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**Berkeley, California, USA
**

Version 8

January 2002

ETABS

®

Integrated Building Design Software

Concrete Frame Design Manual

Copyright Computers and Structures, Inc., 1978-2002.

The CSI Logo is a trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc.

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copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers and

Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of the program or reproduction of the documentation in

any form, without prior written authorization from Computers and Structures, Inc., is

explicitly prohibited.

Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from:

Computers and Structures, Inc.

1995 University Avenue

Berkeley, California 94704 USA

Phone: (510) 845-2177

FAX: (510) 845-4096

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DISCLAIMER

CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE

DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF ETABS. THE PROGRAM HAS

BEEN THOROUGHLY TESTED AND USED. IN USING THE PROGRAM,

HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY

IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS

ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THE PROGRAM.

THIS PROGRAM IS A VERY PRACTICAL TOOL FOR THE DESIGN/CHECK OF

CONCRETE STRUCTURES. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST THOROUGHLY READ

THE MANUAL AND CLEARLY RECOGNIZE THE ASPECTS OF CONCRETE

DESIGN THAT THE PROGRAM ALGORITHMS DO NOT ADDRESS.

THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE

PROGRAM AND MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS.

i

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN

Contents

General Concrete Frame Design Information

1 General Design Information

Design Codes 1-1

Units 1-1

Overwriting the Frame Design Procedure for a Con-

crete Frame

1-1

Design Load Combinations 1-2

Design of Beams 1-2

Design of Columns 1-3

Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios 1-4

Second Order P-Delta Effects 1-4

Element Unsupported Lengths 1-6

Analysis Sections and Design Sections 1-7

2 Concrete Frame Design Process

Concrete Frame Design Procedure 2-1

3 Interactive Concrete Frame Design

General 3-1

Concrete Design Information Form 3-1

4 Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model

Overview 4-1

Using the Print Design Tables Form 4-1

Design Input 4-2

Design Output 4-2

Concrete Frame Design Manual

ii

Concrete Frame Design Specific to UBC97

5 General and Notation

Introduction to the UBC 97 Series of Technical Notes 5-1

Notation 5-2

6 Preferences

General 6-1

Using the Preferences Form 6-1

Preferences 6-2

7 Overwrites

General 7-1

Overwrites 7-1

Making Changes in the Overwrites Form 7-3

Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default

Values

7-4

8 Design Load Combinations

9 Strength Reduction Factors

10 Column Design

Overview 10-1

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces 10-2

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio 10-5

Determine Factored Moments and Forces 10-6

Determine Moment Magnification Factors 10-6

Determine Capacity Ratio 10-8

Required Reinforcing Area 10-10

Design Column Shear Reinforcement 10-10

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement 10-14

Reference 10-15

11 Beam Design

Overview 11-1

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 11-1

Determine Factored Moments 11-2

Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement 11-2

Contents

iii

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 11-10

12 Joint Design

Overview 12-1

Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force 12-1

Determine the Effective Area of Joint 12-5

Check Panel Zone Shear Stress 12-5

Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios 12-6

13 Input Data

Input data 13-1

Using the Print Design Tables Form 13-3

14 Output Details

Using the Print Design Tables Form 14-3

Concrete Frame Design Specific to ACI-318-99

15 General and Notation

Introduction to the ACI318-99 Series of Technical

Notes

15-1

Notation 15-2

16 Preferences

General 16-1

Using the Preferences Form 16-1

Preferences 16-2

17 Overwrites

General 17-1

Overwrites 17-1

Making Changes in the Overwrites Form 17-3

Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default

Values

17-4

18 Design Load Combinations

19 Strength Reduction Factors

Concrete Frame Design Manual

iv

20 Column Design

Overview 20-1

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces 20-2

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio 20-5

Determine Factored Moments and Forces 20-6

Determine Moment Magnification Factors 20-6

Determine Capacity Ratio 20-9

Required Reinforcing Area 20-10

Design Column Shear Reinforcement 20-10

Determine Section Forces 20-11

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity 20-12

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement 20-13

References 20-15

21 Beam Design

Overview 21-1

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 21-1

Determine Factored Moments 21-2

Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement 21-2

Design for T-Beam 21-5

Minimum Tensile Reinforcement 21-8

Special Consideration for Seismic Design 21-8

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 21-9

Determine Shear Force and Moment 21-11

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity 21-12

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement 21-13

22 Joint Design

Overview 22-1

Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force 22-1

Determine the Effective Area of Joint 22-4

Check Panel Zone Shear Stress 22-4

Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios 22-6

23 Input Data

Input Data 23-1

Using the Print Design Tables Form 23-3

Contents

v

24 Output Details

Using the Print Design Tables Form 24-3

Design Codes Technical Note 1 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA JANUARY 2002

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN

Technical Note 1

General Design Information

This Technical Note presents some basic information and concepts helpful

when performing concrete frame design using this program.

Design Codes

The design code is set using the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete

Frame Design command. You can choose to design for any one design code

in any one design run. You cannot design some elements for one code and

others for a different code in the same design run. You can, however, perform

different design runs using different design codes without rerunning the

analysis.

Units

For concrete frame design in this program, any set of consistent units can be

used for input. You can change the system of units at any time. Typically, de-

sign codes are based on one specific set of units.

Overwriting the Frame Design Procedure for a Concrete

Frame

The two design procedures possible for concrete beam design are:

Concrete frame design

No design

If a line object is assigned a frame section property that has a concrete ma-

terial property, its default design procedure is Concrete Frame Design. A con-

crete frame element can be switched between the Concrete Frame Design and

the "None" design procedure. Assign a concrete frame element the "None"

design procedure if you do not want it designed by the Concrete Frame De-

sign postprocessor.

General Design Information Concrete Frame Design

Technical Note 1 - 2 Design Load Combinations

Change the default design procedure used for concrete frame elements by

selecting the element(s) and clicking Design menu > Overwrite Frame

Design Procedure. This change is only successful if the design procedure

assigned to an element is valid for that element. For example, if you select a

concrete element and attempt to change the design procedure to Steel Frame

Design, the program will not allow the change because a concrete element

cannot be changed to a steel frame element.

Design Load Combinations

The program creates a number of default design load combinations for con-

crete frame design. You can add in your own design load combinations. You

can also modify or delete the program default load combinations. An unlim-

ited number of design load combinations can be specified.

To define a design load combination, simply specify one or more load cases,

each with its own scale factor. For more information see Concrete Frame De-

sign UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combination and Concrete Frame

Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 18 Design Load Combination.

Design of Beams

The program designs all concrete frame elements designated as beam sec-

tions in their Frame Section Properties as beams (see Define menu >Frame

Sections command and click the Reinforcement button). In the design of

concrete beams, in general, the program calculates and reports the required

areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments, shears, load

combination factors, and other criteria, which are described in detail in Con-

crete Frame UBC97 Technical Note Beam Design 11 and Concrete Frame ACI

318-99 Technical Note 21 Beam Design. The reinforcement requirements are

calculated at each output station along the beam span.

All the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.

Effects resulting from any axial forces, minor direction bending, and

torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independ-

ently by the user.

In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment at a particular

section of a particular beam, the steps involve the determination of the

maximum factored moments and the determination of the reinforcing steel.

Concrete Frame Design General Design Information

Design of Beams Technical Note 1 - 3

The beam section is designed for the maximum positive and maximum nega-

tive factored moment envelopes obtained from all of the load combinations.

Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases, the beam is al-

ways designed as a rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce

bottom steel. In such cases, the beam may be designed as a rectangular- or

T-beam. For the design of flexural reinforcement, the beam is first designed

as a singly reinforced beam. If the beam section is not adequate, the required

compression reinforcement is calculated.

In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular set

of loading combinations at a particular station resulting from the beam major

shear, the steps involve the determination of the factored shear force, the

determination of the shear force that can be resisted by concrete, and the

determination of the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.

Design of Columns

The program designs all concrete frame elements designated as column sec-

tions in their Frame Section Properties as columns (see Define menu

>Frame Sections command and click the Reinforcement button). In the

design of the columns, the program calculates the required longitudinal steel,

or if the longitudinal steel is specified, the column stress condition is reported

in terms of a column capacity ratio. The capacity ratio is a factor that gives an

indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of

the column. The design procedure for reinforced concrete columns involves

the following steps:

Generate axial force-biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the dif-

ferent concrete section types of the model.

Check the capacity of each column for the factored axial force and bending

moments obtained from each load combination at each end of the column.

This step is also used to calculate the required reinforcement (if none was

specified) that will produce a capacity ratio of 1.0.

Design the column shear reinforcement.

The shear reinforcement design procedure for columns is very similar to that

for beams, except that the effect of the axial force on the concrete shear ca-

pacity needs to be considered. See Concrete Frame UBC97 Technical Note 10

General Design Information Concrete Frame Design

Technical Note 1 - 4 Second Order P-Delta Effects

Column Design and Concrete Frame ACI 318-99 Technical Note 20 Column

Design for more information.

Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios

When the ACI 318-99 or UBC97 code is selected, the program calculates the

ratio of the sum of the beam moment capacities to the sum of the column

moment capacities at a particular joint for a particular column direction, ma-

jor or minor. The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength

factor, α, and including ϕ factors. The beam capacities are calculated for re-

versed situations and the maximum summation obtained is used.

The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is

not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along

the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are

added to the summation.

The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column

below the joint. For each load combination, the axial force, P

u

, in each of the

columns is calculated from the program analysis load combinations. For each

load combination, the moment capacity of each column under the influence of

the corresponding axial load P

u

is then determined separately for the major

and minor directions of the column, using the uniaxial column interaction dia-

gram. The moment capacities of the two columns are added to give the ca-

pacity summation for the corresponding load combination. The maximum ca-

pacity summations obtained from all of the load combinations is used for the

beam/column capacity ratio.

The beam/column flexural capacity ratios are only reported for Special Mo-

ment-Resisting Frames involving seismic design load combinations.

See Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios in Concrete Frame UBC97 Techni-

cal Note 12 Joint Design or in Concrete Frame ACI 318-99 Technical Note 22

Joint Design for more information.

Second Order P-Delta Effects

Typically, design codes require that second order P-Delta effects be consid-

ered when designing concrete frames. The P-Delta effects come from two

sources. They are the global lateral translation of the frame and the local de-

formation of elements within the frame.

Concrete Frame Design General Design Information

Second Order P-Delta Effects Technical Note 1 - 5

Consider the frame element shown in Figure 1, which is extracted from a

story level of a larger structure. The overall global translation of this frame

element is indicated by ∆. The local deformation of the element is shown as δ.

The total second order P-Delta effects on this frame element are those caused

by both ∆ and δ.

The program has an option to consider P-Delta effects in the analysis. Con-

trols for considering this effect are found using the Analyze menu > Set

Analysis Options command and then clicking the Set P-Delta Parameters

button. When you consider P-Delta effects in the analysis, the program does a

good job of capturing the effect due to the ∆ deformation shown in Figure 1,

but it does not typically capture the effect of the δ deformation (unless, in the

model, the frame element is broken into multiple pieces over its length).

In design codes, consideration of the second order P-Delta effects is generally

achieved by computing the flexural design capacity using a formula similar to

that shown in Equation. 1.

M

CAP

= aM

nt

+ bM

lt

Eqn. 1

where,

M

CAP

= Flexural design capacity

∆

δ

Original position of frame

element shown by vertical

line

Position of frame element

as a result of global lateral

translation, ∆, shown by

dashed line

Final deflected position of

frame element that

includes the global lateral

translation, ∆, and the

local deformation of the

element, δ

Figure 1: The Total Second Order P-Delta Effects on a Frame Element

Caused by Both ∆ ∆∆ ∆ and δ δδ δ

General Design Information Concrete Frame Design

Technical Note 1 - 6 Element Unsupported Lengths

M

nt

= Required flexural capacity of the member assuming there is

no translation of the frame (i.e., associated with the δ defor-

mation in Figure 1)

M

lt

= Required flexural capacity of the member as a result of lateral

translation of the frame only (i.e., associated with the ∆ de-

formation in Figure 1)

a = Unitless factor multiplying M

nt

b = Unitless factor multiplying M

lt

(assumed equal to 1 by the

program; see below)

When the program performs concrete frame design, it assumes that the factor

b is equal to 1 and it uses code-specific formulas to calculate the factor a.

That b = 1 assumes that you have considered P-Delta effects in the analysis,

as previously described. Thus, in general, if you are performing concrete

frame design in this program, you should consider P-Delta effects in the

analysis before running the design.

Element Unsupported Lengths

The column unsupported lengths are required to account for column slender-

ness effects. The program automatically determines these unsupported

lengths. They can also be overwritten by the user on an element-by-element

basis, if desired, using the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design >

View/Revise Overwrites command.

There are two unsupported lengths to consider. They are L

33

and L

22,

as

shown in Figure 2. These are the lengths between support points of the ele-

ment in the corresponding directions. The length L

33

corresponds to instability

about the 3-3 axis (major axis), and L

22

corresponds to instability about the

2-2 axis (minor axis). The length L

22

is also used for lateral-torsional buckling

caused by major direction bending (i.e., about the 3-3 axis).

In determining the values for L

22

and L

33

of the elements, the program recog-

nizes various aspects of the structure that have an effect on these lengths,

such as member connectivity, diaphragm constraints and support points. The

program automatically locates the element support points and evaluates the

corresponding unsupported length.

Concrete Frame Design General Design Information

Analysis Sections and Design Sections Technical Note 1 - 7

Figure 2: Major and Minor Axes of Bending

It is possible for the unsupported length of a frame element to be evaluated

by the program as greater than the corresponding element length. For exam-

ple, assume a column has a beam framing into it in one direction, but not the

other, at a floor level. In this case, the column is assumed to be supported in

one direction only at that story level, and its unsupported length in the other

direction will exceed the story height.

Analysis Sections and Design Sections

Analysis sections are those section properties used to analyze the model

when you click the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command. The design

section is whatever section has most currently been designed and thus desig-

nated the current design section.

Tip:

It is important to understand the difference between analysis sections and design sec-

tions.

General Design Information Concrete Frame Design

Technical Note 1 - 8 Analysis Sections and Design Sections

It is possible for the last used analysis section and the current design section

to be different. For example, you may have run your analysis using a W18X35

beam and then found in the design that a W16X31 beam worked. In that

case, the last used analysis section is the W18X35 and the current design

section is the W16X31. Before you complete the design process, verify that

the last used analysis section and the current design section are the same.

The Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Verify Analysis vs De-

sign Section command is useful for this task.

The program keeps track of the analysis section and the design section

separately. Note the following about analysis and design sections:

Assigning a beam a frame section property using the Assign menu >

Frame/Line > Frame Section command assigns the section as both the

analysis section and the design section.

Running an analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command

(or its associated toolbar button) always sets the analysis section to be the

same as the current design section.

Assigning an auto select list to a frame section using the Assign menu >

Frame/Line > Frame Section command initially sets the design section

to be the beam with the median weight in the auto select list.

Unlocking a model deletes the design results, but it does not delete or

change the design section.

Using the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Select Design

Combo command to change a design load combination deletes the design

results, but it does not delete or change the design section.

Using the Define menu > Load Combinations command to change a de-

sign load combination deletes the design results, but it does not delete or

change the design section.

Using the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design

command to change any of the composite beam design preferences deletes

the design results, but it does not delete or change the design section.

Deleting the static nonlinear analysis results also deletes the design results

for any load combination that includes static nonlinear forces. Typically,

Concrete Frame Design General Design Information

Analysis Sections and Design Sections Technical Note 1 - 9

static nonlinear analysis and design results are deleted when one of the

following actions is taken:

9 Use the Define menu > Frame Nonlinear Hinge Properties com-

mand to redefine existing or define new hinges.

9 Use the Define menu > Static Nonlinear/Pushover Cases com-

mand to redefine existing or define new static nonlinear load cases.

9 Use the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Frame Nonlinear Hinges

command to add or delete hinges.

Again, note that these actions delete only results for load combinations that

include static nonlinear forces.

Concrete Frame Design Procedure Technical Note 2 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN

Technical Note 2

Concrete Frame Design Process

This Technical Note describes a basic concrete frame design process using

this program. Although the exact steps you follow may vary, the basic design

process should be similar to that described herein. Other Technical Notes in

the Concrete Frame Design series provide additional information, including

the distinction between analysis sections and design sections (see Analysis

Sections and Design Sections in Concrete Frame Design Technical Note 1

General Design Information).

The concrete frame design postprocessor can design or check concrete col-

umns and can design concrete beams.

Important note: A concrete frame element is designed as a beam or a col-

umn, depending on how its frame section property was designated when it

was defined using the Define menu > Frame Sections command. Note that

when using this command, after you have specified that a section has a con-

crete material property, you can click on the Reinforcement button and

specify whether it is a beam or a column.

Concrete Frame Design Procedure

The following sequence describes a typical concrete frame design process for

a new building. Note that although the sequence of steps you follow may

vary, the basic process probably will be essentially the same.

1. Use the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design

command to choose the concrete frame design code and to review other

concrete frame design preferences and revise them if necessary. Note

that default values are provided for all concrete frame design prefer-

ences, so it is unnecessary to define any preferences unless you want to

change some of the default values. See Concrete Frame Design ACI

UBC97 Technical Notes 6 Preferences and Concrete Frame Design ACI

318-99 Technical Notes 16 Preferences for more information.

Concrete Frame Design Process Concrete Frame Design

Technical Note 2 - 2 Concrete Frame Design Procedure

2. Create the building model.

3. Run the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis

command.

4. Assign concrete frame overwrites, if needed, using the Design menu >

Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. Note

that you must select frame elements before using this command. Also

note that default values are provided for all concrete frame design over-

writes, so it is unnecessary to define any overwrites unless you want to

change some of the default values. Note that the overwrites can be as-

signed before or after the analysis is run. See Concrete Frame Design

UBC97 Technical Note 7 Overwrites and Concrete Frame Design ACI

318-99 Technical Note 17 Overwrites for more information.

5. To use any design load combinations other than the defaults created by

the program for your concrete frame design, click the Design menu >

Concrete Frame Design > Select Design Combo command. Note

that you must have already created your own design combos by clicking

the Define menu > Load Combinations command. See Concrete

Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combinations and

Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 18 Design Load

Combinations for more information.

6. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start De-

sign/Check of Structure command to run the concrete frame design.

7. Review the concrete frame design results by doing one of the following:

a. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display De-

sign Info command to display design input and output information on

the model. See Concrete Frame Design Technical Note 4 Output Data

Plotted Directly on the Model for more information.

b. Right click on a frame element while the design results are displayed

on it to enter the interactive design mode and interactively design the

frame element. Note that while you are in this mode, you can revise

overwrites and immediately see the results of the new design. See

Concrete Frame Design Technical Note 3 Interactive Concrete Frame

Design for more information.

Concrete Frame Design Concrete Frame Design Process

Concrete Frame Design Procedure Technical Note 2 - 3

If design results are not currently displayed (and the design has been

run), click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Interac-

tive Concrete Frame Design command and then right click a frame

element to enter the interactive design mode for that element.

8. Use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design com-

mand to print concrete frame design data. If you select frame elements

before using this command, data is printed only for the selected ele-

ments. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output

Details and Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 24 Out-

put Details for more information.

9. Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Change Design

Section command to change the design section properties for selected

frame elements.

10. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start De-

sign/Check of Structure command to rerun the concrete frame design

with the new section properties. Review the results using the procedures

described in Item 7.

11. Rerun the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis

command. Note that the section properties used for the analysis are the

last specified design section properties.

12. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start De-

sign/Check of Structure command to rerun the concrete frame design

with the new analysis results and new section properties. Review the re-

sults using the procedures described above.

13. Again use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Change

Design Section command to change the design section properties for

selected frame elements, if necessary.

14. Repeat the processes in steps 10, 11 and 12 as many times as neces-

sary.

15. Rerun the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis

command. Note that the section properties used for the analysis are the

last specified design section properties.

Concrete Frame Design Process Concrete Frame Design

Technical Note 2 - 4 Concrete Frame Design Procedure

Note:

Concrete frame design is an iterative process. Typically, the analysis and design will be

rerun multiple times to complete a design.

16. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start De-

sign/Check of Structure command to rerun the concrete frame design

with the new section properties. Review the results using the procedures

described in Item 7.

17. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Verify Analysis

vs Design Section command to verify that all of the final design sec-

tions are the same as the last used analysis sections.

18. Use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design com-

mand to print selected concrete frame design results, if desired.

It is important to note that design is an iterative process. The sections used in

the original analysis are not typically the same as those obtained at the end

of the design process. Always run the building analysis using the final frame

section sizes and then run a design check using the forces obtained from that

analysis. Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Verify

Analysis vs Design Section command to verify that the design sections are

the same as the analysis sections.

General Technical Note 3 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN

Technical Note 3

Interactive Concrete Frame Design

This Technical Note describes interactive concrete frame design and review,

which is a powerful mode that allows the user to review the design results for

any concrete frame design and interactively revise the design assumptions

and immediately review the revised results.

General

Note that a design must have been run for the interactive design mode to be

available. To run a design, click the Design menu > Concrete Frame De-

sign > Start Design/Check of Structure command.

Right click on a frame element while the design results are displayed on it to

enter the interactive design mode and interactively design the element in the

Concrete Design Information form. If design results are not currently dis-

played (and a design has been run), click the Design menu > Concrete

Frame Design > Interactive Concrete Frame Design command and then

right click a frame element to enter the interactive design mode for that ele-

ment.

Important note: A concrete frame element is designed as a beam or a col-

umn, depending on how its frame section property was designated when it

was defined using the Define menu > Frame Sections command and the

Reinforcement button, which is only available if it is a concrete section.

Concrete Design Information Form

Table 1 describe the features that are included in the Concrete Design Infor-

mation form.

Interactive Concrete Frame Design Concrete Frame Design

Technical Note 3 - 2 Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form

Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form

Item DESCRIPTION

Story This is the story level ID associated with the frame element.

Beam This is the label associated with a frame element that has been

assigned a concrete frame section property that is designated

as a beam. See the important note previously in this Technical

Note for more information.

Column This is the label associated with a frame element that has been

assigned a concrete frame section property that is designated

as a column. See the important note previously in this Techni-

cal Note for more information.

Section Name This is the label associated with a frame element that has been

assigned a concrete frame section property.

Reinforcement Information

The reinforcement information table on the Concrete Design Information form shows the

output information obtained for each design load combination at each output station

along the frame element. For columns that are designed by this program, the item with

the largest required amount of longitudinal reinforcing is initially highlighted. For columns

that are checked by this program, the item with the largest capacity ratio is initially high-

lighted. For beams, the item with the largest required amount of bottom steel is initially

highlighted. Following are the possible headings in the table:

Combo ID This is the name of the design load combination considered.

Station location This is the location of the station considered, measured from

the i-end of the frame element.

Longitudinal

reinforcement

This item applies to columns only. It also only applies to col-

umns for which the program designs the longitudinal reinforc-

ing. It is the total required area of longitudinal reinforcing steel.

Capacity ratio This item applies to columns only. It also only applies to col-

umns for which you have specified the location and size of re-

inforcing bars and thus the program checks the design. This

item is the capacity ratio.

Concrete Frame Design Interactive Concrete Frame Design

Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form Technical Note 3 - 3

Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form

Item DESCRIPTION

The capacity ratio is determined by first extending a line from

the origin of the PMM interaction surface to the point repre-

senting the P, M2 and M3 values for the designated load com-

bination. Assume the length of this first line is designated L1.

Next, a second line is extended from the origin of the PMM in-

teraction surface through the point representing the P, M2 and

M3 values for the designated load combination until it intersects

the interaction surface. Assume the length of this line from the

origin to the interaction surface is designated L2. The capacity

ratio is equal to L1/L2.

Major shear

reinforcement

This item applies to columns only. It is the total required area of

shear reinforcing per unit length for shear acting in the column

major direction.

Minor shear

reinforcement

This item applies to columns only. It is the total required area of

shear reinforcing per unit length for shear acting in the column

minor direction.

Top steel This item applies to beams only. It is the total required area of

longitudinal top steel at the specified station.

Bottom steel This item applies to beams only. It is the total required area of

longitudinal bottom steel at the specified station.

Shear steel This item applies to beams only. It is the total required area of

shear reinforcing per unit length at the specified station for

loads acting in the local 2-axis direction of the beam.

Overwrites Button Click this button to access and make revisions to the concrete

frame overwrites and then immediately see the new design re-

sults. If you modify some overwrites in this mode and you exit

both the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form and the Con-

crete Design Information form by clicking their respective OK

buttons, the changes to the overwrites are saved permanently.

When you exit the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form by

clicking the OK button the changes are temporarily saved. If

you then exit the Concrete Design Information form by clicking

the Cancel button the changes you made to the concrete frame

overwrites are considered temporary only and are not perma-

nently saved. Permanent saving of the overwrites does not ac-

tually occur until you click the OK button in the Concrete Design

Information form as well as the Concrete Frame Design Over-

writes form.

Interactive Concrete Frame Design Concrete Frame Design

Technical Note 3 - 4 Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form

Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form

Item DESCRIPTION

Details Button

Clicking this button displays design details for the frame ele-

ment. Print this information by selecting Print from the File

menu that appears at the top of the window displaying the de-

sign details.

Interaction Button Clicking this button displays the biaxial interaction curve for the

concrete section at the location in the element that is high-

lighted in the table.

Overview Technical Note 4 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN

Technical Note 4

Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model

This Technical Note describes the input and output data that can be plotted

directly on the model.

Overview

Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info

command to display on-screen output plotted directly on the program model.

If desired, the screen graphics can then be printed using the File menu >

Print Graphics command. The on-screen display data presents input and

output data.

Using the Print Design Tables Form

To print the concrete frame input summary directly to a printer, use the File

menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the

check box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the OK button to send the

print to your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to

cancel the print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the

Setup>> button to change printers, if necessary.

To print the concrete frame input summary to a file, click the Print to File

check box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the Filename>> button to

change the path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the de-

sired format (e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the OK buttons on the Open File for

Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the re-

quest.

Note:

The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out-

put that is printed to a text file.

The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and

filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print

Design Tables form. Data will be added to this file. Or use the Filename

Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model Concrete Frame Design

Technical Note 4 - 2 Design Input

button to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing Tables cau-

tion box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.

If you select a specific concrete frame element(s) before using the File menu

> Print Tables > concrete Frame Design command, the Selection Only

check box will be checked. The print will be for the selected steel frame ele-

ment(s) only.

Design Input

The following types of data can be displayed directly on the model by select-

ing the data type (shown in bold type) from the drop-down list on the Display

Design Results form. Display this form by selecting he Design menu > Con-

crete Frame Design > Display Design Info command.

Design Sections

Design Type

Live Load Red Factors

Unbraced L_Ratios

Eff Length K-Factors

Cm Factors

DNS Factors

DS Factors

Each of these items is described in the code-specific Concrete Frame Design

UBC97 Technical Note 13 Input Data and Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99

Technical Note 23 Input Data.

Design Output

The following types of data can be displayed directly on the model by select-

ing the data type (shown in bold type) from the drop-down list on the Display

Design Results form. Display this form by selecting he Design menu > Con-

crete Frame Design > Display Design Info command.

Concrete Frame Design Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model

Design Output Technical Note 4 - 3

Longitudinal Reinforcing

Shear Reinforcing

Column Capacity Ratios

Joint Shear Capacity Ratios

Beam/Column Capacity Ratios

Each of these items is described in the code-specific Concrete Frame Design

ACI 318-99 Technical Note 24 Output Details and Concrete Frame Design

UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output Details.

General and Notation Technical Note 5 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 5

General and Notation

Introduction to the UBC97 Series of Technical Notes

The Concrete Frame Design UBC97 series of Technical Notes describes in de-

tail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by this

program when the user selects the UBC97 Design Code (ICBO 1997). The

various notations used in this series are listed herein.

The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. The program

provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements

for the design of most building type structures. See Concrete Frame Design

UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combinations for more information.

When using the UBC 97 option, a frame is assigned to one of the following

five Seismic Zones (UBC 2213, 2214):

Zone 0

Zone 1

Zone 2

Zone 3

Zone 4

By default the Seismic Zone is taken as Zone 4 in the program. However, the

Seismic Zone can be overwritten in the Preference form to change the de-

fault. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 6 Preferences for

more information.

When using the UBC 97 option, the following Framing Systems are recognized

and designed according to the UBC design provisions (UBC 1627, 1921):

Ordinary Moment-Resisting Frame (OMF)

General and Notation Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 5 - 2 General and Notation

Intermediate Moment-Resisting Frame (IMRF)

Special Moment-Resisting Frame (SMRF)

The Ordinary Moment-Resisting Frame (OMF) is appropriate in minimal seis-

mic risk areas, especially in Seismic Zones 0 and 1. The Intermediate Mo-

ment-Resisting Frame (IMRF) is appropriate in moderate seismic risk areas,

specially in Seismic Zone 2. The Special Moment-Resisting Frame (SMRF) is

appropriate in high seismic risk areas, specially in Seismic Zones 3 and 4. The

UBC seismic design provisions are considered in the program. The details of

the design criteria used for the different framing systems are described in

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 9 Strength Reduction Factors,

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 10 Column Design, Concrete

Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 11 Beam Design, and Concrete Frame

Design UBC97 Technical Note 12 Joint Design.

By default the frame type is taken in the program as OMRF in Seismic Zone 0

and 1, as IMRF in Seismic Zone 2, and as SMRF in Seismic Zone 3 and 4.

However, the frame type can be overwritten in the Overwrites form on a

member-by-member basis. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note

7 Overwrites for more information. If any member is assigned with a frame

type, the change of the Seismic Zone in the Preferences will not modify the

frame type of an individual member that has been assigned a frame type.

The program also provides input and output data summaries, which are de-

scribed in Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 13 Input Data and

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output Details.

English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is

based on Inch-Pound-Second units. For simplicity, all equations and descrip-

tions presented in this Technical Note correspond to Inch-Pound-Second

units unless otherwise noted.

Notation

A

cv

Area of concrete used to determine shear stress, sq-in

A

g

Gross area of concrete, sq-in

A

s

Area of tension reinforcement, sq-in

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 General and Notation

General and Notation Technical Note 5 - 3

'

s

A

Area of compression reinforcement, sq-in

A

s(required)

Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-in

A

st

Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, sq-in

A

v

Area of shear reinforcement, sq-in

C

m

Coefficient, dependent upon column curvature, used to calculate

moment magnification factor

D' Diameter of hoop, in

E

c

Modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi

E

s

Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 29,000,000 psi

(UBC 1980.5.2)

I

g

Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis,

neglecting reinforcement, in

4

I

se

Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of mem-

ber cross section, in

4

L Clear unsupported length, in

M

1

Smaller factored end moment in a column, lb-in

M

2

Larger factored end moment in a column, lb-in

M

c

Factored moment to be used in design, lb-in

M

ns

Nonsway component of factored end moment, lb-in

M

s

Sway component of factored end moment, lb-in

M

u

Factored moment at section, lb-in

M

ux

Factored moment at section about X-axis, lb-in

M

uy

Factored moment at section about Y-axis, lb-in

P

b

Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions, lb

General and Notation Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 5 - 4 General and Notation

P

c

Critical buckling strength of column, lb

P

max

Maximum axial load strength allowed, lb

P

0

Acial load capacity at zero eccentricity, lb

P

u

Factored axial load at section, lb

V

c

Shear resisted by concrete, lb

V

E

Shear force caused by earthquake loads, lb

V

D+L

Shear force from span loading, lb

V

u

Factored shear force at a section, lb

V

p

Shear force computed from probable moment capacity, lb

a Depth of compression block, in

a

b

Depth of compression block at balanced condition, in

b Width of member, in

b

f

Effective width of flange (T-Beam section), in

b

w

Width of web (T-Beam section), in

c Depth to neutral axis, in

c

b

Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, in

d Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, in

d' Concrete cover to center of reinforcing, in

d

s

Thickness of slab (T-Beam section), in

'

c

f

Specified compressive strength of concrete, psi

f

y

Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, psi

f

y

≤ 80,000 psi (UBC 1909.4)

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 General and Notation

General and Notation Technical Note 5 - 5

f

ys

Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, psi

h Dimension of column, in

k Effective length factor

r Radius of gyration of column section, in

α Reinforcing steel overstrength factor

β

1

Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete

β

d

Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to

maximum factored axial total load

δ

s

Moment magnification factor for sway moments

δ

ns

Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments

ε

c

Strain in concrete

ε

s

Strain in reinforcing steel

ϕ Strength reduction factor

General Technical Note 6 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 6

Preferences

This Technical Note describes the items in the Preferences form.

