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**Berkeley, California, USA
**

Version 8

January 2002

ETABS

®

Integrated Building Design Software

Concrete Frame Design Manual

Copyright Computers and Structures, Inc., 1978-2002.

The CSI Logo is a trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc.

ETABS is a trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc.

Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated

Copyright

The computer program ETABS and all associated documentation are proprietary and

copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers and

Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of the program or reproduction of the documentation in

any form, without prior written authorization from Computers and Structures, Inc., is

explicitly prohibited.

Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from:

Computers and Structures, Inc.

1995 University Avenue

Berkeley, California 94704 USA

Phone: (510) 845-2177

FAX: (510) 845-4096

e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions)

e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions)

web: www.csiberkeley.com

DISCLAIMER

CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE

DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF ETABS. THE PROGRAM HAS

BEEN THOROUGHLY TESTED AND USED. IN USING THE PROGRAM,

HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY

IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS

ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THE PROGRAM.

THIS PROGRAM IS A VERY PRACTICAL TOOL FOR THE DESIGN/CHECK OF

CONCRETE STRUCTURES. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST THOROUGHLY READ

THE MANUAL AND CLEARLY RECOGNIZE THE ASPECTS OF CONCRETE

DESIGN THAT THE PROGRAM ALGORITHMS DO NOT ADDRESS.

THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE

PROGRAM AND MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS.

i

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN

Contents

General Concrete Frame Design Information

1 General Design Information

Design Codes 1-1

Units 1-1

Overwriting the Frame Design Procedure for a Con-

crete Frame

1-1

Design Load Combinations 1-2

Design of Beams 1-2

Design of Columns 1-3

Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios 1-4

Second Order P-Delta Effects 1-4

Element Unsupported Lengths 1-6

Analysis Sections and Design Sections 1-7

2 Concrete Frame Design Process

Concrete Frame Design Procedure 2-1

3 Interactive Concrete Frame Design

General 3-1

Concrete Design Information Form 3-1

4 Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model

Overview 4-1

Using the Print Design Tables Form 4-1

Design Input 4-2

Design Output 4-2

Concrete Frame Design Manual

ii

Concrete Frame Design Specific to UBC97

5 General and Notation

Introduction to the UBC 97 Series of Technical Notes 5-1

Notation 5-2

6 Preferences

General 6-1

Using the Preferences Form 6-1

Preferences 6-2

7 Overwrites

General 7-1

Overwrites 7-1

Making Changes in the Overwrites Form 7-3

Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default

Values

7-4

8 Design Load Combinations

9 Strength Reduction Factors

10 Column Design

Overview 10-1

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces 10-2

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio 10-5

Determine Factored Moments and Forces 10-6

Determine Moment Magnification Factors 10-6

Determine Capacity Ratio 10-8

Required Reinforcing Area 10-10

Design Column Shear Reinforcement 10-10

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement 10-14

Reference 10-15

11 Beam Design

Overview 11-1

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 11-1

Determine Factored Moments 11-2

Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement 11-2

Contents

iii

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 11-10

12 Joint Design

Overview 12-1

Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force 12-1

Determine the Effective Area of Joint 12-5

Check Panel Zone Shear Stress 12-5

Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios 12-6

13 Input Data

Input data 13-1

Using the Print Design Tables Form 13-3

14 Output Details

Using the Print Design Tables Form 14-3

Concrete Frame Design Specific to ACI-318-99

15 General and Notation

Introduction to the ACI318-99 Series of Technical

Notes

15-1

Notation 15-2

16 Preferences

General 16-1

Using the Preferences Form 16-1

Preferences 16-2

17 Overwrites

General 17-1

Overwrites 17-1

Making Changes in the Overwrites Form 17-3

Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default

Values

17-4

18 Design Load Combinations

19 Strength Reduction Factors

Concrete Frame Design Manual

iv

20 Column Design

Overview 20-1

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces 20-2

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio 20-5

Determine Factored Moments and Forces 20-6

Determine Moment Magnification Factors 20-6

Determine Capacity Ratio 20-9

Required Reinforcing Area 20-10

Design Column Shear Reinforcement 20-10

Determine Section Forces 20-11

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity 20-12

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement 20-13

References 20-15

21 Beam Design

Overview 21-1

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 21-1

Determine Factored Moments 21-2

Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement 21-2

Design for T-Beam 21-5

Minimum Tensile Reinforcement 21-8

Special Consideration for Seismic Design 21-8

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 21-9

Determine Shear Force and Moment 21-11

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity 21-12

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement 21-13

22 Joint Design

Overview 22-1

Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force 22-1

Determine the Effective Area of Joint 22-4

Check Panel Zone Shear Stress 22-4

Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios 22-6

23 Input Data

Input Data 23-1

Using the Print Design Tables Form 23-3

Contents

v

24 Output Details

Using the Print Design Tables Form 24-3

Design Codes Technical Note 1 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA JANUARY 2002

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN

Technical Note 1

General Design Information

This Technical Note presents some basic information and concepts helpful

when performing concrete frame design using this program.

Design Codes

The design code is set using the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete

Frame Design command. You can choose to design for any one design code

in any one design run. You cannot design some elements for one code and

others for a different code in the same design run. You can, however, perform

different design runs using different design codes without rerunning the

analysis.

Units

For concrete frame design in this program, any set of consistent units can be

used for input. You can change the system of units at any time. Typically, de-

sign codes are based on one specific set of units.

Overwriting the Frame Design Procedure for a Concrete

Frame

The two design procedures possible for concrete beam design are:

Concrete frame design

No design

If a line object is assigned a frame section property that has a concrete ma-

terial property, its default design procedure is Concrete Frame Design. A con-

crete frame element can be switched between the Concrete Frame Design and

the "None" design procedure. Assign a concrete frame element the "None"

design procedure if you do not want it designed by the Concrete Frame De-

sign postprocessor.

General Design Information Concrete Frame Design

Technical Note 1 - 2 Design Load Combinations

Change the default design procedure used for concrete frame elements by

selecting the element(s) and clicking Design menu > Overwrite Frame

Design Procedure. This change is only successful if the design procedure

assigned to an element is valid for that element. For example, if you select a

concrete element and attempt to change the design procedure to Steel Frame

Design, the program will not allow the change because a concrete element

cannot be changed to a steel frame element.

Design Load Combinations

The program creates a number of default design load combinations for con-

crete frame design. You can add in your own design load combinations. You

can also modify or delete the program default load combinations. An unlim-

ited number of design load combinations can be specified.

To define a design load combination, simply specify one or more load cases,

each with its own scale factor. For more information see Concrete Frame De-

sign UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combination and Concrete Frame

Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 18 Design Load Combination.

Design of Beams

The program designs all concrete frame elements designated as beam sec-

tions in their Frame Section Properties as beams (see Define menu >Frame

Sections command and click the Reinforcement button). In the design of

concrete beams, in general, the program calculates and reports the required

areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments, shears, load

combination factors, and other criteria, which are described in detail in Con-

crete Frame UBC97 Technical Note Beam Design 11 and Concrete Frame ACI

318-99 Technical Note 21 Beam Design. The reinforcement requirements are

calculated at each output station along the beam span.

All the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.

Effects resulting from any axial forces, minor direction bending, and

torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independ-

ently by the user.

In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment at a particular

section of a particular beam, the steps involve the determination of the

maximum factored moments and the determination of the reinforcing steel.

Concrete Frame Design General Design Information

Design of Beams Technical Note 1 - 3

The beam section is designed for the maximum positive and maximum nega-

tive factored moment envelopes obtained from all of the load combinations.

Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases, the beam is al-

ways designed as a rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce

bottom steel. In such cases, the beam may be designed as a rectangular- or

T-beam. For the design of flexural reinforcement, the beam is first designed

as a singly reinforced beam. If the beam section is not adequate, the required

compression reinforcement is calculated.

In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular set

of loading combinations at a particular station resulting from the beam major

shear, the steps involve the determination of the factored shear force, the

determination of the shear force that can be resisted by concrete, and the

determination of the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.

Design of Columns

The program designs all concrete frame elements designated as column sec-

tions in their Frame Section Properties as columns (see Define menu

>Frame Sections command and click the Reinforcement button). In the

design of the columns, the program calculates the required longitudinal steel,

or if the longitudinal steel is specified, the column stress condition is reported

in terms of a column capacity ratio. The capacity ratio is a factor that gives an

indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of

the column. The design procedure for reinforced concrete columns involves

the following steps:

Generate axial force-biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the dif-

ferent concrete section types of the model.

Check the capacity of each column for the factored axial force and bending

moments obtained from each load combination at each end of the column.

This step is also used to calculate the required reinforcement (if none was

specified) that will produce a capacity ratio of 1.0.

Design the column shear reinforcement.

The shear reinforcement design procedure for columns is very similar to that

for beams, except that the effect of the axial force on the concrete shear ca-

pacity needs to be considered. See Concrete Frame UBC97 Technical Note 10

General Design Information Concrete Frame Design

Technical Note 1 - 4 Second Order P-Delta Effects

Column Design and Concrete Frame ACI 318-99 Technical Note 20 Column

Design for more information.

Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios

When the ACI 318-99 or UBC97 code is selected, the program calculates the

ratio of the sum of the beam moment capacities to the sum of the column

moment capacities at a particular joint for a particular column direction, ma-

jor or minor. The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength

factor, α, and including ϕ factors. The beam capacities are calculated for re-

versed situations and the maximum summation obtained is used.

The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is

not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along

the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are

added to the summation.

The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column

below the joint. For each load combination, the axial force, P

u

, in each of the

columns is calculated from the program analysis load combinations. For each

load combination, the moment capacity of each column under the influence of

the corresponding axial load P

u

is then determined separately for the major

and minor directions of the column, using the uniaxial column interaction dia-

gram. The moment capacities of the two columns are added to give the ca-

pacity summation for the corresponding load combination. The maximum ca-

pacity summations obtained from all of the load combinations is used for the

beam/column capacity ratio.

The beam/column flexural capacity ratios are only reported for Special Mo-

ment-Resisting Frames involving seismic design load combinations.

See Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios in Concrete Frame UBC97 Techni-

cal Note 12 Joint Design or in Concrete Frame ACI 318-99 Technical Note 22

Joint Design for more information.

Second Order P-Delta Effects

Typically, design codes require that second order P-Delta effects be consid-

ered when designing concrete frames. The P-Delta effects come from two

sources. They are the global lateral translation of the frame and the local de-

formation of elements within the frame.

Concrete Frame Design General Design Information

Second Order P-Delta Effects Technical Note 1 - 5

Consider the frame element shown in Figure 1, which is extracted from a

story level of a larger structure. The overall global translation of this frame

element is indicated by ∆. The local deformation of the element is shown as δ.

The total second order P-Delta effects on this frame element are those caused

by both ∆ and δ.

The program has an option to consider P-Delta effects in the analysis. Con-

trols for considering this effect are found using the Analyze menu > Set

Analysis Options command and then clicking the Set P-Delta Parameters

button. When you consider P-Delta effects in the analysis, the program does a

good job of capturing the effect due to the ∆ deformation shown in Figure 1,

but it does not typically capture the effect of the δ deformation (unless, in the

model, the frame element is broken into multiple pieces over its length).

In design codes, consideration of the second order P-Delta effects is generally

achieved by computing the flexural design capacity using a formula similar to

that shown in Equation. 1.

M

CAP

= aM

nt

+ bM

lt

Eqn. 1

where,

M

CAP

= Flexural design capacity

∆

δ

Original position of frame

element shown by vertical

line

Position of frame element

as a result of global lateral

translation, ∆, shown by

dashed line

Final deflected position of

frame element that

includes the global lateral

translation, ∆, and the

local deformation of the

element, δ

Figure 1: The Total Second Order P-Delta Effects on a Frame Element

Caused by Both ∆ ∆∆ ∆ and δ δδ δ

General Design Information Concrete Frame Design

Technical Note 1 - 6 Element Unsupported Lengths

M

nt

= Required flexural capacity of the member assuming there is

no translation of the frame (i.e., associated with the δ defor-

mation in Figure 1)

M

lt

= Required flexural capacity of the member as a result of lateral

translation of the frame only (i.e., associated with the ∆ de-

formation in Figure 1)

a = Unitless factor multiplying M

nt

b = Unitless factor multiplying M

lt

(assumed equal to 1 by the

program; see below)

When the program performs concrete frame design, it assumes that the factor

b is equal to 1 and it uses code-specific formulas to calculate the factor a.

That b = 1 assumes that you have considered P-Delta effects in the analysis,

as previously described. Thus, in general, if you are performing concrete

frame design in this program, you should consider P-Delta effects in the

analysis before running the design.

Element Unsupported Lengths

The column unsupported lengths are required to account for column slender-

ness effects. The program automatically determines these unsupported

lengths. They can also be overwritten by the user on an element-by-element

basis, if desired, using the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design >

View/Revise Overwrites command.

There are two unsupported lengths to consider. They are L

33

and L

22,

as

shown in Figure 2. These are the lengths between support points of the ele-

ment in the corresponding directions. The length L

33

corresponds to instability

about the 3-3 axis (major axis), and L

22

corresponds to instability about the

2-2 axis (minor axis). The length L

22

is also used for lateral-torsional buckling

caused by major direction bending (i.e., about the 3-3 axis).

In determining the values for L

22

and L

33

of the elements, the program recog-

nizes various aspects of the structure that have an effect on these lengths,

such as member connectivity, diaphragm constraints and support points. The

program automatically locates the element support points and evaluates the

corresponding unsupported length.

Concrete Frame Design General Design Information

Analysis Sections and Design Sections Technical Note 1 - 7

Figure 2: Major and Minor Axes of Bending

It is possible for the unsupported length of a frame element to be evaluated

by the program as greater than the corresponding element length. For exam-

ple, assume a column has a beam framing into it in one direction, but not the

other, at a floor level. In this case, the column is assumed to be supported in

one direction only at that story level, and its unsupported length in the other

direction will exceed the story height.

Analysis Sections and Design Sections

Analysis sections are those section properties used to analyze the model

when you click the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command. The design

section is whatever section has most currently been designed and thus desig-

nated the current design section.

Tip:

It is important to understand the difference between analysis sections and design sec-

tions.

General Design Information Concrete Frame Design

Technical Note 1 - 8 Analysis Sections and Design Sections

It is possible for the last used analysis section and the current design section

to be different. For example, you may have run your analysis using a W18X35

beam and then found in the design that a W16X31 beam worked. In that

case, the last used analysis section is the W18X35 and the current design

section is the W16X31. Before you complete the design process, verify that

the last used analysis section and the current design section are the same.

The Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Verify Analysis vs De-

sign Section command is useful for this task.

The program keeps track of the analysis section and the design section

separately. Note the following about analysis and design sections:

Assigning a beam a frame section property using the Assign menu >

Frame/Line > Frame Section command assigns the section as both the

analysis section and the design section.

Running an analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command

(or its associated toolbar button) always sets the analysis section to be the

same as the current design section.

Assigning an auto select list to a frame section using the Assign menu >

Frame/Line > Frame Section command initially sets the design section

to be the beam with the median weight in the auto select list.

Unlocking a model deletes the design results, but it does not delete or

change the design section.

Using the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Select Design

Combo command to change a design load combination deletes the design

results, but it does not delete or change the design section.

Using the Define menu > Load Combinations command to change a de-

sign load combination deletes the design results, but it does not delete or

change the design section.

Using the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design

command to change any of the composite beam design preferences deletes

the design results, but it does not delete or change the design section.

Deleting the static nonlinear analysis results also deletes the design results

for any load combination that includes static nonlinear forces. Typically,

Concrete Frame Design General Design Information

Analysis Sections and Design Sections Technical Note 1 - 9

static nonlinear analysis and design results are deleted when one of the

following actions is taken:

9 Use the Define menu > Frame Nonlinear Hinge Properties com-

mand to redefine existing or define new hinges.

9 Use the Define menu > Static Nonlinear/Pushover Cases com-

mand to redefine existing or define new static nonlinear load cases.

9 Use the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Frame Nonlinear Hinges

command to add or delete hinges.

Again, note that these actions delete only results for load combinations that

include static nonlinear forces.

Concrete Frame Design Procedure Technical Note 2 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN

Technical Note 2

Concrete Frame Design Process

This Technical Note describes a basic concrete frame design process using

this program. Although the exact steps you follow may vary, the basic design

process should be similar to that described herein. Other Technical Notes in

the Concrete Frame Design series provide additional information, including

the distinction between analysis sections and design sections (see Analysis

Sections and Design Sections in Concrete Frame Design Technical Note 1

General Design Information).

The concrete frame design postprocessor can design or check concrete col-

umns and can design concrete beams.

Important note: A concrete frame element is designed as a beam or a col-

umn, depending on how its frame section property was designated when it

was defined using the Define menu > Frame Sections command. Note that

when using this command, after you have specified that a section has a con-

crete material property, you can click on the Reinforcement button and

specify whether it is a beam or a column.

Concrete Frame Design Procedure

The following sequence describes a typical concrete frame design process for

a new building. Note that although the sequence of steps you follow may

vary, the basic process probably will be essentially the same.

1. Use the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design

command to choose the concrete frame design code and to review other

concrete frame design preferences and revise them if necessary. Note

that default values are provided for all concrete frame design prefer-

ences, so it is unnecessary to define any preferences unless you want to

change some of the default values. See Concrete Frame Design ACI

UBC97 Technical Notes 6 Preferences and Concrete Frame Design ACI

318-99 Technical Notes 16 Preferences for more information.

Concrete Frame Design Process Concrete Frame Design

Technical Note 2 - 2 Concrete Frame Design Procedure

2. Create the building model.

3. Run the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis

command.

4. Assign concrete frame overwrites, if needed, using the Design menu >

Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. Note

that you must select frame elements before using this command. Also

note that default values are provided for all concrete frame design over-

writes, so it is unnecessary to define any overwrites unless you want to

change some of the default values. Note that the overwrites can be as-

signed before or after the analysis is run. See Concrete Frame Design

UBC97 Technical Note 7 Overwrites and Concrete Frame Design ACI

318-99 Technical Note 17 Overwrites for more information.

5. To use any design load combinations other than the defaults created by

the program for your concrete frame design, click the Design menu >

Concrete Frame Design > Select Design Combo command. Note

that you must have already created your own design combos by clicking

the Define menu > Load Combinations command. See Concrete

Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combinations and

Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 18 Design Load

Combinations for more information.

6. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start De-

sign/Check of Structure command to run the concrete frame design.

7. Review the concrete frame design results by doing one of the following:

a. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display De-

sign Info command to display design input and output information on

the model. See Concrete Frame Design Technical Note 4 Output Data

Plotted Directly on the Model for more information.

b. Right click on a frame element while the design results are displayed

on it to enter the interactive design mode and interactively design the

frame element. Note that while you are in this mode, you can revise

overwrites and immediately see the results of the new design. See

Concrete Frame Design Technical Note 3 Interactive Concrete Frame

Design for more information.

Concrete Frame Design Concrete Frame Design Process

Concrete Frame Design Procedure Technical Note 2 - 3

If design results are not currently displayed (and the design has been

run), click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Interac-

tive Concrete Frame Design command and then right click a frame

element to enter the interactive design mode for that element.

8. Use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design com-

mand to print concrete frame design data. If you select frame elements

before using this command, data is printed only for the selected ele-

ments. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output

Details and Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 24 Out-

put Details for more information.

9. Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Change Design

Section command to change the design section properties for selected

frame elements.

10. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start De-

sign/Check of Structure command to rerun the concrete frame design

with the new section properties. Review the results using the procedures

described in Item 7.

11. Rerun the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis

command. Note that the section properties used for the analysis are the

last specified design section properties.

12. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start De-

sign/Check of Structure command to rerun the concrete frame design

with the new analysis results and new section properties. Review the re-

sults using the procedures described above.

13. Again use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Change

Design Section command to change the design section properties for

selected frame elements, if necessary.

14. Repeat the processes in steps 10, 11 and 12 as many times as neces-

sary.

15. Rerun the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis

command. Note that the section properties used for the analysis are the

last specified design section properties.

Concrete Frame Design Process Concrete Frame Design

Technical Note 2 - 4 Concrete Frame Design Procedure

Note:

Concrete frame design is an iterative process. Typically, the analysis and design will be

rerun multiple times to complete a design.

16. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start De-

sign/Check of Structure command to rerun the concrete frame design

with the new section properties. Review the results using the procedures

described in Item 7.

17. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Verify Analysis

vs Design Section command to verify that all of the final design sec-

tions are the same as the last used analysis sections.

18. Use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design com-

mand to print selected concrete frame design results, if desired.

It is important to note that design is an iterative process. The sections used in

the original analysis are not typically the same as those obtained at the end

of the design process. Always run the building analysis using the final frame

section sizes and then run a design check using the forces obtained from that

analysis. Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Verify

Analysis vs Design Section command to verify that the design sections are

the same as the analysis sections.

General Technical Note 3 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN

Technical Note 3

Interactive Concrete Frame Design

This Technical Note describes interactive concrete frame design and review,

which is a powerful mode that allows the user to review the design results for

any concrete frame design and interactively revise the design assumptions

and immediately review the revised results.

General

Note that a design must have been run for the interactive design mode to be

available. To run a design, click the Design menu > Concrete Frame De-

sign > Start Design/Check of Structure command.

Right click on a frame element while the design results are displayed on it to

enter the interactive design mode and interactively design the element in the

Concrete Design Information form. If design results are not currently dis-

played (and a design has been run), click the Design menu > Concrete

Frame Design > Interactive Concrete Frame Design command and then

right click a frame element to enter the interactive design mode for that ele-

ment.

Important note: A concrete frame element is designed as a beam or a col-

umn, depending on how its frame section property was designated when it

was defined using the Define menu > Frame Sections command and the

Reinforcement button, which is only available if it is a concrete section.

Concrete Design Information Form

Table 1 describe the features that are included in the Concrete Design Infor-

mation form.

Interactive Concrete Frame Design Concrete Frame Design

Technical Note 3 - 2 Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form

Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form

Item DESCRIPTION

Story This is the story level ID associated with the frame element.

Beam This is the label associated with a frame element that has been

assigned a concrete frame section property that is designated

as a beam. See the important note previously in this Technical

Note for more information.

Column This is the label associated with a frame element that has been

assigned a concrete frame section property that is designated

as a column. See the important note previously in this Techni-

cal Note for more information.

Section Name This is the label associated with a frame element that has been

assigned a concrete frame section property.

Reinforcement Information

The reinforcement information table on the Concrete Design Information form shows the

output information obtained for each design load combination at each output station

along the frame element. For columns that are designed by this program, the item with

the largest required amount of longitudinal reinforcing is initially highlighted. For columns

that are checked by this program, the item with the largest capacity ratio is initially high-

lighted. For beams, the item with the largest required amount of bottom steel is initially

highlighted. Following are the possible headings in the table:

Combo ID This is the name of the design load combination considered.

Station location This is the location of the station considered, measured from

the i-end of the frame element.

Longitudinal

reinforcement

This item applies to columns only. It also only applies to col-

umns for which the program designs the longitudinal reinforc-

ing. It is the total required area of longitudinal reinforcing steel.

Capacity ratio This item applies to columns only. It also only applies to col-

umns for which you have specified the location and size of re-

inforcing bars and thus the program checks the design. This

item is the capacity ratio.

Concrete Frame Design Interactive Concrete Frame Design

Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form Technical Note 3 - 3

Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form

Item DESCRIPTION

The capacity ratio is determined by first extending a line from

the origin of the PMM interaction surface to the point repre-

senting the P, M2 and M3 values for the designated load com-

bination. Assume the length of this first line is designated L1.

Next, a second line is extended from the origin of the PMM in-

teraction surface through the point representing the P, M2 and

M3 values for the designated load combination until it intersects

the interaction surface. Assume the length of this line from the

origin to the interaction surface is designated L2. The capacity

ratio is equal to L1/L2.

Major shear

reinforcement

This item applies to columns only. It is the total required area of

shear reinforcing per unit length for shear acting in the column

major direction.

Minor shear

reinforcement

This item applies to columns only. It is the total required area of

shear reinforcing per unit length for shear acting in the column

minor direction.

Top steel This item applies to beams only. It is the total required area of

longitudinal top steel at the specified station.

Bottom steel This item applies to beams only. It is the total required area of

longitudinal bottom steel at the specified station.

Shear steel This item applies to beams only. It is the total required area of

shear reinforcing per unit length at the specified station for

loads acting in the local 2-axis direction of the beam.

Overwrites Button Click this button to access and make revisions to the concrete

frame overwrites and then immediately see the new design re-

sults. If you modify some overwrites in this mode and you exit

both the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form and the Con-

crete Design Information form by clicking their respective OK

buttons, the changes to the overwrites are saved permanently.

When you exit the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form by

clicking the OK button the changes are temporarily saved. If

you then exit the Concrete Design Information form by clicking

the Cancel button the changes you made to the concrete frame

overwrites are considered temporary only and are not perma-

nently saved. Permanent saving of the overwrites does not ac-

tually occur until you click the OK button in the Concrete Design

Information form as well as the Concrete Frame Design Over-

writes form.

Interactive Concrete Frame Design Concrete Frame Design

Technical Note 3 - 4 Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form

Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form

Item DESCRIPTION

Details Button

Clicking this button displays design details for the frame ele-

ment. Print this information by selecting Print from the File

menu that appears at the top of the window displaying the de-

sign details.

Interaction Button Clicking this button displays the biaxial interaction curve for the

concrete section at the location in the element that is high-

lighted in the table.

Overview Technical Note 4 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN

Technical Note 4

Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model

This Technical Note describes the input and output data that can be plotted

directly on the model.

Overview

Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info

command to display on-screen output plotted directly on the program model.

If desired, the screen graphics can then be printed using the File menu >

Print Graphics command. The on-screen display data presents input and

output data.

Using the Print Design Tables Form

To print the concrete frame input summary directly to a printer, use the File

menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the

check box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the OK button to send the

print to your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to

cancel the print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the

Setup>> button to change printers, if necessary.

To print the concrete frame input summary to a file, click the Print to File

check box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the Filename>> button to

change the path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the de-

sired format (e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the OK buttons on the Open File for

Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the re-

quest.

Note:

The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out-

put that is printed to a text file.

The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and

filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print

Design Tables form. Data will be added to this file. Or use the Filename

Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model Concrete Frame Design

Technical Note 4 - 2 Design Input

button to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing Tables cau-

tion box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.

If you select a specific concrete frame element(s) before using the File menu

> Print Tables > concrete Frame Design command, the Selection Only

check box will be checked. The print will be for the selected steel frame ele-

ment(s) only.

Design Input

The following types of data can be displayed directly on the model by select-

ing the data type (shown in bold type) from the drop-down list on the Display

Design Results form. Display this form by selecting he Design menu > Con-

crete Frame Design > Display Design Info command.

Design Sections

Design Type

Live Load Red Factors

Unbraced L_Ratios

Eff Length K-Factors

Cm Factors

DNS Factors

DS Factors

Each of these items is described in the code-specific Concrete Frame Design

UBC97 Technical Note 13 Input Data and Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99

Technical Note 23 Input Data.

Design Output

The following types of data can be displayed directly on the model by select-

ing the data type (shown in bold type) from the drop-down list on the Display

Design Results form. Display this form by selecting he Design menu > Con-

crete Frame Design > Display Design Info command.

Concrete Frame Design Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model

Design Output Technical Note 4 - 3

Longitudinal Reinforcing

Shear Reinforcing

Column Capacity Ratios

Joint Shear Capacity Ratios

Beam/Column Capacity Ratios

Each of these items is described in the code-specific Concrete Frame Design

ACI 318-99 Technical Note 24 Output Details and Concrete Frame Design

UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output Details.

General and Notation Technical Note 5 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 5

General and Notation

Introduction to the UBC97 Series of Technical Notes

The Concrete Frame Design UBC97 series of Technical Notes describes in de-

tail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by this

program when the user selects the UBC97 Design Code (ICBO 1997). The

various notations used in this series are listed herein.

The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. The program

provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements

for the design of most building type structures. See Concrete Frame Design

UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combinations for more information.

When using the UBC 97 option, a frame is assigned to one of the following

five Seismic Zones (UBC 2213, 2214):

Zone 0

Zone 1

Zone 2

Zone 3

Zone 4

By default the Seismic Zone is taken as Zone 4 in the program. However, the

Seismic Zone can be overwritten in the Preference form to change the de-

fault. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 6 Preferences for

more information.

When using the UBC 97 option, the following Framing Systems are recognized

and designed according to the UBC design provisions (UBC 1627, 1921):

Ordinary Moment-Resisting Frame (OMF)

General and Notation Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 5 - 2 General and Notation

Intermediate Moment-Resisting Frame (IMRF)

Special Moment-Resisting Frame (SMRF)

The Ordinary Moment-Resisting Frame (OMF) is appropriate in minimal seis-

mic risk areas, especially in Seismic Zones 0 and 1. The Intermediate Mo-

ment-Resisting Frame (IMRF) is appropriate in moderate seismic risk areas,

specially in Seismic Zone 2. The Special Moment-Resisting Frame (SMRF) is

appropriate in high seismic risk areas, specially in Seismic Zones 3 and 4. The

UBC seismic design provisions are considered in the program. The details of

the design criteria used for the different framing systems are described in

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 9 Strength Reduction Factors,

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 10 Column Design, Concrete

Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 11 Beam Design, and Concrete Frame

Design UBC97 Technical Note 12 Joint Design.

By default the frame type is taken in the program as OMRF in Seismic Zone 0

and 1, as IMRF in Seismic Zone 2, and as SMRF in Seismic Zone 3 and 4.

However, the frame type can be overwritten in the Overwrites form on a

member-by-member basis. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note

7 Overwrites for more information. If any member is assigned with a frame

type, the change of the Seismic Zone in the Preferences will not modify the

frame type of an individual member that has been assigned a frame type.

The program also provides input and output data summaries, which are de-

scribed in Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 13 Input Data and

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output Details.

English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is

based on Inch-Pound-Second units. For simplicity, all equations and descrip-

tions presented in this Technical Note correspond to Inch-Pound-Second

units unless otherwise noted.

