degree of indeterminacy can be determined from inspection. Whenever. one could use the following formula to evaluate the static indeterminacy of static planar truss (see also section 1. The indeterminacy in the truss may be external. Calculate degree of statical indeterminacy of a planar truss 2.1 Introduction The truss is said to be statically indeterminate when the total number of reactions and member axial forces exceed the total number of static equilibrium equations.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. All the members have same axial rigidity. Select redundant as the reaction component in excess of three and the rest from the member forces. A truss is said to be internally indeterminate if it has exactly three reaction components and more than (2 j − 3) members. However. this becomes tedious. Determine the degree of static indeterminacy of the structure.1a by force method. Identify the number of redundant reactions equal to the degree of indeterminacy. Analyse the indeterminate planar truss for external loads 3. A planar truss is said to be externally indeterminate if the number of reactions exceeds the number of static equilibrium equations available (three in the present case) and has exactly (2 j − 3) members. The basic method for the analysis of indeterminate truss by force method is similar to the indeterminate beam analysis discussed in the previous lessons. In the simple planar truss structures.10. j and r are number of members. one could choose redundant actions completely from member forces.1) where m. i = (m + r ) − 2 j (10. Version 2 CE IIT. internal or both. joints and unknown reaction components respectively. Kharagpur .

Select the bar force FAD in member AD as the redundant. Now cut the member AD to obtain the released structure as shown in Fig.1b.The plane truss shown in Fig.1a is statically indeterminate to first degree. the reactions can be evaluated from the equations of statics alone.e. The truss is externally determinate i. The cut redundant member AD remains in the truss as its deformations need to be included in the calculation of displacements in the released structure. Version 2 CE IIT. The redundant (FAD ) consists of the pair of forces acting on the released structure. Kharagpur .10. 10.

Kharagpur . The first step in the force method is to calculate displacement (Δ L ) corresponding to redundant bar force FAD in the released structure due to applied external loading. This can be readily done by unit-load method. Version 2 CE IIT.Evaluate reactions of the truss by static equations of equilibrium. When the member cut ends are displaced towards one another then it is taken as positive. RCy = −5 kN (downwards) RCx = −5 kN (downwards) RDy = 15 kN(upwards) (1) Please note that the member tensile axial force is taken as positive and horizontal reaction is taken as positive to the right and vertical reaction is taken as positive when acting upwards.

Version 2 CE IIT. apply a real unit load along the redundant FAD and calculate displacement a11 by unit load method.03 = AE Li AE (2) In the next step. Thus.1b and apply unit virtual load along FAD and calculate member forces (Pv )i (see Fig. Δ L = ∑ Pi (Pv )i 103. 10. apply external load and calculate member forces (Pi ) as shown in Fig. Kharagpur .1c). a11 = ∑ (Pv )i 2 Li Ai Ei (3) 24.e. 10.142 = AE The compatibility condition of the problem is that the relative displacement Δ L of the cut member AD due to external loading plus the relative displacement of the member AD caused by the redundant axial forces must be equal to zero i. Thus.To calculate displacement (Δ L ) .

03 24. Assume E = 2. Kharagpur .1 Member Length Forces in Forces in the the Li released released truss due truss due to applied to unit loading load (Pv )i Pi m kN kN AB 5 0 − 1/ 2 BD 5 -15 − 1/ 2 DC CA CB AD 5 5 0 0 Pi (Pv )i Li AE (Pv )i2 Li Ai Ei Pi + FAD (Pv )i Fi = m 0 75 / 2 AE 0 0 50 / AE 0 103.1 Computation for example 10. Table 10.0 × 10 5 N/mm 2 .03 AE m/kN 5 / 2 AE 5 / 2 AE kN 3. Fi = Pi + FAD (Pv )i (5) The complete calculations can be done conveniently in a tabular form as shown in the following table.268 kN(compressive) (4) Now the member forces in the members can be calculated by method of superposition. Version 2 CE IIT. Thus. 10.2a by force method.803 -4.017 2.Δ L + a11 FAD = 0 FAD = −103.142 AE Example 10.142 = −4.983 3.268 5 2 5 2 5 2 0 − 1/ 2 − 1/ 2 1 1 Total 5 / 2 AE 5 / 2 AE 5 2 / AE 5 2 / AE 24.017 3. The cross sectional areas of the members in square centimeters are shown in parenthesis.2 Calculate reactions and member forces of the truss shown in Fig.017 -11.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

This can be conveniently done in a table (see Figs. The member axial forces and reactions of the released truss are shown in Fig. Select the horizontal reaction at E .The plane truss shown in Fg. 10. REx as the redundant. Truss is internally determinate. 10. 10.10. Kharagpur .2a is externally indeterminate to degree one. Releasing the redundant (replacing the hinge at E by a roller support) a stable determinate truss is obtained as shown in Fig. 10.2b. Hence from the table. Now calculate the displacement Δ L corresponding to redundant reaction REx in the released structure.2b.2b. Δ L = ∑ Pi ( Pv )i = 15 ×10 −4 Li Ai Ei m (1) Version 2 CE IIT.2c and the table).

along the redundant reaction REx and calculate the displacement a11 using unit load method.75 33.25 -68. a11 = ∑ ( Pv )i 2 Li Ai Ei (2) = 4 × 10−5 m The support at E is hinged.75 3.25 -68. 10.375 3.50 0. Table 10.75 -7. Thus.5 0 0 -6.In the next step apply a unit load.375 4.75 -3.25 6. Kharagpur .00 -6.5 kN(towards left) The actual member forces and reactions are shown in Fig.25 -6.75 Forces in the released truss due to unit load (Pv )i kN +1 +1 +1 +1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total Pi (Pv )i Li AE (Pv )i2 Li Ai Ei Pi + FAD (Pv )i Fi = (10 )m −4 (10 ) m/Kn −5 kN -3.2d.75 41.2 Member Li Ai Ei m AB BC CD DE FG FB GD AF FC CG GE 3 3 3 3 6 4 4 5 5 5 5 (10 ) kN 5 Forces in the released truss due to applied loading Pi kN 33.125 4. Δ L + a11 FAD = 0 (3) 15 × 10 −4 + 4 × 10 −5 REx = 0 15 × 10−4 REx = − 4 ×10−5 = −37. Hence the total displacement at E must vanish.25 6.125 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Version 2 CE IIT.75 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 5 5 5 5 3.00 0.2 Numerical computation for example 10.75 3.25 -6.25 41.25 -7.

Assume E = 2. The cross sectional areas of the members in square centimeters are shown in parenthesis. and α = 1 75000 The given truss is indeterminate to second degree. Kharagpur . a stable determinate truss is obtained as shown in Fig.10. Version 2 CE IIT.Example 10.3a by force method due to external load and rise in temperature of member FB by 40°C . Choose horizontal reaction at D (R1 ) and the axial force in member EC (R2 ) as redundant actions.3 Determine the reactions and the member axial forces of the truss shown in Fig. Releasing the restraint against redundant actions.3b. The truss has both internal and external indeterminacy. 10.0 × 105 N/mm 2 per °C .

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

000 -8.400 0.350 0.3c and Fig.000 0.125 0. ( Δ L )1 = 21. 10. compute the flexibility coefficients (ref.6 -0. Fig.742 ×10−4 m (towards right) m (shortening) (1) In the next step.000 0. 10.000 21. Kharagpur .000 0.33 ×10−4 ( Δ L )2 = −8.6 0 +1 0 +1 Pi (Pv )i Li AE Pi (Qv )i Li AE (10 )m −4 (10 )m −4 3 3 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 5.333 0.000 -6.000 0.000 0.8 0 -0.333 8.000 0.3a Deflection due to external loading Member Li Ai Ei m AB BC CD EF EB FC AE BF FD EC 4 4 4 4 3 3 5 5 5 5 (10 ) kN 5 Forces in the released truss due to applied loading Pi kN 40 60 60 -20 15 0 -25 -25 -75 0 Forces in the released truss due to unit load (Pv )i kN +1 +1 +1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total Forces in the released truss due to unit load (Qv )i kN 0 -0.000 8.3d and the accompanying table) Version 2 CE IIT.000 2.000 -3.Table 10.000 0.000 0.742 Deflection of the released structure along redundant R1 and R2 respectively are.8 -0.000 0.133 -1.

the change in length of member FB is.250 5.Table 10. Version 2 CE IIT.064 × 10 −5 a 22 = 5.000 0.000 1.3b Computation of flexibility coefficients Member Li Ai Ei (Pv )i kN +1.600 -0.064 3 3 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 Thus.000 -0.000 0.853 0. Now.000 0.3c.333 1.000 -0.333 1.540 0.600 0.000 0. compute deflections corresponding to redundants due to rise in temperature in the member FB .800 0.000 0.000 0.540 0.000 1.286 × 10 −5 (2) Analysis of truss when only external loads are acting The compatibility conditions of the problem may be written as.000 -1.000 0.00 +1.000 0.000 4.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -1.800 -0.73 kN (towards left) and R2 = 6.000 0.333 0.000 1. (Δ L )1 + a11 R1 + a12 R2 = 0 (Δ L )2 + a21 R1 + a22 R2 = 0 Solving R1 = −51.000 1.067 0.000 (10 ) m/kN (10 ) m/kN 0. Kharagpur .000 0.000 0.00 +1.000 0.136 kN (tensile) (3) The actual member forces and reactions in the truss are shown in Fig 10.286 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total (Pv )i2 −5 Li Ai Ei (Qv )i kN 0. a11 = 4 × 10 −5 a12 = a 21 = −1.853 0.000 (Qv )i2 −5 Li Ai Ei (Pv )i (Qv )i −5 Li AE m AB BC CD EF EB FC AE BF FD EC 4 4 4 4 3 3 5 5 5 5 (10 ) kN 5 (10 ) m/kN 1.000 0.250 0. Due to rise in temperature.

the compatibility equations can be written as.ΔT = α T L (4) = 1 × 40 × 5 = 2.26 kN (compressive) (6) The actual member forces and reactions are shown in Fig.67 × 10 −3 m 75000 Due to change in temperature.92 kN(towards left) and R2 = −47. (Δ L )1 + (Δ T )1 + a11 R1 + a12 R2 = 0 (Δ L )2 + (Δ T )2 + a21 R1 + a22 R2 = 0 Solving R1 = −65. 10. the deflections corresponding to redundants R1 and R2 are (Δ T )1 = ∑ (Pv )i (Δ T )i = 0 (5) (Δ T )2 = ∑ (Qv )i (Δ T )i = 2. Kharagpur .3f Version 2 CE IIT.67 ×10 −3 m When both external loading and temperature loading are acting When both temperature loading and the external loading are considered.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

The forces induced in the members due to temperature loading and member lack of fit is also discussed in this lesson. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT. the flexibility matrix method is used to analyse statically indeterminate planar trusses. Few examples are solved to illustrate the force method of analysis as applied to statically indeterminate planar trusses.Summary In this lesson. The equation to calculate the degree of statical indeterminacy of a planar truss is derived.

Module 2 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Matrix Force Method Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .Lesson 11 The Force Method of Analysis: Frames Version 2 CE IIT.

Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. The compatibility equations for the frame are written with respect to bending deformations only. The basic steps in the analysis of indeterminate frame by force method are the same as that discussed in the analysis of indeterminate beams in the previous lessons. the axial deformations are much smaller than the bending deformations and are normally not considered in the analysis.1 Analyse the rigid frame shown in Fig. Draw qualitative elastic curve of the frame. 2. 5. 6. Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams for the frame.1a and draw the bending moment diagram. Analyse the statically indeterminate plane frame by force method. Neglect axial deformations. Compute reaction components of the indeterminate frame. Analyse the statically indeterminate plane frames undergoing support settlements. Calculate the static deflections of a primary structure (released frame) under external loads. 4. 3. Example 11. Write compatibility equations of displacements for the plane deformations. the frames undergo axial and bending deformations. 11. Under the action of external loads. Kharagpur . Since the axial rigidity of the members is much higher than the bending rigidity. The following examples illustrate the force method of analysis as applied to indeterminate frames.1 Introduction The force method of analysis can readily be employed to analyze the indeterminate frames. 7. Version 2 CE IIT. Young’s modulus E and moment of inertia I are constant for the plane frame.11.

Treat horizontal reaction at D .1. R Dx as the redundant. Kharagpur .11.b) due to external loads plus the horizontal deformation of the support D . the primary structure is one that is hinged at A and roller supported at D .The given one.The compatibility condition of the problem is that the horizontal deformation of the primary structure (Fig.b. The primary structure (which is stable and determinate) is shown in Fig.11. In the present case. due to redundant Version 2 CE IIT.1.storey frame is statically indeterminate to degree one.

Calculate deformation a11 due to unit load at D in the direction of R Dx . Apply a unit load along R Dx as shown in Fig. This can be readily determined by unit load method. Multiplying this deformation a11 with R Dx . the deformation due to redundant reaction can be obtained.11. The horizontal deflection Δ L at D in the primary structure due to external loading is given by ΔL = ∫ D δM v M EI dx (2) A Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .1.10.b) must vanish.RDx (vide Fig.1d. Δ = a11 RDx (1) Now compute the horizontal deflection Δ L at D due to externally applied load.

Lesson 5).40 kN (6) (5) The minus sign indicates that the redundant reaction R Dx acts towards left.1 d).1d is used to represent unit virtual load applied at D and real unit load applied at D . RDx = −2. Please note that the same Fig. ΔL = ∫ 0 6 (12 x − x )x dx 2 EI (36 − 9 x)6 dx + +∫ EI 0 6 ∫ 0( x ) dx EI 0 6 (span AB. 11. Kharagpur . calculate the displacement a 1 1 at D when a real unit load is applied at D in the direction of RDx (refer to Fig.Thus. Remaining reactions are calculated from equations of static equilibrium.60 kN (towards left) ∑M D = 0 ⇒ RAy = −9 kN (dowwards) RDy = +9 kN (upwards) Version 2 CE IIT. origin at A) (span BC.40 = −9.11. Thus. ∑F x = 0 ⇒RAx = −12 + 2. a11 = ∫ 6 D δm v m EI 6 dx 6 A x 2 dx 36dx x2 =∫ + + ∫ dx EI ∫ EI EI 0 0 0 = 360 EI (4) Now. the compatibility condition of the problem may be written as Δ L + a11 R Dx = 0 Solving. origin at B) ΔL = 864 EI (span DC. origin at D ) (3) In the next step.where δM v is the internal virtual moment resultant in the frame due to virtual load applied at D along the resultant R Dx and M is the internal bending moment of the frame due to external loading (for details refer to Module 1.

1e Version 2 CE IIT. 11. Kharagpur .The bending moment diagram for the frame is shown in Fig.

Five reactions components need to be evaluated in this rigid frame. Version 2 CE IIT. Neglect axial deformations. Select Rcx (= R1 ) and Rcy ( = R2 ) as the redundant reactions.2a and draw the bending moment and shear force diagram. Kharagpur .11. The flexural rigidity for all members is the same. the primary structure is one in which support A is fixed and the support C is free as shown in Fig.Example 11. Also. hence it is indeterminate to second degree.11. Hence.2b. equations for moments in various spans of the frame are also given in the figure.2 Analyze the rigid frame shown in Fig.

This can be done by unit load method. Thus. Version 2 CE IIT.Calculate horizontal (Δ L )1 and vertical (Δ L ) 2 deflections at C in the primary structure due to external loading. Kharagpur .

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Origin C) (Δ L ) 2 = ∫ 96(−4)dx 48 x(−2 − x)dx +∫ +0 EI EI 0 0 (Span BD. origin at B) (Span BE.(96 + 24 x)(3 + x) 96 x dx +∫ dx +0 EI EI 0 0 (Span DA. origin at D) (Span BD. Kharagpur . origin at D) (Span EC. origin at E) +∫ 3 2 ( Δ L )2 = − 3056 EI (2) Version 2 CE IIT. origin at B) (span BC. Origin B) ( Δ L )1 = ∫ 3 3 = 3 2268 EI (1) (96 + 24 x)(−4)dx EI 0 (Span DA.

(Δ L )1 = a11 R1 + a12 R2 = 0 (Δ L ) 2 = a12 R1 + a22 R2 = 0 (6) Substituting the values of (Δ L )1 . ( Δ l ) 2 .33 EI 4 = (5) In the actual structure at C.2f.2d). the horizontal and vertical displacements are zero . 11.Hence.In the next step. a12 and a 22 in the above equations and solving for and R1 . . Fig. a11 .056 kN (towards left) R2 = 27. R1 and determining deflections a11 and a21 corresponding to R1 and R2 respectively (vide. Kharagpur . Again apply unit load along R2 and evaluate deflections a 22 and a12 corresponding to R2 and R1 and respectively (ref. the compatibility condition may be written as.2 c). a11 = ∫ 0 6 x2 72 dx = EI EI 6 (3) a12 = a 21 = ∫ 0 x(−4) dx + 0 EI (4) = 72 EI and a 22 = ∫ 6 16 ( x) 2 dx + ∫ dx EI EI 0 0 117. R2 we get R1 = −1. Version 2 CE IIT. Fig .44 kN (upwards) The remaining reactions are calculated from equations of statics and they are shown in Fig 11.11. The bending moment and shear force diagrams are shown in Fig. evaluate flexibility coefficients.2e.11. this is done by applying a unit load along.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Assume EI to be constant for all members.The compatibility condition is that the total displacement of the determinate frame (primary structure) due to external loading and that due to redundant reaction at a given support must be equal to the predicted amount of yielding at that support. The yielding of supports may be either linear displacements or rotations of supports (only in the case of fixed supports) .3a. Compute the reactions if the support D settles by 10 mm. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT. vertically downwards.3 A rigid frame ABC is loaded as shown in the Fig 11. Example 11. the reactions are induced in the case of indeterminate frame due to yielding of supports even when there are no external loads acting on it.11.2 Support settlements As discussed in the case of statically indeterminate beams. If the support is unyielding then it must be equal to zero. Assume E = 200 GPa and I = 10−4 m 2 .

( Δ L )1 = 2052 EI (1) Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .11.Hence only change will be in the compatibility equations.The deflections (Δ L )1 and (Δ L ) 2 at C in the primary structure due to external loading has already been computed in the previous example. The released structure is as shown in Fig.This problem is similar to the previous example except for the support settlement .3b . Hence.

the compatibility equations may be written as. a11 = 72 EI − 72 EI (3) a12 = a 21 = a 22 = (4) 117.1026 m (Δ L ) 2 = −0.1635 m The flexibility coefficients are.3c.072 kN (towards left) R2 = +26. (Δ L )1 + a11 R1 + a12 R2 = 0 (Δ L ) 2 + a 21 R1 + a 22 R2 = −10 × 10 −3 Solving which.33 EI (5) Now. (6) R1 = −2.4 kN (upwards) The reactions are shown in Fig. (Δ L )1 = 0.(Δ L ) 2 = − 3296 EI (2) Therefore. (7) Version 2 CE IIT.11. Kharagpur .

Version 2 CE IIT.4b. the primary structure is obtained. R1 as the redundant .Also sketch the deformed shape of the frame.4 Compute the reactions of the rigid frame shown in Fig.4a and draw bending moment diagram .Releasing constraint against redundant. Select vertical reaction at C.Example 11. It is shown in Fig.11. Kharagpur .11. Assume EI to be constant for all members.

11. − 216 117.33 + R1 = 0 EI EI (3) Solving. R1 = 1. 16 x2 a11 = ∫ dx + ∫ dx EI EI 0 0 117. Version 2 CE IIT.The deflection (Δ L )1 in the primary structure due to external loading can be calculated from unit load method. They are shown in Fig. Kharagpur . Thus.33 = EI 4 6 (2) The compatibility condition at support C is that the displacement at C in the primary structure due to external loading plus the displacement at C due to redundant must vanish. origin at D) 3 = − 216 (Downwards) EI (1) Now. ( Δ L )1 = ∫ (12 x)(−4)dx EI 0 (span DA.84 kN (4) The remaining reactions are calculated from static equilibrium equations. compute the flexibility coefficient.4d along with the bending moment diagram.

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θ B = θ BL + θ BR R1 (11) = −54 24 × 1.The joint rotations are taken to be positive when clockwise.This can be evaluated by unit load method. the actual rotations and displacements at the joints may be obtained. θ BL = ∫ 0 3 12( x)(−1) − 54 dx = EI EI (5) θ CL = ∫ (12 x)(−1) − 54 dx = EI EI 0 3 3 (6) Δ CL = ∫ 0 12 x(3 + x) 270 dx = EI EI (7) Next. Towards this end first calculate joint rotations at B (θ BL ) and C (θ CL ) and horizontal displacement at C in the released structure (refer to Fig.11.To sketch the deformed shape/elastic curve of the frame.11.84 EI (Clockwise rotation) θ C = θ CL + θ CR × R1 = 4. These joint rotations and displacements can also be calculated from the principle of superposition .84 + EI EI = − 9.4b).θ CR and Δ CR . Let the joint rotations and displacements be θ BR . Kharagpur .84 = + EI EI EI (12) (Counterclockwise rotation) Δ C = Δ CL + Δ CR R1 (13) Version 2 CE IIT. θ BR = ∫ θ CR = ∫ 0 4 6 4dx 24 = EI EI 0 (8) (− x)(−1) dx + EI ∫ 0 6 (−4)(−1) 32 dx = EI EI (9) Δ CR = ∫ 0 6 (−4) x dx EI = − 72 EI (10) Now using the principle of superposition.88 − 54 32 × 1.4c). calculate the joint rotations and displacements when unit value of redundant is applied (Fig. it is required to compute rotations of joints B and C and horizontal displacement of C .

=

270 72 × 1.84 137.52 = − EI EI EI

(towards right)

The qualitative elastic curve is shown in Fig. 11.4h.

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Summary

In this lesson, the statically indeterminate plane frames are analysed by force method. For the purpose of illustrations only bending deformations of the frame are considered as the axial deformations are very small. The problem of yielding of supports in the case of plane frames is also discussed. The procedure to draw qualitative elastic curve of the frame is illustrated with the help of typical example. The bending moment and shear force diagrams are also drawn for the case of plane frame.

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Module 2

Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Matrix Force Method

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Lesson 12

The Three-Moment Equations-I

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Instructional Objectives

After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. Derive three-moment equations for a continuous beam with unyielding supports. 2. Write compatibility equations of a continuous beam in terms of three moments. 3. Compute reactions in statically indeterminate beams using three-moment equations. 4. Analyse continuous beams having different moments of inertia in different spans using three-moment equations.

12.1 Introduction

Beams that have more than one span are defined as continuous beams. Continuous beams are very common in bridge and building structures. Hence, one needs to analyze continuous beams subjected to transverse loads and support settlements quite often in design. When beam is continuous over many supports and moment of inertia of different spans is different, the force method of analysis becomes quite cumbersome if vertical components of reactions are taken as redundant reactions. However, the force method of analysis could be further simplified for this particular case (continuous beam) by choosing the unknown bending moments at the supports as unknowns. One compatibility equation is written at each intermediate support of a continuous beam in terms of the loads on the adjacent span and bending moment at left, center (the support where the compatibility equation is written) and rigid supports. Two consecutive spans of the continuous beam are considered at one time. Since the compatibility equation is written in terms of three moments, it is known as the equation of three moments. In this manner, each span is treated individually as a simply supported beam with external loads and two end support moments. For each intermediate support, one compatibility equation is written in terms of three moments. Thus, we get as many equations as there are unknowns. Each equation will have only three unknowns. It may be noted that, Clapeyron first proposed this method in 1857. In this lesson, three moment equations are derived for unyielding supports and in the next lesson the three moment equations are modified to consider support moments.

**12.2 Three-moment equation
**

A continuous beam is shown in Fig.12.1a. Since, three moment equation relates moments at three successive supports to applied loading on adjacent spans, consider two adjacent spans of a continuous beam as shown in Fig.12.1b. M L , M C and M R respectively denote support moments at left, center and right supports. The moments are taken to be positive when they cause tension at Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

bottom fibers. The moment of inertia is taken to be different for different spans. In the present case I L and I R denote respectively moment of inertia of; left and right support and l L and l R are the left and right span respectively. It is assumed that supports are unyielding. The yielding of supports could be easily incorporated in three-moment equation, which will be discussed in the next lesson. Now it is required to derive a relation between M L , M C and M R . This relationship is derived from the fact that the tangent to the elastic curve at C is horizontal. In other words the joint C may be considered rigid. Thus, the compatibility equation is written as,

θ CL + θ CR = 0

(12.1)

The rotation left of the support C , θ CL and rotation right of the support C , θ CR may be calculated from moment area method. Now, Deflection of L from tangent drawn at C(LL' ) θ CL = lL Moment of M diagram between C and L about L EI = lL

= 1 lL ⎧⎛ AL x L ⎨⎜ ⎜ ⎩⎝ EI L ⎞ 1⎛ ML ⎟+ ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎜ EI ⎝ L ⎠ ⎞ 1 1⎛M ⎞ 2 ⎫ ⎟l L l L + ⎜ C ⎟l L l L ⎬ ⎟ 3 2 ⎜ EI L ⎟ 3 ⎭ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

θ CL =

AL x L M L l L M C l L + + EI L l L 6 EI L 3EI L

(12.2)

Note that the actual moment diagram on span LC is broken into two parts (1) due to loads applied on span LC when it is considered as a simply supported beam and, (2) due to support moments. In the above equation AL and AR denote respectively area of the bending moment diagrams due to applied loads on left and right supports. x L and x R denote their respective C.G.(center of gravity) distances from the left and right support respectively. Similarly,

θCR =

deflection of R from tangent drawn at C (RR') lR Moment of M diagram between C and R about R EI = lR

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θ CR =

AR x R M R l R M C l R + + EI R l R 6 EI R 3EI R

(12.3)

Substituting the values of θ CL and θ CR in the compatibility equation (12.1),

**AL x L M L l L M C l L AR x R M R l R M C l R + + + + + =0 EI L l L 6 EI L 3EI L EI R l R 6 EI R 3EI R
**

which could be simplified to,

(12.4)

⎛l ML⎜ L ⎜I ⎝ L

⎞ ⎧l ⎛l l ⎫ ⎟ + 2M C ⎨ L + R ⎬ + M R ⎜ R ⎟ ⎜I ⎠ ⎩IL IR ⎭ ⎝ R

⎞ 6A x 6A x ⎟=− R R − L L ⎟ I RlR I LlL ⎠

(12.5)

The above equation (12.5) is known as the three-moment equation. It relates three support moments M L , M C and M R with the applied loading on two adjacent spans. If in a span there are more than one type of loading (for example, uniformly distributed load and a concentrated load) then it is simpler to calculate moment diagram separately for each of loading and then to obtain moment diagram.

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Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

12.3 Alternate derivation

The above three moment equations may also be derived by direct application of force method as follows. Now choose M L , M C and the M R , the three support moments at left, centre and right supports respectively as the redundant moments. The primary determinate structure is obtained by releasing the constraint corresponding to redundant moments. In this particular case, inserting hinges at L , C and R , the primary structure is obtained as below (see Fig. 12.2)

Let displacement (in the primary case rotations) corresponding to rotation M C be

**Δ L , which is the sum of rotations θ CL and θ CR . Thus,
**

Δ L = θ CL + θ CR (12.6)

It is observed that the rotations θ CL and θ CR are caused due to only applied loading as shown in Fig.12.2.This can be easily evaluated by moment area method as shown previously.

ΔL =

AL x L A x + R R EI L l L EI R l R

(12.7)

In the next step, apply unit value of redundant moments at L , C and R and calculate rotation at C (i.e. flexibility coefficients).

lL 6 EI L l l a 22 = L + R 3EI L 3EI R l a 23 = R 6 EI R a 21 =

(12.8)

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Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

In the actual structure the relative rotation of both sides is zero. In other words the compatibility equation is written as, Δ L + a 21 M L + a 22 M C + a 23 M R = 0 (12.9)

Substituting the values of flexibility coefficients and ΔL in the above equation,

⎛ l AR x R A x + L L + ML⎜ L ⎜ 6 EI EI R l R EI L l L L ⎝

Or,

⎞ ⎧ l ⎛ l l ⎫ ⎟ + MC ⎨ L + R ⎬ + MR⎜ R ⎟ ⎜ 6 EI R ⎠ ⎩ 3EI L 3EI R ⎭ ⎝

⎞ ⎟=0 ⎟ ⎠

⎛l ML⎜ L ⎜I ⎝ L

⎞ ⎧l ⎛l l ⎫ ⎟ + 2M C ⎨ L + R ⎬ + M R ⎜ R ⎟ ⎜I ⎠ ⎩IL IR ⎭ ⎝ R

⎞ 6A x 6A x ⎟=− R R − L L ⎟ I RlR I LlL ⎠

(12.10)

when moment of inertia remains constant i.e. IR = IL = I ,the above equation simplifies to,

M L (l L ) + 2M C {l L + l R } + M R (l R ) = −

Example 12.1

6 AR x R 6 AL x L − lR lL

(12.11)

A continuous beam ABCD is carrying a uniformly distributed load of 1 kN/m over span ABC in addition to concentrated loads as shown in Fig.12.4a. Calculate support reactions. Also, draw bending moment and shear force diagram. Assume EI to be constant for all members.

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From inspection, it is assumed that the support moments at A is zero and support moment at C , M C = 15 kN.m (negative because it causes compression at bottom at C ) Hence, only one redundant moment M B needs to be evaluated. Applying threemoment equation to span ABC ,

2M C { + 10} + M C (10) = − 10

6 AR x R 6 AL x L − lR lL

(1)

The bending moment diagrams for each span due to applied uniformly distributed and concentrated load are shown in Fig.12.4b.

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**Equation (1) may be written as,
**

40 M B − 150 = − 6 × 83.33 × 5 6 × 125 × 5 6 × 83.33 × 5 − − 10 10 10

Thus, M B = −18.125 kN.m After determining the redundant moment, the reactions are evaluated by equations of static equilibrium. The reactions are shown in Fig.12.4c along with the external load and support bending moment.

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Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

12.2 A continuous beam ABC is carrying uniformly distributed load of 2 kN/m as shown in Fig.In span AB . Example 12.8125 kN (↑ ) (↑) (↑) Similarly from span BC . Thus.1875 kN RBL = 11.3125 kN (↑) The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in Fig. Kharagpur . Evaluate reactions and draw bending moment and shear force diagrams.125 = 0 RA = 8.12. RC = 4.7125 kN RBR = 5. Version 2 CE IIT. R A × 10 − 10 × 5 − 10 × 5 + 18.5a.4d.The moment of inertia of span AB is twice that of span BC . R A can be calculated by the condition that ∑M B = 0 .

By inspection it is seen that the moment at support C is zero.For moment at B . The support moment at A and B needs to be evaluated . the compatibility Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

equation is written by noting that the tangent to the elastic curve at B is horizontal .The compatibility condition corresponding to redundant moment at A is written as follows. Consider span AB as shown in Fig.12.5b. The slope at A , θ A may be calculated from moment-area method. Thus,

θA =

M B l L M A l L A( x L ) R + + 6 EI L 3EI L EIl L

(1)

Now, compatibility equation is,

θA = 0

(2)

It is observed that the tangent to elastic curve at A remains horizontal. This can also be achieved as follows. Assume an imaginary span AA′ of length L′ left of support A having a very high moment of inertia (see Fig. 12.5c). As the imaginary span has very high moment of inertia, it does not yield any imaginary span has very high moment of inertia it does not yield any M diagram and EI hence no elastic curve. Hence, the tangent at A to elastic curve remains horizontal. Now, consider the span A′AB , applying three-moment equation to support A ,

6A x ⎛ 10 ⎞ ⎧ L' 10 ⎫ 2M A ⎨ + ⎬ + M B ⎜ ⎟ = − R R 2 I (10) ⎝ 2I ⎠ ⎩ ∞ 2I ⎭

(3)

The above equation is the same as the equation (2). The simply supported bending moment diagram is shown in Fig.12.5d.

**Thus, equation (3) may be written as,
**

20 M A + M B (10) = − 6 × (166.67) × 5 10

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20M A + 10M B = −500

(4)

**Now, consider span ABC , writing three moment equation for support B ,
**

6 × 166.67 × 5 6 × 20.837 × 2.5 ⎧ 10 5 ⎫ ⎧ 10 ⎫ − M A ⎨ ⎬ + 2M B ⎨ + ⎬ = − 2 I × (10) I × (5) ⎩ 2I I ⎭ ⎩ 2I ⎭

**5M A + 20M B = −250 − 62.5 = −312.5
**

Solving equation (4) and (5),

(5)

M B = −6.25 kN.m M A = −37.5 kN.m

The remaining reactions are calculated by equilibrium equations (see Fig.12.5e)

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In span AB ,

∑M

B

=0

R A × 10 − 37.5 − 2 × 10 × 5 + 6.25 = 0

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RA = 13.125 kN RBL = 6.875 kN

(↑ ) (↑ ) (↑ ) (↑ )

**Similarly from span BC ,
**

RC = 3.75 kN RBR = 6.25 kN

The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in Fig. 12.5f.

Summary

In this lesson the continuous beam with unyielding supports is analysed by threemoment equations. The three-moment equations are derived for the case of a continuous beam having different moment of inertia in different spans. The threemoment equations also belong to force method of analysis and in this case, redundants are always taken as support moments. Hence, compatibility equations are derived in terms of three support moments. Few problems are solved to illustrate the procedure.

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Module 2

Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Matrix Force Method

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Lesson 13

The Three-Moment Equations-Ii

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Instructional Objectives

After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. Derive three-moment equations for a continuous beam with yielding supports. 2. Write compatibility equations of a continuous beam in terms of three moments. 3. Compute reactions in statically indeterminate beams using three-moment equations. 4. Analyse continuous beams having different moments of inertia in different spans and undergoing support settlements using three-moment equations.

13.1 Introduction

In the last lesson, three-moment equations were developed for continuous beams with unyielding supports. As discussed earlier, the support may settle by unequal amount during the lifetime of the structure. Such future unequal settlement induces extra stresses in statically indeterminate beams. Hence, one needs to consider these settlements in the analysis. The three-moment equations developed in the pervious lesson could be easily extended to account for the support yielding. In the next section three-moment equations are derived considering the support settlements. In the end, few problems are solved to illustrate the method.

**13.2 Derivation of Three-Moment Equation
**

Consider a two span of a continuous beam loaded as shown in Fig.13.1. Let M L , M C and M R be the support moments at left, center and right supports respectively. As stated in the previous lesson, the moments are taken to be positive when they cause tension at the bottom fibers. I L and I R denote moment of inertia of left and right span respectively and l L and l R denote left and right spans respectively. Let δ L , δ C and δ R be the support settlements of left, centre and right supports respectively. δ L , δ C and δ R are taken as negative if the settlement is downwards. The tangent to the elastic curve at support C makes an angle θ CL at left support and θ CR at the right support as shown in Fig. 13.1. From the figure it is observed that,

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θ CL = θ CR

(13.1)

The rotations β CL and β CR due to external loads and support moments are calculated from the M diagram .They are (see lesson 12) EI

β CL = β CR =

AL x L M L l L M C l L + + EI L l L 6 EI L 3EI L AR x R M R l R M C l R + + EI R l R 6 EI R 3EI R

(13.2a)

(13.2b)

The rotations of the chord L'C ' and C ' R' from the original position is given by

α CL = α CR

From Fig. 13.1, one could write,

δ L − δC

lL δ − δC = R lR

(13.3a) (13.3b)

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θ CL = α CL − β CL θ CR = β CR − α CR

Thus, from equations (13.1) and (13.4), one could write,

(13.4a) (13.4b)

α CL − β CL = β CR − α CR

(13.5)

Substituting the values of α CL , α CR , β CL and β CR in the above equation,

⎛l ML⎜ L ⎜I ⎝ L

⎞ ⎧l ⎛l l ⎫ ⎟ + 2M C ⎨ L + R ⎬ + M R ⎜ R ⎟ ⎜I ⎠ ⎩IL IR ⎭ ⎝ R

⎞ ⎛ δ − δC 6A x 6A x ⎟ = − R R − L L + 6E⎜ L ⎟ ⎜ l I RlR I LlL L ⎠ ⎝

⎞ ⎛ δ − δC ⎟ + 6E⎜ R ⎟ ⎜ l R ⎠ ⎝

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

**This may be written as
**

⎛l ML⎜ L ⎜I ⎝ L (13.6) ⎧l ⎞ ⎛l l ⎫ ⎟ + 2M C ⎨ L + R ⎬ + M R ⎜ R ⎟ ⎜I ⎠ ⎩IL IR ⎭ ⎝ R ⎡⎛ δ − δ L ⎞ 6A x 6A x ⎟ = − R R − L L − 6 E ⎢⎜ C ⎜ ⎟ I RlR I LlL ⎠ ⎣⎝ l L ⎞ ⎛ δC − δ R ⎟+⎜ ⎟ ⎜ l R ⎠ ⎝ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎟ ⎠⎦

The above equation relates the redundant support moments at three successive spans with the applied loading on the adjacent spans and the support settlements. Example 13.1 Draw the bending moment diagram of a continuous beam BC shown in Fig.13.2a by three moment equations. The support B settles by 5mm below A and C . Also evaluate reactions at A , B and C .Assume EI to be constant for all members and E = 200 GPa , I = 8 ×106 mm 4

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Assume an imaginary span having infinitely large moment of inertia and arbitrary span L ′ left of A as shown in Fig.13.2b .Also it is observed that moment at C is zero. Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

The given problem is statically indeterminate to the second degree. The moments M A and M B ,the redundants need to be evaluated. Applying three moment equation to the span A’AB,

δ L = δ C = 0 and δ R = −5 × 10 −3 m

⎛ 6×8× 2 0 − (−5 × 10 −3 ⎞ ⎛ L' ⎞ ⎧ L' 4 ⎫ ⎛4⎞ ⎟ M ' A ⎜ ⎟ + 2M A ⎨ + ⎬ + M B ⎜ ⎟ = − − 6E⎜ 0 + ⎜ ⎟ I (4) 4 ⎝∞⎠ ⎩∞ I ⎭ ⎝I⎠ ⎝ ⎠

5 × 10 −3 8M A + 4 M B = −24 − 6 EI × 4 Note that, EI = 200 × 10 9 × Thus, 8M A + 4 M B = −24 − 6 × 1.6 × 10 3 × 5 × 10 −3 4 (2) 8 × 10 6 × 10 −12 = 1.6 × 10 3 kNm 2 3 10 (1)

8M A + 4M B = −36

Again applying three moment equation to span ABC the other equations is obtained. For this case, δ L = 0 , δ C = −5 × 10 −3 m (negative as the settlement is downwards) and δ R = 0 .

**⎛ − 5 × 10 −3 5 × 10 −3 ⎞ 24 6 × 10.667 × 2 ⎧4⎫ ⎧4 4⎫ ⎟ M A ⎨ ⎬ + 2M B ⎨ + ⎬ = − − − 6E⎜ − ⎜ I I ×4 4 4 ⎟ ⎩I ⎭ ⎩I I ⎭ ⎝ ⎠
**

10 × 10 3 4 M A + 16 M B = −24 − 32 + 6 × 1.6 × 10 × 4

3

**4M A + 16M B = −32
**

Solving equations (2) and (3), M B = −1.0 kN.m M A = −4.0 kN.m

(3)

(4)

Now, reactions are calculated from equations of static equilibrium (see Fig.13.2c).

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Thus,

R A = 2.75 kN (↑ )

R BL = 1.25 kN (↑ ) RC = 3.75 kN (↑ ) The reactions at B,

R BR = 4.25 kN (↑ )

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RB = RBR + RBL = 5.5 kN

(5)

The area of each segment of the shear force diagram for the given continuous beam is also indicated in the above diagram. This could be used to verify the previously computed moments. For example, the area of the shear force diagram between A and B is 5.5 kN.m .This must be equal to the change in the bending moment between A and D, which is indeed the case ( −4 − 1.5 = 5.5 kN.m ). Thus, moments previously calculated are correct. Example 13.2 A continuous beam ABCD is supported on springs at supports B and C as shown in Fig.13.3a. The loading is also shown in the figure. The stiffness of EI EI springs is k B = and k C = .Evaluate support reactions and draw bending 20 30 moment diagram. Assume EI to be constant.

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In the given problem it is required to evaluate bending moments at supports B and C . By inspection it is observed that the support moments at A and D are zero. Since the continuous beam is supported on springs at B and C , the support settles. Let RB and RC be the reactions at B and C respectively. Then R R the support settlement at B and C are B and C respectively. Both the kB kC settlements are negative and in other words they move downwards. Thus,

δ A = 0 ,δ B =

− 30 RC − 20 RB ,δC = and δ D = 0 EI EI

(1)

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5M C Now substituting the values of RB and RC in equations (2) and (3).25M C RCR = 2 − 0.25M B (↑ ) RBR = 5 + 0. upwards) .25M B − 0. (2) 60 ⎧4 4⎫ ⎧4⎫ − M B ⎨ ⎬ + 2M C ⎨ + ⎬ = − I ⎩I I ⎭ ⎩I ⎭ (6 × 9 × 2 + 6 × 3 × I ×4 2 ⎡ 30 RC 20 R B ⎤ × 1) ⎢ − EI + EI − 30 RC ⎥ 3 − 6E ⎢ + ⎥ 4 4 EI ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (3) 4M B + 16M C = −90 + 90 RC − 30 RB In equation (2) and (3) express RB and RC in terms of M B and M C (see Fig. Kharagpur (5) .2c) R A = 8 + 0.13.25M C (↑) (↑) (↑) (↑) (4) Note that initially all reactions are assumed to act in the positive direction (i.2b) − 20 R B 30 RC ⎡ + ⎢ − 20 R B 4⎫ 4⎫ 6 × 21. 16 M B + 4 M C = −124 + 60(13 − 0.13.e.5M B + 0.5M B + 0.25M C RD = 6 + 0.33 × 2 6 × 20 × 2 ⎧ EI + MC ⎨ ⎬ = − − − 6E ⎢ + EI ⎬ 4 I⎭ I ×4 I ×4 ⎩I ⎭ ⎢ 4 EI ⎢ ⎣ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎧4⎫ ⎧4 M A ⎨ ⎬ + 2M B ⎨ + ⎩I ⎭ ⎩I Simplifying. 16M B + 4 M C = −124 + 60 RB − 45 RC Again applying three moment equation to adjacent spans BC and CD .25M B RCL = 5 + 0.Now applying three moment equations to span ABC (see Fig.25M B (↑ ) RBL = 8 − 0.25M B − 0.25M C RC = RCL + RCR = 7 + 0.25M C ) − 45(7 + 0.5M C ) Version 2 CE IIT.25M B − 0. RB = RBL + RBR = 13 − 0.25M C − 0.Now.

(8) (7) (6) RA = 10.5M C = 341 And from equation 3.m M B = 10.717 kN (↑) (↑) (↑) (↑) RBL = 5.465 kN RCL = 5.5M B + 68.535 kN RBR = 4. Kharagpur .252 kN RCR = 0.25M B − 33.961 kN (↑) (↑) (↑) (↑) The shear force and bending moment diagram are shown in Fig.Or.reactions are obtained.147 kN. 13. Version 2 CE IIT.5M B + 0.m Substituting the values of M B and M C in (4).5M C ) − 30(13 − 0.213 kN RB = 9.748 kN RD = 7.5M C = 150 Solving equations (6) and (7) M C = 7.2d.25M B − 0.787 kN and RC = 5.25M C ) Simplifying. 57. 4 M B + 16 M C = −90 + 90(7 + 0. − 33.138 kN.

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1. For calculating θ A .3 Sketch the deflected shape of the continuous beam ABC of example 13.2) and (13. The redundant moments M A and M B for this problem have already been computed in problem 13.6 × 10 × 6 1.2c.6 × 10 × 3 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ = 1. Kharagpur . These joints rotations are computed from equations (13. consider span ABC θ BL = α BL − β BL ⎛A x M l M l = −⎜ L L + A L + B L ⎜ EI l ⎝ L L 6 EI L 3EI L ⎞ ⎛δA −δB ⎟+⎜ ⎟ ⎜ l L ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (− 4) × 4 + (− 1) × 4 ⎞ + ⎛ 5 × 10 3 ⎞ 8× 2 ⎛ ⎟ = −⎜ + ⎟ ⎜ 3 3 3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1.0 kN.6 × 10 3 × 3 ⎜ 4 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (1) =0 For calculating θ BL .6 × 10 × 3 ⎝ 4 ⎠ = = (− 1) × 4 + (− 4) × 4 + ⎛ 5 × 10 −3 ⎞ 6×8× 2 ⎜ ⎟ + 1.Now to sketch the deformed shape of the beam it is required to compute rotations at B and C.m M A = −4.Example 13.6 × 10 3 × 4 1.6 × 10 × 4 1.m The computed reactions are also shown in Fig. consider span A’AB θ A = β AR − α AR = AR x R M B l R M A l R ⎛ δ B − δ A ⎞ + + −⎜ ⎟ EI R l R 6 EI R 3EI R ⎝ 4 ⎠ MB ×4 MA ×4 6×8× 2 ⎛δ −δA ⎞ + + −⎜ B ⎟ 3 3 3 1.6 × 10 3 × 6 1.6 × 10 × 4 1.13.6 × 10 × 6 1.They are.0 kN.3). M B = −1.1.25 × 10 −3 radians (2) For θ BR consider span ABC Version 2 CE IIT.

6 × 10 × 3 ⎠ ⎝ (4) = −3. Kharagpur .4.6 × 10 × 3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ (3) = −1.6 × 10 × 4 1. The deflected shape of the beam is shown in Fig.67 × 2 ⎟ + ⎟ ⎜ 3 3 ⎜ 4 ⎟ ⎝ 1.25 × 10 −3 radians θ C = −⎜ (− 1) × 4 ⎞ − ⎛ δ B − δ C ⎞ ⎛ 10. 13.6 × 10 × 4 1.75 × 10 −3 radians.67 × 2 + ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ 3 3 4 ⎠ ⎝ 1. Version 2 CE IIT.θ BR = ⎜ (− 1) × 4 ⎞ − ⎛ 0 + 5 × 10 3 ⎞ ⎛ 10.

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the three-moment-equations developed in the previous lesson are extended to account for the support settlements. Few examples are derived to illustrate the procedure of analysing continuous beams undergoing support settlements using three-moment equations.Summary The continuous beams with unyielding supports are analysed using threemoment equations in the last lesson. The three-moment equations are derived for the case of a continuous beam having different moment of inertia in different spans. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT. In this lesson.

Module 3

Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Displacement Method

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Lesson 14

The Slope-Deflection Method: An Introduction

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Introduction

As pointed out earlier, there are two distinct methods of analysis for statically indeterminate structures depending on how equations of equilibrium, load displacement and compatibility conditions are satisfied: 1) force method of analysis and (2) displacement method of analysis. In the last module, force method of analysis was discussed. In this module, the displacement method of analysis will be discussed. In the force method of analysis, primary unknowns are forces and compatibility of displacements is written in terms of pre-selected redundant reactions and flexibility coefficients using force displacement relations. Solving these equations, the unknown redundant reactions are evaluated. The remaining reactions are obtained from equations of equilibrium. As the name itself suggests, in the displacement method of analysis, the primary unknowns are displacements. Once the structural model is defined for the problem, the unknowns are automatically chosen unlike the force method. Hence this method is more suitable for computer implementation. In the displacement method of analysis, first equilibrium equations are satisfied. The equilibrium of forces is written by expressing the unknown joint displacements in terms of load by using load displacement relations. These equilibrium equations are solved for unknown joint displacements. In the next step, the unknown reactions are computed from compatibility equations using force displacement relations. In displacement method, three methods which are closely related to each other will be discussed. 1) Slope-Deflection Method 2) Moment Distribution Method 3) Direct Stiffness Method In this module first two methods are discussed and direct stiffness method is treated in the next module. All displacement methods follow the above general procedure. The Slope-deflection and moment distribution methods were extensively used for many years before the compute era. After the revolution occurred in the field of computing only direct stiffness method is preferred.

Degrees of freedom

In the displacement method of analysis, primary unknowns are joint displacements which are commonly referred to as the degrees of freedom of the structure. It is necessary to consider all the independent degrees of freedom while writing the equilibrium equations.These degrees of freedom are specified at supports, joints and at the free ends. For example, a propped cantilever beam (see Fig.14.01a) under the action of load P will undergo only rotation at B if axial deformation is neglected. In this case kinematic degree of freedom of the beam is only one i.e. θ B as shown in the figure.

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In Fig.14.01b, we have nodes at A,B,C and D. Under the action of lateral loads and P3 , this continuous beam deform as shown in the figure. Here axial P , P2 1 deformations are neglected. For this beam we have five degrees of freedom θ A , θ B , θ C , θ D and Δ D as indicated in the figure. In Fig.14.02a, a symmetrical plane frame is loaded symmetrically. In this case we have only two degrees of freedom θ B andθ C . Now consider a frame as shown in Fig.14.02b. It has three degrees of freedom viz. θ B , θ C and Δ D as shown. Under the action of horizontal and vertical load, the frame will be displaced as shown in the figure. It is observed that nodes at B and C undergo rotation and also get displaced horizontally by an equal amount.

Hence in plane structures, each node can have at the most one linear displacement and one rotation. In this module first slope-deflection equations as applied to beams and rigid frames will be discussed.

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Instructional Objectives

After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. Calculate kinematic degrees of freedom of continuous beam. 2. Derive slope-deflection equations for the case beam with unyielding supports. 3. Differentiate between force method and displacement method of analyses. 4. State advantages of displacement method of analysis as compared to force method of analysis. 5. Analyse continuous beam using slope-deflection method.

14.1 Introduction

In this lesson the slope-deflection equations are derived for the case of a beam with unyielding supports .In this method, the unknown slopes and deflections at nodes are related to the applied loading on the structure. As introduced earlier, the slope-deflection method can be used to analyze statically determinate and indeterminate beams and frames. In this method it is assumed that all deformations are due to bending only. In other words deformations due to axial forces are neglected. As discussed earlier in the force method of analysis compatibility equations are written in terms of unknown reactions. It must be noted that all the unknown reactions appear in each of the compatibility equations making it difficult to solve resulting equations. The slope-deflection equations are not that lengthy in comparison. The slope-deflection method was originally developed by Heinrich Manderla and Otto Mohr for computing secondary stresses in trusses. The method as used today was presented by G.A.Maney in 1915 for analyzing rigid jointed structures.

**14.2 Slope-Deflection Equations
**

Consider a typical span of a continuous beam AB as shown in Fig.14.1.The beam has constant flexural rigidity EI and is subjected to uniformly distributed loading and concentrated loads as shown in the figure. The beam is kinematically indeterminate to second degree. In this lesson, the slope-deflection equations are derived for the simplest case i.e. for the case of continuous beams with unyielding supports. In the next lesson, the support settlements are included in the slope-deflection equations.

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For this problem, it is required to derive relation between the joint end moments M AB and M BA in terms of joint rotations θ A and θ B and loads acting on the beam .Two subscripts are used to denote end moments. For example, end moments MAB denote moment acting at joint A of the member AB. Rotations of the tangent to the elastic curve are denoted by one subscript. Thus, θ A denotes the rotation of the tangent to the elastic curve at A. The following sign conventions are used in the slope-deflection equations (1) Moments acting at the ends of the member in counterclockwise direction are taken to be positive. (2) The rotation of the tangent to the elastic curve is taken to be positive when the tangent to the elastic curve has rotated in the counterclockwise direction from its original direction. The slope-deflection equations are derived by superimposing the end moments developed due to (1) applied loads (2) rotation θ A (3) rotation θ B . This is shown in Fig.14.2 (a)-(c). In Fig. 14.2(b) a kinematically determinate structure is obtained. This condition is obtained by modifying the support conditions to fixed so that the unknown joint rotations become zero. The structure shown in Fig.14.2 (b) is known as kinematically determinate structure or F F restrained structure. For this case, the end moments are denoted by M AB and M BA . The fixed end moments are evaluated by force–method of analysis as discussed in the previous module. For example for fixed- fixed beam subjected to uniformly distributed load, the fixed-end moments are shown in Fig.14.3.

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The fixed end moments are required for various load cases. For ease of calculations, fixed end forces for various load cases are given at the end of this lesson. In the actual structure end A rotates by θ A and end B rotates by θB . Now it is required to derive a relation relating θ A and θB with the end moments M ′AB and M ′ BA . Towards this end, now consider a simply supported beam acted by moment ′ ′ M AB at A as shown in Fig. 14.4. The end moment M AB deflects the beam as ′ ′ shown in the figure. The rotations θ A and θ B are calculated from moment-area theorem.

′ M AB L 3EI M′ L ′ θ B = − AB 6 EI ′ θA =

(14.1a) (14.1b)

′ Now a similar relation may be derived if only M BA is acting at end B (see Fig. 14.4). M′ L ′′ (14.2a) θ B = BA and 3EI M′ L ′′ (14.2b) θ A = − BA 6 EI Now combining these two relations, we could relate end moments acting at A and B to rotations produced at A and B as (see Fig. 14.2c)

' ' M AB L M BA L θA = − 3EI 6 EI

(14.3a)

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θB =

′ ′ M BA L M BA L − 3EI 6 EI

(14.3b)

**′ Solving for M ′ and M BA in terms of θ A and θB , AB
**

M′ = AB 2 EI (2θ A + θ B ) L 2 EI ′ M BA = (2θ B + θ A ) L

(14.4) (14.5)

**Now writing the equilibrium equation for joint moment at A (see Fig. 14.2).
**

F M AB = M AB + M ′ AB

(14.6a)

**Similarly writing equilibrium equation for joint B
**

F ′ M BA = M BA + M BA

(14.6b)

**′ Substituting the value of M AB from equation (14.4) in equation (14.6a) one obtains,
**

F M AB = M AB +

2 EI (2θ A + θ B ) L

(14.7a)

**′ Similarly substituting M BA from equation (14.6b) in equation (14.6b) one obtains,
**

F M BA = M BA +

2 EI (2θ B + θ A ) L

(14.7b)

Sometimes one end is referred to as near end and the other end as the far end. In that case, the above equation may be stated as the internal moment at the near end of the span is equal to the fixed end moment at the near end due to 2 EI times the sum of twice the slope at the near end and the external loads plus L slope at the far end. The above two equations (14.7a) and (14.7b) simply referred to as slope–deflection equations. The slope-deflection equation is nothing but a load displacement relationship.

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**14.3 Application of Slope-Deflection Equations to Statically Indeterminate Beams.
**

The procedure is the same whether it is applied to beams or frames. It may be summarized as follows: 1. Identify all kinematic degrees of freedom for the given problem. This can be done by drawing the deflection shape of the structure. All degrees of freedom are treated as unknowns in slope-deflection method. 2. Determine the fixed end moments at each end of the span to applied load. The table given at the end of this lesson may be used for this purpose. 3. Express all internal end moments in terms of fixed end moments and near end, and far end joint rotations by slope-deflection equations. 4. Write down one equilibrium equation for each unknown joint rotation. For example, at a support in a continuous beam, the sum of all moments corresponding to an unknown joint rotation at that support must be zero. Write down as many equilibrium equations as there are unknown joint rotations. 5. Solve the above set of equilibrium equations for joint rotations. 6. Now substituting these joint rotations in the slope-deflection equations evaluate the end moments. 7. Determine all rotations. Example 14.1 A continuous beam ABC is carrying uniformly distributed load of 2 kN/m in addition to a concentrated load of 20 kN as shown in Fig.14.5a. Draw bending moment and shear force diagrams. Assume EI to be constant.

(a). Degrees of freedom It is observed that the continuous beam is kinematically indeterminate to first degree as only one joint rotation θ B is unknown. The deflected shape /elastic Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

curve of the beam is drawn in Fig.14.5b in order to identify degrees of freedom. By fixing the support or restraining the support B against rotation, the fixed-fixed beams area obtained as shown in Fig.14.5c.