General

The concrete frame design preferences in this program are basic assignments

that apply to all concrete frame elements. Use the Options menu > Prefer-

ences > Concrete Frame Design command to access the Preferences form

where you can view and revise the concrete frame design preferences.

Default values are provided for all concrete frame design preference items.

Thus, it is not required that you specify or change any of the preferences. You

should, however, at least review the default values for the preference items

to make sure they are acceptable to you.

Using the Preferences Form

To view preferences, select the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete

Frame Design. The Preferences form will display. The preference options

are displayed in a two-column spreadsheet. The left column of the spread-

sheet displays the preference item name. The right column of the spreadsheet

displays the preference item value.

To change a preference item, left click the desired preference item in either

the left or right column of the spreadsheet. This activates a drop-down box or

highlights the current preference value. If the drop-down box appears, select

a new value. If the cell is highlighted, type in the desired value. The prefer-

ence value will update accordingly. You cannot overwrite values in the drop-

down boxes.

When you have finished making changes to the concrete frame preferences,

click the OK button to close the form. You must click the OK button for the

changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the Cancel button to exit

Preferences Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 6 - 2 Preferences

the form, any changes made to the preferences are ignored and the form is

closed.

Preferences

For purposes of explanation in this Technical Note, the preference items are

presented in Table 1. The column headings in the table are described as fol-

lows:

Item: The name of the preference item as it appears in the cells at the

left side of the Preferences form.

Possible Values: The possible values that the associated preference item

can have.

Default Value: The built-in default value that the program assumes for

the associated preference item.

Description: A description of the associated preference item.

Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value Description

Design Code Any code in

the program

UBC97 Design code used for design of

concrete frame elements.

Phi Bending

Tension

>0 0.9 Unitless strength reduction factor per

UBC 1909.

Phi Compres-

sion Tied

>0 0.7 Unitless strength reduction factor per

UBC 1909.

Phi Compres-

sion Spiral

>0 0.75 Unitless strength reduction factor per

UBC 1909.

Phi Shear >0 0.85 Unitless strength reduction factor per

UBC 1909.

Number Inter-

action Curves

≥4.0 24 Number of equally spaced interaction

curves used to create a full 360-degree

interaction surface (this item should be

a multiple of four). We recommend that

you use 24 for this item.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Preferences

Preferences Technical Note 6 - 3

Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value Description

Number Inter-

action Points

Any odd value

≥1.0

11 Number of points used for defining a

single curve in a concrete frame

interaction surface (this item should be

odd).

Time History

Design

Envelopes or

Step-by-Step

Envelopes Toggle for design load combinations

that include a time history designed for

the envelope of the time history, or

designed step-by-step for the entire

time history. If a single design load

combination has more than one time

history case in it, that design load

combination is designed for the

envelopes of the time histories,

regardless of what is specified here.

Overwrites Technical Note 7 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 7

Overwrites

General

The concrete frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only

to those elements to which they are assigned. This Technical Note describes

concrete frame design overwrites for UBC97. To access the overwrites, select

an element and click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design >

View/Revise Overwrites command.

Default values are provided for all overwrite items. Thus, you do not need to

specify or change any of the overwrites. However, at least review the default

values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. When

changes are made to overwrite items, the program applies the changes only

to the elements to which they are specifically assigned; that is, to the ele-

ments that are selected when the overwrites are changed.

Overwrites

For explanation purposes in this Technical Note, the overwrites are presented

in Table 1. The column headings in the table are described as follows.

Item: The name of the overwrite item as it appears in the program. To

save space in the formes, these names are generally short.

Possible Values: The possible values that the associated overwrite item

can have.

Default Value: The default value that the program assumes for the asso-

ciated overwrite item.

Description: A description of the associated overwrite item.

An explanation of how to change an overwrite is provided at the end of this

Technical Note.

Overwrites Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 7 - 2 Overwrites

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value Description

Element

Section

Element

Type

Sway Special,

Sway Interme-

diate,

Sway

Ordinary

NonSway

Sway Special Frame type; see UBC 1910.11 to

1910.13.

Live Load

Reduction

Factor

>0

≤1.0

1. Used to reduce the live load contribu-

tion to the factored loading.

Horizontal

Earthquake

Factor

>0

≤1.0

1.

Unbraced

Length Ratio

(Major)

>0

≤1.0

1.0

Unbraced

Length Ratio

(Minor)

>0

≤1.0

1.0

Effective

Length Factor

(K Major)

>0

≤1.0

1 See UBC 1910.12.1.

Effective

Length Factor

(K Minor)

>0

≤1.0

1 See UBC 1910.12.1.

Moment

Coefficient

(Cm Major)

>0

≤1.0

1 See UBC 1910.12.3.1 relates actual

moment diagram to an equivalent uni-

form moment diagram.

Moment

Coefficient

(Cm Minor)

>0

≤1.0

1 See UBC 1910.12.3.1 relates actual

moment diagram to an equivalent uni-

form moment diagram.

NonSway

Moment Factor

(Dns Major)

>0

≤1.0

1 See UBC 1910.12.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Overwrites

Overwrites Technical Note 7 - 3

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value Description

NonSway

Moment Factor

(Dns Minor)

1 See UBC 1910.12.

Sway Moment

Factor

(Ds Major)

1 See UBC 1910.12.

Sway Moment

Factor

(Ds Minor)

1 See UBC 1910.12.

Making Changes in the Overwrites Form

To access the concrete frame overwrites, select an element and click the De-

sign menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites com-

mand.

The overwrites are displayed in the form with a column of check boxes and a

two-column spreadsheet. The left column of the spreadsheet contains the

name of the overwrite item. The right column of the spreadsheet contains the

overwrites values.

Initially, the check boxes in the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form are

all unchecked and all of the cells in the spreadsheet have a gray background

to indicate that they are inactive and the items in the cells cannot be

changed. The names of the overwrite items are displayed in the first column

of the spreadsheet. The values of the overwrite items are visible in the second

column of the spreadsheet if only one element was selected before the over-

writes form was accessed. If multiple elements were selected, no values show

for the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet.

After selecting one or multiple elements, check the box to the left of an over-

write item to change it. Then left click in either column of the spreadsheet to

activate a drop-down box or highlight the contents in the cell in the right col-

umn of the spreadsheet. If the drop-down box appears, select a value from

Overwrites Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 7 - 4 Overwrites

the box. If the cell contents is highlighted, type in the desired value. The

overwrite will reflect the change. You cannot change the values of the drop-

down boxes.

When changes to the overwrites have been completed, click the OK button to

close the form. The program then changes all of the overwrite items whose

associated check boxes are checked for the selected members. You must click

the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the

Cancel button to exit the form, any changes made to the overwrites are ig-

nored and the form is closed.

Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default Values

Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Reset All Overwrites

command to reset all of the steel frame overwrites. All current design results

will be deleted when this command is executed.

Important note about resetting overwrites: The program defaults for the

overwrite items are built into the program. The concrete frame overwrite val-

ues that were in a .edb file that you used to initialize your model may be dif-

ferent from the built-in program default values. When you reset overwrites,

the program resets the overwrite values to its built-in values, not to the val-

ues that were in the .edb file used to initialize the model.

Design Load Combinations Technical Note 8 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 8

Design Load Combinations

The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed

load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. For the UBC 97 code,

if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only, the stress

check may need only one load combination, namely 1.4 DL + 1.7 LL (UBC

1909.2.1). However, in addition to the dead and live loads, if the structure is

subjected to wind (WL) and earthquake (EL) loads, and considering that wind

and earthquake forces are reversible, the following load combinations may

need to be considered (UBC 1909.2).

1.4 DL (UBC 1909.2.1)

1.4 DL + 1.7 LL (UBC 1909.2.1)

0.9 DL ± 1.3 WL (UBC 1909.2.2)

0.75 (1.4 DL + 1.7 LL ± 1.7 WL) (UBC 1909.2.2)

0.9 DL ± 1.0 EL (UBC 1909.2.3, 1612.2.1)

1.2 DL + 0.5 LL ± 1.0 EL) (UBC 1909.2.3, 1612.2.1)

These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever

the UBC97 code is used.

Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live

load condition on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of

the live load to the factored loading. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 7 Overwrites for more information.

Strength Reduction Factors Technical Note 9 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 9

Strength Reduction Factors

The strength reduction factors, ϕ, are applied on the nominal strength to ob-

tain the design strength provided by a member. The ϕ factors for flexure, ax-

ial force, shear, and torsion are as follows:

ϕ = 0.90 for flexure (UBC 1909.3.2.1)

ϕ = 0.90 for axial tension (UBC 1909.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.90 for axial tension and flexure (UBC 1909.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.75 for axial compression, and axial compression

and flexure (spirally reinforced column) (UBC 1909.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.70 for axial compression, and axial compression

and flexure (tied column) (UBC 1909.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.85 for shear and torsion (non-seismic design) (UBC 1909.3.2.3)

ϕ = 0.60 for shear and torsion (UBC 1909.3.2.3)

Overview Technical Note 10 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 10

Column Design

This Technical Note describes how the program checks column capacity or de-

signs reinforced concrete columns when the UBC97 code is selected.

Overview

The program can be used to check column capacity or to design columns. If

you define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete

column section, the program will check the column capacity. Alternatively, the

program can calculate the amount of reinforcing required to design the col-

umn. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the struc-

ture involves the following steps:

Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the dif-

ferent concrete section types of the model. A typical biaxial interaction

surface is shown in Figure 1. When the steel is undefined, the program

generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforce-

ment1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Intermediate moment resisting

frames (UBC 1910.9.1) and 1 to 6 percent for Special moment resisting

frames (UBC 1921.4.3.1).

Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the fac-

tored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from

each loading combination at each station of the column. The target capac-

ity ratio is taken as 1 when calculating the required reinforcing area.

Design the column shear reinforcement.

The following four subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated

with this process.

Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 10 - 2 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces

Figure 1 A Typical Column Interaction Surface

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces

The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series

of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction

failure surface. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending, the for-

mulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations. A typical

interaction diagram is shown in Figure 1.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces Technical Note 10 - 3

The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear

strain in three dimensions on the section of the column. See Figure 2. The

linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain, ε

c

, at the extremity

of the section, to 0.003 (UBC 1910.2.3).

The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate

strength design (UBC 1910.3), and allows for any doubly symmetric rectan-

gular, square, or circular column section.

The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel

modulus of elasticity, ε

s

E

s

, and is limited to the yield stress of the steel, f

y

(UBC 1910.2.4). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to

be placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm

does not assume any further simplifications with respect to distributing the

area of steel over the cross section of the column, such as an equivalent steel

tube or cylinder. See Figure 3.

The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a

stress value of 0.85

'

c

f (UBC 1910.2.7.1). See Figure 3. The interaction algo-

rithm provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by

the reinforcement in the compression zone.

The effects of the strength reduction factor, ϕ, are included in the generation

of the interaction surfaces. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to

ϕP

n(max)

, where

ϕP

n(max)

= 0.85ϕ[0.85

'

c

f (A

g

-A

st

)+f

y

A

st

] (spiral) (UBC 1910.3.5.1)

ϕP

n(max)

= 0.85ϕ[0.85

'

c

f (A

g

-A

st

)+f

y

A

st

] (tied) (UBC 1910.3.5.2)

ϕ = 0.70 for tied columns (UBC 1909.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.75 for spirally reinforced columns (UBC 1909.3.2.2)

The value of ϕ used in the interaction diagram varies from ϕ

min

to 0.9 based

on the axial load. For low values of axial load, ϕ is increased linearly from ϕ

min

to 0.9 as the nominal capacity ϕP

n

decreases from the smaller of ϕP

b

or

0.1

'

c

f A

g

to zero, where P

b

is the axial force at the balanced condition. In

cases involving axial tension, ϕ is always 0.9 (UBC 1909.3.2.2).

Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 10 - 4 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces

Figure 2 Idealized Strain Distribution for Generation of Interaction Surfaces

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 10 - 5

Figure 3 Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio

The column capacity ratio is calculated for each loading combination at each

output station of each column. The following steps are involved in calculating

the capacity ratio of a particular column for a particular loading combination

at a particular location:

Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases

and the specified load combination factors to give P

u

, M

ux

, and M

uy

.

Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments.

Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored moments. Deter-

mine whether the point, defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial

moment set, lies within the interaction volume.

The factored moments and corresponding magnification factors depend on the

identification of the individual column as either “sway” or “non-sway.”

Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 10 - 6 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

this process.

Determine Factored Moments and Forces

The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying

the corresponding load factors to all the load cases, giving P

u

, M

ux

, and M

uy

.

The factored moments are further increased for non-sway columns, if re-

quired, to obtain minimum eccentricities of (0.6 + 0.03h) inches, where h is

the dimension of the column in the corresponding direction (UBC

1910.12.3.2).

Determine Moment Magnification Factors

The moment magnification factors are calculated separately for sway (overall

stability effect), δ

s

, and for non-sway (individual column stability effect), δ

ns

.

Also the moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are

in general different.

The program assumes that it performs a P-delta analysis and, therefore, mo-

ment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken as unity

(UBC 1910.10.2). For the P-delta analysis, the load should correspond to a

load combination of 0.75 (1.4 dead load + 1.7 live load)/ϕ if wind load gov-

erns, or (1.2 dead load + 0.50 live load)/ϕ if seismic load governs, where ϕ is

the understrength factor for stability, which is taken as 0.75 (UBC

1910.12.3). See also White and Hajjar (1991).

The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the

sway (M

s

) and the non-sway (M

s

) components. The non-sway components

which are identified by “ns” subscripts are predominantly caused by gravity

load. The sway components are identified by the “s” subscripts. The sway

moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads, and are related to the

cause of side-sway.

For individual columns or column-members in a floor, the magnified moments

about two axes at any station of a column can be obtained as

M = M

ns

+ δ

s

M

s

. (UBC 1910.13.3)

The factor δ

s

is the moment magnification factor for moments causing side

sway. The moment magnification factors for sway moments, δ

s

, is taken as 1

because the component moments M

s

and M

ns

are obtained from a “second or-

der elastic (P-delta) analysis.”

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 10 - 7

The computed moments are further amplified for individual column stability

effect (UBC 1910.12.3, 1910.13.5) by the nonsway moment magnification

factor, δ

ns

, as follows:

M

c

= δ

ns

M

2

, where (UBC 1910.12.3)

M

c

is the factored moment to be used in design, and

M

2

is the larger factored and amplified end moment.

The non-sway moment magnification factor, δ

ns

, associated with the major or

minor direction of the column is given by (UBC 1910.12.3)

δ

ns

=

c

u

m

P

P

C

75 . 0

1 −

≥ 1.0, where (UBC 1910.12.3)

P

c

=

2

2

) (

u

kl

EI π

, (UBC 1910.12.3)

k is conservatively taken as 1; however, the program allows the user to

override this value.

EI is associated with a particular column direction given by:

EI =

d

g c

I E

β + 1

4 . 0

, (UBC 1910.12.3)

maximum factored axial dead load

β

d

= maximum factored axial total load and (UBC 1910.12.3)

C

m

= 0.6 + 0.4

b

a

M

M

≥ 0.4. (UBC 1910.12.3.1)

M

a

and M

b

are the moments at the ends of the column, and M

b

is numerically

larger than M

a

. M

a

/ M

b

is positive for single curvature bending and negative

for double curvature bending. The above expression of C

m

is valid if there is

no transverse load applied between the supports. If transverse load is present

on the span, or the length is overwritten, C

m

= 1. C

m

can be overwritten by

the user on an element-by-element basis.

Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 10 - 8 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio

The magnification factor, δ

ns

, must be a positive number and greater than 1.

Therefore, P

u

must be less than 0.75P

c

. If P

u

is found to be greater than or

equal to 0.75P

c

, a failure condition is declared.

The above calculations use the unsupported length of the column. The two

unsupported lengths are l

22

and l

33

, corresponding to instability in the minor

and major directions of the element, respectively. See Figure 4. These are the

lengths between the support points of the element in the corresponding di-

rections.

Figure 4 Axes of Bending and Unsupported Length

If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member, the

user can explicitly specify values of δ

s

and δ

ns

.

Determine Capacity Ratio

The program calculates a capacity ratio as a measure of the stress condition

of the column. The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 10 - 9

of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the col-

umn.

Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity, the

moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain P

u

,

M

ux

, and M

uy

. The point (P

u

, M

ux

, M

uy

.) is then placed in the interaction space

shown as point L in Figure 5. If the point lies within the interaction volume,

the column capacity is adequate; however, if the point lies outside the inter-

action volume, the column is overstressed.

Figure 5 Geometric Representation of Column Capacity Ratios

This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the lo-

cation of point C. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if

extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. This point is determined

by three-dimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the

Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 10 - 10 Required Reinforcing Area

failure surface. See Figure 5. The capacity ratio, CR, is given by the ratio

OC

OL

.

If OL = OC (or CR=1), the point lies on the interaction surface and the

column is stressed to capacity.

If OL < OC (or CR<1), the point lies within the interaction volume and the

column capacity is adequate.

If OL > OC (or CR>1), the point lies outside the interaction volume and the

column is overstressed.

The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is

reported for each check station of the column, along with the controlling P

u

,

M

ux

, and M

uy

set and associated load combination number.

Required Reinforcing Area

If the reinforcing area is not defined, the program computes the reinforce-

ment that will give a column capacity ratio of one, calculated as described in

the previous section entitled "Calculate Column Capacity Ratio."

Design Column Shear Reinforcement

The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the ma-

jor and minor directions of the column. The following steps are involved in

designing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular load

combination caused by shear forces in a particular direction:

Determine the factored forces acting on the section, P

u

and V

u

. Note that

P

u

is needed for the calculation of V

c

.

Determine the shear force, V

c

, that can be resisted by concrete alone.

Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.

For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (Ductile frames), the

shear design of the columns is also based on the probable and nominal mo-

ment capacities of the members, respectively, in addition to the factored

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design

Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 10 - 11

moments. Effects of the axial forces on the column moment capacities are

included in the formulation.

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

this process.

Determine Section Forces

In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment

resisting concrete frame, the forces for a particular load combination,

namely, the column axial force, P

u

, and the column shear force, V

u

, in a

particular direction are obtained by factoring the program analysis load

cases with the corresponding load combination factors.

In the shear design of Special moment resisting frames (i.e., seismic

design) the column is checked for capacity-shear in addition to the re-

quirement for the Ordinary moment resisting frames. The capacity-shear

force in a column, V

p

, in a particular direction is calculated from the prob-

able moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial

force acting on the column.

For each load combination, the factored axial load, P

u

, is calculated. Then,

the positive and negative moment capacities,

+

u

M and

−

u

M , of the column

in a particular direction under the influence of the axial force P

u

is calcu-

lated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction.

The design shear force, V

u

, is then given by (UBC 1921.4.5.1)

V

u

= V

p

+ V

D+L

(UBC 1921.4.5.1)

where, V

p

is the capacity-shear force obtained by applying the calculated

probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting

in two opposite directions. Therefore, V

p

is the maximum of

1

P

V and

2

P

V ,

where

1

P

V =

L

M M

J I

+ −

+

, and

2

P

V =

L

M M

J I

− +

+

, where

Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 10 - 12 Design Column Shear Reinforcement

− +

I I

M M , , = Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the

column using a steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ

factors (ϕ = 1.0),

− +

J J

M M , , = Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the

column using a steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ

factors (ϕ = 1.0), and

L = Clear span of column.

For Special moment resisting frames, α is taken as 1.25 (UBC 1921.0).

V

D+L

is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of

gravity loads. For most of the columns, it is zero.

For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the shear capacity of the

column is also checked for the capacity-shear based on the nominal mo-

ment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads, in addition to

the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design

shear force is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal (ϕ =

1.0) moment capacity and factored shear force. The procedure for calcu-

lating nominal moment capacity is the same as that for computing the

probable moment capacity for special moment resisting frames, except

that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25 (UBC 1921.0, 1921.8.3). The

factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors, except the

earthquake load factors are doubled (UBC 1921.8.3).

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity

Given the design force set P

u

and V

u

, the shear force carried by the concrete,

V

c

, is calculated as follows:

If the column is subjected to axial compression, i.e., P

u

is positive,

V

c

= 2

cv

g

u

c

A

A

P

f

+

000 , 2

1

'

, (UBC 1911.3.1.2)

where,

'

c

f ≤ 100 psi, and (UBC 1911.1.2)

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design

Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 10 - 13

V

c

≤ 3.5

'

c

f

cv

g

u

A

A

P

+

500

1 . (UBC 1911.3.2.2)

The term

g

u

A

P

must have psi units. A

cv

is the effective shear area which is

shown shaded in Figure 6. For circular columns, A

cv

is not taken to be

greater than 0.8 times the gross area (UBC 1911.5.6.2).

Figure 6 Shear Stress Area, A

cv

Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 10 - 14 Design Column Shear Reinforcement

If the column is subjected to axial tension, P

u

is negative, (UBC

1911.3.2.3)

V

c

= 2

'

c

f

+

g

u

A

P

500

1 A

cv

≥ 0 (UBC 1911.3.2.3)

For Special moment resisting concrete frame design, V

c

is set to zero

if the factored axial compressive force, P

u

, including the earthquake effect

is small (Pu <

'

c

f A

g

/ 20) and if the shear force contribution from earth-

quake, V

E

, is more than half of the total factored maximum shear force

over the length of the member V

u

(V

E

≥ 0.5V

u

) (UBC 1921.4.5.2).

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement

Given V

u

and V

c

, the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or

ties within a spacing, s, is given for rectangular and circular columns by the

following:

A

v

=

d f

s V V

ys

c u

) / ( − ϕ

, for rectangular columns (UBC 1911.5.6.1, 1911.5.6.2)

A

v

=

'

) / ( 2

D f

s V V

ys

c u

− ϕ

π

, for circular columns (UBC 1911.5.6.1, 1911.5.6.2)

V

u

is limited by the following relationship.

(V

u

/ ϕ-V

c

) ≤ 8

'

c

f A

cv

(UBC 1911.5.6.8)

Otherwise redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here ϕ, the

strength reduction factor, is 0.85 for nonseismic design or for seismic design

in Seismic Zones 0, 1, and 2 (UBC 1909.3.2.3) and is 0.60 for seismic design

in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 1909.3.4.1). The maximum of all the calcu-

lated values obtained from each load combination are reported for the major

and minor directions of the column, along with the controlling shear force and

associated load combination label.

The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are

based purely on shear strength consideration. Any minimum stirrup require-

ments to satisfy spacing considerations or transverse reinforcement volumet-

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design

Reference Technical Note 10 - 15

ric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the

user.

Reference

White. D. W., and J.F., Hajjar. 1991. Application of Second-Order Elastic

Analysis in LRFD: Research in Practice. Engineering Journal. American

Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. Vol. 28, No. 4.

Overview Technical Note 11 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 11

Beam Design

This Technical Note describes how this program completes beam design when

the UBC97 code is selected. The program calculates and reports the required

areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments, shears, load

combination factors and other criteria described herein.

Overview

In the design of concrete beams, the program calculates and reports the re-

quired areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments,

shears, load combination factors, and other criteria described below. The re-

inforcement requirements are calculated at a user-defined number of

check/design stations along the beam span.

All beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.

Effects caused by axial forces, minor direction bending, and torsion

that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by

the user.

The beam design procedure involves the following steps:

Design beam flexural reinforcement

Design beam shear reinforcement

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at check/design stations

along the beam span. The following steps are involved in designing the flex-

ural reinforcement for the major moment for a particular beam for a particu-

lar section:

Determine the maximum factored moments

Determine the reinforcing steel

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 11 - 2 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

Determine Factored Moments

In the design of flexural reinforcement of Special, Intermediate, or Ordinary

moment resisting concrete frame beams, the factored moments for each load

combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corre-

sponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load fac-

tors.

The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive

+

u

M and maxi-

mum negative

−

u

M factored moments obtained from all of the load combina-

tions

.

Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases, the beam is al-

ways designed as a rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce

bottom steel. In such cases, the beam may be designed as a Rectangular- or

a T-beam.

Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement

In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the

tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added

when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of

a singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding the compres-

sion reinforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the grade

of concrete.

The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as

shown in Figure 1 (UBC 1910.2). It is assumed that the compression carried

by concrete is less than 0.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced

condition (UBC 1910.3.3). When the applied moment exceeds the moment

capacity at this designed balanced condition, the area of compression rein-

forcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried

by compression and additional tension reinforcement.

The design procedure used by the program for both rectangular and flanged

sections (L- and T-beams) is summarized below. It is assumed that the de-

sign ultimate axial force does not exceed 0.1

'

c

f A

g

(UBC 1910.3.3); hence, all

the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 - 3

Figure 1 Design of a Rectangular Beam Section

Design for Rectangular Beam

In designing for a factored negative or positive moment, M

u

(i.e., designing

top or bottom steel), the depth of the compression block is given by a (see

Figure 1), where,

a = d -

b f

M

d

c

u

ϕ

−

'

2

85 . 0

2

,

where the value of ϕ is 0.90 (UBC 1909.3.2.1) in the above and the following

equations. Also β

1

and c

b

are calculated as follows:

β

1

= 0.85 - 0.05

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

−

000 , 1

000 , 4

'

c

f

, 0.65 ≤ β

1

≤ 0.85, (UBC 1910.2.7.3)

c

b

= d

f E

E

y s c

s c

+ ε

ε

=

y

f + 000 , 87

000 , 87

d. (UBC 1910.2.3, 1910.2.4)

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 11 - 4 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by

a

max

= 0.75β

1

c

b

. (UBC 1910.2.7.1, 1910.3.3)

If a ≤ a

max

, the area of tensile steel reinforcement is given by

A

s

=

(

,

\

,

(

j

− ϕ

2

a

d f

M

y

u

.

This steel is to be placed at the bottom if M

u

is positive, or at the top if M

u

is negative.

If a > a

max

, compression reinforcement is required (UBC 1910.3.3) and is

calculated as follows:

− The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by

C = 0.85

'

c

f ba

max

, and (UBC 1910.2.7.1)

the moment resisted by concrete compression and tensile steel is

M

uc

= C

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

−

2

max

a

d ϕ.

− Therefore the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is

M

us

= M

u

- M

uc

.

− So the required compression steel is given by

'

s

A =

ϕ − ) ' (

'

d d f

M

s

us

, where

'

s

f = 0.003E

s

]

]

]

,

¸

, −

c

d c '

. (UBC 1910.2.4)

− The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 - 5

A

s1

=

ϕ

]

]

]

,

¸

,

−

2

max

a

d f

M

y

uc

, and

the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is given by

A

s2

=

ϕ − ) ' ( d d f

M

y

us

.

− Therefore, the total tensile reinforcement, A

s

= A

s1

+ A

s2

, and total com-

pression reinforcement is

'

s

A . A

s

is to be placed at bottom and

'

s

A is to

be placed at top if M

u

is positive, and vice versa if M

u

is negative.

Design for T-Beam

In designing for a factored negative moment, M

u

(i.e., designing top steel),

the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above, i.e., no T-Beam

data is to be used. See Figure 2. If M

u

> 0, the depth of the compression

block is given by

a = d -

f c

u

b f

M

d

ϕ

−

'

2

85 . 0

2

.

The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by

a

max

= 0.75β

1

c

b

. (UBC 1910.2.7.1)

If a ≤ d

s

, the subsequent calculations for A

s

are exactly the same as previously

defined for the rectangular section design. However, in this case, the width of

the compression flange is taken as the width of the beam for analysis. Com-

pression reinforcement is required if a > a

max

.

If a > d

s

, calculation for A

s

is performed in two parts. The first part is for bal-

ancing the compressive force from the flange, C

f

, and the second part is for

balancing the compressive force from the web, C

w

, as shown in Figure 2. C

f

is

given by

C

f

= 0.85

'

c

f (bf - b

w

) d

s

.

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 11 - 6 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

Figure 2 Design of a T-Beam Section

Therefore, A

s1

=

y

f

f

C

and the portion of M

u

that is resisted by the flange is

given by

M

uf

= C

f

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

−

2

s

d

d ϕ .

Again, the value for ϕ is 0.90. Therefore, the balance of the moment, M

u

to be

carried by the web is given by

M

uw

= M

u

- M

uf

.

The web is a rectangular section of dimensions b

w

and d, for which the design

depth of the compression block is recalculated as

a

1

= d -

w c

uw

b f

M

d

ϕ

−

'

2

85 . 0

2

.

If a

1

≤ a

max

, the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 - 7

A

s2

=

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

− ϕ

2

1

a

d f

M

y

uw

, and

A

s

= A

s1

+ A

s2

.

This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the T-beam.

If a

1

> a

max

, compression reinforcement is required (UBC 1910.3.3) and is

calculated as follows:

− The compressive force in web concrete alone is given by

C = 0.85

'

c

f ba

max

. (UBC 1910.2.7.1)

− Therefore the moment resisted by concrete web and tensile steel is

M

uc

= C

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

−

2

max

a

d ϕ, and

the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is

M

us

= M

uw

- M

uc

.

− Therefore, the compression steel is computed as

'

s

A =

ϕ − ) ' (

'

d d f

M

s

us

, where

'

s

f = 0.003E

s

]

]

]

,

¸

, −

c

d c '

. (UBC 1910.2.4)

− The tensile steel for balancing compression in web concrete is

A

s2

=

ϕ

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

−

2

max

a

d f

M

y

uc

, and

the tensile steel for balancing compression in steel is

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 11 - 8 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

A

s3

=

( )ϕ − ' d d f

M

y

us

.

− The total tensile reinforcement, A

s

= A

s1

+ A

s2

+ A

s3

, and total compres-

sion reinforcement is

'

s

A . A

s

is to be placed at bottom and

'

s

A is to be

placed at top.

Minimum Tensile Reinforcement

The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an Or-

dinary moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two following

limits:

A

s

≥ max

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

d b

f

d b

f

f

w

y

w

y

c

200

and

3

'

or (UBC 1910.5.1)

A

s

≥

3

4

A

s(required)

(UBC 1910.5.3)

Special Consideration for Seismic Design

For Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design), the beam de-

sign satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table 1 for compre-

hensive listing):

The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both the top

and bottom. Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less

than A

s(min)

(UBC 1921.3.2.1).

