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# Computers and Structures, Inc.

**Berkeley, California, USA
**

Version 8

January 2002

ETABS

®

Integrated Building Design Software

Concrete Frame Design Manual

Copyright Computers and Structures, Inc., 1978-2002.

The CSI Logo is a trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc.

ETABS is a trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc.

Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated

Copyright

The computer program ETABS and all associated documentation are proprietary and

copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers and

Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of the program or reproduction of the documentation in

any form, without prior written authorization from Computers and Structures, Inc., is

explicitly prohibited.

Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from:

Computers and Structures, Inc.

1995 University Avenue

Berkeley, California 94704 USA

Phone: (510) 845-2177

FAX: (510) 845-4096

e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions)

e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions)

web: www.csiberkeley.com

DISCLAIMER

CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE

DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF ETABS. THE PROGRAM HAS

BEEN THOROUGHLY TESTED AND USED. IN USING THE PROGRAM,

HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY

IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS

ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THE PROGRAM.

THIS PROGRAM IS A VERY PRACTICAL TOOL FOR THE DESIGN/CHECK OF

CONCRETE STRUCTURES. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST THOROUGHLY READ

THE MANUAL AND CLEARLY RECOGNIZE THE ASPECTS OF CONCRETE

DESIGN THAT THE PROGRAM ALGORITHMS DO NOT ADDRESS.

THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE

PROGRAM AND MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS.

i

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN

Contents

General Concrete Frame Design Information

1 General Design Information

Design Codes 1-1

Units 1-1

Overwriting the Frame Design Procedure for a Con-

crete Frame

1-1

Design Load Combinations 1-2

Design of Beams 1-2

Design of Columns 1-3

Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios 1-4

Second Order P-Delta Effects 1-4

Element Unsupported Lengths 1-6

Analysis Sections and Design Sections 1-7

2 Concrete Frame Design Process

Concrete Frame Design Procedure 2-1

3 Interactive Concrete Frame Design

General 3-1

Concrete Design Information Form 3-1

4 Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model

Overview 4-1

Using the Print Design Tables Form 4-1

Design Input 4-2

Design Output 4-2

Concrete Frame Design Manual

ii

Concrete Frame Design Specific to UBC97

5 General and Notation

Introduction to the UBC 97 Series of Technical Notes 5-1

Notation 5-2

6 Preferences

General 6-1

Using the Preferences Form 6-1

Preferences 6-2

7 Overwrites

General 7-1

Overwrites 7-1

Making Changes in the Overwrites Form 7-3

Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default

Values

7-4

8 Design Load Combinations

9 Strength Reduction Factors

10 Column Design

Overview 10-1

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces 10-2

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio 10-5

Determine Factored Moments and Forces 10-6

Determine Moment Magnification Factors 10-6

Determine Capacity Ratio 10-8

Required Reinforcing Area 10-10

Design Column Shear Reinforcement 10-10

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement 10-14

Reference 10-15

11 Beam Design

Overview 11-1

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 11-1

Determine Factored Moments 11-2

Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement 11-2

Contents

iii

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 11-10

12 Joint Design

Overview 12-1

Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force 12-1

Determine the Effective Area of Joint 12-5

Check Panel Zone Shear Stress 12-5

Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios 12-6

13 Input Data

Input data 13-1

Using the Print Design Tables Form 13-3

14 Output Details

Using the Print Design Tables Form 14-3

Concrete Frame Design Specific to ACI-318-99

15 General and Notation

Introduction to the ACI318-99 Series of Technical

Notes

15-1

Notation 15-2

16 Preferences

General 16-1

Using the Preferences Form 16-1

Preferences 16-2

17 Overwrites

General 17-1

Overwrites 17-1

Making Changes in the Overwrites Form 17-3

Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default

Values

17-4

18 Design Load Combinations

19 Strength Reduction Factors

Concrete Frame Design Manual

iv

20 Column Design

Overview 20-1

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces 20-2

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio 20-5

Determine Factored Moments and Forces 20-6

Determine Moment Magnification Factors 20-6

Determine Capacity Ratio 20-9

Required Reinforcing Area 20-10

Design Column Shear Reinforcement 20-10

Determine Section Forces 20-11

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity 20-12

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement 20-13

References 20-15

21 Beam Design

Overview 21-1

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 21-1

Determine Factored Moments 21-2

Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement 21-2

Design for T-Beam 21-5

Minimum Tensile Reinforcement 21-8

Special Consideration for Seismic Design 21-8

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 21-9

Determine Shear Force and Moment 21-11

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity 21-12

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement 21-13

22 Joint Design

Overview 22-1

Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force 22-1

Determine the Effective Area of Joint 22-4

Check Panel Zone Shear Stress 22-4

Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios 22-6

23 Input Data

Input Data 23-1

Using the Print Design Tables Form 23-3

Contents

v

24 Output Details

Using the Print Design Tables Form 24-3

Design Codes Technical Note 1 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA JANUARY 2002

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN

Technical Note 1

General Design Information

This Technical Note presents some basic information and concepts helpful

when performing concrete frame design using this program.

Design Codes

The design code is set using the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete

Frame Design command. You can choose to design for any one design code

in any one design run. You cannot design some elements for one code and

others for a different code in the same design run. You can, however, perform

different design runs using different design codes without rerunning the

analysis.

Units

For concrete frame design in this program, any set of consistent units can be

used for input. You can change the system of units at any time. Typically, de-

sign codes are based on one specific set of units.

Overwriting the Frame Design Procedure for a Concrete

Frame

The two design procedures possible for concrete beam design are:

Concrete frame design

No design

If a line object is assigned a frame section property that has a concrete ma-

terial property, its default design procedure is Concrete Frame Design. A con-

crete frame element can be switched between the Concrete Frame Design and

the "None" design procedure. Assign a concrete frame element the "None"

design procedure if you do not want it designed by the Concrete Frame De-

sign postprocessor.

General Design Information Concrete Frame Design

Technical Note 1 - 2 Design Load Combinations

Change the default design procedure used for concrete frame elements by

selecting the element(s) and clicking Design menu > Overwrite Frame

Design Procedure. This change is only successful if the design procedure

assigned to an element is valid for that element. For example, if you select a

concrete element and attempt to change the design procedure to Steel Frame

Design, the program will not allow the change because a concrete element

cannot be changed to a steel frame element.

Design Load Combinations

The program creates a number of default design load combinations for con-

crete frame design. You can add in your own design load combinations. You

can also modify or delete the program default load combinations. An unlim-

ited number of design load combinations can be specified.

To define a design load combination, simply specify one or more load cases,

each with its own scale factor. For more information see Concrete Frame De-

sign UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combination and Concrete Frame

Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 18 Design Load Combination.

Design of Beams

The program designs all concrete frame elements designated as beam sec-

tions in their Frame Section Properties as beams (see Define menu >Frame

Sections command and click the Reinforcement button). In the design of

concrete beams, in general, the program calculates and reports the required

areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments, shears, load

combination factors, and other criteria, which are described in detail in Con-

crete Frame UBC97 Technical Note Beam Design 11 and Concrete Frame ACI

318-99 Technical Note 21 Beam Design. The reinforcement requirements are

calculated at each output station along the beam span.

All the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.

Effects resulting from any axial forces, minor direction bending, and

torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independ-

ently by the user.

In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment at a particular

section of a particular beam, the steps involve the determination of the

maximum factored moments and the determination of the reinforcing steel.

Concrete Frame Design General Design Information

Design of Beams Technical Note 1 - 3

The beam section is designed for the maximum positive and maximum nega-

tive factored moment envelopes obtained from all of the load combinations.

Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases, the beam is al-

ways designed as a rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce

bottom steel. In such cases, the beam may be designed as a rectangular- or

T-beam. For the design of flexural reinforcement, the beam is first designed

as a singly reinforced beam. If the beam section is not adequate, the required

compression reinforcement is calculated.

In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular set

of loading combinations at a particular station resulting from the beam major

shear, the steps involve the determination of the factored shear force, the

determination of the shear force that can be resisted by concrete, and the

determination of the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.

Design of Columns

The program designs all concrete frame elements designated as column sec-

tions in their Frame Section Properties as columns (see Define menu

>Frame Sections command and click the Reinforcement button). In the

design of the columns, the program calculates the required longitudinal steel,

or if the longitudinal steel is specified, the column stress condition is reported

in terms of a column capacity ratio. The capacity ratio is a factor that gives an

indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of

the column. The design procedure for reinforced concrete columns involves

the following steps:

Generate axial force-biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the dif-

ferent concrete section types of the model.

Check the capacity of each column for the factored axial force and bending

moments obtained from each load combination at each end of the column.

This step is also used to calculate the required reinforcement (if none was

specified) that will produce a capacity ratio of 1.0.

Design the column shear reinforcement.

The shear reinforcement design procedure for columns is very similar to that

for beams, except that the effect of the axial force on the concrete shear ca-

pacity needs to be considered. See Concrete Frame UBC97 Technical Note 10

General Design Information Concrete Frame Design

Technical Note 1 - 4 Second Order P-Delta Effects

Column Design and Concrete Frame ACI 318-99 Technical Note 20 Column

Design for more information.

Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios

When the ACI 318-99 or UBC97 code is selected, the program calculates the

ratio of the sum of the beam moment capacities to the sum of the column

moment capacities at a particular joint for a particular column direction, ma-

jor or minor. The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength

factor, α, and including ϕ factors. The beam capacities are calculated for re-

versed situations and the maximum summation obtained is used.

The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is

not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along

the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are

added to the summation.

The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column

below the joint. For each load combination, the axial force, P

u

, in each of the

columns is calculated from the program analysis load combinations. For each

load combination, the moment capacity of each column under the influence of

the corresponding axial load P

u

is then determined separately for the major

and minor directions of the column, using the uniaxial column interaction dia-

gram. The moment capacities of the two columns are added to give the ca-

pacity summation for the corresponding load combination. The maximum ca-

pacity summations obtained from all of the load combinations is used for the

beam/column capacity ratio.

The beam/column flexural capacity ratios are only reported for Special Mo-

ment-Resisting Frames involving seismic design load combinations.

See Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios in Concrete Frame UBC97 Techni-

cal Note 12 Joint Design or in Concrete Frame ACI 318-99 Technical Note 22

Joint Design for more information.

Second Order P-Delta Effects

Typically, design codes require that second order P-Delta effects be consid-

ered when designing concrete frames. The P-Delta effects come from two

sources. They are the global lateral translation of the frame and the local de-

formation of elements within the frame.

Concrete Frame Design General Design Information

Second Order P-Delta Effects Technical Note 1 - 5

Consider the frame element shown in Figure 1, which is extracted from a

story level of a larger structure. The overall global translation of this frame

element is indicated by ∆. The local deformation of the element is shown as δ.

The total second order P-Delta effects on this frame element are those caused

by both ∆ and δ.

The program has an option to consider P-Delta effects in the analysis. Con-

trols for considering this effect are found using the Analyze menu > Set

Analysis Options command and then clicking the Set P-Delta Parameters

button. When you consider P-Delta effects in the analysis, the program does a

good job of capturing the effect due to the ∆ deformation shown in Figure 1,

but it does not typically capture the effect of the δ deformation (unless, in the

model, the frame element is broken into multiple pieces over its length).

In design codes, consideration of the second order P-Delta effects is generally

achieved by computing the flexural design capacity using a formula similar to

that shown in Equation. 1.

M

CAP

= aM

nt

+ bM

lt

Eqn. 1

where,

M

CAP

= Flexural design capacity

∆

δ

Original position of frame

element shown by vertical

line

Position of frame element

as a result of global lateral

translation, ∆, shown by

dashed line

Final deflected position of

frame element that

includes the global lateral

translation, ∆, and the

local deformation of the

element, δ

Figure 1: The Total Second Order P-Delta Effects on a Frame Element

Caused by Both ∆ ∆∆ ∆ and δ δδ δ

General Design Information Concrete Frame Design

Technical Note 1 - 6 Element Unsupported Lengths

M

nt

= Required flexural capacity of the member assuming there is

no translation of the frame (i.e., associated with the δ defor-

mation in Figure 1)

M

lt

= Required flexural capacity of the member as a result of lateral

translation of the frame only (i.e., associated with the ∆ de-

formation in Figure 1)

a = Unitless factor multiplying M

nt

b = Unitless factor multiplying M

lt

(assumed equal to 1 by the

program; see below)

When the program performs concrete frame design, it assumes that the factor

b is equal to 1 and it uses code-specific formulas to calculate the factor a.

That b = 1 assumes that you have considered P-Delta effects in the analysis,

as previously described. Thus, in general, if you are performing concrete

frame design in this program, you should consider P-Delta effects in the

analysis before running the design.

Element Unsupported Lengths

The column unsupported lengths are required to account for column slender-

ness effects. The program automatically determines these unsupported

lengths. They can also be overwritten by the user on an element-by-element

basis, if desired, using the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design >

View/Revise Overwrites command.

There are two unsupported lengths to consider. They are L

33

and L

22,

as

shown in Figure 2. These are the lengths between support points of the ele-

ment in the corresponding directions. The length L

33

corresponds to instability

about the 3-3 axis (major axis), and L

22

corresponds to instability about the

2-2 axis (minor axis). The length L

22

is also used for lateral-torsional buckling

caused by major direction bending (i.e., about the 3-3 axis).

In determining the values for L

22

and L

33

of the elements, the program recog-

nizes various aspects of the structure that have an effect on these lengths,

such as member connectivity, diaphragm constraints and support points. The

program automatically locates the element support points and evaluates the

corresponding unsupported length.

Concrete Frame Design General Design Information

Analysis Sections and Design Sections Technical Note 1 - 7

Figure 2: Major and Minor Axes of Bending

It is possible for the unsupported length of a frame element to be evaluated

by the program as greater than the corresponding element length. For exam-

ple, assume a column has a beam framing into it in one direction, but not the

other, at a floor level. In this case, the column is assumed to be supported in

one direction only at that story level, and its unsupported length in the other

direction will exceed the story height.

Analysis Sections and Design Sections

Analysis sections are those section properties used to analyze the model

when you click the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command. The design

section is whatever section has most currently been designed and thus desig-

nated the current design section.

Tip:

It is important to understand the difference between analysis sections and design sec-

tions.

General Design Information Concrete Frame Design

Technical Note 1 - 8 Analysis Sections and Design Sections

It is possible for the last used analysis section and the current design section

to be different. For example, you may have run your analysis using a W18X35

beam and then found in the design that a W16X31 beam worked. In that

case, the last used analysis section is the W18X35 and the current design

section is the W16X31. Before you complete the design process, verify that

the last used analysis section and the current design section are the same.

The Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Verify Analysis vs De-

sign Section command is useful for this task.

The program keeps track of the analysis section and the design section

separately. Note the following about analysis and design sections:

Assigning a beam a frame section property using the Assign menu >

Frame/Line > Frame Section command assigns the section as both the

analysis section and the design section.

Running an analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command

(or its associated toolbar button) always sets the analysis section to be the

same as the current design section.

Assigning an auto select list to a frame section using the Assign menu >

Frame/Line > Frame Section command initially sets the design section

to be the beam with the median weight in the auto select list.

Unlocking a model deletes the design results, but it does not delete or

change the design section.

Using the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Select Design

Combo command to change a design load combination deletes the design

results, but it does not delete or change the design section.

Using the Define menu > Load Combinations command to change a de-

sign load combination deletes the design results, but it does not delete or

change the design section.

Using the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design

command to change any of the composite beam design preferences deletes

the design results, but it does not delete or change the design section.

Deleting the static nonlinear analysis results also deletes the design results

for any load combination that includes static nonlinear forces. Typically,

Concrete Frame Design General Design Information

Analysis Sections and Design Sections Technical Note 1 - 9

static nonlinear analysis and design results are deleted when one of the

following actions is taken:

9 Use the Define menu > Frame Nonlinear Hinge Properties com-

mand to redefine existing or define new hinges.

9 Use the Define menu > Static Nonlinear/Pushover Cases com-

mand to redefine existing or define new static nonlinear load cases.

9 Use the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Frame Nonlinear Hinges

command to add or delete hinges.

Again, note that these actions delete only results for load combinations that

include static nonlinear forces.

Concrete Frame Design Procedure Technical Note 2 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN

Technical Note 2

Concrete Frame Design Process

This Technical Note describes a basic concrete frame design process using

this program. Although the exact steps you follow may vary, the basic design

process should be similar to that described herein. Other Technical Notes in

the Concrete Frame Design series provide additional information, including

the distinction between analysis sections and design sections (see Analysis

Sections and Design Sections in Concrete Frame Design Technical Note 1

General Design Information).

The concrete frame design postprocessor can design or check concrete col-

umns and can design concrete beams.