F F F F (b). Fixed end moments M AB , M BA , M BC and M CB are calculated referring to the Fig. 14. and following the sign conventions that counterclockwise moments are positive. 2 × 62 20 × 3 × 32 F M AB = + = 21 kN.m 12 62 F M BA = −21 kN.m

F M BC =

F M CB

4 × 42 = 5.33 kN.m 12 = −5.33 kN.m

(1)

(c) Slope-deflection equations Since ends A and C are fixed, the rotation at the fixed supports is zero, θ A = θ C = 0 . Only one non-zero rotation is to be evaluated for this problem. Now, write slope-deflection equations for span AB and BC. 2 EI F M AB = M AB + (2θ A + θ B ) l Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

M AB = 21 +

2 EI θB 6 2 EI (2θ B + θ A ) l 4 EI θB 6

(2)

M BA = −21 + M BA = −21 +

(3) (4) (5)

M BC = 5.33 + EIθ B M CB = −5.33 + 0.5 EIθ B

(d) Equilibrium equations In the above four equations (2-5), the member end moments are expressed in terms of unknown rotation θ B . Now, the required equation to solve for the rotation θ B is the moment equilibrium equation at support B . The free body diagram of support B along with the support moments acting on it is shown in Fig. 14.5d. For, moment equilibrium at support B , one must have,

∑M

B

=0

M BA + M BC = 0

(6)

Substituting the values of M BA and M BC in the above equilibrium equation, 4 EI − 21 + θ B + 5.33 + EIθ B = 0 6 ⇒ 1.667θ B EI = 15.667

θB =

9.398 9.40 ≅ EI EI

(7)

(e) End moments After evaluating θ B , substitute it in equations (2-5) to evaluate beam end moments. Thus,

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M AB = 21 + M AB = 21 +

EI θB 3 EI 9.398 × = 24.133kN.m 3 EI EI (2θ B ) 3 EI 2 × 9.4 × = −14.733kN.m 3 EI 9 .4 EI = 14.733kN.m EI 9.4 EI × = −0.63 kN.m EI 2

M BA = −21 + M BA = −21 +

M BC = 5.333 +

M CB = −5.333 +

(8)

(f) Reactions Now, reactions at supports are evaluated using equilibrium equations (vide Fig. 14.5e)

**RA × 6 + 14.733 − 20 × 3 − 2 × 6 × 3 − 24.133 = 0 R A = 17.567 kN(↑ )
**

RBL = 16 − 1.567 = 14.433 kN(↑ ) 14.733 − 0.63 RBR = 8 + = 11.526 kN(↑) 4 RC = 8 + 3.526 = 4.47 kN(↑)

(9)

The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in Fig. 14.5f. Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

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Example 14.2 Draw shear force and bending moment diagram for the continuous beam ABCD loaded as shown in Fig.14.6a.The relative stiffness of each span of the beam is also shown in the figure.

For the cantilever beam portion CD, no slope-deflection equation need to be written as there is no internal moment at end D. First, fixing the supports at B and C, calculate the fixed end moments for span AB and BC. Thus,

F M AB =

3 × 82 = 16 kN.m 12

F M BA = −16 kN.m

F M BC =

10 × 3 × 32 = 7.5 kN.m 62 (1)

F M CB = −7.5 kN.m

In the next step write slope-deflection equation. There are two equations for each span of the continuous beam. Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

14.667EIθ B (2) Equilibrium equations The free body diagram of members AB .667 EIθ C 6 = −7.m Substituting the values of M CB for M AB . θ C in the slope-deflection equations.5 + (2θ B + θ C ) = 7.704 Substituting θ B . we get (7) Version 2 CE IIT.334 EIθ B + 0. Support B. M BA .5 + 1.5 = 8.334EIθ C + 0.m ⇒ M CB = −15 kN.M AB = 16 + M BA M BC M CB 2 EI (θ B ) = 16 + 0. and MCD in the above equations θB = 24.164 3. ∑M ∑M B =0 =0 M BA + M BC = 0 M CB + M CD = 0 (3) (4) (5) (6) C We know that M CD = 15 kN.001 θ C = 9. M BC and M CB we get.One could write one equilibrium equation for each joint B and C. BC and joints B and C are shown in Fig.5 + 1.6b.25θ B EI 8 = −16 + 0.5θ B EI 2 × 2 EI = 7. Kharagpur .

Fig.164 9.667 EI × EI EI M AB = 16 + 0. 14.5 + 1.6c) RA × 8 − 18.486 kN RBL = 11.918 kN.25EIθ B = 16 + 0.04 kN.5EIθ B = −16 + 0.235 kN RC = 5 + 0.667 EI ( M BC = 7.514 kN The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in Fig.041 − 3 × 8 × 4 + 11.704 ) = −15 kN.334 EI ( − M CB = −7.704 ) = 11.m + 1.6d.918 = 0 RA = 12.164 = 18.m + 0. 14.765 kN RBR = 5 − 0.514kN = 5.918 kN.334 EI × EI EI 8. Kharagpur .m EI 8.5EI × = −11.8.164 M BA = −16 + 0.5 + 0.m EI 8.25 EI × (8) Reactions are obtained from equilibrium equations (ref. Version 2 CE IIT.514kN = 4.164 9.

fixed end forces for various load cases are given in Fig. Kharagpur .For ease of calculations.7. 14. Version 2 CE IIT.

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The advantages of displacement method of analysis over force method of analysis are clearly brought out here. A couple of examples are solved to illustrate the slope-deflection equations. The kinematically indeterminate beams are analysed by slope-deflection equations. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .Summary In this lesson the slope-deflection equations are derived for beams with unyielding supports.

Kharagpur .Module 3 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Displacement Method Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .Lesson 15 The Slope-Deflection Method: Beams (Continued) Version 2 CE IIT.

15. (2) Displacements θ A . In this lesson. is assumed to be constant for the beam. Estimate the reactions induced in the beam due to support settlements. Hence. The chord has rotated in the counterclockwise direction with respect to its original direction. few problems are solved to illustrate the procedure. the member axis has rotated by an amount ψ from the original direction as shown in the figure. θ B and Δ (settlement) Version 2 CE IIT. Analyse the beam undergoing support settlements and subjected to external loads. In statically indeterminate structures.2. Kharagpur . Hence. 4.The support B is at a higher elevation compared to A by an amount Δ . Let L be the span of the beam and flexural rigidity of the beam EI . After deriving the slope-deflection equation in section 15. As stated earlier. in this case the beam end moments are related to rotations. applied loads and beam axes rotation. 5. Derive slope-deflection equations for the case beam with yielding supports. slope-deflection equations are derived considering the rotation of beam axis.1. 15. the slopes and rotations are derived by superposing the end moments developed due to (1) Externally applied moments on beams.1 Introduction In the last lesson.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. Write joint equilibrium equations in terms of moments. Consider a beam AB as shown in Fig. The counterclockwise moment and rotations are assumed to be positive. Relate moments to joint rotations and support settlements. slope-deflection equations were derived without considering the rotation of the beam axis. the beam axis rotates due to support yielding and this would in turn induce reactions and stresses in the structure. 2. 3.

Assuming that rotations and displacements shown in Fig. 15.15.15.1c) that are caused by end moments M AB and M BA . In Fig. the fixed end moments are calculated by force method. Let φ A and φ B be the end rotations of the elastic curve with respect to rotated beam axis AB’ ' ' (see Fig. φ A and φ B are written as φ A = θ A −ψ = M AB ' L M AB ' L − 3EI 6 EI (15.The given beam with initial support settlement may be thought of as superposition of two simple cases as shown in Fig. Kharagpur .15. the kinematically determinate beam is shown with the applied load.15.2a) Version 2 CE IIT. For this case.1 (b) and in Fig.1) Also.1b. using the moment area theorem.1(c).1c are so small that tan ψ = ψ = Δ l (15.

3b) Now superposing the fixed end moments due to external load and end moments due to displacements. M AB ' = M BA ' = 2 EI (2θ A + θ B − 3ψ ) L 2 EI (2θ B + θ A − 3ψ ) L (15. the slopedeflection equations for the general case are obtained.15.4b) M BA = M BA + M BA ' F ' ' Substituting for M AB and M BA in equation (15. Thus.4a) (15.5a) (15.due to vertical settlement of the support B by 5mm. Example 15. In the above derivation Δ is taken to be negative for downward displacements. Version 2 CE IIT. θ B andψ . it is important to adopt consistent sign convention. the end moments in the actual structure is obtained .1 Calculate the support moments in the continuous beam ABC (see Fig.Thus (see Fig.5b) In the above equations.15.3a) (15. Assume E =200 GPa and I = 4 × 10 −4 m 4 .Also plot quantitative elastic curve.2b) ' ' Now solving for M A and M B in terms of θ A .1) M AB = M AB + M AB ' F (15.4a) and (15.2a) having constant flexural rigidity EI throughout . Kharagpur . M AB = M AB + F M BA = M BA F 2 EI (2θ A + θ B − 3ψ ) L 2 EI + (2θ B + θ A − 3ψ ) L (15.φ B= θ B −ψ = M BA ' L M AB ' L − 3EI 6 EI (15.4b).

In the continuous beam ABC . Hence.ψ AB is taken as negative. For each span. Version 2 CE IIT. the fixed end moments in the restrained beam are zero (see Fig. the chord AB rotates in clockwise direction. Kharagpur . Hence. two slope-deflection equations need to be written.15. two rotations θ B and θ C need to be evaluated. B is below A .2b). In span AB . Thus. beam is kinematically indeterminate to second degree. As there is no external load on the beam.

M BC = 0.0012EI Similarly. for beam-end moment at end B .8 EIθ B + 0. Hence the chord joining B ′C rotates in anticlockwise direction.ψ AB − 5 × 10 −3 = = −1× 10 − 3 5 (1) Writing slope-deflection equation for span AB .4 EIθ C − 1.4 EI 2θ B + 3 × 10 −3 M BA = 0. MAB = 2 EI (2θ A + θ B − 3ψ AB ) L For span AB .2 × 10 −3 EI (4) (5) Now. Kharagpur . M AB = 2 EI θ B + 3 × 10 −3 5 ( ) (2) M AB = O.2c) Version 2 CE IIT. the support C is above support B .0012EI ( ) (3) In span BC . consider the joint equilibrium of support B (see Fig.8 EIθ C + 0. in span AB M BA = 0.4 EIθ B + . Hence. θ A = 0.2 × 10 −3 EI M CB = 0.15.4 EIθ B − 1.8EIθ B + 0. ψ BC = ψ CB = 1 × 10 −3 Writing slope-deflection equations for span BC .

m M BA = 68.6θ B + 0.m (10) Reactions are obtained from equations of static equilibrium (vide Fig. Solving equations (7) and (8) θ B = −0. M AB = 82. Kharagpur .570 kN.4θ C = 1. 1.4θ B − 1.m M CB = 0 kN.2 × 10 −3 (8) We have two unknowns θ B and θ C and there are two equations in θ B and θ C .2d) Version 2 CE IIT.7143 × 10 −3 radians (9) Substituting the values of θ B .15.2 × 10 −3 (6) (7) Also.573 kN. M CB = 0 M CB = 0 = 0. θ C and EI in slope-deflection equations.285 kN. the support C is simply supported and hence.4 EIθ C − 1.8 EIθ B + 1.2 × 10 −3 EI + 0.4θ B = 1. 0.2 × 10 −3 EI 0.8θ C + 0.2 × 10 −3 EI = 0 Simplifying.4286 × 10 −3 radians θ C = 1.8 EIθ B + 0.8θ C + 0.m M BC = −68.M BA + M BC = 0 Substituting the values of M BA and M BC in equation (6).

2f.171 kN(↓) RBR = −13.In beam AB .714 kN (↓) RC = 13. Version 2 CE IIT. ∑M B = 0 .15. R A = 30.714 kN (↑) The shear force and bending moment diagram is shown in Fig. Kharagpur .15.171 kN (↑) RBL = −30.2e and elastic curve is shown in Fig.

3a.15.Example 15. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . Compute reactions and draw shear force and bending moment diagram due to following support settlements.2 A continuous beam ABCD is carrying a uniformly distributed load of 5 kN/m as shown in Fig.

15. Referring to standard tables the fixed end moments may be evaluated .667 kN.m (clockwise) F M BC = 41. Now consider the kinematically restrained beam as shown in Fig. One equilibrium equation can be written at each support. Kharagpur .667 kN.667 kN.005m vertically downwards Support C 0. θ C and θ D are to be evaluated.m F M BA = −41.15.Otherwise one could obtain fixed end moments from force method of analysis. θ B .3b.01 m vertically downwards Assume E =200 GPa. the rotations are evaluated and hence the moments from slope-deflection equations. The fixed end moments in the present case are (vide fig.m (clockwise) Version 2 CE IIT.3b) F M AB = 41.m (counterclockwise) F M CB = −41. four rotations θ A . I = 1.Support B 0.35 × 10 −3 m 4 In the above continuous beam. solving the four equilibrium equations.667 kN.Hence.

667 kN.005 = −0. In the span AB .0005) Version 2 CE IIT. B is below A and hence the chord joining AB ′ rotates in the clockwise direction (see Fig.15.667 + 0.m (counterclockwise) F M DC = −41.01 = 0.3c) 0 − 0.F M CD = 41. write slope-deflection equations for each span.0005) M BA = −41.0005) M CB = −41.667 + 0.667 kN.667 + 0. Kharagpur . M AB = 41.0005 radians (negative as the chord AB ′ rotates in the 10 clockwise direction from the original direction) ψ AB = ψ BC = −0.2 EI (2θ B + θ A + 0.m (clockwise) (1) In the next step.2 EI (2θ C + θ B + 0. writing the expressions for the span end moments.0005) M BC = 41.2 EI (2θ A + θ B + 0.2 EI (2θ B + θ C + 0.667 + 0. for each of the spans.001 radians (positive as the chord C ′D rotates in the counter 10 clockwise direction from the original direction) (2) ψ CD = Now.0005 radians (negative as the chord B ′C ′ rotates in the clockwise direction) 0.

θ B .001 θ B + 4θ C + θ D = 0.0005 θ C + 2θ D = 1. θ A = −5. θ C and θ D .m 2 ) 2θ A + θ B = −1. θ C and θ D are evaluated.667 + 0. ( EI = 200 × 10 3 × 1.35 × 10 −6 = 270. one each for each of the supports.000 kN. Kharagpur .2 EI (2θ D + θ C − 0. four equations are obtained in four unknown rotations θ A . They are ∑M ∑M ∑M ∑M A = 0 ⇒ M AB = 0 = 0 ⇒ M BA + M BC = 0 = 0 ⇒ M CB + M CD = 0 = 0 ⇒ M DC= 0 (4) B C D Substituting the values of beam end moments from equations (3) in equation (4). values of θ A .9013 × 10 −5 radians θ C = −8.2 EI (2θ C + θ D − 0.001) (3) For the present problem. θ B .M CD = 41.2963 × 10 −4 radians (6) Version 2 CE IIT.9629 × 10 −4 radians θ B = −7.7653 × 10 −5 radians θ D = 9. four joint equilibrium equations can be written.001) M DC = −41.They are.667 + 0.2716 × 10 −3 θ A + 4θ B + θ C = −0.7716 × 10 −3 (5) Solving the above sets of simultaneous equations.

765 × 10 −5 ) − 7.000{2 × ( −8.40 kN.46 kN (↑) Version 2 CE IIT.Substituting the values in slope-deflection equations the beam end moments are evaluated.40 kN.15. R A = 19.0005} = 55.2 × 270. M AB = 41.0005} = −28.667 + 0.3d.9013 × 10 −5 ) + 0.2 × 270.667 + 0.9629 × 10 −4 ) + (−7.7653 × 10 −5 ) + 0.2 × 270.000{2 × 9.m M BC = 41.0005} = −55.9013 × 10 −5 ) − 5.2 × 270.9629 × 10 −4 + 0.7653 × 10 −5 − 0.001} = 28.m M CD = 41.9013 × 10 −5 ) + ( −8.000{2( −7.2 × 270.2963 × 10 −4 − 8.0005)} = 0 M BA = −41.m M CB = −41.000{2(−7.667 + 0. Now consider the free body diagram of the beam with end moments and external loads as shown in Fig.667 + 0.40 kN. Kharagpur .m (7) Reactions are obtained from equilibrium equations.001} = 0 kN.2963 × 10 −4 − 0.000{2(−5.m M DC = −41.9013 × 10 −5 + 0.2 × 270.667 + 0.667 + 0.000{2( −8.40 kN.765 × 10 −5 ) + 9.

3 kN (↑) RCR = 27.54 kN(↑) RBR = 27. slope-deflection equations are derived for the case of beam with yielding supports.7 kN (↑) RCL = 22. Summary In this lesson.RBL = 30. The bending moment and shear force diagrams are drawn for the examples solved in this lesson. The equilibrium equations are written at each support.84 kN (↑) R D = 22. Moments developed at the ends are related to rotations and support settlements. Version 2 CE IIT.15. Kharagpur . The continuous beam is solved using slope-deflection equations.5e.16 kN(↑) The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in Fig. The deflected shape of the beam is sketched.

Module 3 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Displacement Method Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Lesson 16 The Slope-Deflection Method: Frames Without Sidesway Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Able to analyse plane frames restrained against sidesway by slope-deflection equations. 2.This is true also for joint D .e.1(a) the joint can’t move to the right or left without support A also moving . Kharagpur .1 will not sidesway. However the frames are symmetrical in geometry and in loading and hence these will not sidesway.1(a) and Fig 16. frames do not sidesway if 1) They are restrained against sidesway. i. In general.1 (c) and (d) are not restrained against sidesway. 16. the frames will not be displaced to the right or left. slope deflection equations are applied to solve the statically indeterminate frames without sidesway.1(b) are properly restrained against sidesway. For example in Fig 16. 4. With this assumption the frames shown in Fig 16. 2) The frame geometry and loading is symmetrical Version 2 CE IIT. In frames axial deformations are much smaller than the bending deformations and are neglected in the analysis. Draw bending moment and shear force diagrams for the plane frame. The frames shown in Fig 16.1 Introduction In this lesson. Frames shown in Fig 16. State whether plane frames are restrained against sidesway or not. 3. Sketch the deflected shape of the plane frame.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Now consider the free body diagram of joint C as shown in fig 16. At joint C in the frame shown in Fig 16. the angle ψ in slope-deflection equation is zero. Whereas in the case of rigid frames two or more than two members meet at a joint. there is a small difference.The equilibrium equation at joint C is ∑M C =0⇒ M CB + M CE + M CD = 0 Version 2 CE IIT.2 . Hence the analysis of such rigid frames by slope deflection equation essentially follows the same steps as that of continuous beams without support settlements. at a joint only two members meet.1(d) three members meet.1. Kharagpur . However.For the frames shown in Fig 16. In the case of continuous beam.

The whole procedure is illustrated by few examples. and solving these equations joint rotations are evaluated. Hence this moment is applied on frame as shown in Fig 16. Thus Version 2 CE IIT. Assume EI to be constant for all the members.3 c). Frames undergoing sidesway will be considered in next lesson. Draw bending moment diagram and also sketch the elastic curve. One would write as many equilibrium equations as the no of unknowns.1 Analyse the rigid frame shown in Fig 16. Now. The moment in the cantilever portion is known. Example 16. Substituting joint rotations in the slope–deflection equations member end moments are calculated. Thus the required equations to evaluate θ B is obtained by considering the equilibrium of joint B .3 (b). calculate the fixed-end moments by fixing the support B (vide Fig 16. θ B . Kharagpur . Solution In this problem only one rotation needs to be determined i. e.3 (a).At each joint there is only one unknown as all the ends of members meeting at a joint rotate by the same amount.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Since supports C and D are fixed θ C = θ D = 0 .F M BD = +5 kNm F M DB = −5 kNm F M BC = 0 kNm F M BC = 0 kNm For writing slope–deflection equations two spans must be considered. BC and BD . Kharagpur . Also the frame is restrained against sidesway.3 d) Version 2 CE IIT. (see Fig 16.5EIθ B 4 = EIθ B M BC M CB = 0. M BD = 5 + M DB 2 EI [2θ B ] = 5 + EIθ B 4 2 EI = 5+ [θ B ] = −5 + 0.5EIθ B (2) Now consider the joint equilibrium of support B .

∑M B =0 ⇒ M BD + M BC − 10 = 0 (3) Substituting the value of M BD and M BC and from equation (2) in the above equation 5 + EIθ B + EIθ B − 10 = 0 θB = 2. the beam end moments are calculated M BD = +7. Kharagpur .75 kN ⋅ m M BC = +2. 5 EI (4) Substituting the values of θ B in equation (2).25 kN ⋅ m (5) The reactions are evaluated from static equations of equilibrium.5 kN ⋅ m M DB = −3.3 (e) Version 2 CE IIT.5 kN ⋅ m M CB = +1. The free body diagram of each member of the frame with external load and end moments are shown in Fig 16.

9375 kN(↑) RCx = −0.3(f) Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .0625 kN(↑) RDx = 0.RCy = 10.9375 kN(→) (6) Bending moment diagram is shown in Fig 16.9375 kN(←) RDy = 4.

The vertical hatching is use to represent the bending moment diagram for the horizontal member (beams) and horizontal hatching is used for bending moment diagram for the vertical members. Version 2 CE IIT.3 (g). Kharagpur . The qualitative elastic curve is shown in Fig 16.

4 (a).2 Compute reactions and beam end moments for the rigid frame shown in Fig 16. The given frame is kinematically indeterminate to second degree. This is done by considering the kinematically determinate structure.4 b) Version 2 CE IIT.Example 16. Solution In this frame rotations θ A and θ B are evaluated by considering the equilibrium of joint A and B . Draw bending moment and shear force diagram for the frame and also sketch qualitative elastic curve. Evaluate fixed end moments. (Fig 16. Kharagpur .

(Force deflection equations). A .F M DB = 5 × 62 = 15 kN. Support C is fixed and hence θ C = 0.m 12 − 5 × 62 = −15 kN.m 12 F M BA = M F BC 5 × 2 × 22 = = 2. Kharagpur . B and AC .m 42 − 5 × 2 × 22 = −2.5 kN.m 42 (1) F M CD = Note that the frame is restrained against sidesway. The beam end moments are related to unknown rotations θ A and θ B by following slopedeflection equations. The spans must be considered for writing slope-deflection equations viz. F M AB = M ABL + 2 E (2 I ) (2θ A + θ B ) LAB Version 2 CE IIT.5 kN.

667 EIθ B M BA = −15 + 0.5EIθ B (2) Consider the joint equilibrium of support A (See Fig 16.667 EIθ B = −15 Or.5 EIθ C M CB = −2.667 EIθ B 1.333EIθ A + +0.5 + 0.333EIθ A + 0. Kharagpur . 2θ A + θ B = Equilibrium of joint B (Fig 16.M AB = 15 − +1.333EIθ B M BC = 2.333EIθ A + 0.489 EI Version 2 CE IIT.4 (c)) ∑M A =0 (3) M AB = 0 = 15 + 1.667 EIθ A + 1.4(d)) − 22.5 + EIθ B + 0.

m ⎝ EI ⎠ ⎛ 10. Kharagpur .002 ⎞ ⎛ − 16.∑M B =0 ⇒ M BC + M BA = 0 (4) Substituting the value of M BC and M BA in the above equation.333EIθ B + 0.741 EI (5) Solving equation (3) and (4) 10.002 ⎞ M CB = −2.667 EI ⎜ ⎟ = −1 ⎟ + .5 Or.245 θB = (clockwise) EI θB = (6) Substituting the value of θ A and θ B evaluated.5 + 0.002 ⎞ M BC = 2.002 (counterclockwise) EI − 16.1. 3.667 EIθ A = 12. in equation (2) beam end moments are ⎛ 10.m ⎝ EI ⎠ (7) Version 2 CE IIT.5 kN.333EI ⎜ ⎟=0 ⎟ + 0.5 kN.245 ⎞ M BA = −15 + 0.33EI ⎜ ⎝ EI ⎠ ⎝ EI ⎠ ⎛ 10.245 ⎞ M AB = 15 + 1.498θ B + θ A = 18. 2.5 EI ⎜ ⎟ = 2.5 + EI ⎜ ⎟ = 12.002 ⎞ ⎛ − 16.667 EI ⎜ ⎝ EI ⎠ ⎝ EI ⎠ ⎛ 10.

Version 2 CE IIT.4 (e) The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in Fig 16. The qualitative elastic curve is shown in Fig 16.4 h respectively. Kharagpur . reactions are evaluated from equilibrium equations as shown in Fig 16.Using these results.4 (h).4(g) and 16.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Draw bending moment diagram and sketch the elastic curve for the frame.Example 16.5(a).3 Compute reactions and beam end moments for the rigid frame shown in Fig 16. Solution Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Four spans must be considered for rotating slope – deflection equation: AB.m 30 10 × 3 × 32 = 7. θ C and θ D . BD.m 62 −10 × 3 × 32 = −7.667 kN. BC and CE. F M AB = 5 × 42 = 4 kN.5 kN.5 kN. The beam end Version 2 CE IIT. θ B .The given frame is kinematically indeterminate to third degree so three rotations are to be calculated.m 20 M F BA −5 × 42 = = −2.5 b).m 62 (1) F M BC = F M CB = F F F F M BD = M DB = M CE = M EC = 0 The frame is restrained against sidesway. Kharagpur . First calculate the fixed end moments (see Fig 16.

D.5 EIθ E = 0.5EIθ E = EIθC M EC = 0.5(c)) (2) Version 2 CE IIT.667 EIθC 6 M CB = −7.5EIθC + 0.moments are related to unknown rotation at B. M AB = 4 + 2 EI [ 2θ A + θ B ] 4 M AB = 4 + EIθ A + 0. and D. C. Since the supports A and E are fixed.667 EIθ A + EIθ B = −2.5 EIθ B + EIθ D M BC = 7.5 EIθ B M BA = −2.5 + .5EIθ B = 4 + 0.667 + EIθ B M BD = EIθ B + 0.5 EIθ C Consider the equilibrium of joints B.333EIθ B + 0. θ A = θ E = 0 .333EIθ C M CE = EIθC + 0.667 EIθ B + 1.5 + 1.5 EIθ D M DB = 0. Kharagpur .5 + 2E ( 2I ) [ 2θ B + θC ] = 7. 16. C (vide Fig.

667 EIθ B = 7. M CB and M CE in the equations (3). EIθ B = −2. θ C and θ D are evaluated.333EIθ B + 0.5 EIθ B + EIθ D = 0 2.5 (6) Solving the above set of simultaneous equations. M BC . (4).∑M ∑M ∑M B =0 =0 =0 ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ M BA + M BC + M BD = 0 (3) (4) (5) D M DB = 0 M CB + M CE = 0 C Substituting the values of M BA . θ B . Kharagpur .5 EIθ D = −4. M BD .333EIθC + 0.667 EIθ C + 0.833 0. and (5) 3. M DB .4125 Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .m M DB = 0 M BC = 6.080 kN.953 kN. beam end moments are computed.8094 kN. Version 2 CE IIT.m (8) The reactions are computed in Fig 16.9057 kN.m M BA = −5.m M CB = −3.EIθC = 3.794 kN.2063 (7) Substituting the values of θ B .m M EC = 1.m M CE = 3. θ C and θ D in (2).859 kN.9057 EIθ D = 1.m M BD = −1.5(d). using equilibrium equations known beam-end moments and given loading. M AB = 2.9028 kN.

RAy = 6. Kharagpur .403 kN ( ↑ ) REy = 4. Version 2 CE IIT.013 kN ( → ) RDx = 0.5(f).095 kN ( ↑ ) RDy = 9.465 kN ( ← ) (9) The bending moment diagram is shown in Fig 16.502 kN ( ↑ ) RAx = 1.542 kN ( → ) REx = −1.5.(e) and the elastic curve is shown in Fig 16.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .Summary In this lesson plane frames restrained against sidesway are analysed using slope-deflection equations. Equilibrium equations are written at each rigid joint of the frame and also at the support. The shear force and bending moment diagrams are drawn for the plane frames. Few problems are solved to illustrate the procedure.

Module 3 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Displacement Method Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Lesson 17 The Slope-Deflection Method: Frames with Sidesway Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

In this case the frame is symmetrical but not the loading. 2.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. In general loading will never be symmetrical. 2. consider the frame of Fig. 17. In the previous lesson. In Version 2 CE IIT. then M BC > M CB . it was observed that sidesway in a frame will not occur if 1. As stated earlier. Due to unsymmetrical loading the beam end moments M BC and M CB are not equal. slope-deflection equations are applied to analyse statically indeterminate frames undergoing sidesway.1 Introduction In this lesson. Sketch deflected shape of the plane frame not restrained against sidesway. 3. If b is greater than a . Derive slope-deflection equations for the frames undergoing sidesway. 4. Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams. They are restrained against sidesway.1. Hence one could not avoid sidesway in frames. 17. the axial deformation of beams and columns are small and are neglected in the analysis. If the frame geometry and the loading are symmetrical. Kharagpur . For example. Analyse plane frames undergoing sidesway.

2. Hence the slope-deflection equation for column AB is similar to the one for beam undergoing support settlement. However. It is observed that in the column AB . one needs to consider force-equilibrium equations. While applying slope-deflection equation to columns ⎛ Δ⎞ in the above frame. θ C and the linear displacement Δ .such a case joint B and C are displaced toward right as shown in the figure by an unknown amount Δ .2b) C Now consider free body diagram of the frame as shown in Fig. Similarly. The horizontal shear force acting at A and B of the column AB is given by Version 2 CE IIT. Hence we have three unknown displacements in this frame: rotations θ B . one must consider the column rotation ψ ⎜ = ⎟ as ⎝ h⎠ unknowns. when unknown linear displacement occurs. ∑M ∑M B =0 =0 ⇒ ⇒ M BA + M BC = 0 M CB + M CD = 0 (17. the end B undergoes a linear displacement Δ with respect to end A . Two equations are obtained by considering the moment equilibrium of joint B and C respectively.2a) (17. three equations are required to evaluate them. θ C and Δ ). Kharagpur . 17. The unknown joint rotations θ B and θ C are related to joint moments by the moment equilibrium equations. in this case Δ is unknown. For each of the members we can write the following slope-deflection equations. Δ h F M AB = M AB + 2 EI [2θ A + θ B − 3ψ AB ] h where ψ AB = − ψ AB is assumed to be negative as the chord to the elastic curve rotates in the clockwise directions.1) As there are three unknowns ( θ B . F M BA = M BA + M BC M CB M CD M DC 2 EI [2θ B + θ A − 3ψ AB ] h 2 EI F = M BC + [2θ B + θ C ] h 2 EI F [2θ C + θ B ] = M CB + h 2 EI F = M CD + [2θ C + θ D − 3ψ CD ] h 2 EI F [2θ D + θ C − 3ψ CD ] = M DC + h ψ CD = − Δ h (17.

Kharagpur .2b) and (17. Version 2 CE IIT.H1 = M BA + M AB h (17. the shear force H 3 is given by H3 = M CD + M DC h (17.3b) Now. the required third equation is obtained by considering the equilibrium of member BC .4) M BA + M AB M CD + M DC + =0 h h Substituting the values of beam end moments from equation (17. solving which joint rotations and translations are evaluated.3a) Similarly for member CD .θ C and Δ . (17.4). we get three simultaneous equations in three unknowns θ B .2a).1) in equations (17. ∑F X =0 ⇒ H1 + H 3 = 0 (17.

Knowing joint rotations and translations. Hence. in this problem we have three unknown displacements (two rotations and one translation) to be evaluated. chord to the elastic curve AB ' and DC ' rotates by an amount (see Fig. 17. M BA = 0 . joints B and C rotate and also translate by an amount Δ . The complete procedure is explained with a few numerical examples. Thus. henceψ AB and ψ CD are taken as negative. F F F F F F M AB = 0 . Assume EI to be constant for all members.3a. 17. Solution In the given problem. Draw bending moment diagram and sketch qualitative elastic curve. Version 2 CE IIT.3b) ψ AB = ψ CD = − Δ 3 (2) Chords of the elastic curve AB ' and DC ' rotate in the clockwise direction. M BC = +10 kN . M CB = −10 kN .m . Considering the kinematically determinate structure. Example 17. (1) The ends A and D are fixed. M DC = 0. Hence. Kharagpur . M CD = 0 . θ A = θ D = 0.1 Analyse the rigid frame as shown in Fig. Joints B and C translate by the same amount Δ .m . beam end moments are calculated from slope-deflection equations. Hence. fixed end moments are evaluated.

ψ AB = − M AB = M BA = 2 2 EIθ B + EIΔ 3 3 4 2 EIθ B + EIΔ 3 3 1 EIθ C 2 M BC = 10 + EIθ B + M CB = −10 + M CD = 1 EIθ B + EIθ C 2 4 2 EIθ C + EIΔ 3 3 Version 2 CE IIT. writing the slope-deflection equations for the six beam end moments. 3 F M AB = 0 .θ A = 0 .Now. Kharagpur . F M AB = M AB + 2 EI [2θ A + θ B − 3ψ AB ] 3 Δ .

∑ FX = 0 (vide Fig.M DC = 2 2 EIθ C + EIΔ 3 3 (3) Now.3c). 17. consider the joint equilibrium of B and C (vide Fig.e. − H 1 + 10 − H 2 = 0 ⇒ H 1 + H 2 = 10 . ∑M ∑M B =0 =0 ⇒ ⇒ M BA + M BC = 0 M CB + M CD = 0 (4) (5) C The required third equation is written considering the horizontal equilibrium of the entire frame i.3d). Kharagpur . 17. (6) Version 2 CE IIT.

333EIθ C + 0.5EIθ C + 0.667 EIΔ = 10 (9) (10) Version 2 CE IIT. yields H1 = and M BA + M AB 3 H2 = M CD + M DC 3 (7) The equation (6) may be written as.5 EIθ B + 0. (5) and (6) 2. M BA + M AB + M CD + M DC = 30 (8) Substituting the beam end moments from equation (3) in equations (4). Kharagpur .Considering the equilibrium of the column AB and CD .667 EIΔ = −10 2.333EIθ B + 0.

m M DC = 12.130 kN. EIθ B = −9. Thus. Solving equations (9). one could calculate beam end moments.3 f.406 kN.8 2 EIθ B + 2 EIθ C + EIΔ = 30 3 (11) Equations (9). Substituting the values of EIθ B .500 kN. 17.m M CD = 13.m(clockwise) M BC = 1.3 e. Kharagpur .23 kN. the bending moment diagram is drawn on the compression side. This may be used as the check in deriving these equations. The bending moment diagram for the frame is shown in Fig. And the elastic curve is shown in Fig 17. (10) and (11) indicate symmetry and this fact may be noted.417 . Also note that the vertical hatching is used to represent bending moment diagram for the horizontal members (beams).355 and EIΔ = 17. EIθ C = 1. Version 2 CE IIT.m (counterclockwise) M BA = −1.14 kN.572 . M AB = 5.415 kN.m M CB = −13.m . EIθ C and EIΔ in the slope-deflection equation (3). (10) and (11).

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

2 Analyse the rigid frame as shown in Fig. Neglect axial deformations. Version 2 CE IIT. 17. Kharagpur . The moment of inertia for all the members is shown in the figure.4a and draw the bending moment diagram.Example 17.

in this problem we have three unknown displacements: two rotations and one translation. 36 F F F = 0 . M CB = 0 .667 EIθ B + 0.Solution: In this problem rotations and translations at joints B and C need to be evaluated. Hence.3b.m . M DC = 0. Hence. (1) The joints B and C translate by the same amount Δ .m . Kharagpur .333EIθ B + 0.333EIΔ Version 2 CE IIT. ψ AB = − and ψ CD Δ 6 Δ =− 3 (2) Now. M BA = −9 kN .333EIΔ M BA = −9 + 1. M CD = 0 . M AB = 9 + 2(2 EI ) ⎡ Δ⎤ ⎢θ B + 2 ⎥ 6 ⎣ ⎦ M AB = 9 + 0. 17. Fixed end moments are F M AB = M F BC 12 × 3 × 9 F = 9 kN . the chord to the elastic curve rotates in the clockwise direction as shown in Fig. writing the slope-deflection equations for six beam end moments.

M BC = EIθ B + 0.4c).667 EIΔ Now. Kharagpur . Considering the free body diagram of the member BC (vide Fig.667 EIθ C + 0.333EIθ C + 0. (6) Version 2 CE IIT.5 EIθ C M CB = 0. (3) ∑M ∑M B =0 =0 ⇒ ⇒ M BA + M BC = 0 M CB + M CD = 0 (4) (5) C The required third equation is written considering the horizontal equilibrium of the entire frame. consider the joint equilibrium of B and C . H1 + H 2 = 0 .5EIθ B + EIθ C M CD = 1.667 EIΔ M DC = 0. 17.

(10) and (11). one could calculate beam end moments.5 EIθ B + 0.m (counterclockwise) M BA = −0.50 kN. EIθ C and EIΔ in the slope-deflection equation (3).00 .333EIΔ = 36 Solving equations (9).The forces H 1 and H 2 are calculated from the free body diagram of column AB and CD .4 d.333EIθ C + 0.50 kN.m .325 kN.m M DC = 6. M AB = 15. EIθ B = 2.32 kN. yields 2.835 kN.75 kN.333EIθ B + 0. (5) and (8).5 EIθ C + 0.333EIΔ = 9 2.667 EIΔ = 0 2 EIθ B + 4 EIθ C + 3. Version 2 CE IIT. H 1 = −6 + and M BA + M AB 6 H2 = M CD + M DC 3 (7) Substituting the values of H 1 and H 2 into equation (6) yields. EIθ C = −4. Thus. Thus.m M CD = 3. Substituting the values of EIθ B . 17.m M CB = −3.m(clockwise) M BC = 0. M BA + M AB + 2M CD + 2 M DC = 36 (8) Substituting the beam end moments from equation (3) in equations (4).88 and (9) EIΔ = 15.76 . The bending moment diagram for the frame is shown in Fig. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

The chords to the elastic Version 2 CE IIT. chord to the elastic curve are shown by dotted line. 17. Moment of inertia of all the members are shown in the figure.5b.3 Analyse the rigid frame shown in Fig. 17. Draw bending moment diagram. Under the action of external forces. Kharagpur . In this figure. BB ' is perpendicular to AB and CC" is perpendicular to DC .5 a. the frame gets deformed as shown in Fig.Example 17.

784 EIθ C + 0.568EIθ B + 0.471EIΔ M DC = 0. M AB = 2 E (2 I ) [θ A − 3ψ AB ] 5. M CD = 0 . considering the joint equilibrium of B and C . θ A = θ D = 0.784EIθ B + 0. M BA = 0 . Now. ψ AB = − ψ CD = − ψ BC = Δ 2 2Δ tan α Δ = = Δ tan α = 2 2 5 (1) We have three independent unknowns for this problem θ B . ψ CD = ψ AB . The ends A and D are fixed.6 EIΔ M CD = 1.m .471EIΔ Now. writing the slope-deflection equations for the six beam end moments.1 M AB = 0.5 + 2 EIθ B + EIθ C − 0. Due to symmetry.m . M BC = +2. θ C and Δ .568EIθ C + 0. yields (2) Version 2 CE IIT. M CB = −2.50 kN .471EIΔ M BA = 1. Kharagpur .50 kN .5 + EIθ B + 2 EIθ C − 0.471EIΔ M BC = 2.curve AB" rotates by an angle ψ AB . M DC = 0. ψ AB = But Δ1 = Δ BB" =− 1 L AB L AB Δ cos α Δ Δ =− L AB cos α 5 Δ 5 Thus. B"C" rotates by ψ BC and DC rotates by ψ CD as shown in figure. Fixed end moments are. Hence.6 EIΔ M BC = −2. From the geometry of the figure. F F F F F F M AB = 0 .

129 EIΔ = −2. Kharagpur .129 EIΔ = 2.568 EIθ C + EIθ B − 0.∑M ∑M B =0 ⇒ M BA + M BC = 0 (3) 3.568 EIθ B + EIθ C − 0.5 C =0 ⇒ M CB + M CD = 0 (4) 3.5 Shear equation for Column AB 5H 1 − M AB − M BA + (1)V1 = 0 Column CD 5 H 2 − M CD − M DC + (1)V2 = 0 Beam BC ∑MC = 0 2V1 − M BC − M CB − 10 = 0 (5) (6) (7) Version 2 CE IIT.

m Version 2 CE IIT.471EIΔ + 1. Kharagpur . Substituting the values of EIθ B .205 and (13) EIΔ = 8.084 EIΔ = 25 Solving simultaneously equations (3) (4) and (13). M CD . Thus. one could calculate beam end moments.568EIθ B + 0. M AB = 3.5 + 2 EIθ B + EIθ C − 0. V1 = From equation (8). V2 = V1 − 10 = M BC + M CB + 10 − 10 2 Substituting the values of V1 .6 EIΔ ) = 25 Simplifying. Thus.784 EIθ C + 0.471EIΔ + 0. M DC in (12) we get the required third equation. H 1 and V2 in equations (5) and (6). 0. M BA .648 EIθ C − 0.784EIθ B + 0. yields EIθ B = −0. EIθ C and EIΔ in the slope-deflection equation (3).28 kN. 60 − 10 H 2 − 2 M AB − 2M BA + M BC + M CB = 0 − 10 + 10 H 2 − 2 M CD − 2 M DC + M BC + M CB = 0 Eliminating H 2 in equation (10) and (11). M AB + M BA + M CD + M DC − M BC − M CB = 25 (12) (10) (11) Substituting the values of M AB .741 .648 EIθ B + 3. EIθ C = 1. − 0.471EIΔ + 1.471EIΔ -( 2.5 + EIθ B + 2 EIθ C − 0.6 EIΔ )( − 2.∑F X =0 H1 + H 2 = 5 (8) (9) ∑ FY = 0 M BC + M CB + 10 2 V1 − V2 − 10 = 0 From equation (7).204 . H1 = 5 − H 2 From equation (9).568EIθ C + 0.

Using these equations. In each numerical example.75 kN. The bending moment diagram for the frame is shown in Fig. plane frames with sidesway are analysed. (14) Summary In this lesson.m M DC = 4. Kharagpur . slope-deflection equations are derived for the plane frame undergoing sidesway.75 kN.M BA = 2.70 kN.m . 17. The reactions are calculated from static equilibrium equations.m M CB = −5.5 d. A couple of problems are solved to make things clear.81 kN.m M CD = 5.m M BC = −2.70 kN. Version 2 CE IIT. the bending moment diagram is drawn and deflected shape is sketched for the plane frame.

Kharagpur .Module 3 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Displacement Method Version 2 CE IIT.

Lesson 18 The MomentDistribution Method: Introduction Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

5. counterclockwise beam end moments are taken as positive. Hence. Define unbalanced moment at a rigid joint. In this method. The counterclockwise beam end moments produce clockwise moments on the joint Consider a continuous beam ABCD as shown in Fig. the unknown displacements (rotations and translations) are related to the applied loading on the structure.1a. this really posed a problem as the number of equations in the case of multistory building is quite large. Kharagpur . In slopedeflection analysis. Until recently. the deformation of this beam is completely defined by rotations θ B and θ C at joints B and C respectively. first moment-distribution method is developed for continuous beams with unyielding supports. ends A and D are fixed and hence.18. The number of simultaneous equations will be equal to the number of unknowns to be evaluated.2 Basic Concepts In moment-distribution method. Thus one needs to solve these simultaneous equations to obtain displacements and beam end moments.Thus. the moment-distribution method was very popular among engineers. simultaneous equations could be solved very easily using a computer. carry-over moments. It is still being taught in the classroom for the simplicity and physical insight it gives to the analyst even though stiffness method is being used more and more. In this lesson. 18. It is very simple and is being used even today for preliminary analysis of small structures. actually solves these equations by the method of successive approximations. Today. Derive expressions for distribution moment. 18. The required equation to evaluate θ B and θ C is obtained by considering equilibrium of joints B and C. Calculate stiffness factors and distribution factors for various members in a continuous beam. The slope-deflection method results in a set of simultaneous equations of unknown displacements. Version 2 CE IIT. the results may be obtained to any desired degree of accuracy.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. The moment-distribution method proposed by Hardy Cross in 1932. 2. θ A = θ D = 0 . Analyse continuous beam by the moment-distribution method. Before the advent of electronic computing. the moment-distribution method could have turned out to be a very popular method. Had the computers not emerged on the scene.1 Introduction In the previous lesson we discussed the slope-deflection method. 4. 3. Compute distribution moment and carry-over moment. In this beam.

in moment-distribution method.∑M ∑M B C =0 =0 ⇒ M BA + M BC = 0 (18. θ B = θ C = 0 . Thus. the resultant moment at joints B and C will not be equal to zero.1b.18.3) Since joints B and C are artificially held locked. In such a case (vide Fig. M BA is the fixed end moment at joint B of beam AB when joint B is fixed. This moment is denoted by M B and is known as the unbalanced moment. and hence F M BA = M BA F M BC = M BC F M CB = M CB F M CD = M CD (18.e.2) In Fig. the beam end moments are written as F M BA = M BA + 2 EI AB ( 2θ B ) L AB 4 EI AB L AB is known as stiffness factor for the beam AB and it is denoted F by k AB . F M BA = M BA + K ABθ B θ ⎞ ⎛ F M BC = M BC + K BC ⎜θ B + C ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ θ ⎛ F M CB = M CB + K CB ⎜θ C + B ⎜ 2 ⎝ F M CD = M CD + K CDθ C ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (18. it is assumed that joints are locked i.18.1b) ⇒ M CB + M CD = 0 According to slope-deflection equation.1b). To start with. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT. the counterclockwise beam-end moments M BA and M BC produce a clockwise moment M B on the joint as shown in Fig.1a) (18.18. joints are prevented from rotating.1b.

This will deform the structure as shown in Fig. F F M B = M BA + M BC In reality joints are not locked. The unbalanced moment is the algebraic sum of the fixed end moments and act on the joint in the clockwise direction.Thus.18. Kharagpur . ∑M B = 0. The unbalanced moment restores the equilibrium of the joint B.1d and introduces distributed d d moment M BA. it will rotate under the action of unbalanced moment M B . When the joint B is unlocked. M BC in the span BA and BC respectively as shown in the figure. under the action of M B . Thus.4) θ B1 by the slope-deflection The distributed moments are related to the rotation equation. The unknown distributed moments are assumed to be positive and hence act in counterclockwise direction. Joints B and C do rotate under external loads. d d M BA + M BC + M B = 0 (18. Version 2 CE IIT. Let the joint B rotate by an angle θ B1 .

d M BA = − DFBA. when the joint B is unlocked and allowed to rotate under the action of unbalanced moment M B is equal to a distribution factor times the unbalanced moment with its sign reversed. Substituting the value of θ B1 in equation (18. Kharagpur . beam end moments are developed at ends of members meeting at that joint and are known as distributed moments.5) in (18. distributed moments are calculated. it bends the beam and beam end moments at the far ends (i.4). As the joint B rotates. at A and C) are developed. ∑K K BA is known as the distribution factor and is represented by DFBA . Version 2 CE IIT. As the joint B rotates under the action of the unbalanced moment. M B (18. Thus.d M BA = K BAθ B1 d M BC = K BCθ B1 (18.8) The distribution moments developed in a member meeting at B.6) where summation is taken over all the members meeting at that particular joint.5) Substituting equation (18. Now consider the beam BC of continuous beam ABCD. They are known as carry over moments. d M BA = − ∑K ∑ K BC K K BA MB d M BC = − MB (18.e. M B d M BC = − DFBC.5). θ B1 = − MB K BA + K BC ∑K MB (18. yields θ B1 (K BA + K BC ) = − M B θ B1 = − In general.7) The ratio Thus.

18. Assume that supports are unyielding. With the above discussion. Now from slopedeflection equations d M BC = K BC θ B M BC = 1 K BC θ B 2 M CB = 1 d M BC 2 (18. Draw bending moment diagram.2a) of constant moment of inertia is carrying a uniformly distributed load of 2 kN/m in addition to a concentrated load of 10 kN. Kharagpur .1 A continuous prismatic beam ABC (see Fig. joint C is locked . Version 2 CE IIT. wherein the moment-distribution method is explained in detail. Carefully go through the first problem.The joint B rotates by θ B1 under the action of unbalanced moment M B (vide Fig. 18. Few problems are solved here to illustrate the procedure. we are in a position to apply momentdistribution method to statically indeterminate beam.1e).When the joint B is unlocked. Example 18.9) The carry over moment is one half of the distributed moment and has the same sign.

Note that counterclockwise moments are taken as positive.5 kN.429 2.m 12 12 M F BA F M BC = Pab 2 10 × 2 × 4 = = 5 kN.m LBC 16 Before we start analyzing the beam by moment-distribution method. K BA = 4EI 3 K BC = 4EI 4 At B: ∑ K = 2.m L2 16 BC (1) M F CB Pa 2b 10 × 2 × 4 =− 2 =− = −5 kN.5 kN. Kharagpur .m 12 12 wL2 2×9 = − AB = − = −1.571 2.Solution Assuming that supports B and C are locked.333EI 1.333 EI EI = 0.333 EI DF BA = DFBC = Version 2 CE IIT. it is required to calculate stiffness and distribution factors.333 EI = 0. calculate fixed end moments developed in the beam due to externally applied load. M F AB wL2 2×9 AB = = = 1.

These are shown in Fig. Kharagpur . Now the distributed moments M BC and M BA are obtained by multiplying the unbalanced moment with the corresponding distribution factors and reversing the sign.18.At C: ∑ K = EI DFCB = 1. This in turn develops a beam end moment of +5 kN. a carry over moment of +2.18.m is developed (clockwise) at the joint. When joint C rotates.2c. In Fig. Note that joint C starts rotating under the unbalanced moment of 5 kN.m) and a carry over moment of +2.5 kN. it will rotate under an unbalanced moment equal to algebraic sum of the fixed end moments(+5. Version 2 CE IIT. it does not rotate and hence no distribution moments are developed and consequently distribution factor is equal to zero.5 kN. The sum of distribution factor at a joint.m. In this diagram B and C are assumed to be locked.m (M CB ) . Now unlock the joint C. except when it is fixed is always equal to one.m to indicate equilibrium.0 Note that distribution factor is dimensionless. When joint B is unlocked. Now joint C is relocked and a line is drawn below +5 kN.m (counterclockwise) till a moment of -5 kN.2b the fixed end moments and distribution factors are shown on a working diagram.0 and -1. The unbalanced moment is 6 kN.m is developed at the B end of member BC.5 kN. Thus. The distribution moments are developed only when the joints rotate under the action of unbalanced moment.m till distributed moments are developed to restore equilibrium. In the case of fixed joint. This is the distributed moment and thus restores equilibrium.

The whole procedure of locking and unlocking the joints C and B successively has to be continued till both joints B and C are balanced simultaneously.m. However the above working method is preferred in this course.2e.M BC = −2.1. This will be discussed in the next section. In the above problem the convergence may be improved if we leave the hinged end C unlocked after the first cycle.m that is developed when the joint B is allowed to rotate.574 kN. Kharagpur .426 kN. The complete procedure is shown in Fig. These distributed moments restore the equilibrium of joint B. Lock the joint B.18. The above calculations can also be done conveniently in a tabular form as shown in Table 18. Version 2 CE IIT.287 kN. This is shown in Fig. In such a case the stiffness of beam BC gets modified. Now. However joint C is not balanced due to the carry over moment -1.2d along with the carry over moments.m and M BA = −3. it is seen that joint B is balanced.18. The iteration procedure is terminated when the change in beam end moments is less than say 1%.

M BC = K BC θ B + (18.426 -4. alternate unlocking and locking at the hinged joint slows down the convergence of moment-distribution method.B and C.294 +0.0 -5.Table 18.276 +5.O. A AB 1.184 C.294 -0. At the hinged end the moment is zero and hence we could allow the hinged joint C in the previous example to rotate freely after unlocking it first time.644 -0.287 1.138 0.5 -1.333EI 0.O. Balance C Balanced -0.5 C CB EI 1.9) Version 2 CE IIT.030 +1.015 0 BC EI 0.571 -1.m -0. This necessitates certain changes in the stiffness parameters.287 -0.417 moments in kN.1 Moment-distribution for continuous beam ABC Joint Member Stiffness Distribution factor FEM in kN.333 Modified stiffness factor when the far end is hinged As mentioned in the previous example.429 +5.039 -5.18.368 -5. Balance B and C. When joint B is unlocked. Now consider beam ABC as shown in Fig.O.0 0 -1.8) K BC θC 2 Now. it will rotate by θ B1 under the action of unbalanced moment M B .579 +4.926 Balance C and C. Now if joint C is left unlocked then the stiffness of member BC changes.333EI B BA 1.5 -2. Balance B -0.02 and C. However.015 +0. Balance C -0.069 -0.O. Thus M CB = K BC θ C + K BC θB 2 (18.O.The support C will also rotate by θ C1 as it is free to rotate.2a.713 -3. moment M CB = 0 . Kharagpur .0 +2.138 0 -0.0 +5. M CB = 0 θB ⇒ θC = − 2 (18.7) But.926 +0.m Balance joints C .333 +5.

It must be noted that there is no carry over to joint C as it was left unlocked. Example 18.3a Please note that the same results as obtained in the previous example are obtained here in only one cycle.083.Substituting the value of θ C in eqn. K BA = 1. Now calculate stiffness and distribution factors. All joints are in equilibrium when they are unlocked.11) 3 K BC 4 R The K BC is known as the reduced stiffness factor and is equal to . Hence we could stop moment-distribution iteration.18.Accordingly distribution factors also get modified.0 F D BC All the calculations are shown in Fig. Fixed end moments are the same. Kharagpur .333 EI . (18.36 ∑ K = 2.75EI .10) (18.9). Joint B: F D BA = 0. Version 2 CE IIT.75 EI 4 = 0. Joint C: ∑ K = 0. M BC = K BC θ B − R M BC = K BCθ B K BC 3 θ B = K BC θ B 4 4 (18. as there is no unbalanced moment anywhere. K BC = 3 EI = 0. F DCB = 1.2 Solve the previous example by making the necessary modification for hinged end C.64 .

m F M BC = 7. calculate fixed end moments.5 kN.Example 18.5 kN.m F M BA = −16 kN.m In the next step calculate stiffness and distribution factors K BA = K BC 4EI 8 3 8 EI = 4 6 Version 2 CE IIT. They are F M AB = 16 kN. Assuming that the supports are locked. Solution Note that joint C is hinged and hence stiffness factor BC gets modified.3 Draw the bending moment diagram for the continuous beam ABCD loaded as shown in Fig.m .The relative moment of inertia of each span of the beam is also shown in the figure. and F M CD = 15 kN. Kharagpur .18.4a.m F M CB = −7.

0 Now all the calculations are shown in Fig.5EI = 0.5EI 1.2).333 1.18. Kharagpur .The bending moment diagram is shown in Fig.K CB = At joint B: 8EI 6 ∑ K = 0. Version 2 CE IIT.5EI F DBA = 0.18.0 EI = 0. D = 1.5EI + 1.667 1.4b This problem has also been solved by slope-deflection method (see example 14.0EI = 1.4c.5 EI F CB F DBC = At C: ∑ K = EI .

distributing moment and carry-over-moment are defined in this lesson. Version 2 CE IIT. Few problems are solved to illustrate the moment-distribution method as applied to continuous beams with unyielding supports. The momentdistribution method actually solves these equations by the method of successive approximations.Summary An introduction to the moment-distribution method is given here. distribution factor. Kharagpur . Various terms such as stiffness factor. unbalanced moment.

MODULE 3 ANALYSIS OF STATICALLY INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES BY THE DISPLACEMENT METHOD Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

LESSON 19 THE MOMENTDISTRIBUTION METHOD: STATICALLY INDETERMINATE BEAMS WITH SUPPORT SETTLEMENTS Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .1a) Version 2 CE IIT. Solve continuous beam with support settlements by the moment- distribution method. 2. Compute reactions at the supports.1 Introduction In the previous lesson. 2. an expression (equation 15.θ B and Δ (settlements). 19. It is very well known that support may settle by unequal amount during the lifetime of the structure.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. Externally applied loads on beams Due to displacements θ A .1). 4. F M AB = M AB + 2 EI AB ⎡ 3Δ ⎤ ⎢2θ A + θ B − ⎥ L AB ⎣ L AB ⎦ (19. Draw the deflected shape of the continuous beam. Such support settlements induce fixed end moments in the beams so as to hold the end slopes of the members as zero (see Fig. moment-distribution method was discussed in the context of statically indeterminate beams with unyielding supports. 3. In lesson 15.5) for beam end moments were derived by superposing the end moments developed due to 1. The required equations are. Draw bending moment and shear force diagrams. 19.

2a) (19. F S M AB = M AB + 2 K AB [2θ A + θ B ] + M AB (19.2b) F S M BA = M BA + 2 K AB [ 2θ B + θ A ] + M BA where K AB = EI AB L AB is the stiffness factor for the beam AB. In the moment-distribution S S method. Kharagpur . Here counterclockwise beam ⎛Δ⎞ end moments are taken as positive and counterclockwise chord rotation ⎜ ⎟ is ⎝L⎠ taken as positive. The moment-distribution method as applied to statically indeterminate beams undergoing uneven support settlements is illustrated with a few examples. The coefficient 4 has been dropped since only relative values are required in calculating distribution factors. the support moments M AB and M BA due to uneven support settlements are distributed in a similar manner as the fixed end moments. It is important to follow consistent sign convention. S S Note that M AB = M BA = − 6 EI AB Δ L2 AB (19.F M BA = M BA + 2 EI AB L AB ⎡ 3Δ ⎤ ⎢2θ B + θ A − ⎥ L AB ⎦ ⎣ (19. which were described in details in lesson 18.3) S M AB is the beam end moments due to support settlement and is negative (clockwise) for positive support settlements (upwards).1b) This may be written as. Version 2 CE IIT.