A

s(min)

≥ max

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

d b

f

d b

f

f

w

y

w

y

c

200

and

3

'

or (UBC 1910.5.1, 1921.3.2.1)

A

s(min)

≥

3

4

A

s(required)

. (UBC 1910.5.3, 1921.3.2.1)

The beam flexural steel is limited to a maximum given by

A

s

≤ 0.25 b

w

d. (UBC 1921.3.2.1)

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 - 9

Table 1 Design Criteria Table

Type of

Check/

Design

Ordinary Moment

Resisting Frames

(Seismic Zones 0&1)

Intermediate Moment

Resisting Frames

(Seismic Zone 2)

Special Moment

Resisting Frames

(Seismic Zones 3 & 4)

Column

Check

(interaction)

NLD

a

Combinations NLD

a

Combinations NLD

a

Combinations

Column

Design

(interaction)

NLD

a

Combinations

1% < ρ < 8%

NLD

a

Combinations

1% < ρ < 8%

NLD

a

Combinations

α = 1.0

1% < ρ < 6%

Column

Shears

NLD

a

Combinations

Modified NLD

a

Combinations

(earthquake loads doubled)

Column Capacity

ϕ = 1.0 and α = 1.0

NLD

a

Combinations and

Column shear capacity

ϕ = 1.0 and α = 1.25

Beam

Design

Flexure

NLD

a

Combinations NLD

a

Combinations

NLD

a

Combinations

ρ ≤ 0.025

ρ ≥

y y

c

f f

f

200

,

3

'

≥ ρ

Beam Min.

Moment

Override

Check

No Requirement

− +

≥

uEND uEND

M M

3

1

¦ ¦

END u u uSPAN

M M M

− + +

≥ , max

5

1

¦ ¦

END u u uSPAN

M M M

− + −

≥ , max

5

1

− +

≥

uEND uEND

M M

2

1

¦ ¦

END u u uSPAN

M M M

− + +

≥ , max

4

1

¦ ¦

END u u uSPAN

M M M

− − −

≥ , max

4

1

Beam

Design

Shear

NLD

a

Combinations

Modified NLD

a

Combinations

(earthquake loads doubled)

Beam Capacity Shear (Vp)

with α = 1.0 and ϕ = 1.0

plus VD+L

NLD

a

Combinations

Beam Capacity Shear (Vp)

with α = 1.25 and ϕ = 1.0

plus VD+L

Vc = 0

Joint

Design

No Requirement No Requirement Checked for shear

Beam/

Column

Capacity

Ratio

No Requirement No Requirement Reported in output file

NLD

a

= Number of specified loading

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 11 - 10 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement

At any end (support) of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity

(i.e., associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than 1/2 of the

beam negative moment capacity (i.e., associated with the top steel) at

that end (UBC 1921.3.2.2).

Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity

at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the

maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam

end (support) stations (UBC 1921.3.2.2).

For Intermediate moment resisting concrete frames (i.e., seismic design), the

beam design would satisfy the following conditions:

At any support of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity would

not be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end

(UBC 1921.8.4.1).

Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity

at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the

maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam

end (support) stations (UBC 1921.8.4.1).

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement

The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at a user-

defined number of stations along the beam span. The following steps are in-

volved in designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a par-

ticular load combination at a particular station resulting from the beam major

shear:

Determine the factored shear force, V

u

.

Determine the shear force, V

c

, that can be resisted by the concrete.

Determine the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.

For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (Ductile frames), the

shear design of the beams is also based on the probable and nominal moment

capacities of the members, respectively, in addition to the factored load de-

sign.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 11 - 11

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

this process.

Determine Shear Force and Moment

In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment

resisting concrete frame, the shear forces and moments for a particular

load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring

the associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding load

combination factors.

In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames (i.e.,

seismic design), the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the

capacity-shear associated with the probable moment capacities at the

ends and the factored gravity load. This check is performed in addition to

the design check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The ca-

pacity-shear force, V

p

, is calculated from the probable moment capacities

of each end of the beam and the gravity shear forces. The procedure for

calculating the design shear force in a beam from probable moment ca-

pacity is the same as that described for a column in section “Design Col-

umn Shear Reinforcement” in Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical

Note 10 Column Design. See also Table 1 for details.

The design shear force V

u

is then given by (UBC 1921.3.4.1)

V

u

= V

p

+ V

D+L

(UBC 1921.3.4.1)

where V

p

is the capacity shear force obtained by applying the calculated

probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting

in opposite directions. Therefore, V

p

is the maximum of

1

P

V and

2

P

V ,

where

1

P

V =

L

M M

J I

+ −

+

, and

2

P

V =

L

M M

J I

− +

+

, where

−

I

M = Moment capacity at end I, with top steel in tension, using a

steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 11 - 12 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement

+

J

M = Moment capacity at end J, with bottom steel in tension, using a

steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),

+

I

M = Moment capacity at end I, with bottom steel in tension, using a

steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),

−

J

M = Moment capacity at end J, with top steel in tension, using a

steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0), and

L = Clear span of beam.

For Special moment resisting frames, α is taken as 1.25 (UBC 1921.0).

V

D+L

is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of

gravity loads.

For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the shear capacity of the

beam is also checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal moment

capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads, in addition to the

check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design shear

force in beams is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal

moment capacity and factored shear force. The procedure for calculating

nominal (ϕ = 1.0) moment capacity is the same as that for computing the

probable moment capacity for Special moment resisting frames, except

that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25 (UBC 1921.0, 1921.8.3). The

factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors, except the

earthquake load factors are doubled (UBC 1921.8.3). The computation of

the design shear force in a beam of an Intermediate moment resisting

frame is also the same as that for columns, which is described in Con-

crete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 10 Column Design. Also see

Table 1 for details.

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity

The allowable concrete shear capacity is given by

V

c

= 2

'

c

f b

w

d. (UBC 1911.3.1.1)

For Special moment resisting frame concrete design, V

c

is set to zero if both

the factored axial compressive force, including the earthquake effect P

u

, is

less than

'

c

f A

g

/20 and the shear force contribution from earthquake V

E

is

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 11 - 13

more than half of the total maximum shear force over the length of the mem-

ber V

u

(i.e., V

E

≥ 0.5V

u

) (UBC 1921.3.4.2).

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement

Given V

u

and V

c

, the required shear reinforcement in area/unit length is cal-

culated as

A

v

=

d f

s V V

ys

c u

) / ( − ϕ

. (UBC 1911.5.6.1, 1911.5.6.2)

The shear force resisted by steel is limited by

(V

u

/ϕ - V

c

) ≤ 8

'

c

f bd. (UBC 1911.5.6.8)

Otherwise, redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here ϕ, the

strength reduction factor, is 0.85 for nonseismic design or for seismic design

in Seismic Zones 0, 1, and 2 (UBC 1909.3.2.3) and is 0.60 for seismic design

in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 1909.3.4.1). The maximum of all the calcu-

lated A

v

values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with

the controlling shear force and associated load combination number.

The beam shear reinforcement requirements displayed by the program are

based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup require-

ments to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated

independently of the program by the user.

Overview Technical Note 12 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 12

Joint Design

This Technical Note explains how the program performs a rational analysis of

the beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are gener-

ated in a joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength.

Overview

To ensure that the beam-column joint of special moment resisting frames

possesses adequate shear strength, the program performs a rational analysis

of the beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are gener-

ated in the joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength.

Only joints having a column below the joint are designed. The mate-

rial properties of the joint are assumed to be the same as those of the

column below the joint.

The joint analysis is completed in the major and the minor directions of the

column. The joint design procedure involves the following steps:

• Determine the panel zone design shear force,V

u

h

• Determine the effective area of the joint

• Check panel zone shear stress

The algorithms associated with these three steps are described in detail in the

following three sections.

Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force

Figure 1 illustrates the free body stress condition of a typical beam-column

intersection for a column direction, major or minor.

Joint Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 12 - 2 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force

Figure1 Beam-Column Joint Analysis

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Joint Design

Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Technical Note 12 - 3

The force V

u

h

is the horizontal panel zone shear force that is to be calculated.

The forces that act on the joint are P

u

, V

u

, M

u

L

and M

u

R

. The forces P

u

and V

u

are axial force and shear force, respectively, from the column framing into the

top of the joint. The moments M

u

L

and M

u

R

are obtained from the beams

framing into the joint. The program calculates the joint shear force V

u

h

by re-

solving the moments into C and T forces. Noting that T

L

= C

L

and T

R

= C

R

,

V

u

h

= T

L

+ T

R

- V

u

The location of C or T forces is determined by the direction of the moment.

The magnitude of C or T forces is conservatively determined using basic prin-

ciples of ultimate strength theory, ignoring compression reinforcement as fol-

lows. The program first calculates the maximum compression, C

max

, and the

maximum moment, M

max

, that can be carried by the beam.

bd f C

c

'

max

85 . 0

2

max max

d

C M

Then the program conservatively determines C and T forces as follows:

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

− −

max

max

) (

1 1

M

M abs

C T C

The program resolves the moments and the C and T forces from beams that

frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor

directions of the column along the direction that is being investigated, thereby

contributing force components to the analysis. Also, the program calculates

the C and T for the positive and negative moments, considering the fact that

the concrete cover may be different for the direction of moment.

In the design of special moment resisting concrete frames, the evaluation of

the design shear force is based on the moment capacities (with reinforcing

steel overstrength factor, α, and no ϕ factors) of the beams framing into the

joint (UBC 1921.5.1.1). The C and T forces are based on these moment ca-

pacities. The program calculates the column shear force V

u

from the beam

moment capacities, as follows:

Joint Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 12 - 4 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force

H

M M

V

R

u

L

u

u

+

**See Figure 2. It should be noted that the points of inflection shown on Figure
**

2 are taken as midway between actual lateral support points for the columns.

If there is no column at the top of the joint, the shear force from the top of

the column is taken as zero.

Figure 2 Column Shear Force V

u

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Joint Design

Determine the Effective Area of Joint Technical Note 12 - 5

The effects of load reversals, as illustrated in Case 1 and Case 2 of Figure 1,

are investigated and the design is based on the maximum of the joint shears

obtained from the two cases.

Determine the Effective Area of Joint

The joint area that resists the shear forces is assumed always to be rectan-

gular in plan view. The dimensions of the rectangle correspond to the major

and minor dimensions of the column below the joint, except if the beam

framing into the joint is very narrow. The effective width of the joint area to

be used in the calculation is limited to the width of the beam plus the depth of

the column. The area of the joint is assumed not to exceed the area of the

column below. The joint area for joint shear along the major and minor direc-

tions is calculated separately (ACI R21.5.3).

It should be noted that if the beam frames into the joint eccentrically, the

above assumptions may be unconservative and the user should investigate

the acceptability of the particular joint.

Check Panel Zone Shear Stress

The panel zone shear stress is evaluated by dividing the shear force V

u

h

by

the effective area of the joint and comparing it with the following design shear

strengths (UBC 1921.5.3):

20ϕ

c

f '

for joints confined on all four sides

v = 15ϕ

c

f '

for joints confined on three faces or on two

opposite faces

¦

12ϕ

c

f '

for all other joints

where ϕ = 0.85 (by default). (UBC 1909.3.2.3,1909.3.4.1)

A beam that frames into a face of a column at the joint is considered in this

program to provide confinement to the joint if at least three-quarters of the

face of the joint is covered by the framing member (UBC 1921.5.3.1).

Joint Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 12 - 6 Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios

For light-weight aggregate concrete, the design shear strength of the joint is

reduced in the program to at least three-quarters of that of the normal weight

concrete by replacing the

'

c

f with

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦ '

,

4 / 3 , ' min

c c factor cs

f f f (UBC 1921.5.3.2)

For joint design, the program reports the joint shear, the joint shear stress,

the allowable joint shear stress and a capacity ratio.

Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios

At a particular joint for a particular column direction, major or minor, the pro-

gram will calculate the ratio of the sum of the beam moment capacities to the

sum of the column moment capacities. For Special Moment-Resisting Frames,

the following UBC provision needs to be satisfied (UBC 1921.4.2.2).

∑M

e

≥

5

6

∑M

g

(UBC 1921.4.2.2)

The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength factor, α, and

including ϕ factors. The beam capacities are calculated for reversed situations

(Cases 1 and 2) as illustrated in Figure 1 and the maximum summation ob-

tained is used.

The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is

not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along

the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are

added to the summation.

The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column

below the joint. For each load combination, the axial force, P

u

, in each of the

columns is calculated from the program analysis load combinations. For each

load combination, the moment capacity of each column under the influence of

the corresponding axial load P

u

is then determined separately for the major

and minor directions of the column, using the uniaxial column interaction dia-

gram, see Figure 3. The moment capacities of the two columns are added to

give the capacity summation for the corresponding load combination. The

maximum capacity summations obtained from all of the load combinations is

used for the beam/column capacity ratio.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Joint Design

Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Technical Note 12 - 7

The beam/column flexural capacity ratios are only reported for Special Mo-

ment-Resisting Frames involving seismic design load combinations. If this ra-

tio is greater than 5/6, a warning message is printed in the output file.

Figure 3 Moment Capacity M

u

at a Given Axial Load P

u

Input Data Technical Note 13 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 13

Input Data

This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design input data for

UBC97. The input can be printed to a printer or to a text file when you click

the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. A

printout of the input data provides the user with the opportunity to carefully

review the parameters that have been input into the program and upon which

program design is based. Further information about using the Print Design

Tables form is presented at the end of this Technical Note.

Input Data

The program provides the printout of the input data in a series of tables. The

column headings for input data and a description of what is included in the

columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Load Combination Multipliers

Combo Design load combination. See Technical Note 8.

Type

Load type: dead, live, superimposed dead, earthquake, wind,

snow, reduced live load, other.

Case Name of load case.

Factor Load combination scale factor.

Code Preferences

Phi_bending Bending strength reduction factor.

Phi_tension Tensile strength reduction factor.

Phi_compression

(Tied)

Compressive strength reduction factor for tied columns.

Phi_compression (Spi-

ral)

Compressive strength reduction factor for reinforced columns.

Phi_shear Shear strength reduction factor.

Input Data Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 13 - 2 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Material Property Data

Material Name Concrete, steel, other.

Material Type Isotropic or orthotropic.

Design Type

Modulus of Elasticity

Poisson's Ratio

Thermal Coeff Coefficient of thermal expansion.

Shear Modulus

Material Property Mass and Weight

Material Name Concrete, steel, other.

Mass Per Unit Vol Used to calculate self-mass of structure.

Weight Per Unit Vol Used to calculate self-weight of structure.

Material Design Data for Concrete Materials

Material Name Concrete, steel, other.

Lightweight Concrete

Concrete FC Concrete compressive strength.

Rebar FY Bending reinforcing steel yield strength.

Rebar FYS Shear reinforcing steel yield strength.

Lightwt Reduc Fact Shear strength reduction factor for light weight concrete; default

= 1.0.

Concrete Column Property Data

Section Label Label applied to section.

Mat Label Material label.

Column Depth

Column Width

Rebar Pattern Layout of main flexural reinforcing steel.

Concrete Cover Minimum clear concrete cover.

Bar Area Area of individual reinforcing bar to be used.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Input Data

Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 13 - 3

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Concrete Column Design Element Information

Story ID Column assigned to story level at top of column.

Column Line Grid line.

Section ID Name of section assigned to column.

Framing Type Lateral or gravity.

RLLF Factor

L_Ratio Major Unbraced length about major axis.

L_Ratio Minor Unbraced length about minor axis.

K Major Effective length factor; default = 1.0.

K Minor Effective length factor; default = 1.0.

Concrete Beam Design Element Information

Story ID Story level at which beam occurs.

Bay ID Grid lines locating beam.

Section ID Section number assigned to beam.

Framing type Lateral or gravity.

RLLF Factor

L_Ratio Major Unbraced length about major axis.

L_Ratio Minor Unbraced length about minor axis.

Using the Print Design Tables Form

To print steel frame design input data directly to a printer, use the File menu

> Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the check

box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the OK button to send the print to

your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the

print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button

to change printers, if necessary.

To print steel frame design input data to a file, click the Print to File check box

on the Print Design Tables form. Click the Filename>> button to change the

Input Data Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 13 - 4 Using the Print Design Tables Form

path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format

(e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Ta-

bles form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request.

Note:

The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out-

put that is printed to a text file.

The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and

filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print

Design Tables form. Data will be added to this file. Or use the Filename>>

button to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing Tables cau-

tion box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.

If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print

Tables > Concrete Frame Design command, the Selection Only check box

will be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.

Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output Technical Note 14 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 14

Output Details

This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design output for UBC97

that can be printed to a printer or to a text file. The design output is printed

when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design

command and select Output Summary of the Print Design Tables dialog box.

Further information about using the Print Design Tables dialog box is pre-

sented at the end of this Technical Note.

The program provides the output data in a series of tables. The column

headings for output data and a description of what is included in the columns

of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.

Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Biaxial P-M Interaction and Shear Design of Column-Type Elements

Story ID Column assigned to story level at top of column.

Column Line Grid lines.

Section ID Name of section assigned to column.

Station ID

Required Reinforcing

Longitudinal Area of longitudinal reinforcing required.

Combo Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.

Shear22 Shear reinforcing required.

Combo Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.

Shear33 Shear reinforcing required.

Output Details Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 14 - 2 Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output

Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Combo Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.

Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Beam to Column Capacity Ratios and Joint Shear Capacity Check

Story ID Story level at which joint occurs.

Column Line Grid line.

Section ID Assigned section name.

Beam-Column Capacity Ratios

Major Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity.

Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment ca-

pacity to column capacity is based.

Minor Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity.

Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment ca-

pacity to column capacity is based.

Joint Shear Capacity Ratios

Major Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity.

Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus

allowed capacity is based.

Minor Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity.

Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus

allowed capacity is based.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Output Details

Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 14 - 3

Using the Print Design Tables Form

To print concrete frame design input data directly to a printer, use the File

menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the

check box on the Print Design Tables dialog box. Click the OK button to send

the print to your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button

to cancel the print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the

Setup>> button to change printers, if necessary.

To print concrete frame design input data to a file, click the Print to File check

box on the Print Design Tables dialog box. Click the Filename>> button to

change the path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the de-

sired format (e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the OK buttons on the Open File for

Printing Tables dialog box and the Print Design Tables dialog box to complete

the request.

Note:

The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out-

put that is printed to a text file.

The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and

filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print

Design Tables dialog box. Data will be added to this file. Or use the File-

name>> button to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing

Tables caution box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.

If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print

Tables > Concrete Frame Design command, the Selection Only check box

will be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.

Introduction to the ACI318-99 Series of Technical Notes Technical Note 15 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99

Technical Note 15

General and Notation

Introduction to the ACI318-99 Series of Technical Notes

The ACI-318-99 Concrete Frame Design series of Technical Notes describes in

detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by

this program when the user selects the ACI-318-99 Design Code (ACI 1999).

The various notations used in this series are listed herein.

The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. The program

provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements

for the design of most building type structures. See Concrete Frame Design

ACI-318-99 Technical Note 18 Design Load Combination for more information.

The program provides options to design or check Earthquake resisting

frames; Ordinary, Earthquake resisting frames; Intermediate (moderate

seismic risk areas), and Earthquake resisting frames; Special (high seismic

risk areas) moment resisting frames as required for seismic design provisions.

The details of the design criteria used for the different framing systems are

described in Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 19 Strength

Reduction Factors, Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 20 Col-

umn Design, Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 21 Beam De-

sign, and Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 22 Joint Design.

The program uses preferences and overwrites, which are described in Con-

crete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 16 Preferences and Concrete

Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 17 Overwrites. It also provides in-

put and output data summaries, which are described in Concrete Frame De-

sign ACI-318-99 Technical Note 23 Input Data and Concrete Frame Design

ACI-318-99 Technical Note 24 Output Details.

English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. But the code

is based on Inch-Pound-Second units. For simplicity, all equations and de-

scriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Inch-Pound-Second units

unless otherwise noted.

General and Notation Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 15 - 2 Notation

Notation

A

cv

Area of concrete used to determine shear stress, sq-in

A

g

Gross area of concrete, sq-in

A

s

Area of tension reinforcement, sq-in

'

s

A

Area of compression reinforcement, sq-in

A

s(required)

Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-in

A

st

Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, sq-in

A

v

Area of shear reinforcement, sq-in

C

m

Coefficient, dependent upon column curvature, used to calculate

moment magnification factor

E

c

Modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi

E

s

Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 29,000,000

psi (ACI 8.5.2)

I

g

Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis,

neglecting reinforcement, in

4

I

se

Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of

member cross section, in

4

L Clear unsupported length, in

M

1

Smaller factored end moment in a column, lb-in

M

2

Larger factored end moment in a column, lb-in

M

c

Factored moment to be used in design, lb-in

M

ns

Nonsway component of factored end moment, lb-in

M

s

Sway component of factored end moment, lb-in

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 General and Notation

Notation Technical Note 15 - 3

M

u

Factored moment at section, lb-in

M

ux

Factored moment at section about X-axis, lb-in

M

uy

Factored moment at section about Y-axis, lb-in

P

b

Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions, lb

P

c

Critical buckling strength of column, lb

P

max

Maximum axial load strength allowed, lb

P

0

Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity, lb

P

u

Factored axial load at section, lb

V

c

Shear resisted by concrete, lb

V

E

Shear force caused by earthquake loads, lb

V

D+L

Shear force from span loading, lb

V

u

Factored shear force at a section, lb

V

p

Shear force computed from probable moment capacity, lb

a Depth of compression block, in

a

b

Depth of compression block at balanced condition, in

b Width of member, in

b

f

Effective width of flange (T-Beam section), in

b

w

Width of web (T-Beam section), in

c Depth to neutral axis, in

c

b

Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, in

d Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, in

d' Concrete cover to center of reinforcing, in

General and Notation Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 15 - 4 Notation

d

s

Thickness of slab (T-Beam section), in

'

c

f

Specified compressive strength of concrete, psi

f

y

Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, psi

f

y

≤ 80,000 psi (ACI 9.4)

f

ys

Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, psi

h Dimension of column, in

k Effective length factor

r Radius of gyration of column section, in

α Reinforcing steel overstrength factor

β

1

Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to

maximum factored axial total load

β

d

Absolute value of ratio or maximum factored axial dead load to

maximum factored axial total load

δ

s

Moment magnification factor for sway moments

δ

ns

Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments

ε

c

Strain in concrete

ε

s

Strain in reinforcing steel

ϕ Strength reduction factor

General Technical Note 16 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99

Technical Note 16

Preferences

This Technical Note describes the items in the Preferences form.

General

The concrete frame design preferences in this program are basic assignments

that apply to all concrete frame elements. Use the Options menu > Prefer-

ences > Concrete Frame Design command to access the Preferences form

where you can view and revise the concrete frame design preferences.

Default values are provided for all concrete frame design preference items.

Thus, it is not required that you specify or change any of the preferences. You

should, however, at least review the default values for the preference items

to make sure they are acceptable to you.

Using the Preferences Form

To view preferences, select the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete

Frame Design. The Preferences form will display. The preference options

are displayed in a two-column spreadsheet. The left column of the spread-

sheet displays the preference item name. The right column of the spreadsheet

displays the preference item value.

To change a preference item, left click the desired preference item in either

the left or right column of the spreadsheet. This activates a drop-down box or

highlights the current preference value. If the drop-down box appears, select

a new value. If the cell is highlighted, type in the desired value. The prefer-

ence value will update accordingly. You cannot overwrite values in the drop-

down boxes.

When you have finished making changes to the composite beam preferences,

click the OK button to close the form. You must click the OK button for the

changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the Cancel button to exit

Preferences Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Technical Note 16 - 2 Preferences

the form, any changes made to the preferences are ignored and the form is

closed.

Preferences

For purposes of explanation in this Technical Note, the preference items are

presented in Table. The column headings in the table are described as fol-

lows:

Item: The name of the preference item as it appears in the cells at the

left side of the Preferences form.

Possible Values: The possible values that the associated preference item

can have.

Default Value: The built-in default value that the program assumes for

the associated preference item.

Description: A description of the associated preference item.

Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value Description

Design Code Any code in

the program

ACI 318-99 Design code used for design of

concrete frame elements.

Phi Bending

Tension

>0 0.9 Unitless strength reduction factor per

ACI 9.3.

Phi Compres-

sion Tied

>0 0.7 Unitless strength reduction factor per

ACI 9.3.

Phi Compres-

sion Spiral

>0 0.75 Unitless strength reduction factor per

ACI 9.3.

Phi Shear >0 0.85 Unitless strength reduction factor per

ACI 9.3.

Number Inter-

action Curves

≥4.0 24 Number of equally spaced interaction

curves used to create a full 360-degree

interaction surface (this item should be

a multiple of four). We recommend that

you use 24 for this item.

Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Preferences

Preferences Technical Note 16 - 3

Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value Description

Number Inter-

action Points

Any odd value

≥4.0

11 Number of points used for defining a

single curve in a concrete frame

interaction surface (this item should be

odd).

Time History

Design

Envelopes or

Step-by-Step

Envelopes Toggle for design load combinations

that include a time history designed for

the envelope of the time history, or

designed step-by-step for the entire

time history. If a single design load

combination has more than one time

history case in it, that design load

combination is designed for the

envelopes of the time histories,

regardless of what is specified here.

Overwrites Technical Note 17 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99

Technical Note 17

Overwrites

General

The concrete frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only

to those elements to which they are assigned. This Technical Note describes

concrete frame design overwrites for ACI318-99. To access the overwrites,

select an element and click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design >

View/Revise Overwrites command.

Default values are provided for all overwrite items. Thus, you do not need to

specify or change any of the overwrites. However, at least review the default

values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. When

changes are made to overwrite items, the program applies the changes only

to the elements to which they are specifically assigned; that is, to the ele-

ments that are selected when the overwrites are changed.

Overwrites

For explanation purposes in this Technical Note, the overwrites are presented

in Table 1. The column headings in the table are described as follows.

Item: The name of the overwrite item as it appears in the program. To

save space in the formes, these names are generally short.

Possible Values: The possible values that the associated overwrite item

can have.

Default Value: The default value that the program assumes for the asso-

ciated overwrite item.

Description: A description of the associated overwrite item.

An explanation of how to change an overwrite is provided at the end of this

Technical Note.

Overwrites Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Technical Note 17 - 2 Overwrites

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value Description

Element

Section

Element

Type

Sway Special,

Sway Interme-

diate,

Sway

Ordinary

NonSway

Sway Special Frame type per moment frame defini-

tion given in ACI 21.1.

Live Load

Reduction

Factor

>0

≤1.0

1. Used to reduce the live load contribu-

tion to the factored loading.

Horizontal

Earthquake

Factor

>0

≤1.0

1

Unbraced

Length Ratio

(Major)

>0

≤1.0

1.0

Unbraced

Length Ratio

(Minor)

>0

≤1.0

1.0

Effective

Length Factor

(K Major)

>0

≤1.0

1 See ACI 10.12, 10.13 and Figure

R10.12.1.

Effective

Length Factor

(K Minor)

>0

≤1.0

1 See ACI 10.12, 10.13 and Figure

R10.12.1.

Moment

Coefficient

(Cm Major)

>0

≤1.0

1 Factor relating actual moment diagram

to an equivalent uniform moment dia-

gram. See ACI 10.12.3.

Moment

Coefficient

(Cm Minor)

>0

≤1.0

1 Factor relating actual moment diagram

to an equivalent uniform moment dia-

gram. See ACI 10.12.3.

NonSway

Moment Factor

(Dns Major)

>0

≤1.0

1 See ACI 10.12.

Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Overwrites

Overwrites Technical Note 17 - 3

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value Description

NonSway

Moment Factor

(Dns Minor)

1 See ACI 10.13.

Sway Moment

Factor

(Ds Major)

1 See ACI 10.13.

Sway Moment

Factor

(Ds Minor)

1 See ACI 10.13.

Making Changes in the Overwrites Form

To access the concrete frame overwrites, select an element and click the De-

sign menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites com-

mand.

The overwrites are displayed in the form with a column of check boxes and a

two-column spreadsheet. The left column of the spreadsheet contains the

name of the overwrite item. The right column of the spreadsheet contains the

overwrites values.

Initially, the check boxes in the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form are

all unchecked and all of the cells in the spreadsheet have a gray background

to indicate that they are inactive and the items in the cells cannot be

changed. The names of the overwrite items are displayed in the first column

of the spreadsheet. The values of the overwrite items are visible in the second

column of the spreadsheet if only one element was selected before the over-

writes form was accessed. If multiple elements were selected, no values show

for the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet.

After selecting one or multiple elements, check the box to the left of an over-

write item to change it. Then left click in either column of the spreadsheet to

activate a drop-down box or highlight the contents in the cell in the right col-

umn of the spreadsheet. If the drop-down box appears, select a value from

Overwrites Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Technical Note 17 - 4 Overwrites

the box. If the cell contents is highlighted, type in the desired value. The

overwrite will reflect the change. You cannot change the values of the drop-

down boxes.

When changes to the overwrites have been completed, click the OK button to

close the form. The program then changes all of the overwrite items whose

associated check boxes are checked for the selected members. You must click

the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the

Cancel button to exit the form, any changes made to the overwrites are ig-

nored and the form is closed.

Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default Values

Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Reset All Overwrites

command to reset all of the steel frame overwrites. All current design results

will be deleted when this command is executed.

Important note about resetting overwrites: The program defaults for the

overwrite items are built into the program. The concrete frame overwrite val-

ues that were in a .edb file that you used to initialize your model may be dif-

ferent from the built-in program default values. When you reset overwrites,

the program resets the overwrite values to its built-in values, not to the val-

ues that were in the .edb file used to initialize the model.

Design Load Combinations Technical Note 18 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99

Technical Note 18

Design Load Combinations

The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed

load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. For the ACI 318-99

code, if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only, the

stress check may need only one load combination, namely 1.4 DL + 1.7 LL

(ACI 9.2.1). However, in addition to the dead and live loads, if the structure is

subjected to wind (WL) and earthquake (EL) loads and considering that wind

and earthquake forces are reversible, the following load combinations should

be considered (ACI 9.2).

1.4 DL

1.4 DL + 1.7 LL (ACI 9.2.1)

0.9 DL ± 1.3 WL

0.75 (1.4 DL + 1.7 LL ± 1.7 WL) (ACI 9.2.2)

0.9 DL ± 1.3 * 1.1 EL

0.75 (1.4 DL + 1.7 LL ± 1.7 * 1.1 EL) (ACI 9.2.3)

These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever

the ACI 318-99 code is used. The user is warned that the above load combi-

nations involving seismic loads consider service-level seismic forces. Different

load factors may apply with strength-level seismic forces (ACI R9.2.3).

Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live

load condition on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of

the live load to the factored loading. See Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99

Technical Note 17 Overwrites for more information.

Strength Reduction Factors Technical Note 19 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99

Technical Note 19

Strength Reduction Factors

The strength reduction factors, ϕ, are applied on the nominal strength to ob-

tain the design strength provided by a member. The ϕ factors for flexure, ax-

ial force, shear, and torsion are as follows:

ϕ = 0.90 for flexure (ACI 9.3.2.1)

ϕ = 0.90 for axial tension (ACI 9.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.90 for axial tension and flexure (ACI 9.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.75 for axial compression, and axial compression

and flexure (spirally reinforced column) (ACI 9.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.70 for axial compression, and axial compression

and flexure (tied column) (ACI 9.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.85 for shear and torsion (ACI 9.3.2.3)

Overview Technical Note 20 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99

Technical Note 20

Column Design

This Technical Note describes how the program checks column capacity or de-

signs reinforced concrete columns when the ACI-318-99 code is selected.

