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Introduction to Leased Line

Introduction to Leased Line

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Introduction to Leased Line

Covering a detail study of types of Leased Lines and IPLC

Leased Line
Definition: A leased line connects two locations for private voice and/or data telecommunication service. Not a dedicated cable, a leased line is actually a reserved circuit between two points. Leased lines can span short or long distances. They maintain a single open circuit at all times, as opposed to traditional telephone services that reuse the same lines for many different conversations through a process called "switching."  A leased line is a telecommunication path between two points that is available 24 hours a day for use by a designated user (Individual or Company).  A leased line can be a physical path owned by the user or rented from a telephone company like BSNL/MTNL/VSNL.

Types of Leased Line
  

Conventional Leased Line involving the use of P-MUX Managed Leased Line involving the use of V-MUX. (MLLN) MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching)

. Individually we can get 64Kbps and 2Mbps. The conventional multiplexer can give us bandwidth in multiple of 64 Kbps. we use P-MUX. a conventional multiplexer. In case a client wants to go for 128 Kbps he has to go for two Modems of 64 Kbps each.Conventional Leased Line  In case of conventional leased circuit.

Conventional Leased Line MODEM MDF COXIAL COXIAL MDF MODEM ----------------LOCAL END A--------------------- ---------------FAR END B--------------- .

e. End B can be in same geographical location or distant . the end A coaxial connects end B coaxial using an OFC (Optical Fiber Cable). End A is our Local end an End B is the far end . and from DP it is routed to MDF (Main Distribution Frame) if the effective distance between end A and end B is less than 4. End A and End B . (Effective driving distance of Modems) the circuit is looped from MDF.e. In case the distance is more than 4.0 Km the circuit is routed to COXIAL. Same arrangement of Coaxial and MDF is observed at End B.0 Km i. Modems are placed at customer premises end A. It can be observed from figure illustrated above. that cable pair is terminated at nearest DP (Distribution Pole). and a cable pair is attached to the output of Modems.Conventional Leased Line   A leased line structure is always divided into two segments i. .

 . 4 Column and 47 Pair. Coaxial: It is the next hop to the MDF.Conventional Leased Line Explanation of all terms used  MODEM: It stand for Modulator and Demodulator . for example 36-4-47 indicates 36 Row . where AA is Row . a coaxial connects another coaxial (may be at same geographical area or some distant location) through an OFC (Optical Fiber Cable). it has a array of many pairs arranged in a pattern of “ AA-BB-CC” . BB is Column and CC is pair identification number.  MDF: It stand for Main Distribution Frame. the basic concept is to make digital signal from Modem travel onto the cables in Analog format and at far end the analog signal is again converted to digital format. An OFC insures very low signal dissipation during transmission.

fully managed. Planning and Service Monitoring. multiservice digital network platform through which service provider can offer a wide range of services at an optimal cost to Business Subscribers. . high availability and reliability. The Network Management System also supports Service Provisioning. Backed by a flexible Network Management System with powerful diagnostics and maintenance tools. the MLLN can be used to provide high-speed leased lines with improved QoS (Quality of Service). Network Optimization.Managed Leased Line Network  The MLLN is an integrated.

. Customers need not to buy 2 pairs of Modems. Circuit fault reports generated proactively. Protection against the failure of the circuit. On demand the bandwidth can be increased. 24 Hours performance monitoring of the circuit. Modems will be supplied and maintained by Service Provider. which are the beneficial for the customers.Features of MLLN           The following are the few features. Centrally managed from Network Management System. Low lead-time for new circuit provisioning. Long drive on single pair copper.