Important note: A concrete frame element is designed as a beam or a col-

umn, depending on how its frame section property was designated when it

was defined using the Define menu > Frame Sections command. Note that

when using this command, after you have specified that a section has a con-

crete material property, you can click on the Reinforcement button and

specify whether it is a beam or a column.

Concrete Frame Design Procedure

The following sequence describes a typical concrete frame design process for

a new building. Note that although the sequence of steps you follow may

vary, the basic process probably will be essentially the same.

1. Use the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design

command to choose the concrete frame design code and to review other

concrete frame design preferences and revise them if necessary. Note

that default values are provided for all concrete frame design prefer-

ences, so it is unnecessary to define any preferences unless you want to

change some of the default values. See Concrete Frame Design ACI

UBC97 Technical Notes 6 Preferences and Concrete Frame Design ACI

318-99 Technical Notes 16 Preferences for more information.

Concrete Frame Design Process Concrete Frame Design

Technical Note 2 - 2 Concrete Frame Design Procedure

2. Create the building model.

3. Run the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis

command.

4. Assign concrete frame overwrites, if needed, using the Design menu >

Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. Note

that you must select frame elements before using this command. Also

note that default values are provided for all concrete frame design over-

writes, so it is unnecessary to define any overwrites unless you want to

change some of the default values. Note that the overwrites can be as-

signed before or after the analysis is run. See Concrete Frame Design

UBC97 Technical Note 7 Overwrites and Concrete Frame Design ACI

318-99 Technical Note 17 Overwrites for more information.

5. To use any design load combinations other than the defaults created by

the program for your concrete frame design, click the Design menu >

Concrete Frame Design > Select Design Combo command. Note

that you must have already created your own design combos by clicking

the Define menu > Load Combinations command. See Concrete

Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combinations and

Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 18 Design Load

Combinations for more information.

6. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start De-

sign/Check of Structure command to run the concrete frame design.

7. Review the concrete frame design results by doing one of the following:

a. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display De-

sign Info command to display design input and output information on

the model. See Concrete Frame Design Technical Note 4 Output Data

Plotted Directly on the Model for more information.

b. Right click on a frame element while the design results are displayed

on it to enter the interactive design mode and interactively design the

frame element. Note that while you are in this mode, you can revise

overwrites and immediately see the results of the new design. See

Concrete Frame Design Technical Note 3 Interactive Concrete Frame

Design for more information.

Concrete Frame Design Concrete Frame Design Process

Concrete Frame Design Procedure Technical Note 2 - 3

If design results are not currently displayed (and the design has been

run), click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Interac-

tive Concrete Frame Design command and then right click a frame

element to enter the interactive design mode for that element.

8. Use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design com-

mand to print concrete frame design data. If you select frame elements

before using this command, data is printed only for the selected ele-

ments. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output

Details and Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 24 Out-

put Details for more information.

9. Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Change Design

Section command to change the design section properties for selected

frame elements.

10. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start De-

sign/Check of Structure command to rerun the concrete frame design

with the new section properties. Review the results using the procedures

described in Item 7.

11. Rerun the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis

command. Note that the section properties used for the analysis are the

last specified design section properties.

12. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start De-

sign/Check of Structure command to rerun the concrete frame design

with the new analysis results and new section properties. Review the re-

sults using the procedures described above.

13. Again use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Change

Design Section command to change the design section properties for

selected frame elements, if necessary.

14. Repeat the processes in steps 10, 11 and 12 as many times as neces-

sary.

15. Rerun the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis

command. Note that the section properties used for the analysis are the

last specified design section properties.

Concrete Frame Design Process Concrete Frame Design

Technical Note 2 - 4 Concrete Frame Design Procedure

Note:

Concrete frame design is an iterative process. Typically, the analysis and design will be

rerun multiple times to complete a design.

16. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start De-

sign/Check of Structure command to rerun the concrete frame design

with the new section properties. Review the results using the procedures

described in Item 7.

17. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Verify Analysis

vs Design Section command to verify that all of the final design sec-

tions are the same as the last used analysis sections.

18. Use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design com-

mand to print selected concrete frame design results, if desired.

It is important to note that design is an iterative process. The sections used in

the original analysis are not typically the same as those obtained at the end

of the design process. Always run the building analysis using the final frame

section sizes and then run a design check using the forces obtained from that

analysis. Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Verify

Analysis vs Design Section command to verify that the design sections are

the same as the analysis sections.

General Technical Note 3 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN

Technical Note 3

Interactive Concrete Frame Design

This Technical Note describes interactive concrete frame design and review,

which is a powerful mode that allows the user to review the design results for

any concrete frame design and interactively revise the design assumptions

and immediately review the revised results.

General

Note that a design must have been run for the interactive design mode to be

available. To run a design, click the Design menu > Concrete Frame De-

sign > Start Design/Check of Structure command.

Right click on a frame element while the design results are displayed on it to

enter the interactive design mode and interactively design the element in the

Concrete Design Information form. If design results are not currently dis-

played (and a design has been run), click the Design menu > Concrete

Frame Design > Interactive Concrete Frame Design command and then

right click a frame element to enter the interactive design mode for that ele-

ment.

Important note: A concrete frame element is designed as a beam or a col-

umn, depending on how its frame section property was designated when it

was defined using the Define menu > Frame Sections command and the

Reinforcement button, which is only available if it is a concrete section.

Concrete Design Information Form

Table 1 describe the features that are included in the Concrete Design Infor-

mation form.

Interactive Concrete Frame Design Concrete Frame Design

Technical Note 3 - 2 Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form

Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form

Item DESCRIPTION

Story This is the story level ID associated with the frame element.

Beam This is the label associated with a frame element that has been

assigned a concrete frame section property that is designated

as a beam. See the important note previously in this Technical

Note for more information.

Column This is the label associated with a frame element that has been

assigned a concrete frame section property that is designated

as a column. See the important note previously in this Techni-

cal Note for more information.

Section Name This is the label associated with a frame element that has been

assigned a concrete frame section property.

Reinforcement Information

The reinforcement information table on the Concrete Design Information form shows the

output information obtained for each design load combination at each output station

along the frame element. For columns that are designed by this program, the item with

the largest required amount of longitudinal reinforcing is initially highlighted. For columns

that are checked by this program, the item with the largest capacity ratio is initially high-

lighted. For beams, the item with the largest required amount of bottom steel is initially

highlighted. Following are the possible headings in the table:

Combo ID This is the name of the design load combination considered.

Station location This is the location of the station considered, measured from

the i-end of the frame element.

Longitudinal

reinforcement

This item applies to columns only. It also only applies to col-

umns for which the program designs the longitudinal reinforc-

ing. It is the total required area of longitudinal reinforcing steel.

Capacity ratio This item applies to columns only. It also only applies to col-

umns for which you have specified the location and size of re-

inforcing bars and thus the program checks the design. This

item is the capacity ratio.

Concrete Frame Design Interactive Concrete Frame Design

Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form Technical Note 3 - 3

Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form

Item DESCRIPTION

The capacity ratio is determined by first extending a line from

the origin of the PMM interaction surface to the point repre-

senting the P, M2 and M3 values for the designated load com-

bination. Assume the length of this first line is designated L1.

Next, a second line is extended from the origin of the PMM in-

teraction surface through the point representing the P, M2 and

M3 values for the designated load combination until it intersects

the interaction surface. Assume the length of this line from the

origin to the interaction surface is designated L2. The capacity

ratio is equal to L1/L2.

Major shear

reinforcement

This item applies to columns only. It is the total required area of

shear reinforcing per unit length for shear acting in the column

major direction.

Minor shear

reinforcement

This item applies to columns only. It is the total required area of

shear reinforcing per unit length for shear acting in the column

minor direction.

Top steel This item applies to beams only. It is the total required area of

longitudinal top steel at the specified station.

Bottom steel This item applies to beams only. It is the total required area of

longitudinal bottom steel at the specified station.

Shear steel This item applies to beams only. It is the total required area of

shear reinforcing per unit length at the specified station for

loads acting in the local 2-axis direction of the beam.

Overwrites Button Click this button to access and make revisions to the concrete

frame overwrites and then immediately see the new design re-

sults. If you modify some overwrites in this mode and you exit

both the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form and the Con-

crete Design Information form by clicking their respective OK

buttons, the changes to the overwrites are saved permanently.

When you exit the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form by

clicking the OK button the changes are temporarily saved. If

you then exit the Concrete Design Information form by clicking

the Cancel button the changes you made to the concrete frame

overwrites are considered temporary only and are not perma-

nently saved. Permanent saving of the overwrites does not ac-

tually occur until you click the OK button in the Concrete Design

Information form as well as the Concrete Frame Design Over-

writes form.

Interactive Concrete Frame Design Concrete Frame Design

Technical Note 3 - 4 Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form

Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form

Item DESCRIPTION

Details Button

Clicking this button displays design details for the frame ele-

ment. Print this information by selecting Print from the File

menu that appears at the top of the window displaying the de-

sign details.

Interaction Button Clicking this button displays the biaxial interaction curve for the

concrete section at the location in the element that is high-

lighted in the table.

Overview Technical Note 4 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN

Technical Note 4

Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model

This Technical Note describes the input and output data that can be plotted

directly on the model.

Overview

Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info

command to display on-screen output plotted directly on the program model.

If desired, the screen graphics can then be printed using the File menu >

Print Graphics command. The on-screen display data presents input and

output data.

Using the Print Design Tables Form

To print the concrete frame input summary directly to a printer, use the File

menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the

check box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the OK button to send the

print to your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to

cancel the print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the

Setup>> button to change printers, if necessary.

To print the concrete frame input summary to a file, click the Print to File

check box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the Filename>> button to

change the path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the de-

sired format (e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the OK buttons on the Open File for

Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the re-

quest.

Note:

The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out-

put that is printed to a text file.

The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and

filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print

Design Tables form. Data will be added to this file. Or use the Filename

Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model Concrete Frame Design

Technical Note 4 - 2 Design Input

button to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing Tables cau-

tion box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.

If you select a specific concrete frame element(s) before using the File menu

> Print Tables > concrete Frame Design command, the Selection Only

check box will be checked. The print will be for the selected steel frame ele-

ment(s) only.

Design Input

The following types of data can be displayed directly on the model by select-

ing the data type (shown in bold type) from the drop-down list on the Display

Design Results form. Display this form by selecting he Design menu > Con-

crete Frame Design > Display Design Info command.

Design Sections

Design Type

Live Load Red Factors

Unbraced L_Ratios

Eff Length K-Factors

Cm Factors

DNS Factors

DS Factors

Each of these items is described in the code-specific Concrete Frame Design

UBC97 Technical Note 13 Input Data and Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99

Technical Note 23 Input Data.

Design Output

The following types of data can be displayed directly on the model by select-

ing the data type (shown in bold type) from the drop-down list on the Display

Design Results form. Display this form by selecting he Design menu > Con-

crete Frame Design > Display Design Info command.

Concrete Frame Design Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model

Design Output Technical Note 4 - 3

Longitudinal Reinforcing

Shear Reinforcing

Column Capacity Ratios

Joint Shear Capacity Ratios

Beam/Column Capacity Ratios

Each of these items is described in the code-specific Concrete Frame Design

ACI 318-99 Technical Note 24 Output Details and Concrete Frame Design

UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output Details.

General and Notation Technical Note 5 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 5

General and Notation

Introduction to the UBC97 Series of Technical Notes

The Concrete Frame Design UBC97 series of Technical Notes describes in de-

tail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by this

program when the user selects the UBC97 Design Code (ICBO 1997). The

various notations used in this series are listed herein.

The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. The program

provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements

for the design of most building type structures. See Concrete Frame Design

UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combinations for more information.

When using the UBC 97 option, a frame is assigned to one of the following

five Seismic Zones (UBC 2213, 2214):

Zone 0

Zone 1

Zone 2

Zone 3

Zone 4

By default the Seismic Zone is taken as Zone 4 in the program. However, the

Seismic Zone can be overwritten in the Preference form to change the de-

fault. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 6 Preferences for

more information.

When using the UBC 97 option, the following Framing Systems are recognized

and designed according to the UBC design provisions (UBC 1627, 1921):

Ordinary Moment-Resisting Frame (OMF)

General and Notation Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 5 - 2 General and Notation

Intermediate Moment-Resisting Frame (IMRF)

Special Moment-Resisting Frame (SMRF)

The Ordinary Moment-Resisting Frame (OMF) is appropriate in minimal seis-

mic risk areas, especially in Seismic Zones 0 and 1. The Intermediate Mo-

ment-Resisting Frame (IMRF) is appropriate in moderate seismic risk areas,

specially in Seismic Zone 2. The Special Moment-Resisting Frame (SMRF) is

appropriate in high seismic risk areas, specially in Seismic Zones 3 and 4. The

UBC seismic design provisions are considered in the program. The details of

the design criteria used for the different framing systems are described in

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 9 Strength Reduction Factors,

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 10 Column Design, Concrete

Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 11 Beam Design, and Concrete Frame

Design UBC97 Technical Note 12 Joint Design.

By default the frame type is taken in the program as OMRF in Seismic Zone 0

and 1, as IMRF in Seismic Zone 2, and as SMRF in Seismic Zone 3 and 4.

However, the frame type can be overwritten in the Overwrites form on a

member-by-member basis. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note

7 Overwrites for more information. If any member is assigned with a frame

type, the change of the Seismic Zone in the Preferences will not modify the

frame type of an individual member that has been assigned a frame type.

The program also provides input and output data summaries, which are de-

scribed in Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 13 Input Data and

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output Details.

English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is

based on Inch-Pound-Second units. For simplicity, all equations and descrip-

tions presented in this Technical Note correspond to Inch-Pound-Second

units unless otherwise noted.

Notation

A

cv

Area of concrete used to determine shear stress, sq-in

A

g

Gross area of concrete, sq-in

A

s

Area of tension reinforcement, sq-in

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 General and Notation

General and Notation Technical Note 5 - 3

'

s

A

Area of compression reinforcement, sq-in

A

s(required)

Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-in

A

st

Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, sq-in

A

v

Area of shear reinforcement, sq-in

C

m

Coefficient, dependent upon column curvature, used to calculate

moment magnification factor

D' Diameter of hoop, in

E

c

Modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi

E

s

Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 29,000,000 psi

(UBC 1980.5.2)

I

g

Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis,

neglecting reinforcement, in

4

I

se

Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of mem-

ber cross section, in

4

L Clear unsupported length, in

M

1

Smaller factored end moment in a column, lb-in

M

2

Larger factored end moment in a column, lb-in

M

c

Factored moment to be used in design, lb-in

M

ns

Nonsway component of factored end moment, lb-in

M

s

Sway component of factored end moment, lb-in

M

u

Factored moment at section, lb-in

M

ux

Factored moment at section about X-axis, lb-in

M

uy

Factored moment at section about Y-axis, lb-in

P

b

Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions, lb

General and Notation Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 5 - 4 General and Notation

P

c

Critical buckling strength of column, lb

P

max

Maximum axial load strength allowed, lb

P

0

Acial load capacity at zero eccentricity, lb

P

u

Factored axial load at section, lb

V

c

Shear resisted by concrete, lb

V

E

Shear force caused by earthquake loads, lb

V

D+L

Shear force from span loading, lb

V

u

Factored shear force at a section, lb

V

p

Shear force computed from probable moment capacity, lb

a Depth of compression block, in

a

b

Depth of compression block at balanced condition, in

b Width of member, in

b

f

Effective width of flange (T-Beam section), in

b

w

Width of web (T-Beam section), in

c Depth to neutral axis, in

c

b

Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, in

d Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, in

d' Concrete cover to center of reinforcing, in

d

s

Thickness of slab (T-Beam section), in

'

c

f

Specified compressive strength of concrete, psi

f

y

Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, psi

f

y

≤ 80,000 psi (UBC 1909.4)

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 General and Notation

General and Notation Technical Note 5 - 5

f

ys

Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, psi

h Dimension of column, in

k Effective length factor

r Radius of gyration of column section, in

α Reinforcing steel overstrength factor

β

1

Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete

β

d

Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to

maximum factored axial total load

δ

s

Moment magnification factor for sway moments

δ

ns

Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments

ε

c

Strain in concrete

ε

s

Strain in reinforcing steel

ϕ Strength reduction factor

General Technical Note 6 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 6

Preferences

This Technical Note describes the items in the Preferences form.

General

The concrete frame design preferences in this program are basic assignments

that apply to all concrete frame elements. Use the Options menu > Prefer-

ences > Concrete Frame Design command to access the Preferences form

where you can view and revise the concrete frame design preferences.

Default values are provided for all concrete frame design preference items.

Thus, it is not required that you specify or change any of the preferences. You

should, however, at least review the default values for the preference items

to make sure they are acceptable to you.

Using the Preferences Form

To view preferences, select the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete

Frame Design. The Preferences form will display. The preference options

are displayed in a two-column spreadsheet. The left column of the spread-

sheet displays the preference item name. The right column of the spreadsheet

displays the preference item value.

