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Dictionary of Abbreviations for Academic Degrees

Compiled by Andrey Yasharov First Edition

andrey.yasharov@gmail.com http://andreyyasharov.blogspot.com/

Item No. Abbreviated Form

Title Definition Full Form
An Associate Degree is an academic degree awarded by community colleges, junior

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A.A.S.

Associate of Applied Science

colleges and some bachelor's degree-granting colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study usually lasting two years. An Associate Degree is an academic degree awarded by community colleges, junior

colleges and some bachelor's degree-granting colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study usually lasting two years. 2 A.S. Associate of Science Common abbreviations are A.A. (Associate of Arts), A.S. (Associate of Science), A.A.S. (Associate of Applied Science; or in some cases, Associate of Arts and Sciences), A.O.S. (Associate of Occupational Studies), A.B.A. (Associate of Business Administration), and A.G.S. (Associate of General Studies). An Associate of Science in Nursing is an entry-level tertiary education nursing degree. In the United States, this type of degree is usually awarded by community colleges or similar nursing schools. Students awarded an Associate of Science in Nursing are qualified to sit for the NCLEX-RN and apply for licensure as a 3 A.S.N. Associate of Science in Nursing Registered Nurse. Some hospital-based nursing schools that granted diplomas altered their curriculum to offer associate degrees. Many nursing schools offering a bachelor's degree have "fast-track" programs to enable practicing nurses with an associate's degree to earn a bachelor's degree in approximately two years. This is usually an undergraduate academic 4 A.B. Artium Baccalaureus (Bachelor of Arts) degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. It may also be

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the name of a postgraduate degree, such as a Bachelor of Civil Law (granted by the University of Oxford.) A Master of Arts is a postgraduate academic master's degree awarded by universities in North America and the United Kingdom (it may now also be awarded in other countries, 5 A.M. Artium Magister (Master of Arts) such as Switzerland). The degree is typically studied for in Fine Art, Humanities, Social Science or Theology and can be either fullytaught, research-based, or a combination of the two. 6 A.C.A. Associate of the Institute of Chartered Accountants See glossary The Amateur Football Alliance is a County Football Association in England. It is unusual among County FAs in not being based around a particular geographical area. It was founded in 1907, as the Amateur Football Defence Foundation, quickly changed to Amateur Football Association, when The FA required all county associations to admit professional Amateur Football Association; Associate of the Faculty of Actuaries clubs. Its aim was, as the decline of amateurism at the highest levels of football set in, to protect and preserve the original amateur spirit. It prides itself on the skill and competitiveness of its leagues, and on its traditions of fair play and respect for opponents and match officials. Many leagues still maintain local rules that require clubs to provide food and drink to their opponents and match officials after the match in a clubhouse or public house. See glossary 8 A.F.R.Ae.S. Associate Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society See glossary The Associateship or Associate of King's College award has been the degree-equivalent qualification of King's College London since 9 A.K.C. Associate of King's College, London 1833. It is the original qualification that the university awarded to its students. Since 1909, only students registered for an University of London degree at King's have been allowed to

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A.F.A.

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C.C.B. and medical students who do not intercalate. are allowed to compress the programme into two years. Generally.L. A. A.C.M. A candidate designs a unique course of study that sometimes culminates in a thesis or capstone project. students who succeed in the AKC exams will be eligible to be elected as Associates of King's College. Often a Bachelor of 10 A.O.B.S.A. England. The B.R.L.A. after their names. ethics and philosophy. 11 A.L.A.M. it is awarded to students who major in liberal arts.S. enabling students to double major. occasionally A. A. A.A. Associate of the Royal Academy of Music Associate of the Royal College of Art Associate of the Royal College of Music Associate of the Royal College of Organists Associate of the Royal College of Science Associate of the Royal Institution of British Architects Associate of the Royal Photographic Society See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary 4 .B Bachelor of Liberal Arts Liberal Arts degree is undertaken with the help of a faculty advisor.R.K. The three-year course involves weekly lectures concerning theology. degree allows for greater curricular flexibility than a traditional Bachelor of Arts degree.R.C.study for the associateship. At the discretion of the Dean some postgraduates.L. or pursue a broad-based liberal arts education. along with the main qualification. 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 A. pursue interdisciplinary studies. Students take an annual examination. an art institution based in London. Associate Member of the Institution of Civil Engineers See glossary An Associate of the Royal Academy is a 12 A.) is the title of an undergraduate academic degree.E.I. or design their own concentrations.I. After graduating from King's.P.. Associates use the post-nominal letters A. A.C. Associate of the Royal Academy practicing artist who has been elected as a member of the Royal Academy.R.C.R.R.R. A.A.A. The Bachelor of Liberal Arts (B.M.R.

Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy.S.M. Most major institutions offer a combination of arts and sciences. often requiring skill. Bachelor of Applied Arts physical sciences. from the Latin Artium Baccalaureus) is an See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary 24 A. or both.R.R. A.).S. likely Major academic the structure curriculum of Architecture as applied arts and that of Structural Engineering as applied sciences.A.S.A. undergraduate bachelor's degree awarded for either a course or a program in the liberal arts or the sciences. Bachelor of Arts Bachelor of Arts (B.R. While applied arts were once considered vocational.A.A.) in that it focuses more on qualitative aspects while the latter focuses more on quantitative. many universities would classify the former plainly as "Architecture" and the latter as "Engineering". mechanical.A.S. or A. partly because the related discipline requires 5 . and such. spanning institutions myriad would fields.L. it has flourished at many universities over the last 75 years as highly a sophisticated and complex academic discipline.A. university or professional school. not academic. A. natural sciences. which.S.S. The unfair and inaccurate stereotype of term "Applied Arts" is that it is vocational.R. A. Bachelor of Applied Arts is a bachelor's undergraduate degree with more specialization in qualitative aspects of a discipline.A. is not the primary mission of most major academic institutions. A Bachelor of Applied Arts degree is distinguished from a Bachelor of Applied Science (B. 26 B.S.B. 20 21 22 23 A. by definition.A. Associate of the Royal Society of Arts Associate of the Royal Society of Literature Associate of the Royal School of Mines Antiquariorum Regis Societatis Socius Fellow of the Royal Society of Antiquaries Associate of Society of Incorporated Accountants and Auditors – Bachelor is a person who has received what is usually the lowest degree conferred by a fouryear college. 25 B.

). India.A. 37 B.) and Bachelor of Business Studies (B.Comm. which are general business administration and commerce degrees with accounting as an area of concentration. Bachelor of Architectural Studies 32 B.). The Bachelor of Accountancy is a specialized degree on its own. 34 35 B.A. Bachelor of Business Science (B.B.P.A.S Bachelor of Applied Arts and Sciences See glossary A Bachelor of Applied Science is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a 33 B. Bachelor of Applied Science course of study that generally lasts three years in the UK or four or five years in North America. in Accounting B.A. Bachelor of Agricultural Engineering.. Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom.Acc.S.B. Bachelor of Accountancy and B.AgrSc Bachelor of Arts in Urban Planning Bachelor of Agricultural Science See glossary See glossary A Bachelor of Business is a three or four year business degree offered by many universities around the world.Sc. Bachelor of Business New Zealand.A. It is similar in format and structure to a Bachelor of Business See glossary See glossary Administration (B.Sci. Bachelor of Art Education Bachelor of Applied Science.A. particularly in Australia and 36 B.B.Acy. 27 28 B. Malta and four years in North 6 .Com. B. is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a curriculum that 38 B.S.E. New Zealand.Bus.Bus. 30 B. Bachelor of Aeronautical Engineering. Bachelor of Art and Science.A.A.C.A. in Accounting. Bachelor of Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering Bachelor of Arts in Communication See glossary See glossary The degree of Bachelor of Accountancy is the principal academic degree in accountancy.A. 29 B.knowledge of both. It is not to be confused with a B. Bachelor of Civil Engineering See glossary A Bachelor of Commerce.A. Accty..Comm. Bachelor of Architectural Engineering.E.E. Bachelor of Commerce generally lasts three years in Australia. 31 B. B.U. B.

B. Bachelor of Applied Science course of study that generally lasts three years in the UK or four or five years in North America.A. Bachelor of Architecture See glossary Bachelor of Architecture 42 B. Bachelor of Asian Studies Bachelor of Economics See glossary See glossary A Bachelor of Education is an undergraduate academic degree which qualifies the graduate as a teacher in schools.America and South Africa.App.Ed. Bachelor of Business Science (B. Bachelor of Business Administration is a bachelor's degree in Business Administration. Depending on the institution.). 43 B.B.J. Bachelor of Build Environment Bachelor of Behavioural Neuroscience See glossary See glossary A Bachelor of Business is a three or four year business degree offered by many universities around the world.A.Sci. except that it often places more emphasis on theory and business principles. B.C. 40 41 B.A.) and Bachelor of Business 7 . The degree has ties to British colonies and is not common in the United States.A.Bus.Econ.J. A Bachelor of Applied Science is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a 39 B. Bachelor of Business Administration In most universities.Arch.B.NSc.B.B. 46 47 B. It is similar in format and structure to a Bachelor of Business Administration (B. B.).B.Bus Bachelor of Business New Zealand. or A. a Bachelor of Business Administration degree is conferred upon a student after four years of full-time study (120 credit hours) in one or more areas of business. A Bachelor of Commerce can also be known as a Bachelor of Commerce and Administration (B. a formal academic major may or may not be established.As. Bachelor of Arts in Journalism The 44 B. particularly in Australia and 48 B.A.E. Bachelor of Arts in Education is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course of study that generally lasts five years in North America.A. 45 B. A Bachelor of Commerce may cover the same coursework as a Bachelor of Business Administration (B.).A.Sc.

Studies (B.E. it originated as a postgraduate degree in the universities of Oxford and Cambridge. New Zealand.Comm. or 54 B. However. Depending on the institution.B. B. New Zealand. undergraduate academic degree awarded for a Bachelor of Commerce curriculum that generally lasts three years in Australia.Com.L.A. is an B. a formal academic major may or may not be established. although it is true that common law was not taught in the civil law faculties in either university until at least the second half of the 18th century. Malta and See glossary 53 B.).. India.Ch.Comm. A Bachelor of Commerce can also be known as a Bachelor of Commerce and Administration (B. Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom.Ch. A Bachelor of Commerce. 50 51 52 B. Baccalaureus Chirurgiæ ..C. Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom.C.A. Bachelor of Civil Law degree.). Bachelor of Commerce and Administration of Commerce may cover the same coursework as a Bachelor of Business Administration (B. but many universities now offer the B. or B. but to canon law. Malta and four years in North America and South Africa. The reference to civil law was not originally in contradistinction to common law. Bachelor of Creative Arts Bachelor of Chemistry.Comm.L.Bachelor of Surgery Bachelor of Chemical Engineering See glossary See glossary Bachelor of Civil Law is the name of various degrees in law conferred by English-language universities.S. The degree has ties to British colonies and is not common in the United States. India. Historically. is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a curriculum that generally lasts three years in Australia.A.C. 8 . some universities in English-speaking countries use the degree in the former sense.A. See glossary A Bachelor of Commerce. or B.C. B. except that it often places more emphasis on theory and business principles.C. as an undergraduate Bachelor of Canon Law.B. A Bachelor 49 B.).

information technology and/or mathematics at an accredited university in Australia (other countries may 58 B. A Bachelor of Commerce may cover the same coursework as a Bachelor of Business Administration (B.). Depending on the institution. The same core curriculum may. Bachelor of Engineering in Computer Science. and is from slightly. a B. Bachelor of Computing some universities.).Comp. or 57 B. This degree is offered only in 55 B. A Bachelor of Commerce can also be known as a Bachelor of Commerce and Administration (B.M.C. usually awarded after four years of collegiate study in computer science. depending on B. as well as other approved subject areas within the university. The degree has ties to British colonies and is not common in the United States. A Bachelor of Computer and Mathematical Sciences is a flexible academic degree allowing a double major combining majors within the fields of Computer Science. except that it often places more emphasis on theory and business principles. Bachelor of City Planning See glossary Bachelor of Computer Science is a type of bachelor's degree.A.four years in North America and South Africa.C. Bachelor of Computer and Mathematical Sciences is an undergraduate academic degree awarded to a student after three years of studying computer science. Bachelor of Mathematics in Computer Science. this is unknown at the time of writing).CompSc. including: Bachelor of Arts in Computer Science. different Computer Science or a B.B. Bachelor of Computing is a bachelor's degree in computing.S. Bachelor of Computer and Mathematical Sciences offer this degree.P. result in other degrees.Sc. Bachelor of Science in Computer Science.CS. Mathematics and Information Technology. but in significantly. Third year units in Computer 9 .A. 56 B.C.C. Bachelor of Computer Science the school. a formal academic major may or may not be established.