This is totally achievable using MLLN. Flexibility in the SLA i.Advantages of MLNN to Subscriber     Lease Line Network is unmanaged. With the competition of service providers. MLLN feature of automatic re-routing of traffic ensures both customer satisfaction and also prevent a likely loss of revenue of BSNL/MTNL. This SLA today exists only as a matter of dispute between the service provider and the subscriber. the negotiable bandwidth during the different time of the day would be requirement this can only be provisioned through MLLN. TRAI had currently advised the mandatory need of Service Level agreements (S LAs) for every service being provided.e. this is totally achieved with MLLN. which would be unheard of in the future. . The concept of manageability is currently not a novelty. the subscriber would definitely choose a provider who could proactively detect a fault and take corrective measures. In such an above faulty status. which can be ensured only with statistics on an end-to-end status. Today a degradation / disruption in service is known to the service provider on a subscriber notification. These could be the only measure for ensuring Carrier class operation and the uptimes cited in the S LAs. but rather a need. Also today’s leased line network being dedicated to fixed speeds has absolutely zero flexibility. With the tomorrow’s network the Customer would be demanding the service.

(Number of such nodes and their capacity is to be planned by respective circles).TYPICAL STRUCTURE OF MLLN SYSTEM. It will provide Leased Line aggregation. Second stage Node: It will be located at major cities of a Telecom Circle. Central Node: It will provide following functionality: (i) NMS Center. (ii) Leased line aggregation. (Number of such nodes and their capacity is to be planned by respective circles). . B. where demand for leased line is lower (near 10). The MLLN is planned as three-tier structure of consisting of aggregation and connectivity at two different levels: A. where demand for leased line is high. Third Stage Node: It will be located at smaller cities / towns of a Telecom Circle. It will provide following functionality: (i) Connectivity to third stage nodes. (ii) Connectivity to second stage nodes. (iii) Leased line aggregation.

MLNN Requirements Functional Requirements. (iii) Automated alarm / fault management. . (ii) Round-the-clock end-to-end performance monitoring. Technical Requirements. c) Versatile Multiplexer (VMUX). The MLLN system is able to provide the following functionality: (i) Speedy end-to-end service provisioning. b) Digital cross Connect (DXC). The various components of the MLLN shall be: a) Network Management System (NMS). (vi) On-demand bandwidth availability up to 2 Mbps. (v) Accounting and Security management. d) Network Termination Unit (NTU). (iv) Easy re-routing and configuration.

It is possible to manage the entire networks’ faults from any single location. In addition to the fault information. NMS has the capability to configure the bandwidth on demand of any leased line for specified time of the day.000 NTUs. This bandwidth on demand is configurable to all possible programmable bandwidths of NTUs.DXC) and 1. time when it corrected.Features of MLLN Network Management System           NMS shall be able to be expanded to manage at least 1000 nodes (VMUX. . The fault information provided contains type of network element.00. GUI Controlled Console SNMP Support V1 and V2 Configuration and Provision to manage and monitor all aspects and parameters of the remote elements of the MLLN without the need of local intervention. the time at which fault occurred. The NMS is capable of placing the Network elements In or Out of service The fault events are logged in a fault log file and are accessible when required through database style facilities for information retrieval. it provides a brief explanation of the cause of the fault and proposed corrective action to be taken to rectify the fault.

Features of MLLN Some more feature of MLLN are described in white paper:  Fault Management  Performance Management  Route Management .

Single Subrack (RXS-S) is used as slave subrack and its units depend on the port capacity ordered. It separates channels coming from other devices and rearranges them into new channels for output. which is the case in switching. . the node takes also care of cross-connecting the signal. A digital cross-connect (DXC) is a device used in transmission networks. (The signal is first demultiplexed into a lower level after which it is cross-connected and then multiplexed again). but not through subscriber . In addition to multiplexing and demultiplexing the signal. DACC is made up of Cluster Master control subrack and slave subracks.DIGITAL CROSS CONNECT (DXC or DACC) in MLLN  DACC or DXC is a large capacity cross connect device and is installed at different main sites for providing VMUX connectivity. A digital cross-connection means that the connection is set up and released by the network operator.

which is the building block of the MLLN system.  . with line connection rate up to 4640 Kbit/s ) modems. VMUX-Type-II. VMUX-Type I.V-MUX VERSATILE MULTIPLEXER (VMUX) Versatile Multiplexer (VMUS) is a small capacity cross connect device and is installed at different sites for providing user connectivity.  There are Four types of VMUXs supplied Viz. VMUX-Type-III/DC operation. VMUXType-III AC operation.point connections) and CTU-S ( HDSL product family modem . VMUX is made up of Basic Node. The VMUX is provided with two types of interfaces to connect STU-160 ( SDSL product family used for pointto.