To change a preference item, left click the desired preference item in either

the left or right column of the spreadsheet. This activates a drop-down box or

highlights the current preference value. If the drop-down box appears, select

a new value. If the cell is highlighted, type in the desired value. The prefer-

ence value will update accordingly. You cannot overwrite values in the drop-

down boxes.

When you have finished making changes to the concrete frame preferences,

click the OK button to close the form. You must click the OK button for the

changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the Cancel button to exit

Preferences Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 6 - 2 Preferences

the form, any changes made to the preferences are ignored and the form is

closed.

Preferences

For purposes of explanation in this Technical Note, the preference items are

presented in Table 1. The column headings in the table are described as fol-

lows:

Item: The name of the preference item as it appears in the cells at the

left side of the Preferences form.

Possible Values: The possible values that the associated preference item

can have.

Default Value: The built-in default value that the program assumes for

the associated preference item.

Description: A description of the associated preference item.

Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value Description

Design Code Any code in

the program

UBC97 Design code used for design of

concrete frame elements.

Phi Bending

Tension

>0 0.9 Unitless strength reduction factor per

UBC 1909.

Phi Compres-

sion Tied

>0 0.7 Unitless strength reduction factor per

UBC 1909.

Phi Compres-

sion Spiral

>0 0.75 Unitless strength reduction factor per

UBC 1909.

Phi Shear >0 0.85 Unitless strength reduction factor per

UBC 1909.

Number Inter-

action Curves

≥4.0 24 Number of equally spaced interaction

curves used to create a full 360-degree

interaction surface (this item should be

a multiple of four). We recommend that

you use 24 for this item.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Preferences

Preferences Technical Note 6 - 3

Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value Description

Number Inter-

action Points

Any odd value

≥1.0

11 Number of points used for defining a

single curve in a concrete frame

interaction surface (this item should be

odd).

Time History

Design

Envelopes or

Step-by-Step

Envelopes Toggle for design load combinations

that include a time history designed for

the envelope of the time history, or

designed step-by-step for the entire

time history. If a single design load

combination has more than one time

history case in it, that design load

combination is designed for the

envelopes of the time histories,

regardless of what is specified here.

Overwrites Technical Note 7 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 7

Overwrites

General

The concrete frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only

to those elements to which they are assigned. This Technical Note describes

concrete frame design overwrites for UBC97. To access the overwrites, select

an element and click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design >

View/Revise Overwrites command.

Default values are provided for all overwrite items. Thus, you do not need to

specify or change any of the overwrites. However, at least review the default

values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. When

changes are made to overwrite items, the program applies the changes only

to the elements to which they are specifically assigned; that is, to the ele-

ments that are selected when the overwrites are changed.

Overwrites

For explanation purposes in this Technical Note, the overwrites are presented

in Table 1. The column headings in the table are described as follows.

Item: The name of the overwrite item as it appears in the program. To

save space in the formes, these names are generally short.

Possible Values: The possible values that the associated overwrite item

can have.

Default Value: The default value that the program assumes for the asso-

ciated overwrite item.

Description: A description of the associated overwrite item.

An explanation of how to change an overwrite is provided at the end of this

Technical Note.

Overwrites Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 7 - 2 Overwrites

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value Description

Element

Section

Element

Type

Sway Special,

Sway Interme-

diate,

Sway

Ordinary

NonSway

Sway Special Frame type; see UBC 1910.11 to

1910.13.

Live Load

Reduction

Factor

>0

≤1.0

1. Used to reduce the live load contribu-

tion to the factored loading.

Horizontal

Earthquake

Factor

>0

≤1.0

1.

Unbraced

Length Ratio

(Major)

>0

≤1.0

1.0

Unbraced

Length Ratio

(Minor)

>0

≤1.0

1.0

Effective

Length Factor

(K Major)

>0

≤1.0

1 See UBC 1910.12.1.

Effective

Length Factor

(K Minor)

>0

≤1.0

1 See UBC 1910.12.1.

Moment

Coefficient

(Cm Major)

>0

≤1.0

1 See UBC 1910.12.3.1 relates actual

moment diagram to an equivalent uni-

form moment diagram.

Moment

Coefficient

(Cm Minor)

>0

≤1.0

1 See UBC 1910.12.3.1 relates actual

moment diagram to an equivalent uni-

form moment diagram.

NonSway

Moment Factor

(Dns Major)

>0

≤1.0

1 See UBC 1910.12.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Overwrites

Overwrites Technical Note 7 - 3

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value Description

NonSway

Moment Factor

(Dns Minor)

1 See UBC 1910.12.

Sway Moment

Factor

(Ds Major)

1 See UBC 1910.12.

Sway Moment

Factor

(Ds Minor)

1 See UBC 1910.12.

Making Changes in the Overwrites Form

To access the concrete frame overwrites, select an element and click the De-

sign menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites com-

mand.

The overwrites are displayed in the form with a column of check boxes and a

two-column spreadsheet. The left column of the spreadsheet contains the

name of the overwrite item. The right column of the spreadsheet contains the

overwrites values.

Initially, the check boxes in the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form are

all unchecked and all of the cells in the spreadsheet have a gray background

to indicate that they are inactive and the items in the cells cannot be

changed. The names of the overwrite items are displayed in the first column

of the spreadsheet. The values of the overwrite items are visible in the second

column of the spreadsheet if only one element was selected before the over-

writes form was accessed. If multiple elements were selected, no values show

for the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet.

After selecting one or multiple elements, check the box to the left of an over-

write item to change it. Then left click in either column of the spreadsheet to

activate a drop-down box or highlight the contents in the cell in the right col-

umn of the spreadsheet. If the drop-down box appears, select a value from

Overwrites Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 7 - 4 Overwrites

the box. If the cell contents is highlighted, type in the desired value. The

overwrite will reflect the change. You cannot change the values of the drop-

down boxes.

When changes to the overwrites have been completed, click the OK button to

close the form. The program then changes all of the overwrite items whose

associated check boxes are checked for the selected members. You must click

the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the

Cancel button to exit the form, any changes made to the overwrites are ig-

nored and the form is closed.

Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default Values

Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Reset All Overwrites

command to reset all of the steel frame overwrites. All current design results

will be deleted when this command is executed.

Important note about resetting overwrites: The program defaults for the

overwrite items are built into the program. The concrete frame overwrite val-

ues that were in a .edb file that you used to initialize your model may be dif-

ferent from the built-in program default values. When you reset overwrites,

the program resets the overwrite values to its built-in values, not to the val-

ues that were in the .edb file used to initialize the model.

Design Load Combinations Technical Note 8 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 8

Design Load Combinations

The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed

load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. For the UBC 97 code,

if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only, the stress

check may need only one load combination, namely 1.4 DL + 1.7 LL (UBC

1909.2.1). However, in addition to the dead and live loads, if the structure is

subjected to wind (WL) and earthquake (EL) loads, and considering that wind

and earthquake forces are reversible, the following load combinations may

need to be considered (UBC 1909.2).

1.4 DL (UBC 1909.2.1)

1.4 DL + 1.7 LL (UBC 1909.2.1)

0.9 DL ± 1.3 WL (UBC 1909.2.2)

0.75 (1.4 DL + 1.7 LL ± 1.7 WL) (UBC 1909.2.2)

0.9 DL ± 1.0 EL (UBC 1909.2.3, 1612.2.1)

1.2 DL + 0.5 LL ± 1.0 EL) (UBC 1909.2.3, 1612.2.1)

These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever

the UBC97 code is used.

Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live

load condition on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of

the live load to the factored loading. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 7 Overwrites for more information.

Strength Reduction Factors Technical Note 9 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 9

Strength Reduction Factors

The strength reduction factors, ϕ, are applied on the nominal strength to ob-

tain the design strength provided by a member. The ϕ factors for flexure, ax-

ial force, shear, and torsion are as follows:

ϕ = 0.90 for flexure (UBC 1909.3.2.1)

ϕ = 0.90 for axial tension (UBC 1909.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.90 for axial tension and flexure (UBC 1909.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.75 for axial compression, and axial compression

and flexure (spirally reinforced column) (UBC 1909.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.70 for axial compression, and axial compression

and flexure (tied column) (UBC 1909.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.85 for shear and torsion (non-seismic design) (UBC 1909.3.2.3)

ϕ = 0.60 for shear and torsion (UBC 1909.3.2.3)

Overview Technical Note 10 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 10

Column Design

This Technical Note describes how the program checks column capacity or de-

signs reinforced concrete columns when the UBC97 code is selected.

Overview

The program can be used to check column capacity or to design columns. If

you define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete

column section, the program will check the column capacity. Alternatively, the

program can calculate the amount of reinforcing required to design the col-

umn. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the struc-

ture involves the following steps:

Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the dif-

ferent concrete section types of the model. A typical biaxial interaction

surface is shown in Figure 1. When the steel is undefined, the program

generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforce-

ment1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Intermediate moment resisting

frames (UBC 1910.9.1) and 1 to 6 percent for Special moment resisting

frames (UBC 1921.4.3.1).

Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the fac-

tored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from

each loading combination at each station of the column. The target capac-

ity ratio is taken as 1 when calculating the required reinforcing area.

Design the column shear reinforcement.

The following four subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated

with this process.

Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 10 - 2 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces

Figure 1 A Typical Column Interaction Surface

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces

The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series

of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction

failure surface. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending, the for-

mulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations. A typical

interaction diagram is shown in Figure 1.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces Technical Note 10 - 3

The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear

strain in three dimensions on the section of the column. See Figure 2. The

linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain, ε

c

, at the extremity

of the section, to 0.003 (UBC 1910.2.3).

The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate

strength design (UBC 1910.3), and allows for any doubly symmetric rectan-

gular, square, or circular column section.

The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel

modulus of elasticity, ε

s

E

s

, and is limited to the yield stress of the steel, f

y

(UBC 1910.2.4). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to

be placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm

does not assume any further simplifications with respect to distributing the

area of steel over the cross section of the column, such as an equivalent steel

tube or cylinder. See Figure 3.

The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a

stress value of 0.85

'

c

f (UBC 1910.2.7.1). See Figure 3. The interaction algo-

rithm provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by

the reinforcement in the compression zone.

The effects of the strength reduction factor, ϕ, are included in the generation

of the interaction surfaces. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to

ϕP

n(max)

, where

ϕP

n(max)

= 0.85ϕ[0.85

'

c

f (A

g

-A

st

)+f

y

A

st

] (spiral) (UBC 1910.3.5.1)

ϕP

n(max)

= 0.85ϕ[0.85

'

c

f (A

g

-A

st

)+f

y

A

st

] (tied) (UBC 1910.3.5.2)

ϕ = 0.70 for tied columns (UBC 1909.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.75 for spirally reinforced columns (UBC 1909.3.2.2)

The value of ϕ used in the interaction diagram varies from ϕ

min

to 0.9 based

on the axial load. For low values of axial load, ϕ is increased linearly from ϕ

min

to 0.9 as the nominal capacity ϕP

n

decreases from the smaller of ϕP

b

or

0.1

'

c

f A

g

to zero, where P

b

is the axial force at the balanced condition. In

cases involving axial tension, ϕ is always 0.9 (UBC 1909.3.2.2).

Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 10 - 4 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces

Figure 2 Idealized Strain Distribution for Generation of Interaction Surfaces

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 10 - 5

Figure 3 Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio

The column capacity ratio is calculated for each loading combination at each

output station of each column. The following steps are involved in calculating

the capacity ratio of a particular column for a particular loading combination

at a particular location:

Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases

and the specified load combination factors to give P

u

, M

ux

, and M

uy

.

Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments.

Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored moments. Deter-

mine whether the point, defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial

moment set, lies within the interaction volume.

The factored moments and corresponding magnification factors depend on the

identification of the individual column as either “sway” or “non-sway.”

Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 10 - 6 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

this process.

Determine Factored Moments and Forces

The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying

the corresponding load factors to all the load cases, giving P

u

, M

ux

, and M

uy

.

The factored moments are further increased for non-sway columns, if re-

quired, to obtain minimum eccentricities of (0.6 + 0.03h) inches, where h is

the dimension of the column in the corresponding direction (UBC

1910.12.3.2).

Determine Moment Magnification Factors

The moment magnification factors are calculated separately for sway (overall

stability effect), δ

s

, and for non-sway (individual column stability effect), δ

ns

.

Also the moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are

in general different.

The program assumes that it performs a P-delta analysis and, therefore, mo-

ment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken as unity

(UBC 1910.10.2). For the P-delta analysis, the load should correspond to a

load combination of 0.75 (1.4 dead load + 1.7 live load)/ϕ if wind load gov-

erns, or (1.2 dead load + 0.50 live load)/ϕ if seismic load governs, where ϕ is

the understrength factor for stability, which is taken as 0.75 (UBC

1910.12.3). See also White and Hajjar (1991).

The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the

sway (M

s

) and the non-sway (M

s

) components. The non-sway components

which are identified by “ns” subscripts are predominantly caused by gravity

load. The sway components are identified by the “s” subscripts. The sway

moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads, and are related to the

cause of side-sway.

For individual columns or column-members in a floor, the magnified moments

about two axes at any station of a column can be obtained as

M = M

ns

+ δ

s

M

s

. (UBC 1910.13.3)

The factor δ

s

is the moment magnification factor for moments causing side

sway. The moment magnification factors for sway moments, δ

s

, is taken as 1

because the component moments M

s

and M

ns

are obtained from a “second or-

der elastic (P-delta) analysis.”

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 10 - 7

The computed moments are further amplified for individual column stability

effect (UBC 1910.12.3, 1910.13.5) by the nonsway moment magnification

factor, δ

ns

, as follows:

M

c

= δ

ns

M

2

, where (UBC 1910.12.3)

M

c

is the factored moment to be used in design, and

M

2

is the larger factored and amplified end moment.

The non-sway moment magnification factor, δ

ns

, associated with the major or

minor direction of the column is given by (UBC 1910.12.3)

δ

ns

=

c

u

m

P

P

C

75 . 0

1 −

≥ 1.0, where (UBC 1910.12.3)

P

c

=

2

2

) (

u

kl

EI π

, (UBC 1910.12.3)

k is conservatively taken as 1; however, the program allows the user to

override this value.

EI is associated with a particular column direction given by:

EI =

d

g c

I E

β + 1

4 . 0

, (UBC 1910.12.3)

maximum factored axial dead load

β

d

= maximum factored axial total load and (UBC 1910.12.3)

C

m

= 0.6 + 0.4

b

a

M

M

≥ 0.4. (UBC 1910.12.3.1)

M

a

and M

b

are the moments at the ends of the column, and M

b

is numerically

larger than M

a

. M

a

/ M

b

is positive for single curvature bending and negative

for double curvature bending. The above expression of C

m

is valid if there is

no transverse load applied between the supports. If transverse load is present

on the span, or the length is overwritten, C

m

= 1. C

m

can be overwritten by

the user on an element-by-element basis.

Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 10 - 8 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio

The magnification factor, δ

ns

, must be a positive number and greater than 1.

Therefore, P

u

must be less than 0.75P

c

. If P

u

is found to be greater than or

equal to 0.75P

c

, a failure condition is declared.

The above calculations use the unsupported length of the column. The two

unsupported lengths are l

22

and l

33

, corresponding to instability in the minor

and major directions of the element, respectively. See Figure 4. These are the

lengths between the support points of the element in the corresponding di-

rections.

Figure 4 Axes of Bending and Unsupported Length

If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member, the

user can explicitly specify values of δ

s

and δ

ns

.

Determine Capacity Ratio

The program calculates a capacity ratio as a measure of the stress condition

of the column. The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 10 - 9

of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the col-

umn.

Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity, the

moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain P

u

,

M

ux

, and M

uy

. The point (P

u

, M

ux

, M

uy

.) is then placed in the interaction space

shown as point L in Figure 5. If the point lies within the interaction volume,

the column capacity is adequate; however, if the point lies outside the inter-

action volume, the column is overstressed.

Figure 5 Geometric Representation of Column Capacity Ratios

This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the lo-

cation of point C. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if

extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. This point is determined

by three-dimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the

Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 10 - 10 Required Reinforcing Area

failure surface. See Figure 5. The capacity ratio, CR, is given by the ratio

OC

OL

.

If OL = OC (or CR=1), the point lies on the interaction surface and the

column is stressed to capacity.

If OL < OC (or CR<1), the point lies within the interaction volume and the

column capacity is adequate.

If OL > OC (or CR>1), the point lies outside the interaction volume and the

column is overstressed.

The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is

reported for each check station of the column, along with the controlling P

u

,

M

ux

, and M

uy

set and associated load combination number.

Required Reinforcing Area

If the reinforcing area is not defined, the program computes the reinforce-

ment that will give a column capacity ratio of one, calculated as described in

the previous section entitled "Calculate Column Capacity Ratio."