Overview

The program can be used to check column capacity or to design columns. If

you define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete

column section, the program will check the column capacity. Alternatively, the

program can calculate the amount of reinforcing required to design the col-

umn. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the struc-

ture involves the following steps:

Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the dif-

ferent concrete section types of the model. A typical biaxial interaction

surface is shown in Figure 1. When the steel is undefined, the program

generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforce-

ment 1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Intermediate moment resisting

frames (ACI 10.9.1) and 1 to 6 percent for Special moment resisting

frames (ACI 21.4.3.1).

Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the fac-

tored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from

each loading combination at each station of the column. The target capac-

ity ratio is taken as one when calculating the required reinforcing area.

Design the column shear reinforcement.

The following four sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

this process.

Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 20 - 2 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces

Figure 1 A Typical Column Interaction Surface

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces

The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series

of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction

failure surface. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending, the for-

mulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations. A typical

interaction diagram is shown in Figure 1.

The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear

strain in three dimensions on the section of the column. See Figure 2. The

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces Technical Note 20 - 3

linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain, ε

c

, at the extremity

of the section, to 0.003 (ACI 10.2.3).

The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate

strength design (ACI 10.3), and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular,

square, or circular column section.

The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel

modulus of elasticity, ε

s

E

s

, and is limited to the yield stress of the steel, f

y

(ACI 10.2.4). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be

placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does

not assume any further simplifications with respect to distributing the area of

steel over the cross section of the column, such as an equivalent steel tube or

cylinder. See Figure 3.

The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a

stress value of 0.85

'

c

f (ACI 10.2.7.1). See Figure 3. The interaction algorithm

provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the

reinforcement in the compression zone.

The effects of the strength reduction factor, ϕ, are included in the generation

of the interaction surfaces. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to

ϕP

n(max)

, where

ϕP

n(max)

= 0.85ϕ[0.85

'

c

f (A

g

-A

st

)+f

y

A

st

] spiral column, (ACI 10.3.5.1)

ϕP

n(max)

= 0.80ϕ[0.85

'

c

f (A

g

-A

st

)+f

y

A

st

] tied column, (ACI 10.3.5.2)

ϕ = 0.70 for tied columns, and (ACI 9.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.75 for spirally reinforced columns. (ACI 9.3.2.2)

The value of ϕ used in the interaction diagram varies from ϕ(compression) to

ϕ(flexure) based on the axial load. For low values of axial load, ϕ is increased

linearly from ϕ(compression) to ϕ(flexure) as the ϕP

n

decreases from the

smaller of ϕP

b

or 0.1

'

c

f A

g

to zero, where ϕP

b

is the axial force at the balanced

condition. The ϕ factor used in calculating ϕP

n

and ϕP

b

is the ϕ(compression).

In cases involving axial tension, ϕ is always ϕ(flexure), which is 0.9 by default

(ACI 9.3.2.2).

Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 20 - 4 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces

Figure 2 Idealized Strain Distribution for Generation of Interaction Source

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 20 - 5

Figure 3 Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio

The column capacity ratio is calculated for each load combination at each out-

put station of each column. The following steps are involved in calculating the

capacity ratio of a particular column for a particular load combination at a

particular location:

Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases

and the specified load combination factors to give P

u

, M

ux

, and M

uy

.

Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments.

Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored moments. Deter-

mine whether the point, defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial

moment set, lies within the interaction volume.

The factored moments and corresponding magnification factors depend on the

identification of the individual column as either “sway” or “non-sway.”

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

this process.

Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 20 - 6 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio

Determine Factored Moments and Forces

The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying

the corresponding load factors to all the load cases, giving P

u

, M

ux

, and M

uy

.

The factored moments are further increased for non-sway columns, if re-

quired, to obtain minimum eccentricities of (0.6+0.03h) inches, where h is

the dimension of the column in the corresponding direction (ACI 10.12.3.2).

Determine Moment Magnification Factors

The moment magnification factors are calculated separately for sway (overall

stability effect), δ

s

and for non-sway (individual column stability effect), δ

ns

.

Also, the moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are

in general different (ACI 10.0, R10.13).

The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the

sway (M

s

) and the non-sway (M

ns

) components. The non-sway components,

which are identified by “ns” subscripts, are predominantly caused by gravity

load. The sway components are identified by the “s” subscripts. The sway

moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads, and are related to the

cause of side sway.

For individual columns or column-members in a floor, the magnified moments

about two axes at any station of a column can be obtained as

M = M

ns

+ δ

s

M

s

. (ACI 10.13.3)

The factor δ

s

is the moment magnification factor for moments causing side

sway. The moment magnification factors for sway moments, δ

s

, is taken as 1

because the component moments M

s

and M

ns

are obtained from a “second or-

der elastic (P-delta) analysis” (ACI R10.10, 10.10.1, R10.13, 10.13.4.1).

The program assumes that it performs a P-delta analysis and, therefore, mo-

ment magnification factor δ

s

for moments causing side-sway is taken as unity

(ACI 10.10.2). For the P-delta analysis, the load should correspond to a load

combination of 1.4 dead load + 1.7 live load (ACI 10.13.6). See also White

and Hajjar (1991). The user should use reduction factors for the moment of

inertias in the program as specified in ACI 10.11. The moment of inertia re-

duction for sustained lateral load involves a factor β

d

(ACI 10.11). This β

d

for

sway frame in second-order analysis is different from the one that is defined

later for non-sway moment magnification (ACI 10.0, R10.12.3, R10.13.4.1).

The default moment of inertia factor in this program is 1.

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 20 - 7

The computed moments are further amplified for individual column stability

effect (ACI 10.12.3, 10.13.5) by the nonsway moment magnification factor,

δ

ns

, as follows:

M

c

= δ

ns

M, where (ACI 10.12.3)

M

c

is the factored moment to be used in design.

The non-sway moment magnification factor, δ

ns

, associated with the major or

minor direction of the column is given by (ACI 10.12.3)

δ

ns

=

c

u

m

P

P

C

75 . 0

1 −

≤ 1.0, where (ACI 10.12.3)

C

m

= 0.6 +0.4

b

a

M

M

≥ 0.4, (ACI 10.12.3.1)

M

a

and M

b

are the moments at the ends of the column, and M

b

is

numerically larger than M

a

. M

a

/ M

b

is positive for single curvature

bending and negative for double curvature bending. The above ex-

pression of C

m

is valid if there is no transverse load applied between

the supports. If transverse load is present on the span, or the length

is overwritten, C

m

=1. The user can overwrite C

m

on an element-by-

element basis.

P

c

=

2

2

) (

u

kl

EI π

, where (ACI 10.12.3)

k is conservatively taken as 1; however, the program allows the

user to override this value (ACI 10.12.1).

l

u

is the unsupported length of the column for the direction of

bending considered. The two unsupported lengths are l

22

and l

33

,

corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of

the element, respectively. See Figure 4. These are the lengths

Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 20 - 8 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio

Figure 4 Axes of Bending and Unsupported Length

between the support points of the element in the corresponding

directions.

EI is associated with a particular column direction:

EI =

d

g c

I E

β + 1

4 . 0

, where (ACI 10.12.3)

maximum factored axial sustained (dead) load

β

d

=

maximum factored axial total load

(ACI 10.0,R10.12.3)

The magnification factor, δ

ns

, must be a positive number and greater than

one. Therefore, P

u

must be less than 0.75P

c

. If P

u

is found to be greater than

or equal to 0.75P

c

, a failure condition is declared.

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 20 - 9

The above calculations are performed for major and minor directions sepa-

rately. That means that δ

s

, δ

ns

, C

m

, k, l

u

, EI, and P

c

assume different values for

major and minor directions of bending.

If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member, the

user can explicitly specify values of δ

s

and δ

ns

.

Determine Capacity Ratio

As a measure of the stress condition of the column, a capacity ratio is calcu-

lated. The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the

stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column.

Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity, the

moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain P

u

,

M

ux

, and M

uy

. The point (P

u

, M

ux

, M

uy

) is then placed in the interaction space

shown as point L in Figure 5. If the point lies within the interaction volume,

the column capacity is adequate; however, if the point lies outside the inter-

action volume, the column is overstressed.

This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the lo-

cation of point C. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if ex-

tended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. This point is determined by

three-dimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the fail-

ure surface. See Figure 5. The capacity ratio, CR, is given by the ratio

OC

OL

.

If OL = OC (or CR=1), the point lies on the interaction surface and the

column is stressed to capacity.

If OL < OC (or CR<1), the point lies within the interaction volume and the

column capacity is adequate.

If OL > OC (or CR>1), the point lies outside the interaction volume and

the column is overstressed.

The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is

reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling P

u

,

M

ux

, and M

uy

set and associated load combination number.

Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 20 - 10 Required Reinforcing Area

Figure 5 Geometric Representation of Column Capacity Ratio

Required Reinforcing Area

If the reinforcing area is not defined, the program computes the reinforce-

ment that will give a column capacity ratio of one, calculated as described in

the previous section entitled "Calculate Column Capacity Ratio."

Design Column Shear Reinforcement

The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination in the major

and minor directions of the column. The following steps are involved in de-

signing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular load com-

bination resulting from shear forces in a particular direction:

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design

Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 20 - 11

Determine the factored forces acting on the section, P

u

and V

u

. Note that

P

u

is needed for the calculation of V

c

.

Determine the shear force, V

c

, that can be resisted by concrete alone.

Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.

For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (Ductile frames), the

shear design of the columns is also based on the Probable moment and nomi-

nal moment capacities of the members, respectively, in addition to the fac-

tored moments. Effects of the axial forces on the column moment capacities

are included in the formulation.

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

this process.

Determine Section Forces

In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment

resisting concrete frame, the forces for a particular load combination,

namely, the column axial force, P

u

, and the column shear force, V

u

, in a

particular direction are obtained by factoring the program analysis load

cases with the corresponding load combination factors.

In the shear design of Special moment resisting frames (i.e., seismic

design), the column is checked for capacity shear in addition to the re-

quirement for the Ordinary moment resisting frames. The capacity shear

force in a column, V

p

, in a particular direction is calculated from the prob-

able moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial

force acting on the column.

For each load combination, the factored axial load, P

u

, is calculated. Then,

the positive and negative moment capacities,

+

u

M and

−

u

M , of the column

in a particular direction under the influence of the axial force P

u

is calcu-

lated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction.

The design shear force, V

u

, is then given by (ACI 21.4.5.1)

V

u

= V

p

+ V

D+L

(ACI 21.4.5.1)

where, V

p

is the capacity shear force obtained by applying the calculated

probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting

Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 20 - 12 Design Column Shear Reinforcement

in two opposite directions. Therefore, V

p

is the maximum of

1

P

V and

2

P

V ,

where

1

P

V =

L

M M

J I

+ −

+

, and

2

P

V =

L

M M

J I

− +

+

, where

− +

I I

M M , , = Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the

column using a steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ

factors (ϕ = 1.0),

− +

J J

M M , , = Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the

column using a steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ

factors (ϕ = 1.0), and

L = Clear span of column.

For Special moment resisting frames α is taken as 1.25 (ACI 10.0,

R21.4.5.1). V

D+L

is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distri-

bution of gravity loads. For most of the columns, it is zero.

For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the shear capacity of the

column is also checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal mo-

ment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads, in addition to

the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design

shear force is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal (ϕ =

1.0) moment capacity and modified factored shear force. The procedure

for calculating nominal moment capacity is the same as that for comput-

ing the probable moment capacity for special moment resisting frames,

except that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25 (ACI 21.10.3.a,

R21.10). The modified factored shear forces are based on the specified

load factors, except the earthquake load factors are doubled (ACI

21.10.3.b).

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity

Given the design force set P

u

and V

u

, the shear force carried by the concrete,

V

c

, is calculated as follows:

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design

Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 20 - 13

If the column is subjected to axial compression, i.e., P

u

is positive,

V

c

= 2

+

g

u

c

A

P

f

000 , 2

1

'

A

cv

, where (ACI 11.3.1.2)

'

c

f ≤ 100 psi, and (ACI 11.1.2)

V

c

≤ 3.5

'

c

f

+

g

u

A

P

500

1 A

cv

. (ACI 11.3.2.2)

The term P

u

/ A

g

must have psi units. A

cv

is the effective shear area, which

is shown shaded in Figure 6. For circular columns, A

cv

is taken to be equal

to the gross area of the section (ACI 11.3.3, R11.3.3).

If the column is subjected to axial tension, P

u

is negative

V

c

= 2

'

c

f

+

g

u

A

P

500

1 A

cv

≥ 0 (ACI 11.3.2.3)

For Special moment resisting concrete frame design, V

c

is set to zero

if the factored axial compressive force, P

u

, including the earthquake effect,

is small (P

u

<

'

c

f A

g

/ 20) and if the shear force contribution from earth-

quake, V

E

, is more than half of the total factored maximum shear force

over the length of the member V

u

(V

E

≥ 0.5V

u

) (ACI 21.4.5.2).

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement

Given V

u

and V

c

, the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or

ties within a spacing, s, is given for rectangular and circular columns by

A

v

=

d f

s V V

ys

c u

) / ( − ϕ

, for rectangular columns and (ACI 11.5.6.1, 11.5.6.2)

A

v

=

) 8 . 0 (

) / (

D f

s V V

ys

c u

− ϕ

, for circular columns. (ACI 11.5.6.3, 11.3.3)

V

u

is limited by the following relationship.

(V

u

/ ϕ-V

c

) ≤ 8

'

c

f A

cv

(ACI 11.5.6.9)

Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 20 - 14 Design Column Shear Reinforcement

Figure 6 Shear Stress Area, A

cv

Otherwise, redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here ϕ, the

strength reduction factor, is 0.85 (ACI 9.3.2.3). The maximum of all the cal-

culated A

v

values obtained from each load combination are reported for the

major and minor directions of the column, along with the controlling shear

force and associated load combination label.

The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are

based purely on shear strength consideration. Any minimum stirrup require-

ments to satisfy spacing considerations or transverse reinforcement volumet-

ric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the

user.

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design

Reference Technical Note 20 - 15

Reference

White, D.W. and J.F. Hajjar. 1991. Application of Second-Order Elastic Analy-

sis in LRFD: Research to Practice. Engineering Journal. American In-

stitute of Steel Construction, Inc. Vol. 28. No. 4.

Overview Technical Note 21 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99

Technical Note 21

Beam Design

This Technical Note describes how this program completes beam design when

the ACI 318-99 code is selected. The program calculates and reports the re-

quired areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments,

shears, load combination factors and other criteria described herein.

Overview

In the design of concrete beams, the program calculates and reports the re-

quired areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments,

shears, load combination factors, and other criteria described below. The re-

inforcement requirements are calculated at a user-defined number of

check/design stations along the beam span.

All beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.

Effects resulting from any axial forces, minor direction bending, and

torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independ-

ently by the user.

The beam design procedure involves the following steps:

Design beam flexural reinforcement

Design beam shear reinforcement

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at check/design stations

along the beam span. The following steps are involved in designing the flex-

ural reinforcement for the major moment for a particular beam for a particu-

lar section:

Determine the maximum factored moments

Determine the reinforcing steel

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 21 - 2 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

Determine Factored Moments

In the design of flexural reinforcement of Special, Intermediate, or Ordinary

moment resisting concrete frame beams, the factored moments for each load

combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corre-

sponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load fac-

tors.

The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive

+

u

M and maxi-

mum negative

−

u

M factored moments obtained from all of the load combina-

tions

.

Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases, the beam is al-

ways designed as a rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce

bottom steel. In such cases, the beam may be designed as a Rectangular- or

a T-beam.

Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement

In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the

tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added

when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of

a singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding the compres-

sion reinforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the grade

of concrete.

The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as

shown in Figure 1 (ACI 10.2). It is assumed that the compression carried by

concrete is less than 0.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced

condition (ACI 10.3.3). When the applied moment exceeds the moment ca-

pacity at this designed balanced condition, the area of compression rein-

forcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried

by compression and additional tension reinforcement.

The design procedure used by this program for both rectangular and flanged

sections (L- and T-beams) is summarized below. It is assumed that the de-

sign ultimate axial force does not exceed 0.1

'

c

f A

g

(ACI 10.3.3); hence, all the

beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 21 - 3

Figure 1 Design of Rectangular Beam Section

Design for Rectangular Beam

In designing for a factored negative or positive moment, M

u

(i.e., designing

top or bottom steel), the depth of the compression block is given by a (see

Figure 1), where,

a = d -

b f

M

d

c

u

ϕ

−

1

2

85 . 0

2

, (ACI 10.2.7.1)

where, the value of ϕ is 0.90 (ACI 9.3.2.1) in the above and the following

equations. Also β

1

and c

b

are calculated as follows:

β

1

= 0.85-0.05

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

−

000 , 1

000 , 4

'

c

f

, 0.65 ≤ β

1

≤ 0.85, (ACI 10.2.7.3)

c

b

= d

f E

E

y s c

s c

+ ε

ε

=

y

f + 000 , 87

000 , 87

d. (ACI 10.2.3, 10.2.4)

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 21 - 4 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by

a

max

= 0.75β

1

c

b

. (ACI 10.2.7.1, 10.3.3)

If a ≤ a

max

, the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by

A

s

=

(

,

\

,

(

j

− ϕ

2

a

d f

M

y

u

.

This steel is to be placed at the bottom if M

u

is positive, or at the top if M

u

is negative.

If a > a

max

, compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.3.3) and is cal-

culated as follows:

− The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by

C = 0.85

'

c

f ba

max

, and (ACI 10.2.7.1)

the moment resisted by concrete compression and tensile steel is

M

uc

= C

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

−

2

max

a

d ϕ.

− Therefore the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel

is

M

us

= M

u

- M

uc

.

− So the required compression steel is given by

'

s

A =

ϕ − ) ' (

'

d d f

M

s

us

, where

'

s

f = 0.003E

s

]

]

]

,

¸

, −

c

d c '

. (ACI 10.2.4)

− The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 21 - 5

A

s1

=

ϕ

]

]

]

,

¸

,

−

2

max

a

d f

M

y

uc

, and

the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is given by

A

s2

=

ϕ − ) ' ( d d f

M

y

us

.

− Therefore, the total tensile reinforcement, A

s

= A

s1

+ A

s2

, and total

compression reinforcement is

'

s

A . A

s

is to be placed at bottom and

'

s

A

is to be placed at top if M

u

is positive, and vice versa if M

u

is negative.

Design for T-Beam

In designing for a factored negative moment, M

u

(i.e., designing top steel),

the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above, i.e., no T-Beam

data is to be used. See Figure 2. If M

u

> 0, the depth of the compression

block is given by

a = d -

f c

u

b f

M

d

ϕ

−

'

2

85 . 0

2

.

The maximum allowed depth of compression block is given by

a

max

= 0.75β

1

c

b

. (ACI 10.2.7.1, 10.3.3)

• If a ≤ d

s

, the subsequent calculations for A

s

are exactly the same as previ-

ously defined for the rectangular section design. However, in this case the

width of the compression flange is taken as the width of the beam for

analysis. Compression reinforcement is required if a > a

max

.

• If a > d

s

, calculation for A

s

is performed in two parts. The first part is for

balancing the compressive force from the flange, C

f

, and the second part

is for balancing the compressive force from the web, C

w

, as shown in Fig-

ure 2. C

f

is given by

C

f

= 0.85

'

c

f (b

f

- b

w

)d

s

.

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 21 - 6 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

Figure 2 Design of a T-Beam Section

Therefore, A

s1

=

y

f

f

C

and the portion of M

u

that is resisted by the flange is

given by

M

uf

= C

f

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

−

2

s

d

d ϕ.

Again, the value for ϕ is ϕ(flexure), which is 0.90 by default. Therefore,

the balance of the moment, M

u

to be carried by the web is given by

M

uw

= M

u

- M

uf

.

The web is a rectangular section of dimensions b

w

and d, for which the de-

sign depth of the compression block is recalculated as

a

1

= d -

w

i

c

uw

b f

M

d

ϕ

−

85 . 0

2

2

.

If a

1

≤ a

max

, the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by

A

s2

=

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

− ϕ

2

1

a

d f

M

y

uw

, and

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 21 - 7

A

s

= A

s1

+ A

s2

.

This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the T-beam.

If a

1

> a

max

, compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.3.3) and is

calculated as follows:

− The compressive force in web concrete alone is given by

C = 0.85

'

c

f ba

max

. (ACI 10.2.7.1)

− Therefore, the moment resisted by concrete web and tensile steel

is

M

uc

= C ϕ

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

−

2

max

a

d , and

the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is

M

us

= M

uw

- M

uc

.

− Therefore, the compression steel is computed as

'

s

A =

ϕ − ) ' (

'

d d f

M

s

us

, where

'

s

f = 0.003E

s

]

]

]

,

¸

, −

c

d c '

. (ACI 10.2.4)

− The tensile steel for balancing compression in web concrete is

A

s2

=

ϕ − )

2

(

max

a

d f

M

y

uc

, and

the tensile steel for balancing compression in steel is

A

s3

=

ϕ − ) ' ( d d f

M

y

us

.

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 21 - 8 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

− The total tensile reinforcement, A

s

= A

s1

+ A

s2

+ A

s3

, and total

compression reinforcement is

'

s

A . A

s

is to be placed at bottom and

'

s

A is to be placed at top.

Minimum Tensile Reinforcement

The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an Or-

dinary moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two following

limits:

A

s

≥ max

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

d b

f

d b

f

f

w

y

w

y

c

200

and

3

'

or (ACI 10.5.1)

A

s

≥ (4/3)A

s(required)

. (ACI 10.5.3)

Special Consideration for Seismic Design

For Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design), the beam de-

sign satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table 1):

The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both the top

and bottom. Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less

than A

s(min)

(ACI 21.3.2.1).

A

s(min)

≥ max

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

d b

f

d b

f

f

w

y

w

y

c

200

and

3

'

or (ACI 10.5.1)

A

s(min)

≥

3

4

A

s(required)

. (ACI 10.5.3)

The beam flexural steel is limited to a maximum given by

A

s

≤ 0.025 b

w

d. (ACI 21.3.2.1)

At any end (support) of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity

(i.e., associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than 1/2 of the

beam negative moment capacity (i.e., associated with the top steel) at

that end (ACI 21.3.2.2).

Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity

at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 21 - 9

maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam

end (support) stations (ACI 21.3.2.2).

For Intermediate moment resisting concrete frames (i.e., seismic design), the

beam design would satisfy the following conditions:

At any support of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity would

not be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end

(ACI 21.10.4.1).

Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity

at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the

maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam

end (support) stations (ACI 21.10.4.1).

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement

The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at a user de-

fined number of stations along the beam span. The following steps are in-

volved in designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a par-

ticular load combination at a particular station due to the beam major shear:

• Determine the factored shear force, V

u

.

• Determine the shear force, V

c

, that can be resisted by the concrete.

• Determine the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.

For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ductile frames), the

shear design of the beams is also based upon the probable and nominal mo-

ment capacities of the members, respectively, in addition to the factored load

design.

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

this process.

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 21 - 10 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement

Table 1 Design Criteria Table

Type of

Check/

Design

Ordinary Moment

Resisting Frames

(non-Seismic)

Intermediate Moment

Resisting Frames

(Seismic)

Special Moment

Resisting Frames

(Seismic)

Column

Check

(interaction)

NLD

a

Combinations NLD

a

Combinations NLD

a

Combinations

Column

Design

(interaction)

NLD

a

Combinations

1% < ρ < 8%

NLD

a

Combinations

1% < ρ < 8%

NLD

a

Combinations

α = 1.0

1% < ρ < 6%

Column

Shears

NLD

a

Combinations

Modified NLD

a

Combinations

(earthquake loads doubled)

Column capacity

ϕ = 1.0 and α = 1.0

NLD

a

Combinations

Column shear capacity

ϕ = 1.0 and α = 1.25

Beam

Design

Flexure

NLD

a

Combinations NLD

a

Combinations

NLD

a

Combinations

ρ ≤ 0.025

ρ ≥

y

c

f

f

'

3

, ρ ≥

y

f

200

Beam Min.

Moment

Override

Check

No Requirement

END u uEND

M M

− +

≥

3

1

¦ ¦

END u u uSPAN

M M M

− + +

≥ , max

5

1

¦ ¦

END u u uSPAN

M M M

− + −

≥ , max

5

1

END

u uEND

M M

− +

≥

2

1

¦ ¦

END u u uSPAN

M M M

− + +

≥ , max

4

1

¦ ¦

END u u uSPAN

M M M

− − −

≥ , max

4

1

Beam

Design

Shear

NLD

a

Combinations

Modified NLD

a

Combinations

(earthquake loads doubled)

Beam Capacity Shear (Vp)

with α = 1.0 and ϕ = 1.0

plus VD+L

NLD

a

Combinations

Beam Capacity Shear (Vp)

with α = 1.25 and ϕ = 1.0

plus VD+L

Vc = 0

Joint Design No Requirement No Requirement Checked for shear

Beam/Column

Capacity

Ratio

No Requirement No Requirement Reported in output file

NLD

a

= Number of specified loading

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 21 - 11

Determine Shear Force and Moment

• In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment

resisting concrete frame, the shear forces and moments for a particular

load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring

the associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding load

combination factors.

• In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames (i.e.,

seismic design), the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the

capacity shear resulting from the probable moment capacities at the ends

and the factored gravity load. This check is performed in addition to the

design check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The capacity

shear force, V

p

, is calculated from the probable moment capacities of each

end of the beam and the gravity shear forces. The procedure for calculat-

ing the design shear force in a beam from probable moment capacity is

the same as that described for a column in section “Design Column Shear

Reinforcement” of Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Technical Note 20

Column Design. See also Table 1 for details.

The design shear force V

u

is then given by (ACI 21.3.4.1)

V

u

= V

p

+ V

D+L

(ACI 21.3.4.1)

where V

p

is the capacity shear force obtained by applying the calculated

probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting

in two opposite directions. Therefore, V

p

is the maximum of

1

P

V and

2

P

V ,

where

1

P

V =

L

M M

J I

+ −

+

, and

2

P

V =

L

M M

J I

− +

+

, where

−

I

M = Moment capacity at end I, with top steel in tension, using a

steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),

+

J

M = Moment capacity at end J, with bottom steel in tension, using

a steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 21 - 12 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement

+

I

M = Moment capacity at end I, with bottom steel in tension, using

a steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),

−

J

M = Moment capacity at end J, with top steel in tension, using a

steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0), and

L = Clear span of beam.

For Special moment resisting frames α is taken as 1.25 (ACI 21.0,

R21.3.4.1). V

D+L

is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distri-

bution of gravity loads.

• For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the shear capacity of the

beam is also checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal moment

capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads, in addition to the

check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design shear

force in beams is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal

moment capacity and modified factored shear force. The procedure for

calculating nominal (ϕ = 1.0) moment capacity is the same as that for

computing the probable moment capacity for Special moment resisting

frames, except that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25 (ACI 21.10.3.a,

R21.10). The modified factored shear forces are based on the specified

load factors, except the earthquake load factors are doubled (ACI

21.10.3.b). The computation of the design shear force in a beam of an

Intermediate moment resisting frame is the same as described for col-

umns in section “Determine Section Forces” of Concrete Frame Design

ACI318-99 Technical Note 20 Column Design. See also Table 1 for details.

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity

The allowable concrete shear capacity is given by

V

c

= 2

'

c

f b

w

d. (ACI 11.3.1.1)

For Special moment resisting frame concrete design, V

c

is set to zero if both

the factored axial compressive force, including the earthquake effect P

u

, is

less than

'

c

f A

g

/20 and the shear force contribution from earthquake V

E

is

more than half of the total maximum shear force over the length of the mem-

ber V

u

(i.e., V

E

≥ 0.5V

u

) (ACI 21.3.4.2).

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 21 - 13

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement

Given V

u

and V

c

, the required shear reinforcement in area/unit length is cal-

culated as

A

v

=

d f

s V V

ys

c u

) / ( − ϕ

. (ACI 11.5.6.1, 11.5.6.2)

The shear force resisted by steel is limited by

(V

u

/ ϕ - V

c

) ≤ 8

'

c

f bd. (ACI 11.5.6.9)

Otherwise, redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here, ϕ, the

strength reduction factor for shear, is 0.85 by default (ACI 9.3.2.3). The

maximum of all the calculated A

v

values, obtained from each load combina-

tion, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load

combination number.

The beam shear reinforcement requirements displayed by the program are

based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup require-

ments to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated

independently of the program by the user.

Overview Technical Note 22 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99

Technical Note 22

Joint Design

This Technical Note explains how the program performs a rational analysis of

the beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are gener-

ated in a joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength.

Overview

To ensure that the beam-column joint of special moment resisting frames

possesses adequate shear strength, the program performs a rational analysis

of the beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are gener-

ated in the joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength.

Only joints having a column below the joint are designed. The material prop-

erties of the joint are assumed to be the same as those of the column below

the joint.

The joint analysis is completed in the major and the minor directions of the

column. The joint design procedure involves the following steps:

Determine the panel zone design shear force, V

u

h

Determine the effective area of the joint

Check panel zone shear stress

The algorithms associated with these three steps are described in detail in the

following three sections.

Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force

Figure 1 illustrates the free body stress condition of a typical beam-column

intersection for a column direction, major or minor.

Joint Design Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Technical Note 22 - 2 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force

Figure 1 Beam-Column Joint Analysis

Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Joint Design

Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Technical Note 22 - 3

The force V

u

h

is the horizontal panel zone shear force that is to be calculated.

The forces that act on the joint are P

u

, V

u

, M

u

L

and M

u

R

. The forces P

u

and V

u

are axial force and shear force, respectively, from the column framing into the

top of the joint. The moments M

u

L

and M

u

R

are obtained from the beams

framing into the joint. The program calculates the joint shear force V

u

h

by re-

solving the moments into C and T forces. Noting that T

L

= C

L

and T

R

= C

R

,

V

u

h

= T

L

+ T

R

- V

u

The location of C or T forces is determined by the direction of the moment.

The magnitude of C or T forces is conservatively determined using basic prin-

ciples of ultimate strength theory, ignoring compression reinforcement as fol-

lows. The program first calculates the maximum compression, C

max

, and the

maximum moment, M

max

, that can be carried by the beam.

bd f C c

'

max

85 . 0

2

max max

d

C M

Then the program conservatively determines C and T forces as follows:

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

− −

max

max

) (

1 1

M

M abs

C T C

The program resolves the moments and the C and T forces from beams that

frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor

directions of the column along the direction that is being investigated, thereby

contributing force components to the analysis. Also, the program calculates

the C and T for the positive and negative moments, considering the fact that

the concrete cover may be different for the direction of moment.