Notation

A

cv

Area of concrete used to determine shear stress, sq-in

A

g

Gross area of concrete, sq-in

A

s

Area of tension reinforcement, sq-in

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 General and Notation

General and Notation Technical Note 5 - 3

'

s

A

Area of compression reinforcement, sq-in

A

s(required)

Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-in

A

st

Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, sq-in

A

v

Area of shear reinforcement, sq-in

C

m

Coefficient, dependent upon column curvature, used to calculate

moment magnification factor

D' Diameter of hoop, in

E

c

Modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi

E

s

Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 29,000,000 psi

(UBC 1980.5.2)

I

g

Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis,

neglecting reinforcement, in

4

I

se

Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of mem-

ber cross section, in

4

L Clear unsupported length, in

M

1

Smaller factored end moment in a column, lb-in

M

2

Larger factored end moment in a column, lb-in

M

c

Factored moment to be used in design, lb-in

M

ns

Nonsway component of factored end moment, lb-in

M

s

Sway component of factored end moment, lb-in

M

u

Factored moment at section, lb-in

M

ux

Factored moment at section about X-axis, lb-in

M

uy

Factored moment at section about Y-axis, lb-in

P

b

Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions, lb

General and Notation Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 5 - 4 General and Notation

P

c

Critical buckling strength of column, lb

P

max

Maximum axial load strength allowed, lb

P

0

Acial load capacity at zero eccentricity, lb

P

u

Factored axial load at section, lb

V

c

Shear resisted by concrete, lb

V

E

Shear force caused by earthquake loads, lb

V

D+L

Shear force from span loading, lb

V

u

Factored shear force at a section, lb

V

p

Shear force computed from probable moment capacity, lb

a Depth of compression block, in

a

b

Depth of compression block at balanced condition, in

b Width of member, in

b

f

Effective width of flange (T-Beam section), in

b

w

Width of web (T-Beam section), in

c Depth to neutral axis, in

c

b

Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, in

d Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, in

d' Concrete cover to center of reinforcing, in

d

s

Thickness of slab (T-Beam section), in

'

c

f

Specified compressive strength of concrete, psi

f

y

Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, psi

f

y

≤ 80,000 psi (UBC 1909.4)

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 General and Notation

General and Notation Technical Note 5 - 5

f

ys

Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, psi

h Dimension of column, in

k Effective length factor

r Radius of gyration of column section, in

α Reinforcing steel overstrength factor

β

1

Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete

β

d

Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to

maximum factored axial total load

δ

s

Moment magnification factor for sway moments

δ

ns

Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments

ε

c

Strain in concrete

ε

s

Strain in reinforcing steel

ϕ Strength reduction factor

General Technical Note 6 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 6

Preferences

This Technical Note describes the items in the Preferences form.

General

The concrete frame design preferences in this program are basic assignments

that apply to all concrete frame elements. Use the Options menu > Prefer-

ences > Concrete Frame Design command to access the Preferences form

where you can view and revise the concrete frame design preferences.

Default values are provided for all concrete frame design preference items.

Thus, it is not required that you specify or change any of the preferences. You

should, however, at least review the default values for the preference items

to make sure they are acceptable to you.

Using the Preferences Form

To view preferences, select the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete

Frame Design. The Preferences form will display. The preference options

are displayed in a two-column spreadsheet. The left column of the spread-

sheet displays the preference item name. The right column of the spreadsheet

displays the preference item value.

To change a preference item, left click the desired preference item in either

the left or right column of the spreadsheet. This activates a drop-down box or

highlights the current preference value. If the drop-down box appears, select

a new value. If the cell is highlighted, type in the desired value. The prefer-

ence value will update accordingly. You cannot overwrite values in the drop-

down boxes.

When you have finished making changes to the concrete frame preferences,

click the OK button to close the form. You must click the OK button for the

changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the Cancel button to exit

Preferences Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 6 - 2 Preferences

the form, any changes made to the preferences are ignored and the form is

closed.

Preferences

For purposes of explanation in this Technical Note, the preference items are

presented in Table 1. The column headings in the table are described as fol-

lows:

Item: The name of the preference item as it appears in the cells at the

left side of the Preferences form.

Possible Values: The possible values that the associated preference item

can have.

Default Value: The built-in default value that the program assumes for

the associated preference item.

Description: A description of the associated preference item.

Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value Description

Design Code Any code in

the program

UBC97 Design code used for design of

concrete frame elements.

Phi Bending

Tension

>0 0.9 Unitless strength reduction factor per

UBC 1909.

Phi Compres-

sion Tied

>0 0.7 Unitless strength reduction factor per

UBC 1909.

Phi Compres-

sion Spiral

>0 0.75 Unitless strength reduction factor per

UBC 1909.

Phi Shear >0 0.85 Unitless strength reduction factor per

UBC 1909.

Number Inter-

action Curves

≥4.0 24 Number of equally spaced interaction

curves used to create a full 360-degree

interaction surface (this item should be

a multiple of four). We recommend that

you use 24 for this item.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Preferences

Preferences Technical Note 6 - 3

Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value Description

Number Inter-

action Points

Any odd value

≥1.0

11 Number of points used for defining a

single curve in a concrete frame

interaction surface (this item should be

odd).

Time History

Design

Envelopes or

Step-by-Step

Envelopes Toggle for design load combinations

that include a time history designed for

the envelope of the time history, or

designed step-by-step for the entire

time history. If a single design load

combination has more than one time

history case in it, that design load

combination is designed for the

envelopes of the time histories,

regardless of what is specified here.

Overwrites Technical Note 7 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 7

Overwrites

General

The concrete frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only

to those elements to which they are assigned. This Technical Note describes

concrete frame design overwrites for UBC97. To access the overwrites, select

an element and click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design >

View/Revise Overwrites command.

Default values are provided for all overwrite items. Thus, you do not need to

specify or change any of the overwrites. However, at least review the default

values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. When

changes are made to overwrite items, the program applies the changes only

to the elements to which they are specifically assigned; that is, to the ele-

ments that are selected when the overwrites are changed.

Overwrites

For explanation purposes in this Technical Note, the overwrites are presented

in Table 1. The column headings in the table are described as follows.

Item: The name of the overwrite item as it appears in the program. To

save space in the formes, these names are generally short.

Possible Values: The possible values that the associated overwrite item

can have.

Default Value: The default value that the program assumes for the asso-

ciated overwrite item.

Description: A description of the associated overwrite item.

An explanation of how to change an overwrite is provided at the end of this

Technical Note.

Overwrites Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 7 - 2 Overwrites

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value Description

Element

Section

Element

Type

Sway Special,

Sway Interme-

diate,

Sway

Ordinary

NonSway

Sway Special Frame type; see UBC 1910.11 to

1910.13.

Live Load

Reduction

Factor

>0

≤1.0

1. Used to reduce the live load contribu-

tion to the factored loading.

Horizontal

Earthquake

Factor

>0

≤1.0

1.

Unbraced

Length Ratio

(Major)

>0

≤1.0

1.0

Unbraced

Length Ratio

(Minor)

>0

≤1.0

1.0

Effective

Length Factor

(K Major)

>0

≤1.0

1 See UBC 1910.12.1.

Effective

Length Factor

(K Minor)

>0

≤1.0

1 See UBC 1910.12.1.

Moment

Coefficient

(Cm Major)

>0

≤1.0

1 See UBC 1910.12.3.1 relates actual

moment diagram to an equivalent uni-

form moment diagram.

Moment

Coefficient

(Cm Minor)

>0

≤1.0

1 See UBC 1910.12.3.1 relates actual

moment diagram to an equivalent uni-

form moment diagram.

NonSway

Moment Factor

(Dns Major)

>0

≤1.0

1 See UBC 1910.12.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Overwrites

Overwrites Technical Note 7 - 3

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value Description

NonSway

Moment Factor

(Dns Minor)

1 See UBC 1910.12.

Sway Moment

Factor

(Ds Major)

1 See UBC 1910.12.

Sway Moment

Factor

(Ds Minor)

1 See UBC 1910.12.

Making Changes in the Overwrites Form

To access the concrete frame overwrites, select an element and click the De-

sign menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites com-

mand.

The overwrites are displayed in the form with a column of check boxes and a

two-column spreadsheet. The left column of the spreadsheet contains the

name of the overwrite item. The right column of the spreadsheet contains the

overwrites values.

Initially, the check boxes in the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form are

all unchecked and all of the cells in the spreadsheet have a gray background

to indicate that they are inactive and the items in the cells cannot be

changed. The names of the overwrite items are displayed in the first column

of the spreadsheet. The values of the overwrite items are visible in the second

column of the spreadsheet if only one element was selected before the over-

writes form was accessed. If multiple elements were selected, no values show

for the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet.

After selecting one or multiple elements, check the box to the left of an over-

write item to change it. Then left click in either column of the spreadsheet to

activate a drop-down box or highlight the contents in the cell in the right col-

umn of the spreadsheet. If the drop-down box appears, select a value from

Overwrites Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 7 - 4 Overwrites

the box. If the cell contents is highlighted, type in the desired value. The

overwrite will reflect the change. You cannot change the values of the drop-

down boxes.

When changes to the overwrites have been completed, click the OK button to

close the form. The program then changes all of the overwrite items whose

associated check boxes are checked for the selected members. You must click

the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the

Cancel button to exit the form, any changes made to the overwrites are ig-

nored and the form is closed.

Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default Values

Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Reset All Overwrites

command to reset all of the steel frame overwrites. All current design results

will be deleted when this command is executed.

Important note about resetting overwrites: The program defaults for the

overwrite items are built into the program. The concrete frame overwrite val-

ues that were in a .edb file that you used to initialize your model may be dif-

ferent from the built-in program default values. When you reset overwrites,

the program resets the overwrite values to its built-in values, not to the val-

ues that were in the .edb file used to initialize the model.

Design Load Combinations Technical Note 8 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 8

Design Load Combinations

The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed

load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. For the UBC 97 code,

if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only, the stress

check may need only one load combination, namely 1.4 DL + 1.7 LL (UBC

1909.2.1). However, in addition to the dead and live loads, if the structure is

subjected to wind (WL) and earthquake (EL) loads, and considering that wind

and earthquake forces are reversible, the following load combinations may

need to be considered (UBC 1909.2).

1.4 DL (UBC 1909.2.1)

1.4 DL + 1.7 LL (UBC 1909.2.1)

0.9 DL ± 1.3 WL (UBC 1909.2.2)

0.75 (1.4 DL + 1.7 LL ± 1.7 WL) (UBC 1909.2.2)

0.9 DL ± 1.0 EL (UBC 1909.2.3, 1612.2.1)

1.2 DL + 0.5 LL ± 1.0 EL) (UBC 1909.2.3, 1612.2.1)

These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever

the UBC97 code is used.

Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live

load condition on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of

the live load to the factored loading. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 7 Overwrites for more information.

Strength Reduction Factors Technical Note 9 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 9

Strength Reduction Factors

The strength reduction factors, ϕ, are applied on the nominal strength to ob-

tain the design strength provided by a member. The ϕ factors for flexure, ax-

ial force, shear, and torsion are as follows:

ϕ = 0.90 for flexure (UBC 1909.3.2.1)

ϕ = 0.90 for axial tension (UBC 1909.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.90 for axial tension and flexure (UBC 1909.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.75 for axial compression, and axial compression

and flexure (spirally reinforced column) (UBC 1909.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.70 for axial compression, and axial compression

and flexure (tied column) (UBC 1909.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.85 for shear and torsion (non-seismic design) (UBC 1909.3.2.3)

ϕ = 0.60 for shear and torsion (UBC 1909.3.2.3)

Overview Technical Note 10 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 10

Column Design

This Technical Note describes how the program checks column capacity or de-

signs reinforced concrete columns when the UBC97 code is selected.

Overview

The program can be used to check column capacity or to design columns. If

you define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete

column section, the program will check the column capacity. Alternatively, the

program can calculate the amount of reinforcing required to design the col-

umn. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the struc-

ture involves the following steps:

Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the dif-

ferent concrete section types of the model. A typical biaxial interaction

surface is shown in Figure 1. When the steel is undefined, the program

generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforce-

ment1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Intermediate moment resisting

frames (UBC 1910.9.1) and 1 to 6 percent for Special moment resisting

frames (UBC 1921.4.3.1).

Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the fac-

tored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from

each loading combination at each station of the column. The target capac-

ity ratio is taken as 1 when calculating the required reinforcing area.

Design the column shear reinforcement.

The following four subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated

with this process.

Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 10 - 2 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces

Figure 1 A Typical Column Interaction Surface

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces

The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series

of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction

failure surface. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending, the for-

mulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations. A typical

interaction diagram is shown in Figure 1.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces Technical Note 10 - 3

The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear

strain in three dimensions on the section of the column. See Figure 2. The

linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain, ε

c

, at the extremity

of the section, to 0.003 (UBC 1910.2.3).

The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate

strength design (UBC 1910.3), and allows for any doubly symmetric rectan-

gular, square, or circular column section.

The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel

modulus of elasticity, ε

s

E

s

, and is limited to the yield stress of the steel, f

y

(UBC 1910.2.4). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to

be placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm

does not assume any further simplifications with respect to distributing the

area of steel over the cross section of the column, such as an equivalent steel

tube or cylinder. See Figure 3.

The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a

stress value of 0.85

'

c

f (UBC 1910.2.7.1). See Figure 3. The interaction algo-

rithm provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by

the reinforcement in the compression zone.

The effects of the strength reduction factor, ϕ, are included in the generation

of the interaction surfaces. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to

ϕP

n(max)

, where

ϕP

n(max)

= 0.85ϕ[0.85

'

c

f (A

g

-A

st

)+f

y

A

st

] (spiral) (UBC 1910.3.5.1)

ϕP

n(max)

= 0.85ϕ[0.85

'

c

f (A

g

-A

st

)+f

y

A

st

] (tied) (UBC 1910.3.5.2)

ϕ = 0.70 for tied columns (UBC 1909.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.75 for spirally reinforced columns (UBC 1909.3.2.2)

The value of ϕ used in the interaction diagram varies from ϕ

min

to 0.9 based

on the axial load. For low values of axial load, ϕ is increased linearly from ϕ

min

to 0.9 as the nominal capacity ϕP

n

decreases from the smaller of ϕP

b

or

0.1

'

c

f A

g

to zero, where P

b

is the axial force at the balanced condition. In

cases involving axial tension, ϕ is always 0.9 (UBC 1909.3.2.2).

Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 10 - 4 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces

Figure 2 Idealized Strain Distribution for Generation of Interaction Surfaces

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 10 - 5

Figure 3 Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio

The column capacity ratio is calculated for each loading combination at each

output station of each column. The following steps are involved in calculating

the capacity ratio of a particular column for a particular loading combination

at a particular location:

Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases

and the specified load combination factors to give P

u

, M

ux

, and M

uy

.

Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments.

Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored moments. Deter-

mine whether the point, defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial

moment set, lies within the interaction volume.

The factored moments and corresponding magnification factors depend on the

identification of the individual column as either “sway” or “non-sway.”

Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 10 - 6 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

this process.

Determine Factored Moments and Forces

The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying

the corresponding load factors to all the load cases, giving P

u

, M

ux

, and M

uy

.

The factored moments are further increased for non-sway columns, if re-

quired, to obtain minimum eccentricities of (0.6 + 0.03h) inches, where h is

the dimension of the column in the corresponding direction (UBC

1910.12.3.2).

Determine Moment Magnification Factors

The moment magnification factors are calculated separately for sway (overall

stability effect), δ

s

, and for non-sway (individual column stability effect), δ

ns

.

Also the moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are

in general different.

The program assumes that it performs a P-delta analysis and, therefore, mo-

ment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken as unity

(UBC 1910.10.2). For the P-delta analysis, the load should correspond to a

load combination of 0.75 (1.4 dead load + 1.7 live load)/ϕ if wind load gov-

erns, or (1.2 dead load + 0.50 live load)/ϕ if seismic load governs, where ϕ is

the understrength factor for stability, which is taken as 0.75 (UBC

1910.12.3). See also White and Hajjar (1991).

The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the

sway (M

s

) and the non-sway (M

s

) components. The non-sway components

which are identified by “ns” subscripts are predominantly caused by gravity

load. The sway components are identified by the “s” subscripts. The sway

moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads, and are related to the

cause of side-sway.

For individual columns or column-members in a floor, the magnified moments

about two axes at any station of a column can be obtained as

M = M

ns

+ δ

s

M

s

. (UBC 1910.13.3)

The factor δ

s

is the moment magnification factor for moments causing side

sway. The moment magnification factors for sway moments, δ

s

, is taken as 1

because the component moments M

s

and M

ns

are obtained from a “second or-

der elastic (P-delta) analysis.”

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 10 - 7

The computed moments are further amplified for individual column stability

effect (UBC 1910.12.3, 1910.13.5) by the nonsway moment magnification

factor, δ

ns

, as follows:

M

c

= δ

ns

M

2

, where (UBC 1910.12.3)

M

c

is the factored moment to be used in design, and

M

2

is the larger factored and amplified end moment.

The non-sway moment magnification factor, δ

ns

, associated with the major or

minor direction of the column is given by (UBC 1910.12.3)

δ

ns

=

c

u

m

P

P

C

75 . 0

1 −

≥ 1.0, where (UBC 1910.12.3)

P

c

=

2

2

) (

u

kl

EI π

, (UBC 1910.12.3)

k is conservatively taken as 1; however, the program allows the user to

override this value.

EI is associated with a particular column direction given by:

EI =

d

g c

I E

β + 1

4 . 0

, (UBC 1910.12.3)

maximum factored axial dead load

β

d

= maximum factored axial total load and (UBC 1910.12.3)

C

m

= 0.6 + 0.4

b

a

M

M

≥ 0.4. (UBC 1910.12.3.1)

M

a

and M

b

are the moments at the ends of the column, and M

b

is numerically

larger than M

a

. M

a

/ M

b

is positive for single curvature bending and negative

for double curvature bending. The above expression of C

m

is valid if there is

no transverse load applied between the supports. If transverse load is present

on the span, or the length is overwritten, C

m

= 1. C

m

can be overwritten by

the user on an element-by-element basis.

Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 10 - 8 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio

The magnification factor, δ

ns

, must be a positive number and greater than 1.

Therefore, P

u

must be less than 0.75P

c

. If P

u

is found to be greater than or

equal to 0.75P

c

, a failure condition is declared.

The above calculations use the unsupported length of the column. The two

unsupported lengths are l

22

and l

33

, corresponding to instability in the minor

and major directions of the element, respectively. See Figure 4. These are the

lengths between the support points of the element in the corresponding di-

rections.

Figure 4 Axes of Bending and Unsupported Length

If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member, the

user can explicitly specify values of δ

s

and δ

ns

.

Determine Capacity Ratio

The program calculates a capacity ratio as a measure of the stress condition

of the column. The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 10 - 9

of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the col-

umn.

Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity, the

moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain P

u

,

M

ux

, and M

uy

. The point (P

u

, M

ux

, M

uy

.) is then placed in the interaction space

shown as point L in Figure 5. If the point lies within the interaction volume,

the column capacity is adequate; however, if the point lies outside the inter-

action volume, the column is overstressed.

Figure 5 Geometric Representation of Column Capacity Ratios

This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the lo-

cation of point C. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if

extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. This point is determined

by three-dimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the

Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 10 - 10 Required Reinforcing Area

failure surface. See Figure 5. The capacity ratio, CR, is given by the ratio

OC

OL

.

If OL = OC (or CR=1), the point lies on the interaction surface and the

column is stressed to capacity.

If OL < OC (or CR<1), the point lies within the interaction volume and the

column capacity is adequate.

If OL > OC (or CR>1), the point lies outside the interaction volume and the

column is overstressed.

The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is

reported for each check station of the column, along with the controlling P

u

,

M

ux

, and M

uy

set and associated load combination number.

Required Reinforcing Area

If the reinforcing area is not defined, the program computes the reinforce-

ment that will give a column capacity ratio of one, calculated as described in

the previous section entitled "Calculate Column Capacity Ratio."

Design Column Shear Reinforcement

The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the ma-

jor and minor directions of the column. The following steps are involved in

designing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular load

combination caused by shear forces in a particular direction:

Determine the factored forces acting on the section, P

u

and V

u

. Note that

P

u

is needed for the calculation of V

c

.

Determine the shear force, V

c

, that can be resisted by concrete alone.

Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.

For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (Ductile frames), the

shear design of the columns is also based on the probable and nominal mo-

ment capacities of the members, respectively, in addition to the factored

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design

Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 10 - 11

moments. Effects of the axial forces on the column moment capacities are

included in the formulation.

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

this process.

Determine Section Forces

In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment

resisting concrete frame, the forces for a particular load combination,

namely, the column axial force, P

u

, and the column shear force, V

u

, in a

particular direction are obtained by factoring the program analysis load

cases with the corresponding load combination factors.

In the shear design of Special moment resisting frames (i.e., seismic

design) the column is checked for capacity-shear in addition to the re-

quirement for the Ordinary moment resisting frames. The capacity-shear

force in a column, V

p

, in a particular direction is calculated from the prob-

able moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial

force acting on the column.

For each load combination, the factored axial load, P

u

, is calculated. Then,

the positive and negative moment capacities,

+

u

M and

−

u

M , of the column

in a particular direction under the influence of the axial force P

u

is calcu-

lated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction.

The design shear force, V

u

, is then given by (UBC 1921.4.5.1)

V

u

= V

p

+ V

D+L

(UBC 1921.4.5.1)

where, V

p

is the capacity-shear force obtained by applying the calculated

probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting

in two opposite directions. Therefore, V

p

is the maximum of

1

P

V and

2

P

V ,

where

1

P

V =

L

M M

J I

+ −

+

, and

2

P

V =

L

M M

J I

− +

+

, where

Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 10 - 12 Design Column Shear Reinforcement

− +

I I

M M , , = Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the

column using a steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ

factors (ϕ = 1.0),

− +

J J

M M , , = Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the

column using a steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ

factors (ϕ = 1.0), and

L = Clear span of column.

For Special moment resisting frames, α is taken as 1.25 (UBC 1921.0).

V

D+L

is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of

gravity loads. For most of the columns, it is zero.

For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the shear capacity of the

column is also checked for the capacity-shear based on the nominal mo-

ment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads, in addition to

the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design

shear force is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal (ϕ =

1.0) moment capacity and factored shear force. The procedure for calcu-

lating nominal moment capacity is the same as that for computing the

probable moment capacity for special moment resisting frames, except

that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25 (UBC 1921.0, 1921.8.3). The

factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors, except the

earthquake load factors are doubled (UBC 1921.8.3).

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity

Given the design force set P

u

and V

u

, the shear force carried by the concrete,

V

c

, is calculated as follows:

If the column is subjected to axial compression, i.e., P

u

is positive,

V

c

= 2

cv

g

u

c

A

A

P

f

+

000 , 2

1

'

, (UBC 1911.3.1.2)

where,

'

c

f ≤ 100 psi, and (UBC 1911.1.2)

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design

Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 10 - 13

V

c

≤ 3.5

'

c

f

cv

g

u

A

A

P

+

500

1 . (UBC 1911.3.2.2)

The term

g

u

A

P

must have psi units. A

cv

is the effective shear area which is

shown shaded in Figure 6. For circular columns, A

cv

is not taken to be

greater than 0.8 times the gross area (UBC 1911.5.6.2).

Figure 6 Shear Stress Area, A

cv

Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 10 - 14 Design Column Shear Reinforcement

If the column is subjected to axial tension, P

u

is negative, (UBC

1911.3.2.3)

V

c

= 2

'

c

f

+

g

u

A

P

500

1 A

cv

≥ 0 (UBC 1911.3.2.3)

For Special moment resisting concrete frame design, V

c

is set to zero

if the factored axial compressive force, P

u

, including the earthquake effect

is small (Pu <

'

c

f A

g

/ 20) and if the shear force contribution from earth-

quake, V

E

, is more than half of the total factored maximum shear force

over the length of the member V

u

(V

E

≥ 0.5V

u

) (UBC 1921.4.5.2).

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement

Given V

u

and V

c

, the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or

ties within a spacing, s, is given for rectangular and circular columns by the

following:

A

v

=

d f

s V V

ys

c u

) / ( − ϕ

, for rectangular columns (UBC 1911.5.6.1, 1911.5.6.2)

A

v

=

'

) / ( 2

D f

s V V

ys

c u

− ϕ

π

, for circular columns (UBC 1911.5.6.1, 1911.5.6.2)

V

u

is limited by the following relationship.

(V

u

/ ϕ-V

c

) ≤ 8

'

c

f A

cv

(UBC 1911.5.6.8)

Otherwise redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here ϕ, the

strength reduction factor, is 0.85 for nonseismic design or for seismic design

in Seismic Zones 0, 1, and 2 (UBC 1909.3.2.3) and is 0.60 for seismic design

in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 1909.3.4.1). The maximum of all the calcu-

lated values obtained from each load combination are reported for the major

and minor directions of the column, along with the controlling shear force and

associated load combination label.

The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are

based purely on shear strength consideration. Any minimum stirrup require-

ments to satisfy spacing considerations or transverse reinforcement volumet-

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design

Reference Technical Note 10 - 15

ric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the

user.

Reference

White. D. W., and J.F., Hajjar. 1991. Application of Second-Order Elastic

Analysis in LRFD: Research in Practice. Engineering Journal. American

Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. Vol. 28, No. 4.

Overview Technical Note 11 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 11

Beam Design

This Technical Note describes how this program completes beam design when

the UBC97 code is selected. The program calculates and reports the required

areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments, shears, load

combination factors and other criteria described herein.

Overview

In the design of concrete beams, the program calculates and reports the re-

quired areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments,

shears, load combination factors, and other criteria described below. The re-

inforcement requirements are calculated at a user-defined number of

check/design stations along the beam span.

All beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.

Effects caused by axial forces, minor direction bending, and torsion

that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by

the user.

The beam design procedure involves the following steps:

Design beam flexural reinforcement

Design beam shear reinforcement

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at check/design stations

along the beam span. The following steps are involved in designing the flex-

ural reinforcement for the major moment for a particular beam for a particu-

lar section:

Determine the maximum factored moments

Determine the reinforcing steel

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 11 - 2 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

Determine Factored Moments

In the design of flexural reinforcement of Special, Intermediate, or Ordinary

moment resisting concrete frame beams, the factored moments for each load

combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corre-

sponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load fac-

tors.

The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive

+

u

M and maxi-

mum negative

−

u

M factored moments obtained from all of the load combina-

tions

.

Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases, the beam is al-

ways designed as a rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce

bottom steel. In such cases, the beam may be designed as a Rectangular- or

a T-beam.

Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement

In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the

tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added

when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of

a singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding the compres-

sion reinforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the grade

of concrete.

The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as

shown in Figure 1 (UBC 1910.2). It is assumed that the compression carried

by concrete is less than 0.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced

condition (UBC 1910.3.3). When the applied moment exceeds the moment

capacity at this designed balanced condition, the area of compression rein-

forcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried

by compression and additional tension reinforcement.

The design procedure used by the program for both rectangular and flanged

sections (L- and T-beams) is summarized below. It is assumed that the de-

sign ultimate axial force does not exceed 0.1

'

c

f A

g

(UBC 1910.3.3); hence, all

the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 - 3

Figure 1 Design of a Rectangular Beam Section

Design for Rectangular Beam

In designing for a factored negative or positive moment, M

u

(i.e., designing

top or bottom steel), the depth of the compression block is given by a (see

Figure 1), where,

a = d -

b f

M

d

c

u

ϕ

−

'

2

85 . 0

2

,

where the value of ϕ is 0.90 (UBC 1909.3.2.1) in the above and the following

equations. Also β

1

and c

b

are calculated as follows:

β

1

= 0.85 - 0.05

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

−

000 , 1

000 , 4

'

c

f

, 0.65 ≤ β

1

≤ 0.85, (UBC 1910.2.7.3)

c

b

= d

f E

E

y s c

s c

+ ε

ε

=

y

f + 000 , 87

000 , 87

d. (UBC 1910.2.3, 1910.2.4)

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 11 - 4 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by

a

max

= 0.75β

1

c

b

. (UBC 1910.2.7.1, 1910.3.3)

If a ≤ a

max

, the area of tensile steel reinforcement is given by

A

s

=

(

,

\

,

(

j

− ϕ

2

a

d f

M

y

u

.

This steel is to be placed at the bottom if M

u

is positive, or at the top if M

u

is negative.

If a > a

max

, compression reinforcement is required (UBC 1910.3.3) and is

calculated as follows:

− The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by

C = 0.85

'

c

f ba

max

, and (UBC 1910.2.7.1)

the moment resisted by concrete compression and tensile steel is

M

uc

= C

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

−

2

max

a

d ϕ.

− Therefore the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is

M

us

= M

u

- M

uc

.

− So the required compression steel is given by

'

s

A =

ϕ − ) ' (

'

d d f

M

s

us

, where

'

s

f = 0.003E

s

]

]

]

,

¸

, −

c

d c '

. (UBC 1910.2.4)

− The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 - 5

A

s1

=

ϕ

]

]

]

,

¸

,

−

2

max

a

d f

M

y

uc

, and

the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is given by

A

s2

=

ϕ − ) ' ( d d f

M

y

us

.

− Therefore, the total tensile reinforcement, A

s

= A

s1

+ A

s2

, and total com-

pression reinforcement is

'

s

A . A

s

is to be placed at bottom and

'

s

A is to

be placed at top if M

u

is positive, and vice versa if M

u

is negative.

Design for T-Beam

In designing for a factored negative moment, M

u

(i.e., designing top steel),

the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above, i.e., no T-Beam

data is to be used. See Figure 2. If M

u

> 0, the depth of the compression

block is given by

a = d -

f c

u

b f

M

d

ϕ

−

'

2

85 . 0

2

.

The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by

a

max

= 0.75β

1

c

b

. (UBC 1910.2.7.1)

If a ≤ d

s

, the subsequent calculations for A

s

are exactly the same as previously

defined for the rectangular section design. However, in this case, the width of

the compression flange is taken as the width of the beam for analysis. Com-

pression reinforcement is required if a > a

max

.

If a > d

s

, calculation for A

s

is performed in two parts. The first part is for bal-

ancing the compressive force from the flange, C

f

, and the second part is for

balancing the compressive force from the web, C

w

, as shown in Figure 2. C

f

is

given by

C

f

= 0.85

'

c

f (bf - b

w

) d

s

.

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 11 - 6 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

Figure 2 Design of a T-Beam Section

Therefore, A

s1

=

y

f

f

C

and the portion of M

u

that is resisted by the flange is

given by

M

uf

= C

f

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

−

2

s

d

d ϕ .

Again, the value for ϕ is 0.90. Therefore, the balance of the moment, M

u

to be

carried by the web is given by

M

uw

= M

u

- M

uf

.

The web is a rectangular section of dimensions b

w

and d, for which the design

depth of the compression block is recalculated as

a

1

= d -

w c

uw

b f

M

d

ϕ

−

'

2

85 . 0

2

.

If a

1

≤ a

max

, the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 - 7

A

s2

=

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

− ϕ

2

1

a

d f

M

y

uw

, and

A

s

= A

s1

+ A

s2

.

This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the T-beam.

If a

1

> a

max

, compression reinforcement is required (UBC 1910.3.3) and is

calculated as follows:

− The compressive force in web concrete alone is given by

C = 0.85

'

c

f ba

max

. (UBC 1910.2.7.1)

− Therefore the moment resisted by concrete web and tensile steel is

M

uc

= C

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

−

2

max

a

d ϕ, and

the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is

M

us

= M

uw

- M

uc

.

− Therefore, the compression steel is computed as

'

s

A =

ϕ − ) ' (

'

d d f

M

s

us

, where

'

s

f = 0.003E

s

]

]

]

,

¸

, −

c

d c '

. (UBC 1910.2.4)

− The tensile steel for balancing compression in web concrete is

A

s2

=

ϕ

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

−

2

max

a

d f

M

y

uc

, and

the tensile steel for balancing compression in steel is

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 11 - 8 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

A

s3

=

( )ϕ − ' d d f

M

y

us

.

− The total tensile reinforcement, A

s

= A

s1

+ A

s2

+ A

s3

, and total compres-

sion reinforcement is

'

s

A . A

s

is to be placed at bottom and

'

s

A is to be

placed at top.

Minimum Tensile Reinforcement

The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an Or-

dinary moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two following

limits:

A

s

≥ max

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

d b

f

d b

f

f

w

y

w

y

c

200

and

3

'

or (UBC 1910.5.1)

A

s

≥

3

4

A

s(required)

(UBC 1910.5.3)

Special Consideration for Seismic Design

For Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design), the beam de-

sign satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table 1 for compre-

hensive listing):

The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both the top

and bottom. Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less

than A

s(min)

(UBC 1921.3.2.1).

