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The Sargon 'Bict'h Legend. ,",' Th,@ 'lJ@xt J,: History o:f'researeh 54,
PJot summary
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The' 'Sa:r,~'Q.inB~rt'h L~g,end,as ,fic~iof:rui11a,u.to'biograpny,

A,s ~!n,l.b)~ilio,grap:hy 56
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The :i'drlrni l:n:sCl',i.ptiOfi aJS flcHonal au~oih1og:ra:phy with a bless~ngand cune ending 6.2. As, a;w.~obiog;r,aJpJhry 62
As fK";tI,on ,6]

The ble,ssing: and curse endjrl{~ 66
Function 66 'w-nolJe
TW"e' 5ul~!~nre ,a.s,a

66 Lit.e~r,ary roots in t'h!€ genre 'of :roya11nscrlpti,O:n. 'Comparis-on.~o other Near Eastern ~-ex;t5, 10 'Bilblical Li.'teratur-e 70 Nor~hw'e5t Sem~~icrDf,aJ~n~riptions ~ 7J IUessi11i\gand ,ruJ."$ing in dte' Near East and

66, S!i,:urun~ry '01 ;g,eneric tr,aits,

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funn, b) that 0'£ a, ,fb~;s·t'-:petson roy'al :inscripti,on, ·tba:t :~t5'investig;a'tiofi w,ill -- ,;;~,~u~ ·th· nl- ' ':h-a n ..,lb,er L Plan' roe' 0- f 'C!.;i'!:&.~o"'lIn' a,~ tvD. _'-:.i_·:, ,UJr v ':-TI"'II!'Iil'~l ~'II'II,~'l..··lO'· gra nh--'J: 'n'v Pr~a ..lID '." .. u. ,,- - A:' kkadl ..,., 'h~" "b- ". . he oargon B"'·- -'h- 'L ,_j e:x:-ta:nt, ,~'_:~an ~ texts compnse t~ :s'-u~-g:en:roe;: t; e ·S'·"· "" J:S; [~'lrt[, ,egen~,
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A 'mator :study' of' ,t'he Sargcn 'Bi:rt:h. Legend has :r.ecen;t'~y'been 'publi.s-h,ed
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,analy,sls, cOFloentra'h~:s, on the :p:~ace'of the leg1end in the typolqgy of Ak'kad~an autobwo,gra.-pby"

-bu' B''. 11' ow'._':.~: ·S'·ih'!iJPQ 'f=II'~'i"t-'-h,a.r-' '~i'n·.tfil!"lII'nl"';'~'lnn· " ~. ,iC; ,A~,tl.lpl on A t",L",,"._Ji;'~'nc ' ' 'ax- -,,., and its ~-</' 1J.~ JIV~"~~l~g y. wIk'lo.r.istic and b~.b:lffi,cal p\lI"a:~h~i15 may be found. there, the :foUomng
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LegtUla, 'h"ve' 'been dis(:overred and are used 'by sc'h,o]ars to :r'ecQnstruct' t1he'te'x't.,l ,A, brite:f description of all exemplars 'willI,be giiv1en here, because'
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e1x€:m plar to preserve parts of both 001umns I and ll, s,pecmca,m.y the ,f~rs;t '~w'e'll'ty lmes of column 'I and eighteen lines of: column Il. B ~s also frag:men,'blry' 'tow'ard. i.ts end and ~s missing the I,owe:r right half. and the'
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i:he fir.st :s~x 'lines ()~ column l, plus three other columns ,conta:in-~ng '~' d Legen··~;, D,: K ,714}9 '~CT 46-:. pl. 1.4"; no. 416),; neo-,Ass;y,rian script, D 'contains twentv-two.. :~ra8-'meinh\rv'1, of wh Ia., has b~;~< c,aU-d col ,umn 'II ,t _. ----I ." -- -,--.. ",'1 hnes ., -- ~ ,,!as! een - ,.e, !!D, ,-' , of tl1,e :Le:g;enct thirteen of which. overlap 'with those' :found in S,ji Il, Lambert (in. CT ,40) specula tes that D is ,t'h,e' reverse (?') of B,"
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1(leT 1'%:: p,l.A''%,)" nee-Babyloni l_,an scrtot. C ereserves ",J-- ~J-~ ~'" "--, " ',r'- 'it'"' ,erve
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compositions 'wh:lch Lew~s eonsiders unrela (eo' to i'he Sargon Birth

Hismry oj'Rtsmnlt 'Th,!e Sargon Bird1, Legend
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of one of: ~t;s, ei~~'mpla.r:8;",3 he text was wnJ~iany ta ken as a c-ont'e.m:pora.ry' T ~I1S)cri:pt~on o,f Sargon '~:h.e; ,rea to! and '~:h,efocus of' :scholady a:tten tion G was :na,turan~l O1n the startling slm Uar..i between S~'lrg!Ons b~r~h and t)" that of, MOSJes. (Exed 2~1='1.0)" The simlla.rrnty- between th,e birr~h, narratives explsins 'why the composstion 'was ,giv~~n. '~':he' name Bi:rr,h:Legiend, a name that concentrates attention on wh,a;t is :r-e,a~l~.yonly a, small <concern In ,tl"iui~'composition as a whole, A:t an e'arly stage, scho~a:rs,became aware fha~' ,~;h_;e Sargon Birth Legend 'was. not an authentic royal wnscri:ption .. 'but a later ,~i't'erary' composaion. Scholarly at tention then became focused on I( 1) :further
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tex tual witnesses h) the compusition and (;2) its hlD,I]calparallels. :H,. C,,;, G iUerbock cl~l;s;s1f~,ed Legend as na:r,w -litera ture, a J:i,b~;r=, the

,a.ry composi-tion structured ~ike'the narratives found on monumental
stelae, whereas A,. ,K,. G;r.ayson reclassified the Legend as pseudoautobiographv, :~dmUarto the Cuthaean Legend." Lewis remains slep= "~ 'h- ,I~tetary cla.ssi:icatJon, 0,[ th·Ie')a,rg-o,n, -B'"~rt,h -Legen d ". 'il 'Lf~' __ , e'S' s "heal, regar di :ing the 'II', ~>
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'His major tii fficulty in accepting: Gt3-YSlort s classilication is ,th~ presence
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._:~ey . ·.': 'h'" . ii'.''CI·· it.u(.J "' >U:_.tory' (.~ " 15 re anves \.:a:.{. ".-. :-: ....t' o~)e ·h'l"a.'I' .:i" ..(i_n7@ .'-''.S.-'.-" ~..I...€' .' 1'i."'·'·" .""'" .•.n'"s mother. . . •• I iI II - . '.WI'!.U..t ' .Iii-'h···· a. . '--:.~y ~. ' r.'. t-- ['j' '.. 1..{..:!! g'.'.'._ I~~ ~ _ ~_~..'.:~f!R....It".nrl. ~ ~ .:.~..':='1I'''Ii' .-: . ..' ..··.m U.21. _ _I" ~"'" g~.1· '~D'r":"1-.._ ~ ~L: I '.. ... 'idm ratses him.on"5.~m.i.':"1-1.l.. ].stowed on those' 'who wHl follow of :hlm. the l -.Lines 13 = 21 na."'.o.anrg. '.." unes iUO ..:_OIl Dy . . eas Line [8 transfers the actlon to ~'#.en. ..t as the ob~ect of lstar"s ~o've'.. ...:].r y ~L " c. IIl. .a.: -.Q . (lines "1'=.".~~.'IiJ!!W .I o~~bl. " [an d . .· .an-:..ess.-.". ....(.r.. ' "reead b "..~e deals w~th Sargnn (speaking: j 11 the' first person) t'ha..'.... ese.: .·i...v~dedwn three pa. 'iO'!! ~ .. '.U!J._ree . ..~ an.I.~ _ next ' lines idenfify Sarg ".'"t '.Ie.' .- ·.-. ." ~ ... ·."vt". "iL..':' .. v e~ a transition se~~"h. i .7'.t. I ':'.i..'.- I . he wa ter-drawer" 'who flnds. '::. e ..III.' W.rM::!:ro..'.•• ' .llow~ng. j I 1 I'"" . 0" i~' . ._'" . .~. 'LJeW.e."n.-··'..5·'-. •.1 ll.:...2. ']"ifiIiI.. -"__ rn t. . 'Tille •.0 .:a:.own t.penenoe.' 'but .t . " ~ bir__ (.r=: ----(" ...1..""./.. .. '.JlI. v~ _"~n ~.riaidler are w~s:h. ~i-- '''''''- Ii:" "" .' .. . eargon ano '.r~s.. . ol~ A'rni"'··.Q gives. .k'.-T -.. _' ··1 -: ..u .' "~.ose W..01[ 'ilL . " [-I ~ne 2·.'" ..1!.--""-''-.s !of' Sa.' eargon..s '..~I".)··-..-.\..· l .('. c' . t'h-'ren p.• '...~ t.. SUlu..1 [. l~aS1SOr ~ I.'C'..-.!!..". . '-'Ii 1~.'. ~ _ ~r.-' experience.··::·-.. .'tU·.~.a '~~~L. et.W. bIrth to .=.. ana r oats ". ill the royal o\f:Bce" 'N' ' ·Ih· S ~. I ~'" I..iI:~'m· .::.1 Q _ ~: .. 'h'. '..4) z.. 1-"~. ." ..Ly. t. secnnns on :h··.'-".. '.".[.. ' I'~.!I!II.-.~OI\ruf. ':-h' . r abe' the actions !of'Sa. narrate ~:~[a actions :o~l.~. . ~ ~ .'.[o...' '... .. ~I~···. good 'wUI.!.'ble -. _' '.1"..C1· -"·i ..' .jIh·:·'f'! 'II"t '1.~:oUtlW~ hl~'f'oduction.. . If~\..lngsW.. '.mlg.}. .') •.= ..I.3 ... 'not (..::'..!Q!."" The' Sa-r.U . "....enu:y "a...ruspa.go!. .~p'i:~"h@'i\5to hlrn: "strong _'kb~g.~' r.O. ''". 'w'"r-lk ir' 'h'i'~sard . Th'····. Lines $'-' 'J narrate ..-:un In..'mf' 'L-.ro rulers nil!: IVlll~. ..~ @. \2.' . cons J.... may be su:bd~vid~d the' .''''j' .'I!...~.. ne 'h'~ .:1!:~0 Iinds A········{1I(1I·I1Ii.is nex unes 1. . 2.e' act'ion.~.legend can..I' " '.' aserlbes vanoue .. are 'h~ii't ntm th'-'~ .- ~ ~ ~ ~ ..O.~..I names" "S~'-.:!!l~""'!.33)iO' "ith a serr-men 'C . d fl hi d the ri 11nn. d d.:ing formuls (22='." fl' t'l"f.. od essmgs th." . contain a b~esiLng 'pvo~epticaUy 'besbJwed on '~'he '1.J. ··Ic·t· .-' t' ..5' -1.~.l'... .I.- c· -: - cc· I··~· ..!!.'ill'~' ".ll]ICa.II' !f!f n. ··I··~-· .! '.t':h.0 F t.'h-· .._I_]."- .JK . to First-persoa inlroduc tion. "'iI" '. .~!!.. . - .. ad' "".l:. U!li. '.'14.4J " '!!.. \ .. ) 'lines.r8ltiv~' is.'.. e ._'i:I' L ~ . wisnes on t h.-..'rh·... 'o··.' ""~!Il.L·'.t'h.t!.rthe black-headed peoples (1. h" eX'. " -=-V . r rgon ~ (~~In)who rules S. .1b U .u~:J'ng'}of .im c.:.lral... . place ... be d~.~ .ie.se.. ..~~. . '111m t. ~~I!I.l~' j . ~g~n.oNil.." '....'C . 'w'h.."'t".. 'il .' ~ . . 1ho d ..iflen .~'n. w~..'iI:. l_ ...'' (.s .'" . t .~_ 01 !. ~!1_:··1· I'..::!'" :~ee L.@ argon .2..'IW'.('100 to" th ~ £.5' yea:rs as kJ:ng 100v~.[ ~'~ -. I OJ s• ." -.".. '.".' .. tlue same goo ".":l .. "1[..a "a .L .w< nas -'" t :".. ' .) h 3~ BI. . la.'. .·.~."4'-~1 ou th ·t.llng" 15 reIgn" . ':. )lOW.n.'. -::. 'iL t1='l~ .l . iQ Saraon . be. S'N...c'lh. ....A~qi.~1.rne 'iIL.lluna tes muc..l.rg1o. ' . The' narrative that ...t"'....£..n ' . "...iand 'nl'iIi''"s. d( :.gon 'Birt':h.. .. .8. ('..rnl'er. I .l aces .I I~ __ '" 'Ii..'IUI' 1 'I. . ' '~"8." m J) I renee..1.J. Lines . .'f sen te ..··-'-1·..age .. Hrst-person nar... . h.. u~..Ag<ad.-\ ·h'·· .

Unct.pa:r too.r@~gn.played . 'Of' h. pdes'tess of Istar..rng . . _ I.-') Repeated clim.. The Satgo~n B.) Threefold siege of the Sealand [18~.. section 7' As 'will 'be seen.'i!dful to. 2.1.~rthLegend concludes wi th a blessing conferred on the rulers who are' to f:ollow Sargon on tbe throne.'u..r.2. .t~ve'by Hs..A:fter aIL the historicel 'Sargon could not Vlf!:ry 'weU.s. a. obviously' pseudonymous .nn The f.'bing: of upper ranges (11 6.1..11:. _II.ay have been a widely praJ ctieed form of' abandonment.n.gre'ttl'E'events of :hls . Rule ~'or 55 yearn (11.t:ra self-portralt)..!!O. ai'n expression . hurtling: over ~owerranges (t .ts third.:ali"ty Is 1m. sectWo.8.ive marker that aids in :9.Wggm. O --.a.R. 6) .e:r.iI1m..~ed. 8.3. uju.hy' with' .. . '-d'-I _..gr apbies serves as the.of Akkadian ..'o~~lo'''''~'ct--·~r '. the third.a.aJ'r. dyer m.. a.-.fr.. to the :o.As . J. the Sa:rgo. 'm" h A~ f-·!~""t'.'l ..€pe'a. W:h:i.the' expression of l5tar' 5 love for Sargon (1. 2. 2::..e~ec't.F urthermore."". th. Sar-go(ll rel.Q. :Hie' wishes thiem. . {?} of Der {ZOI!. Blessing' EnJi. The. . 'bless~ng 0. Vi" L.. an atmosphere of' ficti.P"h.ctd..'." The text is '~:h.a !~hwld.n Bieth Legend ws. hOllse'.sim:ilar to the more modern practice of.) Gevernershlp over the black-headed peop:~e(ll 4" 24) T.2) is not a flCti}onal e:~e-:men[as .F pie'tY' or a rellection of' Sa:r. . .e arration of the' deceased Sarg.gon the Grea r's descent' from.muclm. .~s 'bwrth.3:01) 2.r." _ I. 'rlu' Sarpn .a fktionaJ . .t :from..affa:it. B. [16..y a f... .n. .' Auto.Blesr$'.tIL.tn'bruography.tn.om the above plot sum'mary.b\g on his reign n : and con ~:erring .'bou~' j.ubd:i.s .3'te..dnl.~.~rth Legend Is au tobiog:r.of .na:tu:r~.'ng and ~':he'.' ~_ 'c".au. t'hroughoU't: this study. ".fictional a:utob[o..A uJob. ~.i:agrn.55 yea..vid~ng the genre"..28) Conquering Dllmun (jJ: 9.l'_l~ " otif J' .~. foUow' h~m b) '~'he'hrone t Thus..r.t mountains (15# . ~.._-. the in.(I. ..:g" .. Sargnn.n~... Thus the' history of' Sargon is di. .li-M.j.~ve. the practice of Jl~acing...e.6.a'v'ers~ng diHi. child on a riv@~f:' imports an atmosphere of the f:aif..e' .. as.. l'9) 'De:fe'art..o:~k~or'@' theme.~l5self-developmeat over time accoun ts Tbat the..y.4.l~'a'Y'ing: a !chi~don the doorstep .rs as king. 0''f:' t he c.IUn" Legmd'1I5: fid:io.an·. Nevertheless.-.11 those who would.aphwcal is clear .7.u~ Fif' . 'but 'w:bat e'lse may 'be learned a.t':h.~. and nurture {ron.t. .on. have' asserted "I ruled . e l.'e :n.e' c.-. dJi:s.

--...c n·-·-" -... -_-_ _ . .m.J ..1'-._~ ..311 .. -' t.... . '-. t" .~.- . . th . s n ~oo~ ' ~~J:.m.r .. .·" look u.. - :..].Sargon :sinc-e 'dl.lIng:.e'."..e ---.'h..-essu~:g...-'Ib.. _(.".LC_. . .eps ---~o' _.~. 'f "11' .·--'.~~terature (~tF[rI~.· .' . -. . . -. 30 22~ .. A.1 d" U'...t~a'l'SJ~'~o-ln.-"'.'.. .:." ...l' - •• l.' .:j'il '!i. ~ ~U '~iT'i ~ d -·-·t" -!!i:-' imme d~ .M'authe." ... e -..e .0 ·'1 .--r. In~ .:. __ ~'..-~ '~[~e'..and insJT... :n.... bl" · esslng anc m le._ ... mg.l\-II.. ..... . "h.r. .' .".....th" post 10\n reasons {-'fL". " i:" "..oen.e... "... "'5 ..nslructs by the use . ~ [1 >~..'f.. I I: ' 1..lla..~t" :~ ":'~.. long reign chara. - I - I _ .e :.'0···· exnerience 'm'y-.ed to . -~. lib": 'j ..I.. 'be 'fo:rhlna'te' enouzh .·. . I.. n this Q.r~a.'.- -!t:-...'.-.o.6lQ<n . IS con t-rm ']1·'iL'il "I-R··· tlu .:. ...prece... _'1 .I..'lib.~m.I ad A.r-.~.._... Cutha a. .e h -L . 'j :- ~':-j ~ :- _ "j .. i. .-. ~.~Ji .·.rru~SI W.t 'b''-~."o!'.'hne t . '~n.i. _'- I' 1 '-N""-'tle' t.I~.ve' . .. th .~'. ". 8J1~atne$:S: to 8. tal ' .'" -'IL.~.' On" the 'on' ""r"'"'ru" II ~ ~.Y' be... compOSl . m"··-...L.ITL . .~i.~I_-· !\-. I.. as advice . . c.-c· - "11:. 0. r .":'.succes:sf'ul '[le~gnUke his.:J!. lines "Ii.·eg:en.no~. . .o' t'h_..nar~' t . 1 en tb J 'tne 'b uru pB'rt.io"i.lae..':... .n 'L .ach:lev.Jo..erred upon Sargon's :s.-] _ .as a.s-.an ex:p~idt 'b~es\si[t8 .ure l(. .:.. ...." 'i ~: tone set l~y t _~.L !Ii '.. .:s f"o'I'llo"'-'-"ereatness v.rllmlfDII L· d 'd" d if " . 'D" . ~er :Sierves to.rte d.I· I'.oJ!! .. " ~.u~i1 is UlilJkno.it... 'w"-e" ~J •. ".• ~. '..e1t ou~d .a.L _." t-fh.e!L. aU.'I!.:£'in'~i::1' T~· ...anegen ... as ad. '~h.~. l_' the "see c~Jl[p'.·.(.·C.i'i. _ . _ . . l.~ I..nI~lt:.e.. ..J~..latter bles.'f' . -----1..us'dngu~s~.y.-... "JL !t some t.. . _ l:"f~f'ilg:'..t' ~or 5'5' -yea:rs.Jil ...~: J •• •••• '!!"!.d n v. J' !I ' r '1':1 . ..-~' '. . . There is.' -'l . 5ectU)n.= s"Ijl'r.t~'h~ ..a n I~o'..'.\= ~et ~=r--u i 'f' e . .' ~J~. 'be'-. ..t ".~.r. - - i.ne reac" o'.ab~..-". -.d'I"].. . -.~ngs.=. .-_..··· £. I I" I'· .ua nnes -.I _ .. .' ... '!~.- 'I U .t a 00. -- .- -.'... 'IL: ~ C' . ..ib ·I't. ..men:ts.". . ~ . tlllllJ.::.~.liii:. ".-. 't.Ie' :UFS.··.e. . . --(.. '~S '1".S hlessing~ :f:ot the fo.' 0".. . .' .·. ___ ~ ~__...S..0 ".-mlnardon'f 0 i. 'but one may be.: h h er tl. -...e ".'...P . '. ThIS." - " .!!.:. t I.. I' ':'..' instruction OF advice.' nne ancd th"ose. --"..kinO" 'w:ho follows .W Sargon Ji'se:xa:m'p'le (en ~~.'-' . . ..~ .'L .i ..~c '-' _ _u. !'dl... "!'.~'.~. .".i' ay lb... --I .' I I .P'Y a.-t ..-. [ .vu:e.·-f' 'k.-..01- . . . "h"' . '~liO~f\eSS'V!et f'urther and i'l~o.ID... e epdogue sh"" h .e !.: W'h-i']-'" the thlrd seenon look ~S'ii~I. of prec3rtives'i t·-h····· _II .i[ iJ+'Ifi.. ..r-e. ....e length of a 'reig:n.I '!n. : e' .dill ··. . .:plid~I....r. t·'h.. th..." .u.o··. ':_..• ~ _ .i:im.. .~'j"".t .rL . C·..y.~e5 .I! __ _ 1'~6"f..• !II.-..Amt .•I.. _ •• ' ..be censidered advlcet p·.on..y hill.t." i:i. I : ii' .. . tm . t 'iI.' FiiI!'" able '. -.:.'. .con~f.'n. f'-".' .'·j-.•: . . •..Ji'~ !!i.:a.. 1 ! -- . . . :'" . of Si!Jrg'Otl.) e . n.11:.IL.e . t. '-I c· "1 c I..l!IIi.'r-'. b .:0.' ~~..~S. 'b-e . . ' "- ron:n.ry' v~ct()des.. '1' '. ". .'L..of: a serile's of :im'peratives .]'. bless:l:ng c f'iIicle.._ .h" nne as.er ~.t -. l.the' .'~' ':."Ii. ..ut'.-. ..J. ' ' r t.Ii.'!! U..I'~I!I. "ano occupiesme '.~ .··ll\g The :~~ne' restored.'..'.e '~"'-~'h~.. . I ... t-.uas:_ ...i!I~. .po. :'it:·'·. line cannot De construed. -... -.~.~..A Wo.gue '0. c ~~' .." ~uat.m a reya-'~ ..-.e.mIl'hot."':_ w U:n ····· 'IL.-. - ~. T-IL.~ "~'.ac'c' en 1U..-f' FU)r~lon.i~'cr..Flp .~'~.. ~t"i.egen_' a'O. ~.il . " ..a~ . is :Fl.which :i:m..''1 .~ "il.. th.. to 'be .o:n is representea.O . direct.. -..·S··-~.h.Ie. "'b 1. a· n~Id"-' t-.r-V.1 . ' ....:.•.-. h01wever".: :-":-~"'-'-"'---:'~~I_""r"-" '-::"-~'I -~"-:'I--' -. ~: ~.... li.nn. 1. a ch d 'il'~:~:n.'.am.'Ij. are tu:m..'.--: . L ~.t·'.". '!.mus.at h . IS!. I'.U.. .-. iii.fu. _ .. .!I.fO~~OWir aD...~" L -...' ...~ h/..es i. P'~':"'a.rmthe '(leader about..Q1rade ar' curse 'C(ll.'~:mil~t'a.' .. . 'Of' Cu~ ..o"'~.-..erb:ed 'by g.".: Llet.! +'.... . (II' I" '.'...." ...nOl.-'f .:. -. .' " ..-lh" : ~': "L~::-... . . .r....". U. 1" - .'. ~.ThiS! 'ma.. '...e' eng '0·f: ·th-· ·S···· 'ar. a !cha_llense addressed ~o f'ut. -'.n:us.cl.:... 'h" oo. '1111 . 01.e :is blessinDs.fot..~. W:hether this section induded an ..l .!' :f:or ~Jhe' hr::d ls Lewis wonders . 'bl ~SSUlgj . k.·slue th"e 'scope ()....d· n . more speclficaJly" he des~res that th@. ._ . a to" obtain .s). _I' .. 'I.cd' .15..' I··~·f~ '.3.w 8' -~e:r~Ule:.addH'ionai :me~5i1g.'..y' promrnge~ the 'bleS$iing.....ble ---".Ih' (J.:': . I!o!.!V.!l.'h. -'.~. . ~: . tnat.ose --.·. . I 'Ii . .1 lli'iI:!·t· .mu'~~.ses 'with a s..a.". rl. I : .e'~e~. -.h..J e ". .aJ t "'h .F~' ".n"".t·h··· II.' - : -_ '1' J •.. I...'" a messaee .I ..'"'bI. "I~ d' atlng 0.Cr .. I!l.le tner "...·.. .~ iI2 .UJ..! 'r" '"_':' ...' "!ri...eS51ng.:-(.a:rgon Birth L~ge:nd 3. ._ _ ~_~ '~IiJi't.. own. "1 1:::-'.la'li. if. ld.':' 'f" ._. Lewis " ".. .. .e epruo. 0:..J' as sayj:ng~.': _ II . certain of its mn:ten:t' since...( -.'.".. . :....-d-.. --inscrintic . . U'I :£urt.u-"".. 'rnn'my: footst..~U'. ·:i!··(l-·' -.n. future 'k...!'~' .y :mlfeI' who :i~ a'b~e'to 're:peB't: h]s.. .i!!..c~e~so1"(.:Ii-'~ill' -.' .~.::.lnSC.eries."should.n.1' .'" does nat contain..iO". ... ..'· l ha . ...g.-'Iit'·':c'h-· ~ .e ad Vh ~'~.gom O~rl.... l'UnCdOn" 'It" lS .1]:'..: II .•.' .. t.. Ir·.ln. seen from ' Ji.iJ. at". .·.... directed 1:0 :f..It'!I.--.. ..~'~. .-. · .-.C! 'Ij.c .- ~!i .. . '1_. 'iIf"--. ~.-" '1 ':'_'.. I~'..-.'u:hmre' rulers._! . - :j~ ~~ I.. " . u 'p.. ! I . ' . i .. __ ~J ~ .a successor o~f.". ..h.-~' ~ .ne .~waJt.. s. .ms. '.se. W . . ·'I!. next _ :step.ean-' .-.e _~ l' " ..

~.~ -T'h"-' threefold -iI".J1 . .. ee ..v~ ~n'terpte'la/tio.'-- -c'· ~.1i.1._'~-'.. no 'olbv.C' Sin ~ namesakes..t'be ~om..JUc u:a..::--~'·'-....arat~e]. t:hem and d"e fin'~:column in content. no L~lm--'-15io'1i'[I1 is m atter c··a'n-·'t']·(1ifnI'D-~ '0 r '.~:o..'I-.'C!i.n.'f one or .-'~I-:- ..[Vl ~ l . on the reverse are fajrly H well preserved.'~::~!~I A .'h"1 <'!: '~w.rnl~g that' the .--.'-\. the wa e r re~g.11.e :Si'rt'll Legend . Lt~~~1I..''''::'_'~l". anu pe..iIC.. 15. . on '~':h.: "I L'". ... . ..:'-"'d' .~ ". g _.1 ..-. In a:ny case" .rea't Sargon n o~fthe nee-Assyrian empire 1'.to the Code of Hammurapi.~:. Cz) The' . '~i: 'll.::ryir..-.e.n the werthvJ successor of: Saraon of Akkad.it)" .nd column of' that text..5..'t~ . examined in Chapter ..first ~olumn appears to be an Independent llterary u."r.!II.. .on came from. ~'~lld!jll. I A"l~ dat~' fo. feu] 'to' ~nt'h:e' second column.!'[..A. '1. ' .----.".~s.su.-~ rn-Sh or ~gnla.on of' .}~I~U m 'm'. bou ...--.~ . J~.th}@'c-omposlitio.t._..e'.· = .~!I.u..~~ .na.'C' . Wl.- I ~" ..gK~. second column is a (nnt_~nuati..' I 't--:--"jI:. ~ I .'iIr'.. a tripa'rUte=·struchilred Hct~onal a.:lv\e.. . ~'.f' va:r~. "I'r-. . .sence' of the seco.L€g~nd.-niI .. -v . ~ Ii&.'t' :.~O.orf N':.Ie.-' ... .iO "tc ..h.ill1 ..'b:~ypresented -. . I g .· ~~IIlI!... dl€' co..:~ . .'h_.nd Co'rl:mn . where :i t will be 's. _" g.l tiolll :~n'VQ.5.6."...~ '~...:' srrucru-'·:r:. \I v J.r.~~.t'he' G'.'a .t'· ea[. _..co:~um-ncontin ued the epluogue.Ii...lc-.on. 't. .ll..!'__: 111]·.the' arguments are ...I .l_ It 0-..'( (--~ ..II .nIt ~~"Jl.. the :p. animals in th.. IJ.... _ .reh e K .'-"tex . the p@:rioo of o.'-It'-d' uy ' Jf!w. l~l.-. .'_~I·-'~.. wh:kh 'be.I~.~' ~Jl~' t:r_ 1~II~b I .the Ic.n.'C . e Su.c'~"~"--"f':"S-~"cD'O.··.to de.Slv[ewy . L:'lji]l ~ .' ._-.ugge:s:tl@d.11J1~~U . -.t':hat .may' 'be a icamposiw' text similar .. .--..V..eeX(. .S.1 . ~ .f:end . That s u:ppos.a·.II. e u y ill lUy S.a .U_.esakes of Sargon .l...---~. • th --.n..ua....!'. Lewis.__l!.-"c . .half column E!pnogu.'. (1:) While :many of the 'tw'e~n:ty'-'two n@s.A.1.'e' discussed 'be'~Orw.Legend is.late y. !l].·--t-"·-'~i of .!.n 0.:'~]"liI.~1~!.r . .. !i'm.:[ ".oll.@of .a-y '00 compared to all of the' texts .r''' 'o.'-"-:-"'" :!I::J..iI.ws.l~l.[.3!c.I.'-p.~Offcolurnn I. If the. In I. s The' Seco.. .t-' '.:. U:[lajor obstacle .. I .e was th" 'f'--'.v a.1 .re.. s'!'tuafon .·· reasons tn d II". had a one and n:ne·. :1[1...e steppe. .. of th..sraphy-. To [urth. c . suggests t'hat t. .'e" nam.". that t'he Cu thaean ." 'n. IJ~ 1. ~. for I t~ .n. 'f'.I..~'n ~11 ~'.-:-.iIio. _ :~'n".'-.!fI. h". is 'BOt.2.y-- J.f the aho. t~ ~lllldl.d·~=J .l.h··-o'·'·'. ..:sd "'--dl. en .'0. ·-..11.L--.~.fil ~ . . ac. ~in..a:s. ·t'~ d . . t'h. ell .ryS"-ls.!. .gw:ns with a three-part wn troduction Followed by 'dle la.'_. There ...'.g.). t'h. "f .5'00."Ii1~ !IilI!. " V.rn. J . .emain plrota89rni:s.e olthe':!" hand. 1"00. .ua:t'I.~ ~:\ar.of .to. ~ .mposUl. AI ....t:h!es]:s.~n t'h. dle:n one' ls ha:rd.e path o.a..fll "any texts.J· <l'i! arlv . . epilogue) m.:jiIJ.~". 0..:posnio:n.lerle is. second colum IU 'Ii.~'~e a·-·. ft~ 'm··-· '0:-: if'.:2. (:'Ii ~'~" . ::J 0 ~ ~~ '.ompositio:n :found in the first column. Sargon._.-.~(!fa· !Q1b' ]~'''i''~:~. ..E' second .t)'to ~Jl~ .'. iII"I.[e ~~terary'form of the :Bi:rt:h. .' ~'tr~-(r-iIIo'l 'If".. e~n'" .er oomp~icale matters. .~IIfii...n th' :8.CI.[o is '~.d' .ou:s.-.ll!d J~ I I I.awy ~].iflIiir-. .:=!< is ~ con!U.!e Bw:rth Legend is.. '!!:loe..first column . d'Je . egerL 'C'" .Jlc.-.rube'the acUvily o..- - ~1_I. be .~. " e . w~ng that he w "'...r"aram ..II!&: I' I even mtentien r-..-. th at oubt _.ar am. t glU.iph.n~ents of the' extant portions of column Il 'bear flO resem blance to an epilog:ue'J' :makJng: H' uncartain that t:h.th.--.h)uscnnnection 'betwee~n. on the . 'iIj"\O'. :narr atlve..T.of the second colum:n deser. u.II JI~'eIU_.~.. d' uurmg .J. The contents .'tQbio... h ~i~certainlv 'ri'Ot'~'it~uu.t· abou .3.g-' gests tha·t' the eo.."e ~ ..'--. (prologue. _ A~ J~..'i..._.