In the span AB . 19. Kharagpur .1 Calculate the support moments of the continuous beam ABC (Fig.Example 19. the chord rotates by ψ BC in the counterclockwise direction and hence taken as positive. Solution There is no load on the beam and hence fixed end moments are zero. fixed end moments are developed due to support settlement of B by 5mm. Thus. Assume E = 200 GPa . and I = 4 × 10−4 m 4 .2a) having constant flexural rigidity EI throughout. the chord rotates by ψ AB in clockwise direction. However. ψ AB = − M S AB 5 × 10 −3 5 S BA =M 6 EI AB 6 × 200 × 10 9 × 4 × 10 −4 ψ AB = − =− L AB 5 = 96000 Nm = 96 kNm. due to vertical settlement of support B by 5mm. ⎛ 5 × 10 −3 ⎞ ⎜− ⎟ ⎜ 5 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (1) In the span BC . ψ BC 5 × 10 −3 = 5 Version 2 CE IIT.

35EI DFBA = DFBC = 0. The complete procedure is shown in Fig. Now joint moments are balanced as discussed previously by unlocking and locking each joint in succession and distributing the unbalanced moments till the joints have rotated to their final positions.429 0. (2) Now calculate stiffness and distribution factors. DFCB = 1.15EI 4 LBC (3) Note that. 19. reduced stiffness factor has been taken as support C is hinged.2 EI = 0.1.15 EI = 0. Version 2 CE IIT.35 EI (4) At support C : ∑ K = 0.35 EI 0. K BA = EI AB = 0.2 EI L AB and K BC = 3 EI BC = 0. the coefficient 4 has been dropped since only relative values are required in calculating the distribution factors. At B : ∑ K = 0.S S M BC = M CB = − 6 EI BC 6 × 200 × 10 9 × 4 × 10 −4 ψ BC = − LBC 5 ⎛ 5 × 10 −3 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ 5 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = −96000 Nm = −96 kNm. Kharagpur .15EI .571 0.0 .2b and also in Table 19. while calculating stiffness factor. For span BC .

Support B .1 Moment-distribution for continuous beam ABC Joint A Member Stiffness factor Distribution Factor Fixd End Moments (kN.000 C CB 0.Table 19.000 96.000 48. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT.15EI 1.m) 96. to B Balance joint B and C.15EI 0. to A -13.005m vertically downwards.2EI 0. Example 19.000 Balance joint C and C.000 B BA 0.592 Note that there is no carry over to joint C as it was left unlocked.000 -96.3a.296 68.429 -96. 19.O. 0.592 -68.O.000 BC 0.571 96.00 -27.m) Moments 82.592 0.704 Final (kN.2 A continuous beam ABCD is carrying uniformly distributed load 5 kN / m as shown in Fig.408 -20. Compute reactions and draw shear force and bending moment diagram due to following support settlements.

Solution: Assume that supports A.m.67 kN. I = 1.m F M DC = −41.m.67 kN. The fixed end beam moments due to externally applied loads are. C and D are locked and calculate fixed end moments due to externally applied load and support settlements. (1) In the span AB . B. M BC = −41. Kharagpur .Support C .0100m vertically downwards.67 kN.3b). Assume E = 200GPa .67 kN.67 kN.67 kN. F M AB = F M BC 5 × 100 F = 41. 19. the chord joining joints A and B rotates in the clockwise direction as B moves vertical downwards with respect to A (see Fig.35 × 10 −3 m 4 .m F M CD = +41.m 12 F = +41. M BA = −41. . Version 2 CE IIT.m.

Version 2 CE IIT.001 radians (positive as chord C' D rotates in the counterclockwise direction). S M AB = − 6 EI AB 6 × 200 ×109 ×1.00 kN.35 × 10−3 ψ AB = − (−0. For span AB and CD modified stiffness factors are used as supports A and D are hinged. calculate stiffness and distribution factors.00 kN.00 kN.0005 radians ψ CD = 0.ψ AB = −0.m = 81. Stiffness factors are.m S S M BC = M CB = 81. Kharagpur .0005 radians (negative as chord AB ' rotates in the clockwise direction from its original position) ψ BC = −0.m M S BA = 81.00 kN.m (3) In the next step.m S S M CD = M DC = −162.0005) LAB 10 = 81000 N. Now the fixed end beam moments due to support settlements are.

At joint C : ∑ K = 0. 203.2. The whole procedure is shown in Fig. Now carry over moments -61. The unbalanced moments at A and D are 122.0 DFBC = 0.0 DFBA = 0. release joints A and D . The joint moments are negative of the beam end moments. Kharagpur . Further leave A and D unlocked as they are hinged joints. The unbalanced moment at joint B is 100. In the first step.19. Hence balancing moment for beam BA is −43. 19.075EI .10 EI 10 (4) K CB = K CD = 3 EI = 0.66 × 0. 10 K BC = EI = 0. -203. In the next cycle.175EI .429 .67 kN. balancing them and locking them is shown in a working diagram in Fig.m. It must be noted that there is no carryover to joints A and D as they were left unlocked.m to joint C . the distribution factors are entered.m respectively.m .48 kN.K BA = 3 EI = 0.10 EI .3c and in Table 19.19 ( −100. DFDC = 1.175EI .075 EI 4 10 At joint A : ∑ K = 0.66 x 0.571) . (Note that we are dealing with beam end moments and not joint moments). Version 2 CE IIT. In the first row. The balancing moment on BC gives a carry over moment of −26.m (-100.3c.571 .84 kN.429 At joint B : ∑ K = 0.74 kN. balance joints B and C .571 DFCD = 0.67 kN. DFCB = 0.075EI .m to joint B and C respectively. At joint D : ∑ K = 0.67 kN.34 kN.075 EI . DFAB = 1. Hence balancing moments at A and D are -122. 4 10 EI = 0. Then fixed end moments due to applied loads and support settlements are entered.429) and for BC is −57.67 kN.m and 101.66 kN.m. The complete procedure of successively unlocking the joints.m respectively.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

to B and C Balance B and C Carry over Balance B and C Final Moments 0.000 81.67 -0.571 to 41.1 EI 1.29 -66.075 EI 0.552 12.670 to 81.000 81.88 0.429 0.33 -3.49 0.897 -26.38 66.670 39.670 Balance A and D released 122.670 203. Kharagpur .21 -11.000 81.08 14.330 122.67 -0.075 EI 0.28 0.000 122.670 Carry over Balance B and C Carry over Balance B and C Carry over to B and C Balance B and C C.740 16.14 -0.670 -41.000 162.185 -57.97 -2.835 -8.95 3.000 162.480 -5.2 Moment-distribution for continuous beam ABCD Joint Members Stiffness factors Distribution Factors FEM due externally applied loads FEM due support settlements Total A B C CB 0.000 -61.670 41.1 EI 0.075 EI 0.94 2.69 -0.670 41.335 -43.075 EI 0.330 120.70 101.40 8.410 1.000 AB BA BC 0.06 -14.000 Version 2 CE IIT.571 D CD DC 0.01 -0.73 0.O.33 1.670 39.21 1.88 -0.67 -0.Table 19.330 203.670 -41.52 -4.429 1.34 0.000 0.670 -41.

3 Analyse the continuous beam ABC shown in Fig. Version 2 CE IIT. and I = 8 × 10 6 mm 4 . Solution: Calculate fixed end beam moments due to externally applied loads assuming that support B and C are locked. the chord AB ' rotates in the clockwise direction and in span BC . Assume EI to be constant for all members E = 200GPa .m F M CB = −2. F M BC = +2. Kharagpur . 19.m (1) In the next step calculate fixed end moments due to support settlements.m . F M BA = −2 kN .Example 19.4b). 19. the chord B' C rotates in the counterclockwise direction (Fig.67 kN . In the span AB . F M AB = +2 kN .67 kN . The support B settles by 5mm below A and C .m .4a by moment-distribution method.

At joint C : ∑ K = 0. In this particular case results are obtained in two cycles.4c and Table 19. The complete moment-distribution procedure is shown in Fig. The diagram is self explanatory. the joint does not rotate and hence no distribution moments are developed and consequently distribution factor is equal to zero.3. 19. Kharagpur .25 × 10 −3 radians 4 S S M AB = M BA = − 6 EI AB 6 × 200 × 10 9 × 8 × 10 −6 ψ AB = − L AB 4 ⎛ 5 × 10 −3 ⎞ ⎜− ⎟ ⎜ 4 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (3) = 3000 Nm = 3 kNm. joint B is balanced and carry over moment is taken to joint A .1875EI .0 DFBC = 0.25EI K BC = 3 0.571 . K AB = K BA = 0.ψ AB = − ψ BC = 5 × 10 −3 = −1.4375EI . Version 2 CE IIT.429 At fixed joint. 19. In the next cycle . DFCB = 1.1875EI 4 (4) At joint B : ∑ K = 0.25EI = 0.4d.0kN . calculate stiffness and distribution factors.25 × 10 −3 radians 4 (2) 5 × 10 −3 = 1. DFBA = 0. S S M BC = M CB = −3. The bending moment diagram is shown in fig.m In the next step. In the first cycle joint C is balanced and carry over moment is taken to joint B .

429 2. Total 5.3 Moment-distribution for continuous beam ABC Joints Member Stiffness factor Distribution Factor A AB 0.000 -2.000 2.000 -0.000 -3.25 EI 0.502 -1.000 -3.000 Balance joint C and C. Kharagpur .571 -2.00 C.333 2.667 1.000 1.835 -5.1875 EI 0.000 BC 0.667 C CB 0.667 5.000 3.m) 4.1875 EI 1.O.000 Version 2 CE IIT.m) Fixed End Moments 3.502 0. to A Final Moments (kN.667 Fixed End Moments 2.000 -1.000 0.000 -2.000 1.O.000 due to support settlements (kN.m) Total 5.000 due to applied loads (kN.25 EI B BA 0.000 Balance joint B and -1.Table 19.

All calculations are shown at appropriate locations. The numerical examples are explained with the help of freebody diagrams. Also. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .Summary The moment-distribution method is applied to analyse continuous beam having support settlements. Each step in the numerical example is explained in detail. the bending moment diagram is drawn. The deflected shape of the continuous beam is sketched. wherever required.

Module 3 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Displacement Method Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Lesson 20 The MomentDistribution Method: Frames without Sidesway Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

in the case of continuous beams. Draw the deflected shape of the plane frame. At such joints (for example joint C in Fig. Version 2 CE IIT. the statically indeterminate rigid frames properly restrained against sidesway are analysed using moment-distribution method. Draw bending moment and shear force diagrams. at a joint only two members meet. Compute reactions at the supports. Few examples are solved to explain procedure. Solve plane frame restrained against sidesway by the moment-distribution method.1 Introduction In this lesson.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. 20.1) where more than two members meet. where as in case of rigid frames two or more than two members meet at a joint. Kharagpur . 2. The unbalanced moment is distributed to members CB. 20. CD and CE according to their distribution factors. the unbalanced moment at the beginning of each cycle is the algebraic sum of fixed end beam moments (in the first cycle) or the carry over moments (in the subsequent cycles) of the beam meeting at C . 4. Analysis of rigid frames by moment-distribution method is very similar to that of continuous beams described in lesson 18. 3. The moment-distribution method is carried out on a working diagram. As pointed out earlier.

F M BA = −10.0 kN .m F M CB = 0.0 kN .2a. Assume EI to be constant for all the members.0 kN . Kharagpur . 20. Draw bending moment diagram for the frame. F M BD = 5.Example 20.m Version 2 CE IIT.0 kN .m F M DB = −5.0 kN . Solution In the first step. the fixed end moment acting at B on BA is clockwise.1 Calculate reactions and beam end moments for the rigid frame shown in Fig.m (1) M F BC = 0.m Also. calculate fixed end moments.

2c for easy reference.In the next step calculate stiffness and distribution factors. Kharagpur . as equilibrium of only one joint needs to be considered. In addition its stiffness factor is zero.5 EI DFBC = 0. K BD = EI = 0.50EI DFBD = 0.5 (2) All the calculations are shown in Fig. In this problem the moment-distribution method is completed in only one cycle.25 EI 4 and K BC = EI = 0.2d. The bending moment diagram is shown in Fig.2b. The free body diagram of each member of the frame with external load and beam end moments are again reproduced here in Fig. 0. This problem has already been solved by slop. Hence unbalanced moment is distributed between members BC and BD only. there is only one equation that needs to be solved for the unknown θ B in this problem. In other words. 20. Please note that cantilever member does not have any restraining effect on the joint B from rotation.deflection method wherein reactions are computed from equations of statics.25 EI = 0 .25 EI 4 At joint B : ∑ K = 0. 20. 20.5 . Version 2 CE IIT.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

20. B.333EI 6 Version 2 CE IIT.Example 20. C .3a by moment-distribution method. Solution: Calculate fixed end moments by locking the joints A.m F F F F M BD = M DB = M CE = M EC = 0 (1) The frame is restrained against sidesway.0 kN. K BA = 0.m F M CB = −7.m 20 F M BA = −2. D and E F M AB = 5 × 42 = 4. Kharagpur . Moment of inertia of different members are shown in the diagram. In the next step calculate stiffness and distribution factors.25EI and K BC = 2 EI = 0.5 kN.m F M BC = 7.2 Analyse the rigid frame shown in Fig.667 kN.5 kN.

571 . DFCD = 0.7705EI DFBA = 0. DFBC = 0.141 − 2.1875 EI .m at EC . Now joint C is balanced.4a by moment-distribution method. Kharagpur .m at BC and +1.141 kN. Version 2 CE IIT.3 Analyse the rigid frame shown in Fig. it will rotate under the action of unbalanced moment of 7.m .67) = −6.5 + 2. The joint B is unbalanced and the unbalanced moment is −(7. For member BD . Hence the 7. Draw bending moment diagram for the rigid frame. This moment is distributed among three members meeting at B in proportion to their distribution factors. 20. The moment-distribution method is started from joint C .3b.K BD = 3 EI = 0. Also there is no carry over to joint D from beam end moment BD as it was left unlocked.5 kN. modified stiffness factor is used as the end D is hinged. To indicate that the joint C is balanced a horizontal line is drawn.5 kN.429 In Fig. Example 20. the complete procedure is shown on a working diagram.243 At joint C : ∑ K = 0.583EI DFCB = 0. This balancing moment in turn developed moments +2. 20.25 EI (2) At joint B : ∑K = K BA + K BC + K BD = 0. Now unlock joint B . The flexural rigidities of the members are shown in the figure.m is distributed among members CB and CE according to their distribution factors.61 kN. 4 4 K CE = 0.971 kN. When joint C is unlocked.432 (3) DFBD = 0.325 .m .

Joint B : K DG = 0.375 EI 4 4 K DC = 0.m .m . K BA = 0.m F M BE = 0.222 kN.333EI . F F M AB = 1.0 kN.333 kN.333EI = 1. M BA = −1.5 EI .667 kN.0 kN.m F F M CD = 6.333EI .166EI Version 2 CE IIT.333 kN.0 kN.m .m . Calculate stiffness and distribution factors. K BC = 0.5 EI . F M CB = −2.5 EI (2) ∑ K = 0. K CD = 0.5EI + 0. K CB = 0. F M EB = 0. Kharagpur . M DC = −6.5 EI .0 kN.m.Solution: Assuming that the joints are locked. F M CF = 5.m (1) The frame is restrained against sidesway.m F M BC = 4. calculate fixed end moments.444 kN.333EI + 0. K BE = 0.m F M FC = −5.667 kN.333EI K CF = 3 2 EI = 0.

DFCF = 0. DFDG = 0. Kharagpur .0EI DFDC = 0.286 Joint C : ∑ K = 0.375EI = 1.208EI DFCB = 0.50 (3) Version 2 CE IIT.5EI + 0.333EI + 0.50 . DFBC = 0.414 Joint D : ∑ K = 1.DFBA = 0.276 .286 DFBE = 0.31 DFCD = 0.428 .

Summary In this lesson plane frames which are restrained against sidesway are analysed by the moment-distribution method. The reactions of the frames are computed from equations of static equilibrium. 20. The bending moment diagram is drawn for the frame. The momentdistribution is stopped after three cycles. After balancing each joint a horizontal line is drawn to indicate that joint has been balanced and locked. A few problems are solved to illustrate the procedure. Free-body diagrams are drawn wherever required. After balancing joint F .The complete moment-distribution method is shown in Fig. it is left unlocked throughout as it is a hinged joint. When moment-distribution method is finally stopped all joints except fixed joints will be left unlocked. Version 2 CE IIT. The moment-distribution is started by releasing and balancing joint D . This is repeated for joints C and B respectively in that order. As many equilibrium equations are written as there are unknown displacements.4b. Kharagpur .

Lesson 21 The MomentDistribution Method: Frames with Sidesway Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams. 21. The procedure to analyze rigid frames undergoing lateral displacement using moment-distribution method is explained in section 21. It has been pointed in lesson 17. Extend moment-distribution method for frames undergoing sidesway. rigid frames restrained against sidesway are analyzed using moment-distribution method.2 using an example. one also needs to evaluate joint translations (sidesway). Draw free-body diagrams of plane frame.1. Joint B and C get translated by the same amount as axial deformations are not considered and hence only one independent member rotation need to be considered. For example in frame shown in Fig 21. 5. The number of unknowns is this case are: joint rotations θ B and θ C and member rotationψ . in such frames apart from evaluating joint rotations. 4. In other words. 2. 3. Version 2 CE IIT. Analyse plane frames undergoing sidesway by the moment-distribution method. Sketch deflected shape of the plane frame not restrained against sidesway. the loading is symmetrical but the geometry of frame is unsymmetrical and hence sidesway needs to be considered in the analysis.1 Introduction In the previous lesson.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. Kharagpur . that frames which are unsymmetrical or frames which are loaded unsymmetrically usually get displaced either to the right or to the left.

In the first step. identify the number of independent rotations (ψ ) in the structure. moment-distribution method as discussed in the previous lesson is applied and beam end moments are calculated. In system 21. For analyzing frames with sidesway. The procedure to calculate independent rotations is explained in lesson 22. Apply all the external loads on frame shown in Fig. ' ' ' ' ' ' Let M AB . The systems shown in figures 21. M CD and M DC be the balanced moments obtained by distributing fixed end moments due to applied loads while allowing only joint rotations ( θ B and θ C ) and preventing sidesway.2 Procedure A special procedure is required to analyze frames with sidesway using momentdistribution method.2b and 21. the method of superposition is used. The structure shown in Fig. M BC .2b. Since for the frame.2b and Fig. sidesway is prevented by artificial support at C . 21. 21. sidesway is prevented. Now.3a). Fig 21.21.2a is expressed as the sum of two systems: Fig. M BA .they are .2c are analyzed separately and superposed to obtain the final answer.2c. 21. M CB . Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT. calculate reactions H A1 and H D1 (ref. 21.2b.

2) Version 2 CE IIT.1) R = P − ( H A1 + H D1 ) (21. ' ' M CD + M DC = h1 (21.H A1 = ' ' M AB + M BA Pa + h2 h2 H D1 again. Kharagpur .

apply arbitrary known displacement / sidesway Δ' as shown in the figure.2c apply a horizontal force F in the opposite direction of R . one could use moment-distribution method to analyse this frame. Since joint displacement is known beforehand. there is no way one could analyze the frame for horizontal force F . M CD and M DC are the balanced moment obtained by distributing the fixed end moments due to assumed sidesway Δ' at joints B and C . Calculate the fixed end beam moments in the column AB and CD for the imposed horizontal displacement. M CB . by moment-distribution method as sway comes in to picture. Let M AB . then the superposition of beam end moments of system (b) and k times (c) gives the results for the original structure.In Fig 21. In this case. Instead of applying F . M BA . Now. from statics calculate horizontal force F due to arbitrary sidesway Δ' . member rotations ψ are related to joint '' '' '' '' '' '' translation which is known. M BC . However. Now k F = R . Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT.

by method of superposition kF = R or k = R / F Substituting the values of R and F from equations (21.4).3) (21. M original = M system ( b ) + kM system ( c ) (21.2) and (21.2. H A2 . Version 2 CE IIT.5) Now substituting the values of H A1 . H D1 and H D 2 in 21. beam end moment in the original structure is obtained as. ⎛ M ' + M ' BA Pa ⎞ M ' CD + M ' DC ⎟+ P − ⎜ AB + ⎜ h2 h2 ⎟ h1 ⎝ ⎠ k= ⎛ M ' ' AB + M ' ' BA M ' 'CD + M ' ' DC ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ h2 h1 ⎝ ⎠ Hence.4) F = ( H A2 + H D 2 ) In Fig 21.H A2 '' '' M AB + M BA = h2 '' '' M CD + M DC h1 H D2 = (21.6) If there is more than one independent member rotation. then the above procedure needs to be modified and is discussed in the next lesson. k= P − ( H A1 + H D1 ) ( H A2 + H D 2 ) (21.5. Kharagpur .

25 EI . Kharagpur DFBA = 0. In the first step.4a.Example 21. evaluate the beam-end moment by preventing the sidesway.25 EI . By appropriately superposing the two results.333EI Joint B : ∑ K = 0. DFBC = 0. a) Calculate stiffness and distribution factors K BA = 0. K BC = 0.583EI ∑ K = 0.429 Joint C : .1 Analyse the rigid frame shown in Fig 21.333EI . K CB = 0.4b). Assume EI to be constant for all members. This problem has to be solved in two steps. K CD = 0.583EI Version 2 CE IIT. joint C can also rotate and also translate by an unknown amount Δ .571 . the beam end moment of the original structure is obtained. Solution In the given problem. Also sketch elastic curve. In the second step calculate beam end moments by moment-distribution method for known translation (see Fig 21.

(2) Now the frame is prevented from sidesway by providing a support at C as shown in Fig 21.DFCB = 0. M ' BA . H A1 = M ' AB + M ' BA 3 = − 3. F M CD = 0 kN.m .4b (ii).429 .268 3 = −3.m F M CB = −1 0 kN.m . b) Calculate fixed end moment due to applied loading. DFCD = 0.635 kN (←) . F M AB = 0 . The moment-distribution for this frame is shown in Fig 21. 3. Kharagpur . F M DC = 0 kN. M ' CD and M ' DC be the balanced end moments.635 + 7.635 KN (→) . 3 H D1 = Version 2 CE IIT.m . Let M ' AB . Now calculate horizontal reactions at A and D from equations of statics.m (1) F M BC = +1 0 kN.571 . F M BA = 0 kN.636 − 17.4c.269 = 3.

m (4) Version 2 CE IIT.635) = − 10 kN (→) (3) d) Moment-distribution for arbitrary known sidesway Δ ' .635 + 3.R = 10 − ( −3.m 3 3EI F M BA = 100 kN.m F F M CD = M DC = + 100 kN. Choose any convenient value. Let Δ' = fixed end beam moments for this arbitrary sidesway. Kharagpur . F M AB = − 150 EI Now calculate 6 EI ψ L =− 6 EI 150 × (− ) = 100 kN. Since Δ' is arbitrary.

30 kN (→) Version 2 CE IIT.The moment-distribution for this case is shown in Fig 24. Kharagpur .97 + 76.49 = = 43.15 kN (←) 3 H A2 = H D2 F = −86. 52.15 kN (←) 3 52.48 = 43.98 + 76.4d. Now calculate horizontal reactions H A 2 and H D 2 .

98) = +1.635 + 0.636 + 0.13 (5) Now the actual end moments in the frame are. Kharagpur .m M BA = −7. k F = R .1161(+76.1161 × 150 EI = 17.m M DC = +3.117 kN. Δ L F M AB = M AB + 2 EI [2θ A + θ B − 3ψ AB ] L 2 EI [2θ B + θ A − 3ψ AB ] L where ψ AB = − F M BA = M BA + Version 2 CE IIT.49) = +12.m The actual sway is computed as.268 + 0.269 + 0.97) = −13. Now actual moments in the frame is obtained by superposing the solution ( ii ) on the solution obtained by multiplying case ( iii ) by k .1161(+52.1161(−52.m M CD = +7.418 kN.1161 − 86.415 EI The joint rotations can be calculated using slope-deflection equations. Thus. M AB = M ' AB + k M ' ' AB M AB = −3.517 kN.48) = +5.Let k be a factor by which the solution of case ( iii ) needs to be multiplied.m M BC = +7.m M CB = −7.268 + 0.244 kN. Thus kF cancel out the holding force R such that final result is for the frame without holding force. k= − 10 = 0.97) = +13. Δ = kΔ ' = 0.1161(−52.1161(+76.1161(+52.268 + 0.98) = −1.419 kN.117 kN.

21.55 . EI The elastic curve is shown in Fig. θA = 0 . θB = − 9. Kharagpur .4e. except θ A and θ B all other quantities are known.In the above equation. Version 2 CE IIT. Solving for θ A and θ B .

Example 21. Solution: In this frame joint rotations B and C and translation of joint B and C need to be evaluated.429 ∑ K = 0.25 EI . K CB = 0. K BA = 0. The moment of inertia of all the members is shown in the figure.333EI . a) Calculate stiffness and distribution factors.583EI Version 2 CE IIT.2 Analyse the rigid frame shown in Fig. Neglect axial deformations. At joint C : DFBC = 0.571 . 21.25 EI K CD = 0. At joint B : K BC = 0. Kharagpur .333EI ∑ K = 0.5a by moment-distribution method.583EI DFBA = 0.

F M DC = 0 kN.DFCB = 0. F M AB = 12 × 3 × 32 F = 9. 21. F M CD = 0 kN.0 kN.0 kN.429 .m 62 F M CB = 0 kN. The moment-distribution for this case is shown in Fig.5b).m . M BA = −9.m c) Prevent sidesway by providing artificial support at C . Version 2 CE IIT.571 b) Calculate fixed end moments due to applied loading. Kharagpur .m .e.m F M BC = 0 kN.5c. Case A in Fig. DFCD = 0. Carry out momentdistribution ( i.m . 21.

5c) Calculate fixed end moments for the arbitrary sidesway of Δ' = 6 E (2 I ) 12 EI 150 ) = +50 kN. Fig. Version 2 CE IIT. 11.577) = −5. 21.614 + 6 = 7.347 kN ( ← ) 6 −1.m .578 H D1 = = −0. EI F M AB = − F M BA = +50 kN. Kharagpur . ψ= × (− 6 6 EI L 150 .154 − 0.Now calculate horizontal reaction at A and D from equations of statics.577 kN ( → ) 3 R = 12 − (7.347 − 0.m .694 − 3.23 kN ( → ) H A1 = d) Moment-distribution for arbitrary sidesway Δ' (case B.

5d. Using equations of static equilibrium.m .395 + 39. The moment-distribution for this case is shown in Fig.911 + 41. Kharagpur .457 = 12.F M CD = − 6E(I ) 6 EI 150 ) = +100 kN.952 kN (←) 3 F = −(12.347 kN (→) e) Final results Now. the shear condition for the frame is (vide Fig. H A2 = H D2 32.952) = −52. 21. calculate reactions H A 2 and H D 2 .285 = = 39. ψ =− × (− 3 3EI L F M DC = +100 kN.395 kN (←) 6 46.5b) Version 2 CE IIT.57 + 73.m . 21.

285) = +8.911) = 0.( H A1 + H D1 ) + k ( H A2 + H D 2 ) = 12 (7.457) = +4.154 + 0.129 Now the actual end moments in the frame are.m M BC = 3. Kharagpur .129(+73.694 + 0.m M BA = −3.m M CD = −1.457) = −4.577) + k (12.m Version 2 CE IIT.578 + 0.876 kN.344 − 0.129(−46.853 kN.129 × 19. F M AB − M AB = + 2 E (2 I ) 2θ A + θ B − 3ψ L [ ] ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎠⎦ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎠⎦ or [2θ A + θ B ] = [2θ B + θ A ] = L 4 EI L 4 EI 12 EIψ ⎤ L ⎡ ⎡ ⎛ F 12 EIψ F ⎢ M AB − M AB + L ⎥ = 4 EI ⎢ M AB − ⎜ M AB − L ⎣ ⎦ ⎝ ⎣ L ⎡ 12 EIψ ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ F 12 EIψ F M BA − M BA + = ⎢ M BA − ⎜ M BA − L ⎢ L ⎥ 4 EI ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ ⎝ M AB = +17. M AB = M ' AB + k M ' ' AB M AB = 11.629 kN.129(+41.039 kN.614 + 0.129(−32.457) = +17.039 kN.129(+32.853 kN.629 kN.395 + 39.911) = −0.129(+46.m M DC = −0.m M CB = −1.154 + 0.614 + 0.35 EI 150 EI = The joint rotations can be calculated using slope-deflection equations.m The actual sway Δ = k Δ ' = 0.952) = 12 k = 0.

0 3EI 6 4.45 F AB F BA kN.039 − 15.629 + 2.769 θB = EI Example 21.55 ⎛ 1⎞ change in near end + ⎜ . Kharagpur .m ( M ) = −9 + 0. Version 2 CE IIT. 21.45) + ⎜ − ⎟ (0.129(50) = −2.129(50) = 15.⎟ change in far end ⎝ 2⎠ θA = 3EI L ⎛ 1⎞ (17.m kN.m ( M ) = 9 + 0. The moment of inertia of all the members are shown in the figure.55) ⎝ 2⎠ = = 0.3 Analyse the rigid frame shown in Fig.M BA = 0.6a.629 kN.

50 kN.892EI DFBA = 0. DFCD = 0.m F M CB = −2.561 ∑ K = 0.50 kN. 5 .50 EI . Kharagpur .561 .439 .Solution: a) Calculate stiffness and distribution factors K BA = 2 EI = 0. 21.392 EI . At joint C : DFBC = 0. F F F F M AB = M BA = M CD = M DC = 0 kN.m (2) c) Prevent sidesway by providing artificial support at C .m F M BC = 2. Version 2 CE IIT.1 K BC = 0. Carry out momentdistribution for this case as shown in Fig.392 EI At joint B : ∑ K = 0.439 (1) b) Calculate fixed end moments due to applied loading.50 EI K CB = 0. K CD = 0.892EI DFCB = 0.6b.

5d.Now calculate reactions from free body diagram shown in Fig. 21. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT.

522 − 1.458 kN ( → ) from (4) H D1 = 1.29 Column CD ∑M D = 0 ⇒ 5H D1 − 1.Column AB ∑M A = 0 ⇒ 5H A1 + 1.284 Beam BC ∑M C = 0 ⇒ 2V1 + 1.998 kN ( ↑ ) (5) Thus from (3) H A1 = −1.002 kN ( ↑ ) V2 = 4. Kharagpur .762 − V2 = 0 (4) 5 H D1 − V2 = 2.456 kN ( ← ) (6) Version 2 CE IIT.526 + 0.764 + V1 = 0 (3) 5 H A1 + V1 = −2.526 − 10 ×1 = 0 V1 = 5.522 − 0.

21.6e.002 kN ( ← ) (7) d) Moment-distribution for arbitrary sidesway Δ ' .∑F X =0 H A1 + H D1 + R − 5 = 0 R = +5.75 EI The member rotations for this arbitrary sidesway is shown in Fig. Version 2 CE IIT. Calculate fixed end beam moments for arbitrary sidesway of Δ '= 12. Kharagpur .

1 ⎝ 5EI ⎠ F M DC = +6.1Δ ' = cos α 5 ψ AB = − ψ BC = Δ' Δ' (clockwise) .0 kN.4Δ ' 5 Δ1 = Δ' 5. 21.65 kN.75 ⎞ ψ AB = − ⎜− ⎟ = +6.75 ⎞ ψ BC = − ⎜ ⎟ = −7.m F M BC = − 6 EI BC 6 E ( I ) ⎛ 12.m LCD 5.65 kN.ψ CD = − (clockwise) 5 5 Δ 2 2Δ ' tan α Δ ' = = (counterclockwise) 2 2 5 F M AB = − 6 EI AB 6 E (2 I ) ⎛ 12.m The moment-distribution for the arbitrary sway is shown in Fig.6f. LAB LAB 2Δ ' Δ2 = = 0.0 kN. Now reactions can be calculated from statics.1 ⎝ 5EI ⎠ F M BA = +6. Version 2 CE IIT.m LAB 5.0 kN.0 kN.m F M CD = − 6 EI CD 6 E (2 I ) ⎛ 12.ψ AB = BB " Δ =− 1 .m LBC 2 ⎝ 5 EI ⎠ F M CB = −7. Kharagpur .75 ⎞ ψ CD = − ⎜− ⎟ = +6.

567 + 6.567 − 6.567 kN ( ↓ ) .85 Beam BC ∑M C = 0 ⇒ 2V1 + 6. V2 = +6.567 = 0 (5) V1 = −6.883 kN ( ← ) (6) Version 2 CE IIT.567 kN ( ↑ ) Thus from 3 H A2 = +3.Column AB ∑M Column CD A = 0 ⇒ 5H A2 − 6.283 − 6. Kharagpur .85 ∑M D = 0 ⇒ 5H D 2 − 6.283 − V2 = 0 (4) 5 H D1 − V2 = 12.883 kN ( ← ) from 4 H D 2 = 3.567 + V1 = 0 (3) 5 H A1 + V1 = 12.

766 kN ( ← ) (7) e) Final results kF =R k= 5. the frame prevented from sidesway but subjected to external loads is analysed and subsequently.766 Now the actual end moments in the frame are. Kharagpur .567) = − − 5.002 = 0.567) = −2.567) = 5.282 kN.m M DC = 0.75 EI Summary In this lesson.m M BA = −1.522 + 0. Using shear equation for the frame.644(−6.644 × = 8.808 kN.751 kN. the frame which is undergoing an arbitrary but known sidesway is analysed.644(6.762 + 0.644(+6. the moments in the frame is obtained.m The actual sway Δ = k Δ ' = 0.567) = 2.283) = 4.212 EI 12. M AB = M ' AB + k M ' ' AB M AB = −0.283) = +3.522 + 0.526 + 0.644(−6.m M CD = 1.751 kN.644 7.764 + 0. The moment-distribution method is applied in two steps: in the first step.m M BC = 1. The deflected shape of the frame is sketched to understand its deformation under external loads. the frames which are not restrained against sidesway are identified and solved by the moment-distribution method.F = 7.644(6.526 + 0. The numerical examples are explained with the help of free-body diagrams.644(+6. Version 2 CE IIT.703 kN.m M CB = −1.703 kN.

Kharagpur .Lesson 22 The Multistory Frames with Sidesway Version 2 CE IIT.

22.1b. Write appropriate number of equilibrium equations to solve rigid frame having more than one rotational degree of freedom. 5. Version 2 CE IIT. 3. However if the structure is complex the following method may be adopted.1 Introduction In lessons 17 and 21. Analyse multistory frames with sidesway by the slope-deflection method. Now introduce forces in appropriate directions to the structure so as to make it stable. 22. Kharagpur . 2. Consider the structure shown in Fig. Identify the number of independent rotational degrees of freedom of a rigid frame. The number of such externally applied forces represents the number of independent member rotations in the structure. Temporarily replace all rigid joints of the frame by pinned joint and fixed supports by hinged supports as shown in Fig.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. rigid frames having single independent member rotational ⎛ Δ⎞ (ψ ⎜ = ⎟ ) degree of freedom (or joint translation Δ ) is solved using slope⎝ h⎠ deflection and moment-distribution method respectively. Usually number of independent member rotations can be evaluated by inspection. 22. 4. Analyse multistory frames with sidesway by the moment-distribution method.1a. If one or more joints are free to translate without any resistance then the structure is geometrically unstable. Now inspect the stability of the modified structure. However multistory frames usually have more than one independent rotational degree of freedom. Such frames can also be analysed by slope-deflection and moment-distribution methods. Draw free-body diagram of multistory frames.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

22.4a has two independent member rotations. 22.3a has three independent member rotations and frame shown in Fig 22.2b. From the above procedure it is clear that the frame shown in Fig. Hence there are two independent member rotations (ψ ) that need to be considered apart from joint rotations in the analysis.1b. two forces are required to be applied at level CD and level BF for stability of the structure. Version 2 CE IIT. 22. Kharagpur .In the modified structure Fig. The number of independent rotations to be considered for the frame shown in Fig.2a is three and is clear from the modified structure shown in Fig. 22.

Horizontal displacement is denoted by u and vertical displacement is denoted by v . Recall that in the analysis.4a. we are not considering Version 2 CE IIT. the possible displacements at each joint are also shown. Kharagpur .For the gable frame shown in Fig. 22.

5. Four of the required six equations are obtained by considering the moment equilibrium of joint B. In the next section slope-deflection method as applied to multistoried frame is discussed. For each of the member one could write two slope-deflection equations relating beam end moments to (i ) externally applied loads and (ii ) displacements (rotations and translations).θ C .2 Slope-deflection method For the two story frame shown in Fig. u C .the axial deformation. For example. 22. u D and u D should be such that the lengths BC and CD must not change as the axial deformation is not considered.θ D and θ E ) and two independent joint translations (sidesway) Δ1 at the level of CD and Δ 2 at the level of BE . Hence we can have only two independent translations. Kharagpur . Six simultaneous equations are required to evaluate the six unknowns (four rotations and two translations). C . Hence at B and D only horizontal deformation is possible and joint C can have both horizontal and vertical deformation. there are four joint rotations (θ B . D and E respectively. The displacements u B . Version 2 CE IIT. 22.

6) P1 − H C − H D = 0 Similarly ∑ FX = 0 at the base of frame results in (22.1 Analyse the two story rigid frame shown in Fig. Solving the above six equations all the unknowns are evaluated. the shear at the base of all columns for any story must be equal to applied load. Example 22. 22. Thus.2) P1 + P2 − H A − H F = 0 (22.∑MB = 0 ⇒ M BA + M BC + M BE = 0 (22. The above procedure is explained in example 22. Version 2 CE IIT.1) The other two equations are obtained by considering the force equilibrium of the members. 22.7a by the slope-deflection method.1. Assume EI to be constant for all members.3) Thus we get six equations in six unknowns. Kharagpur . Fig. Thus ∑ FX = 0 at the base of top story gives (ref.

Kharagpur . Now writing slope-deflection equations for 12 5 beam end moments.4 EIθ B + 0. M AB = 0 + 2 EI [2θ A + θ B − 3ψ 2 ] 5 θ A = 0.4 EIθ B + 0.24 EIΔ1 M CB = 0.4 EIθ C + 0.24 EIΔ1 Version 2 CE IIT.8 EIθ B + 0.24EIΔ 2 M BC = 0.In this case all the fixed end moments are zero.24EIΔ 2 M BA = 0.8EIθ B + 0. ψ2 = − Δ2 5 M AB = 0. The members AB and Δ EF undergo rotations ψ 2 = − 2 (negative as it is clockwise) and member BC and 5 Δ1 ED undergo rotationsψ 1 = − .8 EIθ C + 0.

Kharagpur .8EIθ E + 0.24EIΔ1 M ED = 0.24EIΔ1 M EF = 0.24EIΔ 2 (1) Version 2 CE IIT.8EIθ C + 0.24EIΔ 2 M FE = 0.4 EIθ D + 0.4 EIθ E M EB = 0.4 EIθ D M DC = 0.8EIθ E + 0.8EIθ D + 0.4 EIθ C M DE = 0.4 EIθ E + 0.4 EIθ E + 0.M BE = 0.4 EIθ B M CD = 0.8EIθ D + 0.8EIθ B + 0.8EIθ E + 0.

7c). 22. C .e. D and E requires that (vide Fig.7d). BC and ED . we get (vide 22. M BA + M BC + M BE = 0 M CB + M CD = 0 M DC + M DE = 0 M EB + M ED + M EF = 0 (2) The required two more equations are written considering the horizontal equilibrium at each story level.Moment equilibrium of joint B. H C + H D = 20 H A + H F = 60 (3) Considering the equilibrium of column AB.7c) Version 2 CE IIT. 22. Kharagpur .. EF . i. ∑ FX = 0 (vide. Fig. Thus.

EI (7) Version 2 CE IIT.96Δ 2 Solving above equations.273 .24Δ 2 = 0 1.27 Δ2 = EI θE = − 27. yields = 300 (6) θB = − 65.24Δ1 + 0.4θ E + 0.4θ B + 0.2θ D + 1.4θ B + 0.HC = HD = HA = HF = M BC + M CB 5 M DE + M ED 5 M AB + M BA 5 M EF + M FE 5 (4) Using equation (4).24Δ1 1. Thus. M BC + M CB + M DE + M ED = 100 M AB + M BA + M EF + M FE = 300 (5) Substituting the beam end moments from equation (1) in (2) and (5) the required equations are obtained.2θ E + 0.4θ C + 0.24Δ1 + 0.273 .4θ B + 0. EI θC = − 27.96Δ1 = 100 1.4θ E + 0. equation (3) may be written as.4θ D + 0.909 .2θ B + 1. EI 337.2θ C + 1.2θ B + 1.24Δ 2 = 0 1. EI 477. Kharagpur .909 .6θ C + 0.6θ D + 0. 2.2θ E + +0. EI θD = − 65.4θ E + 0.4θ D + 0.24Δ1 =0 =0 2.4θ C + 0.12 Δ1 = .

18 kN. 2) System shown in Fig. wherein the support E is locked against sidesway and joint C and D are allowed to displace horizontally. M FE = 88.18 kN.m M DE = 32.8d. 22. Using moment-distribution method. 22.m M EF = 61.09 kN. 22. where in the sidesway is completely prevented by introducing two supports at E and D . kN.09 kN.m 22.m M BE = −79.72.72 kN. M BA = 61. M CB = 32.27 kN. 22.Substituting the above values of rotations and translations in equation (1) beam end moments are evaluated. M DC = −32. Apply arbitrary sidesway Δ'1 and calculate fixed end moments in column BC and DE . M AB = 88. Version 2 CE IIT. calculate beam end moments.m . M ED = 17. 22.m M BC = 17.m .8a has two independent sidesways or member rotations. Since joint displacement as known beforehand.8a is expressed as the sum of three systems. the structure shown in Fig.m . Invoking the method of superposition. the support D is locked against sidesway and joints B and E are allowed to displace horizontally by removing the support at E .8c.72 kN. 3) Structure shown in Fig.81 kN. They are. M EB = −79.m .3 Moment-distribution method The two-story frame shown in Fig.27 kN. All external loads are applied on this frame.m M CD = −32.m .81 kN. Kharagpur . Calculate fixed end moments in column AB and EF for an arbitrary sidesway Δ' 2 as shown the in figure.m .8b. 1) The system shown in Fig. one could use the moment-distribution method to analyse the frame.72 kN.

8c and 22.All three systems are analysed separately and superposed to obtain the final answer. The constants k1 and k 2 must be such that Version 2 CE IIT. the end moments and the displacements of these two analyses are to be multiplied by constants k1 and k 2 before superposing with the results obtained in Fig. 22.8b. Since structures 22.8d are analysed for arbitrary sidesway Δ'1 and Δ' 2 respectively. Kharagpur .

10. 22. from Fig. 22. it is clear that the horizontal forces developed at the beam level CD in Fig. (23. 22.k1 Δ'1 = Δ1 and k 2 Δ' 2 = Δ 2 .9c and 22. one could write.9b.5) (23. k1 and k 2 are calculated.9d must be equal and opposite to the restraining force applied at the restraining support at D in Fig. k1 (H A 2 + H F 2 ) + k 2 (H A3 + H F 3 ) = P2 Solving the above two equations. 22.4) The constants k1 and k 2 are evaluated by solving shear equations. k1 (H C 2 + H D 2 ) + k 2 (H C 3 + H D 3 ) = P1 From similar reasoning. (22. Kharagpur . From Fig. Thus.9.6) Version 2 CE IIT.

(1) ∑ K = 0.1 by the moment-distribution method.20 EI .333 .60 EI DFBA = 0. K ED = 0. K EF = 0. K DE = 0. DFBC = 0.2 Analyse the rigid frame of example 22.Example 22. K CD = 0. Joint B : K BC = 0.20 EI K BE = 0.20 EI . K EB = 0.20 EI . K DC = 0.20 EI .333 Version 2 CE IIT.333 . Kharagpur . K BA = 0. K CB = 0.20 EI .20 EI .20 EI . Solution: First calculate stiffness and distribution factors for all the six members. DFBE = 0.20 EI .20 EI .

DFDE = 0.40 EI DFCB = 0.333.60 EI DFEB = 0. DFCD = 0. Version 2 CE IIT.Joint C : ∑ K = 0. Kharagpur .333 (2) The frame has two independent sidesways: Δ1 to the right of CD and Δ 2 to the right of BE . The given problem may be broken in to three systems as shown in Fig.50 . DFEF = 0.11a. DFED = 0.40 EI DFDC = 0.50 .333.50 Joint E : ∑ K = 0.50 Joint D : ∑ K = 0.22.

No bending moment is induced in the structure. Thus we need to analyse only (iii ) and (iv ) .In the first case. the only internal forces induced in the structure being 20 kN and 40 kN axial forces in member CD and BE respectively. when the sidesway is prevented [Fig.10a ( ii )]. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT. 22.

1qa ( iii )]. C .0 kN.m (3) Now moment-distribution is carried out to obtain the balanced end moments. The whole procedure is shown in Fig. Thus the fixed end moment in column CB and EI DE due to this arbitrary sidesway is F F M BC = M CB = 6 EI Δ '1 6 EI 25 = × = +6. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . 22.11b.Case I : Moment-distribution for sidesway Δ'1 at beam CD [Fig.m 25 EI L2 F F M ED = M DE = +6.0 kN. Successively joint D . 22. Let the 25 arbitrary sidesway be Δ '1 = . B and E are released and balanced.

22.From the free body diagram of the column shown in Fig. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT. the horizontal forces are calculated.11c. Thus.

The whole procedure is shown in Fig. Kharagpur .34 kN H F 2 = −0.11a ( iv )].0 kN. Successively joint D . Let the 25 arbitrary sidesway be Δ' 2 = EI Thus the fixed end moment in column AB and EF due to this arbitrary sidesway is F F M AB = M BA = 6 EI Δ '2 6 EI 25 = × = +6.34 kN. C .10b.41 = = −0.53 + 3. 22. 22. 22.m (5) Moment-distribution is carried out to obtain the balanced end moments as shown in Fig. B and E are released and balanced.HC 2 = H A2 3. Version 2 CE IIT.42 kN (4) Case II : Moment-distribution for sidesway Δ' 2 at beam BE [Fig.17 = 1.42 kN.11d.70 − 1. 5 H D 2 = 1.m 25 EI L2 F F M FE = M EF = +6.0 kN. 5 −0.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

5 H D 3 = −0.53 = −0. Thus.86 kN.42) + k 2 (1.42) = 20 k1 (− 0.34 + 1.86 kN (6) For evaluating constants k1 and k 2 .11e. HC3 = H A3 −1.59 − 0. 22.From the free body diagram of the column shown in Fig.34) + k 2 (− 0. (see Fig.42 kN.86 + 1. we could write.42 kN H F 3 = 1. Kharagpur .11d). 22.11 + 4. the horizontal forces are calculated.42 − 0.86) = 60 Version 2 CE IIT.11a. 22.23 = = 1.11c and 22. 5 5. k1 (H C 2 + H D 2 ) + k 2 (H C 3 + H D 3 ) = 20 k1 (H A 2 + H F 2 ) + k 2 (H A3 + H F 3 ) = 60 k1 (1.42 − 0.

06 kN.86) = 30 Solving which.17 (7) Summary A procedure to identify the number of independent rotational degrees of freedom of a rigid frame is given. M ED = 17. The slope-deflection method and the momentdistribution method are extended in this lesson to solve rigid multistory frames having more than one independent rotational degrees of freedom.m .54 kN.54 kN.m M EF = 62. M FE = 88. M CB = 32.54 kN.m . Kharagpur .m M BE = −79. M AB = 88.m M BC = 17.m .m M CD = −32. kN.m . M BA = 62. M DC = −32.06 kN. Appropriate number of equilibrium equations is written to evaluate all unknowns.42) = 10 k1 (− 0.m (8) k 2 = 19. A multistory frames having side sway is analysed by the slope-deflection method and the moment-distribution method.54 kN.m .09 kN. Version 2 CE IIT.52 kN. M EB = −79.34) + k 2 (− 0.m . Numerical examples are explained with the help of free-body diagrams.m M DE = 32.54.42) + k 2 (1.k1 (1.54 kN.52 kN.47 Thus the final moments are. k1 = 13.09 kN.

Module 4 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Direct Stiffness Method Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .Lesson 23 The Direct Stiffness Method: An Introduction Version 2 CE IIT.

the i-th member makes with the horizontal. The general method of analyzing indeterminate structures by displacement method may be traced to Navier (1785-1836). Analyse simple structures by the direct stiffness matrix. The direct stiffness method is closely related to slope-deflection equations.The given truss is statically indeterminate to second degree as there are four bar forces but we have only two equations of equilibrium. In the displacement method of analysis the equilibrium equations are written by expressing the unknown joint displacements in terms of loads by using loaddisplacement relations. 23. The method follows a rather a set procedure. The unknown joint displacements (the degrees of freedom of the structure) are calculated by solving equilibrium equations. for example (1). In this module the direct stiffness method is discussed.1 Introduction All known methods of structural analysis are classified into two distinct groups:(i) (ii) force method of analysis and displacement method of analysis. Formulate flexibility matrix of member. Under the Version 2 CE IIT. Define stiffness matrix. Let α i be the angle. After the revolution in computer industry. The slope-deflection and moment-distribution methods were extensively used before the high speed computing era. 2. The displacement method follows essentially the same steps for both statically determinate and indeterminate structures. 5. the unknowns (joint rotations and translations) are automatically chosen unlike the force method of analysis. once the structural model is defined. In module 2. the force method of analysis or the method of consistent deformation is discussed. Construct stiffness matrix of a member. 4.23. In displacement /stiffness method of analysis. (2). (3) and (4). Differentiate between the direct stiffness method and the displacement method. Denote each member by a number.1.distribution method are discussed. displacement method of analysis is preferred to computer implementation. where in slope-deflection method and moment.Instructional Objectives: After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. Hence. Kharagpur . 3. only direct stiffness method is used. For example consider a four member truss as shown in Fig. An introduction to the displacement method of analysis is given in module 3.

The above equation may also be written as u = aF (23. Navier solved this problem as follows. The unknown displacements may be calculated by solving the equilibrium equations. In the displacement method of analysis u and v are the only two unknowns for this structure.action of external loads Px and Py . calculate bar forces in the members by using force–displacement relation. Kharagpur .2) Version 2 CE IIT. the joint E displaces to E’. The elongation of individual truss members can be expressed in terms of these two unknown joint displacements.1) where the constant of proportionality k is defined as the stiffness of the structure and it has units of force per unit elongation. Now at E. Let u and v be its vertical and horizontal displacements.displacement relationship. we have discussed force. In module 1. two equilibrium equations can be written viz. Next. In displacement method of analysis. there will be exactly as many equilibrium equations as there are unknowns. The force (F) is related to the displacement (u) for the linear elastic material by the relation F = ku (23. ∑F x = 0 and ∑F y = 0 by summing all forces in x and y directions. Let an elastic body is acted by a force F and the corresponding displacement be u in the direction of force..

Similarly the stiffness coefficient k ij is defined as the force generated at i Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . Thus the flexibility coefficient a ij is the deflection at i due to unit value of force applied at j . it is required to use flexibility coefficients with subscripts. to relate displacement at i to load at j . In such a case. In general the structures are subjected to n forces at n different locations on the structure.The constant a is known as flexibility of the structure and it has a unit of displacement per unit force.

{u} = ⎨ 1 ⎬ . consider a cantilever beam which is loaded as shown in Fig.2. Thus. the displacements u1 and u 2 are expressed as the sum of displacements due to loads P1 and P2 acting separately on the beam. To illustrate this definition.The vertical deflection is denoted by flexibility coefficient a11 and rotation is denoted by flexibility coefficient a 21 . and { P} = ⎨ P ⎬ ⎣ a21 a22 ⎦ ⎩ 2⎭ Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . Thus a12 is the deflection at 1 corresponding to P1 due to unit force applied at 2 in the direction of P2 . Similarly. By using the principle of superposition.3a) {u} = [a]{P} ⎧u ⎫ where. Now apply a unit vertical 1 force along P1 and calculate deflection u1 and u 2 .due to unit displacement at j with all other displacements kept at zero. ⎩u2 ⎭ {a} = ⎢ ⎡ a11 a12 ⎤ ⎧P ⎫ 1 ⎥ .23. Let them be denoted by u1 and u 2 (= θ 1 ). Denote the vertical force P by P and the tip moment M by P2 . The two degrees of freedom for this problem are vertical displacement at B and rotation at B. u1 = a11 P1 + a12 P2 u 2 = a 21 P1 + a 22 P2 The above equation may be written in matrix notation as (23. one could calculate flexibility coefficient a12 and a 22 . by applying a unit force along P1 .

the forces P1 and P2 are expressed as the sum of forces developed due to displacements u1 and u 2 acting separately on the beam. P1 = k11u1 + k12 u 2 P2 = k 21u1 + k 22 u 2 (23. Kharagpur .2c) . Apply a unit displacement along u1 (see Fig.The forces can also be related to displacements using stiffness coefficients.keeping u1 = 0 . Apply a unit rotation along u 2 (vide Fig. Thus. Calculate the required forces for this configuration k12 and k 22 . k 21 represents force developed along P2 when a unit displacement along u1 is introduced keeping u 2 =0.4) {P} = [k ]{u} Version 2 CE IIT.Here.2d) keeping displacement u 2 as zero.23. Calculate the required forces for this case as k11 and k 21 . Invoking the principle of superposition.23.

If the axial deformation is neglected. In the stiffness method we adopt the following sign convention.Thus the degrees of freedom for this structure is one (for a brief discussion on degrees of freedom.The analysis of above structure by stiffness method is accomplished in following steps: 1.and {u} = ⎨u ⎬ .5) The fixed end moment may be obtained from the table given at the end of lesson 14. Kharagpur .23. upward forces and displacements are taken as positive. MB = − wl 2 12 (-ve as M B is clockwise) (23.23. It is observed that superposition of above two cases (Fig. Hence apply an equal and opposite moment M B at B as shown in Fig.⎧P ⎫ ⎡k where.23. The only unknown joint displacement is θ B .3b and Fig. k22 ⎦ ⎩ 2⎭ [k ] is defined as the stiffness matrix of the beam. made zero) to obtain a statically determinate structure.e. Thus the rotation of joint Version 2 CE IIT.3c. In this lesson. Recall that in the flexibility /force method the redundants are released (i. please see introduction to module 3). Counterclockwise moments and counterclockwise rotations are taken as positive. In actual structure there is no moment at B.3c) gives the forces in the actual structure.3a. using stiffness method a few problems will be solved. Under the action of (M B ) the joint rotates in the clockwise direction by an unknown amount. 23. Apply all the external loads on the kinematically determinate structure. Such an altered structure is known as kinematically determinate structure as all joint displacements are known in this case. Due to restraint at B.23. a moment M B is developed at B. {k} = ⎢ 11 ⎩ P2 ⎭ ⎣ k21 k12 ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎥ .3b. 2. A more formal approach of the stiffness method will be presented in the next lesson.23. then this beam is kinematically indeterminate to first degree. However this approach is very rudimentary and is suited for hand computation. Thus. A similar operation in the stiffness method is to make all the unknown displacements equal to zero by altering the boundary conditions. In the present case the restrained structure is obtained by preventing the rotation at B as shown in Fig.2 A simple example with one degree of freedom Consider a fixed–simply supported beam of constant flexural rigidity EI and span L which is carrying a uniformly distributed load of w kN/m as shown in Fig. { P} = ⎨ 1 ⎬ .