A

s(min)

≥ max

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

d b

f

d b

f

f

w

y

w

y

c

200

and

3

'

or (UBC 1910.5.1, 1921.3.2.1)

A

s(min)

≥

3

4

A

s(required)

. (UBC 1910.5.3, 1921.3.2.1)

The beam flexural steel is limited to a maximum given by

A

s

≤ 0.25 b

w

d. (UBC 1921.3.2.1)

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 - 9

Table 1 Design Criteria Table

Type of

Check/

Design

Ordinary Moment

Resisting Frames

(Seismic Zones 0&1)

Intermediate Moment

Resisting Frames

(Seismic Zone 2)

Special Moment

Resisting Frames

(Seismic Zones 3 & 4)

Column

Check

(interaction)

NLD

a

Combinations NLD

a

Combinations NLD

a

Combinations

Column

Design

(interaction)

NLD

a

Combinations

1% < ρ < 8%

NLD

a

Combinations

1% < ρ < 8%

NLD

a

Combinations

α = 1.0

1% < ρ < 6%

Column

Shears

NLD

a

Combinations

Modified NLD

a

Combinations

(earthquake loads doubled)

Column Capacity

ϕ = 1.0 and α = 1.0

NLD

a

Combinations and

Column shear capacity

ϕ = 1.0 and α = 1.25

Beam

Design

Flexure

NLD

a

Combinations NLD

a

Combinations

NLD

a

Combinations

ρ ≤ 0.025

ρ ≥

y y

c

f f

f

200

,

3

'

≥ ρ

Beam Min.

Moment

Override

Check

No Requirement

− +

≥

uEND uEND

M M

3

1

¦ ¦

END u u uSPAN

M M M

− + +

≥ , max

5

1

¦ ¦

END u u uSPAN

M M M

− + −

≥ , max

5

1

− +

≥

uEND uEND

M M

2

1

¦ ¦

END u u uSPAN

M M M

− + +

≥ , max

4

1

¦ ¦

END u u uSPAN

M M M

− − −

≥ , max

4

1

Beam

Design

Shear

NLD

a

Combinations

Modified NLD

a

Combinations

(earthquake loads doubled)

Beam Capacity Shear (Vp)

with α = 1.0 and ϕ = 1.0

plus VD+L

NLD

a

Combinations

Beam Capacity Shear (Vp)

with α = 1.25 and ϕ = 1.0

plus VD+L

Vc = 0

Joint

Design

No Requirement No Requirement Checked for shear

Beam/

Column

Capacity

Ratio

No Requirement No Requirement Reported in output file

NLD

a

= Number of specified loading

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 11 - 10 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement

At any end (support) of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity

(i.e., associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than 1/2 of the

beam negative moment capacity (i.e., associated with the top steel) at

that end (UBC 1921.3.2.2).

Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity

at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the

maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam

end (support) stations (UBC 1921.3.2.2).

For Intermediate moment resisting concrete frames (i.e., seismic design), the

beam design would satisfy the following conditions:

At any support of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity would

not be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end

(UBC 1921.8.4.1).

Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity

at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the

maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam

end (support) stations (UBC 1921.8.4.1).

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement

The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at a user-

defined number of stations along the beam span. The following steps are in-

volved in designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a par-

ticular load combination at a particular station resulting from the beam major

shear:

Determine the factored shear force, V

u

.

Determine the shear force, V

c

, that can be resisted by the concrete.

Determine the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.

For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (Ductile frames), the

shear design of the beams is also based on the probable and nominal moment

capacities of the members, respectively, in addition to the factored load de-

sign.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 11 - 11

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

this process.

Determine Shear Force and Moment

In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment

resisting concrete frame, the shear forces and moments for a particular

load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring

the associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding load

combination factors.

In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames (i.e.,

seismic design), the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the

capacity-shear associated with the probable moment capacities at the

ends and the factored gravity load. This check is performed in addition to

the design check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The ca-

pacity-shear force, V

p

, is calculated from the probable moment capacities

of each end of the beam and the gravity shear forces. The procedure for

calculating the design shear force in a beam from probable moment ca-

pacity is the same as that described for a column in section “Design Col-

umn Shear Reinforcement” in Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical

Note 10 Column Design. See also Table 1 for details.

The design shear force V

u

is then given by (UBC 1921.3.4.1)

V

u

= V

p

+ V

D+L

(UBC 1921.3.4.1)

where V

p

is the capacity shear force obtained by applying the calculated

probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting

in opposite directions. Therefore, V

p

is the maximum of

1

P

V and

2

P

V ,

where

1

P

V =

L

M M

J I

+ −

+

, and

2

P

V =

L

M M

J I

− +

+

, where

−

I

M = Moment capacity at end I, with top steel in tension, using a

steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 11 - 12 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement

+

J

M = Moment capacity at end J, with bottom steel in tension, using a

steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),

+

I

M = Moment capacity at end I, with bottom steel in tension, using a

steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),

−

J

M = Moment capacity at end J, with top steel in tension, using a

steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0), and

L = Clear span of beam.

For Special moment resisting frames, α is taken as 1.25 (UBC 1921.0).

V

D+L

is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of

gravity loads.

For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the shear capacity of the

beam is also checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal moment

capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads, in addition to the

check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design shear

force in beams is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal

moment capacity and factored shear force. The procedure for calculating

nominal (ϕ = 1.0) moment capacity is the same as that for computing the

probable moment capacity for Special moment resisting frames, except

that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25 (UBC 1921.0, 1921.8.3). The

factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors, except the

earthquake load factors are doubled (UBC 1921.8.3). The computation of

the design shear force in a beam of an Intermediate moment resisting

frame is also the same as that for columns, which is described in Con-

crete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 10 Column Design. Also see

Table 1 for details.

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity

The allowable concrete shear capacity is given by

V

c

= 2

'

c

f b

w

d. (UBC 1911.3.1.1)

For Special moment resisting frame concrete design, V

c

is set to zero if both

the factored axial compressive force, including the earthquake effect P

u

, is

less than

'

c

f A

g

/20 and the shear force contribution from earthquake V

E

is

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 11 - 13

more than half of the total maximum shear force over the length of the mem-

ber V

u

(i.e., V

E

≥ 0.5V

u

) (UBC 1921.3.4.2).

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement

Given V

u

and V

c

, the required shear reinforcement in area/unit length is cal-

culated as

A

v

=

d f

s V V

ys

c u

) / ( − ϕ

. (UBC 1911.5.6.1, 1911.5.6.2)

The shear force resisted by steel is limited by

(V

u

/ϕ - V

c

) ≤ 8

'

c

f bd. (UBC 1911.5.6.8)

Otherwise, redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here ϕ, the

strength reduction factor, is 0.85 for nonseismic design or for seismic design

in Seismic Zones 0, 1, and 2 (UBC 1909.3.2.3) and is 0.60 for seismic design

in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 1909.3.4.1). The maximum of all the calcu-

lated A

v

values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with

the controlling shear force and associated load combination number.

The beam shear reinforcement requirements displayed by the program are

based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup require-

ments to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated

independently of the program by the user.

Overview Technical Note 12 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 12

Joint Design

This Technical Note explains how the program performs a rational analysis of

the beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are gener-

ated in a joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength.

Overview

To ensure that the beam-column joint of special moment resisting frames

possesses adequate shear strength, the program performs a rational analysis

of the beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are gener-

ated in the joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength.

Only joints having a column below the joint are designed. The mate-

rial properties of the joint are assumed to be the same as those of the

column below the joint.

The joint analysis is completed in the major and the minor directions of the

column. The joint design procedure involves the following steps:

• Determine the panel zone design shear force,V

u

h

• Determine the effective area of the joint

• Check panel zone shear stress

The algorithms associated with these three steps are described in detail in the

following three sections.

Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force

Figure 1 illustrates the free body stress condition of a typical beam-column

intersection for a column direction, major or minor.

Joint Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 12 - 2 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force

Figure1 Beam-Column Joint Analysis

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Joint Design

Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Technical Note 12 - 3

The force V

u

h

is the horizontal panel zone shear force that is to be calculated.

The forces that act on the joint are P

u

, V

u

, M

u

L

and M

u

R

. The forces P

u

and V

u

are axial force and shear force, respectively, from the column framing into the

top of the joint. The moments M

u

L

and M

u

R

are obtained from the beams

framing into the joint. The program calculates the joint shear force V

u

h

by re-

solving the moments into C and T forces. Noting that T

L

= C

L

and T

R

= C

R

,

V

u

h

= T

L

+ T

R

- V

u

The location of C or T forces is determined by the direction of the moment.

The magnitude of C or T forces is conservatively determined using basic prin-

ciples of ultimate strength theory, ignoring compression reinforcement as fol-

lows. The program first calculates the maximum compression, C

max

, and the

maximum moment, M

max

, that can be carried by the beam.

bd f C

c

'

max

85 . 0

2

max max

d

C M

Then the program conservatively determines C and T forces as follows:

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

− −

max

max

) (

1 1

M

M abs

C T C

The program resolves the moments and the C and T forces from beams that

frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor

directions of the column along the direction that is being investigated, thereby

contributing force components to the analysis. Also, the program calculates

the C and T for the positive and negative moments, considering the fact that

the concrete cover may be different for the direction of moment.

In the design of special moment resisting concrete frames, the evaluation of

the design shear force is based on the moment capacities (with reinforcing

steel overstrength factor, α, and no ϕ factors) of the beams framing into the

joint (UBC 1921.5.1.1). The C and T forces are based on these moment ca-

pacities. The program calculates the column shear force V

u

from the beam

moment capacities, as follows:

Joint Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 12 - 4 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force

H

M M

V

R

u

L

u

u

+

**See Figure 2. It should be noted that the points of inflection shown on Figure
**

2 are taken as midway between actual lateral support points for the columns.

If there is no column at the top of the joint, the shear force from the top of

the column is taken as zero.

Figure 2 Column Shear Force V

u

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Joint Design

Determine the Effective Area of Joint Technical Note 12 - 5

The effects of load reversals, as illustrated in Case 1 and Case 2 of Figure 1,

are investigated and the design is based on the maximum of the joint shears

obtained from the two cases.

Determine the Effective Area of Joint

The joint area that resists the shear forces is assumed always to be rectan-

gular in plan view. The dimensions of the rectangle correspond to the major

and minor dimensions of the column below the joint, except if the beam

framing into the joint is very narrow. The effective width of the joint area to

be used in the calculation is limited to the width of the beam plus the depth of

the column. The area of the joint is assumed not to exceed the area of the

column below. The joint area for joint shear along the major and minor direc-

tions is calculated separately (ACI R21.5.3).

It should be noted that if the beam frames into the joint eccentrically, the

above assumptions may be unconservative and the user should investigate

the acceptability of the particular joint.

Check Panel Zone Shear Stress

The panel zone shear stress is evaluated by dividing the shear force V

u

h

by

the effective area of the joint and comparing it with the following design shear

strengths (UBC 1921.5.3):

20ϕ

c

f '

for joints confined on all four sides

v = 15ϕ

c

f '

for joints confined on three faces or on two

opposite faces

¦

12ϕ

c

f '

for all other joints

where ϕ = 0.85 (by default). (UBC 1909.3.2.3,1909.3.4.1)

A beam that frames into a face of a column at the joint is considered in this

program to provide confinement to the joint if at least three-quarters of the

face of the joint is covered by the framing member (UBC 1921.5.3.1).

Joint Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 12 - 6 Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios

For light-weight aggregate concrete, the design shear strength of the joint is

reduced in the program to at least three-quarters of that of the normal weight

concrete by replacing the

'

c

f with

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦ '

,

4 / 3 , ' min

c c factor cs

f f f (UBC 1921.5.3.2)

For joint design, the program reports the joint shear, the joint shear stress,

the allowable joint shear stress and a capacity ratio.

Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios

At a particular joint for a particular column direction, major or minor, the pro-

gram will calculate the ratio of the sum of the beam moment capacities to the

sum of the column moment capacities. For Special Moment-Resisting Frames,

the following UBC provision needs to be satisfied (UBC 1921.4.2.2).

∑M

e

≥

5

6

∑M

g

(UBC 1921.4.2.2)

The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength factor, α, and

including ϕ factors. The beam capacities are calculated for reversed situations

(Cases 1 and 2) as illustrated in Figure 1 and the maximum summation ob-

tained is used.

The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is

not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along

the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are

added to the summation.

The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column

below the joint. For each load combination, the axial force, P

u

, in each of the

columns is calculated from the program analysis load combinations. For each

load combination, the moment capacity of each column under the influence of

the corresponding axial load P

u

is then determined separately for the major

and minor directions of the column, using the uniaxial column interaction dia-

gram, see Figure 3. The moment capacities of the two columns are added to

give the capacity summation for the corresponding load combination. The

maximum capacity summations obtained from all of the load combinations is

used for the beam/column capacity ratio.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Joint Design

Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Technical Note 12 - 7

The beam/column flexural capacity ratios are only reported for Special Mo-

ment-Resisting Frames involving seismic design load combinations. If this ra-

tio is greater than 5/6, a warning message is printed in the output file.

Figure 3 Moment Capacity M

u

at a Given Axial Load P

u

Input Data Technical Note 13 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 13

Input Data

This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design input data for

UBC97. The input can be printed to a printer or to a text file when you click

the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. A

printout of the input data provides the user with the opportunity to carefully

review the parameters that have been input into the program and upon which

program design is based. Further information about using the Print Design

Tables form is presented at the end of this Technical Note.

Input Data

The program provides the printout of the input data in a series of tables. The

column headings for input data and a description of what is included in the

columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Load Combination Multipliers

Combo Design load combination. See Technical Note 8.

Type

Load type: dead, live, superimposed dead, earthquake, wind,

snow, reduced live load, other.

Case Name of load case.

Factor Load combination scale factor.

Code Preferences

Phi_bending Bending strength reduction factor.

Phi_tension Tensile strength reduction factor.

Phi_compression

(Tied)

Compressive strength reduction factor for tied columns.

Phi_compression (Spi-

ral)

Compressive strength reduction factor for reinforced columns.

Phi_shear Shear strength reduction factor.

Input Data Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 13 - 2 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Material Property Data

Material Name Concrete, steel, other.

Material Type Isotropic or orthotropic.

Design Type

Modulus of Elasticity

Poisson's Ratio

Thermal Coeff Coefficient of thermal expansion.

Shear Modulus

Material Property Mass and Weight

Material Name Concrete, steel, other.

Mass Per Unit Vol Used to calculate self-mass of structure.

Weight Per Unit Vol Used to calculate self-weight of structure.

Material Design Data for Concrete Materials

Material Name Concrete, steel, other.

Lightweight Concrete

Concrete FC Concrete compressive strength.

Rebar FY Bending reinforcing steel yield strength.

Rebar FYS Shear reinforcing steel yield strength.

Lightwt Reduc Fact Shear strength reduction factor for light weight concrete; default

= 1.0.

Concrete Column Property Data

Section Label Label applied to section.

Mat Label Material label.

Column Depth

Column Width

Rebar Pattern Layout of main flexural reinforcing steel.

Concrete Cover Minimum clear concrete cover.

Bar Area Area of individual reinforcing bar to be used.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Input Data

Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 13 - 3

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Concrete Column Design Element Information

Story ID Column assigned to story level at top of column.

Column Line Grid line.

Section ID Name of section assigned to column.

Framing Type Lateral or gravity.

RLLF Factor

L_Ratio Major Unbraced length about major axis.

L_Ratio Minor Unbraced length about minor axis.

K Major Effective length factor; default = 1.0.

K Minor Effective length factor; default = 1.0.

Concrete Beam Design Element Information

Story ID Story level at which beam occurs.

Bay ID Grid lines locating beam.

Section ID Section number assigned to beam.

Framing type Lateral or gravity.

RLLF Factor

L_Ratio Major Unbraced length about major axis.

L_Ratio Minor Unbraced length about minor axis.

Using the Print Design Tables Form

To print steel frame design input data directly to a printer, use the File menu

> Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the check

box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the OK button to send the print to

your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the

print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button

to change printers, if necessary.

To print steel frame design input data to a file, click the Print to File check box

on the Print Design Tables form. Click the Filename>> button to change the

Input Data Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 13 - 4 Using the Print Design Tables Form

path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format

(e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Ta-

bles form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request.

Note:

The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out-

put that is printed to a text file.

The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and

filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print

Design Tables form. Data will be added to this file. Or use the Filename>>

button to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing Tables cau-

tion box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.

If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print

Tables > Concrete Frame Design command, the Selection Only check box

will be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.

Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output Technical Note 14 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 14

Output Details

This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design output for UBC97

that can be printed to a printer or to a text file. The design output is printed

when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design

command and select Output Summary of the Print Design Tables dialog box.

Further information about using the Print Design Tables dialog box is pre-

sented at the end of this Technical Note.

The program provides the output data in a series of tables. The column

headings for output data and a description of what is included in the columns

of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.

Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Biaxial P-M Interaction and Shear Design of Column-Type Elements

Story ID Column assigned to story level at top of column.

Column Line Grid lines.

Section ID Name of section assigned to column.

Station ID

Required Reinforcing

Longitudinal Area of longitudinal reinforcing required.

Combo Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.

Shear22 Shear reinforcing required.

Combo Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.

Shear33 Shear reinforcing required.

Output Details Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 14 - 2 Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output

Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Combo Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.

Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Beam to Column Capacity Ratios and Joint Shear Capacity Check

Story ID Story level at which joint occurs.

Column Line Grid line.

Section ID Assigned section name.

Beam-Column Capacity Ratios

Major Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity.

Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment ca-

pacity to column capacity is based.

Minor Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity.

Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment ca-

pacity to column capacity is based.

Joint Shear Capacity Ratios

Major Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity.

Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus

allowed capacity is based.

Minor Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity.

Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus

allowed capacity is based.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Output Details

Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 14 - 3

Using the Print Design Tables Form

To print concrete frame design input data directly to a printer, use the File

menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the

check box on the Print Design Tables dialog box. Click the OK button to send

the print to your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button

to cancel the print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the

Setup>> button to change printers, if necessary.

To print concrete frame design input data to a file, click the Print to File check

box on the Print Design Tables dialog box. Click the Filename>> button to

change the path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the de-

sired format (e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the OK buttons on the Open File for

Printing Tables dialog box and the Print Design Tables dialog box to complete

the request.

Note:

The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out-

put that is printed to a text file.

The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and

filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print

Design Tables dialog box. Data will be added to this file. Or use the File-

name>> button to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing

Tables caution box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.

If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print

Tables > Concrete Frame Design command, the Selection Only check box

will be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.

Introduction to the ACI318-99 Series of Technical Notes Technical Note 15 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99

Technical Note 15

General and Notation

Introduction to the ACI318-99 Series of Technical Notes

The ACI-318-99 Concrete Frame Design series of Technical Notes describes in

detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by

this program when the user selects the ACI-318-99 Design Code (ACI 1999).

The various notations used in this series are listed herein.

The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. The program

provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements

for the design of most building type structures. See Concrete Frame Design

ACI-318-99 Technical Note 18 Design Load Combination for more information.

The program provides options to design or check Earthquake resisting

frames; Ordinary, Earthquake resisting frames; Intermediate (moderate

seismic risk areas), and Earthquake resisting frames; Special (high seismic

risk areas) moment resisting frames as required for seismic design provisions.

The details of the design criteria used for the different framing systems are

described in Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 19 Strength

Reduction Factors, Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 20 Col-

umn Design, Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 21 Beam De-

sign, and Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 22 Joint Design.

The program uses preferences and overwrites, which are described in Con-

crete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 16 Preferences and Concrete

Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 17 Overwrites. It also provides in-

put and output data summaries, which are described in Concrete Frame De-

sign ACI-318-99 Technical Note 23 Input Data and Concrete Frame Design

ACI-318-99 Technical Note 24 Output Details.

English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. But the code

is based on Inch-Pound-Second units. For simplicity, all equations and de-

scriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Inch-Pound-Second units

unless otherwise noted.

General and Notation Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 15 - 2 Notation

Notation

A

cv

Area of concrete used to determine shear stress, sq-in

A

g

Gross area of concrete, sq-in

A

s

Area of tension reinforcement, sq-in

'

s

A

Area of compression reinforcement, sq-in

A

s(required)

Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-in

A

st

Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, sq-in

A

v

Area of shear reinforcement, sq-in

C

m

Coefficient, dependent upon column curvature, used to calculate

moment magnification factor

E

c

Modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi

E

s

Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 29,000,000

psi (ACI 8.5.2)

I

g

Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis,

neglecting reinforcement, in

4

I

se

Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of

member cross section, in

4

L Clear unsupported length, in

M

1

Smaller factored end moment in a column, lb-in

M

2

Larger factored end moment in a column, lb-in

M

c

Factored moment to be used in design, lb-in

M

ns

Nonsway component of factored end moment, lb-in

M

s

Sway component of factored end moment, lb-in

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 General and Notation

Notation Technical Note 15 - 3

M

u

Factored moment at section, lb-in

M

ux

Factored moment at section about X-axis, lb-in

M

uy

Factored moment at section about Y-axis, lb-in

P

b

Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions, lb

P

c

Critical buckling strength of column, lb

P

max

Maximum axial load strength allowed, lb

P

0

Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity, lb

P

u

Factored axial load at section, lb

V

c

Shear resisted by concrete, lb

V

E

Shear force caused by earthquake loads, lb

V

D+L

Shear force from span loading, lb

V

u

Factored shear force at a section, lb

V

p

Shear force computed from probable moment capacity, lb

a Depth of compression block, in

a

b

Depth of compression block at balanced condition, in

b Width of member, in

b

f

Effective width of flange (T-Beam section), in

b

w

Width of web (T-Beam section), in

c Depth to neutral axis, in

c

b

Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, in

d Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, in

d' Concrete cover to center of reinforcing, in

General and Notation Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 15 - 4 Notation

d

s

Thickness of slab (T-Beam section), in

'

c

f

Specified compressive strength of concrete, psi

f

y

Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, psi

f

y

≤ 80,000 psi (ACI 9.4)

f

ys

Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, psi

h Dimension of column, in

k Effective length factor

r Radius of gyration of column section, in

α Reinforcing steel overstrength factor

β

1

Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to

maximum factored axial total load

β

d

Absolute value of ratio or maximum factored axial dead load to

maximum factored axial total load

δ

s

Moment magnification factor for sway moments

δ

ns

Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments

ε

c

Strain in concrete

ε

s

Strain in reinforcing steel

ϕ Strength reduction factor

General Technical Note 16 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99

Technical Note 16

Preferences

This Technical Note describes the items in the Preferences form.

General

The concrete frame design preferences in this program are basic assignments

that apply to all concrete frame elements. Use the Options menu > Prefer-

ences > Concrete Frame Design command to access the Preferences form

where you can view and revise the concrete frame design preferences.

Default values are provided for all concrete frame design preference items.

Thus, it is not required that you specify or change any of the preferences. You

should, however, at least review the default values for the preference items

to make sure they are acceptable to you.

Using the Preferences Form

To view preferences, select the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete

Frame Design. The Preferences form will display. The preference options

are displayed in a two-column spreadsheet. The left column of the spread-

sheet displays the preference item name. The right column of the spreadsheet

displays the preference item value.

To change a preference item, left click the desired preference item in either

the left or right column of the spreadsheet. This activates a drop-down box or

highlights the current preference value. If the drop-down box appears, select

a new value. If the cell is highlighted, type in the desired value. The prefer-

ence value will update accordingly. You cannot overwrite values in the drop-

down boxes.

When you have finished making changes to the composite beam preferences,

click the OK button to close the form. You must click the OK button for the

changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the Cancel button to exit

Preferences Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Technical Note 16 - 2 Preferences

the form, any changes made to the preferences are ignored and the form is

closed.

Preferences

For purposes of explanation in this Technical Note, the preference items are

presented in Table. The column headings in the table are described as fol-

lows:

Item: The name of the preference item as it appears in the cells at the

left side of the Preferences form.

Possible Values: The possible values that the associated preference item

can have.

Default Value: The built-in default value that the program assumes for

the associated preference item.

Description: A description of the associated preference item.

Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value Description

Design Code Any code in

the program

ACI 318-99 Design code used for design of

concrete frame elements.

Phi Bending

Tension

>0 0.9 Unitless strength reduction factor per

ACI 9.3.

Phi Compres-

sion Tied

>0 0.7 Unitless strength reduction factor per

ACI 9.3.

Phi Compres-

sion Spiral

>0 0.75 Unitless strength reduction factor per

ACI 9.3.

Phi Shear >0 0.85 Unitless strength reduction factor per

ACI 9.3.

Number Inter-

action Curves

≥4.0 24 Number of equally spaced interaction

curves used to create a full 360-degree

interaction surface (this item should be

a multiple of four). We recommend that

you use 24 for this item.

Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Preferences

Preferences Technical Note 16 - 3

Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value Description

Number Inter-

action Points

Any odd value

≥4.0

11 Number of points used for defining a

single curve in a concrete frame

interaction surface (this item should be

odd).

Time History

Design

Envelopes or

Step-by-Step

Envelopes Toggle for design load combinations

that include a time history designed for

the envelope of the time history, or

designed step-by-step for the entire

time history. If a single design load

combination has more than one time

history case in it, that design load

combination is designed for the

envelopes of the time histories,

regardless of what is specified here.

Overwrites Technical Note 17 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99

Technical Note 17

Overwrites

General

The concrete frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only

to those elements to which they are assigned. This Technical Note describes

concrete frame design overwrites for ACI318-99. To access the overwrites,

select an element and click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design >

View/Revise Overwrites command.

Default values are provided for all overwrite items. Thus, you do not need to

specify or change any of the overwrites. However, at least review the default

values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. When

changes are made to overwrite items, the program applies the changes only

to the elements to which they are specifically assigned; that is, to the ele-

ments that are selected when the overwrites are changed.

Overwrites

For explanation purposes in this Technical Note, the overwrites are presented

in Table 1. The column headings in the table are described as follows.

Item: The name of the overwrite item as it appears in the program. To

save space in the formes, these names are generally short.

Possible Values: The possible values that the associated overwrite item

can have.

Default Value: The default value that the program assumes for the asso-

ciated overwrite item.

Description: A description of the associated overwrite item.

An explanation of how to change an overwrite is provided at the end of this

Technical Note.

Overwrites Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Technical Note 17 - 2 Overwrites

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value Description

Element

Section

Element

Type

Sway Special,

Sway Interme-

diate,

Sway

Ordinary

NonSway

Sway Special Frame type per moment frame defini-

tion given in ACI 21.1.

Live Load

Reduction

Factor

>0

≤1.0

1. Used to reduce the live load contribu-

tion to the factored loading.

Horizontal

Earthquake

Factor

>0

≤1.0

1

Unbraced

Length Ratio

(Major)

>0

≤1.0

1.0

Unbraced

Length Ratio

(Minor)

>0

≤1.0

1.0

Effective

Length Factor

(K Major)

>0

≤1.0

1 See ACI 10.12, 10.13 and Figure

R10.12.1.

Effective

Length Factor

(K Minor)

>0

≤1.0

1 See ACI 10.12, 10.13 and Figure

R10.12.1.

Moment

Coefficient

(Cm Major)

>0

≤1.0

1 Factor relating actual moment diagram

to an equivalent uniform moment dia-

gram. See ACI 10.12.3.

Moment

Coefficient

(Cm Minor)

>0

≤1.0

1 Factor relating actual moment diagram

to an equivalent uniform moment dia-

gram. See ACI 10.12.3.

NonSway

Moment Factor

(Dns Major)

>0

≤1.0

1 See ACI 10.12.

Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Overwrites

Overwrites Technical Note 17 - 3

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value Description

NonSway

Moment Factor

(Dns Minor)

1 See ACI 10.13.

Sway Moment

Factor

(Ds Major)

1 See ACI 10.13.

Sway Moment

Factor

(Ds Minor)

1 See ACI 10.13.

Making Changes in the Overwrites Form

To access the concrete frame overwrites, select an element and click the De-

sign menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites com-

mand.

The overwrites are displayed in the form with a column of check boxes and a

two-column spreadsheet. The left column of the spreadsheet contains the

name of the overwrite item. The right column of the spreadsheet contains the

overwrites values.

Initially, the check boxes in the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form are

all unchecked and all of the cells in the spreadsheet have a gray background

to indicate that they are inactive and the items in the cells cannot be

changed. The names of the overwrite items are displayed in the first column

of the spreadsheet. The values of the overwrite items are visible in the second

column of the spreadsheet if only one element was selected before the over-

writes form was accessed. If multiple elements were selected, no values show

for the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet.

After selecting one or multiple elements, check the box to the left of an over-

write item to change it. Then left click in either column of the spreadsheet to

activate a drop-down box or highlight the contents in the cell in the right col-

umn of the spreadsheet. If the drop-down box appears, select a value from

Overwrites Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Technical Note 17 - 4 Overwrites

the box. If the cell contents is highlighted, type in the desired value. The

overwrite will reflect the change. You cannot change the values of the drop-

down boxes.

When changes to the overwrites have been completed, click the OK button to

close the form. The program then changes all of the overwrite items whose

associated check boxes are checked for the selected members. You must click

the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the

Cancel button to exit the form, any changes made to the overwrites are ig-

nored and the form is closed.

Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default Values

Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Reset All Overwrites

command to reset all of the steel frame overwrites. All current design results

will be deleted when this command is executed.

Important note about resetting overwrites: The program defaults for the

overwrite items are built into the program. The concrete frame overwrite val-

ues that were in a .edb file that you used to initialize your model may be dif-

ferent from the built-in program default values. When you reset overwrites,

the program resets the overwrite values to its built-in values, not to the val-

ues that were in the .edb file used to initialize the model.

Design Load Combinations Technical Note 18 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99

Technical Note 18

Design Load Combinations

The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed

load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. For the ACI 318-99

code, if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only, the

stress check may need only one load combination, namely 1.4 DL + 1.7 LL

(ACI 9.2.1). However, in addition to the dead and live loads, if the structure is

subjected to wind (WL) and earthquake (EL) loads and considering that wind

and earthquake forces are reversible, the following load combinations should

be considered (ACI 9.2).

1.4 DL

1.4 DL + 1.7 LL (ACI 9.2.1)

0.9 DL ± 1.3 WL

0.75 (1.4 DL + 1.7 LL ± 1.7 WL) (ACI 9.2.2)

0.9 DL ± 1.3 * 1.1 EL

0.75 (1.4 DL + 1.7 LL ± 1.7 * 1.1 EL) (ACI 9.2.3)

These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever

the ACI 318-99 code is used. The user is warned that the above load combi-

nations involving seismic loads consider service-level seismic forces. Different

load factors may apply with strength-level seismic forces (ACI R9.2.3).

Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live

load condition on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of

the live load to the factored loading. See Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99

Technical Note 17 Overwrites for more information.

Strength Reduction Factors Technical Note 19 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99

Technical Note 19

Strength Reduction Factors

The strength reduction factors, ϕ, are applied on the nominal strength to ob-

tain the design strength provided by a member. The ϕ factors for flexure, ax-

ial force, shear, and torsion are as follows:

ϕ = 0.90 for flexure (ACI 9.3.2.1)

ϕ = 0.90 for axial tension (ACI 9.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.90 for axial tension and flexure (ACI 9.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.75 for axial compression, and axial compression

and flexure (spirally reinforced column) (ACI 9.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.70 for axial compression, and axial compression

and flexure (tied column) (ACI 9.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.85 for shear and torsion (ACI 9.3.2.3)

Overview Technical Note 20 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99

Technical Note 20

Column Design

This Technical Note describes how the program checks column capacity or de-

signs reinforced concrete columns when the ACI-318-99 code is selected.