.n...i :. ~'. .ll...~'~~. ._j .. .on~~y exemplar to :p.£..' ~.i. L v' in teroretsd. .. ~~.g''''~r'''''o'''·mp·'''''t''!i'l'·. Ines 01[ " .1IJi.'.-.~ . on 5.'-'..:"...! t ". sU8ge~non IS . •.'. ..'. ...~." .i!i. ~ C!J .ib ".LD.'-'."t ..rt..I.t .rt~d.oove.e ta "Ie: IS .n 'I'-"I-:d~ .a:~ns on-1 ..€:.V 'l~lI±..fIL.:lI..'1l.' '/ .".~gn:u:tC. ~l !!U 'Ii. ~..]! ~.'".~ ~IU1111 .pSr .di anu.' 'B~~ : ·t.~. .r····~..eSCn. B 0. . . .1 ·0f". ...'.. 'h.'l.~~"".Ulh '.~IJII..'!U" !)" "£Ii.'C"i' "t' "" . a . ~.a._. ~~I .. -." ·'-c." l~_.. '-.L.. rt D' '.~'h"... . .:'''. '.reverse .. .. "t. co. -. I......"h.U..-.liDc-g·.Q.l. __ ~..C - >"'.'Il_... :'. JI!iiI!.." d'-··· '.I...I._en~'t C'··' '. .po~n. ".' 1-... t h..':.'II · .t. ..I ~ .. ro ....~ i~ ~.IDCel .~.....l'1 lin o.p!UIO..'.7'. - ..~l.~um..~ont..~J.! '(if.l.~U.-.'..'D' c·. :·'i"h· M:"_"_' ':<.~ '.... ll~.Ji .~ese.""j" ' .".-I' " '/ " ".··.i!l..·.'.'::-ma.....' "" .~.~um. _.. "regen.. .. aruma.. r . .II.-.J " wo sepa rate ccmposi . .:7)" ttext.'best in~ the :foUowwno man ner: A attests on1""J' ::0' Un.. Ji.!Il. :'Hl m··n .ace of 't'n···." .iIo.rr= .- .i"iil"iloii"i..~ .~.e:s·am. to "1.-: 'I' .' _.._'m-~.. "~l'~l ~!Ii".i...:' I c::-- . 1.. -.C.. rever:!!H!~'J!'A" .iIi.['!yI'~..d'-I' .u..I~·~J~ ta ~ .!I..!. !Ii'1BrC~D y.. Ii(} 0.[':se..e th~e[..' [..'..~ ... . .• U~J.iI.b'·eO'l·i"fI"Ii.Ii"_ C"~'("'C_'I' c .. ~ " u.'..I_: .'.. ]nu...._ ..d. b J'"'jj.. : " '.0 £ both c-o:~umns~and :U.. _:. . .th'. 'c':- .'4 '11]"'iIl"D:~.I:=-. ..' ...con.l.s D'" \ ..~y-'--'-'" ·th··-· reverse 0 -.~.rna. 'i<'IiDiU!'£liil!"o~.1Ij..I1.·..~s :mi:ssi:ng'?t I'n .t.mrussu~:g.I!. · .7 oth er com... .~..ilk" " .I.1. accommg.-'---'t-· .}..e:XIi.~ I ..'I"". IL.."e part:!...on lll'ir-iIl. I' .·If'. '".:." e . ~'" . ···d.:. p' ura ·l·t-·.-:"tne eargon . .'.:~' (lo.". text).J ...a." -]. . .~pen:.--·f··th·. ==" .' .Lsu:om'•..__ . . ana only . .t>.":' · ~ ~'_L~ ~l!"'l~ .. .:..8.·....yV\~U.-"·"b-'-~·""t""'c .". 'W:~messes '0__th. two "". 11'( {.t' eppe.. ) .I.n~'_·.e ' ". tne ~-gen.. eeend m-'3V b~ e ·'·~'ii"g.2 ]"1-""":'" :. r-: . T""h'-:.Jii 'J .J.._ . ILrn!..· .'..5. .]'il~rm'.~..'B::' preserves .. :8>""--'-'" 'B'" '·-·h L""'" maepend~n't' te '. "..·t"·· ::-. . ··W."."._~\I_·I'! 0'":"0' . __ by-' ':'.·111.nson '--'-"'.~..Il. · ~_-~. ~ii'\o....-._. one faee of a ta bIr@t" perhaps d~lI..'-.... ..:' .ILt.i.'. ... i'. '. "-.'. ')Ull~' :~ I =. . bl .. ".Ul...·. .. are B'Y:.' . _rilL'!!.r . 1'" 'Il.c·':--.. .C"]""I'.'c"''''.'''-' ._'~~.C'I'.. . 1~pe.!II..S ·d'. ~.c-.._.'I_'e . .@~san the -. ..I'~~ "0.e .ii."d a.. W'.o.. I '::-'r '.'.I.J aUUl'd-on.'if . \..'@'.:_" IS a f= urtner WItness.. 'lI"!IO..II:.."[ll ..m.S.. . :S·~/'-·"·. .' .IS .no'I~'Rd. 1'" ' '.u _ .~ ..-.:-_an::d ·C·' the '. 'L.t Ci .1~.... I.L. oslp is not nreserved V __ _ _ ' . .' ..!iI.'. ... ~'fi·fI ...u~..-":'~"-'. LY 0. Th 'U-C! the 'te'~'''''u-'-I~'] videec e of the '5· .@' tuatlon obtains fot' Sit B'~the .'..-''.I..J.nOlan .e ..· . .-0 ··:.'..iii'1 '.~.. 0..•. ol}ve._..' 1 l ':"~/" ~ • A' ...V !!. S'" oontame .il.n. ..' I". ~. ams !J.'" .·b' ~~-l'~' .'1.'h-· tab 'il.a~JILy.'.-.~.l"I!i.[".l.... 11 . =..rse\~-·.I.Ua.. '-' -•..~1 0i'ii::"1 .--. ..I. o~f': u."11.:-c-n'::'if ~!~n U~ '...e -:"j'C' .~ _IP~.£ comp()S'l.J ...~! . a WlS. ." ".J'..n~..:5..(' 10[15 'be found on.' " .:2.eW.. sitic -.~I-''''-''':'I-' " a. " 11]0.._.~~ l~ I . . .' are .ji" .t'~.'iIl.

l dLU:ere-nt variatlens of' the K~ sign." wr:~'b-if. ~.~ _-~. C. ' ' ..V _ll '~::-lIi.llj" '~ __.'enmsyl.. in tha.'t '~~.l the '~~IJ" a~\. ... in .one •.~ i biog..y reason for tows.fuhl£e rulers {pace lewis.'~'II~ n 0.' '~:h.... colem n does~ 'if'I'Rii~: invalid a'I~.t.lls 3t "TeU A:E\5.J:yooilng .u= rea .!j. 'T. diss.9 '!..f~:b~.bieen 1l. .i'. S'umntillJ Becaese Lewis's ex tells~ve . __ ~~e.Uv.". P11'~ :1[.c".w Text [ditio. the last f'ew Jines as wns'tru(tion}~ In addit:~on...' -h .~.'~·a. the Sargort Birth Legend renders the inclusion of a :s.'IU'I~ li. the first g"IlJ].(2" __ mal.iety-.t ..~. Orl'HTIenb. a. ·ch ~w' ] _' .-..the.n"..r.e ... F.ny ptaces ..jJ ueat h~:... 5.lJri'=:m£ (London.['l!."'J !BASO..11$ ~~_h. See pho..t:h...Q.s'~a.nas '.go(n.nre' anamysis"..U. g.. h resu ]--IS t .t 'D. (Alala'b)"uS Al~'houg'h found in the de'br~s of' Lf!V1el :IB (ca.l1l'scdpUon of '10.U~ ~~_ .~ ~I' '-11 .c'- "'I '~'. 'n..g o..ue h present ge. Smith. . ..ve.'It~. on the f'ront 'by an . c.!J"e:~_ lon. ... 't'ha't these words 'were' uttered by ..c).. The la:st fe'w ~lne5run down Idrlrnl 's (beel~.now .4.Ar(lll~.'...~. A R.t .t 1".~b. .!T.c-t~:'lon 'ii.rOIlJ.gka:1 and.:h. Hisf:o:r.'to his mou:t:h. 1...found)'.1'. '.o _'lj..~ . 'M. A-~I~'L di ~~.aJ-lan. 15 50<-14'OO.~!i...er:e.r:s~:lyoJ ..tUl. and (.~.-t:ly ooUated the :inS(rIDptio.ing drn..17 n. W.was f.~m'~ St~~iUJ~.e .II. since it concludes wlth a b~€ss~ng upon .len.. Ii" .1":. 1.e~set'ha:~ ~9' rh ston ~. to read for a va:r.. C- H... ~.p. 1: 93'9 during his €!~x:C'avatJo. ' .'m'~'~ .~5 personal :h'istory' over a period ~ __ ~ _ '1& .nOw 'I~O iii. of tlrne: .~ .Id ~~ )y. :E' . Idr. -.ma'f._. .f..r Sargon the 'Gr-ea.A :Nle.' ..:ha:na.. _jll. raoo ac).t~ P'h-UA>-' 'I' :1il).~~ .. Ili. . N..\i'(ln:ia.bgenre.. was. llgJ..." " .[{ 'i'I'a.. 113 of the' Nil".-::~ ~'t~~' I~ne ~~. I 94li9').' . .cln...s.una:n.it~~ ~ . ' .l. .l:tS.~~ _ . n ~.' ..jJ a member of..r.' -'II ~ ~ d ~-~ ~.iibaJ Products 4 hl the' A1a~ak'h. ...5"~gns. Uni.t run mla.]: .study of. 197:7') 3.5 ()if'l.Z. w.-.Hurrian :h:im.~"Ig~ 19.8.f ldrimi. N~.ashroned ..!II.e prj. ]in.~~ the ..'1...·:':'o :[.l@ URUn on ~:h.". 1Jl-d hi:!') Scr. 'by' :Sh:-Leonard W'ooUey in.Q!.. 1.. a fi~'teen'['h century k~ng of Alalabl was discovered..i V'.J .~.t.utg.U " ... AJbrigh~1 . 'Oner . •.~".6.~_.l!! ~."The Au to biograJphy' .FrQ:ntispj.-.@'LecrelldThe Leeend 'W. I experienced in Akkadian (pos.-".\Qgraiph !of the .I. ._j! ii"ii.:~edby G."..:.. (19'$o} ~~.l~.'e proper genre id@IIlUficaf.. . :H".:I!.j\SQme ~'mporta:n.scr.hJD..I.es'3. the' statue W'3S dated 'by.. since been . -' The r ~.rea. :IV .I uStyria.i . "..ica~. .[.' oes not ~l_ ~ .flg!!l~rerepresen ted 'by' the statue" The inscription Is d:imcu'~. and . and ~he .I .". "'I ~".'e -.Uw "-A. ~ft.'-.' .:imU"ar study unnecessary..~ a![.I'.. found to 'be..n.~!~. 'e' "l\ ~ '' th e sta t~'i.J 6-u Cj~O_. and observed ~~.(lS argued .-).1i!!i. '!. nd iC' ~ ~..se:lf) or.e@~ogyin .of: reasons. Dt-QW'E.tll. ne.. . ~. _~ _ '!i.i.e' imp1cess.Oller who :r€'(Jen.er t'iII. The short statue (:r'S''"t) represents 'dle' king: sitting' on a throne do~o:rl~e and COVE'." .~ The .n.. th e Inocnp .aphicat.H' recounts 'Sa:r..oyal :Sf.A'u'lohiography of' Idriml The' statue Q.@ existence of the ~'rapm.: B'nUsh 'In~U1tu~!e' of .i' it 'W. . 'i. s.'t1lJe !lJl~"the '~hr-orti~'. __~~~ __ I!L~a.Qgl.I " ". 1:1"11.h.-._ _ .(Ul.eho . 'O"-A I iii ~\ .€.. Sl'~iu'f tjf .~ '-eo" .w ~_ '·'n..'b·~!d :9~ . is either that S\arruw'aJ the scrlbe. of -'.. '-'..~ptw. f:J:iommaanesite " and e..t:ha.t!'cn'·L-~-.'W '1 1'10" Iy.i~ve~rijes: Alp:h~beUr Q. auto.on.of. 1.e' s'ta't'ae lSJ in. ad he "'.uy C {P.a.n~br.('i.-:-h has.b" W.of Idiom.:mos't' echolars back to L-ev)e'~ :[V I{ca" '1-500 e.. g]Q 1·'~Fi~ .oea." Th.~'I'i"1.€' p:receding pages have concentrated o:nly an the question of. ..S- CAR ~~ :4J:]ff..~li-9IP<O' '1'07-11. who ~nte'rpre'ts..'. reaadJng..ne .t':h.~em.u.f'llo.A.

)~~ ...y.':illl!iil.o... ~.i!Jn5.IIi.'Etru_ ~~. .~ ll. :[..' .A.re~:a'ti..d D. i The statue itse1f h~s an in'rerestillg' his'blty..'_ l~1 "y See (l:lIew-" ~\i'AUl~obioSwa:p~y'f I:d:rn.197u... r T' Jljl~~~~I~l~' 5l~~ ~JI!~~ ~~.. "flli. r ~]l ~..21 'l.'1"'.U""..~nSCIl..H'''il-t'~"Lk-· :. I~W . Dn..alIlJiI:I ·eIJ t ~·"..-:..01'etz.J. !l:nd S~rn~rw. <. 1.1.._ eh.I~ []:~l.j.nor.'[!1IU..i .n'~ "..H' '-"!itt'~.: .- c ~L- .:pletely simas:h.::~ __ ".'.If"1f'L. I hese . 'l'k"'AI ••.. ~d.-:" .w~J@re'L_ey '..e'town of' Alalab w.. ~~'1'·.iI:!It.~"h)r_ stares 'WIere.!iiJi. ·1Il·~cil IR!O~ 'I··...i.2 .."" .L ~ll!1J a.~'IQ"=~.t'" .lLh.. e d the ~U-.~ It a:ppe.'h"e 'S--.·f.tu ._.-.v" 'Il!r'.-.i. .' .' .tJ "'~I IQ L~.. ._. 'D' die Serilbe.. 'M-' OJ_.111 . the d-I~~'ilhF' sctlon h(' ..' iIh ' I --------.. 'WlniOll18 L3Ike..C I'Heffi:n"@wll".'t-:.. Ca:rta"..m . the central .'1.... .lal'This fUis.!ll~ !L:!.'. _ .-.t:I. --....-. '.-aut.'.] ... ..wn!J_.~ e.'e(lAviv. K'.'e'...f"'-'n "Lb.... ~.O r. ~hilt per'baps Riimilim:m. l'Q.m~'"'.w':'OIeneve:Ft.iii'ln$~' IN: .~ ..' :rdr.. .n~!bn.~~..~:II~~~ e-' - [~~ .~~~.. nTh~· ..'I).!.dJ 'N~ ..-·...:iil. " (~d..1I:... c.~..11"1. " ·:' argon.-n!i..rnstlti!:imlll"... A ..r·1 'If1II'!Al~ _.. U' (:m97o. '~AL A.t· "(!Jj~ u_nsubCess~'twl. eh"ld~ae ..'Z'iII!iJ.·-d" '1..~@()O~S\.... 'iIi'~'c!: I~~ .u~.--.'. .~dom: ..€l: lmK<'11' (.~1\r. .1" Sasson Iql!ulls'~i.! I' ...j....1.~jlrrt~jng ~!IJ!~ 'W~Il'!I~rVir'''' IJ!ll 1.-. Ie.-~....~IlP aUeim:p~against .""..'ll ".ars that the victors com.i.ea._..t' have .. ~'tli:H(iirl~r of :5'hfm~~ Yeif'fn (.nI1l1.• -.II 'B-lr._ .:'I"n. . ". h tlu were -..II~n""""'''' '1~::!rriiiP!" ·[:""t.·.41 IL~J. CmiJ'iz. iOw-e-R..1..e on monuments -1'''''£ oyro ~" -._1':':... the lun.. '-.a_an...'.i.. '" '... \$~ ~.2i.""..and given d'.Ie' 'S' )""Fii...c~·.. LY. Kern "p-.. S"-:"' ene sra mes. "-..11 ... R'iI!: -'I .-t": '.. . 'When d~. .-'1 v _ ..:i'·'C -:oi"'i..~'5'!..[drimJ .j.L"""m'.y~s.l '124'-.tue ~.~Vu'&~ '.n ..i:l.l!"'!~~~:~_~1 _1 1~_"_~!U_ ~lll!J I ~JI~~l I ~~..'i'.efl:lCn arl1Y!.~.. sebeenredoes ."'S'. .f. .J ". an ho.5 Wh.i.''..'" a..'iL\. 1 '10' I" "~'-I ...~l.'t@rp. ~ ~ JIi UF'it:~' 'h' ..' . Sa$S(U1II1' "100.'Y. . 'fUighrt: :fr...'" -·tL L' '::. .concern IOf' this proijecb :15.·.1 ~~IIol.DU ..!ligS' '1.p on ha.. 't"'.__: t' JI.al led l~11". c~ l' xte In' I~i·v:. ar~. ~l von AI!lJbab/J.".. '_.~.·.".~~ IL. -:...: E!5e:n'hrl1!ul't~~.. . b-".i1i'1I!'!io II.'t:a:bl@'. . .--..n '-.~ .ea.a~.. _1!ii'.'L~ st a.~ htd.liZ.w .~.~.ill] ~.'J ..w . "'u ~1IJ!EiiiJI~.IL. .' ..rr.' ..Ii.. .. ." .~~@' 'trad~tiO\md in..oca. "J I" n_·.\ ':'.a'll~w' .egen d '. .as deslroyed.·AlD-M·""""'-'. ...'n+ :3f1trL IC>U __ 'I#lr. '~"''-''-'''m--.. .·._..'l!o'8m..!!yro_j!!~:I'.:re. ""'....l _.-J~~r..".0!fY . !II I~~ A.'. ' rU'..r ~ud 'h~ H'urr..o£le 'th~d' . . .·'·e· '0.: ]'AI .~U..!.:._.J -_..._..~' '.:1· • J:.) ..$.J~n'a'i '11 ~ --' .l~ .'I ] "'_]"...Ii!l...:.-~ --: Ic .'!.M:mi.~ ''':.UF .d ...!!.. M@if'riiso:n... . SIwil:S ~tJ1 t:it". ' E:~-_.rl' jJf NU'l.'.JMhl! 1I \I'IInI' " .b. of: ""IUiCi:. e'On Idlilm:i ...L"" M.main's..niP' "".-.. "..U~I ~·'·.l3l ..ir:lE.lQg:rap "Ihl>..1:(1IQ8~) 1oJt-68..~""'.anu "iL.~ :_'. .~-''~~.~'i ....<..:J@ sttes-.'.. . AJa~~b by' 5.Jj.' . 1Iw!~~.. :fam:il..I~ ...jl]' _!l I: _I_.bn~k-tm.L~'t:U. -" ·:'Irns:k.ti...idi~...rri .. '0'" 'U 515:115.!!." '" -".-:'C-'-'._ '8'1'-"..l"? m W.·d:-~.:o 111.nt i"irul' C~'I'fI.. ~~.Ii m ]. .~.H~fj\1rqf E'twaf .."'.·0"-:' L -..!' (1"'1 ·...-arn\d 'N..in 'wuh the: g:row~ng evid!e.... I..t".. 1 UC'. 'h'.as 'eeen. ".o'n' '0''.t.on ot..i:i!i .~·un..R. .~'Euwe~e . ~..6._ri!H~Cf1p'tnJI'lI '0. ••li"liiP' '" i 1. . .'1J.ernJ SiM'i'f$l~~ys. . 'iI.t:th)nal -(-&'olb""'.. ...~'lo.'_. S ."lHd ~iuruwa/.t Jli . ~!tud. .@d..'-..-e..• W 1...AY~ turned brilf.:!lUI r'I'U"~ iD.':~'.'UJ. 'r~~iI[ii'~.-. [.-'..""". 3~ '-' '" .~ ..ll...'"'s.2. it.. In "''-'r''pili'·.!~' JNES' . _ _ "'h-'.-.'... an..~slroy~u..11. AhaJromh T. '0.. .iaJ.--.'!rtatl!J.3 :ffi.a'b:le 'bUf..·t~~ v~ _ to COJlceo'trate' on. "".iy" collected the' shatte~red pleces of the s. 'N. -.8.

.e' toward him.!e'ssi:ng upon the' scribe.91J" i!ii!!. -c."""fty ~ f. Being . ilJsua~I.]...- '__ _'..~ -.. A·· '. ~. . . --- ut~'~i~[)tn:n ~'~..as. !ItJ.as Cl1"@giat~.- .O'4). F" :'. '·'_ . .c r- I . ~ .lS U speclles st'arm!'..t h-. ." ug..J ~.ani.. I' c'_ iIi.:~iIiIi~tJ ~Uh. .iIi..E. 'Ii l:" 1 . . but M.d._ A·'····. .-.. .._....IL .' I'H~:i1~H ".a:tU..r.~':_ tcasts he '~'i!'l1il~'... to..~ 911. .l"iIii'~I~ m"~'ii'!Il .-.As: . .Ii.lna_~y.ea..Ii 1.'.92='98 and blessing' :(99-'104)'" Idriml CU~S€c$. . . :"~ ."iI! .t I'~: Ui'iUt .lunuer na ne '" . . Ii .il:I~.o " I: c·· .g·..'..j! C.1'3..1nU..r. .. .'' t'~......_W5 :B'"arra ..~~ 1.o. '!r1!Ol!!"..t. . .I = iIi.. rner nerere '~'l:Jlr.~1'C.rim ~'~ 'IH'u-' ' IT-. - .44.~~ L gaIns t---'h-fa uah ..e from his you'~.. d~ . "'1 .. __' "'" ~' ' .J<V""].liI. . I ~ • ••.ere'aderof' th.'~". c 'IL}."rlJd mot ...-"0:' ·='M·. I~..b.p' g.t:he situa HOtH. in ]drimils '~if..oe' ~he:re ~ ~ J is !@_.:ppro:val of the gods.'. ...1'V!I!I~-~..~t lendtng' wIth a not.le 'L. 1.97 -1 'Ji.l""litl. .r~Hnles ..the trappings of' 'N'e'a:r Eas tern rQry'a! ty (8 :m~..!' p.-" I '$"' . the wea .Ji 5-ee' A" !lb •.' j. a:nu 'was'.' ~ ..urn ..ru Sl.a.H'·'IS countrymen..._". eV'enb-.anyone 'who 'ta 'm--Ip-:::D'r.I)IUa:pest..".. heom. '"'.~.'v.it t r_.[!Ung:s '-[~ . .l.'ll. 'wsestat b1 he'~ as 'k" m A..Ii _ ...~. . .'e'insc:rip~tion hles:!.m..a.L·t arn...'! a---~ . . 'K'··· -" I~"I" ...a~:!:... of h~s own :royal achifiY~\-' m..ies reo-eer '~:~ua'~' unner .'t.) uS.ri'e"'t e ItJ. s spends u .I.. Il.M...~l r@questthat'l:h..-i.'Barr'aUar'A3.'l..i~[[·L·.. Om~rif~r~ !i..-:. Idri. he ls albh~to buHdJ it palace (80) and take.I"''''' '. l'o.1:1. he iIl:.y" ])red __~Jly.--(.tM'. ~a·te'.~.. '_ '..I:U~~j'~b wJ~n H· L'H.:.'.e aUucUng to . ..nO~.." Thus Id'riml is a prosperous king enlarzina the borders r f h"i.n"... .!i. .--: rum perrermec.I _ __ _ _ __ _ 'I -'.me o __ !!J"e~ e mmen J!lf WL ma IL :""1 h i"" . ~nt@.·tt'"t -.""..mn..~': . !U.) and ..:m." 'n-~.- . land bJI rule onl...'a: lrd·..ted G'~~ l"Th€... by proIdaiming ..1". ·t-· .. .1J. neu '. '.~l~ 9guom arud 'b--':·'''I''-'·-'· . n ei zh.-.a '~'h.nMU...-.p.~u·" ...:ru. . or :. .C .. .aveIS' honu Vlal t:-'hl'e ""sea:!.:..-.A.__ . '-' [L.• 'D "d.:.c .e :L8 a.-'ii" ...to re'iuf.!" " drim i t h.leflE'nJ)~s~ra~ed.:il~oll!. . ""-.· . wng e ·. 'H." . '6'\ . .]1-..n... .iii' .'. C.. ~ . 0'-'"~nne:Im..')!be further d~.Fiteill se<u~mo attpo. parts: 'CUFs'e (..' ..nJiUng Ul'~ ...=. 1J I ~.~ .' ':lIi '1-"fiiiR..PO. .'- I..IOI.n !i:.--. .-.4. .·· "l' ~'h·· '". he' demon 7 . .llh the H'~birn for H:VEm...'h (i~xHe' wn EmJa.rw'aJ (99= lOll.-. '.(lng 'lIl....-'· f-.: re .. .plll. 1 "" -I . ~"iQ.. ._!!"y~ ..r .nt. • -~ -.'W... .~.. are' -"''''1''.."'·Fr· ]'_Iy sn " 15 seventr'''''h year 0.11m ._ .. ..~ -...e . ~" ~unL . Y'@iUS i~1 .:i-''Jit_'1 '1'£Ii a nd its mess ~'P'I~ Tradlti ~~.''_. t·lk-:'i-'.:." ~nn.!~=:i'~11 _:__.!'t.. ~ 'U' '."='.~' " ".ng.' 1m..omaJ~'k . 'U.l!\tfI~' Mf"lI-..-.:1:.· II!..-.-·'·--. ue.nng. . .Adad-ni-ra'r.- -. At trus I- .. 'f" J · .l. .atita :E].: . ".rum. 41....let.I'.h"Y.I!):~!.A--.L n if ilU '" ..t 7i tJllis.:~ 4... "'II hi t h'ey" 'iL ...: _.I.c:·d .. V·:.. d ":Lng: z ..-..' L.Ia. hl. i"i"iIo-"i"\fiIlF-C'. resul t.o!= ~II.'.-:-~'!.are not ~na posmon to re1:a tate.1i1 il t- sec t...-.l a b an d he b 'li. _.iO...ii'~1 ~. -.-" 1-' :': ." exue. Sa'rn. e~.' - C(. __!af~' .. nar... con. '-. £' .:.'.1 .U'.'.. .er of power th. ." . Kin~:Pal:ratta:r'flfa •. -'-1.-..t..eF~0 . Moreover. II' -..~:s 'L'·n...'·t b~gins (S1.:1" .a.·.l'f!IIKt. ··-··if~·~'·'~.) has.JJ6 M!n't! .nsf.(~.." ~ .l.. \~.~r'Ii'" .. ..!I]...-.f. .e sacrmce "'hl'-att rus 'f:~ Itlh'-'~:> ".Bibb.mi. .irnhlH~..n._. ... - •. ..2l1'1 .ls.the' tra. chaJplt~~r).v A···~·.th e.e [. n@_:...".r]n . . and r" --'----..!]t. . J ...ii:Ii i3 ·~.'·.. arnvat .~~""... '5- ~.(:::. .U''''...rr ~ji .~.-.Ii'r..t:". -.!' to' . arrare.~~"~ J. . I ·C.' .. .y if he gains the a. _l.. a.goct instructs .. A.~~..u: ' Yl!.. . =. slfuggle to regaIn .~A'jJl.omO\rllJlll.. .. 'Idri-mi. 11i'--~~# __'!I!::N.. l.~--.".. :. eegms an aggressive f oreign : .-".gO.~~ig. played here (thewr swgn~f[cance will be discus:s'oo. J" 'by > ->i:j .e. :i a '~'1f-: . strates ·· that h-._' 'r .I ri\ .. In _p.0 . peep '1-" Wh .Ma.logici!i~ ~ .. .. --- ~ - ...g. 'ViI t.iIi!..-h-'"--.i."JI-·-f--~ Cd.t~fied as an '~ndo-E~f!O~IU1.~ I _ ~ . I.I. ·:·. ·..-'.2'8')" £4. the ...'!!'O.tlh. ~.2. .rpnrta. -. w .: I. ens to d~Ii-. "-'cCg.aUeg:iance to Bar.-.0.J I~.lV'f!' e-nus.imi.ng: 'Y' .-"c'·:.utobi'ogra. "'..iliauij).._.tn lEi ILnIT" d th de. Th.. ub Il iIlo'l.r'a:IIl. e .'II'~·d· emlal. " i"'i~'l~ t. _' I..'111"".. 1 ) the ." __ !!. hWlnse~f and h~~ famMy .'.r'"b. _ . . 0 .~'J ~Q -If. ..t t.3). V'.ures seven Cru .·H'-". -'-. defUSE'S.€'a:r 0:'f= h-'. C'{'Ijj(..lY~.·S_ . ~.-ten r. Wi~... The third section rna..s.. ~5 Idrimi...t:io]1:is dlspu.._.vided. . . ldr.uJi' ~~lrO.4.-"'''.n '.'i>h" ·f:·t~Lan d :responS'l.-' . .~!~ynoog • a. prorec .~:[~.~ _jltn 'e 'iiUlr.~'I..Ittan ian ''00-· •.llty.::r ~~~~'f~ .IQi h W'. .2=Jn.~ fJ~_ ~~..1-.!'. -.~.!1di. ...cul~r]V'ehim..--.:t. h r !!O.3.~.. ' ..." r: '·.. .-..r... _ ~_ "'~' C:"r@ma:. • [II f!J .€' c. . h t.~ tim-e wit.-.-.ancestral throne' Cab-. .G'~HSltil'ltl~'i '. IL. . . 93 :(19.L.. ·V-:..-.-. into two..an_ apparen "tl'·'y th e .3rna and becoming his vassal Thus.rt. (..n '!l. so be takes om .Ja. :15.!!!.. ...cllb.:y'[deTl." '(' ' ' ' j]' -. ·H''-tttttes. .'I~.JI...tiIan.. Il..~ v'" o····u' n. 'we'lcome rum c....~a.·.e 'b:~.r"i.~. 'n -'1 h Idrlml 't ~ J)~~~e .·..na..-~tnf. description..l~ Miriim]jsta.th-'·-'''"~] .n. .'11. e. .6.S)... The.5" ...~.'Iik.' . :1I. .".I:" ..H BASO.yed 'w...: '[·. . ."" hi ]5.. vid ...:1:.. .:r.-j'm:· .. ."8'''Ii Ii>'h .t pcun..~~_@na!:·t'lnit ··t'..ilL..a rrumeer lOr..t· -.i'U: lI'·d··.. -.'. nme .-" a: . hat I\I~ven y1earsJ1' j~ ~n fdi. .. .".~. -. UI'Il!er.H")~ 'throiugh his. .". t.... ~n..b-'. .ns a.o.''. 'te'x-t narrates.'~\iII!IIiI"..!I. Tl.R. W·:' arm I]U 'H" owever 'bor" grows hosUI. ..:: ·.~.J't..CY·'!.. .ns r'Oya] respoftsJbHity over te his son..." . --...lents (6..es:sing:s'ectiOrl con tt11.~ [Gie~U]I'V'a.:il.eSJ' ...

C'!.- . . istc -~..' 'd':" .l'=gS) b.J' or fictIonal..[.. .' ..mon..:!i. .r~'~~l ~~ formnl ~V~ .'iI'd:-'-'i .J para .te:r." "ii.J. ].S.e '_' .~n or4:.. .~iO.. e.."_".I. III ~ _ ..j:tness account of events .~J a.we.e 111.'ii -e.iI--"" 'i.t...a-ndals {O.ary cha:racter.L'" . IL..._.ji1M..JI...'..p'hu..:lif: 'i .a:n. ~ A 'I: . j.' :'. --._.. '~.1~11 ~ .' r'l . was ~'.-" ..gra:p. .~ Au:trObiogra. J -..uail.·lt~'..y-ewItness a. Thus. :h:i..10t~ .o.sto._.:er~.__ '~.J.C. '.".'sec.n _.~ ...".'... Blessing alii 5arruw'a (99-1011) \ c. Curse .lrll.'-:-"·-l· . _.al--ht'erary' . O.in :No:rth Siyr~a===. ·T ne next.gt'8Jphy t 'w:hLch :may' 'be used uncrl. . ~".~~_'I .. d i ..dt" 'wa's._J lit:'llU. B'~.J.n'1:AJ'L 'i.~.as ..} • • •• I..ca~ personal rtarration ~J' =9'1. U .'II~ S ..I.l.' A" .. the text."-.. . .i: t~'T'h' A"'-t 0 'b'wog..Q.-". ..aUli11.=. IS WL.rtoduct~on ldrimi '.. •.r. ...t:!o lO·h'j" SC. an eye'w. . ..' blen pr._'. I I~~~]~':nO"~~i'iU'''. =HC' '.IL._n'·.a.I...t.. . . • I __ ...£' 'w ...'.. .-. I ~ .C'.iIi'. '. ~t 10'2 ~'. .. e:_ .- It. I.. ' veen com. .. ~ ~ • ~ . 'II~ "...eaUy as a source to recoastruct Syrian historvII '~n . ~n' e'I~.Jone.~'he DEtee'nlh ()en-tury' . I" the ..1~--arter -.'.. ._". Th. 'D~ ~.rical OOf:'i. 'I!.. '..." .()8I1J.1·' .: " IL.-...Iess~nl0. 'f~lIl. .81" '.7-' _ 1.. . -" .I!. .p:hi.. rnm .!S b' 't-JL' .' ~..I1i. 1 •..!lI''J' ....-.U. ..!!~ _ 'I' .-.-o" .I. Q.br.nau " l1.8'ulo'l1[o. :O. I ~.".. '.on. 00fh't:1 e l'drnru ~nscnphon nes '1 + ._.pl~:f o\~.'~~ji'a· th ou p"ht· eresen ~ iii.1'...C ':1.:11...r jJ's:imula:t1ednl.ymous.e' . c. .of v.'~~t-::' .-OIL.. 2. V.!t-' .(l:ems 'n.. I'· ' •.hy (psellJdO.'5 true ••• •• •• ".iii.....iI b" y .-'Ii" .form. "".) '% '" J. .'" '::-..nex sectio -:c ':"r·''''" iI. "ua'~ • 'd' '~JLaJ .s '-(d" .Jil a1'OO. ~d '.I:V lli1"~J'ioirlm'II...gra."~~' .COOUD:t: .n2.. wh:'..._.[I..41 J ~'_rrm~ \ c:: '-'.il..(Oil 'G.'iL..!II" ""'.~stics remained ln 'd:le backeround... Au:to}. ~ .a:p:h:ica~:~n:t.' -£ ..io:"n" from ".I~~~. " .iliUU[1e'sseS! . . au to'Dio. JI " .em...' the il. .li:ii~~~.. . -.~..ogr..8 Ii. the :inscrtption" s u.'e 'r'es:it.'er1IV'~ 'Ii-. ti " " Ie' 'u h The' autob~. lO'h.e.. text.2) i!t115 (.j. Ii._ .I!""..'~" . 1....e:r:0 d. JI -.-(: l'cy...y '<h' [_.. ". which.~ ~ I_: .'"..l"a. a maior role.t' ... C. nesst:'l)l.. Outf.0"A] .JUSI.1.:'.: 'I!. -·':t-'t-ten w.-'Ii.' rec. pnrasea ..n""t A::. WI.i!I .~ II.'. "h the d Ulser.~US -"-. - ~ .~r nm~.