Version 2 CE IIT. That is given by the relation k BB = 4 EI L (23. Now.The relation between − M B and θ B is established as follows. write the equilibrium equation for joint B. moment caused by θ B rotation is M B = k BBθ B (23. M B + k BBθ B = 0 (23.8) θB = − MB k BB θB = The relation M B = wl 3 48 EI (23. ( k BB ) caused by it. Please note that exactly the same steps are followed in slopedeflection method. Kharagpur .7) 3. Now. but in the actual structure the moment at B is zero as support B is hinged.6) where k BB is the stiffness coefficient and is defined as the force at joint B due to unit displacement at joint B.B must be θ B which is unknown . The total moment at B is M B + k BBθ B .9) 4 EI θ B has already been derived in slope –deflection method L in lesson 14. Hence. Apply a unit rotation at B and calculate the moment.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

23.10) 2. is the change in length of the member AE ′ . This is justified as Δl1 is small. There 1 2 are two unknown displacements at joint E and are denoted by u 1 and u 2 .23. In the first step. Thus. The truss is subjected to external loads P and P acting at E. the reactions ( R L )1 and ( R L ) 2 will be equal to zero. k 21 of the whole truss is composed of individual member stiffness of the truss.Thus the structure is kinematically indeterminate to second degree.11a) Version 2 CE IIT.4a. This is done in following steps: 1. apply all the external loads except the joint loads and calculate the reactions corresponding to unknown joint displacements u 1 and u 2 .23. k 21 . neglect the self weight of members. Under the action of unit displacement along u1 . The joint stiffness k11 . (3) and (4) as shown in the figure. The applied forces and unknown joint displacements are shown in the positive directions. in the present case. The members are numbered from (1). there are no external loads other than the joint loads.23. Since.This is done as follows. Now consider the member AE . make all the unknown displacements equal to zero by altering the boundary conditions as shown in Fig. Now it is sought i to evaluate u 1 and u 2 by stiffness method. the joint E displaces to E ′ . (2). First give a unit displacement along u1 holding displacement along u 2 to zero and calculate reactions at E corresponding to unknown displacements u1 and u 2 in the kinematically determinate structure. In the next step. The member AE ′ also makes an angle θ 1 with the horizontal. ⎧( R L )1 ⎫ ⎧0⎫ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎩( R L ) 2 ⎭ ⎩0⎭ (23. They are denoted by k11 .There is four members in the truss and they meet at the common point at E. The length and axial rigidity of i-th member is l and EAi respectively.4b. k 21 . On this restrained /kinematically determinate structure. Obviously the new length is not equal to length AE . where Δl . In the analysis. the change in length of the members AE ′ is Δl1 = cos θ 1 (23. Let us denote the new length of the members by l1 + Δl1 . Kharagpur .4c.3 Two degrees of freedom structure Consider a plane truss as shown in Fig. This is shown in Fig. k12 and k 22 . calculate stiffness coefficients k11 . From the geometry.

11e) Version 2 CE IIT. the force in the members AE ′ is ′ FAE = EA1 cos θ1 l1 (23.11b) Thus from (23.11b).11a) and (23. This force may be resolved along u1 and EA1 cos 2 θ 1 (23. horizontal component of force FAE is ′ l1 ′ and vertical component of force FAE is EA1 cos θ 1 sin θ 1 l1 (23.The elongation Δl1 is related to the force in the member AE ′ .11c) This force acts along the member axis. Thus. Kharagpur . FAE' by Δl1 = F AE ' l1 A1 E (23.11d) u 2 directions.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

14b) Thus axial force in the member along its centroidal axis is l1 Resolve the axial force in the member along u1 and u 2 directions. The corresponding reactions are denoted by k12 and k 22 as shown in Fig.14c) l1 and vertical component of force in the member AE ′ is EA1 sin 2 θ 1 l1 (23. Thus.Thus. The sum of all horizontal components of individual forces gives us the stiffness coefficient k11 and sum of all vertical component of forces give us the required stiffness coefficient k 21 .14a) EA1 sin θ1 (23.Expressions of similar form as above may be obtained for all members. Version 2 CE IIT. EA1 sin θ 1 cos θ 1 horizontal component of force in the member AE ′ is (23.4d.13) In the next step.12) k 21 = ∑ (23.23. the elongation Δl1 is given by displacements u1 and Δl1 = sin θ 1 (23. k11 = EA3 EA1 EA2 EA4 cos 2 θ 1 + cos 2 θ 2 + cos 2 θ 3 + cos 2 θ 4 l1 l2 l3 l4 4 k11 = ∑ i =1 EAi cos 2 θ i li EAi cos θ i sin θ i li (23. we need to sum vertical components of forces in all the members meeting at joint E . Kharagpur . give a unit displacement along u 2 holding displacement along u1 equal to zero and calculate reactions at E corresponding to unknown u 2 in the kinematically determinate structure. From the geometry. Thus. the new length of the member AE ′ is l1 + Δl1 . The joint E gets displaced to E ′ when a unit vertical displacement is given to the joint as shown in the figure.14d) In order to evaluate k 22 .

⎩ F2 ⎭ ⎧(R ) ⎫ {R L } = ⎨ L 1 ⎬ ⎩(R L )2 ⎭ [k ] = ⎡ ⎢ k11 ⎣k 21 k12 ⎤ k 22 ⎥ ⎦ {u} = ⎨ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎬ ⎩u 2 ⎭ (23. (23. Joint forces in the original structure corresponding to unknown displacements u1 and u 2 are ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎧ P1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ (23.18) {F } = {Ri } + [k ]{u} where.k 22 = ∑ i =1 4 EAi sin 2 θ i li (23.17) ⎩ F2 ⎭ ⎩ P2 ⎭ Now the equilibrium equations at joint E states that the forces in the original structure are equal to the superposition of (i) reactions in the kinematically restrained structure corresponding to unknown joint displacements and (ii) reactions in the restrained structure due to unknown displacements themselves. k12 = ∑ i =1 4 EAi sin θ i cos θ i li (23. Kharagpur .20) Version 2 CE IIT.19) {F } = ⎨ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎬. F2 = (R L )2 + k 21u1 + k 22 u 2 This may be written compactly as F1 = (R L )1 + k11u1 + k12 u 2 (23.15) Similarly.16) 3. This may be expressed as.

22) ∑ ∑ ∑ ⎧ P ⎫ EA ⎡0.0611 L EA L u 2 = 0.0135 L L EA EA sin 3 θ i = 2.9367 L L EA EA sin 2 θ i cos θ i = 0.451 EA Version 2 CE IIT. A1 = A2 = A3 = A4 = A sin θ i and θ 1 = 35° . θ 3 = 105° and θ 4 = 140° Then.0135⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬= ⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬ ⎩ P ⎭ L ⎣ 0. {F } = ⎨ ⎧P ⎫ ⎬ ⎩P ⎭ (23. Kharagpur .21) {R L } = ⎧ ⎨ k11 = k12 = k 21 = k 22 = 0⎫ ⎬ ⎩0⎭ ∑ EA EA cos 2 θ i sin θ i = 0.For example take P1 = P2 = P .0135 2.1853⎦ ⎩u2 ⎭ Solving which.9367 0. yields u1 = 1. θ 2 = 70° . Li = L .0135 L L EA EA sin 2 θ i cos θ i = 0.1853 L L (23.

23.The given frame has three degrees of freedom (see Fig. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .5b): (i) (ii) Two rotations as indicated by u1 and u 2 and One horizontal displacement of joint B and C as indicated by u 3 . On this kinematically determinate structure apply all the external loads and calculate reactions corresponding to unknown joint displacements .Neglect axial displacements.Example 23.1 Analyze the plane frame shown in Fig. In the next step make all the displacements equal to zero by fixing joints B and C as shown in Fig.23. Solution In the first step identify the degrees of freedom of the frame .23.5c.Thus.5a by the direct stiffness method. Assume that the flexural rigidity for all members is the same .

m = 12 kN.m (2) (R ) Thus. Kharagpur . Apply unit rotation along u1 and calculate reactions corresponding to the unknown joint displacements in the kinematically determinate structure (vide Fig. F D 3 F ⎧( RD ) ⎫ 1⎪ ⎧6 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ F ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨( RD )2 ⎬ = ⎨−24 ⎬ ⎪ F ⎪ ⎪12 ⎪ ⎭ ⎪( RD )3 ⎪ ⎩ ⎩ ⎭ (3) Next calculate stiffness coefficients.23.(R ) F D 1 = 48 × 2 × 4 ⎛ 24 × 3 × 9 ⎞ + ⎜− ⎟ 16 36 ⎠ ⎝ (1) = 24 − 18 = 6 kN.5d) Version 2 CE IIT.m (R ) F D 2 = −24 kN.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

5e) k12 = 0.5EI k22 = EI k32 = 0 (5) Apply a unit displacement along u 3 and calculate joint reactions corresponding to unknown displacements in the kinematically determinate structure.166 EI 6× 6 k31 = − (4) Similarly.667 4 6 k 21 = 2 EI = 0.5 EI 4 6 EI = −0. Version 2 CE IIT.23.k11 = 4 EI 4 EI + = 1. Kharagpur . apply a unit rotation along u 2 and calculate reactions corresponding to three degrees of freedom (see Fig.

056 EI 63 (6) Finally applying the principle of superposition of joint forces.166 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0.5 −0.502 EI 270. yields ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎧6 ⎫ ⎧ 1.Thus the ⎪ F ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎩ 3⎭ ⎩ ⎭ unknown displacements are.667 0.587 EI (8) u3 = − Version 2 CE IIT.5 −0. ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎧0⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ F2 ⎬ = ⎨0⎬ as there are no loads applied along u1 .166 E L2 k 23 = 0 k33 = 12 EI = 0.166 0 0.5 ⎢ −0. u 2 and u 3 . ⎧u1 ⎫ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎨u2 ⎬ = − EI ⎪u ⎪ ⎩ 3⎭ Solving 0.056 ⎪ ⎪u3 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭⎩ ⎭ ⎩ F3 ⎭ ⎩12 ⎭ Now.5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪−0.166 0 0.056 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ −1 ⎧6 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨−24 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩−24 ⎭ (7) u1 = u2 = 18.166 ⎫ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎪ ⎪ 1 0 ⎬ ⎨u2 ⎬ ⎨ F2 ⎬ = ⎨−24 ⎬ + EI ⎨ 0.996 EI 14.k13 = − 6 EI = −0. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT. The difference between the slope-deflection method and the direct stiffness method is clearly brought out. Construction of stiffness matrix for a simple member is explained. A few simple problems are solved by the direct stiffness method.Summary The flexibility coefficient and stiffness coefficients are defined in this section.

Module 4 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Direct Stiffness Method Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .Lesson 24 The Direct Stiffness Method: Truss Analysis Version 2 CE IIT.

The procedure discussed in the previous chapter though enlightening are not suitable for computer programming. 4. The forces in the member at its two ends must be of the same magnitude but act in the opposite directions for equilibrium as shown in Fig. 7. The problems were solved with hand computation by the direct application of the basic principles. a truss member is subjected to only axial forces and the forces remain constant along the length of the member. trusses were discussed. 24. A hinge connection can only transmit forces from one member to another member but not the moment. It is necessary to keep hand computation to a minimum while implementing this procedure on the computer. Analyse plane truss by the direct stiffness matrix. 3. Transform displacements from local co-ordinate system to global co-ordinate system. 24. Kharagpur .1 Introduction An introduction to the stiffness method was given in the previous chapter. Version 2 CE IIT. In this lesson the direct stiffness method as applied to planar truss structure is discussed. In this chapter a formal approach has been discussed which may be readily programmed on a computer. Hence. 2. Derive member stiffness matrix of a truss member. The basic principles involved in the analysis of beams. the truss is loaded at the joints. For analysis purpose. 6. Transform member stiffness matrix from local to global co-ordinate system. Transform forces from local to global co-ordinate system. Assemble member stiffness matrices to obtain the global stiffness matrix.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. Plane trusses are made up of short thin members interconnected at hinges to form triangulated patterns.1. Define local and global co-ordinate system. 5.

2.Now consider a truss member having cross sectional area A . The elongation u may be calculated by (vide lesson 2. Young’s modulus of material E . the member gets elongated by u as shown in Fig. 24. Under the action of constant axial force F . Kharagpur .2) Version 2 CE IIT. applied at each end. and length of the member L . Let the member be subjected to axial tensile force F as shown in Fig. 24.2. module 1). u= FL AE (24.1) Now the force-displacement relation for the truss member may be written as. F= AE u L (24.

Each displacement Version 2 CE IIT. The truss shown in figure has eight displacements. each node of a planer truss can have only two displacements: one along x -axis and another along y axis. To analyse the planer truss shown in Fig.3) is true along the centroidal axis of the truss member. But in reality there are many members in a truss. For each member of the truss we could write one equation of the type F = ku along its axial direction (which is called as local co-ordinate system). The above relation (24. Consider a planar truss as shown in Fig.F = ku where k = (24. In a global co-ordinate system. The displacements and loads acting on the truss are defined with respect to global co-ordinate system xyz .2 Local and Global Co-ordinate System Loads and displacements are vector quantities and hence a proper coordinate system is required to specify their correct sense of direction. 24.4. Such a co-ordinate system is referred to as global co ordinate system. In this truss each node is identified by a number and each member is identified by a number enclosed in a circle. Kharagpur . Each member has different local co ordinate system.3. 24. 24. For example consider a planer truss shown in Fig.3) AE is the stiffness of the truss member and is defined as the force L required for unit deformation of the structure. The same co ordinate system is used to define each of the loads and displacements of all loads. 24.3. it is required to write force-displacement relation for the complete truss in a co ordinate system common to all members.

24. 24.(degree of freedom) in a truss is shown by a number in the figure at the joint. As the loads are applied along the centroidal axis. The direction of the displacements is shown by an arrow at the node. unknown displacements are denoted by lower numbers and the known displacements are denoted by higher code numbers. However out of eight displacements. which is used to express the force-displacement relation of the member in local co-ordinate system. it is required to transform member displacements and forces from the local co-ordinate system to global co-ordinate system so that a global load-displacement relation may be written for the complete truss. This displacement in turn Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . In this course. Here subscript 1 refers to node 1 of the truss member and subscript 2 refers to node 2 of the truss member. the structural stiffness matrix K need to be evaluated for the given truss. along x' -axis. Give displacement u '1 at node 1 of the member in the positive x' direction. Let the u '1 and u' 2 be the displacements of truss members in local co-ordinate system i. This may be achieved by suitably adding all the member stiffness matrices k ' . The displacements denoted by numbers 1-5 are known as unconstrained degrees of freedom of the truss and displacements denoted by 6-8 represent constrained degrees of freedom.5a in local co-ordinate system x' y ' . only possible displacements will be along x' -axis.7 and 8 are zero due to support conditions.4. five are unknown. keeping all other displacements to zero.3 Member Stiffness Matrix Consider a member of the truss as shown in Fig. 24.e. To analyse the truss shown in Fig. Since all members are oriented at different directions. The displacements indicated by numbers 6.

induces a compressive force of magnitude q '1 = EA u '1 in the member. Thus (vide Fig. L q"1 = − EA EA u ' 2 and q"2 = u'2 L L (24.5d) p '1 = p '2 = EA EA u '1 − u '2 L L EA EA u '1 u '2 − L L (24. 24. Kharagpur .4a) ( − ve as it acts in the − ve direction for u '1 and q' 2 = − L L equilibrium).4b) Now the forces developed at the ends of the member when both the displacements are imposed at nodes 1 and 2 respectively may be obtained by method of superposition. L EA EA u '1 (24. Similarly by giving positive displacements of u' 2 at end 2 of the EA member.5b) Or we can write Version 2 CE IIT. tensile force of magnitude u ' 2 is induced in the member. Thus. Thus.5a) (24.

⎧ p'1 ⎫ EA ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧u '1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬= ⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬ ⎩ p' 2 ⎭ L ⎣− 1 1 ⎦ ⎩u ' 2 ⎭ (24. Similarly the second column of stiffness matrix is obtained by giving unit displacement at 2 and holding displacement at node 1 to zero and calculating the forces developed at both ends.6a) {p'} = [k ']{u'} Thus the member stiffness matrix is k'= EA ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ L ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (24. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT.4 Transformation from Local to Global Co-ordinate System. 24.7) This may also be obtained by giving unit displacement at node 1 and holding displacement at node 2 to zero and calculating forces developed at two ends. Let x ' y ' z ' be in local co ordinate system and xyz be the global co ordinate system.6b) (24. This will generate the first column of stiffness matrix. Displacement Transformation Matrix A truss member is shown in local and global co ordinate system in Fig. 24.6.

Let the truss member be inclined to x axis by θ as shown in figure. v1 and u 2 . m = sin θ .8a) (24. Kharagpur . Let u '1 and u' 2 be the displacement of nodes 1 and 2 in local co ordinate system. each node has two degrees of freedom.directions.9) Introducing direction cosines l = cos θ . v 2 are the nodal displacements at nodes 1 and 2 respectively along x . u1 . It is observed from the figure that u '1 is equal to the projection of u1 on x' axis plus projection of v1 on x' -axis. Thus. Thus. (vide Fig. the above equation is written as Version 2 CE IIT. 24. In global co ordinate system.The nodes of the truss member be identified by 1 and 2.8b) ⎧u '1 ⎫ ⎡cos θ ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩u ' 2 ⎭ ⎣ 0 sin θ 0 0 cos θ ⎧u1 ⎫ 0 ⎤ ⎪ v1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎨u ⎬ sin θ ⎦ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪v 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (24.7) u '1 = u1 cosθ + v1 sin θ u ' 2 = u 2 cosθ + v2 sin θ This may be written as (24.and y .

10b) In the above equation [T ] is the displacement transformation matrix which transforms the four global displacement components to two displacement component in local coordinate system. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . (24.10a) {u '} = [T ] {u} (24.⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎧ u '1 ⎫ ⎡ l m 0 0 ⎤ ⎪ v1 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬ ⎩u ' 2 ⎭ ⎣0 0 l m ⎦ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪v 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ Or.

v 2 (refer Fig. l = cos θ = x 2 − x1 L y 2 − y1 m = sin θ = L (24.11c) Let p'1 . p' 2 be the forces in a truss member at node 1 and 2 respectively producing displacements u '1 and u' 2 in the local co-ordinate system and p1 .8. Version 2 CE IIT.Let co-ordinates of node 1 be (x1 . 24. v1 and u 2 . 24.11b) and L = ( x 2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y 2 − y1 ) 2 Force transformation matrix (24. p 4 be the force in global co-ordinate system at node 1 and 2 respectively producing displacements u1 .9a-d). y1 ) and node 2 be (x 2 . p3 . Kharagpur . y 2 ) . p 2 .11a) (24. Now from Fig.

Referring to fig.15) Version 2 CE IIT. p1 = p'1 cosθ p 2 = p'1 sin θ (24.14).12c) (24. Member Global Stiffness Matrix From equation (24. we get {p} = [T ]T [k '] {u '} (24. {p'} = [k '] {u'} Substituting for {p'} in equation (24.14) where matrix {p} stands for global components of force and matrix {p'} are the components of forces in the local co-ordinate system.14) transforms the forces in the local co-ordinate system to the forces in global co-ordinate system. the relation between p '1 and p1 .6b) we have. 24.9d. Force transformation matrix is the transpose of displacement transformation matrix.9c.12b) Similarly referring to Fig. 24. yields p3 = p ' 2 cos θ (24.12a) (24. The equation (24.13) {p} = [T ]T {p'} (24.12d) p 4 = p' 2 sin θ Now the relation between forces in the global and local co-ordinate system may be written as ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎡cos θ ⎪ p ⎪ ⎢ sin θ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎢ ⎨ ⎬= ⎪ p3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎧ p '1 ⎫ ⎥⎨ ⎬ cos θ ⎥ ⎩ p ' 2 ⎭ ⎥ sin θ ⎦ (24. Kharagpur . may be written as. This is T accomplished by force transformation matrix [T ] . The superscript T stands for the transpose of the matrix.

10b). Thus.Making use of the equation (24. {k } = [T ]T [k '][T ] ⎡ cos 2 θ ⎢ EA ⎢ cos θ sin θ [k ] = ⎢ L − cos 2 θ ⎢ ⎢− cos θ sin θ ⎣ ⎡ l2 lm ⎢ 2 [k ] = EA ⎢ lm2 m L ⎢− l − lm ⎢ 2 ⎢− lm − m ⎣ cos θ sin θ sin 2 θ − cos θ sin θ − sin 2 θ − l 2 − lm ⎤ ⎥ − lm − m 2 ⎥ l2 lm ⎥ ⎥ lm m2 ⎥ ⎦ − cos 2 θ − cos θ sin θ cos 2 θ cos θ sin θ (24.17) represents the member load displacement relation in global coordinates and thus [k ] is the member global stiffness matrix. Kharagpur .16) {p} = [k ] {u} (24. This axial change in length is related to the force in the member in two axial directions by F1' 2 ' = EA cos θ L (24. Now give a unit displacement along x -direction at node 1 of the truss member.19) Each component k ij of the member stiffness matrix [k ] in global co-ordinates represents the force in x -or y -directions at the end i required to cause a unit displacement along x − or y − directions at end j .10) the member length gets changed in the axial direction by an amount equal to Δl1 = cos θ . The member stiffness matrix in global co-ordinates can also be derived from basic principles in a direct method. We obtained the member stiffness matrix in the global co-ordinates by transforming the member stiffness matrix in the local co-ordinates.18) − cos θ sin θ ⎤ ⎥ − sin 2 θ ⎥ cos θ sin θ ⎥ ⎥ sin 2 θ ⎥ ⎦ (24.20a) Version 2 CE IIT. the above equation may be written as {p} = [T ]T [k '][T ]{u} (24.17) Equation (24. Due to this unit displacement (see Fig. 24.

20c) cos θ sin θ L The forces at the node 2 are readily found from static equilibrium. Thus horizontal EA component of force F1'2 ' is k11 = (24.20d) (24. Kharagpur .4. 24. Also indicate the degrees of freedom at each node.5 Analysis of plane truss. Similarly. In a plane truss at each node.20e) The above four stiffness coefficients constitute the first column of a stiffness matrix in the global co-ordinate system. Thus.This force may be resolved along u1 and v1 directions. Denote unknown displacements by lower numbers and known displacements by higher numbers as shown in Fig. In the next step evaluate member stiffness matrix of all the members in the global co ordinate Version 2 CE IIT. remaining columns of the stiffness matrix may be obtained. 24. Number all the joints and members of a plane truss.20b) cos 2 θ L EA Vertical component of force F1'2 ' is k 21 = (24. we can have two displacements. k 31 = − k11 = − k 41 = − k 21 EA cos 2 θ L EA = cos θ sin θ L (24.

its length and its inclination with the x .system. Assemble all the stiffness matrices in a particular order. Now the member stiffness matrix in the global coordinate system for both the members are given by Version 2 CE IIT. The area of cross-section of the members. Kharagpur . joint numbers. 24. The assembling procedure is best explained by considering a simple example. member numbers and possible displacements of the joints are shown.axis are also shown.11. For this purpose consider a two member truss as shown in Fig. In the figure. the stiffness matrix K for the entire truss is found.

Similarly k 211 must go to location (3. The node 1 and node 2 remain same for all the members. The stiffness matrix of the entire truss is known as assembled stiffness matrix. 24. The member stiffness matrix is of the order 4 × 4 . The above procedure may be symbolically written as.21b) Note that the member stiffness matrix in global co-ordinate system is derived referring to Fig. for member 1.e. Similarly for member 2. it is clear that by algebraically adding the above two stiffness matrix we get global stiffness matrix. 24. However the truss has six possible displacements and hence truss stiffness matrix is of the order 6 × 6 .3) in the global stiffness matrix. as overall stiffness matrix. ⎡ l2 2 ⎢ EA2 ⎢ l 2 m2 = L2 ⎢ − l 2 2 ⎢ ⎢− l 2 m2 ⎣ l 2 m2 2 m2 − l 2 m2 2 − m2 − l2 − l 2 m2 2 [k ] 2 l2 l 2 m2 2 − l 2 m2 ⎤ 2 ⎥ − m2 ⎥ l 2 m2 ⎥ 2 ⎥ m2 ⎥ ⎦ (24.23a) Version 2 CE IIT.Global 3 Memb 1 ⎡ l12 ⎢ EA1 ⎢ l1m1 1 ⎡k ⎤ = ⎣ ⎦ L ⎢ −l 2 1 1 ⎢ ⎢ −l1m1 ⎣ 4 2 l1m1 m12 −l1m1 − m12 1 3 −l12 −l1m1 l12 l1m1 2 4 −l1m1 ⎤ ⎥ − m12 ⎥ l1m1 ⎥ ⎥ m12 ⎥ ⎦ (24. the nodes 1 and 2 are referred by nodes 3 and 4 in the truss.22) ⎡ l12 l1m1 ⎢ m12 EA l m1 = 1⎢ 1 2 L1 ⎢ −l1 −l1m1 ⎢ 2 ⎢ −l1m1 − m1 ⎣ −l12 −l1m1 l12 l1m1 −l1m1 ⎤ ⎥ − m12 ⎥ l1m1 ⎥ ⎥ m12 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ l2 2 ⎢ EA2 ⎢ l2 m2 + L2 ⎢ −l2 2 ⎢ ⎢ −l2 m2 ⎣ l2 m2 m2 2 −l2 m2 − m2 2 −l2 2 −l2 m2 l2 2 l2 m2 −l2 m2 ⎤ ⎥ − m2 2 ⎥ l2 m2 ⎥ ⎥ m2 2 ⎥ ⎦ (24. the same node ( i. Thus.11b. node 1 and 2 in Fig.21a) On the member stiffness matrix the corresponding member degrees of freedom and global degrees of freedom are also shown. It is also known as structure stiffness matrix. For example the element k 111 of the member stiffness matrix of member 1 must go to location (3. Kharagpur . However in the truss.11b) are referred by 2 and 1 respectively. K = ∑ki i =0 n (24.3) in the global stiffness matrix. Now it is required to put elements of the member stiffness matrix of the entire truss.

Kharagpur .The assembled stiffness matrix is of the order 6 × 6 . it is easy to visualize assembly if we expand the member stiffness matrix to 6 × 6 size. Version 2 CE IIT.24) 0 0 0 0 0 0 l2 l 2 m2 0 0 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ Adding appropriate elements of first matrix with the appropriate elements of the second matrix. Hence. The missing columns and rows in matrices k 1 and k 2 are filled with zeroes. ⎡ l1 2 ⎢ ⎢ l1 m1 2 EA1 ⎢ − l1 K= ⎢ L1 ⎢− l1 m1 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ l1 m1 m1 − l1 m1 2 − m1 0 0 2 − l1 2 − l1 m1 − m1 l1 m1 2 m1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 − l1 m1 2 l1 l1 m1 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ l2 2 ⎢ ⎢ l 2 m2 2 EA2 ⎢ − l 2 + ⎢ L2 ⎢ − l 2 m 2 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ l 2 m2 2 m2 − l 2 m2 2 − m2 0 0 − l2 − l 2 m2 2 − l 2 m2 2 − m2 l 2 m2 2 m2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (24. Thus.

Also some displacements are known due to support conditions and some displacements are unknown. It is observed that some joint loads are known and some are unknown. {u u } denote vector of unknown forces and unknown displacements respectively. {u} is the vector of joint displacements and [K ] is the global stiffness matrix. Expanding equation 24. Kharagpur .27) where {p k }. {u k } denote vector of known forces and known displacements respectively. { pk } = [ k11 ]{uu } + [ k12 ]{uk } (24.27.28a) Version 2 CE IIT. { p} = [ K ] {u} (24. the load displacement equation for the truss is written as. The above equation is known as the equilibrium equation. ⎧{ p k }⎫ ⎡[k11 ] ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩{ pu }⎭ ⎣[k 21 ] [k12 ]⎤ ⎧{uu }⎫ [k 22 ]⎥ ⎨{u k }⎬ ⎦⎩ ⎭ (24. And {pu }.26) where {p} is the vector of joint loads acting on the truss. Hence the above equation may be partitioned and written as. After evaluating global stiffness matrix of the truss.⎡ EA1 2 EA2 2 ⎢ L l1 + L l2 1 2 ⎢ EA2 ⎢ EA1 ⎢ L l1m1 + L l2 m2 2 ⎢ 1 ⎢ EA − 1 l12 ⎢ L1 K =⎢ ⎢ EA − 1 l1m1 ⎢ L1 ⎢ ⎢ EA − 2 l2 2 ⎢ L2 ⎢ ⎢ EA − 2 l2 m2 ⎢ L2 ⎢ ⎣ EA1 EA l1m1 + 2 l2 m2 L1 L2 EA1 2 EA2 2 m1 + m2 L1 L2 − − − − EA1 l1m1 L1 EA1 2 m1 L1 EA2 l2 m2 L2 EA2 2 m2 L2 − − EA1 2 l1 L1 − − EA1 l1m1 L1 EA1 2 m1 L1 − − EA2 2 l2 L2 − EA1 l1m1 L1 EA1 2 l1 L1 EA2 l2 m2 L2 0 0 EA2 2 l2 L2 EA1 l1m1 L1 EA1 2 m1 L1 0 0 EA1 l1m1 L1 0 0 EA2 l2 m2 L2 EA2 ⎤ l2 m2 ⎥ L2 ⎥ EA2 2 ⎥ − m2 ⎥ L2 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ EA2 l2 m2 ⎥ L2 ⎥ EA2 2 ⎥ m2 ⎥ L2 ⎥ ⎦ If more than one member meet at a joint then the stiffness coefficients of member stiffness matrix corresponding to that joint are added.

{ pu } = [ k21 ]{uu } + [ k22 ]{uk } (24. Now the support reactions are evaluated from equation (24. { pu } = [k 21 ]{u u } (24.29) where [k11 ] corresponding to stiffness matrix of the truss corresponding to unconstrained degrees of freedom. Thus.10b) {u '} = [T ] {u} in equation (24.32) Version 2 CE IIT. Substituting equation (24. Kharagpur .31) ⎧ p '1 ⎫ AE ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎡cos θ ⎨ ⎬= L ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎩ p'2 ⎭ sin θ 0 0 cos θ ⎧ u1 ⎫ 0 ⎤ ⎪ v1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎨u ⎬ sin θ ⎦ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪v 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (24.28b) In the present case (vide Fig. { p k } = [k11 ]{u u } Solving {u u } = [k11 ] { p k } −1 (24. And from equation (24.6b) {p'} = [k ']{u'}.28b). u 5 and u 6 . The known displacements are zero due to boundary conditions. 24. u 4 .28a).11a) the known displacements are u 3 . (24. one obtains {p'} = [k '][T ]{u} Expanding this equation.30) The member forces are evaluated as follows. {u k } = {0} .

Assume EA to be constant for all members.1 Analyse the two member truss shown in Fig. The length of each member is 5 m .Example 24. 24. Version 2 CE IIT.12a. Kharagpur .

5 ⎥ ⎢ 0.25 ⎢ − 0.433 − 0.433⎥ 0. By inspection it is clear that the displacement u 3 = u 4 = u 5 = u 6 = 0 .433 − 0.433 0.433 EA ⎢ ⎥ = − 0.433 ⎤ ⎡ 0.25 ⎥ 0.433 [K ] = ⎢ ⎥ 0.75 − 0.75 0.75 ⎢ 0.433 0.433 − 0. The degrees of freedom at each node are also shown.25 − 0. Also the external loads are p1 = 5 kN . (4) [K ] = EA ⎡ ⎢ 1.433 0 0 0.433 0. the number of nodes and members are shown in Fig. [ ] − 0.433 0.75 0.433 0. (1) Now member stiffness matrix for each member in global co-ordinate system is (θ1 = 30°) .75 5 ⎢ − 0.433 − 0. Kharagpur .433 − 0.25 EA ⎢ ⎥ k1 = 0. Thus.75 − 0.5 0 ⎤ 5 ⎣ 0 0.5⎥ ⎦ (5) Writing the load displacement-relation for the truss for the unconstrained degrees of freedom { pk } = [ k11 ]{uu } (6) Version 2 CE IIT.433 ⎢ ⎥ 0.25 ⎥ 0.75 ⎢ ⎥ − 0.433 0 0 0.25 ⎦ ⎣ 0. − 0.433⎤ 0.25 ⎥ 0.433 − 0.433 0 0 ⎥ EA ⎢ − 0.5 ⎢ 0 − 0.25 0.25 ⎥ ⎢ 0.433 ⎦ ⎣ Again stiffness matrix for the unconstrained degrees of freedom is.75 ⎢− 0.25 − 0.75 ⎢ ⎥ − 0.25 ⎦ ⎣− 0.75 0.25 − 0.433 ⎥ 5 ⎢ − 0.433 (2) [k ] 2 (3) The global stiffness matrix of the truss can be obtained by assembling the two member stiffness matrices.25 0 0 ⎥ 5 ⎢− 0. p2 = 0 kN .433 ⎤ ⎡ 1.433 ⎡ 0.The co-ordinate axes.25 − 0.75 0 0.433 − 0.433 − 0.433⎥ 0.75 − 0.12b.75 − 0.24.75 − 0.

433⎤ ⎢ ⎥ EA −0. (10) (11) p3 + p5 + 5 = 0 Now force in each member is calculated as follows. m = 0.866 .5⎦ ⎩u 2 ⎭ ⎧5⎫ EA ⎡1.75 0.5⎦ ⎩u 2 ⎭ u1 = 16.5 0 ⎤ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬= ⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬ ⎩ p 2 ⎭ 5 ⎣ 0 0. u2 = 0 EA (7) (8) Support reactions are evaluated using equation (24.⎧ p1 ⎫ EA ⎡1.433 −0.433 −0. { pu } = [k 21 ]{u u } Substituting appropriate values in equation (9).25 ⎦ ⎧ p3 ⎫ ⎛ −2.443 ⎟ ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ ⎝ The answer can be verified by equilibrium of joint 1.30).75 −0. Kharagpur .667 . Member 1: l = 0.433 ⎥ AE ⎩ 0 ⎭ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0.5 0 ⎤ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬= ⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬ ⎩0⎭ 5 ⎣ 0 0. Also.443 ⎟ ⎪ 4⎪ ⎜ ⎟ ⎨ ⎬= p5 ⎪ ⎜ −2.5 .667 ⎫ { pu } = ⎢ ⎨ ⎬ 5 ⎢ −0. (9) ⎡ −0. L = 5 m .5 ⎟ ⎪ ⎜ ⎟ ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎜ 1. {p'} = [k ']{u'} = [k'][T ]{u} Version 2 CE IIT.25 ⎥ 1 ⎧16.5 ⎞ ⎪ p ⎪ ⎜ −1.

5 . L = 5 m . m = 0.866] ⎧ ⎨ ⎬ = −2.88 kN 5 ⎩ AE ⎭ Summary The member stiffness matrix of a truss member in local co-ordinate system is defined. The member stiffness matrix of truss member is obtained in global co-ordinate system by suitable transformation. Suitable transformation matrices are derived to transform displacements and forces from the local to global co-ordinate system.667 ⎫ [ −0. In the end. Kharagpur .667 ⎫ [ −0. a few plane truss problems are solved using the direct stiffness matrix approach.866] ⎧ ⎨ ⎬ = −2.⎧u 3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎧ p '1 ⎫ AE ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ l m 0 0 ⎤ ⎪v 4 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬= L ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎢0 0 l m ⎥ ⎪u1 ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎩ p' 2 ⎭ ⎪v 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧u 3 ⎫ ⎪v ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − m ]⎨ 4 ⎬ ⎪u1 ⎪ ⎪v 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ {p'1 } = AE [l L m −l { p '1} = AE 16.866 . ⎧u 5 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎧ p '1 ⎫ AE ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ l m 0 0 ⎤ ⎪v6 ⎪ = ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ L ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎢0 0 l m ⎥ ⎪u1 ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎩ p' 2 ⎭ ⎪v 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧u 3 ⎫ ⎪v ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − m ]⎨ 4 ⎬ ⎪u1 ⎪ ⎪v 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ {p'1 } = AE [l L m −l { p '1} = AE 16.88 kN L ⎩ AE ⎭ Member 2: l = −0. Version 2 CE IIT. The system stiffness matrix of a plane truss is obtained by assembling member matrices of individual members in global co-ordinate system.

Module 4 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Direct Stiffness Method Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Lesson 25 The Direct Stiffness Method: Truss Analysis (Continued) Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Assume EA to be constant for all the members.1 Analyse the truss shown in Fig. the direct stiffness method as applied to trusses was discussed.1a and evaluate reactions. Also assembly of the member stiffness matrices was discussed. Example 25. In this lesson few plane trusses are analysed using the direct stiffness method. 25. Version 2 CE IIT. The transformation of force and displacement from local co-ordinate system to global co-ordinate system were accomplished by single transformation matrix. Also the problem of inclined support will be discussed. Transform member stiffness matrix from local to global co-ordinate system. 2.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. Assemble member stiffness matrices to obtain the global stiffness matrix. 4. Kharagpur . Analyse plane truss by the direct stiffness matrix. 3.1 Introduction In the previous lesson. 25. Analyse plane truss supported on inclined roller supports.

433 − 0.00 m.25 0.The numbering of joints and members are shown in Fig.433 0.433 ⎢ ⎥ 0.75 (1) Element 2: θ = 90°. Nodal points 2-1 Version 2 CE IIT.25 − 0.75 ⎦ ⎣− 0. First write down stiffness matrix of each member in global co-ordinate system and assemble them to obtain global stiffness matrix.25 − 0.25 ⎢ 0. L = 4. 25.433 − 0. Also.433⎤ ⎡ 0.75 ⎥ EA ⎢ 1 ⎥ k = 0. Element 1: θ = 60°.619 m.619 ⎢ − 0.7 and 8 are zero due to boundary conditions.433 ⎥ 4. the possible displacements (degrees of freedom) at each node are indicated.1b. L = 4. Kharagpur .75 − 0. Thus displacements 6. Nodal points 4-1 [ ] 0.433 0.433 − 0. Here lower numbers are used to indicate unconstrained degrees of freedom and higher numbers are used for constrained degrees of freedom.

[k ] 3 − 0.[k ] 2 ⎡0 0 ⎢ EA ⎢0 1 = 4.31 m.433 − 0.433 L = 2.619 m.31 ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎣0 (5) The assembled global stiffness matrix of the truss is of the order 8 × 8 .433 − 0. L = 2.75 0. Thus.433 0. 0 −1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎦ [k ] 5 ⎡1 ⎢ EA ⎢ 0 = 2. On the member stiffness matrix the corresponding global degrees of freedom are indicated to facilitate assembling.433 0. Now 1 assemble the global stiffness matrix.75 − 0.25 4. Version 2 CE IIT.619 ⎢ ⎥ − 0.75 ⎥ 0. Note that the element k11 of the member stiffness matrix of truss member 1 goes to location (7.25 ⎢− 0.25 0.75 ⎦ ⎣ 0.31 ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎣0 0 −1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎦ Nodal points 2-3 (4) Element 5: θ = 0°. [k ] 4 ⎡1 ⎢ EA ⎢ 0 = 2. Nodal points 4-2 (3) Element 4: θ = 0°.433 ⎤ ⎡ 0.25 − 0. Kharagpur .433 EA ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ − 0.31 m.0 ⎢0 0 ⎢ ⎣0 − 1 0 0⎤ 0 − 1⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1⎦ Nodal points 3-1 (2) Element 3: θ = 120°.433⎥ 0. L = 4.7 ) of global stiffness matrix.

25 0 0 0 0 The displacements u1 to u 5 are unknown.575 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − 0. Thus.162 ⎢− 0.0934 0.162⎥ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎪ − 0.575 0 ⎪ 2⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0. But p4 = −10 kN .162 0 0 ⎥ 0 0 0.433 ⎢ 0 ⎢− 0. Kharagpur .054 0.054 0.094 0 0 ⎥ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎥ − 0.094 ⎥ ⎪u 2 ⎪ 0.094 − 0.094 0.433 0 0 ⎥ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎪ 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ 0. − 0.25 0 ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎨ ⎬ = EA⎢ − 0.25 0 0.094⎤ 0.094 − 0.054 0.054 − 0.094 − 0.25 0 0 [K ] = EA⎢ ⎢− 0.162 ⎣ ⎩ 8⎭ − 0.162 − 0.866 0 ⎨ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪− 10⎪ − 0.575 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 0.487 ⎥ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ (8) Solving which.108 ⎢ 0 0. Version 2 CE IIT.25 0 ⎥ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢− 0.094 − 0.094 − 0.25 0 0.094 − 0.25 0.094 0.094 − 0.162 ⎣ − 0.094 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ − 0. Also p1 = p 2 = p3 = p5 = 0 .094 − 0.433 ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0.487 0.094 − 0.162 0 0 ⎥ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 0 0.094 − 0.094 − 0.094 − 0.162 ⎥ ⎦ (6) Writing the load-displacement relation for the truss.094⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ 0. yields 0 0 ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎡ 0.1 2 3 4 0 − 0.054 0.0934 ⎥ ⎪u 7 ⎪ ⎥ 0 0 0.094 − 0.487 − 0.0934 0.487 − 0.108 ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 0.433 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 ⎥ 0.108 ⎪p ⎪ ⎢ 0 0.162 ⎥ ⎪u 8 ⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ (7) 0 − 0.433 ⎪ p7 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪p ⎪ 0 ⎢− 0.094 − 0.433 ⎪ 0 ⎪ 0 0.054 − 0.866 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 0.054 − 0.433 − 0.25 0 0.162 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢− 0.866 ⎢ − 0.487 0.25 0 0 0 0 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 0 ⎡ 0.054⎤ ⎧u1 ⎫ 0 0 0 ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎡ 0.433 − 0.162 − 0.162⎥ ⎥ − 0.433⎥ ⎨u 3 ⎬ 0 ⎬ = EA⎢ 0 0 0. the unknown displacements are evaluated.094 − 0.0934 ⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0. The displacements u 6 = u 7 = u8 = 0 .054 − 0.433 ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p6 ⎪ 0 ⎢ 0.054 0.

m = 0. u4 = .619 AE ⎩−34.64 − 74. u5 = AE AE AE AE AE Now reactions are evaluated from equation. u1 = ⎧ 6.50 . Kharagpur .668 6.00 kN . u2 = .0 .642 .64 ⎪ − 0. p6 = 5.619 AE ⎩ −34.642⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 13.866] ⎨ ⎬ = 5.668 13.00 kN .642 ⎫ [1 −1] ⎨ ⎬ = −10.094 − 0.162 ⎧ p6 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢− 0.094 − 0.64 ⎭ (12) Member 2: l = 0 .054 − 0. L = 4.866 . (11) Now calculate individual member forces. Version 2 CE IIT.866 .334 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (9) 0 ⎡ 0. L = 4.094 − 0.6.5 −0. L = 4. ⎧u 7 ⎫ ⎪u ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − m ]⎨ 8 ⎬ ⎪u1 ⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ {p'1 } = AE [l 4.0 m .619 m −l { p '1} = AE 1 ⎧ 6. m = 1.668 ⎬ ⎥ EA ⎪− 74.619 m . Member 1: l = 0.094⎤ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎨ 6. p7 = 0 . u3 = .334 − 34.0 m −l { p '1} = AE 1 ⎧−74.0 kN 4. m = 0.77 kN 4.668 ⎫ ⎪ − 34.162 0 ⎣ ⎩ 8⎭ 0 0 0 (10) Thus.433 ⎨ p 7 ⎬ = EA⎢ ⎪p ⎪ ⎢− 0.50 .667 ⎫ [ −0. p8 = 5. ⎧u 3 ⎫ ⎪u ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − m ]⎨ 4 ⎬ ⎪ u1 ⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ {p'1 } = AE [l 4 .64 ⎭ (13) Member 3: l = −0.619 m .

L = 2.334 ⎭ (16) Determine the forces in the truss shown in Fig.2a by the direct stiffness method.31.667 ⎭ (15) Member 5: l = 1.619 m −l ⎧u 5 ⎫ ⎪u ⎪ ]⎪ 6 ⎪ −m ⎨ ⎬ ⎪u1 ⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ AE { p '1} = [ −0. ⎧u 3 ⎫ ⎪u ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − m ]⎨ 4 ⎬ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ {p'1 } = AE [l 2. Version 2 CE IIT.0 m .5 −0.667 ⎬ = 5.2 AE 1 ⎧ 6.88 kN 2.0 m . L = 2.88 kN 2.619 ⎧13.31 AE ⎩13. m = 0 . 25.334 ⎫ 1 ⎪ ⎪ 0.31 AE ⎩6.64 ⎭ (14) Member 4: l = 1.0 .667 ⎫ [1 −1] ⎨ ⎬ = −2.31.0 . Assume that all members have the same axial rigidity.31 m −l { p '1} = Example 25.77 kN AE ⎪ ⎪ ⎩−34.5 4.{p'1 } = AE [l 4. m = 0 . Kharagpur . ⎧u 7 ⎫ ⎪u ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − m ]⎨ 8 ⎬ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ {p'1 } = AE [l 2.31 m −l { p '1} = AE 1 ⎧ 0 ⎫ [1 −1] ⎨ ⎬ = −2.866] ⎨ 6.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

2b.00 m.2b. 25. First let us generate stiffness matrix for each of the six members in global co-ordinate system. 3 4 Nodal points 2-1 1 2 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎦ 3 4 1 2 (1) [ ] Element 2: θ = 90°. 25. Element 1: θ = 0°. Nodal points 4-1 Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .The joint and member numbers are indicated in Fig.0 ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎣0 0 −1 0 0 0 1 0 0 L = 5. In the given problem u1 .u 2 and u 3 represent unconstrained degrees of freedom and u 4 = u 5 = u 6 = u 7 = u8 = 0 due to boundary condition.00 m. The possible degree of freedom are also shown in Fig. L = 5. ⎡1 ⎢ EA ⎢ 0 k1 = 5.

5⎤ 5 ⎡ 0.00 m. Kharagpur .07 m. L = 7. 5 6 Nodal points 3-2 3 4 (4) [k ] 4 ⎡0 0 ⎢ EA ⎢0 1 = 5.5 ⎢ ⎥ 0.07 ⎢− 0. L = 5.00 m. Nodal points 4-2 Version 2 CE IIT.7 8 1 2 (2) [k ] 2 ⎡0 0 ⎢ EA ⎢0 1 = 5.5 − 0.5 0.5 Element 6: θ = 135°.5 ⎥ 1 7.0 ⎢0 0 ⎢ ⎣0 − 1 0 0⎤ 5 0 − 1⎥ 6 ⎥ 0 0⎥ 3 ⎥ 0 1⎦ 4 Nodal points 3-1 Element 5: θ = 45°.5 0.5 0.5 ⎢ 0.5 − 0. 5 6 1 2 (5) [k ] 5 0.5⎥ 6 EA ⎢ ⎥ = 0.5 − 0.0 ⎢0 0 ⎢ ⎣0 − 1 0 0⎤ 7 0 − 1⎥ 8 ⎥ 0 0⎥ 1 ⎥ 0 1⎦ 2 Nodal points 3-4 Element 3: θ = 0°.5 − 0. 5 6 7 8 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎦ 5 6 7 8 (3) [k ] 3 ⎡1 ⎢ EA ⎢ 0 = 5.5 − 0.5 − 0.0 ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎣0 0 −1 0 0 0 1 0 0 Element 4: θ = 90°.07 m.5 ⎦ 2 ⎣− 0. L = 5. L = 7.

071 − 0.5 0.20 ⎥ 0.5⎥ 8 EA ⎢− 0.071 − 0.071 − 0.271 − 0.271 − 0.20 0 ⎥ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ p6 ⎪ − 0.071 − 0.7 8 3 4 (6) [k ] 6 ⎡ 0.071 − 0.071 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ − 0.5 ⎥ = 0.071 0.271 ⎪p ⎪ ⎢ 0.071⎥ ⎢ 0 [K ] = AE ⎢ − 0.071 0.071 − 0.071⎥ ⎪u 7 ⎪ ⎪ p7 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪p ⎪ − 0.071 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0.271 0 0 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ − 0.271 0 0 ⎥ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎢− 0.071 0. Here.5⎥ 3 7.5 0.071 0.071 − 0.5 0.271 0.071 − 0.2 − 0.071 0 0 ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦ The force-displacement relation for the truss is.071 0 0 ⎢ ⎥ − 0.20 0 0.5 − 0.5 − 0.20 − 0.271 ⎥ 0.071 − 0.20 ⎥ ⎪u 2 ⎪ 0. Hence the global stiffness matrix is of the order ( 8 × 8 ).271 0 0 ⎥ ⎢− 0.071 − 0.071 − 0.2 − 0.20 − 0.071 − 0.071 0.271 0 0. Thus the global stiffness matrix is.071 ⎢ 0 − 0.071 0 ⎥ 0 0 0.071 − 0.071 0.20 − 0.271 0 0.271 ⎢ 0.071 0.071⎥ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎨ ⎬ = EA⎢ ⎨ ⎬ − 0.u 2 and u 3 are unknowns.071 0.271 0 0 0 ⎪ 2⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p3 ⎪ ⎢ − 0.071 0 0 0.20 0. Version 2 CE IIT.071 0.071⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − 0.5 − 0.071 − 0.071 ⎥ 0 0.071 − 0. Kharagpur .071 0.20 − 0.07 ⎢− 0.071 0 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 8⎭ (8) The displacements u1 .20 0 0 0.071 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎡ 0. − 0. p2 = −10 .271 ⎥ ⎪u 8 ⎪ 0. p1 = 5 kN .5 − 0.20 0 0.5 ⎤ 7 ⎢ 0. p3 = 0 and u 4 = u 5 = u 6 = u 7 = u 8 = 0 .271 0. (7) − 0.071 − 0.5 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0.071 − 0.20 0 0 0. On the member stiffness matrix.071 − 0.5 − 0.20 0.071 − 0.071 0.071 − 0.5 0.071 0. the corresponding global degrees of freedom are indicated to facilitate assembly.5 − 0.071 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 0.20 ⎢ ⎥ − 0.271 − 0.271 − 0.071 − 0.5 ⎦ 4 There are eight possible global degrees of freedom for the truss shown in the figure.071 ⎥ ⎪u 3 ⎪ 0 0 0 0.071 − 0.

071 ⎥ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ (11) p4 = −3.20 0 0 0.071 − 0.071 0.20 ⎥ ⎪u 2 ⎪ 0 0 0.20 0.071 0.071 − 0.20 0 ⎥⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ p6 ⎪ − 0.271 ⎥ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ (10) Solving which. p7 = 3.071 − 0.80 kN .071 − 0.271 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎢ − 0. In the next step evaluate forces in members.00 kN L = 5.271 ⎪− 10⎪ ⎢ 0.271 0 0 0.071⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ p7 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ p ⎪ 0.20 − 0. yields u1 = 72.071⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ p4 ⎪ = EA⎢ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎢− 0. ⎧ 5 ⎫ ⎡ 0.071⎤ 0 ⎧ p4 ⎫ ⎡ 0 ⎪ p ⎪ ⎢− 0. Kharagpur .20⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎨u 2 ⎬ ⎨− 10⎬ = ⎢ 0.071 − 0. p6 = −1. u3 = AE AE AE Now reactions are evaluated from the equation.071 − 0.271 − 0.825 − 55.071 − 0.071 0.20 0 0.071 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 0.00 m.19 kN . − 0.20 0 0.071 0 ⎥ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎪ 5⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎨u 2 ⎬ ⎨ p 6 ⎬ = ⎢− 0.071 ⎥ ⎪p ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 0.855 53.071 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ − 0.071 ⎥ ⎪u 3 ⎪ 0 0.271 0.2 − 0.071 0 0 0.071 − 0.071 − 0. p5 = −1.071 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ 5 ⎫ ⎡ 0.071 − 0.271 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎣ 0 ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 8 ⎭ (9) Thus.071 0.271 0 0 ⎥⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎢− 0.071 − 0.071 0.271 − 0.071 0.071⎥ ⎪u 3 ⎪ 0 7 ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p8 ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 0.071 − 0.271 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎢− 0.071 0. Element 1: θ = 0°.8 0 kN . Nodal points 2-1 Version 2 CE IIT.20 − 0.− 0.071 − 0.071 − 0.97 .271 0. p8 = 15.19 kN .20 0.071 0 0 − 0. u2 = .

{p'1 } = AE [l 7.{p'1 } = AE [l 5. 1 ⎧53.00 m.00 m.07 m −l Version 2 CE IIT. 1 ⎧ 0 ⎫ AE [1 −1] ⎨ ⎬ = 11.825} = 0 5 AE Nodal points 3-1 ⎧u 5 ⎫ ⎪u ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − m ]⎨ 6 ⎬ ⎪u1 ⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (15) L = 7. Kharagpur .825⎫ AE [1 −1] ⎨ ⎬ = −3. AE [0 ]{0} = 0 5 Nodal points 3-4 (14) Nodal points 3-2 ⎧u 5 ⎫ ⎪u ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − m ]⎨ 6 ⎬ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ {p'1 } = Element 4: θ = 90°. {p'1 } = { p '1} = Element 5: θ = 45°.0 m −l ⎧u 3 ⎫ ⎪u ⎪ ]⎪ 4 ⎪ −m ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ u1 ⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ { p '1} = Element 2: θ = 90°.19kN AE ⎩−55.97 ⎭ 5 (13) L = 5.80 kN AE ⎩72.855⎭ 5.00 m. L = 5.0 (12) L = 5. AE [l 5 m −l AE 1 [ 0] {53. Nodal points 4-1 ⎧u 7 ⎫ ⎪u ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − m ]⎨ 8 ⎬ ⎪ u1 ⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ {p'1 } = AE [l 5 m −l { p '1} = Element 3: θ = 0°.07 m.

07 AE (17) 25. AE 1 ⎧ 72.38 kN 7. At a roller support.707] {53.07 m. i.707] ⎨ ⎬ = −1.07 AE ⎩−55.3a). Version 2 CE IIT.{ p '1} = Element 6: θ = 135°. 25.825} = 5.2 Inclined supports Sometimes the truss is supported on a roller placed on an oblique plane (vide Fig. Nodal points 4-2 ⎧u 7 ⎫ ⎪u ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − m ]⎨ 8 ⎬ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (16) {p'1 } = AE [l 7.688 kN 7.855 ⎫ [ − 0.707 −0. displacement along y" is zero in the present case.e.07 m −l { p '1} = AE 1 [ 0. Kharagpur . the displacement perpendicular to roller support is zero.97 ⎭ L = 7.

So. it does not allow any displacement along its centroidal axis of the joint A . 25.3b but having the length comparable with other members meeting at that joint. Another method of incorporating inclined support in the analysis is to suitably modify the member stiffness matrix of all the members meeting at the inclined support. a special procedure has to be adopted for incorporating the inclined support in the analysis of truss just described. The inclined member is so placed that its centroidal axis is perpendicular to the inclined plane. Since the area of cross section of this new member is very high. Kharagpur . One way to handle inclined support is to replace the inclined support by a member having large cross sectional area as shown in Fig.If the stiffness matrix of the entire truss is formulated in global co-ordinate system then the displacements along y are not zero at the oblique support. Version 2 CE IIT.

consider nodal co-ordinate system as x" y" . Let u '1 and u ' 2 be the displacements of nodes 1 and 2 in the local co-ordinate system.Consider a truss member as shown in Fig. 25. Let u "2 . 25.1) ⎧ u1 ⎫ 0 0 ⎤ ⎪ v1 ⎪ ⎧u '1 ⎫ ⎡cos θ x sin θ x ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎥ ⎨u" ⎬ cos θ x" sin θ x" ⎦ ⎪ 2 ⎪ 0 ⎩u ' 2 ⎭ ⎣ 0 ⎪v"2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ Denoting l = cos θ x . u '1 = u1 cos θ x + v1 sin θ x u ' 2 = u"2 cos θ x" + v"2 sin θ x" This may be written as (25. Version 2 CE IIT. At 2. m" = sin θ x" (25. it is connected to a inclined support. Kharagpur . v "2 be the nodal displacements along x" and y" . At node 1. The nodes are numbered as 1 and 2. l" = cos θ x" . the global co-ordinate system xy is also shown. where y" is perpendicular to oblique support. Let u1 . v1 be the nodal displacements of node 1 in global co-ordinate system xy . m = sin θ x .4.3a) {u'} = [T ']{u} where [T '] is the displacement transformation matrix.2) ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎧u '1 ⎫ ⎡ l m 0 0 ⎤ ⎪ v1 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬ ⎩u ' 2 ⎭ ⎣0 0 l" m" ⎦ ⎪u"2 ⎪ ⎪v"2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ or (25.are in the local co-ordinate system x" y" at node 2. At node 2.4. Then from Fig. Let x' y ' be the local co-ordinate axes of the member.

5.Similarly referring to Fig. 25.4a) (25. Kharagpur . Hence p1 = p '1 cos θ x p 2 = p'1 sin θ x (25.4b) Version 2 CE IIT. the force p '1 has components along x and y axes.