” NTUs can also be used for standalone point-to-point connections without the NMS. the NTU configurations shall be automatically downloaded from the connected node.703 data interfaces.36/ V. After power-up. NTUs must be capable of being managed from the centralized NMS for the following essential parameters: (i) Speed (ii) Line loop testing (iii) Diagnostic NTU on the DTE side must support the V. They are typical “last mile equipment. NTUs allow use of the existing telecom copper cables (twisted pair) for digital traffic with medium distances (5 km) and high speeds. NTU must perform internal self-tests on power-up and provide a visual indication if an internal failure is detected.NTU used with MLLN     Base band modems (Network Terminating Units = NTUs) are usually customer premises equipment (CPE). NTU must be functionally compatible for all features with the integrated Line drivers of the VMUX ports.     .11/G.24/V.35/V.28/V.

What is MPLS?     Stands for Multi Protocol Label Switching Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a high-performance method for forwarding packets (frames) through a network. The main concept of MPLS is to include a label on each packet. . ATM switches or existing routers in the network core can switch packets according to the labels with minimal lookup overhead. but has particular advantages when applied to ATM networks. It is applicable to networks using any Layer 2 switching. MPLS integrates the performance and traffic management capabilities of Data Link Layer 2 with the scalability and flexibility of Network Layer 3 routing. It integrates IP routing with ATM switching to offer scalable IP-over-ATM networks. It enables routers at the edge of a network to apply simple labels to packets (frames).

as chosen by traffic engineering (TE)  .Data in MPLS Label Destination  Precedence  Virtual Private Network membership  Quality of Service (QoS) information  The route for the packet.

These benefits are described in more detail in the next section. called a label.  . label switching makes it feasible for routers and switches to make forwarding decisions based upon multiple destination addresses.Process Involved With Label Switching the complete analysis of the Layer 3 header is performed only once: at the edge label switch router (LSR). an Edge LSR swaps the label out for the appropriate header data linked to that label. For this reason. which is located at each edge of the network.  At each router across the network. only the label need be examined in the incoming cell or packet in order to send the cell or packet on its way across the network. At this location. At the other end of the network.  A key result of this arrangement is that forwarding decisions based on some or all of these different sources of information can be achieved by means of a single table lookup from a fixed-length label. plus the traffic engineering benefits achieved by the optimizing capabilities of switches. combining the reachability information provided by the router function. the Layer 3 header is mapped into a fixed-length label.  Label switching integrates switching and routing functions.

creating problems with large amounts of routing update traffic and subsequent processing. . A single ATM link failure could make several router-to-router links fail. all arising from the method that the PVC links between routers are overlaid on the ATM network.Benefits of MPLS   Reduces Control Load on Network Cores. Traffic Engineering Capabilities Integration Traffic engineering enables us to shift the traffic load from over utilized portions to underutilized portions of the network. internal transit routers and switches need only process the connectivity with the provider's edge routers. shielding the core devices from the overwhelming route signaling volume exchanged in the Internet. according to traffic destination. and the Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP) achieves a similar result with switched virtual circuits (SVCs).  Higher Reliability Traditional IP over ATM involves setting up a mesh of Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs) between routers around an ATM cloud. This makes the ATM network structure invisible to the routers. traffic type. More Robust With MPLS. As a result. traffic load and time of day. This separation of interior routes from full Internet routes also provides better fault isolation and improved stability. transit traffic entering at the edge of the provider's autonomous system can be given labels that are associated with specific exit points. But there are a number of problems with this approach.