.-....~s tha..ct. .' 'Ii' .·pea:r.:.'... .ry ..".. t.I... 'h b· .. i~is remarkable how' p'rec~ously &~~ne ~!'I"\Ci.Even in ."~ft... no'te~sjl' I1Je:n~. '1:\..... ':'. h@':roand .u .l = --~= .s ar.l. .ji..:).-c· IN···· _!l!m: _ _ _. '"'Jt Q. I.a~ ~ 'hlistJorical S(t!1). 40·" :f'-.J.· ". ·t'h.en. pp...1~I]S~!l)Tlj$C[iJie:r!r'!!. )i!!!r.\!'en liiji!"I. he ..~- III . .1ri!! . ~nlI..!. ~a __ 1 ~~lJ 'l~l. ··'f· ... a . 1[]JJiE! Y'V .-:. ra.o n t ha:r. . iliV c' .4/.-:".~:I'I." ..j"!'. . IL1~.b..~.€...' .m. J 'll'ea .llJ.rs~U.1[ . . U'.~...\om I(OUer. n@':i3@: ' 'p~un'ls W€r€ ririSt IDa~.a~n: ~. ~ ·f·_.' .. 'qu~stfng.J . oJ' i I UQ.." "_IIlirl~'mi t ·i ':~ ~= _~~~ n~. !!. -' . : .V!li.rl!lhe:r.1[". n~ Iij.!ml .n. .1'1..---..Idr~m~"'s.<::..o?'.n..t:'Or .·- Cii I!J.. many ·. .:-..tha·t' t:h. -·. 1\.. __ ..J-· ... almost ..J.o sllc...a con YWnci~g expillana.~... Il"T'L C· .." 'c' .e YOl1nger' 'broth@t 'wlh. 0_ a.:..5.....1:1.~.. .. _ s= =!I.I. ·tJ~e' ew Informa lion gained from the Idri:mi inscription.ca~..the :h· ]~.._..:./1'0"-" ..d)llrles of .n~I. e. .:-!!!l ... Folklore t. khlgd. .' or lurlml:5 .....t .1.l:J!arr.. Ui.. '1 .en our..i" .Iih" ·5·.. ·t· .-t···--:·-b·I·· . pieeure d"I.es are :pitrUcul.:..I.!\nJ . U."'-·"'''''·I ..= cat m f' --..~ . _t ..a IlOin.£ .-.ery of.P. \ wh..- :ji.-crrem.-· .. andQ :~:ro~:n~~ lnten ·.!. . .nr. 0.! I@' .."t-·" I' C :".:l. .'I.-"b~" .e' fQIldo.~.. -.~~:'""~ "..~nl1i'S and ____.[1. 1·~'~B'it·i..i 1:AJ]·~h·"··h····~~e'..€' stO(ry' of 1:d.1L. '. .-.-A.A !f'I.D.drlm:1 InscripUan Rather than 'be.. ~~~ _.. ~og. j!f ::. - .YOi!! d' on . ~n£ornla.~er...1Io.n.. .~__ v.' 'f" 'if .l~ .:".~--'it>.111 ..ilI!Ii!...mewor .'11 .n . _ the. .a.. ··r·efFi.1 W aere .:Oi!! YI. '.. -iW .L/· .'.. 72'1 w'he~ he a.@' (OU~r:j'pp.e 'bou:n. --.. I~t'lir.. .€\'-act~·.-" .. lCRI narra t--:··· ..~e. a..reign in . .tue and. ~ ~~ 19 (']>900)1 140"1"l1L '_" ~ "'9. Or =8'._ .liQ'~'In .. ..1. <.ml fLJI!r:i. ~ .-' JNits t'.~.:[c'a::_.]~. '~"Fl~.L!'!! l.'ra. a " . '''' .U ._.I me . to eS!talM~sh.rra hve. . . ." Jet .. ... j':i-".: It~ . 'i:" ]_1. 187'-90)".l~h~~leao . =. .::. .'-10''*)t ..an.(~c.. :' ".. also w. • .--....·fl. .: ..v~ _'1.. O(r ..'11 ··.[4 'B!. 1 I.~ .110. __ v= ... Q 1.·r :k-.':It1.···~ m ~in··. " the . . .~@ds!in atta:in....·IO'I wh~ch S.rlmi._ .1Ii. !I!~..~ lin'. .f..iii.lII.. bu t much of the de:scdplUon o.C:s. ." .""..'.. .c-. '" IvS=v7... • Ui!!f'·.pa.u'iM IUSl:~~ t'l!......€ ~W!lmfl!. iPiP'·· ".e !JU!r. ....w·.-:j:. 'h .-c·h-::-·.U!tV d ..JI.·'t : 'ow...ever.iiI i .-. __ l"~l.·" -. 0(' r.mOiUf.a. '~I- 'H" K~l .ne 1 1'r\1" ! g!"!l!l.11" . .1liC' 'Lv __ .g~ees.-.lrly :p[lomine:n:t in the flfSt part off the ..· f ....]ilt eroeeed . .I~e' .. .t'h..~ -. centuries is t~ke~ninto consideration..~nii..iO .." . j[!'Di""~'"l·O· n-' :O. . . .... dl!e admIttedly :meagr."Olf.e '['-' . . . order ·to tell ·t:h. t··~· .' rimi. = a . " .~en~:e 1 \!' I\!'U·-·"·- ..r.0 U'lsert ilHi~~=~.~iU~ 'j .re··....i ~·~1reconst . 1\. __ .-:i!: ·t:h.(Ul..\$$u:r ~. .11" • ..ru .. . :··'1I~.n s:hlg.hi!ii. '•. was difficllJl~lt. :. L..'I. .t~ ..ne SOCia..!iI.3d with histnrv...~ .:16.....~ .'l!. rUIUj! l.r.._ i.oil 1F1. frr·' '. I.: . -.. 'K' . ·.lil '.A'-J'.i!~S~O(1!!t.JI.e. c i". .'1 ...I.'.~ 0" 'Il.... . en . """.. .:.-.ne "'-1' .0' C- (9'2. . ~ ~ .or.ne ·~lme.$:~em."... '.t~ 0\'f' ' sue. ~.1~0i!!"'.!.I!]i'i'" p"'rn'-: ··:'b·.rr'a..~'w~re t.'. ln ~~it"ii..d'. . a"~'tlal~lbor ALa~aJb r(OUeir:. autt hor .nl jQ'l ...1..: . c..~' (~i961'~70. ~~VOIVemen.. .."".. '~·hlle.1' - Yi'=_ -~: - = r... \~ ~ _ [rr. .-.r... -..~.f Ii- I ..Of.. " ut: ... . . _".~11\. and "'V.aJso 3:S dl.~ ..'t' m. -". '11 d' 'W..·Id rim i.]f-(e.. iii.th.o.-''..~.l. . pflnClp..f~x 'th.. ions ·til!. .· ·pronounce·m.t\mM·en p'.' l(J'\".·:'lam· . T'L.. ·T·'L.e. :.-. ilL.hem.e b. 'i'..MlglIJr-e Q_. rri.:I . o\rl~..e'.'j.._Ql~_ [I~ '·I'~ it~e~·. d':-' ".in h~s H:itti:~eSQFti.a.!! ~ Ili..:rIfh..." .l ~~ l[~' t I _II ~ na.. !!.'.... ~ . 'k -..!'. .".. L ".. -._..P'=_as·ee'liii . ~" ·tlL...e :!'.@'a··· chrono':d' ero _~ __Ul_l....::!"'"np-'hon em:n(....·th··-· s~·a.' i· . -. PI'" I ...l1a.~ 'p.11.Al.~.rh~1I.... '(" :·'t· _e __~... 'L 5 .II..• _ •.-.~.: Utera:r..~ng .. I.. eommi ' :~'fl~~' k.$·tic.1l1tda:rgu.. ne ...n t-.·.('.!. ii._ ~ .n the th"e sc:rUJe.. .o···.@'n:t}.-:: -~ [. fro m'..sin.~ngconcerned .aSSQI'IIJ. O!l[e ··f th . au 0< uJgrap ...-.'e' hlfor.. N'orbl..l~'.e!.~ac.yr. u:po... 4:=8"t or' 'to lOCilJ't!eH~.a·-p· ·. 2. '..oilI~.l..· ~ J ~ L J ~ to' . ..~"". .'S' .~~. 'L..iI~ .~ty 0_:' j.:-r·r·:-b '·11!D' . u)~~ ld ~_ ~l~ It f".SSU)LI_~ .~ ast C-O_~_=b_. case lean be made.. II..:. ..._..€st.-·o:-.5: t.... 'il'-'-' 'F~"i.es t.·l . Id~imi von . ... '148-5.' i '.. ilown'. _.s ~·.-" .re themes are not as 'pro..lIj-. -::. . '·.'!ri....t' L..j"'<ili'lp... ".iI.-. des. on .~'I1. '~Li!..Bvt ·iI'jIo'!iitl"u·:~. 1. b:-adttional fo!lk·~Olrj.tiJn 'lLul'c:'Ove~red since that ......I.1.1. -c·.'--. 1i .t. g..ma:t~on know.• \!o 1~'I!iii'~ ~~~~..t.liO S·_ 1. ..'!o. ...• '.0: 'f" .y Ud~LI. . parrticula:rly lines 99. .O. t·O··· ~er~ . . a '1Ule~S!Ulg' .I!J....1ji.CA:'] a ] a.-" .:1f Ill. .'... " .'-1 .1""= .\.c"I·-'·· !j---:.• [ In..'. or ...~. U C. persuasive...~.. bmographic"d narrative (65'e:~) '~h.monlze ·wru...h . i_o.mln.: ~ 'h" ·'1..tiL_.te ·:r-'a··· tro 'T"I.'.-' ."C':- ~ actors . ~. ...h. ':i ..as.. -ii. . t-·· £. -'JaJru pu~ ".St.ngs.' ..In ha us@ ..~ aJiI]'. .- -"-'1' 1 •. :zur a:r In~hrih ij. h ' .l. .l' It~. . we see 'Itd:-~rurn.".JI .lion .~n9!1.a ..de· I to lr. " ".r. : Il.'..Uon ...' . d' L.. rvid.1.colnce1rru..those' secuone that seem mos t . ~~far>@the di:scov..-_-::.ypperuie~m.C.' ·.y' na:tuftE~of d\e' l. "- nu m be ··r-·~:re ].A'I~·I~h~U f ''.c·.. .1 "-.s ..."'s..--'Il~.owe~r ·b~@ssi.. ·1'·..:1l . .. JUd!l.:y:ri3.•. :7~.f'iIith".ms w .. r'''-.'.'U.:'. ing Idrimi . -.2.r .I~.... focuse ':. ..provu~....Ala'iab can be paraUeh?<J.'·::':tfL.: e.-· ~!. .the' .-'.~.iI[d~d..tJ~.'r-:s 1df-[ '~':~'e'~' .om..r..-...th'r-one over h~~elder brothers .

. )'8.'.. wh~..-f.e :r.. .iIj.:...en:too y the '~drim'~.a..e-x.. ~~ . ~.re rus name In me posi ...ha.l[L.'~.:-: .. T "'" '..-. ...-.a:rru.. this arel1teolo.. .~. ]UmUimma. t~·_ ... 'Dm'~ ~'n...~ . j _.'". ..:..l~.tbey' themselves would l~' ~ = .10. more :im:portant~.- c·.t." li'. .ta. : .{I-..ruw'a. hus .ne '..~.IIJ..~a > lng. __ -' I ~ j • ell ._·~.c'h. U. .~'~t 'I.n~es.'V''''~: !fbi.Ii. us ···.. th'..!. ..lO.· c Ii:!' .1e .' "..mme ··laIt'e . .. ' 1 h :-"-.:.....'~o 1~~it1~J~ ~Jl-~1~' &I.I ~ ~l _ l .. n . "A. Jill 1_1:' inIII I: III lr-"" 1 e..a.w~ ..prea'.. S n:lsto'ry... '~'.~.·d'.nd some' way' in.'-..I .' '~'f .-"i . .'. .d m:iUe:n:n.:'" .'lid:' ~= De har:-l ·p-Iii:--4~ti:!'e:d' 'il·O··...o... the m~gn 0.i:i.' have' been a t s. V~ III=' -.Y '~= ~.c· .-.. 11.EJl It.~ .d....~ 1 ~I .. ..... l'. 'lid·' ~. il" 1·-'1' . ...'.[ a:F..I. t: ..'\1' 'iII1'II'iii 'm·.... .'Il.-..e.il1"'D ~ '-o··<iji·m...2:1.·.~t:h·e._ .'h·'' '· rega:ru" ..:rleque.. -·d: ".d.. ~~~ ~I y~ ~~<~y ~ ~ ~ .~iil.. -.:-pe.w.···J. .nl~kely In light. . Str. .ruwa. these 'ki'ngt'S' commissiioned the :~nscril'ti.:. ... ~ . I I[ IV. '~:~I'lI'Iii~.of Sasson 's :persuasl'Ve.e.. ·f'_..'ived JJ ':--1'-1 'I. ..('In. rea:d ... . f·· '·d . _" . ~·.. .. 'h:~.e·: i-i:nn· '·0:£' rB~r-a. 3.'.. . .VQ' to. .-·.5.~at'@'.'Ii.. 1......~e .J'#'why the names of Niq._. .t~an I.. t. A'}(.e aSlsum.oa 'later n.r.i"'IQIJI xp lei: e .Q t_ . ~ .·18SS0!:£1... .!\.-.. l L~ . 'Ill .l ~ V .ecls. cnaractenzeo ·dJ~-1 'L. . b 'l _~. !Ll.I!. " .re b s annl:'-onrJab!~v 'in-t.:. or . the time' of' :its ..: f: il'd~ 1. jQ 1111 _ _ _ _ _ _ _..3 :s. '-.-. .com. . kine an d .origin...iI.I." ..:pUon be:ing that i.-. .LlcC:'h.\I..r.Q:'" ..es a.r.~.. _ _110 _.lll~" Illr other texts have estaJbUshed the existence of two persans named r.. . i-.. .J . '~'" a. . ..···: :!. 1..2. . • .a'tte.lo)J:1 Q..e mOnUm......:mep'l and. "-ilt .scn ~ .'. .iCiIll.-.w'n.I).'=t'....t. . argu- 'nP... __ g ~ J.t t(tJ!I. sta.'.t aCi:u'ratie'l.Ill U vand. . 1'[iJ -I)· ._I .I!.!I . _.1'.). ·~JI.i' >.n.~m~:=:a. ~~. I l[ V J I ~~- • '...-tue a. ... .k-ed numerous . '16.. 'c-"IIi.' '..··:·r-'~.j~ l.e b..'ii._. -·c - --'-.'. '._.S. ...AJ . I' " .. _.~'.. 1-..t'he' 'Idrim..m.t'h~··.-c n:ng. i:I "'-I'r r·~I.1"' .:.1" .wI tl._'.L. ...'h···-·._. ~. tlon ~ll This too appears u. .·".ctu:r--e and :~n . ~" [1]&1. .. ..ts .~:iS presumptuous .iIi. .. -". -IY.i t :. y'" -' _.f' scu'~pture -r-e. .are 's:imUar :in :s't.F=·'·rll~... .-u:m ..-.'Ii...IJe' " .·Iwa''':~:~~ m 99·' ___l!""'!lU . t._____~ na _ .SQ..-.h-.:ppeilF ... .: tratu:m . 0([' A:·''.o:n'i'bey' would eertainly have' fou.' 1" .e.g. ~" • -_. I I..U ..t"!1il I .t Sarru.gg'@sts. I !Ii. ..n' I s Sasson . a. nm~. nl.. '8· '[V"· ~= .. The' s-t'a...vt:U:. ....:h'l.bed. e. .Filowreve'r~.~u.tJ~is 'I'e'x... .~nnnnr..00 . . .h·.'l. .!L rrnru s l. 1_' . h·. -"'-:'1 'I' "--::-""'1-'- :--"1--1'"" ~.I. "'1-'111 .sted :in 'fhe' :~at€I":~dod.::t!:. .. ~.. . .~p' .. ".nt"'o·'··'n··" ""c' ut: explained ." WI· . ''In·II:'!.l .~' .'e ...::.'l'n~'!C' I I C\!!!... 1 .'1 ·.t.'"' -. ·~t·'-. s. "f]J'LU!S. ~ ..:=la:r.Iii.~mm.. t'h· 'II . .J~I I "IL.. .UJ .f t'.-·.i " .-..t .. .S' quite unpre .I. .'n~c:IL-:i and -N··::-.. '~'IL... totar·1 l..' -. ' e .t':ha-t....f Idru .. .tyh~ o... tatue fits :mo. .:"b. dh h d h ..~.. .I! ~. __ _ _p~ _. UitSCneu -~ the..B oresum .h '-I:'~ e Al" Illpon a sen~be ].n.f'rom the' la'm SOCOJ1.Iklk·U· f' A~·ita·' '-'~a' ~~ 'an· d·" · .. 5U1. ·d '-1'-·-·-.ii')'*"t..~ [ljl . . 'IL'..tue) b.ma. ~':~I't"1i'"II'iliw:'a. t(ldrimts 'two :im'med:~a'te' successors. .. . ). .d' ..--.e~.ta..iI.Jhe:ra.~.gical C1J:I1i'tex..h·~. ~:nIOD.~!it!!.iItO.i.'h].u.o -··1~· L·· . l' one person to.. .. ~ I I.a unlqu~ y'.1 'l.'h.. ..' 'I'e ".-.··...~'-.~ -'h"' ..I'..I} ... .a.l' 'iIi~ '~'Ie~\!. -_.~.~.. .e:n:dyu~g: . _ 1.l_"rnm~[ scholars.~ :Uved .··I-nle.: :J. S ·=· .~ar.as ta. ' .. . -.~.. .y' 'reB. 1.:-..·t". .··· ~ . e 'f~el\:P. 'tente. g. t:h.. case. S ..me' Egy.e'·~.-.tNJ.iii..the' Fekhery1e 'tlex.eo ~'lU D . .5 au ·d·' JICI'''. = 1"" lines ··~··f·" argum:en!.reIgns...'t·ll"a·hr.-.··-. .-.nave I.~ .~..Er. . .-\.t. th -.et 'd ~-..a." .. 011 the other . AI1Liii.:( '.. .ly l_.tra'hl JLIl=· Ii 'r.- (r~m'l .~ L. [trY . /1 :1l'I:S(.r.._.'h· .. l__ l.:f'ili.wa .a..atum...ma. Z-'~. ' . . b. -N···· '>... I '~! .. ·('s' .]'~'r.~u~. l . . tih.\a'ir'h-'~I'i: _y Q .cy.:l.:>'gl...aimost . -d :'lii'·JII. '~'~'iIi'ii'S' f1I.n . 111.thet ._ ted '1'1-' .. bv t''!--e'·.:II'ilinl"\..ru..'.Urt. .. " l~ u .. .!l.f..a~. Ii .~ a:·_"p. . QiU't ."...I Itl I J glill. :Ln . 'm m en.' .1. t -..cc-"'Ib· . :Kila:m:uwa} .j. .: .~~ ..w. d nas t.'.scr.' '. would I~U h":~.. r . '.: .l.a ~ '_: rro.e' t-ex.. 1. '-'-'. 'f'!'o.Vl".en. .e otner ' t!OW.rtI.•lave a:rg....-'~ .(" Th.Ill -.. ~[I Jr-.."'.'.: 'b' • 1t) 1_"..:::! I I ]['U.. .-.if: S\arruw.I.~..l...e·:~Ftu··~ 11111U~ ~". 3'.p... .ii' one in c'.. inscrinll.'.f.t:"oin'ts.e WOtll· t.' ~ '1. . ·. I~.A'.:~': ··:~. _r r..3' man ~ ~Bb' I.a... the SCI"1De WII". .. 'r. . "'~~'..[~i'j':~: tlm '1@'W'j3J.. '.. •.t er It'... 'I' . t'a'l~ . -. .•.t (SemiUc' eX3'mples)J' a:n. ~ >b .-. [·. 'mi··aU' b·.:II..acy' iL . .--".w...ri.. O'[ltlY t~.in t:h..Il'l~t. a.. form of presenta:tion ('on .e e:nu..t.. ..CCeSSOFSj' len O'J}.~'r-i:!! .a..Ie.iIi.erioo.t .J '_ a -it'L..d· anc h '. .d -th:rone 'w~re :found in." ...a" vantage 0.: .hand 'sU.."-.~" ..iPbon an dl .~'d . t + ~" the a_ilL .>!j..p. P'e~'haps.'l.'·IF 1" . Ln-IFi.J ~'g~On[lt~y III g..i['~-:'.. IL.) db not .·'·.1 .... t.·]1' oecupiec l ~1 '''I ..e s..l.'.~:n-·"·'e...tL. .'... Ub. · I~A _ ~ .". ror ... p.. S·' _. UU~I']ng I.'. . . .. -:-. . _ "':-. '1' .··rI" eN'a····'m·'Ip···~b 't'h'.. 'WOlU: I '..•.-K.!':'1i-'·"m-:'I"~:e··:~~iIi: .J. f.l@ in-scriber of: the 5tahJ.·k··.y ....-.w._...ntl. _.. I I •• _..e OI1er:"..'Si.'in·· w'h'IY'~ ~'alrru··..'~a'~"r:.

. Akka- .a.. through."" . .L3 g.:. :I!.. ~a:r. . ut one may S[peCUii_are it . u e . -..'llc~aS5]"'I!1l!Q" on..".' (.olr wo.regard.1~~. !llmman.5(Si€SS. T-h'" ~eX.. the pIa u:s~bh. : 'v '0'" If."i. It". the' aocumulated evid. . most :IrnlotaI.ra.in.t -... e th ~'.:Ii."__..essi:ngsare directed U1 .Jor Idrimi is.~'(inO'-W. .rl 'W~I is .:.-. ~ ~ !ll.r.' I. "IirU.. the centuries :m~:5lt be taken into arooulid.~.. 1. 1':...'I!. :_ .P'"3id!1 t ~.s'ranC!f" thus d qua]i:fyi.·I~ '"..·-·1'·..~ __ '..e r-oy'al (o:r ..'.~ '1 :?'.''-'' ". ". '_ ..11· uoes.~a s a Wh:. .. __ !I. U...g bm. reqnesting the 'Pr-ono~-n.u:tobiog.-...t"]'l :f""J I -I.[..J1 . '1Ia'~iA'r'~ 'n' g.~~.n... I 'l""~:"-- ··..'-'_. .tl..h.na. _·":-:'·1..:ee "'t._< Sarruwa ~'" .e " : . IL.con.. 0 --. U_II!.(:J. \..:·~tl :.: .. _ . . l!lJIi"-.:'!o.I.t.:IiQ. the occasien ito honor nJlmself In.~'L.~ -D -unique (:!3~e :imme(Ha.1.. ... T ~ vI. .t '.n..t:ha. The' curses are directed against potential I I!J.~ 'lY't te1m:ple'l 'Sipne're.~'" .t '['he '[Iex.W' ..rt~n.ji'al'r~d'.y f.ng: the' Idrlmru . paJ'r.. ·~."f"'~ances '..lr . ~~~Iu ~U y. .f. ._. h.~ .. :i."_'.'"ndien Th e ~'unl.-:III "I I 1 I ~.g .." .." " l- -"~-'U'b .e. the neo-Assyrian . .o exp ain h.. B':'J~. v~:rsion).v '.[r!.t"'per. desecrators of the statue and its inscripti. It '.... .. (l~neS! :"-4."l'O·~iO"~':II'n'hl-i J~ -Ill~.& aneestcr and':1 ::.' . '. autoblog:raphy wH-h t:he Sa:rgon Bi:rth..I!I{~ "iIj.the' l'drim:~statue :ftUlCgot " '..ar. ..J .l'..L'Il-:.~~ f:.. '["'I:"'''''~!'''''r---. 'iIf'h.1.~ ne. nn. readers."'O his d.--:1':1" -_. 1. least '. "'-"''''11' 1'11:.:d.. I '..n'L.. .-.··· '\ -.' [.~r_.V.. _1:1 . aus t"..'I\if .essing: upon Idri'mi fOIl' ha . ~ "~u" __ A!l.~.r'iiiO~ ~ :: ~"..iu.::!'II:'!~:b."la. "1.' . _U5~&11 ~ _..i:td ~ '11' l I ~~I I~\ 1.tj'~~n-:-'o sectlon Th e 'L"i'iriliID\g-~t..·.~ g- 1I!.": that t.~. ~g' .'.s\1 U. . .. ~O'!'f'''.n'" '.' eom mlss lon i::J.£t'~~~'I!'iI:MQ~~'I!~'~:. 0.[[n.tr~ ~l~..i: ~ iIi.given ~'or grouping d1i@' Idrimi.I.'!." 'be .) in.._ :"'.t. ~. I t ..:~.~.am. .~." ~'.rom.".~ i...:19.~_[ I .onEU .II!.-"~ ~.·· .i.'.......-~: __ ...~ d clI.f~JJ!.~:~-)i IC".ce..il'liI ~ .I [II . .i.. J 1..t. _ ~~~_ ~~ _. however..'eu :.: - - . r~_~.'...cHonal b~%'t" 'l :~.e stable was constructed during the period represented by' Strartu m IV a nd then - passed duw:n. Lu" -: _' d'C" . .~·.s.'" no . .. used.E!ln.y as a. .~.It.'..-.._1_. ...}1l)V~~ J~. f. thO~gh.L"". l _.s.1···.11'. --'N"'.son speakerI' but wrl rather by a sec-ond ind:ividual at a considerable hi~i'~Qr_i. t··--" -.S. . .. by the last few lmes o(f h dl€' Cuthaea n :Leger~d of N'.'~.''':. h''-~:'S'I achievem Qn:~\s.~ suggestien .c' .IJ~:~ii7. Th ~'5-::u' baenr ."'~ . 1':-1' '~'. - -0.' speC:l. '. ~ IlY ~Jll ~lr'l .i . ·_..''' 'I ~".cal ji.•.fmrit Traits: Ample reason rna.. la~:t malor sectlon of d~H~' ld:r~mi text is comprised of o. h._. "... Ill... .0.' :.'ii.~ M ~.' "":"f' irs P b. _'.s._ ~i !!Ir.:p:h..r'~'~~i since C'U'if'Ih g statue 0 ~~.'''iL'"lo-n an .ILI-~.c€' indk'a't~s . _I ~~"'-l "~ .::)tn~ record i:fo.-"._~__!. ~ t: 0-' m emorl ~'m..f .tha..-·'Ib'f "" --'11-)'.. __ ~ ~ _~.g .~I'r'.i:'--~.Il-!~ ~ .I ~u· ~~: . .". .3 w.:"'C~::\i. I.rthele' -" " "'1' . Legend iu a subgenre o~f. IlI~'l.In." . I.e'curse :S!ocHon and tWIO hlessing sections.1i. 'f . .J!Uf' an.h~'~y' above)..iIiL. -::_ : ~ . J:S - '- - In concluston.'evert... "_":' iii:llUO~ ]!'Ik.-".: the b~.~. ..t:I'd:ing'(~ "...'-~ rru wa. "1"-'"urpose.-es.-. . I. x.in.ou'~donly' be 'brought into existence 'by t:h. lIj.iL' I' '. .: .on..·. bl.£' ." ".·_·. ---'Ii. scribe 'f--~r-" his 'W-" 10' rk 0' n-. .e 'll. il.t t:'h."-:I' I~I-' <_.ment of .. .ip-.-~ _. ..y':n~'!St'--k -.~dleled 'in other inscriptions. U Perhaps. :~ a:nd inscnptlon 'w._.a..-.. '''" It t-. _. _ _ A""'"~ m _em tion e..J and T.r.:_ . u- I I ~I~II'~W".. 1i'd'i!'""lm~'_-/1 is dillJ""i::~llf~ ~'O ~f' ~. ...eS~SI l'~ S.: i'he aile' reque:s. '".a.t was :ne~ithef' tten nor commissioned 'by' the fir.-.-w :P05S..f~ctio. ..iIi.

..Uv. _...~.c'.a~ !Cf'le:fv.gr. ~: I~·'.-C~"II"~ '''''1:11. of the text.. Fictiona:1 (w:r...har.f~rst-pe'f50rnnarrator) 4..tha't usually contains a list o. I The :ftJiUoww:ng s. _~~o.'h-'. ~n~__ J! ~~ .....n.a.r!l!.J !O\iItii -. "... .clud~ng both third.. including .(.jI:"lLa.cHorul'~ .= M.1---'-[---'1 d' nrg 6.. _ .--.durru 5" monuments co(llc~rne-d.~..E-:-::' !'l '-I'-!I-:--I d'/" .r'fOb.:II! B 1Ij.'-:-.~'h. c.~ _:.-...ad.~N~:". lL.u:lan.. in:s(:r._' First-person narration.I~' ':" A l.i"\nm'''m.. . I""i'~ liJ11J 11.he broeder genre of' :S.and firsrt-"'pe:rsnn. First-peracn personal :naf'r.:l.e~1 ol!.:~~'I~'"iO~ .-"-~-. .__ .he rilYa1 iniscript~. ....f curses threatening ..1" ". .itten af't~irthe' death of the' . . wH':h .apny as a. a good. of :r'oY'a'~in:s{:rWpHo.~.~p'liansi :Navertheless.'t~£!!. .'I.:~.:5'.. '1.~ 4t"~. "'i' There .1~J~!I!!!!IlrlliIVl~f.rea.. . prapoF. .I.Itern l.'IL..' iD' .a'tio. J! ~~.Akk.__ ~ "I!"~. ~~ 'I.. 'rex't:s 'fha.!._~ .'bo-a:t these' im..-t.portant. -mftr lrneortant r.. ~-.llIO_€.11" .~ l~ ~. I'·'t.-' '1'Q !!.~a:n -'·L"O.lon) b.I.."'...~~.': .kad:ia.X.iI!'!i._:..~.:'__ '11"..'--. '-'-I~·O".I~.. a:n. ' 'essn~g " .t-:~Q miost C-.t. First-person :intnxJ:'uction l:se'lf'.::···. _J~...ch could 'be said: a._!I!..sobedien:t' vassal.('i'lri~'p" 1.ions.r~J!~.~-" _ .~ to' examine a'·'Il-._jI:.uls ....-..c-. y._'" '.t o~' traits asseciates the I:ddm'~ H and the Sargon te~:b..l~. '':Ii.~ I.o .·'~.-I'I-'· -:Ih-'".i! .iIi."iO'c ~'1l"lII1 d~-i~r-curses. '\.n. iii.. Varied ending tlu t di ..Q.A:_!'.ed 'by on:ly' these two b~:x'ts '!I.'I!...iILlt dona -"l ailb.e' .. ~'!I .the di.. 'b~n[ie -f" jI:...'. royal inscrip't.j~r.genres. '. ~ '~u:_!~I_.er.b-..~'~.·._-'-.'..~.Qu.. ~ .... There are several genres.J"~~.--~. I ~~~~ii'!' Q .lng.~s 1.: 'nl"II'~..7 dian autobiography.e'·"'0 n-.'I!. ". _·.. 'h" wr:f' : .rrn .' ..personal retrospective history 2"... '" . . ·1.I!.--. _ ~- g 0"..:.Qn~ A ge'n.ith '~'II..J.~ _g~.~sa si:ngle c'haracterrus'Uc s. :1' ~i"I!i "~o.~gl~'V .ess. . with 5a:feR~lIa-r-dins reel esta:te :righ ts.uI'I-'.·. BC-:'l' '.AI. :~n~II::::~'nl.-id..d k.es ~.lJ.. 'but f.tion of.. of: texts 'in ._.r...~ .. _'!i. ~ ~ .f' a detailed study of Ak.UiQm.a.Lfi .G.~(---..lo.-' .n..".O'.Ui:IIl. three-na stru "".'n'·'='.('1Om.YJ.'ar our """"1._~.':~r""'..'.._.' "..-.. ~lULOc' 'C' ..'U'.Akkadia:n that end 'w.~'lThere' are many types.ry-r.ns't i-n.b.~.ll.~-e." .enti£lca. curses a't.'..~~ _ .-.. " .-t:frnquen t'~yconcludes w..-.ljJ.DOi!'l' .t.iew of royal inscriptions is di81cult 'to make because of the' absence Q. =_ is ~:~v. '-'. M'li. 'I. Three part s:trlLu:ture'i a. Prose s:tyl.:~. Amnna .~lrg tl...) .I!'iI! i VJ' '~r'-' .'.Hh blesswngs and lor curses -'t. .U.m-.:-n.l!'.-_.~ enr ll}. '~'iIi'ii'iJ. .f .J..i!'.._'I'_~._ y" "!.-:.. I_ ~. .'W..~....

)ln.suprem .i.and'l~ _ .:'~I.. • 'IL.' .I .n. ._~ __ ..' .f' ."I'.t:h:[\ee elements. Th" mscrrp Hon then eontinues . make h~s.t)'1C! ~!~..... 1 -I" " ._ • .' . the ~~'G. ".. -Th 'W. '(dD[ju~g. .Ie . .•.. person" 'whHe. ~."'Le . _ •._."...• ".t~L. The (se:~f-.'.II .. god An.._..na. .: the O'nE' 'whJJ< decree:s destinies . as Us :sh'uctu:[\e~: 'Io:hl. .ant'~. ..J6. r""""~ .r@@'~he . ~ta:ry ana 'IL "~. ..guu.8'00 Ea...1 .. Translations .. king..lV_. '.C ~" Af~1i Ijil!Ji~ Ilaf~iIo asir.~... 'the...OO9.. The' ble !' 'ro d·'"F~. 'E~' "l·'L ~'d' ~ ..JI~ M'ol".. .i'-'" .'uc'e' the :klng on 'whom.t: 10 '". '(SeJf~}i:tilroducjion:: Hen~ A. uot..~. ..rraUon ..y .-na:sn:"=' a <.~gnores the text Oft more '~m. • aiCGUn:. du~' gr'@a. tha t.@ ._._. ':_:'" I!t""~' I.u e' .nO. . liS !Il-. 'neilo"\ej.~n ... he second section enumerates (of't:._.ctIv.t'. 0.'h.. A_s one of :many posslbl[f examples.a.__~ __ yl'"! mine (..t' g. . person..swngs and/or curses. il. !EiJ.uil._ '. thrnrd..rea't' :onnlith n' of' Ass. n . ~:r'a. ~.~. supreme in all e .."il. .i' 'h' mi"}-.re:a.~ it '~"h''''''..ilrmula" f 1_~~-. vU:I~~lng:" concludes w'i r-'h· ~ bl'~~i..does .rap~~. /.li"scri~tio.~n. :Sel~=..F:"r rhe wh"'0 jlC~S..t:he II' .. person 'wnthese composinons. 'I1P' JJ' s :.'le In.dlest~nies.Au[ctua tion betwee'..- ..3.r" the gr~a~' 10m.ii:"-' ." . l_.·~·t· M':'~'. . A'~ :'-' J. '!II' '.l. '.. ..t"'. oDe" . scriet In tree ~.-H~ V1Il~~ !If !If I ._ ~J..n~a't .:..U lll~.)!.~~. As .:er ~.. " .t':h!e throne.th.:.th..·. inscription so. _ ." ...l:'!.\_.. _'''.~ ~ The :A'rst f'ew :~runes in'trOO.:~~'.I!h~l:r~':na~. .[1€' 'Often is . apparend'y reflecting' the dia:ef'ent sources.if. I. gods 'who m. d..nSI urii' t..a:ke my !S'overeignty.tB.Z: 153=. . e. ..scnptflon.. 'who.my .e who desecrates the '[ext.I!. land (:a:nd) make g. (~ ~..f.troducHon presen ts ttUt! :kirl\g 'by nerne. mill tary' ventures. " t. T flrsl per SOil) '~:he'migh tf' deeds of t'lle k~ns=both In buwlding' and in.domrunion...c. ornmances l. 'The :Iast section inVOKes hle. .!I!I.. 'ue' 'Ib. .-.'lrr-:rnia~~r-ap1in [can 'be ~dlown bl halve' th.if'~ap]i ~s in traduced ."-i'n'I'". The cu:rses are focused on the nne who reads and .:part. A" u~ . the :r-OY'al inscripTh€'. "._'~~"~':"'_read I and n'L-v me mscr jio-J tion. &rE'al~ ..~ti~n . .J. Q.-and I' ~''''.rl~. ..'t.y~oJl~ ~ .. .fo."s.~a~'. .the ~.:a1 '0' war'dl t h'0who' ~['Ii.t'.od:s.-I .i 'w~tc a f-" ~r5~~~f'SO:P'i.1 _·"--L vlUL) rne · .t'h.~. on . '~' _.••• . [ "~..' . foremost In st._.".. often (IC-' companied by epi:t'h. 1.l.(8eU'-)introo'uction of the king 2. t:' ".of the.. th~ narra tion '~~'in . _" . I 11i'-' i it .r@rng:tih.5'6.i'" apn _.not' 'in:Stri'pt~nn .le~5'. Q ~'!' i"'Ii.•.'.. !alY.eX. (.ec..&~'m. .Io~~'...3." " A..the a'....is. used In the compilatlon of a :roy.y'i' the on o.. ~jj!~'.~rd.= 11_' .r.. king may be' in the third.: 0f' ~~S['Ln:". h '.~ or those 'who .en In th~.A shu..llow' the king.t g._OVlereignty' '! .a ccordl nO' b) .sAL G..n.iIioil.e firs:~persons '...tbe ..( ."'iti. Blessing andl ()t curses 1.n.."h .firs..'f·A·'i!!.~9~ M . ".rdWf1'('b .J~_ ~MJ~!I. .~r~rt. ~ II Later.' aJI. .'hes..t':he' introdactlon of the. I~ _~ II').-...Qtdan ..s.OCUt!H~S". king (~(f.e .