Design Column Shear Reinforcement

The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the ma-

jor and minor directions of the column. The following steps are involved in

designing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular load

combination caused by shear forces in a particular direction:

Determine the factored forces acting on the section, P

u

and V

u

. Note that

P

u

is needed for the calculation of V

c

.

Determine the shear force, V

c

, that can be resisted by concrete alone.

Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.

For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (Ductile frames), the

shear design of the columns is also based on the probable and nominal mo-

ment capacities of the members, respectively, in addition to the factored

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design

Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 10 - 11

moments. Effects of the axial forces on the column moment capacities are

included in the formulation.

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

this process.

Determine Section Forces

In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment

resisting concrete frame, the forces for a particular load combination,

namely, the column axial force, P

u

, and the column shear force, V

u

, in a

particular direction are obtained by factoring the program analysis load

cases with the corresponding load combination factors.

In the shear design of Special moment resisting frames (i.e., seismic

design) the column is checked for capacity-shear in addition to the re-

quirement for the Ordinary moment resisting frames. The capacity-shear

force in a column, V

p

, in a particular direction is calculated from the prob-

able moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial

force acting on the column.

For each load combination, the factored axial load, P

u

, is calculated. Then,

the positive and negative moment capacities,

+

u

M and

−

u

M , of the column

in a particular direction under the influence of the axial force P

u

is calcu-

lated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction.

The design shear force, V

u

, is then given by (UBC 1921.4.5.1)

V

u

= V

p

+ V

D+L

(UBC 1921.4.5.1)

where, V

p

is the capacity-shear force obtained by applying the calculated

probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting

in two opposite directions. Therefore, V

p

is the maximum of

1

P

V and

2

P

V ,

where

1

P

V =

L

M M

J I

+ −

+

, and

2

P

V =

L

M M

J I

− +

+

, where

Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 10 - 12 Design Column Shear Reinforcement

− +

I I

M M , , = Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the

column using a steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ

factors (ϕ = 1.0),

− +

J J

M M , , = Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the

column using a steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ

factors (ϕ = 1.0), and

L = Clear span of column.

For Special moment resisting frames, α is taken as 1.25 (UBC 1921.0).

V

D+L

is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of

gravity loads. For most of the columns, it is zero.

For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the shear capacity of the

column is also checked for the capacity-shear based on the nominal mo-

ment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads, in addition to

the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design

shear force is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal (ϕ =

1.0) moment capacity and factored shear force. The procedure for calcu-

lating nominal moment capacity is the same as that for computing the

probable moment capacity for special moment resisting frames, except

that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25 (UBC 1921.0, 1921.8.3). The

factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors, except the

earthquake load factors are doubled (UBC 1921.8.3).

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity

Given the design force set P

u

and V

u

, the shear force carried by the concrete,

V

c

, is calculated as follows:

If the column is subjected to axial compression, i.e., P

u

is positive,

V

c

= 2

cv

g

u

c

A

A

P

f

+

000 , 2

1

'

, (UBC 1911.3.1.2)

where,

'

c

f ≤ 100 psi, and (UBC 1911.1.2)

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design

Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 10 - 13

V

c

≤ 3.5

'

c

f

cv

g

u

A

A

P

+

500

1 . (UBC 1911.3.2.2)

The term

g

u

A

P

must have psi units. A

cv

is the effective shear area which is

shown shaded in Figure 6. For circular columns, A

cv

is not taken to be

greater than 0.8 times the gross area (UBC 1911.5.6.2).

Figure 6 Shear Stress Area, A

cv

Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 10 - 14 Design Column Shear Reinforcement

If the column is subjected to axial tension, P

u

is negative, (UBC

1911.3.2.3)

V

c

= 2

'

c

f

+

g

u

A

P

500

1 A

cv

≥ 0 (UBC 1911.3.2.3)

For Special moment resisting concrete frame design, V

c

is set to zero

if the factored axial compressive force, P

u

, including the earthquake effect

is small (Pu <

'

c

f A

g

/ 20) and if the shear force contribution from earth-

quake, V

E

, is more than half of the total factored maximum shear force

over the length of the member V

u

(V

E

≥ 0.5V

u

) (UBC 1921.4.5.2).

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement

Given V

u

and V

c

, the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or

ties within a spacing, s, is given for rectangular and circular columns by the

following:

A

v

=

d f

s V V

ys

c u

) / ( − ϕ

, for rectangular columns (UBC 1911.5.6.1, 1911.5.6.2)

A

v

=

'

) / ( 2

D f

s V V

ys

c u

− ϕ

π

, for circular columns (UBC 1911.5.6.1, 1911.5.6.2)

V

u

is limited by the following relationship.

(V

u

/ ϕ-V

c

) ≤ 8

'

c

f A

cv

(UBC 1911.5.6.8)

Otherwise redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here ϕ, the

strength reduction factor, is 0.85 for nonseismic design or for seismic design

in Seismic Zones 0, 1, and 2 (UBC 1909.3.2.3) and is 0.60 for seismic design

in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 1909.3.4.1). The maximum of all the calcu-

lated values obtained from each load combination are reported for the major

and minor directions of the column, along with the controlling shear force and

associated load combination label.

The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are

based purely on shear strength consideration. Any minimum stirrup require-

ments to satisfy spacing considerations or transverse reinforcement volumet-

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design

Reference Technical Note 10 - 15

ric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the

user.

Reference

White. D. W., and J.F., Hajjar. 1991. Application of Second-Order Elastic

Analysis in LRFD: Research in Practice. Engineering Journal. American

Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. Vol. 28, No. 4.

Overview Technical Note 11 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 11

Beam Design

This Technical Note describes how this program completes beam design when

the UBC97 code is selected. The program calculates and reports the required

areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments, shears, load

combination factors and other criteria described herein.

Overview

In the design of concrete beams, the program calculates and reports the re-

quired areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments,

shears, load combination factors, and other criteria described below. The re-

inforcement requirements are calculated at a user-defined number of

check/design stations along the beam span.

All beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.

Effects caused by axial forces, minor direction bending, and torsion

that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by

the user.

The beam design procedure involves the following steps:

Design beam flexural reinforcement

Design beam shear reinforcement

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at check/design stations

along the beam span. The following steps are involved in designing the flex-

ural reinforcement for the major moment for a particular beam for a particu-

lar section:

Determine the maximum factored moments

Determine the reinforcing steel

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 11 - 2 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

Determine Factored Moments

In the design of flexural reinforcement of Special, Intermediate, or Ordinary

moment resisting concrete frame beams, the factored moments for each load

combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corre-

sponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load fac-

tors.

The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive

+

u

M and maxi-

mum negative

−

u

M factored moments obtained from all of the load combina-

tions

.

Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases, the beam is al-

ways designed as a rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce

bottom steel. In such cases, the beam may be designed as a Rectangular- or

a T-beam.

Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement

In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the

tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added

when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of

a singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding the compres-

sion reinforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the grade

of concrete.

The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as

shown in Figure 1 (UBC 1910.2). It is assumed that the compression carried

by concrete is less than 0.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced

condition (UBC 1910.3.3). When the applied moment exceeds the moment

capacity at this designed balanced condition, the area of compression rein-

forcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried

by compression and additional tension reinforcement.

The design procedure used by the program for both rectangular and flanged

sections (L- and T-beams) is summarized below. It is assumed that the de-

sign ultimate axial force does not exceed 0.1

'

c

f A

g

(UBC 1910.3.3); hence, all

the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 - 3

Figure 1 Design of a Rectangular Beam Section

Design for Rectangular Beam

In designing for a factored negative or positive moment, M

u

(i.e., designing

top or bottom steel), the depth of the compression block is given by a (see

Figure 1), where,

a = d -

b f

M

d

c

u

ϕ

−

'

2

85 . 0

2

,

where the value of ϕ is 0.90 (UBC 1909.3.2.1) in the above and the following

equations. Also β

1

and c

b

are calculated as follows:

β

1

= 0.85 - 0.05

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

−

000 , 1

000 , 4

'

c

f

, 0.65 ≤ β

1

≤ 0.85, (UBC 1910.2.7.3)

c

b

= d

f E

E

y s c

s c

+ ε

ε

=

y

f + 000 , 87

000 , 87

d. (UBC 1910.2.3, 1910.2.4)

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 11 - 4 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by

a

max

= 0.75β

1

c

b

. (UBC 1910.2.7.1, 1910.3.3)

If a ≤ a

max

, the area of tensile steel reinforcement is given by

A

s

=

(

,

\

,

(

j

− ϕ

2

a

d f

M

y

u

.

This steel is to be placed at the bottom if M

u

is positive, or at the top if M

u

is negative.

If a > a

max

, compression reinforcement is required (UBC 1910.3.3) and is

calculated as follows:

− The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by

C = 0.85

'

c

f ba

max

, and (UBC 1910.2.7.1)

the moment resisted by concrete compression and tensile steel is

M

uc

= C

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

−

2

max

a

d ϕ.

− Therefore the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is

M

us

= M

u

- M

uc

.

− So the required compression steel is given by

'

s

A =

ϕ − ) ' (

'

d d f

M

s

us

, where

'

s

f = 0.003E

s

]

]

]

,

¸

, −

c

d c '

. (UBC 1910.2.4)

− The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 - 5

A

s1

=

ϕ

]

]

]

,

¸

,

−

2

max

a

d f

M

y

uc

, and

the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is given by

A

s2

=

ϕ − ) ' ( d d f

M

y

us

.

− Therefore, the total tensile reinforcement, A

s

= A

s1

+ A

s2

, and total com-

pression reinforcement is

'

s

A . A

s

is to be placed at bottom and

'

s

A is to

be placed at top if M

u

is positive, and vice versa if M

u

is negative.

Design for T-Beam

In designing for a factored negative moment, M

u

(i.e., designing top steel),

the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above, i.e., no T-Beam

data is to be used. See Figure 2. If M

u

> 0, the depth of the compression

block is given by

a = d -

f c

u

b f

M

d

ϕ

−

'

2

85 . 0

2

.

The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by

a

max

= 0.75β

1

c

b

. (UBC 1910.2.7.1)

If a ≤ d

s

, the subsequent calculations for A

s

are exactly the same as previously

defined for the rectangular section design. However, in this case, the width of

the compression flange is taken as the width of the beam for analysis. Com-

pression reinforcement is required if a > a

max

.

If a > d

s

, calculation for A

s

is performed in two parts. The first part is for bal-

ancing the compressive force from the flange, C

f

, and the second part is for

balancing the compressive force from the web, C

w

, as shown in Figure 2. C

f

is

given by

C

f

= 0.85

'

c

f (bf - b

w

) d

s

.

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 11 - 6 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

Figure 2 Design of a T-Beam Section

Therefore, A

s1

=

y

f

f

C

and the portion of M

u

that is resisted by the flange is

given by

M

uf

= C

f

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

−

2

s

d

d ϕ .

Again, the value for ϕ is 0.90. Therefore, the balance of the moment, M

u

to be

carried by the web is given by

M

uw

= M

u

- M

uf

.

The web is a rectangular section of dimensions b

w

and d, for which the design

depth of the compression block is recalculated as

a

1

= d -

w c

uw

b f

M

d

ϕ

−

'

2

85 . 0

2

.

If a

1

≤ a

max

, the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 - 7

A

s2

=

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

− ϕ

2

1

a

d f

M

y

uw

, and

A

s

= A

s1

+ A

s2

.

This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the T-beam.

If a

1

> a

max

, compression reinforcement is required (UBC 1910.3.3) and is

calculated as follows:

− The compressive force in web concrete alone is given by

C = 0.85

'

c

f ba

max

. (UBC 1910.2.7.1)

− Therefore the moment resisted by concrete web and tensile steel is

M

uc

= C

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

−

2

max

a

d ϕ, and

the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is

M

us

= M

uw

- M

uc

.

− Therefore, the compression steel is computed as

'

s

A =

ϕ − ) ' (

'

d d f

M

s

us

, where

'

s

f = 0.003E

s

]

]

]

,

¸

, −

c

d c '

. (UBC 1910.2.4)

− The tensile steel for balancing compression in web concrete is

A

s2

=

ϕ

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

−

2

max

a

d f

M

y

uc

, and

the tensile steel for balancing compression in steel is

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 11 - 8 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

A

s3

=

( )ϕ − ' d d f

M

y

us

.

− The total tensile reinforcement, A

s

= A

s1

+ A

s2

+ A

s3

, and total compres-

sion reinforcement is

'

s

A . A

s

is to be placed at bottom and

'

s

A is to be

placed at top.

Minimum Tensile Reinforcement

The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an Or-

dinary moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two following

limits:

A

s

≥ max

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

d b

f

d b

f

f

w

y

w

y

c

200

and

3

'

or (UBC 1910.5.1)

A

s

≥

3

4

A

s(required)

(UBC 1910.5.3)

Special Consideration for Seismic Design

For Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design), the beam de-

sign satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table 1 for compre-

hensive listing):

The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both the top

and bottom. Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less

than A

s(min)

(UBC 1921.3.2.1).

A

s(min)

≥ max

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

d b

f

d b

f

f

w

y

w

y

c

200

and

3

'

or (UBC 1910.5.1, 1921.3.2.1)

A

s(min)

≥

3

4

A

s(required)

. (UBC 1910.5.3, 1921.3.2.1)

The beam flexural steel is limited to a maximum given by

A

s

≤ 0.25 b

w

d. (UBC 1921.3.2.1)

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 - 9

Table 1 Design Criteria Table

Type of

Check/

Design

Ordinary Moment

Resisting Frames

(Seismic Zones 0&1)

Intermediate Moment

Resisting Frames

(Seismic Zone 2)

Special Moment

Resisting Frames

(Seismic Zones 3 & 4)

Column

Check

(interaction)

NLD

a

Combinations NLD

a

Combinations NLD

a

Combinations

Column

Design

(interaction)

NLD

a

Combinations

1% < ρ < 8%

NLD

a

Combinations

1% < ρ < 8%

NLD

a

Combinations

α = 1.0

1% < ρ < 6%

Column

Shears

NLD

a

Combinations

Modified NLD

a

Combinations

(earthquake loads doubled)

Column Capacity

ϕ = 1.0 and α = 1.0

NLD

a

Combinations and

Column shear capacity

ϕ = 1.0 and α = 1.25

Beam

Design

Flexure

NLD

a

Combinations NLD

a

Combinations

NLD

a

Combinations

ρ ≤ 0.025

ρ ≥

y y

c

f f

f

200

,

3

'

≥ ρ

Beam Min.

Moment

Override

Check

No Requirement

− +

≥

uEND uEND

M M

3

1

¦ ¦

END u u uSPAN

M M M

− + +

≥ , max

5

1

¦ ¦

END u u uSPAN

M M M

− + −

≥ , max

5

1

− +

≥

uEND uEND

M M

2

1

¦ ¦

END u u uSPAN

M M M

− + +

≥ , max

4

1

¦ ¦

END u u uSPAN

M M M

− − −

≥ , max

4

1

Beam

Design

Shear

NLD

a

Combinations

Modified NLD

a

Combinations

(earthquake loads doubled)

Beam Capacity Shear (Vp)

with α = 1.0 and ϕ = 1.0

plus VD+L

NLD

a

Combinations

Beam Capacity Shear (Vp)

with α = 1.25 and ϕ = 1.0

plus VD+L

Vc = 0

Joint

Design

No Requirement No Requirement Checked for shear

Beam/

Column

Capacity

Ratio

No Requirement No Requirement Reported in output file

NLD

a

= Number of specified loading

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 11 - 10 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement

At any end (support) of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity

(i.e., associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than 1/2 of the

beam negative moment capacity (i.e., associated with the top steel) at

that end (UBC 1921.3.2.2).

Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity

at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the

maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam

end (support) stations (UBC 1921.3.2.2).

For Intermediate moment resisting concrete frames (i.e., seismic design), the

beam design would satisfy the following conditions:

At any support of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity would

not be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end

(UBC 1921.8.4.1).

Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity

at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the

maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam

end (support) stations (UBC 1921.8.4.1).

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement

The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at a user-

defined number of stations along the beam span. The following steps are in-

volved in designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a par-

ticular load combination at a particular station resulting from the beam major

shear:

Determine the factored shear force, V

u

.

Determine the shear force, V

c

, that can be resisted by the concrete.

Determine the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.

For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (Ductile frames), the

shear design of the beams is also based on the probable and nominal moment

capacities of the members, respectively, in addition to the factored load de-

sign.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 11 - 11

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

this process.

Determine Shear Force and Moment

In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment

resisting concrete frame, the shear forces and moments for a particular

load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring

the associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding load

combination factors.

In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames (i.e.,

seismic design), the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the

capacity-shear associated with the probable moment capacities at the

ends and the factored gravity load. This check is performed in addition to

the design check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The ca-

pacity-shear force, V

p

, is calculated from the probable moment capacities

of each end of the beam and the gravity shear forces. The procedure for

calculating the design shear force in a beam from probable moment ca-

pacity is the same as that described for a column in section “Design Col-

umn Shear Reinforcement” in Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical

Note 10 Column Design. See also Table 1 for details.