In addition to MPLS. the Multiprotocol Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is used to deal with information about the VPNs. It also makes MPLS-based VPN services extremely scalable.  VPN Scalability and Manageability MPLS can make IP Virtual Private Network services highly scalable and very easy to manage. Virtual Private Network services are an important service for providing enterprises with private IP networks within their infrastructures. . with MPLS labels carrying packets across a shared backbone to their correct exit point. This might lead to inefficient routing in the ATM network. with one network able to support hundreds of thousands of VPNs. VPN information can be processed only at the ingress and exit points. With an MPLS backbone. all PVCs are seen by IP routing as single-hop paths with the same cost.Benefits of MPLS  Better Efficiency Without extensive tuning of routing weights. The combination of MPLS and Multiprotocol BGP makes MPLS-based VPN services easier to manage. with straightforward operations to manage VPN sites and VPN membership. When an ISP offers a VPN service. the carrier supports many individual VPNs on a single infrastructure.

ATM Label Switch Routers may also support full Layer 3 routing or Layer 2 switching in addition to label switching. the Cisco 8540 Multiservice Switch Router. These devices can be either routers.  ATM Label Switch Routers These devices switch labeled packets or cells based on the labels. and Cisco 7500. such as the Cisco 7500.MPLS Network Structure   The basic elements in a label switching network are: Edge Label Switch Routers Edge Label Switch Routers are located at the boundaries of a network. such as the Cisco Catalyst 5000. Cisco BPX 8650. or multilayer LAN switches. .  Label Distribution Protocol The Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) is used in conjunction with standard network layer routing protocols to distribute label information between devices in a label switched network. performing value-added network layer services and applying labels to packets. Examples of ATM LSRs include the Cisco 6400.

MPLS Structure .

Packets from one VPN will not inadvertently go to another VPN. security ensures that packets received from a customer are placed on the correct VPN at the backbone. VPN traffic is kept separate Malicious spoofing of a provider edge (PE) router is nearly impossible because the packets received from customers are IP packets.MPLS VPN Feature    MPLS Switching VPNs offer the same level of security as connection-oriented VPNs. Centralized Service Scalability Security . These IP packets must be received on a particular interface or sub interface to be uniquely identified with a VPN label. Security is provided at the edge and core of a provider network: at the edge.

. and any other form of telecommunication.Introduction to IPLC  An IPLC (international private leased circuit) is a point-to-point private line used by an organization to communicate between offices that are geographically dispersed throughout the world. video conferencing. business data exchange. An IPLC can be used for Internet access.

.

OSS consolidates the billing for both circuits into a single invoice. and allows the organization to report all problems from either circuit to one carrier. an organization had to contact each carrier in each country to order the two circuits. . a concept developed to facilitate the provision of IPLCs at the most convenient and efficient way desired by the Industrial. handles all currency issues. In the past. OSS allows an organization to place a single order with a single carrier for two private leased circuits for two offices in two different countries. Commercial and Governmental organizations throughout the world.What is OSS in IPLC?   OSS stands for One Stop Shopping. To simplify IPLC ordering and billing. a concept called One Stop Shopping (OSS) was developed. which included two separate invoices.

 Single-End Billing: consolidates the billing for both half circuits into a single invoice.  Single-End Fault Reporting: allows the customer to report faults resulting from either half circuit to the Co-ordinating Carrier  .Benefits of OSS Single-End Ordering: allows the customer to order both halves of a circuit through a single carrier.

Dedicated Network  Widest Range of Applications (Video. Voice. Graphics etc.Benefits of IPLC Secure.)  Reliability  .

or DSO (Data Source Object). operates. bit-robbed signaling uses the lowest significant bit for signaling.  . and 24 * 64KB is only 1. Your voice—which is an analog wave—is converted into a digital signal through a process called Pulse Code Modulation (PCM). enter the number. If we do the calculations. Now we have 1. Where are the other 8KB? They are used by a single framing bit that is added to every 24-channel block. PCM samples your voice 8000 times a second and converts the audio level into an 8-bit value. Typically you pick up the telephone receiver.536MB. we’ll notice that a T1 is 1. Bit-robbed signaling is also known as inband signaling. let’s take a look at how our traditional telephone service.544MB. and the party answers at the other end. This 64Kbps channel. leaving a practical channel bandwidth of 56Kbps.Introduction to ISDN How Plain Old Telephone System Operates Before getting into what ISDN is. However. is multiplexed with 23 other channels to form a T1. known as Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS). or for indicating that the line is on or off the hook.544MB.