.

.@y ~..•. '4=.]" monum B~i'~'~I].a.s.:r common tih re. '1:""+ Ill."l.] 1 _"_.':9.a.ru doc l .111 CW ~.e mo..' ~ . the Akkadian.I '!.~<o'j:"o:ln.lr..thors want the readers '~O :r~c-e[vea~~ th. a. 9.)!Il.i!:. ad I"'dman unlen.:peci£icaJ~y in that .Ie cnarae' . 'T'hi:")'I""~I-. -~ .oseo to ' -. as !_ = •.. . share 'many similarities. also mo[\@ .I..€.-h-. t~h. ~ h m .d:th' ...'i'~' '" '...@en..e similari ty 'betw. ~Y~.e. br~~"f:m~n-f.----.rtb (lExoo.w~~_i· ..encient :Ne'a:r :Ea$.]:90 be made concerning the d.t':h. .r]'ty'.. the Sargon t Birth legend has 'b-een Icompared to d~. = .' . w these Akkadian texts and certain N'o:r~.-lf.'l. .g~enre ~ '~"-nlC"0.~Il~.~I~_Jf_.e.s» 2.QCum. C·' . ''_'.~.n~' 'Or 'E'. th .QJ~I~~ It~~i!I [ . ·-·-.. both end 'with... no o:nl\.F.~"\J' now b1oa.e. - . w'" ". the t~mi~of :[s discovery.ge.blictd 2) .n" an .11.f Moses 'bi. '.eu. .n'0'-'. .:1" ··"'1" .h· end t-'~··· ·S·.~. I'".p dons l-~ ·.I-".'I.-s. danatio:n~.e close~. Idrlmi 'iL· ~' .·:·J-"'r-·:'. the ~'un.. bI. - ~[....~_~ l. ~.. lllsc:n. _"~ _'.Ian.J see 'I. curs[l1\g in.. le.I~Si parta k :..-·:··.f .-.:'Jl...tmain parts 1" . were act LJ' I. bUJ't rather ~s made on the.1 .I!.r-ea It y . ~ - - . .11' nese e are texts that the' actual au.e.J ''''-'-'-~::''-''Id~ ~. :r-' ho.rah~:f. Lewis' S !S.r_go:n If .~W . _...Gs.r@ flctkmal autoblcgraphtes with a blessjng/c~n:sie endno ing in the literatures of' the oth'er cultures of' .L. Sargon Birth Legend and Idrirni and cerThere .-'-h ~le'v1en.1.the. - L~!~~~_ .-' ..t ..• · .'.IJ~·:nml. ...· ·t'~··. to rec-ord the Ire'a. n'e 0" I. .. c..a~.-on. 1 The cornparlson.s'tcHtes in the' :IBibl.~ll'lon.i.". vW . mad been on the ~e"I'i)hC:l o:~ plot.~ .. ..." . '_' • -" . .a.-~II~\-~' :s. reco ..hll.'.'{~I"':li. !!J.=' = ..e. n!!r. uilllill. l'~ I .t .~ '"' .hwes'tSemitic ro:yal in:scr~p.ntal ge.--. . Last.-~-. '~' .. Compa.II. b~ess~n\g and/l)t curse :form:ulas (.c 1 records .J .2" ." 'I!J.flh.. deeds ().risgn to OIAtT Ned" Easltm~Ims [0 V111~ tain .--:_ t~--!eris JC:5 0" QeHC'5 nougn.=..essing and.account o.~ ..U!~ ~. pa~_nIll.generic. ~ .fuJlc~:i}on"'.f:Q~dstruetu re 'but. a 5 W~.""'-~'" -t'C·i~·'-'·'I'·'-C ". Sargon !utoblog ra:p!hle·s. ~n~truction~ or -li!t".0 ~ zenerallv Y ]"'n the.tion:s".··..nre..10.' . of course 4 not pri:ma:rUy.'h···~· Idrim ~ and" _ zn lZ~. similarjties between .1res...:. ~f1:. H~..a" ..~ ..~: a known to me.. ~nSlcrrupUons 'had a pragmetic . .teg'oriz.= t" '-h.. ~ Furthermore.t.Q..5'i.e + roy.· 'B". . These comparisons 'wHl now be assessed.in·. ._ I ~ - .omnarjsons howe ·-v_.t-~-~:. '.-"..:c. -= it J'j' - l_ - l~.d:y' shows t'h.~: From.a.-l .) op p. 'Ii' .~:h_. ne . ~... . texts will 'be compared and contrasted wH·h l1~e~5ing: nd cursing ~:n the 'Old a Testament.~ ~.l~ -- - ~~ .ctrunn Q. ~~ w J. "" ..d.: :'i"i':! •.3.n a ]. [5 Sargon Birth le:ge:nd and Exedus seven o(f the e~gh..f the' 'king'-and thus 'may be ca.1.'~_ 1_'.-- ..."i]'l [Jt: c:"'I'i'~l. .vel of plolt sim'i~~3.@d.n:I..a-:p.. ='1ow.·:e·'f-h~IViD IU. and. ~w.. including Q(f the Tale Ty'pe: Exp~ana'tion of' abandonment Infant of noble blrt'h Preparations for exposure .-. are structured srumUar~y 'to ~irs-t'-pe:rson :ro~ta~l '. il Bj. -.'-. auto 'b' lC -. t.p.an .' ~.'!! ized '~.e.1 - -- - '"' -- -- .US _[~'te.[g t~ ~~~ ~ Y~l .I!j" the llIi..gr.er '. e~:i""'~ oe -.yreIJtl.·'.. .

f. .a.e.."~.V J ~il!'\Di UJI:. .-.:." _':.' ·h·.. ... 'n .r"reW9 ~- .ms of such a. '. .d:-."..u L=:~·-W.._.t-'~. was t.€' '['. ~:h.~.. a. .'.1 .. w.e ·5"" mrtr ·· " end 1 ··~·~·.. DIscovery and adopHon 6....U:r.e'..I' .:Jem.nment and the :r. !!i.H'er..tai~ed ...!iI'lk.'-"."_- '~(_I_:_:···· ..'the e)(pos.. 'taies).a~ns .·'iiL ..'4i The_ .nus.:POS.ram.u:r-e eve:o't" d an:.::.enaes .anuo'Fl.. '"1 . t. .hi~ '.. exposed beca use olf a threat to his. . 'b.. f' . " d--" ."1'" .m. functio. d'i aoannonmene so..lr.-J.'..' irrerences . 6 Moses ~name is..nr.-.. at the ~ca . ·..'-i"I'-. is ..' un d er certain..'..-.ity ~s the mode of allando.0'.'-I.)..~ ...:rru~egions '0 t e ·N·····-·.. __ _ _= ~/L.y parallel to the' more con temporary practice of aJba..Birth.[@oeKan".w:n:l.on.)r a :f'uncUon of our historical and cultural be u.·:CII':j.~Wii["i. .:IIL =:...-....-._...J J J.} .t both children are' abandoned by 'being :p:~aced. being a priestess..dren.ry I. '_:'.4.of' "Tbe tale of the hero who was exposed zrt birth" thet various :fnr. ~49>~. gene.'. etym. i . " '..t -}l't ."[[11 4].bllS..~/)6" .····-'·1 "(-fl' E-'KO'dUS .ff ~iD.~I.-. baske'ts by' their :mo..-I.n.. . .. eo --' -..• . lw:fe'from Pharaoh..1.- :2 1..··...---~ are. s . '..~n.in eta] ~~ween ---'I'-'. ... rescued 'by' a.. resiensof the .ol.mos. in an unusual manner (:lew.~ie·~.4.····'--:··1. ~ d'· u -.".teSI'mLa.. . ~~Sa:rijjl\oi"'in '--~IO~~-i!· ·C·Vf"I"I'" ..-'..llDwe "at ('~L .U-. '.Y" 1.nty 'I!."t. gardener: Moses is.ex. ana ~o'Ug" .~_ ~'. '.·a: .. -.~ ![lIJ~ l... d.t the inf.od of.a"r''.. .• Ili-lIblll' ..' 'tnem-.3. . ..n. 'normai Oil rorm 0. '\ . ... .'-"-.- '-0'U:6.'i~ stories '':Ji'FiiO'I:~I''liI'-I'l-y'f'"'Jj.POSs..'rg~.2. Latin .-.~I"'!''''''It'''Il!''''j.·..u.lI· 1'". .. b ~. .'ant was nursed.JII"'.iiUl.ag.-' . .nm!ent.argon B~:rthLegend.i-._:~. three months before 'fiX.. _ ' p .t.. rescued by Phar aoh .. ~J • ~ .. ![II _.' T.~.rus .e . ·'ILll .~..1 I ~. ·G·:··..ch.'E'--"" tat certam . ~..in.'d' taus ."i··._" cauuoo fI..en.J ananconmenr. ·.of' 't:his 'm.':India~a_rtexts.".propornon . ..and M' eso ..may' be speculated that Sa. .'"II.jl" 'IL. ' .--ail L... 'L"'eg.@su'iting temptation to.····-h the " '.n.analys. ~ "-.'. Mos es is...iii. ". -..'. '1fIoi'l"'''''m.' (.00'" hon or t. 'IL • _.-·.hl~ missing tnl..€'s r • .. -. between W.' ._:·ll . dlre Sargon Birth Legend does not state a reason for Sargon' 5 exposure.·-··-·. _.j'~a·lri.:- :--... - .5' • Sargcn 1.'-I. . '~W~~.. cHsihlnce~ Lewis has shown ~n.:d'I""ru:hons" P htaps al:-anuon~ng a cnun on a nver was Of r'er Itrh· 'l:!" .~I..€'fO . ... "1 c.'b..-. t. Accomplishments of' 'h. -·· ..ese 11. .0.ltruc t.L1:·'ld· .lJ....1 e:r .L "enl.. :' ..as -._. ':I!:..J.gn.""!' .SIll~U Lgftul.j':~ da.tW'.assodate '[he '~wo texts may sim. a -d f' 1:1 dh .· --. Akka..-ar-g..-.naU.l..!ton. ~lb--'I..IiI".O'ug. The' role of Moses' Sls't~~rs unparalleled in the s.·'.:".ndo.. Exposure 5...·h·.i ~ . The M:oses !do:ry narrates tha.--I" ~ d ·. "TIL ' .[ erma {_.-... ('0(11.ughh~r..p~..e.. Moses storyis borrowed directly' from. Miscet a neous .ogkaHy-connected wi~h. was 'prohwbi'red from be'aring .- J _~_ • =. '.:!I' i:" '.ts.J!t'·~1 r nere . attn texts ::.··-·~]-·... ~ .m.'.ear .• .. -..J ~ _ ~ l .Moses is h]ddJen .J .I'l ~~.aterabandonment storv occur m .ow1e"ve:r T-"h.reed.- ". ' '" ..sy . Lew~s.. ·~I'('J':'....nd..ian ~·o·'~kiH.nll.druan ..C! ..ave itt 'h·.F~·'I~ r. .3."'DD:ri the tw.-'I~I:'" .te two ancd agams t t h.5.-.·· ~.nls mother .h it . 'l' -.-".e. ..far.' '1.~~1te~aj'ltun. nature.j--'~i"·(.~ .' _' ~~.:'II~ .' . ·'·'d' ~. ' .lll.'. However..~ th e. aW~0' numer ~~i"Ii '-' -. ""-" . .""'''''.t snareo Dy 50.~t).. .' too ea.oning a _j.ea t h.-.lil " .' .'.lm.re'15 a 'Q€~. 11. T~Ui~' stdkLng 'siml!. 'the seeming uniqueness .+3 'l't..7 ."e uc~ .I .s'~m···..' ..eth.th@~r:s a:nd f]oa ted down a rfver. L--o:-.~ ~ UtI~.~}~ s. ~-'-:I-:' i··-··-:-·![· I :. h' ..

.I ..1.our .ves.!!<.. !l:J. T..of a.. IL'~'~'~'i"ii 4.~ u""..br-oth..···-.-..' 'I~ '1'. -:i:-II I!.nere are 1(:':'I ear I~.~ '.--_-'ii. ..~yc:om.If. I0.~ -< iIlIIJ...ne A-' .._' 'h .I " •• ~Ui. lit'.-.'.-ii.'wa:rrte~!~ h'Ld' WOfwUJ.!:..It'h-'.i...--. 'M .g.'1.~ .:I!. !i:'L 'i"iiiCiiw I I".j.h-~ a'''u~1 .i:~ica.ol~.l..--. I L u'J:"""..··ot. the exposed-hero tale.l als :'··-·d'.tiE! blbhcal rruatr'a. t'he extsi:enc...~nd oio'h-·-SIili-Qry "--'f' David .'i .ra ll. are the 'tY1PO. on the 't:ll[ie5h..1. pa.. 1'0 . Th L-'b!1 'I d . . . '1i1"'''''':!jJIi!!j'I4iJ ~~~.-:-.. '.t.f(HD that of: th~ N. ..]1-'1._ i'" -.". --.aJ he'['!oe~."-' the biblic ~I aeeoune lL'ii..n..'-. an.l1lJu ·-·..-:".!'!li!j11Ul .-::-..!t":t. . ur!.riu:tke :~n:its o:w.c... ~..C··. ..· liUo" u other s~~~e:[iit ]Uerary mJoUf's...e.lIii.once. ~ hJstonc.-C- II: 1!U..ti.~tyt:r'adU'i()n .:_ l:-i CiIIIbU • -!t ". social pF'a..aJ cesses. 0.i' ~he pOiP'Ui~ar narratlve ma.--..:" .or.nl1J. o i"i.Ja"rcus '_'.ct:ke'l d~spUe Hle' a Hempt~ by :SOme to' e.'" .1! I!L~~n~.@.igin o~ 'th@.@ -...0.:' U:ndierlyi118 all verslons of..~~I[ ..ease of.....e' at ~wmescrue ]~ .].! ..t I..ilIinu v'. .~ .~. .e rebellion ii"'i'f: '...v...&IiIIG 0 "urus we m.' h~ve' 'been 'ba~~ed on some historkal .d '5CO~ f.e<'-p-~ t: :~.snau UI a Su . d)..pi." .IU_._-.. 'r ! i"'" ~r-i"ii ""!U.. .t." '-c"-' .~' ~I_...e' of t'he expo~ed:=helrQ t~~e i~ an lexp:ress:ioo.I.ii..-e.'1._ .O~ .ay ...If.. . ~. WlIl..of the number seven . ~_ -]-dsnomc ..11111 '!W'mme:n!ll.MlIdI..111. ·Orlji~-:-'b6·'ii!T'i1 '!i'i:"iii"'~iCiI .i.'.' \S ~.lI>-o"iri"\T _nl~.0' 'M··... ~~U~!I[ 1((}I:1'S!~'dle'r '[he Y"""· .:Ii .. ~ll: 110.lll.1.". ~.L1·_.1.·. of ...111" ""'. .' . M".s. . I.·-.... .... I. ~I. as an @'xpress.ycho'08jcal _--... is the :fact t':ha:~ in the " .:..:'-..~· . oJ p~.. to me t. iQ'I.' ·'If_'j\II...(it· .r.-.ia[l.s for suc:h.th:Ls..dI.-.i..6I!!i'ilh61!!i '11'i'!j."t-t. and the' attack.-"---" A-e. approach as an a her.."hl~n Hlle . ..-.1~ _1u..~ K·-'· 'L.:!O Ill.!!<I~. i . .G·'-:·reens·t eln ' a. ' '-_'" a .aJnClen.i:!I •..e...apny -' ~'J....a..li.. . to . r'II I.. temper a:n.-·' 1"'" East 1~..l~I~~d .). I U.!"i( 1'~-p·iI'. ". Jy am ndoned by their paren:t~...'l.11"1" '-"iC:.r _ I~.".imseH' as --. ll1Ji( '~Ii!i.~.i]!'l.ii..-'~..I. .. 11111 uea l)e t..-..)q...I.i5I ..... house (a rather odd.) a5.na. " ._~J . .'.". that in the .::. " -~ .aV.S·"~ii5I..".·.._ _ .!I\i!iiii'llil...h.e. .io:n soonl as he: es't3Jbl~.. lo..-.iiI'... -" -!tii:'i'jJf . a:garuns:t.e!lf'O"'flif"'!JfS u~.~LI b.. iof'i.PiPe'Ilh _el '~...:L-A- ~." and : · i'ie 1!k.. III _....4~' I I .-'I-'hcas..-":.ch:Ud. :rlghf)'" Lewis allow. Jca..LI.~LiCiT!i:~ ·. .ve' when he wr~'ies.".r:y . totaJ]~y di£f@:r>~t~tin.-.mng~..' it..n!iE!: . 6:1!.l" . co(mdtuied t'hall"~'An t':h:is...u~.:I-'..fe n. ~. ...:I'h-· h a -. i!"ioi'i6 ~1i·!I. -i'.1 o~: the .t'!iiO' ~ .. .1!.-.. concernlng the' reu n:i(Jn of Jo~ph 'w~~hh~~. . .I!IIi'~!I)I(~ ill).'il:-L~tli ..rbeons . I "'" ..'.l.]oglcal use .eh ~ o-t.f'ac~.el'$ ......I.llI'.... para 'U"s.~..~· J'<. seems... taJle' or my til.eim. ~:dr~mwby a (loa:~ffi~." "c .'""'FUI... sound~ng :p..r-.i1U.-..i!!H.:O:!l:~u~ 'L ..JI d: c !L~~re:nwer.II] tne moeern. .e.5 ":·. :"-':' __i. arm suec mscious :~~..-' '~.I~.e 0..· eh t and ...el.. -. ~ '1].g. . ''iiA~'. :._ ~:. -.l.'.cob's .nm.I" ~Ull!l'I· ~·¥.OI respe'al< the e1(:ist:ence of .'.ii!lII".n_.CleaJrly-.c..!"i'~I~i U' 'f'\OifI!II the aeeesslon 0: f: .. -'..-.lndlcetec d sIrni~ri't[e5.~lIiu a .a Sped£lC Ub~f...h~. -.Y "'" .:!!I~U\O. i. . ..Sa'fP'OO or any of the other ~!is'~bl J -.--..~ .r-.

73 .

F.'p~. son of 49 DrnbonHe.(f. ':[" :Klla:m'Uwia..a'~~'lL .N'ot.ess~l'1I(g~ e.'.. " . [!lUll.r. the lion o~ Q'R.-. Vlocf.'''. .= "~\ .' quarters of: the earth J" Azi:~~aw'a:tas': .6 i[O(rMU.J1leser..pecmed.The .i!4:is.:.~ "M'::.-.'.'!tY ."II. f Ba c 1..~O.: ANfT .. N n! ..f' ' 4lk Ger:milH '~:r.ar b~ . ~.n 3" Panamrnuwa.fo:td :s:truch.. ~.-. '1'9(2).€' se:nlan't' of Ba el. '11m.h~eman . 49.an!l. '.1 m.. 32.."J~nscr.-'f ___ I' am 'r.~nsh~tioin H" Don ner and W'.sruc lhree.ii-.il .b:"b.an. ' -' "r. of P. .d..n~e Iound wnAkkadian autc ..tlfl"f~um.ill. A 'h.iIl8 o~ Moab. liJpd~~:i:ng.e "U '(wit-h..] am Birrakib..." . '.' ..'.-..rr.u:w'a~ oon of: H'ayy-aJ.:pecilcally in .am. b[ography ~n general under and m.w'" n'~8 6" M. ma:n:i.' 'l..esbad@ll: H!l:rra~so. 'king o(fthe Danunites.'. n ' . s ..luac ..: l.is".e.'1 f:[ th~J.esha:: "I am ~~Iam P.. Albright~ A..." V"er.74. RloUig:. eu me ' ~:" . the lard of: the . :Sir. .".~:#1' am Ki~a:m.5-'On. king: of Sam~al.0=2.au..'. .$ a ·Il. -4.wi't.nlSbti(]ns.!I~.[ca~ introductions ln th"{i~selnscrlp- tions.2\._ lHlI:lessQ~he~nvise'..f Hamar a:n.~p on.. . Translaesd by' \~r.f.muwa.'" 41. a o w'hom A'wrikku made 'poweF."L. V'l"Cb~j~l!i'ii t.p'h. servant of 'Tig~ath'~p. tl'b~rakl~u.u. . Km~t!..65j.~J.. th.'.Ii'.:1' a. '~. :kms [[ '1.In ''':h.f. e I""..YI ng." .oUowi:ns: t"fa.gra. 'Il. ~es\_. ~./~"'" " 1f-'.50.our.m'lJwa. Zakkun "I am Zalldkur .'''~-r''' iE!'jjj.' I' ~ -. Azitaw. ..aJ regu 1. ~I." <f~'~ ..d~t' llm:rn~ilj£'kt in ~~~' l~~'rifb: (W~. " 'h" '..d.}l~z~l~l!]~Of names). the ..N'ET: ' T'i!. 'k. Ina.a tas.. as 'seen in the first Hne(~)of: eaeb . . Lu C ath.bg:e~:rep~re:5ent:~y l anail:y's.m.· .a>UI"'..e the .the' Kwng o~ Mesha. Lom.1'i.f'esbl the same 'ila..~puon nas a.':"-'1 ' -. . .z.e III ne I i I'.l!!1!!1l' I'..nultuli~...~ !If'. '. -.. ''hal S:1~i(line I_nscl:'...-. 'ili"'Lr'~' i~l.2.1.'.f..uJ. krung' o.an~:m.Ll .~:fie'those oJ f" Rosen~.alkllb: ". ..'". -...or € :5.. L".

.tbe f:~if~y eertaln that ~~ '~IF C'oQiduded in. :~.::".IIer.t Society [of' B.pro[~taD~y compareadl to ee rv1Jes-opot. 'OO[1lJsnnantt w~(h oUr' [E'a:[~ue:r' . 't!i..! "if" iIE:" .~_AJ -~ \' ._:_.'--1. . world.!i!. hjttl~ . h'·· ..1 •.-.t .' -.. I. 0 . .. "M'~~·K):gr~p~ ~Ji K.~ i.' t.... .~. --c.t-L. .._.'" .-:-:.Ads ~8~bO.eV'@r! and we m:!.£ffi'~'1ibo' ~!~)'t. J. part rcu ar con ~~X.' ". eussron. [:~[e'v()te_ to.erii. .whereas the Akkadian autobiographies w'e':re 'wrU'ten yea:r.-..amian :~oy.8)_~: i..@mol".. same o. 'W·-.rnillrys IOJ 'llJI -.' I' -.lii.\.rch n .-..I.-1'.' t-'L '_.": ' .-.. s. 1.:·L :I:'..· .ey' g~~r-.J'.. . .g • 'in~Oi dJscu..lllat 0:''f.l:ma:r:dt.t person by a royal.'Ilt: ""t!'J i.-'.."IL'" IB n ~Base'.U' ..-to tamper ".Hon.' -.t'hr.. .'. J. .:a. Wlt. .l~eir. -Ir.I: t_.. ...~-. JJ'"... '~'." "h t· rne ·s 'dO'.htlUfOftj D~' [!i!iJJ~r~fl~'ht' flu(h_5p~~h! (Ne:iUldf\the~"'Vluy._U' ··'C· -urn ••' n~. R. N'I\. ..Q'8... h@ tjJ~ t ~ ~.. ".• -..~.'. a . stu .i'iiW Sese".-.of ~u:r'Se' :found :in (fIJ..mi:s:1!: of' 'th. name 01 Zakkur l th " ..eirn./--[ . i fSD[ .. U·l..-' ._A'.Ju'r' ro.." iI':h' ._C'~~--. L]t. .'.. It 'w'a:s. b--"].' ..€! 'Or e d' ..titu.' vJ"!.(~y.f. ch~pt-er is ~n.[['li~:1. -'.~u:hona1jj[ n-ortdcbona ] .·. C.'"...and maty' this people that .a]inscriptlons possessing a three-part st:['l..~.':.As!iur-na~ir-.~ Ilt!'er "iIlm~ H«!1deJ'1¢ d!..1' ...-t . . ".'. M.".!d.'-M.. -···· I··.--:".-..-.t. ~ . they were coneemporarv inscriptions.O prntec ·.a:nd.lprcd:ed:~ve .graps 'h.i' .t.mte'...-.'-"':Z:W_ awatas Wl.'~' b. .. .Ulid:t _j .D'trr S~gfi1i~~:lit" lH:&tJ' ~[fM IN: 1 . .cnptton:s \.a'pU ].. in.~.' .I. '··:-· .-:serv..-. .lir1~:r....(.dJi!ln. .Fj'u<cn ~m Jli'. ~fi.!. '~he 'U:!iJ~tI] t:~shio:n...: -~:~~.- 'r~f~rnl~f Pt~p. .' . "..i.!! [esffi'mf. b .ailll£d:Si'--.de' ..PfQ' iij.ow. U' it.~J#t' ~·D D"I.iIi.j JCi... sem'a\!tt:--l!Ij1ilgii!iCnifi' .~d .r' . _'...f... -.ti '-: or uestruc-...' .'h'.-'~ 'I'd' ~. :~Or..P1 T~farn'tnf ~o~d l~ sd:ruJr !:.. .'..aJ~Se:r:... .rb"nt:' (~vb.US..lip..li.~_ -:.jtlOld ' A.a·1-·so·.~-a i'~e b StOIl@ as.-" '.ess.' '" "-:' .~ 'c.- 1m AJil!''I.f" .\."-"...~'!b~~' FiiV~1 eat and wine (-~odri.-~ .rJ'I~'..-. .. g].-..-. n um. inscriptions. • Jiit.en in the ttrs. "'lb.. .atomy'.r-U/l'.l ' .'. Ion..-. tlgure~.--d 'M-" ·esopO_aJm~an ... .· name .: -.Ne-a:r:Eas:tern.~I' . ~ 'iL'ilj NQrt~~lwe~'~'. -.A~k'ka..[~:n.[S-'em~ttc b '".r 0 Bt--.e~.: or.. an . -:L. :m.-····d' I.'H:~ .t:h. a ....n:s.I.~ItJi.c.o. . .-€.nf.I-ue .'. or [hts 'h.[~~rpurported 11arrators Thus. t d-1L. A'-' .iprotoct:~ve"J :in .' -' "....~. h-" .lll.a.as~: j' .-"" .eUI"SH" M They ~]'\e'.U tot. ~1 Even d\oagh '-.U_~~nl'l!I. . = a . . . --... . .~' .' " .'h·lueS5 .Hl n.:P t" __~'h· 5'1" :F.e scope lof' dfds pro.i_bl£cail.. ~~h:.--· -:'. .. C 'IN'tlf..~: ..:i]'" ."t-. 5 .' ctioi ·-. . e . d1-' ..t -..iIf'.i.md ClU:.--:riL.l}UU. lth lif .'-~... ...h"a:red. TIi'.lI" ee. . ~191.~ IlL. . .y' '-":pla:r.. A -·~L. ....f.d' -. . " .roreveri [.-.m£te'f~{-S'tn~.:S. 1'9 .grap _·U:!l_". rl .ij -c -." '. --..7'0').-.d t~e' docU'me:nls aga~_n. e.k)~. ...ii.. ~'"'.[lldl@ill_p'h~ia.. orne . the 'broader ...~~e' -(1'-.u.JIiI'fiI'J~' ~!QI~UI~''''b'~h. .' b'e maae concerning: lllne '-N ortth'V!ie5...'.havre a shnF'~blessing form . ..'1:~blietl'l ~ns.'. ~!f .: _... :Rather than I.g:: Tru.ne SU :b'l' ct.lng. . t.n:Ui!1g' itI.. '195'. . oted In 'the comparison n 'made above between 'rhe' 'te:X'~$."f'~:t...ts ~s.ii. _. L .~~~.' .. -. M~ne...: ] .~R()IT:U~~.!j ect to -do so" A na rrow:ty de:~ine'a:l:ed dis'h··. 'i..:.$:I'deiSh~ue..ea." J" Ped.I) '~ha'l:. " .'L. t. i. .U t......~ . ti. jI t.:y" ..c.[e:r ~ 1909')."-"-. ..!I-CU~ ii!T:ttiI\t~r ~.. prouallHy ee san .rj[. 'T~e ..es5~ngi~l~.mp:a:r.tei. .eg1f!:n_ or ble ~"!rUIn ~..'e...M)i~ie'~(l! focus !i.!o' d'~oi:p..~· -.l.il.I.s after t'l"e d.ersen~n~r' bt£~ del"l &.---. r 'wou..iq6.CI~l'to~.y (1. .. . -. to· anyone wrhe . Il. N~::......'.On.polk..' rla _. -D': " ''lr..." .'L·.. ..'anaJ may trus '! '.lcblr~ 'Hl. -.!Ue 0[11.. SemiUc: '~n:scdpUon5maY' L_ more .the Old Testament and..:·f me .~er.' -.. H~nr5iti~'~nt.1:11.0I0~o. 'IL. . m lie _'. euse --.". uare .t.J[ said abeu ~.' '0..6.b'"'.ee-fnld.. _e o. ..1.~" ~. -• A·...' 't... . .· .. l_cr:i..a tIS.(lay 'B' ~l--l\.!~.'..it.m.the sense fhat ~h..-.t. ! c.~ "t-.. '['1 .'--:-".wou~·..in._: of m.l'o[.- :R. hh.'..:1-91-4). .r E''.5 IlC'h'.. i-l~~'~::··.-·d'.COrnrext. .~em' [VJ' '-' H' /:"" 'I:::i' D. t'h' eargon 'B':. w.C'h. anc :mtg' .r...r.' . as 't..'l['d' be locl. .eSls']l'1I\g .. '~d.'C".Hi~e' '~!n!lb~i~ ~hi. -' .mono. .. -'.tb!~ii' .-~.more: (OU_. a ].: e.._~.-.h re curse' n~ h A' 'L'!I~ d'''' -I I I i': Ill:': .. 's.uud .f'!.4'] ~4):i:'.1' w. ·O----·T'. W-.I11r ... -__[1!!e_ex~ rom.· -'. peace.nJU1.."!' c~:ty' ossess plenty' to p ~.'. nu ·f:unc ron o . ln [ .Ki.~ener~L a" i'~ ~5' mo(re 'Pmfjtab:~e' to (OO()~~tf..oil.Qwever concernmg tne.e~'~96'4)..lng m strllc:t:UFe'. ''.e .~d.~ .h bl.'..'te::(~s= . ~' . .rr.. t'.I""'. hI'_ ... 'S... . cr ...enl.' . .a. curs:es f rounc d .I'~j:' power---.-.]'n5cnpt~on".(: .'.genre -.. (1.ia'i 5t:elaj'!~ ...w'ere u]~re~n:ttate d 'I. 'tJ~.bnwt~[' (B'n~fit.1Qr!J@ who removed t:n."'" ' W 'words of M:.Th'~s must be near tffile eit11Jd th~'ins(iripUo:n~ h.r {'~ITh!e' :M.. Sch"~nr~d..' '~ex. .I:miiJg'e d 11:_: ~~ IftSIC[l... ..l[9Vi~...@.Hh a curse u'p~'n an..eI'~~~re.! ' :~" U-" .e .. su '. . .. . an. 'Til.r.. ' ~.J\f'g-tll " .--·d :v" '" ana II.".HtiS .'.. HUI:ersl.n '. :-t··'.AI. T rH'..g?"')'i' .-.I. . l...2H1..i!(. :" ure.abon :mus'.--..f:..'L. .i lif'!\' r-ri[.lu-:'ur)~"-8 s -.u5shu. n3J/'@ neen 'd' -"~ .U)n '.' . .t'he' 'two groups of. ._. ~'orexam ple: [May] t'lu~~ ula._..-4. M~' '.r. '-...l!.\e._.' '-..[f..' a\~. : •.al .-t-.Ii! _.CdOrl9.~:tsw.'.jI. a .m N'eU:ki:rch.lan texts IS m ord'e:r.-[I r. v _ ." !J!e.~'--[ ~~.5siom of 'M. lid So.C" 'Wfl~Jr~e:rma:nnt .en_-_ure -f'·.JII'· ' ~'.1". -. (~~s:]l]g'in . .