7) Using displacement and force transformation matrices.6) {p} = [T ']T {p '} (25. the force p ' 2 has components along x" and y" axes. 0⎤ 0 ⎥ AE ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ l m 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ l" ⎥ L ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎢0 0 l" m" ⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎥ m"⎦ (25.5a) (25. then it is easy to incorporate the condition of zero displacement perpendicular to the inclined support in the stiffness matrix. the stiffness matrix for member having inclined support is obtained. Kharagpur .5b) The relation between forces in the global and local co-ordinate system may be written as. [k ] = [T ']T [k '][T '] ⎡l ⎢m [k ] = ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣0 Simplifying. Version 2 CE IIT.9) If we use this stiffness matrix.Similarly. ′′ p "3 = p '2 cos θ x ′′ p "4 = p '2 sin θ x (25. This is shown by a simple example.8) ⎡ l2 − ll" − lm" ⎤ lm ⎢ ⎥ − ml" − mm"⎥ m2 EA ⎢ lm [k ] = ⎢ L − ll" − ml" l"2 l" m" ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ m"2 ⎥ ⎢− lm" − mm" l" m" ⎣ ⎦ (25. at node 2. ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎡cos θ x ⎪ p ⎪ ⎢ sin θ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎢ x ⎨ ⎬= ⎪ p "3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎪ p "4 ⎪ ⎣ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎧ p '1 ⎫ ⎥⎨ ⎬ ′′⎥ ⎩ p '2 ⎭ cos θ x ⎥ ′′ ⎥ sin θ x ⎦ (25.

6a by stiffness method. Version 2 CE IIT.Example 25. 25.3 Analyse the truss shown in Fig. Assume axial rigidity EA to be constant for all members. Kharagpur .

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 (1) [ ] − 0.0 ⎢ ⎥ 0. In the first step calculate member stiffness matrix.596 − 0. The global co-ordinate axes are shown at node 3.596 0. Hence it is required to use nodal co-ordinates x"− y" at node 2 so that u 4 could be set to zero. Member 1: θ x = 143.12 . θ x" = 6.794 0.48 − 0. L = 5.993 .6b.119 ⎥ 5. Nodal points 1-2 l = −0.00 m.072 0.794 − 0.014 ⎦ ⎣ 0.096 − 0.64 ⎢− 0.36 EA ⎢ ⎥ k1 = ⎢ 0.6 .986 0.87°.The nodes and members are numbered in Fig.096 ⎤ ⎡ 0.119 Version 2 CE IIT. l" = 0.13°. Kharagpur .80 . roller is supported on inclined support.48 0. m" = 0. 25. At node 2. m = 0. All the possible displacement degrees of freedom are also shown in the figure.072⎥ 0.

L = 4.00 m.50 . Version 2 CE IIT.866 . l" = 0.Member 2: θ x = 0°. θ x" = 30°. Kharagpur . Nodal points 2-3 l = 1 . m" = 0. m = 0 .

096 ⎤ ⎡ 0.48 − 0. ⎧− 5⎫ ⎡ 0.132 − 0.217 0.408 3.64 ⎢− 0.385 ⎥ ⎪u ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 3 ⎭ (5) Solving .596 0.096 3 4 5 6 0 ⎤ − 0. m = 1 Nodal points 3-1 5 6 1 2 (3) [k ] 3 ⎡0 0 ⎢ EA ⎢0 1 = 3.405 − 0. u1 = − 77.36 EA ⎢ ⎥ = 0. The global stiffness matrix for the entire truss is.159 0.096 − 0.794 0.119 Member 3: θ x = 90°. u2 = .072⎥ 0.014 0 0.728 33.096 0. 1 ⎡ 0. .333 ⎦ ⎥ 1 2 3 4 5 6 0.0.159 ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎨ 5 ⎬ = ⎢− 0.385 . the global stiffness matrix is of the order (6 × 6 ) .0 ⎢ 0.128 − 0.014 0.132 − 0.405 − 0.096 ⎢ ⎢ 0.333 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0.128 ⎢ − 0.159 [k ] = EA⎢ ⎢ 0. u3 = AE AE AE (6) Version 2 CE IIT.014 ⎦ ⎣ 0.019 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ 2 − 0. L = 3.217 0 − 0.5 6 3 4 5 6 3 4 (2) [k ] 2 − 0.119 ⎥ 4.12 .096 0.125 − 0.019 0 − 0.48 0.119 0.25 0 0 (4) Writing load-displacement equation for the truss for unconstrained degrees of freedom.072 0. l = 0 .0 ⎢0 0 ⎢ ⎣0 − 1 0 0⎤ 5 0 − 1⎥ 6 ⎥ 0 0⎥ 1 ⎥ 0 1⎦ 2 For the present problem.065 − 0.333 0 0.596 − 0.125 0.119 − 0.159 − 0.119 0. .00 m.986 ⎢ ⎥ 0.119⎥ ⎨u 2 ⎬ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎢ 0. Kharagpur .794 − 0.

the direct stiffness method as discussed in the previous lesson needs to be properly modified to make the displacement perpendicular to the roller support as zero. In such situations.217⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ p 5 ⎬ = AE ⎢ AE ⎪ ⎪ ⎪p ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 ⎥ − 0.85 kN . Version 2 CE IIT.728 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 − 0.019 .19 kN .0. the inclined support is handled in the analysis by suitably modifying the member stiffness matrices of all members meeting at the inclined support. In the present approach.132 ⎤ ⎧− 77. Kharagpur .12 ⎭ ⎩ 6⎭ ⎣ (6) p4 = 2.40⎫ ⎧ p4 ⎫ ⎡0. A few problems are solved to illustrate the procedure.014 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ 1 ⎪ 3.333 ⎦ ⎩ 33. p6 = −1.Now reactions are evaluated from the equation 0.24 kN Summary Sometimes the truss is supported on a roller placed on an oblique plane. p5 = −7.

Kharagpur .Module 4 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Direct Stiffness Method Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .Lesson 26 The Direct Stiffness Method: Temperature Changes and Fabrication Errors in Truss Analysis Version 2 CE IIT.

3. Both these effects can be easily accounted for in the stiffness analysis. the stresses are developed in the members due to changes in temperature. 26. the direct stiffness method as applied to the truss analysis was discussed.2 Temperature Effects and Fabrication Errors Version 2 CE IIT.1 Introduction In the last four lessons. Similarly the error in fabricating truss members also produces additional stresses in the trusses. Due to the change in temperature the truss members either expand or shrink. 2. Thus. Kharagpur . the length of the members is prevented from either expansion or contraction. imposition of boundary conditions. However.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. Assembly of member stiffness matrices. Compute stresses developed in the truss members due to temperature changes. and the problem of inclined supports were discussed. Compute stresses developed in truss members due to fabrication members. Compute reactions in plane truss due to temperature changes and fabrication errors. in the case of statically indeterminate trusses. 26.

3) The equation (26. ( p 2 )t and ( p 3 )t . The forces in the local coordinate system can be transformed to global coordinate system by using the equation. As the truss element is a one dimensional element in the local coordinate system. ⎧ ( p1 )t ⎫ ⎧ cos θ ⎫ ⎪( p ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 t⎪ ⎪ sin θ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = AE ΔL ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ ( p3 )t ⎪ ⎪− cos θ ⎪ ⎪ ( p4 ) t ⎪ ⎪ − sin θ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (26.4a) where ( p1 )t .The change in length Δl is given by Δ l = αL Δ T (26.4a) may be written as.3).Consider truss member of length L.2b) 1 {(p ) }= AEΔL⎧+ 1⎫ ⎨ ⎬ − ' t ⎩ ⎭ (26. the thermal load can be easily calculated in global coordinate system by ′ ( p1 )t = AE ΔL ′ ( p2 )t = − AE ΔL or (26. ⎧( p1 )t ⎫ ⎡cos θ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪( p 2 )t ⎪ ⎢ sin θ ⎬= ⎨ ⎪( p 3 )t ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪( p ) ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎩ 4 t⎭ ⎣ 0 ⎤ ' 0 ⎥ ⎧ p1 ⎥⎪ ⎨ ' cos θ ⎥ ⎪ p 2 ⎥⎩ sin θ ⎦ ( )⎫ ⎪ ( )⎬ ⎪ ⎭ t t (26. area of cross section A as shown in Fig. If the member is not allowed to change its length (as in the case of statically indeterminate truss) the change in temperature will induce additional forces in the member.1.1) where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion of the material considered.4b) Version 2 CE IIT. the equation (26.2a) (26.26. ΔL will be considered positive if the member is too long. ( p 4 )t are the forces in the global coordinate system at nodes 1 and 2 of the truss member respectively Using equation (26.3) can also be used to calculate forces developed in the truss member in the local coordinate system due to fabrication error. Kharagpur .

{p} is the vector of external joint loads applied on the truss and {( p )t } is the vector of joint loads developed in the truss due to change in temperature/fabrication error of one or more members.6) where subscript u is used to denote unknown quantities and subscript k is used to denote known quantities of forces and displacements. the member forces in the local coordinate system for each member are evaluated by. Expanding equation (26. the unknown force vectors are calculated using equation (26. in the truss analysis.After evaluating displacements. As pointed out earlier.Thus.6).7b). some joint displacements are known due to boundary conditions and some joint loads are known as they are applied externally.7b) If the known displacement vector {u k } = {0} then using equation (26.The force displacement equation for the entire truss may be written as.8a) (26. { pu } = [ k21 ]{uu } + [ k22 ]{uk } + {( pu )t } {p k } = [k11 ]{u u }+ [k12 ]{u k }+ {( p k )t } (26.5) where .8b) After evaluating unknown displacements. {p} = [k ]{u} + {( p) t } (26.7a) (26. {p ′} = [k ′][T ]{u} + {p ′}t or ' ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ '⎬ ⎪ p2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (26. Kharagpur .9a) = AE L ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎡cos θ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦⎣ sin θ 0 0 cos θ ⎧u1 ⎫ ' ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎤ ⎪v1 ⎪ ⎧ p1 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬+⎨ ' sin θ ⎥ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪ p 2 ⎦ ⎩ ⎪v 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ( )⎫ ⎪ ( )⎬ ⎪ ⎭ t t Version 2 CE IIT. ⎧ p k ⎫ ⎡[k11 ] ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩ p u ⎭ ⎣[k 21 ] [k12 ]⎤ ⎧{u u }⎫ ⎧( p k )t ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎨{ }⎬ + ⎨( ) ⎬ [k 22 ]⎦ ⎩ u k ⎭ ⎪ pu t ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (26.2a) the unknown displacements can be calculated as {u u } = [k11 ]−1 ({p k }− {( p k )t }) If {u k } ≠ 0 then {u u } = [k u ]−1 ({p k }− [k12 ]{u k }− {( p k )t }) (26.one could partition the above equation as.

1 Analyze the truss shown in Fig.2a.10a) ′ { p2 } = AE {− cos θ L − sin θ cos θ (26.Expanding the above equation. if the temperature of the member (2) is o raised by 40 C . 000 per C . Version 2 CE IIT. yields {p1′} = And.10b) Few problems are solved to illustrate the application of the above procedure to calculate thermal effects /fabrication errors in the truss analysis:Example 26. Kharagpur . AE {cosθ L sin θ − cos θ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪v ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − sin θ }⎨ 1 ⎬ + AEΔL ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪v 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎪v ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ sin θ } ⎨ 1 ⎬ − AE ΔL ⎪u2 ⎪ ⎪ v2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (26. Assume E = 2 × 10 N / mm and α = 1/ 75.The sectional areas of members in square centimeters are 5 2 o shown in the figure.26.

Kharagpur .2627 × 10 −3 m 75000 ( ) (1) The forces in member (2) due to rise in temperature in global coordinate system can be calculated using equation (26.4b). Note that lower numbers are used to indicate unconstrained degrees of freedom. From the figure it is obvious that the displacements u 3 = u 4 = u 5 = u 6 = u 7 = u 8 = 0 due to boundary conditions. Thus. o The temperature of the member (2) has been raised by 40 C . ⎧( p 5 ) t ⎫ ⎧cos θ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪sin θ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪( p 6 )t ⎪ ⎬ ⎬ = AEΔL ⎨ ⎨ ⎪− cos θ ⎪ ⎪( p1 )t ⎪ ⎪− sin θ ⎪ ⎪( p ) ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎩ 2 t⎭ For member (2).2b. The possible global displacement degrees of freedom are also shown in the figure.26. ΔL = αLΔT 1 ΔL = 3 2 (40 ) = 2.Thus. A = 20cm 2 = 20 × 10 −4 m 2 and θ = 45 o (2) Version 2 CE IIT.The numbering of joints and members are shown in Fig.

82 ⎨ ⎬ kN ⎪( p1 )t ⎪ ⎪−1⎪ ⎪ p ⎪ ⎪−1⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩( 2 )t ⎭ (4) In the next step.5⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢− 0.5 [k ] = 20 ×10 2 −4 × 2 × 10 11 3 2 (6) Member (3): θ = 90 o .2627 × 10 /10 ⎨ ⎬ ⎪( p1 )t ⎪ ⎪− 1 ⎪ ⎪ p ⎪ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎩( 2 )t ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪− ⎪ 2⎭ ⎪ ⎩ (3) ⎧( p5 )t ⎫ ⎧1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪1 ⎪ ⎪( p6 )t ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = 150. L = 3m.5 ⎦ ⎣− 0.nodal points 4-1 ⎡1 ⎢ 15 × 10−4 × 2 × 1011 ⎢ 0 ' ⎡k ⎤ = ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ −1 3 × 103 ⎢ ⎣0 0 −1 0 ⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0⎦ (5) Member (2): θ = 45 o .5 0.5 0.5 0.5 ⎢ 0 . write stiffness matrix of each member in global coordinate system and assemble them to obtain global stiffness matrix Element (1): θ = 0 0 . L = 30m.5 − 0.5 − 0. Kharagpur .5⎤ ⎡ 0 . A = 15 × 10 −4 m 2 . A = 15 ×10 −4 m 2 . nodal points 2-1 Version 2 CE IIT.5 − 0. nodal points 3-1 0.5 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0.5 − 0.5 − 0. L = 3 2m.5 − 0.⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎧( p5 )t ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪( p6 )t ⎪ ⎪ −4 −3 11 3⎪ 2 ⎨ ⎬ = 20 × 10 × 2 × 10 × 2.5 0. A = 20 × 10 −4 m 2 .

⎡0 0 ⎢ 15 ×10 × 2 × 10 ⎢0 1 ⎡k 3 ⎤ = ⎣ ⎦ 3 x 103 ×103 ⎢0 0 ⎢ ⎣0 −1 −4 11 0 0⎤ 0 −1⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1⎦ (7) The global stiffness matrix is of the order 8× 8 .14 0 0 0 0 100 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎦ (8) Writing the load displacement equation for the truss ⎡ 147.14 47. Version 2 CE IIT.14 0 0 0 0 0 ⎢ ⎣ (9) 0 In the present case.14 − 47.14 147.14 ⎢ ⎢− 47.Thus.14 − 47.14 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p2 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ p3 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 0 3⎢ ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = 10 ⎢ − 47.14 ⎢ 47.14 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p7 ⎪ ⎢ − 100 ⎪p ⎪ ⎢ ⎩ 8⎭ 47. Also p1 = p 2 = 0 (as no joint loads are applied).14 − 47.14 147.14 − 100 0 0 0 0 − 100 − 47.14 0 0 47.14 47.14 0 0⎥ ⎪ ⎪1 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎪1 ⎪ 0 47.14 − 47.14 − 47.14 47.14 − 100 0⎤ ⎧u ⎫ 1 ⎧− 1⎫ − 100 − 47.14 0 0⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪u 7 ⎪ 0 0 0 100 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎥ ⎩u8 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎦ 0 ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎢ 47.14 0 0⎥ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪u ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 100 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎪ 4 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ + 640 ⎨ ⎬ u5 ⎪ 0 47. Kharagpur .14 ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 ⎢ 0 − 100 [k ] = 10 3 ⎢ ⎢− 47.14 47.14 ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎢− 47. the displacements u1 and u 2 are not known.assembling the three member stiffness matrices.14 − 47.14 ⎢ − 100 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎣ − 47.14 0 − 47.14 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 47.14 47.14 0 − 100 0 0 0 0 − 47. one gets ⎡ 147.14 − 47. All other displacements are zero.

14 − 100 0 ⎡ 147.63 ⎪ ⎪ p7 ⎪ ⎪−77.14⎥ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎢0 0 47.14 47.14 47.14 − 47.14 47.14 − 47.14 147.14 − 47. Kharagpur .14 147.14 0 0⎥ ⎪0⎪ ⎪1 ⎪ ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎢0 0 ⎢ − 100 ⎪0⎪ ⎪ p7 ⎪ 0 ⎥ 0 0 100 0⎥ ⎪0⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪0⎪ 0 ⎥ 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎪0⎪ ⎪ p8 ⎪ ⎢0 0 ⎢ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ p3 ⎫ ⎧0 ⎫ ⎪p ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 4 ⎪ ⎪−77.14 47.14 47.63 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ kN ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎪77.14 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 100 0 0 0 0 0 100 ⎪ p7 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪p ⎪ 0 0 0 0 0 0 ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎩ 8⎭ 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎦ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎧− 1⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ + 640⎨ ⎬ u5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪1 ⎪ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎪1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 7 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪u ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 8⎭ (10) Thus unknown displacements are ⎧u1 ⎫ 1 ⎨ ⎬= 3 ⎩u2 ⎭ 10 ⎡147.14 − 47.⎧ p1 ⎫ − 47.763 ×10−4 m u2 = 7.14 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩0 ⎭ ⎩−1⎭ −1 (11) u1 = 7.14 ⎤ ⎧0 ⎫ ⎧−1⎫ (⎨ ⎬ − 150.14 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 47.14 0 ⎪ p2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 100 0 100 0 0 0 ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎨ ⎬== ⎢ p5 ⎪ − 47.14 0 − 100 − 47.14 − 47.14 0 0⎥ ⎪0⎪ ⎪1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3 ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ + 640⎨ ⎬ ⎥⎨ ⎬ + ⎢ ⎨ ⎬ = 10 ⎢ ⎢− 47.82 ⎨ ⎬) ⎢ 47.63⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p8 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ (12) Version 2 CE IIT.14 0 ⎢− 47.14 0 0 47.14 47.14 0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p6 ⎪ 0 47.763 × 10−4 m Now reactions are calculated as ⎧ p3 ⎫ 0 ⎤ 0 0 0 0⎤ ⎧0⎫ ⎧0⎫ ⎡0 0 ⎡ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎥ ⎪0⎪ ⎢0 100 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎪ ⎪ − 100 ⎥ ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎢ ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢− 47.14⎥ ⎩u 2 ⎭ ⎢0 0 47.14 − 47.63⎪ ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎪77.

707 0.10b). Member (2) θ = 45 o ⎧0 ⎫ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ' p 2 = 10 3 × 94. for member (1).2942 × 10 −3 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (13) ′ p 2 = −109.707 0. Kharagpur .26.The member forces can be easily calculated from reactions.281 [-0.2942 × 10 −3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪3.The support reactions are shown in Fig. For example.763 kN. Thus the member (1) is in tension.78 kN.763 × 10−4 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪7. Thus member (2) is in compression Version 2 CE IIT.2c.707 -0.763 × 10−4 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ = 77.707] ⎨ ⎬ 3. θ = 0o ⎧0 ⎫ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ' p 2 = 10 3 × 100 [− 1 0 1 0] ⎨7.10a) and (26. The member end forces can also be calculated by using equation (26.

26. Kharagpur .01m too short before placing it in the truss.3a. Version 2 CE IIT.2 Analyze the truss shown in Fig.Example 26. if the member BC is made 0. Assume AE=300 kN for all members.

1.The assembled stiffness matrix is of the order 8× 8 and is available in example 25.26.01) ⎪sin θ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎬ ⎨ ⎨ ( p1 )0 ⎬ − cos θ ⎪ 4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪− sin θ ⎪ ⎪( p ) ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎩ 2 0⎭ ⎧0 ⎫ ⎪− 0.1.75⎪ ⎪ =⎪ ⎨ ⎬ kN 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪0.75 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (1) Now force-displacement relations for the truss are Version 2 CE IIT.Solution A similar truss with different boundary conditions has already been solved in example 25.3b. In the given problem the member (2) is short by 0. Kharagpur . u 6 .The forces developed in member (2) in the global coordinate system due to fabrication error is ⎧( p 3 )0 ⎫ ⎧cos θ ⎫ ⎪ ( p 4 )0 ⎪ AE (− 0. u 5 . For the present problem the unconstrained degrees of freedom are u1 and u 2 . For the sake of completeness the member of nodes and members are shown in Fig. u 7 and u 8 are zero due to boundary conditions.01m.The displacements u 3 . u 4 .

433 − 0.25 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎢− 0.575 0 − 0.054 − 0.75⎪ ⎢ 0 p4 ⎪ − 0. for member (2).094 − 0.094 0.10a) and (26.054 0.25 ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎨ ⎬ = AE ⎢ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬+⎨ 0 0.866 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪0 − 0.094 − 0.108 ⎨ ⎬= ⎢ 0 0.123 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p 8 ⎪ ⎪0.094⎤ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎧0 ⎫ ⎡ 0.26. ⎧ p3 ⎫ 0 ⎤ ⎧0 ⎫ ⎡ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪− 0.094 ⎥ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎬ + ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ = AE ⎢ p6 ⎪ 0.094⎥ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪ p7 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪ p8 ⎪ ⎢− 0.054 0.162 ⎥ ⎩ 8 ⎭ ⎩ ⎢− 0.094 − 0.3c.162⎥ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪0.094 0 0 ⎥ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎪0 − 0.094 − 0. For example.424⎪ ⎪ p 5 ⎪ ⎪− 0.10b). The member forces can also be calculated by equation (26.162⎥ ⎦ ⎩ ⎣ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (4) (5) ⎧ p 3 ⎫ ⎧0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p 4 ⎪ ⎪− 0.3478 ×10 −3 m Reactions are calculated as.162⎥ ⎩u 2 ⎭ ⎪0 ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢− 0.162 ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪u ⎪ ⎪0 ⎢− 0.433 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 0.211 ⎪ ⎪ p 7 ⎪ ⎪0.25 0.123⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎪ p 6 ⎪ ⎪0.0934 ⎪ 7 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p7 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪u ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪p ⎪ 0 0 0 0 0. u 2 = −4.75⎭ ⎠ ⎝ (3) u1 = 0 and.433 ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎪ 0.0934 0.054 − 0.094 − 0.75 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ p3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0.487 0.487 − 0. θ = 90 o Version 2 CE IIT.25 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎪− 0.162 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎪0 − 0.⎧ p1 ⎫ 0 0 0 − 0.054 − 0.162 ⎭ ⎦ ⎣ ⎩ 8⎭ (2) Note that u 3 = u 4 = u 5 = u 6 = u 7 = u 8 = 0 Thus.211 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ (6) The reactions and member forces are shown in Fig.094 − 0.433 0 0 0 0.575⎥ ⎦ ⎩u 2 ⎭ AE ⎣ −1 ⎛ ⎧0⎫ ⎧0 ⎫ ⎞ ⎜⎨ ⎬ − ⎨ ⎬⎟ ⎜ 0 ⎟ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩0.162 − 0.094 − 0.054 0.094 − 0.75⎪ − 0. solving 0 ⎤ ⎧u1 ⎫ 1 ⎡0.108 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 p2 ⎪ 0. Kharagpur .094 − 0.

Assume AE=300KN for all members and α = 1 per 75000 o C.4239 ≅ 0.3 (7) Evaluate the member forces of truss shown in Fig. Version 2 CE IIT.4a. Kharagpur .The temperature of the member BC is raised by 40 o C and member BD is raised by 50 o C .01) 300 − 4.424 kN Example 26.⎧u 3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 4 ⎪ AEΔL 300 ' p2 = [0 -1 0 1] ⎨u ⎬ − L 4 ⎪ 1⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ = 300(−0.3478 × 10 −3 − 4 4 ( ) = 0.26.

333 × 10 ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪− cos θ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪− sin θ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Version 2 CE IIT. ΔL2 = αLΔT = 1 × 5 × 50 = 3.Solution For this problem assembled stiffness matrix is available in Fig.26. Kharagpur . u 4 and u 5 represent unconstrained degrees of freedom.4b. u 2 . u 3 . The temperature of the member (2) is raised by 50 o C. u 6 = u 7 = u 8 = 0 .The joints and members are numbered as shown in Fig. ⎧( p 7 ) f ⎪ ⎪( p 8 ) f ⎨ ⎪( p1 ) f ⎪( p ) ⎩ 2 f ⎫ ⎧cos θ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ −3 ⎪sin θ ⎪ ⎬ = 300 × 3.333 × 10 −3 m 75000 (1) The forces are developed in member (2).26. In the given problem u1 . Due to support conditions.Thus.4b. as it was prevented from expansion.

8⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪( p 2 )t ⎪ ⎪− 1.771× 10 ⎨ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪( p 7 )t ⎪ ⎪− 0. Kharagpur .8 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪( p ) ⎪ ⎪0.⎧0 ⎫ ⎪1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (2) The displacement of the member (5) was raised by 40 o C .707 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪( p 6 )t ⎪ − 3 ⎪0.707 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 8 t⎭ ⎧1 ⎫ ⎪1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ = 0 .8 ⎪ ⎪( p ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3 t ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪( p 4 )t ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ ( p 5 )t ⎬ ⎨0.707 ⎪ ⎬ = 300 × 3.8 ⎨ ⎬ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (3) The global force vector due to thermal load is ⎧( p1 )t ⎫ ⎧− 0. Thus. Version 2 CE IIT.771×10 −3 m 75.707 ⎪ ⎪( p ) ⎪ ⎪− 0. ΔL5 = αLΔT = 1 × 5 2 × 40 = 3.8 ⎪ ⎪ 6 t⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪( p 7 )t ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎪( p 8 )t ⎪ ⎩1 ⎩ ⎭ (4) Writing the load-displacement relation for the entire truss is given below.000 The forces developed in member (5) as it was not allowed to expand is ⎧( p 5 )t ⎫ ⎧0.

071 − 0.071⎤⎛ ⎧0⎫ ⎧− 0.0013m.8⎫ ⎞ 0.2 ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ p6 ⎪ 0 0.2 ⎢− 0.2 − 0.071 0 ⎥ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎪1 ⎪ ⎦⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 8⎭ ⎣ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (7) All reactions are zero as truss is externally determinate and hence change in temperature does not induce any reaction. reactions are computed as.071 ⎥ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ − 0.071 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − 0.071 − 0.071 − 0. − 0.20 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎧− 0.8 ⎪ − 0.071 − 0.071⎥ ⎪u 7 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ − 0.8 ⎪ ⎟ ⎪ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎝ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭⎠ ⎩u 5 ⎭ (5) Solving equation (5).271 − 0.071 0.071 − 0.271 ⎜⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎟ ⎢ 0.2 0. u 4 = 0 u 5 = −0.071 − 0.8 ⎪ ⎪ p2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ p3 ⎪ ⎢ − 0.271 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎪ ⎪⎟ ⎜ ⎢ − 0.2 0.071 0.271 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0.20 0 0.071 − 0.⎧ p1 ⎫ 0.071 0.271 − 0. problem p1 = p 2 = p 3 = p 4 = p 5 = p 6 = p 7 = p 8 = 0 and Thus solving for unknown displacements.071 − 0.071 − 0.20 0 0.071 0 ⎥ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎪0.071 ⎡ 0.071 0.2 ⎥ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪− 1.071 0 ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎡ 0. u 2 = 0. u 3 = −0.071 0.0020 m. θ = 0 o Version 2 CE IIT.129 − 0.071⎤ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎧0.8 ⎪ − 0.071⎥⎜ ⎪0⎪ ⎪− 1.071 ⎥ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0.071 0.129 0 0 ⎥⎜ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎪ 4⎪ ⎪⎟ ⎜⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢− 0.2 ⎥ ⎨u 3 ⎬ + ⎨0 ⎬ 0 ⎨ p7 ⎬ = ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎪p ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 0.0013m (6) Now.2 ⎪ p7 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪p ⎪ 0.071 0. the unknown displacements are calculated as u1 = 0.8 ⎪ ⎟ 0.271 − 0.271 0 0 0 − 0.071 − 0. Kharagpur . Now member forces are calculated by using equation (26.071 − 0.0005m.071 0.271 ⎥ ⎪u 8 ⎪ ⎪1 ⎢ 0 ⎭ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎩ 8⎭ In the above u 6 = u 7 = u8 = 0 .071 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 0.2 ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎬ (5) ⎨ ⎬ = AE ⎢ ⎨ ⎬+⎨ 0 0 0.271 0 0 ⎥ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎪0.071 − 0.071 − 0.8⎫ − 0.271 0. ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ − 0.071 0.071 0 0 0.071 0 ⎥⎜ ⎨0⎬ − ⎨0 ⎬ ⎟ ⎨u 3 ⎬ = AE ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u ⎪ 0 ⎪⎟ − 0.10b) Member (1): L=5m.8⎫ 0 ⎧ p 6 ⎫ ⎡− 0.071 0 0 − 0.271 ⎥⎜ ⎪0⎪ ⎪0.071 0 0 − 0.2 − 0.071 u2 ⎪ − 0.

707 0. L = 5 2 .0780kN Member (4): θ = 90 o .707 -0.1080 Kn (8) Member 2: L=5m. nodal points 3-2 ⎧u 5 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ u 300 ' p2 = [0 -1 0 1] ⎪ 6 ⎪ =0 ⎨ ⎬ 5 ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (11) Member (5): θ = 45 o . θ = 0 o . Kharagpur . θ = 90 o .⎧u 3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ u AE ' [-1 0 1 0] ⎪ 4 ⎪ p2 = ⎨ ⎬ 5 ⎪u1 ⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ' p 2 = 0. L = 5 2 .333 ×10 −3 ⎨ ⎬ 5 2 ⎪u1 ⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (12) =-0.1087 kN Member (3): L=5m.771×10 −5 p2 = ⎨ ⎬ 5 ⎪u1 ⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (9) =0.nodal points 4-2 Version 2 CE IIT.nodal points 3-4 ⎧u 5 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ u 300 ' p2 = [-1 0 1 0] ⎪ 6 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ 5 ⎪u 7 ⎪ ⎪u 8 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (10) =0.nodal points 4-1 ⎧u 7 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ u AE ' [0 -1 0 1] ⎪ 8 ⎪ − 300 × 3.707 0.8619 kN Member (6) : θ = 135 o .707] ⎪ 6 ⎪ − 300 × 3.nodal points 3-1 ⎧u 5 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ u 300 ' p2 = [-0. L = 5m.

in the case of statically indeterminate trusses.707] ⎪ 8 ⎪ = 0. the length of the members is prevented from either expansion or contraction. A couple of problems are solved. Assembly of member stiffness matrices.707 0. the direct stiffness method as applied to the truss analysis was discussed. Similarly the errors in fabricating truss members also produce additional stresses in the trusses.0150 kN.707 -0. these effects are accounted for in the stiffness analysis.⎧u 7 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ u 300 ' p2 = [0. Kharagpur .707 -0. Thus. Version 2 CE IIT. However. the stresses are developed in the members due to changes in temperature. Due to the change in temperature the truss members either expand or shrink. ⎨ ⎬ 5 2 ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (13) Summary In the last four lessons. and the problem of inclined supports were discussed. In this lesson. imposition of boundary conditions.

Kharagpur .Module 4 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Direct Stiffness Method Version 2 CE IIT.

Lesson 27 The Direct Stiffness Method: Beams Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

The stiffness matrix of each individual beam element can be written very easily. Towards this end. Let us use lower numbers to denote unknown degrees of freedom (unconstrained degrees of freedom) and higher numbers to denote known (constrained) degrees of freedom. Derive member stiffness matrix of a beam element. 27. the stiffness matrix of the entire truss was obtained by assembling the member stiffness matrices of individual members.1 Introduction. one could number sequentially as shown in Fig. 27.1d. Assemble member stiffness matrices to obtain the global stiffness matrix for a beam. However. a few problems were solved using stiffness method from fundamentals. However sometimes it is required to consider a node between support points. numbers enclosed in a circle represents beam numbers. In a similar way. we break the given beam into a number of beam elements. Write down global load vector for the beam problem. In chapter 23. The given continuous beam is divided into three beam elements as shown in Fig. The possible displacement degrees of freedom of the beam are also shown in the figure. Such a method of identification is adopted in this course for the ease of imposing boundary conditions directly on the structure stiffness matrix.1b. consider a continuous beam ABCD as shown in Fig. 27. In the case of truss. 4.1c. For example.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. Kharagpur . In Fig. nodes are located at the supports. Write the global load-displacement relation for the beam. In fact the load displacement relation for the entire structure was derived from fundamentals. Thus each span is treated as an individual beam. This is done whenever the cross sectional area changes suddenly or if it is required to calculate vertical or rotational displacements at an intermediate point.1a. The beam ABCD is divided into three beam members. 27. there are four nodes and eight degrees of freedom. in this case. Such a division is shown in Fig. one could obtain the global stiffness matrix of a continuous beam from assembling member stiffness matrix of individual beam elements. If the axial deformations are neglected then each node of the beam will have two degrees of freedom: a vertical displacement (corresponding to shear) and a rotation (corresponding to bending moment).1b. This is preferred while solving the problem on a computer. 27. 2. It is noticed that. However this can be much simplified provided we follow the procedure adopted for trusses. Hence. 3. The procedure adopted therein is not suitable for computer implementation. Version 2 CE IIT. 27. This procedure runs into trouble when the structure is large and complex.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur . Let L be the length of the member. there are four possible degrees of freedom for this member and hence the resulting stiffness matrix is of the order 4 × 4 . The positive sense of the translation and rotation are also shown in the figure. 27. The beam ends are denoted by nodes j and k .2 Beam Stiffness Matrix. In this method counterclockwise moments and counterclockwise rotations are taken as positive. A area of cross section of the member and I zz is the moment of inertia about z ' axis.2 shows a prismatic beam of a constant cross section that is fully restrained at ends in local orthogonal co-ordinate system x' y ' z ' . The x' axis coincides with the centroidal axis of the member with the positive sense being defined from j to k . The elements of the stiffness matrix indicate the forces exerted on Version 2 CE IIT. 27. Hence.In the above figures. Displacements are considered as positive in the direction of the coordinate axis. single headed arrows are used to indicate translational and double headed arrows are used to indicate rotational degrees of freedom. Two degrees of freedom (one translation and one rotation) are considered at each end of the member. Fig.

By definition they are elements of the member stiffness matrix. In particular they form the first column of element stiffness matrix. Kharagpur . the unit rotation in the positive sense is imposed at j end of the beam while holding all other displacements to zero. The restraint actions at ends are calculated referring to tables given in lesson … Version 2 CE IIT. In Fig. The restraint actions are also shown in the figure.3b. 27. The restraint actions are shown in the figure.3a. Now impose a unit displacement along y ' axis at j end of the member while holding all other displacements to zero as shown in Fig. 27. Let us calculate the forces developed in the above beam member when unit displacement is imposed along each degree of freedom holding all other displacements to zero. This displacement causes both shear and moment in the beam.the member by the restraints at the ends of the member when unit displacements are imposed at each end of the member.

then only rotational degree of freedom Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . 27. Similarly in Fig. Hence the member stiffness matrix for the beam member is 1 ⎡ 12 EI z ⎢ L3 ⎢ 6 EI z ⎢ 2 L [k ] = ⎢ 12 EI ⎢ z ⎢ − L3 ⎢ 6 EI z ⎢ 2 ⎣ L 2 6 EI z L2 4 EI z L 6 EI z − L2 2 EI z L − 3 12 EI z L3 6 EI z − L2 12 EI z L3 6 EI z − L2 4 6 EI z L2 2 EI z L 6 EI z − L2 4 EI z L ⎤1 ⎥ ⎥2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥3 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥4 ⎦ (27. if the supports are unyielding.3d.3c.1) The stiffness matrix is symmetrical. unit displacement along y ' axis at end k is imposed and corresponding restraint actions are calculated. 27.In Fig. unit rotation about z ' axis at end k is imposed and corresponding stiffness coefficients are calculated. For continuous beam problem. The stiffness matrix is partitioned to separate the actions associated with two ends of the member.

Kharagpur . apply a displacement u '1 along y ' at j end of the member as shown in Fig. q 21 .shown in Fig. q31 and q 41 .5a. Version 2 CE IIT. 27. 27. 27.3a. Let the restraining forces developed be denoted by q11 .2) Instead of imposing unit displacement along y ' at j end of the member in Fig. holding all other displacements to zero. ⎡ 4 EI z ⎢ L [k ] = ⎢ 2 EI z ⎢ ⎣ L 2 EI z ⎤ L ⎥ 4 EI z ⎥ ⎥ L ⎦ (27. In such a case the first and the third rows and columns will be deleted.4 is possible. The reduced stiffness matrix will be.

3) Now. q 2 .4) This may also be written in compact form as. q3 and q 4 respectively as shown in Fig.The forces are equal to.5b along respective degrees of freedom. q 21 = k 21u '1 . u ' 2 . 27.3 and 4 respectively. Let the restraining forces developed at member ends be q1 . q31 = k 31u '1 .5) Version 2 CE IIT. the force displacement relationship can be written as. q 41 = k 41u '1 (27. u '3 and u' 4 simultaneously along displacement degrees of freedom 1. Kharagpur . {q} = [k ] {u'} (27.2. give displacements u '1 . q11 = k11u '1 . ⎡ 12 EI z ⎡ q1 ⎤ ⎢ 3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ L ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢q ⎥ ⎢ 6 EI z ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎢ L2 ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 12 EI z ⎢ q3 ⎥ ⎢− L3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 6 EI z ⎢q 4 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ 2 ⎣ L 6 EI z L2 4 EI z L 6 EI − 2z L 2 EI z L − 12 EI z L3 6 EI z L2 − 12 EI z L3 − 6 EI z L2 6 EI z ⎤ ⎡ u '1 ⎤ L2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 EI z ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ u'2 L ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 6 EI z ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − 2 ⎢u ' 3 ⎥ L ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 4 EI z ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢u ' 4 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ L ⎦ (27. Then by the principle of superposition.

Hence it is not required to transform member stiffness matrix from local co-ordinate system to global co Version 2 CE IIT. z and z ' ) are parallel to each other.3 Beam (global) Stiffness Matrix. Note that no loading is shown on the beam.axes are collinear and other axes ( y and y ' .and x' . The formation of structure (beam) stiffness matrix from its member stiffness matrices is explained with help of two span continuous beam shown in Fig. For the case of continuous beam.27. the x . The orthogonal co-ordinate system xyz denotes the global co-ordinate system.6a. 27. Kharagpur .

The continuous beam is divided into two beam members. This will help us to place the elements of the element stiffness matrix at the appropriate locations of the global stiffness matrix.o.6a) Global d .6b. f 1 ⎡ k '11 ⎢k ' [k '] = ⎢ 21 ⎢ k '31 ⎢ ⎣ k ' 41 2 2 k '12 k ' 22 k '32 k ' 42 3 3 k '13 k ' 23 k '33 k ' 43 4 4 k '14 ⎤ k ' 24 ⎥ ⎥ k '34 ⎥ ⎥ k ' 44 ⎦ 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 (27. first assume that all joints are restrained.o.ordinate system as done in the case of trusses. Since the continuous beam has the same moment of inertia and span. f 1 Local d . Global d . Also in the figure. From Fig. f 1 4 2 2 5 3 k k k 2 2 2 6 4 13 23 33 [k ] 2 ⎡ k 11 ⎢ 2 k 21 =⎢ 2 ⎢ k 31 ⎢ 2 ⎢ k 41 ⎣ k k k 2 2 2 12 22 32 k 2 42 k 2 43 k 214 ⎤ ⎥ k 2 24 ⎥ k 2 34 ⎥ ⎥ k 2 44 ⎥ ⎦ 1 3 2 4 3 5 4 6 (27. Let [K ] denotes the continuous beam stiffness matrix of order 6 × 6 . f 3 Local d . They are. the member stiffness matrix of element 1 and 2 are the same.o. The node and member numbering for the possible degrees of freedom are shown in Fig 27. [K ] may be written as.6b. each beam member with its displacement degrees of freedom (in local co ordinate system) is also shown. 27. For this member there are six possible degrees of freedom.6b) The local and the global degrees of freedom are also indicated on the top and side of the element stiffness matrix. Kharagpur .o. The continuous beam has six degrees of freedom and hence the stiffness matrix is of the order 6 × 6 . For obtaining the global stiffness matrix. Version 2 CE IIT.

The element of the global stiffness matrix corresponding to global degrees of freedom 3 and 4 [overlapping portion of equation (27. Joint loads could be handled very easily as done in case of trusses. 27.7) Member BC (2) The 4 × 4 upper left hand section receives contribution from member 1 ( AB ) and 4 × 4 lower right hand section of global stiffness matrix receives contribution from member 2. Thus it is required to replace the member loads by equivalent joint loads. This is evaluated by invoking the method of superposition. Version 2 CE IIT.7 ) ] receives element from both members 1 and 2. We have two types of load: member loads and joint loads. Consider a continuous beam ABC as shown in Fig. Note that stiffness matrix of each member was developed for end loading only. Kharagpur .7.4 Formation of load vector. 27. The equivalent joint loads must be evaluated such that the displacements produced by them in the beam should be the same as the displacements produced by the actual loading on the beam.Member AB (1) ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ [K ] = ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 1 k11 1 k12 1 k13 1 k14 0 0 2 k13 k k k 2 23 2 33 2 43 0 0 2 k14 k k k 2 24 2 34 2 44 k k k 0 0 1 21 1 31 1 41 k k k 0 0 1 22 1 32 1 42 k 1 2 k 33 + k11 k +k 2 k 31 1 43 2 k 41 2 21 1 23 k 1 2 k 34 + k12 k +k 2 k 32 1 44 2 k 42 2 22 1 24 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (27.

8(a). 27.The loading on the beam shown in Fig.8(c). 27.8(c) these fixed end actions are shown in reverse direction on the actual beam without any load. Since the beam in Fig. Kharagpur . 27. 27. the joints are restrained against displacements and fixed end forces are calculated. is equal to the sum of Fig. 27. In Fig.8(c).8(b) is restrained (fixed) against any displacement. 27. Thus the loads shown Version 2 CE IIT. 27. the displacements produced by the joint loads in Fig.8(b) and Fig. In Fig. 27.8(a).8(c) must be equal to the displacement produced by the actual beam in Fig.

p5 and p 6 be the equivalent joint loads acting on the continuous beam along displacement degrees of freedom 1.9) where {P}is the global load vector. This equation is solved exactly in the similar manner as discussed in the lesson 24. 27. And {pu }. Now expanding equation (27. Kharagpur .5 and 6 respectively as shown in Fig. {u u } denote respectively vector of unknown forces and unknown displacements respectively. p1 . {P} = [K ]{u} (27. the load displacement relationship for the beam can be written as. Thus the global load vector is. Version 2 CE IIT.8(c) are the equivalent joint loads . p 4 .8) 27.in Fig. In the above equation some joint displacements are known from support conditions. {u} is displacement vector and [K ] is the global stiffness matrix. The above equation may be written as ⎧{p k }⎫ ⎡[k11 ] ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎪{pu }⎪ ⎢[k 21 ] ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ [k12 ]⎤ ⎧{u u }⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎬ [k 22 ]⎥ ⎪{u k }⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ (27. p 2 .4.10) where {p k } and {u k } denote respectively vector of known forces and known displacements. p3 .3.8(b). ⎧ Pb − ⎪ L ⎪ Pab 2 ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎪ − 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ L ⎪ p2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ Pa wL ⎞ ⎪ p3 ⎪ ⎪ − ⎜ L + 2 ⎟ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ ⎠ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎛ wL2 Pba 2 ⎪ p 4 ⎪ ⎪− ⎜ − 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎜ 12 L ⎝ ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − ⎛ wL + 2 P ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ 2 wL ⎪ ⎪ 12 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎞⎪ ⎟ ⎟⎪ ⎠ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (27.Let.10). 27.2.5 Solution of equilibrium equations After establishing the global stiffness matrix and load vector of the beam.

27. Kharagpur . And support reactions are evaluated from equation (27.9d. they also need to be considered while calculating the actual reactions. Thus.9c and Fig. Version 2 CE IIT.12) The reactions may be calculated as follows. ⎧ R1 ⎫ ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R3 ⎬ = − ⎨ p3 ⎬ + [K 21 ]{u u } ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R5 ⎪ ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (27. the unknown joint displacements can be evaluated. R3 and R5 be the reactions along the constrained degrees of freedom as shown in Fig.11b) Since {u k } is known. 27. 27. after evaluating unknown displacement vector. 27.{ p k } = [k11 ]{u u } + [k12 ]{u k } { p u } = [k 21 ]{u u } + [k 22 ]{u k } (27.11(a). 27. Fig.9a.11b). from equation 27. Since equivalent joint loads are directly applied at the supports.9a are equal to the sum of reactions shown in Fig.11a) (27.9b. Let R1 . The reactions of the beam shown in Fig.

13b) (27. Kharagpur . Pb + K 14 u 4 + K 16 u 6 L Pa R3 = + K 34 u 4 + K 36 u 6 L wL R5 = + 2 P + K 54 u 4 + K 56 u 6 2 R1 = (27.13c) or Version 2 CE IIT.13a) (27.From the method of superposition.

The procedure to impose boundary conditions on the load-displacement relation is discussed. ⎧ ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ ⎪ Pb L ⎪ ⎡ K 14 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ R3 ⎬ = − ⎨ Pa L ⎬ + ⎢ K 34 ⎪R ⎪ ⎪ wl ⎪ ⎢K ⎩ 5⎭ ⎪ 2 + 2 P ⎪ ⎣ 54 ⎩ ⎭ K 16 ⎤ ⎧u ⎫ K 36 ⎥ ⎨ 4 ⎬ ⎥ u K 56 ⎥ ⎩ 6 ⎭ ⎦ (27. q 2 . q 4 are calculated as follows. Version 2 CE IIT. The global load-displacemet relation is written for the complete beam structure. one could analyse continuous beam by the direct stiffness method. The global load vector is defined.14a) may be written as. the global stiffness matrix is generated. Kharagpur . For example consider the first element 1. With this background. Summary In this lesson the beam element stiffness matrix is derived from fundamentals.14a) Equation (27.⎧ ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ ⎪ Pb L ⎪ ⎡ K 14 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ R3 ⎬ = ⎨ Pa L ⎬ + ⎢ K 34 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ wl ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ R5 ⎪ ⎪ + 2 P ⎪ ⎢ K 54 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎩2 ⎭ K 16 ⎤ ⎥ ⎧u 4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ K 36 ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎥ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ K 56 ⎥ ⎦ (27.14b) Member end actions q1 . Assembling member stiffness matrices.16) In the next lesson few problems are solved to illustrate the method so far discussed. q3 . ⎧ Pb ⎫ q1 ⎫ ⎪ L ⎪ ⎧0⎫ ⎧ ⎪ Pab 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪q 2 ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ L ⎪ + [K ]element1 ⎨ ⎬ =⎨ ⎨ ⎬ Pa ⎬ ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎪q3 ⎪ ⎪ L ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎪q 4 ⎪ ⎪ Pa 2 b ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎪− L2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (27.

Lesson 28 The Direct Stiffness Method: Beams (Continued) Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

No numerical problems are given in that lesson. Version 2 CE IIT. Assemble member stiffness matrices to obtain the global stiffness matrix for a beam. few continuous beam problems are solved numerically by direct stiffness method. 28. 3. Write the global load-displacement relation for the beam. Derive member stiffness matrix of a beam element. 28.1 Introduction In the last lesson.1a. 4.1 Analyse the continuous beam shown in Fig. The possible global degrees of freedom are shown in the figure. In this lesson. Also assume that EI is constant for all members. 2.1b. The numbering of joints and members are shown in Fig. Analyse continuous beams by the direct stiffness method. Numbers are put for the unconstrained degrees of freedom first and then that for constrained displacements. Impose boundary conditions on the load-displacement relation of the beam. 28. Assume that the supports are unyielding.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. the procedure to analyse beams by direct stiffness method has been discussed. 5. Example 28. Kharagpur .

1) given in the previous lesson and reproduced below for the sake convenience. Version 2 CE IIT. double headed arrows denote rotations and single headed arrow represents translations.e. Kharagpur . In the case of beams. i. In the given problem some displacements are zero. In the above figure. as the two co-ordinate system are parallel to each other. First construct the member stiffness matrix for each member. u 3 = u 4 = u 5 = u 6 = u 7 = u8 = 0 from support conditions.. This may be done from the fundamentals. one could use directly the equation (27. it is not required to transform member stiffness matrix from local co-ordinate system to global co-ordinate system.The given continuous beam is divided into three beam elements Two degrees of freedom (one translation and one rotation) are considered at each end of the member. However.

Member 1: L = 4 m .375⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.1875 − 0. Global d .375⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.375 − 0.5 ⎥ ⎥ = EI zz ⎢ ⎢− 0.375 ⎤ ⎡ 0. the corresponding global degrees of freedom are indicated to facilitate assembling. Member 2: L = 4 m .375 ⎤ ⎡ 0.1c.375 − 0.1875 − 0. f 6 5 3 1 0.375 0. as the length and flexural rigidity of all members is the same. f 3 1 4 2 0.⎡ 12 EI z ⎢ L3 ⎢ 6 EI z ⎢ 2 L [k ] = ⎢ 12 EI ⎢ z ⎢− L3 ⎢ 6 EI z ⎢ 2 ⎣ L 6 EI z L2 4 EI z L 6 EI z − 2 L 2 EI z L − 12 EI z L3 6 EI − 2z L 12 EI z L3 6 EI − 2z L 6 EI z ⎤ L2 ⎥ 2 EI z ⎥ ⎥ L ⎥ 6 EI ⎥ − 2z⎥ L 4 EI z ⎥ ⎥ L ⎦ (1) The degrees of freedom of a typical beam member are shown in Fig.o. The member stiffness matrix for all the members are the same.5 1.5 − 0.375 0.0 − 0.1875 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0.375 1. node points 1-2. Here equation (1) is used to generate element stiffness matrix. 28. node points 2-3.1875 − 0.375 − 0.375 − 0.375 1. Kharagpur . Global d .1875 − 0.0 0. Version 2 CE IIT. node points 3-4.1875 0.0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 6 5 3 1 (2) On the member stiffness matrix.5 ⎥ ⎥ [k '] = EI zz ⎢ ⎢− 0.375 0.o.1875 0.375 0.375 1.0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 3 1 4 2 [k ] 2 (3) Member 3: L = 4 m .1875 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.375 0.

375 − 0.1875 ⎤ ⎥ − 0.1875 0 0.375⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 4 2 8 7 (4) The assembled global stiffness matrix of the continuous beam is of the order 8× 8 .1875 0.375 (5) Now it is required to replace the given members loads by equivalent joint loads.0 − 0.5 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ − 0.375 − 0.5 ⎥ ⎥ = EI zz ⎢ ⎢− 0. The equivalent loads for the present case is shown in Fig.375 0 0 0.375 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ − 0.Global d .1875 0 0 0 0.375 0 1.375 − 0. ⎡ 2.0 0. The displacement degrees of freedom are also shown in Fig. 28. Kharagpur .375 ⎤ ⎡ 0.0 ⎢ ⎢ 0. 28.375 0 − 0.375 − 0.375 0.5 1.0 0. f [k ] 3 4 2 8 7 0. The assembled global stiffness matrix may be written as.375 0 − 0.375 0.1875 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.375 1.0 0.1875⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ − 0.375 − 0.1d. Version 2 CE IIT.375 0 0 0.375 0.1875 − 0.5 2.1875 0 0 0.375 − 0.1875 − 0.1875 0.375 0.1875 ⎦ 0 0.375 [K ] = EI zz ⎢ ⎢ 0.375 0 0 0 0.1d.375 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 0 − 0.o.375 0.375 0 0 1.5 0 − 0.5 0 0.5 − 0.0 0.1875 − 0.5 ⎢ ⎢ 0.375 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0.

375⎥ 2.5 − 0.5 0 0.0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪2.187 ⎦ 0 0 0 ⎣ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 7 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 8 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (7) where {p} is the joint load vector.375 0.5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ p3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0.5 − 0.375 − 0.0 0.375 − 0.187 − 0.187 − 0.5 0.187 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ = EI zz ⎢ ⎢ 0.375 0 0 0 0.0 0.187 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢− 0. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .375 0.375 0.33⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (6) Writing the load displacement relation for the entire continuous beam.375 0 0 0 0.0 0.375 − 0.187 0.375 − 0.187 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ p7 ⎪ − 0.375 − 0.375 0 0 1. − 0. {p k } = ⎪ ⎨ ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎧ − 5 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎪ p 2 ⎪ ⎪2.375⎥ 0. {u} is displacement vector.375 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0.375 0 0 ⎤ ⎧−5⎫ ⎡ 2.375 − 0.Thus the global load vector corresponding to unconstrained degree of freedom is.187 0 0 0.0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ p8 ⎪ − 0.33⎪ ⎢ 0.375 0 0 1.375 0.5 0.

375 0 ⎥ EI zz ⎪ 1.375 0 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎢ 0.We know that u 3 = u 4 = u 5 = u 6 = u 7 = u 8 = 0 .0 0.0⎥ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎡ 2.488 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ ⎪ − 1.116 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − 1.955 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪− 0.715 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1.5 2. yields ⎧ −5 ⎫ ⎡2.375 ⎤ ⎧ p3 ⎫ ⎡ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢− 0.977⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ 1.5 ⎥ ⎪ p7 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ p8 ⎪ − 0.5 0 ⎥ 1 ⎪− 2.909 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ Thus displacements are.0 ⎥ ⎪2.5⎤ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ = EI zz ⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪2.5 2.116 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0.33⎪ ⎢0.909 EI zz (10) The unknown joint loads are given by.0 − 0.715⎪ ⎭ ⎩ Version 2 CE IIT.909 ⎪ ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 0. = 1 EI zz u1 = − 2. 0. Kharagpur .375⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ (11) ⎧ 0.5⎤ ⎧ − 5 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬ ⎢− 0. Thus solving for unknowns u1 and u 2 .333⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ (8) ⎧u1 ⎫ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬= ⎪u 2 ⎪ 3.977 EI zz and u2 = 1.75EI zz ⎩ ⎭ (9) ⎧− 2.977 ⎪ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ = EI zz ⎢ ⎢ 0.

977⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎢ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ = + EI zz ⎢− 0.375 1.977⎪ ⎭ ⎩ Member end actions for element 2 − 0.0 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0.1875 − 0.1875 ⎪q ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ 0.5 ⎣ 0.909 ⎪ ⎪q 4 ⎪ − 0.0 ⎪ 2⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬ + EIzz ⎢ ⎢− 0.375 ⎤ ⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎡ 0.375 ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎨ ⎥ 0.375 ⎪q3 ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎢ ⎪q4 ⎪ ⎪0⎪ 0.0 0.375 − 0.375 ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ 4.1875 − 0.4 ⎪ ⎪− 4.116⎫ ⎪−1.116 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R5 ⎪ ⎪ p 5F ⎪ ⎪ p 5 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ − 1.955 ⎪ ⎪− 1.715 ⎫ ⎧ 5.5 ⎥ 1 ⎪ 0 ⎪ − 0.1875 0.488⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ 1.116 ⎪ ⎪10.0 ⎦ ⎭ ⎩ (13) 0.1875 − 0.375⎥ EI zz ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪q 3 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ 1. Kharagpur .375 1.98 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ ⎪ 5.375 0.489⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬+⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ F⎬ + ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎪ R6 ⎪ ⎪ p 6 ⎪ ⎪ p 6 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ − 1.488 ⎪ ⎪− 1.5 1.977⎪ − 0.715⎪ ⎪ 3.116 ⎪ ⎪− 1.284 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ (12) Member end actions for element 1 ⎧q1 ⎫ ⎧0⎫ ⎡ 0.5 ⎥ 1 ⎪− 2.375 1.375 ⎪q ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎢ 0.58⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (14) Version 2 CE IIT.375 EIzz ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪− 2.6 ⎫ ⎪ 2.67⎪ ⎪ 0.715⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R8 ⎪ ⎪ p8F ⎪ ⎪ p8 ⎪ ⎪ 4 ⎪ ⎪− 0.1875 0.116⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ F ⎪ R7 ⎪ ⎪ p 7 ⎪ ⎪ p 7 ⎪ ⎪− 2.116 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪− 2.375 − 0.The actual reactions at the supports are calculated as.1875 − 0.1875 0.375 0.375 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎥ 0.375 ⎩ ⎭ ⎩⎭ ⎧−1.716 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ F ⎪ R4 ⎪ ⎪ p 4 ⎪ ⎪ p 4 ⎪ ⎪ 9 ⎪ ⎪ 1. ⎧ R3 ⎫ ⎧ p 3F ⎫ ⎧ p 3 ⎫ ⎧ 5 ⎫ ⎧ 0.

0 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪q 4 ⎪ ⎪− 2. Version 2 CE IIT.2b.72 ⎫ ⎪ 4.1875 − 0. Assume that the supports are unyielding.1875 − 0. The global degrees of freedom are also shown in the figure.28 ⎪ ⎪− 1.0 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎡ 0.1875 0. node points 1-2.1875 ⎪q ⎪ ⎪ 2.2a.67 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ 0.0 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0.5 1.Member end actions for element 3 0.58 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ ⎪ 3.375 0. (15) The numbering of joints and members are shown in Fig.5 ⎥ 1 ⎪1. Two degrees of freedom (one translation and one rotation) are considered at each end of the member. Member 1: L = 4 m .67⎪ − 0. 28. 28.375 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎧ 4.375 0. Also it is observed that displacements u 3 = u 4 = u 5 = u 6 = 0 from support conditions.909⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎪ + EI zz ⎢ =⎨ ⎨ ⎬ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎢− 0.375 ⎤ ⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎧ 4.72⎪ ⎩ ⎭ Example 28.375 − 0. double headed arrows denote rotations and single headed arrow represents translations.375⎥ EI zz ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪q3 ⎪ ⎪ 4.2 Analyse the continuous beam shown in Fig.375 1. Assume EI to be constant for all members.0 0. In the above figure. Kharagpur . First construct the member stiffness matrix for each member.375 − 0. The given continuous beam is divided into two beam elements.