In the design of special moment resisting concrete frames, the evaluation of

the design shear force is based on the moment capacities (with reinforcing

steel overstrength factor, α, and no ϕ factors) of the beams framing into the

joint (ACI 21.5.1.1, UBC 1921.5.1.1). The C and T force are based on these

moment capacities. The program calculates the column shear force V

u

from

the beam moment capacities, as follows:

Joint Design Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Technical Note 22 - 4 Determine the Effective Area of Joint

H

M M

V

R

u

L

u

u

+

**See Figure 2. It should be noted that the points of inflection shown on Figure
**

2 are taken as midway between actual lateral support points for the columns.

If there is no column at the top of the joint, the shear force from the top of

the column is taken as zero.

The effects of load reversals, as illustrated in Case 1 and Case 2 of Figure 1,

are investigated and the design is based on the maximum of the joint shears

obtained from the two cases.

Determine the Effective Area of Joint

The joint area that resists the shear forces is assumed always to be rectan-

gular in plan view. The dimensions of the rectangle correspond to the major

and minor dimensions of the column below the joint, except if the beam

framing into the joint is very narrow. The effective width of the joint area to

be used in the calculation is limited to the width of the beam plus the depth of

the column. The area of the joint is assumed not to exceed the area of the

column below. The joint area for joint shear along the major and minor direc-

tions is calculated separately (ACI R21.5.3).

It should be noted that if the beam frames into the joint eccentrically, the

above assumptions may be unconservative and the user should investigate

the acceptability of the particular joint.

Check Panel Zone Shear Stress

The panel zone shear stress is evaluated by dividing the shear force V

u

h

by

the effective area of the joint and comparing it with the following design shear

strengths (ACI 21.5.3, UBC 1921.5.3):

20ϕ

c

f '

for joints confirmed on all four sides

v = 15ϕ

c

f '

for joints confirmed on three faces or on two

opposite faces

¦

12ϕ

c

f '

for all other joints

Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Joint Design

Determine the Effective Area of Joint Technical Note 22 - 5

where ϕ = 0.85 (by default). (ACI 9.3.2.3, UBC 1909.3.2.3,1909.3.4.1)

A beam that frames into a face of a column at the joint is considered in this

program to provide confinement to the joint if at least three-quarters of the

face of the joint is covered by the framing member (ACI 21.5.3.1, UBC

1921.5.3.1).

Figure 2 Column Shear Force V

u

Joint Design Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Technical Note 22 - 6 Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios

For light-weight aggregate concrete, the design shear strength of the joint is

reduced in the program to at least three-quarters of that of the normal weight

concrete by replacing the

'

c

f

with

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦ ' '

,

4 / 3 , min

c c factor cs

f f f (ACI 21.5.3.2, UBC 1921.5.3.2)

For joint design, the program reports the joint shear, the joint shear stress,

the allowable joint shear stress and a capacity ratio.

Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios

At a particular joint for a particular column direction, major or minor, the pro-

gram will calculate the ratio of the sum of the beam moment capacities to the

sum of the column moment capacities (ACI 21.4.2.2).

∑M

e

≥

5

6

∑M

g

(ACI 21.4.2.2)

The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength factor, α , and

including ϕ factors. The beam capacities are calculated for reversed situations

(Cases 1 and 2) as illustrated in Figure 1 and the maximum summation ob-

tained is used.

The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is

not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along

the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are

added to the summation.

The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column

below the joint. For each load combination, the axial force, P

u

, in each of the

columns is calculated from the program analysis load combinations. For each

load combination, the moment capacity of each column under the influence of

the corresponding axial load P

u

is then determined separately for the major

and minor directions of the column, using the uniaxial column interaction dia-

gram; see Figure 3. The moment capacities of the two columns are added to

give the capacity summation for the corresponding load combination. The

maximum capacity summations obtained from all of the load combinations is

used for the beam/column capacity ratio.

Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Joint Design

Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Technical Note 22 - 7

The beam/column flexural capacity ratios are only reported for Special Mo-

ment-Resisting Frames involving seismic design load combinations. If this ra-

tio is greater than 5/6, a warning message is printed in the output file.

Figure 3 Moment Capacity M

u

at a Given Axial Load P

u

Input Data Technical Note 23 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99

Technical Note 23

Input Data

This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design input data for

ACI318-99. The input can be printed to a printer or to a text file when you

click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. A

printout of the input data provides the user with the opportunity to carefully

review the parameters that have been input into the program and upon which

program design is based. Further information about using the Print Design

Tables form is presented at the end of this Technical Note.

Input Data

The program provides the printout of the input data in a series of tables. The

column headings for input data and a description of what is included in the

columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Load Combination Multipliers

Combo Design load combination. See Technical Note 8.

Type

Load type: dead, live, superimposed dead, earthquake, wind,

snow, reduced live load, other.

Case Name of load case.

Factor Load combination scale factor.

Code Preferences

Phi_bending Bending strength reduction factor.

Phi_tension Tensile strength reduction factor.

Phi_compression

(Tied)

Compressive strength reduction factor for tied columns.

Phi_compression (Spi-

ral)

Compressive strength reduction factor for reinforced columns.

Phi_shear Shear strength reduction factor.

Input Data Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Technical Note 23 - 2 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Material Property Data

Material Name Concrete, steel, other.

Material Type Isotropic or orthotropic.

Design Type

Modulus of Elasticity

Poisson's Ratio

Thermal Coeff Coefficient of thermal expansion.

Shear Modulus

Material Property Mass and Weight

Material Name Concrete, steel, other.

Mass Per Unit Vol Used to calculate self-mass of structure.

Weight Per Unit Vol Used to calculate self-weight of structure.

Material Design Data for Concrete Materials

Material Name Concrete, steel, other.

Lightweight Concrete

Concrete FC Concrete compressive strength.

Rebar FY Bending reinforcing steel yield strength.

Rebar FYS Shear reinforcing steel yield strength.

Lightwt Reduc Fact Shear strength reduction factor for light weight concrete; default

= 1.0.

Concrete Column Property Data

Section Label Label applied to section.

Mat Label Material label.

Column Depth

Column Width

Rebar Pattern Layout of main flexural reinforcing steel.

Concrete Cover Minimum clear concrete cover.

Bar Area Area of individual reinforcing bar to be used.

Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Input Data

Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 23 - 3

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Concrete Column Design Element Information

Story ID Column assigned to story level at top of column.

Column Line Grid line.

Section ID Name of section assigned to column.

Framing Type Lateral or gravity.

RLLF Factor

L_Ratio Major Unbraced length about major axis.

L_Ratio Minor Unbraced length about minor axis.

K Major Effective length factor; default = 1.0.

K Minor Effective length factor; default = 1.0.

Concrete Beam Design Element Information

Story ID Story level at which beam occurs.

Bay ID Grid lines locating beam.

Section ID Section number assigned to beam.

Framing type Lateral or gravity.

RLLF Factor

L_Ratio Major Unbraced length about major axis.

L_Ratio Minor Unbraced length about minor axis.

Using the Print Design Tables Form

To print concrete frame design input data directly to a printer, use the File

menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the

check box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the OK button to send the

print to your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to

cancel the print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the

Setup>> button to change printers, if necessary.

To print concrete frame design input data to a file, click the Print to File check

box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the Filename>> button to change

Input Data Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Technical Note 23 - 4 Using the Print Design Tables Form

the path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format

(e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Ta-

bles form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request.

Note:

The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out-

put that is printed to a text file.

The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and

filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print

Design Tables form. Data will be added to this file. Or use the Filename>>

button to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing Tables cau-

tion box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.

If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print

Tables > Concrete Frame Design command, the Selection Only check box

will be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.

Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output Technical Note 24 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99

Technical Note 24

Output Details

This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design output for ACI318-99

that can be printed to a printer or to a text file. The design output is printed

when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design

command and select Output Summary on the Print Design Tables form. Fur-

ther information about using the Print Design Tables form is presented at the

end of this Technical Note.

The program provides the output data in a series of tables. The column

headings for output data and a description of what is included in the columns

of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.

Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Biaxial P-M Interaction and Shear Design of Column-Type Elements

Story ID Column assigned to story level at top of column.

Column Line Grid lines.

Section ID Name of section assigned to column.

Station ID

Required Reinforcing

Longitudinal Area of longitudinal reinforcing required.

Combo Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.

Shear22 Shear reinforcing required.

Combo Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.

Shear33 Shear reinforcing required.

Output Details Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Technical Note 24 - 2 Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output

Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Combo Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.

Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Beam to Column Capacity Ratios and Joint Shear Capacity Check

Story ID Story level at which joint occurs.

Column Line Grid line.

Section ID Assigned section name.

Beam-Column Capacity Ratios

Major Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity.

Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment ca-

pacity to column capacity is based.

Minor Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity.

Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment ca-

pacity to column capacity is based.

Joint Shear Capacity Ratios

Major Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity.

Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus

allowed capacity is based.

Minor Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity.

Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus

allowed capacity is based.

Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Output Details

Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 24 - 3

Using the Print Design Tables Form

To print concrete frame design input data directly to a printer, use the File

menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the

check box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the OK button to send the

print to your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to

cancel the print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the

Setup>> button to change printers, if necessary.

To print concrete frame design input data to a file, click the Print to File check

box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the Filename>> button to change

the path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format

(e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Ta-

bles form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request.

Note:

The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out-

put that is printed to a text file.

The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and

filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print

Design Tables form. Data will be added to this file. Or use the Filename>>

button to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing Tables cau-

tion box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.

If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print

Tables > Concrete Frame Design command, the Selection Only check box

will be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.

ETABS

®

Integrated Building Design Software

Concrete Frame Design Manual

Computers and Structures, Inc. Berkeley, California, USA

Version 8 January 2002

Unlicensed use of the program or reproduction of the documentation in any form. 1978-2002. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley.. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from: Computers and Structures. Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.Copyright The computer program ETABS and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products.com (for technical support questions) web: www. Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated .csiberkeley. is explicitly prohibited. Inc. California 94704 USA Phone: (510) 845-2177 FAX: (510) 845-4096 e-mail: info@csiberkeley. Inc. The CSI Logo is a trademark of Computers and Structures. ETABS is a trademark of Computers and Structures..com (for general questions) e-mail: support@csiberkeley. Inc.com Copyright Computers and Structures. Inc. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers and Structures. Inc. Inc. without prior written authorization from Computers and Structures.

.

THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THE PROGRAM. HOWEVER. . EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF ETABS. THE USER MUST THOROUGHLY READ THE MANUAL AND CLEARLY RECOGNIZE THE ASPECTS OF CONCRETE DESIGN THAT THE PROGRAM ALGORITHMS DO NOT ADDRESS. THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE PROGRAM AND MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS. THE PROGRAM HAS BEEN THOROUGHLY TESTED AND USED. HOWEVER.DISCLAIMER CONSIDERABLE TIME. THIS PROGRAM IS A VERY PRACTICAL TOOL FOR THE DESIGN/CHECK OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES. IN USING THE PROGRAM.

.

CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN Contents General Concrete Frame Design Information 1 General Design Information Design Codes Units Overwriting the Frame Design Procedure for a Concrete Frame Design Load Combinations Design of Beams Design of Columns Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Second Order P-Delta Effects Element Unsupported Lengths Analysis Sections and Design Sections Concrete Frame Design Process Concrete Frame Design Procedure Interactive Concrete Frame Design General Concrete Design Information Form Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model Overview Using the Print Design Tables Form Design Input Design Output 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-4 1-6 1-7 2 2-1 3 3-1 3-1 4 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-2 i .. BERKELEY. INC.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.

Concrete Frame Design Manual Concrete Frame Design Specific to UBC97 5 General and Notation Introduction to the UBC 97 Series of Technical Notes Notation Preferences General Using the Preferences Form Preferences Overwrites General Overwrites Making Changes in the Overwrites Form Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default Values Design Load Combinations Strength Reduction Factors Column Design Overview Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Determine Factored Moments and Forces Determine Moment Magnification Factors Determine Capacity Ratio Required Reinforcing Area Design Column Shear Reinforcement Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Reference Beam Design Overview Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Determine Factored Moments Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement 5-1 5-2 6 6-1 6-1 6-2 7 7-1 7-1 7-3 7-4 8 9 10 10-1 10-2 10-5 10-6 10-6 10-8 10-10 10-10 10-14 10-15 11 11-1 11-1 11-2 11-2 ii .

Contents Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 12 Joint Design Overview Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Determine the Effective Area of Joint Check Panel Zone Shear Stress Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Input Data Input data Using the Print Design Tables Form Output Details Using the Print Design Tables Form 11-10 12-1 12-1 12-5 12-5 12-6 13 13-1 13-3 14 14-3 Concrete Frame Design Specific to ACI-318-99 15 General and Notation Introduction to the ACI318-99 Series of Technical Notes Notation Preferences General Using the Preferences Form Preferences Overwrites General Overwrites Making Changes in the Overwrites Form Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default Values Design Load Combinations Strength Reduction Factors 15-1 15-2 16 16-1 16-1 16-2 17 17-1 17-1 17-3 17-4 18 19 iii .

Concrete Frame Design Manual 20 Column Design Overview Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Determine Factored Moments and Forces Determine Moment Magnification Factors Determine Capacity Ratio Required Reinforcing Area Design Column Shear Reinforcement Determine Section Forces Determine Concrete Shear Capacity Determine Required Shear Reinforcement References Beam Design Overview Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Determine Factored Moments Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement Design for T-Beam Minimum Tensile Reinforcement Special Consideration for Seismic Design Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Determine Shear Force and Moment Determine Concrete Shear Capacity Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Joint Design Overview Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Determine the Effective Area of Joint Check Panel Zone Shear Stress Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Input Data Input Data Using the Print Design Tables Form 20-1 20-2 20-5 20-6 20-6 20-9 20-10 20-10 20-11 20-12 20-13 20-15 21 21-1 21-1 21-2 21-2 21-5 21-8 21-8 21-9 21-11 21-12 21-13 22 22-1 22-1 22-4 22-4 22-6 23 23-1 23-3 iv .

Contents 24 Output Details Using the Print Design Tables Form 24-3 v .

.

BERKELEY. Design Codes Technical Note 1 . Design Codes The design code is set using the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design command. You cannot design some elements for one code and others for a different code in the same design run. You can. You can choose to design for any one design code in any one design run. A concrete frame element can be switched between the Concrete Frame Design and the "None" design procedure. CALIFORNIA JANUARY 2002 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN Technical Note 1 General Design Information This Technical Note presents some basic information and concepts helpful when performing concrete frame design using this program. Overwriting the Frame Design Procedure for a Concrete Frame The two design procedures possible for concrete beam design are: Concrete frame design No design If a line object is assigned a frame section property that has a concrete material property.. Units For concrete frame design in this program. INC. design codes are based on one specific set of units. any set of consistent units can be used for input. however. Assign a concrete frame element the "None" design procedure if you do not want it designed by the Concrete Frame Design postprocessor. perform different design runs using different design codes without rerunning the analysis. its default design procedure is Concrete Frame Design.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Typically.1 . You can change the system of units at any time.

shears.General Design Information Concrete Frame Design Change the default design procedure used for concrete frame elements by selecting the element(s) and clicking Design menu > Overwrite Frame Design Procedure. For more information see Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combination and Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 18 Design Load Combination. An unlimited number of design load combinations can be specified. which are described in detail in Concrete Frame UBC97 Technical Note Beam Design 11 and Concrete Frame ACI 318-99 Technical Note 21 Beam Design. the program calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments. This change is only successful if the design procedure assigned to an element is valid for that element. the steps involve the determination of the maximum factored moments and the determination of the reinforcing steel. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each output station along the beam span. simply specify one or more load cases. load combination factors. the program will not allow the change because a concrete element cannot be changed to a steel frame element. Design Load Combinations The program creates a number of default design load combinations for concrete frame design. and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.2 Design Load Combinations . and other criteria. Design of Beams The program designs all concrete frame elements designated as beam sections in their Frame Section Properties as beams (see Define menu >Frame Sections command and click the Reinforcement button). To define a design load combination. each with its own scale factor. Effects resulting from any axial forces. For example. Technical Note 1 . You can add in your own design load combinations. You can also modify or delete the program default load combinations. All the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. if you select a concrete element and attempt to change the design procedure to Steel Frame Design. minor direction bending. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment at a particular section of a particular beam. In the design of concrete beams. in general.

0. the beam is always designed as a rectangular section.or T-beam. the determination of the shear force that can be resisted by concrete. the program calculates the required longitudinal steel. For the design of flexural reinforcement. or if the longitudinal steel is specified. If the beam section is not adequate. the beam may be designed as a rectangular. In the design of the columns. In such cases. Design of Columns The program designs all concrete frame elements designated as column sections in their Frame Section Properties as columns (see Define menu >Frame Sections command and click the Reinforcement button). Design the column shear reinforcement. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel.3 . Negative beam moments produce top steel. The capacity ratio is a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular set of loading combinations at a particular station resulting from the beam major shear. the column stress condition is reported in terms of a column capacity ratio. the steps involve the determination of the factored shear force. This step is also used to calculate the required reinforcement (if none was specified) that will produce a capacity ratio of 1. In such cases. See Concrete Frame UBC97 Technical Note 10 Design of Beams Technical Note 1 .Concrete Frame Design General Design Information The beam section is designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moment envelopes obtained from all of the load combinations. except that the effect of the axial force on the concrete shear capacity needs to be considered. The shear reinforcement design procedure for columns is very similar to that for beams. and the determination of the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. The design procedure for reinforced concrete columns involves the following steps: Generate axial force-biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model. the beam is first designed as a singly reinforced beam. Check the capacity of each column for the factored axial force and bending moments obtained from each load combination at each end of the column. the required compression reinforcement is calculated.

design codes require that second order P-Delta effects be considered when designing concrete frames. the program calculates the ratio of the sum of the beam moment capacities to the sum of the column moment capacities at a particular joint for a particular column direction.4 Second Order P-Delta Effects . For each load combination. The maximum capacity summations obtained from all of the load combinations is used for the beam/column capacity ratio. The beam/column flexural capacity ratios are only reported for Special Moment-Resisting Frames involving seismic design load combinations. in each of the columns is calculated from the program analysis load combinations. the moment capacity of each column under the influence of the corresponding axial load Pu is then determined separately for the major and minor directions of the column. The moment capacities of the two columns are added to give the capacity summation for the corresponding load combination. using the uniaxial column interaction diagram. See Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios in Concrete Frame UBC97 Technical Note 12 Joint Design or in Concrete Frame ACI 318-99 Technical Note 22 Joint Design for more information.General Design Information Concrete Frame Design Column Design and Concrete Frame ACI 318-99 Technical Note 20 Column Design for more information. major or minor. α. They are the global lateral translation of the frame and the local deformation of elements within the frame. The P-Delta effects come from two sources. The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column below the joint. the axial force. and including ϕ factors. Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios When the ACI 318-99 or UBC97 code is selected. The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength factor. The beam capacities are calculated for reversed situations and the maximum summation obtained is used. Technical Note 1 . Pu. For each load combination. The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are added to the summation. Second Order P-Delta Effects Typically.

the program does a good job of capturing the effect due to the ∆ deformation shown in Figure 1. The overall global translation of this frame element is indicated by ∆. MCAP where. the frame element is broken into multiple pieces over its length). The program has an option to consider P-Delta effects in the analysis.5 . in the model. ∆. The local deformation of the element is shown as δ. When you consider P-Delta effects in the analysis. The total second order P-Delta effects on this frame element are those caused by both ∆ and δ.Concrete Frame Design General Design Information ∆ Original position of frame element shown by vertical line Position of frame element as a result of global lateral translation. δ Figure 1: The Total Second Order P-Delta Effects on a Frame Element Caused by Both ∆ and δ Consider the frame element shown in Figure 1. which is extracted from a story level of a larger structure. Controls for considering this effect are found using the Analyze menu > Set Analysis Options command and then clicking the Set P-Delta Parameters button. ∆. and the local deformation of the element. shown by dashed line δ Final deflected position of frame element that includes the global lateral translation. In design codes. 1 Second Order P-Delta Effects Technical Note 1 . consideration of the second order P-Delta effects is generally achieved by computing the flexural design capacity using a formula similar to that shown in Equation. MCAP = Flexural design capacity = aMnt + bMlt Eqn. 1. but it does not typically capture the effect of the δ deformation (unless.

There are two unsupported lengths to consider.6 Element Unsupported Lengths . such as member connectivity. The program automatically locates the element support points and evaluates the corresponding unsupported length. it assumes that the factor b is equal to 1 and it uses code-specific formulas to calculate the factor a. using the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command... you should consider P-Delta effects in the analysis before running the design. as shown in Figure 2. associated with the ∆ deformation in Figure 1) Unitless factor multiplying Mnt Unitless factor multiplying Mlt (assumed equal to 1 by the program.e. These are the lengths between support points of the element in the corresponding directions.e. diaphragm constraints and support points.General Design Information Concrete Frame Design Mnt = Required flexural capacity of the member assuming there is no translation of the frame (i. the program recognizes various aspects of the structure that have an effect on these lengths. and L22 corresponds to instability about the 2-2 axis (minor axis). see below) Mlt = a b = = When the program performs concrete frame design. Thus. In determining the values for L22 and L33 of the elements. associated with the δ deformation in Figure 1) Required flexural capacity of the member as a result of lateral translation of the frame only (i. Technical Note 1 . if you are performing concrete frame design in this program..e. if desired. They can also be overwritten by the user on an element-by-element basis. They are L33 and L22. The program automatically determines these unsupported lengths. The length L33 corresponds to instability about the 3-3 axis (major axis). about the 3-3 axis). in general. as previously described. The length L22 is also used for lateral-torsional buckling caused by major direction bending (i. That b = 1 assumes that you have considered P-Delta effects in the analysis. Element Unsupported Lengths The column unsupported lengths are required to account for column slenderness effects.

In this case. at a floor level. For example.Concrete Frame Design General Design Information Figure 2: Major and Minor Axes of Bending It is possible for the unsupported length of a frame element to be evaluated by the program as greater than the corresponding element length. the column is assumed to be supported in one direction only at that story level. Analysis Sections and Design Sections Technical Note 1 . but not the other. and its unsupported length in the other direction will exceed the story height. The design section is whatever section has most currently been designed and thus designated the current design section.7 . Tip: It is important to understand the difference between analysis sections and design sections. assume a column has a beam framing into it in one direction. Analysis Sections and Design Sections Analysis sections are those section properties used to analyze the model when you click the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command.

Using the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design command to change any of the composite beam design preferences deletes the design results. Before you complete the design process. but it does not delete or change the design section. Note the following about analysis and design sections: Assigning a beam a frame section property using the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Frame Section command assigns the section as both the analysis section and the design section. but it does not delete or change the design section. but it does not delete or change the design section. Using the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Select Design Combo command to change a design load combination deletes the design results. you may have run your analysis using a W18X35 beam and then found in the design that a W16X31 beam worked. but it does not delete or change the design section. The Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Verify Analysis vs Design Section command is useful for this task. Unlocking a model deletes the design results. In that case. the last used analysis section is the W18X35 and the current design section is the W16X31.General Design Information Concrete Frame Design It is possible for the last used analysis section and the current design section to be different. Typically. The program keeps track of the analysis section and the design section separately. For example. Running an analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command (or its associated toolbar button) always sets the analysis section to be the same as the current design section. Technical Note 1 . verify that the last used analysis section and the current design section are the same.8 Analysis Sections and Design Sections . Assigning an auto select list to a frame section using the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Frame Section command initially sets the design section to be the beam with the median weight in the auto select list. Deleting the static nonlinear analysis results also deletes the design results for any load combination that includes static nonlinear forces. Using the Define menu > Load Combinations command to change a design load combination deletes the design results.

note that these actions delete only results for load combinations that include static nonlinear forces. Use the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Frame Nonlinear Hinges command to add or delete hinges. Again. Use the Define menu > Static Nonlinear/Pushover Cases command to redefine existing or define new static nonlinear load cases.9 . Analysis Sections and Design Sections Technical Note 1 .Concrete Frame Design General Design Information static nonlinear analysis and design results are deleted when one of the following actions is taken: Use the Define menu > Frame Nonlinear Hinge Properties command to redefine existing or define new hinges.

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the basic design process should be similar to that described herein. Concrete Frame Design Procedure Technical Note 2 .©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. INC. 1. See Concrete Frame Design ACI UBC97 Technical Notes 6 Preferences and Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Notes 16 Preferences for more information. BERKELEY. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN Technical Note 2 Concrete Frame Design Process This Technical Note describes a basic concrete frame design process using this program. Note that although the sequence of steps you follow may vary. The concrete frame design postprocessor can design or check concrete columns and can design concrete beams. Note that when using this command. Concrete Frame Design Procedure The following sequence describes a typical concrete frame design process for a new building. Other Technical Notes in the Concrete Frame Design series provide additional information.1 . you can click on the Reinforcement button and specify whether it is a beam or a column. Use the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design command to choose the concrete frame design code and to review other concrete frame design preferences and revise them if necessary. Although the exact steps you follow may vary. depending on how its frame section property was designated when it was defined using the Define menu > Frame Sections command. the basic process probably will be essentially the same. after you have specified that a section has a concrete material property. Note that default values are provided for all concrete frame design preferences. so it is unnecessary to define any preferences unless you want to change some of the default values.. including the distinction between analysis sections and design sections (see Analysis Sections and Design Sections in Concrete Frame Design Technical Note 1 General Design Information). Important note: A concrete frame element is designed as a beam or a column.

4. using the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. 6. Note that the overwrites can be assigned before or after the analysis is run. To use any design load combinations other than the defaults created by the program for your concrete frame design. click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Select Design Combo command.2 Concrete Frame Design Procedure . See Concrete Frame Design Technical Note 3 Interactive Concrete Frame Design for more information. 5. Note that you must have already created your own design combos by clicking the Define menu > Load Combinations command. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 7 Overwrites and Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 17 Overwrites for more information. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to run the concrete frame design. Note that you must select frame elements before using this command. Note that while you are in this mode. b. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combinations and Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 18 Design Load Combinations for more information. so it is unnecessary to define any overwrites unless you want to change some of the default values.Concrete Frame Design Process Concrete Frame Design 2. you can revise overwrites and immediately see the results of the new design. 7. Assign concrete frame overwrites. Review the concrete frame design results by doing one of the following: a. See Concrete Frame Design Technical Note 4 Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model for more information. Right click on a frame element while the design results are displayed on it to enter the interactive design mode and interactively design the frame element. 3. Create the building model. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info command to display design input and output information on the model. Run the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command. if needed. Also note that default values are provided for all concrete frame design overwrites. Technical Note 2 .

13. click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Interactive Concrete Frame Design command and then right click a frame element to enter the interactive design mode for that element. 12. If you select frame elements before using this command. Repeat the processes in steps 10.Concrete Frame Design Concrete Frame Design Process If design results are not currently displayed (and the design has been run). if necessary. Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Change Design Section command to change the design section properties for selected frame elements. Rerun the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command. 15. 10. 11 and 12 as many times as necessary. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to rerun the concrete frame design with the new analysis results and new section properties. Review the results using the procedures described in Item 7. 14. 9. Rerun the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output Details and Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 24 Output Details for more information. Again use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Change Design Section command to change the design section properties for selected frame elements. 11. 8. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to rerun the concrete frame design with the new section properties. data is printed only for the selected elements. Note that the section properties used for the analysis are the last specified design section properties. Review the results using the procedures described above. Use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command to print concrete frame design data. Concrete Frame Design Procedure Technical Note 2 . Note that the section properties used for the analysis are the last specified design section properties.3 .

Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Verify Analysis vs Design Section command to verify that the design sections are the same as the analysis sections. Review the results using the procedures described in Item 7.4 Concrete Frame Design Procedure . Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to rerun the concrete frame design with the new section properties. Typically. Use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command to print selected concrete frame design results. 18. 17. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Verify Analysis vs Design Section command to verify that all of the final design sections are the same as the last used analysis sections. Technical Note 2 . if desired. the analysis and design will be rerun multiple times to complete a design. 16. Always run the building analysis using the final frame section sizes and then run a design check using the forces obtained from that analysis. It is important to note that design is an iterative process.Concrete Frame Design Process Concrete Frame Design Note: Concrete frame design is an iterative process. The sections used in the original analysis are not typically the same as those obtained at the end of the design process.

Right click on a frame element while the design results are displayed on it to enter the interactive design mode and interactively design the element in the Concrete Design Information form. which is only available if it is a concrete section. which is a powerful mode that allows the user to review the design results for any concrete frame design and interactively revise the design assumptions and immediately review the revised results.1 . click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Interactive Concrete Frame Design command and then right click a frame element to enter the interactive design mode for that element. depending on how its frame section property was designated when it was defined using the Define menu > Frame Sections command and the Reinforcement button. Concrete Design Information Form Table 1 describe the features that are included in the Concrete Design Information form. Important note: A concrete frame element is designed as a beam or a column. click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. BERKELEY. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN Technical Note 3 Interactive Concrete Frame Design This Technical Note describes interactive concrete frame design and review. INC. General Technical Note 3 . To run a design.. If design results are not currently displayed (and a design has been run). General Note that a design must have been run for the interactive design mode to be available.

See the important note previously in this Technical Note for more information. It is the total required area of longitudinal reinforcing steel. It also only applies to columns for which you have specified the location and size of reinforcing bars and thus the program checks the design. Column Section Name Reinforcement Information The reinforcement information table on the Concrete Design Information form shows the output information obtained for each design load combination at each output station along the frame element. This item is the capacity ratio. This item applies to columns only. measured from the i-end of the frame element. This is the label associated with a frame element that has been assigned a concrete frame section property. This item applies to columns only. For beams. Following are the possible headings in the table: Combo ID Station location Longitudinal reinforcement Capacity ratio This is the name of the design load combination considered. the item with the largest capacity ratio is initially highlighted. This is the label associated with a frame element that has been assigned a concrete frame section property that is designated as a column.2 Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form . Technical Note 3 . See the important note previously in this Technical Note for more information. the item with the largest required amount of bottom steel is initially highlighted. This is the label associated with a frame element that has been assigned a concrete frame section property that is designated as a beam. For columns that are designed by this program.Interactive Concrete Frame Design Concrete Frame Design Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form Item Story Beam DESCRIPTION This is the story level ID associated with the frame element. For columns that are checked by this program. It also only applies to columns for which the program designs the longitudinal reinforcing. This is the location of the station considered. the item with the largest required amount of longitudinal reinforcing is initially highlighted.

Click this button to access and make revisions to the concrete frame overwrites and then immediately see the new design results.3 . If you then exit the Concrete Design Information form by clicking the Cancel button the changes you made to the concrete frame overwrites are considered temporary only and are not permanently saved. Assume the length of this line from the origin to the interaction surface is designated L2.Concrete Frame Design Interactive Concrete Frame Design Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form Item DESCRIPTION The capacity ratio is determined by first extending a line from the origin of the PMM interaction surface to the point representing the P. It is the total required area of shear reinforcing per unit length at the specified station for loads acting in the local 2-axis direction of the beam. When you exit the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form by clicking the OK button the changes are temporarily saved. Assume the length of this first line is designated L1. Overwrites Button Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form Technical Note 3 . This item applies to beams only. It is the total required area of longitudinal top steel at the specified station. a second line is extended from the origin of the PMM interaction surface through the point representing the P. The capacity ratio is equal to L1/L2. This item applies to beams only. It is the total required area of shear reinforcing per unit length for shear acting in the column minor direction. This item applies to columns only. It is the total required area of shear reinforcing per unit length for shear acting in the column major direction. It is the total required area of longitudinal bottom steel at the specified station. This item applies to beams only. M2 and M3 values for the designated load combination. the changes to the overwrites are saved permanently. Permanent saving of the overwrites does not actually occur until you click the OK button in the Concrete Design Information form as well as the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form. If you modify some overwrites in this mode and you exit both the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form and the Concrete Design Information form by clicking their respective OK buttons. Next. Major shear reinforcement Minor shear reinforcement Top steel Bottom steel Shear steel This item applies to columns only. M2 and M3 values for the designated load combination until it intersects the interaction surface.