. ~. n.!!l ________ __ _ _ ~ ~ _ . .. and ."'. U 'I!.a:S . ] i-. ~'~~le runscrIpt:~on 'woU_.'e . ....11Cii.~'d . .y 1" IJI.'e'pe·:ndedl n correct wording. Near East."!!er.:.t..aJt~er~ "there :r:rlli~SC '~N'ist an accepted cu.on.. .iun~~. ee . l I.. . ...0 . I .~'IilQtl~' It"....~ 15"9'). .1 ~... 'G" 'Von Rad suggested that a protective curse was 'h) be .. n ~':I..a:u:to'b~og:raph y of' Idriml results :from th. l'~C©tm. .'f. '"l J '74· i~ co' .. j t appears that 'i'h.r.'." 1..0 fe~tation~ and con tra sts of' a phenomenon as ~t occurs in .··..'~'L_ prestige or 'hl.i!U'i1i~. IlJo:t .~ ~U to" ~A. .b.~fgro"om:l\!' {OTl: rus suggesti.€ :p@UU.g.JI· _.Vnlll.g.S3 Their ap p.r. C' .ription.pa. and tudu. WI.wg~I... SVo l"". Whoever ch~nge~ it M~~{ :IM the lord of n whoever a a a.. . in .D.t:hlS.ty document or ku(J'.~~ t '. t'N" G"W '•. ...' -: d~'-:. the name .." (tdrim:]. 'L 't ~ . . ~ _ .rdU]1i.".h!ese '~\ex:~:s! erve to s protect documents 'whose sru.54.w~fh Ma]edidi.!. ' Q'Va· min .~ C~'Jj!l. 'between these two texts and can temporary royal ~n5criliptti.S not certain '~ha.2.. ..o-t' Amos and lsalah/~ Zit W i':!j t('i96.f'l~ -..~dt@ra:t~onr destrucHon.an~ .o~Trends .1' -.r:otoct~ve curse placed at the end. -. . if1'f.l .t'm:L[rI~.. .e' '" !! .'_.e([~C:t:lo:n.~'ou.t~nct .. 'l'M'1a'I·~_.rom.the gI!eat .oo" curse ~im.~ "l/~.n" . :' '.pti@'FiS Com.'-.a[ii. May t~hie he'a."'~r"n. J..-e .56 Further.ra . 5 His ~ comment has 'been seized upon by ether commentators.' .. nnwe'r' ._ _ .. word.!i ~~..illil C~r..'~~.'1i. eltedn A.d 'Hiller..'ins...s" r~ty'-Curses ~nul l'he O. . .. _.~.dIn the [nst:rUlctions of :Ptah.fonh Ox:~o.N'ot)~.a cm...@aranc'€! ln ~:h." __ . r:r .sHYJ wft~: 5'50 (.ph.f.'b1!-. 1:£ a o tre'a.T'esta:me'ot.is:royal :i:nsc..n." :1.~J.'-98)". '" '" he'aJ~!'\erriJnd earth a 9'. recipient s of a :r-oya1 grant).1) 1-9.. iSib'lkal W'ri'~~no's . f.enon f' '.t!h(l< ]nt)~:n~!r~:ingomments c J • by C.-terj1966) 4-:tt He '~sed.l~S SOC1Bi.l" 0l . Kud~rrll=~noc[i.~e'i· Y. .\ t:h.. ._..dUferen t t .96.~'ZA W 7'4..of CilJ!r:!!i.. ]0 ~he N'€~r :E~~t'is...of ['he.~.~'. iIJI' ~'.ot:ing.Uon should 'be..eUe.a~~ o f' 'lib. C'· .-' .::. .ega'~ rr~: results [ou'~d..'be~ntie're.'at h . o:f a :roy'. con:~~x'. .u 'we'~e ehanged.f'i.5 :IiC" [19" "iI'·. _I !t.din~C'tedto -5].. iN-. - .._.llone':m.... 1 la (s cultures 'WIt h mut wsn ·. ' . -- _ .ses of Ne~if fa ster.5'4".a'~ tl~€ [r~ .".· . .. p~rot'€ct~v~curses (a:s d:h. m.@'Y-'. on S. ..a .reatles T 1'sillmm..le curses run t..ed. 'WQ~:j 1:'O).'" o· .. _ V~:SS. ".gnrnfkance d. .I. _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ "...As. hA?6.. gil)ii.~.' Propbel$ . 'but note should be taken that VQln.. Morena. L "• AU5.oo~.1 uef:il. ..I' .I.I ~_- i(qlu.ru:s. . ~_.ca]or ~.e' cans it a "canonical formula") . l"hiseho(n .~ar ~ !l. . .(.~f omeone cha:ng.@' fictional .iWl! OO[live.WlMa~.~~3!.. n tre'a'~'V' documents . m~gl!c~but r.:2.-'~4 1-9'74. :[. . '1'..' • re]1Si:il.K~ '. 11..ray ~ .. r'! .eatieiS and. J -~ "j' I '. .oted above..~~. .. D . I ..lItd" (I'-The' ~hllppoged ":~:~tWer(ilf 'WO![ds . ':..u..trnng th p. .l:1Il. . of :h.['\1:'..t Ptah-hotep actually contained sueh an In~unct:lon.cr:·'-pt:ln'Si .e:nt '_ .ern the Olt~.~g.o' d" Tr~~'~~. if' 'C" '~ib.. P'Mbldl~l.'be detrimental (e. already mentioned.OIJl.:_.O.'" w ~~] siralla 'r-' =='_C nls~:'.." I96C!..jI'1 :2 8''1'_q... '.r. (C'" . I~ad himself' 'w.ft.iH..e similarities.Q:rts .(" Bind.' l.:pa:red..s'b~'01 the monarch to have such a p.il].r~f..~ I'.ay h[~ :prog\eny be dle~:troy'€d. ' . one mu~s't:now ask whether SA1ICh. chap 2._ __ .1:"10". I .V~ "..-M--'-. . 'ext:i:rpart!e his name .). Df.fYnctk~'fIi !OlEthe' t. . ~ ..'rom. -_.d15CfUl' .:t. curses ~n general) are Iound in other :Iitet'ary' 'wo(rk:s of' U~.JII ld ~egs:en.v!en~g.) ~J~~'15.II t.he' ~ . lUei!iilS . 'IL. ~.~~: rna ~ d.. ....rh ~ f i .' '. similar curses in Akkadian ma y he :found in :r-oyal '.J1 ..-15 -'b1€:Sl5Iing.WJ~ .:Ii euU:'~~. th.Qn:51.nv~r:'!r~ii(mt~lprocedure :h~iVi'llg ..~!I"I!._. Simila dy'!.e monaren W~lO was g~or~W~~ey the':~ewn. S'.1 ~'~i!lt.ia: 'W'~9.n Tf. .s: ro p "~I" .tgl:':ll]t:KO\lr'~ dim mer. von :Rad/. D··_ .. .r.- .""'.. 'I!..r~[iI)~I!f~t '".lo..~'IIi...1..f hi!.the . m. U .-hott€p (h.Thus ~t'woruld be ~n . Spedflcally.' "1-'1-"": ..A· . . • I!J . "'11 . a'Ulen.iii.llilllry. .'...~ .y sta tue.-.{J.

'.-]..= ~i-IIf:iI.I I~ '." '--"h'···'~ . till.'.. a..curs .... t ---..~a . " _---:--'-'-"':-I~ "'.. 'l .e'ronom. ' ' h--'I~'.JI ::2· :12::'':12. 'T'est'a:me:n:t: a:nd.~. _'-. _". -.----1 'IB'...-. ..FIj.-. gypdan 'L .n~:".'V~''''-'r~~I''t. 'ii.e brie..(l....1'." I-··-'-.!... ---" .~1i\"i azainst .~-..I: . .· . 'D""-.ey."iii) 'p. -. .~g ·-'-. .-.. .r'-. .h' :Jou.'1'1 1-.JlI/:-. .c!!..·~t..--. .:' -.. .-.__ds : ·.._.'1.'ii"'Ii. -. ---. ww..!'. . ··· .l Alt..te '-'.~-..:.)1.~ am severa admonitions m '~:~"'" _JIl.·eu.: '[ ii! "~..pLlons anu '..~/.. Th'.:' Prov '~'D:6 '..".~n the E:' -:.'t'.:__~.'.. --~" -" are .~'!'an" .. en 'd-I.p. beam sha~m00' pul~ed. '.j.:..'_ I " .. .'.--"jI.-.f.." -T-Ih"'USi' .noll:. ... '[--.. ·.ere anmomrm ...a n.. .1: he sh ...'..pr-Oll:.::v'@:ry .. ... -.-. temp. - ..·. '--:-I'iIf :.j-it-. -c '.In :royal.. .Ii'IJD_~_1J ~ made a d'U'msh~U.l _--.enoug'h ----" "" . 2.. ---.." ...81_50 th L_-'Ik orl..5.." _ ...g. ' .'.t t-·h-··--·.Sf'..! ["'~':J.r:st " Jl!~.. f.ff·''''. ''l' " r- ::--. 0 f've'._ .'1 ~: iilL. ..i!li UUU~. s. .·. This.~·''·'-··Jh··-·--.--...- Wh n R.~~e'-.l .lUh.rot@C.Iif'ih.-'_ t" ---__ ! l .--- . E..!!!:~'~ if"I'[II'~C_i2' '!....no. ..n. -.... eu-e' ·]_li~.-- __ ...~. :L.[...Ui€nt..t...or .~!r. '-'h ..eu. I .__.aUJlall. " q. 'I Ezra 6"'~bff ..n.Y.. ".':s: "..1 .o:ll·i~h·· verslo. . .monItions. '-::1 ..Z.. . .sued .C-·· .lji::J!..~... cise wording: is..-." ..!'i\.-. 'I connecter d' -.=- . ! . .. .. I'f':_unctiems...ok .8.~I.treaties (Deuteronomy -.. -:-... .esta.l''. "'~ 'Th.- II . 'IL~~ '--k.I..N'~'a. ....'!i." . ve '--·i~-··' 'n ---l"nt'l['t!i rU"'r"lU'II[ ._ .. ~n~ .~. b'. '.00 R':"'-... .. i~ till Oif .ex l II:. .1'.. t.iL....:pt~cldy' and f:r-e.ttl.·th a-. .. -.= IIL. j ...r. most recentII:. has 'been successfully eompered to Near Easte1f.(.~I-~.l' .'. "t" w~". I"'I'! -' ' 1_: .·.~.I... 0 '!. ·-"-t.'' .S.par..r. ~.·esea d" --I.f='c-..-'...I..--. )~ •• 0' ~ 6 wlJ.I).menl ~ ~ . ."~. .t!~s.~··· .. ---t~. .-.nara studv A-'~------' .. en ..~e ." -'_cOl'"'b'" .1..6nd a."--·:~ I_a 1II.s :.:1'''--.~· -' ~..-.SI!.] ''b... '..Deu-t .. assertion '~S borne out 'by 't-h..-.. le:n~I'Or'@'.~~.--.".-.." -._ . -..ll ~ ~"i 111. an.-.W h-~... .0!nlvone' al~ers thls edict. ~ ~.~Io'n --. :" .~_.~. Inscn..'~i----"'-'i:' surprrs--" . -.' '.lIlrD~ ~ =dli ~ri-porw'!l..•...._' _1_110 ."( '~'-.-~_.1.1 .£'-e." J "1" . -. __ . sig:~m£an't'..--· tt I.lna.(..-.11ne ..nf!!' EJl)lJ.S . t. .1Il.-~7 . W. 'ifSSUtg '.h··-If'.. '~~pro't~ctdve tU. ~" --... Q~~h.~.···t·~.... __ .... broader .~. "" ..I_~.me Hebrew .rreanes ane . t~.~ ''C.I.' "-' .....aCIl.~_'V~~II. .·. ~.'.~u ~ ~..---..'!i.. . W~ hav'~' been studylng't ..U\ ).-. (:..\_.~. ---J-~ h th".I ".ter-e.:. .any other 'N": ew '-T-" .C' !:I'.' J'':Ui__:11'._._ .. . em..-'L .-..51 ". J:t." l'S.-. _ -. ...'iN'e'w T-'es.·. . u:. '1" ....(:e~..pre-' 't.. _.."..------.~ ~·._..·..... st eomnleted 'p·.t'··. 0::f:.I.. ·.€' to 're"produee a decre@is.-'l's... "_.. d --'. ~ • - ~_. u.J! go~ "" .-" m texts 1.'.ne UUU'.._" · .Y.' '·'--··ljI. - l..y tha ..iI. ...I1. .. Ali ~ ~ ~.'i"'1'1-"-- :~ngtOI .... -. .-.'h· a .:-.. . ...~~c-~\-·-.-.E"Cd Clllf. house 1i I \I. 'k""I"a. Lory"Kinp'C"urus(lon-'11... "Ii... --. ." ..-.---. .-"1'-" .~. . u.11...~r~_~... :..:]I~ 0 ~:I!. .- I 'd" .it-__.~.tAiF' " 1. ""." .vd~Clve curses occur . IE: . an Il..'. --" e" n.. .I~.r.~_ 'c_· = .'.'IL at t. ·..~~t--.-.'.iI' W'IICu..~ OI. l!.I.'.....e ..-" . ._J.aJ!i.·· .g h:.: =.~ ~-Il~~l 'h· ..~':silmUar to' those C -'.".1.but .-.'...y. {'le:r..' . occue U1... __ ~l_ ..3..rEaseern heritage more e~x.J.--." '.... ecrees~zra.. -. :...J [ .'. c":'".' . IUU~. c'han_g-'in O!' Or destr'QrVulO' a document .'-.O-le .. --.. I .." .... · !I ... t... :-.n~ng.~njerusasalem 'w.!" -bib lie a·'] com . ~.lVie curse...----..iIi'r--:."h··'··-.an...t~amen. lJlo.1 ."c '-' C'" E'-.t ~sno~ I.-.. ]. t --. . ··--.~ ~.'"5~!.'t ~f..] . -~-. A'~I_'~_...~"~Il 'I!.'r. Also I make a decree t'ha...

2 T~he :OJ'OSf!1' in. .~p.eriiiIJinJ Lli(gali1nnemundu ...orm M.aphy 'wl~h a.. The' :9uibg enfe . of' :ficti.'hy Qf K.e' . 8.gra.ion.donati.UoJl 90 . !IIi . 'Manijhm~u..on '90' The' do...ri~:I· 'Q!~ ~rl!1.v Q""."""111'1 g!Ij.p'hy wit'h le[ld~ng 80' . 91..(lbi..an.. 9!.BJ5.-llz..Ebt..i..ption 92.i da.obiogr.ograJphy 86 The . SurnmairY 93 91.' Je.. U:o:n. a.'5Ci'.. :$ummary 'The C:rudf.[~~~c.As! . -&..I~ .ext.8<m: 8. A.'t.Qnald.nil:ing...onumenl as ~lc~~oJlal~ auw'b..l1uto'biog.[ iW'r..8 The K:!U rii3l~lU Inacnptton ~!tUd1fnlg 90 as fb:Ho:rn~lau.1MilI' d j: ~ iQ'n Oy' 8.Agum-kak. Ml ~I : ~-.s a. :f~cti..@ f:nscripti..akri:m.ilL.. *'1'.phy 'wu-'h ending..of.oI'l 'The 'Plot ~~.IIL!I"""r ..a..$i 6cUon .rna:tion pmot. -----. .iog.~~ ii:. 9. 19 80' ._t-. dbn. 'The ..'u.ona:t~one'f~d~ng Th.Agu:m.he t'ext..tJext.n"". eooJng.I. r'.r. The' :5-um.r."9 T.. As £i~t:ion. The ru:liWcf.t 8s: . 'The' Cru_d~OfllJj'l. 1 L.A'Uto'bLogr...umfHl't .nat:io:rn e. .tobio.." ----'- ril .'''I~!t.:L..8£.apihy A_s. 'whoile 91.3 S-UJllmary ..iption as Hctional au.).l.'t...~_'ear~astern texts.ona"t]on t. The .uriga'ht-u The' text 88 'm. .i.8.' donation A.86 .-i-· llr'~UL C'Ii ~'m'-'m' .----.. "'-L 'N 'IE: C-:ompansen 'bJ' obter .]' The' d.r~me Inscr.

'.J.~~I"~11 ~AJgJlll...v.0"_:' 'be'. ~l [ • J. _ _ _ _ ~ o':Iil'IjIll-~C.:" I~:..u.. -' )'" "'I'~" I . fro " c-irfi"~I'r-'-' 't. W:ormler .. 'I" 11:-'11.ac'i"!'I!""'l'b· U.'.·tu'':Ii'~ll-'\l .I!ItrI.Ann""'~~ J JVU '1· es. 't-' " t re. ...r. - .an d'-J '0' ~P'" . ".. ~ l~l .!.t.~ I •..1. ~ lann-r~'V:i'H'li1 ""~~'1'V "I'~""". r.-' .~. ·1 " "_ ~ .I. .~''\r. 'y..'!I.iillJ Y'.r. ISO u:o:m Th " " "1I!Ji ." 'J U '. ... _ . i...l 1.l."'. .e~..d " D'....va... :S'~:Jp:'-p: air" has .-"......: 'G':" nlv .. lJj.:.t.:-".ifI. .'in· dud'~~.~ ul D-t:-.!.'· ·r···-'... .c.' ..o!"". h . . .'ii!! __ ."r' ~.u "n'!. u...ll: ·lj _III.l".'. ___. ."~ of the :p'h'w'lo:log.!~_~ .00._ JM:':.'5 t']' D .:!IV W .U' '~L '/~\lJI.1-: 'I I' Croil5-~..'rei. ~ .uuo'-'bi'·.91102.0...on..u::nlS" 4 '-TI . __ _ __ __ __ __ _ _ of' 'C··..'.!I..as.lll~. __ . ..A . '.'on. IA~ .I ..:~a u.."...son ana seconQ.a.. .'.!' _ . ~.].':i nd 'tlhe nar -(-. _l~ .1"1.'.U'tlllU~I~:l I .O -rUCLn). in 'iI:...~ ".-. ...ppears.f' .an~5 USU.3 . 1 ~vn..'._ao ~~..s" 1.'_'If.iI1._.T'iio.. _-.u-X-U'-_~ tor-subiect ls _ 1:5" _ :) '~l. d. .t:U.3 Is a.I.~~_~ 11. ~.'.~' . ..rY...[ilL ~. ~ ...' ..t~. __ . .D/!!. y"'.....- _ i_.U.'l Akkadian a.bJ':~oni.2"... . . "'' e. .5 th'i-: I'" 'Ik-:'" '...rne more ~~ . · '0' "f-: 1[P.:0 -..:11-'L..@o-ua . 1.:.. .t.:':..-' th .-.. . U ..C--T"_ '.h.':]' "'!i.2 u 1 .a.-..l."1..l . T-""'I·'-:-.11:" .. F.. I .:'. t--.I.d '" d ..w. !j" _ _ . endent tn··· I_S.II..rm. o~. .[-~~r"!l.ttons ..--~ .n. '" 79 .':" ..nIS .._...i8.n.~ an 1-4 no -I .Il'ulng 15 the..~t. :: .H'-·. . 'ic-. ~~IIJi.~ng .uIl.Eh~\i" t:...-. The ~..t an. .car.Wu a d :·II~'."l_ l'iI!"'---.it-'h a-d"onation ·A_Latl.'t examp 'lie' ." M.M.U: t·. ·1···· ac(a~.L ·to i' .1 (... ~''..m~::-I·5". pOSl1Qn . Ij~ .'..-".evan't' -to th~s s'~udy.J' . [lave .jQ .·-·I. 'b.] -._._. pe_.9 1 .nT--h·· ..-.. title ·~.u. IS !ilnapeu "I:'k--':a. ."' t ra'_I ..'!b J . . ~.' '--. lu~ '~n ton ~. ~'.J_1 .. j..v~..~.• " .. ..I 1__ ' .l' ..iiloo-f': M'... uce·._na. .Ii II.· .'. .-.'onUm....'t:n!ess~s 'to the text: S:l .'v.-.·:.. '~OLl- .. .-'.e~_ .'_. .". _.].I._.' .' iii.~~ a I u . ...•. '·1 .[-~_bf..'.'/. . aceurate translation _ ..[ .'Y1l0nliUii. -d'"_eSCn.~ ". :. p_.J U'!i.an :perl.'eT'I"eu. LLW - b 0'_.oe. maae .:".i'~i~'iO'Fi""".r:.·:1•.4 ..b.i ea.:o 1..' '.'R.. £.. wn. :n.3.". ~ .D 'm--'I'3i'I'iII"Io enrolar-..6 H-_is also .~0 • r.J.~ 'wi.-M'--: ' .'r·w.J iIi.. mns).-.... t--' '~~' _: 1·1· .. '--I l" ..'·. ~ a. ~ -. t.r""'ll..~'-nl'!X:ti.~'If.--...'f._. ~all.~.Ce h..~UHeU.ucoesS'or ....• I - - ·t·-· of -'~ .G'b! .-...i:iI..1.·lI'.:m---'::-I~'·lt. .oO':r'a' :p.:'.J~.".:.I.'. ' . ~in' t". '.I. ls :no.'. W _ IC_I_ was ." Q. " .I..=." - 1Il. Barton also produced a:tra nslati ore i. ' .2M ". lli.'.J "ex.. "" . .' ~'-'h" ----'h ~'--.. '\ I l I.io.. - ..'Lb.c' 'to .. 1 .y of the 'tex'l.a..~F.lIL"J. _ _ _ _ _ __ _ I __ = ~ ~ !_ ~1!ii!!!J_.. .obiect r' '11]·:n.ie_na~y :' .< 'whk'h..n.I).. lIj. 'OiI!iQ.~JI..'b-'.·d'. 'IB:::M:. '" the wellW~I.~. .. ']"'iIl....lnce p:f1ad 'I.t'h--D' ·t']"iIi-'lill ... 'l[_~~l "e:xt 1[.. " .~·':O'!.n Ul _ . .!~ .-.S More recently.i~~.t-'(:-S-:_:'r . - - ...... I'll...1.._.-/.K'--'" .... '~h-~'-'-' 'C' "'C". . C.·_ .. . . t-abiet' from the neu-:Ba. _."I.''L.~ .I.1 iWf~ ~.'i!. bo t.1· .-'" ' l' 'S--' ' .-_=iPi"\Bir_J J .we._~ [.po.Y HI' :-'. .~:.!Il. There a.ILV\IIi....e.'_ 1. _.· es ..".: .L-"--. '-' th "'" como-!f-'.".t--h'Ie r . e..hu'"w-~.:''].r!a'~. _J~_~~~ ~ LD.~ve:'~. .:' d' ~:.-.. ".'.o ~.' .'... .\J"..·_~. Ii:! pretsum ed '111-.::1"1.!.~. a .sooon_.J A-' . O~I~' rib.r'!iw'.~. unng _'rusexc.. UIUJ .•.a..'.-n ~ '.I.Il. 'I'.r.Q ..f r-oyal in~r~pit. Th~1i:9hav .nown.1". li:it. Qi..oo_. "..Q..' .-:C. 'w·:t. . y stage.5. = _~_'!I.~S""..I-.uy~"".aUed text edJUon and t-r~'~s~~:~l.1Ii."""'.-:.r' -. bl '-r~~e·l~.- ~.'t--__' '.~l'" .~.. s:tudy (}. wppar ~'A .fC_. . " .. ·v ·.] ': ..:0 beien at least foar nrevto us translations U.. 't 0 l.. . - .rgofl __ ... . 4. ']"111' 'W-'.[1.-'" . !. [':-'Ir'Ir"''Y=I.t.. '. his. _ . [..-"." .. SoUberge:r has provided a.' " . L W'-".-' .i'I.-.. ilj". I. nreserves "V.~'r'o:-:m 'N' ~p-.-rr~.IUI.:".J'.'@. :5.. !1.-. use I~.c. [ _~ ~'. irtuallv [~J .:. ":.e't.I. .. .ti-n".-·b . ~I II~ J. ~ ~.'""" -.':' III. ~ nl. .. UJ ~ y... ip'~'n-l~'l .weI1]-_~.Irre .1...-.cUt .. ~_.G··· A.:~.. e OD~ect S1.. - ...'-.-l. '.a". 'b<v '~ .u.~.·.-lmovereUJ.:'liElot"\.. .. ..at_ :5-.':(lSlsam 'd-+' ' : h"" .

·'1' b '-.. ..f!ll .l' 'iolL_e i'~~"'~!I·~Q·~I:. A_~ .U. ..~~Ie m.ei... f-·or t_hJ! 1d an. ] -M" .--h__.! .oc'Cur:re __ ..-~..WO_~ ~-d"·.·t..ree "bel' .- =:- R!Ii~iI!"!i..e~f-·.h_aJ--1.J _. .1 .c.n._ '..-.__ .'~ ·~U '~oIf"i. -WW".ltL!I'l~ seetlen ~_. lU .'[Mt! n"IVD.. l-" .. -~~'!.111:11.: L._ ~:I ·_I~~l'·:ib~.. 'M'" .O. 'I':.' -: (-' ' .' t - "....n.mple d.~'-'. ·:·"I- . I ~ t~D. _Q b . eh...1' and Uaba Ui 1 r.':."..:..f""lIHl-~ U[J. . •.!! !!j..o-ntl 1.try t. ---.1!~I~.ne '. t... '-k('f:"I.Ion IS b --'1·1~..nan!.· ..C". . _ II. '. -. '~'''"'''.'--' f"' . ·· .Jln.' : "":1 .v_!J.~nds "-W'h .. ..-'tpIj\j"~*'f'H l. - J 1 -"'1 -.IIO' (!r"ca'I'I-u I~~~f"[ ~=I1I_. recouns t." ..~_ !L~__ .. ".-] ~.(''Ii.i!i.:pread~.11"~.-'''tn ..te. _ ~~ ".[.!!I.:. :) 'I I ..'~~':-~~ g~-. '.'1. Even the las. '.--ets_I:!61l!'. -1"[. ."'d'·.'. sec:t:lon (:personal._. . I .'I. I~~ .--_-_.~'Ih.\.J ph'"]oii"!i..J. . 'h_. .e .J'I~_' I~ _I crt.aJIlI0.. -.h-··h· a. M' . -·"C. fe'" .~ a: .-..~._. ton ..··· .neU over -. '~i~I-vi tV ~. ·'1 .iii""IA 'r-·le.I:t.a'P:hica:1 In the· .u:la~ ~-~IKi... ..\_anl!:j.ions on ·~'h..ev~.. ' :1" - .JI_-·(-t:'. . . "'h e:1:"'.:il" IL.i.-0. _~~ I'e: ~l!WIL . le -'...---:-'IIo·-.. V .· ~.\ tnie elmp__. --.i1I~' 1. .ue 0... '.e.!!' -'iiI.e.ave' t-· -1.L. l I~'i' ' Ii: '!' a'· I" ....l·~·1_1j': -. o· .th eir O]·l~~: .. . ~"e' . emt.."-"'I·'A':iI1JI-'. .lll tJ :B-y' far the' longest part and h@'i.. 0 f' w~.. ·.on.a. tlv. it ". ~UU\l..tlts.m J.. ne . person nar ~.au'(o-' (.on--" a'..s. 1..r.·t:·JfriJ t -......Lll~v.~··I nlscrlp~~ona. .-po !~h.. _ I. ..U ~...~ ~..' t'~..-.seClun\li' .--· . '-~' d SLV'eT'. narrr. 1'1' ·IM··..alh.SiC ure. " ' . . ... .e. C.'-.J .:.~' ...ll.. C-:n"u:w~'or. .I!.lon. In. .. I!L_~.-'···th·" ·t. a.--IIper5()n~..:. -.. :t·'h· .. The revol t is.) A~'.·.'u.f pari tl(u~a:rly Anu U~8). an~~ SU1C-€. '.-.grl!ipU. 'Ii.-.e S··' .. . ..-.!\f. ..he' ~o'nges't section ex'te'ndin! from.'_tl~~·.Q '.if"~I. A· .~..t '·c....":..or @)C..ory :is ]....~·~:f~·int:fioduct. ...n:ume:n: ... .. -.iI' who are then reouired '~~ b'-'n--'·'Il'l"g.i!.CO' e. :n?por~@dto Ibe w.'i' ~g w~ ('n~lljf'Lwed "'1 y~ .-=.__ j1·adtf. _ . IL ~..-. .-' €rVen~:5. __ . '. ··a"··I'IJ. ··.--:_.'.:. that S-.. ~r@'."....or. lib .--. c.1 :'....~ !L -~ KI"ll'IO' ~~'m.~'hl":-.]-1Ili!i.[. in three par...-:-:. and a long Hst o. J··'f:· ..KlI\"IA!'I'~~'P.i:. e j[!.na.a..~"'l 1 ~ y'r.sew.: " ._ -' I' '.C..." _.. ..." .. .J.. .f'L1i'" 4.1· I-~'-" ~".7!. 'n~:"':'~"i':.LI'OflMliW:"·IIl..-.s'enSJe defined a]:mvie ~ :in .t·r. ~~ '.IS ·s'·.. d--0' ~.0in~ \t=_ ~ -. ... ~'L:~io··--.-.i11 lie.flJu.b." th ..:U~e.. 'T..-'.•_I..o.. . M"-'..-Ii"IiIQiii:=:t vi[ '"-··v·a·. t . .tC@ ear~wer In 'h']S ..o.. .C -·.. h or ..!i>(li"-.".iJ' .!!!. ·t'he gOO:S'.na lO.rO~-_OWS ... .-.2 (:S@f!' also I:I~S ~n :S1 J) m...~JL.. . rh ~ ut). .--'-'..~_ms !iJJ~. -.~: a. ~_'~." c'.u·Lt· h··.MlII' :!-' nl'~ 'n"" '!!.~e'.~I! an as:serd.. -.1 epu ..U on flo :his 'son (such revohs were common in ·t:h.... ':..e' .S..-'. . 'V:: .lv_._.f!i. J .n··ri~ :~':n·~.-:\'F. . IS. T. ~O ~ ee.17)..t.-~b. ~~ w. ....D· Ug· ~J 'po rj"!j....~ --.er.ib um I(S1 .[Vili. _ I [!I..: _ . ~I donatlon 'n'i"-a""'.' T'l.iI1...bsc -.i"iIi'n. 'personal narra tive (I:i 2..!L~ \u__ :fh.l'~t.: Vlr t. __ ...~ _ _ _ ..\_"arustusu ."~ .J passed dned ~ __ vill' .'.''V'~'j~_ !r.-.C. ". '~5 .iJiJ. curses. -Jl'.on~.-c' :.o-.~r~~.-= ____ '. II!I.p..1e. _. t-_·· '. '111..~S rnents..Cohnnn )1: :1~.•••-'l!r~·. e to rne ._ ~-~ ~_ ~uy.I ..X't '. 9='[1::. " r.·b··· t its ..lng: ..co .~ A' ..' _.J U1 . .in ' " '0-' 'd ~ ~-l~.. -I - ..n·'th~..u"'iH E--=--:":'".~.:1:._-'-:'-' I~ .:.~' _. ""'1 1 .f..3:4t con~' 5)hO-f'~)fir_ 1 even .t. .•••. . e.at-:l'V~)·. :'" ·l···'--· .~ng .ograp . ~In-I Q_ i"\SIr-ln' .'hi..- 'T~IL.: " '_ ~idirm.M"lJ'.-. leted Th.·.:11._....ro... . ..d .--'I) "f J....-. . ._-'.. .strong. _a.-.~s . '~w'1. 4:. lilJi ~.\V)I"·\ ~.. -' .--:-. . ~ _ ~ . i-lL _'_'S.' IJa.-..-: -"/- 1.aug h.. .'l:ae·t/linB.nE!' .'.-.. ] ODd go.'...[u '~. Q'FI!.a...III.":. .l~ ~@~~"'. :n~M.t section {_[~:9.SUI.parts and at~ta.c.On.'. ~J !t'... _. -= -~""'-.._I_. .' t'~ -' '''_.ra. -' th' lie .":pries.J1 .. J l!l!...: :if"o. r- 1 __ rai'tQr~:s._. __ a··.·..U _'Q.n~b-'-4..... -. ~.pos·L..0 .r·. .r 'T'h C--'t~. i ~_~L~\_!I_..... T' '-h-"'Jerl!'.uti.~ __.eancient Near' ·lE.. I' .mlt ut t s .~..sa:n and Sir.t~" '~'-In'c·.li~' '·'1 l 1'1' I:' I .t . . '~II .. ··d·.!·\I1IQ'iIi'VIl1 :'-"'Il .r ~ . ·M·_-· ivian~ ..'h .- '.ang. -.' .:-l. .111.lrst .J...~. 1'_'" .--.. P~~'~'t it ~ ...l..' .[Jlogr:ap'n. .'!l-.i·r'Oo'ln-· ~-·} .the :tH.=_... . personal narrative. -- ·~'h.. o·_--n'. __~!.S an .hl:·'"~}... I nrs.y . ~n .... . .-·'·h " I' . ':-~"-:/ ..a['g. ...g1yen --.~!II!'O!l' I~P"I~ M iii . __ IIJ.s..-...... . 00...ential15 that the nar:ra'tori"s f'-" .~. IL. .".eAiJ.. ~. .rii.~ 'f. t. J..' c~:Ftain.. .-. .. .£v..f "~~'''tJ 1.. '~'h--! -'a.~.~. -' '" ~.. iii I. t._ .' .. ' .-.· ratu).nafUons~ 'The text ..[E-n'~H '10). 1 I -'. 's-' . -·t. short_ :s.. -:-.OI'!l)~ '- 1[. I. !T'~I. ·i-lf.d'.·II~'l"l~i.1 ~~l~' I~~'~~ C"IiJ~m..~ ~~ 'J _ Q..d- <i!! _ .. .al t . -.. E'L~·b·:·L·ar.-.n 't'1il.~'fr ~~ the st-a'~-!ii.·]·l.rh . .~.~·p: ..C~o""lil!'!iie. 1 5..e~u.'!. the narrators foces is the :ir@lV. ----.. lat ' .' tt·.'t grea. 'I. "'~I"': 1....mpu:~ '.·······ml-·.l'j·.. '.=.~'~. .J .~d@.~ _ .and M·anll'~"U:Su. .!! 'I' " 1.'v:iest emphasis of the text is the . a curse f:orm.' r··. second.c '~'-'--:'-'I.~c!' 1 l..' -c_. .. -'."~. 'l'j'l :'...'...:I'~~:.. -e· ':' . ·-h ·-41~I·]··l'v .e·Ii:i." ..B'St). . 112)_...--·...J11-_-.' ~I .. Q... '"'-d ._:'. . has are' two po tt~ca~.j.h' -~ ~e' !.r..·':s reactton is to split the arm y in to two.-.: _ I ....~. .. =. rut: ..: \ .0.1 U.. .~. . -"~ __ .:..'U' 'WI"".iDa D..15 '.· Ul seU:..}.Iii"'H. -.ppa'b-" . ·-·=·..'-.~~llli.L •.. The IF'O'm~05iti0n..!l..lll tv . ·d' .e.o· : I I' ..l!!~ . . to' ....ar.·. i' -.-..n ' .W h -'h concerns 1 . series--" l: .. -. '.onshi. d..- •• ' : ... t:.:~..-' .:hle'. ···C·_ I ...3 ha s ·the ".[1OCQns.u dJ. ·~·h· nar .person narra.::I. . !.·'ii'Ii. I -..l:·itit!O' "illNfl. .'. Iif'"' _ U": J.: .1:'] true' (XU:'!-4 = t.. L" v..are · ·Y~ rn u.t" . - i"'[ ...Jo~..-c "C·t'···· '-. .1 .. ---r .. .'.p. .!~ Alth' . ---: tr ictior is f...t"be -ne.. ..@' 'Ir-'I!f ~.F'~..= 'to. Of' tne ..!") . "-.':'-'='.~~...~.. I' I' ' .l~I-:-.. o...mp.·h··.=t.lso narra~ru. -·r·. ti ] W~.M':~:"'iIlI!Ui"4-H" .'.·'hr" 't'-. ~iI =_ .s: :~Q'llf:·=···'1~r'---1. -.. 1I. __ ~_~ ~L_!!>iII)'.·" ::.'sb:..A'n. ..a.al 11.'f'n Clonc~u-. as~js. TiLne resun -'is .~'h'" lIi.'. ~!II. . J ._ "!Cj~!I.o..U .[ .".'.p-ortra:l til 'out cQmh[ned 'wIth d'.=.-.'...~..rarr . S·.d·--.evt ence.. LT'~i..ji. -.~~ M···· t _~ ~ . .lei)'.""I-d-" . .-t'-'d: t\ --t= b ~..WS structu I~d. -'. ~ __ r _~_ ~o.~ -1·.f'j.uuU ..}i::}c'.r'£."._tM"ilL .-hl!I~.' c'. __ 1_ 'I .6) . - ]".-.o"!i.~ . .~~~.' t .an ~ven~.._3 were -._.. .to.'~h d Onal..·t':h. 'The event tna't' is._ :I._. ~ __ . 'I..~~ ....na.-.' III .~'.'- I" ":-.-.&!II. '-.ii'1Q!:tWML~. .c'k .'lt-:"3n~:~Jou... build ino' -~ _""' _..-~.-:. .~. ..·h''~r d. .e ...-X::.. • '--·~f-··'·~··I·-·t-·-=. CUI. __ _ __ _!!:i!! ~!!i.. th .ougn _ 'L :1:S·tu5u"."..ne PUrpo.~ '.. t '-h.:::o~f·-:in..~ '.~: comprete '5U~Jlug:a.'..Jun\.1i? _ l_l~~~ 'r~tl4i'h!\e~y.!e.IL.11.e:k~Il. ]0' -:..ot'Iin l ~.pwi..~··e· lji·n. ~ . .e.r ~s '~..c.~ ':":I:~I. IL.. b-r\A. .~~ __ VI: ~I:'.l. U .. ilUl!ln . fUUJU.!Cal uy ..'"d" . " so:rt of' ..f· ·te.'~o. '~:here"" ~s no"!i.e-e· .. ·rp:. .!€ife' -L emeha ~.. -·l'" . .1-.-".iO. ..."J ..__ .gls:re·~aU.f'"J. .r. . --d: aUt: aamas.·.. .!'..ji. . -~.. P'_. "1' "... ...' a~om..a.1 ."..r~·~·~'h. 'tOOl :is i~Uldoblog.+'~..·llt· '.. -. e.ss).a.' . .-::t·'ry ~>r~.