375 ⎢ ⎢ 0.0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 6 5 3 1 (1) On the member stiffness matrix.1875 − 0.375 0. The displacement degrees of freedom are also shown in figure. Global d .o.375 0. Kharagpur . as the length and flexural rigidity of all members is the same.5 ⎥ ⎥ = EI zz ⎢ ⎢− 0.375 ⎣ 0 .1875 − 0.375 − 0.375⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.5 ⎢ ⎢ 0.5 1 . Global d .375 0.0 0.The member stiffness matrix for all the members are the same.0 0.5 1.375 ⎤ ⎡ 0.375 0.1875 − 0.375 − 0.375 1. 2 ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ 0.375 ⎥ ⎥ 0.375 − 0.375 − 0. Version 2 CE IIT.375 0 0 0 0.0 − 0.375 0.1875 − 0.375 0. Member 2: L = 4 m .375 − 0.1875 0 0 0 .375 − 0.o. The equivalent loads for the present case is shown in Fig.375 − 0.375 ⎤ ⎡ 0. the corresponding global degrees of freedom are indicated to facilitate assembling.5 ⎥ ⎥ [k '] = EI zz ⎢ ⎢− 0. The assembled global stiffness matrix may be written as.1875 0.375⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.375 1.0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 3 1 4 2 [k ] 2 (2) The assembled global stiffness matrix of the continuous beam is of order 6 × 6 . node points 2-3.1875 − 0.1875 ⎥ ⎦ Now it is required to replace the given members loads by equivalent joint loads.1875 − 0.1875 0.375 0 1 . 28.1875 0.375 0.5 − 0.1875 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ (3) 0 ⎥ 0.0 0.1875 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.375 1. f 3 1 4 2 0.375 − 0.2c. f 6 5 3 1 0.5 0 − 0.375 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ − 0.1875 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.375 − 0.5 ⎢ ⎢ 0 [K ] = EI zz ⎢ ⎢ − 0.

{p k } = ⎪ ⎨ ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎪ p 2 ⎪ ⎪6.67⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ (4) Writing the load displacement relation for the entire continuous beam. Version 2 CE IIT.Thus the global load vector corresponding to unconstrained degree of freedom is. Kharagpur .

1875 0 0 0.1875 ⎥ ⎦ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (5) We know that u 3 = u 4 = u 5 = u 6 = 0 . u1 = − 1.375 − 0.375 − 0.375 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ − 0.375 − 0. Thus solving for unknowns u1 and u 2 .67⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ (6) ⎧u1 ⎫ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬= ⎪u 2 ⎪ 1.0 0.375 − 0.375 0. yields ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎡2.62 ⎪ ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0.2 ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎡ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪6.62 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (7) Thus displacements are.5 1.5 1.375 0 0 0 0.375⎥ 1 ⎧− 1.1875 − 0.0 0.375 − 0.375 ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0. 0.905 EI zz and u2 = 7.905⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ = EI zz ⎢ ⎢ 0.1875 − 0.0 − 0.5 0 ⎥ EI zz ⎪ 7.0 0.1875⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0.0 ⎥ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎡ 1. Kharagpur .5⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬ ⎢− 0.62 EI zz The unknown joint loads are given by.375 0 1.375 ⎪ p6 ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎩ ⎭ Version 2 CE IIT.375 ⎤ ⎧ p3 ⎫ ⎡ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢− 0.75EI zz ⎩ ⎭ = 1 EI zz ⎧− 1.67⎪ ⎢ 0.5 0 − 0.1875 0.905⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ 7.5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ = EI zz ⎢ ⎬ ⎨ ⎢ − 0.5⎤ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ = EI zz ⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪6.375 ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎣ ⎭ ⎩ 0.375 − 0.5 2.375 ⎥ ⎥ 0.5 ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0.67⎪ ⎢0.375 0.0 ⎥ ⎪6.

1875 − 0.⎧ 2 .714 ⎪ ⎪− 8.66 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ 0. 14 ⎪ =⎨ ⎪ − 0 .565⎪ ⎩ ⎭ Member end actions for element 2 (10) 0.1875 0.62 ⎪ ⎪q 4 ⎪ ⎪− 6.0 ⎦ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ 0. 857 ⎪ ⎪ − 2 .1875 0.95 ⎪ ⎪ − 7.375⎥ EI zz ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪q3 ⎪ ⎪ 10 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪− 1.375 − 0.905⎪ ⎪q 4 ⎪ ⎪− 6.1875 − 0.375 − 0.0 0.1875 − 0.375 ⎤ ⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎧ 10 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎡ 0.286 ⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ (9) Member end actions for element 1 0.375 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎧ 10 ⎫ ⎡ 0.0 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0.375 − 0.5 1.375 0.375 0. Kharagpur .375 1.5 ⎥ 1 ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎪ + EI zz ⎢ =⎨ ⎨ ⎬ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎢− 0.1875 ⎪q ⎪ ⎪ 6.707 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ ⎪ 10.66⎪ − 0. ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8) ⎧ R3 ⎫ ⎧ 20 ⎫ ⎧ 2.66⎪ − 0.62 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R6 ⎪ ⎪ 10 ⎪ ⎪− 0.67⎪ ⎪ − 0.1875 − 0.375 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎧ 9.14 ⎪ ⎪ 7.857⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R4 ⎪ ⎪ 10 ⎪ ⎪ − 2.375 0.856⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ Version 2 CE IIT.5 ⎥ 1 ⎪− 1.857 ⎫ ⎧22.375 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎧12.375⎥ EI zz ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪q3 ⎪ ⎪ 10 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ 7.375 0.375 − 0.565⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ ⎪7.905⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ + EI zz ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎢− 0.375 1.1875 ⎪q ⎪ ⎪ 6.86 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎬=⎨ ⎬+⎨ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎪ R5 ⎪ ⎪− 6.714⎪ ⎪ 9. 95 ⎪ ⎪ − 0 .14 ⎫ ⎪8.66 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ 0.0 0.285 ⎫ ⎪ 5.5 1. 714 ⎩ The actual support reactions are.

Version 2 CE IIT.Summary In the previous lesson the beam element stiffness matrix is derived from fundamentals. Assembling member stiffness matrices. the global stiffness matrix is generated. Kharagpur . In this lesson. a few continuous beam problems are analysed by the direct stiffness method. The procedure to impose boundary conditions on the loaddisplacement relation is discussed.

Lesson 29 The Direct Stiffness Method: Beams (Continued) Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Since the beam is restrained against displacement in Fig. The support settlements also induce fixed end actions and are shown in Fig.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. 29. The effect of temperature changes and support settlements can easily be incorporated in the direct stiffness method and is discussed in this lesson.1b and Fig. the displacements produced in the beam by the joint loads in Fig. Let the support B settles by an amount Δ as shown in the figure. 29. The fixed end actions due to loads are shown in Fig. These fixed end forces are handled in the same way as those due to loads on the members in the analysis. 29. 29. the equivalent joint loads are shown. 29. Kharagpur .2 Support settlements Consider continuous beam ABC as shown in Fig. Compute moments developed in the continuous beam due to support settlements. 29. Thus to incorporate the effect of support settlement in the analysis it is required to modify the load vector by considering the negative of the fixed end actions acting on the restrained beam. 29. Version 2 CE IIT. 29. In Fig. In other words.1c. the analysis of continuous beam by direct stiffness matrix method is discussed.1d. 2. the global load vector is formulated by considering fixed end actions due to both support settlements and external loads. 29. At the end.1d must be equal to the displacement produced in the beam by the actual loads in Fig.1b.1c. Both temperature changes and support settlements induce fixed end actions in the restrained beams. However. Analyse continuous beam subjected to temperature changes and support settlements.1 Introduction In the last two lessons.1a. support settlements can never be prevented altogether and hence it is necessary to make provisions in design for future unequal vertical settlements of supports and probable rotations of fixed supports. a few problems are solved to illustrate the procedure. It is assumed in the analysis that the supports are unyielding and the temperature is maintained constant. 3.1a. Compute moments developed in statically indeterminate beams due to temperature changes. Assume that the flexural rigidity of the continuous beam is constant throughout. 29.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

in which span BC is subjected to a differential temperature T1 at top and T2 at the bottom of the beam. the relative angle of rotation dθ between two cross sections at a distance dx apart is given by dθ = α (T1 − T2 ) d dx (29.3 Effect of temperature change The effect of temperature on the statically indeterminate beams has already been discussed in lesson 9 of module 2 in connection with the flexibility matrix method. Consider the continuous beam ABC as shown in Fig. Kharagpur . Also due to differential temperatures there will not be any vertical forces/reactions in the beam. the equivalent joint loads can easily be constructed. As the cross section of the member remains plane after bending.2) Corresponding to the above fixed end moments. When beam is restrained. 29. Version 2 CE IIT. Let temperature in span AB be constant. 29.2a. The fixed end moments developed are. the temperature change induces fixed end moments in the beam as shown in Fig. Let d be the depth of beam and EI be the flexural rigidity.1) where α is the co-efficient of the thermal expansion of the material.2b. T M 1T = − M 2 = α EI (T1 − T2 ) d (29.29.

3a) having constant flexural rigidity EI .1 Calculate support reactions in the continuous beam ABC (vide Fig.Example 29. Version 2 CE IIT. 29. Kharagpur . throughout due to vertical settlement of support B . by 5 mm as shown in the figure. Assume E = 200 GPa and I = 4 × 10 −4 m 4 .

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

o.40 0.24 ⎥ [k '] = EI zz ⎢ ⎢− 0. node points 1-2.24⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 0.3c.24 0.m (1) The fixed-end moments due to support settlements are shown in Fig.24 0.24 ⎦ ⎣ 6 5 3 1 (2) Member 2: L = 5 m . A typical beam element with two degrees of freedom at each node is also shown in the figure.80 ⎥ − 0.096 0. 29. The equivalent joint loads due to support settlement are shown in Fig. Global d .096 − 0.24 On the member stiffness matrix.m F . node points 2-3.m.24 ⎤ ⎡ 0.096 − 0. For this problem. In the next step.40 0.80 0.24 0.24⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0. the corresponding global degrees of freedom are indicated to facilitate assembling.24 − 0. f 3 1 4 2 3 1 4 2 (3) [k ] 2 0. Global d .24 ⎣ 0.096 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0. Assembled stiffness matrix [K ] is given by.24 ⎤ ⎡ 0.80 0.096 − 0. The numbering of the joints and members are shown in Fig.o. the unconstrained degrees of freedom are u1 and u 2 .80 ⎦ − 0. The fixed end actions due to support settlement are.3d. 29.24 ⎥ ⎢ = EI zz ⎢− 0.24 0. L2 F M BA = 96 kN.24 0. f 6 5 3 1 0. Version 2 CE IIT. Member 1: L = 5 m .096 − 0.40 ⎥ − 0.096 0. The possible global degrees of freedom are also shown in the figure. F M AB = 6 EI Δ = 96 kN. M CB = −96 kN. let us construct member stiffness matrix for each member.m F M BC = −96 kN.40 ⎥ − 0.The continuous beam considered is divided into two beam elements.24 − 0. The assembled global stiffness matrix is of order 6 × 6 . 29.3b.096 ⎢ 0. Kharagpur .

u 3 = u 4 = u 5 = u 6 = 0 due to support conditions.8 0.14 ⎪ ⎪ 1.8 − 0 .096 ⎥ ⎦ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎪u ⎪ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩u 6 ⎭ (6) Since.24 0 0 0 0.4 0 − 0. We get.24 ⎣ ⎩ ⎭ 0.429 × 10 −3 radians.4 ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎢ 0. 8 0. ⎧0⎫ ⎡ 1.285⎫ ⎧− 0.24 − 0.096 − 0. {p k } = ⎪ ⎨ ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎪ p 2 ⎪ ⎪96⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (5) Thus the load displacement relation for the entire continuous beam is.8⎥ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎣ Thus solving for unknowns u1 and u 2 .24 0 0.⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ [K ] = EI zz ⎢ ⎢− ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ − − − − − − − − − ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (4) Thus the global load vector corresponding to unconstrained degrees of freedom is.6 ⎥ ⎪96⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 1 = EI zz ⎧− 34.714 × 10 −3 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ u1 = −0.096⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0. 6 ⎪ 96 ⎪ ⎢ 0.096 − 0.24 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ − 0. unknown joint loads are calculated by.24 0.4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = EI zz ⎢ ⎢ − 0.714 × 10 −3 radians (7) Now. Version 2 CE IIT.24 − 0.24 − 0. 4 0.24 ⎥ ⎥ 0.4⎤ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ = EI zz ⎢ ⎪96⎪ ⎢0.12 EI zz ⎩ ⎭ ⎡ 0 . Kharagpur .096 0.24 ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢ 0.192 − 0.24 − 0.429 × 10 −3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎪ 137.4 1.096 0 0 0.4 0. ⎧u1 ⎫ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬= ⎪u 2 ⎪ 1.4 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎬ ⎢ ⎢− 0.6 0.24 0. u 2 = 1. ⎧0⎫ ⎡1.

14 ⎪ ⎢ 0.24 − 0.4 ⎪ ⎪− 24. R4 . ⎧ R3 ⎫ ⎧− 76.88⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R4 ⎪ ⎪ 38.24⎥ 1 ⎧− 34.24 ⎪ p6 ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ (8) ⎧ 32 . Compute reactions due to following support settlements.0.72 kN.005 m 0.4 ⎪ ⎪ − 8. R6 = 30. Support B Support C 0.29 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R6 ⎪ ⎪ 38.010 m vertically downwards. 71 ⎪ ⎪ − 8 .71⎪ ⎪ 82.m. R4 = 13. Version 2 CE IIT.8⎫ ⎧ 32.285⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ = EI zz ⎢ ⎨ ⎬ EI zz ⎪ 137.72 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬+⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎪ R5 ⎪ ⎪ 96 ⎪ ⎪ − 13. 4 0 ⎥ ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0.24 ⎤ ⎧ p3 ⎫ ⎡ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢− 0. Assume E = 200 GPa and I = 4 × 10 −4 m 4 . Thus.68⎪ ⎪ 13. 29.23 ⎪ ⎪ 30. 23 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ Now the actual support reactions R3 .17 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ (9) R3 = −43.91 ⎫ ⎧− 43. Kharagpur . 91 ⎪ ⎪ − 24 .17 kN (10) A continuous beam ABCD is carrying a uniformly distributed load of 5 kN / m as shown in Fig.88 kN.4a.29 kN. 68 ⎪ =⎨ ⎪ − 13 .2 R5 = 82. R5 and R6 must include the fixed end support reactions. Example 29. vertically downwards.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

6 × 200 ×109 × 4 ×10−4 ⎛ 0.m. L = 5 m . 29. It is observed from the figure that the unconstrained degrees of freedom are u1 and u 2 . The fixed end actions due to support settlement are. 29. 29. 29. Version 2 CE IIT. The fixed end actions due to support settlements are shown in Fig. F M D = −192 kN. Member 1. The fixed end actions due to external loading are. and fixed end moments due to external loads are shown in Fig. Kharagpur .42 kN.m. w L2 M = = 10.m. F M C = 96 − 192 = −96 kN. F MA = − 6 EI (ψ ) L where ψ is the chord rotation and is taken + ve if the rotation is counterclockwise. (1) The vertical reactions are calculated from equations of equilibrium.4(c). construct member stiffness matrix for each member.m. (2) In the next step.4(d). F MC = 0 F M D = −10.42 − 10.42 = 0 kN. wherein the continuous beam is divided into three beam elements.m. The equivalent joint loads due to support settlement and external loading are shown in Fig.42 kN. Substituting the appropriate values in the above equation.005 ⎞ M =− ⎜− ⎟ = 96 kN.4(b).m.4(e).m. node points 1-2. 12 F A F M B = 10.Solution The node and member numbering are shown in Fig. 5 × 103 5 ⎠ ⎝ F A F M B = 96 + 96 = 192 kN.

L = 5 m .24 − 0.80 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 4 2 8 7 (5) On the member stiffness matrix.096 − 0.24 − 0.24 ⎦ ⎣ 6 5 3 1 (3) Member 2.096 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.40 0.24 0.24 0.80 0.80 0.40 ⎥ ⎥ = EI zz ⎢ ⎢− 0.096 0. the corresponding global degrees of freedom are indicated to facilitate assembling.096 − 0. Version 2 CE IIT.096 − 0.24 0.24 − 0.24⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.24 ⎥ [k '] = EI zz ⎢ ⎢− 0.40 0.096 0.24 − 0.24⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.096 0.096 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.o.096 − 0.24 0.24⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0. node points 2-3. Global d .24 − 0.096 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0.24 ⎤ ⎡ 0.24 0. f [k ] 3 4 2 8 7 0.24 ⎤ ⎡ 0.24 0. Kharagpur . f [k ] 2 3 1 4 2 0.24 0.40 0.24 0.40 ⎥ − 0. The assembled global stiffness matrix is of the order 8 × 8 .24 ⎤ ⎡ 0.24 − 0.24 − 0. Global d .24 0. L = 5 m . f 6 5 3 1 0. Assembled stiffness matrix [K ] is.o. node points 3-4.o.Global d .80 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 3 1 4 2 (4) Member 3.096 − 0.80 ⎥ − 0.80 0.40 ⎥ ⎥ = EI zz ⎢ ⎢− 0.096 − 0.

40 ⎢ ⎢ 0.24 0.096 0 0.096 − 0.60 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 96 ⎪ ⎢ 0.24 0 − 0. Kharagpur .40 1.⎡ 1.60 0.0 0. ⎧− 192⎫ ⎡ 1.24 0 0 0.24 ⎤ ⎥ − 0.096⎥ (6) 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ − 0.60 0.40 − 0.24 0 0 0.096 0 0.40 0 − 0.40 1.24 0 − 0.192 0 0 0. ⎧− 192⎫ ⎡1.40 ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0.096 − 0.24 0 0.24 − 0.24 0 0 0.24 0.24 0 0.80 0.80 − 0.40 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢ − 0.24 0.24 0.096 ⎦ 0 ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 7 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 8 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ We know that u 3 = u 4 = u 5 = u 6 = u 7 = u8 = 0 .096 0.24 0 ⎤ − 0.24 0 0 0 0.096 0.24 [K ] = EI zz ⎢ ⎢ 0.24 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0.24 0 0 0 0.40 1.192 − 0.096 0 0 0 0. {p k } = ⎪ ⎨ ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎧− 192⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎬=⎨ ⎪ p 2 ⎪ ⎪ 96 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ (7) Writing the load displacement relation for the entire continuous beam. 0 0.096 0.40 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ − 0.24 ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ p7 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p8 ⎪ ⎣ 0 ⎩ ⎭ 0.24 0 0 0.40⎤ ⎪ ⎪ = EI zz ⎢ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ 96 ⎪ ⎢0.24 − 0.24 ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = EI zz ⎢ ⎢ 0.60 ⎥ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ Thus solving for (8) unknowns ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (9) Version 2 CE IIT.24 − 0.24 0.40 0 0.096 0 0 0 0.60 ⎢ 0.24 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ − 0.375 0 − 0.40 − 0. displacements u1 and u 2 from equation.096 0 0 − 0.80 − 0.096 0.40 0 0.24 ⎥ ⎥ 0.192 − 0.096 ⎥ ⎦ The global load vector corresponding to unconstrained degree of freedom is.24 − 0.24 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ 0.60 0.80 0.24 0.096⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ − 0.24 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ − 0.192 0 0 0.40 0 − 0.096 0 0 − 0.24 0 − 0.

60⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ ⎪− 34.40⎤ ⎧− 192⎫ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎨ ⎬= ⎬ 3 ⎪u 2 ⎪ 2.80 × 10 −3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ ⎪ 1. Kharagpur .4(80 × 10 ) ⎢− 0. Thus.40 1.60 ⎥ ⎪ 96 ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧− 1.20 × 10 −3 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (10) u1 = −1.24 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.60 − 0.56⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 38.24 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0. R6 . u 2 = 1.40 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 − 0.56 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪− 57.20 × 10 −3 radians (11) The unknown joint loads are calculated as. R4 .20 × 10 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ 23.40 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.⎧u1 ⎫ ⎡ 1.24⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) ⎧− 1.04 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 34.24 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢− 0. R5 .80 × 10 −3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ −3 ⎪ 1.04⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (12) Now the actual support reactions R3 .40 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪− 23. ⎧ p3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3 ⎨ ⎬ = 80 × 10 ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p7 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p8 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ 0.80 × 10 −3 radians. Version 2 CE IIT. R7 and R8 must include the fixed end support reactions.

64 kN. R8 = 66.04 kN.26 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ (13) R3 = 48. Kharagpur .9 ⎪ ⎪− 34.56 ⎪ ⎪ 16. R4 = −55. R7 = −164.3 ⎪ ⎪− 23.m.64 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R5 ⎪ ⎪ p 5F ⎪ ⎪ p 5 ⎪ ⎪ 106.02⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R8 ⎪ ⎪ p8F ⎪ ⎪ p 8 ⎪ ⎪ 89.04⎪ ⎪ 66.34 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ F ⎪ R7 ⎪ ⎪ p 7 ⎪ ⎪ p 7 ⎪ ⎪− 202.2 ⎪ ⎪ 34.04 ⎫ ⎧ 48. In other words. a few problems are solved to illustrate the procedure.⎧ R3 ⎫ ⎧ p 3F ⎫ ⎧ p 3 ⎫ ⎧ 25 ⎫ ⎧ 23.02 kN. These fixed end forces are handled in the same way as those due to loads on the members in the analysis.60 ⎪ ⎪ 48. Version 2 CE IIT.40 ⎪ ⎪− 164.42⎪ ⎪ 38. Both temperature changes and support settlements induce fixed end actions in the restrained beams.56 ⎪ ⎪ − 55.04 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ F ⎪ R 4 ⎪ ⎪ p 4 ⎪ ⎪ p 4 ⎪ ⎪ − 90. the global load vector is formulated by considering fixed end actions due to both support settlements and external loads. R5 = 48.m. R6 = 16.26 kN (14) Summary The effect of temperature changes and support settlements can easily be incorporated in the direct stiffness method and is discussed in the present lesson.82 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬+⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ F⎬ + ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎪ R6 ⎪ ⎪ p 6 ⎪ ⎪ p 6 ⎪ ⎪ 50.42 ⎪ ⎪− 57.82 kN. At the end.34 kN.

Kharagpur .Module 4 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Direct Stiffness Method Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .Lesson 30 The Direct Stiffness Method: Plane Frames Version 2 CE IIT.

Initially. The axial deformation of member will be considered in the analysis. The possible displacements at each node of the member are: translation in x' . the stiffness matrix of the plane frame member is derived in its local co-ordinate axes and then it is transformed to global co-ordinate system. Derive plane frame member stiffness matrix in local co-ordinate system.1 Introduction In the case of plane frame. Analyse plane frames by the direct stiffness matrix method. 6. Impose boundary conditions on the load-displacement relation. 4.axis.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . The member is assumed to have uniform flexural rigidity EI and uniform axial rigidity EA for sake of simplicity. This is achieved by transformation of forces and displacements to global co-ordinate system. 30. Assemble member stiffness matrices to obtain the global stiffness matrix of the plane frame. shear force and an axial force. the analysis of plane frame by direct stiffness matrix method is discussed.1a in the member coordinate system x' y ' z ' . In the case of plane frames. In this lesson. 5. The significant deformations in the plane frame are only flexural and axial. Write the global load-displacement relation for the plane frame. The global orthogonal set of axes xyz is also shown in the figure. 3.2 Member Stiffness Matrix Consider a member of a plane frame as shown in Fig. members are oriented in different directions and hence before forming the global stiffness matrix it is necessary to refer all the member stiffness matrices to the same set of axes.and y ' direction and rotation about z ' . 30. The internal stress resultants at a cross-section of a plane frame member consist of bending moment. 30. Transform plane frame member stiffness matrix from local to global coordinate system. 2. all the members lie in the same plane and are interconnected by rigid joints. The frame lies in the xy plane.

Combining them.1a.Thus the frame members have six (6) degrees of freedom and are shown in Fig. 30. Version 2 CE IIT. bending moment with translation along y ' axis and rotation about z ' axis are given in lesson 27. The forces acting on the member at end j and k are shown in Fig. The relation between axial displacement and axial forces is derived in chapter 24. Similarly the relation between shear force.30. Kharagpur .1a.1b. we could write the load-displacement relation in the local coordinate axes for the plane frame as shown in Fig 30. b as.

In Fig.1b) where [k '] is the member stiffness matrix. Kharagpur . u 6 respectively are displacements of ends j and k of the member in global co-ordinate system. u 3 and u 4 . the plane frame is shown in global coordinate axes xyz . Similarly u1 . Let u '1 . 30. u 2 . Two ends of the plane frame member are identified by j and k .2a the plane frame member is shown in local coordinate axes x ′y ′z ′ and in Fig. 30. u '3 and u ' 4 .3 Transformation from local to global co-ordinate system 30. u 5 .2b. u '5 .1 Displacement transformation matrix In plane frame the members are oriented in different directions and hence it is necessary to transform stiffness matrix of individual members from local to global co-ordinate system before formulating the global stiffness matrix by assembly. The member stiffness matrix can also be generated by giving unit displacement along each possible displacement degree of freedom one at a time and calculating resulting restraint actions. u ' 6 be respectively displacements of ends j and k of the member in local coordinate system x' y ' z ' .1a) This may be succinctly written as {q'} = [k ']{u'} (30.⎡ AE ⎧ q '1 ⎫ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ L ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪q ' 2 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪q'3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎪q ' ⎪ ⎢− AE ⎪ 4⎪ ⎢ L ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪q'5 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎩q ' 6 ⎭ ⎢ 0 ⎣ 0 12 EI z L3 6 EI z L2 0 − 12 EI z L3 6 EI z L2 − 0 6 EI z L2 4 EI z L 0 6 EI z L2 − AE L 0 0 − 0 12 EI z L3 6 EI z L2 0 12 EI z L3 − 6 EI z L2 − AE L 0 0 2 EI z L ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 6 EI z ⎥ ⎥ L2 ⎥ 2 EI z ⎥ ⎥ L ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 6 EI z ⎥ − 2 ⎥ L ⎥ ⎥ 4 EI z ⎥ L ⎥ ⎦ 0 ⎧u '1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u ' 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u '3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪u ' ⎪ ⎪ 4⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u '5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩u ' 6 ⎭ (30. Version 2 CE IIT. 30.3. u ' 2 .

u 3 as.2a) (30. u 2 . x -axis. Kharagpur .2a and b.2b) (30. u ' 2 . u '3 to u1 .30. From u '1 = u1 cosθ + u 2 sin θ u ' 2 = −u1 sin θ + u 2 cosθ u '3 = u 3 This may be written as.Let θ be the angle by which the member is inclined to global Fig. (30. one could relate u '1 .2c) Version 2 CE IIT.

3a) {u'} = [T ]{u} (30. l = cos θ = Where L = x 2 − x1 L and m = sin θ = y 2 − y1 . This may be written in compact form as. y1 ) and coordinate of node k are (x2 . Kharagpur .4) (x2 − x1 )2 + ( y 2 − y1 )2 Version 2 CE IIT. Again.m 0 0 0 0⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧u '1 ⎫ ⎡ l ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪u ' 2 ⎪ ⎢− m l 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪u ' 3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬= m 0⎥ ⎪u 4 ⎪ 0 0 l ⎪u ' 4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 0 − m l 0⎥ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎪u '5 ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪u ' 6 ⎪ ⎣ 0 0 0 0 1⎥ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Where. L (30.3b) In the above equation. if the coordinate of node j is (x1 . [T ] is defined as the displacement transformation matrix and it transforms the six global displacement components to six displacement components in local co-ordinate axes. (30. y 2 ) . then. l = cosθ and m = sin θ .

30. q'3 and q ' 4 . p5 .3. Now from Fig 30.3a and b.3b in the global coordinate system.2 Force displacement matrix Let q'1 . p1 . p3 and p 4 .5b) Version 2 CE IIT.5a) (30. Kharagpur . q ' 6 be respectively the forces in member at nodes j and k as shown in Fig.3a in local coordinate system. p1 = q'1 cosθ − q' 2 sin θ p 2 = q'1 sin θ + q' 2 cosθ (30.30. q' 2 . p 6 are the forces in members at node j and k respectively as shown in Fig. q '5 . p 2 . 30.

we have (30.9) represents the member load-displacement relation in global coordinate system.6b) {q'} = [k ']{u'} Substituting the above value of {q'} in equation (30. {p} = [T ]T {q'} 30. The global member stiffness matrix [k ] is given by.9) The equation (30. l = cosθ and m = sin θ .7) {p} = [T ]T [k '][T ]{u} or (30.6a) This may be compactly written as.3 Member global stiffness matrix From equation (30.8) {p} = [k ]{u} (30. [k ] = [T ]T [k '][T ] (30.1b). the above equation may be written as (30. {p} = [T ]T [k ']{u '} Making use of equation (30. 0⎤ ⎥ 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 l − m 0⎥ ⎥ l 0 m 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0 ⎧ q'1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪q ' 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪q'3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪q ' 4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪q ' 5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪q ' 6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (30. Kharagpur .3.5c) Thus the forces in global coordinate system can be related to forces in local coordinate system by ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎡ l − m ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p 2 ⎪ ⎢m l ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ = ⎨ ⎬ 0 ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ Where.p3 = q '3 (30.3b).10) Version 2 CE IIT.6b) results in.

4a by direct stiffness matrix method.04 m 2 . Few numerical problems are solved by direct stiffness method to illustrate the procedure discussed. Example 30.4b. Kharagpur . Each node has three degrees of freedom. The numbering of joints and members are also shown in Fig. Assume E = 200 GPa .After transformation. Finally the global load-displacement equation is written as in the case of continuous beam.3b. The flexural rigidity EI and axial rigidity EA are the same for both the beams. the assembly of member stiffness matrices is carried out in a similar procedure as discussed for truss. 30.1 Analyze the rigid frame shown in Fig 30. Degrees of freedom at all nodes are also shown in the figure. 30.33 × 10 −4 m 4 and A = 0. Version 2 CE IIT. Also the local degrees of freedom of beam element are shown in the figure as inset. Solution: The plane frame is divided in to two beam elements as shown in Fig. I ZZ = 1.

l = 0 and m = 1 . Kharagpur . Here the element stiffness matrix in global coordinates is only given. Version 2 CE IIT. θ = 90° node points 1-2. The origin of the global co-ordinate system is taken at node 1. Member 1: L = 6 m .Formulate the element stiffness matrix in local co-ordinate system and then transform it to global co-ordinate system.

44 ×10 ⎣ 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 4.44 × 103 0 4. l = 1 and m = 0 .333 ×106 0 0 0 17.44 ×103 ⎡k1 ⎤ = ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ 1.78 ×103 4.66 × 10 ⎦ 0 4 5 6 7 8 9 (2) The assembled global stiffness matrix [K ] is of the order 9 × 9 . Kharagpur .333 × 106 ⎥ 0 8.48 × 103 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 3 ⎢ 4.333 ×106 0 ⎥ 0 17.333 × 106 3 0 8.0 × 10 6 0 0 2.88 × 10 3 7 − 2. Version 2 CE IIT. Carrying out assembly in the usual manner.48 × 103 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 4. [k ] = [T ] [k '][T ] 2 T 4 ⎡ 2.88 ×10 4.⎡ k 1 ⎤ = [T ] [ k '] [T ] ⎣ ⎦ T 1 ⎡1.78 ×103 ⎥ ⎦ (1) Member 2: L = 4 m .88 × 103 ⎥ ⎥ 0 4.88 × 10 3 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 3 ⎥ − 10 × 10 ⎥ 3⎥ 26.44 × 103 ⎥ ⎥ 1. node points 2-3 .48 × 103 1.44 × 103 1. we get.66 × 10 3 0 − 10 × 10 3 8.44 × 103 1. θ = 0° .44 × 103 ⎤ ⎥ 0 −1.0 × 10 6 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ 5 0 5 × 10 3 10 × 10 3 0 − 5 × 10 3 10 × 10 3 6 0 10 × 10 3 26.48 × 103 0 0 −1.0 × 10 6 0 0 8 0 − 5 × 10 3 − 10 × 10 3 0 5 × 10 3 − 10 × 10 3 9 ⎤ ⎥ 10 × 10 3 ⎥ ⎥ 8.44 ×103 0 4.0 × 10 6 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢− 2.

77 4.48 0 4.5 0 4.44 − 2000 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 [K ] = 0 0 1338.44 2001.44 0 8.3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢− 4.44 0 8.0 0 0 0 0 ⎤ − 4.33 0 − 10 26.88 4.44 0 − 10 13.44 − 1.44 0 17.33 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 ⎥ − 2000 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 5 −5 − 10 − 10 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 10 13.3 10 0 10 ⎥ (3) − 1333.44 10 44.66⎦ ⎣ 0 Version 2 CE IIT.44 ⎡ 1.48 − 4.88 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ − 1.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ − 1333.48 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 1333.3 −5 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢− 4. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

4d). u8 . u 7 .The load vector corresponding to unconstrained degrees of freedom is (vide 30. u 2 . ⎧ p 4 ⎫ ⎧ 12 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ {p k } = ⎪ p5 ⎪ = ⎪− 24⎪ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎪ − 6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ (4) In the given frame constraint degrees of freedom are u1 . Kharagpur . u 3 . u 9 . Version 2 CE IIT. Eliminating rows and columns corresponding to constrained degrees of freedom from global stiffness matrix and writing load-displacement relationship for only unconstrained degree of freedom.

R2 . 9 respectively (vide Fig.48 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ R2 ⎪ ⎪ p 2 F ⎪ ⎢ − − 1333.14 ⎪ ⎪ 16. Kharagpur . 8.28 × 10 −6 m.1.44 ⎪ −6 ⎪ 10 44. R8 .88 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3 ⎪ 3 ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ F ⎬ + 10 ⎢ ⎢− 2000 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ R7 ⎪ ⎪ p 7 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ F⎪ ⎢ 0 −5 − 10 ⎥ ⎪ R8 ⎪ ⎪ p8 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ F ⎢ 0 ⎪ R9 ⎪ ⎪ p9 ⎪ 10 13.44 0 8.44 ⎤ ⎧ 12 ⎫ ⎡2001.4e).. 2.92 ⎪ ⎪− 25.33 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ F ⎧u 4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨u 5 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ R1 ⎫ ⎧ − 12 ⎫ ⎧ 0. R9 be the support reactions along degrees of freedom 1. -6 ⎧u 4 ⎫ ⎧ 6.13 × 10 -3 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧u 4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨u 5 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (5) (6) u4 = 6.40 ⎪ ⎪ 25.5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ 3 1338.59 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R3 ⎪ ⎪ 18 ⎪ ⎪ − 1. 7.695 × 10−5 Let R1 . 30.3 10 ⎥ ⎨− 24⎬ = 10 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 4.42 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R2 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ 22.57 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R8 ⎪ ⎪ 24 ⎪ ⎪ 1.85 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎬=⎨ ⎬+⎨ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎪ R7 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪− 12.3 0 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪p F ⎪ ⎪ R3 ⎪ ⎢ 4. 3. R3 . Support reactions are calculated by 4 5 6 − 4.695 × 10 -5 ⎬ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎪ .40 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R9 ⎪ ⎪− 24⎪ ⎪ − 1. R7 .44⎥ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ Solving we get.0.92⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ (7) Version 2 CE IIT. u5 = −1.57 ⎫ ⎧ − 11.0 4.57⎪ ⎪ − 12.44⎤ 0 ⎧ R1 ⎫ ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎡ − 1.59 ⎪ ⎪ 22.28 × 10 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ u 5 ⎬ = ⎨.

Version 2 CE IIT. The origin of the global co. Assume E = 200 GPa .Example 30.5b.01 m 2 .33 × 10−5 m 4 and A = 0. The flexural rigidity EI and axial rigidity EA are the same for all beams. I ZZ = 1. Solution: The plane frame is divided in to three beam elements as shown in Fig.ordinate system is taken at A (node 1). The numbering of joints and members are also shown in Fig.5a by direct stiffness matrix method. The possible degrees of freedom at nodes are also shown in the figure. 30. Kharagpur . 30.5b.2 Analyse the rigid frame shown in Fig 30.

3 L Version 2 CE IIT.999 × 10 2 kN/m.666 × 103 kN. l= x2 − x1 = 0 and L The following terms are common for all elements.998 × 102 kN 2 L 4 EI = 2. Member 1: m= y2 − y1 = 1. Kharagpur .m L 12 EI = 4. L 6 EI = 9. AE = 5 × 105 kN/m. θ = 90° .Now formulate the element stiffness matrix in local co-ordinate system and then transform it to global co-ordinate system. node points 1-2 . L L = 4 m . In the present case three degrees of freedom are considered at each node.

50 × 10 3 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ − 1 × 10 3 =⎢ ⎢− 0.50 × 10 3 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ − 1 × 10 3 ⎣ 2 0 5 × 10 5 0 0 − 5 × 10 5 0 3 − 1 × 10 0 2.5 × 10 3 1 × 10 3 0 − 0.5 × 10 3 − 1 × 10 3 0 0.66 × 10 3 1 × 10 3 0 1.33 × 10 3 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 3 ⎥ − 1 × 10 ⎥ 3⎥ 2. θ = 270° .50 × 10 3 0 1 × 10 3 5 0 − 5 × 10 5 0 0 5 × 10 5 0 6 − 1 × 10 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 3⎥ 1.33 × 10 3 7 8 6 − 5.33 × 10 ⎥ 3 ⎥ 1 × 10 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 3⎥ 2. l = 1 and m = 0 .0 × 10 0 0 5.666 × 10 3 0 − 1 × 10 3 1. [k ] = [T ] [k '][T ] 2 T 4 ⎡ 5. θ = 0° node points 2-3.50 × 10 3 0 1 × 10 3 0. node points 3-4 . L Version 2 CE IIT.666 × 10 ⎦ 0 4 5 6 7 8 9 − 0.5 × 10 3 − 1 × 10 3 (2) x2 − x1 = 0 and L Member 3: m= L = 4 m .33 × 10 3 3 4 − 0. Kharagpur .0 × 10 6 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ 5 0 0.5 × 10 3 1 × 10 3 6 0 1 × 10 3 2.[k ] = [T ] [k '][T ] 1 T 1 ⎡ 0.0 × 10 6 0 0 9 0 ⎤ ⎥ 1 × 10 3 ⎥ ⎥ 1.66 × 10 ⎦ 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 (1) Member 2: L = 4 m . l= y2 − y1 = −1 .0 × 10 5 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢− 5.

0 3 [K ] = 10 × ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 0 − 500 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 0 − 0.0 0.0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ 5.0 0 − 500 0 ⎥ ⎥ 1. 0 − 1.0 − 0.0 1.50 0 1.33 × 10 3 10 − 0.0 Version 2 CE IIT.50 ⎢ ⎢ 0 500 0 0 − 500 ⎢ ⎢ − 1. Kharagpur .50 × 10 3 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 1 × 10 3 =⎢ ⎢− 0.33 0 − 1.50 × 10 3 0 − 1 × 10 3 0.33 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 500.0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎢ 0 ⎣ 0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ 1.5 −1 ⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 500 0 ⎥ − 500 ⎥ 0 1.0 0 1.66 1.5 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 500 0 0 500. we get.33 1.0 5.5 ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 0 0 1.33 1.0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ − 1.66⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0 0 0 (4) − 1.5 − 1.0 1.[k ] = [T ] [k '][T ] 3 T 7 ⎡ 0.0 0 1.5 0 1.0 ⎥ 0 0 0 − 0.66 × 10 ⎦ 7 8 9 10 11 12 (3) The assembled global stiffness matrix [K ] is of the order 12 × 12 .0 0 2.0 − 0.33 × 10 ⎥ 3 ⎥ − 1 × 10 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 3⎥ 2.0 0 − 0.66 × 10 3 − 1 × 10 3 0 1.0 0 1.33 − 1 0 2.5 − 1.50 × 10 3 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 1 × 10 3 ⎣ 8 0 5 × 10 5 0 0 − 5 × 10 5 0 9 1 × 10 3 0 2.0 0 ⎢ ⎢− 0.50 × 10 3 0 − 1 × 10 3 11 0 − 5 × 10 5 0 0 5 × 10 5 0 12 1 × 10 3 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 3⎥ 1.0 500.33 ⎥ − 1.0 − 500 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ 1.33 0 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ 1.50 0 ⎡ 0.5 0 1.50 1.5 ⎢ ⎢ − 1.0 0 500.33 − 1. Carrying out assembly in the usual manner.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

65 × 10 -5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 9 ⎪ ⎪ 3.0 5.84 × 10 -5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎪.0 ⎥ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪− 24⎪ ⎢ 1.The load vector corresponding to unconstrained degrees of freedom is.5 − 1 ⎥ ⎪u8 ⎪ − 24⎪ − 0.0 − 500 0 0 ⎤ ⎧u 4 ⎫ ⎧ 10 ⎫ ⎡500. (6) ⎧u 4 ⎫ ⎧ 1.5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪− 24⎪ ⎢ 0 500. 0 1.33⎥ ⎪u 9 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ Solving we get.33 1 − 1 5.3. u12 .5 1.85 × 10 -3 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (7) Version 2 CE IIT. constraint (known) degrees of freedom are u1 . u10 .0 1.0 0 − 0.14 × 10 -3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎪u 7 ⎪ ⎪ 1.8.5 1.5. u 3 .5 − 1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ 24 ⎪ 1 1.43 × 10 -2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎪. u 2 .33 0 − 1.33⎥ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3 ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ = 10 ⎢ ⎢− 500 0 0 500. ⎧ p 4 ⎫ ⎧ 10 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎪− 24⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p 6 ⎪ ⎪− 24⎪ {p k } = ⎪ ⎪ = ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎪ p7 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p8 ⎪ ⎪− 24⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p9 ⎪ ⎪ 24 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ (5) In the given frame.43 × 10 -2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u8 ⎪ ⎪.5 0 1 ⎥ ⎪u 7 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 500. Kharagpur . u11 . Eliminating rows and columns corresponding to constrained degrees of freedom from global stiffness matrix and writing load displacement relationship.0 1.

99⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R11 ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎪ 28.33 ⎥ ⎪u 9 ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ F ⎧ R1 ⎫ ⎧0⎫ ⎧ 0. Initially.12 respectively.5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R2 ⎪ ⎪ p 2 F ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪u 5 ⎪ − 500 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R3 ⎪ ⎪ p3 F ⎪ ⎢ 1. Kharagpur .99⎪ ⎪− 10.5 − 1.28 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R12 ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎪ 19. Version 2 CE IIT.43 ⎪ ⎪ 3. R10 . members are oriented in different directions and hence before forming the global stiffness matrix it is necessary to refer all the member stiffness matrices to the same set of axes.0 0 1. Support reactions are calculated by 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎧u 4 ⎫ − 1.42 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (8) Summary In this lesson. the analysis of plane frame by the direct stiffness matrix method is discussed.71 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R3 ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎪ 3. R3 .Let R1 .33 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3 ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ F ⎬ + 10 ⎢ 0 0 0 0 − 0.10.71 ⎪ ⎪ 19. R2 . This is achieved by transformation of forces and displacements to global co-ordinate system.99 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R2 ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎪ 19.11. a few problems are solved to illustrate the methodology.42 ⎪ ⎪ 19.0⎥ ⎪u 7 ⎪ ⎪ R10 ⎪ ⎪ p10 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ F⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪u8 ⎪ − 500 ⎪ R11 ⎪ ⎪ p11 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ F ⎢ 0 ⎪ R12 ⎪ ⎪ p12 ⎪ 0 0 1. 3. R11 . 2. R12 be the support reactions along degrees of freedom 1. the stiffness matrix of the plane frame member is derived in its local co-ordinate axes and then it is transformed to global co-ordinate system.99 ⎫ ⎧ 0. In the end.0 ⎧ R1 ⎫ ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎡− 0.28 ⎪ ⎪ 28.43 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬+⎨ ⎪ R10 ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎪− 10.0 0 1. In the case of plane frames.

Module 5 Cables and Arches Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Lesson 31 Cables Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Structure may be classified into rigid and deformable structures depending on change in geometry of the structure while supporting the load. For long span structures (for e. Differentiate between rigid and deformable structures. Analyse cables subjected to concentrated loads. cables subjected to concentrated load and cables subjected to uniform loads are considered. In the last two lessons of this module. Analyse cables subjected to uniformly distributed load. 2. 5. However. Cables are mainly used to support suspension roofs. two hinged arch and hingeless arches are considered. In the following sections. Version 2 CE IIT. 31. Rigid structures support externally applied loads without appreciable change in their shape (geometry). In the second lesson. Unlike rigid structures. arches in general and three hinged arches in particular along with illustrative examples are explained. in case bridges) engineers commonly use cable or arch construction due to their efficiency. deformable structures undergo changes in their shape according to externally applied loads.g.Instructional Objectives: After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. 3. cables subjected to uniform and concentrated loads are discussed. bridges and cable car system. In the first lesson of this module. Define funicular structure. They are also used in electrical transmission lines and for structures supporting radio antennas.1 Introduction Cables and arches are closely related to each other and hence they are grouped in this course in the same module. it should be noted that deformations are still small. State the type stress in a cable. Kharagpur . 4. Beams trusses and frames are examples of rigid structures. Cables and fabric structures are deformable structures.

2a and 31. Cable is a funicular structure. 31.The shape assumed by a rope or a chain (with no stiffness) under the action of external loads when hung from two supports is known as a funicular shape. Now let us modify our definition of cable. It is easy to visualize that a cable hung from two supports subjected to external load must be in tension (vide Fig.2b). A cable may be defined as the structure in pure tension having the funicular shape of the load. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT.

In such cases cable is assumed to be uniformly loaded. D.3 Cable subjected to uniform load. he ) are known. B. a total of ten equations and the required one more equation may be written from the geometry of the cable. Otherwise if the total length of the cable S is given then the required equation may be written as S = L1 + hc + L2 + ( hd − hc ) 2 + L2 + ( hd − he ) 2 + L2 + ( h + he ) 2 2 2 2 2 2 (31. As they are flexible they do not resist shear force and bending moment. ∑ Fy = 0 ) at each of the point A. 31. L3 . if one of the sag is given then the problem can be solved easily. C . Cables are used to support the dead weight and live loads of the bridge decks having long spans.e. From the geometry. the cables are considered to be perfectly flexible (no flexural stiffness) and inextensible. For example. The bridge decks are suspended from the cable using the hangers. E ( hc . for a longer length of cable. cable tensions in each of the four segments and three sag values: a total of eleven unknown quantities are to be determined. Version 2 CE IIT. Consider a cable ACDEB as loaded in Fig. one could write two force equilibrium equations ( ∑ Fx = 0. The four reaction components at A and B .1) 31. D and E i. L4 and sag at C . It is subjected to axial tension only and it is always acting tangential to the cable at any point along the length.31.2. Let us assume that the cable lengths L1 . Kharagpur . If the weight of the cable is negligible as compared with the externally applied loads then its self weight is neglected in the analysis. hd .2 Cable subjected to Concentrated Loads As stated earlier. In the present analysis self weight is not considered. L2 . The stiffened deck prevents the supporting cable from changing its shape by distributing the live load moving over it.

Consider a cable which is uniformly loaded as shown in Fig 31. Let us determine the shape of the cable subjected to Version 2 CE IIT. Let the slope of the cable be zero at A . Kharagpur .3a.

T cosθ = H (31. The slopes of the cable at m and n are denoted by θ and θ + Δθ respectively.4a) i.3b) we get T cos θ = constant At support (i. b. and noting that in the limit as lim Δx → 0 ΔT sin(θ + Δθ ) = q 0 Δx d (T sin θ ) = q 0 dx d (T cos θ ) = 0 dx (31.3c) Integrating equation (31. c by Δx Δx → 0. at x = 0 ).3b.2b) (31. Version 2 CE IIT. Δy → 0 Δθ → 0 and ΔT → 0 . we get ∑ Fy = 0 ∑ Fx = 0 ∑ Mn = 0 −T sin θ + (T + ΔT ) sin(θ + Δθ ) − q0 (Δx) = 0 −T cosθ + (T + ΔT ) cos(θ + Δθ ) = 0 − (T cos θ ) Δy + (T sin θ ) Δx + (q 0 Δx) Δx =0 2 (31.3b) lim Δx → 0 −T cos θ x Δy + T sin θ + q 0 0 = 0 Δx 2 dy = tan θ dx (31.2a. the tension in the cable changes continuously along the cable length. Applying equations of equilibrium. Let the tension in the cable at m end of the free body diagram be T and tension at the n end of the cable be T + ΔT . Kharagpur .e.3a) (31.2a) (31..uniformly distributed load q 0 .2c) Dividing equations 31.e.3a. Integrating equation 31. As the cable is uniformly loaded. horizontal component of the force along the length of the cable is constant. Consider a free body diagram of the cable as shown in Fig 31.

Tmax ⎛ H ⎞ = q0 L + H = q0 L 1 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ q0 L ⎠ 2 2 2 2 (31. However dead weight of the cable is neglected in the present analysis. T sin θ = 0.5 represents a parabola. T sin θ = q 0 x C1 = 0 as θ = 0 at that point. Kharagpur . y = 0 ⇒ C = 0 and y = Equation 31. Hence. one could write tan θ = q0 x H tan θ = dy q 0 x = dx H (31. ∴y = q0 x 2 +C 2H q0 x 2 2H (31. tension in the cable and the sag y B . (31. Now the tension in the cable may be evaluated from equations 31. However due to its own dead weight it takes a shape of a catenary.4a and 31.1 Determine reaction components at A and B. when x = L .5) At x = 0.6) Due to uniformly distributed load. Neglect the self weight of the cable in the analysis. i.4b. the cable takes a parabolic shape. and y E of the cable shown in Fig. Example 31.4b) From equations 31.T sin θ = q 0 x + C1 At x = 0.4c) From the figure.4b. T = q0 x 2 + H 2 2 T = Tmax .e. Version 2 CE IIT. 31.4a and 31.4a.

Taking moment about E.Since there are no horizontal loads. horizontal reactions at A and B should be the same. yields Ray × 14 − 17 × 20 − 10 × 7 − 10 × 4 = 0 Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

798 m 44. Ray × 7 − H × 2 − 17 × 3 = 0 H = 44.52 = 48. and D one could calculate tension in different segments of the cable. C . we get Ray × 4 − H × y B = 0. ∑F x = 0 ⇒ Tab cos θ ab = H 44.5 kN Taking moment about B of all the forces left of B and setting M B = 0 .528 m 44.50 Similarly. Now horizontal reaction H may be evaluated taking moment about point C of all forces left of C . y D = 68 = 1.789 kN Tab = The tension Tab may also be obtained as Tab = Ray 2 + H 2 = 202 + 44.31.789 kN Now considering equilibrium of joint B. yB = 80 = 1. ∑F x = 0 ⇒ Tab cosθ ab = Tbc cosθ bc Version 2 CE IIT.Ray = 280 = 20 kN. Kharagpur .4b).5 ⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ 3 + 0. Segment bc Applying equations of equilibrium.50 To determine the tension in the cable in the segment AB .298 ⎠ ⎝ = 48. consider the equilibrium of joint A (vide Fig. 14 Rey = 37 − 20 = 17kN.

4e. Evaluate the reactions and the maximum and minimum values of tension in the cable.4d.298 ⎠ ⎝ ≅ 44.05 kN cos θ cd ⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 32 + 0. Segment de Tde = Tcd cos θ cd = 4 cos θ de 44.5282 = 47.2 A cable of uniform cross section is used to span a distance of 40m as shown in Fig 31.636 kN The tension Tde may also be obtained as Tde = Rey 2 + H 2 = 17 2 + 44.5 42 + 1.5 ⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ 3 + 0.4722 ⎠ ⎝ See Fig.5 = = 45.6 kN See Fig.636 kN Example 31. run.52 = 47.31. See Fig. The cable is subjected to uniformly distributed load of 10 kN/m.5. Kharagpur .Tbc = 44. Version 2 CE IIT.4c Segment cd Tcd = Tbc cos θbc 44. The left support is below the right support by 2 m and the lowest point on the cable C is located below left support by 1 m.31.31.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

H= 10 × 25. one could write.812 = 1101. yields Ray = 40 × 20 × 10 − 1071. From equations 1 and 2.412 + 1071.812 = 1081. 10(40 − x) 2 = 10 x 2 3 ⇒ x = 25. the horizontal reaction can be determined.76 kN TB = 253. yields Rby = 10 × 40 × 20 + 1071.59 2 + 1071. ya = 1 = q 0 (40 − x) 2 10(40 − x) 2 = 2H 2H (1) 10 x 2 yb = 3 = 2H (2) where ya and yb be the y co-ordinates of supports A and B respectively.40 kN The tension in the cable is maximum where the slope is maximum as T cosθ = H .80 × 2 = 253.59 kN 40 Writing equation of moment equilibrium at point B . Thus.359 m From equation 2. one could evaluate the value of x .3592 = 1071. Kharagpur .41 kN 40 Tension in the cable at supports A and B are TA = 146.80 × 2 = 146. The maximum cable tension occurs at B and the minimum cable tension occurs dy at C where = θ = 0 and TC = H = 1071.81 kN dx Version 2 CE IIT. Using equation 31.5.80 kN 6 Now taking moment about A of all the forces acting on the cable. Let us place our origin of the co-ordinate system xy at C .Assume the lowest point C to be at distance of x m from B .

Example 31.833 y C − 17 = 0 (4) Solving the above quadratic equation. Taking moment of all the forces about support B . Substituting the value of yC in equation (1). Hence. Kharagpur . y C = 3. yC can be evaluated.6. we get ∑M C =0 Ray × 7 − H a × yC − 50 × 4 = 0 Substituting the value of H a in terms of Ray in the above equation.07 kN From equation (2). 7 Ray − 1. the above equation may be written as.3 A cable of uniform cross section is used to support the loading shown in Fig 31. H a = 1. Determine the reactions at two supports and the unknown sag yC . 2 y C + 1.05 kN Version 2 CE IIT.5 Ray = 147. Ray × 3 − H a × 2 = 0 ⇒ H a = 1. we get.5 Ray y C − 200 = 0 (3) Using equation (1).5 Ray (2) Taking moment about C of all the forces left of C and setting M C = 0 .307 m. Ray = 1 [350 + 300 + 100 y c ] 10 (1) Ray = 65 + 10 y c Taking moment about B of all the forces left of B and setting M B = 0 . Ray = 98.

Summary In this lesson.307 − 50 × 3 = 0 Rdy = 51. Rdy is calculated by taking moment of all the forces about A . A few solved to show the application of these methods to Version 2 CE IIT. Taking moment of all the forces right of C about C . Kharagpur . Rdy × 3 = H d × y C ⇒ H d = 47. the cable funicular shape of the concentrated load and numerical examples are actual problems. Rdy × 10 − 100 × 7 + 100 × 3. and noting that ∑ M C = 0 .93 kN.109 kN.Now the vertical reaction at D . The procedures to analyse cables carrying uniformly distributed loads are developed. is defined as the structure in pure tension having the load.

Module 5 Cables and Arches Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .Lesson 32 Three Hinged Arch Version 2 CE IIT.

1 Introduction In case of beams supporting uniformly distributed load. 32. Evaluate horizontal thrust in three-hinged arch. 5. which in turn reduce the design bending moment. Define an arch. as they would develop horizontal reactions. In such situations arches could be advantageously employed. Analyse three-hinged arch. the 3PL bending moment below the load is . State advantages of arch construction. Kharagpur . 4.1. The horizontal reaction is determined by the method of least work. the maximum bending moment increases with the square of the span and hence they become uneconomical for long span structures. in the case of a simply supported beam shown in Fig.Instructional Objectives: After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. 3. 2. For example. Identify three-hinged. Now consider a two hinged symmetrical 16 arch of the same span and subjected to similar loading as that of simply supported beam. two-hinged and hingeless arches. Now Version 2 CE IIT. The vertical reaction could be calculated by equations of statics. 32.

If an arch were constructed in an inverted funicular shape then it would be subjected to only compression for those loadings for which its shape is inverted funicular. the actual shape of the arch differs from the inverted funicular shape or the loading differs from the one for which the arch is an inverted funicular. arches and vaults were commonly used to span between walls. arches are also subjected to bending moment in addition to compression. the bending moment below the load is Since in practice. It is clear that the bending 16 moment below the load is reduced in the case of an arch as compared to a simply supported beam. In earlier days arches were constructed using stones and bricks.3PL − Hy . As arches are subjected to compression. It is observed in the last lesson that. it must be designed to resist buckling. Version 2 CE IIT. Now. Kharagpur . arches are mainly used in bridge construction and doorways. In modern times they are being constructed of reinforced concrete and steel. piers or other supports. Until the beginning of the 20th century. the cable takes the shape of the loading and this shape is termed as funicular shape.