The design shear force V

u

is then given by (UBC 1921.3.4.1)

V

u

= V

p

+ V

D+L

(UBC 1921.3.4.1)

where V

p

is the capacity shear force obtained by applying the calculated

probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting

in opposite directions. Therefore, V

p

is the maximum of

1

P

V and

2

P

V ,

where

1

P

V =

L

M M

J I

+ −

+

, and

2

P

V =

L

M M

J I

− +

+

, where

−

I

M = Moment capacity at end I, with top steel in tension, using a

steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 11 - 12 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement

+

J

M = Moment capacity at end J, with bottom steel in tension, using a

steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),

+

I

M = Moment capacity at end I, with bottom steel in tension, using a

steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),

−

J

M = Moment capacity at end J, with top steel in tension, using a

steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0), and

L = Clear span of beam.

For Special moment resisting frames, α is taken as 1.25 (UBC 1921.0).

V

D+L

is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of

gravity loads.

For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the shear capacity of the

beam is also checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal moment

capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads, in addition to the

check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design shear

force in beams is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal

moment capacity and factored shear force. The procedure for calculating

nominal (ϕ = 1.0) moment capacity is the same as that for computing the

probable moment capacity for Special moment resisting frames, except

that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25 (UBC 1921.0, 1921.8.3). The

factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors, except the

earthquake load factors are doubled (UBC 1921.8.3). The computation of

the design shear force in a beam of an Intermediate moment resisting

frame is also the same as that for columns, which is described in Con-

crete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 10 Column Design. Also see

Table 1 for details.

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity

The allowable concrete shear capacity is given by

V

c

= 2

'

c

f b

w

d. (UBC 1911.3.1.1)

For Special moment resisting frame concrete design, V

c

is set to zero if both

the factored axial compressive force, including the earthquake effect P

u

, is

less than

'

c

f A

g

/20 and the shear force contribution from earthquake V

E

is

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 11 - 13

more than half of the total maximum shear force over the length of the mem-

ber V

u

(i.e., V

E

≥ 0.5V

u

) (UBC 1921.3.4.2).

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement

Given V

u

and V

c

, the required shear reinforcement in area/unit length is cal-

culated as

A

v

=

d f

s V V

ys

c u

) / ( − ϕ

. (UBC 1911.5.6.1, 1911.5.6.2)

The shear force resisted by steel is limited by

(V

u

/ϕ - V

c

) ≤ 8

'

c

f bd. (UBC 1911.5.6.8)

Otherwise, redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here ϕ, the

strength reduction factor, is 0.85 for nonseismic design or for seismic design

in Seismic Zones 0, 1, and 2 (UBC 1909.3.2.3) and is 0.60 for seismic design

in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 1909.3.4.1). The maximum of all the calcu-

lated A

v

values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with

the controlling shear force and associated load combination number.

The beam shear reinforcement requirements displayed by the program are

based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup require-

ments to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated

independently of the program by the user.

Overview Technical Note 12 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 12

Joint Design

This Technical Note explains how the program performs a rational analysis of

the beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are gener-

ated in a joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength.

Overview

To ensure that the beam-column joint of special moment resisting frames

possesses adequate shear strength, the program performs a rational analysis

of the beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are gener-

ated in the joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength.

Only joints having a column below the joint are designed. The mate-

rial properties of the joint are assumed to be the same as those of the

column below the joint.

The joint analysis is completed in the major and the minor directions of the

column. The joint design procedure involves the following steps:

• Determine the panel zone design shear force,V

u

h

• Determine the effective area of the joint

• Check panel zone shear stress

The algorithms associated with these three steps are described in detail in the

following three sections.

Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force

Figure 1 illustrates the free body stress condition of a typical beam-column

intersection for a column direction, major or minor.

Joint Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 12 - 2 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force

Figure1 Beam-Column Joint Analysis

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Joint Design

Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Technical Note 12 - 3

The force V

u

h

is the horizontal panel zone shear force that is to be calculated.

The forces that act on the joint are P

u

, V

u

, M

u

L

and M

u

R

. The forces P

u

and V

u

are axial force and shear force, respectively, from the column framing into the

top of the joint. The moments M

u

L

and M

u

R

are obtained from the beams

framing into the joint. The program calculates the joint shear force V

u

h

by re-

solving the moments into C and T forces. Noting that T

L

= C

L

and T

R

= C

R

,

V

u

h

= T

L

+ T

R

- V

u

The location of C or T forces is determined by the direction of the moment.

The magnitude of C or T forces is conservatively determined using basic prin-

ciples of ultimate strength theory, ignoring compression reinforcement as fol-

lows. The program first calculates the maximum compression, C

max

, and the

maximum moment, M

max

, that can be carried by the beam.

bd f C

c

'

max

85 . 0

2

max max

d

C M

Then the program conservatively determines C and T forces as follows:

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

− −

max

max

) (

1 1

M

M abs

C T C

The program resolves the moments and the C and T forces from beams that

frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor

directions of the column along the direction that is being investigated, thereby

contributing force components to the analysis. Also, the program calculates

the C and T for the positive and negative moments, considering the fact that

the concrete cover may be different for the direction of moment.

In the design of special moment resisting concrete frames, the evaluation of

the design shear force is based on the moment capacities (with reinforcing

steel overstrength factor, α, and no ϕ factors) of the beams framing into the

joint (UBC 1921.5.1.1). The C and T forces are based on these moment ca-

pacities. The program calculates the column shear force V

u

from the beam

moment capacities, as follows:

Joint Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 12 - 4 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force

H

M M

V

R

u

L

u

u

+

**See Figure 2. It should be noted that the points of inflection shown on Figure
**

2 are taken as midway between actual lateral support points for the columns.

If there is no column at the top of the joint, the shear force from the top of

the column is taken as zero.

Figure 2 Column Shear Force V

u

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Joint Design

Determine the Effective Area of Joint Technical Note 12 - 5

The effects of load reversals, as illustrated in Case 1 and Case 2 of Figure 1,

are investigated and the design is based on the maximum of the joint shears

obtained from the two cases.

Determine the Effective Area of Joint

The joint area that resists the shear forces is assumed always to be rectan-

gular in plan view. The dimensions of the rectangle correspond to the major

and minor dimensions of the column below the joint, except if the beam

framing into the joint is very narrow. The effective width of the joint area to

be used in the calculation is limited to the width of the beam plus the depth of

the column. The area of the joint is assumed not to exceed the area of the

column below. The joint area for joint shear along the major and minor direc-

tions is calculated separately (ACI R21.5.3).

It should be noted that if the beam frames into the joint eccentrically, the

above assumptions may be unconservative and the user should investigate

the acceptability of the particular joint.

Check Panel Zone Shear Stress

The panel zone shear stress is evaluated by dividing the shear force V

u

h

by

the effective area of the joint and comparing it with the following design shear

strengths (UBC 1921.5.3):

20ϕ

c

f '

for joints confined on all four sides

v = 15ϕ

c

f '

for joints confined on three faces or on two

opposite faces

¦

12ϕ

c

f '

for all other joints

where ϕ = 0.85 (by default). (UBC 1909.3.2.3,1909.3.4.1)

A beam that frames into a face of a column at the joint is considered in this

program to provide confinement to the joint if at least three-quarters of the

face of the joint is covered by the framing member (UBC 1921.5.3.1).

Joint Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 12 - 6 Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios

For light-weight aggregate concrete, the design shear strength of the joint is

reduced in the program to at least three-quarters of that of the normal weight

concrete by replacing the

'

c

f with

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦ '

,

4 / 3 , ' min

c c factor cs

f f f (UBC 1921.5.3.2)

For joint design, the program reports the joint shear, the joint shear stress,

the allowable joint shear stress and a capacity ratio.

Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios

At a particular joint for a particular column direction, major or minor, the pro-

gram will calculate the ratio of the sum of the beam moment capacities to the

sum of the column moment capacities. For Special Moment-Resisting Frames,

the following UBC provision needs to be satisfied (UBC 1921.4.2.2).

∑M

e

≥

5

6

∑M

g

(UBC 1921.4.2.2)

The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength factor, α, and

including ϕ factors. The beam capacities are calculated for reversed situations

(Cases 1 and 2) as illustrated in Figure 1 and the maximum summation ob-

tained is used.

The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is

not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along

the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are

added to the summation.

The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column

below the joint. For each load combination, the axial force, P

u

, in each of the

columns is calculated from the program analysis load combinations. For each

load combination, the moment capacity of each column under the influence of

the corresponding axial load P

u

is then determined separately for the major

and minor directions of the column, using the uniaxial column interaction dia-

gram, see Figure 3. The moment capacities of the two columns are added to

give the capacity summation for the corresponding load combination. The

maximum capacity summations obtained from all of the load combinations is

used for the beam/column capacity ratio.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Joint Design

Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Technical Note 12 - 7

The beam/column flexural capacity ratios are only reported for Special Mo-

ment-Resisting Frames involving seismic design load combinations. If this ra-

tio is greater than 5/6, a warning message is printed in the output file.

Figure 3 Moment Capacity M

u

at a Given Axial Load P

u

Input Data Technical Note 13 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 13

Input Data

This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design input data for

UBC97. The input can be printed to a printer or to a text file when you click

the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. A

printout of the input data provides the user with the opportunity to carefully

review the parameters that have been input into the program and upon which

program design is based. Further information about using the Print Design

Tables form is presented at the end of this Technical Note.

Input Data

The program provides the printout of the input data in a series of tables. The

column headings for input data and a description of what is included in the

columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Load Combination Multipliers

Combo Design load combination. See Technical Note 8.

Type

Load type: dead, live, superimposed dead, earthquake, wind,

snow, reduced live load, other.

Case Name of load case.

Factor Load combination scale factor.

Code Preferences

Phi_bending Bending strength reduction factor.

Phi_tension Tensile strength reduction factor.

Phi_compression

(Tied)

Compressive strength reduction factor for tied columns.

Phi_compression (Spi-

ral)

Compressive strength reduction factor for reinforced columns.

Phi_shear Shear strength reduction factor.

Input Data Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 13 - 2 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Material Property Data

Material Name Concrete, steel, other.

Material Type Isotropic or orthotropic.

Design Type

Modulus of Elasticity

Poisson's Ratio

Thermal Coeff Coefficient of thermal expansion.

Shear Modulus

Material Property Mass and Weight

Material Name Concrete, steel, other.

Mass Per Unit Vol Used to calculate self-mass of structure.

Weight Per Unit Vol Used to calculate self-weight of structure.

Material Design Data for Concrete Materials

Material Name Concrete, steel, other.

Lightweight Concrete

Concrete FC Concrete compressive strength.

Rebar FY Bending reinforcing steel yield strength.

Rebar FYS Shear reinforcing steel yield strength.

Lightwt Reduc Fact Shear strength reduction factor for light weight concrete; default

= 1.0.

Concrete Column Property Data

Section Label Label applied to section.

Mat Label Material label.

Column Depth

Column Width

Rebar Pattern Layout of main flexural reinforcing steel.

Concrete Cover Minimum clear concrete cover.

Bar Area Area of individual reinforcing bar to be used.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Input Data

Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 13 - 3

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Concrete Column Design Element Information

Story ID Column assigned to story level at top of column.

Column Line Grid line.

Section ID Name of section assigned to column.

Framing Type Lateral or gravity.

RLLF Factor

L_Ratio Major Unbraced length about major axis.

L_Ratio Minor Unbraced length about minor axis.

K Major Effective length factor; default = 1.0.

K Minor Effective length factor; default = 1.0.

Concrete Beam Design Element Information

Story ID Story level at which beam occurs.

Bay ID Grid lines locating beam.

Section ID Section number assigned to beam.

Framing type Lateral or gravity.

RLLF Factor

L_Ratio Major Unbraced length about major axis.

L_Ratio Minor Unbraced length about minor axis.

Using the Print Design Tables Form

To print steel frame design input data directly to a printer, use the File menu

> Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the check

box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the OK button to send the print to

your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the

print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button

to change printers, if necessary.

To print steel frame design input data to a file, click the Print to File check box

on the Print Design Tables form. Click the Filename>> button to change the

Input Data Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 13 - 4 Using the Print Design Tables Form

path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format

(e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Ta-

bles form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request.

Note:

The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out-

put that is printed to a text file.

The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and

filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print

Design Tables form. Data will be added to this file. Or use the Filename>>

button to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing Tables cau-

tion box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.

If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print

Tables > Concrete Frame Design command, the Selection Only check box

will be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.

Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output Technical Note 14 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

Technical Note 14

Output Details

This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design output for UBC97

that can be printed to a printer or to a text file. The design output is printed

when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design

command and select Output Summary of the Print Design Tables dialog box.

Further information about using the Print Design Tables dialog box is pre-

sented at the end of this Technical Note.

The program provides the output data in a series of tables. The column

headings for output data and a description of what is included in the columns

of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.

Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Biaxial P-M Interaction and Shear Design of Column-Type Elements

Story ID Column assigned to story level at top of column.

Column Line Grid lines.

Section ID Name of section assigned to column.

Station ID

Required Reinforcing

Longitudinal Area of longitudinal reinforcing required.

Combo Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.

Shear22 Shear reinforcing required.

Combo Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.

Shear33 Shear reinforcing required.

Output Details Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Technical Note 14 - 2 Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output

Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Combo Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.

Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Beam to Column Capacity Ratios and Joint Shear Capacity Check

Story ID Story level at which joint occurs.

Column Line Grid line.

Section ID Assigned section name.

Beam-Column Capacity Ratios

Major Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity.

Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment ca-

pacity to column capacity is based.

Minor Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity.

Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment ca-

pacity to column capacity is based.

Joint Shear Capacity Ratios

Major Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity.

Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus

allowed capacity is based.

Minor Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity.

Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus

allowed capacity is based.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Output Details

Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 14 - 3

Using the Print Design Tables Form

To print concrete frame design input data directly to a printer, use the File

menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the

check box on the Print Design Tables dialog box. Click the OK button to send

the print to your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button

to cancel the print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the

Setup>> button to change printers, if necessary.

To print concrete frame design input data to a file, click the Print to File check

box on the Print Design Tables dialog box. Click the Filename>> button to

change the path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the de-

sired format (e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the OK buttons on the Open File for

Printing Tables dialog box and the Print Design Tables dialog box to complete

the request.

Note:

The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out-

put that is printed to a text file.

The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and

filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print

Design Tables dialog box. Data will be added to this file. Or use the File-

name>> button to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing

Tables caution box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.

If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print

Tables > Concrete Frame Design command, the Selection Only check box

will be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.

Introduction to the ACI318-99 Series of Technical Notes Technical Note 15 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99

Technical Note 15

General and Notation

Introduction to the ACI318-99 Series of Technical Notes

The ACI-318-99 Concrete Frame Design series of Technical Notes describes in

detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by

this program when the user selects the ACI-318-99 Design Code (ACI 1999).

The various notations used in this series are listed herein.

The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. The program

provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements

for the design of most building type structures. See Concrete Frame Design

ACI-318-99 Technical Note 18 Design Load Combination for more information.

The program provides options to design or check Earthquake resisting

frames; Ordinary, Earthquake resisting frames; Intermediate (moderate

seismic risk areas), and Earthquake resisting frames; Special (high seismic

risk areas) moment resisting frames as required for seismic design provisions.

The details of the design criteria used for the different framing systems are

described in Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 19 Strength

Reduction Factors, Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 20 Col-

umn Design, Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 21 Beam De-

sign, and Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 22 Joint Design.

The program uses preferences and overwrites, which are described in Con-

crete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 16 Preferences and Concrete

Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 17 Overwrites. It also provides in-

put and output data summaries, which are described in Concrete Frame De-

sign ACI-318-99 Technical Note 23 Input Data and Concrete Frame Design

ACI-318-99 Technical Note 24 Output Details.

English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. But the code

is based on Inch-Pound-Second units. For simplicity, all equations and de-

scriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Inch-Pound-Second units

unless otherwise noted.