.blt value.. :~nthe case of the Cruciform Monument the 'mos'~' ~._ l.. _ .lJt. -.9 Du't L J.kn.y .1d-.O iGe:lb.n '~:h'" nd _ah~. :Mee'kj'A. .rigin. :s·uch.[n·'.~ludes the' pos(sibiUty that U: is a :Ia'te (JOpy of an orig. Goellle" and 'W'. that.ey 'were .'lk. I l.·a)Jl~a-·n~-'OPn.autidb. 1'. ~!L.. "]' .graphy' and :it 'is extremely short: in the Mani~tu§u :monumeD..r-I.'I·. ~tII' . ... [[I . "the Oater) scribes :ha.a'ch) to estab Hsd'lI. ..1""·.scdption: ('[) -t'i:u~~: .of the stone :monl.. . au' :hav@' @'xpressed .von Soden. ln .. . _ _ ~ _411 _ _ _ ~ _ __ _ ~ ~...I I I '~'~n.Ij] Ii.as it's weU~ formed. .ceil-"o~''...iptHiQn because scr.e monument employs some.'l'" --.t: the personal . . l lil.fogF'a..and (4.. of_ .dia~n.oo. . 's~ons.not 'ty.: .m 0.Iili .·· !!. ~'i' .I~ Ge]b e.evi.v!ll~'X@_ "1"'_ __ 11 ." M" .n~lr._e..) t'll.:.~ e.i(.n .t are not attested a"I'~~ O 1. . ILL . .W_ ~ . I" .~ngly! "This is. s:y..esentatio:as..' .attested.n~n-t.@g:anoo in. "':he' .at't:em. ..k. i.fo~'~'r 'tV'rlP.~. :is the ' most [chartijlc. .and vgt-a'~k iquaU-ty.[t~1 6\:ho:ii ld1tl.-. '~'~6~.aut:h.a..···'·'·k..1u!.:a.ap!te'f. Inh?:s """= ' n.. section oE: A. ('~') there are some unusual :n!~p·. l.t: is t:rue tha. Ge]b 'wa:SJ . ". .I master of: Old ..rth..S .@'l' .Akltadia n" wa s dis.._! . 'I.6).at~vesection..:p:lon~~d the ias'i: section of ·thIs."Ii!' .A:.J. sigll.·· ~'h'e 0':·>ld··A~:_. '~T-'h.l.g' ~ Nev~.~ a:l!l:t~he.dnau: 'I~k:r 'I' 'iL. o€. . u.J'~" t:!t.e 'l1ex.fIJI::lIl5-"" pu:t@d: T. .as 3J late.ion. In .t'ke :firs.~nscr. of Ma:nistusu.'ded-.-.if' writln .h· rue:illl. .IIk."~:"":m'[ _ _ ~f: .niI:~ been .n 0'::f~'~.phi.I"'" .-L '~'~. 1." i.~ I.:e. _. ~. formula OCCtlfS on an authentic lnscriprlon As fl'cHon..and .r.ricaUy.~'. 'w'hich could betray 't'he~r 'la.t:hat' t'h. 'both con_sonantal of Jr''_' .. .n"ce_. :'~ -~.hJ'rhed by the lac'k of el. 1l.J_ . .e' in. ~._= 'by concealing :points. charactertstics of t'he period w. !L' .~. . . ~nthe O'id Akkadtan 'I1Pri.1e and . :d..ka..t to establish finis empi.4'-1..'!IIlll II """ ~r·"Ir"-..' '0' n'''''~'m'oItint' ..l.I '.lan d .'""'f"rm-'. til lr·'!II'!'~.t€ristica·~I.t'on:s. .e. '. the' .s..m:uc:h.. 1De...p~c'al e. ~_ kk· .p1ted. rU1.of th.of the 'well ._cUI. since' [one' . ·c" ....tl~Ssi i.:"·in'..f:orms o. I. _.!I.. 'because." a.r. deep-IIv cut.._ .. JIL'~ ..gl.11:\1 'iu~:~... .the opinio.s. -.nUe~ty'.1.~I_:'2 sv st '.~'. --'.. autoDlo- .''-. be in The text appears to pretest too ..geryj.1i~. IL I' -.r·'llYI. ('with_ 'O'ume..~lbes norma]~. no H[eJ1:1' is the truth" (XU::!.'> there a:re li-nguistic forms -t:ha.f the' sig.·'i~.d no mterest 1 tlr!J'i'o:o' to enhance the imeortance of: -t:he'-r romonsi.own.. .y ". 'w:hen i't asserts its .s 'wU'h syUa.are not rnrth. __ .Y' .~nds.' ·_ii.::_Q! ~_ __ [of the Old Akkadian period.'. .a. "to reproduce ra:t:her f'· ·I'.en·Ucity· so strilk.Qopyh~g:a.dditio~ he' 'I'lfnv'. " .~n iex.u.. _.l:jl .ad. :For.'[e .g" 'w'n_e. ."'~ Of course. . The reasons for this ·w..~nal ..secondary [o. .·/'However. I .: (2... ec t.ch.f' 'w. ..Ilcient inscriptions and...n:s are ..

-a.. . .uki d ~'"~' "'"n·JI ... d~ti~~..'i!'O.. . 'U". :M:y crIll.'1. . .. ~"'3iU~~..~I~.a:r.:.-.iti!. F~h~~r :h~'5'brought: tOi my' aUenthJ. .'I...rt· Solrut'Je:f..•.idi~iO:fl.3 ~:a: ~.rs~r .o'... "'.!\e'" B.may be r~gih'~ in. R. lb:id.".. of ..I:~.y :point i~ f:liLal h~:!j .(. SaUbe. i!. '".~ J4Bb. nU4l~ ~it. lJ.iif'.~.!i. h~9. dati.d10 sU:I...-...1. Indeed".I.c:~us~...in .'h. -t'h'" Fr.J""niint' ~..!.(n . ) !l!I_." ..ll. fads t~a:l: ~eD.ge[.ltg.two .ms.~: '".Pi'iI.~ the ~Xp'f\~S5'~Om ..gu:ments are :noi' ICOI1l.

'..Ii.---.-Ikakrlme Inscription 'The second apocrypha I flrst-person inscriptlon tha t eoneludes 'wuh a.21'}' Rm 5'.The plot summarv J . "c- "C" --'' i .~an]. ..3." . M'~ddle' Ba'b-yl. '~'f~. _am -.. c.0 'i-'IJ.".·" d.': _""X. These exemplars .: .~-"" ..IHlg.r.dyna.~ ~ .. M'"."~.~ . period. special f\oy.y Kassite per. u~ II:r!"_ adds __ _ _ :n~ v_ mo f@. th. _ .f. ~~I'v...7U 1U._IG~ ·P--'.. t!'h.J.~ ~_ ~'= _~ .a. as number In . me '~"I-I'lt.~ .-II ' rano . ce'n~u. ement '(-K'" JiI'. and an Agum 'who ruled late in the .-~ -.." .of the..mane 't.:'..~"'.d.·-'bl'~ .. "T'L~T:. a .4.E--d'i..r~'r--t'..~..--.eran t lem. the purported narrator.'~ R>' ~~ R.C V .r.ji!lj tr'h.~emse~ _€_ t .-'.'c:.ted.- I' _.. IRe f c. .p.-'.h -"....t-~ '" '__puI-b'l-'I_lS.-. 'J ':J third fraement £-)~ 'Ij-'_"@ comoosttton "w.~ "C_' --p]_a.' .e..-. 11150 . on .long: era (a:lso known as the.12t.-_..~'--.l·'~'C'Il. . . A' -'.F' lf1il_ru..~ .ent' when he' presented a new i ·····t.-:-".'1: nat e--']'v.~...-.X ". ..-"" _-"". em.: ~ in :h.4"_ '_ ."-[I' !!_...:ne~ 1-rune 0..r I~O_tevoe '.. ".I.OttO on t.t l' 'I'~ .@'~f rus restored and the rites are renewed '11..~. + llll.6 + Srn . _. .s are' es ra !.~onia_'n dynasty..-0":6'IIi" f:"-'~'€.ne .n . _ . esta Agum.".CI order .. The other 'two are Agum.n _..' lor .~.'-'V'·1. and .ftI.t." "'-'" '" e~'I- lV"2 "..~.05. ' '-.kakrime.'"..gm.m.lIIJL" '~b"'-'b..u . -X'..' UJ~. r-'-' ".-..~.J .r -.j'rc'dJ Irc''~am-:''-:-'Dn''.". 'third 'Baby. . p1ohns:h.'-. •.of' the.~J...Ag. '_-. "".A. --.a -.e nin'th king . -r ~. me .!esh epic.a. .h section -' con rrms .--..-. -I' ~.ppar." eu run tne T'h...a.p non wa:s." •• "~J~D'l..-' ifltor.-"---.'.[---: '...5' 'IR··· .-"---"iIio. 't:his earller published ... The Agum. - --.J.-' . m -....r.-..'..l~.' .t prOVISlan.. -.J app@a. . '-T .numer . oJ!.J. . K -4. .8 .n.... -.' .t . e d onation .20'3 +.~~.j 'i'·· t-'~" mneteeru 'I.iI.~sedU:~ort. . ~.h-······.I. h''"~.8 iI. If D~--~Uo:~ n.-.e --Eba bbu3. r'@v@'aledi'he'p. is set in t·he e':a:d...U'U..onia:n.. Thompsen .para.ry" 'TL-. ror !~.'':'15=". T1i.. .~ •...sty. ~. exempler in _.. ".=:mabru...p-u:~ it.") ---co . "-.5='"" X"I'[ .j"'!"'J..thantwo ~ _."" b~.1"'-. cu . '5':':"" ..---.sws . . 4'14-9 and 'K 4.'.... _ _.' '-f--'-~"-'-- -V'.me. prOVISlo. ~ __ '" .rennn:= .'~'_.--.. .f I"U ._ . f-' oul I " ._. '10'· ". ne .-.'..'..I::.-. . Three 'lldngs with '~bls name are known to have ruled during th~:s.-.-.L-~Il'-.W us".""'.ya .u-: l~ ~ .I 49.'.:h.i .~-' "-t.~~· I.b'!'-'.:'a·. .'~ . donaden to a -tem:p:~e bl]51htmen:t.t •.~ 'e.&! ".r· ~l. UTliI. by eompar']""'0..apartt e..a.. -.' 1-' ' I[. te --._ _ _ _ y or l:h'f\I~je _ . ."".'. _ .. '- ... I 1/.."-..3:4. -._.. I !i"" Sippar ~8 cities are released from their normal wOrrk rea ulreJ "'l d 'lV~5 . air .a'~g~fts for Sa'mal and ._ _." --.lSueu ror a nalil. G..agm@.u:m=rabi" who was 'l'he :first to bear the name Agum {second in the d ynas'ty).ll. 'R 33 composed of K..nes.he " .'. .h.'" I fI- 1 .I . _0 _p 0_ for the Ebabbar d on'be'.snectal Iabor $ wn OI'l.tO'.n It~' ~'-. 0..r.. J \. :rtded Babylon as dl...s.t" ·t'...~~ ~..a:y only be separated.. •.'. .. . _ . I I' ~.u..~]g:am.' .-'t hus impression. pries tess c.iod.. vW. .2 R".-.. nd ts set ..r.J! ~nscC1.'ed 'by' R".. .~V.'_.." ~...

.1J) and g I.' Su-qam:u:nu~ .€' .. be' div~ded.Lm~-l~n '":Ii . . •• .pf'ing. known 'to :6U in '~:'h. 0. A ~~ ILI~~V IIU...'m. ."'. _ .. . . ~.·:U~·"'If~~~H .sen 'pr'Oduc~d. --.' 'l~ _~ !!!~.O'o~I'i~'m~k:BJk-~:m@ m ..ed1sjinncti.the' cnm. _. 'B@[i]jln. t.'L-v~~.od. 1:=.. . . [ _ .-.' .".i'J1 ~S$.SSll1fll}.I.::_ L_ _ __ _ __ r :four occurrences of: this p:ronnun are ~tl~lowed 'by a d:~vwdlillg ~ine'l:Furt. " .:pos~."' .'t 'll.._~I~~.-: -h"·Q shepherd th erne._.'"~ A.: ~L!"l_ \ ~~ 1 j.pe~r. ~'v' ~o ~~.'~~-4" \~..t:e~.~S l.~I'aWJ'~~f"' 'fex!~m(ed. .y. E.r.anlpa._.e.:I~ !!HL'\.~ ._" . of.--" nas '!..Il~ The .: :It@~t~@.here present ""~"~~v ~~e LJ' ~~~.~_.'...5'pecu~.0.I J~~ . 'iii' _ .III.."':-I com m ['1"""""''''' t:.lY.I • ".@.T'iIPr.~..the i.'Il..ri$f..A.t'h~reetexts alread y .t :p.n.Q'llS.. ropy ilLr'~ml a. Three of th.O' l~~ . and .0 -f' ' . 0::1[.nE'II~liil'n "w~'::-·l-'til". &"h·: l~lllVldltVlY_I~l P[erhaps. .IiIJ/' 5G:m'Ptl.~" _ as ie. 111£1 a t'h~~as 'Fa'[" bac:1_._ JI~J:19.~II~~~[~n" ~ulur·l. _I~. ~.t the neo-Assyriau tex. .~ T-iL . oil.~I~ ~ p' •. .p~ajned by the c-onUn.O·Jl'I~-j"":iiifilo d' ··l'Ij.1I " [ . _ 'B'i'iilfl..ue LMS.'\11 .-. - = = '" "~. Jien. J I'.~s broken at appr'Oximla. . '. Th. J I _.~.4.ythe same :Iine as the 5 'R.U>U__ -'D'~ _~_ ...] '~!Ii:I!'~i!:'ii U..r.A."..' .I~~ ijamis/'" . .~.J as.\gu.f-.~f't..h .~..*1' Th ~.ength ._ .0'·:':r.. P.iII...n.·.iio ..__ . o.. J[~n~e~n".le numerous lacunae of' the text-~. J "1'.JI.i~i~~ that ~r·'IIr.uity 'between 'i·'h.x. -..:_:. "Insc hlr..~U!='lJ _ I !!J'I!L. I .ri' 1189d I.. Jensen. ~~ . .. the' on~. independent personal pronoun.. l )DllfjIoilff!. d... I!J. and the L! t'lh neo-ssyrl~ul " A" me t". . ~._-'_'_.:..t'he.~ are [~~v 'II"Ii[BW: ~r-c~[am-~-i n[.sb.f~~.. . U Y I • _ ~ •• . ••• _.e . 'nry 11111"-.-.~w called for '~..2" .. '~'h.1 s nD.5.f' Ii.0.". . _1I!r Q "'~l!l. j"II1Ii~hnJt: OJ .-t. • . [. !I. I Agum:-bkrim~('s\!.p.'la..:._:-'_.e:s.tcf.r. • I . neo-Assynan ~ ':""1 ...-".i!} I.'lo("!I. . ~ I I.kri~m't'·:5'j 1'.prevj.OU:5. . !\r.e~b ..If." . ._ _ '~" Q.I 'l~.20..~y. '~ynrldi 'He ~S! t'lle uho:~y olu.. . 'Il~-''~I'·'I... ways h) .tg~nat er m .signs to .eriod lJliI gilt...~ j~:~ • '-.n.of:the lin.[eoccurrence of th.~'"_~~~!tJ.t'h. ~. I '. 1~.I.• J 11.O .o. ~.t_.iiiii!I t. . ] ensen.mmalca 1 rorms.I"~~. f".1c'i.'Such an ed'~fori. '.:Jng .. Into foul' sect~oln!S'J' each conclnding 'with.". I[ '~" "'.y G.P'O.~I~'-'·.~ '.-i'"iI. 'i" ).and 11 ~ section ~.f_ .l!.eiJ."': ': "- j (IW1V.~. _. .--.!QIJ .b~e. Sch:rad~r.[lKI..a..ne rurm:s 0 'f" Io:L ~s"l!gnsana a me "." -.c ~.e' sections oo"fore f[:: J[.t. as '!ii'8'7-'-... KJ~i'lbliChriliftlidle 'B£bl:i~tbe\'k J.~.i\.f~rst section of the :s~U-in.e _.esentJ. • -.a._" d' "O!r.pha.. ~'h.-.e'xtanf' is a.l.ra.Qr '18 [1.arula.a'rl'i..I descendent of U'rsig:u:rumas.re.". as as:soc~~lh!din vari..t-'pe:r:so..ln. ~.."':9.jo. . ---~ _Jl v._ ~. bld' dle' time :is -r~.art .. J.t:h. and. _I I -. the one occurrence I~ tJr-=.ru~g. des.'her of V ".~ _ ~_ . .r. .e inscriptson .g un.Plof SummllllY 'T--h~ ~Ir-'~'~' !L _ y~...n of the sections. [ _. ~L"'!lJ~ t.'" 0.e {')op~.0.~ InIJI~! ~" th ~ text Ll AI. 'Gemb ~"Su.•.~[ .i""n 'f~l l A".".y.4" ..-t.! . -' J =3~.~.' h'i(.h!i'i"" '~' '~ ~." lew g..a:v.3'7..:i'·ld~. I I~~.) presen ts Agumkakrtme as .f' the 'te.t.'[" sinre j't' . __ • .'~..tion~.'= 1.-..'!. ~.[fS tna. .u. l~' e:m.lnl_.m. .ln-':"1).sta tu-~~ [ Ii J~ J I.. . ~ !'Ik. "n[[Ii"O~ new _.-LIJ.. '(-~''''"'' ~'" ·~/· A-.". : •.'h~.the· divine.950} 19. l~ ~.Y._.. if'!fU.ary._ '~'E')(:~ Introduees . ~'ii!in8."~l ~~-d h~. fi'r:s.y-fuU [ed~'Han olf ."_ af ter g '" l~ provid ed b'.I1I. lext P._!"!l .!. ". tUI~aku.ctlon. . . exemplars o. t.pe' ~'ora new edit'~on om the basis o:f . ~ ..='ka.]Y"?+' was . __ .

...if 'H _ -aneans. .d.. 'tl' d 'l'i""j" "'-' ·M········· --d'l..-. the narrative begins 'by asserting that M·a'rd.'d a. ·a·r·. .1i'~. .lle 'h cal ~.:<'. .1.•l'.' . l.'~ ..iI.' .!!U....~ .[. I i -..-iIjJiIlJU.onments 0\..[ IL ~l·. he' is n~'la:I~.. T' he." . -_.-...•. ".. iii icom.l·ii·~k Ib. ~ :pota'm18.... -h i fC' . ._. ') c'.~:~. w-. 'L_' " ..'Id' (. . I~A." 0'. . 1~2..-'.n0' U'nt'rIi" ~l.'IL.. t"'h' . I'" . i}' .e· .~ 'B'.. AI . I """t' . !' ..l} 1.2 '" \··~·_·.ram the fC' ~I i ([-I gr.g h~s r~ig:n. place d:udn.5i5Iona:h!': a .D • OL· .:"".bi (l.~_. . p. .} .~117.... IJ.. ·.as. -'.~f. W.•• aJf'uU~':S. -.''l-...y'lon~ This may ~ 'Ii f'" d MI' .I.0"1 tha r 'had ta..'.•.art.lIk.... .. .r".·"··~-::~'II.'O· IL ... '.._eurer .. • _" ....' ' . ~1l. .1·~~'!1..C8. -' .L...:1S\S.. .gu: .111I :S":'a. _.' '-M'" b~m.~ were '>1--.VJi!~... '.'~ .. -"1..' .1 tLii:l1 ]"Il"i!i.i~ _I~ ~~...' ..lII ..lJ'" J"r."il~1d' O'u . D _ g. G .ldl~. ._.-.. _. 0"'1'.I/~ I.4' .aUs :h~mseU'king -'iI:..t:J~:IIi~ '·. ..I of '" ·IL..1.1.I.n! ...'. ·w --~ ... ~.' -.\J.]..'il om.5)~· nd Agu:m·~ra.'uk.'iI!'1" '-II.iJi.A th..31 -\ conc~. _. s~.0 ..i' .~.:0. ae .-:!i:-: -. ~. ..·u-"'t· :_~I.~S! the ..'. .~. .ore ·il~..a$"""ru).uaeS! '.....-.'IJi~. 'f Pot· .. --:. " iI I-I . 0'" i= I~ c .J -" .. '..V:-lc~.t".-...p' eace to 'tU'.-:.re nor . ].(1) rontinues the ·them.e~ Id'.'Ilt ig_l~~I COi·~""'O···· ..~d '. _ -..~.e.5· omp~..ibJ~\O-.·· 'It) : .·!IO.:: !'...--:it:.:.'-l. .-_-- 'usf~'i"inp' J.• -B.· .@' c.-~I...:p:ieof :Mar.it']'.'.".l:l'e IL"ex. ..i:" o·€' C!l. ..~ 'If's oresence on -tlle' throne. if . h . h·-···'Lt-~·l··:--'rus.:.IB_Ell' suc'('...ijm··'a--':.re.I.' -"I-'m' .I].I A" '-'0' -'-'m'..a.ole their ':.._ _~. . :POJhl.p.(I: '--.I... .. ·~:t. 't"'h'-~rineer 0·1ii: ..I~~~.plaJltn..O:I~"'" L·.. d:ivilla:tlon an.[O'reto..~~.'11..1_. .~.U . ..']'.... ....Il. t-· 'II!'"'' ..1.~...:". ·1.e .. .. h- .I.-iI .~: '..'. . O. !!.-.~ln-::-':]". 0 m:y t.-'.iIi.A·-:. 'JIl il~.'.ud"QU~...'I'-oouc ..t--. --. .I.'.!.'I:laweve.. .. ..".1ii.aJ .--' ...-fi anu .. .I-' ...fequent . t an .¥~ .-. a. other' epitJrtets} the sectlon ends 'wlt~h ti:He # strong shepherd" the (r~~u ga".. _.t'h.gnal.Il!1 J[. 'to Ursig·urlll. Eli-.tron~e seCl1n!' ie . '.-!~<'n Id@il:h~s _ auy..~ lI... v. c~.··· t·.".10 l].n.Je ·.il (- . him ' 'r~r-i'n~:IB'n'" .t:iOlI..24 -3. oa vlc m ay De v~ewe .." ..' .:~' !\. uy SllX. C'h a.l'.p ~..e· .U~ r'I!irI~JJl. It.~.."... . U _..tr. .. "'."".~eve. '....l. u o' z.~~c -. ~ . -l..N~·.1':'" .ru.~t~ _~'I!.b\L. . mO·[\f f'uUy below'.] : ".' :'.U)~: '-n-~ - ("iI' 4' "iI'~'.·t n.t' :~r-'_ ···"'·h·b t.::'I. .J" .' .~.na'rely to Bal..:: '..'t~ .-..'n'd'I .!' 'm:: .: '-k li_ ..n..bl __out __:'~". - '!i.~ ~.. .n!en.i['i'~·:.SE'I''''"l:n.U._ 1. re urn .'..~I~ 1'~:'-''''r'. -. 'p]"D.l ' a... 'f' F' .on~. -'.. :re~s.=-431 .recounts 'I ..' .". 'I_~._"..'~: .n·!_...lJlli~-U. .is d. abai d .. On.._~~!ll 'h"] ~~' I'~:e' ":'~1."'·'-"-"c_ "e .n·..... f" ~ " .._ ar.~.. on c.j:::I •.-:·.~.-k···.-t seC::don '(.1 anu .n '101.JD-"""i:" jJ !Il.. d·. .Dil'Yd)in. me is u. :8..iIl! .-.I! I' ..lanss an. .:-:~-!lC : ~.:.-~.• ~.I .JIS have sineled ~ .'1'. ··1 .!l .--U.:1 . :. .' nor nasn y rush I. n.. . 'f' -8·' 'D' on --.' . .'.. - I-'-"~' I 'h- :l'j'L_"".'d~-"-"--'es: &..-' 1 .---. ·... H.:.I":':. spcike campassio.u. . [-. . ~~'~~~. "IS . a_~II. " _. '!!..~eeplng .5' (1.. "a.D DtV~"lt.--..t·-.UJetl~n t h:' tem... {--"~'i:-"C"'-"~ d ~e_iI"\~'i"II·." I t. >j'. -" . -r·· . ll. ·u..-::-I"~~·-:·-C'-.__pen d·~e.!.O ([::. .~lI.::' h '--r)~"iI("Jf!"~ ~'-_i[JJ. e'niCi. 'na dOna~.·: :J! .IJClng.:' -Ud. -.·.].J.-.:.--_.'.. .2. !I.p' 0 f-··t ...o. [. lI. .-~L~. -. I!-:: .1[1b:~~II_'. . :'I. i.. es !f. are o.~.~.. r..W\IIi.. '!i.: .·':... - IIW'..A.€' nf Agum ':5 .il. ~I'" a 00 ea :!!I[ Int. res.! "-I.I." ms h." ..' __j .tlVor42/.--.".turn.. ' ~ J ..e guus ". a..f. ···anle 0... A·······!Ii!! ·n'[:·O·· u--.. .1110.------.:h. m -a'n.Iii: ~'iF .--Ilr. J~ ILlly ..~U.-..C!U.. !!:. -. ". line 13).A'u"'m. The' IInal . ne gum.I .scdbea. " I·. 'Ik. . .iIi-. - IlLy..__ .1 hIs..··~'·-·." .ll ...ilS . :~!!I..e:p..Sr= :p:layi'llg the 'poUtkal power which Agum claimed.fto..: ..-." - "1 OU-I' _0.i"'I~~l ~ 10"")I '1'1·n.'~.50-.~ ~·jinl'g' ~. 'Ih". .." a.-~~----.r!l._~lt·· .gl. 'In·n·· 'b-'llec·j[j'...L'i1UllY~' -'n-i"'iI!'l -.lIl.ome CIty..---:mas (for a second time...\.' .110" P:Q.~ . ~.... ':... d "d.r.gum.~..a.'.es's .Iii:' i..re.meln.1' ~i < . >j. as a..iI!"!i...:n 0' o.o-.. -i ..ans..... (. a.'.mas 'il-.m . smce 'h'" . . "-i!dle '. movements a."iJ:..V.5. .~On]aL_.Q -I's I. .e 'B··'·.... '.. • •• .! .':.• .uw. f " :'.8 "-'\ .. . -..01[-1[:.J:!olog.@l..WUltlou-t..rn···q.. ~"'vu AiL:I--r~ 't.ne T-h· '.r-'29_.t-'h·· .'l te '11. snunna. g'" I.-. ~y~ll...-~_. 1_[ iI..ll:"c' :-'-.p e as . ~g .J[ ·IM· -.. atbtu···e Oll. ress .man.--t ..S.:' 'b'\1 'm--'e-'ojJj'n-' . cin:um·stanc... .~ .f.. .". Babylon.-'.iIu'~'1' .1 T-h section sectIon (-.r. an oort -~nt· ._" 1"'. ave .Ias'.:'--= vut ··ca. a Among.I" ~.'~1.n ·t~..J1 urynastwc.-" '"-!i._ TIh"e. ryr' d.as a. _I.. r I.··b-'y.. _ ~Jl.' tu. art_.) '\ "~S return ·to '-8' ·"!i'b-v~o·ii'iI..e.. .~:'3..~ an... ~ '00'11-: .U. "'~..:'l'IF"Ii.ue:r o..'H.·--' :'.. act 0".-·yibed b -M' . '~jf- .'!'..'''3 ."..~~~I~O .. ../.S! th.. Tb~' thIrd su'bsectLQ.-·d:ld:"·-·'·-:--:..rpanl .].Ol. .y.r:U.a..ern ) '" ".a'r..---=. " ."1' . ···~"l.ibil'~'''n''. This sect~orn. .·-·. . iL--.:a..1.t ·If·· smee.i"i...g . : .'. ana S' __ _.II-. ~'-n.~~.d'i~"._-r-."iI'~'mC' (-1]·'1-'" 'ii.J"' ."-. -:. II:'..g.H' _j. ·11~·. II.~~~~...un.. eI"" . decisions ..anger on 'h"~S' part. t d . --. .-· ':.L..es.: an"" A"...'. :1'~"!i1 .e..'11I~ Ai .a'. '..e ~.l. - - "..'r~V-!'iJ'1 • l 1f~ [I. IL...e.. -.:I '.~_n _·t ' •. 't.e 'I nau. .~.Hon~ng t'hat· the god 'Ma:rou'k had 'been stolen earlier from..=- '~h--:l"s-k-:..di ..Y(JIU>~~\~'~.. . :'~l I \IUI. ~U_'.--·t ..1.ke~F1l. .J-·-c· t"_n ~.. a b .:.f..U .r.d~. . . t..11. ~ [.i' '!lII ... '[L. part b:)w.hI.1 'begJns b _. .evoIL. I. .. • ..r~JI~._~..._. O!W.ifie:-uny .'~l :'.p. .US.:-:'[:-:. .1. -·. I' ~hl ~~......'" ·' o-·.~u~.'" -g~.. I :":.I-~.t"!o l"~ J.' 1. .. I ~I cCO.0 .-:ll~. t.th --'Ilf .e' pe'FSOl1al I _'.". u -~. gil '1'. . u' ...LII~' " "~' ~.l~~l ~ b..a _~ng.-1-.tw"..l.I.---:-. .l.flI. u i~I'[~<=.....lten_escn.nd G--' ' -:L'"'-"-'-m" n d '.--..luue tc hisrs.il5.. .--I'·~·:-:··t-··" 0. tho PO·.S: th··...iO.' . P-:'-'d]I.III.t'but are the results 0."0i"Iif1iIn'~-r-" i··.L . Ai" "'m'rr".·f' c ae '..e ..1. pevfU! IL.'hece~llf' ~n'·t1l"\=_.Uf. ~o--:-' .-.on:. t - ..'_'._< _ '!IJ\".. 'f' ~-'.. f-'lL . i-n ~h]'l.of 'IE..[~}~ 'H' ']'.A-'. .'h·.I~· . "_.ex:pedli:tion ttl< 'bring bac'k not only :sen .~Qr~ -~b~ ~~ [~I 1.· All~ra'U'a.._.. .. .:I.'t.. b ..-. -.~Y. ···.