Interactive Concrete Frame Design Concrete Frame Design Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form Item Details Button DESCRIPTION Clicking this button displays design details for the frame element.4 Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form . Clicking this button displays the biaxial interaction curve for the concrete section at the location in the element that is highlighted in the table. Print this information by selecting Print from the File menu that appears at the top of the window displaying the design details. Interaction Button Technical Note 3 .

click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables form.1 .txt.doc). Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print. Click the OK button to send the print to your printer. .. use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the check box on the Print Design Tables form. The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. if necessary. To print the concrete frame input summary to a file. Using the Print Design Tables Form To print the concrete frame input summary directly to a printer. Or use the Filename Overview Technical Note 4 . The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables form. BERKELEY. If desired.g. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN Technical Note 4 Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model This Technical Note describes the input and output data that can be plotted directly on the model.xls. . The on-screen display data presents input and output data. Data will be added to this file. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e. Click the Filename>> button to change the path or filename.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request. the screen graphics can then be printed using the File menu > Print Graphics command. Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file. .. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers. INC. Overview Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info command to display on-screen output plotted directly on the program model.

Design Input The following types of data can be displayed directly on the model by selecting the data type (shown in bold type) from the drop-down list on the Display Design Results form. If you select a specific concrete frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > concrete Frame Design command. click Yes to replace the existing file.Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model Concrete Frame Design button to locate another file. Design Sections Design Type Live Load Red Factors Unbraced L_Ratios Eff Length K-Factors Cm Factors DNS Factors DS Factors Each of these items is described in the code-specific Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 13 Input Data and Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 23 Input Data. Display this form by selecting he Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info command. Design Output The following types of data can be displayed directly on the model by selecting the data type (shown in bold type) from the drop-down list on the Display Design Results form. Display this form by selecting he Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info command. and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears.2 Design Input . the Selection Only check box will be checked. Technical Note 4 . The print will be for the selected steel frame element(s) only.

3 .Concrete Frame Design Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model Longitudinal Reinforcing Shear Reinforcing Column Capacity Ratios Joint Shear Capacity Ratios Beam/Column Capacity Ratios Each of these items is described in the code-specific Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 24 Output Details and Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output Details. Design Output Technical Note 4 .

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BERKELEY. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 6 Preferences for more information. When using the UBC 97 option. the following Framing Systems are recognized and designed according to the UBC design provisions (UBC 1627. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 5 General and Notation Introduction to the UBC97 Series of Technical Notes The Concrete Frame Design UBC97 series of Technical Notes describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by this program when the user selects the UBC97 Design Code (ICBO 1997). When using the UBC 97 option. 1921): Ordinary Moment-Resisting Frame (OMF) General and Notation Technical Note 5 . a frame is assigned to one of the following five Seismic Zones (UBC 2213. 2214): Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 By default the Seismic Zone is taken as Zone 4 in the program. However.1 .©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. INC. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. the Seismic Zone can be overwritten in the Preference form to change the default.. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combinations for more information. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. The various notations used in this series are listed herein.

as IMRF in Seismic Zone 2. The Special Moment-Resisting Frame (SMRF) is appropriate in high seismic risk areas. By default the frame type is taken in the program as OMRF in Seismic Zone 0 and 1. For simplicity. especially in Seismic Zones 0 and 1. specially in Seismic Zones 3 and 4. all equations and descriptions presented in this Technical Note correspond to Inch-Pound-Second units unless otherwise noted. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. specially in Seismic Zone 2. sq-in Gross area of concrete. If any member is assigned with a frame type. which are described in Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 13 Input Data and Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output Details. The Intermediate Moment-Resisting Frame (IMRF) is appropriate in moderate seismic risk areas. the change of the Seismic Zone in the Preferences will not modify the frame type of an individual member that has been assigned a frame type. Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 10 Column Design. The details of the design criteria used for the different framing systems are described in Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 9 Strength Reduction Factors. The program also provides input and output data summaries. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 7 Overwrites for more information. The code is based on Inch-Pound-Second units. sq-in Area of tension reinforcement. sq-in Technical Note 5 .2 General and Notation . However. and Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 12 Joint Design. The UBC seismic design provisions are considered in the program. Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 11 Beam Design. the frame type can be overwritten in the Overwrites form on a member-by-member basis.General and Notation Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Intermediate Moment-Resisting Frame (IMRF) Special Moment-Resisting Frame (SMRF) The Ordinary Moment-Resisting Frame (OMF) is appropriate in minimal seismic risk areas. and as SMRF in Seismic Zone 3 and 4. Notation Acv Ag As Area of concrete used to determine shear stress.

lb-in Sway component of factored end moment.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 General and Notation ' As Area of compression reinforcement. sq-in Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. sq-in Area of shear reinforcement. in Modulus of elasticity of concrete. lb-in Nonsway component of factored end moment. lb-in Factored moment at section about X-axis.000 psi (UBC 1980. psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. lb As(required) Ast Av Cm D' Ec Es Ig Ise L M1 M2 Mc Mns Ms Mu Mux Muy Pb General and Notation Technical Note 5 . lb-in Larger factored end moment in a column. used to calculate moment magnification factor Diameter of hoop. in Smaller factored end moment in a column.000. lb-in Factored moment to be used in design. sq-in Coefficient.3 . sq-in Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement. in4 Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of member cross section. in4 Clear unsupported length. lb-in Factored moment at section. lb-in Factored moment at section about Y-axis.2) Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis.5. lb-in Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions. dependent upon column curvature. neglecting reinforcement. assumed as 29.

000 psi (UBC 1909.4) Technical Note 5 . in Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions. in Specified compressive strength of concrete. in Width of web (T-Beam section). in Width of member. lb Factored axial load at section. lb Depth of compression block.General and Notation Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Pc Pmax P0 Pu Vc VE VD+L Vu Vp a ab b bf bw c cb d d' ds f c' fy Critical buckling strength of column. in Depth of compression block at balanced condition. in Thickness of slab (T-Beam section). lb Maximum axial load strength allowed. lb Shear force from span loading. lb Factored shear force at a section. lb Shear resisted by concrete. psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. lb Shear force computed from probable moment capacity. lb Acial load capacity at zero eccentricity. in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. in Depth to neutral axis.4 General and Notation . lb Shear force caused by earthquake loads. in Concrete cover to center of reinforcing. psi fy ≤ 80. in Effective width of flange (T-Beam section).

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 General and Notation fys h k r Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. psi Dimension of column. in Effective length factor Radius of gyration of column section.5 . in Reinforcing steel overstrength factor Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to maximum factored axial total load Moment magnification factor for sway moments Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Strength reduction factor α β1 βd δs δns εc εs ϕ General and Notation Technical Note 5 .

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You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program.. click the OK button to close the form. You should. When you have finished making changes to the concrete frame preferences. Use the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design command to access the Preferences form where you can view and revise the concrete frame design preferences. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 6 Preferences This Technical Note describes the items in the Preferences form. To change a preference item. left click the desired preference item in either the left or right column of the spreadsheet. select the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design. type in the desired value. Thus. select a new value. The preference value will update accordingly. Using the Preferences Form To view preferences. If the cell is highlighted. The preference options are displayed in a two-column spreadsheet. Default values are provided for all concrete frame design preference items. however. General The concrete frame design preferences in this program are basic assignments that apply to all concrete frame elements. The left column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item name.1 . You cannot overwrite values in the dropdown boxes. If you click the Cancel button to exit General Technical Note 6 . This activates a drop-down box or highlights the current preference value. If the drop-down box appears.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. BERKELEY. it is not required that you specify or change any of the preferences. The Preferences form will display. The right column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item value. INC. at least review the default values for the preference items to make sure they are acceptable to you.

Preferences For purposes of explanation in this Technical Note.2 Preferences . We recommend that you use 24 for this item. Number of equally spaced interaction curves used to create a full 360-degree interaction surface (this item should be a multiple of four). Unitless strength reduction factor per UBC 1909. Description: A description of the associated preference item. The column headings in the table are described as follows: Item: The name of the preference item as it appears in the cells at the left side of the Preferences form.75 0.7 0. Possible Values: The possible values that the associated preference item can have. Unitless strength reduction factor per UBC 1909. any changes made to the preferences are ignored and the form is closed.0 Default Value UBC97 Description Design code used for design of concrete frame elements. Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences Item Design Code Possible Values Any code in the program >0 >0 >0 >0 ≥4.85 24 Technical Note 6 .Preferences Concrete Frame Design UBC97 the form. Default Value: The built-in default value that the program assumes for the associated preference item. the preference items are presented in Table 1. Unitless strength reduction factor per UBC 1909. Unitless strength reduction factor per UBC 1909.9 0. Phi Bending Tension Phi Compression Tied Phi Compression Spiral Phi Shear Number Interaction Curves 0.

If a single design load combination has more than one time history case in it. that design load combination is designed for the envelopes of the time histories. or designed step-by-step for the entire time history. Number Inter.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Preferences Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences Item Possible Values Default Value 11 Description Number of points used for defining a single curve in a concrete frame interaction surface (this item should be odd).0 Time History Design Envelopes or Step-by-Step Envelopes Preferences Technical Note 6 . Toggle for design load combinations that include a time history designed for the envelope of the time history.Any odd value action Points ≥1. regardless of what is specified here.3 .

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CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 7 Overwrites General The concrete frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to those elements to which they are assigned. This Technical Note describes concrete frame design overwrites for UBC97. the program applies the changes only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned. When changes are made to overwrite items. To save space in the formes. Possible Values: The possible values that the associated overwrite item can have. Default Value: The default value that the program assumes for the associated overwrite item. To access the overwrites. Overwrites Technical Note 7 . you do not need to specify or change any of the overwrites. The column headings in the table are described as follows. at least review the default values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. BERKELEY.. Description: A description of the associated overwrite item. INC. these names are generally short. However. Thus. Overwrites For explanation purposes in this Technical Note. to the elements that are selected when the overwrites are changed. An explanation of how to change an overwrite is provided at the end of this Technical Note. that is.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. select an element and click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. Default values are provided for all overwrite items.1 . Item: The name of the overwrite item as it appears in the program. the overwrites are presented in Table 1.

12.0 1. Possible Values Default Value Description Element Type Live Load Reduction Factor Horizontal Earthquake Factor Unbraced Length Ratio (Major) Unbraced Length Ratio (Minor) Effective Length Factor (K Major) Effective Length Factor (K Minor) Moment Coefficient (Cm Major) Moment Coefficient (Cm Minor) NonSway Moment Factor (Dns Major) Technical Note 7 .1 relates actual moment diagram to an equivalent uniform moment diagram.0 >0 ≤1. see UBC 1910.3. Sway Ordinary NonSway >0 ≤1.0 >0 ≤1.1 relates actual moment diagram to an equivalent uniform moment diagram. See UBC 1910.1.11 to 1910.2 Overwrites .12.0 >0 ≤1.0 >0 ≤1.Overwrites Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites Item Element Section Sway Special. Sway Intermediate.3.12. 1.1. Sway Special Frame type.0 1.0 >0 ≤1. 1 See UBC 1910. Used to reduce the live load contribution to the factored loading.0 >0 ≤1. 1 See UBC 1910.0 >0 ≤1. 1.12.13.0 >0 ≤1. See UBC 1910.0 1 1 1 See UBC 1910.12.

The left column of the spreadsheet contains the name of the overwrite item. The values of the overwrite items are visible in the second column of the spreadsheet if only one element was selected before the overwrites form was accessed. 1 See UBC 1910.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Overwrites Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites Item NonSway Moment Factor (Dns Minor) Sway Moment Factor (Ds Major) Sway Moment Factor (Ds Minor) Possible Values Default Value 1 Description See UBC 1910.3 . select an element and click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. check the box to the left of an overwrite item to change it. After selecting one or multiple elements. Initially. the check boxes in the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form are all unchecked and all of the cells in the spreadsheet have a gray background to indicate that they are inactive and the items in the cells cannot be changed.12. If the drop-down box appears. The overwrites are displayed in the form with a column of check boxes and a two-column spreadsheet. The names of the overwrite items are displayed in the first column of the spreadsheet.12. no values show for the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet. If multiple elements were selected. select a value from Overwrites Technical Note 7 . Making Changes in the Overwrites Form To access the concrete frame overwrites. The right column of the spreadsheet contains the overwrites values.12. Then left click in either column of the spreadsheet to activate a drop-down box or highlight the contents in the cell in the right column of the spreadsheet. 1 See UBC 1910.

click the OK button to close the form. Technical Note 7 . the program resets the overwrite values to its built-in values. Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default Values Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Reset All Overwrites command to reset all of the steel frame overwrites. any changes made to the overwrites are ignored and the form is closed. When changes to the overwrites have been completed. All current design results will be deleted when this command is executed. You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. not to the values that were in the .Overwrites Concrete Frame Design UBC97 the box.edb file that you used to initialize your model may be different from the built-in program default values. Important note about resetting overwrites: The program defaults for the overwrite items are built into the program. If the cell contents is highlighted. The program then changes all of the overwrite items whose associated check boxes are checked for the selected members. The overwrite will reflect the change. type in the desired value. You cannot change the values of the dropdown boxes.4 Overwrites .edb file used to initialize the model. The concrete frame overwrite values that were in a . If you click the Cancel button to exit the form. When you reset overwrites.

7 LL (UBC 1909. INC.4 DL + 1.1).2.2) (UBC 1909. BERKELEY. Design Load Combinations Technical Note 8 . Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load condition on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.75 (1.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.2.2. For the UBC 97 code. namely 1. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.9 DL ± 1.2. the stress check may need only one load combination.2. 1612.0 EL) (UBC 1909.1) These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever the UBC97 code is used.2 DL + 0. the following load combinations may need to be considered (UBC 1909.2.7 WL) 0. 1.2.1 .1) (UBC 1909.7 LL ± 1.2) (UBC 1909. 1612.4 DL + 1.5 LL ± 1.1) (UBC 1909.2.2).9 DL ± 1.4 DL + 1. if the structure is subjected to wind (WL) and earthquake (EL) loads. However.7 LL 0. in addition to the dead and live loads..1) (UBC 1909.2.3 WL 0.3.0 EL 1.4 DL 1.3. if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 7 Overwrites for more information.

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INC.85 for shear and torsion (non-seismic design) = 0.1) (UBC 1909.2.3.3.90 for axial tension = 0.2. and axial compression and flexure (spirally reinforced column) (UBC 1909.2) = 0.75 for axial compression.70 for axial compression. ϕ.90 for axial tension and flexure (UBC 1909.2.3. and axial compression and flexure (tied column) (UBC 1909.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.3) ϕ ϕ ϕ Strength Reduction Factors Technical Note 9 .3) (UBC 1909. The ϕ factors for flexure.2) (UBC 1909.3.2) = 0.2) = 0.3. are applied on the nominal strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member.2. shear.2.1 .3. axial force.3.2. and torsion are as follows: ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ = 0.2.60 for shear and torsion (UBC 1909. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 9 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.90 for flexure = 0. BERKELEY..

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the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Intermediate moment resisting frames (UBC 1910. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 10 Column Design This Technical Note describes how the program checks column capacity or designs reinforced concrete columns when the UBC97 code is selected. A typical biaxial interaction surface is shown in Figure 1. Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each station of the column. INC.1). the program can calculate the amount of reinforcing required to design the column.4.9.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. When the steel is undefined. The following four subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model. Design the column shear reinforcement. Overview Technical Note 10 . Alternatively. Overview The program can be used to check column capacity or to design columns.. If you define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section. the program will check the column capacity. The target capacity ratio is taken as 1 when calculating the required reinforcing area.1 .3.1) and 1 to 6 percent for Special moment resisting frames (UBC 1921. BERKELEY.

Column Design

Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Figure 1 A Typical Column Interaction Surface

**Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces
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The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure surface. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending, the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations. A typical interaction diagram is shown in Figure 1.

Technical Note 10 - 2

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces

Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Column Design

The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in three dimensions on the section of the column. See Figure 2. The linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain, εc, at the extremity of the section, to 0.003 (UBC 1910.2.3). The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate strength design (UBC 1910.3), and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular, square, or circular column section. The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity, εsEs, and is limited to the yield stress of the steel, fy (UBC 1910.2.4). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any further simplifications with respect to distributing the area of steel over the cross section of the column, such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder. See Figure 3. The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a stress value of 0.85 f c' (UBC 1910.2.7.1). See Figure 3. The interaction algorithm provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone. The effects of the strength reduction factor, ϕ, are included in the generation of the interaction surfaces. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to ϕPn(max), where ϕPn(max) = 0.85ϕ[0.85 f c' (Ag-Ast)+fyAst] (spiral) ϕPn(max) = 0.85ϕ[0.85 f c' (Ag-Ast)+fyAst] (tied) ϕ ϕ = 0.70 for tied columns = 0.75 for spirally reinforced columns (UBC 1910.3.5.1) (UBC 1910.3.5.2) (UBC 1909.3.2.2) (UBC 1909.3.2.2)

The value of ϕ used in the interaction diagram varies from ϕmin to 0.9 based on the axial load. For low values of axial load, ϕ is increased linearly from ϕmin to 0.9 as the nominal capacity ϕPn decreases from the smaller of ϕPb or 0.1 f c' Ag to zero, where Pb is the axial force at the balanced condition. In cases involving axial tension, ϕ is always 0.9 (UBC 1909.3.2.2).

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces

Technical Note 10 - 3

Column Design

Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Figure 2 Idealized Strain Distribution for Generation of Interaction Surfaces

Technical Note 10 - 4

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces

The factored moments and corresponding magnification factors depend on the identification of the individual column as either “sway” or “non-sway.5 . Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments. The following steps are involved in calculating the capacity ratio of a particular column for a particular loading combination at a particular location: Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and the specified load combination factors to give Pu.” Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 10 . defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial moment set. Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored moments. lies within the interaction volume. Mux. Determine whether the point. and Muy.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design Figure 3 Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section Calculate Column Capacity Ratio The column capacity ratio is calculated for each loading combination at each output station of each column.

6 + 0. The non-sway components which are identified by “ns” subscripts are predominantly caused by gravity load.75 (UBC 1910.3) The factor δs is the moment magnification factor for moments causing side sway. to obtain minimum eccentricities of (0. if required. the magnified moments about two axes at any station of a column can be obtained as M = Mns + δsMs. δs. The sway moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads. δs. moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken as unity (UBC 1910.75 (1. Determine Moment Magnification Factors The moment magnification factors are calculated separately for sway (overall stability effect).4 dead load + 1.3). and Muy. Mux.2).2 dead load + 0. giving Pu.Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process. The program assumes that it performs a P-delta analysis and.7 live load)/ϕ if wind load governs.12.03h) inches. For individual columns or column-members in a floor. where ϕ is the understrength factor for stability. δns. See also White and Hajjar (1991). is taken as 1 because the component moments Ms and Mns are obtained from a “second order elastic (P-delta) analysis.” Technical Note 10 . Also the moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are in general different. the load should correspond to a load combination of 0.12. For the P-delta analysis. and for non-sway (individual column stability effect). Determine Factored Moments and Forces The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the corresponding load factors to all the load cases. and are related to the cause of side-sway. The factored moments are further increased for non-sway columns.6 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio .50 live load)/ϕ if seismic load governs. or (1. where h is the dimension of the column in the corresponding direction (UBC 1910.10. (UBC 1910.2). The sway components are identified by the “s” subscripts. The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the sway (Ms) and the non-sway (Ms) components.3. which is taken as 0. therefore.13. The moment magnification factors for sway moments.

3) βd = maximum factored axial total load Cm = 0.5) by the nonsway moment magnification factor.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design The computed moments are further amplified for individual column stability effect (UBC 1910. the program allows the user to override this value. EI is associated with a particular column direction given by: EI = 0. Cm = 1. Mb maximum factored axial dead load and (UBC 1910.3. If transverse load is present on the span. and M2 is the larger factored and amplified end moment.3.3) (UBC 1910. δns. or the length is overwritten. Ma / Mb is positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending.3) δns = Cm ≥ 1. δns. Pu 1− 0.3) Pc = (UBC 1910.4E c I g 1 + βd . where (UBC 1910.13. however.12.0.12.4 Ma ≥ 0. The non-sway moment magnification factor.7 .4.12. (UBC 1910. 1910.12.12.12. where Mc is the factored moment to be used in design.3) k is conservatively taken as 1. The above expression of Cm is valid if there is no transverse load applied between the supports.12. Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 10 . and Mb is numerically larger than Ma.12. Cm can be overwritten by the user on an element-by-element basis.3) (UBC 1910. as follows: Mc = δnsM2 .1) Ma and Mb are the moments at the ends of the column.6 + 0.75Pc π 2 EI (kl u )2 . associated with the major or minor direction of the column is given by (UBC 1910.

The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication Technical Note 10 . Figure 4 Axes of Bending and Unsupported Length If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member. δns. the user can explicitly specify values of δs and δns.75Pc. respectively.75Pc.Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 The magnification factor. These are the lengths between the support points of the element in the corresponding directions.8 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio . The two unsupported lengths are l22 and l33. Therefore. Determine Capacity Ratio The program calculates a capacity ratio as a measure of the stress condition of the column. The above calculations use the unsupported length of the column. See Figure 4. If Pu is found to be greater than or equal to 0. corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of the element. a failure condition is declared. must be a positive number and greater than 1. Pu must be less than 0.

) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in Figure 5. Figure 5 Geometric Representation of Column Capacity Ratios This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C. the column is overstressed. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. Muy. Mux. however. Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity. If the point lies within the interaction volume.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. This point is determined by three-dimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 10 . The point (Pu. if the point lies outside the interaction volume.9 . Mux. the column capacity is adequate. the moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain Pu. and Muy.

the program computes the reinforcement that will give a column capacity ratio of one. calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Calculate Column Capacity Ratio. For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (Ductile frames). Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. the shear design of the columns is also based on the probable and nominal moment capacities of the members. The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular load combination caused by shear forces in a particular direction: Determine the factored forces acting on the section.Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 failure surface. in addition to the factored Technical Note 10 . the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is stressed to capacity. The capacity ratio. and Muy set and associated load combination number. If OL < OC (or CR<1). See Figure 5. CR. Note that Pu is needed for the calculation of Vc." Design Column Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and minor directions of the column. Pu and Vu.10 Required Reinforcing Area . The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column. that can be resisted by concrete alone. If OL > OC (or CR>1). the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate. Determine the shear force. is given by the ratio OL . Required Reinforcing Area If the reinforcing area is not defined. along with the controlling Pu. Mux. OC If OL = OC (or CR=1). the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed. respectively. Vc.

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process. Vu. Mu and Mu . Pu. Determine Section Forces In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame. and the column shear force.e. in a particular direction is calculated from the probable moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial force acting on the column. namely. For each load combination. is then given by (UBC 1921.4. Therefore. + − the positive and negative moment capacities.5. Then. The design shear force. The capacity-shear force in a column..Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design moments. Effects of the axial forces on the column moment capacities are included in the formulation. the column axial force. the forces for a particular load combination. Vp is the capacity-shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting in two opposite directions.11 . where L Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 10 . where VP1 = VP2 = − + MI + M J .4.1) Vu = Vp + VD+L (UBC 1921. of the column in a particular direction under the influence of the axial force Pu is calculated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction. in a particular direction are obtained by factoring the program analysis load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. Pu. the factored axial load.1) where. Vu. Vp. and L + − MI + M J . Vp is the maximum of VP1 and VP2 . seismic design) the column is checked for capacity-shear in addition to the requirement for the Ordinary moment resisting frames. is calculated.5. In the shear design of Special moment resisting frames (i.

The design shear force is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal (ϕ = 1. α is taken as 1.0). For Intermediate moment resisting frames. in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. and L = Clear span of column. the shear capacity of the column is also checked for the capacity-shear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads. For Special moment resisting frames. = Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the column using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1. except that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.000 Ag where.0.e. it is zero.Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 + − M I . VD+L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads. The procedure for calculating nominal moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for special moment resisting frames.2) Acv .25 (UBC 1921. M J . f c' ≤ 100 psi.0) moment capacity and factored shear force.1.3.3). is calculated as follows: If the column is subjected to axial compression.. 1921. Determine Concrete Shear Capacity Given the design force set Pu and Vu. and (UBC 1911.1. For most of the columns. Pu Vc = 2 f c' 1 + 2. M I . Pu is positive. the shear force carried by the concrete. The factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors. = Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the column using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1. Vc.8.0).12 Design Column Shear Reinforcement . i.0).8. + − M J . (UBC 1911.25 (UBC 1921. except the earthquake load factors are doubled (UBC 1921.2) Technical Note 10 .3).

(UBC 1911.2) The term Pu must have psi units. For circular columns.5 f c' 1 + Pu 500 Ag Acv .Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design Vc ≤ 3.6.2). Figure 6 Shear Stress Area.5. Acv Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 10 .13 .2. Acv is not taken to be greater than 0.3. Acv is the effective shear area which is Ag shown shaded in Figure 6.8 times the gross area (UBC 1911.

3) For Special moment resisting concrete frame design.2) Av = (UBC 1911. Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given Vu and Vc.2. for circular columns f ys D' π (UBC 1911.5.4.5Vu) (UBC 1921.6.Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 If the column is subjected to axial tension.2) Vu is limited by the following relationship. The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on shear strength consideration. (UBC 1911. the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or ties within a spacing.3.1.3. Pu.14 Design Column Shear Reinforcement .5.5.5. is 0. 1911.6.2. is given for rectangular and circular columns by the following: Av = (Vu / ϕ − Vc )s .5.4.5. is more than half of the total factored maximum shear force over the length of the member Vu(VE ≥ 0.85 for nonseismic design or for seismic design in Seismic Zones 0. Here ϕ.8) Otherwise redimensioning of the concrete section is required.3.3) and is 0. Pu is negative. including the earthquake effect is small (Pu < f c' Ag / 20) and if the shear force contribution from earthquake. s. and 2 (UBC 1909. 1. 1911.60 for seismic design in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 1909.3) Pu Vc = 2 f c' 1 + 500 Ag Acv ≥ 0 (UBC 1911. VE.6. (Vu / ϕ-Vc) ≤ 8 f c' Acv (UBC 1911. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing considerations or transverse reinforcement volumet- Technical Note 10 .3.2).6.2.1). along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination label. for rectangular columns f ys d 2 (Vu / ϕ − Vc )s .1. The maximum of all the calculated values obtained from each load combination are reported for the major and minor directions of the column. the strength reduction factor.6. Vc is set to zero if the factored axial compressive force.

W. American Institute of Steel Construction.15 . 28. Reference White.F.. Application of Second-Order Elastic Analysis in LRFD: Research in Practice.. Reference Technical Note 10 . and J. 1991. Engineering Journal. Vol. 4. No. Hajjar. D.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design ric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Inc.

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©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. INC. and other criteria described below. Overview In the design of concrete beams. load combination factors and other criteria described herein. The program calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments.. BERKELEY. shears. load combination factors. and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. All beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user-defined number of check/design stations along the beam span. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 11 Beam Design This Technical Note describes how this program completes beam design when the UBC97 code is selected. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design beam flexural reinforcement Design beam shear reinforcement Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at check/design stations along the beam span. The following steps are involved in designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment for a particular beam for a particular section: Determine the maximum factored moments Determine the reinforcing steel Overview Technical Note 11 .1 . shears. the program calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments. minor direction bending. Effects caused by axial forces.

all the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. In such cases. Intermediate. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this designed balanced condition. the beam may be designed as a Rectangular. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown in Figure 1 (UBC 1910. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.3).3.1 f c' Ag (UBC 1910. Technical Note 11 .3). Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.or a T-beam. or Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame beams.2 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . Negative beam moments produce top steel.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of Special. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. In such cases. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. the width. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed 0. hence. The design procedure used by the program for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. + The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive M u and maxi− mum negative M u factored moments obtained from all of the load combina- tions. It is assumed that the compression carried by concrete is less than 0. or the grade of concrete.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (UBC 1910. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.3.2).and T-beams) is summarized below.

(UBC 1910. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 1).2.0.1) in the above and the following equations. where.3 .000 d.2. designing top or bottom steel).000 .e. β1 = 0.2.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design Figure 1 Design of a Rectangular Beam Section Design for Rectangular Beam In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.000 cb = εc E s 87.90 (UBC 1909.85 . Mu (i. d = ε c E s + fy 87.000 + f y 0.2.85.. where the value of ϕ is 0.3. Also β1 and cb are calculated as follows: f ' − 4. a=dd2 − 2 Mu 0.3) (UBC 1910.05 c 1. 1910.7.85f c' ϕb .3.4) Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 .

1. This steel is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive.85 f c' bamax.Muc.4) The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is Technical Note 11 .2.7.4 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . c − (UBC 1910. If a > amax.3) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by C = 0.7. where c − d' f s' = 0. compression reinforcement is required (UBC 1910.75β1cb.003Es .3) If a ≤ amax.2.3.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by amax = 0. (UBC 1910.3. the area of tensile steel reinforcement is given by As = Mu a ϕf y d − 2 .2. Therefore the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is Mus = Mu . or at the top if Mu is negative. 1910. and (UBC 1910. − So the required compression steel is given by ' As = M us f s' (d − d' )ϕ .1) the moment resisted by concrete compression and tensile steel is a Muc = C d − max 2 − ϕ.

Cf is given by Cf = 0.d2 − 2M u 0.. If a > ds. As is to be placed at bottom and As is to be placed at top if Mu is positive. Cf. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular section design. the total tensile reinforcement.e. Design for T-Beam In designing for a factored negative moment. no T-Beam data is to be used. See Figure 2. the depth of the compression block is given by a = d .Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design As1 = Muc a f y d − max ϕ 2 . Mu (i. in this case.75β1cb.85 f c' (bf . The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by amax = 0. calculation for As is performed in two parts. and the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is given by As2 = M us . As = As1 + As2. the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above. However. and total com' ' pression reinforcement is As . designing top steel)..e. Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 . The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.5 .bw) ds. If Mu > 0. (UBC 1910. Cw. as shown in Figure 2.85f c' ϕbf .1) If a ≤ ds. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.2. f y (d − d' )ϕ − Therefore.7. i. and vice versa if Mu is negative. Compression reinforcement is required if a > amax. the width of the compression flange is taken as the width of the beam for analysis.

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Figure 2 Design of a T-Beam Section Therefore. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as a1 = d d2 − 2M uw 0. the value for ϕ is 0. If a1 ≤ amax. the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by Technical Note 11 . Cf fy and the portion of Mu that is resisted by the flange is Again.90. As1 = given by d Muf = Cf d − s 2 ϕ .Muf. the balance of the moment. The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d.85f c' ϕbw . Mu to be carried by the web is given by Muw = Mu .6 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . Therefore.

2.3. If a1 > amax. This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the T-beam. and As = As1 + As2.7.85 f c' bamax.2. and the tensile steel for balancing compression in steel is Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 .003Es . the compression steel is computed as ' As = M us f s' (d − d' )ϕ .1) − Therefore the moment resisted by concrete web and tensile steel is a Muc = C d − max 2 ϕ. compression reinforcement is required (UBC 1910. (UBC 1910.3) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force in web concrete alone is given by C = 0.Muc.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design As2 = M uw a ϕf y d − 1 2 . and the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is Mus = Muw .7 . where c − d' f s' = 0.4) The tensile steel for balancing compression in web concrete is As2 = M uc a f y d − max 2 ϕ . − Therefore. c − (UBC 1910.