General and Notation Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 15 - 2 Notation

Notation

A

cv

Area of concrete used to determine shear stress, sq-in

A

g

Gross area of concrete, sq-in

A

s

Area of tension reinforcement, sq-in

'

s

A

Area of compression reinforcement, sq-in

A

s(required)

Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-in

A

st

Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, sq-in

A

v

Area of shear reinforcement, sq-in

C

m

Coefficient, dependent upon column curvature, used to calculate

moment magnification factor

E

c

Modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi

E

s

Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 29,000,000

psi (ACI 8.5.2)

I

g

Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis,

neglecting reinforcement, in

4

I

se

Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of

member cross section, in

4

L Clear unsupported length, in

M

1

Smaller factored end moment in a column, lb-in

M

2

Larger factored end moment in a column, lb-in

M

c

Factored moment to be used in design, lb-in

M

ns

Nonsway component of factored end moment, lb-in

M

s

Sway component of factored end moment, lb-in

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 General and Notation

Notation Technical Note 15 - 3

M

u

Factored moment at section, lb-in

M

ux

Factored moment at section about X-axis, lb-in

M

uy

Factored moment at section about Y-axis, lb-in

P

b

Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions, lb

P

c

Critical buckling strength of column, lb

P

max

Maximum axial load strength allowed, lb

P

0

Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity, lb

P

u

Factored axial load at section, lb

V

c

Shear resisted by concrete, lb

V

E

Shear force caused by earthquake loads, lb

V

D+L

Shear force from span loading, lb

V

u

Factored shear force at a section, lb

V

p

Shear force computed from probable moment capacity, lb

a Depth of compression block, in

a

b

Depth of compression block at balanced condition, in

b Width of member, in

b

f

Effective width of flange (T-Beam section), in

b

w

Width of web (T-Beam section), in

c Depth to neutral axis, in

c

b

Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, in

d Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, in

d' Concrete cover to center of reinforcing, in

General and Notation Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 15 - 4 Notation

d

s

Thickness of slab (T-Beam section), in

'

c

f

Specified compressive strength of concrete, psi

f

y

Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, psi

f

y

≤ 80,000 psi (ACI 9.4)

f

ys

Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, psi

h Dimension of column, in

k Effective length factor

r Radius of gyration of column section, in

α Reinforcing steel overstrength factor

β

1

Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to

maximum factored axial total load

β

d

Absolute value of ratio or maximum factored axial dead load to

maximum factored axial total load

δ

s

Moment magnification factor for sway moments

δ

ns

Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments

ε

c

Strain in concrete

ε

s

Strain in reinforcing steel

ϕ Strength reduction factor

General Technical Note 16 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99

Technical Note 16

Preferences

This Technical Note describes the items in the Preferences form.

General

The concrete frame design preferences in this program are basic assignments

that apply to all concrete frame elements. Use the Options menu > Prefer-

ences > Concrete Frame Design command to access the Preferences form

where you can view and revise the concrete frame design preferences.

Default values are provided for all concrete frame design preference items.

Thus, it is not required that you specify or change any of the preferences. You

should, however, at least review the default values for the preference items

to make sure they are acceptable to you.

Using the Preferences Form

To view preferences, select the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete

Frame Design. The Preferences form will display. The preference options

are displayed in a two-column spreadsheet. The left column of the spread-

sheet displays the preference item name. The right column of the spreadsheet

displays the preference item value.

To change a preference item, left click the desired preference item in either

the left or right column of the spreadsheet. This activates a drop-down box or

highlights the current preference value. If the drop-down box appears, select

a new value. If the cell is highlighted, type in the desired value. The prefer-

ence value will update accordingly. You cannot overwrite values in the drop-

down boxes.

When you have finished making changes to the composite beam preferences,

click the OK button to close the form. You must click the OK button for the

changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the Cancel button to exit

Preferences Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Technical Note 16 - 2 Preferences

the form, any changes made to the preferences are ignored and the form is

closed.

Preferences

For purposes of explanation in this Technical Note, the preference items are

presented in Table. The column headings in the table are described as fol-

lows:

Item: The name of the preference item as it appears in the cells at the

left side of the Preferences form.

Possible Values: The possible values that the associated preference item

can have.

Default Value: The built-in default value that the program assumes for

the associated preference item.

Description: A description of the associated preference item.

Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value Description

Design Code Any code in

the program

ACI 318-99 Design code used for design of

concrete frame elements.

Phi Bending

Tension

>0 0.9 Unitless strength reduction factor per

ACI 9.3.

Phi Compres-

sion Tied

>0 0.7 Unitless strength reduction factor per

ACI 9.3.

Phi Compres-

sion Spiral

>0 0.75 Unitless strength reduction factor per

ACI 9.3.

Phi Shear >0 0.85 Unitless strength reduction factor per

ACI 9.3.

Number Inter-

action Curves

≥4.0 24 Number of equally spaced interaction

curves used to create a full 360-degree

interaction surface (this item should be

a multiple of four). We recommend that

you use 24 for this item.

Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Preferences

Preferences Technical Note 16 - 3

Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value Description

Number Inter-

action Points

Any odd value

≥4.0

11 Number of points used for defining a

single curve in a concrete frame

interaction surface (this item should be

odd).

Time History

Design

Envelopes or

Step-by-Step

Envelopes Toggle for design load combinations

that include a time history designed for

the envelope of the time history, or

designed step-by-step for the entire

time history. If a single design load

combination has more than one time

history case in it, that design load

combination is designed for the

envelopes of the time histories,

regardless of what is specified here.

Overwrites Technical Note 17 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99

Technical Note 17

Overwrites

General

The concrete frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only

to those elements to which they are assigned. This Technical Note describes

concrete frame design overwrites for ACI318-99. To access the overwrites,

select an element and click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design >

View/Revise Overwrites command.

Default values are provided for all overwrite items. Thus, you do not need to

specify or change any of the overwrites. However, at least review the default

values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. When

changes are made to overwrite items, the program applies the changes only

to the elements to which they are specifically assigned; that is, to the ele-

ments that are selected when the overwrites are changed.

Overwrites

For explanation purposes in this Technical Note, the overwrites are presented

in Table 1. The column headings in the table are described as follows.

Item: The name of the overwrite item as it appears in the program. To

save space in the formes, these names are generally short.

Possible Values: The possible values that the associated overwrite item

can have.

Default Value: The default value that the program assumes for the asso-

ciated overwrite item.

Description: A description of the associated overwrite item.

An explanation of how to change an overwrite is provided at the end of this

Technical Note.

Overwrites Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Technical Note 17 - 2 Overwrites

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value Description

Element

Section

Element

Type

Sway Special,

Sway Interme-

diate,

Sway

Ordinary

NonSway

Sway Special Frame type per moment frame defini-

tion given in ACI 21.1.

Live Load

Reduction

Factor

>0

≤1.0

1. Used to reduce the live load contribu-

tion to the factored loading.

Horizontal

Earthquake

Factor

>0

≤1.0

1

Unbraced

Length Ratio

(Major)

>0

≤1.0

1.0

Unbraced

Length Ratio

(Minor)

>0

≤1.0

1.0

Effective

Length Factor

(K Major)

>0

≤1.0

1 See ACI 10.12, 10.13 and Figure

R10.12.1.

Effective

Length Factor

(K Minor)

>0

≤1.0

1 See ACI 10.12, 10.13 and Figure

R10.12.1.

Moment

Coefficient

(Cm Major)

>0

≤1.0

1 Factor relating actual moment diagram

to an equivalent uniform moment dia-

gram. See ACI 10.12.3.

Moment

Coefficient

(Cm Minor)

>0

≤1.0

1 Factor relating actual moment diagram

to an equivalent uniform moment dia-

gram. See ACI 10.12.3.

NonSway

Moment Factor

(Dns Major)

>0

≤1.0

1 See ACI 10.12.

Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Overwrites

Overwrites Technical Note 17 - 3

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value Description

NonSway

Moment Factor

(Dns Minor)

1 See ACI 10.13.

Sway Moment

Factor

(Ds Major)

1 See ACI 10.13.

Sway Moment

Factor

(Ds Minor)

1 See ACI 10.13.

Making Changes in the Overwrites Form

To access the concrete frame overwrites, select an element and click the De-

sign menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites com-

mand.

The overwrites are displayed in the form with a column of check boxes and a

two-column spreadsheet. The left column of the spreadsheet contains the

name of the overwrite item. The right column of the spreadsheet contains the

overwrites values.

Initially, the check boxes in the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form are

all unchecked and all of the cells in the spreadsheet have a gray background

to indicate that they are inactive and the items in the cells cannot be

changed. The names of the overwrite items are displayed in the first column

of the spreadsheet. The values of the overwrite items are visible in the second

column of the spreadsheet if only one element was selected before the over-

writes form was accessed. If multiple elements were selected, no values show

for the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet.

After selecting one or multiple elements, check the box to the left of an over-

write item to change it. Then left click in either column of the spreadsheet to

activate a drop-down box or highlight the contents in the cell in the right col-

umn of the spreadsheet. If the drop-down box appears, select a value from

Overwrites Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Technical Note 17 - 4 Overwrites

the box. If the cell contents is highlighted, type in the desired value. The

overwrite will reflect the change. You cannot change the values of the drop-

down boxes.

When changes to the overwrites have been completed, click the OK button to

close the form. The program then changes all of the overwrite items whose

associated check boxes are checked for the selected members. You must click

the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the

Cancel button to exit the form, any changes made to the overwrites are ig-

nored and the form is closed.

Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default Values

Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Reset All Overwrites

command to reset all of the steel frame overwrites. All current design results

will be deleted when this command is executed.

Important note about resetting overwrites: The program defaults for the

overwrite items are built into the program. The concrete frame overwrite val-

ues that were in a .edb file that you used to initialize your model may be dif-

ferent from the built-in program default values. When you reset overwrites,

the program resets the overwrite values to its built-in values, not to the val-

ues that were in the .edb file used to initialize the model.

Design Load Combinations Technical Note 18 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99

Technical Note 18

Design Load Combinations

The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed

load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. For the ACI 318-99

code, if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only, the

stress check may need only one load combination, namely 1.4 DL + 1.7 LL

(ACI 9.2.1). However, in addition to the dead and live loads, if the structure is

subjected to wind (WL) and earthquake (EL) loads and considering that wind

and earthquake forces are reversible, the following load combinations should

be considered (ACI 9.2).

1.4 DL

1.4 DL + 1.7 LL (ACI 9.2.1)

0.9 DL ± 1.3 WL

0.75 (1.4 DL + 1.7 LL ± 1.7 WL) (ACI 9.2.2)

0.9 DL ± 1.3 * 1.1 EL

0.75 (1.4 DL + 1.7 LL ± 1.7 * 1.1 EL) (ACI 9.2.3)

These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever

the ACI 318-99 code is used. The user is warned that the above load combi-

nations involving seismic loads consider service-level seismic forces. Different

load factors may apply with strength-level seismic forces (ACI R9.2.3).

Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live

load condition on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of

the live load to the factored loading. See Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99

Technical Note 17 Overwrites for more information.

Strength Reduction Factors Technical Note 19 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99

Technical Note 19

Strength Reduction Factors

The strength reduction factors, ϕ, are applied on the nominal strength to ob-

tain the design strength provided by a member. The ϕ factors for flexure, ax-

ial force, shear, and torsion are as follows:

ϕ = 0.90 for flexure (ACI 9.3.2.1)

ϕ = 0.90 for axial tension (ACI 9.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.90 for axial tension and flexure (ACI 9.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.75 for axial compression, and axial compression

and flexure (spirally reinforced column) (ACI 9.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.70 for axial compression, and axial compression

and flexure (tied column) (ACI 9.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.85 for shear and torsion (ACI 9.3.2.3)

Overview Technical Note 20 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99

Technical Note 20

Column Design

This Technical Note describes how the program checks column capacity or de-

signs reinforced concrete columns when the ACI-318-99 code is selected.

Overview

The program can be used to check column capacity or to design columns. If

you define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete

column section, the program will check the column capacity. Alternatively, the

program can calculate the amount of reinforcing required to design the col-

umn. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the struc-

ture involves the following steps:

Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the dif-

ferent concrete section types of the model. A typical biaxial interaction

surface is shown in Figure 1. When the steel is undefined, the program

generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforce-

ment 1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Intermediate moment resisting

frames (ACI 10.9.1) and 1 to 6 percent for Special moment resisting

frames (ACI 21.4.3.1).

Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the fac-

tored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from

each loading combination at each station of the column. The target capac-

ity ratio is taken as one when calculating the required reinforcing area.

Design the column shear reinforcement.

The following four sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

this process.

Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 20 - 2 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces

Figure 1 A Typical Column Interaction Surface

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces

The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series

of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction

failure surface. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending, the for-

mulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations. A typical

interaction diagram is shown in Figure 1.

The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear

strain in three dimensions on the section of the column. See Figure 2. The

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces Technical Note 20 - 3

linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain, ε

c

, at the extremity

of the section, to 0.003 (ACI 10.2.3).

The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate

strength design (ACI 10.3), and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular,

square, or circular column section.

The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel

modulus of elasticity, ε

s

E

s

, and is limited to the yield stress of the steel, f

y

(ACI 10.2.4). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be

placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does

not assume any further simplifications with respect to distributing the area of

steel over the cross section of the column, such as an equivalent steel tube or

cylinder. See Figure 3.

The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a

stress value of 0.85

'

c

f (ACI 10.2.7.1). See Figure 3. The interaction algorithm

provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the

reinforcement in the compression zone.

The effects of the strength reduction factor, ϕ, are included in the generation

of the interaction surfaces. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to

ϕP

n(max)

, where

ϕP

n(max)

= 0.85ϕ[0.85

'

c

f (A

g

-A

st

)+f

y

A

st

] spiral column, (ACI 10.3.5.1)

ϕP

n(max)

= 0.80ϕ[0.85

'

c

f (A

g

-A

st

)+f

y

A

st

] tied column, (ACI 10.3.5.2)

ϕ = 0.70 for tied columns, and (ACI 9.3.2.2)

ϕ = 0.75 for spirally reinforced columns. (ACI 9.3.2.2)

The value of ϕ used in the interaction diagram varies from ϕ(compression) to

ϕ(flexure) based on the axial load. For low values of axial load, ϕ is increased

linearly from ϕ(compression) to ϕ(flexure) as the ϕP

n

decreases from the

smaller of ϕP

b

or 0.1

'

c

f A

g

to zero, where ϕP

b

is the axial force at the balanced

condition. The ϕ factor used in calculating ϕP

n

and ϕP

b

is the ϕ(compression).

In cases involving axial tension, ϕ is always ϕ(flexure), which is 0.9 by default

(ACI 9.3.2.2).

Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 20 - 4 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces

Figure 2 Idealized Strain Distribution for Generation of Interaction Source

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 20 - 5

Figure 3 Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio

The column capacity ratio is calculated for each load combination at each out-

put station of each column. The following steps are involved in calculating the

capacity ratio of a particular column for a particular load combination at a

particular location:

Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases

and the specified load combination factors to give P

u

, M

ux

, and M

uy

.

Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments.

Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored moments. Deter-

mine whether the point, defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial

moment set, lies within the interaction volume.

The factored moments and corresponding magnification factors depend on the

identification of the individual column as either “sway” or “non-sway.”

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

this process.

Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 20 - 6 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio

Determine Factored Moments and Forces

The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying

the corresponding load factors to all the load cases, giving P

u

, M

ux

, and M

uy

.

The factored moments are further increased for non-sway columns, if re-

quired, to obtain minimum eccentricities of (0.6+0.03h) inches, where h is

the dimension of the column in the corresponding direction (ACI 10.12.3.2).

Determine Moment Magnification Factors

The moment magnification factors are calculated separately for sway (overall

stability effect), δ

s

and for non-sway (individual column stability effect), δ

ns

.

Also, the moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are

in general different (ACI 10.0, R10.13).

The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the

sway (M

s

) and the non-sway (M

ns

) components. The non-sway components,

which are identified by “ns” subscripts, are predominantly caused by gravity

load. The sway components are identified by the “s” subscripts. The sway

moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads, and are related to the

cause of side sway.

For individual columns or column-members in a floor, the magnified moments

about two axes at any station of a column can be obtained as

M = M

ns

+ δ

s

M

s

. (ACI 10.13.3)

The factor δ

s

is the moment magnification factor for moments causing side

sway. The moment magnification factors for sway moments, δ

s

, is taken as 1

because the component moments M

s

and M

ns

are obtained from a “second or-

der elastic (P-delta) analysis” (ACI R10.10, 10.10.1, R10.13, 10.13.4.1).

The program assumes that it performs a P-delta analysis and, therefore, mo-

ment magnification factor δ

s

for moments causing side-sway is taken as unity

(ACI 10.10.2). For the P-delta analysis, the load should correspond to a load

combination of 1.4 dead load + 1.7 live load (ACI 10.13.6). See also White

and Hajjar (1991). The user should use reduction factors for the moment of

inertias in the program as specified in ACI 10.11. The moment of inertia re-

duction for sustained lateral load involves a factor β

d

(ACI 10.11). This β

d

for

sway frame in second-order analysis is different from the one that is defined

later for non-sway moment magnification (ACI 10.0, R10.12.3, R10.13.4.1).

The default moment of inertia factor in this program is 1.

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 20 - 7

The computed moments are further amplified for individual column stability

effect (ACI 10.12.3, 10.13.5) by the nonsway moment magnification factor,

δ

ns

, as follows:

M

c

= δ

ns

M, where (ACI 10.12.3)

M

c

is the factored moment to be used in design.