Canada.E. A Bachelor of Engineering is a Professional Degree and therefore a requirement for undertaking some engineering work. four or five years of studying engineering at an 61 B. Bachelor of Education.) is an undergraduate academic degree which qualifies the graduate as a teacher in schools.Ed.Ec.D. In Western Christian theology. United Kingdom. B. four or five years of studying engineering at an accredited university in the United States. Bachelor of Design (Visual design discipline) usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts three or four years. offer a wide range of future study interests.) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded to a student after three. Canada. Finance and Programming. such as theology or. Nigeria and India. or B.Science particularly. This is controlled by the national professional engineering society or institute who accredit the universities and is also often controlled by law. Bachelor of Divinity degree awarded for a courses taken in the study of divinity or related disciplines. 62 63 B. Bachelor of Engineering (B.Des. New Zealand. Australia.E. B.Ed. A Bachelor of Design (B.Eng. B. Nigeria.. A Bachelor of Engineering is a Professional Degree and therefore a requirement for undertaking some engineering work.. 64 BAI (in Latin) Bachelor of Engineering. rarely.I.Eng.Des. or B.) degree is 60 B. B. Australia. (in latin). Baccalaureus in Arte Ingeniaria New Zealand. A Bachelor of Education (B. United Kingdom. religious studies.Div.A. including Robotics. Ireland. Bachelor of Engineering accredited university in the United States. Bachelor of Economics Bachelor of Education See glossary See glossary Bachelor of Engineering is an undergraduate academic degree awarded to a student after three. 10 . This is controlled by the national professional engineering society or institute who accredit the universities and is also often controlled by law. China and India.E. a Bachelor of Divinity is usually an undergraduate academic 59 B. Ireland..

painting. industrial design. the ratio might be reversed. B. printmaking. B. such as geography.A.BioSci.F.E.Society Bachelor of Engineering and Biosciences Bachelor of Engineering and Computer Systems Bachelor of Engineering and Management Bachelor of Engineering and Society See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary A Bachelor of Environmental Studies is an undergraduate bachelor's degree awarded for courses taken in the study of environmental studies or related disciplines. illustration.S. program consists of two-thirds study in the arts.A.Eng. for example. film production. fiber. In practice. B. offered by some 11 . is usually one of university bureaucracy. Some schools instead give their students a broad education in many disciplines of the arts.S. The degree differs from a Bachelor of Arts degree in that the majority of the program consists of a practical studio component.Eng.Eng. this is essentially equivalent to a Bachelor of 69 B. drawing. or sculpture. new media. environmental resource studies.Mgt. ceramics. rather than curriculum.F.F. musical theatre. Relatively few institutions award Bachelor of Environmental Studies degrees.65 66 67 68 B. A B.A. graphic design.S. urban planning.C. A typical B. photography. and the distinction between institutions which do award such degrees and those which award B.Eng. or architecture. 71 B. degree will often require an area of specialty such as: acting. Bachelor of General Studies A Bachelor of General Studies degree is an undergraduate degree. creative writing. degrees for geography. dance.A. is the standard undergraduate degree for students seeking a professional education in the visual or performing arts. Bachelor of Fine Arts one-third in more general liberal arts studies. in Art. The Bachelor of Fine Arts. for a B. as contrasted with lecture and discussion classes. metalworking. Bachelor of Environmental Studies Arts degree with a specialty in environmental studies. interior design.G.A. with 70 B.

I. or B.Sc B. Bachelor of Laws is the name of the first degree in common law.Kin.L. It is abbreviated LL. Kinesiology.universities in the Western world. B.IntSt. In the United States it is sometimes called "Bachelor of Legal Letters" to account for the double "L".E. In Canada. although there are often fewer requirements for studies in humanities and social sciences.b): "LL" is an abbreviation of the genitive plural legum (of laws).J." stands for Legum Baccalaureus in Latin. Recreation. B. B. It is very similar to a Bachelor of Arts degree. B. A Bachelor of Human Kinetics is a four-year academic degree awarded by a university upon the completion of a program of study of Human 72 B. Bachelor of Human Kinetics Kinetics.H.Hy. Physical Education. Bachelor of Letters LL. or sometimes 80 B. in General Studies (as offered by Drexel University via the Goodwin College of Professional Studies) is offered as a degree program specifically for adult learners that have delayed or interrupted their studies. Bachelor of Health Sciences Bachelor of Hygiene Bachelor of Industrial Engineering Bachelor of Information Technology Bachelor of Information Science Bachelor of International Studies Bachelor of Journalism (see the University of Missouri Columbia) The degree of See glossary Bachelor of Laws (or See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary Baccalaureate of Laws) is the principal academic degree in law in most common law countries other than the United States. In many cases. the Bachelor of General Studies or B. Specializations within this degree can include: Athletic Therapy. and typically offers matriculants the ability to design their own curriculum.B. where it has been replaced by the Juris Doctor degree.Hk.S. 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 B. thus "LL. B.H. Bachelor of Law.InfSci. but is also the name of the first degree in Quebec civil law 12 . and Sport management.InfTech.B (or LLB.

Such a program lasts three to four and a half years. Mus. Music Technology. The Canadian common law LL. In the United States.A. university.A. B.L.Ed.M. A Bachelor of Music may be awarded for Music Performance.Lit. the majority of work consists of prescribed music courses and study in applied music. Music Theory. or conservatory upon completion of program of study in music. university. Composition.. 87 88 B. the majority of work consists of prescribed B. Bachelor of Military Arts and Sciences (used at Royal Military College of Canada) A Bachelor of Mathematics is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for 86 B. In the United States.Mus. Music Entertainment. Music Production or Jazz Studies. Bachelor of Music music courses and study in applied music. 89 B. B. or conservatory upon completion of program of study in music.M.awarded by a number of Quebec universities. Bachelor of Mathematics courses taken in the study of mathematics or related disciplines.M.M. or 90 B. Bachelor of Management Bachelor of Maritime Studies See glossary See glossary A Bachelor of Music is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by a college.M.E. is generally a graduate-entry degree. Music Education. Such a program lasts three to four and a half years. 85 B. Music Business. the Bachelor of Music is a professional degree.B. Bachelor of Music.Sc. usually requiring a proficiency performing an instrument. Musicology/Music History.B.M.S. Bachelor of Languages Bachelor of Landscape Architecture Bachelor of Literature See glossary See glossary A Bachelor of Music is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by a college. 81 82 83 B.Lang. such as computer science or statistics. 84 B.Mgmt. Bachelor of Medicine the Bachelor of Music is a professional degree. Bachelor of Music Education See glossary 13 .Math. B. B.

Sc. this is generally for historical and traditional reasons.Pharm. in practically all subject areas even when they are normally associated with arts degrees.N. in another.Sc. and possibly more support courses (such as statistics). or B.M.S.S.Sc. Scientiae Baccalaureus considered science subjects varies. namely the Oxbridge universities. A Bachelor of Pharmacy is an undergraduate academic degree in the field of pharmacy..S..) or Bachelor of Nursing (B.B. which subjects are B.) is a four year academic degree in the science and principles of nursing. Bachelor of Nursing education university or similarly accredited school. The degree is a basic prerequisite. a Bachelor of Science degree may be a more specialized version of B.S. 14 . B.91 B. Bachelor of Marine Science See glossary The Bachelor of Science in Nursing (B.N.. like the London School of Economics. Bachelor of Pharmacy countries.S.A.N.g. granted by a tertiary 92 B.) degrees. The B. in economics may require several more advanced economics courses than a B. in many 93 B.Pharm. In North America. for example. This level of education has become the standard that many countries in the world require as an entry-level degree for a licensure as a registered nurse. 94 or Sc. In the UK. in economics.D. for registration to practice as a pharmacist. e. (Hons) or B.S. with more focus on the subject and less on a broad liberal arts background. In both instances. In some countries it has been superseded (M.) by the and Master Doctor of Pharmacy of Pharmacy (Pharm. and advertising. is also frequently used for professional areas of study such as engineering. Bachelor of Science. offer the B. while others award arts qualifications almost exclusively.S. economics degrees may be B. some universities. journalism. or S. in one university but B.B.A.Sc.Sc.N. In addition.Sc. a B. B. for a major/pass degree and B. A Bachelor of Science receives the designation B.A.

C. Croatia. journalism.Ch. S. B.E. B. Hong Kong.S. in economics may require several more advanced economics courses than a B. Malaysia.S. with more focus on the subject and less on a broad liberal arts background. In North America.A. Denmark.S.E. Singapore.A. Wales and South Africa.E.S.B. B. B. New Zealand.S.E.E. Bachelor of Science in Chemistry Bachelor of Science in Computer Science Bachelor of Science in Engineering Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering Bachelor of Science in Education See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary 15 . or less commonly.S. Germany.A. is also frequently used for professional areas of study such as engineering.C. the Philippines.A.E.A.S.S.Sc.Sc.S. Northern Ireland. from the Latin Scientiae Baccalaureus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for completed See bachelor's degree See glossary See glossary See glossary courses that generally last three years in Australia. 103 104 105 106 107 B. The Netherlands.S.E. Scotland and Brazil. the Republic of Ireland.S. Switzerland. B. B.A.C.Ch.B. Israel..E. B. B. a B. England. Bachelor of Science in Agricultural Engineering 96 97 98 99 100 101 B. in economics. Japan. Bachelor of Science in Agriculture Bachelor of Science in Business Administration Bachelor of Science in Biological Engineering Bachelor of Science in Commerce and Business Administration Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering See glossary See glossary See glossary A Bachelor of Science (B.S.(Hon) for an honours degree. Engineering. Bachelor of Science in Aerospace 95 B. and possibly more support courses (such as statistics). or B. a Bachelor of Science degree may be a more specialized version of B. The B. B. and advertising.Ed.E.. India. 102 B.S. Poland.B. or B. or four years in North America. or Sc.S. Iran.S.Chem. B.C. Quebec.B. for example.S. Pakistan.B. Austria. Bachelor of Science Iceland. Sweden.

Bachelor of Science in Environmental Health Bachelor of Science in Family and Consumer Sciences Bachelor of Science in Forest Resources Bachelor of Science in Geology Bachelor of Science in Human Environmental Sciences Bachelor of Science in Industrial Engineering Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering See glossary See glossary 110 111 B..108 109 B.S. B. B.S.Pet.E... Petroleum See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary An undergraduate academic degree in the field B. (Min. In some countries it has been 16 .S.E. See glossary B.S.S.Pcs.O. Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy of pharmacy.. B.Hu.N.Env.Micro.S. See glossary See glossary 112 B.R.Tech.. B.T.) Bachelor of Science in Medical Technology See glossary Bachelor of Science in Metallurgical Engineering See glossary Bachelor of Science in Microbiology Bachelor of Science in Mineral Engineering.S.S.Min.S.Med.E. B.S.Phr.N. for registration to practise as a pharmacist.T.S.S.S.I.S.Min. B.) Bachelor of Science in Occupational Therapy Bachelor of Science in Physics and Astronomy Bachelor of Science in Physics Bachelor of Science in Mineral Engineering.E..S.S. 117 B.Sc..E.S.H. granted by a tertiary 119 B. Bachelor of Science in Nursing education university or similarly accredited school.S. B. 115 B. B.F.Geo.Phar. B.H. B. This level of education has become the standard that many countries in the world require as an entry-level degree for a licensure as a registered nurse.M.E.S.E.S.S.Sci.C. B. The degree is a basic prerequisite. 120 121 122 123 B.S.Med.A.S. in many countries.Mt. B.Micr. 116 B. Mining See glossary See glossary The Bachelor of Science in Nursing or is a four year academic degree in the science and principles of nursing.S. 124 B.F.E.(Pet. See glossary 113 See glossary 114 B.S.P.E.Met..Mng. 118 B.S.

W. However. Bachelor of Science in Urban Planning Bachelor of Social Work Bachelor of Technology Bachelor of Urban Planning See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary Chartered Accountant is the title of members of a certain professional accountancy associations in the Commonwealth countries 129 C.S. The term chartered refers to the charter under which Subjects these bodies were incorporated.D. B. religious studies.A.) degrees instead of Doctor of Laws (LL.) degrees.L. The D. taxation and company law. management accounting.B.U. D. Chief Accountant and Ireland. award Doctor of Civil Law (D.C. Doctor of Business Administration is not always mandatory. such as the University of Oxford.P. examined include financial accounting.B. Chartered Accountant.A. auditing. Administration research-oriented doctorate.C. coursework 131 D. such as theology or. Doctor of Civil Law 17 .C.) often requires significant coursework beyond the masters level.U. 125 126 127 128 B.Pharm.A.D.B.) by the and Master Doctor of Pharmacy of Pharmacy (Pharm. The degree of is Doctor a of Business 130 D.B. B. and written research is completed satisfactorily and when it is reviewed and approved by the committee.S. Doctor of Chiropractic Diploma in Child Health See glossary See glossary Some universities. The D. Tech.A.D.C. (like the Ph. testing.P. The degree is conferred when all coursework.superseded (M.H.L. B. depending on the scholastic program and the level of preparation at the bachelors and masters level. a Bachelor of Divinitatis Baccalaureus (Bachelor of Divinity) Divinity is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a courses taken in the study of divinity or related disciplines.) normally requires a significant thesis or final comprehensive project including a formal defense and and approval qualified by an officially sanctioned doctoral review committee. In Western Christian theology.D. rarely. 132 133 D. (like the Ph.) 134 D.

the other being 138 D. the degree is a 140 D.L.S.degrees. the degree of Doctor of Civil Law by Diploma is customarily conferred on foreign Heads of State.). Doctor of Dental Surgery Doctor of Dental Medicine (D.M..D. it identified one who had been licensed by a university to teach Christian theology or related religious subjects. is a terminal academic degree.C. Doctor of Chiropractic Medicine Doctor of Church Music See glossary See glossary Doctor of Divinity is an academic degree in divinity. Doctor of Literature. 135 136 D.D.. since these would. train for a brief period with general medical students. theoretically.M. D. Doctor of Musical Arts intended for musicians who wish to combine the highest attainments in their area of specialization with doctoral-level academic study in music. D. D.A. is 141 D.A. the difference consisted of having a D.D.M. place her under the jurisdiction of the Chancellor of the university. as well as on the Chancellor of the University.D.).H.M.M.H. like other doctorates. Doctor of Humane Letters is an honorary degree often conferred to those who have contributed to issues of peace and social justice. (The British Sovereign is unable to receive university degrees. or A. students typically 18 .D. Prior to her accession. or L.) 139 D.Mus.M. Divinitatis Doctor (Doctor of Divinity) Litterarum humanae doctor.A.Lit. The Doctor of Musical Arts degree (D.M. In the past.A. A Doctor of Letters is a university academic degree.H. Historically. or Litt. A Doctor of Humane Letters (Latin: 137 D.). the present Queen did accept several honorary degrees.C.D. The D.M. At Oxford. The Doctor of Dental Surgery denotes one of two common professional doctorates in the United States for dentists. including an Oxford DCL in 1948). above the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. In the United Kingdom.L.D. Doctor of Letters higher doctorate. and is issued by a committee on the basis of a long record of research and publication.