As = As1 + As2 + As3.3) Special Consideration for Seismic Design For Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design).8 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement .2.2. f y (d − d')ϕ − The total tensile reinforcement. 1921.1) (UBC 1910. (UBC 1921. As is to be placed at bottom and As is to be placed at top.2. Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less than As(min) (UBC 1921.5. the beam design satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table 1 for comprehensive listing): The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both the top and bottom.1).1) Technical Note 11 .3. 1921.3.3.1.25 bwd.3.3.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 As3 = Mus . 3 (UBC 1910.1) (UBC 1910. Minimum Tensile Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an Ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two following limits: 3 f ' 200 c As ≥ max bw d and bw d or fy fy As ≥ 4 As(required) 3 (UBC 1910.5. and total compres' ' sion reinforcement is As .2.5. 3 f ' 200 c As(min) ≥ max bw d and bw d or fy fy As(min) ≥ 4 As(required).1) The beam flexural steel is limited to a maximum given by As ≤ 0.5.

0 NLDa Combinations Beam Design Flexure NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations Beam Min.0 1% < ρ < 6% NLDa Combinations and Column shear capacity ϕ = 1.0 and α = 1. Moment Override Check + M uEND ≥ No Requirement + M uSPAN − M uSPAN 1 − M uEND 3 1 + − ≥ max M u .0 plus VD+L Vc = 0 Checked for shear No Requirement No Requirement No Requirement Reported in output file NLDa = Number of specified loading Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 .9 . Mu 4 { { } } END END Beam Design Shear Joint Design Beam/ Column Capacity Ratio NLDa Combinations Modified NLDa Combinations (earthquake loads doubled) Beam Capacity Shear (Vp) with α = 1.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design Table 1 Design Criteria Table Type of Check/ Design Column Check (interaction) Column Design (interaction) Column Shears Ordinary Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic Zones 0&1) NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 8% Intermediate Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic Zone 2) NLDa Combinations Special Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic Zones 3 & 4) NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations α = 1.25 and ϕ = 1. M u 5 { } END 1 + − max Mu .ρ ≥ 200 fy NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 8% Modified NLDa Combinations (earthquake loads doubled) Column Capacity ϕ = 1.0 plus VD+L No Requirement NLDa Combinations Beam Capacity Shear (Vp) with α = 1.0 and α = 1. M u 5 + MuEND ≥ { } 1 − MuEND 2 END + MuSPAN ≥ − MuSPAN ≥ 1 + − max M u . Mu 4 1 − − ≥ max Mu .0 and ϕ = 1.25 NLDa Combinations ρ ≤ 0.025 ρ≥ 3 f c' fy .

3. the beam design would satisfy the following conditions: At any support of the beam. the beam positive moment capacity (i.2).4. Determine the shear force. Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (UBC 1921.2. the beam positive moment capacity would not be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end (UBC 1921. For Intermediate moment resisting concrete frames (i. The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular load combination at a particular station resulting from the beam major shear: Determine the factored shear force. Vc. associated with the top steel) at that end (UBC 1921. Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (UBC 1921. Technical Note 11 . respectively. seismic design).3.2).10 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement . in addition to the factored load design.e.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 At any end (support) of the beam.8.1).. associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than 1/2 of the beam negative moment capacity (i.e.4.2.e.. the shear design of the beams is also based on the probable and nominal moment capacities of the members. Vu.8.. For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (Ductile frames). Determine the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.1). Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at a userdefined number of stations along the beam span. that can be resisted by the concrete.

Vp is the maximum of VP1 and VP2 .3.4.1) where Vp is the capacity shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting in opposite directions. using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1. where VP1 = VP2 = − MI − + MI + M J . is calculated from the probable moment capacities of each end of the beam and the gravity shear forces. The capacity-shear force. seismic design). See also Table 1 for details. The procedure for calculating the design shear force in a beam from probable moment capacity is the same as that described for a column in section “Design Column Shear Reinforcement” in Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 10 Column Design. the shear forces and moments for a particular load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding load combination factors.0). The design shear force Vu is then given by (UBC 1921. Therefore.11 .. and L + − MI + M J . with top steel in tension. Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 11 . In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames (i. This check is performed in addition to the design check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. where L = Moment capacity at end I. the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the capacity-shear associated with the probable moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity load.3.1) Vu = Vp + VD+L (UBC 1921. Determine Shear Force and Moment In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame.4.e.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process. Vp.

α is taken as 1. using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1. including the earthquake effect Pu. Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The allowable concrete shear capacity is given by Vc = 2 f c' bwd. and L = Clear span of beam. (UBC 1911. 1921.25 (UBC 1921.8.3.25 (UBC 1921.0). using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1. The computation of the design shear force in a beam of an Intermediate moment resisting frame is also the same as that for columns. with top steel in tension.0). using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0) moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for Special moment resisting frames. the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads. VD+L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads. except that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.12 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement . is less than f c' Ag/20 and the shear force contribution from earthquake VE is Technical Note 11 .3). For Special moment resisting frames. The design shear force in beams is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal moment capacity and factored shear force. − MJ = Moment capacity at end J. except the earthquake load factors are doubled (UBC 1921.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 + MJ = Moment capacity at end J.1. Also see Table 1 for details. The factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors.0). with bottom steel in tension.1) For Special moment resisting frame concrete design. with bottom steel in tension.8. which is described in Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 10 Column Design. in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. + MI = Moment capacity at end I. The procedure for calculating nominal (ϕ = 1.0). Vc is set to zero if both the factored axial compressive force.3). For Intermediate moment resisting frames.0.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Beam Design

more than half of the total maximum shear force over the length of the member Vu (i.e., VE ≥ 0.5Vu) (UBC 1921.3.4.2).

**Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

Given Vu and Vc, the required shear reinforcement in area/unit length is calculated as Av = (Vu / ϕ − Vc )s . f ys d (UBC 1911.5.6.1, 1911.5.6.2)

The shear force resisted by steel is limited by (Vu/ϕ - Vc) ≤ 8 f c' bd. (UBC 1911.5.6.8)

Otherwise, redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here ϕ, the strength reduction factor, is 0.85 for nonseismic design or for seismic design in Seismic Zones 0, 1, and 2 (UBC 1909.3.2.3) and is 0.60 for seismic design in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 1909.3.4.1). The maximum of all the calculated Av values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number. The beam shear reinforcement requirements displayed by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement

Technical Note 11 - 13

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

**Technical Note 12 Joint Design
**

This Technical Note explains how the program performs a rational analysis of the beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are generated in a joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength.

Overview

To ensure that the beam-column joint of special moment resisting frames possesses adequate shear strength, the program performs a rational analysis of the beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are generated in the joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength. Only joints having a column below the joint are designed. The material properties of the joint are assumed to be the same as those of the column below the joint. The joint analysis is completed in the major and the minor directions of the column. The joint design procedure involves the following steps: • • • Determine the panel zone design shear force,Vuh Determine the effective area of the joint Check panel zone shear stress

The algorithms associated with these three steps are described in detail in the following three sections.

**Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force
**

Figure 1 illustrates the free body stress condition of a typical beam-column intersection for a column direction, major or minor.

Overview

Technical Note 12 - 1

2 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force .Joint Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Figure1 Beam-Column Joint Analysis Technical Note 12 .

α. Vuh = TL + TR .1). as follows: Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Technical Note 12 . C max = 0.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Joint Design The force Vuh is the horizontal panel zone shear force that is to be calculated. Noting that TL = CL and TR = CR. thereby contributing force components to the analysis. MuL and MuR. The C and T forces are based on these moment capacities. The moments MuL and MuR are obtained from the beams framing into the joint. the program calculates the C and T for the positive and negative moments. The forces Pu and Vu are axial force and shear force. that can be carried by the beam. and no ϕ factors) of the beams framing into the joint (UBC 1921. The forces that act on the joint are Pu. Mmax. from the column framing into the top of the joint. ignoring compression reinforcement as follows. Also. In the design of special moment resisting concrete frames. The magnitude of C or T forces is conservatively determined using basic principles of ultimate strength theory. and the maximum moment.5.1. the evaluation of the design shear force is based on the moment capacities (with reinforcing steel overstrength factor. The program calculates the joint shear force Vuh by resolving the moments into C and T forces. The program first calculates the maximum compression.85f c' bd Mmax = C max d 2 Then the program conservatively determines C and T forces as follows: abs( M ) C = T = C max 1 − 1 − M max The program resolves the moments and the C and T forces from beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor directions of the column along the direction that is being investigated.3 . Vu. Cmax. The program calculates the column shear force Vu from the beam moment capacities. considering the fact that the concrete cover may be different for the direction of moment.Vu The location of C or T forces is determined by the direction of the moment. respectively.

Figure 2 Column Shear Force Vu Technical Note 12 . It should be noted that the points of inflection shown on Figure 2 are taken as midway between actual lateral support points for the columns. If there is no column at the top of the joint.4 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force .Joint Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Vu = Mu + Mu H L R See Figure 2. the shear force from the top of the column is taken as zero.

5.1909.3).1) A beam that frames into a face of a column at the joint is considered in this program to provide confinement to the joint if at least three-quarters of the face of the joint is covered by the framing member (UBC 1921.3.5.5. Check Panel Zone Shear Stress The panel zone shear stress is evaluated by dividing the shear force Vuh by the effective area of the joint and comparing it with the following design shear strengths (UBC 1921.5 . are investigated and the design is based on the maximum of the joint shears obtained from the two cases. The joint area for joint shear along the major and minor directions is calculated separately (ACI R21. The dimensions of the rectangle correspond to the major and minor dimensions of the column below the joint. the above assumptions may be unconservative and the user should investigate the acceptability of the particular joint. Determine the Effective Area of Joint The joint area that resists the shear forces is assumed always to be rectangular in plan view.1). The effective width of the joint area to be used in the calculation is limited to the width of the beam plus the depth of the column. (UBC 1909.4. as illustrated in Case 1 and Case 2 of Figure 1.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Joint Design The effects of load reversals. Determine the Effective Area of Joint Technical Note 12 .3): v = { 20ϕ 15ϕ 12ϕ f 'c f 'c f 'c for joints confined on all four sides for joints confined on three faces or on two opposite faces for all other joints where ϕ = 0. The area of the joint is assumed not to exceed the area of the column below.3.3.85 (by default). It should be noted that if the beam frames into the joint eccentrically.3. except if the beam framing into the joint is very narrow.2.

Joint Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 For light-weight aggregate concrete. the program reports the joint shear.4. The maximum capacity summations obtained from all of the load combinations is used for the beam/column capacity ratio.2.3. The beam capacities are calculated for reversed situations (Cases 1 and 2) as illustrated in Figure 1 and the maximum summation obtained is used. α. major or minor. Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios At a particular joint for a particular column direction. The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column below the joint.2) The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength factor. factor f ' c . see Figure 3. Pu. using the uniaxial column interaction diagram.2). in each of the columns is calculated from the program analysis load combinations. the design shear strength of the joint is reduced in the program to at least three-quarters of that of the normal weight concrete by replacing the minf cs.3 / 4 f c' f c' with (UBC 1921. For each load combination. For Special Moment-Resisting Frames. ∑Me ≥ 6 ∑Mg 5 (UBC 1921. the axial force. the program will calculate the ratio of the sum of the beam moment capacities to the sum of the column moment capacities.4.2. the following UBC provision needs to be satisfied (UBC 1921. the joint shear stress.5. For each load combination. the allowable joint shear stress and a capacity ratio. Technical Note 12 .6 Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios . The moment capacities of the two columns are added to give the capacity summation for the corresponding load combination. the moment capacity of each column under the influence of the corresponding axial load Pu is then determined separately for the major and minor directions of the column. The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are added to the summation. and including ϕ factors.2) For joint design.

a warning message is printed in the output file.7 . Figure 3 Moment Capacity Mu at a Given Axial Load Pu Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Technical Note 12 .Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Joint Design The beam/column flexural capacity ratios are only reported for Special Moment-Resisting Frames involving seismic design load combinations. If this ratio is greater than 5/6.

.

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Bending strength reduction factor. Input Data The program provides the printout of the input data in a series of tables. Compressive strength reduction factor for tied columns. A printout of the input data provides the user with the opportunity to carefully review the parameters that have been input into the program and upon which program design is based. Load Combination Multipliers Code Preferences Phi_bending Phi_tension Phi_compression (Tied) Phi_compression (Spiral) Phi_shear Input Data Technical Note 13 . superimposed dead. BERKELEY.1 . The input can be printed to a printer or to a text file when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. wind. See Technical Note 8. snow. The column headings for input data and a description of what is included in the columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note. Tensile strength reduction factor. live. Load combination scale factor. Load type: dead. Further information about using the Print Design Tables form is presented at the end of this Technical Note. other. Shear strength reduction factor. reduced live load. INC. earthquake.. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 13 Input Data This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design input data for UBC97. Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING Combo Type Case Factor DESCRIPTION Design load combination. Name of load case. Compressive strength reduction factor for reinforced columns.

default = 1. Label applied to section. steel. Minimum clear concrete cover. other.0. Bending reinforcing steel yield strength. Isotropic or orthotropic. Concrete. Material Property Data Material Name Material Type Design Type Modulus of Elasticity Poisson's Ratio Thermal Coeff Shear Modulus Coefficient of thermal expansion. steel. Shear reinforcing steel yield strength. Shear strength reduction factor for light weight concrete. Used to calculate self-weight of structure.Input Data Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Concrete. Material Property Mass and Weight Material Name Mass Per Unit Vol Weight Per Unit Vol Material Name Lightweight Concrete Concrete FC Rebar FY Rebar FYS Lightwt Reduc Fact Concrete compressive strength. steel. other. Used to calculate self-mass of structure. Technical Note 13 . Area of individual reinforcing bar to be used. Material label. Material Design Data for Concrete Materials Concrete Column Property Data Section Label Mat Label Column Depth Column Width Rebar Pattern Concrete Cover Bar Area Layout of main flexural reinforcing steel.2 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data . Concrete. other.

0. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print. Effective length factor. Unbraced length about minor axis. Concrete Column Design Element Information Concrete Beam Design Element Information Using the Print Design Tables Form To print steel frame design input data directly to a printer. use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the check box on the Print Design Tables form. To print steel frame design input data to a file. Unbraced length about major axis. Unbraced length about minor axis.3 . Story level at which beam occurs.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Input Data Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING Story ID Column Line Section ID Framing Type RLLF Factor L_Ratio Major L_Ratio Minor K Major K Minor Story ID Bay ID Section ID Framing type RLLF Factor L_Ratio Major L_Ratio Minor Unbraced length about major axis. Name of section assigned to column. Click the OK button to send the print to your printer. Grid lines locating beam. Click the Filename>> button to change the Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 13 . DESCRIPTION Column assigned to story level at top of column. Lateral or gravity. Section number assigned to beam. Lateral or gravity. default = 1.0. Grid line. default = 1. if necessary. Effective length factor. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers. click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables form.

click Yes to replace the existing file. and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears. Or use the Filename>> button to locate another file. If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. Data will be added to this file. Technical Note 13 . the Selection Only check box will be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.Input Data Concrete Frame Design UBC97 path or filename. The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables form. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e.txt. .. . The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. .4 Using the Print Design Tables Form . Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request.xls. Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file.g.doc).

. Shear reinforcing required. Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed. Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.1 . Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output COLUMN HEADING Story ID Column Line Section ID Station ID DESCRIPTION Column assigned to story level at top of column. Name of section assigned to column. The design output is printed when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and select Output Summary of the Print Design Tables dialog box. Further information about using the Print Design Tables dialog box is presented at the end of this Technical Note. The program provides the output data in a series of tables. Grid lines.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. INC. Shear reinforcing required. Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output Technical Note 14 . Biaxial P-M Interaction and Shear Design of Column-Type Elements Required Reinforcing Longitudinal Combo Shear22 Combo Shear33 Area of longitudinal reinforcing required. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output Details This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design output for UBC97 that can be printed to a printer or to a text file. BERKELEY. The column headings for output data and a description of what is included in the columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.

Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity is based. Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity is based. Assigned section name. Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Beam to Column Capacity Ratios and Joint Shear Capacity Check Story ID Column Line Section ID Story level at which joint occurs. Minor Combo Joint Shear Capacity Ratios Major Combo Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity. Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity is based.Output Details Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output COLUMN HEADING Combo DESCRIPTION Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed. Grid line. Beam-Column Capacity Ratios Major Combo Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity.2 Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output . Minor Combo Technical Note 14 . Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity. Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity is based. Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity.

g. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Output Details Using the Print Design Tables Form To print concrete frame design input data directly to a printer. Click the OK button to send the print to your printer.txt. click Yes to replace the existing file. . use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the check box on the Print Design Tables dialog box. if necessary. Or use the Filename>> button to locate another file. click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables dialog box. the Selection Only check box will be checked.3 . Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e.. If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. Click the Filename>> button to change the path or filename. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print.doc). To print concrete frame design input data to a file. . and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears. Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 14 .xls. Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file. Data will be added to this file. The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables dialog box. Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables dialog box and the Print Design Tables dialog box to complete the request. . The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file.

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Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 21 Beam Design. See Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 18 Design Load Combination for more information. BERKELEY. Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 20 Column Design. which are described in Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 23 Input Data and Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 24 Output Details. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures.1 . Special (high seismic risk areas) moment resisting frames as required for seismic design provisions. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99 Technical Note 15 General and Notation Introduction to the ACI318-99 Series of Technical Notes The ACI-318-99 Concrete Frame Design series of Technical Notes describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by this program when the user selects the ACI-318-99 Design Code (ACI 1999). The various notations used in this series are listed herein. Introduction to the ACI318-99 Series of Technical Notes Technical Note 15 . which are described in Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 16 Preferences and Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 17 Overwrites. The program uses preferences and overwrites. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Inch-Pound-Second units unless otherwise noted. It also provides input and output data summaries. The details of the design criteria used for the different framing systems are described in Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 19 Strength Reduction Factors. Intermediate (moderate seismic risk areas). and Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 22 Joint Design.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. For simplicity. INC. Ordinary. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. Earthquake resisting frames. The program provides options to design or check Earthquake resisting frames.. But the code is based on Inch-Pound-Second units. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. and Earthquake resisting frames.

lb-in Factored moment to be used in design. lb-in Larger factored end moment in a column. sq-in Area of shear reinforcement. lb-in As(required) Ast Av Cm Ec Es Ig Ise L M1 M2 Mc Mns Ms Technical Note 15 . sq-in Area of tension reinforcement. dependent upon column curvature. sq-in Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. sq-in Gross area of concrete. psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. sq-in Coefficient.2 Notation . in4 Clear unsupported length.2) Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis.General and Notation Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Notation Acv Ag As ' As Area of concrete used to determine shear stress.000. used to calculate moment magnification factor Modulus of elasticity of concrete. sq-in Area of compression reinforcement. assumed as 29. lb-in Nonsway component of factored end moment. lb-in Sway component of factored end moment.5. in Smaller factored end moment in a column. in4 Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of member cross section. sq-in Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement. neglecting reinforcement.000 psi (ACI 8.

3 . lb Factored shear force at a section. in Width of web (T-Beam section). lb Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity. lb Depth of compression block. in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. in Depth to neutral axis. lb-in Factored moment at section about Y-axis. lb Critical buckling strength of column. lb Shear force from span loading. lb Factored axial load at section.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 General and Notation Mu Mux Muy Pb Pc Pmax P0 Pu Vc VE VD+L Vu Vp a ab b bf bw c cb d d' Factored moment at section. lb Maximum axial load strength allowed. lb-in Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions. lb Shear force caused by earthquake loads. lb Shear force computed from probable moment capacity. in Depth of compression block at balanced condition. in Effective width of flange (T-Beam section). in Notation Technical Note 15 . lb Shear resisted by concrete. in Width of member. in Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions. lb-in Factored moment at section about X-axis. in Concrete cover to center of reinforcing.

psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. in Effective length factor Radius of gyration of column section.General and Notation Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 ds f c' fy Thickness of slab (T-Beam section).4) Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. in Specified compressive strength of concrete.000 psi (ACI 9. psi Dimension of column. psi fy ≤ 80. in Reinforcing steel overstrength factor Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to maximum factored axial total load Absolute value of ratio or maximum factored axial dead load to maximum factored axial total load Moment magnification factor for sway moments Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Strength reduction factor fys h k r α β1 βd δs δns εc εs ϕ Technical Note 15 .4 Notation .

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99

**Technical Note 16 Preferences
**

This Technical Note describes the items in the Preferences form.

General

The concrete frame design preferences in this program are basic assignments that apply to all concrete frame elements. Use the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design command to access the Preferences form where you can view and revise the concrete frame design preferences. Default values are provided for all concrete frame design preference items. Thus, it is not required that you specify or change any of the preferences. You should, however, at least review the default values for the preference items to make sure they are acceptable to you.

**Using the Preferences Form
**

To view preferences, select the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design. The Preferences form will display. The preference options are displayed in a two-column spreadsheet. The left column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item name. The right column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item value. To change a preference item, left click the desired preference item in either the left or right column of the spreadsheet. This activates a drop-down box or highlights the current preference value. If the drop-down box appears, select a new value. If the cell is highlighted, type in the desired value. The preference value will update accordingly. You cannot overwrite values in the dropdown boxes. When you have finished making changes to the composite beam preferences, click the OK button to close the form. You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the Cancel button to exit

General

Technical Note 16 - 1

Preferences

Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

the form, any changes made to the preferences are ignored and the form is closed.

Preferences

For purposes of explanation in this Technical Note, the preference items are presented in Table. The column headings in the table are described as follows: Item: The name of the preference item as it appears in the cells at the left side of the Preferences form. Possible Values: The possible values that the associated preference item can have. Default Value: The built-in default value that the program assumes for the associated preference item. Description: A description of the associated preference item.

**Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences
**

Item Design Code Possible Values Any code in the program >0 >0 >0 >0 ≥4.0 Default Value ACI 318-99 Description Design code used for design of concrete frame elements. Unitless strength reduction factor per ACI 9.3. Unitless strength reduction factor per ACI 9.3. Unitless strength reduction factor per ACI 9.3. Unitless strength reduction factor per ACI 9.3. Number of equally spaced interaction curves used to create a full 360-degree interaction surface (this item should be a multiple of four). We recommend that you use 24 for this item.

Phi Bending Tension Phi Compression Tied Phi Compression Spiral Phi Shear Number Interaction Curves

0.9 0.7 0.75 0.85 24

Technical Note 16 - 2

Preferences

Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Preferences

**Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences
**

Item Possible Values Default Value 11 Description Number of points used for defining a single curve in a concrete frame interaction surface (this item should be odd). Toggle for design load combinations that include a time history designed for the envelope of the time history, or designed step-by-step for the entire time history. If a single design load combination has more than one time history case in it, that design load combination is designed for the envelopes of the time histories, regardless of what is specified here.

Number Inter- Any odd value action Points ≥4.0 Time History Design Envelopes or Step-by-Step

Envelopes

Preferences

Technical Note 16 - 3

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at least review the default values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. To access the overwrites. INC.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Default Value: The default value that the program assumes for the associated overwrite item. these names are generally short. The column headings in the table are described as follows. to the elements that are selected when the overwrites are changed. the overwrites are presented in Table 1. An explanation of how to change an overwrite is provided at the end of this Technical Note. This Technical Note describes concrete frame design overwrites for ACI318-99. that is. BERKELEY. the program applies the changes only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned. Possible Values: The possible values that the associated overwrite item can have. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99 Technical Note 17 Overwrites General The concrete frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to those elements to which they are assigned. you do not need to specify or change any of the overwrites. When changes are made to overwrite items. Thus. Description: A description of the associated overwrite item. Overwrites Technical Note 17 .. select an element and click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. However. Default values are provided for all overwrite items. To save space in the formes.1 . Item: The name of the overwrite item as it appears in the program. Overwrites For explanation purposes in this Technical Note.

Sway Ordinary NonSway >0 ≤1.0 1. See ACI 10.1. See ACI 10.12.0 >0 ≤1. Possible Values Default Value Description Element Type Live Load Reduction Factor Horizontal Earthquake Factor Unbraced Length Ratio (Major) Unbraced Length Ratio (Minor) Effective Length Factor (K Major) Effective Length Factor (K Minor) Moment Coefficient (Cm Major) Moment Coefficient (Cm Minor) NonSway Moment Factor (Dns Major) Technical Note 17 . See ACI 10.0 >0 ≤1.13 and Figure R10. Sway Special Frame type per moment frame definition given in ACI 21.12.12.0 >0 ≤1.Overwrites Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites Item Element Section Sway Special.0 >0 ≤1.12. 10.0 >0 ≤1.12.0 >0 ≤1.12. 1.0 >0 ≤1.13 and Figure R10. Sway Intermediate. Used to reduce the live load contribution to the factored loading.3.0 1 1. Factor relating actual moment diagram to an equivalent uniform moment diagram.1.2 Overwrites .3.0 >0 ≤1.1. 10.0 1 1 1 1 1 See ACI 10. See ACI 10.12. Factor relating actual moment diagram to an equivalent uniform moment diagram.

no values show for the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet. select an element and click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. Then left click in either column of the spreadsheet to activate a drop-down box or highlight the contents in the cell in the right column of the spreadsheet. Initially. The overwrites are displayed in the form with a column of check boxes and a two-column spreadsheet. 1 See ACI 10. The names of the overwrite items are displayed in the first column of the spreadsheet.13. 1 See ACI 10.13. check the box to the left of an overwrite item to change it. The left column of the spreadsheet contains the name of the overwrite item. The values of the overwrite items are visible in the second column of the spreadsheet if only one element was selected before the overwrites form was accessed. If the drop-down box appears. the check boxes in the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form are all unchecked and all of the cells in the spreadsheet have a gray background to indicate that they are inactive and the items in the cells cannot be changed.3 . select a value from Overwrites Technical Note 17 . If multiple elements were selected.Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Overwrites Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites Item NonSway Moment Factor (Dns Minor) Sway Moment Factor (Ds Major) Sway Moment Factor (Ds Minor) Possible Values Default Value 1 Description See ACI 10. After selecting one or multiple elements. Making Changes in the Overwrites Form To access the concrete frame overwrites. The right column of the spreadsheet contains the overwrites values.13.

type in the desired value. click the OK button to close the form. If you click the Cancel button to exit the form. The concrete frame overwrite values that were in a . Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default Values Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Reset All Overwrites command to reset all of the steel frame overwrites.Overwrites Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 the box. not to the values that were in the . When changes to the overwrites have been completed. All current design results will be deleted when this command is executed. You cannot change the values of the dropdown boxes.4 Overwrites . The overwrite will reflect the change. If the cell contents is highlighted. You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. Technical Note 17 . When you reset overwrites. The program then changes all of the overwrite items whose associated check boxes are checked for the selected members. Important note about resetting overwrites: The program defaults for the overwrite items are built into the program. the program resets the overwrite values to its built-in values.edb file that you used to initialize your model may be different from the built-in program default values.edb file used to initialize the model. any changes made to the overwrites are ignored and the form is closed.

4 DL + 1.2. if the structure is subjected to wind (WL) and earthquake (EL) loads and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.4 DL 1.2. in addition to the dead and live loads. The user is warned that the above load combinations involving seismic loads consider service-level seismic forces. Different load factors may apply with strength-level seismic forces (ACI R9.1 EL) (ACI 9. BERKELEY.4 DL + 1. 1.75 (1.2.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only. For the ACI 318-99 code.9 DL ± 1. INC. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load condition on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.7 LL ± 1.2. Design Load Combinations Technical Note 18 .7 LL ± 1.4 DL + 1.7 LL 0.2) (ACI 9.9 DL ± 1.2). CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99 Technical Note 18 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed load cases for which the structure needs to be checked.. namely 1. the stress check may need only one load combination.1) (ACI 9.7 WL) 0.3) These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever the ACI 318-99 code is used.75 (1.3).7 LL (ACI 9. However.1 .1 EL 0.4 DL + 1.1).3 * 1. See Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 17 Overwrites for more information. the following load combinations should be considered (ACI 9.7 * 1.2.3 WL 0.

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shear. INC.2) (ACI 9. are applied on the nominal strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member.90 for axial tension = 0. axial force. The ϕ factors for flexure.85 for shear and torsion (ACI 9.1) (ACI 9.3.3.70 for axial compression. and axial compression and flexure (spirally reinforced column) (ACI 9. and axial compression and flexure (tied column) (ACI 9.2.90 for flexure = 0.3.3.2..2. BERKELEY.3) ϕ ϕ Strength Reduction Factors Technical Note 19 .2.90 for axial tension and flexure (ACI 9. ϕ.3.3. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99 Technical Note 19 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.75 for axial compression.2) = 0.2.2) = 0.1 .©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.2) = 0.2. and torsion are as follows: ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ = 0.

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Overview The program can be used to check column capacity or to design columns.9. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99 Technical Note 20 Column Design This Technical Note describes how the program checks column capacity or designs reinforced concrete columns when the ACI-318-99 code is selected. Design the column shear reinforcement. The following four sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process. Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each station of the column. The target capacity ratio is taken as one when calculating the required reinforcing area.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. BERKELEY.1 ..4.1) and 1 to 6 percent for Special moment resisting frames (ACI 21. INC. Overview Technical Note 20 . If you define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section.3. the program will check the column capacity. When the steel is undefined. Alternatively. A typical biaxial interaction surface is shown in Figure 1. the program can calculate the amount of reinforcing required to design the column. the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement 1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ACI 10.1). The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model.

the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending.Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Figure 1 A Typical Column Interaction Surface Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure surface. A typical interaction diagram is shown in Figure 1. The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in three dimensions on the section of the column.2 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces . The Technical Note 20 . See Figure 2.

ϕ is increased linearly from ϕ(compression) to ϕ(flexure) as the ϕPn decreases from the smaller of ϕPb or 0.3. with a stress value of 0. fy (ACI 10. ϕ.2.80ϕ[0.1) (ACI 10.2.7.3. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to ϕPn(max). and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular. ϕ ϕ = = 0. In cases involving axial tension. Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces Technical Note 20 .70 for tied columns. are included in the generation of the interaction surfaces.2) (ACI 9. The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity. See Figure 3. ϕPn(max) = 0. εsEs.1).5.2) (ACI 9.2. εc. and is limited to the yield stress of the steel.75 for spirally reinforced columns.3.2.3). at the extremity of the section.85 f c' (Ag-Ast)+fyAst] spiral column. or circular column section.85ϕ[0.3).003 (ACI 10.2).9 by default (ACI 9. The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any further simplifications with respect to distributing the area of steel over the cross section of the column. The ϕ factor used in calculating ϕPn and ϕPb is the ϕ(compression).3.2) The value of ϕ used in the interaction diagram varies from ϕ(compression) to ϕ(flexure) based on the axial load. (ACI 10. The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular. square.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain. where ϕPb is the axial force at the balanced condition.85 f c' (Ag-Ast)+fyAst] tied column.2. to 0.3. and 0.4).5.3 . ϕ is always ϕ(flexure).1 f c' Ag to zero. The effects of the strength reduction factor. See Figure 3. The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate strength design (ACI 10. such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder. The interaction algorithm provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone.85 f c' (ACI 10. where ϕPn(max) = 0. For low values of axial load. which is 0.2.