Overview

The program can be used to check column capacity or to design columns. If

you define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete

column section, the program will check the column capacity. Alternatively, the

program can calculate the amount of reinforcing required to design the col-

umn. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the struc-

ture involves the following steps:

Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the dif-

ferent concrete section types of the model. A typical biaxial interaction

surface is shown in Figure 1. When the steel is undefined, the program

generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforce-

ment 1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Intermediate moment resisting

frames (ACI 10.9.1) and 1 to 6 percent for Special moment resisting

frames (ACI 21.4.3.1).

Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the fac-

tored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from

each loading combination at each station of the column. The target capac-

ity ratio is taken as one when calculating the required reinforcing area.

Design the column shear reinforcement.

The following four sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

this process.

Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 20 - 2 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces

Figure 1 A Typical Column Interaction Surface

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces

The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series

of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction

failure surface. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending, the for-

mulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations. A typical

interaction diagram is shown in Figure 1.

The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear

strain in three dimensions on the section of the column. See Figure 2. The

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces Technical Note 20 - 3

linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain, ε

c

, at the extremity

of the section, to 0.003 (ACI 10.2.3).

The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate

strength design (ACI 10.3), and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular,

square, or circular column section.

The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel

modulus of elasticity, ε

s

E

s

, and is limited to the yield stress of the steel, f

y

(ACI 10.2.4). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be

placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does

not assume any further simplifications with respect to distributing the area of

steel over the cross section of the column, such as an equivalent steel tube or

cylinder. See Figure 3.

The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a

stress value of 0.85

'

c

f (ACI 10.2.7.1). See Figure 3. The interaction algorithm

provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the

reinforcement in the compression zone.

The effects of the strength reduction factor, ϕ, are included in the generation

of the interaction surfaces. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to

ϕP

n(max)

, where

ϕP

n(max)

= 0.85ϕ[0.85

'

c

f (A

g

-A

st

)+f

y

A

st

] spiral column, (ACI 10.3.5.1)

ϕP

n(max)

= 0.80ϕ[0.85

'

c

f (A

g

-A

st

)+f

y

A

st

] tied column, (ACI 10.3.5.2)

ϕ = 0.70 for tied columns, and (ACI 9.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.75 for spirally reinforced columns. (ACI 9.3.2.2)

The value of ϕ used in the interaction diagram varies from ϕ(compression) to

ϕ(flexure) based on the axial load. For low values of axial load, ϕ is increased

linearly from ϕ(compression) to ϕ(flexure) as the ϕP

n

decreases from the

smaller of ϕP

b

or 0.1

'

c

f A

g

to zero, where ϕP

b

is the axial force at the balanced

condition. The ϕ factor used in calculating ϕP

n

and ϕP

b

is the ϕ(compression).

In cases involving axial tension, ϕ is always ϕ(flexure), which is 0.9 by default

(ACI 9.3.2.2).

Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 20 - 4 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces

Figure 2 Idealized Strain Distribution for Generation of Interaction Source

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 20 - 5

Figure 3 Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio

The column capacity ratio is calculated for each load combination at each out-

put station of each column. The following steps are involved in calculating the

capacity ratio of a particular column for a particular load combination at a

particular location:

Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases

and the specified load combination factors to give P

u

, M

ux

, and M

uy

.

Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments.

Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored moments. Deter-

mine whether the point, defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial

moment set, lies within the interaction volume.

The factored moments and corresponding magnification factors depend on the

identification of the individual column as either “sway” or “non-sway.”

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

this process.

Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 20 - 6 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio

Determine Factored Moments and Forces

The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying

the corresponding load factors to all the load cases, giving P

u

, M

ux

, and M

uy

.

The factored moments are further increased for non-sway columns, if re-

quired, to obtain minimum eccentricities of (0.6+0.03h) inches, where h is

the dimension of the column in the corresponding direction (ACI 10.12.3.2).

Determine Moment Magnification Factors

The moment magnification factors are calculated separately for sway (overall

stability effect), δ

s

and for non-sway (individual column stability effect), δ

ns

.

Also, the moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are

in general different (ACI 10.0, R10.13).

The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the

sway (M

s

) and the non-sway (M

ns

) components. The non-sway components,

which are identified by “ns” subscripts, are predominantly caused by gravity

load. The sway components are identified by the “s” subscripts. The sway

moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads, and are related to the

cause of side sway.

For individual columns or column-members in a floor, the magnified moments

about two axes at any station of a column can be obtained as

M = M

ns

+ δ

s

M

s

. (ACI 10.13.3)

The factor δ

s

is the moment magnification factor for moments causing side

sway. The moment magnification factors for sway moments, δ

s

, is taken as 1

because the component moments M

s

and M

ns

are obtained from a “second or-

der elastic (P-delta) analysis” (ACI R10.10, 10.10.1, R10.13, 10.13.4.1).

The program assumes that it performs a P-delta analysis and, therefore, mo-

ment magnification factor δ

s

for moments causing side-sway is taken as unity

(ACI 10.10.2). For the P-delta analysis, the load should correspond to a load

combination of 1.4 dead load + 1.7 live load (ACI 10.13.6). See also White

and Hajjar (1991). The user should use reduction factors for the moment of

inertias in the program as specified in ACI 10.11. The moment of inertia re-

duction for sustained lateral load involves a factor β

d

(ACI 10.11). This β

d

for

sway frame in second-order analysis is different from the one that is defined

later for non-sway moment magnification (ACI 10.0, R10.12.3, R10.13.4.1).

The default moment of inertia factor in this program is 1.

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 20 - 7

The computed moments are further amplified for individual column stability

effect (ACI 10.12.3, 10.13.5) by the nonsway moment magnification factor,

δ

ns

, as follows:

M

c

= δ

ns

M, where (ACI 10.12.3)

M

c

is the factored moment to be used in design.

The non-sway moment magnification factor, δ

ns

, associated with the major or

minor direction of the column is given by (ACI 10.12.3)

δ

ns

=

c

u

m

P

P

C

75 . 0

1 −

≤ 1.0, where (ACI 10.12.3)

C

m

= 0.6 +0.4

b

a

M

M

≥ 0.4, (ACI 10.12.3.1)

M

a

and M

b

are the moments at the ends of the column, and M

b

is

numerically larger than M

a

. M

a

/ M

b

is positive for single curvature

bending and negative for double curvature bending. The above ex-

pression of C

m

is valid if there is no transverse load applied between

the supports. If transverse load is present on the span, or the length

is overwritten, C

m

=1. The user can overwrite C

m

on an element-by-

element basis.

P

c

=

2

2

) (

u

kl

EI π

, where (ACI 10.12.3)

k is conservatively taken as 1; however, the program allows the

user to override this value (ACI 10.12.1).

l

u

is the unsupported length of the column for the direction of

bending considered. The two unsupported lengths are l

22

and l

33

,

corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of

the element, respectively. See Figure 4. These are the lengths

Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 20 - 8 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio

Figure 4 Axes of Bending and Unsupported Length

between the support points of the element in the corresponding

directions.

EI is associated with a particular column direction:

EI =

d

g c

I E

β + 1

4 . 0

, where (ACI 10.12.3)

maximum factored axial sustained (dead) load

β

d

=

maximum factored axial total load

(ACI 10.0,R10.12.3)

The magnification factor, δ

ns

, must be a positive number and greater than

one. Therefore, P

u

must be less than 0.75P

c

. If P

u

is found to be greater than

or equal to 0.75P

c

, a failure condition is declared.

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 20 - 9

The above calculations are performed for major and minor directions sepa-

rately. That means that δ

s

, δ

ns

, C

m

, k, l

u

, EI, and P

c

assume different values for

major and minor directions of bending.

If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member, the

user can explicitly specify values of δ

s

and δ

ns

.

Determine Capacity Ratio

As a measure of the stress condition of the column, a capacity ratio is calcu-

lated. The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the

stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column.

Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity, the

moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain P

u

,

M

ux

, and M

uy

. The point (P

u

, M

ux

, M

uy

) is then placed in the interaction space

shown as point L in Figure 5. If the point lies within the interaction volume,

the column capacity is adequate; however, if the point lies outside the inter-

action volume, the column is overstressed.

This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the lo-

cation of point C. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if ex-

tended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. This point is determined by

three-dimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the fail-

ure surface. See Figure 5. The capacity ratio, CR, is given by the ratio

OC

OL

.

If OL = OC (or CR=1), the point lies on the interaction surface and the

column is stressed to capacity.

If OL < OC (or CR<1), the point lies within the interaction volume and the

column capacity is adequate.

If OL > OC (or CR>1), the point lies outside the interaction volume and

the column is overstressed.

The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is

reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling P

u

,

M

ux

, and M

uy

set and associated load combination number.

Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 20 - 10 Required Reinforcing Area

Figure 5 Geometric Representation of Column Capacity Ratio

Required Reinforcing Area

If the reinforcing area is not defined, the program computes the reinforce-

ment that will give a column capacity ratio of one, calculated as described in

the previous section entitled "Calculate Column Capacity Ratio."

Design Column Shear Reinforcement

The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination in the major

and minor directions of the column. The following steps are involved in de-

signing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular load com-

bination resulting from shear forces in a particular direction:

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design

Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 20 - 11

Determine the factored forces acting on the section, P

u

and V

u

. Note that

P

u

is needed for the calculation of V

c

.

Determine the shear force, V

c

, that can be resisted by concrete alone.

Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.

For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (Ductile frames), the

shear design of the columns is also based on the Probable moment and nomi-

nal moment capacities of the members, respectively, in addition to the fac-

tored moments. Effects of the axial forces on the column moment capacities

are included in the formulation.

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

this process.

Determine Section Forces

In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment

resisting concrete frame, the forces for a particular load combination,

namely, the column axial force, P

u

, and the column shear force, V

u

, in a

particular direction are obtained by factoring the program analysis load

cases with the corresponding load combination factors.

In the shear design of Special moment resisting frames (i.e., seismic

design), the column is checked for capacity shear in addition to the re-

quirement for the Ordinary moment resisting frames. The capacity shear

force in a column, V

p

, in a particular direction is calculated from the prob-

able moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial

force acting on the column.

For each load combination, the factored axial load, P

u

, is calculated. Then,

the positive and negative moment capacities,

+

u

M and

−

u

M , of the column

in a particular direction under the influence of the axial force P

u

is calcu-

lated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction.

The design shear force, V

u

, is then given by (ACI 21.4.5.1)

V

u

= V

p

+ V

D+L

(ACI 21.4.5.1)

where, V

p

is the capacity shear force obtained by applying the calculated

probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting

Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 20 - 12 Design Column Shear Reinforcement

in two opposite directions. Therefore, V

p

is the maximum of

1

P

V and

2

P

V ,

where

1

P

V =

L

M M

J I

+ −

+

, and

2

P

V =

L

M M

J I

− +

+

, where

− +

I I

M M , , = Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the

column using a steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ

factors (ϕ = 1.0),

− +

J J

M M , , = Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the

column using a steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ

factors (ϕ = 1.0), and

L = Clear span of column.

For Special moment resisting frames α is taken as 1.25 (ACI 10.0,

R21.4.5.1). V

D+L

is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distri-

bution of gravity loads. For most of the columns, it is zero.

For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the shear capacity of the

column is also checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal mo-

ment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads, in addition to

the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design

shear force is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal (ϕ =

1.0) moment capacity and modified factored shear force. The procedure

for calculating nominal moment capacity is the same as that for comput-

ing the probable moment capacity for special moment resisting frames,

except that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25 (ACI 21.10.3.a,

R21.10). The modified factored shear forces are based on the specified

load factors, except the earthquake load factors are doubled (ACI

21.10.3.b).

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity

Given the design force set P

u

and V

u

, the shear force carried by the concrete,

V

c

, is calculated as follows:

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design

Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 20 - 13

If the column is subjected to axial compression, i.e., P

u

is positive,

V

c

= 2

+

g

u

c

A

P

f

000 , 2

1

'

A

cv

, where (ACI 11.3.1.2)

'

c

f ≤ 100 psi, and (ACI 11.1.2)

V

c

≤ 3.5

'

c

f

+

g

u

A

P

500

1 A

cv

. (ACI 11.3.2.2)

The term P

u

/ A

g

must have psi units. A

cv

is the effective shear area, which

is shown shaded in Figure 6. For circular columns, A

cv

is taken to be equal

to the gross area of the section (ACI 11.3.3, R11.3.3).

If the column is subjected to axial tension, P

u

is negative

V

c

= 2

'

c

f

+

g

u

A

P

500

1 A

cv

≥ 0 (ACI 11.3.2.3)

For Special moment resisting concrete frame design, V

c

is set to zero

if the factored axial compressive force, P

u

, including the earthquake effect,

is small (P

u

<

'

c

f A

g

/ 20) and if the shear force contribution from earth-

quake, V

E

, is more than half of the total factored maximum shear force

over the length of the member V

u

(V

E

≥ 0.5V

u

) (ACI 21.4.5.2).

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement

Given V

u

and V

c

, the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or

ties within a spacing, s, is given for rectangular and circular columns by

A

v

=

d f

s V V

ys

c u

) / ( − ϕ

, for rectangular columns and (ACI 11.5.6.1, 11.5.6.2)

A

v

=

) 8 . 0 (

) / (

D f

s V V

ys

c u

− ϕ

, for circular columns. (ACI 11.5.6.3, 11.3.3)

V

u

is limited by the following relationship.

(V

u

/ ϕ-V

c

) ≤ 8

'

c

f A

cv

(ACI 11.5.6.9)

Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 20 - 14 Design Column Shear Reinforcement

Figure 6 Shear Stress Area, A

cv

Otherwise, redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here ϕ, the

strength reduction factor, is 0.85 (ACI 9.3.2.3). The maximum of all the cal-

culated A

v

values obtained from each load combination are reported for the

major and minor directions of the column, along with the controlling shear

force and associated load combination label.

The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are

based purely on shear strength consideration. Any minimum stirrup require-

ments to satisfy spacing considerations or transverse reinforcement volumet-

ric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the

user.

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design

Reference Technical Note 20 - 15

Reference

White, D.W. and J.F. Hajjar. 1991. Application of Second-Order Elastic Analy-

sis in LRFD: Research to Practice. Engineering Journal. American In-

stitute of Steel Construction, Inc. Vol. 28. No. 4.

Overview Technical Note 21 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99

Technical Note 21

Beam Design

This Technical Note describes how this program completes beam design when

the ACI 318-99 code is selected. The program calculates and reports the re-

quired areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments,

shears, load combination factors and other criteria described herein.

Overview

In the design of concrete beams, the program calculates and reports the re-

quired areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments,

shears, load combination factors, and other criteria described below. The re-

inforcement requirements are calculated at a user-defined number of

check/design stations along the beam span.

All beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.

Effects resulting from any axial forces, minor direction bending, and

torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independ-

ently by the user.

The beam design procedure involves the following steps:

Design beam flexural reinforcement

Design beam shear reinforcement

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at check/design stations

along the beam span. The following steps are involved in designing the flex-

ural reinforcement for the major moment for a particular beam for a particu-

lar section:

Determine the maximum factored moments

Determine the reinforcing steel

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 21 - 2 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

Determine Factored Moments

In the design of flexural reinforcement of Special, Intermediate, or Ordinary

moment resisting concrete frame beams, the factored moments for each load

combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corre-

sponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load fac-

tors.

The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive

+

u

M and maxi-

mum negative

−

u

M factored moments obtained from all of the load combina-

tions

.

Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases, the beam is al-

ways designed as a rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce

bottom steel. In such cases, the beam may be designed as a Rectangular- or

a T-beam.

Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement

In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the

tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added

when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of

a singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding the compres-

sion reinforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the grade

of concrete.

The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as

shown in Figure 1 (ACI 10.2). It is assumed that the compression carried by

concrete is less than 0.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced

condition (ACI 10.3.3). When the applied moment exceeds the moment ca-

pacity at this designed balanced condition, the area of compression rein-

forcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried

by compression and additional tension reinforcement.

The design procedure used by this program for both rectangular and flanged

sections (L- and T-beams) is summarized below. It is assumed that the de-

sign ultimate axial force does not exceed 0.1

'

c

f A

g

(ACI 10.3.3); hence, all the

beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 21 - 3

Figure 1 Design of Rectangular Beam Section

Design for Rectangular Beam

In designing for a factored negative or positive moment, M

u

(i.e., designing

top or bottom steel), the depth of the compression block is given by a (see

Figure 1), where,

a = d -

b f

M

d

c

u

ϕ

−

1

2

85 . 0

2

, (ACI 10.2.7.1)

where, the value of ϕ is 0.90 (ACI 9.3.2.1) in the above and the following

equations. Also β

1

and c

b

are calculated as follows:

β

1

= 0.85-0.05

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

−

000 , 1

000 , 4

'

c

f

, 0.65 ≤ β

1

≤ 0.85, (ACI 10.2.7.3)

c

b

= d

f E

E

y s c

s c

+ ε

ε

=

y

f + 000 , 87

000 , 87

d. (ACI 10.2.3, 10.2.4)

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 21 - 4 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by

a

max

= 0.75β

1

c

b

. (ACI 10.2.7.1, 10.3.3)

If a ≤ a

max

, the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by

A

s

=

(

,

\

,

(

j

− ϕ

2

a

d f

M

y

u

.

This steel is to be placed at the bottom if M

u

is positive, or at the top if M

u

is negative.

If a > a

max

, compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.3.3) and is cal-

culated as follows:

− The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by

C = 0.85

'

c

f ba

max

, and (ACI 10.2.7.1)

the moment resisted by concrete compression and tensile steel is

M

uc

= C

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

−

2

max

a

d ϕ.

− Therefore the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel

is

M

us

= M

u

- M

uc

.

− So the required compression steel is given by

'

s

A =

ϕ − ) ' (

'

d d f

M

s

us

, where

'

s

f = 0.003E

s

]

]

]

,

¸

, −

c

d c '

. (ACI 10.2.4)

− The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 21 - 5

A

s1

=

ϕ

]

]

]

,

¸

,

−

2

max

a

d f

M

y

uc

, and

the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is given by

A

s2

=

ϕ − ) ' ( d d f

M

y

us

.

− Therefore, the total tensile reinforcement, A

s

= A

s1

+ A

s2

, and total

compression reinforcement is

'

s

A . A

s

is to be placed at bottom and

'

s

A

is to be placed at top if M

u

is positive, and vice versa if M

u

is negative.

Design for T-Beam

In designing for a factored negative moment, M

u

(i.e., designing top steel),

the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above, i.e., no T-Beam

data is to be used. See Figure 2. If M

u

> 0, the depth of the compression

block is given by

a = d -

f c

u

b f

M

d

ϕ

−

'

2

85 . 0

2

.

The maximum allowed depth of compression block is given by

a

max

= 0.75β

1

c

b

. (ACI 10.2.7.1, 10.3.3)

• If a ≤ d

s

, the subsequent calculations for A

s

are exactly the same as previ-

ously defined for the rectangular section design. However, in this case the

width of the compression flange is taken as the width of the beam for

analysis. Compression reinforcement is required if a > a

max

.

• If a > d

s

, calculation for A

s

is performed in two parts. The first part is for

balancing the compressive force from the flange, C

f

, and the second part

is for balancing the compressive force from the web, C

w

, as shown in Fig-

ure 2. C

f

is given by

C

f

= 0.85

'

c

f (b

f

- b

w

)d

s

.

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 21 - 6 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

Figure 2 Design of a T-Beam Section

Therefore, A

s1

=

y

f

f

C

and the portion of M

u

that is resisted by the flange is

given by

M

uf

= C

f

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

−

2

s

d

d ϕ.

Again, the value for ϕ is ϕ(flexure), which is 0.90 by default. Therefore,

the balance of the moment, M

u

to be carried by the web is given by

M

uw

= M

u

- M

uf

.

The web is a rectangular section of dimensions b

w

and d, for which the de-

sign depth of the compression block is recalculated as

a

1

= d -

w

i

c

uw

b f

M

d

ϕ

−

85 . 0

2

2

.

If a

1

≤ a

max

, the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by

A

s2

=

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

− ϕ

2

1

a

d f

M

y

uw

, and

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 21 - 7

A

s

= A

s1

+ A

s2

.

This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the T-beam.

If a

1

> a

max

, compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.3.3) and is

calculated as follows:

− The compressive force in web concrete alone is given by

C = 0.85

'

c

f ba

max

. (ACI 10.2.7.1)

− Therefore, the moment resisted by concrete web and tensile steel

is

M

uc

= C ϕ

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

−

2

max

a

d , and

the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is

M

us

= M

uw

- M

uc

.

− Therefore, the compression steel is computed as

'

s

A =

ϕ − ) ' (

'

d d f

M

s

us

, where

'

s

f = 0.003E

s

]

]

]

,

¸

, −

c

d c '

. (ACI 10.2.4)

− The tensile steel for balancing compression in web concrete is

A

s2

=

ϕ − )

2

(

max

a

d f

M

y

uc

, and

the tensile steel for balancing compression in steel is

A

s3

=

ϕ − ) ' ( d d f

M

y

us

.

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 21 - 8 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

− The total tensile reinforcement, A

s

= A

s1

+ A

s2

+ A

s3

, and total

compression reinforcement is

'

s

A . A

s

is to be placed at bottom and

'

s

A is to be placed at top.

Minimum Tensile Reinforcement

The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an Or-

dinary moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two following

limits:

A

s

≥ max

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

d b

f

d b

f

f

w

y

w

y

c

200

and

3

'

or (ACI 10.5.1)

A

s

≥ (4/3)A

s(required)

. (ACI 10.5.3)

Special Consideration for Seismic Design

For Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design), the beam de-

sign satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table 1):

The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both the top

and bottom. Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less

than A

s(min)

(ACI 21.3.2.1).

A

s(min)

≥ max

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

d b

f

d b

f

f

w

y

w

y

c

200

and

3

'

or (ACI 10.5.1)

A

s(min)

≥

3

4

A

s(required)

. (ACI 10.5.3)

The beam flexural steel is limited to a maximum given by

A

s

≤ 0.025 b

w

d. (ACI 21.3.2.1)

At any end (support) of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity

(i.e., associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than 1/2 of the

beam negative moment capacity (i.e., associated with the top steel) at

that end (ACI 21.3.2.2).

Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity

at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 21 - 9

maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam

end (support) stations (ACI 21.3.2.2).

For Intermediate moment resisting concrete frames (i.e., seismic design), the

beam design would satisfy the following conditions:

At any support of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity would

not be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end

(ACI 21.10.4.1).

Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity

at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the

maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam

end (support) stations (ACI 21.10.4.1).

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement

The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at a user de-

fined number of stations along the beam span. The following steps are in-

volved in designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a par-

ticular load combination at a particular station due to the beam major shear:

• Determine the factored shear force, V

u

.

• Determine the shear force, V

c

, that can be resisted by the concrete.

• Determine the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.

For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ductile frames), the

shear design of the beams is also based upon the probable and nominal mo-

ment capacities of the members, respectively, in addition to the factored load

design.

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

this process.

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 21 - 10 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement

Table 1 Design Criteria Table

Type of

Check/

Design

Ordinary Moment

Resisting Frames

(non-Seismic)

Intermediate Moment

Resisting Frames

(Seismic)

Special Moment

Resisting Frames

(Seismic)

Column

Check

(interaction)

NLD

a

Combinations NLD

a

Combinations NLD

a

Combinations

Column

Design

(interaction)

NLD

a

Combinations

1% < ρ < 8%

NLD

a

Combinations

1% < ρ < 8%

NLD

a

Combinations

α = 1.0

1% < ρ < 6%

Column

Shears

NLD

a

Combinations

Modified NLD

a

Combinations

(earthquake loads doubled)

Column capacity

ϕ = 1.0 and α = 1.0

NLD

a

Combinations

Column shear capacity

ϕ = 1.0 and α = 1.25

Beam

Design

Flexure

NLD

a

Combinations NLD

a

Combinations

NLD

a

Combinations

ρ ≤ 0.025

ρ ≥

y

c

f

f

'

3

, ρ ≥

y

f

200

Beam Min.

Moment

Override

Check

No Requirement

END u uEND

M M

− +

≥

3

1

¦ ¦

END u u uSPAN

M M M

− + +

≥ , max

5

1

¦ ¦

END u u uSPAN

M M M

− + −

≥ , max

5

1

END

u uEND

M M

− +

≥

2

1

¦ ¦

END u u uSPAN

M M M

− + +

≥ , max

4

1

¦ ¦

END u u uSPAN

M M M

− − −

≥ , max

4

1

Beam

Design

Shear

NLD

a

Combinations

Modified NLD

a

Combinations

(earthquake loads doubled)

Beam Capacity Shear (Vp)

with α = 1.0 and ϕ = 1.0

plus VD+L

NLD

a

Combinations

Beam Capacity Shear (Vp)

with α = 1.25 and ϕ = 1.0

plus VD+L

Vc = 0

Joint Design No Requirement No Requirement Checked for shear

Beam/Column

Capacity

Ratio

No Requirement No Requirement Reported in output file

NLD

a

= Number of specified loading

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 21 - 11

Determine Shear Force and Moment

• In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment

resisting concrete frame, the shear forces and moments for a particular

load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring

the associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding load

combination factors.

• In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames (i.e.,

seismic design), the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the

capacity shear resulting from the probable moment capacities at the ends

and the factored gravity load. This check is performed in addition to the

design check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The capacity

shear force, V

p

, is calculated from the probable moment capacities of each

end of the beam and the gravity shear forces. The procedure for calculat-

ing the design shear force in a beam from probable moment capacity is

the same as that described for a column in section “Design Column Shear

Reinforcement” of Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Technical Note 20

Column Design. See also Table 1 for details.

The design shear force V

u

is then given by (ACI 21.3.4.1)

V

u

= V

p

+ V

D+L

(ACI 21.3.4.1)

where V

p

is the capacity shear force obtained by applying the calculated

probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting

in two opposite directions. Therefore, V

p

is the maximum of

1

P

V and

2

P

V ,

where

1

P

V =

L

M M

J I

+ −

+

, and

2

P

V =

L

M M

J I

− +

+

, where

−

I

M = Moment capacity at end I, with top steel in tension, using a

steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),

+

J

M = Moment capacity at end J, with bottom steel in tension, using

a steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 21 - 12 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement

+

I

M = Moment capacity at end I, with bottom steel in tension, using

a steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),

−

J

M = Moment capacity at end J, with top steel in tension, using a

steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0), and

L = Clear span of beam.

For Special moment resisting frames α is taken as 1.25 (ACI 21.0,

R21.3.4.1). V

D+L

is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distri-

bution of gravity loads.

• For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the shear capacity of the

beam is also checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal moment

capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads, in addition to the

check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design shear

force in beams is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal

moment capacity and modified factored shear force. The procedure for

calculating nominal (ϕ = 1.0) moment capacity is the same as that for

computing the probable moment capacity for Special moment resisting

frames, except that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25 (ACI 21.10.3.a,

R21.10). The modified factored shear forces are based on the specified

load factors, except the earthquake load factors are doubled (ACI

21.10.3.b). The computation of the design shear force in a beam of an

Intermediate moment resisting frame is the same as described for col-

umns in section “Determine Section Forces” of Concrete Frame Design

ACI318-99 Technical Note 20 Column Design. See also Table 1 for details.

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity

The allowable concrete shear capacity is given by

V

c

= 2

'

c

f b

w

d. (ACI 11.3.1.1)

For Special moment resisting frame concrete design, V

c

is set to zero if both

the factored axial compressive force, including the earthquake effect P

u

, is

less than

'

c

f A

g

/20 and the shear force contribution from earthquake V

E

is

more than half of the total maximum shear force over the length of the mem-

ber V

u

(i.e., V

E

≥ 0.5V

u

) (ACI 21.3.4.2).

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 21 - 13

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement

Given V

u

and V

c

, the required shear reinforcement in area/unit length is cal-

culated as

A

v

=

d f

s V V

ys

c u

) / ( − ϕ

. (ACI 11.5.6.1, 11.5.6.2)

The shear force resisted by steel is limited by

(V

u

/ ϕ - V

c

) ≤ 8

'

c

f bd. (ACI 11.5.6.9)

Otherwise, redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here, ϕ, the

strength reduction factor for shear, is 0.85 by default (ACI 9.3.2.3). The

maximum of all the calculated A

v

values, obtained from each load combina-

tion, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load

combination number.

The beam shear reinforcement requirements displayed by the program are

based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup require-

ments to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated

independently of the program by the user.

Overview Technical Note 22 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99

Technical Note 22

Joint Design

This Technical Note explains how the program performs a rational analysis of

the beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are gener-

ated in a joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength.

Overview

To ensure that the beam-column joint of special moment resisting frames

possesses adequate shear strength, the program performs a rational analysis

of the beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are gener-

ated in the joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength.

Only joints having a column below the joint are designed. The material prop-

erties of the joint are assumed to be the same as those of the column below

the joint.

The joint analysis is completed in the major and the minor directions of the

column. The joint design procedure involves the following steps:

Determine the panel zone design shear force, V

u

h

Determine the effective area of the joint

Check panel zone shear stress

The algorithms associated with these three steps are described in detail in the

following three sections.

Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force

Figure 1 illustrates the free body stress condition of a typical beam-column

intersection for a column direction, major or minor.

Joint Design Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Technical Note 22 - 2 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force

Figure 1 Beam-Column Joint Analysis

Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Joint Design

Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Technical Note 22 - 3

The force V

u

h

is the horizontal panel zone shear force that is to be calculated.

The forces that act on the joint are P

u

, V

u

, M

u

L

and M

u

R

. The forces P

u

and V

u

are axial force and shear force, respectively, from the column framing into the

top of the joint. The moments M

u

L

and M

u

R

are obtained from the beams

framing into the joint. The program calculates the joint shear force V

u

h

by re-

solving the moments into C and T forces. Noting that T

L

= C

L

and T

R

= C

R

,

V

u

h

= T

L

+ T

R

- V

u

The location of C or T forces is determined by the direction of the moment.

The magnitude of C or T forces is conservatively determined using basic prin-

ciples of ultimate strength theory, ignoring compression reinforcement as fol-

lows. The program first calculates the maximum compression, C

max

, and the

maximum moment, M

max

, that can be carried by the beam.

bd f C c

'

max

85 . 0

2

max max

d

C M

Then the program conservatively determines C and T forces as follows:

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

− −

max

max

) (

1 1

M

M abs

C T C

The program resolves the moments and the C and T forces from beams that

frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor

directions of the column along the direction that is being investigated, thereby

contributing force components to the analysis. Also, the program calculates

the C and T for the positive and negative moments, considering the fact that

the concrete cover may be different for the direction of moment.