142 143 144 145 D.. D. Doctor of Dental Medicine Doctor of Ministry Doctor of Missiology Doctor of Medical Science See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary A Doctor of Science in Nursing is an advanced-level quaternary education degree for Registered Nurses. A master's-level degree is a 146 D.Min. A 151 Dr.D. Doctor is person holding one of the highest titles given by a university. D.S. take courses within their area of specialization (as well as related courses in music theory and music history).D. -person whose profession is to attend sick people. D.Sc. Some programs additionally require study in a cognate area within music or in an outside field.Sc.complete applied studies culminating in several solo recitals. Doctor of Surgery See glossary D.S.Sc. Doctor of Science (usually honorary) university who has a proven record of internationally recognised scholarship.Miss.Sc.A. are common abbreviations for the Latin Scientiae Doctor. Doctor of Nursing Science prerequisite for doctorate-level nursing education.M.D.S. 152 D. which will decide if the candidate merits this accolade. Doctor of Osteopathy Doctor of Public Administration Doctor of Public Health Doctor of Podiatric Medicine See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary Doctor is person holding one of the highest titles given by a university.P.D. The degree will only exceptionally be awarded to a scholar under the 19 .P.. D. or Dr. 147 148 149 150 D.O. Doctor candidate for the degree will usually be required to submit a selection of their publications to the board of the appropriate faculty.H..M.N. The degree is conferred on a member of the 153 D. and write a thesis or dissertation. meaning Doctor of Science. Hon. Sc. D..P. S. D. This type of degree is preferred for nurse educators and nurses in leadership positions.M.

research.M. veterinary surgeons are regulated by the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons or RCVS. The Doctor of Education degree (Ed. Doctor of Education doctorates. research programs in social work. Doctor of Social Work work emphasizes qualitiative and quantitative analysis methods. In the United States. research and/or policy analysis. leadership roles in agencies.g.A.W. or self-employed social work practice.Ed. A master's-level degree is a 154 D. D.D. (e.) is a professional doctorate which prepares the student for administrative or specialized positions in education. The DSW has become less popular in the past several decades. the Ed. Doctor of Veterinary Medicine UK. is an academic degree of the highest level.V.D. The Doctor of Social Work is an academic degree for experienced social work practitioners who wish to further their careers by gaining training in advanced practice. Like other 157 Ed.age of forty. tends to be granted by the Schools of Education of Universities. it is designated a Doctor of Education degree. or D. the Ph.. as most of the top ranked Schools of Social Work now offer only Ph. Doctor of Science in Nursing prerequisite for doctorate-level nursing education. 158 Ed. See glossary A Veterinary Surgeon is a veterinarian qualified in the UK and some other Englishspeaking countries (See: Commonwealth of Nations and Commonwealth realms). hence.D. Educational Specialist The Education Specialist.D. In the 156 D.D. The legislation affecting the activity of UK veterinary surgeons and of the RCVS is the Veterinary Surgeons Act of 1966.S. the Ed. The degree typically leads to teaching. This type of degree is preferred for nurse educators and nurses in leadership positions.N. A Doctor of Science in Nursing is an advanced-level quaternary education degree for Registered Nurses.D. also referred to as 20 ./D.. Doctor of Social Welfare.S.S. Much of the course 155 D.Ed. and so on).

Fellow of the Institute of Actuaries learned people who work together as peers in the pursuit of knowledge. Fellow of the Institute of Chartered Accountants directives on professional qualifications.I. See glossary 160 F. Specialist in Education. and follow on from having done a degree (or equivalent qualification). 21 .S.I. Fellow of the Botanical Society – Professional qualifications in the United Kingdom are generally awarded by professional bodies in line with their charters. and each academic institution grants the title as it sees fit. Depending on the type of program offering the degree. A fellow in the broadest sense is someone who is an equal or a comrade.Educational Specialist. is a terminal academic degree in the U.. but not all. Most. for instance. The initial object of the Institute of Secretaries was the development of the profession of company 162 F.S. However. In school psychology programs.C.S. These qualifications are subject to the European 161 F. See glossary The organization was founded in 1891 and incorporated by Royal Charter in 1902. but do not wish to pursue a degree at the doctoral level.A. or Ed. The term is most often used in an academic context: a fellow is (at least in theory) part of an elite group of 159 F. Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Secretaries secretary and the creation of high standards in the Profession. Membership was limited to those successful in the examinations and those who demonstrated the standard of experience set by the Institute. the Specialist degree is often designed to follow immediately after a bachelor's degree. there are no precise rules for how the title is used.B. that is designed for individuals who wish to develop additional skills or increase their knowledge beyond the master's degree level. professional qualifications are 'Chartered' qualifications.S.C.A. a Master's degree may or may not be a prerequisite for entry.

who became its president in 1861.A.I. Subsequently.C. its importance was recognised by a Royal Charter. Membership currently 168 F. primarily those working in the United Kingdom. near to the Natural History Museum and Imperial 22 . Its activities expanded over the years. including eventually becoming a major publisher in the field of chemistry. which added to its role in the advancement of science.G.F.000. in 1998 it changed its name to the College of Teachers. an account of which shall be published by the Society". The headquarters of the Institue is located in Kensington.C. Fellow of the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons Fellow of the Geological Society Fellow of the Institute of Actuaries See glossary See glossary See glossary The Institute of Biology (IoB) is a professional body for biologists. Fellow of the Chemical Society chemical applications in industry.I. 165 166 167 F. It was founded in 1950. Fellow of the Institute of Biology stands around 14.Biol. F.The College of Teachers (formerly known as the College of Preceptors) is a large association of teachers and associated para163 F. it amalgamated with the Royal Institute of Chemistry. F. London.P.P. received a Royal Charter in 1979 and holds charitable status. Membership was open to all those interested in chemistry.S.S. The Chemical Society was formed in 1841 (then named the Chemical Society of London) as a result of increased interest in scientific matters. Fellow of the College of Preceptors professionals in the United Kingdom. In 1847. Its members included eminent chemists from overseas including August Wilhelm von Hofmann.S. the Faraday Society and the Society for Analytical Chemistry to become the Royal Society of Chemistry. the development of 164 F. In 1980. One of its aims was to hold meetings for "the communication and discussion of discoveries and observations. The College of Teachers was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1849 as The College of Preceptors.

for scholarship relating to Asian culture and society of the highest level.I.M. publications. 1824. and other 171 F. It is the United Kingdom's senior learned society in the field of Asian studies. The Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland was.R. nor does it have regulatory power over its membership. 169 F. Fellow of the Royal Asiatic Society Union and a member of the Science Council. its journal. many important musicians have studied at the Academy since then. 172 F.I. It became the Royal Astronomical Society in 1831 on receiving its Royal Charter from William IV. The IoB is not a trade union. Fellow of the Royal Colonial Institute – 23 . established to further "the investigation of subjects connected with and for the encouragement of science literature and the arts in relation to Asia. A Supplemental Charter in 1915 opened up the fellowship to women.A. England and one of the leading music institutions in the world.S. Fellow of the Institute of Chemistry – The Royal Academy of Music (sometimes abbreviated to RAM) is a music school in London.A.College London.R. The Royal Astronomical Society began as the Astronomical Society of London in 1820 to support astronomical research (mainly carried on at the time by 'gentleman astronomers' rather than professionals).R. according to its Royal Charter of August 11. Fellow of the Royal Academy of Music promote the cultivation of the science of music and to afford facilities for attaining perfection in it by assisting with general instruction all persons desirous of acquiring knowledge thereof'. like the General Medical Council. through lectures. It was founded by Lord Burghersh in 1822 and in 1830 was granted a Royal Charter by King George IV 'to 170 F. One of the most revered musical education establishments in the world. It is the UK adhering organisation to the International Astronomical Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society.C.C." From its incorporation the Society has been a forum.

it has engaged in a wide range of 174 F.R.R. The College 173 F.S. Its membership (and the M. Fellows (the FRCP title) are elected.C.R.R. 177 F.R. They have been criticised by many distinguished organists for their 19thcentury austerity and elitist approach. choral directing and organ-teaching. Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians activities dedicated to its overall aim of upholding and improving standards of medical practice.C.P. The Royal College of Surgeons of England is an independent professional body committed to promoting and advancing the highest standards 175 F. Fellow of the Royal College of Organists maintains the British Organ Library and provides examinations in organ-playing. including dentistry. its statutory duties are laid out in the 1966 Veterinary Surgeons Act.R.C. These exams are legendary for their exhausting standards and tiny pass rates.) is no longer awarded.S 24 . Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of surgical care for patients.(UK) title) is obtained by doctors who have completed the Membership of the Royal College of Physicians exams. The Royal College of Physicians of London is the oldest medical institution in England was founded in 1518 and is one of the most active of all medical professional organisations.P.P. The Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians (L. Since the College's creation as the College of Physicians (it acquired the "Royal" prefix in 1674) by royal charter of King Henry VIII in 1518.O. regulating surgery.S. is an educational body of the United Kingdom.The Royal College of Organists or RCO.G. Its role is to promote organ and choral music and it offers musical education and training for organists and choral directors.C. The Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons is Fellow of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons the regulatory body for veterinary surgeons in the United Kingdom.C.C. The College is located at Lincoln's Inn Fields in London. in England and Wales. Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society The Royal Geographical Society is a learned 176 F.V.R. Established in 1844 by Royal Charter.

It is a charity and exists to promote gardening and horticulture in Britain and Europe. eventually dropping the reference to London in 1892. It was awarded a Royal Charter in 1837. founded in 1830 with the name Geographical Society of London for the advancement of geographical science.Hist.R.B.S. The Society has a varied programme of lectures and one-day and 176 F. The society celebrated its bicentenary in 2004.R. and gained its present name in a Royal Charter granted in 177 F. Fellow of the Royal Historical Society two-day Conferences covering a wide range of historical issues. Fellow of the Royal Horticultural Society 1861 by Prince Albert. It was given a Royal charter by Queen Victoria in 1859. The Royal Horticultural Society was founded in 1804 in London. excellent opportunities for formal and informal discussion among historians. William Donthorne.I. This is done through a series of flower shows and through many model gardens that are open to the public. The Institute also 25 . The Royal Historical Society was founded in 1868.A. it was formed in 1834 by several prominent architects.R. under the patronage of King William IV. It absorbed the 'Association for Promoting the Discovery of the Interior Parts of Africa' (founded by Sir Joseph Banks in 1788).S.H. Thomas Allom. Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects including Philip Hardwick. 178 F. becoming the Royal Institute of British Architects in London. The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) is a professional body for architects in the United Kingdom. Originally named the Institute of British Architects in London. others Great at university They venues provide throughout Britain. England as the Horticultural Society of London. Some of its meetings are held in London. Thomas Leverton Donaldson and John Buonarotti Papworth.society. It is the premier society in the United Kingdom which promotes and defends the scholarly study of the past. the Raleigh Club and the Palestine Association.

1850 when the British Meteorological Society was formed as a society the objects of which should be the advancement and extension of meteorological science by determining the laws of climate and of 179 F. It is a member organization of the Science Council. and lecture theatres. was founded in 1660 and claims to be the oldest learned society 182 F. 184 F. known simply as The Royal Society. The Royal Society of Edinburgh (founded 183 F.R. Fellow of the Royal Photographic Society Art and Science of Photography".R. It maintains an extensive photographic archive and offers various levels of qualifications in photographic skills. galleries for exhibitions.S. It became The Meteorological Society in 1866.E. and is a learned society for science.Met. The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge.L.R. Although a voluntary body. when Her Majesty Queen Victoria granted the privilege of adding 'Royal' to the title. Fellow of the Royal Meteorological Society meteorological phenomena in general.S.S. Rooms are hired out for events. Fellow of the Royal Society still in existence.R.S.S.R. a café. 180 F.S.000 members worldwide. Fellow of the Royal Microscopical Society – The Royal Photographic Society was founded in the United Kingdom in 1853 "to promote the 181 F.P. and the Royal Meteorological Society in 1883. The Royal Meteorological Society traces its origins back to April 3. Edinburgh 1783) is a separate Scottish body.R. As of 2006 it has more than 3. It has a large architectural bookshop. The Royal Irish Academy (founded 1785) is a separate Irish body. when it was incorporated by Royal Charter. it serves as the academy of sciences of the United Kingdom (in which role it receives £30 million annually from the UK Government). Fellow of the Royal Society. Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature The Royal Society of Literature is the "senior 26 .maintains a dozen regional offices around the United Kingdom.M. Parts of the London building are open to the public.

R. RSL.A. including the Ondaatje Prize. and administers a number of literary prizes and awards. Fellow of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts the main business of the Society. Manufactures and Commerce is a British multi-disciplinary institution. The Royal Scottish Society of Arts is a learned society in Scotland. and the Society's extensive archive (publicly accessible in the National Library of Scotland) is a valuable resource used by researchers. 27 . It also awards the Benson Medal for lifetime service in the field of literature. and its meetings were the focus of a large and active cross-section of Edinburgh society . For many years the promotion of invention and improvements of all sorts was 185 F. It was founded as The Society for the Encouragement of the Useful Arts in Scotland by Sir David Brewster in 1821 and dedicated to "the promotion of invention and enterprise".literary organisation in Britain. S. with the aim to "reward literary merit and excite literary talent. but the Society itself uses either its full name or the initials RSA (not least in the letters Fellows of the Society use after their name – FRSA). The Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts.S. and skilled craftsmen such as instrument makers. the Jerwood Awards and the V. engravers and printers. The Society was granted a Royal Charter in 1841.S.academics. based in Fellow of the Society of Arts.S. dedicated to the study of science and technology. Pritchett Memorial Prize. The name Royal Society of Arts is frequently used by others for brevity.A. It was founded in 1754 and was granted a Royal 186 F. Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries London. gentry." It was founded in 1820 by George IV. It can confer the honour of Companion of Literature for writers of particular note." The Society has an annual magazine. The Society's published Transactions provide a fascinating record of changes in technology. professionals such as civil engineers and lawyers.