For example in Fig 32. The indeterminate reactions are determined by the method of least work or by the flexibility matrix method. two-hinged arch and fixed-fixed arch. Two-hinged arch and fixed-fixed arch are statically indeterminate structures. Three-hinged arch is statically determinate structure and its reactions / internal forces are evaluated by static equations of equilibrium. Consequently bending moment is not reduced. not geometrical. It is important to appreciate the point that the definition of an arch is a structural one.2 Type of arches There are mainly three types of arches that are commonly used in practice: three hinged arch. 32. Arches support load primarily in compression.3b. In this lesson threehinged arch is discussed. Version 2 CE IIT. no horizontal reaction is developed. Kharagpur .A structure is classified as an arch not based on its shape but the way it supports the lateral load.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

5. Taking moment of all the forces about hinge A . Consider a three hinged arch subjected to a concentrated force P as shown in Fig 32. we have three hinges: two at the support and one at the crown thus making it statically determinate structure.3) Hb = Version 2 CE IIT. There are four reaction components in the three-hinged arch. Kharagpur .3 Analysis of three-hinged arch In the case of three-hinged arch.1) ∑ Fy = 0 (32.2) Taking moment of all forces right of hinge C about hinge C leads to Hb × h = ⇒ Rby L 2 Rby L 2h = PL 8h (32. One more equation is required in addition to three equations of static equilibrium for evaluating the four reaction components.32. Taking moment about the hinge of all the forces acting on either side of the hinge can set up the required equation. yields Rby = PL P = 4L 4 ⇒ Ray = 3P 4 (32.

32.Applying ∑ Fx = 0 to the whole structure gives Ha = PL 8h Now moment below the load is given by .6 Show that the bending moment is zero at any cross section of the arch. Version 2 CE IIT.5) For a simply supported beam of the same span and loading. Example 32. MD = 3PL = 0.4) 3PL PL − = 0.6) For the particular case considered here. moment under the loading is given by.66 %.125 PL 16 16 MD b 1 = h 2 4 3PL PLb = − 16 8h then If MD = (32. MD = Ray L − H ab (32. the arch construction has reduced the moment by 66.375 PL 16 (32.1 A three-hinged parabolic arch of uniform cross section has a span of 60 m and a rise of 10 m. It is subjected to uniformly distributed load of intensity 10 kN/m as shown in Fig. Kharagpur .

yields Ray = Rby = 10 × 60 = 300 kN 2 (1) Taking moment of forces left of hinge C about C . Bending moment The bending moment at any section x from the left end is. The shear force at the mid span is zero.Solution: Reactions: Taking moment of all the forces about hinge A . x2 M x = Ray x − H a y − 10 2 (3) Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . H b = 450 kN . one gets Ray × 30 − H a × 10 − 10 × 30 × 30 =0 2 ⎛ 30 ⎞ 300 × 30 − 10 × 30 × ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ Ha = 10 = 450 kN From (2) ∑ Fx = 0 one could write.

The equation of the three-hinged parabolic arch is y= 2 10 x − 2 x2 3 30 (4) 10 ⎛2 ⎞ M x = 300 x − ⎜ x − 2 x 2 ⎟450 − 5 x 2 30 ⎝3 ⎠ = 300 x − 300 x + 5 x 2 − 5 x 2 = 0 In other words a three hinged parabolic arch subjected to uniformly distributed load is not subjected to bending moment at any cross section. Calculate the location and magnitude of maximum bending moment in the arch.2 A three-hinged semicircular arch of uniform cross section is loaded as shown in Fig 32. Solution: Version 2 CE IIT.7. Can you explain why the moment is zero at all points in a three-hinged parabolic arch? Example 32. Kharagpur . It supports the load in pure compression.

67 kN (↑) Ray = (1) Bending moment Now making use of the condition that the moment at hinge C of all the forces left of hinge C is zero gives.66 kN (→) 15 Considering the horizontal equilibrium of the arch gives.33 kN (↑) 30 ∑ F y = 0 ⇒ Rby = 10. (2) M c = Ray × 15 − H a × 15 − 40 × 7 = 0 Ha = 29. 40 × 22 = 29. M D = Ray × 8 − H a × 13.213 kN (3) Version 2 CE IIT. H b = 10.33 × 15 − 40 × 7 = 10. Kharagpur .66 × 13.267 = 93.66 kN (←) The maximum positive bending moment occurs below D and it can be calculated by taking moment of all forces left of D about D .Reactions: Taking moment of all the forces about hinge B leads to.33 × 8 − 10.267 = 29.

Kharagpur .8a. Solution: Reactions: Taking A as the origin.3 A three-hinged parabolic arch is loaded as shown in Fig 32. Ray = 40 × 30 + 10 × 20 × 20 40 ( 2 ) = 80 kN (↑) Version 2 CE IIT. Draw bending moment diagram. y= 8 8 2 x− x 10 400 (1) Taking moment of all the forces about hinge B leads to.Example 32. Calculate the location and magnitude of maximum bending moment in the arch. the equation of the three-hinged parabolic arch is given by.

the necessary condition for extremum (maximum or ∂M x minimum) is that = 0. the moment at hinge C of all the forces left of hinge C is zero gives.∑Fy = 0 ⇒ Rby = 160 kN (↑) (2) Now making use of the condition that. Thus. (6) Substituting the value of x in equation (5). H b = 150 kN (←) (4) Location of maximum bending moment Consider a section x from end B . Kharagpur .m. (7) Version 2 CE IIT. Moment at section x in part CB of the arch is given by (please note that B has been taken as the origin for this calculation). the maximum bending moment is obtained. ∂x ∂M x ⎛ 8 8× 2 ⎞ = 160 − ⎜ − x ⎟150 − 10 x ∂x ⎝ 10 400 ⎠ = 40 − 4 x = 0 x = 10 m. M c = Ray × 20 − H a × 8 − 40 × 10 = 0 Ha = 80 × 20 − 40 × 10 = 150 kN (→) 8 (3) Considering the horizontal equilibrium of the arch gives. 8 10 ⎛ 8 ⎞ M max = 160(10) − ⎜ (10) − (10) 2 ⎟150 − (10) 2 400 2 ⎝ 10 ⎠ M max = 200 kN. 8 2⎞ 10 ⎛ 8 M x = 160 x − ⎜ x − x ⎟150 − x 2 400 ⎠ 2 ⎝ 10 (5) According to calculus.

tan θ = dy 8 16 = − x dx 10 400 (8) Substituting x = 10 m. Kharagpur .80 Shear force S d at left of D is S d = H a sin θ − Ray cos θ (9) S d = 150sin(21.80) = −18.57 kN. θ D = 21. Version 2 CE IIT.Shear force at D just left of 40 kN load The slope of the arch at D is evaluated by.80) − 80 cos(21. in the above equation.

75⎥ 25 ⎣ ⎦ 1 = [2125 − 3. y = −0.6 x Taking moment of all the loads about B leads to.4 A three-hinged parabolic arch of constant cross section is subjected to a uniformly distributed load over a part of its span and a concentrated load of 50 kN. Evaluate the horizontal thrust and the maximum bending moment in the arch. Ray = 1 ⎡ 15 ⎤ ⎢50 × 20 + 10 × 15 × 2 − H a × 3. Solution: Reactions: Taking A as the origin. the equation of the parabolic arch may be written as. The dimensions of the arch are shown in the figure. 32.03 x 2 + 0. as shown in Fig.Example 32. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT.75 H a ] 25 (1) (2) Taking moment of all the forces right of hinge C about the hinge C and setting M c = 0 leads to.9.

the maximum negative bending moment in this region.m.6 x) 0≤ x≤5 (6) For.3 (4) From equation (2). For the maximum positive bending moment in this region occurs at D .6) = 0 ∂x x = 1.03x 2 + 0. ∂M =0⇒ Ray − H a (−0.15 H + 75 + 0. the maximum negative bending moment occurs in the region AD and the maximum positive bending moment occurs in the region CB .33 kN 0.75 H b − 10 × 15 × Rby = 1 [1125 + 6. H a = H b = H (say ) Applying ∑ Fy = 0 for the whole arch.0 kN Rby = 135.06 kN. Kharagpur .06 x + 0.75 H ] = 200 25 15 85 − 0. Ray + Rby = 10 × 15 + 50 = 200 1 [2125 − 3.45 H = 200 H= 40 = 133. Ray = 65.Rby × 15 − 6.75 H b ] 15 15 =0 2 (3) Since there are no horizontal loads acting on the arch. Span AD Bending moment at any cross section in the span AD is M = Ray x − H a (−0.75 H ]+ 1 [1125 + 6.0 kN (5) Bending moment From inspection.8748 m M = −14. Version 2 CE IIT.

03 x 2 + 0. ∂M 10 = 0 = R ay − H a (−0. M = Ray x − H a (−0. Kharagpur .5) − M = 56.33(−0.06 x + 0. Arches are classified as three-hinged.6(17.25 kN.6 x ) − 50( x − 5) − 10( x − 10) ( x − 10) 2 For locating the position of maximum bending moment.m Span CB Bending moment at any cross section.5 m M = 65 × 17.5) 2 + 0.6) − 50 − × 2( x − 10) = 0 ∂x 2 x = 17.5) 2 2 Hence. the arch definition is given.5 − 133. Summary In this lesson. Version 2 CE IIT.0 kN. The analysis of three-hinged arch is considered here.5)) − 50(12. the maximum positive bending moment occurs in span CB. Numerical examples are solved in detail to show the general procedure of threehinged arch analysis.m 10 (7. two-hinged and hingeless arches. in this span is calculated by.03(17. The advantages of arch construction are given in the introduction.6 × 5) = +25.M D = Ray 5 − H a (−0.03 × 25 + 0.

Kharagpur .Module 5 Cables and Arches Version 2 CE IIT.

Lesson 33 Two-Hinged Arch Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

33.2 Analysis of two-hinged arch A typical two-hinged arch is shown in Fig. 2. Version 2 CE IIT. two-hinged and hingeless arches. with the development in structural analysis.1 Introduction Mainly three types of arches are used in practice: three-hinged.Instructional Objectives: After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. we have four unknown reactions. Compute horizontal reaction in two-hinged arch by the method of least work. the analysis of two-hinged arches is discussed and few problems are solved to illustrate the procedure for calculating the internal forces. but there are only three equations of equilibrium available. for long span structures starting from late nineteenth century engineers adopted two-hinged and hingeless arches. 4. Kharagpur . Usually.1a. However. 33. Write strain energy stored in two-hinged arch during deformation. Hence. Two-hinged arch is the statically indeterminate structure to degree one. the degree of statical indeterminacy is one for twohinged arch. 33. three-hinged arches were commonly used for the long span structures as the analysis of such arches could be done with confidence. In this lesson. Compute reactions developed in two hinged arch due to temperature loading. the horizontal reaction is treated as the redundant and is evaluated by the method of least work. 3. Analyse two-hinged arch for external loading. In the early part of the nineteenth century. In the case of two-hinged arch.

The strain energy due to bending U b is calculated from the following expression. Ua = ∫ N2 ds 2 AE 0 s (33. Kharagpur . s is the length of the centerline of the arch. bending moment M and the axial compression N . the integration needs to be evaluated along the curved arch length. E is the Young’s modulus of the arch material. The unknown redundant reaction H b is calculated by noting that the horizontal displacement of hinge B is zero.2) Version 2 CE IIT. horizontal reaction. one must develop an expression for strain energy. in this case. In the above equation.The fourth equation is written considering deformation of the arch.1b) is subjected to shear force V . which states that the partial derivative of the strain energy of a statically indeterminate structure with respect to statically indeterminate action should vanish. Hence to obtain. Typically. In general the horizontal reaction in the two hinged arch is evaluated by straightforward application of the theorem of least work (see module 1.1) The above expression is similar to the one used in the case of straight beams. any section of the arch (vide Fig 33. In the case of flat arches. M2 Ub = ∫ ds 2 EI 0 s (33. lesson 4). The strain energy due to shear is small as compared to the strain energy due to bending and is usually neglected in the analysis. I is the moment of inertia of the arch cross section. the strain energy due to axial compression can be appreciable and is given by. However.

4. there is no horizontal displacement.2c.2a. replace hinge at B with a roller support. The horizontal force H should be of such magnitude. Then we get a simply supported curved beam as shown in Fig 33. Let C at crown be the origin of co-ordinate axes. Version 2 CE IIT. ∂H s s (33.2b. according to the principle of least work ∂U = 0 .3) ∂U M ∂M N ∂N =∫ ds + ∫ ds = 0 ∂H 0 EI ∂H AE ∂H 0 s s (33. where H is chosen as the redundant reaction. Since the curved beam is free to move horizontally.2b.The total strain energy of the arch is given by.4) Solving equation 33. now apply a horizontal force H as shown in Fig. M2 N2 U =∫ ds + ∫ ds 2 EI 2 AE 0 0 Now. Kharagpur . the horizontal reaction H is evaluated. 33.2. that the displacement at B must vanish. Since.1 Symmetrical two hinged arch Consider a symmetrical two-hinged arch as shown in Fig 33. it will do so as shown by dotted lines in Fig 33. 33. Now. in the original arch structure. Let M 0 and N 0 be the bending moment and axial force at any cross section of the simply supported curved beam.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

2c.2b and Fig 33. Substituting the value of M and N in the equation (33. Kharagpur .4).From Fig.6) Where θ is the angle made by the tangent at D with horizontal (vide Fig 33. M − H (h − y ) N + H cosθ ∂U = 0 = −∫ 0 (h − y )ds + ∫ 0 cosθ ds ∂H EI EA 0 0 s s (33.7a) Version 2 CE IIT. the bending moment at any cross section of the arch (say D ). may be written as M = M 0 − H (h − y ) (33.5) The axial compressive force at any cross section (say D ) may be written as N = N 0 + H cosθ (33. 33.2d).

Kharagpur .9) s ~2 y ds ds + ∫ ∫ EI 0 EA 0 As axial rigidity is very high. The second term in the numerator is small compared with the first terms and is neglected in the analysis. Usually the above equation is further simplified. Version 2 CE IIT. the second term in the denominator may also be neglected. yields s s s M0 ~ N0 H~ 2 y H cos 2 θ y ds + ∫ ds + ∫ −∫ cos θ ds + ∫ ds = 0 EI EI EA EA 0 0 0 0 s s M0 ~ N0 ∫ EI y ds − ∫ EA cosθ ds 0 H = 0 s ~2 s y cos 2 θ ∫ EI ds + ∫ EA ds 0 0 s (33.10) ~2 y ∫ EI ds 0 For an arch with uniform cross section EI is constant and hence. The above equation is valid for any general type of loading.8) is now written as. The equation (33.8) Using the above equation.7b) Solving for H . the horizontal reaction H for any two-hinged symmetrical arch may be calculated. H= ∫ EI 0 s s M0 ~ y ds (33. Finally the horizontal reaction is calculated by the equation H= ∫ EI 0 s s M0 ~ y ds (33. Also for flat arched.Let. Only in case of very accurate analysis second term s considered. ~ =h− y y −∫ s M 0 − H~ ~ y N + H cosθ y ds + ∫ 0 cosθ ds = 0 EI EA 0 0 s (33. cosθ ≅ 1 as θ is small.

H=

∫M

0 s 0

s

0

~ ds y (33.11) ds

y ∫~

2

In the above equation, M 0 is the bending moment at any cross section of the arch when one of the hinges is replaced by a roller support. ~ is the height of the arch y as shown in the figure. If the moment of inertia of the arch rib is not constant, then equation (33.10) must be used to calculate the horizontal reaction H . 33.2.2 Temperature effect Consider an unloaded two-hinged arch of span L . When the arch undergoes a uniform temperature change of T °C , then its span would increase by α L T if it were allowed to expand freely (vide Fig 33.3a). α is the co-efficient of thermal expansion of the arch material. Since the arch is restrained from the horizontal movement, a horizontal force is induced at the support as the temperature is increased.

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

**Now applying the Castigliano’s first theorem,
**

s s H~ 2 y ∂U H cos 2 θ ds + ∫ = α LT = ∫ ds EI ∂H EA 0 0

(33.12)

Solving for H ,

H=

α LT

s ~ y cos 2 θ ∫ EI ds + ∫ EA ds 0 0 s 2

(33.13)

The second term in the denominator may be neglected, as the axial rigidity is quite high. Neglecting the axial rigidity, the above equation can be written as

H=

α LT

~2 y ∫ EI ds 0

s

(33.14)

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Example 33.1 A semicircular two hinged arch of constant cross section is subjected to a concentrated load as shown in Fig 33.4a. Calculate reactions of the arch and draw bending moment diagram.

**Solution: Taking moment of all forces about hinge B leads to,
**

Ray = 40 × 22 = 29.3 3 kN (↑) 30

∑ Fy = 0

⇒ Rby = 10.67 kN (↑)

(1)

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

From Fig. 33.4b,

~ = R sin θ y x = R (1 − cos θ ) ds = R dθ

(2)

⇒ θ c = 62.18° = π rad

tan θ c =

13.267 7

2.895

Now, the horizontal reaction H may be calculated by the following expression,

H=

∫M

0 s 0

s

0

~ ds y (3)

y2 ∫ ~ ds

Now M 0 the bending moment at any cross section of the arch when one of the hinges is replaced by a roller support is given by,

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

M 0 = Ray x = Ray R (1 − cos θ )

0 ≤ θ ≤ θc

and,

**M 0 = Ray R(1 − cosθ ) − 40( x − 8) = Ray R(1 − cosθ ) − 40{R(1 − cosθ ) − 8}
**

Integrating the numerator in equation (3),

θc ≤ θ ≤ π

(4)

3 ~ ∫ M 0 yds = ∫ Ray R (1 − cosθ ) sin θ dθ + ∫ [ Ray R(1 − cosθ ) − 40{R(1 − cosθ ) − 8}]R sin θ Rdθ 0 0

s

θc

π

θc

π / 2.895

= Ray R 3

2 ∫ (1 − cosθ ) sin θ dθ + R 0

π

π / 2.895

∫[R

]

ay

**R(1 − cosθ ) sin θ − 40{R(1 − cosθ ) sin θ − 8 sin θ }] dθ
**

π π

= Ray R 3 [− cosθ ]

π / 2.895

0

⎡ + R 2 ⎢ Ray R(− cosθ ) ⎣

[

π

π / 2.895

− [40 R(− cosθ ) ]

π / 2.895

+ [40 × 8(− cos θ ) ]

π / 2.895

⎤ ⎥ ⎦

= 0.533Ray R 3 + R 2 1.4667 Ray R − [40 R(1.4667)] + [40 × 8(1.4667) ]

[[

]

]

(5)

= 52761 .00 + 225(645.275 − 410.676) = 105545 .775

**The value of denominator in equation (3), after integration is,
**

2 ~2 ∫ y ds = ∫ ( R sin θ ) Rdθ 0 0 s

π

⎛ 1 − cos 2θ ⎞ 3⎛ π ⎞ = R3 ∫ ⎜ ⎟dθ = R ⎜ ⎟ = 5301.46 2 ⎠ ⎝2⎠ 0⎝

π

(6)

**Hence, the horizontal thrust at the support is,
**

H= 105545.775 = 19.90 kN 5301.46

(7)

Bending moment diagram Bending moment M at any cross section of the arch is given by,

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

M = M 0 − H~ y = Ray R (1 − cos θ ) − HR sin θ = 439.95(1 − cos θ ) − 298.5 sin θ 0 ≤ θ ≤ θc

(8)

M = 439.95(1 − cosθ ) − 298.5 sin θ − 40(15(1 − cosθ ) − 8)

θc ≤ θ ≤ π

(9)

Using equations (8) and (9), bending moment at any angle θ can be computed. The bending moment diagram is shown in Fig. 33.4c.

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Example 33.2 A two hinged parabolic arch of constant cross section has a span of 60m and a rise of 10m. It is subjected to loading as shown in Fig.33.5a. Calculate reactions of the arch if the temperature of the arch is raised by 40°C . Assume co-efficient of thermal expansion as α = 12 × 10 −6 / °C .

**Taking A as the origin, the equation of two hinged parabolic arch may be written as,
**

y= 2 10 x − 2 x2 3 30

(1)

The given problem is solved in two steps. In the first step calculate the horizontal reaction due to 40 kN load applied at C . In the next step calculate the horizontal reaction due to rise in temperature. Adding both, one gets the horizontal reaction at the hinges due to combined external loading and temperature change. The horizontal reaction due to 40 kN load may be calculated by the following equation,

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

H1 =

∫M

0 s 0

s

0

y ds (2a) ds

y ∫~

2

**For temperature loading, horizontal reaction is given by,
**

H2 =

α LT

y2 ∫ EI ds 0

s

(2b)

Where L is the span of the arch. For 40 kN load,

∫M

0

s

0

y ds = ∫ Ray x y dx + ∫ Ray x − 40( x − 10) y dx

0 10

10

60

[

]

(3)

Please note that in the above equation, the integrations are carried out along the x-axis instead of the curved arch axis. The error introduced by this change in the variables in the case of flat arches is negligible. Using equation (1), the above equation (3) can be easily evaluated. The vertical reaction A is calculated by taking moment of all forces about B . Hence,

Ray = 1 [ 40 × 50] = 33.33 kN 60

Rby = 6.67 kN .

Now consider the equation (3),

2 10 2 2 10 2 ∫ M 0 y dx = ∫ (33.33) x ( 3 x − 30 2 x ) dx + 10[(33.33) x − 40( x − 10)]( 3 x − 30 2 x ) dx ∫ 0 0

= 6480 .76 + 69404 .99 = 74885 .75

l

10

60

(4)

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

10 2 ⎤ ⎡2 ∫ y dx = ∫ ⎢ 3 x − 30 2 x ⎥ dx ⎦ 0⎣ 0

l 60 2

2

(5) = 3200

Hence, the horizontal reaction due to applied mechanical loads alone is given by,

H1 =

∫M

0 l 0

l

0

y dx = dx

∫y

2

75885.75 = 23.71 kN 3200

(6)

The horizontal reaction due to rise in temperature is calculated by equation (2b),

H2 =

12 × 10 −6 × 60 × 40 EI × 12 × 10 −6 × 60 × 40 = 3200 3200 EI

Taking E = 200 H 2 = 59.94 kN.

kN/mm 2 and I = 0.0333 m 4 (7)

**Hence the total horizontal thrust H = H1 + H 2 = 83.65 kN.
**

s M0 y y2 ds and ∫ ds ∫ EI EI 0 0 are accomplished numerically. For this purpose, divide the arch span in to n equals divisions. Length of each division is represented by (Δs) i (vide Fig.33.5b). At the midpoint of each division calculate the ordinate yi by using the 2 10 equation y = x − 2 x 2 . The above integrals are approximated as, 3 30 s

When the arch shape is more complicated, the integrations

M0y 1 n ds = ∑ (M 0 ) i yi (Δs)i ∫ EI EI i =1 0

s

s

(8)

1 n y2 2 ds = (9) ∑ ( y) i (Δs) i ∫ EI EI i =1 0 The complete computation for the above problem for the case of external loading is shown in the following table.

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Table 1. Numerical integration of equations (8) and (9) Segme nt No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Horizontal distance x Measured from A (m) 3 9 15 21 27 33 39 45 51 57 Correspond ing yi (m) 1.9 5.1 7.5 9.1 9.9 9.9 9.1 7.5 5.1 1.9 Moment at that Point ( M 0 ) i (kNm) 99.99 299.97 299.95 259.93 219.91 179.89 139.87 99.85 59.83 19.81 ( M 0 ) i yi (Δs ) i

( y ) i (Δs) i

2

∑

1139.886 9179.082 13497.75 14192.18 13062.65 10685.47 7636.902 4493.25 1830.798 225.834 75943.8

21.66 156.06 337.5 496.86 588.06 588.06 496.86 337.5 156.06 21.66 3300.3

H1 =

∑ (M ) y (Δs) = 75943.8 = 23.73 ∑ ( y) (Δs) 3200.3

0 i 2 i i i

kN

(10)

This compares well with the horizontal reaction computed from the exact integration.

Summary

Two-hinged arch is the statically indeterminate structure to degree one. Usually, the horizontal reaction is treated as the redundant and is evaluated by the Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

method of least work. Towards this end, the strain energy stored in the twohinged arch during deformation is given. The reactions developed due to thermal loadings are discussed. Finally, a few numerical examples are solved to illustrate the procedure.

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Module 5

Cables and Arches

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Lesson 34

Symmetrical Hingeless Arch

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Instructional Objectives:

After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. Analyse hingeless arch by the method of least work. 2. Analyse the fixed-fixed arch by the elastic-centre method. 3. Compute reactions and stresses in hingeless arch due to temperature change.

34.1 Introduction

As stated in the previous lesson, two-hinged and three-hinged arches are commonly used in practice. The deflection and the moment at the center of the hingeless arch are somewhat smaller than that of the two-hinged arch. However, the hingeless arch has to be designed for support moment. A hingeless arch (fixed–fixed arch) is a statically redundant structure having three redundant reactions. In the case of fixed–fixed arch there are six reaction components; three at each fixed end. Apart from three equilibrium equations three more equations are required to calculate bending moment, shear force and horizontal thrust at any cross section of the arch. These three extra equations may be set up from the geometry deformation of the arch.

34.2 Analysis of Symmetrical Hingeless Arch

Consider a symmetrical arch of span L and central rise of hc Let the loading on the arch is also symmetrical as shown in Fig 34.1. Consider reaction components

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the unknown redundant reactions M a .2b) ∂U =0 ∂Ray (34. Kharagpur .2c) Knowing dimensions of the arch and loading. Version 2 CE IIT.e. at the crown we have only two unknowns. the problem gets simplified. ∂U =0 ∂M a (34. the strain energy U of the arch may be written as U =∫ M 2 ds N 2 ds +∫ 2 EI 2 EA 0 0 s s (34.. vertical reaction Ray and horizontal thrust H a as redundants.2a) ∂U =0 ∂H a (34. Since the arch and the loading are symmetrical. Considering only the strain energy due to axial compression and bending. one could write following three equations at that point. using the above three equations. Hence.at the left support A i.1) where M and N are respectively the bending moment and axial force of the arch rib. Hence. bending moment M a . if we take the internal forces at the crown as the redundant. Since the support A is fixed. H a and Ray may be evaluated. the shear force at the crown is zero.

Now the bending moment and the axial force at any section is given by Version 2 CE IIT. we can write from the principle of least work ∂U =0 ∂M c ∂U =0 ∂N c (34.4b) Where.Hence.4a) ∂U M ∂M N ∂N =∫ ds + ∫ ds = 0 ∂N c 0 EI ∂N c EA ∂N c 0 s s (34. Since the arch and the loading is symmetrical. Kharagpur . I is the moment of inertia of the cross section and A is the area of the cross section of the arch.3b) ∂U M ∂M N ∂N =∫ ds + ∫ ds = 0 ∂M c 0 EI ∂M c EA ∂M c 0 s s (34. consider bending moment M c and the axial force N c at the crown as the redundant.3a) (34. s is the length of centerline of the arch. Let M 0 and N 0 be the bending moment and the axial force at any cross section due to external loading.

Version 2 CE IIT. then the problem becomes more complex. the redundant M c and N c may be calculated provided arch geometry and loading are defined. = y. one could still get the answer from the method of least work with little more effort. For such problems either column analogy or elastic center method must be adopted. ∂M c ∂N c ∂N c ∂N =0.7b. However. ∂M c (34. Kharagpur .4a) and (34.4b) may be simplified as.5a) (34.7a) (34. = cos θ . M N ∫ EI (1)ds + ∫ EA (0)ds = 0 0 0 M ds y ds Mc ∫ + Nc ∫ = − ∫ 0 ds EI EI EI 0 0 0 M N ∫ EI yds + ∫ EA cosθ ds = 0 0 0 Mc y Nc y 2 Nc M0 y N0 2 ∫ EI ds + ∫ EI ds + ∫ EA cos θ ds = −∫ EI ds − ∫ EA cosθ ds 0 0 0 0 0 s s s s s s s s s s s s (34.7a and 34.7b) From equations 34. If the loading is unsymmetrical or the arch is unsymmetrical.M = M c + Nc y + M 0 N = N c cosθ + N 0 ∂N ∂M ∂M =1.6) Equation (34.5b) (34.

Kharagpur . M ∂M ∂U ds =0=∫ EI ∂M t ∂M t 0 s ∫ (M t − H t y) ds = 0 EI 0 s s Mt ∫ 0 ds yds − Ht ∫ =0 EI EI 0 s (34. would introduce a horizontal thrust H t and a moment M t at the supports. ∂U M ∂M =α L T = ∫ ds ∂H t EI ∂H t 0 s α LT == ∫ 0 s Mt y y2 ds − H t ∫ ds EI EI 0 s (34.34. The rise in temperature.10) Version 2 CE IIT.3 Temperature stresses Consider an unloaded fixed-fixed arch of span L . Now due to rise in temperature.9) Also. the moment at any cross-section of the arch M = M t − Htt Now strain energy stored in the arch (34.8) U =∫ 0 s M 2 ds 2 EI Now applying the Castigliano’s first theorem.

9 and 34. M t and H t may be calculated. Example 34.Solving equations 34.4. Version 2 CE IIT.1 A semicircular fixed-fixed arch of constant cross section is subjected to symmetrical concentrated load as shown in Fig 34.10. Kharagpur . Determine the reactions of the arch.

Solution: Since. Version 2 CE IIT. Ray = Rby = 40 kN (1) Now the strain energy of the arch is given by. the arch is symmetrical and the loading is also symmetrical. Kharagpur .

∂U ∂U = 0 and =0 ∂M a ∂H a (3) The bending moment at any cross section is given by. M = Ray x − M a − H a y M = Ray x − M a − H a y − 40( x − 10) 0 ≤ θ ≤ θD (4) θD ≤ θ ≤ π / 2 N = H a cos(90 − θ ) + Ra cosθ N = H a sin θ + Ra cosθ N = H a sin θ + ( Ra − 40) cos θ y = R sin θ x = R (1 − cos θ ) 0 ≤ θ ≤ θD (5) (6) θ ≤θ ≤π /2 And ds = Rdθ See Fig 34. ∂U M N = ∫ (−1)ds + ∫ (0)ds = 0 ∂M a 0 EI EA 0 s s ∫ EI ds = 0 0 s M Since the arch is symmetrical.552 π /2 Version 2 CE IIT.5. integration need to be carried out between limits 0 to π / 2 and the result is multiplied by two. Kharagpur . Then we have. π /2 2 π /2 π /2 ∫ 0 M ds = 0 EI π /2 ∫ 40R(1 − cosθ )Rdθ − ∫ M 0 0 a Rdθ − H a ∫ R sin θ Rdθ − π ∫ 40[ R(1 − cosθ ) − 10]Rdθ = 0 0 / 2.U =∫ M 2 ds N 2 ds +∫ 2 EI 2 EA 0 0 s s (2) Let us choose H a and M a as redundants.

304 R 2 + 135.785) − 2 ( ) + I I 2 IR I R A R A 2 40 40 400 40 (0.42 kN (8) (7) Version 2 CE IIT.0555) = 0 I I RI R A − 266 + 23.333) − (0.0554) − (0.477 − 1.333) − 2 (0.92 R = 0 342.552 ∫ H H − 40 40 1 M 40 1 (1) + ( ) + a (1) + a (0. Thus.92 = 0 1.22. H a and M a are evaluated.552 π /2 ∫ 0 {− R ( Ray ) sin θ cos θ M R2 H R3 H R 40 R 3 40 R 3 sin θ + sin θ cos θ + a sin θ + a sin 2 θ + a sin 2 θ − }dθ + EI EI EI EI EA EA { 40 R 3 40 R 3 400 R 2 40 R sin θ − sin θ cos θ − sin θ − sin θ cos θ }dθ = 0 EI EI EI EA π /2 π / 2. H a = 28.571M a R − H a R 2 − 41.28 kN M a = −466.837 = 0 ∂U M N = ∫ (− y )ds + ∫ (sin θ )ds = 0 ∂H a 0 EI EA 0 s s 1 EI π /2 π /2 ∫ (− R sin θ ){[40 R(1 − cosθ )] − M a − H a ( R sin θ )}Rdθ − 0 1 ∫ (− R sin θ ){[40[ R(1 − cosθ ) − 10]]}Rdθ + EI π / 2.785) + 2 a (0.56 + 135.8310 R 2 − 1.571M a + 15 H a − 308.571M a − 15 H a − 169. Kharagpur .552 π /2 ∫ 0 π /2 ( H a sin θ + Ra cos θ ) 1 (sin θ ) Rdθ − ∫ (sin θ )40 cosθ Rdθ = 0 EA EA π / 2.58 H a + 2 M a = 0 Solving equations (6) and (7).

7a) can be written with respect to new origin O .7a) and (34. However. Kharagpur .7a). The distance d is chosen such that y1 (= y − d ) satisfies the following condition. Towards this.10a) 0 Solving which.4 Elastic centre method Equations (34. substitute y = y1 + d in equation (34. the distance d may be computed as d= ∫ EI ds 0 s y ∫ 0 s ds EI 34.34. 34. ∫ EI ds = ∫ 0 s y1 s ( y − d ) ds = 0 EI (34. Version 2 CE IIT.10b) The point O is known as the elastic centre of the arch.3. they can be further simplified if the origin of co-ordinates is moved from C to O in Fig.7b) are quite difficult to solve. Now equation (34.

Let elastic centre O be the origin of co-ordinates and H 0 . ~ M 0 = M c + Ncd = − ∫ M0 ds 0 EI ds ∫ EI 0 s s (34. Similarly the equation (34. Thus we obtain.4.13) and. ∫ 1 ds is zero. Hence the above equation is rewritten as 0 EI y M c + Ncd = − ∫ M0 ds 0 EI s ∫ 0 s ds EI ~ (34.15) (34. Also from Symmetry.1Temperature stresses Consider a symmetrical hinge less arch of span L . Kharagpur . 34. s N cos θ M 0 y1 ds ds + ∫ 0 ∫ EI EA 0 0 s ~ H0 = Nc = − ∫ 0 s s y 21 cos 2 θ ds + ∫ ds EI 0 EA (34. Hence. subjected to a temperature ~ ~ rise of T ° C .7b) is also simplified. s ∂U M ∂M =0=∫ ~ ds = 0 ∂M O EI ∂M O 0 s s α LT M ∂M N ∂N ∂U ds + ∫ =∫ ~ ~ ~ ds = 2 ∂H O 0 EI ∂H O 0 EA ∂H O (34.12) Now.16) Version 2 CE IIT. 2 ~ there must not be any rotation at the crown.11) In the above equation. ( M c + N c d ) is the moment M 0 at O (see Fig.14) 34. The magnitude of horizontal force H 0 be such as to counteract the αLT increase in the span due to rise in temperature T .3).Mc∫ 0 s s s M (y + d) ds ds = − ∫ 0 ds + Nc ∫ 1 EI EI 0 0 EI s (34. M 0 be the redundants.

Calculate the horizontal thrust and moment at A . The arch dimensions are shown in Fig.7a.2 A symmetrical hinge less circular arch of constant cross section is subjected to a uniformly distributed load of 10 kN/m . αLT ~ HO = 2 2 s⎛ y 21 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ds + ∫ ⎜ cos θ ∫ ⎜ EI ⎟ ⎜ 0⎝ 0 ⎝ EA ⎠ s⎛ ⎞ ⎟ds ⎟ ⎠ (34.Moment at any section is calculated by. Kharagpur . Usually the area of the cross section and moment of inertia of the arch vary along the arch axis. Version 2 CE IIT. ~ Example 30. ~ ~ M = M O + HO y ~ N = H O cosθ ~ MO ∫ EI ds = 0 0 ~ MO = 0 s (34.18).18) Using equation (34.17) and ~ s⎛ ~ H y ⎞ H cos θ ⎜ O 1 ⎟ y1ds + ∫ ⎜ O ∫ ⎜ EI ⎟ ⎜ EA 0⎝ 0⎝ ⎠ s⎛ ⎞ ⎟ cos θds = αLT ⎟ 2 ⎠ Simplifying the above equation. 34. the horizontal thrust H O due to uniform temperature rise in the arch can be easily calculated provided the dimensions of the arch are known.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .The distance d of the elastic centre from the crown C is calculated by equation.

Now the bending moment at any section of the arch due to applied loading at a distance x from elastic centre is 5x −∫ ds 0 EI ds ∫ EI 0 s s 2 ~ MO = (3) In the present case. x = 50 sin θ and ds = 50 dθ .7b.d= ∫ EI ds 0 s y ∫ 0 s ds EI (1) From Fig. the ordinate at d .12). is given by y = 50(1 − cos θ ) π /6 d= ∫ 0 50(1 − cos θ ) 50dθ EI π /6 ∫ 0 50dθ EI ⎛π 1⎞ 50 ⎜ − ⎟ 6 2⎠ d= ⎝ = 2.34.29 kN. EI = constant π /6 −5 × 503 % MO = ∫ sin 0 2 θ dθ 50 ∫ dθ 0 π /6 ⎛ π 1 ⎛ π ⎞⎞ − sin ⎜ ⎟ 5 × 50 ⎜ 6 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = −1081.m M C + NC d = − π 2 6 2 (4) Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .2535 m from the crown.2535 m. π (2) 6 The elastic centre O lies at a distance of 2. The moment at the elastic centre may be calculated by equation (34.

Kharagpur . y1 = y − d Version 2 CE IIT.⎛L ⎞ N O = 10 ⎜ − x ⎟ cos θ ⎝2 ⎠ And.

875 (1 − cos 2θ ) − 25 ⎜ cos θ − 2 ( cos 3θ + cos θ ) ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎠ ⎝ 0 ⎛ ⎛ 1 dθ = 49630.75 − 50 cos θ ) 50 2 0 2 dθ π /6 ∫ ( 50sin θ ) ( 47.25 y1 = 47.75 − 50 cos θ ) 0 dθ 625000 = EI = π /6 ∫ ( 23.75 − 50 cos θ Now H O is given by equation (34. Thus s M 0 y1 N cos θ ds + ∫ 0 ds ∫ EI EA 0 0 s ~ ~ H0 = Nc = − ∫ 0 s s s y 21 cos 2 θ ds + ∫ ds EI 0 EA (5) M0 y 1 ∫ EI 1 ds = EI 0 = 250 EI π /6 ∫ 5 x ( 47. Kharagpur .5 (θ + sin 2θ ) )0 − 25 ⎜ −(cos θ )π / 6 + ⎜ − cos 3θ − cos θ ⎟ ⎟ ( 0 ⎜ EA 2⎝ 3 ⎠0 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Version 2 CE IIT.735 EI π /6 (6) N cos θ 1 ∫ 0EA ds = EA 0 s ∫ 10 ( 25 − x ) cos 0 2 θ dθ 10 = EA = 10 EA π /6 ∫ ⎜ 25 ⎜ ⎝ ⎝ 0 0 ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 1 + cos 2θ ⎞ 2 ⎟ − 50sin θ cos θ ⎟ dθ 2 ⎠ ⎠ dθ π /6 ∫ (12.y1 = 50 (1 − cos θ ) − 2.14).875 (1 − cos 2θ ) − 50 cos θ sin θ ) 2 0 dθ ⎞⎞ 625000 EI π /6 ∫ ⎜ 23.5 (1 + cos 2θ ) − 25 ( sin θ + sin θ cos 2θ ) ) = π /6 ⎛ π /6 10 1⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎞ 12.

125 × 10−3 m 4 A = 0. Kharagpur .06 + 2500 cos 0 θ − 4775cos θ ) dθ = 50 ⎛ π⎞ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π 1 ⎜ 2280. Then.75 − 50 cos θ ) 0 2 2 50 dθ ∫ ( 2280.15 m 2 .43) (11) In equation (5).915 ⎞ + ⎜ ⎟ EA ⎠ ⎝ EI (9) (10) Consider an arch cross section of 300 × 500 mm . and I = 3. if the second term in the numerator and the second term in the denominator were neglected then. Version 2 CE IIT.25 kN ( 33614.72 + 159. − (15881835. we get.06 ⎜ 6 ⎟ + 1250 ⎜ 6 + 2 sin 3 ⎟ − 4775sin 6 ⎟ EI ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ 105.046 23.2 + 545.046 EI π /6 = s (8) cos 2 θ 50 ∫ EA ds = 2 EA 0 = ∫ (1 + cos 2θ )dθ 0 25 ⎛ π 1 π⎞ ⎜ + sin ⎟ = 23.3 ) % H0 = − = −470.795 EA π /6 (7) ∫ 0 y 21 1 ds = EI EI = 50 EI π /6 ∫ ( 47.735 81.795 ⎞ −⎜ + ⎟ ~ EI EA ⎠ ⎝ H0 = − ⎛ 105.915 EA ⎝ 6 2 3⎠ ⎛ 49630.= s 81.

M B = M C + 10 × 25 × 25 2 25 2 (14) = −23. M A = M B and H A = H B .m (15) Also H B = N C .22 kN. Hence for all practical ~ purposes one could simplify the expression for H O as. Since the arch and the loading are symmetrical.67 kN % H0 = − ⎝ ⎛ 105.m Moment at B . The procedure to compute stresses developed in the hingeless arch due to temperature change is discussed.29 N C = −470.78 kN. M C + NC d = −1081. Summary In this lesson.5%. Kharagpur . ~ H0 = − ∫ M 0 y1 ds 0 EI s ∫ 0 s y 21 ds EI (13) Now we have. The analysis of hingeless arch by the method of least work is given in the beginning.046 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ EI ⎠ ~ (12) Thus calculating H O by neglecting second term in the numerator and denominator induces an error which is less than 0.735 ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ EI ⎠ = −472. Version 2 CE IIT.22 + 10 × 25 × = 3101.25 M C = −23. A few problems are solved illustrate the various issues involved in the analysis of hingeless arches. hingeless arches are considered.⎛ 49630. This is followed by the analysis of hingeless arch by the elastic centre method.

Kharagpur .Module 6 Approximate Methods for Indeterminate Structural Analysis Version 2 CE IIT.

Lesson 35 Indeterminate Trusses and Industrial Frames Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

based on few approximations (which are justified on the structural behaviour under the applied loads) the indeterminate structures are reduced into determinate structures. all structural methods of analysis are approximate as the exact loading on the structure. After preliminary design. In some way. The determinate structure is then solved by equations of statics. 3. Hence. In this module both indeterminate industrial frames and building frames are analysed by approximate methods for both vertical and wind loads. the results of approximate methods compare favourably with exact methods of structural analysis. trusses and frames. final design must be done. approximate methods are used by design engineers to detect any gross error in the exact analysis of the complex structures. one must have information regarding their relative stiffnesses and member material properties. The above procedure of reducing indeterminate structures into determinate and solving them using equations of statics is known as approximate method of analysis as the results obtained from this procedure are approximate when compared to those obtained by exact methods. These methods satisfy both equation of compatibility and equilibrium. this is not a good enough reason for using approximate methods of analysis for the final design. Analyse indeterminate trusses by approximate methods. the material behaviour and joint resistance at beam column joints and soil-structure interaction are never known exactly. Based on these results. Depending upon the validity of assumptions. Analyse industrial frames and portals by approximate methods. geometry.Instructional Objectives: After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. usually in such cases.1 Introduction In module 2. It is observed that prior to analysis of indeterminate structures either by stiffness method or force method. Hence in such cases. 35. Make suitable approximations so that an indeterminate structure is reduced to a determinate structure. However. displacement based methods are discussed for the analysis of indeterminate structures. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . 2. In modules 3 and 4. This information is not available prior to preliminary design of structures. it is important to analyse the indeterminate structure by exact method of analysis. Also. one can not perform indeterminate structural analysis by exact methods. Hence they are commonly referred as exact methods. force method of analysis is applied to solve indeterminate beams.

Consider an indeterminate truss. two types of analysis are possible. it is reasonable to assume. In the context of above truss. This truss is externally determinate and internally statically indeterminate to 3 rd degree. module 2. it is reasonable to assume that panel shear is resisted by only one of its diagonals. the shear in each panel is equally divided by two diagonals. j and r respectively are number of members. Since the given truss is indeterminate to 3 rd degree.1.35. joints and unknown reaction components. In such a case. both the diagonals are going to be designed as long and slender. it is required to make three assumptions to reduce this frame into a statically determinate truss. the degree of static indeterminacy of the indeterminate planar truss is evaluated by i = (m + r ) − 2 j (reproduced here for convenience) Where m. In some cases. In such a situation. Kharagpur . 2. as the compressive force Version 2 CE IIT. 35. If the diagonals are going to be designed in such a way that they are equally capable of carrying either tensile or compressive forces. which has two diagonals in each panel as shown in Fig.2 Indeterminate Trusses: Parallel-chord trusses with two diagonals in each panel. this amounts to 3 independent assumptions (one in each panel) and hence now the structure can be solved by equations of static equilibrium alone. This truss is commonly used for lateral bracing of building frames and as top and bottom chords of bridge truss. For the above type of trusses. As discussed in lesson 10. 1.

Solution: The given frame is externally determinate and internally indeterminate to order 3. assuming that the diagonals are to be designed such that they are equally capable of carrying compressive and tensile forces.2a. The above procedure is illustrated by the following examples.67 kN (↑) (↑) (1) Version 2 CE IIT.33 kN R2 = 26. This may be justified as the compressive diagonal buckles at very small load. Generalizing the above method. Example 35. this leads to three independent assumptions and the truss may be solved by equations of static alone.carried/resisted by the other diagonal member is very small or negligible.1 Evaluate approximately forces in the truss members shown in Fig. R1 = 23. Hence reactions can be evaluated by equations of statics only. Again. Thus. Kharagpur . it is observed that one need to make n independent assumptions to solve n th order statically indeterminate structures by equations of statics alone. 35.

the panel shear is 23. it is assumed that. compressive and tensile forces in diagonals of each panel are numerically equal. This is shown in Fig. Kharagpur . Now in this panel. we have FU 0 L1 = FL0U1 = F (2) Considering the vertical equilibrium of forces. yields − FL0U1 sin θ − FL0U1 sin θ + 23.2b.33 = 0 (3) sin θ = 1 2 (4) 2 F sin θ = 23. Hence. Now consider the equilibrium of free body diagram of the truss shown left of A − A . 35. Based on the given information.33 23. For the first panel.33 kN . panel shear is equally resisted by both the diagonals.33 ≅ 16.Now it is required to make three independent assumptions to evaluate all bar forces.50 kN 2 F= Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .50sin 45 + 23.67 kN ( comp. (Tension ) ( Compression ) ∑F y =0 ⇒ − FL0U 0 − 16. FU0U1 = 11.Thus. FU 0 L1 = 16.) ∑F x =0 ⇒ −16.67 kN ( Comp.67 kN (Tension ) Similarly.) Now consider equilibrium of truss left of section C − C (ref.50 kN FL0U1 = 16. Fig.50 kN Considering the joint L0 . 35.50cos 45 + FL0 L1 = 0 (6) FL0 L1 = 11.33 = 0 (5) FL0U0 = 11.2d) Version 2 CE IIT.

33 F= Thus. Considering the vertical equilibrium of the free body diagram.33 kN . Kharagpur . the shear is 3.33 − 20 = 0 (7) It is given that FL1U 2 = FU1L2 = F 2 F sin θ = 3.36 kN 2 (Tension ) ( Compression ) Taking moment about U 1 of all the forces. ∑ Fy = 0 ⇒ − FL1U 2 sin 45 − FU1L2 sin 45 + 23.33 ≅ 2. Version 2 CE IIT.In this panel.36 kN 3. FU1L2 = 2.36 kN FL1U 2 = 2.

⎛ 1 ⎞ − FL1L2 × 3 + 2. Fig. (9) ∑F y =0 ⇒ FL1U1 = 10 kN (Tension ) FL1U1 + 16.36sin 45 − 20 = 0 (10) Consider the equilibrium of right side of the section B − B (ref.33 × 3 = 0 ⎝ 2⎠ FL1L2 = 25 kN (Tension ) Taking moment about L1 of all the forces.36 ⎜ ⎟ × 3 + 23.) Considering the joint equilibrium of L1 (ref. 35.50sin 45 − 2.2f) the forces in the 3 rd panel are evaluated.2e). Version 2 CE IIT. (8) FU1U 2 = 25 kN ( Comp. Fig. 35. Kharagpur .

yields Version 2 CE IIT.We know that. Fig.2g).86 kN 2 FL3U 2 = 18. FL3U 2 = FL2U 3 = F ∑ Fy = 0 ⇒ F= − FL3U 2 sin 45 + FL2U 3 sin 45 + 26. Kharagpur .86 kN FL2U3 = 18.67 = 0 (11) 26.67 ≅ 18.) (Tension ) (12) Considering the joint equilibrium of L3 (ref.86 kN ( Comp. 35.

Solution: In this case.86cos 45 + FL2 L3 = 0 FL2 L3 = 13. Hence the panel shear is completely resisted by the tension diagonal.) The bar forces in all the members of the truss are shown in Fig. Kharagpur .3a. 35. 35. Version 2 CE IIT.∑F x =0 ⇒ −18. This is shown in Fig. Also in the diagram.2 Determine bar forces in the 3-panel truss of the previous example (shown in Fig. bar forces obtained by exact method are shown in brackets.67 kN (↑) (↑) (1) Consider again the equilibrium of free body diagram of the truss shown left of A − A . R1 = 23.34 kN (Tension ) ∑F y =0 ⇒ FL3U3 = 13.33 kN ( Comp.33 kN R2 = 26. Reactions of the truss are the same as in the previous example and is given by. 35.2h. the load carried by the compressive diagonal member is zero. Example 35.2a) assuming that the diagonals can carry only tensile forces.

Kharagpur .Applying ∑ Fy = 0 . Version 2 CE IIT.

FL0 L1 = 0 and FU 0U1 = 23.33 2 ≅ 33 kN FL0U1 = 0 (2) It is easily seen that. we get FL0U0 = 23. 35. ⎛ 1 ⎞ − FU1U 2 × 3 + 4. − FL1L2 × 3 + 23. Fig. the shear is 3. Kharagpur .71 kN FL1U 2 = 0 (5) Taking moment of all forces about U 1 .) (3) Since diagonals are inclined at 45° to the horizontal.67 kN ( comp ) Considering the joint equilibrium of L1 (ref.33 − 20 = 0 (4) FU1L2 = 3.71⎜ ⎟ × 3 + 23.33 kN Considering the vertical equilibrium of joint L0 . Fig. Considering the vertical equilibrium of the free body diagram.33 2 ≅ 4. the vertical and horizontal components of forces are equal in any panel.− FU 0 L1 sin 45 + 23.33 kN (Tension ) (6) Taking moment about L1 of all the forces. 35.33 × 3 = 0 ⎝ 2⎠ FU1U 2 = 26. Now consider equilibrium of truss left of section C − C (ref.33 kN . yields Version 2 CE IIT.33 kN ( Comp.33 × 3 = 0 FL1L2 = 23.3b) In this panel. ∑ Fy = 0 ⇒ − FU1L2 sin 45 + 23.33 = 0 FU 0 L1 = 23.3c).

∑F y =0 ⇒ FL1U1 = 3.3e). 35.71 kN (Tension ) Considering the joint equilibrium of L3 (ref. Kharagpur .33 kN ( comp ) FL1U1 + 33sin 45 − 20 = 0 (7) Considering the equilibrium of right side of the section B − B (ref.67 = 0 (11) (12) FL2U3 = 37. yields Version 2 CE IIT. ∑ Fy = 0 ⇒ FL3U 2 = 0 − FL2U 3 sin 45 + 26. 35. Fig.3d) the forces in the 3 rd panel are evaluated. Fig.

bar forces obtained by exact method are shown in brackets. 35.66 kN ( Comp.∑ Fx = 0 ⇒ FL2 L3 = 0 =0 ⇒ FL3U3 = 26.3f. Kharagpur . y ∑F Version 2 CE IIT.) The complete solution is shown in Fig. Also in the diagram.

35. then it is reasonable to assume that the columns are hinged at the base. Version 2 CE IIT. 35. Kharagpur . While analyzing for the gravity loads. They may be subjected to vertical loads and wind loads (horizontal loads). while analyzing the frame for horizontal loads it is assumed that. then the column ends are considered as fixed for the analysis purposes.4a and 35. They consist of two columns and a truss placed over the columns. However.3 Industrial frames and portals Common types of industrial frames are shown in Fig. the truss is rigidly connected to columns. it is assumed that the truss is simply supported on columns. The base of the column are either hinged or fixed depending on the column foundation.4b. However if the column are built into massive foundation. When the concrete footing at the column base is small.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Before considering the analysis of structures to wind load (horizontal load) consider the portals which are also used as the end portals of bridge structure (see Fig. When stiffness of columns is nearly equal then it is assumed that Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . it is required to make one assumption. Their behaviour is similar to industrial trusses. This structure is statically indeterminate to degree one. 35.5a. The portals are also assumed to be fixed or hinged at the base depending on the type of foundation.5). 35. as shown in Fig. To analyse this frame when subjected to wind loads by only equations of statics. Consider a portal which is hinged at the base.

Version 2 CE IIT. If stiffness of columns is unequal then it is assumed that the shear at the base of a column is proportional to its stiffness. 35.6) Now V A = V D = P 2 Taking moment about hinge D . 35. shear at the base of columns is given by (vide Fig. Reactions and Bending moments: As per the assumption. Kharagpur .the shear at the base of each column is equal.7. ∑M D =0 ⇒ RA × d = P × h ⇒ RA = Ph (↓) d Ph And ⇒ RD = (↑) d The bending moment diagram is shown in Fig.

one could say that a hinge forms at the mid point of the girder. Again it is assumed that the shear at the base of each column is equal provided their stiffnesses are equal. an imaginary hinge forms at the mid point of the girders.35. Kharagpur .8b. Version 2 CE IIT.8a and the deformed shape of the industrial frame is shown in Fig. The deformed shape of the portal is shown in Fig. Both the assumptions are one and the same. 35. This is statically indeterminate to third degree and one needs to make three independent assumptions to solve this problem by equations of static equilibrium alone. 35. Thus instead of making assumption that the shear is equal at the column base. Now consider a portal frame which is fixed at the base as shown in Fig.It is clear from the moment diagram.5b.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Hence bending moment changes its sign between column base and top. The bending moment at top of column produces tension on inside fibres of column. In the case of industrial frames. Approximately the inflexion point occurs at the mid height of columns. Now we have three independent assumptions and using them. we could evaluate reactions and moments. Version 2 CE IIT.In such a case. the inflexion points are assumed to occur at mid height between A and B . the bending moment at the base of the column (at A ) produces tension on outside fibres of column cross section. Thus bending moment must be zero somewhere along the height of the portal. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .yields Ph −MA =0 2× 2 ⇒ MA = Ph 4 Version 2 CE IIT.9a). 35.Taking moment of all forces left of hinge 1 about hinge 1 (vide Fig.

9b. Version 2 CE IIT. the inflexion point occurs at mid-height. the 3 inflexion point occurs at the support and when it is fixed. Example 35. Kharagpur .10a. Note that when it is hinged at the base of the column.Similarly taking moment of all forces left of hinge 2 about hinge 2. RD d + M D − P h Ph − =0 22 2 ⇒ RD = Ph (↑) 2d Similarly Ph (↓ ) 2d The bending moment diagram is shown in Fig. 35.3 Determine approximately forces in the member of a truss portal shown in Fig. 35. RA = If the base of the column is partially fixed then hinge is assumed at a height of rd 1 from the base. Ph −MD = 0 2× 2 ⇒ MD = Ph 4 Taking moment of all forces right of hinge 1 about hinge 1 gives.

as per the first assumption. the shear at the base of each column is the same and is given by (ref.In this case. Kharagpur .10b) V A = VD = 10 = 5 kN 2 (1) Version 2 CE IIT. 35.

Version 2 CE IIT.m Taking moment of all forces right of hinge 1 about hinge 1 gives. Kharagpur .Taking moment of all forces right of hinge 2 about hinge 2.m (2) (3) Similarly M A = 20 kN. RA = 40 kN (↓ ) 9 (4) Forces in the truss member can be calculated either by method of sections or by method of joints. results MB = P ×4 2 ⇒ M B = 20 kN. 35. For example. consider the equilibrium of truss left of A − A as shown in Fig.10d. R B × 18 − V B × 4 + 20 − 10(4 + 4 ) = 0 ⇒ RB = 80 40 = kN (↑ ) 18 9 Similarly.