In the design of special moment resisting concrete frames, the evaluation of

the design shear force is based on the moment capacities (with reinforcing

steel overstrength factor, α, and no ϕ factors) of the beams framing into the

joint (ACI 21.5.1.1, UBC 1921.5.1.1). The C and T force are based on these

moment capacities. The program calculates the column shear force V

u

from

the beam moment capacities, as follows:

Joint Design Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Technical Note 22 - 4 Determine the Effective Area of Joint

H

M M

V

R

u

L

u

u

+

**See Figure 2. It should be noted that the points of inflection shown on Figure
**

2 are taken as midway between actual lateral support points for the columns.

If there is no column at the top of the joint, the shear force from the top of

the column is taken as zero.

The effects of load reversals, as illustrated in Case 1 and Case 2 of Figure 1,

are investigated and the design is based on the maximum of the joint shears

obtained from the two cases.

Determine the Effective Area of Joint

The joint area that resists the shear forces is assumed always to be rectan-

gular in plan view. The dimensions of the rectangle correspond to the major

and minor dimensions of the column below the joint, except if the beam

framing into the joint is very narrow. The effective width of the joint area to

be used in the calculation is limited to the width of the beam plus the depth of

the column. The area of the joint is assumed not to exceed the area of the

column below. The joint area for joint shear along the major and minor direc-

tions is calculated separately (ACI R21.5.3).

It should be noted that if the beam frames into the joint eccentrically, the

above assumptions may be unconservative and the user should investigate

the acceptability of the particular joint.

Check Panel Zone Shear Stress

The panel zone shear stress is evaluated by dividing the shear force V

u

h

by

the effective area of the joint and comparing it with the following design shear

strengths (ACI 21.5.3, UBC 1921.5.3):

20ϕ

c

f '

for joints confirmed on all four sides

v = 15ϕ

c

f '

for joints confirmed on three faces or on two

opposite faces

¦

12ϕ

c

f '

for all other joints

Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Joint Design

Determine the Effective Area of Joint Technical Note 22 - 5

where ϕ = 0.85 (by default). (ACI 9.3.2.3, UBC 1909.3.2.3,1909.3.4.1)

A beam that frames into a face of a column at the joint is considered in this

program to provide confinement to the joint if at least three-quarters of the

face of the joint is covered by the framing member (ACI 21.5.3.1, UBC

1921.5.3.1).

Figure 2 Column Shear Force V

u

Joint Design Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Technical Note 22 - 6 Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios

For light-weight aggregate concrete, the design shear strength of the joint is

reduced in the program to at least three-quarters of that of the normal weight

concrete by replacing the

'

c

f

with

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦ ' '

,

4 / 3 , min

c c factor cs

f f f (ACI 21.5.3.2, UBC 1921.5.3.2)

For joint design, the program reports the joint shear, the joint shear stress,

the allowable joint shear stress and a capacity ratio.

Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios

At a particular joint for a particular column direction, major or minor, the pro-

gram will calculate the ratio of the sum of the beam moment capacities to the

sum of the column moment capacities (ACI 21.4.2.2).

∑M

e

≥

5

6

∑M

g

(ACI 21.4.2.2)

The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength factor, α , and

including ϕ factors. The beam capacities are calculated for reversed situations

(Cases 1 and 2) as illustrated in Figure 1 and the maximum summation ob-

tained is used.

The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is

not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along

the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are

added to the summation.

The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column

below the joint. For each load combination, the axial force, P

u

, in each of the

columns is calculated from the program analysis load combinations. For each

load combination, the moment capacity of each column under the influence of

the corresponding axial load P

u

is then determined separately for the major

and minor directions of the column, using the uniaxial column interaction dia-

gram; see Figure 3. The moment capacities of the two columns are added to

give the capacity summation for the corresponding load combination. The

maximum capacity summations obtained from all of the load combinations is

used for the beam/column capacity ratio.

Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Joint Design

Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Technical Note 22 - 7

The beam/column flexural capacity ratios are only reported for Special Mo-

ment-Resisting Frames involving seismic design load combinations. If this ra-

tio is greater than 5/6, a warning message is printed in the output file.

Figure 3 Moment Capacity M

u

at a Given Axial Load P

u

Input Data Technical Note 23 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99

Technical Note 23

Input Data

This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design input data for

ACI318-99. The input can be printed to a printer or to a text file when you

click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. A

printout of the input data provides the user with the opportunity to carefully

review the parameters that have been input into the program and upon which

program design is based. Further information about using the Print Design

Tables form is presented at the end of this Technical Note.

Input Data

The program provides the printout of the input data in a series of tables. The

column headings for input data and a description of what is included in the

columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Load Combination Multipliers

Combo Design load combination. See Technical Note 8.

Type

Load type: dead, live, superimposed dead, earthquake, wind,

snow, reduced live load, other.

Case Name of load case.

Factor Load combination scale factor.

Code Preferences

Phi_bending Bending strength reduction factor.

Phi_tension Tensile strength reduction factor.

Phi_compression

(Tied)

Compressive strength reduction factor for tied columns.

Phi_compression (Spi-

ral)

Compressive strength reduction factor for reinforced columns.

Phi_shear Shear strength reduction factor.

Input Data Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Technical Note 23 - 2 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Material Property Data

Material Name Concrete, steel, other.

Material Type Isotropic or orthotropic.

Design Type

Modulus of Elasticity

Poisson's Ratio

Thermal Coeff Coefficient of thermal expansion.

Shear Modulus

Material Property Mass and Weight

Material Name Concrete, steel, other.

Mass Per Unit Vol Used to calculate self-mass of structure.

Weight Per Unit Vol Used to calculate self-weight of structure.

Material Design Data for Concrete Materials

Material Name Concrete, steel, other.

Lightweight Concrete

Concrete FC Concrete compressive strength.

Rebar FY Bending reinforcing steel yield strength.

Rebar FYS Shear reinforcing steel yield strength.

Lightwt Reduc Fact Shear strength reduction factor for light weight concrete; default

= 1.0.

Concrete Column Property Data

Section Label Label applied to section.

Mat Label Material label.

Column Depth

Column Width

Rebar Pattern Layout of main flexural reinforcing steel.

Concrete Cover Minimum clear concrete cover.

Bar Area Area of individual reinforcing bar to be used.

Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Input Data

Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 23 - 3

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Concrete Column Design Element Information

Story ID Column assigned to story level at top of column.

Column Line Grid line.

Section ID Name of section assigned to column.

Framing Type Lateral or gravity.

RLLF Factor

L_Ratio Major Unbraced length about major axis.

L_Ratio Minor Unbraced length about minor axis.

K Major Effective length factor; default = 1.0.

K Minor Effective length factor; default = 1.0.

Concrete Beam Design Element Information

Story ID Story level at which beam occurs.

Bay ID Grid lines locating beam.

Section ID Section number assigned to beam.

Framing type Lateral or gravity.

RLLF Factor

L_Ratio Major Unbraced length about major axis.

L_Ratio Minor Unbraced length about minor axis.

Using the Print Design Tables Form

To print concrete frame design input data directly to a printer, use the File

menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the

check box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the OK button to send the

print to your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to

cancel the print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the

Setup>> button to change printers, if necessary.

To print concrete frame design input data to a file, click the Print to File check

box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the Filename>> button to change

Input Data Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Technical Note 23 - 4 Using the Print Design Tables Form

the path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format

(e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Ta-

bles form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request.

Note:

The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out-

put that is printed to a text file.

The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and

filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print

Design Tables form. Data will be added to this file. Or use the Filename>>

button to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing Tables cau-

tion box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.

If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print

Tables > Concrete Frame Design command, the Selection Only check box

will be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.

Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output Technical Note 24 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99

Technical Note 24

Output Details

This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design output for ACI318-99

that can be printed to a printer or to a text file. The design output is printed

when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design

command and select Output Summary on the Print Design Tables form. Fur-

ther information about using the Print Design Tables form is presented at the

end of this Technical Note.

The program provides the output data in a series of tables. The column

headings for output data and a description of what is included in the columns

of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.

Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Biaxial P-M Interaction and Shear Design of Column-Type Elements

Story ID Column assigned to story level at top of column.

Column Line Grid lines.

Section ID Name of section assigned to column.

Station ID

Required Reinforcing

Longitudinal Area of longitudinal reinforcing required.

Combo Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.

Shear22 Shear reinforcing required.

Combo Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.

Shear33 Shear reinforcing required.

Output Details Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Technical Note 24 - 2 Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output

Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Combo Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.

Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Beam to Column Capacity Ratios and Joint Shear Capacity Check

Story ID Story level at which joint occurs.

Column Line Grid line.

Section ID Assigned section name.

Beam-Column Capacity Ratios

Major Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity.

Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment ca-

pacity to column capacity is based.

Minor Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity.

Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment ca-

pacity to column capacity is based.

Joint Shear Capacity Ratios

Major Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity.

Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus

allowed capacity is based.

Minor Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity.

Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus

allowed capacity is based.

Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Output Details

Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 24 - 3

Using the Print Design Tables Form

To print concrete frame design input data directly to a printer, use the File

menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the

check box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the OK button to send the

print to your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to

cancel the print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the

Setup>> button to change printers, if necessary.

To print concrete frame design input data to a file, click the Print to File check

box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the Filename>> button to change

the path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format

(e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Ta-

bles form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request.

Note:

The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out-

put that is printed to a text file.

The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and

filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print

Design Tables form. Data will be added to this file. Or use the Filename>>

button to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing Tables cau-

tion box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.

If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print

Tables > Concrete Frame Design command, the Selection Only check box

will be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.

ETABS

®

Integrated Building Design Software

Concrete Frame Design Manual

Computers and Structures, Inc. Berkeley, California, USA

Version 8 January 2002

ETABS is a trademark of Computers and Structures.com (for technical support questions) web: www. 1978-2002. is explicitly prohibited. California 94704 USA Phone: (510) 845-2177 FAX: (510) 845-4096 e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions) e-mail: support@csiberkeley. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers and Structures. Inc. Inc. Inc. Inc. Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Inc. The CSI Logo is a trademark of Computers and Structures... Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated . without prior written authorization from Computers and Structures.Copyright The computer program ETABS and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products.csiberkeley. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley. Inc.com Copyright Computers and Structures. Unlicensed use of the program or reproduction of the documentation in any form. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from: Computers and Structures.

.

EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF ETABS. . THIS PROGRAM IS A VERY PRACTICAL TOOL FOR THE DESIGN/CHECK OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES. IN USING THE PROGRAM.DISCLAIMER CONSIDERABLE TIME. THE USER MUST THOROUGHLY READ THE MANUAL AND CLEARLY RECOGNIZE THE ASPECTS OF CONCRETE DESIGN THAT THE PROGRAM ALGORITHMS DO NOT ADDRESS. HOWEVER. THE PROGRAM HAS BEEN THOROUGHLY TESTED AND USED. THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE PROGRAM AND MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS. HOWEVER. THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THE PROGRAM.

.

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN Contents General Concrete Frame Design Information 1 General Design Information Design Codes Units Overwriting the Frame Design Procedure for a Concrete Frame Design Load Combinations Design of Beams Design of Columns Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Second Order P-Delta Effects Element Unsupported Lengths Analysis Sections and Design Sections Concrete Frame Design Process Concrete Frame Design Procedure Interactive Concrete Frame Design General Concrete Design Information Form Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model Overview Using the Print Design Tables Form Design Input Design Output 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-4 1-6 1-7 2 2-1 3 3-1 3-1 4 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-2 i . BERKELEY. INC..

Concrete Frame Design Manual Concrete Frame Design Specific to UBC97 5 General and Notation Introduction to the UBC 97 Series of Technical Notes Notation Preferences General Using the Preferences Form Preferences Overwrites General Overwrites Making Changes in the Overwrites Form Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default Values Design Load Combinations Strength Reduction Factors Column Design Overview Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Determine Factored Moments and Forces Determine Moment Magnification Factors Determine Capacity Ratio Required Reinforcing Area Design Column Shear Reinforcement Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Reference Beam Design Overview Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Determine Factored Moments Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement 5-1 5-2 6 6-1 6-1 6-2 7 7-1 7-1 7-3 7-4 8 9 10 10-1 10-2 10-5 10-6 10-6 10-8 10-10 10-10 10-14 10-15 11 11-1 11-1 11-2 11-2 ii .

Contents Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 12 Joint Design Overview Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Determine the Effective Area of Joint Check Panel Zone Shear Stress Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Input Data Input data Using the Print Design Tables Form Output Details Using the Print Design Tables Form 11-10 12-1 12-1 12-5 12-5 12-6 13 13-1 13-3 14 14-3 Concrete Frame Design Specific to ACI-318-99 15 General and Notation Introduction to the ACI318-99 Series of Technical Notes Notation Preferences General Using the Preferences Form Preferences Overwrites General Overwrites Making Changes in the Overwrites Form Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default Values Design Load Combinations Strength Reduction Factors 15-1 15-2 16 16-1 16-1 16-2 17 17-1 17-1 17-3 17-4 18 19 iii .

Concrete Frame Design Manual 20 Column Design Overview Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Determine Factored Moments and Forces Determine Moment Magnification Factors Determine Capacity Ratio Required Reinforcing Area Design Column Shear Reinforcement Determine Section Forces Determine Concrete Shear Capacity Determine Required Shear Reinforcement References Beam Design Overview Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Determine Factored Moments Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement Design for T-Beam Minimum Tensile Reinforcement Special Consideration for Seismic Design Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Determine Shear Force and Moment Determine Concrete Shear Capacity Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Joint Design Overview Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Determine the Effective Area of Joint Check Panel Zone Shear Stress Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Input Data Input Data Using the Print Design Tables Form 20-1 20-2 20-5 20-6 20-6 20-9 20-10 20-10 20-11 20-12 20-13 20-15 21 21-1 21-1 21-2 21-2 21-5 21-8 21-8 21-9 21-11 21-12 21-13 22 22-1 22-1 22-4 22-4 22-6 23 23-1 23-3 iv .

Contents 24 Output Details Using the Print Design Tables Form 24-3 v .

.

Design Codes The design code is set using the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design command. You cannot design some elements for one code and others for a different code in the same design run. A concrete frame element can be switched between the Concrete Frame Design and the "None" design procedure. Assign a concrete frame element the "None" design procedure if you do not want it designed by the Concrete Frame Design postprocessor. INC. however. BERKELEY. You can choose to design for any one design code in any one design run. its default design procedure is Concrete Frame Design. Typically.1 . perform different design runs using different design codes without rerunning the analysis. You can change the system of units at any time. design codes are based on one specific set of units. Design Codes Technical Note 1 . CALIFORNIA JANUARY 2002 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN Technical Note 1 General Design Information This Technical Note presents some basic information and concepts helpful when performing concrete frame design using this program. Units For concrete frame design in this program. Overwriting the Frame Design Procedure for a Concrete Frame The two design procedures possible for concrete beam design are: Concrete frame design No design If a line object is assigned a frame section property that has a concrete material property. any set of consistent units can be used for input. You can.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES..

minor direction bending. if you select a concrete element and attempt to change the design procedure to Steel Frame Design. Design Load Combinations The program creates a number of default design load combinations for concrete frame design. Design of Beams The program designs all concrete frame elements designated as beam sections in their Frame Section Properties as beams (see Define menu >Frame Sections command and click the Reinforcement button). and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment at a particular section of a particular beam. which are described in detail in Concrete Frame UBC97 Technical Note Beam Design 11 and Concrete Frame ACI 318-99 Technical Note 21 Beam Design. the program calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each output station along the beam span. in general.2 Design Load Combinations . load combination factors. For example. This change is only successful if the design procedure assigned to an element is valid for that element. and other criteria. shears. Effects resulting from any axial forces. All the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. In the design of concrete beams. each with its own scale factor. For more information see Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combination and Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 18 Design Load Combination. You can add in your own design load combinations. An unlimited number of design load combinations can be specified. the program will not allow the change because a concrete element cannot be changed to a steel frame element. You can also modify or delete the program default load combinations. Technical Note 1 .General Design Information Concrete Frame Design Change the default design procedure used for concrete frame elements by selecting the element(s) and clicking Design menu > Overwrite Frame Design Procedure. simply specify one or more load cases. the steps involve the determination of the maximum factored moments and the determination of the reinforcing steel. To define a design load combination.

or if the longitudinal steel is specified. This step is also used to calculate the required reinforcement (if none was specified) that will produce a capacity ratio of 1. For the design of flexural reinforcement.Concrete Frame Design General Design Information The beam section is designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moment envelopes obtained from all of the load combinations.or T-beam. the required compression reinforcement is calculated. The capacity ratio is a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. Design of Columns The program designs all concrete frame elements designated as column sections in their Frame Section Properties as columns (see Define menu >Frame Sections command and click the Reinforcement button). If the beam section is not adequate. the program calculates the required longitudinal steel. The design procedure for reinforced concrete columns involves the following steps: Generate axial force-biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model. the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. the beam is first designed as a singly reinforced beam. the steps involve the determination of the factored shear force. Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular set of loading combinations at a particular station resulting from the beam major shear. See Concrete Frame UBC97 Technical Note 10 Design of Beams Technical Note 1 . Check the capacity of each column for the factored axial force and bending moments obtained from each load combination at each end of the column. Design the column shear reinforcement. the determination of the shear force that can be resisted by concrete.0. In the design of the columns. In such cases. and the determination of the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. The shear reinforcement design procedure for columns is very similar to that for beams.3 . the column stress condition is reported in terms of a column capacity ratio. except that the effect of the axial force on the concrete shear capacity needs to be considered. the beam may be designed as a rectangular. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel.

The P-Delta effects come from two sources. design codes require that second order P-Delta effects be considered when designing concrete frames. The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are added to the summation. in each of the columns is calculated from the program analysis load combinations. The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength factor. and including ϕ factors. The moment capacities of the two columns are added to give the capacity summation for the corresponding load combination. using the uniaxial column interaction diagram. Pu. The beam/column flexural capacity ratios are only reported for Special Moment-Resisting Frames involving seismic design load combinations. The maximum capacity summations obtained from all of the load combinations is used for the beam/column capacity ratio. Second Order P-Delta Effects Typically. For each load combination. Technical Note 1 . They are the global lateral translation of the frame and the local deformation of elements within the frame. For each load combination. See Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios in Concrete Frame UBC97 Technical Note 12 Joint Design or in Concrete Frame ACI 318-99 Technical Note 22 Joint Design for more information. The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column below the joint. Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios When the ACI 318-99 or UBC97 code is selected. the program calculates the ratio of the sum of the beam moment capacities to the sum of the column moment capacities at a particular joint for a particular column direction. The beam capacities are calculated for reversed situations and the maximum summation obtained is used. the moment capacity of each column under the influence of the corresponding axial load Pu is then determined separately for the major and minor directions of the column. α. the axial force. major or minor.4 Second Order P-Delta Effects .General Design Information Concrete Frame Design Column Design and Concrete Frame ACI 318-99 Technical Note 20 Column Design for more information.

and the local deformation of the element. consideration of the second order P-Delta effects is generally achieved by computing the flexural design capacity using a formula similar to that shown in Equation. the frame element is broken into multiple pieces over its length). MCAP = Flexural design capacity = aMnt + bMlt Eqn. When you consider P-Delta effects in the analysis. which is extracted from a story level of a larger structure. Controls for considering this effect are found using the Analyze menu > Set Analysis Options command and then clicking the Set P-Delta Parameters button. shown by dashed line δ Final deflected position of frame element that includes the global lateral translation. MCAP where. The overall global translation of this frame element is indicated by ∆. 1. δ Figure 1: The Total Second Order P-Delta Effects on a Frame Element Caused by Both ∆ and δ Consider the frame element shown in Figure 1. The local deformation of the element is shown as δ. ∆. ∆. the program does a good job of capturing the effect due to the ∆ deformation shown in Figure 1. but it does not typically capture the effect of the δ deformation (unless. 1 Second Order P-Delta Effects Technical Note 1 .5 . The total second order P-Delta effects on this frame element are those caused by both ∆ and δ. The program has an option to consider P-Delta effects in the analysis. In design codes. in the model.Concrete Frame Design General Design Information ∆ Original position of frame element shown by vertical line Position of frame element as a result of global lateral translation.

The length L33 corresponds to instability about the 3-3 axis (major axis). about the 3-3 axis). the program recognizes various aspects of the structure that have an effect on these lengths. These are the lengths between support points of the element in the corresponding directions. Element Unsupported Lengths The column unsupported lengths are required to account for column slenderness effects. if you are performing concrete frame design in this program.General Design Information Concrete Frame Design Mnt = Required flexural capacity of the member assuming there is no translation of the frame (i. using the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. Technical Note 1 . associated with the ∆ deformation in Figure 1) Unitless factor multiplying Mnt Unitless factor multiplying Mlt (assumed equal to 1 by the program. you should consider P-Delta effects in the analysis before running the design. it assumes that the factor b is equal to 1 and it uses code-specific formulas to calculate the factor a.e. There are two unsupported lengths to consider. and L22 corresponds to instability about the 2-2 axis (minor axis)..e. They can also be overwritten by the user on an element-by-element basis. as previously described. as shown in Figure 2. such as member connectivity. in general. associated with the δ deformation in Figure 1) Required flexural capacity of the member as a result of lateral translation of the frame only (i. if desired. In determining the values for L22 and L33 of the elements.. The length L22 is also used for lateral-torsional buckling caused by major direction bending (i.. The program automatically locates the element support points and evaluates the corresponding unsupported length. They are L33 and L22.6 Element Unsupported Lengths . That b = 1 assumes that you have considered P-Delta effects in the analysis. see below) Mlt = a b = = When the program performs concrete frame design.e. Thus. The program automatically determines these unsupported lengths. diaphragm constraints and support points.

the column is assumed to be supported in one direction only at that story level.7 .Concrete Frame Design General Design Information Figure 2: Major and Minor Axes of Bending It is possible for the unsupported length of a frame element to be evaluated by the program as greater than the corresponding element length. but not the other. at a floor level. In this case. Analysis Sections and Design Sections Technical Note 1 . For example. assume a column has a beam framing into it in one direction. Tip: It is important to understand the difference between analysis sections and design sections. The design section is whatever section has most currently been designed and thus designated the current design section. Analysis Sections and Design Sections Analysis sections are those section properties used to analyze the model when you click the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command. and its unsupported length in the other direction will exceed the story height.

Using the Define menu > Load Combinations command to change a design load combination deletes the design results. In that case. Before you complete the design process. but it does not delete or change the design section. the last used analysis section is the W18X35 and the current design section is the W16X31. Using the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design command to change any of the composite beam design preferences deletes the design results. Assigning an auto select list to a frame section using the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Frame Section command initially sets the design section to be the beam with the median weight in the auto select list. Running an analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command (or its associated toolbar button) always sets the analysis section to be the same as the current design section. Note the following about analysis and design sections: Assigning a beam a frame section property using the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Frame Section command assigns the section as both the analysis section and the design section. Technical Note 1 . but it does not delete or change the design section. The program keeps track of the analysis section and the design section separately. but it does not delete or change the design section. Deleting the static nonlinear analysis results also deletes the design results for any load combination that includes static nonlinear forces. but it does not delete or change the design section. verify that the last used analysis section and the current design section are the same. The Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Verify Analysis vs Design Section command is useful for this task. Typically. Unlocking a model deletes the design results.8 Analysis Sections and Design Sections .General Design Information Concrete Frame Design It is possible for the last used analysis section and the current design section to be different. Using the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Select Design Combo command to change a design load combination deletes the design results. you may have run your analysis using a W18X35 beam and then found in the design that a W16X31 beam worked. For example.

Concrete Frame Design General Design Information static nonlinear analysis and design results are deleted when one of the following actions is taken: Use the Define menu > Frame Nonlinear Hinge Properties command to redefine existing or define new hinges. Use the Define menu > Static Nonlinear/Pushover Cases command to redefine existing or define new static nonlinear load cases. Use the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Frame Nonlinear Hinges command to add or delete hinges.9 . note that these actions delete only results for load combinations that include static nonlinear forces. Again. Analysis Sections and Design Sections Technical Note 1 .

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including the distinction between analysis sections and design sections (see Analysis Sections and Design Sections in Concrete Frame Design Technical Note 1 General Design Information). The concrete frame design postprocessor can design or check concrete columns and can design concrete beams. Concrete Frame Design Procedure The following sequence describes a typical concrete frame design process for a new building. 1. Other Technical Notes in the Concrete Frame Design series provide additional information. you can click on the Reinforcement button and specify whether it is a beam or a column. after you have specified that a section has a concrete material property.. the basic design process should be similar to that described herein. Note that default values are provided for all concrete frame design preferences. so it is unnecessary to define any preferences unless you want to change some of the default values. Note that when using this command. depending on how its frame section property was designated when it was defined using the Define menu > Frame Sections command. INC. the basic process probably will be essentially the same. Important note: A concrete frame element is designed as a beam or a column. Concrete Frame Design Procedure Technical Note 2 . Note that although the sequence of steps you follow may vary. Use the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design command to choose the concrete frame design code and to review other concrete frame design preferences and revise them if necessary. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN Technical Note 2 Concrete Frame Design Process This Technical Note describes a basic concrete frame design process using this program.1 . BERKELEY.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. See Concrete Frame Design ACI UBC97 Technical Notes 6 Preferences and Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Notes 16 Preferences for more information. Although the exact steps you follow may vary.

Note that you must select frame elements before using this command. if needed. Technical Note 2 . See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 7 Overwrites and Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 17 Overwrites for more information. Create the building model. click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Select Design Combo command. 6.2 Concrete Frame Design Procedure . 4. 3. 7. using the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. Note that the overwrites can be assigned before or after the analysis is run. To use any design load combinations other than the defaults created by the program for your concrete frame design. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combinations and Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 18 Design Load Combinations for more information. Note that while you are in this mode. Assign concrete frame overwrites. Note that you must have already created your own design combos by clicking the Define menu > Load Combinations command. See Concrete Frame Design Technical Note 3 Interactive Concrete Frame Design for more information. b. Right click on a frame element while the design results are displayed on it to enter the interactive design mode and interactively design the frame element. 5. so it is unnecessary to define any overwrites unless you want to change some of the default values. Review the concrete frame design results by doing one of the following: a. you can revise overwrites and immediately see the results of the new design.Concrete Frame Design Process Concrete Frame Design 2. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to run the concrete frame design. Also note that default values are provided for all concrete frame design overwrites. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info command to display design input and output information on the model. See Concrete Frame Design Technical Note 4 Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model for more information. Run the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command.

Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to rerun the concrete frame design with the new section properties. 14. Review the results using the procedures described above. Review the results using the procedures described in Item 7. Note that the section properties used for the analysis are the last specified design section properties. 10.Concrete Frame Design Concrete Frame Design Process If design results are not currently displayed (and the design has been run). Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to rerun the concrete frame design with the new analysis results and new section properties. Rerun the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command.3 . 8. if necessary. 9. If you select frame elements before using this command. Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Change Design Section command to change the design section properties for selected frame elements. 15. Repeat the processes in steps 10. click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Interactive Concrete Frame Design command and then right click a frame element to enter the interactive design mode for that element. Concrete Frame Design Procedure Technical Note 2 . Note that the section properties used for the analysis are the last specified design section properties. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output Details and Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 24 Output Details for more information. 11. 13. 12. 11 and 12 as many times as necessary. Again use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Change Design Section command to change the design section properties for selected frame elements. Rerun the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command. Use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command to print concrete frame design data. data is printed only for the selected elements.

Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to rerun the concrete frame design with the new section properties. Always run the building analysis using the final frame section sizes and then run a design check using the forces obtained from that analysis. The sections used in the original analysis are not typically the same as those obtained at the end of the design process. Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Verify Analysis vs Design Section command to verify that the design sections are the same as the analysis sections. It is important to note that design is an iterative process. Review the results using the procedures described in Item 7. the analysis and design will be rerun multiple times to complete a design. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Verify Analysis vs Design Section command to verify that all of the final design sections are the same as the last used analysis sections. Technical Note 2 .Concrete Frame Design Process Concrete Frame Design Note: Concrete frame design is an iterative process. if desired. 18. Use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command to print selected concrete frame design results. Typically.4 Concrete Frame Design Procedure . 17. 16.

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. INC. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN Technical Note 3 Interactive Concrete Frame Design This Technical Note describes interactive concrete frame design and review. BERKELEY. depending on how its frame section property was designated when it was defined using the Define menu > Frame Sections command and the Reinforcement button. General Technical Note 3 . click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command. Right click on a frame element while the design results are displayed on it to enter the interactive design mode and interactively design the element in the Concrete Design Information form. Important note: A concrete frame element is designed as a beam or a column. which is a powerful mode that allows the user to review the design results for any concrete frame design and interactively revise the design assumptions and immediately review the revised results. General Note that a design must have been run for the interactive design mode to be available. To run a design. Concrete Design Information Form Table 1 describe the features that are included in the Concrete Design Information form. If design results are not currently displayed (and a design has been run).. which is only available if it is a concrete section.1 . click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Interactive Concrete Frame Design command and then right click a frame element to enter the interactive design mode for that element.

measured from the i-end of the frame element. Following are the possible headings in the table: Combo ID Station location Longitudinal reinforcement Capacity ratio This is the name of the design load combination considered. This item applies to columns only. the item with the largest required amount of longitudinal reinforcing is initially highlighted. It is the total required area of longitudinal reinforcing steel. It also only applies to columns for which the program designs the longitudinal reinforcing. For columns that are checked by this program. See the important note previously in this Technical Note for more information. This is the location of the station considered. This is the label associated with a frame element that has been assigned a concrete frame section property that is designated as a column.Interactive Concrete Frame Design Concrete Frame Design Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form Item Story Beam DESCRIPTION This is the story level ID associated with the frame element. It also only applies to columns for which you have specified the location and size of reinforcing bars and thus the program checks the design. For columns that are designed by this program. Technical Note 3 . This item applies to columns only. For beams.2 Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form . See the important note previously in this Technical Note for more information. This is the label associated with a frame element that has been assigned a concrete frame section property. the item with the largest capacity ratio is initially highlighted. the item with the largest required amount of bottom steel is initially highlighted. Column Section Name Reinforcement Information The reinforcement information table on the Concrete Design Information form shows the output information obtained for each design load combination at each output station along the frame element. This item is the capacity ratio. This is the label associated with a frame element that has been assigned a concrete frame section property that is designated as a beam.

Next. M2 and M3 values for the designated load combination until it intersects the interaction surface. Click this button to access and make revisions to the concrete frame overwrites and then immediately see the new design results. the changes to the overwrites are saved permanently. Assume the length of this line from the origin to the interaction surface is designated L2. It is the total required area of shear reinforcing per unit length for shear acting in the column major direction. M2 and M3 values for the designated load combination. a second line is extended from the origin of the PMM interaction surface through the point representing the P. If you modify some overwrites in this mode and you exit both the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form and the Concrete Design Information form by clicking their respective OK buttons. This item applies to beams only. This item applies to columns only. Permanent saving of the overwrites does not actually occur until you click the OK button in the Concrete Design Information form as well as the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form. It is the total required area of longitudinal bottom steel at the specified station. It is the total required area of shear reinforcing per unit length at the specified station for loads acting in the local 2-axis direction of the beam. When you exit the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form by clicking the OK button the changes are temporarily saved. This item applies to beams only. Assume the length of this first line is designated L1. Major shear reinforcement Minor shear reinforcement Top steel Bottom steel Shear steel This item applies to columns only.Concrete Frame Design Interactive Concrete Frame Design Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form Item DESCRIPTION The capacity ratio is determined by first extending a line from the origin of the PMM interaction surface to the point representing the P. It is the total required area of shear reinforcing per unit length for shear acting in the column minor direction. This item applies to beams only. If you then exit the Concrete Design Information form by clicking the Cancel button the changes you made to the concrete frame overwrites are considered temporary only and are not permanently saved. Overwrites Button Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form Technical Note 3 . It is the total required area of longitudinal top steel at the specified station. The capacity ratio is equal to L1/L2.3 .