It is one of the world's largest and 187 F. Adam Smith. Antiquarianism then evolved into more specialised fields of interest such as archaeology. architectural history. It was founded in 1834 as the Statistical Society of London. An antiquary was a person interested in the study of the past. and ecclesiastical studies. advancement and furtherance of the study and knowledge of the antiquities and history of this and other countries". The Association of Chartered Certified Accountants is a British chartered accountancy body with a global presence that offers the Chartered Certified Accountant (Designatory letters ACCA or FCCA) qualification worldwide. in the same week that the Tolpuddle Martyrs were 28 . heraldry.S.Charter in 1847. conservation.S. Notable members have included Benjamin Franklin. William Hogarth.A. but reflects both the antiquity of the Society and its continuing broad range of interests.000 affiliates and students in 170 countries. In addition the ACCA has a network of over 70 staffed offices and other centres around the world. The continuing use of the word in the Society's name is an anachronism. concerned with "the encouragement. Fellow of the Statistical Society statisticians in the UK. Fellow of the Society of Incorporated Accountants and Auditors fastest-growing accountancy bodies with 110. The term was current from the late 16th century to the 19th century. anthropology. particularly the physical traces of the past. Karl Marx. based in the United Kingdom. The Royal Statistical Society is a learned society for statistics and a professional body for 188 F. art history.S. The Institute's headquarters are in London with the principal administrative office being based in Glasgow.A. and there is no such thing as a professional antiquary today. The Society of Antiquaries of London is a learned society. Charles Dickens and Guglielmo Marconi.000 members and 260.

Sir Humphry Davy. provides preventive care and health education for all ages and both sexes. Today the society has 7. and who 189 F. In April 1828 the Zoological Gardens were opened to members. Joseph Sabine. A general practitioner. Oxford. Some also care for 29 .500 of whom are professionally qualified.200 members in the UK and the rest of the world. The RSS team reached the finals of University Challenge: The Professionals 2006. The Zoo soon had the most extensive collection of animals in the world./F. who obtained a parcel of land in Regent's Park from the Crown at a nominal rent.P. The purpose of the society was to study animals in comparative freedom. and in 1847 the public were admitted to aid funding. but died shortly after assuming this office in July 1826. treats acute and chronic illnesses.P. It received a Royal Charter from George IV on 27 March 1829. In 1831 William IV presented the royal menagerie to the Zoological Society. Nicholas Aylward Vigors and other eminent naturalists. Raffles was also the first President. A G. only around 1. and merged with the Institute of Statisticians in 1993.Z.S. broadcast on 31 July. He was succeeded by the Marquess of Lansdowne. and Londoners soon christened the Zoological Gardens the "Zoo". Lord Auckland. Fellow of the Zoological Society supervised the building of the first animal houses.sentenced (see History of Teaching Statistics). The Zoological Society of London is a learned society founded in April 1826 by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles. They had previously beaten the Granta team in the first round (first broadcast on 24 July) before going on to beat the team from Prospect Magazine 280 points to 115 in the semi-final. It became the Royal Statistical Society in 1887. General Practitioner doctor who provides primary care. family physician or family practitioner is a physician/medical 190 G.P. They were beaten 230 to 125 by the Bodleian Library.

From time to time. Juris Doctor (Latin for "Teacher of Law") or J.hospitalized patients.S. Some U. such as tonsillectomies.A. 192 H. It is considered a first Juris Doctor (Doctor of Law) not Juris Doctorate professional degree as one of the main purposes of the degree is to provide the professional training for those who wish to become lawyers. The Advanced Extension Awards were introduced in 2002.S. and are designed to allow students to "demonstrate their knowledge. where the word "physician" is only used for certain specialists and not for GPs. However. For instance.S.D. They are assessed completely by virtue of external examinations. understanding and skills to the full". is a degree in law offered by universities in a number of countries. in response to the British Government's Excellence in Cities report. it was common for a General Practitioner to operate if a patient had an extremely painful hernia. The term general practitioner is common in the United Kingdom and some other Commonwealth countries. however. There has been an steady decrease in family physicians in the last few decades. It is the premier society in the United Kingdom which promotes and defends the scholarly study of the past. or an acute appendus. and appendectomies. in the past.D. do minor surgery and/or obstetrics. 30 . they will remove minor skin lesions surgically. they were required to do much more important surgeries. The Royal Historical Society was founded in 191 H. as a means of testing students at the most demanding standards found across the world.S. Historic Societatis Socius Fellow of the Historical Society 1868. due to the long work hours and little pay compared to most specialists.A. where they have hospital privileges. law schools award the first professional degree in law using the English terms Doctor of Law or Doctor of 193 J. hernia repairs. Health Sciences Advancement Award They are aimed at the top 10% of students in the British A Level tests.

or J.S.D. The humanities are usually distinguished from the social sciences and the 195 L. A Doctor of Letters (Latin: Litterarum doctor. or Litt. The humanities are a group of academic subjects united by a commitment to studying aspects of the human condition and a qualitative approach that generally prevents a single paradigm from coming to define any discipline.D." stands for Legum Baccalaureus in Latin. Litterarum Humaniorum Doctor (Doctor of Humanities) natural sciences and include subjects such as the classics. sometimes awarded as Doctor of the Science of Law. In the United States. communications..J. D. the equivalent to a Ph. music.D. S.S.Litt. although these are often regarded as social sciences elsewhere. In the United 31 .B.D. thus "LL. Doctor of Juridical Science an honorary degree. above the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.H.b): "LL" is an abbreviation of the genitive plural legum (of laws). the LL.J. LL. It is abbreviated LL. and is issued by a committee on the basis of a long record of research and publication.D.Jurisprudence rather than the Latin term Juris Doctor.. the performing arts. cultural studies and history. The degree of Bachelor of Laws (or Baccalaureate of Laws) is the principal academic degree in law in most common law countries other than the United States.).) is a university academic degree. Litterarum Doctor (Doctor of Letters) higher doctorate. philosophy.). literature.B. or sometimes LL.D.D. Other subjects at times included as humanities in some parts of the world include archaeology.B. is the degree awarded for research in the form of a dissertation.D.B (or LL. Legum Baccalaureus (Bachelor of Laws) has been replaced by the Juris Doctor degree. area studies. The Doctor of Juridical Science (S.D. where it 197 LL. in law. religion and the visual arts. languages. is almost always 194 J.D) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law. In the United Kingdom.D. the degree is a 196 Litt. Doctor of Laws (Latin: Legum Doctor.

M.C. See glossary Master of Accountancy (M. In Canada. hence the double "L".B.Acc. (For female students. is typically a oneyear.M. or M.States it is sometimes called "Bachelor of Legal Letters" to account for the double "L". Bachelor of Laws is the name of the first degree in common law.S..S. Plural abbreviations in Latin are formed by doubling the letter.Acc. Legum Magister.Acc. Master of Laws (also L. Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians Licentiate of the Royal College See glossary See glossary A Master's degree is an academic degree usually 202 M.) 200 201 L.Acy. The Canadian common law LL. Master of Arts awarded for completion of a postgraduate (or graduate) course of one to three years in duration.. Legum Doctor (Doctor of Laws) degree in law.P.Acc. The Bachelor of Laws is considered a professional degree as one of the main purposes of the degree is to provide the academic training for those who wish to become lawyers. but is also the name of the first degree in Quebec civil law awarded by a number of Quebec universities. the less common variant Legum Magistra may also be used.P. is generally a graduate-entry degree. Bachelor of Laws is also the name of the first degree in Scots law and South African law (both being pluralistic legal systems that are based partly on common law and partly on civil law) awarded by a number of universities in Scotland and South Africa.). The Master of Laws is an advanced law degree that allows someone to specialize in a particular area of law. Master of Accountancy Accounting (M. non-thesis graduate program designed to prepare graduates for public accounting and to 32 . alternatively Master of Professional 203 M.L.R. respectively.C. M. L.A.) from its Latin name.). It is commonly abbreviated LL.D.M. 199 LL. Doctor of Laws is a doctorate-level academic 198 LL.R.Ac.) or Master Science in Accounting (M.

A Bachelor of Music (B.M. Jamaica. are the two degrees awarded after a course of study in medicine and surgery at a university in the United Kingdom and other places following its usage.B) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by a college. Musiae Baccalaureus Bachelor of Music Singapore.A. M. M. B. or in Latin Medicinæ Baccalaureus et Baccalaureus Chirurgiæ (abbreviated M. New Zealand.. M.) designation by passing a series of exams. M. Master of Arts in Communication Master of Agricultural Economics Master of Art Education Master of Agricultural Extension See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary The Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy is 208 M.A. M. Ch.). Or.A. B.A. 209 210 211 212 213 M.P.. or Mus.B.B.M. however in practice they are usually treated as one.Ch.B. university. M.C.provide them with the 150 credit hours required by most states before taking the CPA exam..B.Ext.M. South Africa.T.S.B. the Bachelor of Music is a professional degree. Pakistan and India. or conservatory upon completion of program of study in music. Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy a master’s degree offered by the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. B. Medicine Baccalaureus Bachelor of Medicine. M.M.A.B.. M. B. In the United States. Malaysia.A. B. M.A. M. etc.D. 214 M.A.A.S. the 33 .Ed. 204 205 206 207 M. The naming suggests that they are two separate degrees.L.A. Master of Avian Medicine Master of Applied Mathematical Sciences Master of Arts in Planning Master of Arts for Teachers Master of Arts in Urban Planning See glossary – – – See glossary Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery.U.S..A.E. B. some graduates entering corporate accounting or consulting may pursue the Certified Management Accountant (C.Mus. such as medical schools in Australia.M. Hong Kong.Chir.P.

Ch. Pakistan and India.B. Malaysia. B.Ch. was the first graduate school of management in the US.B.. or in Latin Medicinæ Baccalaureus et Baccalaureus Chirurgiæ (abbreviated M.B. B. was established in 1881 (initially as an exclusively undergraduate institution).). The first American business school. part of Dartmouth College. the forebearer of the modern MBA.M. New Zealand. Surgery (Medicinæ Baccalaureus et Baccalaureus Chirurgiæ) after a course of study in medicine and surgery at a university in the United Kingdom and other places following its usage. Hong Kong.B. South Africa. however in practice they are usually treated as one. 34 .B.A. the second oldest US business school.A. (E.S.M. Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery.) program.B. M.. M. Master of Business Administration is a master's degree in business administration. Singapore.B. usually requiring a proficiency performing an instrument. B. it was the first institution conferring advanced degrees (masters) in the commercial sciences. Jamaica. The naming suggests that they are two separate degrees. Founded in 1900. Such a program lasts three to four and a half years. Founded in 1898..A. are the two degrees awarded Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of 216 M. B. which attracts people from a wide range of academic disciplines.S. a mainstay at most business schools today. The Tuck School of 215 M. Master of Business Administration Business. was the first graduate school in 1940 to offer working professionals the Executive M. such as medical schools in Australia..B. M.B. designation originated in the United States. B.A.majority of work consists of prescribed music courses and study in applied music.B. etc. emerging as the country industrialized and companies sought out scientific approaches to management.Chir. the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business. The M. Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.B.S.

M. pastoral theology. the degree may or may not include a thesis. It generally includes studies in 225 M.Div. Many programs also contain courses in church growth. or M. Courses in pastoral counseling and psychology are also standard parts of an M.C. from the Latin Medicinæ Doctor) is an academic degree 224 M. M. this degree is the standard prerequisite for ordination to the priesthood or pastorship or other appointment. to being a relatively rare higher doctoral research degree. Master of Divinity Christian ministry and theology. and Old and New Testament studies. In Christian theology. Coursework usually includes studies in New Testament Greek. Master of Education The Master of Education (M. Hebrew.217 218 M.C.L.Div.B. In addition. the Master of Divinity is the first professional degree in Divinity in North America.C. Medicinae Doctor (Doctor of Medicine) for medical doctors.S. It varies an between entry-level countries. program. Latin. education.A. ordination or licensing to professional ministry. and of some other religions.Cl. M.C.P. Master of Clinical Biochemistry Master of Christian Education.E. Master of Comparative Law Master of Church Music Master of City Planning Master of Computer Science See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary Doctor of Medicine (M. liturgical studies.M. At most seminaries this degree requires around 90 credit hours of study. In many Christian denominations. or MD. Master of Clinical Sciences higher than a Bachelor’s but lower than a Doctor’s 220 221 222 223 M. and is a common academic degree in theological seminaries. church history. M. from being professional degree.D. 226 M. and the like.C. ecclesiology.Ed.D. Master of Civil Engineering See glossary See glossary Master is a person holding an academic degree 219 M. patristics.Ed. philosophy. systematic theology. Christian evangelism. theology.Sc.C.E. canon law.) is a degree conferred by American institutions for 35 .