Kharagpur .) (5) Taking moment about U 0 .66 kN (Comp ) (7) Version 2 CE IIT.55 kN (Comp. 5 × 8 − FL0 L1 × 4 = 0 FL0 L1 = 10 kN (Tension ) (6) Taking moment about L1 . 10 × 4 + 5 × 4 − 40 × 3 − FU 0U1 × 4 = 0 9 FU 0U1 = 11.∑ Fy = 0 ⇒ − 40 4 + FU 0 L1 × = 0 9 5 ⇒ FU 0 L1 = 5.

Depending upon the validity of assumptions. usually in such cases. one can not perform indeterminate structural analysis by exact methods.Summary It is observed that prior to analysis of indeterminate structures either by stiffness method or force method. the results of approximate methods compare favourably with exact methods of structural analysis as seen from the numerical examples. This methodology has been adopted in this lesson to solve indeterminate trusses and industrial frames. Kharagpur . one must have information regarding their relative stiffnesses and member material properties. Version 2 CE IIT. based on few approximations (which are justified on the structural behaviour under the applied loads) the indeterminate structures are reduced into determinate structures. Hence. Hence in such cases. The determinate structure is then solved by equations of statics. This information is not available prior to preliminary design of structures.

Kharagpur .Module 6 Approximate Methods for Indeterminate Structural Analysis Version 2 CE IIT.

Lesson 36 Building Frames Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Before applying approximate methods. Analyse building frames by approximate methods for vertical loads. the beam column joints are monolithic and can resist bending moment. Analyse building frame by the portal method for horizontal loads. 36. shear force and axial force. However.2 and finally superimposing moments appropriately.2. 3. three-storey building plan and sectional elevation are shown in Fig. Analyse building frames by the cantilever method for horizontal loads. and 9 reaction components (r ) . However. In lesson 36. such as slope-deflection method. The frame has 12 joints ( j ) . 15 beam members (b ) . Any exact method. In the case of building frames.1. A typical example of building frame is the reinforced concrete multistory frames. analysis may be carried out by considering planar frame in two perpendicular directions separately for both vertical and horizontal loads as shown in Fig. 36. shear and axial forces in various members. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT. In principle this is a three dimensional frame. analysis of building frames to vertical loads is discussed and in section 36. approximate methods are used to obtain approximate design values of moments. it is necessary to reduce the given indeterminate structure to a determinate structure by suitable assumptions. analysis of building frame to horizontal loads will be discussed. A two-bay. These will be discussed in this lesson. in order to estimate the preliminary size of different members.3. an analyst/engineer encounters in practice. 2.1 Introduction The building frames are the most common structural form. Usually the building frames are designed such that the beam column joints are rigid. module 1 for more details). 36.Instructional Objectives: After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. Thus this frame is statically indeterminate to degree = ((3 × 15 + 9) − 12 × 3) = 18 (Please see lesson 1. moment distribution method or direct stiffness method may be used to analyse this rigid frame.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

36. In this case. Before we discuss the required three assumptions consider a simply supported beam. Next consider a fixed-fixed beam.4a. Hence each beam is statically indeterminate to third degree and hence 3 assumptions are required to reduce this beam to determinate beam.4b.36. subjected to vertical loads as shown in Fig.3. 2 Analysis of Building Frames to Vertical Loads Consider a building frame subjected to vertical loads as shown in Fig. in this building frame is subjected to axial force. In this case zero moment (or point of inflexion) occurs at the supports as shown in Fig. Version 2 CE IIT.21L from both ends of the support.36. the point of inflexion or point of zero moment occurs at 0. Kharagpur . bending moment and shear force. 36. Any typical beam.

Version 2 CE IIT.36. Kharagpur . For the purpose of approximate analysis the inflexion point or point of zero ⎛ 0 + 0. the support provided by the columns is neither fixed nor simply supported.4d.21L ⎞ moment is assumed to occur at ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 0.1L from the supports. In this case. Thus the beam is approximated for the analysis as shown in Fig. In reality 2 ⎝ ⎠ the point of zero moment varies depending on the actual rigidity provided by the columns.Now consider a typical beam of a building frame as shown in Fig.4c.36.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

1L . 36. the point of inflexion will be slightly more than 0. Now redundancy has reduced by two for each beam. With these three assumptions one could analyse this frame for vertical loads. Version 2 CE IIT. The third assumption is that axial force in the beams is zero.5a for vertical loads using approximate methods. An experienced engineer will use his past experience to place the points of inflexion appropriately.1 Analyse the building frame shown in Fig. Example 36.For interior beams. Kharagpur .

36. The calculation of beam moments is shown in Fig. Kharagpur .5b. Version 2 CE IIT.Solution: In this case the inflexion points are assumed to occur in the beam at 0.6m) from columns as shown in Fig. 36.5c.1L(= 0.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

4 kN. The 2 maximum + ve moment in beam BE is 14.5d. Hence this moment is 8 . M BC = M BA = = 4. Kharagpur .05kN.m . The − ve moment in the beam BE is 8. This is shown in Fig.m . The actual deflected shape (as obtained by exact methods) of the frame is also shown in the figure by dotted lines. as the moment from the right and the moment from the left column balance each other.3 Analysis of Building Frames to lateral (horizontal) Loads A building frame may be subjected to wind and earthquake loads during its life time. Hence. 36. A two-storey two-bay multistory frame subjected to lateral loads is shown in Fig. The given frame is statically indeterminate to degree 12. The axial compressive loads in the columns can be easily computed.1 divided between column BC and BA .m . 36. It is observed that the middle column is not subjected to any moment.1 kN. Version 2 CE IIT.6. the building frames must be designed to withstand lateral loads. 36. Thus. The columns do carry axial loads.Now the beam − ve moment is divided equally between lower column and upper column.

3. This leads to 10 assumptions. we have two different methods of analysis: i ) Portal method and ii ) cantilever method. 1) An inflexion point occurs at the mid height of each column. From the deformed shape of the frame.Hence it is required to make 12 assumptions to reduce the frame in to a statically determinate structure. They will be discussed in the subsequent sections.1 Portal method In this method following assumptions are made. Kharagpur . 36. it is observed that inflexion point (point of zero moment) occur at mid height of each column and mid point of each beam. Version 2 CE IIT. Depending upon how the remaining two assumptions are made. 2) An inflexion point occurs at the mid point of each girder.

Version 2 CE IIT. In this method we have hinges/inflexion points at mid height of columns and beams. 36.5 kN.3) The total horizontal shear at each storey is divided between the columns of that storey such that the interior column carries twice the shear of exterior column. M IH = +7. Taking the section through column hinges M . L we get.5 − O y × 2.5 = 7. 5 × 1. O we get. Kharagpur . Solution: The problem is solved by equations of statics with the help of assumptions made in the portal method.5 kN. M CB = 5 × 1.5 kN.7b). This method is illustrated in example 36.2. Fig. The last assumption is clear. (ref. ∑ FX = 0 ⇒ V + 2V + V = 20 or V = 5 kN Taking moment of all forces left of hinge R about R gives.m M CF = −7. 36. Fig. 36.N . if we assume that each bay is made up of a portal thus the interior column is composed of two columns (Fig.5 = 0 O y = 3 kN(↑ ) Ny = 0 Taking a section through column hinges J . beam end moments and reactions. K .7a and evaluate approximately the column end moments.m . 36.5 = 0 M y = 3 kN(↓) Column and beam moments are calculates as. V × 1 .5 − M y × 2 .m Taking moment of all forces left of hinge S about S gives. Thus the interior column carries twice the shear of exterior column. Example 36. (ref.6).7c).2 Analyse the frame shown in Fig.

Kharagpur .∑ FX = 0 or V ' = 15 kN ⇒ V '+2V '+V ' = 60 Version 2 CE IIT.

Taking moment of all forces about P gives (vide Fig. Kharagpur .5 = 0 Ly = 15 kN ( ↑ ) J y = 15 kN ( ↓ ) Version 2 CE IIT.5 − J y × 2.7d) ∑M p = 015 ×1.5 + 5 × 1. 36.5 + 3 × 2.

36. 3) In a storey.m Reactions at the base of the column are shown in Fig.m .m M BE = −30 kN.5 = 15 kN. The method is illustrated in example 36. 36.3.7g.m M EB = −30 kN.2 Cantilever method The cantilever method is suitable if the frame is tall and slender. Version 2 CE IIT.m M HE = −30 kN.5 = 7.5 kN.m M EF = 10 × 1. 36.m M EH = −30 kN. The last assumption in the cantilever method is based on this fact. the intensity of axial stress in a column is proportional to its horizontal distance from the center of gravity of all the columns in that storey.3. In such a column the bending stress in the column cross section varies linearly from its neutral axis.m .5 kN .7f) M BC = 5 × 1. Consider a cantilever beam acted by a horizontal load P as shown in Fig. (ref.5 kN.8. 36. Fig.5 = 22.m .5 = 45 kN.5 = 7. 2) An inflexion point occurs at mid height of each column. M BA = 15 × 1. Kharagpur .Column and beam moments are calculated as.m M HI = 5 × 1.5 = 22. 1) An inflexion point occurs at the mid point of each girder.5 kN. M ED = 30 × 1. M HG = 15 × 1. In the cantilever method following assumptions are made.

x= ∑ xA = (0)A + 5 A + 10 A = 5 m A+ A+ A ∑A (from left column) Version 2 CE IIT. The columns are assumed to have equal cross sectional areas. beam and column moments using cantilever method of the frame shown in Fig.Example 36.8a. Kharagpur . Solution: This problem is already solved by portal method. 36.3 Estimate approximate column reactions. The center of gravity of all column passes through centre column.

O y = 3 kN (↑ ) Taking moment about R of all forces left of R . Now the column left of C. Version 2 CE IIT.8b. My 5× A =− Oy 5× A ⇒ M y = −O y Taking moment about O of all forces gives. Kharagpur .e. 36. From the third assumption.G.5 − M y × 10 = 0 M y = 3 kN (↓ ) . 20 × 1.Taking a section through first storey hinges gives us the free body diagram as shown in Fig. i. CB must be subjected to tension and one on the right is subjected to compression.

5 kN.5 kN. X =0 VM + VN + VO − 20 = 0 V N = 10 kN. Version 2 CE IIT.5 = 0 VM = 5 kN ( ← ) Taking moment of all forces right of S about S . Fig.m M FC = −7.VM × 1. Since the center of gravity passes through centre column the axial force in that column is zero. VO × 1.5 = 7.m M IH = 7.m Tae a section through hinges J .m M FI = −7. Moments M CB = 5 ×1. Kharagpur . L (ref. 36.5 kN.5 kN. K .5 kN.5 − 3 × 2.m M FE = 15 kN.m M IF = −7.5 − 3 × 2.5 kN.8c).m M CF = −7.5 = 0 ⇒ ∑F VO = 5 kN.

5 − 15 × 2. J y can be evaluated.5 + 3 × 2.5 + 3 × 10 − J y × 10 = 0 J y = 15 kN(↓) . Thus. L y = 15 kN(↑) Taking moment of all forces left of P about P gives.5 − 15 × 2.5 + 3 × 2. 5 × 1. Version 2 CE IIT.5 + V j × 1.Taking moment about hinge L . Kharagpur . 20 × 3 + 40 × 1. 5 ×1.5 + VL ×1.5 = 0 V J = 15 kN(← ) Similarly taking moment of all forces right of Q about Q gives.5 = 0 VL = 15 kN(←) ∑F X =0 VJ + VK + VL − 60 = 0 VK = 30 kN.

5 kN.m M EB = −30 kN.m .m .m Summary In this lesson.m M EF = 10 × 1. Version 2 CE IIT. The analysis of building frames to vertical loads was discussed in section 36. Typical numerical problems are solved to illustrate the procedure.Moments M BC = 5 × 1. M ED = 30 × 1.m .5 kN. Two different methods are used to analyse building frames to horizontal loads: portal and cantilever method. In section 36.5 = 15 kN.m M EH = −30 kN.3.m M HI = 5 ×1. analysis of building frame to horizontal loads is discussed.5 = 22.5 kN. Towards this end. M HG = 15 ×1.5 = 7. M BA = 15 × 1. the given indeterminate building fame is reduced into a determinate structure by suitable assumptions. the building frames are analysed by approximate methods.5 = 22.m M HE = −30 kN.2.m M BE = −30 kN.5 = 7.5 kN.5 = 45 kN. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .Module 7 Influence Lines Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .Lesson 37 Moving Load and Its Effects on Structural Members Version 2 CE IIT.

1 Introduction In earlier lessons. 37. • An influence line is a diagram whose ordinates. Kharagpur . An influence line is a curve the ordinate to which at any point equals the value of some particular function due to unit load acting at that point. From the designer’s point of view. An influence line represents the variation of either the reaction. give the value of an internal force. shear. reactions value at the support also will vary. which are plotted as a function of distance along the span. or a displacement at a particular point in a structure as a unit load move across the structure. Some of the definitions of influence line are given below. Shear or Version 2 CE IIT. you were introduced to statically determinate and statically indeterminate structural analysis under non-moving load (dead load or fixed loads). • • 37.2 Definitions of influence line In the literature.1). one can construct the influence line at a specific point P in a member for any parameter (Reaction. you will be introduced to determination of maximum internal actions at cross-sections of members of statically determinate structured under the effects of moving loads (live loads). or deflection at a specific point in a member as a unit concentrated force moves over the member. Using any one of the two approaches (Figure 37. moment. Common sense tells us that when a load moves over a structure. a reaction.Instructional Objectives: The objectives of this lesson are as follows: • Understand the moving load effect in simpler term • Study various definitions of influence line • Introduce to simple procedures for construction of influence lines 37. In the process. we will discuss about the construction of influence lines. the deflected shape of the structural will vary. researchers have defined influence line in many ways.3 Construction of Influence Lines In this section. we can arrive at simple conclusion that due to moving load position on the structure. it is essential to have safe structure. which doesn’t exceed the limits of deformations and also the limits of load carrying capacity of the structure. In this lecture.

Classification of the approaches for construction of influence lines is given in Figure 37. or moment) at the specified point.2 Sign Conventions Sign convention followed for shear and moment is given below.1: Approaches for construction of influence line 37. Parameter Reaction R Shear V Sign for influence line Positive at the point when it acts upward on the beam. In the present approaches it is assumed that the moving load is having dimensionless magnitude of unity. shear. listing unit load at x versus the corresponding value of the parameter calculated at the specific point (i. The best way to use this approach is to prepare a table. say at x. 37.1 Tabulate Values Apply a unit load at different locations along the member.e. Construction of Influence Lines Tabulate Values Influence Line-Equation Figure 37.1.Moment). apply statics to compute the value of parameter (reaction.3. Shear V or moment M) and plot the tabulated values so that influence line segments can be constructed. And these locations. Reaction R.3. Positive for the following case V Moment M Positive for the following case V M M Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

5 and 10 m. Figure 37.0.1 x 2. a unit load is places at distance x from support A and the reaction value RB is calculated by taking moment with reference to support A. shear or moment) at a specific point under the effect of moving load at a variable position x. away from support A and reaction RB can be computed and tabulated as given below.2: The beam structure Solution: As discussed earlier.3. 37. Both the approaches will be demonstrated here.g. The beam structure is shown in Figure 37.25 Figure 37. Let us say. 7. Kharagpur . from support A then the reaction RB can be calculated as follows (Figure 37. reaction.5 m.3 Influence Line Equations Influence line can be constructed by deriving a general mathematical equation to compute parameters (e.2. Σ MA = 0 : RB x 10 . Version 2 CE IIT.5 = 0 ⇒ RB = 0. there are two ways this problem can be solved. The above discussed both approaches are demonstrated with the help of simple numerical examples in the following paragraphs.37.4 Numerical Examples Example 1: Construct the influence line for the reaction at support B for the beam of span 10 m. Tabulate values: As shown in the figure. the load can be placed at 5. if the load is placed at 2.3: The beam structure with unit load Similarly.3).

Figure 37. Tabulate Values: As shown in the figure.25 0. Figure 37.0 0. Let Version 2 CE IIT. here we will use tabulated values and influence line equation approach. Example 2: Construct the influence line for support reaction at B for the given beam as shown in Fig 37.4. Influence Line Equation: When the unit load is placed at any location between two supports from support A at distance x then the equation for reaction RB can be written as Σ MA = 0 : RB x 10 – x = 0 ⇒ RB = x/10 The influence line using this equation is shown in Figure 37.5: The overhang beam structure Solution: As explained earlier in example 1.5 10 RB 0.4: Influence line for reaction RB.5.4.x 0 2.0 7.75 1 Graphical representation of influence line for RB is shown in Figure 37. a unit load is places at distance x from support A and the reaction value RB is calculated by taking moment with reference to support A. Kharagpur .5 0.5 5.

0 = 0 ⇒ RB = 1. When the load is placed at 10.7.1 x 10. then reaction at B can be computed using following equation.67 Graphical representation of influence line for RB is shown in Figure 37.5 .0 m and 7.33 Similarly a unit load can be placed at 12.0 0. Σ MA = 0 : RB x 7. if the load is placed at 2.33 1. Σ MA = 0 : RB x 7. Figure 37.0 m from support A.00 1. from support A then the reaction RB can be calculated as follows.6: The beam structure with unit load Similarly one can place a unit load at distances 5.5 m from support A and compute reaction at B.5 .5 m.33 Figure 37.67 1.us say. The values of reaction at B are tabulated as follows.7: Influence for reaction RB.0 7.5 10 12.33 0.5 5.1 x 2. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . x 0 2.5 and the reaction at B can be computed.5 RB 0.5 = 0 ⇒ RB = 0.

5 The influence line using this equation is shown in Figure 37.7. place a unit load at different location at distance x from support A and find the reactions at A and finally computer shear force taking section at C.8) Figure 37. The resultant values of shear force at C are tabulated as follows.9: The beam structure – a unit load before section Figure 37.Influence line Equation: Applying the moment equation at A (Figure 37.1 x x = 0 ⇒ RB = x/7.10: The beam structure .10).5 .a unit load before section Version 2 CE IIT.6).9) and after point C (Figure 37. The shear force at C should be carefully computed when unit load is placed before point C (Figure 37. Kharagpur . Σ MA = 0 : RB x 7. Example 3: Construct the influence line for shearing point C of the beam (Figure 37.8: Beam Structure Solution: Tabulated Values: As discussed earlier. Figure 37.

16 0 Graphical representation of influence line for Vc is shown in Figure 37.16 -0.0 -0.5 15.11: Influence line for shear point C Influence line equation: In this case.12) and after point C (Figure 37.11.0 7. we need to determine two equations as the unit load position before point C (Figure 37.5(+) 10 12.12: Free body diagram – a unit load before section Version 2 CE IIT.5 5.5 0.13) will show different shear force sign due to discontinuity. Figure 37. Figure 37.33 -0.11.0 Vc 0.5 0. Kharagpur .5(-) 7. The equations are plotted in Figure 37.X 0 2.33 0.

For example. then the support reaction at A will be 0.25 Figure 37.833 and support reaction B will be 0. Kharagpur . Example 4: Construct the influence line for the moment at point C of the beam shown in Figure 37.Figure 37.5 m from support A (Figure 37.13: Free body diagram – a unit load after section Influence Line for Moment: Like shear force.15).= 0 ⇒ Mc = 1.Mc + RB x 7.167 x 7. Once the support reactions are computed.15: A unit load before section Similarly.5 . we can also construct influence line for moment.167. Taking section at C and computation of moment at C can be given by Σ Mc = 0 : .Mc + 0.14: Beam structure Solution: Tabulated values: Place a unit load at different location between two supports and find the support reactions. Version 2 CE IIT. take a section at C and compute the moment.5 . we place the unit load at x=2.14 Figure 37. compute the moment Mc for difference unit load position in the span. The values of Mc are tabulated as follows.= 0 ⇒ .

16. where 7. When the unit load is placed before point C then the moment equation for given Figure 37.a unit load before section When the unit load is placed after point C then the moment equation for given Figure 37.5 < x ≤ 15. Kharagpur .5 Figure 37.0 Mc 0.5 10 12. where 0 ≤ x ≤ 7.17 can be given by Σ Mc = 0 : Mc + 1(7.5 .25 2. Figure 37.0 1.5 = 0 ⇒ Mc = 7.X 0 2.x/2.75 2.5 = 0 ⇒ Mc = x/2.5 –x) – (1-x/15)x7.18 can be given by Σ Mc = 0 : Mc – (1-x/15) x 7.0 7.5 15.5 1.25 0 Graphical representation of influence line for Mc is shown in Figure 37.16: Influence line for moment at section C Influence Line Equations: There will be two influence line equations for the section before point C and after point C.5 3.5 5.0 Version 2 CE IIT.17: Free body diagram .

18: Free body diagram . Kharagpur .= 0 ⇒ .a unit load before section The equations are plotted in Figure 37.Figure 37.25.16. For example as shown in Figure 37.19.Mc + RB x 5. Version 2 CE IIT.25 Similarly. Figure 37.5 m from support A. we place a unit load at 2. then the support reaction at A will be 0. Figure 37.19: Overhang beam structure Solution: Tabulated values: Place a unit load at different location between two supports and find the support reactions.0 = 0 ⇒ Mc = 1. compute the moment Mc for difference unit load position in the span. Once the support reactions are computed.20: A unit load before section C Taking section at C and computation of moment at C can be given by Σ Mc = 0 : .75 and support reaction B will be 0. Example 5: Construct the influence line for the moment at point C of the beam shown in Figure 37.20. The values of Mc are tabulated as follows.25 x 5. take a section at C and compute the moment.Mc + 0.0 .

0 –x) – (1-x/10)x5.0 = 0 ⇒ Mc = 5 .0 7.25 2.23 can be given by Σ Mc = 0 : Mc – (1-x/10) x 5. When a unit load is placed before point C then the moment equation for given Figure 37.5 5.5 10 12.5 1.0 Mc 0 1.x/2. where 5 < x ≤ 15 Version 2 CE IIT.5 Graphical representation of influence line for Mc is shown in Figure 37.21.25 -2.5 15.0 Figure 37.22: A unit load before section C When a unit load is placed after point C then the moment equation for given Figure 37. Kharagpur . where 0 ≤ x ≤ 5. Figure 37.22 can be given by Σ Mc = 0 : Mc + 1(5.0 = 0 ⇒ Mc = x/2.21: Influence line of moment at section C Influence Line Equations: There will be two influence line equations for the section before point C and after point C.25 0 -1.x 0 2.

24. They are concentrated load and uniformly distributed load (UDL). reactions A can be computed.1 Concentrated load As shown in the Figure 37. we need to find out what will be the influence line for reaction B for this load. influence line of unit load gives value of 0. 37.5 Influence line for beam having point load and uniformly distributed load acting at the same time Generally in beams/girders are main load carrying components in structural systems.24. Figure 37.5xP. for various load positions and load value. point load P is moving on beam from A to B. shear or moment at any specified point in beam to check for criticality. we can find that for the load position of P. Hence. if load P is at the center of span then what will be the value of reaction A? From Figure 37.21. let us assume that unit load is moving from A to B and influence line for reaction A can be plotted as shown in Figure 37. Hence it is necessary to construct the influence line for the reaction. Now we want to know. Hence. like earlier examples.23: A unit load after section C The equations are plotted in Figure 37. Looking at the position. Let us assume that there are two kinds of load acting on the beam.Figure 37. 37.25. reaction A will be 0. Similarly. to generalize our approach. let us say.24: Beam structure Version 2 CE IIT.5.5. Kharagpur .

27.dx acting at x. moment) is y as shown in Figure 37. the value of function is given by (dP)(y) = (w. Hence.2 Uniformly Distributed Load Beam is loaded with uniformly distributed load (UDL) and our objective is to find influence line for reaction A so that we can generalize the approach. Kharagpur .Figure 37. For computation of the effect of all these concentrated loads. Figure 37. we can say that it will be ∫ w.25: Influence line for support reaction at A 37. we have to integrate over the entire length of the beam.26: Uniformly distributed load on beam Figure 37. Let us assume that beam’s influence line ordinate for some function (reaction. considering for segment of dx (Figure 37.dx = w ∫ y. shear.5.y. In that case. the concentrated load dP can be given by w. The term ∫ y.dx).dx.dx is equivalent to area under the influence line.27: Segment of influence line diagram Version 2 CE IIT.26).y. For UDL of w on span.

the influence line (Figure 37.5 w.For a given example of UDL on beam as shown in Figure 37.29) for reaction A can be given by area covered by the influence line for unit load into UDL value.e.l. [0. the influence line for the shear at C can be given by following Figure 37. 37.6 Numerical Example Find the maximum positive live shear at point C when the beam (Figure 37.5x (1)xl] w = 0.31.30: Simply supported beam Solution: As discussed earlier for unit load moving on beam from A to B. Version 2 CE IIT. i. Figure 37.29: Influence line for support reaction at A. Figure 37.30) is loaded with a concentrated moving load of 10 kN and UDL of 5 kN/m.28: UDL on simply supported beam Figure 37. Kharagpur .28.

the maximum live shear force at C will be when the concentrated load 10 kN is located just before C or just after C.375 = 14. UDL: As shown in Figure 37.Figure 37. we will put 10 kN just after C.32. Our aim is to find positive live shear and hence.31. In that case.5 x 10 = 5 kN. Finally the loading positions for maximum shear at C will be as shown in Figure 37.31. Kharagpur .5) (0.31: Influence line for shear at section C. Vc = [ 0.5 and x = 15. For this beam one can easily compute shear at C using statics.5)] x 5 = 9. Version 2 CE IIT.375 Total maximum Shear at C: (Vc) max = 5 + 9. Vc = 0. Concentrated load: As shown in Figure 37.375.5 x (15 –7. the maximum positive live shear force at C will be when the UDL 5 kN/m is acting between x = 7.

(2003). Leet. (1999). J. and Utku. Further we studied the available various influence line definitions. Structural Analysis. (1988). Charotar Publishing House. R.. C-M. New Delhi. (1991). Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. Wilbur. B. and Shah. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. E.32: Simply supported beam 37. McGraw-Hill Book Company. ISBN 007-058116-9 Version 2 CE IIT. H. K. C. Ltd. M. ISBN 81-7808-750-2 Junarkar. Finally we studied the influence line construction using tabulated values and influence line equation. A. C.. Structural Analysis. Anand. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. Suggested Text Books for Further Reading • • • • • • Armenakas. ISBN 0-07-100120-4 Hibbeler. ISBN 0-07-462304-4 Norris. Kharagpur . Pearson Education (Singapore) Pte. NY. Classical Structural Analysis – A Modern Approach. New Delhi. Delhi. ISBN 0-07-058208-4 Negi. and Jangid. and Uang. S. New Delhi. Mechanics of Structures – Vol.7 Closing Remarks In this lesson we have studied the need for influence line and their importance.Figure 37. (2002). (2003). R. H. J. Fundamentals of Structural Analysis. S. B. S. The understanding about the simple approach was studied with the help of many numerical examples. L. Elementary Structural Analysis.S. II.

Kharagpur .Module 7 Influence Lines Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .Lesson 38 Influence Lines for Beams Version 2 CE IIT.

Heinrich Müller Breslau proposed a technique to draw influence lines quickly. The resulting deflected shape will be proportional to the true influence line (Figure 38. our objective is to obtain the influence line for the support reaction at A for the beam shown in Figure 38. The Müller Breslau Principle states that the ordinate value of an influence line for any function on any structure is proportional to the ordinates of the deflected shape that is obtained by removing the restraint corresponding to the function from the structure and introducing a force that causes a unit displacement in the positive direction. Let us say.3) for the support reaction at A. 38.1. Kharagpur .2) in the positive direction that will cause a unit displacement in the direction of RA.1 Müller Breslau Principle for Qualitative Influence Lines In 1886. Figure 38. Figure 38.Instructional Objectives: The objectives of this lesson are as follows: • How to draw qualitative influence lines? • Understand the behaviour of the beam under rolling loads • Construction of influence line when the beam is loaded with uniformly distributed load having shorter or longer length than the span of the beam.1: Simply supported beam First of all remove the support corresponding to the reaction and apply a force (Figure 38.2: Deflected shape of beam Version 2 CE IIT.

i. This is true only for statically determinate systems. Kharagpur .5. which matches with the qualitative influence. Figure 38. introduce a roller at section C so that it gives freedom to the beam in vertical direction as shown in Figure 38.5: Deflected shape of beam Now apply a force in the positive direction that will cause a unit displacement in the direction of VC.2 and matches with the actual influence line shape as shown in Figure 38. Figure 38. the beam rotates as a rigid body without any curvature.6 shows the actual influence.e.5.. Version 2 CE IIT.4.3: Influence line for support reaction A The deflected shape due to a unit displacement at A is shown in Figure 38.4: Overhang beam As discussed earlier. The resultant deflected shape is shown in Figure 38.3. Here we are interested to draw the qualitative influence line for shear at section C of overhang beam as shown in Figure 38. note that the deflected shape is linear. Note that the deflected shape is linear. Similarly some other examples are given below.Figure 38. Figure 38. Again.

Kharagpur .6: Influence line for shear at section C In this second example. Now apply moment in the positive direction that will cause a unit rotation in the direction of Mc.9. we are interested to draw a qualitative influence line for moment at C for the beam as shown in Figure 38.Figure 38.7.8 and matches with the actual shape of the influence line as shown in Figure 38.8: Deflected shape of beam Figure 38.7: Beam structure In this example. Figure 38. we will introduce hinge at C and that will only permit rotation at C.9: Influence line for moment at section C Version 2 CE IIT. being our objective to construct influence line for moment. The deflected shape due to a unit rotation at C is shown in Figure 38. Figure 38.

2. It should be noted that for maximum values of shear. Either Uniformly distributed load is longer than the span or uniformly distributed load is shorter than the span. RB and shear at section C located at x from support A will be as shown in Figure 38. maximum areas should be loaded.11.12 and 38. the maximum shear in beam supporting UDL will change.10 is loaded with UDL of w moving from left to right where the length of the load is longer than the span.11: Influence line for support reaction at A Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . 38. 38. The influence lines for reactions RA.10: Beam Structure Figure 38. Following section will discuss about these two cases. UDL of intensity w per unit for the shear at supports A and B will be given by Figure 38. Maximum shear in beam supporting UDLs If UDL is rolling on the beam from one end to other end then there are two possibilities.2. Depending upon the length of the load and span.13 respectively.1 UDL longer than the span Let us assume that the simply supported beam as shown in Figure 38.38.

13.Figure 38. Hence. maximum negative shear is given by 1 x wx 2 = − × x× ×w = − 2 l 2l and maximum positive shear is given by Version 2 CE IIT. As shown in Figure 38.13: Influence line for shear at section C 1 wl RA = w × × l ×1 = 2 2 − wl 1 RB = − w × × l × 1 = 2 2 Suppose we are interested to know shear at given section at C. maximum negative shear can be achieved when the head of the load is at the section C. Kharagpur . And maximum positive shear can be obtained when the tail of the load is at the section C. As discussed earlier the shear force is computed by intensity of the load multiplied by the area of influence line diagram covered by load.12: Influence line for support reaction at B Figure 38.

15) covered.= 1 ⎛l − x⎞ w(l − x) 2 ×⎜ ⎟ × (l − x) × w = − 2 ⎝ l ⎠ 2l 38. Following paragraph will explain about computation of moment in these two cases.14: Beam structure Figure 38. The example is demonstrated in previous lesson. As discussed earlier. 38.2 UDL shorter than the span When the length of UDL is shorter than the span.3 Maximum bending moment at sections in beams supporting UDLs. 38. Like the previous section discussion. In the present case the load will cover the completed span and hence the moment at section C can be given by Figure 38.14. then as discussed earlier. Kharagpur . the maximum moment at sections in beam supporting UDLs can either be due to UDL longer than the span or due to ULD shorter than the span. And maximum positive shear can be obtained when the tail of the load is at the section.3. maximum negative shear can be achieved when the head of the load is at the section. As discussed earlier the shear force is computed by the load intensity multiplied by the area of influence line diagram covered by load. the maximum bending moment is given by the load intensity multiplied by the area of influence line (Figure 38.15: Influence line for moment at section C Version 2 CE IIT.2.1 UDL longer than the span Let us assume the UDL longer than the span is traveling from left end to right hand for the beam as shown in Figure 38. We are interested to know maximum moment at C located at x from the support A.

Figure 38. let us assume that the UDL length y is smaller than the span of the beam AB.16 at distance of z from support A.16. Let say that the mid point of UDL is located at D as shown in Figure 38. we need to differentiate above given equation with reference to z and equal to zero. Take moment with reference to A and it will be zero.2 UDL shorter than the span As shown in Figure 38. the reaction at B is given by RB = w × y × z wx (l − x) =− l 2 And moment at C will be M C = R B (l − x) − w y ( z + − x) 2 2 2 Substituting value of reaction B in above equation. then maximum moment is given by l l w× × 2 2 2 = wl 2 8 38.1 x(l − x) wx (l − x) w× ×l × =− 2 l 2 Suppose the section C is at mid span.3. we can obtain MC = wyz w y (l − x) − ( z + − x ) 2 l 2 2 To compute maximum value of moment at C. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT. We are interested to find maximum bending moment at section C located at x from support A.16: Beam loaded with UDL shorter in length than span Hence.

Mechanics of Structures – Vol. 38. Here. C. and Shah. Suggested Text Books for Further Reading • Armenakas.4 Closing Remarks In this lesson we studied how to draw qualitative influence line for shear and moment using Müller Breslau Principle.dM c wy y = (l − x) − w( z + − x) = 0 dz l 2 Therefore. Version 2 CE IIT. Further we studied how to draw the influence lines for shear and moment when the beam is loaded with UDL. B. Structural Analysis. R. Charotar Publishing House. (1999). In that case. we studied the two cases where the UDL length is shorter or longer than span. J. y y (l − x ) = ( z + − x) l 2 Using geometric expression. H. A. (1988). Anand. (2002). ISBN 81-7808-750-2 • Junarkar. Kharagpur . ISBN 0-07-100120-4 • Hibbeler. McGraw-Hill Book Company. the moment calculated at the section will give maximum moment value. E. II. the load should be placed in a way so that the section divides it in the same proportion as it divides the span. Classical Structural Analysis – A Modern Approach.. we can state that ab Cb = AB CB ∴ CB AB AB − CB AC = = = Cb ab ab − Cb aC aC AC = Cb CB ∴ The expression states that for the UDL shorter than span. In the next lesson we will study about two or more than two concentrated loads moving on the beam. Ltd. S. NY. Delhi. Pearson Education (Singapore) Pte.

B.S.• Leet. ISBN 0-07-462304-4 • Norris. and Jangid. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. C-M. M. New Delhi. S. Wilbur. New Delhi. Structural Analysis. Elementary Structural Analysis. (2003). J. R. ISBN 0-07-058208-4 • Negi. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. H. New Delhi. C. (2003). Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. Kharagpur .. K. ISBN 0-07058116-9 Version 2 CE IIT. S. (1991). and Uang. and Utku. L. Fundamentals of Structural Analysis.

Kharagpur .Module 7 Influence Lines Version 2 CE IIT.

Lesson 39 Influence Lines for Beams (Contd. Kharagpur .) Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .1: Beam loaded with two concentrated point loads Version 2 CE IIT. we assume that P2<P1.1. In the present lesson. We are interested to find maximum shear force in the beam at given section C. we have studied about construction of influence line for the either single concentrated load or uniformly distributed loads. • • • • • • • Construction of influence line for maximum shear at sections in a beam supporting two concentrated loads Construction of influence line for maximum moment at sections in a beam supporting two concentrated loads Construction of influence line for maximum end shear in a beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads Construction of influence line for maximum shear at a section in a beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads Construction of influence line for maximum moment at a section in a beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads Construction of influence line for absolute maximum moment in s beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads Understanding about the envelopes of maximum influence line values 39. we will study in depth about the beams.2 Maximum shear at sections in a beam supporting two concentrated loads Let us assume that instead of one single point load. In the present case. Figure 39. 39.Instructional Objectives: The objectives of the present lesson are as follows.1 Introduction In the previous lessons. there are two point loads P1 and P2 spaced at y moving from left to right on the beam as shown in Figure 39. which are loaded with a series of two or more then two concentrated loads.

In that case. Kharagpur . load P1 will be on support A and P2 will be on section C. The maximum negative shear force is expressed as: Version 2 CE IIT.2. maximum negative shear at section C can be given by VC = − P2 x l and maximum positive shear at section C will be VC = P2 (l − x) l Case 2: x=y In this case. Maximum negative shear can be given by x l and maximum positive shear at section C will be VC = − P2 VC = P2 (l − x) l Case 3: x>y With reference to Figure 39. x=y and x>y. Case 1: x<y This case indicates that when load P2 will be between A and C then load P1 will not be on the beam.Now there are three possibilities due to load spacing. maximum negative shear force can be obtained when load P2 will be on section C. They are: x<y.

Figure 39. The maximum positive shear force is expressed as: VC = − P1 2 x ⎛l − x− y⎞ + P2 ⎜ ⎟ l l ⎝ ⎠ From above discussed two values of shear force at section. there are two point loads P1 and P2 spaced at y moving left to right on the beam as shown in Figure 39. select the maximum negative shear value. Kharagpur .2: Influence line for shear at section C VC = − P2 1 x ⎛ x− y⎞ − P1 ⎜ ⎟ l ⎝ l ⎠ And with reference to Figure 39. 39. maximum positive shear force can be obtained when load P1 will be on section C.2. Figure 39.3 Maximum moment at sections in a beam supporting two concentrated loads Let us assume that instead of one single point load.3: Beam loaded with two concentrated loads Version 2 CE IIT.3. We are interested to find maximum moment in the beam at given section C.

moment can be obtained when load P1 will be on section C. Hence. four concentrated loads are moving from right end to left end on beam AB. The moment for this case is expressed as: ⎛l − x− ⎛l − x⎞ 2 M C = P1 x⎜ ⎟ + P2 x⎜ l ⎝ ⎝ l ⎠ y⎞ ⎟ ⎠ From above two cases.4. in this case. Let us assume that as shown in Figure 39. 39. The spacing of the concentrated load is given in Figure 39.With reference to Figure 39. Version 2 CE IIT.4 Maximum end shear in a beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads In real life situation. Kharagpur . usually there are more than two point loads.5. moment can be obtained when load P2 will be on section C.4: Influence line for moment at section C ⎛l − x⎞ ⎛l − x⎞ 1 M C = P1 ( x − y )⎜ ⎟ ⎟ + P2 x⎜ ⎝ l ⎠ ⎝ l ⎠ With reference to Figure 39. how to find end shear in beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads.5.4. maximum value of moment should be considered for maximum moment at section C when two point loads are moving from left end to right end of the beam. which will be moving on bridges. The moment for this case is expressed as: Figure 39. our aim is to learn.

We need to draw influence line for the support reaction A and a point away from the support at infinitesimal distance on the span for the shear VA. When load passes the support. The influence lines for these cases are shown in Figure 39.7: Influence line for shear near to support A.6: Influence line for reaction at support A Figure 39. we are interested in end shear at A. the shear value will increase. we will find out the change in shear value Version 2 CE IIT.5: Beam loaded with a series of loads As shown in figure. When loads are moving from B to A then as they move closer to A.7. Figure 39.6 and 39. there could be increase or decrease in shear value depending upon the next point load approaching support A. Kharagpur .Figure 39. Using this simple logical approach.

Here for the present case let us assume that ΣP is summation of the loads remaining on the beam. then shear at A has decreased. Figure 39.4. In that case change in shear will be expressed as dV = ∑ Py − P l 2 In case if dV is positive then shear at A has increased and if dV is negative. then P3 will approach A. Therefore. then change in shear can be given by dV = ∑ (8 + 4)3 − 8 = −3. 39. which crosses and induces negative changes in shear. first load. When load P1 crosses support A. change in shear will be expressed as dV = ∑ Px − P l 1 When load P2 crosses support A.1 Numerical Example Compute maximum end shear for the given beam loaded with moving loads as shown in Figure 39. then P2 will approach A. In that case.near support and monitor this change from positive value to negative value.8 10 Version 2 CE IIT.8. should be placed on support A. then change in shear can be given by dV = ∑ (8 + 8 + 4)2 − 4 = 0 10 When second load of 8 kN crosses support A and third load 8 kN is approaching support A.8: Beam loaded with a series of four concentrated loads When first load of 4 kN crosses support A and second load 8 kN is approaching support A. Kharagpur .

9: Influence line for shear at A.9). V A = 4 × 1 + 8 × 0. the second load 8 kN has to be placed on support A to find out maximum end shear (refer Figure 39.3 = 15.Hence. Let us assume that series of loads are moving from right end to left end as shown in Figure.8 + 8 × 0.10.5 + 4 × 0.10: Beam loaded with a series of loads The influence line for shear at the section is shown in Figure 39. as discussed earlier. Version 2 CE IIT.11.6kN 39.5 Maximum shear at a section in a beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads In this section we will discuss about the case. Figure 39. Kharagpur . Figure 39. 39. when a series of concentrated loads are moving on beam and we are interested to find maximum shear at a section.

Figure 39. Figure 39. Following numerical example explains the same. Kharagpur . which are moving from right to left as shown in Figure 39.13: Influence line for shear at section C When first load 4kN crosses section C and second load approaches section C then change in shear at a section can be given by Version 2 CE IIT.11: Influence line for shear at section C Monitor the sign of change in shear at the section from positive to negative and apply the concept discussed in earlier section.13.12: Beam loaded with a series of loads The influence line at section C is shown in following Figure 39.5.Figure 39.1 Numerical Example The beam is loaded with concentrated loads.12. 39. Compute the maximum shear at the section C.

2 × 4 = 9.e.14: Beam and Influence line for moment at section C Version 2 CE IIT. Let us assume the slope of the influence line (Figure 39.1 × 4 + 0. Kharagpur . The change in moment for a load P1 that moves from position x1 to x2 over a beam can be obtained by multiplying P1 by the change in ordinate of the influence line i.14) is S.7 × 8 + 0.4 10 Hence place the second concentrated load at the section and computed shear at a section is given by VC == 0.dV = 20 × 2 −4=0 10 When second load 8 kN crosses section C and third load approaches section C then change in shear at section can be given by dV = 12 × 3 − 8 = −4. then (y2 – y1) = S (x2 – x1). (y2 – y1).2kN 39.4 × 8 + 0. Figure 39.6 Maximum Moment at a section in a beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads The approach that we discussed earlier can be applied in the present context also to determine the maximum positive moment for the beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads.

17-20. All the four cases are shown in Figures 39.15. Kharagpur .15: Beam loaded with a series of loads The influence line for moment at C is shown in Figure 39. Figure 39.16. which are moving from right to left as shown in Figure 39. then we can get the largest influence from each force.1 Numerical Example The beam is loaded with concentrated loads.16: Beam loaded with a series of loads If we place each of the four-concentrated loads at the peak of influence line. Compute the maximum moment at the section C.Hence change in moment can be given by dM = P1 S ( x2 − x1 ) Let us consider the numerical example for better understanding of the developed concept. 39.17: Beam loaded with a series of loads – First load at section C Version 2 CE IIT. Figure 39.6. Figure 39.

5kN .21) will be given by Version 2 CE IIT.17.5 ⎞ dM = −(40 + 50)⎜ ⎟2. For other loads.5 + (50 + 50 + 40)⎜ ⎜ (40 − 10) ⎟2.5 + (50 + 40)⎜ ⎜ (40 − 10) ⎟2.5/(40-10)).5kN . hence place second load at the section and maximum moment (refer Figure 39.18: Beam loaded with a series of loads – Second load at section C Figure 39.5 = −112.20: Beam loaded with a series of loads .m ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ When the second load 50 kN crosses the section and third load 50 kN is approaching section (Figure 39. the slope is upward (7. Kharagpur .– Third load at section C Figure 39.17) then change in moment is given by ⎛ 7.5 = 12. When the first load 40 kN crosses the section and second load 50 kN is approaching section (Figure 39. it is observed that the slope is downward (7.5 ⎞ dM = −40⎜ ⎟2.Figure 39.18) then change in moment is given by ⎛ 7.5 ⎞ ⎛ 7.– Third load at section C As shown in Figure 39.m ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ At this stage. when the first load crosses the section C.5/10). we find negative change in moment.5 ⎞ ⎛ 7.19: Beam loaded with a series of loads .

UDL and series of concentrated loads at specified locations. the absolute maximum shear will occur when one of the loads is placed very close to support. After placing the load as close as to fixed support.25) = 1193.23.21: Influence line for moment at C M c = 40(5. Following paragraph explains briefly for the cantilever beam or simply supported beam so that quickly maximum shear and moment can be obtained. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT.Figure 39.87kNm 39. absolute maximum shear will occur at a point located very near to fixed end of the beam.5)+ 50(6. for the cantilever beam. Figure 39. Maximum Shear: As shown in the Figure 39. we have learned to compute the maximum shear and moment for single load.7 Absolute maximum moment in s beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads. In earlier sections.8775) + 40(6.22: Absolute maximum shear case – cantilever beam Similarly for the simply supported beam.22.625)+ 50(7. as shown in Figure 39. However. find the shear at the section close to fixed end. from design point of view it is necessary to know the critical location of the point in the beam and the position of the loading on the beam to find maximum shear and moment induced by the loads.

Assume PR to be resultant of the loads. Kharagpur . the maximum bending moment under any given wheel occurs when its axis and the center of gravity of the load system on span are equidistant from the center of the span. one cannot obtain by direct inspection. are spaced shown in Figure 39. Figure 39.Figure 39. simply supported ends. However. Let us assume that load P1. P2.25 and traveling from left to right. we can identify position analytically. P3 etc.25. Version 2 CE IIT. which are on the beam. In this regard.24. we need to prove an important proposition.24: Absolute maximum moment – cantilever beam The absolute maximum bending moment in the case of simply supported beam. Proposition: When a series of wheel loads crosses a beam. located in such way that it nearer to P3 at a distance of d1 as shown in Figure 39.23: Absolute maximum shear – simply supported beam Moment: The absolute maximum bending moment in case of cantilever beam will occur where the maximum shear has occurred. but the loading position will be at the free end as shown in Figure 39.

26.25: Absolute maximum moment case – simply supported beam If P12 is resultant of P1 and P2. Version 2 CE IIT. and distance from P3 is d2. Hence. Find the absolute maximum moment Solution: When the a load of 25kN and center of gravity of loads are equidistant from the center of span then absolute bending moment will occur. 39.5 m is traveling on the beam having span of 10 m. dM PR l d = (l − 2 x − d1 ) = 0 ⇒ l − 2 x + d1 = 0 ⇒ x = − 1 dx l 2 2 Above expression proves the proposition.Figure 39. Kharagpur . Let us have a look to some examples for better understanding of the abovederived proposition. Our objective is to find the maximum bending moment under load P3.1 Numerical Examples Example 1: The beam is loaded with two loads 25 kN each spaced at 2. place the load on the beam as shown in Figure 39.7. The bending moment under P3 is expressed as M = PR x (l − x − d1 ) − P12 (d 2 ) l Differentiate the above expression with respect to x for finding out maximum moment.

461) + 25(1. Kharagpur .26: Simply supported beam (Example 1) The influence line for Mx is shown in Figure 39.m Example 2: Compute the absolute maximum bending moment for the beam having span of 30 m and loaded with a series of concentrated loads moving across the span as shown in Figure 39.27: Influence line for moment at X (Example 1) Computation of absolute maximum moment is given below.28.Figure 39. M x = 25(2.27 Figure 39.367) = 95. Figure 39.70kN .28: Simply supported beam (Example 2) First of all compute the center of gravity of loads from first point load of 100 kN Version 2 CE IIT.

8 Envelopes of maximum influence line values For easy calculations steps of absolute maximum shear and moment rules for cantilever beam and simply supported beam were discussed in previous section. In such situations.30 for the section X. the approach is simple but demands tedious calculations for each point. the simple approach is that develop the influence lines for shear and moment at different points along the entire length of the beam.5) + 150(6. Version 2 CE IIT. After obtaining the values.= 100(2) + 250(5) + 150(8) + 100(11) 3750 = = 5. Nevertheless.018) + 100(4. these calculations easily can be done using computers. From this diagram.30: Influence Line for moment at section X (Example 2) M x = 100(4. Kharagpur .29: Simply supported beam with load positions (Example 2) Also.m 39.97) + 100(5.535) = 4326. However. it is difficult to formulate such rules for other situations. In that case.29. both the absolute maximum value of shear and moment and location can be obtained. Figure 39.357 m 100 + 100 + 250 + 150 + 100 700 Now place the loads as shown in Figure 39. The values easily can be obtained using the concepts developed in earlier sections. plot the influence lines for each point under consideration in one plot and the outcome will be envelop of maximums.4kN . draw the influence line as shown in Figure 39. Figure 39.982) + 250(7.

ISBN 81-7808-750-2 Junarkar. (2003). Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. Wilbur. we discussed about the need of envelopes of maximum influence line values for design purpose. Structural Analysis. C. ISBN 007-058116-9 Version 2 CE IIT. Mechanics of Structures – Vol. C. and Jangid. H. (1999). (1991). S. and Utku. Also. (2002). J. J. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. we have learned various aspects of constructing influence lines for the cases when the moving concentrated loads are two or more than two. E. (2003). Kharagpur . Delhi. C-M. R. A. L. NY. S. R. Elementary Structural Analysis. Leet. Structural Analysis. B. (1988). B.. and Shah. Ltd. M. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New Delhi. ISBN 0-07-100120-4 Hibbeler.9 Closing Remarks In this lesson. K. Pearson Education (Singapore) Pte. New Delhi. ISBN 0-07-058208-4 Negi. ISBN 0-07-462304-4 Norris. H.S. II. Charotar Publishing House. Finally. Fundamentals of Structural Analysis. Suggested Text Books for Further Reading • • • • • • Armenakas.. and Uang. Anand. S.39. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. New Delhi. Classical Structural Analysis – A Modern Approach. we developed simple concept of finding out absolute maximum shear and moment values in cases of cantilever beam and simply supported beam.

Kharagpur .Module 7 Influence Lines Version 2 CE IIT.

Lesson 40 Influence Lines for Simple Trusses Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

The moving loads are never carried directly on the main girder but are transmitted across cross girders to the joints of bottom chord. 40.1 Introduction In previous lessons. Kharagpur . These stringers in turn transfer the load to floor beams and then to the joints along the bottom chord of the truss. In similar fashion. • Understand the bridge truss floor system and load transfer mechanism • Draw the influence line for the truss reactions • Draw the influence line for the truss member forces 40. UDL and a series of loads. the loading on bridge deck is transferred to stringers. one can construct the influence lines for the trusses. Front view Version 2 CE IIT.Instructional Objectives: The objectives of this lesson are as follows. Following section will explain load transmission to the trusses followed by the influence lines for the truss reactions and influence lines for truss member forces.1. we have studied the development of influence lines for beams loaded with single point load. As shown in Figure.2 Bridge Truss Floor System A typical bridge floor system is shown in Figure 40.

1 Bridge floor system It should be noted that for any load position. In this case.Floor plan Figure 40. 40.3.2. Kharagpur . the loads to truss joints are applied through floor beams as discussed earlier. These influence lines are useful to find out the support. the truss is always loaded at the joint. Version 2 CE IIT.3 Influence lines for truss support reaction Influence line for truss reactions are of similar to that a simply supported beam. which will be critical in terms of maximum loading. Let us assume that there is truss with overhang on both ends as shown in Figure 40.2 Bridge truss The influence lines for truss reactions at A and B are shown in Figure 40. Figure 40.

4 Influence lines for truss member forces Influence lines for truss member force can be obtained very easily. The data is prepared in tabular form and plotted for a specific truss member force.4. In the present discussion.4: Bridge Truss (Example 1) Version 2 CE IIT. tensile force nature is considered as positive and compressive force nature is considered as negative. 40. Obtain the ordinate values of influence line for a member by loading each joint along the deck with a unit load and find member force.(a) Influence line for RA (b) Influence line for RB Figure 40. Kharagpur . The truss member carries axial loads. Figure 40.1 Numerical Examples Example 1: Construct the influence line for the force in member GB of the bridge truss shown in Figure 40. The member force can be found out using the method of joints or method of sections.4.3: Influence lines for support reactions 40.

325 0 Influence line: Let us plot the tabular data and connected points will give the influence line for member L2U3. Figure 40.650 0.5 shows a case where the joint load is applied at L1 and force FL2U3 is calculated. The figure shows the behaviour of the member under moving load. L2.Solution: Tabulated Values: In this case.6: Influence line for member force FL2U3 Version 2 CE IIT.5: Member Force FL2U3 Calculation using method of sections. Figure 40.325 -0. L3.6. x 0 5 10 15 20 FL2U3 0 -0. Figure 40. Similarly other influence line diagrams can be generated for the other members to find the critical axial forces in the member. The influence line is shown in Figure 40. successive joints L0. The computed values are given below. Kharagpur . L1. and L4 are loaded with a unit load and the force FL2U3 in the member L2U3 are using the method of sections.

hence it is necessary to place a unit load at each lower joints and find the forces in the members. Figure 40. Figure 40. Kharagpur .Example 2: Tabulate the influence line values for all the members of the bridge truss shown in Figure 40.9: Member forces calculation when unit load is applied at L2 Version 2 CE IIT.8: Member forces calculation when unit load is applied at L1 Figure 40.7. Typical cases where the unit load is applied at L1. L2 and L3 are shown in Figures 40.7: Bridge Truss (Example 2) Solution: Tabulate Values: Here objective is to construct the influence line for all the members of the bridge truss.8-10 and forces in the members are computed using method of joints and are tabulated below.

333 -0.8333 0.2357 -0.6667 -1.8333 0.6667 -1.7071 L4U4 0 -03333 -0.4714 0.4714 0.7071 L5U5 0 0 0 0 L6U5 0 -0.1678 0. Kharagpur .333 -0.3333 0.10: Member forces calculation when unit load is applied at L3 Member Member force due to unit load at: L0 L1 L2 L3 L0L1 0 0.3336 0. the influence line can be plotted very easily for truss members.50 -1.8333 0.3333 0.3333 0.4714 0.6667 0.5 U1U2 0 -0.6667 1.7071 L2U2 0 0.0 L4L5 0 0.9428 0 -0.2357 -0.50 -0.167 0. we found that there is similarity between the influence line of Version 2 CE IIT. L4 0.6667 0.3333 0.6667 -0.5 U4U5 0 -0.4714 -0.9428 -0. Further.5 L5L6 0 0.3333 1.2357 1 -1.5 U3U4 0 -0.0 -1.1678 0.Figure 40.7071 L3U3 0 0 0 0 L3U4 0 0.3333 -0.6667 -0.167 -0.4714 0 -0.50 -1.2357 0.333 -1.0 L0U1 0 -1.3333 0.4714 -0.7071 L1U1 0 1 0 0 L2U1 0 -0.5 L1L2 0 0.3333 0.9428 L5 0.2357 0 -0.1785 -0.0 -1.6667 0.5 L2L3 0 0.7071 Influence lines: Using the values obtained in the above given table.2357 0.3336 0.2357 -0.6667 1.50 L3U2 0 -0.3333 0.6667 -1.50 L4U5 0 0.6667 0.0 L3L4 0 0.2357 0.4714 0 0.333 -0.2357 0.1785 L6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 40.3333 -0.1678 0.9428 0.000 -1.1678 0.000 -1.8333 -0.6667 1.0 U2U3 0 -0.5 Closing Remarks In this lesson we have studied how the loads are transferred in bridge truss floor system.2357 0 0.4714 0.50 -0.3333 0.

ISBN 81-7808-750-2 Junarkar.. (1999). Leet. and Shah. K. C-M. and Utku. (2003). Mechanics of Structures – Vol. Elementary Structural Analysis. Structural Analysis. (2002). B. (2003). New Delhi. R. Fundamentals of Structural Analysis. R. M. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. (1991). New Delhi. S. H. Ltd.S. A. B. Charotar Publishing House. and Uang. H.. ISBN 0-07-100120-4 Hibbeler. S. (1988). Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. E. Delhi. Finally we studied the influence line for truss member forces. New Delhi. Anand. ISBN 0-07-058208-4 Negi. C. ISBN 007-058116-9 Version 2 CE IIT. L. J. J. Kharagpur . NY. and Jangid. It was essential to know the method of sections and method of joints for the analysis of trusses while drawing influence lines. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Wilbur. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. C. Classical Structural Analysis – A Modern Approach. Structural Analysis. Pearson Education (Singapore) Pte. ISBN 0-07-462304-4 Norris. II. Suggested Text Books for Further Reading • • • • • • Armenakas. S.support reactions for simply supported beam and truss structures.

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