This integration brings with it a host of new capabilities combining voice. . data. and sophisticated switching . fax.Introduction to ISDN   ISDN Stand for Integrated Services Digital Network. The "Integrated" part of ISDN's name refers to the combining of voice and data services over the same wires (so computers can connect directly to the telephone network without first converting their signals to an analog audio signal. as modems do).

To better suit voice applications. ISDN Bandwidth = 2 B +1 D = 144 Kbps Where B is Bearer Channel i.e. 16 Kbps . 64 Kbps and D is Data Channel i. Each B channel can carry a separate telephone call and usually has its own telephone number.e. called a Directory Number (DN). this 144 Kbps channel is partitioned into sub channels: two 64 Kbps B (for bearer) channels and one 16 Kbps D (for data) channel. The incoming twisted pair enters a Telco-provided box called the network terminator (NT1). You can combine the two B channels together to form a single 128 Kbps data channel through a process called bonding. which breaks the 144 Kbps channel into the two B and single D sub channels.  ISDN provides a raw data rate of 144 Kbps on a single telephone company twisted pair.

Typical Setup of ISDN .

ISDN Reference Points .

8-pin cable using pins 3 and 6 to receive data. Non-ISDN terminals. a TA adapts the unipolar signal coming from nonISDN device into a bipolar signal to be used by the ISDN network. In essence. which defines the connection as a four-wire connection. T Defines the reference point between NT1 and NT2 devices. . This is a two-wire connection between the NT1 and the telephone company (LE). S/T interface as the name implies.430 standard. such as DTE. this combines both the S and the T interfaces. R Defines the reference point between non-ISDN equipment and a TA . or in other words. Terminal Adapter (TA) allows a TE2 (Specialized ISDN terminals are referred to as terminal equipment type 1 (TE1).The R reference point allows a non-ISDN device to appear on the network as an ISDN device. that predate the ISDN standards are referred to as terminal equipment type 2 (TE2). between a TE1 or a TA and the Network Termination (which is either an NT1 or an NT2). device to communicate with the Telco's network by providing any necessary protocol and interface conversion. U This reference point is also known as a U interface. S The point between the user terminals and NT2.ISDN Terminology        Network Termination Type 1 (NT1) is used to convert a four-wire ISDN connection to the two-wire ISDN used by the local loop facility. This interface is governed by the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) I. The S/T interface is typically an RJ 45. and pins 4 and 5 to transmit data.

This service. and U stand for -. the TA can do many things. and U. T. or telephone sets -.as the next available designations from the entire set of ITU standards.they are simply consecutive letters of the alphabet. a standards-setting body -. labeled R. In this example. .The International Telegraphic Union. but it could easily be contained within the computer (as an add-in card or integrated feature) or integrated with the NT1 into a single box as a modem replacement or standalone TCP/IP router.to one or both of the B channels. or sometimes just 2B+D for short. as well. called the Primary Rate Interface (PRI). Its job is to connect any and all of your Terminal Equipment (TE) -. We can buy ISDN in bulk: 23 B channels with a single 64 Kbps D channel. (Don't strain yourself trying to deduce what R. The D channel carries signals between your ISDN equipment and the phone company's central office. which provides only a single function (creating the 2B+D channels). the TA is shown as a separate unit. The U reference point is the incoming unshielded twisted pair (UTP). Unlike the NT1. A Single four-wire cable carries the 2B+D channels to another box called the Terminal Adapter (TA).Understanding the working  The B channels carry customer voice or data signals. LANs. inherits most of the capabilities and limitations of BRI. so what you learn about 2B+D applies to PRI's 23B+D service. The two bearer plus one data channel is called the Basic Rate Interface (BRI) in Telco lingo. S/T. The external ISDN reference points.computers. chosen by the ITU -. fax machines. the S/T reference point is a four-wire UTP cable.) Each interface point requires an electrically different device connection and cabling. S.

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