Ed) and several years' experience in an elementary. secondary. dean.A.E. consultant. economics.H. Master of Health Administration designed to give graduates of health disciplines (in particular) greater understanding of management issues and prepare them for senior management roles.R.A. 229 230 M.F.educators moving on in their field. Master of Environmental Planning See glossary A Master of Fine Arts is a graduate degree in an area of applied or performing arts typically requiring two to three years of study beyond the bachelor level. project and program implementation. M. Creative Writing. 227 M. typically that required Doctoral-level work to be completed. Most states require a Master's-level degree and the certificate that goes with that work to be hired for educational administration (principal. Master of Fine Arts applied or performing nature (versus research and academic inquiry) with the program often culminating in a major work or performance. Common fields of study include Theater. For the superintendent level. Coursework is primarily of an 228 M.. or B. Master of Forest Resources Master of Humanities See glossary Humanities the branches of learning having primarily a cultural character The Master of Health Administration is a postgraduate professional Masters degree that provides training in health policy. or special education classroom. European and Australian universities. Filmmaking. Another issue is that most states require continuing course work in order for teachers to maintain certification (especially since No Child Left Behind requirements were implemented in 2001). It is 231 M.F. Admission into a Master's-level program typically required a Bachelors of Education (B..H. The degree traditionally focuses on 36 .P. etc).S. and is awarded by many American. Education programs tend to have strict standards to stay in the program and often take more time to complete than other programs.A. assistant principal. B. and Visual Arts.

degree. In the United Kingdom it is more common for a vocational degree in library and information science to bear the standard designation M.H.S. The M. 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 M.S.Litt.Sc. state. a more advanced one-year research Masters.I.M. is awarded here because for the ancient universities the first degree in the Arts and Humanities is an undergraduate M.A. degree.Phil.S. Often the M.P. Usually. followed 240 M. Master of Library and Information Studies or Master of Library and Information Science acquire is the Master of Library Science. or M. M. and M.S.I.L.L.Litt. degrees are widely considered to be equivalent. M.) is the 242 M. 241 M. Master of Music first graduate degree in Music.S.S.A. M.L.H.S.Biol.health administration at the local.A. The Master of Letters is a postgraduate Master's degree which has two main systems of use. an older and still common degree designation for librarians to 239 M. It is usually earned after one or two years of further study 37 .I. Master of Library Science See glossary The Master of Music (M. M. the degree involves nine months of postgraduate-level courses.S. The M. M. or M.H. and federal level as well as in the nonprofit sector. or M.L. This contrasts with the generalist Master of Business Administration or the Master of Public Administration.L.S. (T) is a one-year full-time taught degree at the ancient Scottish universities.A.M. and contrasts with the M.L. (Hons). Master of Letters (Magister Litterarum) by a short research dissertation written during the summer months.Litt. The M.E.I.Mus. is a relatively recent degree.L.I.H. Master of Home Economics Master of Historic Preservation Master of Health Science Master of Health Services Administration Member of the Institute of Biology Master of Information Science Master of Landscape Architecture See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary The Master of Library and Information Science is a master’s degree required for most professional librarian positions. M.

however. Master of Public Administration provides training in public policy and project/program implementation (more recently known as public management). Australia.M. similar to a Master of Public Policy. M. Master of Mass Communication Master of Mechanical Engineering Master of Music Education See glossary See glossary See glossary The Master of Music (M.following the achievement of a first degree. United States. through a formal review process.Phil. M.M.H.Mus.A. Master of Music Education Medical Officer Master of Occupational Health Medical Officer of Health See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary The Master of Public Administration degree is one of professional public affairs degrees that 251 M.M.S.Ed. 247 248 249 250 M. many other schools have MPH programs.P. M. M. M.P. Some universities in the UK (e. 243 244 245 M.M. Master of Public Affairs public policy schools that provides training in public policy and the operation of government. language.A.P. It is usually earned after one or two years of further study 246 M.C. Master of Music following the achievement of a first degree. The Council on 253 M. Sheffield University) utilise it as a special research degree. Philosophy all learning exclusive of technical precepts and practical Arts (history.g.O.H.g.) is the first graduate degree in Music. Sheffield University) utilise it as a special research degree.Mus. The Master of Public Affairs historically has been a professional Master's degree offered in 252 M. Master of Public Health Education for Public Health has accredited 37 schools of public health in the U.) In the usage of the United Kingdom. the Master of Philosophy is a 38 . Master of Philosophy etc.H. Some universities in the UK (e.E. or M. The Master of Public Health is a professional master's degree awarded for studies in areas related to public health.Ed. New Zealand and some other countries.O. 254 M.Mus.O.

research degree, requiring the completion of a thesis. It is a lesser degree than the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), greater than (or sometimes equal to) the Bachelor of Philosophy (B.Phil.,) and in some instances may be awarded as a substitute for a Ph.D. thesis, which is a marginal fail. It may also serve as a provisional enrolment for the Ph.D. It is generally thesis only, and is regarded as a senior or second master’s degree. An M.Phil. is generally considered equivalent to the French Diplôme d'études Approfondies or D.E.A., Spanish Diploma de Estudios Avanzados D.E.A., or First Doctoral Degree. The Master of Public Policy is a professional Master's degree that provides training in policy analysis and program evaluation at public policy schools. Over time, the curriculum of Master of Public Policy and the Master of Public Administration (M.P.A.) degrees have blended and converged, due to the realization that policy analysis and program evaluation could benefit from an understanding of public administration, and vice versa. Today, the core course offerings of many M.P.A. and M.P.P. 255 M.P.P. Master of Public Policy programs are similar, with M.P.A. programs providing training in policy analysis, and M.P.P. programs providing coursework in program implementation. However, M.P.P. programs still place more emphasis in policy analysis, research and evaluation, while M.P.A. programs place more emphasis on

operationalization of public policies and the design of effective programs and projects to achieve public policy goals. Some universities have begun offering a combined M.P.P.A. degree, Master of Public Policy and

Administration. 256 M.P.P.P.M. M.P.S., or 257 M.Prof.Studs., or Master of Plant Protection and Pest Management Master of Professional Studies See glossary Master of Professional Studies is a (usually terminal) interdisciplinary academic degree and

39

M.Prof.Studies.

is sometimes used for programs that do not fit into any traditional categories.

258 259 260 261 262

M.R.A.S. M.R.C.C. M.R.C.P. M.R.C.S. M.R.C.V.S.

Member of the Royal Asiatic Society; Member of the Royal Academy of Sciences Member of the Royal College of Chemistry Member of the Royal College of Physicians Member of the Royal College of Surgeons Member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons

See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary The Master of Religious Education is a terminal academic degree in preparation for

263

M.R.E.

Master of Religious Education

professional teaching ministry, usually offered by Christian institutions. The curriculum

includes two years of theological study and sometimes a thesis. 264 265 266 267 268 M.R.G.S. M.R.I. M.R.I.A. M.R.P. M.R.Pharm.S. Member of the Royal Geographical Society Member of the Royal Institution. Member of the Royal Irish Academy Master of Regional Planning Member of the Royal Society of Pharmasists See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary The Master of Arts (Magister Artium) and Master of Science (Magister Scientiæ) degrees are the basic degree types in most subjects, and may be either entirely course-based or entirely 269 M.S. Master of Science; Master in Surgery; research-based, or (more typically) a mixture. The Master of Surgery is an advanced medical degree. It is commonly abbreviated M.Ch. or Ch.M. (as well as M.Chir.) from its Latin name, Magister Chirurgiae, as well as M.S. by programs in India. 270 271 272 M.S.A.E. M.S.Bio.C. M.S.C. Master of Science in Aerospace Engineering Master of Science in Biochemistry Master of Science in Commerce See glossary See glossary See glossary The Master of Arts (Magister Artium) and Master of Science (Magister Scientiæ) degrees 273 M.Sc. Master of Science are the basic degree types in most subjects, and may be either entirely course-based or entirely research-based, or (more typically) a mixture. 274 275 M.S.C.E. M.S.C.E. Master of Science in Chemical Engineering Master of Science in Civil Engineering See glossary See glossary

40

276 277 278 279 280 281

M.S.Chem. M.S.C.J. M.S.C.S. M.S.E. M.S.Ed. M.S.E.E.

Master of Science in Chemistry Master of Science in Criminal Justice Master of Science in Computer Science Master of Science in Engineering Master of Science in Education Master of Science in Electrical Engineering

See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary The M.E.M. (Master of Environmental Management) is a degree designed for students with primary interests in careers in

environmental policy and analysis, stewardship, education, consulting, or management dealing with natural resource or environmental issues. Master of Science in Environmental Management The program requires course work in both the natural and social sciences, with a particular focus on the relationship among science, management, and policy. The ultimate purpose of the degree program is to prepare students to address ecological and social systems with scientific understanding and an ability to make sense of the complex underlying social and ecological context. 283 M.S.E.S.M. M.S.H.E.S., 284 M.S.Hu.Env.Sci. M.S.I.E. M.S.I.S. M.S.J. M.S.L.S. M.S.M. M.S.Marine Sc., 290 291 292 293 294 M.S.M.Sci. M.S.M.E. M.S.Mh. M.S.Micro. M.S.Min.E. Master of Science in Engineering Science and Mechanics Master of Science in Human Environmental Sciences Master of Science in Industrial Engineering Master of Science in Information Science Master of Science in Journalism Master of Science in Library Science Master of Sacred Music Master of Science in Marine Science Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering Master of Science in Engineering Mechanics Master of Science in Microbiology Master of Science in Mineral Engineering See glossary See glossary

282

M.S.E.M.

285 286 287 288 289

See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary

41

it does not necessarily include field education or (CPAs) and other tax coursework in ministry studies.N.H. M. the Master of Theological Studies is an academic degree.S.E. Master of Social Science always postgraduate in nature.W.) before pursuing a Master's. most M.W. It usually requires the completion of a scholarly thesis.T. Engineering Master of Science in Nursing Master of Science in Occupational Therapy Master of Science in Planning Master of Science in Public Health See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary See glossary A Master of Social Science is a taught Master's degree in the United Kingdom.Sc. Unlike the Master of 304 M.Sc. As such. degrees are unusual.S. The Master of Social Work is a type of master's degree in the field of social work which is received from a graduate school that has been approved by the Council on Social 305 M. The M.P. M. Master of Theological Studies Divinity. The degree is generally equivalent to a Master of Arts degree in religious studies.S. Master of Science Technology Master of Science in Taxation specifically designed for Certified Public Accountants professionals.S.S. Master of Science in Social Work See glossary The Master of Science in Taxation is a professional graduate degree (Master's degree) 302 M.S.Master of Science in Metallurgical 295 296 297 298 299 M.S.S. Master of Tax Accounting See glossary A Master of Theological Studies is a two-year first theological degree offered by several seminaries and divinity schools. requires two years of postgraduate study.S.S. M.S.W.T. and are almost 300 M.S.S.Mt.O. politics and sociology. criminology. See glossary 303 M. include. in combination with field experience. Master of Social Work Work Education. social work.S.W. Common subjects that would lead to the award of M.A. While some people get a Bachelor of Social Work (B.P.T. and its goal is not to prepare one for ordination. 301 M.W. M.Sc. but are not limited to.S. M.T. programs 42 .S.

P..T.B.). This is generally a one or 306 M.R. depending on the program's specific focus.) is a postgraduate master’s degree which is sometimes earned after (or instead of) a Master of Divinity (M.). Unlike the Master of Divinity. and its goal is not to prepare one for ordination. M. Bachelor of Music A Bachelor of Music (B. or in some combination of the aforementioned (e.Th. Yet other schools offer a Master of Arts or Master of Science in planning. The Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada accredits many such programs. B.Mus.D.. The Master of Urban Planning is a two-year academic/professional Master's degree that qualifies graduates to work as urban planners.g. Master of Urban Planning (M. As such. 309 Mus. is offered at some coursework in ministry studies.).Th. A comparable degree.D. or 43 .T.U. The degree is generally equivalent to a Master of Arts degree in religious studies. programs.accept applicants with undergraduate degrees in broad range of liberal arts degrees. Some schools offer the degree as a Master of City Planning (M.M. it does not necessarily include field education or (S. D.Div. or Ph. Master of Planning (M.. In North America. Regardless of the name.).S. the degree remains generally the same.Min. the Master of Sacred Theology seminaries. or M. the Master of Theological Studies is 307 M.P. Master of Theology two year specialized advanced degree in theological research that many theology students undertake in order to better prepare for Th. the Master of Theology (Th. Master of Urban and Regional Planning).Plan. Master of Regional Planning 308 M.C. A Master of Theological Studies is a two-year first theological degree offered by several seminaries and divinity schools. It usually requires the completion of a scholarly thesis.M.P. Master of Theological Studies an academic degree.) or a Master of Theological Studies.

recital. is intended for musicians and composers who wish to combine the highest attainments in their area of specialization with doctoral-level academic study in music. The Master of Music (M. nuclear reactors. This field of engineering includes the design. the majority of work consists of prescribed music courses and study in applied music. usually requiring a proficiency performing an instrument. The degree often includes research training in preparation for doctoral research.Mus. Nuclear engineering is the practical application of the atomic nucleus gleaned from principles of nuclear physics and the interaction between radiation and matter. or Mus. operation and maintenance of nuclear fission systems and 312 Nuc. 44 . like other doctorates. Such a program lasts three to four and a half years. nuclear power plants and/or nuclear weapons. and the effect of radioactive waste or radioactivity in the environment.Doc. nuclear proliferation.M. The field can also include the study of nuclear fusion. Mus. The Doctor of Music degree (D. specifically. university. nuclear fuels technology.M.). medical applications of radiation. Master of Music Some universities in the UK (e. heat transport. testing. analysis. development.E. portfolio and composition.D.) is the first graduate degree in Music. 311 Mus.g. or M. It is usually earned after one or two years of further study following the achievement of a first degree.Mus. Normal components includes a dissertation.Mus. Doctor of Music D. nuclear safety.Mus. the Bachelor of Music is a professional degree. In the United States. Sheffield University) utilise it as a special research degree.B) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by a college. or conservatory upon completion of program of study in music. is an academic degree of the highest level.D. The 310 Mus.. Nuclear Engineer components.

(ii) an outline of methodology. Doctor is person holding one of the highest titles given by a university.D. social. Contemporary Ph. alternatively. historical. and (iii) several chapters of scientific. degrees are awarded in nearly every field 315 Ph.000 typically consist of words). Second best is to say Doctor's degree. in the first phase.D. "Doctor philosophiæ". is to say a person holds a doctorate in (name their field of specialty). In medieval times. and entitles the student to refer to him or herself as a Ph. PhD is an advanced university degree The preferred form for Ph. Philosophiae Baccalaureus (Bachelor of Philosophy) B. occasionally 314 Ph.000–200. the University of Oxford – it is a graduate degree.G. philosophical. (Doctor of 45 . from 50 to 800 pages (10. students traverse phases. Graduate in Pharmacy Doctor of Pharmacy – In the United States the Pharm. (i) a Dissertations comprehensive literature review.313 O.) is the title of an academic degree. Pharm. any research outside the fields of theology or medicine was called "philosophy". per the discipline.B. In most countries Ph. Doctor of Optometry See glossary Bachelor of Philosophy (B.B. Philosophiae Doctor (Doctor of Philosophy) of the sciences and the humanities.Phil.D. The principal task of the doctoral candidate is writing and defending a major.D. candidate.D.. or literary analysis. Doctor of Philosophy.Phil. is a doctoral degree granted upon completion of extensive academic work in a field of study. students typically complete required courses and a comprehensive examination.D. in many universities – for example.D. or Ph. degree covers a wide range of subjects. the successful completion of which marks the beginning of the second phase. original contribution to his or her academic discipline—usually a written dissertation ranging in length.D. hence the Ph.Ph. (meaning "Teacher of Philosophy").D. D. 316 317 Ph. Despite its name.