4 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces .Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Figure 2 Idealized Strain Distribution for Generation of Interaction Source Technical Note 20 .

defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial moment set. lies within the interaction volume. The factored moments and corresponding magnification factors depend on the identification of the individual column as either “sway” or “non-sway. The following steps are involved in calculating the capacity ratio of a particular column for a particular load combination at a particular location: Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and the specified load combination factors to give Pu. Determine whether the point.5 . Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored moments. Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 20 . and Muy. Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments. Mux.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design Figure 3 Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section Calculate Column Capacity Ratio The column capacity ratio is calculated for each load combination at each output station of each column.” The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process.

12.10. Also.10. See also White and Hajjar (1991).6).1.3) The factor δs is the moment magnification factor for moments causing side sway.4. R10. 10. The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the sway (Ms) and the non-sway (Mns) components. and Muy. moment magnification factor δs for moments causing side-sway is taken as unity (ACI 10.10.7 live load (ACI 10. the magnified moments about two axes at any station of a column can be obtained as M = Mns + δsMs.2).11). δs. For the P-delta analysis.13.4. the load should correspond to a load combination of 1. δns.0.12.13. The sway moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads. where h is the dimension of the column in the corresponding direction (ACI 10. Mux.6+0.1).11. therefore. This βd for sway frame in second-order analysis is different from the one that is defined later for non-sway moment magnification (ACI 10.1).4 dead load + 1. The program assumes that it performs a P-delta analysis and. The sway components are identified by the “s” subscripts. (ACI 10.6 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio . Determine Moment Magnification Factors The moment magnification factors are calculated separately for sway (overall stability effect). R10.0. which are identified by “ns” subscripts. The user should use reduction factors for the moment of inertias in the program as specified in ACI 10. The moment magnification factors for sway moments. R10. δs and for non-sway (individual column stability effect). 10.2).13. is taken as 1 because the component moments Ms and Mns are obtained from a “second order elastic (P-delta) analysis” (ACI R10.3. to obtain minimum eccentricities of (0. For individual columns or column-members in a floor.13).3. R10. Technical Note 20 . The non-sway components. if required. are predominantly caused by gravity load. The factored moments are further increased for non-sway columns. the moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are in general different (ACI 10.13. The moment of inertia reduction for sustained lateral load involves a factor βd (ACI 10.13. giving Pu.Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Determine Factored Moments and Forces The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the corresponding load factors to all the load cases. and are related to the cause of side sway. The default moment of inertia factor in this program is 1.03h) inches.

δns.12.12.3. δns. The non-sway moment magnification factor. If transverse load is present on the span. associated with the major or minor direction of the column is given by (ACI 10. The two unsupported lengths are l22 and l33. The user can overwrite Cm on an element-byelement basis.7 .13. where (ACI 10. and Mb is numerically larger than Ma. Cm=1. the program allows the user to override this value (ACI 10.3) Cm = 0.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design The computed moments are further amplified for individual column stability effect (ACI 10.0.12.1).4. lu is the unsupported length of the column for the direction of bending considered.4 (ACI 10. where (ACI 10. See Figure 4.3) k is conservatively taken as 1. Pc = π 2 EI (kl u )2 .12. The above expression of Cm is valid if there is no transverse load applied between the supports. or the length is overwritten. respectively. Mb (ACI 10. corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of the element. as follows: Mc = δnsM.5) by the nonsway moment magnification factor.3) δns = Cm ≤ 1.1) Ma and Mb are the moments at the ends of the column.12. Ma / Mb is positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending. 10. where Pu 1− 0. however.6 +0.3) Mc is the factored moment to be used in design.75Pc Ma ≥ 0.12.12. These are the lengths Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 20 .3.

75Pc.12. If Pu is found to be greater than or equal to 0.3) βd = maximum factored axial sustained (dead) load maximum factored axial total load (ACI 10.0.12.Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Figure 4 Axes of Bending and Unsupported Length between the support points of the element in the corresponding directions. Therefore. Pu must be less than 0. δns.4E c I g 1 + βd .3) The magnification factor. a failure condition is declared. where (ACI 10. EI is associated with a particular column direction: EI = 0.8 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio . Technical Note 20 .75Pc.R10. must be a positive number and greater than one.

Mux. This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C. This point is determined by three-dimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failOL ure surface. the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed. and Muy set and associated load combination number. the moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain Pu. EI. That means that δs. and Muy. The capacity ratio. Muy) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in Figure 5. Determine Capacity Ratio As a measure of the stress condition of the column. the column is overstressed. The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate. is given by the ratio .Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design The above calculations are performed for major and minor directions separately. the user can explicitly specify values of δs and δns. the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is stressed to capacity. and Pc assume different values for major and minor directions of bending. a capacity ratio is calculated. however. See Figure 5. δns. the column capacity is adequate. If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member. if the point lies outside the interaction volume. Cm. If OL > OC (or CR>1). Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity. OC If OL = OC (or CR=1). The point (Pu. The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling Pu. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. Mux. If OL < OC (or CR<1). lu.9 . Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 20 . If the point lies within the interaction volume. k. Mux. CR.

the program computes the reinforcement that will give a column capacity ratio of one.Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Figure 5 Geometric Representation of Column Capacity Ratio Required Reinforcing Area If the reinforcing area is not defined." Design Column Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination in the major and minor directions of the column. calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Calculate Column Capacity Ratio.10 Required Reinforcing Area . The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular load combination resulting from shear forces in a particular direction: Technical Note 20 .

the forces for a particular load combination. Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. the factored axial load. Determine the shear force. Vu.1) where.e. of the column in a particular direction under the influence of the axial force Pu is calculated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction. the column axial force. For each load combination. namely. in a particular direction are obtained by factoring the program analysis load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. Vp. Vc.1) Vu = Vp + VD+L (ACI 21. Determine Section Forces In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame. Vp is the capacity shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 20 . Note that Pu is needed for the calculation of Vc. Mu and Mu . respectively. is then given by (ACI 21. that can be resisted by concrete alone. Pu. and the column shear force. For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (Ductile frames).11 .. in a particular direction is calculated from the probable moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial force acting on the column. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process.4. the column is checked for capacity shear in addition to the requirement for the Ordinary moment resisting frames.5. in addition to the factored moments.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design Determine the factored forces acting on the section. is calculated. seismic design). The capacity shear force in a column. Effects of the axial forces on the column moment capacities are included in the formulation.4. the shear design of the columns is also based on the Probable moment and nominal moment capacities of the members. Pu and Vu.5. The design shear force. Vu. Then. + − the positive and negative moment capacities. Pu. In the shear design of Special moment resisting frames (i.

R21.0.10. it is zero. + − MJ . is calculated as follows: Technical Note 20 .0). and L + − MI + M J . except that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1. = Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the column using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.3.a. except the earthquake load factors are doubled (ACI 21. in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. MJ . where VP1 = VP2 = − + MI + M J .10).25 (ACI 21.0).5. For Intermediate moment resisting frames. where L + − MI .10. = Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the column using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1. For Special moment resisting frames α is taken as 1.4. Vc. MI .3. Vp is the maximum of VP1 and VP2 .0) moment capacity and modified factored shear force.25 (ACI 10.12 Design Column Shear Reinforcement . the shear force carried by the concrete.1). The design shear force is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal (ϕ = 1. Determine Concrete Shear Capacity Given the design force set Pu and Vu. the shear capacity of the column is also checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads. For most of the columns. The procedure for calculating nominal moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for special moment resisting frames. VD+L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads. Therefore.b). The modified factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors.Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 in two opposite directions. R21. and L = Clear span of column.

3) For Special moment resisting concrete frame design.5.5. (Vu / ϕ-Vc) ≤ 8 f c' Acv (ACI 11.2) Av = (ACI 11. for circular columns. If the column is subjected to axial tension. Acv is taken to be equal to the gross area of the section (ACI 11.3.1.6.3. s.1. Vc is set to zero if the factored axial compressive force. For circular columns.13 .e.1. VE.6.3.8D) (ACI 11.2. Acv.5.000 Ag f c' ≤ 100 psi.3.2) (ACI 11. for rectangular columns and f ys d (Vu / ϕ − Vc )s .6.3.3). is small (Pu < f c' Ag / 20) and if the shear force contribution from earthquake. Pu Vc = 2 f c' 1 + 2.2).5 f c' 1 + Pu 500 Ag Acv. f ys (0. and Vc ≤ 3. where (ACI 11.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design If the column is subjected to axial compression.2.9) Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 20 .4. the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or ties within a spacing.3.6..5. Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given Vu and Vc. is given for rectangular and circular columns by Av = (Vu / ϕ − Vc )s .2) (ACI 11. 11.5. R11.2) The term Pu / Ag must have psi units.3) Vu is limited by the following relationship. which is shown shaded in Figure 6. is more than half of the total factored maximum shear force over the length of the member Vu (VE ≥ 0. i. Pu. Acv is the effective shear area. Pu is positive.3. Pu is negative Vc = 2 f c' 1 + Pu 500 Ag Acv ≥ 0 (ACI 11. 11.5Vu) (ACI 21. including the earthquake effect.3.

along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination label.3.2.14 Design Column Shear Reinforcement . redimensioning of the concrete section is required. is 0.85 (ACI 9.Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Figure 6 Shear Stress Area. Here ϕ.3). The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on shear strength consideration. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing considerations or transverse reinforcement volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Acv Otherwise. The maximum of all the calculated Av values obtained from each load combination are reported for the major and minor directions of the column. the strength reduction factor. Technical Note 20 .

28. American Institute of Steel Construction. 4. Application of Second-Order Elastic Analysis in LRFD: Research to Practice. Vol. No.F. Reference Technical Note 20 . D. Hajjar.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design Reference White. Engineering Journal. 1991. Inc.W. and J.15 .

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CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99 Technical Note 21 Beam Design This Technical Note describes how this program completes beam design when the ACI 318-99 code is selected. load combination factors. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user-defined number of check/design stations along the beam span. The following steps are involved in designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment for a particular beam for a particular section: Determine the maximum factored moments Determine the reinforcing steel Overview Technical Note 21 .. The program calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments. INC. the program calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments. minor direction bending.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. BERKELEY. and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. and other criteria described below. load combination factors and other criteria described herein. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design beam flexural reinforcement Design beam shear reinforcement Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at check/design stations along the beam span. Effects resulting from any axial forces. shears. shears. Overview In the design of concrete beams. All beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.1 .

the beam may be designed as a Rectangular. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of Special. + The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive M u and maxi− mum negative M u factored moments obtained from all of the load combina- tions.1 f c' Ag (ACI 10. the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. Intermediate.3. It is assumed that the compression carried by concrete is less than 0.3). or Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame beams.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (ACI 10. all the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement.and T-beams) is summarized below. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. hence. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed 0. In such cases.or a T-beam. Negative beam moments produce top steel. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this designed balanced condition. or the grade of concrete. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown in Figure 1 (ACI 10. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. Technical Note 21 . the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. The design procedure used by this program for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.3).2). In such cases. Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.3. the width.2 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement .

7. Mu (i.05 c 1.000 + f y ε c E s + fy (ACI 10. a=dd2 − 2 Mu 1 0.85.7.000 d = d. the value of ϕ is 0.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design Figure 1 Design of Rectangular Beam Section Design for Rectangular Beam In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. (ACI 10. designing top or bottom steel). β1 = 0.2.e.85-0. 10.000 cb = εc Es 87.3) (ACI 10.2.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.2..85f c ϕb .1) where. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 1).3.1) in the above and the following equations.2.90 (ACI 9.000 . Also β1 and cb are calculated as follows: f ' − 4.3 . 87. 0.4) Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 21 .2. where.3.

7.4 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . where c − d' f s' = 0.3. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10. − So the required compression steel is given by ' As = M us f s' (d − d' )ϕ .85 f c' bamax.1. or at the top if Mu is negative.4) The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is Technical Note 21 .2. If a > amax.3) If a ≤ amax.003Es .2.7. This steel is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive.75β1cb.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by amax = 0.2. and (ACI 10.Muc. the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by As = Mu a ϕf y d − 2 . 10.3. c − (ACI 10. (ACI 10.3) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by C = 0. Therefore the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is Mus = Mu .1) the moment resisted by concrete compression and tensile steel is a Muc = C d − max 2 − ϕ.

the total tensile reinforcement. calculation for As is performed in two parts. Compression reinforcement is required if a > amax. and total ' ' compression reinforcement is As . If Mu > 0.3) • If a ≤ ds. the depth of the compression block is given by a=dd2 − 2Mu 0. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. and vice versa if Mu is negative. and the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is given by As2 = M us . in this case the width of the compression flange is taken as the width of the beam for analysis..85f c' ϕbf . Mu (i.3. the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above.2. See Figure 2. (ACI 10. However.. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular section design.7. As = As1 + As2.85 f c' (bf . Cf is given by Cf = 0.75β1cb. f y (d − d' )ϕ − Therefore.bw)ds.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design As1 = M uc a f y d − max ϕ 2 . and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. As is to be placed at bottom and As is to be placed at top if Mu is positive. Cf.e. no T-Beam data is to be used. Design for T-Beam In designing for a factored negative moment. Cw.e. If a > ds. 10. The maximum allowed depth of compression block is given by amax = 0.5 . as shown in Figure 2. • Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 21 . i. designing top steel).1.

Therefore. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as a1 = d d2 − 2Muw 0. the value for ϕ is ϕ(flexure). As1 = given by d Muf = Cf d − s ϕ.90 by default. which is 0. and Technical Note 21 .Muf. the balance of the moment.6 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . 2 Again.85f ci ϕbw . the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by As2 = Muw a ϕf y d − 1 2 . Cf fy and the portion of Mu that is resisted by the flange is If a1 ≤ amax.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Figure 2 Design of a T-Beam Section Therefore. Mu to be carried by the web is given by Muw = Mu . The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d.

2.3) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force in web concrete alone is given by C = 0. If a1 > amax. and amax )ϕ f y (d − 2 the tensile steel for balancing compression in steel is As3 = Mus .Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design As = As1 + As2. the compression steel is computed as ' As = Mus f s' (d − d' )ϕ . where c − d' f s' = 0. (ACI 10.003Es .Muc.7.1) − Therefore.2. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.7 . This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the T-beam. − Therefore. c − (ACI 10. the moment resisted by concrete web and tensile steel is a Muc = C d − max ϕ .3. and 2 the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is Mus = Muw .85 f c' bamax. f y (d − d' )ϕ Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 21 .4) The tensile steel for balancing compression in web concrete is As2 = Muc .

3 f ' 200 c As(min) ≥ max bw d and bw d or fy fy As(min) ≥ 4 As(required).3.3) The beam flexural steel is limited to a maximum given by As ≤ 0. associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than 1/2 of the beam negative moment capacity (i.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 − The total tensile reinforcement.e. associated with the top steel) at that end (ACI 21.8 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the Technical Note 21 . and total ' compression reinforcement is As .1) At any end (support) of the beam.3. Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less than As(min) (ACI 21. (ACI 21.3) Special Consideration for Seismic Design For Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design). the beam design satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table 1): The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both the top and bottom.3. As = As1 + As2 + As3.1).2.2. As is to be placed at bottom and ' As is to be placed at top.5. Minimum Tensile Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an Ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two following limits: 3 f ' 200 c As ≥ max bw d and bw d or fy fy As ≥ (4/3)As(required).5..5..2.5.1) (ACI 10.1) (ACI 10.e.2). (ACI 10. 3 (ACI 10. the beam positive moment capacity (i.025 bwd.

4. The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular load combination at a particular station due to the beam major shear: • • • Determine the factored shear force.1).Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (ACI 21.2. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process. seismic design).3.9 . respectively. Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 21 . the beam positive moment capacity would not be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end (ACI 21.e.1). For Intermediate moment resisting concrete frames (i. the beam design would satisfy the following conditions: At any support of the beam. Vu. For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ductile frames).. in addition to the factored load design.4. that can be resisted by the concrete.2). the shear design of the beams is also based upon the probable and nominal moment capacities of the members. Determine the shear force. Vc.10. Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at a user defined number of stations along the beam span.10. Determine the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (ACI 21.

Moment Override Check + M uEND ≥ No Requirement + MuSPAN − M uSPAN { 1 ≥ max{ M 5 1 − M u END 3 1 + − ≥ max M u .Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Table 1 Design Criteria Table Type of Check/ Design Column Check (interaction) Column Design (interaction) Ordinary Moment Resisting Frames (non-Seismic) NLDa Combinations Intermediate Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic) NLDa Combinations Special Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic) NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 8% NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 8% Modified NLDa Combinations (earthquake loads doubled) Column capacity ϕ = 1.0 and α = 1.10 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement .25 NLDa Combinations ρ ≤ 0.25 and ϕ = 1. M } M 4 − u 1 − M u END 2 1 + − ≥ max Mu .0 and ϕ = 1.0 plus VD+L Vc = 0 Checked for shear Joint Design Beam/Column Capacity Ratio No Requirement No Requirement No Requirement Reported in output file NLDa = Number of specified loading Technical Note 21 . Mu 4 END − u END Beam Design Shear NLDa Combinations Modified NLDa Combinations (earthquake loads doubled) Beam Capacity Shear (Vp) with α = 1.0 and α = 1.0 plus VD+L No Requirement NLDa Combinations Beam Capacity Shear (Vp) with α = 1. M u END } } END + MuSPAN − MuSPAN { } 1 ≥ max{ .0 1% < ρ < 6% NLDa Combinations Column shear capacity ϕ = 1.025 ρ≥ 3 f c' fy Column Shears NLDa Combinations Beam Design Flexure NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations . M u 5 + M uEND ≥ + − u .0 NLDa Combinations α = 1. ρ ≥ 200 fy Beam Min.

The design shear force Vu is then given by (ACI 21. The capacity shear force. This check is performed in addition to the design check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0). using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1. Vp. with top steel in tension. Therefore. In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames (i. where L = = Moment capacity at end I.0). and L + − MI + MJ .4. Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 21 .3.1) Vu = Vp + VD+L (ACI 21. the shear forces and moments for a particular load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding load combination factors.1) • where Vp is the capacity shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting in two opposite directions.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design Determine Shear Force and Moment • In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame. Vp is the maximum of VP1 and VP2 . where VP1 VP2 − MI = − + MI + MJ .4. + MJ = Moment capacity at end J. The procedure for calculating the design shear force in a beam from probable moment capacity is the same as that described for a column in section “Design Column Shear Reinforcement” of Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Technical Note 20 Column Design.3. seismic design). is calculated from the probable moment capacities of each end of the beam and the gravity shear forces.11 . the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the capacity shear resulting from the probable moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity load.e. with bottom steel in tension.. See also Table 1 for details.

Beam Design

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

+ MI

= Moment capacity at end I, with bottom steel in tension, using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),

− MJ

**= Moment capacity at end J, with top steel in tension, using a
**

steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0), and = Clear span of beam.

L

For Special moment resisting frames α is taken as 1.25 (ACI 21.0, R21.3.4.1). VD+L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads.

•

For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads, in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design shear force in beams is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal moment capacity and modified factored shear force. The procedure for calculating nominal (ϕ = 1.0) moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for Special moment resisting frames, except that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25 (ACI 21.10.3.a, R21.10). The modified factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors, except the earthquake load factors are doubled (ACI 21.10.3.b). The computation of the design shear force in a beam of an Intermediate moment resisting frame is the same as described for columns in section “Determine Section Forces” of Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Technical Note 20 Column Design. See also Table 1 for details.

**Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
**

The allowable concrete shear capacity is given by Vc = 2 f c' bwd. (ACI 11.3.1.1)

For Special moment resisting frame concrete design, Vc is set to zero if both the factored axial compressive force, including the earthquake effect Pu, is less than f c' Ag/20 and the shear force contribution from earthquake VE is more than half of the total maximum shear force over the length of the member Vu (i.e., VE ≥ 0.5Vu) (ACI 21.3.4.2).

Technical Note 21 - 12

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Beam Design

**Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

Given Vu and Vc, the required shear reinforcement in area/unit length is calculated as Av = (Vu / ϕ − Vc )s . f ys d (ACI 11.5.6.1, 11.5.6.2)

The shear force resisted by steel is limited by (Vu / ϕ - Vc) ≤ 8 f c' bd. (ACI 11.5.6.9)

Otherwise, redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here, ϕ, the strength reduction factor for shear, is 0.85 by default (ACI 9.3.2.3). The maximum of all the calculated Av values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number. The beam shear reinforcement requirements displayed by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement

Technical Note 21 - 13

The program then checks this against design shear strength. INC. The joint analysis is completed in the major and the minor directions of the column. Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Figure 1 illustrates the free body stress condition of a typical beam-column intersection for a column direction. The program then checks this against design shear strength. Vuh Determine the effective area of the joint Check panel zone shear stress The algorithms associated with these three steps are described in detail in the following three sections. The material properties of the joint are assumed to be the same as those of the column below the joint.. Only joints having a column below the joint are designed. Overview To ensure that the beam-column joint of special moment resisting frames possesses adequate shear strength. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99 Technical Note 22 Joint Design This Technical Note explains how the program performs a rational analysis of the beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are generated in a joint. Overview Technical Note 22 . BERKELEY. major or minor.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.1 . the program performs a rational analysis of the beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are generated in the joint. The joint design procedure involves the following steps: Determine the panel zone design shear force.

Joint Design Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Figure 1 Beam-Column Joint Analysis Technical Note 22 .2 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force .

The forces Pu and Vu are axial force and shear force. The program first calculates the maximum compression. The program calculates the joint shear force Vuh by resolving the moments into C and T forces. Mmax. The moments MuL and MuR are obtained from the beams framing into the joint.Vu The location of C or T forces is determined by the direction of the moment. as follows: Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Technical Note 22 .3 . Cmax. from the column framing into the top of the joint. that can be carried by the beam. The C and T force are based on these moment capacities. Vu.1. considering the fact that the concrete cover may be different for the direction of moment. MuL and MuR. respectively. and the maximum moment.1.Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Joint Design The force Vuh is the horizontal panel zone shear force that is to be calculated.1). The forces that act on the joint are Pu. Vuh = TL + TR .1. thereby contributing force components to the analysis. The program calculates the column shear force Vu from the beam moment capacities.5. the evaluation of the design shear force is based on the moment capacities (with reinforcing steel overstrength factor. α. and no ϕ factors) of the beams framing into the joint (ACI 21. Also.85f ' c bd Mmax = C max d 2 Then the program conservatively determines C and T forces as follows: abs( M ) C = T = C max 1 − 1 − M max The program resolves the moments and the C and T forces from beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor directions of the column along the direction that is being investigated. C max = 0. The magnitude of C or T forces is conservatively determined using basic principles of ultimate strength theory. the program calculates the C and T for the positive and negative moments. In the design of special moment resisting concrete frames. Noting that TL = CL and TR = CR.5. ignoring compression reinforcement as follows. UBC 1921.

the shear force from the top of the column is taken as zero.5.5.4 Determine the Effective Area of Joint . The effects of load reversals.3. as illustrated in Case 1 and Case 2 of Figure 1. The joint area for joint shear along the major and minor directions is calculated separately (ACI R21. the above assumptions may be unconservative and the user should investigate the acceptability of the particular joint. The effective width of the joint area to be used in the calculation is limited to the width of the beam plus the depth of the column.3): v = { 20ϕ 15ϕ 12ϕ f 'c f 'c f 'c for joints confirmed on all four sides for joints confirmed on three faces or on two opposite faces for all other joints Technical Note 22 . Check Panel Zone Shear Stress The panel zone shear stress is evaluated by dividing the shear force Vuh by the effective area of the joint and comparing it with the following design shear strengths (ACI 21. If there is no column at the top of the joint. It should be noted that if the beam frames into the joint eccentrically. UBC 1921.3). The dimensions of the rectangle correspond to the major and minor dimensions of the column below the joint. The area of the joint is assumed not to exceed the area of the column below. It should be noted that the points of inflection shown on Figure 2 are taken as midway between actual lateral support points for the columns. except if the beam framing into the joint is very narrow. Determine the Effective Area of Joint The joint area that resists the shear forces is assumed always to be rectangular in plan view.Joint Design Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Vu = Mu + Mu H L R See Figure 2. are investigated and the design is based on the maximum of the joint shears obtained from the two cases.5.

3. Determine the Effective Area of Joint Technical Note 22 .3.1.5. (ACI 9.4.1) A beam that frames into a face of a column at the joint is considered in this program to provide confinement to the joint if at least three-quarters of the face of the joint is covered by the framing member (ACI 21.1909.5 .3.3.5.2.3.2.85 (by default). UBC 1909.1).Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Joint Design Figure 2 Column Shear Force Vu where ϕ = 0.3.3. UBC 1921.

2) The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength factor. in each of the columns is calculated from the program analysis load combinations.6 Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios . the allowable joint shear stress and a capacity ratio. see Figure 3. The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are added to the summation. using the uniaxial column interaction diagram. factor f c' .4. the moment capacity of each column under the influence of the corresponding axial load Pu is then determined separately for the major and minor directions of the column. the axial force.Joint Design Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 For light-weight aggregate concrete.2) minf cs. The beam capacities are calculated for reversed situations (Cases 1 and 2) as illustrated in Figure 1 and the maximum summation obtained is used.2. major or minor.3.2.3 / 4 f c' For joint design. The maximum capacity summations obtained from all of the load combinations is used for the beam/column capacity ratio. Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios At a particular joint for a particular column direction. α . the joint shear stress. Pu. and including ϕ factors. ∑Me ≥ 6 ∑Mg 5 (ACI 21.4. For each load combination.5. UBC 1921. the program will calculate the ratio of the sum of the beam moment capacities to the sum of the column moment capacities (ACI 21. The moment capacities of the two columns are added to give the capacity summation for the corresponding load combination.5.2. Technical Note 22 . the program reports the joint shear. For each load combination. The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column below the joint.3. the design shear strength of the joint is reduced in the program to at least three-quarters of that of the normal weight concrete by replacing the f c' with (ACI 21.2).

7 . a warning message is printed in the output file. If this ratio is greater than 5/6.Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Joint Design The beam/column flexural capacity ratios are only reported for Special Moment-Resisting Frames involving seismic design load combinations. Figure 3 Moment Capacity Mu at a Given Axial Load Pu Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Technical Note 22 .

.

Further information about using the Print Design Tables form is presented at the end of this Technical Note. The column headings for input data and a description of what is included in the columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.. Tensile strength reduction factor. Load type: dead. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99 Technical Note 23 Input Data This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design input data for ACI318-99. Input Data The program provides the printout of the input data in a series of tables. other. superimposed dead. earthquake. Bending strength reduction factor. reduced live load. wind. Compressive strength reduction factor for reinforced columns. INC. Load Combination Multipliers Code Preferences Phi_bending Phi_tension Phi_compression (Tied) Phi_compression (Spiral) Phi_shear Input Data Technical Note 23 . BERKELEY. A printout of the input data provides the user with the opportunity to carefully review the parameters that have been input into the program and upon which program design is based. live. snow. Shear strength reduction factor. The input can be printed to a printer or to a text file when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING Combo Type Case Factor DESCRIPTION Design load combination. Compressive strength reduction factor for tied columns. See Technical Note 8. Name of load case. Load combination scale factor.1 .

Area of individual reinforcing bar to be used. Material Design Data for Concrete Materials Concrete Column Property Data Section Label Mat Label Column Depth Column Width Rebar Pattern Concrete Cover Bar Area Layout of main flexural reinforcing steel. Technical Note 23 . other. Concrete. default = 1. steel. Material Property Data Material Name Material Type Design Type Modulus of Elasticity Poisson's Ratio Thermal Coeff Shear Modulus Coefficient of thermal expansion. Label applied to section. Isotropic or orthotropic. Material Property Mass and Weight Material Name Mass Per Unit Vol Weight Per Unit Vol Material Name Lightweight Concrete Concrete FC Rebar FY Rebar FYS Lightwt Reduc Fact Concrete compressive strength. Minimum clear concrete cover. steel.0. Bending reinforcing steel yield strength. Concrete.Input Data Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Concrete. Material label. Used to calculate self-weight of structure. Shear strength reduction factor for light weight concrete. steel. Used to calculate self-mass of structure. other.2 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data . Shear reinforcing steel yield strength. other.

Effective length factor.0. Name of section assigned to column. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print. default = 1. Grid line. Grid lines locating beam.Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Input Data Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING Story ID Column Line Section ID Framing Type RLLF Factor L_Ratio Major L_Ratio Minor K Major K Minor Story ID Bay ID Section ID Framing type RLLF Factor L_Ratio Major L_Ratio Minor Unbraced length about major axis.3 . Unbraced length about minor axis. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers. To print concrete frame design input data to a file. DESCRIPTION Column assigned to story level at top of column. Click the OK button to send the print to your printer. Unbraced length about minor axis. Lateral or gravity. Story level at which beam occurs. Effective length factor. Lateral or gravity.0. Click the Filename>> button to change Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 23 . Section number assigned to beam. Concrete Column Design Element Information Concrete Beam Design Element Information Using the Print Design Tables Form To print concrete frame design input data directly to a printer. if necessary. Unbraced length about major axis. click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables form. use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the check box on the Print Design Tables form. default = 1.

Technical Note 23 .txt. If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. . .g. Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file. The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. the Selection Only check box will be checked.xls. . Data will be added to this file. Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e.Input Data Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 the path or filename. The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables form.doc). and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears. Or use the Filename>> button to locate another file..4 Using the Print Design Tables Form . click Yes to replace the existing file. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.

Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed. Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.. Further information about using the Print Design Tables form is presented at the end of this Technical Note. The program provides the output data in a series of tables. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99 Technical Note 24 Output Details This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design output for ACI318-99 that can be printed to a printer or to a text file. Shear reinforcing required. INC. The design output is printed when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and select Output Summary on the Print Design Tables form.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output Technical Note 24 . The column headings for output data and a description of what is included in the columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note. Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output COLUMN HEADING Story ID Column Line Section ID Station ID DESCRIPTION Column assigned to story level at top of column. Shear reinforcing required. Name of section assigned to column. BERKELEY. Grid lines. Biaxial P-M Interaction and Shear Design of Column-Type Elements Required Reinforcing Longitudinal Combo Shear22 Combo Shear33 Area of longitudinal reinforcing required.1 .

Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity. Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity is based. Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity is based. Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity. Assigned section name. Minor Combo Technical Note 24 . Beam-Column Capacity Ratios Major Combo Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity.Output Details Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output COLUMN HEADING Combo DESCRIPTION Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed. Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity is based. Grid line. Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity is based.2 Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output . Minor Combo Joint Shear Capacity Ratios Major Combo Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity. Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Beam to Column Capacity Ratios and Joint Shear Capacity Check Story ID Column Line Section ID Story level at which joint occurs.

txt. Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e. Or use the Filename>> button to locate another file.g.doc). the Selection Only check box will be checked. click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables form. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only. use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the check box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the Filename>> button to change the path or filename. If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers. Data will be added to this file.3 . Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print. To print concrete frame design input data to a file.xls.. . The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. Click the OK button to send the print to your printer.Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Output Details Using the Print Design Tables Form To print concrete frame design input data directly to a printer. . and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears. The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables form. click Yes to replace the existing file. Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 24 . . if necessary. Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request.

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