Interaction Button Technical Note 3 . Clicking this button displays the biaxial interaction curve for the concrete section at the location in the element that is highlighted in the table.Interactive Concrete Frame Design Concrete Frame Design Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form Item Details Button DESCRIPTION Clicking this button displays design details for the frame element. Print this information by selecting Print from the File menu that appears at the top of the window displaying the design details.4 Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form .

. .txt.. Click the Filename>> button to change the path or filename. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers. if necessary.xls. the screen graphics can then be printed using the File menu > Print Graphics command.. . Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN Technical Note 4 Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model This Technical Note describes the input and output data that can be plotted directly on the model.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. Click the OK button to send the print to your printer. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e.1 .doc). click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables form. use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the check box on the Print Design Tables form.g. Overview Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info command to display on-screen output plotted directly on the program model. Using the Print Design Tables Form To print the concrete frame input summary directly to a printer. Data will be added to this file. If desired. Or use the Filename Overview Technical Note 4 . To print the concrete frame input summary to a file. Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request. BERKELEY. INC. The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables form. The on-screen display data presents input and output data.

click Yes to replace the existing file.2 Design Input . and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears. Design Sections Design Type Live Load Red Factors Unbraced L_Ratios Eff Length K-Factors Cm Factors DNS Factors DS Factors Each of these items is described in the code-specific Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 13 Input Data and Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 23 Input Data. If you select a specific concrete frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > concrete Frame Design command. Display this form by selecting he Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info command. Technical Note 4 . the Selection Only check box will be checked. The print will be for the selected steel frame element(s) only. Design Input The following types of data can be displayed directly on the model by selecting the data type (shown in bold type) from the drop-down list on the Display Design Results form. Design Output The following types of data can be displayed directly on the model by selecting the data type (shown in bold type) from the drop-down list on the Display Design Results form. Display this form by selecting he Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info command.Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model Concrete Frame Design button to locate another file.

Design Output Technical Note 4 .Concrete Frame Design Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model Longitudinal Reinforcing Shear Reinforcing Column Capacity Ratios Joint Shear Capacity Ratios Beam/Column Capacity Ratios Each of these items is described in the code-specific Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 24 Output Details and Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output Details.3 .

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See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 6 Preferences for more information. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. When using the UBC 97 option. 2214): Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 By default the Seismic Zone is taken as Zone 4 in the program.1 . 1921): Ordinary Moment-Resisting Frame (OMF) General and Notation Technical Note 5 .. However.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. the following Framing Systems are recognized and designed according to the UBC design provisions (UBC 1627. a frame is assigned to one of the following five Seismic Zones (UBC 2213. When using the UBC 97 option. INC. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 5 General and Notation Introduction to the UBC97 Series of Technical Notes The Concrete Frame Design UBC97 series of Technical Notes describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by this program when the user selects the UBC97 Design Code (ICBO 1997). See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combinations for more information. BERKELEY. the Seismic Zone can be overwritten in the Preference form to change the default. The various notations used in this series are listed herein.

The Intermediate Moment-Resisting Frame (IMRF) is appropriate in moderate seismic risk areas. Notation Acv Ag As Area of concrete used to determine shear stress. specially in Seismic Zone 2. which are described in Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 13 Input Data and Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output Details. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The details of the design criteria used for the different framing systems are described in Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 9 Strength Reduction Factors. However. specially in Seismic Zones 3 and 4. the frame type can be overwritten in the Overwrites form on a member-by-member basis. For simplicity. Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 10 Column Design. the change of the Seismic Zone in the Preferences will not modify the frame type of an individual member that has been assigned a frame type. By default the frame type is taken in the program as OMRF in Seismic Zone 0 and 1. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 7 Overwrites for more information.2 General and Notation . The code is based on Inch-Pound-Second units. If any member is assigned with a frame type. sq-in Area of tension reinforcement. Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 11 Beam Design. as IMRF in Seismic Zone 2. The program also provides input and output data summaries. and Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 12 Joint Design. all equations and descriptions presented in this Technical Note correspond to Inch-Pound-Second units unless otherwise noted.General and Notation Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Intermediate Moment-Resisting Frame (IMRF) Special Moment-Resisting Frame (SMRF) The Ordinary Moment-Resisting Frame (OMF) is appropriate in minimal seismic risk areas. The UBC seismic design provisions are considered in the program. The Special Moment-Resisting Frame (SMRF) is appropriate in high seismic risk areas. sq-in Technical Note 5 . sq-in Gross area of concrete. especially in Seismic Zones 0 and 1. and as SMRF in Seismic Zone 3 and 4.

in4 Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of member cross section. lb-in Nonsway component of factored end moment.3 . lb-in Factored moment at section.000. neglecting reinforcement. lb-in Factored moment at section about Y-axis. psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. lb-in Sway component of factored end moment. lb-in Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions.2) Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis. lb-in Factored moment to be used in design. in Modulus of elasticity of concrete. sq-in Area of shear reinforcement. in Smaller factored end moment in a column.000 psi (UBC 1980. assumed as 29. sq-in Area of steel required for tension reinforcement.5. sq-in Coefficient. lb As(required) Ast Av Cm D' Ec Es Ig Ise L M1 M2 Mc Mns Ms Mu Mux Muy Pb General and Notation Technical Note 5 . in4 Clear unsupported length. lb-in Larger factored end moment in a column. dependent upon column curvature. used to calculate moment magnification factor Diameter of hoop. lb-in Factored moment at section about X-axis. sq-in Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 General and Notation ' As Area of compression reinforcement.

4) Technical Note 5 . in Width of member. lb Acial load capacity at zero eccentricity. psi fy ≤ 80. lb Shear resisted by concrete. in Width of web (T-Beam section). in Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions. in Concrete cover to center of reinforcing. psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. in Effective width of flange (T-Beam section). in Depth to neutral axis. in Thickness of slab (T-Beam section). lb Shear force caused by earthquake loads. lb Factored axial load at section. lb Depth of compression block. lb Factored shear force at a section. lb Shear force from span loading. lb Maximum axial load strength allowed. lb Shear force computed from probable moment capacity. in Specified compressive strength of concrete.000 psi (UBC 1909. in Depth of compression block at balanced condition.General and Notation Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Pc Pmax P0 Pu Vc VE VD+L Vu Vp a ab b bf bw c cb d d' ds f c' fy Critical buckling strength of column.4 General and Notation .

5 .Concrete Frame Design UBC97 General and Notation fys h k r Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. psi Dimension of column. in Reinforcing steel overstrength factor Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to maximum factored axial total load Moment magnification factor for sway moments Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Strength reduction factor α β1 βd δs δns εc εs ϕ General and Notation Technical Note 5 . in Effective length factor Radius of gyration of column section.

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INC. The Preferences form will display. The preference options are displayed in a two-column spreadsheet. You should. BERKELEY. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 6 Preferences This Technical Note describes the items in the Preferences form. You cannot overwrite values in the dropdown boxes. The preference value will update accordingly. The right column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item value..1 . If the drop-down box appears. You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. When you have finished making changes to the concrete frame preferences. Using the Preferences Form To view preferences.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. type in the desired value. General The concrete frame design preferences in this program are basic assignments that apply to all concrete frame elements. however. left click the desired preference item in either the left or right column of the spreadsheet. at least review the default values for the preference items to make sure they are acceptable to you. This activates a drop-down box or highlights the current preference value. click the OK button to close the form. select a new value. Default values are provided for all concrete frame design preference items. To change a preference item. The left column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item name. Thus. If the cell is highlighted. it is not required that you specify or change any of the preferences. select the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design. If you click the Cancel button to exit General Technical Note 6 . Use the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design command to access the Preferences form where you can view and revise the concrete frame design preferences.

Unitless strength reduction factor per UBC 1909.Preferences Concrete Frame Design UBC97 the form. The column headings in the table are described as follows: Item: The name of the preference item as it appears in the cells at the left side of the Preferences form.7 0.2 Preferences . Description: A description of the associated preference item. Default Value: The built-in default value that the program assumes for the associated preference item. Unitless strength reduction factor per UBC 1909. Possible Values: The possible values that the associated preference item can have. the preference items are presented in Table 1. Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences Item Design Code Possible Values Any code in the program >0 >0 >0 >0 ≥4.9 0. Preferences For purposes of explanation in this Technical Note.75 0.85 24 Technical Note 6 . Unitless strength reduction factor per UBC 1909. Phi Bending Tension Phi Compression Tied Phi Compression Spiral Phi Shear Number Interaction Curves 0. Unitless strength reduction factor per UBC 1909. We recommend that you use 24 for this item.0 Default Value UBC97 Description Design code used for design of concrete frame elements. any changes made to the preferences are ignored and the form is closed. Number of equally spaced interaction curves used to create a full 360-degree interaction surface (this item should be a multiple of four).

that design load combination is designed for the envelopes of the time histories. or designed step-by-step for the entire time history.Any odd value action Points ≥1.0 Time History Design Envelopes or Step-by-Step Envelopes Preferences Technical Note 6 . Number Inter. regardless of what is specified here. Toggle for design load combinations that include a time history designed for the envelope of the time history.3 . If a single design load combination has more than one time history case in it.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Preferences Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences Item Possible Values Default Value 11 Description Number of points used for defining a single curve in a concrete frame interaction surface (this item should be odd).

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Overwrites For explanation purposes in this Technical Note. When changes are made to overwrite items. at least review the default values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. To save space in the formes. The column headings in the table are described as follows. Thus. INC. BERKELEY. Default values are provided for all overwrite items.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. that is. An explanation of how to change an overwrite is provided at the end of this Technical Note. However. the program applies the changes only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned. To access the overwrites. select an element and click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. Overwrites Technical Note 7 .1 . you do not need to specify or change any of the overwrites. This Technical Note describes concrete frame design overwrites for UBC97. Possible Values: The possible values that the associated overwrite item can have. Default Value: The default value that the program assumes for the associated overwrite item. Description: A description of the associated overwrite item. Item: The name of the overwrite item as it appears in the program. these names are generally short. to the elements that are selected when the overwrites are changed. the overwrites are presented in Table 1. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 7 Overwrites General The concrete frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to those elements to which they are assigned..

0 1.3.1. Used to reduce the live load contribution to the factored loading.0 >0 ≤1. 1 See UBC 1910.3.13.0 >0 ≤1.0 >0 ≤1. Possible Values Default Value Description Element Type Live Load Reduction Factor Horizontal Earthquake Factor Unbraced Length Ratio (Major) Unbraced Length Ratio (Minor) Effective Length Factor (K Major) Effective Length Factor (K Minor) Moment Coefficient (Cm Major) Moment Coefficient (Cm Minor) NonSway Moment Factor (Dns Major) Technical Note 7 .2 Overwrites .0 1 1 1 See UBC 1910.0 >0 ≤1.12.11 to 1910.12.1 relates actual moment diagram to an equivalent uniform moment diagram. 1. 1 See UBC 1910. See UBC 1910.0 1.12.1. 1.0 >0 ≤1. Sway Ordinary NonSway >0 ≤1. See UBC 1910.12. Sway Intermediate.1 relates actual moment diagram to an equivalent uniform moment diagram.0 >0 ≤1.12. see UBC 1910. Sway Special Frame type.0 >0 ≤1.0 >0 ≤1.Overwrites Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites Item Element Section Sway Special.

The left column of the spreadsheet contains the name of the overwrite item. If multiple elements were selected. Then left click in either column of the spreadsheet to activate a drop-down box or highlight the contents in the cell in the right column of the spreadsheet. The values of the overwrite items are visible in the second column of the spreadsheet if only one element was selected before the overwrites form was accessed. select a value from Overwrites Technical Note 7 . The right column of the spreadsheet contains the overwrites values. check the box to the left of an overwrite item to change it.12. 1 See UBC 1910. 1 See UBC 1910. the check boxes in the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form are all unchecked and all of the cells in the spreadsheet have a gray background to indicate that they are inactive and the items in the cells cannot be changed.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Overwrites Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites Item NonSway Moment Factor (Dns Minor) Sway Moment Factor (Ds Major) Sway Moment Factor (Ds Minor) Possible Values Default Value 1 Description See UBC 1910. The names of the overwrite items are displayed in the first column of the spreadsheet.12. no values show for the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet. Initially. After selecting one or multiple elements. select an element and click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. If the drop-down box appears.3 . Making Changes in the Overwrites Form To access the concrete frame overwrites. The overwrites are displayed in the form with a column of check boxes and a two-column spreadsheet.12.

The program then changes all of the overwrite items whose associated check boxes are checked for the selected members. Technical Note 7 . If you click the Cancel button to exit the form. You cannot change the values of the dropdown boxes. any changes made to the overwrites are ignored and the form is closed. The concrete frame overwrite values that were in a . The overwrite will reflect the change.edb file that you used to initialize your model may be different from the built-in program default values. Important note about resetting overwrites: The program defaults for the overwrite items are built into the program. type in the desired value. All current design results will be deleted when this command is executed.edb file used to initialize the model. When changes to the overwrites have been completed.4 Overwrites . not to the values that were in the . Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default Values Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Reset All Overwrites command to reset all of the steel frame overwrites. the program resets the overwrite values to its built-in values. You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program.Overwrites Concrete Frame Design UBC97 the box. click the OK button to close the form. When you reset overwrites. If the cell contents is highlighted.

and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible..2. For the UBC 97 code.2).1) (UBC 1909.5 LL ± 1.2.3 WL 0.4 DL + 1.7 LL (UBC 1909. INC.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.0 EL 1. 1612.4 DL + 1.2) (UBC 1909.9 DL ± 1. BERKELEY.0 EL) (UBC 1909. in addition to the dead and live loads.1) These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever the UBC97 code is used. However.2.3. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 7 Overwrites for more information. namely 1.7 WL) 0.2. the following load combinations may need to be considered (UBC 1909.2.2 DL + 0.2. 1612.2.1 . if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only.75 (1.7 LL ± 1. if the structure is subjected to wind (WL) and earthquake (EL) loads.1) (UBC 1909. Design Load Combinations Technical Note 8 .2. the stress check may need only one load combination.9 DL ± 1.7 LL 0.3. 1.1) (UBC 1909. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load condition on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.4 DL + 1.1).2.4 DL 1.2) (UBC 1909.

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2. axial force.90 for axial tension = 0. and axial compression and flexure (tied column) (UBC 1909.3. BERKELEY.3.90 for flexure = 0. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 9 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.60 for shear and torsion (UBC 1909. and axial compression and flexure (spirally reinforced column) (UBC 1909. INC.1 .2) (UBC 1909.2.2.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.2) = 0.3) ϕ ϕ ϕ Strength Reduction Factors Technical Note 9 .3) (UBC 1909.75 for axial compression.2.2) = 0.2) = 0.3.3.. and torsion are as follows: ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ = 0.2.85 for shear and torsion (non-seismic design) = 0. shear.90 for axial tension and flexure (UBC 1909.2.1) (UBC 1909.3. The ϕ factors for flexure.3.70 for axial compression.3. are applied on the nominal strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member.2. ϕ.

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©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. INC.4. Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each station of the column. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model. Design the column shear reinforcement. When the steel is undefined. the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Intermediate moment resisting frames (UBC 1910.. Alternatively.1 . The following four subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process.3. BERKELEY. Overview The program can be used to check column capacity or to design columns. A typical biaxial interaction surface is shown in Figure 1. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 10 Column Design This Technical Note describes how the program checks column capacity or designs reinforced concrete columns when the UBC97 code is selected.1). the program will check the column capacity. If you define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section. Overview Technical Note 10 . The target capacity ratio is taken as 1 when calculating the required reinforcing area.9.1) and 1 to 6 percent for Special moment resisting frames (UBC 1921. the program can calculate the amount of reinforcing required to design the column.

Column Design

Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Figure 1 A Typical Column Interaction Surface

**Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces
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The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure surface. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending, the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations. A typical interaction diagram is shown in Figure 1.

Technical Note 10 - 2

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces

Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Column Design

The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in three dimensions on the section of the column. See Figure 2. The linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain, εc, at the extremity of the section, to 0.003 (UBC 1910.2.3). The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate strength design (UBC 1910.3), and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular, square, or circular column section. The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity, εsEs, and is limited to the yield stress of the steel, fy (UBC 1910.2.4). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any further simplifications with respect to distributing the area of steel over the cross section of the column, such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder. See Figure 3. The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a stress value of 0.85 f c' (UBC 1910.2.7.1). See Figure 3. The interaction algorithm provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone. The effects of the strength reduction factor, ϕ, are included in the generation of the interaction surfaces. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to ϕPn(max), where ϕPn(max) = 0.85ϕ[0.85 f c' (Ag-Ast)+fyAst] (spiral) ϕPn(max) = 0.85ϕ[0.85 f c' (Ag-Ast)+fyAst] (tied) ϕ ϕ = 0.70 for tied columns = 0.75 for spirally reinforced columns (UBC 1910.3.5.1) (UBC 1910.3.5.2) (UBC 1909.3.2.2) (UBC 1909.3.2.2)

The value of ϕ used in the interaction diagram varies from ϕmin to 0.9 based on the axial load. For low values of axial load, ϕ is increased linearly from ϕmin to 0.9 as the nominal capacity ϕPn decreases from the smaller of ϕPb or 0.1 f c' Ag to zero, where Pb is the axial force at the balanced condition. In cases involving axial tension, ϕ is always 0.9 (UBC 1909.3.2.2).

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces

Technical Note 10 - 3

Column Design

Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Figure 2 Idealized Strain Distribution for Generation of Interaction Surfaces

Technical Note 10 - 4

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces

The factored moments and corresponding magnification factors depend on the identification of the individual column as either “sway” or “non-sway. defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial moment set.5 . Mux. The following steps are involved in calculating the capacity ratio of a particular column for a particular loading combination at a particular location: Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and the specified load combination factors to give Pu. lies within the interaction volume. and Muy.” Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 10 . Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored moments. Determine whether the point.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design Figure 3 Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section Calculate Column Capacity Ratio The column capacity ratio is calculated for each loading combination at each output station of each column. Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments.

The factored moments are further increased for non-sway columns.3).6 + 0. δs. where ϕ is the understrength factor for stability.50 live load)/ϕ if seismic load governs.2 dead load + 0. The moment magnification factors for sway moments. Mux.12. The program assumes that it performs a P-delta analysis and. which is taken as 0. See also White and Hajjar (1991). The non-sway components which are identified by “ns” subscripts are predominantly caused by gravity load.12. Determine Moment Magnification Factors The moment magnification factors are calculated separately for sway (overall stability effect).4 dead load + 1. or (1. giving Pu.03h) inches. The sway moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads.” Technical Note 10 . to obtain minimum eccentricities of (0.3) The factor δs is the moment magnification factor for moments causing side sway. if required. The sway components are identified by the “s” subscripts. (UBC 1910. and Muy. For individual columns or column-members in a floor. δns. Also the moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are in general different.Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process. the load should correspond to a load combination of 0.75 (1. For the P-delta analysis.3.7 live load)/ϕ if wind load governs. and for non-sway (individual column stability effect). and are related to the cause of side-sway. Determine Factored Moments and Forces The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the corresponding load factors to all the load cases.13. δs.75 (UBC 1910.2). is taken as 1 because the component moments Ms and Mns are obtained from a “second order elastic (P-delta) analysis.10. where h is the dimension of the column in the corresponding direction (UBC 1910. therefore.2). The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the sway (Ms) and the non-sway (Ms) components.6 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio . the magnified moments about two axes at any station of a column can be obtained as M = Mns + δsMs. moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken as unity (UBC 1910.

Cm = 1. associated with the major or minor direction of the column is given by (UBC 1910.3) δns = Cm ≥ 1.12.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design The computed moments are further amplified for individual column stability effect (UBC 1910. however. Pu 1− 0. (UBC 1910.3.13.12. the program allows the user to override this value. where (UBC 1910.7 .4E c I g 1 + βd .12. The non-sway moment magnification factor. EI is associated with a particular column direction given by: EI = 0.3) βd = maximum factored axial total load Cm = 0.12.0. δns.3) (UBC 1910.12. where Mc is the factored moment to be used in design.6 + 0. Ma / Mb is positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending. The above expression of Cm is valid if there is no transverse load applied between the supports. and M2 is the larger factored and amplified end moment. and Mb is numerically larger than Ma.12.1) Ma and Mb are the moments at the ends of the column.12. as follows: Mc = δnsM2 . Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 10 .75Pc π 2 EI (kl u )2 .12.5) by the nonsway moment magnification factor.4 Ma ≥ 0. δns. Cm can be overwritten by the user on an element-by-element basis. If transverse load is present on the span.3) (UBC 1910.3) Pc = (UBC 1910. 1910.3) k is conservatively taken as 1. Mb maximum factored axial dead load and (UBC 1910.4. or the length is overwritten.3.

The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication Technical Note 10 . The two unsupported lengths are l22 and l33. corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of the element. If Pu is found to be greater than or equal to 0. Figure 4 Axes of Bending and Unsupported Length If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member. the user can explicitly specify values of δs and δns. Therefore. See Figure 4.Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 The magnification factor. The above calculations use the unsupported length of the column. must be a positive number and greater than 1. a failure condition is declared.75Pc. These are the lengths between the support points of the element in the corresponding directions. δns. Pu must be less than 0.75Pc.8 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio . respectively. Determine Capacity Ratio The program calculates a capacity ratio as a measure of the stress condition of the column.

the moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain Pu. if the point lies outside the interaction volume. Mux. Muy. and Muy. Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity.) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in Figure 5.9 . The point (Pu. This point is determined by three-dimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 10 . The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. the column capacity is adequate. Mux. the column is overstressed.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. however. Figure 5 Geometric Representation of Column Capacity Ratios This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C. If the point lies within the interaction volume.

CR. that can be resisted by concrete alone. Note that Pu is needed for the calculation of Vc. Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. along with the controlling Pu. If OL > OC (or CR>1). See Figure 5. the shear design of the columns is also based on the probable and nominal moment capacities of the members. Pu and Vu.10 Required Reinforcing Area . Mux. the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is stressed to capacity. Vc. in addition to the factored Technical Note 10 . Required Reinforcing Area If the reinforcing area is not defined. The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column.Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 failure surface. the program computes the reinforcement that will give a column capacity ratio of one. The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular load combination caused by shear forces in a particular direction: Determine the factored forces acting on the section. calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Calculate Column Capacity Ratio. the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed. the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate. and Muy set and associated load combination number. Determine the shear force. If OL < OC (or CR<1). OC If OL = OC (or CR=1). is given by the ratio OL . For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (Ductile frames)." Design Column Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and minor directions of the column. The capacity ratio. respectively.

. is calculated. The design shear force. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process.e.4. seismic design) the column is checked for capacity-shear in addition to the requirement for the Ordinary moment resisting frames. and L + − MI + M J . the column axial force.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design moments. of the column in a particular direction under the influence of the axial force Pu is calculated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction.5. Vp is the capacity-shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting in two opposite directions. The capacity-shear force in a column. In the shear design of Special moment resisting frames (i. Pu.11 .1) where. Therefore.4.1) Vu = Vp + VD+L (UBC 1921. Vu. Then. Vp is the maximum of VP1 and VP2 . Mu and Mu . where L Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 10 . Effects of the axial forces on the column moment capacities are included in the formulation. Vp. the factored axial load. and the column shear force. Determine Section Forces In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame. in a particular direction are obtained by factoring the program analysis load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. in a particular direction is calculated from the probable moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial force acting on the column. the forces for a particular load combination. where VP1 = VP2 = − + MI + M J . + − the positive and negative moment capacities. Pu. is then given by (UBC 1921. For each load combination. namely. Vu.5.

000 Ag where. The design shear force is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal (ϕ = 1.0. the shear force carried by the concrete.25 (UBC 1921.3.0) moment capacity and factored shear force. Determine Concrete Shear Capacity Given the design force set Pu and Vu.8. = Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the column using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.1. except the earthquake load factors are doubled (UBC 1921. (UBC 1911. VD+L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads. is calculated as follows: If the column is subjected to axial compression..3). i. For Intermediate moment resisting frames.0).3). the shear capacity of the column is also checked for the capacity-shear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads. in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. except that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1. The procedure for calculating nominal moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for special moment resisting frames. Pu is positive.1. For most of the columns.2) Technical Note 10 . Vc. and (UBC 1911. + − M J .0). For Special moment resisting frames.Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 + − M I . and L = Clear span of column.2) Acv . f c' ≤ 100 psi.8.e. α is taken as 1. Pu Vc = 2 f c' 1 + 2.0). The factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors. 1921. M I .25 (UBC 1921.12 Design Column Shear Reinforcement . = Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the column using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1. M J . it is zero.

5.6.5 f c' 1 + Pu 500 Ag Acv . Figure 6 Shear Stress Area.2).3. Acv is the effective shear area which is Ag shown shaded in Figure 6. Acv Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 10 . For circular columns.8 times the gross area (UBC 1911. (UBC 1911.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design Vc ≤ 3. Acv is not taken to be greater than 0.13 .2.2) The term Pu must have psi units.

Pu is negative.Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 If the column is subjected to axial tension. The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on shear strength consideration.2) Vu is limited by the following relationship.85 for nonseismic design or for seismic design in Seismic Zones 0.2. is more than half of the total factored maximum shear force over the length of the member Vu(VE ≥ 0. and 2 (UBC 1909.3.2.3.5. Vc is set to zero if the factored axial compressive force. the strength reduction factor.14 Design Column Shear Reinforcement .60 for seismic design in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 1909.3.8) Otherwise redimensioning of the concrete section is required. (Vu / ϕ-Vc) ≤ 8 f c' Acv (UBC 1911. is given for rectangular and circular columns by the following: Av = (Vu / ϕ − Vc )s . for rectangular columns f ys d 2 (Vu / ϕ − Vc )s .3) and is 0. Pu. Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given Vu and Vc.6.6. Here ϕ.6.4.2) Av = (UBC 1911.3) For Special moment resisting concrete frame design. 1911. (UBC 1911.5. along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination label. including the earthquake effect is small (Pu < f c' Ag / 20) and if the shear force contribution from earthquake.6.5.3) Pu Vc = 2 f c' 1 + 500 Ag Acv ≥ 0 (UBC 1911.1. is 0.5.5. for circular columns f ys D' π (UBC 1911.5Vu) (UBC 1921. 1911.2. s.3. VE. 1.1.1). The maximum of all the calculated values obtained from each load combination are reported for the major and minor directions of the column.2). the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or ties within a spacing.6.5.4. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing considerations or transverse reinforcement volumet- Technical Note 10 .

1991. No. and J. Vol.15 .. Inc. Engineering Journal.. Reference White.F.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design ric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Reference Technical Note 10 . American Institute of Steel Construction. Hajjar. W. Application of Second-Order Elastic Analysis in LRFD: Research in Practice. 28. D. 4.

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shears. BERKELEY. shears. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user-defined number of check/design stations along the beam span.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. the program calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 11 Beam Design This Technical Note describes how this program completes beam design when the UBC97 code is selected. load combination factors. and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. All beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. load combination factors and other criteria described herein. INC. and other criteria described below.1 . The program calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments. Overview In the design of concrete beams. minor direction bending. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design beam flexural reinforcement Design beam shear reinforcement Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at check/design stations along the beam span. The following steps are involved in designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment for a particular beam for a particular section: Determine the maximum factored moments Determine the reinforcing steel Overview Technical Note 11 . Effects caused by axial forces..

the width.3. In such cases. Intermediate. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this designed balanced condition. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. + The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive M u and maxi− mum negative M u factored moments obtained from all of the load combina- tions.3).2 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement .1 f c' Ag (UBC 1910. Negative beam moments produce top steel. the beam may be designed as a Rectangular. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of Special. Technical Note 11 . the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown in Figure 1 (UBC 1910. all the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed 0. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel.3). Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. or Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame beams. The design procedure used by the program for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (UBC 1910.or a T-beam. It is assumed that the compression carried by concrete is less than 0.3. In such cases. hence.2). the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. or the grade of concrete.and T-beams) is summarized below.

2.3) (UBC 1910.000 + f y 0.85.05 c 1.2.85f c' ϕb .000 . Also β1 and cb are calculated as follows: f ' − 4.e.2. designing top or bottom steel).3.85 . (UBC 1910. where.3 . d = ε c E s + fy 87.4) Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 . where the value of ϕ is 0. Mu (i.000 d.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design Figure 1 Design of a Rectangular Beam Section Design for Rectangular Beam In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.0.000 cb = εc E s 87.2.7..65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0. 1910.3. β1 = 0. a=dd2 − 2 Mu 0.1) in the above and the following equations. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 1).90 (UBC 1909.

85 f c' bamax.1) the moment resisted by concrete compression and tensile steel is a Muc = C d − max 2 − ϕ.3) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by C = 0. compression reinforcement is required (UBC 1910.7.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by amax = 0. If a > amax. or at the top if Mu is negative.3.75β1cb. and (UBC 1910.2. Therefore the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is Mus = Mu .1. − So the required compression steel is given by ' As = M us f s' (d − d' )ϕ . where c − d' f s' = 0.4 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement .Muc.2.3.003Es .7. 1910. the area of tensile steel reinforcement is given by As = Mu a ϕf y d − 2 . (UBC 1910.4) The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is Technical Note 11 .2. This steel is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive.3) If a ≤ amax. c − (UBC 1910.

As is to be placed at bottom and As is to be placed at top if Mu is positive. If a > ds. calculation for As is performed in two parts. See Figure 2.85 f c' (bf .e. f y (d − d' )ϕ − Therefore. the depth of the compression block is given by a = d .. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. If Mu > 0. The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by amax = 0. the total tensile reinforcement. no T-Beam data is to be used. Cf is given by Cf = 0. and total com' ' pression reinforcement is As . As = As1 + As2. the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above.bw) ds.85f c' ϕbf . and vice versa if Mu is negative. However.1) If a ≤ ds. and the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is given by As2 = M us . i.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design As1 = Muc a f y d − max ϕ 2 .75β1cb. Compression reinforcement is required if a > amax. Cw. Cf.5 .2. as shown in Figure 2. in this case. Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 . Design for T-Beam In designing for a factored negative moment. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.7. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular section design. Mu (i. designing top steel).. the width of the compression flange is taken as the width of the beam for analysis. (UBC 1910.d2 − 2M u 0.e.

Cf fy and the portion of Mu that is resisted by the flange is Again.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Figure 2 Design of a T-Beam Section Therefore.90. If a1 ≤ amax. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as a1 = d d2 − 2M uw 0. The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d. Therefore. the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by Technical Note 11 . Mu to be carried by the web is given by Muw = Mu .85f c' ϕbw . the value for ϕ is 0.6 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . As1 = given by d Muf = Cf d − s 2 ϕ . the balance of the moment.Muf.

2. c − (UBC 1910.85 f c' bamax. compression reinforcement is required (UBC 1910.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design As2 = M uw a ϕf y d − 1 2 .3) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force in web concrete alone is given by C = 0.1) − Therefore the moment resisted by concrete web and tensile steel is a Muc = C d − max 2 ϕ.7. If a1 > amax. This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the T-beam. (UBC 1910.3. and the tensile steel for balancing compression in steel is Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 . and As = As1 + As2. where c − d' f s' = 0.4) The tensile steel for balancing compression in web concrete is As2 = M uc a f y d − max 2 ϕ .003Es .2.7 .Muc. and the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is Mus = Muw . the compression steel is computed as ' As = M us f s' (d − d' )ϕ . − Therefore.