England.D.Pharm. it takes a minimum of six academic years after high school graduation to complete the Pharm. clinical sciences and experiential training. India. (Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy) degree program. As of the year 2000. Hong Kong. pharmacy law and policy. which is earned through 321 Psy. the other doctorate-level degree in Clinical Psychology is the PhD. Pod. all pharmacy schools in the U. social and administrative sciences. Austria. although the majority of accepted applicants hold one.S.D. Doctor of Psychology one of two established training models for Clinical Psychology. The multidisciplinary curriculum may focus on pharmacy-biomedical sciences.B.O. Professor academic rank at an institution of higher education The Doctor of Psychology (Psy. from the Latin Scientiae Baccalaureus) is an undergraduate 322 S. or Sc.B.S. have discontinued the B. the Republic of 46 .D. program. Germany. pharmaceutical sciences.D.) degree is a professional doctorate. Scientiae Baccalaureus (Bachelor of Science) academic degree awarded for completed courses that generally last three years in Australia. the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) mandated that a doctorate in pharmacy would be the new first-professional degree. 318 319 P. or less commonly. Traditionally in the United States. In the United States. Denmark.Sc. However.S.B. program generally does not require prior completion of a college degree. Typically. Croatia. in 1990. B.D.Pharmacy) degree is a first-professional degree or professional doctorate that prepares the graduate for pharmacy practice. Entrance into a Pharm. A Bachelor of Science (B.M. Principal Medical Officer Doctor of Podiatry See glossary See glossary Professor is a faculty member of the highest 320 Prof. S.. the bachelor's degree in pharmacy was the first-professional degree for pharmacy practice.

Wales and South Africa. Malaysia. or four years in North America.A. and this practice is now defunct. Northern Ireland.S.Ireland. A candidate for the degree will usually be required to submit a selection of their 323 S. The Netherlands.A.S. The introduction of the Ph. Quebec. Pakistan. Laws or Civil Law. The degree is conferred on a member of the university who has a proven record of internationally recognised scholarship. Medicine. Latvia. The B. Iran. The degree will only exceptionally be awarded to a scholar under the age of forty. for example. Doctor of Science publications to the board of the appropriate faculty. in the twentieth century of course devalued the title Doctor. S. is also frequently used for professional areas of study such as engineering. New Zealand. Doctor of Juridical Science. Israel.. which will decide if the candidate merits this accolade.D. Iceland. in economics may require several more advanced economics courses than a B. Doctor of the Science of Law Scientiae Magister (Master of Science) See doctor of laws See master's degree 47 . The status of the degree has declined because it is not widely understood. in economics. Switzerland. a Bachelor of Science degree may be a more specialized version of B. and advertising. but in former times the doctorate in science was regarded as a greater distinction than a professorial chair and hence a professor who was also a DSc would be known as Doctor. journalism. and possibly more support courses (such as statistics). the Philippines. typically having precedence after Divinity. a B.D.D. 324 325 S. Japan. Sweden. and above Music. and Letters. Scotland and Brazil. with more focus on the subject and less on a broad liberal arts background. Poland. In North America. In the United Kingdom and Ireland and certain other European countries. Singapore. the degree of Doctor of Science is one of the Higher Doctorates.M.J.

degree once the S.M. ethics.T.M. S.M.D.T.T.) is a second level professional degree conferred by seminaries and theological colleges. towards a student moving on to the D. One must normally have an M.M. it is considered sufficient for formal ordination. Some seminaries will also credit part of the work done for the S.B.Div.M.M.M. In some denominations.T.A.D. notably the Church of England.M. Candidates for this degree typically must complete course work in Greek or Hebrew.T. homiletics and Christian ministry.T. Th. The thesis option is especially helpful for those individuals who wish to use the S. most programs have the option for the student to write a thesis. 48 .T. typically is designed to enhance a student’s academic credentials for entrance to a doctoral program or as a way of furthering theological education for ordained ministers.T. While the degree may be awarded solely on the basis of taught academic courses. S. or Btheol) is a three to five year undergraduate degree in theological disciplines. biblical theology.B.Sc.B. The Bachelor of Theology (B. to further their qualifications for doctoral study and who did not complete a thesis or major research project as a part of the first professional degree. in a religious or theological field before being admitted to study for the S. S. degrees are typically awarded after having completed thirty hours of study at the Master’s 329 S. It does not require a thesis but is often a year longer than a Bachelor of Religious Education or Bachelor of Arts. Doctor of Sacred Music Doctor of Social Science Sacrae Theologiae Baccalaureus (Bachelor of Sacred Theology) See glossary See glossary See glossary The Master of Sacred Theology (S. Sacrae Theologiae Magister (Master of Sacred Theology) level beyond that required for the first professional degree.Th.. The S. or an M. Theologicae Baccalaureus (Bachelor of Theology) theology. as well as systematic 330 Th. has been awarded.Min.326 327 328 S.M.T.

A comparable degree. Theologicae Magister (Master of Theology) generally a one or two year specialized advanced degree in theological research that many theology students undertake in order to better prepare for Th.D with Ph. in recent decades there has been a trend in some institutions (e.) or a Master of Theological Studies.g. or Ph. In North America.M. Princeton Theological Seminary and Dallas Theological Seminary) to replace Th. M.Doctor of Theology (in Latin Theologiae Doctor) is a terminal academic degree in theology.Div.D. This is 332 Th. Theologicae Doctor (Doctor of Theology) Th. the Th.D. is for the study of Christianity in a secular context. It is a research degree and is considered to be equivalent to a Doctor of Philosophy. is designed for Christian theological scholarship.). Traditionally.. both require a professional degree in divinity such as the MDiv). D. the Master of Sacred Theology (S..M.D.D programs in the same fields. 49 . whereas Ph.D. Clear distinction between 331 Th.D. the Master of Theology (Th. is offered at some seminaries.) is a postgraduate Masters degree which is sometimes earned after (or instead of) a Master of Divinity (M. or M.Th. and Ph.T.D. However. are indicated in the prerequisites of both programs at Harvard Divinity School and Boston University School of Theology (that is.Min.D. programs.

Agricultural extension was once known as the application of scientific research and new knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education. a branch of learning or university study especially one in the fine Arts or the humanities. sequential approach by a qualified instructor as part of the core curriculum. the applied arts incorporate design and creative ideals to objects of utility. an associate degree is equivalent to the first two years of a four-year college or university. Common abbreviations are A. sculpture. Associate degree . natural.S.Glossary An actuary is a business professional who deals with the financial impact of risk and uncertainty. Asian studies combines aspects of sociology. A. music. (Associate of Occupational Studies). graphic design. and related topics. history.S. The field of extension now encompasses a range of communication and learning activities organised for rural people by professionals from different disciplines. criticism. Asian studies is a field in Cultural studies that is concerned with the meaning and practices of everyday life among Asian peoples. Art education is the area of learning that.G.A. spacecraft. Hong Kong introduced associate's degrees. such as a cup. In analogy with "aeronautical engineering". Agricultural engineers develop engineering science and technology in the context of agricultural production and processing and for the management of natural resources. Within the schools "visual arts education" encompasses all the visual and performing arts delivered in a standards-based. creative writing. and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. as flight technology advanced to include craft operating outside the Earth's atmosphere. and aesthetics. Within the Asian sphere. In 2000. painting. Arts 1. interior design. fashion design. A. economic. and design in jewelry.S. A. as an equivalence to higher diplomas.O. In the United States and. Applied arts refers to the application of design and aesthetics to objects of function and everyday use. weaving. the broader term "aerospace engineering" has replaced the former in most usage.S. and business studies. Agricultural economics applies the principles of economics to the production of crops and livestock. and cultural anthropology to study cultural phenomena in Asian traditional and industrial societies. etc and design applied to more practical fields such as commercial graphics and home furnishings. Whereas fine arts serve as intellectual stimulation to the viewer or academic sensibilities. It is the lowest in the hierarchy of postsecondary academic degrees offered in these countries. (Associate of Arts). although this term usually only concerns craft which operate in outer space. magazine or decorative park bench. These programmes are mainly provided through affiliated colleges at universities. more rarely.B. (Associate of Business Administration). pottery.A. It is also equivalent to the UK's foundation degree. tangible arts— drawing. health. is based upon the visual. or in some cases. A.An associate degree is an academic degree awarded by community colleges. the branch is sometimes referred to as astronautical engineering. (Associate of Applied Science. Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns aircraft. Originally called aeronautical engineering and dealing solely with aircraft. and A. (Associate of Science). Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field that encompasses the parts of exact. The term "arts education" implies many things. Associate of Arts and Sciences). Canada. In 2004. junior colleges and some bachelor's degree-granting colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study usually lasting two years. Australia added 50 . theater) and visual arts. The fields of industrial design. in the United States of America. including agriculture. Asian studies forms a field of post-graduate study in many universities. They apply their engineering knowledge and skills to solve problems relating to sustainable agricultural production. fabrics. (Associate of General Studies). decorative art and functional art are considered applied arts. but is definable as: Instruction and programming in any arts area — including the performing arts (dance.A. media arts.

irrigation. In all three traditions. very few courses yet use the new title. spectrophotometry. A person employed in this field is called a chemical engineer. such as a Bachelor of Civil Law (granted by the University of Oxford. physics. It may also be the name of a postgraduate degree. Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science. in that the emphasis in paediatrics is ill-health and the alleviation of symptoms or disease. or public works.A. Biological engineering (also biosystems engineering and bioengineering) deals with engineering biological processes in general. This title was given to more academically focused advanced diploma courses. healthy. five or six years. for rule. It differs from paediatrics. interpreted and at times adjudicated varies widely among these three bodies of churches. four. Birds are very different in anatomy and physiology to dogs and cats. railways. roads. Fields of specialization include architecture. The main goal of behavioral neuroscience is the understanding of behavior and experience in terms of their biological substrates. in which the music explores Christian themes but is designed to be played in places 51 . The field is often referred to as biological psychology and psychobiology. construction. or in some cases and countries. Most civil engineering today deals with power plants. A."associate degree" to the Australian Qualifications Framework. water. The discipline originated in the late 19th century with the use of simple chemical tests for various components of blood and urine. or B. bridges. As well as producing useful materials. sewer. e. A bachelor's degree (Artium Baccalaureus. The way that such church law is legislated. Chemical pathology (also known as clinical biochemistry or clinical chemistry) is the area of pathology that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids. lighting. a veterinary student must seek out coursework and residencies that are beyond the scope of standard veterinary school. electrophoresis and immunoassay. chemical engineering is also concerned with pioneering valuable new materials and techniques. a canon was initially a rule adopted by a council (From Greek kanon / κανών. In modern usage. as they are related to earth. civil engineering is a broad field of engineering that deals with the planning.) Behavioral neuroscience is a field that relates behavior to bodily processes such as the inner workings of the brain. analysis. and to specialize in their treatment. and operation of energyefficient. and control systems. water supply. to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms. Behavioral neuroscience is often considered a subdiscipline within psychology or neuroscience. Canon law is the term used for the internal ecclesiastical law which governs various churches.g. most notably the Roman Catholic Church. an important form of research and development. HVAC design.B. thermal comfort. the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Anglican Communion of churches. sustainability and analysis of biological systems. It is a broad-based engineering discipline that also may involve product design. and mathematics. chemistry. It also includes Contemporary Christian music. standard. acoustics. Building indoor environment covers the environmental aspects in the design. Child health nursing is an area of nursing and medical practice with a focus on providing holistic care to infants. or civilization and their processes. transportation and traffic. the indoor experience is known as the indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Church music or Christian music is music created by or adapted for the Christian church. and maintenance of fixed structures. the natural environment. In total. Subsequently other techniques were applied including the use and measurement of enzyme activities. flood control. However. or measure). indoor air quality (IAQ). and comfortable buildings. these canons formed the foundation of canon law. children and adolescents. structures. An avian veterinarian is a veterinarian who has undertaken additional training to treat birds.) is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three.

Communication development is the development of processes enabling one to understand what others say(or sign. implementing. some times churches use just a cappella to worship God. Aspects of communications management include developing corporate communication strategies. or computing science. sewer. and Asian law. Communications management is the systematic planning. Most civil engineering today deals with power plants. and revision of all the channels of communication within an organization. socialist law. Islamic law. and preventing mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system. in that the emphasis in paediatrics is ill-health and the alleviation of symptoms or disease. railways. or write). is usually associated with specific conditions which are a direct consequence of injury to joints or associated nerves. even where no explicit comparison is undertaken. including online communication. or civilization and their processes. Sometimes. psalms are vocalized and spiritual songs are uplifted to praise God. Communication is not only the process of sharing information. At times. Hymns are sung. Communication processes are in most cases signmediated interactions which are governed by three levels of semiotic rules: Syntactic. musical instruments are played while singing is implemented in the service. Music during service for many churches is a big part of the worship. civil engineering may be regarded as the profession that makes the world a more agreeable place in which to live. the term subluxation. irrigation. and between organizations. Chiropractic is a complementary and alternative health care profession which focuses on diagnosing. and maintenance of fixed structures. transportation and traffic. their effects on the nervous system. just musical instruments are only used to express praise towards God.[1] Their treatments consist of a variety of techniques and methods which chiropractors refer to as spinal adjustments. including the common law. water supply. sometimes via a language. communication is a kind of social interaction where at least two interacting agents share a common set of signs and a common set of semiotic rules. More specifically. monitoring. it also includes the organization and dissemination of new communication directives connected with an organization. Therefore. children and adolescents. The importance of comparative law has increased enormously in the present age of internationalism. Hindu law. On the other hand. which chiropractors call vertebral subluxations. information is sent from a sender or encoder to a receiver or decoder. and on general health. In a simplistic form. This requires a symbolic activity. It includes the description and analysis of foreign legal systems. designing internal and external communications directives. or communications technology. In a more complex form feedback links a sender to a receiver. In contrast. Chiropractic's premise is that spinal joint misalignments. treating. New technology forces constant innovation on the part of communications managers. It differs from paediatrics. or public works. Computer science. flood control. translate sounds and symbols into meaning and learn the syntax of the language. All of these ways are used by one church or another in this period of time. Comparative law is the study of differences and similarities between the law of different countries. bridges.[1][2][3] Computer science has many sub- 52 . Child health nursing is an area of nursing and medical practice with a focus on providing holistic care to infants. it involves study of the different legal systems in existence in the world.other than churches. Civil engineering is a broad field of engineering that deals with the planning. water. Communication is based on the idea of respect. economic globalisation and democratisation. In essence. the natural environment. can interfere with the nervous system and result in many different conditions of diminished health. the civil law. and managing the flow of information. as used in conventional medicine. construction. promises and the want for social improvement. structures. is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. roads. pragmatic and semantic. network. as they are related to earth. or write) and speak(or sign.