~9):i. (F~tij.J" . ~ n ~ . j. however. .1 ~II.elude '~'he 'h. U" U'Ii.~I Ca.2'=VUl:l.-. o~nnlons" 'N' .~f>epulu l~ st'Ca"ndt' .V~.f. ILL _F"_" _' _' .a.z1!l].8. first person in:trodJucti'on (1-: 1.th.e' special €..r-e' with aU 'dl.nl[l:mer~j't of M.an . ."lJ1.I.~y :I'.. by' a colophon wdenHfying: . rhe t h er .I.Ufl'j ~1..' !~...ig.'.e'c ._ '- .lnSc. kkadia:n .S.e._ -0' .. alr:i~z.~J. .a.A~'~'oi'i\lit-. the genre' "autob~ogf'aphy. j. .et....-.__ ' '. 2".'!!.~ ._.ch.5.57') 6'.Il and serioiil..A"'...nl'' u-"n.'. 'L't-.'-'.mQ. It 'b'll 'Wi:t. Although "l~~LI .. 19.plSOO.ri'~I~ ]"1f'I' r· . I 00.~oric~d .gr.-."! . . ..fl.''+il~.. .~'a.65" 1'11.le above have presented @vid.:i.. .:1l . an orig~nal ..9._' ..'..orm 'M'_o:n..Ulec():nO .. a KaS!sj~e!n-K.iw. .~" A"- 'H. rsammura ...--_..8~ M.~. M. ex. "'-0"'· "'h' C·' L.rs. added .ich~.~./ ·":d:· ..h.rque' .:!~~ aUiiO 'r"' ~w:.~..'t'· iO'.~ . 'H. e .-a·.iu\C.1' r ~~. in 'the' p-:..! J.~.j!' 21.~.II On the other han.. J ~\l"Th"e u.f. II.. r. aJ.appen:Jx in lue 'l'llifi... oe aat blesses .~ " 1I!. r · a ..e'der 'K.W'." ..A .s".~' . .~. '~-4...e life o. .l'~ !f.!"'I'.MAOe . B:ri:n!lkrn~..2..• th"e'.t~:f'iIi-I'.l:.:~ ..ze'j' :K.'iL 8~'ne:r-OlLm:s. '~' ' "'i..~.. ..1. not..8 n...g 'n.u~..-.L..'Q~Iil.=' from a nr'eS@'Ffir~' r " .~.r. I .n.[U 8·-' 1 FieU'oH'aJ A ...rt'h.-kak.assU. Do arrow f.~. 'n l .f. -..l ._poral M focus.a. ~.~1 nQ..e '[ext is fraudulen t.@:f1Ij. tn ere are reasons to :S:IrWPPO(F~ tn e con ten bon.. ." ..IJL.. .'II.t'he present €'x.~.:S'-.e :Esagila. .~'\II.a.. 14 The question is d..' .:...~1.r[e'.s. ~~CU--~!~~O·.. 'Gad.}\gum -kakrime inscription concludes s 'h'l d' 'I!.: E.h ~..]1 'M' .me J~ . a _" T'[L.ct A".i:Ulistusu W$ recog. ~g.'llr. IlL ]'l'b 1!.I~~"" ' ~~ .:$..ne Ie'.. t:he tabJ.:r.m M."iF .. .:"'ng< d".' .)i1i'"." ".. J..•a '-'...rri S'udi~ ftlr ...'=43) n~21 \1 t Persona] narra tive (.11I.-t.!'()!._.i~li'Mtlierials a.f". . l're ..~i)d: from.~.O') The .. '!t!!@Jl!mUm B. on. Ja:rU:z" and. I.r'!II. _..'n· .~" l.~.d~ B. A ~ "1 figy Or t..• ~ ~ II! '.~: 'I. R([iwh:y.ra:phie'..te0 f-: 'lillie:.tbe' bex~:as belonging' to the' library of Assurbanlpal.-t ~-.udui..t:h.. eer 'son.T'"llTle. bimfor his acts toward t.em. harm.arru 't.. '. does." ~''''Quel~l1I.i~UA. the C:rudful:[. '" .lpn!l" 'T-'h"-e .IIb. d. .. 'nPr--'~nllili:"'"~.~.I:"'!'''''''n~'!l-t. .:ka:krimle inscription shares a threethe :fold structu.~ o n w':. '_..iI-"o''i''i..}'C'~") ~~9ll'. _. ~'' ul..) '1.H}.~ '~ _' _' _ ~ ~11 '__ ~. return of the s:~o:~en arduk statue to :Oa bylon.3'1.. believe that our.. ·d' ~(:.u.9 (.I.~..~AI.-'UO~h2Je.rll.j. his role.A$l_i!!{rj~l~gi'ljli!e JniD. ~ iIJ')1 '. .n F~.o(fi~'8e/'.e In th...fi~I' Ag:um.@ K&nigs. ..' U' .naiioPi~Ar.tob~o.~.np'!!J... . ~.''. (1l..m-fi.~\s'~~f.:.' . w'a:s. 'D'" 'iI!.ge<r'I' "Das .lpt~onends with . of' .1i.O:log. ~liJbilJj):ra'-~h":' .~~r.'e diornn~e. n..'1!.Aft) jl. . "lb...]" Donation (n~. As Fiction.o.."...c@' their for 1"Ui1I. 1.mI11. .C.' . . an o:rjg:inal inscrlptlon to 'which.!I. .~ f'oUowed...4 b9.e an ·e[F~n ~. ..~...J!.. .Jb..":d ..e' other (fuU.~ .~~. . 9'(.." e. Rowton. 'Dunkles Zei.'71..'·~'i" . ~ 'I ess.~.Ag:um.ton. extant) a:utobiog...._'f!'Xner.:rillli!l:Jit. 'T.'.F1il second part. .I'.~ 1 .t!iillf'loi'ilt!iiiir.. _.ml~ £"]'\"FC:!.:'" ' I ~ event Q ..'Il'~1 ~ the tlme of his.J! " -.~~~~ =tr.' Ges~h..ized as a '~(lj:t~:fo:rglfry" the same 'is not true of the Agum-kakrime ~n'·Cr"n~'ntl·~Fi.n.un~.".. .'Iev'er.e' Hi~h:~ry.3.~"..P . The' ~nscr.g'lllle 'W.)' 8 . fee~s that the un't' 'pa~rt is. :fr..pert on Kassi te ma tters.mntO . "'...' o' c' c.J . '8.h.-¥~ .~:: mprimerie I N~lwnal..t unds'be:r. A'''' .f: Agum-kakrime.be:rg:eril' and Gelb have conduded tha't' . " I t'mon of autobiography':' _"-. ..-:Dyn~s. _'.um~:nt~su 34...a's.t e'v!@'rl't' 'hi ~'I:l'.that the' text" even though it 'might 'be based or modeled o.~'.:phical ectlon olf the ...3. . U. iGoe't.a~n.-.. in . h d pe1:s. -h ' .t':' recounts a in . B.~ ¥' ~ . f.. ..t~her/ iii' j "G'-' (L.. ".." r«: .JishI!' und. None . Gadd ae .rime" C" J.n..~' _ I _IPI. 'This narrow t..that' ~.iCi.IL.A" Brinkman. C' "ii':' ".~ t:hat U' is. present text ]5 a copy of an anclent Urlglnal.Re~I'il'ntn' .iflicuh' .. " ~ :g. [.ssyrisch. ~~Iil.!/ Agum.u. La:nd:!3.~ .plro"~ecUve curse upon those who would. .

toorapnvJ late cooies. :fof.€' is as 'w'e~t Furtherm ore..-.)...t-olbiog.. .jIi. n in the library a.. "'. 1-" .. '~ir'" .t]J.eo odg~nal.' ' " ..Q.~. and~.the . _~ ... lY~]fVtll~."--: £'iI:~'~':n11 earlv ·]"i"f':~o:"'r-~...I .v. ._ tha... . .r...attested before the neoAssyrian.-_' .Agu:m-kakrl:me 'run ..r. . fo'IJ~iI'~n' iin.i-od~Two examples rund. ~IIUI' .ii:I'!I.--. rather .n :pe.of.. is -.o..5 ...'If .t to m"m:c the inscriptions .. r. VI!.. \ '.7 .$isry. which. .t:hls ()omposltwon a:r. .kalkrrume ...~ '!I. ". " _l"l! .int']'·o_'". period.r' iQ. ~!VI l.rl'C :pro'babruU:ty tha't ..~nnn~ Ol8.ph:y i. the Kur~galzu a. --c' -..~'r.. of' ge'. This rus expHcUly started...f' Assurlban~paJt ~. places...L II. :.. . . .t:hat are :f.. h deal aooear b F\( .'. .'IiI'It .-".'.--·f " as.'..:44) and l"GI§ = . 'l!.e 'below)......r. ancient-". the other two autoblographical donanons are . '& iii t. U.~ I . as wiU be' pointed ou:! wn connecnon wit:h.S. '10 ~ 'l·'it'i~.. F ' .y is.'''f''': be ~. .'!i.I!.€not .oph on.ilbu tedJ '~O .Assyrian perlod.U . lj ~ J....t':h:is O.-..~ late eo r--'~cy. iV'1 ~_ l ~l '!i.. 'If-:~ . ".a.num l'.'IK':·" . Q. ." . ill" could.-.donation.. 'The 'text' :Hs@.--" '-. 'With :few ex.ortho...- is fivefold" ~~ SillCr! 2.. iQ I!...lp.Sh"E' lnSCF. I~.u:ro'b. .[ .. and forms are' unattested in the M~dd~e 'Ba.au.the' p-ro!bability. • e~l~d~~...bylO'nia.e rH:U (1.r-. .-.-.a...Il.gr. C· " . .·'_. .. u.-.~'IfB .'.. ~'l ~~ ~ !\. argument ce'rtainly does not prove tha'~ .<t-·.ceptiuns" '~:h..p:h.vlU~""'!I'..dan. 1 . ... e".IIU"I!l.'.'l' SpUrIOUS...ua..ms..ms are .' vW.... .].Agum.'-(' ne '-. This. texts .•.. -_'CI. i!Q.'D.ftctioJllat it ls li~e]y on the grounds... .' -'.'!I . O~' course.il:tional {se.a.. .ilt~ ~.@'..meI11! .I.. in the· co i.. ..4" Some' 'words.n. "" ~ '.en umerous roy'al .'-e"iIi'" vil nont-autobiograp.A..aU neO-.=.·.'t preseru y .. _ [V·. s. aI'ltemp-.... T'hr"-":'arg. there .~'-'Ii ._~ .nal tex tl but n does enhance .: r '. Qu'. a :ficti..II'~nIB' ~ con _ .lf: is :from the' neo.~'h. .'C'.d' c"'a-"t-']:'('inIS l] on"~ aaain '"I::!tl ..n e'a:dh. 'The s~g:n fo:r.iQ.. "tI--'c' sranas'd' ion.~.epithets altr.... 'i'~" ..~'~' clusion.n.

tdtml~.. . _!IiP. ..-:--:.0. -.~ ._~~j. • '.·'t...#"11 .': ...~' .."'. _...i...1" -." I' A' u_ A' t Th ..I.!'I·~~ '''!..f!i. i..~~too:i\Q~ap'riY J' '~I- r:. ' "y':' f" 'K'" u • ':.··'·····'-1'0·.U" .~ _'.~ . n~:!r.•e."".·. .~". r .• '11re'lm' .I. . ···~~~'R:ian".''i.' .~.. '" '-8·:r'I''''~-''m''' ' -_" I ....L ~.I!~U:l".'I-"f-.i~~ ' .'Ql".'P" 'h 0'.' _ ..Iga'-I lz . _ I • : i '.""n LIJI~ 1II~Ij!l~i M'....rjQI~" ..~' ...'y.."I! ~~_~"'J' }I~lr ~. .~ .U~". :v iliI"''''li4 ."'I!' ~_-_-~I_.uo ~Q r·. ' -'_.nJ.:ogr'. -0 A t" ....''':'-''1'.!:.. .

...·.... .ue . . --:/' ~ ~.. .....-- .and her g 't..' __ '-I' ..Sf/ii..n.IUi.ii-.Q.a verb-· . . _.15 . . !I...i-'h J! ~__ stat t . :Kurigalzu" Though .tat'..n .' .Jail w. ~ty J .<":.L. .and iden:Ufy.e~lh··· r-'~ vI ~~~..'iL~ 'K'..(So.~-.. .11.. S'A:itukku . b f'l..I.':! . An ~u _aue per... ~. I!l.-..g._'!!{'_ ~-I..11:.III"..d' '. 'K...u~ !:""l"=IC:... F' ~·~--I \.!' l. b') )~s.. .:.3:ndipossi:b:ly .I .--'. 'C' ~.. ~ I .~i.'L.' .e-um.~. '_ u_' -'-~D' r ..ill . epithets (l:b~'. .~:l Further. ' "..- . to a__~...J '.il. the b@g. .fr..-. jim: it-· _._ ..'r .d I··~-..pit:h.3...~.:.-!I. 1..'retf'"erence -.....' j ·t-· "II . . .. .: ~ ~I~ l~ "~_l ~ I. . . . lut:lJ I'v :I ~:~'I~!..JI'~I-. of' some kind of' confectien o.~. 'W. ~i!'irU . "..~ I~ .. "[h.j! don a__ T-h e'."':""..lIEIiiF~'90'lin 'tvna !n. 0f" 't'h e A'"-.'·. "...the 'u:niV1!:f.e m:~g ·.~t.e .m-':-'~e "th·· '~Q D~. L __ viU~ ~ v.b.. "Insc:.ii:i.grant~d.' !di rID .-_::1 ~ _:':~J_:·'_·':l..' l1 ..~-). dj.~ "..·~::__. ~I " . . Hi~~.".fR . ..ps even .ll!liQ_I:.o' flU''Ij!. p~ ce_~u=..:~".U~ IUI!..lalzu ..ti..'j ') 'h... c. J !!&!I' various Ico-mm.rh ill..J-.I'\.leu.)i and preserved 1 boundary lines (n:: 12..I.t'h.I..I""~'""111~1liI'Io!!LlIJJIIJI~IIJIII.~ .:-~-'-rpi':r.ig'h.Il~.J .:/-~·.'. . ad.. '-' glns '-.od~Uesand land to :[it'ar...iV. ! I ~..'.).:~tg .'. . ~:rritl The' second part of the autobiography is the narration o.. (l 'b --.'::I' J':':I i-····:····__ t_·_I_··: .1't-'es-' '(if]'.tion ". . f. . 1'_.: are a. .a:r. -!Iii! TL -.1.2.'-o""'m..... '.n:tro~ ('9-'I._·~1 \ ':!__g '. ~.iI'.0 .rJ~ it is more 'lIkely..re~.. "l I ..liI"'i"i. ...[fb..--I .u :"-.lI. .:.-J' . 'Ulmigmlad!j' "Sc'herii!Jkl!!lll~su'rlku.3'.lllr=.I!Ii .t. .'!I :_.iiue"')··· u:""nn'~ '1[ Q)'. Uilj . ..my .'I]. . .r._./ 'Co' .._.p"r!lia'l. t~~ _.J . ~~g.I1i. '!!' =~ .-. 'L ~ . '.f' a great event during 't:h..of: .. .t'II ~.o~.Q.biogr3lpffilkal . " . r • I i.that I<:~'(L..s.-t ora t'· ..: ..o£feri:ng.the long dona ti. .. u.J!iil!lllil!u.. first pe~o:n. ft:.n.9' separates ..·"L---I~~l:·I!-..nd@' des Ku ri~a~zi!rll mti:r :KItclas:1l1IJ an =Ha:r'be .l~'~~ ...J'.~: 'h.'~I.- •.I.I Lk'7"3'n'~ IVi... ~-~I~ -'_ ".-.0' .' I ..mun' ···'"J..:if. ('~~~J'_.. .sua D··'i'~'··' d'.I i -.h. ._-~.'J =. Epithets that: describe.."'I!:.: .-.~~..'.ed.~.·.. E.. :Epit'hets that :re:lam th.""m.11~ ana 'b-'"t-'t-'"..Among: .ets .U~I~!E~. IT rom '-.remainder . ..LIw ..-. D.2J :\~ .. .. l' ~l·.b~N.."'-""!If_-l1l u'I'r' __ .J l :..2i)in wih...h.... ~Q a tcausa ...~g ~.:~:... .=4) 3:..I!':r.a.Q'.-. kur' 'bread (U~:..e .~n~-.[l-..ua.e 'c. ..aJub.~1iI·~it'her-.Jh·e '.~ II.u.'""-"" b'iJ .. .~.I .er '(-~'1'.~o". paft~CIP..3 Ian ~4: tJUU._.ft.].iL._l _:_:~ _' . :JI.. .o!' .-.al categories. ""·1 I~ . .. et ~'":~..· ..ct'=JL')" an.'.. .l........~h ~ IUb:-l:I ..u ~l ~t:U .er.: .'.. -_ ..~ 't't. -. ~~. 'l.' I 11'( .-.. -N' '~r"""""''"'''' . .text ~5. 'l..' -.7}.: .t r W'· ..rnai ·lng an-.'. ._.. :.n.·U..:·:·.. " l".lI 'b' "Y 's'.a:rg1e secuon . .j AIK A " ..e maln c~ties... I./. . -. -~......' th ..(L .u='].11 J_. ~..0.I_.~ng 'L.-. WI.~'i*: ]].t~h.SCu. -.~ 'F.'f'O'r~'l 'I.~ f-'( 10 '.[lie '\r. .'.f : !!. e rea.~. CWo . '1t-1·"['" it s h.ag:mfll't'a:ry. S-.u~ "t"" . : .-..= _ . [f~I_I..n sectlon in :t~ne].t:ha't relate Kurigalzu.vid. .. lit: :possu.[. ([1::9-)~· set up' bou:nda:ry' stones UI:'ll..nu .. .I..t .e..ln· I '!'!5I d~'if~L.so 1L[II. l·.'L..10-".p. 1. ~IL.' I'i Ii·' '.'h..' "f ' .....at I '~--' .(11]." " 'I" ..".al.. '~~Igave to )'i.2.-.~nto sev1er. -: '~n'...UC= !i.UlI' 1'YI=~. .. ~ ir'r.~.[e h ere' " . 'The.. ".'.~rst' person_l. "N'. of !ffithe'ts that :ma-y 'be.". - - ~ .... -". a I~ IL.. 'Ii ..'!i:illJ li~~ .~ c c· . Kuriga .·I·..-:l ~"".-I.~.e!re:ign.. .i"S' ..~iI"II_r:u' 'Th kl_Lng be" 0 ' .-". .. ·:. iJl[lN-.h1:s ro..··. V:-".A' .J ana gl[l[~S:.and .. .3..um.. ---'k'"'~..'tia.."'h f.~ . . If.r. .. .·..SU'(.6'-·1·."..~'0:11 . .'.i..e kIng to the gods! (. :5'" " ~" ''''.. ' ..I1"V\." -.nnes..j:.__.i't.U A·. r..:.·.~ iji.).: ... - . to .. .@ al.. iT m of ~~ •.L!!U 1- ""I'" I' -. 'II'·-.I . .tles :tdmself' "great" '(m'hil )~. . Las:lty Kurigalzu asserts i. a. the 'benefit5 :1<urig:alz.~: .. l§..8 to :".E'r".". 'to previous 'king9 (S'=8) 41-.13..~~ 'k.'~b.-1 ~.-...OO~ '~a·.. .under.ufigahru en.ana. kur beer (Uz.d.s].ga:z. blood .fl-~ for '" u ben .J. .:W. if.kiiiafi) the' .I.p tle ~'iV'I" ~·'-I " l~rar:!li5\~aoIIo_.' .u.!l~l. mt .. d' assortec fo _.Je ..y mnrodUClng '.'- .J'.. 11~S' nngn. of. t.rnl. .l.~ Ul veri.t.·'f': 'Uia:@'S.-" ".".: . .inning O'f ."I"e .''''.ty"" (darnni)" ..f~' .:..JI!lir.30 ..!I'0.11' ':liit I-~t~..[01 ows nne '1~' rrom . .::O (pa:r. • r nus.:.ereference is obscure .ts of 'I'h.~--=--"!t ~:_...-ll.--ki" ". ..0'".S) I".o.a'l·.le c'· a.:.~ g breek between Unres ! I~' and i~ ~ '~I·'''·l.("j".j..S....······. .J!. ..QL _..allel '~O those he' provided :fa..e·~£iit... 'Ii!:'" 'CU!l!l.ing hi'mse1f by a number. i!~~' .. __ ' h Imse_" f=' Ill._. . a .. t. 18". .1 -·~I.r ..

. a dimcul..I.f reproduce the 'scriptJ.aphy.f lines 1.~. .. ~J ~c . another £ictiona~ A.einterpretation o. obseede .. tien Is some/what tentative 'N'evert... _ ~.t.flQ •."_ ··~.. It.. '14J.iogr. Agum-kakrlme texts i'm. rina] '~.:ha:ltthere rus no reason to douht.s A utob'. :Its second section" The mos [' dli:mcu~.1It _~' I Il"---o . and concerns hlmseU' a:nd certatn even..he' M~Ulis:'tU5:U .f a..." .ti. conremporarv wHh Kurlgalzu ~n the 'Ka:s:swte' period Ua'le Hfteenth cen'tury) .'-.'-.'I.on O:~'l-'l.t._I_~~.W.then.. ii.f:'iH~"L::'..ence) argues [. whHe Brinkman (also 'with littl. cub In.M!i~~G".of ancien t inscriptions normaUy reproduce .."_.'il-lo"Lar-. i\. . ~!J!U. The 'te'x't is narrated In the flrst person 'by King .n.Fi. ~~~l[_.ram h~s reign.'~.11:" f:. .d above.lkka..: .'ts. is a: ':'.an her rural settlemenrs" (Il'1]~.n.the citie:s".. U dlI"ectea.' a'n .iI.There is no ag'ree~men t on d·u. 2" :.!ona~ .t. .onal N .~y fOC'lJ:Sf$ O..d~a:n autobiograph Y simi]a:r.tha:t deserves further study" bu. 1 ~ :u_ -.oll.ma tion secdo•• is O<'~' n ~v Il. [h!e'restora tion o. I IIL .e issue is "w·.e5' that' the Kurigalzu text is fraudulent as weH. this observation .' ..-..quiesUo-n . . !'..e' evid.n. " '.-~-~.~!i' .p. l " .lgal..~a~ --..' ..---~J:L .i:&.-nd.0-' 18} As n.:'.-lIIt.i~IiI\:r-.a..~~' "ma .the Iate :fea't'tu~esf both copies (noted abov~) o argue In favor of '~ae. the b!)tt's :s~m...~ [\tit!.r· t~ (. i~ ~nauthen tic. that .' _': _ ~ l" J.en:Ut~tY" Gelb and :have asserted (w1th Utll.~o\"£~'..t: the' tex t. 'The' structure Q.a ~.iI: -J_' .-]. .'_'.iL.0-18 as a 'personal narra . . do.. .flKU.t.Hc features aad often more or less :s.~'lh-e' .~. ii7ii1!.J~·t.ortJe.... As 'with the at'her fict~.iiarity to .J 'nl. Fink@lstein ~'.J~'..u:r..filelds.. .u.~:nM..n .~tex f's .II"u.~"..t ~f Sollbergeris correct that copies .p05i-Uon'~'S au then ticity ~.".Akkadia.n.d D'.e ar no ergumentation) tha.e~:conies g'~'0'-' "b·c.~d~.t:h.1[:: s) 1 Se~:f=ird'r-oo'UcH.'-k<' t'0' '_"" orig. '"' ".~r'Ilt".z.'1~1 ~:h-.'e best interpretation o.. the~r Untgui:s. '[5 similar to other . ['"U:r.. toward Anu 'bu:~toward Btar. II" ~ As: .S) Flrst-persen personal history O!]:.au.llO'-. ~. .Jo. la 'i!Ii. (':h. . The Merd uk :PliOPh.ry [and.. doubt.r:w - A.uu'1n~og:rQ.9 The two extan t copies of the' lnscrlption are wiihout a.'. ~'t.'.._1 __ ~ V .p'~j.f the Kurigalzu text as a w:ho:~@.'~ -T-il-.~.4:i''''M"".f"'" ... ~J Y ~l!" . A" .essJun.t...r:U. ~~'. !u " I ''12# :Y'unm:'-~" .2.chJ:re': 1.n..~canals and d.K. lIj1lJ!. ~ • I .'he~mas a reference to a restora tion of' the.f. Donation 0=: I 9~. Anu cult.n au toblographles 'wu:h a basic 't'llree'=:pa:rt s't:ru.'r"'Y w..uo:. i _ • J~ ~ '-~ .n"-'J' 1'1'. This is. . the CUm.@CY.he]es:s'T '~':h. noneontemporary t com'pDsw."l Furthermore. ~ady-j.f these :~i:Fle5' takes .

' .~'i:.i:"L:e-':IC:~1@'I'n' _ U'E' "". -." ts ~~ '191'·'··. ~. Ai "ji.iG':".. .UIli.. to' 'be as. the tem:p'~. .the Agu:m.mai. = ._'I.. .' I~ i'!ji'':[..'f'.__ c .. . . ... .. . Hie correC:t~yargued -rha:t dl€ "t'hr~e .es'l:-:s:..".. t:h.a.tSt 'th..won.n'"0'i~.1!.·.-}[iI.0.~ dec~.-iriln~.) __ vy. III.on be'ha~~f die cnlt. .. . u .. . .o. of fTrlke'ls. -..'~"h'. ry:f'~ th'IE!' 'IUI'Qnt-s.t king..')a. ..:... !j. - ...m :M:onument of Ma.isJ'tic :ptUpOSf! fn:r the temples a. _~ = Vl.· ~1!r~1f·~!lJ!Ii! '. w:hic'h..~ .tur. 1 Jl •• l~ ..' dl.' '111111 '1-:-: .~I~ .t~io'.iJ'I"lII'n-I"-'.. _ 'i!!J1!Ir!!!I!.U.I'll" ." ~ ~K~~~~~_-~ .L'!. ~ -.~ oower. '1'" .':o'"i.IiL.l~. .'~'11 . .n.. I ltV .lba . '.@l '10 pl~1J(hlce an o'b. .. ~I I..~II!I.y PnU.f~ct:i.1. .iIio._.'L'-"e' "'U']..~'~I .]!~...~'IL ~.'ii!. . 'I. the tem'pi. ' ..I(: "...~ 'narrarec events ' UO€s .I. ..~'i<'h-··· r·'presen ..s mentioned ..:..r'"'" . U: the' texts were o:rwglna~~.L i ' __ ~.1 .~ the J ..the' indiv~dual 'h?)(.jeet Uke the iCrtm.O. 1. 11 •." 'w'hr~e '".€..se.m.fter the monarchv l.".~n'reas a. ]li@r '. ----.LII.._ _ _ IllL~.iII lI._ Jlr-~'~:&l .rHe' such documents and :for.al)ove~.<11 .~. "B'il'IiI'" none 0'. . :. ".1 e . ~.' .ooh~.0" :ha.:IICTlintilf"l'Ij'm' _ll~ ~'~I.'1'" . I .rE '4.ea... Q..c-.K' u" .~._.ot se estion 0 1" e .t~a.e.Y'in:sc.. transparen t-.t·. '~'CiV .d! "-.1 .' 'h' LS WIlet·.t wa~ used . .!. 1--~_ it'. .acts of :P2U.i..~~.Y' gain from a.! '1-:..".the monarehy or the cult-with the' a.diDlUI'ln.they da:im.na'~onad t~~Qnserved a 'propaga._ !§JI.(ji'"Dn..l.· . 1l. ~ t:'U. .h' ie-'!Il:..1.' . .r"U'¥"£' ..nd. y.tel.1SI. .d..~ later k•.l.d·"\!'anoo "d .nSi-._ .e s@ctor could co.. w'ha.r..~ '~~ 'Ii.' ':I ~J.'o. . e..i. were ...e' question .iIio.K.aJf . ....t"' .d __@-. WOUJ~d w.. ~~~ltV..dfo(r. 'to believe. " . 'C c .g reason.li'~'ron V !II..~ 1Qa~.m. _ ..rdu"k'nd.e~.' _.5..nancia. i·-c("·I'iIi.Monument olf ManJ...n ""'If' 'L'h'" h·I:"" t . .V'" ~ '.' '~a"iIj.!..to exto ~the 'k-"l"ng-' W' ho en 'm"-~I~'g'n..:L·d" .1UIJLII . .l~'th:ful.~dly o arises. ~ IW. t~v' erovided .'. r purpose :na. IOn.me al:rgum. .. =~ .. It " llll~.. in '.. ~.these' 'two '~ns'titutj. A._~ l~'-'..~ them are origin a'11..0'. 1 C'T.t purpose? this 'l.. . 'r::-I.""1J'1 . ..! . ~ .i~' ~~tIJ ~[ Ml"- I. :' ~ ¥-¥'. .i-'ha.r"e'.s.·on...'L. .rl. -..a.'twe.1.$.II!..~. . [II ..III.. .r-e' 'pred.than. th "a.=. U m.. 0" ." . speculate that the priests resorted to such l!!!! 'he'···.~ ''ll:i storiea '~.iUles J.l!\~ ..-. cultic sphe'oo 51 in th.l._ . 1 __ UY.. ..).~. J.. ~.a~~ . on.·.l Two considera tiens inform Il!R] .. l'~'1II'h u.me t)e)(...: ~.[ eower ..tl" e . emanated from an I§tar circle.eo[ lne sa . but th.l~. be. y.·"t . ~. late r v"' __ ~v~_~ .J . ''!':-~I..· n "i[ +if-'e-" ill. .. Whole TIu' Fundi".'. ru ~'.::::.socia:ted"...-.V..3" ~tt!(I) --<" .0tmp-~.two.~ _.~g'\.1.t t'h:@y.-.etli"lii~~ I[ .pted s to curb 8'r-ow. "tIl. ..f·'i"liif. _ _ _. :.l '"J".~ person:n. a.-kakrl.ing royal power and.a'bI.e' ~stOirka~~ h :set·ttng 'wl:tl.".J' ..II..-. .. 'C .t.~' -:-"".(H1S. ''f-'~ .-- o·.. ~."'."" 'k.' .v.rn .J w. tool em'p~oyedl by the' S.'"a.~.@':M-. ~1 .) possible :instibJ.'~ :!'.. .~..'J More par'Iicula:r:ty~the 'C'rucif'or. 'Wbo! ~A._:....111 . !o~·:r~dOiF1l!~' I!.-.~'II~n'·and"_ .'I::: . "l~.."..u was a.1 zu.rjJilJ'l ~1.. ..ncreesed ...t'hey atte..::. seribed _ _ ...n:(1) There are' Q.~". '.of' th"e~rfunct.~..caw nCL . y ~ _.pprQ)(jm!3..IJ .n.more exact dates and ma.th~'e q. .."I'='C·__ n ~"""mlllp'"ranei tv 0:" '.lui ~ ~ aY . .I·~.~ r..111...' fb' I. .t in ... ancient :Near East}.".uifm 'Ta& AfEler :studying.' . or ·1~"1i'. '..'~. J~ ~ II i1i't' ~''\i!!t'VV!!!. .e If\ . [I~l~ [ IIl"I!lJ 1~V. of ~.stus.t.' i 1.eftea. _' __ ...iil' .'". "..r'D'~' ~'.ne" '. .....n~itus'U'i' (2) There i!i no ICOrm:peUin.'i'l '.". however.ri' .nd.~.. all -.Villll~~ V..I.a...' . be a. Co·' .' U_:-:rIlI11U].~!!. __ The Slu)bg.oI'_ ~ __ 'I..~ _.t."'." n'~tOO"I!"~'p'lh'~i£liC' '~:-h)B idIDn' t ']"f~. . .'-.. a~ edge. !l.Vp'~_rap.I!.l increase their Gw..sely dl~-. __ . ' . docurnen t that describes the f:. 'b. ~."d " -. .ore} .l. . ~~!I.e' may. 't. ..- M.it.ript:ion~ In a historical cOlnb~lx't'f then their purpose 'would.~ . -6 would com mission such comeesitionss on th e '0: ther .t'..:..~ In the th~rd m:iUennium and "Def. priests of t~heEbabbar..te~n has described the co(mperUt~ve relationship -t-:ha·t eJ<:Lsted between the royal and. ·!:]j..'~ :powef' and th.nly '~W1.

e. . "~j"" Th.I:I L.. __ M. -.-kakrlm'@'l and..to'b.ts:i's .u text..I'':''O.rt'" __ ·Ie' ..]) and by a se'Fi~s.Gil'terbock "Die h~. . ". ..basi by '(l.-. ..4 This..IS. . _ I th. 1.. - I [..-.~.'.·•. [""·:'1 '~..IPII.•.'tlons and services tha t Luga'~annemundu provided :fo:r the E. \ 4. .. . t.'1clLo. .m:n.I:~~~ .d by two A'k.i. .2 'i' ~ '.IL. t_.'.~n..I: '!i..~. I~t :B.J lUlty 'H' ·.:II~ 1i.tie.. :Migi:r.. . III...~nsCrlpltion is carved on a rock on .'ncv' th eir '£OC"-!I~'~ is .•. d' ."...1 a ~'~-w'. .Z..'.:~. \Ii_ 'T. .. "~l5 Thus" the' composers of .:~ '~h'le· n ~'m' esand b ..ot~f Is :s:h.pPaJrent'~y led. "-i .~na.. .ll1gthe reign of' :King DJose~roJ the Hiib'~~ :.li:lIfY"'~ "...:I!i. .'.te ' ~.ll:I.... 'gU_~.ig.'e il'H~tlmr:ll' ~.US1200.~l:J' Lugal-anne-mundu stammen kann.' ~C'TJJ L.._I ~!fl [ r_' __ ~i • 'I_'!f~~~~'"l I... ...l:t.t:!i~...~irlJrl~ ...Ii.:-...'[[~. ~~ U~I'I/.V£~g 1 g 1 .of.·. .. 1"-.~er .~s I"Evoh :m.•:1)-.'~' 4il' ~ii ~!Ii~~k""..1i de 'I.·1t1Ji S'·. .:. . ..e~nli'fj:g" The' 'bulk -oF the 'tex't ((iols" II~:IV)!eonCE!ir. The ~nd. ~.h.ga..11_.Ii 11Q.l@.:.f1. 4JD 'l"""··~'·""-H"-"i""..9.J.Tta_dit~ol]"'lind S 4 l-J '7.e~e .th.. .ili.ro. 3:5'. . 4 3. lll~g I .d nt. Sumerian prototype in the Lug~dannem. '("'-mM":~~M'111 .".'r~i!\f:tJI~! . Ii..\fr.1ti5Chtl.ie D~oselr .ti:en . J.)' -T·I(. ensi. .'n >iflin: '11\1' 'd 'i"i:~ · .gm.6 'While the in historical se't'ting: of th.:rltllgseh" D(~ bi.cinHy of the' :Flrst Ca'~'.z'llJ.II" I' .". eser II. iU-!! .ng:.~'n··· 'f"ki:i!. Konig einer Dynastie von Adab :mit der mythisehen R'f. .--···"·'h·'-I....". IIL'. " .' \-'~lp~. 'ly d '.~~g~p.c' . .um._~5 prcpegandistic purpose '0"If'.4J' ·1-_· Lof:JJ 42 i·..'U:nd.11.er.' i~f1@ ~'~t)@T.n)a:~~ "Dass deft Text '"1'ij!j...e:lll. ..6)" .h. .I"r...8. : -.truc'hu:-€ as the' M'anistus'U. _I.\. -'[".M'l~dM' siib.. ~.' i .ona. " . . ..-... perl '·ad 0.Y'po]~'"I'Il~'~ . nons uppert. fiii e '" P10!l.J:"~'tj'p.. th '!'." '.:II.en~~gllly' t'hir~ee.an ~sla..-.H has the.f~. .. .'~.. .... 'rex t 1. . .~:o··.·:-i:·iIi_. y.n:s the' d. t . '0.l.kadia:n.-'-'-'. G~'u'lt.g~ Su 'm'l .__ .r . tem Plie' of Nintu. ':-: S~.. .blllis.t:W'3S ..etJ Ja~:r:f d~r H'uti!.li!uflrV!..Y. · .f' 'U1tE!'e..:.'I .r.lZA. ..ar:act'o._.t..nd~ the vw..~'.I...J'''.of 'b!i' epithets U:~.·kiI~ifn·· __ v.'"l ._ ! r I ~...!..Ors:t two : . 19.~ . ~.' .ii:I' 1l. G··~. .' ' 'I.o u:b'II. same three~Fold :s.. .roy 1_.'~i~ .1i'lIi .t· ~ '. "A. _..~v. 1v.. e ~.· "Inl ~I 'n ~..~bon andlthe llength 0" fh" II e dona tl. den die Konig51~s'h~'als ewnzig..t: t:he ~lex.On secliIon.t"i'Qn .:.e~. .' _." D:. Glute'r'bcck recognized 'fha.F:~r!1l't pu.~ I!!.... striking in that . NNI. v.. ~5.._f-] .5to:risdll@.Lugalannemundn : narrates an upr~si. -. bl51I:f--' a.-. a: ... .~~~. a donation eluding: has a. I .-.--. 16. . tex't is du:r. .lern ".. ~ 1. I'--"~ . ·:i ':"'-'-'{C" ": sec tions. also l f'ra.un 'P g.entary but probabl. ..:... r~'" "-~lf!ll !Ii-~_ Tats III. ee H.s a.'i··:l(--le·... _.... " '1''1. [ . 1-2)~ the flrst-person speaker introduces :h~m:5!e'lf' name U::'.: .-'. a brief invocaUon to 'Nintu (1:.. .of the first c-o. . ._..1 ae ".Il.I1..rolP1..e._ P1eIlL..(lompos.i~i'~-'..I!k. Kurigalzu .!I. .' Person. ~~' .11.t:l""'-"""1~I] ~IUI~.Inst~.!'!G.'". K' Q'''. "....I:.f..-.b. '~~ by H.:he:d /IIi .I' c~tiies o.." nc. : "'1 1'1 : -_ "[ "1 ' -:': ..ie"'1 ~ .'tIen '..1ilI.~ Ii...t1"RCJ" __ :I:"'_"'~I ~L' _.I' 0...~e~:~·a·.to. -"1'1- ·. .J' '.e·C'if"i' on is b .and ·J!a'P1-l"If:'"..a. ~ g 'r-." te'..-__..:.be1Uollls cwHes" Th. .--: .. .:.graph~e5t 'the :Man~l:tu§u M'onum.IU- texts just rlev~ewoo.e:nt and the Naram-Sin rectlon text. "._ I' .n' . ~u·.~U .AI .' ..[J • ..' '.'.t u.Ag...02I'Y . lieg:t auf der Hand.oII..toT.'unld.~--":"ij!j.'-h.ii t·._II:.9.l.... _1.a.L."C.eli. a.'.and aC~!Jrding:~y accounts for the' bllt!VW:ty' of' the .3i. . . 'b.:~u.a'f'e known.S.S'_ergeries• on.:' __ .-. 'T'.6.~iI:'IJ _ m -V::" ··cl'I. ". un '!:II.."C.."I'~.. a.. ·iIfI"'.S'flf-i'n!fn~dudi~tl:..~~.!s'cripf..:'·. VU.-.Q911 . uOd'la n'~~ t..'~·'· O~D' . C. '-L"-" .frai1~a~~ d'~!!It(:hJf!~[ogie orientale.J.graphy 'wlt:h. af. fter A U&II r~ • .\. . .n.1t -.y' narrates Lugelannemundu ~'S! vicliory over "Ii.' I . ':'1 j" ...io. dunartion i"tsel'f. dle :N:Ue".__ .I...l'i rf~ ____YJJ_. .von u: .. " ~JIi.~..u...[. .. ···: . ..". I A . ...wnst· his so'v..3a=1'lJ.r:Dj." . . -...e.n. ·· .-EnUI olf Mar._~ '. 'g'\Diiifo'iif Alf' ~j:C...".gwerungsziet von 90 Jah:r-e:n sechs Oynas'n:ien vor Sargon ansetzt..~' '" . lbe auring .·'1": r .....1~ "I-1. three' Akkadian texts ma:y' very well have been eoznizan t: vW.:. 1 A .=nam..m...~~J!. ~bidt....:.-' i .i The i'b...