2.1) Technical Note 11 . 3 (UBC 1910.1. As = As1 + As2 + As3. Minimum Tensile Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an Ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two following limits: 3 f ' 200 c As ≥ max bw d and bw d or fy fy As ≥ 4 As(required) 3 (UBC 1910.3) Special Consideration for Seismic Design For Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design).3.3.2. f y (d − d')ϕ − The total tensile reinforcement. 3 f ' 200 c As(min) ≥ max bw d and bw d or fy fy As(min) ≥ 4 As(required).1) The beam flexural steel is limited to a maximum given by As ≤ 0. Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less than As(min) (UBC 1921. (UBC 1921. 1921.8 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement .1) (UBC 1910. As is to be placed at bottom and As is to be placed at top.2.5.1).1) (UBC 1910.5.5.5.3.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 As3 = Mus .2.3. 1921.3.25 bwd. the beam design satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table 1 for comprehensive listing): The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both the top and bottom. and total compres' ' sion reinforcement is As .

0 NLDa Combinations Beam Design Flexure NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations Beam Min.25 NLDa Combinations ρ ≤ 0.0 and α = 1. M u 5 { } END 1 + − max Mu .0 and α = 1.ρ ≥ 200 fy NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 8% Modified NLDa Combinations (earthquake loads doubled) Column Capacity ϕ = 1.0 1% < ρ < 6% NLDa Combinations and Column shear capacity ϕ = 1.0 plus VD+L Vc = 0 Checked for shear No Requirement No Requirement No Requirement Reported in output file NLDa = Number of specified loading Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 .0 plus VD+L No Requirement NLDa Combinations Beam Capacity Shear (Vp) with α = 1.025 ρ≥ 3 f c' fy .0 and ϕ = 1. Mu 4 1 − − ≥ max Mu .25 and ϕ = 1. Moment Override Check + M uEND ≥ No Requirement + M uSPAN − M uSPAN 1 − M uEND 3 1 + − ≥ max M u .9 . Mu 4 { { } } END END Beam Design Shear Joint Design Beam/ Column Capacity Ratio NLDa Combinations Modified NLDa Combinations (earthquake loads doubled) Beam Capacity Shear (Vp) with α = 1. M u 5 + MuEND ≥ { } 1 − MuEND 2 END + MuSPAN ≥ − MuSPAN ≥ 1 + − max M u .Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design Table 1 Design Criteria Table Type of Check/ Design Column Check (interaction) Column Design (interaction) Column Shears Ordinary Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic Zones 0&1) NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 8% Intermediate Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic Zone 2) NLDa Combinations Special Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic Zones 3 & 4) NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations α = 1.

e.8.2. For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (Ductile frames). The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular load combination at a particular station resulting from the beam major shear: Determine the factored shear force. Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at a userdefined number of stations along the beam span.4.e. the beam positive moment capacity (i. Vc..2).. Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (UBC 1921.1). associated with the top steel) at that end (UBC 1921. Vu.2). Determine the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. Technical Note 11 .4.10 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement . respectively. Determine the shear force. in addition to the factored load design.e. associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than 1/2 of the beam negative moment capacity (i. the shear design of the beams is also based on the probable and nominal moment capacities of the members. Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (UBC 1921.3. the beam design would satisfy the following conditions: At any support of the beam.1). seismic design). that can be resisted by the concrete.8.3..2. For Intermediate moment resisting concrete frames (i.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 At any end (support) of the beam. the beam positive moment capacity would not be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end (UBC 1921.

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 11 .3. using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1. Vp.1) where Vp is the capacity shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting in opposite directions.11 . the shear forces and moments for a particular load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding load combination factors. Therefore. Determine Shear Force and Moment In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame. Vp is the maximum of VP1 and VP2 . where L = Moment capacity at end I. In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames (i.0). where VP1 = VP2 = − MI − + MI + M J .4. and L + − MI + M J . The capacity-shear force.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process.. seismic design). The design shear force Vu is then given by (UBC 1921. is calculated from the probable moment capacities of each end of the beam and the gravity shear forces. The procedure for calculating the design shear force in a beam from probable moment capacity is the same as that described for a column in section “Design Column Shear Reinforcement” in Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 10 Column Design. with top steel in tension. the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the capacity-shear associated with the probable moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity load.e. See also Table 1 for details.1) Vu = Vp + VD+L (UBC 1921. This check is performed in addition to the design check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames.3.4.

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 + MJ = Moment capacity at end J.8.0).3). VD+L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads.0). with bottom steel in tension. 1921.8. using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.12 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement . The factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors. The design shear force in beams is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal moment capacity and factored shear force. using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1. + MI = Moment capacity at end I. using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.25 (UBC 1921. except that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1. including the earthquake effect Pu. with top steel in tension. α is taken as 1. Vc is set to zero if both the factored axial compressive force. The computation of the design shear force in a beam of an Intermediate moment resisting frame is also the same as that for columns. which is described in Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 10 Column Design. Also see Table 1 for details. Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The allowable concrete shear capacity is given by Vc = 2 f c' bwd. For Intermediate moment resisting frames.0). (UBC 1911.0) moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for Special moment resisting frames.0). − MJ = Moment capacity at end J. in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames.3. except the earthquake load factors are doubled (UBC 1921.3). The procedure for calculating nominal (ϕ = 1. with bottom steel in tension.0. and L = Clear span of beam. is less than f c' Ag/20 and the shear force contribution from earthquake VE is Technical Note 11 . the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads. For Special moment resisting frames.1) For Special moment resisting frame concrete design.1.25 (UBC 1921.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Beam Design

more than half of the total maximum shear force over the length of the member Vu (i.e., VE ≥ 0.5Vu) (UBC 1921.3.4.2).

**Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

Given Vu and Vc, the required shear reinforcement in area/unit length is calculated as Av = (Vu / ϕ − Vc )s . f ys d (UBC 1911.5.6.1, 1911.5.6.2)

The shear force resisted by steel is limited by (Vu/ϕ - Vc) ≤ 8 f c' bd. (UBC 1911.5.6.8)

Otherwise, redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here ϕ, the strength reduction factor, is 0.85 for nonseismic design or for seismic design in Seismic Zones 0, 1, and 2 (UBC 1909.3.2.3) and is 0.60 for seismic design in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 1909.3.4.1). The maximum of all the calculated Av values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number. The beam shear reinforcement requirements displayed by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement

Technical Note 11 - 13

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

**Technical Note 12 Joint Design
**

This Technical Note explains how the program performs a rational analysis of the beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are generated in a joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength.

Overview

To ensure that the beam-column joint of special moment resisting frames possesses adequate shear strength, the program performs a rational analysis of the beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are generated in the joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength. Only joints having a column below the joint are designed. The material properties of the joint are assumed to be the same as those of the column below the joint. The joint analysis is completed in the major and the minor directions of the column. The joint design procedure involves the following steps: • • • Determine the panel zone design shear force,Vuh Determine the effective area of the joint Check panel zone shear stress

The algorithms associated with these three steps are described in detail in the following three sections.

**Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force
**

Figure 1 illustrates the free body stress condition of a typical beam-column intersection for a column direction, major or minor.

Overview

Technical Note 12 - 1

2 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force .Joint Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Figure1 Beam-Column Joint Analysis Technical Note 12 .

The forces that act on the joint are Pu. Noting that TL = CL and TR = CR. In the design of special moment resisting concrete frames. considering the fact that the concrete cover may be different for the direction of moment. thereby contributing force components to the analysis. Mmax.Vu The location of C or T forces is determined by the direction of the moment.1. Cmax.85f c' bd Mmax = C max d 2 Then the program conservatively determines C and T forces as follows: abs( M ) C = T = C max 1 − 1 − M max The program resolves the moments and the C and T forces from beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor directions of the column along the direction that is being investigated. The moments MuL and MuR are obtained from the beams framing into the joint. as follows: Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Technical Note 12 . The magnitude of C or T forces is conservatively determined using basic principles of ultimate strength theory.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Joint Design The force Vuh is the horizontal panel zone shear force that is to be calculated.1). Vu. MuL and MuR. The C and T forces are based on these moment capacities. C max = 0. Also. α. and the maximum moment. Vuh = TL + TR . The program first calculates the maximum compression. The program calculates the column shear force Vu from the beam moment capacities. the program calculates the C and T for the positive and negative moments. The program calculates the joint shear force Vuh by resolving the moments into C and T forces.3 . the evaluation of the design shear force is based on the moment capacities (with reinforcing steel overstrength factor. that can be carried by the beam. from the column framing into the top of the joint. and no ϕ factors) of the beams framing into the joint (UBC 1921. ignoring compression reinforcement as follows. respectively.5. The forces Pu and Vu are axial force and shear force.

4 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force . It should be noted that the points of inflection shown on Figure 2 are taken as midway between actual lateral support points for the columns. If there is no column at the top of the joint.Joint Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Vu = Mu + Mu H L R See Figure 2. Figure 2 Column Shear Force Vu Technical Note 12 . the shear force from the top of the column is taken as zero.

The joint area for joint shear along the major and minor directions is calculated separately (ACI R21.5 . The dimensions of the rectangle correspond to the major and minor dimensions of the column below the joint. The effective width of the joint area to be used in the calculation is limited to the width of the beam plus the depth of the column.3.1).85 (by default). Determine the Effective Area of Joint The joint area that resists the shear forces is assumed always to be rectangular in plan view.3.3. Determine the Effective Area of Joint Technical Note 12 . It should be noted that if the beam frames into the joint eccentrically.5.5.4.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Joint Design The effects of load reversals.1909.2. as illustrated in Case 1 and Case 2 of Figure 1. (UBC 1909. except if the beam framing into the joint is very narrow.3). the above assumptions may be unconservative and the user should investigate the acceptability of the particular joint.5.3): v = { 20ϕ 15ϕ 12ϕ f 'c f 'c f 'c for joints confined on all four sides for joints confined on three faces or on two opposite faces for all other joints where ϕ = 0.1) A beam that frames into a face of a column at the joint is considered in this program to provide confinement to the joint if at least three-quarters of the face of the joint is covered by the framing member (UBC 1921. Check Panel Zone Shear Stress The panel zone shear stress is evaluated by dividing the shear force Vuh by the effective area of the joint and comparing it with the following design shear strengths (UBC 1921.3. are investigated and the design is based on the maximum of the joint shears obtained from the two cases. The area of the joint is assumed not to exceed the area of the column below.

The moment capacities of the two columns are added to give the capacity summation for the corresponding load combination. the axial force. The maximum capacity summations obtained from all of the load combinations is used for the beam/column capacity ratio. the allowable joint shear stress and a capacity ratio. α.2) The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength factor. see Figure 3. using the uniaxial column interaction diagram. in each of the columns is calculated from the program analysis load combinations. the following UBC provision needs to be satisfied (UBC 1921.2. Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios At a particular joint for a particular column direction. the program will calculate the ratio of the sum of the beam moment capacities to the sum of the column moment capacities. ∑Me ≥ 6 ∑Mg 5 (UBC 1921. the program reports the joint shear. the moment capacity of each column under the influence of the corresponding axial load Pu is then determined separately for the major and minor directions of the column. Pu. and including ϕ factors.3 / 4 f c' f c' with (UBC 1921.4.3. The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are added to the summation. The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column below the joint. major or minor. the design shear strength of the joint is reduced in the program to at least three-quarters of that of the normal weight concrete by replacing the minf cs. factor f ' c .2.5. For Special Moment-Resisting Frames. Technical Note 12 .6 Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios . the joint shear stress. For each load combination.2).Joint Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 For light-weight aggregate concrete. For each load combination. The beam capacities are calculated for reversed situations (Cases 1 and 2) as illustrated in Figure 1 and the maximum summation obtained is used.2) For joint design.4.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Joint Design The beam/column flexural capacity ratios are only reported for Special Moment-Resisting Frames involving seismic design load combinations. Figure 3 Moment Capacity Mu at a Given Axial Load Pu Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Technical Note 12 . If this ratio is greater than 5/6.7 . a warning message is printed in the output file.

.

Name of load case. Input Data The program provides the printout of the input data in a series of tables. reduced live load. Compressive strength reduction factor for reinforced columns. wind. snow. earthquake. other. Load type: dead. BERKELEY. superimposed dead. Bending strength reduction factor. Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING Combo Type Case Factor DESCRIPTION Design load combination. Further information about using the Print Design Tables form is presented at the end of this Technical Note. Tensile strength reduction factor. Compressive strength reduction factor for tied columns. live.. Load combination scale factor. A printout of the input data provides the user with the opportunity to carefully review the parameters that have been input into the program and upon which program design is based.1 . INC. Load Combination Multipliers Code Preferences Phi_bending Phi_tension Phi_compression (Tied) Phi_compression (Spiral) Phi_shear Input Data Technical Note 13 . The column headings for input data and a description of what is included in the columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note. The input can be printed to a printer or to a text file when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. See Technical Note 8. Shear strength reduction factor.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 13 Input Data This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design input data for UBC97.

Material Property Mass and Weight Material Name Mass Per Unit Vol Weight Per Unit Vol Material Name Lightweight Concrete Concrete FC Rebar FY Rebar FYS Lightwt Reduc Fact Concrete compressive strength. Minimum clear concrete cover. Bending reinforcing steel yield strength.0. Shear reinforcing steel yield strength.2 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data . default = 1. Concrete. steel. Material Design Data for Concrete Materials Concrete Column Property Data Section Label Mat Label Column Depth Column Width Rebar Pattern Concrete Cover Bar Area Layout of main flexural reinforcing steel. Material Property Data Material Name Material Type Design Type Modulus of Elasticity Poisson's Ratio Thermal Coeff Shear Modulus Coefficient of thermal expansion. Used to calculate self-mass of structure. Shear strength reduction factor for light weight concrete. Used to calculate self-weight of structure. steel. Technical Note 13 .Input Data Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Concrete. Concrete. other. other. Label applied to section. Isotropic or orthotropic. Area of individual reinforcing bar to be used. other. Material label. steel.

0. default = 1. Unbraced length about major axis. Click the OK button to send the print to your printer. Grid lines locating beam. To print steel frame design input data to a file. Concrete Column Design Element Information Concrete Beam Design Element Information Using the Print Design Tables Form To print steel frame design input data directly to a printer. Effective length factor. Unbraced length about minor axis. Click the Filename>> button to change the Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 13 . Effective length factor.0. Unbraced length about minor axis. Story level at which beam occurs. Grid line. use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the check box on the Print Design Tables form. Name of section assigned to column. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers. click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables form. if necessary. Section number assigned to beam.3 . Lateral or gravity. Lateral or gravity.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Input Data Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING Story ID Column Line Section ID Framing Type RLLF Factor L_Ratio Major L_Ratio Minor K Major K Minor Story ID Bay ID Section ID Framing type RLLF Factor L_Ratio Major L_Ratio Minor Unbraced length about major axis. DESCRIPTION Column assigned to story level at top of column. default = 1. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print.

and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears.Input Data Concrete Frame Design UBC97 path or filename. . . Technical Note 13 .. If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request. .4 Using the Print Design Tables Form . Or use the Filename>> button to locate another file.doc).g. click Yes to replace the existing file.txt. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e. Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file. the Selection Only check box will be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only. Data will be added to this file. The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables form.xls. The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file.

Further information about using the Print Design Tables dialog box is presented at the end of this Technical Note. Shear reinforcing required. Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output COLUMN HEADING Story ID Column Line Section ID Station ID DESCRIPTION Column assigned to story level at top of column. Biaxial P-M Interaction and Shear Design of Column-Type Elements Required Reinforcing Longitudinal Combo Shear22 Combo Shear33 Area of longitudinal reinforcing required. Name of section assigned to column. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output Details This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design output for UBC97 that can be printed to a printer or to a text file. Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output Technical Note 14 . Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed. Shear reinforcing required. Grid lines.1 . The design output is printed when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and select Output Summary of the Print Design Tables dialog box.. The program provides the output data in a series of tables. Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. INC. The column headings for output data and a description of what is included in the columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note. BERKELEY.

Output Details Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output COLUMN HEADING Combo DESCRIPTION Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed. Grid line.2 Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output . Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity is based. Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity is based. Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity is based. Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Beam to Column Capacity Ratios and Joint Shear Capacity Check Story ID Column Line Section ID Story level at which joint occurs. Minor Combo Joint Shear Capacity Ratios Major Combo Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity. Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity is based. Beam-Column Capacity Ratios Major Combo Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity. Minor Combo Technical Note 14 . Assigned section name. Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity. Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity.

The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables dialog box. . The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file.3 . Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers. Data will be added to this file. and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears.g.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Output Details Using the Print Design Tables Form To print concrete frame design input data directly to a printer. Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file. if necessary. Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 14 . Click the Filename>> button to change the path or filename.. use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the check box on the Print Design Tables dialog box. If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e. Click the OK button to send the print to your printer.doc). . Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables dialog box and the Print Design Tables dialog box to complete the request. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only. the Selection Only check box will be checked. . To print concrete frame design input data to a file. click Yes to replace the existing file. click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables dialog box.txt.xls. Or use the Filename>> button to locate another file.

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The various notations used in this series are listed herein. The program provides options to design or check Earthquake resisting frames..©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. which are described in Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 23 Input Data and Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 24 Output Details. The program uses preferences and overwrites. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99 Technical Note 15 General and Notation Introduction to the ACI318-99 Series of Technical Notes The ACI-318-99 Concrete Frame Design series of Technical Notes describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by this program when the user selects the ACI-318-99 Design Code (ACI 1999). The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. The details of the design criteria used for the different framing systems are described in Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 19 Strength Reduction Factors. But the code is based on Inch-Pound-Second units. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. For simplicity. and Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 22 Joint Design. Intermediate (moderate seismic risk areas). Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 20 Column Design. Ordinary. Introduction to the ACI318-99 Series of Technical Notes Technical Note 15 . Earthquake resisting frames. See Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 18 Design Load Combination for more information. Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 21 Beam Design. and Earthquake resisting frames.1 . which are described in Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 16 Preferences and Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 17 Overwrites. Special (high seismic risk areas) moment resisting frames as required for seismic design provisions. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Inch-Pound-Second units unless otherwise noted. BERKELEY. INC. It also provides input and output data summaries.

000 psi (ACI 8. in4 Clear unsupported length. lb-in Factored moment to be used in design. sq-in Area of compression reinforcement.General and Notation Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Notation Acv Ag As ' As Area of concrete used to determine shear stress. sq-in Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. dependent upon column curvature. in4 Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of member cross section.5. lb-in Larger factored end moment in a column. sq-in Gross area of concrete. used to calculate moment magnification factor Modulus of elasticity of concrete.2 Notation . sq-in Coefficient. lb-in As(required) Ast Av Cm Ec Es Ig Ise L M1 M2 Mc Mns Ms Technical Note 15 . sq-in Area of shear reinforcement. in Smaller factored end moment in a column. neglecting reinforcement. sq-in Area of tension reinforcement. sq-in Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement. psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. lb-in Nonsway component of factored end moment. lb-in Sway component of factored end moment.000. assumed as 29.2) Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis.

lb Shear force computed from probable moment capacity.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 General and Notation Mu Mux Muy Pb Pc Pmax P0 Pu Vc VE VD+L Vu Vp a ab b bf bw c cb d d' Factored moment at section. lb Shear resisted by concrete. lb Depth of compression block. lb Factored shear force at a section. lb Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity. in Depth to neutral axis. lb-in Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions. lb Shear force caused by earthquake loads. in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. lb Maximum axial load strength allowed. in Width of member. lb Critical buckling strength of column. in Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions. lb-in Factored moment at section about X-axis. in Effective width of flange (T-Beam section). lb-in Factored moment at section about Y-axis.3 . lb Shear force from span loading. in Concrete cover to center of reinforcing. in Depth of compression block at balanced condition. in Width of web (T-Beam section). lb Factored axial load at section. in Notation Technical Note 15 .

000 psi (ACI 9. in Effective length factor Radius of gyration of column section.4) Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. psi Dimension of column. in Specified compressive strength of concrete.4 Notation . in Reinforcing steel overstrength factor Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to maximum factored axial total load Absolute value of ratio or maximum factored axial dead load to maximum factored axial total load Moment magnification factor for sway moments Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Strength reduction factor fys h k r α β1 βd δs δns εc εs ϕ Technical Note 15 .General and Notation Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 ds f c' fy Thickness of slab (T-Beam section). psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. psi fy ≤ 80.

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99

**Technical Note 16 Preferences
**

This Technical Note describes the items in the Preferences form.

General

The concrete frame design preferences in this program are basic assignments that apply to all concrete frame elements. Use the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design command to access the Preferences form where you can view and revise the concrete frame design preferences. Default values are provided for all concrete frame design preference items. Thus, it is not required that you specify or change any of the preferences. You should, however, at least review the default values for the preference items to make sure they are acceptable to you.

**Using the Preferences Form
**

To view preferences, select the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design. The Preferences form will display. The preference options are displayed in a two-column spreadsheet. The left column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item name. The right column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item value. To change a preference item, left click the desired preference item in either the left or right column of the spreadsheet. This activates a drop-down box or highlights the current preference value. If the drop-down box appears, select a new value. If the cell is highlighted, type in the desired value. The preference value will update accordingly. You cannot overwrite values in the dropdown boxes. When you have finished making changes to the composite beam preferences, click the OK button to close the form. You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the Cancel button to exit

General

Technical Note 16 - 1

Preferences

Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

the form, any changes made to the preferences are ignored and the form is closed.

Preferences

For purposes of explanation in this Technical Note, the preference items are presented in Table. The column headings in the table are described as follows: Item: The name of the preference item as it appears in the cells at the left side of the Preferences form. Possible Values: The possible values that the associated preference item can have. Default Value: The built-in default value that the program assumes for the associated preference item. Description: A description of the associated preference item.

**Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences
**

Item Design Code Possible Values Any code in the program >0 >0 >0 >0 ≥4.0 Default Value ACI 318-99 Description Design code used for design of concrete frame elements. Unitless strength reduction factor per ACI 9.3. Unitless strength reduction factor per ACI 9.3. Unitless strength reduction factor per ACI 9.3. Unitless strength reduction factor per ACI 9.3. Number of equally spaced interaction curves used to create a full 360-degree interaction surface (this item should be a multiple of four). We recommend that you use 24 for this item.

Phi Bending Tension Phi Compression Tied Phi Compression Spiral Phi Shear Number Interaction Curves

0.9 0.7 0.75 0.85 24

Technical Note 16 - 2

Preferences

Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Preferences

**Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences
**

Item Possible Values Default Value 11 Description Number of points used for defining a single curve in a concrete frame interaction surface (this item should be odd). Toggle for design load combinations that include a time history designed for the envelope of the time history, or designed step-by-step for the entire time history. If a single design load combination has more than one time history case in it, that design load combination is designed for the envelopes of the time histories, regardless of what is specified here.

Number Inter- Any odd value action Points ≥4.0 Time History Design Envelopes or Step-by-Step

Envelopes

Preferences

Technical Note 16 - 3

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The column headings in the table are described as follows. Item: The name of the overwrite item as it appears in the program. the overwrites are presented in Table 1. However.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. at least review the default values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. Overwrites For explanation purposes in this Technical Note. When changes are made to overwrite items. select an element and click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. to the elements that are selected when the overwrites are changed. the program applies the changes only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned. that is. Thus. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99 Technical Note 17 Overwrites General The concrete frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to those elements to which they are assigned. Description: A description of the associated overwrite item.1 . An explanation of how to change an overwrite is provided at the end of this Technical Note. Default values are provided for all overwrite items. To save space in the formes. Default Value: The default value that the program assumes for the associated overwrite item.. these names are generally short. This Technical Note describes concrete frame design overwrites for ACI318-99. Overwrites Technical Note 17 . To access the overwrites. INC. you do not need to specify or change any of the overwrites. BERKELEY. Possible Values: The possible values that the associated overwrite item can have.

0 >0 ≤1. See ACI 10.12.1. Factor relating actual moment diagram to an equivalent uniform moment diagram. See ACI 10.13 and Figure R10. 10.12.3. Sway Intermediate. 1. See ACI 10.0 >0 ≤1.0 >0 ≤1.Overwrites Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites Item Element Section Sway Special.0 >0 ≤1.2 Overwrites . Factor relating actual moment diagram to an equivalent uniform moment diagram. Used to reduce the live load contribution to the factored loading.0 1.0 >0 ≤1. Sway Special Frame type per moment frame definition given in ACI 21.13 and Figure R10.0 >0 ≤1.12.12. Sway Ordinary NonSway >0 ≤1.12.12. See ACI 10.0 >0 ≤1.0 1 1. 10. Possible Values Default Value Description Element Type Live Load Reduction Factor Horizontal Earthquake Factor Unbraced Length Ratio (Major) Unbraced Length Ratio (Minor) Effective Length Factor (K Major) Effective Length Factor (K Minor) Moment Coefficient (Cm Major) Moment Coefficient (Cm Minor) NonSway Moment Factor (Dns Major) Technical Note 17 .12.1.3.1.0 1 1 1 1 1 See ACI 10.0 >0 ≤1.

The overwrites are displayed in the form with a column of check boxes and a two-column spreadsheet. check the box to the left of an overwrite item to change it. After selecting one or multiple elements. If multiple elements were selected. The left column of the spreadsheet contains the name of the overwrite item. 1 See ACI 10. If the drop-down box appears. The names of the overwrite items are displayed in the first column of the spreadsheet.3 . no values show for the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet.Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Overwrites Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites Item NonSway Moment Factor (Dns Minor) Sway Moment Factor (Ds Major) Sway Moment Factor (Ds Minor) Possible Values Default Value 1 Description See ACI 10. The values of the overwrite items are visible in the second column of the spreadsheet if only one element was selected before the overwrites form was accessed. the check boxes in the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form are all unchecked and all of the cells in the spreadsheet have a gray background to indicate that they are inactive and the items in the cells cannot be changed. select a value from Overwrites Technical Note 17 . Making Changes in the Overwrites Form To access the concrete frame overwrites.13. 1 See ACI 10.13. Initially. The right column of the spreadsheet contains the overwrites values. Then left click in either column of the spreadsheet to activate a drop-down box or highlight the contents in the cell in the right column of the spreadsheet. select an element and click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command.13.

4 Overwrites .Overwrites Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 the box. the program resets the overwrite values to its built-in values. any changes made to the overwrites are ignored and the form is closed. not to the values that were in the . Important note about resetting overwrites: The program defaults for the overwrite items are built into the program. If the cell contents is highlighted. You cannot change the values of the dropdown boxes. The overwrite will reflect the change. If you click the Cancel button to exit the form. When changes to the overwrites have been completed. Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default Values Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Reset All Overwrites command to reset all of the steel frame overwrites. When you reset overwrites. click the OK button to close the form. All current design results will be deleted when this command is executed. You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. Technical Note 17 . The concrete frame overwrite values that were in a . The program then changes all of the overwrite items whose associated check boxes are checked for the selected members. type in the desired value.edb file that you used to initialize your model may be different from the built-in program default values.edb file used to initialize the model.

4 DL + 1. the stress check may need only one load combination..2.1 EL 0. if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only. Design Load Combinations Technical Note 18 .7 * 1.3 * 1.75 (1.4 DL 1. For the ACI 318-99 code. The user is warned that the above load combinations involving seismic loads consider service-level seismic forces. 1.7 WL) 0.3 WL 0.2. See Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 17 Overwrites for more information. However.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.7 LL 0.3) These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever the ACI 318-99 code is used.4 DL + 1.9 DL ± 1. Different load factors may apply with strength-level seismic forces (ACI R9.1).4 DL + 1. INC.7 LL ± 1.1 .75 (1. namely 1.3).9 DL ± 1. BERKELEY. in addition to the dead and live loads.2.7 LL ± 1. if the structure is subjected to wind (WL) and earthquake (EL) loads and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.2).1 EL) (ACI 9. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load condition on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.7 LL (ACI 9.2.1) (ACI 9. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99 Technical Note 18 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed load cases for which the structure needs to be checked.4 DL + 1.2) (ACI 9.2. the following load combinations should be considered (ACI 9.

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are applied on the nominal strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member. and axial compression and flexure (spirally reinforced column) (ACI 9.70 for axial compression.3) ϕ ϕ Strength Reduction Factors Technical Note 19 . ϕ.3.2. axial force.85 for shear and torsion (ACI 9.3.90 for axial tension and flexure (ACI 9. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99 Technical Note 19 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.1 .3. and torsion are as follows: ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ = 0. INC.1) (ACI 9.2.75 for axial compression. BERKELEY.2.3. shear.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. and axial compression and flexure (tied column) (ACI 9. The ϕ factors for flexure.2) = 0.90 for axial tension = 0.3.90 for flexure = 0.3.2.2) (ACI 9.2.2.2) = 0..2) = 0.

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Alternatively.1). The following four sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process.1 .3. If you define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section. Overview The program can be used to check column capacity or to design columns.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each station of the column. The target capacity ratio is taken as one when calculating the required reinforcing area. INC. Design the column shear reinforcement. the program can calculate the amount of reinforcing required to design the column. the program will check the column capacity. the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement 1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ACI 10. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99 Technical Note 20 Column Design This Technical Note describes how the program checks column capacity or designs reinforced concrete columns when the ACI-318-99 code is selected. BERKELEY. Overview Technical Note 20 .. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model. A typical biaxial interaction surface is shown in Figure 1.4.1) and 1 to 6 percent for Special moment resisting frames (ACI 21. When the steel is undefined.9.

2 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces . In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending. The Technical Note 20 . The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in three dimensions on the section of the column. the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations. See Figure 2.Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Figure 1 A Typical Column Interaction Surface Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure surface. A typical interaction diagram is shown in Figure 1.

2.70 for tied columns. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to ϕPn(max). ϕ ϕ = = 0. For low values of axial load.3 .85 f c' (Ag-Ast)+fyAst] spiral column.2.2) The value of ϕ used in the interaction diagram varies from ϕ(compression) to ϕ(flexure) based on the axial load.80ϕ[0.3).3).3. ϕPn(max) = 0. and 0. εc.5. with a stress value of 0. The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular. such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder.4).2.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain. ϕ is increased linearly from ϕ(compression) to ϕ(flexure) as the ϕPn decreases from the smaller of ϕPb or 0. at the extremity of the section. ϕ.2). Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces Technical Note 20 . which is 0. to 0. ϕ is always ϕ(flexure).2.003 (ACI 10. where ϕPn(max) = 0. The effects of the strength reduction factor.2) (ACI 9. See Figure 3.85 f c' (ACI 10.2. and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular. are included in the generation of the interaction surfaces.3. The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any further simplifications with respect to distributing the area of steel over the cross section of the column.1) (ACI 10.7. εsEs. In cases involving axial tension. The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate strength design (ACI 10. The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity. (ACI 10.3. fy (ACI 10. The interaction algorithm provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone. See Figure 3.2.3. square.85 f c' (Ag-Ast)+fyAst] tied column.3.75 for spirally reinforced columns. or circular column section. where ϕPb is the axial force at the balanced condition. and is limited to the yield stress of the steel.1).5.2) (ACI 9.9 by default (ACI 9. The ϕ factor used in calculating ϕPn and ϕPb is the ϕ(compression).1 f c' Ag to zero.85ϕ[0.

Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Figure 2 Idealized Strain Distribution for Generation of Interaction Source Technical Note 20 .4 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces .

5 . Mux.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design Figure 3 Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section Calculate Column Capacity Ratio The column capacity ratio is calculated for each load combination at each output station of each column. and Muy.” The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process. Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments. lies within the interaction volume. The factored moments and corresponding magnification factors depend on the identification of the individual column as either “sway” or “non-sway. The following steps are involved in calculating the capacity ratio of a particular column for a particular load combination at a particular location: Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and the specified load combination factors to give Pu. defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial moment set. Determine whether the point. Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored moments. Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 20 .

to obtain minimum eccentricities of (0. 10.12.2).1). giving Pu. The factored moments are further increased for non-sway columns. are predominantly caused by gravity load.0.7 live load (ACI 10. the load should correspond to a load combination of 1. moment magnification factor δs for moments causing side-sway is taken as unity (ACI 10. where h is the dimension of the column in the corresponding direction (ACI 10. the magnified moments about two axes at any station of a column can be obtained as M = Mns + δsMs.6 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio . This βd for sway frame in second-order analysis is different from the one that is defined later for non-sway moment magnification (ACI 10.12. the moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are in general different (ACI 10.10. R10.13. See also White and Hajjar (1991). Determine Moment Magnification Factors The moment magnification factors are calculated separately for sway (overall stability effect).3. The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the sway (Ms) and the non-sway (Mns) components.1).4.10.1. δs. For the P-delta analysis. (ACI 10.4 dead load + 1.13.10. R10.4. The default moment of inertia factor in this program is 1. The user should use reduction factors for the moment of inertias in the program as specified in ACI 10.6+0.2). The program assumes that it performs a P-delta analysis and. if required.0.13. which are identified by “ns” subscripts. Also.13. is taken as 1 because the component moments Ms and Mns are obtained from a “second order elastic (P-delta) analysis” (ACI R10.3.3) The factor δs is the moment magnification factor for moments causing side sway.6). Mux.Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Determine Factored Moments and Forces The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the corresponding load factors to all the load cases. R10. and are related to the cause of side sway. therefore.11). The sway moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads. 10. The moment magnification factors for sway moments. R10.13.11.03h) inches. and Muy. The moment of inertia reduction for sustained lateral load involves a factor βd (ACI 10. δs and for non-sway (individual column stability effect). Technical Note 20 .13). The sway components are identified by the “s” subscripts. The non-sway components. δns. For individual columns or column-members in a floor.

4 (ACI 10. Pc = π 2 EI (kl u )2 . and Mb is numerically larger than Ma.12.12. 10.3) Cm = 0.6 +0.13. If transverse load is present on the span.3.1) Ma and Mb are the moments at the ends of the column. respectively.1).4.7 . The above expression of Cm is valid if there is no transverse load applied between the supports.75Pc Ma ≥ 0. Mb (ACI 10. as follows: Mc = δnsM. where (ACI 10. lu is the unsupported length of the column for the direction of bending considered. δns.3) Mc is the factored moment to be used in design.0. The user can overwrite Cm on an element-byelement basis. or the length is overwritten.3) k is conservatively taken as 1. however. The non-sway moment magnification factor. associated with the major or minor direction of the column is given by (ACI 10. corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of the element.12. δns.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design The computed moments are further amplified for individual column stability effect (ACI 10.12.12.12.3. where (ACI 10. where Pu 1− 0. the program allows the user to override this value (ACI 10. The two unsupported lengths are l22 and l33. These are the lengths Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 20 .12. See Figure 4. Cm=1.5) by the nonsway moment magnification factor.3) δns = Cm ≤ 1. Ma / Mb is positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending.

must be a positive number and greater than one.3) βd = maximum factored axial sustained (dead) load maximum factored axial total load (ACI 10. Technical Note 20 .75Pc.Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Figure 4 Axes of Bending and Unsupported Length between the support points of the element in the corresponding directions. δns. where (ACI 10.8 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio . Therefore.12.75Pc. If Pu is found to be greater than or equal to 0.4E c I g 1 + βd . EI is associated with a particular column direction: EI = 0.R10.12.0. Pu must be less than 0.3) The magnification factor. a failure condition is declared.

The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. Muy) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in Figure 5. lu. If the point lies within the interaction volume. This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C. δns. The capacity ratio. the column capacity is adequate. however. the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate. k. Mux. the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed. The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member. and Muy set and associated load combination number. Cm. That means that δs. EI. CR.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design The above calculations are performed for major and minor directions separately. and Pc assume different values for major and minor directions of bending. the column is overstressed.9 . If OL > OC (or CR>1). the moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain Pu. a capacity ratio is calculated. Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity. This point is determined by three-dimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failOL ure surface. See Figure 5. Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 20 . Mux. The point (Pu. OC If OL = OC (or CR=1). If OL < OC (or CR<1). the user can explicitly specify values of δs and δns. if the point lies outside the interaction volume. and Muy. Mux. Determine Capacity Ratio As a measure of the stress condition of the column. the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is stressed to capacity. The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling Pu. is given by the ratio .

Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Figure 5 Geometric Representation of Column Capacity Ratio Required Reinforcing Area If the reinforcing area is not defined. The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular load combination resulting from shear forces in a particular direction: Technical Note 20 ." Design Column Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination in the major and minor directions of the column. the program computes the reinforcement that will give a column capacity ratio of one.10 Required Reinforcing Area . calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Calculate Column Capacity Ratio.

namely. In the shear design of Special moment resisting frames (i.5. of the column in a particular direction under the influence of the axial force Pu is calculated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction. Mu and Mu . is calculated. Vp is the capacity shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 20 .4. Vu. the column axial force. respectively. is then given by (ACI 21. Vc.4. Vu.1) Vu = Vp + VD+L (ACI 21. the column is checked for capacity shear in addition to the requirement for the Ordinary moment resisting frames. Pu.11 . Determine the shear force. that can be resisted by concrete alone.e. Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. Vp. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process. For each load combination.5. the forces for a particular load combination.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design Determine the factored forces acting on the section. The capacity shear force in a column. in addition to the factored moments.1) where. and the column shear force. + − the positive and negative moment capacities. Then. Determine Section Forces In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame. in a particular direction is calculated from the probable moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial force acting on the column. in a particular direction are obtained by factoring the program analysis load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. seismic design). Pu and Vu. The design shear force. Note that Pu is needed for the calculation of Vc. For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (Ductile frames). Pu. the factored axial load. the shear design of the columns is also based on the Probable moment and nominal moment capacities of the members. Effects of the axial forces on the column moment capacities are included in the formulation..

Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 in two opposite directions.0). where VP1 = VP2 = − + MI + M J .a. R21. + − MJ . is calculated as follows: Technical Note 20 . The design shear force is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal (ϕ = 1. Vc.3. MI . = Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the column using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1. except that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1. The procedure for calculating nominal moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for special moment resisting frames.0) moment capacity and modified factored shear force. MJ . The modified factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors.10. R21. Therefore. it is zero.1). the shear force carried by the concrete.4.12 Design Column Shear Reinforcement . Vp is the maximum of VP1 and VP2 .25 (ACI 10. Determine Concrete Shear Capacity Given the design force set Pu and Vu.25 (ACI 21. except the earthquake load factors are doubled (ACI 21. and L + − MI + M J . and L = Clear span of column. where L + − MI .10). For most of the columns.b). in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames.10. the shear capacity of the column is also checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads.3. = Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the column using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1. For Intermediate moment resisting frames. VD+L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads.0.5. For Special moment resisting frames α is taken as 1.0).

s.3) Vu is limited by the following relationship.2). Acv is taken to be equal to the gross area of the section (ACI 11.5.1. Pu Vc = 2 f c' 1 + 2. (Vu / ϕ-Vc) ≤ 8 f c' Acv (ACI 11. which is shown shaded in Figure 6.13 .3.2) Av = (ACI 11.3.4.5.8D) (ACI 11. R11.3. If the column is subjected to axial tension.6.3.2.2) The term Pu / Ag must have psi units.1.e. Vc is set to zero if the factored axial compressive force. where (ACI 11.2.3. 11. the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or ties within a spacing.3) For Special moment resisting concrete frame design. 11. For circular columns. Pu.000 Ag f c' ≤ 100 psi. Pu is negative Vc = 2 f c' 1 + Pu 500 Ag Acv ≥ 0 (ACI 11.3. Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given Vu and Vc. VE. Pu is positive.3. for circular columns.5.2) (ACI 11.5.6..6. is more than half of the total factored maximum shear force over the length of the member Vu (VE ≥ 0.1.6.5Vu) (ACI 21. f ys (0. including the earthquake effect. for rectangular columns and f ys d (Vu / ϕ − Vc )s .Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design If the column is subjected to axial compression. is given for rectangular and circular columns by Av = (Vu / ϕ − Vc )s .2) (ACI 11.9) Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 20 .3.5. is small (Pu < f c' Ag / 20) and if the shear force contribution from earthquake. Acv.3).5 f c' 1 + Pu 500 Ag Acv. and Vc ≤ 3. Acv is the effective shear area. i.

along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination label.14 Design Column Shear Reinforcement .3. is 0. The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on shear strength consideration. redimensioning of the concrete section is required.3). Acv Otherwise.85 (ACI 9.2. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing considerations or transverse reinforcement volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Here ϕ. the strength reduction factor. The maximum of all the calculated Av values obtained from each load combination are reported for the major and minor directions of the column. Technical Note 20 .Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Figure 6 Shear Stress Area.

4. Vol. American Institute of Steel Construction.F. No. Reference Technical Note 20 . Hajjar.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design Reference White. D. Engineering Journal. 1991. 28.15 . Application of Second-Order Elastic Analysis in LRFD: Research to Practice.W. and J. Inc.

.

Overview In the design of concrete beams.1 . the program calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments. shears.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. BERKELEY. and other criteria described below. shears. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99 Technical Note 21 Beam Design This Technical Note describes how this program completes beam design when the ACI 318-99 code is selected. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design beam flexural reinforcement Design beam shear reinforcement Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at check/design stations along the beam span. The following steps are involved in designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment for a particular beam for a particular section: Determine the maximum factored moments Determine the reinforcing steel Overview Technical Note 21 . and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.. load combination factors. Effects resulting from any axial forces. minor direction bending. INC. All beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. The program calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user-defined number of check/design stations along the beam span. load combination factors and other criteria described herein.

When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this designed balanced condition. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. all the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. or the grade of concrete.3).Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of Special. + The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive M u and maxi− mum negative M u factored moments obtained from all of the load combina- tions. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed 0.and T-beams) is summarized below.or a T-beam. Intermediate. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown in Figure 1 (ACI 10. Technical Note 21 . In such cases.2).1 f c' Ag (ACI 10.2 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement .75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (ACI 10.3. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. The design procedure used by this program for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. In such cases. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. or Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame beams. the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. hence. It is assumed that the compression carried by concrete is less than 0. the width.3).3. the beam may be designed as a Rectangular. Negative beam moments produce top steel.

β1 = 0.85-0. the value of ϕ is 0. 0.7. Mu (i. designing top or bottom steel).1) where.000 .2.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design Figure 1 Design of Rectangular Beam Section Design for Rectangular Beam In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.85f c ϕb .3 .e.05 c 1. where. 87.4) Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 21 .65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0. (ACI 10.1) in the above and the following equations.000 + f y ε c E s + fy (ACI 10.2.3) (ACI 10. 10.7. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 1). a=dd2 − 2 Mu 1 0..85.2. Also β1 and cb are calculated as follows: f ' − 4.2.000 d = d.000 cb = εc Es 87.3.90 (ACI 9.2.3.

the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by As = Mu a ϕf y d − 2 .Muc. and (ACI 10.4 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement .Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by amax = 0.3.3) If a ≤ amax.2. This steel is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive.85 f c' bamax. or at the top if Mu is negative.4) The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is Technical Note 21 . compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10. 10.3) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by C = 0.7.7.003Es . (ACI 10. If a > amax. where c − d' f s' = 0.75β1cb.2.1.1) the moment resisted by concrete compression and tensile steel is a Muc = C d − max 2 − ϕ.2.3. c − (ACI 10. − So the required compression steel is given by ' As = M us f s' (d − d' )ϕ . Therefore the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is Mus = Mu .

85 f c' (bf .Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design As1 = M uc a f y d − max ϕ 2 .75β1cb. See Figure 2.7. Compression reinforcement is required if a > amax.1.e. 10. The maximum allowed depth of compression block is given by amax = 0. the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above. calculation for As is performed in two parts. Mu (i. Design for T-Beam In designing for a factored negative moment. Cf is given by Cf = 0. in this case the width of the compression flange is taken as the width of the beam for analysis.85f c' ϕbf . As is to be placed at bottom and As is to be placed at top if Mu is positive.3. the total tensile reinforcement. as shown in Figure 2. (ACI 10. and vice versa if Mu is negative.3) • If a ≤ ds..e. and total ' ' compression reinforcement is As . • Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 21 . As = As1 + As2. Cf. i. f y (d − d' )ϕ − Therefore. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. and the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is given by As2 = M us .. the depth of the compression block is given by a=dd2 − 2Mu 0. no T-Beam data is to be used.bw)ds.2. If Mu > 0. Cw. designing top steel). However. If a > ds.5 . the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular section design.

6 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . which is 0. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as a1 = d d2 − 2Muw 0.90 by default. Therefore.85f ci ϕbw . the balance of the moment. Cf fy and the portion of Mu that is resisted by the flange is If a1 ≤ amax. Mu to be carried by the web is given by Muw = Mu .Muf. As1 = given by d Muf = Cf d − s ϕ. 2 Again. the value for ϕ is ϕ(flexure). the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by As2 = Muw a ϕf y d − 1 2 . The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d. and Technical Note 21 .Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Figure 2 Design of a T-Beam Section Therefore.

003Es .1) − Therefore.4) The tensile steel for balancing compression in web concrete is As2 = Muc . If a1 > amax. and 2 the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is Mus = Muw . compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10. (ACI 10. and amax )ϕ f y (d − 2 the tensile steel for balancing compression in steel is As3 = Mus . where c − d' f s' = 0. This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the T-beam.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design As = As1 + As2.3. the moment resisted by concrete web and tensile steel is a Muc = C d − max ϕ .Muc. − Therefore.85 f c' bamax. f y (d − d' )ϕ Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 21 .2. the compression steel is computed as ' As = Mus f s' (d − d' )ϕ . c − (ACI 10.7 .7.3) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force in web concrete alone is given by C = 0.2.

. As = As1 + As2 + As3.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 − The total tensile reinforcement.2)..3. associated with the top steel) at that end (ACI 21. Minimum Tensile Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an Ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two following limits: 3 f ' 200 c As ≥ max bw d and bw d or fy fy As ≥ (4/3)As(required). (ACI 10. 3 (ACI 10.1).1) (ACI 10.2.1) (ACI 10. Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the Technical Note 21 . (ACI 21.5.3.e.2. 3 f ' 200 c As(min) ≥ max bw d and bw d or fy fy As(min) ≥ 4 As(required).5.5.8 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . the beam positive moment capacity (i.e.3) Special Consideration for Seismic Design For Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design). As is to be placed at bottom and ' As is to be placed at top.5.025 bwd.3) The beam flexural steel is limited to a maximum given by As ≤ 0.2. associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than 1/2 of the beam negative moment capacity (i. and total ' compression reinforcement is As . Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less than As(min) (ACI 21. the beam design satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table 1): The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both the top and bottom.3.1) At any end (support) of the beam.

4.10. that can be resisted by the concrete. seismic design). the beam positive moment capacity would not be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end (ACI 21. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process. in addition to the factored load design.3.. Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 21 . the beam design would satisfy the following conditions: At any support of the beam.2. Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (ACI 21.4. Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at a user defined number of stations along the beam span. the shear design of the beams is also based upon the probable and nominal moment capacities of the members. For Intermediate moment resisting concrete frames (i. Determine the shear force.e.2). Vu.9 . Determine the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ductile frames). Vc.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (ACI 21. respectively.1). The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular load combination at a particular station due to the beam major shear: • • • Determine the factored shear force.1).10.

0 and α = 1. ρ ≥ 200 fy Beam Min. Mu 4 END − u END Beam Design Shear NLDa Combinations Modified NLDa Combinations (earthquake loads doubled) Beam Capacity Shear (Vp) with α = 1.25 NLDa Combinations ρ ≤ 0.0 plus VD+L Vc = 0 Checked for shear Joint Design Beam/Column Capacity Ratio No Requirement No Requirement No Requirement Reported in output file NLDa = Number of specified loading Technical Note 21 .10 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement . M u 5 + M uEND ≥ + − u .0 and α = 1. M } M 4 − u 1 − M u END 2 1 + − ≥ max Mu . M u END } } END + MuSPAN − MuSPAN { } 1 ≥ max{ .0 plus VD+L No Requirement NLDa Combinations Beam Capacity Shear (Vp) with α = 1.0 1% < ρ < 6% NLDa Combinations Column shear capacity ϕ = 1.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Table 1 Design Criteria Table Type of Check/ Design Column Check (interaction) Column Design (interaction) Ordinary Moment Resisting Frames (non-Seismic) NLDa Combinations Intermediate Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic) NLDa Combinations Special Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic) NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 8% NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 8% Modified NLDa Combinations (earthquake loads doubled) Column capacity ϕ = 1. Moment Override Check + M uEND ≥ No Requirement + MuSPAN − M uSPAN { 1 ≥ max{ M 5 1 − M u END 3 1 + − ≥ max M u .0 and ϕ = 1.025 ρ≥ 3 f c' fy Column Shears NLDa Combinations Beam Design Flexure NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations .25 and ϕ = 1.0 NLDa Combinations α = 1.

0).4. Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 21 .11 .3. Vp.e. with bottom steel in tension. See also Table 1 for details. In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames (i. + MJ = Moment capacity at end J. the shear forces and moments for a particular load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding load combination factors.1) • where Vp is the capacity shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting in two opposite directions.3. The design shear force Vu is then given by (ACI 21. using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1. The capacity shear force. using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1. Vp is the maximum of VP1 and VP2 ..1) Vu = Vp + VD+L (ACI 21.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design Determine Shear Force and Moment • In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame. the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the capacity shear resulting from the probable moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity load.4.0). where L = = Moment capacity at end I. and L + − MI + MJ . with top steel in tension. is calculated from the probable moment capacities of each end of the beam and the gravity shear forces. This check is performed in addition to the design check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. where VP1 VP2 − MI = − + MI + MJ . seismic design). Therefore. The procedure for calculating the design shear force in a beam from probable moment capacity is the same as that described for a column in section “Design Column Shear Reinforcement” of Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Technical Note 20 Column Design.

Beam Design

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

+ MI

= Moment capacity at end I, with bottom steel in tension, using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),

− MJ

**= Moment capacity at end J, with top steel in tension, using a
**

steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0), and = Clear span of beam.

L

For Special moment resisting frames α is taken as 1.25 (ACI 21.0, R21.3.4.1). VD+L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads.

•

For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads, in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design shear force in beams is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal moment capacity and modified factored shear force. The procedure for calculating nominal (ϕ = 1.0) moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for Special moment resisting frames, except that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25 (ACI 21.10.3.a, R21.10). The modified factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors, except the earthquake load factors are doubled (ACI 21.10.3.b). The computation of the design shear force in a beam of an Intermediate moment resisting frame is the same as described for columns in section “Determine Section Forces” of Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Technical Note 20 Column Design. See also Table 1 for details.

**Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
**

The allowable concrete shear capacity is given by Vc = 2 f c' bwd. (ACI 11.3.1.1)

For Special moment resisting frame concrete design, Vc is set to zero if both the factored axial compressive force, including the earthquake effect Pu, is less than f c' Ag/20 and the shear force contribution from earthquake VE is more than half of the total maximum shear force over the length of the member Vu (i.e., VE ≥ 0.5Vu) (ACI 21.3.4.2).

Technical Note 21 - 12

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Beam Design

**Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

Given Vu and Vc, the required shear reinforcement in area/unit length is calculated as Av = (Vu / ϕ − Vc )s . f ys d (ACI 11.5.6.1, 11.5.6.2)

The shear force resisted by steel is limited by (Vu / ϕ - Vc) ≤ 8 f c' bd. (ACI 11.5.6.9)

Otherwise, redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here, ϕ, the strength reduction factor for shear, is 0.85 by default (ACI 9.3.2.3). The maximum of all the calculated Av values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number. The beam shear reinforcement requirements displayed by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement

Technical Note 21 - 13

The joint design procedure involves the following steps: Determine the panel zone design shear force. Overview Technical Note 22 . BERKELEY. Vuh Determine the effective area of the joint Check panel zone shear stress The algorithms associated with these three steps are described in detail in the following three sections. The joint analysis is completed in the major and the minor directions of the column. Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Figure 1 illustrates the free body stress condition of a typical beam-column intersection for a column direction. the program performs a rational analysis of the beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are generated in the joint.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. The material properties of the joint are assumed to be the same as those of the column below the joint. Overview To ensure that the beam-column joint of special moment resisting frames possesses adequate shear strength. The program then checks this against design shear strength.1 . major or minor.. The program then checks this against design shear strength. INC. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99 Technical Note 22 Joint Design This Technical Note explains how the program performs a rational analysis of the beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are generated in a joint. Only joints having a column below the joint are designed.

2 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force .Joint Design Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Figure 1 Beam-Column Joint Analysis Technical Note 22 .

Mmax. The moments MuL and MuR are obtained from the beams framing into the joint. UBC 1921.1. the evaluation of the design shear force is based on the moment capacities (with reinforcing steel overstrength factor. the program calculates the C and T for the positive and negative moments. ignoring compression reinforcement as follows. respectively. Vu. thereby contributing force components to the analysis. The forces Pu and Vu are axial force and shear force. considering the fact that the concrete cover may be different for the direction of moment. The program calculates the column shear force Vu from the beam moment capacities. In the design of special moment resisting concrete frames. as follows: Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Technical Note 22 . The magnitude of C or T forces is conservatively determined using basic principles of ultimate strength theory. The forces that act on the joint are Pu. from the column framing into the top of the joint.1. α.1).1. Also. and no ϕ factors) of the beams framing into the joint (ACI 21. and the maximum moment.5. The program calculates the joint shear force Vuh by resolving the moments into C and T forces.5.Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Joint Design The force Vuh is the horizontal panel zone shear force that is to be calculated. Noting that TL = CL and TR = CR.Vu The location of C or T forces is determined by the direction of the moment. The C and T force are based on these moment capacities. Cmax.85f ' c bd Mmax = C max d 2 Then the program conservatively determines C and T forces as follows: abs( M ) C = T = C max 1 − 1 − M max The program resolves the moments and the C and T forces from beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor directions of the column along the direction that is being investigated. MuL and MuR. The program first calculates the maximum compression. C max = 0. that can be carried by the beam.3 . Vuh = TL + TR .

5.Joint Design Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Vu = Mu + Mu H L R See Figure 2. The effective width of the joint area to be used in the calculation is limited to the width of the beam plus the depth of the column. except if the beam framing into the joint is very narrow.3): v = { 20ϕ 15ϕ 12ϕ f 'c f 'c f 'c for joints confirmed on all four sides for joints confirmed on three faces or on two opposite faces for all other joints Technical Note 22 . It should be noted that the points of inflection shown on Figure 2 are taken as midway between actual lateral support points for the columns. The dimensions of the rectangle correspond to the major and minor dimensions of the column below the joint.4 Determine the Effective Area of Joint .5. as illustrated in Case 1 and Case 2 of Figure 1.3. The joint area for joint shear along the major and minor directions is calculated separately (ACI R21. If there is no column at the top of the joint. It should be noted that if the beam frames into the joint eccentrically.5. UBC 1921. The effects of load reversals. the shear force from the top of the column is taken as zero. Check Panel Zone Shear Stress The panel zone shear stress is evaluated by dividing the shear force Vuh by the effective area of the joint and comparing it with the following design shear strengths (ACI 21. Determine the Effective Area of Joint The joint area that resists the shear forces is assumed always to be rectangular in plan view. The area of the joint is assumed not to exceed the area of the column below.3). are investigated and the design is based on the maximum of the joint shears obtained from the two cases. the above assumptions may be unconservative and the user should investigate the acceptability of the particular joint.

3. UBC 1909.3.2.1) A beam that frames into a face of a column at the joint is considered in this program to provide confinement to the joint if at least three-quarters of the face of the joint is covered by the framing member (ACI 21.4. (ACI 9.2. UBC 1921.3.1).3.Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Joint Design Figure 2 Column Shear Force Vu where ϕ = 0.3.3.1909.5 .5.1.85 (by default).5.3. Determine the Effective Area of Joint Technical Note 22 .

Pu. major or minor. The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are added to the summation. Technical Note 22 .2) minf cs.5.2. The beam capacities are calculated for reversed situations (Cases 1 and 2) as illustrated in Figure 1 and the maximum summation obtained is used. the design shear strength of the joint is reduced in the program to at least three-quarters of that of the normal weight concrete by replacing the f c' with (ACI 21. For each load combination. The moment capacities of the two columns are added to give the capacity summation for the corresponding load combination.4.Joint Design Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 For light-weight aggregate concrete. For each load combination. the allowable joint shear stress and a capacity ratio.6 Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios .3 / 4 f c' For joint design. ∑Me ≥ 6 ∑Mg 5 (ACI 21.5. the program reports the joint shear.2. α . The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column below the joint.2. factor f c' .2). in each of the columns is calculated from the program analysis load combinations.3. the program will calculate the ratio of the sum of the beam moment capacities to the sum of the column moment capacities (ACI 21.2) The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength factor. UBC 1921. see Figure 3. and including ϕ factors. the moment capacity of each column under the influence of the corresponding axial load Pu is then determined separately for the major and minor directions of the column. using the uniaxial column interaction diagram.3.4. the joint shear stress. the axial force. The maximum capacity summations obtained from all of the load combinations is used for the beam/column capacity ratio. Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios At a particular joint for a particular column direction.

Figure 3 Moment Capacity Mu at a Given Axial Load Pu Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Technical Note 22 . a warning message is printed in the output file.Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Joint Design The beam/column flexural capacity ratios are only reported for Special Moment-Resisting Frames involving seismic design load combinations. If this ratio is greater than 5/6.7 .

.

snow. Load combination scale factor. Shear strength reduction factor. Tensile strength reduction factor. The column headings for input data and a description of what is included in the columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note. live. A printout of the input data provides the user with the opportunity to carefully review the parameters that have been input into the program and upon which program design is based. Load type: dead. Compressive strength reduction factor for tied columns. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99 Technical Note 23 Input Data This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design input data for ACI318-99. earthquake. wind. Further information about using the Print Design Tables form is presented at the end of this Technical Note. Input Data The program provides the printout of the input data in a series of tables. Name of load case. Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING Combo Type Case Factor DESCRIPTION Design load combination.. superimposed dead. reduced live load. Bending strength reduction factor. Compressive strength reduction factor for reinforced columns. Load Combination Multipliers Code Preferences Phi_bending Phi_tension Phi_compression (Tied) Phi_compression (Spiral) Phi_shear Input Data Technical Note 23 . The input can be printed to a printer or to a text file when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. other.1 . INC. See Technical Note 8.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. BERKELEY.

Material Property Data Material Name Material Type Design Type Modulus of Elasticity Poisson's Ratio Thermal Coeff Shear Modulus Coefficient of thermal expansion. other. other. steel. Minimum clear concrete cover. steel. Bending reinforcing steel yield strength.Input Data Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Concrete. Label applied to section.0. Technical Note 23 . Used to calculate self-weight of structure. Used to calculate self-mass of structure. Isotropic or orthotropic. Shear strength reduction factor for light weight concrete. other. Material Design Data for Concrete Materials Concrete Column Property Data Section Label Mat Label Column Depth Column Width Rebar Pattern Concrete Cover Bar Area Layout of main flexural reinforcing steel. Material label. Shear reinforcing steel yield strength. Concrete. Area of individual reinforcing bar to be used.2 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data . default = 1. Material Property Mass and Weight Material Name Mass Per Unit Vol Weight Per Unit Vol Material Name Lightweight Concrete Concrete FC Rebar FY Rebar FYS Lightwt Reduc Fact Concrete compressive strength. Concrete. steel.

use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the check box on the Print Design Tables form.Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Input Data Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING Story ID Column Line Section ID Framing Type RLLF Factor L_Ratio Major L_Ratio Minor K Major K Minor Story ID Bay ID Section ID Framing type RLLF Factor L_Ratio Major L_Ratio Minor Unbraced length about major axis. Name of section assigned to column. Click the OK button to send the print to your printer. Lateral or gravity. DESCRIPTION Column assigned to story level at top of column. Unbraced length about minor axis. if necessary. click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables form.3 . Lateral or gravity. Unbraced length about minor axis. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers. Story level at which beam occurs. Concrete Column Design Element Information Concrete Beam Design Element Information Using the Print Design Tables Form To print concrete frame design input data directly to a printer.0. Grid lines locating beam. default = 1. Effective length factor.0. Unbraced length about major axis. default = 1. Grid line. Effective length factor. To print concrete frame design input data to a file. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print. Click the Filename>> button to change Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 23 . Section number assigned to beam.

g. . the Selection Only check box will be checked. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e. If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command.xls.Input Data Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 the path or filename.txt. Or use the Filename>> button to locate another file. The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables form. . . Data will be added to this file. Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only. The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. Technical Note 23 . click Yes to replace the existing file.doc). Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file. and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears.4 Using the Print Design Tables Form ..

Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output COLUMN HEADING Story ID Column Line Section ID Station ID DESCRIPTION Column assigned to story level at top of column.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99 Technical Note 24 Output Details This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design output for ACI318-99 that can be printed to a printer or to a text file. The program provides the output data in a series of tables. Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output Technical Note 24 . The column headings for output data and a description of what is included in the columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note. Grid lines. BERKELEY. Shear reinforcing required. Further information about using the Print Design Tables form is presented at the end of this Technical Note. INC. The design output is printed when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and select Output Summary on the Print Design Tables form. Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed. Biaxial P-M Interaction and Shear Design of Column-Type Elements Required Reinforcing Longitudinal Combo Shear22 Combo Shear33 Area of longitudinal reinforcing required.1 . Name of section assigned to column.. Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed. Shear reinforcing required.

Grid line. Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity is based. Minor Combo Technical Note 24 . Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity. Minor Combo Joint Shear Capacity Ratios Major Combo Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity. Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity is based. Assigned section name. Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Beam to Column Capacity Ratios and Joint Shear Capacity Check Story ID Column Line Section ID Story level at which joint occurs. Beam-Column Capacity Ratios Major Combo Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity. Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity. Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity is based.Output Details Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output COLUMN HEADING Combo DESCRIPTION Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed. Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity is based.2 Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output .

The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables form. if necessary. Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request..txt. Click the Filename>> button to change the path or filename. Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers. Or use the Filename>> button to locate another file. click Yes to replace the existing file. .g. .doc). . the Selection Only check box will be checked. The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the check box on the Print Design Tables form.Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Output Details Using the Print Design Tables Form To print concrete frame design input data directly to a printer. Click the OK button to send the print to your printer. click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables form.3 . Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e. If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only. To print concrete frame design input data to a file. Data will be added to this file.xls. Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 24 . and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears.

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