In most countries. The field first became an identifiable occupation in the late nineteenth century with the commercialization of the electric telegraph and electrical power supply. signal processing and telecommunications. diseases. correcting. ecological & economic) outcomes as important factors in the decision-making process. technology. Musicology). Music (Music theory. Electrical engineering (sometimes referred to as electrical and electronic engineering) is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the study and application of electricity. the maxillofacial region. facilities. as is the exact scope of the intended environmental benefits. courts. When processing the accused through the criminal justice system. chemical. Mathematics/Egglepple. government must keep within the framework of laws that protect individual rights. analog electronics. biological. while urban planners have traditionally factored in economic development. artificial intelligence. Law enforcement (police). and corrections are the primary agencies charged with these responsibilities. Graphic Arts/Cartooning. creating products. diagnosis. computer science. Still others focus on the challenges in implementing computations. Chief concerns among environmental planners include the 53 . The result is the design. enforce laws. and disorders of the oral cavity. transportation. Engineers use imagination. and the Visual arts. Economics. some emphasize the computation of specific results (such as computer graphics). For example. production. essentially the pursuit of an ideal. Creative Arts is the term used to describe multi-disciplinary forms of expression. What exactly constitutes the "environment".[1][2] One who practices engineering is called an engineer. and psychosocial factors in the natural environment. prevent crime. programming language theory studies approaches to describing computations. Music history. as a social science. Criminal justice refers to the system used by government to maintain social control. social. It also refers to the theory and practice of assessing. or using a specific type of technology. environmental planners add environmental (social. optoelectronics. The patron saint of dentists is Saint Apollonia. Engineering is the application of scientific or mathematical principles to develop economical solutions to technical problems. like all forms of "justice". The field now covers a range of sub-disciplines including those that deal with power. The broad discipline of engineering encompasses a range of specialized subdisciplines that focus on the issues associated with developing a specific kind of product. controlling. "fairness" or "process". and operation of useful objects or processes. The pursuit of criminal justice is. including quality of life. and consumption of resources. and administer justice. however. and its associated structures as it relates to human beings. and other services into their decisions. Essentially speaking. It is generally used as an umbrella for Dramaturgy. and reasoning to apply science. A dentist is qualified to practice dentistry. electronics and electromagnetism. distribution. mathematics. Environmental planning is a relatively new field of study that aims to merge the practice of urban planning with the concerns of environmentalism. digital electronics.fields. while computer programming applies specific programming languages to solve specific computational problems. is somewhat open to debate among these practitioners. studies the production. and those licensed to do so have formal designations such as Professional Engineer. while others (such as computational complexity theory) relate to properties of computational problems. judgment. control systems. Dental medicine or Dentistry is the art and science of prevention. and preventing those factors in the environment that can potentially affect adversely the health of present and future generations. and treatment of conditions. and practical experience. sanitation. that are determined by physical. electronics. Environmental health comprises those aspects of human health. and structures that are useful to people. several years of training in a university (usually 4-8) and some practical experience working with actual patients' dentition are required to become a qualified dentist. martyred in Alexandria by having all her teeth violently extracted.

and understanding how humans and animals function. archeology. and among the more prominent founders were William Babington. improvement. Home Economics – Consumer Economics. as a field of research and an acamedic major. material and process. is a branch of both Consumer Science and Economics. family economics. interior decoration. equipment. Hygiene ranges from personal hygiene. The field as it is today originated from home economics. The Society was founded in 1807.S. In broader call. Industrial engineering draws upon the principles and methods of engineering analysis and synthesis. government defines the historic environment as districts.over 2000 of whom are Chartered Geologists (CGeol). human sciences. which primarily government or business units). Hygiene and Good Habits are commonly understood as preventing infection through cleanliness. No 210161. The term largely describes what was more commonly called "Home Economics" in the past. nutrition. and natural science with its emphasis on nutrition and textile science. implementation and evaluation of integrated systems of people. The Society is a Registered Charity. It was partly the outcome of a previous club known as the Askesian Society." The Geological Society of London is a learned society based in England with the aim of "investigating the mineral structure of the Earth". human ecology or home economics. medical care. biotechnology. pharmacology. or individuals (in contrast to traditional economics. families. cleanliness. objects. architecture. green building technologies. Humphry Davy and George Bellas Greenough. Research builds primarily on the pure sciences of biology. and communities. Forest Resources . The health sciences industry. structures. and culture. is an academic discipline which combines aspects of consumer science. including its emphasis on the well-being of families. parenting and human development. scientific terms hygiene is the maintenance of health and healthy living. knowledge. There are two parts to health science: the study.S. cooking. principally concerned with microeconomic analysis behavior in units of consumers. It is a broad field. and the preservation of environmentally sensitive areas. Family and consumer sciences. and knowledge of health and the application of that knowledge to improve health. Historic preservation or Heritage management is the theory and practice of creatively maintaining the historic built environment and controlling the landscape component of which it is an integral part. research. and landscapes which are significant in American history.encouragement of sustainable development. and involves healthy diet. and diagnosis industries. It is the oldest national geological society in the world and the largest in Europe with over 9000 Fellows entitled to the postnominal FGS . a multi-billion dollar business. It received its Royal Charter in 1825 from George IV. housing. engineering. cure diseases. Industrial engineering is a branch of engineering that concerns the development. utilization or study of forest resources. Health science is the discipline of applied science which deals with human and animal health. and mental health. in the U. energy. genetics. sites. apparel design and resource management as well as other related subjects. as well as mathematical. 54 . pharmacy. the discipline developed at Kansas State University in 1882 and spread quickly to other land grant universities after women appealed to have their own niche while the men studied subjects such as agriculture or shop. chemistry. public health. It sometimes also encompasses family financial planning and policy analysis. and physics as well as social sciences (for example medical sociology). epidemiology."The Forestry major prepares you for a broad range of career opportunities involving the management. engineering. Other fields which made an exceptionally significant contribution to the health sciences include biochemistry. nursing. Family and consumer sciences combines social science. individuals. through domestic up to occupational hygiene and public health. is a subset of the life sciences. buildings. The Secretary of the Interior of the U. and medicine. textiles.

The IoB is not a trade union. information studies) is an interdisciplinary science primarily concerned with the collection. classification. There are. housing estate development. doctors and lawyers. no legal requirement for an accountant to be a member of one of the many Institutes as the term accountant does not have the same legal protection in the United Kingdom as that given to. Since the beginning of the 20th Century. verifying. money. Information Technology (IT) known as Information and Communication(s) Technology (ICT) and Infocomm in Asia is concerned with the use of technology in managing and processing information. most journalists have traditionally been paid professionals holding a degree in this field. storage. near to the Natural History Museum and Imperial College London. Those who practice journalism are known as journalists. process. The Institute is based in England.000. the Internet has given birth to a new form of citizen journalists. manipulation. Other names for the latter are information services (IS) or management information services (MIS). retrieval and dissemination of information. store. environmental restoration. The scope of the profession includes architectural design. Industrial engineers work to eliminate wastes of time. The Institute of Actuaries is one of the two professional bodies representing actuaries in the United Kingdom. say. energy and other resources. while the other body.physical and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design to specify. Journalism is a discipline of collecting. planning. is based in Scotland. they work very closely together. However. with over 128. London. and the division of a company or university that deals with software technology is often called the IT department. It was founded in 1950. issues and people. though. For example. site planning. especially in large organizations. studied as a branch of computer science or informatics and is closely related to the cognitive and social sciences. analyzing. managed service providers (MSP). and presenting news regarding current events. protect. IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert. nor does it have regulatory power over its membership. The Institute of Biology (IoB) is a professional body for biologists. Landscape architecture is the art. the Faculty of Actuaries. though not exclusively.k. trends. parks and recreation 55 . predict and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems. town or urban planning. There is. organizations and information systems. primarily those working in the United Kingdom. It is often. and the professional qualifications and professional standards for actuaries are identical in each of them. materials. certain legal rights and duties which are available to professionally qualified accountants. like the General Medical Council. management. The headquarters of the Institue is located in Kensington.000 members. In particular. and retrieve information. computer professionals are often called IT specialists or Business Process Consultants. While the Institute and Faculty of actuaries are separate institutions.a. Likewise individuals who describe themselves as "chartered accountants" must be a member of an accountancy body which holds a 'Royal Charter' and if working in public practice these chartered accountants must comply with additional regulations such as holding indemnity insurance and submitting to regular and independent inspections. Information science (a. urban design. design. preservation and rehabilitation of the land and the design of human-made constructs. Membership currently stands around 14. and the interaction between people. The Institute of Chartered Accountants in England & Wales (ICAEW) is the largest English and Welsh accountancy body for chartered accountants and auditors. received a Royal Charter in 1979 and holds charitable status. however. individuals who operate in the areas of audit and insolvency must be registered and only members of certain chartered accountancy bodies (such as the ICAEW) are eligible for such registration. since the late 1990s. For that reason.[1] Information science studies the application and usage of knowledge in organizations. transmit.

Marine science is a multidisciplinary field of study and research of ocean life and physics. classification. or information science. In addition to studying practical skills of journalism. and media effects. This includes academic studies regarding how library resources are used and how people interact with library systems. diagnosis. The organization of knowledge for efficient retrieval of relevant information is also a major research goal of LIS. law or media effects. public relations or advertising. intellectual or intangible). Overlap areas between the different marine science disciplines are increasingly targeted as it seems necessary to investigate these areas in order to fully understand the workings of the marine environment. treatment and possible prevention of disease and injury. and historic preservation. It requires a solid understanding of key concepts including mechanics. and film. industrial equipment and machinery. whether the focus of the student's research is journalism practice. aircraft. Maritime Studies . manufacturing. Basic topics in LIS include the acquisition. and preservation of library materials. Departmental structures within such colleges may separate research and instruction in professional or technical aspects of newspaper and magazine publishing. history. a field related to computer science and cognitive science. students also may major in "mass communication" or "mass communication research. such as diffusion of information. buildings and bridges. a civil servant in the Department of Health. many university journalism departments evolved into schools or colleges of mass communication or "journalism and mass communication. and head of the medical civil service. A practitioner in the field of landscape architecture is called a landscape architect. thermodynamics and energy. use these principles and others in the design and analysis of automobiles. These studies tend to be specific to certain libraries at certain times. It exists in various African. Such a person is the most senior advisor on health matters in both systems of government. In a more present-day view. material. Licentiate is the title of a person who holds an academic degree called a license. known as mechanical engineers. In the United States. television. European and Latin American countries and represents different educational levels. the CMO is a member of the board of the National Health Service (NHS). Library science or library and information science (abbreviated LIS) is the study of issues related to libraries and the information fields. It is 56 . and maintenance of mechanical systems. and the term has also found some usage in non-government circles such as policing. LIS should not be confused with information theory. the mathematical study of the concept of information. cataloging. In England. heating & cooling systems. Mechanical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis.planning.Seamanship is the art of operating a ship or boat." as reflected in the names of two major academic organizations. such as persuasion or manipulation of public opinion." The latter is often the title given to doctoral studies in such schools. The term "management" characterizes the process of and/or the personnel leading and directing all or part of an organization (often a business) through the deployment and manipulation of resources (human. Mass communication research includes media institutions and processes. a fervent outgrowth of LIS is information architecture. kinematics. Medical Science or Medicine is a branch of health science and the sector of public life concerned with maintaining or restoring human health through the study. Practitioners of mechanical engineering. regional planning. financial. The chief medical officer is an official in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom who regularly advises their respective government on health related matters. Mass communication is the term used to describe the academic study of various means by which individuals and entities relay information to large segments of the population all at once through mass media. radio. design. and more.

and treatment of the eyes and related structures and with determination and correction of vision problems using lenses and other optical aids Osteopathy is a theory of disease and method of cure founded on the assumption that deformation of some part of the skeleton and consequent interference with the adjacent nerves and blood-vessels are the cause of most diseases. and interdenominational relations. or (coal) seam. Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth. and communities in attaining. or OMM). Materials recovered by mining include bauxite. methodology. OT gives people the "skills for the job of living" necessary for living meaningful and satisfying lives. limestone. disease and injury. re-attaining. Missiology is a multidisciplinary and crosscultural reflection on all aspects of the propagation of the Christian faith. music theory. gold. called osteopaths (or osteopathic physicians in the US). (Oxford English Dictionary). regain or maintain the skills necessary to participate in all facets of their lives. though not strictly classed as living organisms. coal. geography.both an area of knowledge – a science of body systems. using manual and physical therapies (Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine. history. Medical technology refers to the diagnostic or therapeutic application of science and technology to improve the management of health conditions. uranium. is the area of practical theology which investigates the mandate. This includes eukaryotes such as fungi and protists. customers. usually (but not always) from an ore body. Music education comprises the application of education methods in teaching music. instrumental proficiency. comparative religion. prevention and treatment of illness. vein. singing skills. pharmacological. Missiology. and their mixtures. their intermetallic compounds. natural gas. embracing theology. As a secondary effect OSH may also protect employers. copper. and even water. and prokaryotes such as bacteria and certain algaes. phosphate. oil shale. Practitioners of osteopathy. families. which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. or mission science. 57 . Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with protecting the safety. theories and methods of communication. Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and of materials engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements. Microbiology is the study of microorganisms. diamonds. Mining in a wider sense can also include extraction of petroleum. anthropology. and maintaining optimal health and functioning. Any material that cannot be grown from agricultural processes must be mined. osteopathic philosophy requires addressing the whole person in diagnosis. and molybdenum. lead. Optometry (Greek: optos meaning seen or visible and metria meaning measurement) is the health care profession concerned with examination. and general music skills. health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment. their diseases and treatment – and the applied practice of that knowledge. nickel. have a holistic approach. Modern definitions of nursing define it as a science and an art that focuses on promoting quality of life as defined by persons and families. biological or other methods to increase life span and/or improve the quality of life. rock salt. tin. message and work of the Christian missionary. including music history. Christian apologetics. suppliers. precious metals. throughout their life experiences from birth to care at the end of life. Viruses. are also studied. diagnosis. Occupational therapy (OT) is an applied science and health profession that provides skilled treatment to help individuals develop. Nursing is a profession focused on assisting individuals. silver. Technologies may encompass any means of identifying the nature of conditions and intervening with devices. Music education encompasses many areas of teaching. and members of the public who may experience an impact from the workplace environment. which are called alloys. iron.