'0[.[.e iki ~-:romt'..~" j 'I· I "'It '~"'-C'..·t'hr-'.-. "Ia-: . na. lL'.-1' .ap·:. Uf[lri.J ."-d' 1 .t:he' . I' :"'-".-._~ Ib.-C . c·~·i' a.. e Jlf. .gml!l.1 .suppo..•..-'.s-.~fl. .nCle c.h~rd._. A h'~inl$'lat:io:n. ...r.!tlni:~S ._. nc -t:'·: " "1. th' -.tury :B.f~rs't'person..A Ut·t:le less definite '~5.' ". ...'1 d ct··.e' ~ooeph. '.[confronted 'by'-'-.: T'h.'iU. " ".= J ~\= -~ d' iifIi'l"'iIe'n.-.Y. .t s .'I n.~.p '1 eO'.~ian g ~ --r. I . the third. " . m.~.re.' .{.]".')" ·to.n~1 -.. 0 -' : .:""~'-'~ . e ex..lm...ian ~nb!s.prese:n:tly oon:sUh..' ua r. -I j alLl1 "]o'1!'II.· c: "f'C' e 'M ...ne ~. [I: ~~ : 'I 'J"_ ···. " tIL. -..s 'ND.i3(.. .t'lL.e ongul .-.tt .J! t ext.JI ..-: oc . c ..~U51.w. ···."".. '.I .t"h"£:Il"t.nO'DiI"II're .11:'0.:'."....."T: 'f:":(-:_:..'-":(- ·C· c' .J 'd' .-.["IrS.e. J - J_ 1. !'i' .ti . '.nd reBect~ngon i' . ._.J:.II '~:~'dl au L.'.['..~ !.' .'.r.ap". J. -rf.y '.. -".' '.... d.~hies wi:~:h.ill 'PrOO~ct: o:f . ··-·f" ..HQ~s:£"4][' ~h.-r'hII-.:" . ...--_ .. " '..e' re:LaUonslhiipl '.~ . ·t'..'. --. . a.. 1__ ' 1_...~C d ..a_mIne. .'0 .~IC' aeba.::. 0":-':'.. ... 01: In ·d·' Iepen.a.'.-1 A:""'-~'.' .' "!Ii'tJj'l...'.II:..rf. -'. [-_ ".eeue..l._..·.NET l '1 ~.'-.~t'a{n't 'Iem~r._' .opmen.~.. enos 'W~ ' h· .~.. ..'..e .1_. '.nec_~.~ )" _. In I. c~'. a~d . :'g~' :..'£1.if'ii~~'11 iUir. E"~c't-·.._' pious--" l:o"""rgary'" n '11 no.j' .O'.. _ Et)[~~J'tl . _:a. ·.. en~u~e. d t.er Near Ea.. ' .-. ~nthe t~b~}ra.paune.mm. ":'f.'t.--I. t'h. G __ .·' '.I:"'. ~he aUw.•. 'I~~' t. · .". . ' "_ '. U1 separate' [cul._. th aI.' . goo of Elepha'R'tine. --.n~~ as 'been H h JII .D~~m~"'$ the Ch:r'sf.C~.jo..-..n.. lOltS '" -.'...<::..hb. '-1· .._'IJIJ ('la·t~lnc. year 'f'-"--.a .ogr...'~. D··JQser h-'ii .'.' . .--:.e. 'bef:are he begruns ..e lte..!'[I:ndl $h@. th e su'lb'· -: enre .iIl...'t:. wi.'.w'ar-e' of t~he S-u'me'rian._.1.u:n.-'1.igaJzu . . '. Dynasty (twent~(d':h-e. '. 'rI' . p... ---~ .ilar t'hree:fold structure bUtt... lit' [5....t·: -"'"'._... IliliE~~.- .' ... d.1-'1-£ 0'1 .. Qjoser._.lo~_ (sec-onJU ~@n. written from a first-p~rson :perspecti'V!e a. ~'.t':.... ..:..a.e-:- . 0. "1 .'c'~d·: th .am.L-o a:t'Ji'. .Jan.a:rs strlJng ~'II' '.w'herev@'r 1"'. ...f..n" one Ib.I. ~ __ J:i_.....to anonhe:r ~ ~ "I-it-.''' .U~'" 39.logra.. ..n.--.'--.a.-::"':.~~~.. ." slmuan.'''te'· .IeClosenes\'5.···-·d: genre or ._ ~m:se 1-_5 _ . .O(n lS . ft t.'~..~l. . 'W'es..~ (N'ew H~ve.· .·rucLor....n. "_~:F~~.~Pdon.n.ct~..'· .I' . o.. . :. 0 . ~ 1'.. . . t·::!.'clear lex. '_'.n. "(' _.'... ...' ·.C..·l9..__an]:~tu5Uj' 'bile t .[iI.'t d .I".lY . A ..ti.'. '.. ·t'h-·" ..' .)".1".':··~i-: IS "-. I: ·N····' _~QJl.£.Qlta.f. it:'~." t he -. '_ Summitry' .ong .-'..>: : ::' :.Brug'Se'bt':s tit[~.iQ" C~~rd.....Cilr... ~ . ---=._.50=1.r.-f·" ....--k k .du and the IEgypfia:n.. subgenre 'W ! . . 1980) '9' 'bel~. . .IS.. "'-'.:l(! m2iY' be f'fJ1Und. ..-·." - .:l(: is ~'dJ._ueto...dominantJ! " -::: _~. a don _.·. us t-. L..iii. ":"I' .U). 1.': ~.' .e.' :...~ .-' 4Q ]: 7. ."'. . ''.imet g~..€.·-..'. r· 'to 1iiJ.. JI..-. .identified.. I" .B. '.'.the.~land Hn.~n t.xtfrom the Third Dyn3stY'.. '.uORilt~'..A'kkad. ..i'"'!"!III-lU' O~'..--.-. ~.~'ussio:n.__...'... Luga]a:nnem.'.so!1(.' ' -h. ... and even language argues for 'it':hes'lr.The text 'be ~.See S.. '1".. . " In " . .J .~]·. .-'u.ura.lnscri'piion. '_'._ [rom the .IL.@ir~ 'l'Ula]:a'n'nE:~m.t itse~.~.t.'t'h··'.. I'.a U" (A. . -~'.. :irn.:.._..' A1·kl:' .-'....~.: "..e . L .ue lex '~'. .c..IJ. .' I'~~' . . ·1 L.. has. pasc:t "T-h..--."-~i'~"'~' (l.. _ lIS K. ~ ._.'f".. ."I.'.)_ .'h-[:c .h-' anu.tapp ears that the t-"'ex' :~e a. . .-. g Inns. " .: tu:res.." -. .1e ..aa· hltOn.._ .-- . .-" 0.~'.K.t'hcentury ."'''' Third" 'wh~~... . were a.a·.-.v.a. .w: """' ..01iJjit!sel_F :ilWll H" BeUe. ~.~nscr.do:n.. t . 'i.-.seven .. inscrrpThJe'•·.~ ':':. Depeodenc-e or inR. '.-· . . '-.0 case..p:h:y" genre. .-c·' .-£].(the. ." Uh/..~:-:-." . . hk:a'Uy·? .rt: d:h.e .'-.~iUiI!_____~_IUI_ autobie•. . ."' ...... 'h y~ :Isola:ted exa:mples (lcf the genre have been . aUl. afliAiil1 -. .SE(:U ar au I. '1:'.'l 'i.. . I. OWle of. V.. ..nIL ueve~opmen!J" r.d':.--.c..'1'S.sUp(PO$oo 1mlpnC3.a .:.f. . "h ... " '·.. .Ol'~~ endina _.93 T.e . A'.\ . '.lnsC'.-:. " -:-1 ~:'. c-omnosifon..t:h.'. "-: '..' .J .-:. ': ..t '" -..'." ~it~ . the 'tJex...'ti' as a na ..."..~I!tU.' ..... ..' ~ t':he cu~lt. .cultures:. .' 1'['" '1""'-1(.. -' ~_anu.'... -"1 I' . .-11" '.....·.rntdu :maiY ibe. _epen.> . some even._ -=-~~..t"..1..1'08-' :&ibil~ty'tha't the' Iater Akkadian CDmpOI!n.. :0.!&<.-_.f·...31 .lona . S@@ ('nap._.._. ~-. . .b:.ulna. 0 .._. 'I.L . r....~s :much . .".)( 'IL.·[" :'.rra:l~v.u. a sim..':: . 'Wim~.0 eh .It'"ln"-8..desth.[~lIWC!JI~I_. t-. 'te. 0:£ ~his.c._.g~llI:m.lo.eve.." I 1" I -:c r .' '.< . . . _.~p..!~" '. dlJfHll. OZRl~fl't'i!' Th~ Agt urf R~rm (12.-' t:=-rtl ':'..l.Ie i . .--.r the .gra. 0 .i:pUQ(n.of: "Khnum.\nO.de .._ .r"ll .stler.:. . b a. ' .'~'s . 'l Ul.'.I_~~'g_-'J' .-.nc't'h-'a.too far di. ul' '".' . Q....'~ ~'<I 'r' ~..- ".n t-~·. lJ3.. 'o-'If' ~ .5--_econc.IlH.Faa_I-\nelon.L.. e .Y.'Ih e ._ ~•.: '''{ale.th!' :ins~r.c - -- -c.u. an 'tjne:~nwhich. '.genn! :..--- .loser ..~.". .F1i.~. 1l..grf' . 1"" .... -.. -.. ~~.f thr·' ....._l!l. ..oDII' uThJe' T:r. .re'w .t..~_ . . .. persen ra ther than .ood. . '.. ' ..~ _.-.. 'b!L!IJ[. '.800'). l8.'~···I '1""" t .~gh.. ons.'.-.".' .'1"-.'_.. -.Jid·' .p are memoers o[ me 'b-.aOEj.1 '01ro~r.Ou.'-t I. te IS ..v'el"si1ty' ._.u:r. -" 1'"'\... to .. "i:e.-/1.1-ere.·'t-.4JO ~.rnJ:me:n'[ .na..Bdi~i{)n of s@'~~ le:~!Ii ¥@i1n i~ 'Egypt/\!' A.m M' Uon~ and the :K. "..~'as a .:~.1\.an .-I I.n..'. · ana lOll.' --:.".~-.tdJ..•• .--~ to narranve... I IVI _'. .' I' r.J. '.e..~..aala. " I~ ..per-son-.". _. .1[.. -. . '_' I' ...~. ...·t"'··.f comes f 'h 'P" 'I .-.. c r -(' ·C·'•.al!i.Ii."_."'ti.:.. . -[.Q biographica]. Oli:.O.: :.. . -.·r: ._ A'k·lk··'~I-iI· i:n.uenll€ :f'rom one culture . '~ ~'" " iat -.·... _..f ot:h. . Haw@v. .the' D~'oser 1.:1/-.....JI~t.J:!lm"au:: :pelr..tions of d:ds hliX't has been ~:he~!:fere~~e' '00' (11 seWin-year f!llmine' a:od ~ts...'-' . . '..__ .O\na.. .' .hl·i@ i'n(: m[i. __C..pn~ca_.e .--:f:.'..

i. :not' the o.~.t n Ie' ····'IL'il~ .genre (already al~..hle :royal r..'U~an'ill".~..~K~a..'iI-'~lie p.r. appe'a r.e. 1 4 i" In t. forgers who 'we:fle concerned.stledhy the Old Babylonian perioo) m be the 'bes't~t:h. _! .!i.hs A.iii-'" '..th 'tJemple i:rn. 'w.~l~rests found '~. I!J.". ~ -...a. . '.. !II :_aIL.ough.:_~ . hI" .. .tobia"graphic~d. .~h.s .ry ~..iii<" d"t-JOIl\ii' ..n"es. .~.ra....nly way '~O presen t ttu~~[r claims .:'. .u.-h····!1.a. .JI~" .-=. .

m-II!... I['Il rl..... ~ p:-I C?"-i.. !UI::r ..

1 The Sel1iua. .maty' 'j 1..[. 'E.J&r.t:s fi.6.1-'I-~ rr.'!'truc.(). L~8end as.T:lilJ.1\""p""·.plar.:'7=...g8 'The Adad ..~..us.8 .!! A.'~'lIIfl Excun·us~Ez·elk~em.3 j. A~ fb:t~iQ'n ]01: The dida.gi'trphy T ~x.Uc i~fidfin:g A!i a:u.'u. iau.r·bEli.a .Htae'an le&~nd of :N. didaetie endling: .IJ~: 'II" '. :l. :fictional .i.y· ~ HI :Plot S.C! 'i.ypt~ain~n!'.....' 'j[ 1.cnerfb t~xl as focti. _. Y" '~.0' A'!i fiCtion 1. fb:Uoll 11.J.~phy A'''''·<fI.."UlJh.ctio:n.3Jfatn.~o." '11.phy' wUh a d~dac..8.~S nictional :aJutdhiogtaJ.:phy 'CQ(I]d.~ndle:xe:m. 1.l:nn.: A Sennachertb A.Ib.0 i 2.1 '1.I]iWl.. 1.r-·[.u:tobiogr.' PJot s:u:mm~ry '106 :F'u:n.03 The' Cutna..2..!)uhl"biQ.Qn:s 12.s 1.:8 'W':i~\om and.t[OJi. 10 The d. i ..phiy with a.e !ij:ubg~n:F'e' as iii.t.g:ra:P~l'Y 1.2 1. ~.ea:Fi.1.omogra.~obiogra.ruc~um Selti:ng: 1..$ A'hiq:ar 1..gypUitfi texts The d:idact..=Srun Recensions .f. . ~9 ]2. 0! II'::..01. . summary .8 IA.[iP.:ph.ending 11.1.s. . .ctic .jc .'Ii'.1.-..hy 'wiith a didactic' rending A!ii aJl.gra. :N'ort'b-west SEil1'tltl... te:x.liUI~r.t ex~mpWars 97 '9")' :Plot.(1.ida." JI. 'w'hare 1<1.~utding :I 1 I S't. .:.( The 'C'u.C and. Auh:iiJlo.:.(:t]c .y :1..'!Cl .'~ 8 Th.gra..The AdadJ=s:uppi.b)/bio.o\Djo.:.8 :Relahed.. -guppi stela.S' Qohele~h E8.o:na'l aU.@nd~ng la 2.0.!.

.the 'te:m'ple' of Harran.upUc:ab~~ W'alS wel.. .~b" . for 'ei:t:h.f the te-x't't 'howl'~"ft .h:dtiaUy' idenU1Hed.' a d.c-omed.mpl"rs In '1906 :H'" P'ognO(fl discovered a much -broken stela.I 6 ad _ . havmng been composed for .e'b~:inscription. text :pa:rticu'~I:dy in light o~F :n. ¥' ~..1 A by C..'.. scholars to believe wnsftead tha t it had..Ucate' ~rre'~an .' _.: "ltd E::a.IIi.b~ 2.j'l'rl.:'. . -'"\}" ~." Th USi!' 'the dlseovery of. . IU'!!.I! .S i:t's called :N'a.y co!m'pl.'. .:ullt..3 :0'.rIest' at ..:v ':I'"iogr-:P'.t:hie pavement s:te:psof the.. I. S.p.'.mot:h..~. '1m'I .g.er of' N'. . art Eski H'arran.aol [I'i._ !'.add.AJ.er '~h[e mother or gra.be new' text 'W'i. the Pognon stela" N arb..II~o.td. J...f .]i'biF 'I.le p.[iii.~i. 'but subseqnent reflection led.._Y:'-" I ~'lt'IJ .t~h. i The stela 'wa~8.nd. _.-h-I ' Th-~... by scholars.. H Rice diKO'Ve'[\ed the dUJ.a'bonia:llJ:s" The condi tion Q. ~..1.-gu p-.Ii li.e. _ a ." .' q'-' estlon e: answered e.. .. G. as.:.. . 'been composed. :no:rth I A'ii. ft.A:..:~ l W.I' "['1"'""". H 'II .

~[['[~·x.9.' A.. .y Oth..ph.ts 1.193 A. Bars. :N erbuchadlrHl~zza.A:U'bObLogF'aphy· 1:94 .on.r' I (?) .A uJ'tohiogra.

."~ @~~]i@r' :im ~is .tstlia'ram d l~ and mu:ltaU:ik ki. I ·1..y nature' of not permit a.!lJ:S..-j'I~f...(!lS.!Il~~!Iiv . one. ~" HlSlI~i.ki~.'-ec:u':n.e text .'.64 n. tew~'i\l' 5arg\tU! L.e'buc'hadne':z._.~r:md: A. II.I .brm tibe~tiare not common tar :foJ:' S"8I1JOn or..l'j. t.~---:i'i.--d'.E!' .esmloos 'tn.:p:hle..the.a. ~nd :Het'hiJtem.o'b~ogra.'. H.ut.·-I·t 1!).~.1!iwhrilt~n der Koni!ge )'\~n Agad. ~.le. .o.[9Ch (""Die lr. Dt!'.J·t'" lerarrnSC1lli! ''G.ii. Ul..:lj: cf.It. ve ~llll'~.o~:attes'ma..d'by A" 'T. • lhe T :r.} 1:13.. .the writing of the. ~" b~~ ·HI .3.'entarr..s exist.er texts treated alborve. .2:0 ['1'90. the tablets does are offered here because it.~..d . in a 'I.tha. '1.I...Akkadia'n period.t..e.)' m[rH~ eine .'. ~. CI . a::: L it' G'_' ".:~_'~ m'enti .i~~.IJ6.h.is unattested as early a's 't~hieAkkadien M'e~t. ..aru9o .l.nn:ium~he does not :mention B'R'M' 4::4 as a further exa'mp.penden'tpronoun ..Ale).a:iFV sru tdi ~~ ha. J:IlfttU" is appropriate.. Sargon 'menti._ "y o ~Jrr" r~!_g-.ext .gendl) Sa'r. 'b~9 1.'h· iL. K.ut bu.Bh1i. ~.3.' . . .hf Akkj:iJi~": TiD .. "'I-".$argon.t(hJ 'I:gj().'h._. -=--.'..L A .Hom:e ~f tht NQ:rti-E. 6..even the .ni Sem:iilS (.llLih. is (Q:nM.Sflldy of . _' ..a.t .~~ngth-y ~lxctaJ:rS.~\!' .8rst-'-pe'FSOll personam.ossible m em.tvem There are..:phi. beg .'Le'_""' f the ... e text'd-·d" not "1.:in.:48... "_.. ..~'lf--e.1 ~ 'BRM ~.. lIi'T~x~el5 d~v'eT~'du M:usee de Bagh.~'5-). _. Mile 6.AmilO'U: Thf' .'" " ii.za:r I: ~ 7) m.-}-.irnIi·d-·llill!re'.dad~# SUmtT' 13 (l..n'r-'B_~The t£liV.~ 'Orl'@ri!lt£d ~~~_. Tid:C...-clay.wndJe.. ~~ &~' .€' ep. nU~uprqgn:t''f'''' The beginning of' the second (.fi'k. .r. 'V1Ui..(JJ1tS. t:h..' ".~_ ~ w. .t only the seU-:introd]uct-ory "III" 'h i'IL"l"-h th ex tant.on pseudo-autobiography was lntroduced tothe schnla:dy w'l)r~.9'.na:~:fictional Akkadian a.l' ~:. .iJj fh't H~ 'Ujh".~ '. G:r.tiilven '~opjgs~!:t~c'hnf~ de.'t' reads the name ia~'ru ~.es of Sargon and N.~ .' S'--.~ ill. J._.L1ii.ing :ficUonal autobiog.m.:. II 'I nl"o _.litlllOn iIll.~' .Y. "11L ·· .'t.=iF'o:nn. •• secbon. on 1.I@ :p-OSSlV.~eaJvn1i_:g..) '99. :l1a'['..!.} _ res .Anfang eines.e ot:h. SR'rgtm . {Cambrid~ Mass.~ (19J.~ '[ty tla:t.0:11.8. See .e.ihmrlny l'u~ 1(T'oomlto~Univt!r~llityof T (Jron:W" 1. ~II"". J)jjk. thethird millennium._. several indications tha.11 uue' a .. in..3... pl16 I~~i~~'TIM 9.~~d tbt'.Q" .t_. tha t-_-e1X:!l-. . .e second m'~Ue.esl~ialw~:~ng M~B!lby'lord~:re:n.:. name.. a .~. .t... Sargon Birth Le. t. While' nJU7Q.:1 (:d Th.ra. .fL 1: 1.subcategorizadon.1~~ u LA 4..h:1 lad eIDpl1iii Sund.I·~L ' ~~ ~~r:son.A:p'paren dy da'Ung i:t to.~. '~'"Lew.) The orthography' o\f'Sargan's name '~n:S'R.I~. .yson~&'~M".8iy' Sc-hool T~mes" 1909') '1'94·.iQl. !Ij.~_. for Sargon of Alcl<ad~U.]1 d.cf.'l 'lhb~ short text was firUo~naL (I. Am"encaiR Schcds.'_'.._ Ii~ .'.as "J'..M 4.~n-I~ . but' the frag- The foUow.C .' £i-'f' '~""'.415 :n. iSd)riS'C' . Hi.is~ Tm .tt:mJ~ ::.t".rr.. and only once' ln any 'Other' text '8~Lewis.r.Two addUio. is my opinion tha t the :nxovery 0(£ their fun texts would justify their classlfleation with 't:h.:!!_ ~ -\0 ~'! if'!Io'iIi'!ii 'P" ! ~ __ ~ _"".j" jj'l"'\'l: N .

I!t.f1om.iD'Etn:e'_ orrect_ R' d '" orf A.OW!E'v.raO'rnen.. 'The' te~'t is 'broken.@' goo.a~Uy15 also inconclusive.' senaenng f g' '1 ~.a[llJ'j.e ''eX' t .€. Hallo ~nd J" f. When t:he reverse' begins. M:a.'. . .n eonsiders th' com'pclsw=...fo. been ide. b. " }C5 J:~.'. &. 'p_.alte 'U!liversity" . ~6f... is bemg no.~_]an aocit!-(.nex:t section (Obverse 3"'~7) concerns the horrors Sut:ruk-na'b'b:unb~'~ s eredecessor Kudur-nahhunte pereetrated .11...~.) m~y' W ad :fudher [exam:ple o:f .) 1.l t~LOgU'~' O.rJg..5. a f]r.:.nts ]riIJ the U niversHy M:use...S~r"'m'~[].. tlli[a!r.epwthet Wi attested only In this inscription.. d' j. :. .1 ~''''. T'admor.i..tPl (Leipzig. .n... Winclili"wer and H.. 0. at the end (only flve' lines are fuUy extant) thus rendering s. 5 t A . .lj I.0 . " d. 'h:"V-7 22 IB. . present perspective'. The case for t'he text's ."'I' ~J'''~ ("II. f' '1... ..t their troops as they 'w..[e £irs.p..t.A.3.e normal H pattern..r. At this.. . the.. The narra tor is leading troops agalnst the dreaded Elamite foe.~ (. standing elose re:!aHQI'l'ship between.a:ns~ab~d.ie"''a!~~chf . extant seetlons clearly bear s~m.~:t!i:ma=iddina. but when . . the personal narrative of an Akkadla:n. a "·'h" II. :ap~rurhe narrator's predeeesser...~ ~ VQia.onca 'I W:mpl.Story . . .Ct'. .").'0< J' A B '" L _Y' "'" " .ali'On llf Jl1n'" PIiii' (N"l2w' H!l:v~njCo(nn. ~~' JC-'c ll9 'A~'.. 1: ~6. --I .""'j'_ ..U. '.::.... the' narratlon Is In '~].the' tex t's subgenre unwise...~icllon.. .'ual...lnu h . 'H' 'T.ru]a'rity to the Hc:tional autobiographdcal g~nre' I have.-. '_ 'I:'C 1. Zebaba .o:m. 'T~e. .. .'um/j... 'I. .C.16... lacuna nf indeterminete length. 'lUi . ~ a·(~~·ku. Nergal a. • 'II 'I . autobiography ~':h!a.eobverse breaks ~Qr '['h.~J!U!51 tl'scnes.ca~l.. rltten . _.t'h. 'but w~'(h UU:~esuccess. point.e 1~)I('tia.jJ'4'-l8..""'.Y' '-I C!' ._-.perwo(t~The' latter . presumably bY' the :1E]a.l.lJai~.s.__ d' lb iL t JI' ... lst~r'a~d Sargo~ dte [Great S· :M:.anianf/ own fought aga. Hmel" and a.t.4.~ Y. 1. 'Even the Baby].~.()r~l' . .e'ntary' Obverse :[.: P~'E!]ff~:rj~897).l~aill .IN' .5'.['h. .-.m uch too .j!I fict:i([tnal aiiJltobi"ogr~pl1y of' Sil~rgQ[ito it. 'e". lv .. '-1..3 1 .for the enemy at ()£f 'with king' ~m:p~orjl1g god~ 'to 'be appeased and to come to his aid.W'.one v~ . .] 7.~ineaHng."1tm...agH1E.Q!:5 I' ..~ .n.:)OI!LI]".re. [[or' a n)l.-IH'-'~~iL .in:s.'EIWi~"'Akkadian lit.[5 Ti driven from. chose to abandon his temple a:t: this. "IH'"" ill I'" ··It.unn. The obverse sets the' a his't"O:rica~context in w:h:kh '~'h.t Is highly probable that the 109'[ secrions conformed t"o .. 't':h.nt '~e:x'~:begins.~~"-~mor.M.~r-g. .~'.awnst the Kassites. and Kudert :nab:!LWildi was able 'to destroy Akkad and exile its king". The text has been tn\ns~iterra tied and tr.t person.I...mU~' Sutruk-. but U:s..~' .· I [0 r..@:r:a:ry 1"exts and fr. the The text is.f. T:'1~" . N' .e-g. '~S!.. River. I[~97'9']1.aJn.~m...' .e:Ke':r:~a.~~ .. f:r~gm. u. It '~sunclear how much of the Hrst pert of the' tex t ls 'broken away.5i. J-' A" . WiniCkJe:r. ote b~!.aru:ted.u58)fo:r tth@ : It .abbuntlf" Th.-r~n~ma.e events occur.rseJul.Nelmthwlnezmr l {'1) K 2660 1(~. . .eno".cf.5 .2) . "1" iLllU!!]!ary .. the throne.39· '· -" .Ils.phy.. R Ji8" a Frag....Ii.. .li 't:a:t'I" '~ne. H:.'. . non -na tive took the ~'hr.~ C~'9'5g..mentary text. I' .a. \i"an Di~lk.L.dls.doo.t-'person narration of past events . .a.f. 1. . '[)..entary '~:O j demonstrate 'the three-part structure lessenu~dto an Akkadian auto biO'g'F.ill" '111 h H. W'.4".:iSl!Or.~~ . ... ".rduk.rllj F.t~.H.'f B" iIJ..(a '0'.om the '["everS/e' r-ea.er the extant section is so like..AI " ~".pecu'~alon concerning ....·C . His r" enemy was Enlil-nadim .a. tis tion . "peetic 'text r The reverse 0:£ the 'tahle't ].. 6.ag:m. ]1. ---" .. The reverse becomes fragmen tal)" and breaks dl.l:t:..

.his speculat~on that one (l) mig'h:t be a p5. _.on 'is not a 'U: toblcg raphica II \1. _~~.(jcU'onal ..v_.l _ V _.~. person. ~ . however tw.IS!. :s _..'.'9 .re:veat. .~~..may t_.(~'. M' 't . .au:tob~iogr.~..'11!eX. .'~.'h a '~~. ..-and no evidence '~.".. . Alkkadia:n auboblograph des.n:yJ' '16.t-... aSI5Ilt€' roy'a_I' a]lJLr..g~.1 .J... 1 .ra...a-ysons: a..lnare aiso in .. given ...-. .)r C'"T' 4.. person. appea rs to 'U!!. f. !!.. t~. th~"'"Ie 1trst-...a'p'hy.49 'L t.: vI..S .. ."D~ ~ ~~~!C3I.. I _V ~ _ ~_l..s.' .Wc'h_'I~I-.. 't't.-... IL. 'I i.-.ne ~ Q .. ".. so-called.:'l'ii:> :"'i.. . i' :' -.e :'.\. . ."iL ....'.le 1 "-. De ". nrt no .··-· t.J ~.eu. '.'t· 'G .. ..~-.jI:.. ...l.. .nel'.o-..: an exam Ip·.auto'biographi@s.e:~_"Lnsurrec1!10n te~'ts:' 'Iii d' _..0':.nal..te. ..~ '. . '. ~AU.!!. (..m:=. .These tw-o texts complete our survev of fktio.'hi! a.~b..... L '1Pii. .).f" e"a.··-:·..(I nr.:.~' 'G-' :r.__.._!I!I.iI .Qencourage . ..d .. E~· l!"'!l ~~'.~~~ ~~ l~ll~ a- + I' " c' '. (It = __ g OQ. A····'. l!--:iO! ~u.ov~og:rap. '. . _ .1'l:i..':.lJ!ntfreir' '~'eIX:tSt..!I"lI..0 v. ..!.I..~"Ia. ..'~ '......Q condu d'~nIO. other ..eud. --'·-'··b "110.. i : .e:d a 'K'~ :... '.'.= ... I ."'-" a:n.." t ~ it . ".".ur . to di lspue'.'..(. ] nas neen ca n. t.: on' '\ (: . . '..m1l1la. . t WiD 0."'-."--. " .!I ~ '16.~' ~" .a:re . O~- :no:t .e:lllce' '.[~.j5 ~'Ii. : t:\-.sserdon.!~!!"'lY.ex 1. ...vut fu ··t'h· .- lli. ng~Fir~OOU5 S..Ule iL .t v .....--f' ce.'.~~ : ts __ .:. l' ')" 'TL SO-G1.e.~ ~ 'l!rV~ ~1I!r..·S.. . '-'1-' .....·'lIiI'.i.-: .' .[.~ ~Ih.itf '• ' f' . hnn::' (... . deserve men.t.a'fnr.--iii..eVlu.~. ~.