" From its incorporation the Society has been a forum. The World Health Organization. though it increasingly encompasses Non-governmental organizations such as those of civil society or any entity and its management not specifically acting in self-interest. established to further "the investigation of subjects connected with and for the encouragement of science literature and the arts in relation to Asia. One of the most revered musical education establishments in the world. Public administration can be broadly described as the study and implementation of policy. The objectives of The Royal Aeronautical Society include. is a multidisciplinary professional institution dedicated to the global aerospace community. Founded in 1866 The Royal Aeronautical Society. its 58 . many important musicians have studied at the Academy since then. also known as the RAeS. India. Zimbabwe and Hong Kong. pharmacy has come to include other services related to patient care including clinical practice. England and one of the leading music institutions in the world. Ireland. The adjective 'public' often denotes 'government'. medical practitioner as well). Republic of China (Taiwan). are drug therapy experts. and to exert influence in the interests of aerospace in both the public and industrial arenas. usually because it is believed to be detrimental to a person's health. More recently.Pest control refers to the regulation or management of another species defined as a pest. The terms podiatry and chiropody are not interchangeable. New Zealand. Sri Lanka. A physician is a person who practices biological medicine. and drug information. Pharmacy (from the Egyptian φάρµακον = drug) is a transitional field between health sciences and chemical sciences and a profession charged with ensuring the safe use of medication." Public health experts agree this definition is incomplete. Health is defined and promoted differently by many organizations. Indonesia. the term physician is commonly used to describe all medical doctors. therefore. through lectures. Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. Pakistan. medication review. As a moral endeavor. Pharmacists. Other components included in an individual's health are nutritional. 1824. Canada. Japan. The Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (RAS) was. In the United States. the term doctor is prevalent (and in formal/legal contexts. mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. and podiatry in the US. spiritual. as physician refers to specialists in internal medicine. Some of these new pharmaceutical roles are now mandated by law in various legislatures. pharmacists have compounded and dispensed medications on the orders of physicians. The Royal Academy of Music (sometimes abbreviated to RAM) is a music school in London. ankle. Bangladesh. It was founded by Lord Burghersh in 1822 and in 1830 was granted a Royal Charter by King George IV 'to promote the cultivation of the science of music and to afford facilities for attaining perfection in it by assisting with general instruction all persons desirous of acquiring knowledge thereof'. public administration is linked to pursuing the public good through the creation of civil society and social justice. the United Nations body that sets standards and provides global surveillance of disease. to provide a unique source of specialist information and a local forum for the exchange of ideas. leg and hip (collectively known as the lower extremity). defines health as: "A state of complete physical. In Britain. South Africa. to support and maintain the highest professional standards in all aerospace disciplines. Podiatry or "Podiatric Medicine" is a field of healthcare devoted to the study and treatment of disorders of the foot. the ecology or the economy. and sometimes knee. and the primary health professionals who optimise medication management to produce positive health-outcomes. Traditionally. with the word chiropody being most used in the UK. Australia. and intellectual. according to its Royal Charter of August 11.

Phil. Its membership (and the MRCP(UK) title) is obtained by doctors who have completed the Membership of the Royal College of Physicians exams. Fellows (the FRCP title) are elected.D. university or such.The college was set up to teach practical chemistry. offering the degrees of M. The charter normally confers a constitution with perpetual succession and the right to sue or be sued independently of the members from time to time. The college teaches all aspects of western classical music from undergraduate to doctorate level. It is the world’s only wholly postgraduate art and design institution. The College maintains the British Organ Library and provides examinations in organ-playing. These exams are legendary for their exhausting standards and tiny pass rates. They have been criticised by many distinguished organists for their 19th-century austerity and elitist approach. William Gladstone and Robert Peel. A Royal College in some Commonwealth of Nations countries is technically a college which has received a Royal Charter to add the prefix Royal to its name. The Royal College of Organists or RCO. and rights of recourse to the Queen in Council. and other publications. the school opened in 1883 with George Grove as its director. South Kensington.journal. A Royal Charter is a charter given by a monarch to legitimize an incorporated body. It is the United Kingdom's senior learned society in the field of Asian studies. next to Imperial College London and opposite the Royal Albert Hall in 1894. and Royal Charters were the only way to establish a city. In the same year Hubert Parry became director. 59 . choral directing and organteaching. and Ph. the RCA was granted a Royal Charter in 1967. The Royal College of Physicians of London is the oldest medical institution in England was founded in 1518 and is one of the most active of all medical professional organisations. The Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians (LRCP) is no longer awarded. irrespective of whether there was settlement there before. including Benjamin Disraeli. and in 1896 received the name The Royal College of Art. In medieval Europe. Since the College's creation as the College of Physicians (it acquired the "Royal" prefix in 1674) by royal charter of King Henry VIII in 1518. It was also supported by Prince Albert.A. The year a city was chartered is considered the year the city was "founded". which gave it the status of an independent university with the power to grant its own degrees. housed in the Darwin Building in Kensington Gore. London. where 300 children aged 8 to 18 are educated on Saturdays. England. It became the National Art Training School in 1853. It also has an extensive museum of musical instruments which is open to the public. such as a city. typically learned professional societies. for scholarship relating to Asian culture and society of the highest level. England. Many politicians donated funds to establish the college. The college was founded in 1837. Although incorporation is now cheaply and easily obtainable by registration. Its role is to promote organ and choral music and it offers musical education and training for organists and choral directors. it has engaged in a wide range of activities dedicated to its overall aim of upholding and improving standards of medical practice. After 130 years in operation. and was then known as the Government School of Design. Founded in 1882 as a successor to the National Training School for Music by the then-Prince of Wales (later Edward VII). is an educational body of the United Kingdom. The Royal College of Art (RCA) is a university in London. There is a Junior Department. remaining until 1918.. company. The Royal College of Chemistry (RCC) was a college originally based on Oxford Street in central London. It moved to its present location in the Albertopolis cultural quarter. the distinction of a Royal Charter means that such charters are still sought by and granted to institutions considered to be in the public interest. It existed between 1845 and 1872. The Royal College of Music is a prestigious music school located in Kensington. M. cities were the only place where it was legal to conduct commerce.

its statutory duties are laid out in the 1966 Veterinary Surgeons Act. Royal School of Mines comprises the departments of Earth Science and Engineering. it was a constituent college of Imperial College London from 1907 until it was wholly absorbed by Imperial in 2002. The South Kensington classes became increasingly well-regarded under the influence of T. The Museum of Practical Geology and the Government School of Mines Applied to the Arts opened in a purpose designed building in Jermyn Street in 1851. Huxley. regulating surgery. and was moved to South Kensington in 1872. The Society owns a major historic collection of photographs. G. A fellow of the institute may add FRIBA. including Philip Hardwick. Thomas Leverton Donaldson and John Buonarotti Papworth. Established in 1844 by Royal Charter. The Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons is the regulatory body for veterinary surgeons in the United Kingdom. The officers of the Geological Survey became the lecturers and professors of the School of Mines. The Royal Photographic Society was founded in the United Kingdom in 1853 "to promote the Art and Science of Photography". a collection of minerals. eventually dropping the reference to London in 1892. through local groups and special interest groups. with Government assistance. The College is located at Lincoln's Inn Fields in London. photographic equipment and books which was deposited with the National Media Museum in Bradford. as the Government School of Mines and Science Applied to the Arts. The School developed from the Museum of Economic Geology. Student Members are not permitted to do so. it was formed in 1834 by several prominent architects. Chartered Members are entitled to append the letters RIBA after their name. The Royal College of Chemistry was merged into it in 1853. Originally named the Institute of British Architects in London. The current Dean of the Royal School of Mines is Professor John Monhemius. Founded in 1826. the Science and Art Department benefited from land acquired for "educational purposes" by the commissioners of the Great Exhibition of 1851. The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) is a professional body for architects in the United Kingdom. in England and Wales.000 members. and Materials at Imperial College London. Like the South Kensington Museum. and opened in 1841. It offers various levels of qualifications in photographic skills and runs an extensive programme of lectures and events throughout the United Kingdom and abroad. The RIBA is a member organisation. The Museum also provided some student places for the study of mineralogy and metallurgy. and when the collections outgrew the premises the Museum and the Survey were placed on an official footing. Thomas Allom. but remains a "Constituent College" of Imperial.The Royal College of Science was a higher education institution located in South Kensington. In 1907. the RSA maintains a unique position in Scotland as an independently funded institution lead by eminent artists and architects whose purpose is to promote and support the creation. Organisations linked with the college include the Royal College of Science Union and the Royal College of Science Association. 60 . The Royal College of Science originated in classes run by the Science and Art Department. The Royal School of Mines was established in 1851. William Donthorne.H. It was awarded a Royal Charter in 1837. The Royal Scottish Academy is Scotland’s premier organisation promoting contemporary Scottish art. including dentistry. the RSM was incorporated into Imperial College of Science and Technology. maps and mining equipment made by Sir Henry De la Beche. Wells and Brian May and are distinguishable by the letters ARCS (Associate of the Royal College of Science) after their name. The Royal College of Surgeons of England is an independent professional body committed to promoting and advancing the highest standards of surgical care for patients. understanding and enjoyment of the visual arts through exhibitions and related educational events. Sir Henry was the director of the Geological Survey of Great Britain. with 30. leaving the Museum of Practical Geology behind in Jermyn Street. Alumni include H. becoming the Royal Institute of British Architects in London. The name was changed in 1863 to the Royal School of Mines.

Social workers work with individuals. They diverge from the arts and humanities in that the social sciences tend to emphasize the use of the scientific method in the study of humanity. The Royal Society of Literature is the "senior literary organisation in Britain. disabled and students. at a less detailed level. in studying subjective. and are funded by the state. Social scientists engage in research and theorize about both group and individual behaviors. or simply the office of a physician. namely architecture. families. Social workers are concerned with social problems. their solutions and their human impacts. A surgery can also refer to the place where surgery is performed. but the Society itself uses either its full name or the initials RSA (not least in the letters Fellows of the Society use after their name – FRSA). techne (τέχνη) "craft" and logia (λογία) "saying." The Society has an annual magazine. including the Ondaatje Prize. intersubjective and objective or structural aspects of society. language. elderly. and many members are non-professionals. This is in contrast to hard sciences. Pritchett Memorial Prize. their causes. Notable members have included Benjamin Franklin.The Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland is a learned society based in Ireland. Officers and Council. subject to approval by Council. or town planning is the discipline of land use planning which explores several aspects of the built and social environments of municipalities and communities. Manufactures and Commerce (RSA) is a British multidisciplinary institution. archaeologists and linguists. Karl Marx. with the aim to "reward literary merit and excite literary talent. landscape architecture and urban design. manners and customs of the past. examine and illustrate all ancient monuments and memorials of the arts. The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. whose services are entirely voluntary. It can confer the honour of Companion of Literature for writers of particular note. RSL. It was founded in 1754 and was granted a Royal Charter in 1847. groups. Regional planning deals with a still larger environment." It is a broad term dealing with the use and knowledge of humanity's tools and crafts. which may focus exclusively on objective aspects of nature. or veterinarian. or by compulsory enrollment of the poor themselves. as members of a profession which is committed to social justice and human rights. and administers a number of literary prizes and awards. are sometimes referred to as soft sciences. The affairs of the Society are conducted by the President. Charles Dickens and Guglielmo Marconi. Adam Smith. It also awards the Benson Medal for lifetime service in the field of literature. dentist. or veterinarians who specialize in surgery. the Jerwood Awards and the V. A social welfare provision refers to any government program which seeks to provide a minimum level of income. based in London. The name Royal Society of Arts is frequently used by others for brevity. dentists. Current and past members have included historians. S. Sacred music is the common Anglicized term for music related to religious rituals. Urban. Surgery (from the Greek cheirourgia meaning "hand work") is the medical specialty that treats diseases or injuries by operative manual and instrumental treatment. William Hogarth. may be elected to membership. 61 . as connected with the antiquities. service or other support for disadvantaged groups such as the poor. but the Society firmly believes in the importance of encouraging an informed general public. whose aims are 'to preserve. city. The Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts." It was founded in 1820 by George IV. Technology is a word with origins in the Greek word technologia (τεχνολογία). organizations and communities. Social welfare payments and services are typically provided free of charge or at a nominal fee. Surgeons may be physicians. Other professions deal in more detail with a smaller scale of development. it has a countrywide membership from all four provinces of Ireland. The social sciences. Anyone subscribing to the aims of the Society. Founded in 1849. literature and history of Ireland'. including quantitative and qualitative methods.