The non-sway moment magnification factor, δ

ns

, associated with the major or

minor direction of the column is given by (ACI 10.12.3)

δ

ns

=

c

u

m

P

P

C

75 . 0

1 −

≤ 1.0, where (ACI 10.12.3)

C

m

= 0.6 +0.4

b

a

M

M

≥ 0.4, (ACI 10.12.3.1)

M

a

and M

b

are the moments at the ends of the column, and M

b

is

numerically larger than M

a

. M

a

/ M

b

is positive for single curvature

bending and negative for double curvature bending. The above ex-

pression of C

m

is valid if there is no transverse load applied between

the supports. If transverse load is present on the span, or the length

is overwritten, C

m

=1. The user can overwrite C

m

on an element-by-

element basis.

P

c

=

2

2

) (

u

kl

EI π

, where (ACI 10.12.3)

k is conservatively taken as 1; however, the program allows the

user to override this value (ACI 10.12.1).

l

u

is the unsupported length of the column for the direction of

bending considered. The two unsupported lengths are l

22

and l

33

,

corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of

the element, respectively. See Figure 4. These are the lengths

Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 20 - 8 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio

Figure 4 Axes of Bending and Unsupported Length

between the support points of the element in the corresponding

directions.

EI is associated with a particular column direction:

EI =

d

g c

I E

β + 1

4 . 0

, where (ACI 10.12.3)

maximum factored axial sustained (dead) load

β

d

=

maximum factored axial total load

(ACI 10.0,R10.12.3)

The magnification factor, δ

ns

, must be a positive number and greater than

one. Therefore, P

u

must be less than 0.75P

c

. If P

u

is found to be greater than

or equal to 0.75P

c

, a failure condition is declared.

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 20 - 9

The above calculations are performed for major and minor directions sepa-

rately. That means that δ

s

, δ

ns

, C

m

, k, l

u

, EI, and P

c

assume different values for

major and minor directions of bending.

If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member, the

user can explicitly specify values of δ

s

and δ

ns

.

Determine Capacity Ratio

As a measure of the stress condition of the column, a capacity ratio is calcu-

lated. The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the

stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column.

Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity, the

moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain P

u

,

M

ux

, and M

uy

. The point (P

u

, M

ux

, M

uy

) is then placed in the interaction space

shown as point L in Figure 5. If the point lies within the interaction volume,

the column capacity is adequate; however, if the point lies outside the inter-

action volume, the column is overstressed.

This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the lo-

cation of point C. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if ex-

tended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. This point is determined by

three-dimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the fail-

ure surface. See Figure 5. The capacity ratio, CR, is given by the ratio

OC

OL

.

If OL = OC (or CR=1), the point lies on the interaction surface and the

column is stressed to capacity.

If OL < OC (or CR<1), the point lies within the interaction volume and the

column capacity is adequate.

If OL > OC (or CR>1), the point lies outside the interaction volume and

the column is overstressed.

The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is

reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling P

u

,

M

ux

, and M

uy

set and associated load combination number.

Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 20 - 10 Required Reinforcing Area

Figure 5 Geometric Representation of Column Capacity Ratio

Required Reinforcing Area

If the reinforcing area is not defined, the program computes the reinforce-

ment that will give a column capacity ratio of one, calculated as described in

the previous section entitled "Calculate Column Capacity Ratio."

Design Column Shear Reinforcement

The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination in the major

and minor directions of the column. The following steps are involved in de-

signing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular load com-

bination resulting from shear forces in a particular direction:

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design

Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 20 - 11

Determine the factored forces acting on the section, P

u

and V

u

. Note that

P

u

is needed for the calculation of V

c

.

Determine the shear force, V

c

, that can be resisted by concrete alone.

Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.

For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (Ductile frames), the

shear design of the columns is also based on the Probable moment and nomi-

nal moment capacities of the members, respectively, in addition to the fac-

tored moments. Effects of the axial forces on the column moment capacities

are included in the formulation.

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

this process.

Determine Section Forces

In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment

resisting concrete frame, the forces for a particular load combination,

namely, the column axial force, P

u

, and the column shear force, V

u

, in a

particular direction are obtained by factoring the program analysis load

cases with the corresponding load combination factors.

In the shear design of Special moment resisting frames (i.e., seismic

design), the column is checked for capacity shear in addition to the re-

quirement for the Ordinary moment resisting frames. The capacity shear

force in a column, V

p

, in a particular direction is calculated from the prob-

able moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial

force acting on the column.

For each load combination, the factored axial load, P

u

, is calculated. Then,

the positive and negative moment capacities,

+

u

M and

−

u

M , of the column

in a particular direction under the influence of the axial force P

u

is calcu-

lated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction.

The design shear force, V

u

, is then given by (ACI 21.4.5.1)

V

u

= V

p

+ V

D+L

(ACI 21.4.5.1)

where, V

p

is the capacity shear force obtained by applying the calculated

probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting

Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 20 - 12 Design Column Shear Reinforcement

in two opposite directions. Therefore, V

p

is the maximum of

1

P

V and

2

P

V ,

where

1

P

V =

L

M M

J I

+ −

+

, and

2

P

V =

L

M M

J I

− +

+

, where

− +

I I

M M , , = Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the

column using a steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ

factors (ϕ = 1.0),

− +

J J

M M , , = Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the

column using a steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ

factors (ϕ = 1.0), and

L = Clear span of column.

For Special moment resisting frames α is taken as 1.25 (ACI 10.0,

R21.4.5.1). V

D+L

is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distri-

bution of gravity loads. For most of the columns, it is zero.

For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the shear capacity of the

column is also checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal mo-

ment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads, in addition to

the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design

shear force is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal (ϕ =

1.0) moment capacity and modified factored shear force. The procedure

for calculating nominal moment capacity is the same as that for comput-

ing the probable moment capacity for special moment resisting frames,

except that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25 (ACI 21.10.3.a,

R21.10). The modified factored shear forces are based on the specified

load factors, except the earthquake load factors are doubled (ACI

21.10.3.b).

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity

Given the design force set P

u

and V

u

, the shear force carried by the concrete,

V

c

, is calculated as follows:

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design

Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 20 - 13

If the column is subjected to axial compression, i.e., P

u

is positive,

V

c

= 2

+

g

u

c

A

P

f

000 , 2

1

'

A

cv

, where (ACI 11.3.1.2)

'

c

f ≤ 100 psi, and (ACI 11.1.2)

V

c

≤ 3.5

'

c

f

+

g

u

A

P

500

1 A

cv

. (ACI 11.3.2.2)

The term P

u

/ A

g

must have psi units. A

cv

is the effective shear area, which

is shown shaded in Figure 6. For circular columns, A

cv

is taken to be equal

to the gross area of the section (ACI 11.3.3, R11.3.3).

If the column is subjected to axial tension, P

u

is negative

V

c

= 2

'

c

f

+

g

u

A

P

500

1 A

cv

≥ 0 (ACI 11.3.2.3)

For Special moment resisting concrete frame design, V

c

is set to zero

if the factored axial compressive force, P

u

, including the earthquake effect,

is small (P

u

<

'

c

f A

g

/ 20) and if the shear force contribution from earth-

quake, V

E

, is more than half of the total factored maximum shear force

over the length of the member V

u

(V

E

≥ 0.5V

u

) (ACI 21.4.5.2).

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement

Given V

u

and V

c

, the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or

ties within a spacing, s, is given for rectangular and circular columns by

A

v

=

d f

s V V

ys

c u

) / ( − ϕ

, for rectangular columns and (ACI 11.5.6.1, 11.5.6.2)

A

v

=

) 8 . 0 (

) / (

D f

s V V

ys

c u

− ϕ

, for circular columns. (ACI 11.5.6.3, 11.3.3)

V

u

is limited by the following relationship.

(V

u

/ ϕ-V

c

) ≤ 8

'

c

f A

cv

(ACI 11.5.6.9)

Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 20 - 14 Design Column Shear Reinforcement

Figure 6 Shear Stress Area, A

cv

Otherwise, redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here ϕ, the

strength reduction factor, is 0.85 (ACI 9.3.2.3). The maximum of all the cal-

culated A

v

values obtained from each load combination are reported for the

major and minor directions of the column, along with the controlling shear

force and associated load combination label.

The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are

based purely on shear strength consideration. Any minimum stirrup require-

ments to satisfy spacing considerations or transverse reinforcement volumet-

ric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the

user.

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design

Reference Technical Note 20 - 15

Reference

White, D.W. and J.F. Hajjar. 1991. Application of Second-Order Elastic Analy-

sis in LRFD: Research to Practice. Engineering Journal. American In-

stitute of Steel Construction, Inc. Vol. 28. No. 4.

Overview Technical Note 21 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99

Technical Note 21

Beam Design

This Technical Note describes how this program completes beam design when

the ACI 318-99 code is selected. The program calculates and reports the re-

quired areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments,

shears, load combination factors and other criteria described herein.

Overview

In the design of concrete beams, the program calculates and reports the re-

quired areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments,

shears, load combination factors, and other criteria described below. The re-

inforcement requirements are calculated at a user-defined number of

check/design stations along the beam span.

All beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.

Effects resulting from any axial forces, minor direction bending, and

torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independ-

ently by the user.

The beam design procedure involves the following steps:

Design beam flexural reinforcement

Design beam shear reinforcement

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at check/design stations

along the beam span. The following steps are involved in designing the flex-

ural reinforcement for the major moment for a particular beam for a particu-

lar section:

Determine the maximum factored moments

Determine the reinforcing steel

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 21 - 2 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

Determine Factored Moments

In the design of flexural reinforcement of Special, Intermediate, or Ordinary

moment resisting concrete frame beams, the factored moments for each load

combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corre-

sponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load fac-

tors.

The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive

+

u

M and maxi-

mum negative

−

u

M factored moments obtained from all of the load combina-

tions

.

Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases, the beam is al-

ways designed as a rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce

bottom steel. In such cases, the beam may be designed as a Rectangular- or

a T-beam.

Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement

In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the

tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added

when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of

a singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding the compres-

sion reinforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the grade

of concrete.

The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as

shown in Figure 1 (ACI 10.2). It is assumed that the compression carried by

concrete is less than 0.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced

condition (ACI 10.3.3). When the applied moment exceeds the moment ca-

pacity at this designed balanced condition, the area of compression rein-

forcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried

by compression and additional tension reinforcement.

The design procedure used by this program for both rectangular and flanged

sections (L- and T-beams) is summarized below. It is assumed that the de-

sign ultimate axial force does not exceed 0.1

'

c

f A

g

(ACI 10.3.3); hence, all the

beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 21 - 3

Figure 1 Design of Rectangular Beam Section

Design for Rectangular Beam

In designing for a factored negative or positive moment, M

u

(i.e., designing

top or bottom steel), the depth of the compression block is given by a (see

Figure 1), where,

a = d -

b f

M

d

c

u

ϕ

−

1

2

85 . 0

2

, (ACI 10.2.7.1)

where, the value of ϕ is 0.90 (ACI 9.3.2.1) in the above and the following

equations. Also β

1

and c

b

are calculated as follows:

β

1

= 0.85-0.05

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

−

000 , 1

000 , 4

'

c

f

, 0.65 ≤ β

1

≤ 0.85, (ACI 10.2.7.3)

c

b

= d

f E

E

y s c

s c

+ ε

ε

=

y

f + 000 , 87

000 , 87

d. (ACI 10.2.3, 10.2.4)

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 21 - 4 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by

a

max

= 0.75β

1

c

b

. (ACI 10.2.7.1, 10.3.3)

If a ≤ a

max

, the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by

A

s

=

(

,

\

,

(

j

− ϕ

2

a

d f

M

y

u

.

This steel is to be placed at the bottom if M

u

is positive, or at the top if M

u

is negative.

If a > a

max

, compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.3.3) and is cal-

culated as follows:

− The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by

C = 0.85

'

c

f ba

max

, and (ACI 10.2.7.1)

the moment resisted by concrete compression and tensile steel is

M

uc

= C

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

−

2

max

a

d ϕ.

− Therefore the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel

is

M

us

= M

u

- M

uc

.

− So the required compression steel is given by

'

s

A =

ϕ − ) ' (

'

d d f

M

s

us

, where

'

s

f = 0.003E

s

]

]

]

,

¸

, −

c

d c '

. (ACI 10.2.4)

− The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 21 - 5

A

s1

=

ϕ

]

]

]

,

¸

,

−

2

max

a

d f

M

y

uc

, and

the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is given by

A

s2

=

ϕ − ) ' ( d d f

M

y

us

.

− Therefore, the total tensile reinforcement, A

s

= A

s1

+ A

s2

, and total

compression reinforcement is

'

s

A . A

s

is to be placed at bottom and

'

s

A

is to be placed at top if M

u

is positive, and vice versa if M

u

is negative.

Design for T-Beam

In designing for a factored negative moment, M

u

(i.e., designing top steel),

the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above, i.e., no T-Beam

data is to be used. See Figure 2. If M

u

> 0, the depth of the compression

block is given by

a = d -

f c

u

b f

M

d

ϕ

−

'

2

85 . 0

2

.

The maximum allowed depth of compression block is given by

a

max

= 0.75β

1

c

b

. (ACI 10.2.7.1, 10.3.3)

• If a ≤ d

s

, the subsequent calculations for A

s

are exactly the same as previ-

ously defined for the rectangular section design. However, in this case the

width of the compression flange is taken as the width of the beam for

analysis. Compression reinforcement is required if a > a

max

.

• If a > d

s

, calculation for A

s

is performed in two parts. The first part is for

balancing the compressive force from the flange, C

f

, and the second part

is for balancing the compressive force from the web, C

w

, as shown in Fig-

ure 2. C

f

is given by

C

f

= 0.85

'

c

f (b

f

- b

w

)d

s

.

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 21 - 6 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

Figure 2 Design of a T-Beam Section

Therefore, A

s1

=

y

f

f

C

and the portion of M

u

that is resisted by the flange is

given by

M

uf

= C

f

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

−

2

s

d

d ϕ.

Again, the value for ϕ is ϕ(flexure), which is 0.90 by default. Therefore,

the balance of the moment, M

u

to be carried by the web is given by

M

uw

= M

u

- M

uf

.

The web is a rectangular section of dimensions b

w

and d, for which the de-

sign depth of the compression block is recalculated as

a

1

= d -

w

i

c

uw

b f

M

d

ϕ

−

85 . 0

2

2

.

If a

1

≤ a

max

, the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by

A

s2

=

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

− ϕ

2

1

a

d f

M

y

uw

, and

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 21 - 7

A

s

= A

s1

+ A

s2

.

This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the T-beam.

If a

1

> a

max

, compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.3.3) and is

calculated as follows:

− The compressive force in web concrete alone is given by

C = 0.85

'

c

f ba

max

. (ACI 10.2.7.1)

− Therefore, the moment resisted by concrete web and tensile steel

is

M

uc

= C ϕ

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

−

2

max

a

d , and

the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is

M

us

= M

uw

- M

uc

.

− Therefore, the compression steel is computed as

'

s

A =

ϕ − ) ' (

'

d d f

M

s

us

, where

'

s

f = 0.003E

s

]

]

]

,

¸

, −

c

d c '

. (ACI 10.2.4)

− The tensile steel for balancing compression in web concrete is

A

s2

=

ϕ − )

2

(

max

a

d f

M

y

uc

, and

the tensile steel for balancing compression in steel is

A

s3

=

ϕ − ) ' ( d d f

M

y

us

.

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 21 - 8 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement

− The total tensile reinforcement, A

s

= A

s1

+ A

s2

+ A

s3

, and total

compression reinforcement is

'

s

A . A

s

is to be placed at bottom and

'

s

A is to be placed at top.

Minimum Tensile Reinforcement

The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an Or-

dinary moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two following

limits:

A

s

≥ max

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

d b

f

d b

f

f

w

y

w

y

c

200

and

3

'

or (ACI 10.5.1)

A

s

≥ (4/3)A

s(required)

. (ACI 10.5.3)

Special Consideration for Seismic Design

For Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design), the beam de-

sign satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table 1):

The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both the top

and bottom. Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less

than A

s(min)

(ACI 21.3.2.1).

A

s(min)

≥ max

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

d b

f

d b

f

f

w

y

w

y

c

200

and

3

'

or (ACI 10.5.1)

A

s(min)

≥

3

4

A

s(required)

. (ACI 10.5.3)

The beam flexural steel is limited to a maximum given by

A

s

≤ 0.025 b

w

d. (ACI 21.3.2.1)

At any end (support) of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity

(i.e., associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than 1/2 of the

beam negative moment capacity (i.e., associated with the top steel) at

that end (ACI 21.3.2.2).

Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity

at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 21 - 9

maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam

end (support) stations (ACI 21.3.2.2).

For Intermediate moment resisting concrete frames (i.e., seismic design), the

beam design would satisfy the following conditions:

At any support of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity would

not be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end

(ACI 21.10.4.1).

Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity

at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the

maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam

end (support) stations (ACI 21.10.4.1).

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement

The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at a user de-

fined number of stations along the beam span. The following steps are in-

volved in designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a par-

ticular load combination at a particular station due to the beam major shear:

• Determine the factored shear force, V

u

.

• Determine the shear force, V

c

, that can be resisted by the concrete.

• Determine the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.

For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ductile frames), the

shear design of the beams is also based upon the probable and nominal mo-

ment capacities of the members, respectively, in addition to the factored load

design.

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

this process.

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 21 - 10 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement

Table 1 Design Criteria Table

Type of

Check/

Design

Ordinary Moment

Resisting Frames

(non-Seismic)

Intermediate Moment

Resisting Frames

(Seismic)

Special Moment

Resisting Frames

(Seismic)

Column

Check

(interaction)

NLD

a

Combinations NLD

a

Combinations NLD

a

Combinations

Column

Design

(interaction)

NLD

a

Combinations

1% < ρ < 8%

NLD

a

Combinations

1% < ρ < 8%

NLD

a

Combinations

α = 1.0

1% < ρ < 6%

Column

Shears

NLD

a

Combinations

Modified NLD

a

Combinations

(earthquake loads doubled)

Column capacity

ϕ = 1.0 and α = 1.0

NLD

a

Combinations

Column shear capacity

ϕ = 1.0 and α = 1.25

Beam

Design

Flexure

NLD

a

Combinations NLD

a

Combinations

NLD

a

Combinations

ρ ≤ 0.025

ρ ≥

y

c

f

f

'

3

, ρ ≥

y

f

200

Beam Min.

Moment

Override

Check

No Requirement

END u uEND

M M

− +

≥

3

1

¦ ¦

END u u uSPAN

M M M

− + +

≥ , max

5

1

¦ ¦

END u u uSPAN

M M M

− + −

≥ , max

5

1

END

u uEND

M M

− +

≥

2

1

¦ ¦

END u u uSPAN

M M M

− + +

≥ , max

4

1

¦ ¦

END u u uSPAN

M M M

− − −

≥ , max

4

1

Beam

Design

Shear

NLD

a

Combinations

Modified NLD

a

Combinations

(earthquake loads doubled)

Beam Capacity Shear (Vp)

with α = 1.0 and ϕ = 1.0

plus VD+L

NLD

a

Combinations

Beam Capacity Shear (Vp)

with α = 1.25 and ϕ = 1.0

plus VD+L

Vc = 0

Joint Design No Requirement No Requirement Checked for shear

Beam/Column

Capacity

Ratio

No Requirement No Requirement Reported in output file

NLD

a

= Number of specified loading

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 21 - 11

Determine Shear Force and Moment

• In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment

resisting concrete frame, the shear forces and moments for a particular

load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring

the associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding load

combination factors.

• In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames (i.e.,

seismic design), the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the

capacity shear resulting from the probable moment capacities at the ends

and the factored gravity load. This check is performed in addition to the

design check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The capacity

shear force, V

p

, is calculated from the probable moment capacities of each

end of the beam and the gravity shear forces. The procedure for calculat-

ing the design shear force in a beam from probable moment capacity is

the same as that described for a column in section “Design Column Shear

Reinforcement” of Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Technical Note 20

Column Design. See also Table 1 for details.

The design shear force V

u

is then given by (ACI 21.3.4.1)

V

u

= V

p

+ V

D+L

(ACI 21.3.4.1)

where V

p

is the capacity shear force obtained by applying the calculated

probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting

in two opposite directions. Therefore, V

p

is the maximum of

1

P

V and

2

P

V ,

where

1

P

V =

L

M M

J I

+ −

+

, and

2

P

V =

L

M M

J I

− +

+

, where

−

I

M = Moment capacity at end I, with top steel in tension, using a

steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),

+

J

M = Moment capacity at end J, with bottom steel in tension, using

a steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),

Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Technical Note 21 - 12 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement

+

I

M = Moment capacity at end I, with bottom steel in tension, using

a steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),

−

J

M = Moment capacity at end J, with top steel in tension, using a

steel yield stress value of αf

y

and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0), and

L = Clear span of beam.

For Special moment resisting frames α is taken as 1.25 (ACI 21.0,

R21.3.4.1). V

D+L

is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distri-

bution of gravity loads.

• For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the shear capacity of the

beam is also checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal moment

capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads, in addition to the

check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design shear

force in beams is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal

moment capacity and modified factored shear force. The procedure for

calculating nominal (ϕ = 1.0) moment capacity is the same as that for

computing the probable moment capacity for Special moment resisting

frames, except that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25 (ACI 21.10.3.a,

R21.10). The modified factored shear forces are based on the specified

load factors, except the earthquake load factors are doubled (ACI

21.10.3.b). The computation of the design shear force in a beam of an

Intermediate moment resisting frame is the same as described for col-

umns in section “Determine Section Forces” of Concrete Frame Design

ACI318-99 Technical Note 20 Column Design. See also Table 1 for details.

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity

The allowable concrete shear capacity is given by

V

c

= 2

'

c

f b

w

d. (ACI 11.3.1.1)

For Special moment resisting frame concrete design, V

c

is set to zero if both

the factored axial compressive force, including the earthquake effect P

u

, is

less than

'

c

f A

g

/20 and the shear force contribution from earthquake V

E

is

more than half of the total maximum shear force over the length of the mem-

ber V

u

(i.e., V

E

≥ 0.5V

u

) (ACI 21.3.4.2).

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 21 - 13

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement

Given V

u

and V

c

, the required shear reinforcement in area/unit length is cal-

culated as

A

v

=

d f

s V V

ys

c u

) / ( − ϕ

. (ACI 11.5.6.1, 11.5.6.2)

The shear force resisted by steel is limited by

(V

u

/ ϕ - V

c

) ≤ 8

'

c

f bd. (ACI 11.5.6.9)

Otherwise, redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here, ϕ, the

strength reduction factor for shear, is 0.85 by default (ACI 9.3.2.3). The

maximum of all the calculated A

v

values, obtained from each load combina-

tion, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load

combination number.

The beam shear reinforcement requirements displayed by the program are

based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup require-

ments to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated

independently of the program by the user.

Overview Technical Note 22 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99

Technical Note 22

Joint Design

This Technical Note explains how the program performs a rational analysis of

the beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are gener-

ated in a joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength.

Overview

To ensure that the beam-column joint of special moment resisting frames

possesses adequate shear strength, the program performs a rational analysis

of the beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are gener-

ated in the joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength.

Only joints having a column below the joint are designed. The material prop-

erties of the joint are assumed to be the same as those of the column below

the joint.

The joint analysis is completed in the major and the minor directions of the

column. The joint design procedure involves the following steps:

Determine the panel zone design shear force, V

u

h

Determine the effective area of the joint

Check panel zone shear stress

The algorithms associated with these three steps are described in detail in the

following three sections.

Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force

Figure 1 illustrates the free body stress condition of a typical beam-column

intersection for a column direction, major or minor.

Joint Design Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Technical Note 22 - 2 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force

Figure 1 Beam-Column Joint Analysis

Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Joint Design

Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Technical Note 22 - 3

The force V

u

h

is the horizontal panel zone shear force that is to be calculated.

The forces that act on the joint are P

u

, V

u

, M

u

L

and M

u

R

. The forces P

u

and V

u

are axial force and shear force, respectively, from the column framing into the

top of the joint. The moments M

u

L

and M

u

R

are obtained from the beams

framing into the joint. The program calculates the joint shear force V

u

h

by re-

solving the moments into C and T forces. Noting that T

L

= C

L

and T

R

= C

R

,

V

u

h

= T

L

+ T

R

- V

u

The location of C or T forces is determined by the direction of the moment.

The magnitude of C or T forces is conservatively determined using basic prin-

ciples of ultimate strength theory, ignoring compression reinforcement as fol-

lows. The program first calculates the maximum compression, C

max

, and the

maximum moment, M

max

, that can be carried by the beam.

bd f C c

'

max

85 . 0

2

max max

d

C M

Then the program conservatively determines C and T forces as follows:

(

(

,

\

,

,

(

j

− −

max

max

) (

1 1

M

M abs

C T C

The program resolves the moments and the C and T forces from beams that

frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor

directions of the column along the direction that is being investigated, thereby

contributing force components to the analysis. Also, the program calculates

the C and T for the positive and negative moments, considering the fact that

the concrete cover may be different for the direction of moment.

In the design of special moment resisting concrete frames, the evaluation of

the design shear force is based on the moment capacities (with reinforcing

steel overstrength factor, α, and no ϕ factors) of the beams framing into the

joint (ACI 21.5.1.1, UBC 1921.5.1.1). The C and T force are based on these

moment capacities. The program calculates the column shear force V

u

from

the beam moment capacities, as follows:

Joint Design Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Technical Note 22 - 4 Determine the Effective Area of Joint

H

M M

V

R

u

L

u

u

+

**See Figure 2. It should be noted that the points of inflection shown on Figure
**

2 are taken as midway between actual lateral support points for the columns.

If there is no column at the top of the joint, the shear force from the top of

the column is taken as zero.

The effects of load reversals, as illustrated in Case 1 and Case 2 of Figure 1,

are investigated and the design is based on the maximum of the joint shears

obtained from the two cases.

Determine the Effective Area of Joint

The joint area that resists the shear forces is assumed always to be rectan-

gular in plan view. The dimensions of the rectangle correspond to the major

and minor dimensions of the column below the joint, except if the beam

framing into the joint is very narrow. The effective width of the joint area to

be used in the calculation is limited to the width of the beam plus the depth of

the column. The area of the joint is assumed not to exceed the area of the

column below. The joint area for joint shear along the major and minor direc-

tions is calculated separately (ACI R21.5.3).

It should be noted that if the beam frames into the joint eccentrically, the

above assumptions may be unconservative and the user should investigate

the acceptability of the particular joint.

Check Panel Zone Shear Stress

The panel zone shear stress is evaluated by dividing the shear force V

u

h

by

the effective area of the joint and comparing it with the following design shear

strengths (ACI 21.5.3, UBC 1921.5.3):

20ϕ

c

f '

for joints confirmed on all four sides

v = 15ϕ

c

f '

for joints confirmed on three faces or on two

opposite faces

¦

12ϕ

c

f '

for all other joints

Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Joint Design

Determine the Effective Area of Joint Technical Note 22 - 5

where ϕ = 0.85 (by default). (ACI 9.3.2.3, UBC 1909.3.2.3,1909.3.4.1)

A beam that frames into a face of a column at the joint is considered in this

program to provide confinement to the joint if at least three-quarters of the

face of the joint is covered by the framing member (ACI 21.5.3.1, UBC

1921.5.3.1).

Figure 2 Column Shear Force V

u

Joint Design Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Technical Note 22 - 6 Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios

For light-weight aggregate concrete, the design shear strength of the joint is

reduced in the program to at least three-quarters of that of the normal weight

concrete by replacing the

'

c

f

with

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦

¦ ' '

,

4 / 3 , min

c c factor cs

f f f (ACI 21.5.3.2, UBC 1921.5.3.2)

For joint design, the program reports the joint shear, the joint shear stress,

the allowable joint shear stress and a capacity ratio.

Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios

At a particular joint for a particular column direction, major or minor, the pro-

gram will calculate the ratio of the sum of the beam moment capacities to the

sum of the column moment capacities (ACI 21.4.2.2).

∑M

e

≥

5

6

∑M

g

(ACI 21.4.2.2)

The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength factor, α , and

including ϕ factors. The beam capacities are calculated for reversed situations

(Cases 1 and 2) as illustrated in Figure 1 and the maximum summation ob-

tained is used.

The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is

not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along

the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are

added to the summation.

The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column

below the joint. For each load combination, the axial force, P

u

, in each of the

columns is calculated from the program analysis load combinations. For each

load combination, the moment capacity of each column under the influence of

the corresponding axial load P

u

is then determined separately for the major

and minor directions of the column, using the uniaxial column interaction dia-

gram; see Figure 3. The moment capacities of the two columns are added to

give the capacity summation for the corresponding load combination. The

maximum capacity summations obtained from all of the load combinations is

used for the beam/column capacity ratio.

Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Joint Design

Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Technical Note 22 - 7

The beam/column flexural capacity ratios are only reported for Special Mo-

ment-Resisting Frames involving seismic design load combinations. If this ra-

tio is greater than 5/6, a warning message is printed in the output file.

Figure 3 Moment Capacity M

u

at a Given Axial Load P

u

Input Data Technical Note 23 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99

Technical Note 23

Input Data

This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design input data for

ACI318-99. The input can be printed to a printer or to a text file when you

click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. A

printout of the input data provides the user with the opportunity to carefully

review the parameters that have been input into the program and upon which

program design is based. Further information about using the Print Design

Tables form is presented at the end of this Technical Note.

Input Data

The program provides the printout of the input data in a series of tables. The

column headings for input data and a description of what is included in the

columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Load Combination Multipliers

Combo Design load combination. See Technical Note 8.

Type

Load type: dead, live, superimposed dead, earthquake, wind,

snow, reduced live load, other.

Case Name of load case.

Factor Load combination scale factor.

Code Preferences

Phi_bending Bending strength reduction factor.

Phi_tension Tensile strength reduction factor.

Phi_compression

(Tied)

Compressive strength reduction factor for tied columns.

Phi_compression (Spi-

ral)

Compressive strength reduction factor for reinforced columns.

Phi_shear Shear strength reduction factor.

Input Data Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Technical Note 23 - 2 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Material Property Data

Material Name Concrete, steel, other.

Material Type Isotropic or orthotropic.

Design Type

Modulus of Elasticity

Poisson's Ratio

Thermal Coeff Coefficient of thermal expansion.

Shear Modulus

Material Property Mass and Weight

Material Name Concrete, steel, other.

Mass Per Unit Vol Used to calculate self-mass of structure.

Weight Per Unit Vol Used to calculate self-weight of structure.

Material Design Data for Concrete Materials

Material Name Concrete, steel, other.

Lightweight Concrete

Concrete FC Concrete compressive strength.

Rebar FY Bending reinforcing steel yield strength.

Rebar FYS Shear reinforcing steel yield strength.

Lightwt Reduc Fact Shear strength reduction factor for light weight concrete; default

= 1.0.

Concrete Column Property Data

Section Label Label applied to section.

Mat Label Material label.

Column Depth

Column Width

Rebar Pattern Layout of main flexural reinforcing steel.

Concrete Cover Minimum clear concrete cover.

Bar Area Area of individual reinforcing bar to be used.

Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Input Data

Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 23 - 3

Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Concrete Column Design Element Information

Story ID Column assigned to story level at top of column.

Column Line Grid line.

Section ID Name of section assigned to column.

Framing Type Lateral or gravity.

RLLF Factor

L_Ratio Major Unbraced length about major axis.

L_Ratio Minor Unbraced length about minor axis.

K Major Effective length factor; default = 1.0.

K Minor Effective length factor; default = 1.0.

Concrete Beam Design Element Information

Story ID Story level at which beam occurs.

Bay ID Grid lines locating beam.

Section ID Section number assigned to beam.

Framing type Lateral or gravity.

RLLF Factor

L_Ratio Major Unbraced length about major axis.

L_Ratio Minor Unbraced length about minor axis.

Using the Print Design Tables Form

To print concrete frame design input data directly to a printer, use the File

menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the

check box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the OK button to send the

print to your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to

cancel the print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the

Setup>> button to change printers, if necessary.

To print concrete frame design input data to a file, click the Print to File check

box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the Filename>> button to change

Input Data Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Technical Note 23 - 4 Using the Print Design Tables Form

the path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format

(e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Ta-

bles form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request.

Note:

The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out-

put that is printed to a text file.

The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and

filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print

Design Tables form. Data will be added to this file. Or use the Filename>>

button to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing Tables cau-

tion box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.

If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print

Tables > Concrete Frame Design command, the Selection Only check box

will be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.

Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output Technical Note 24 - 1

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99

Technical Note 24

Output Details

This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design output for ACI318-99

that can be printed to a printer or to a text file. The design output is printed

when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design

command and select Output Summary on the Print Design Tables form. Fur-

ther information about using the Print Design Tables form is presented at the

end of this Technical Note.

The program provides the output data in a series of tables. The column

headings for output data and a description of what is included in the columns

of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.

Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Biaxial P-M Interaction and Shear Design of Column-Type Elements

Story ID Column assigned to story level at top of column.

Column Line Grid lines.

Section ID Name of section assigned to column.

Station ID

Required Reinforcing

Longitudinal Area of longitudinal reinforcing required.

Combo Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.

Shear22 Shear reinforcing required.

Combo Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.

Shear33 Shear reinforcing required.

Output Details Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Technical Note 24 - 2 Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output

Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Combo Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.

Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output

COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Beam to Column Capacity Ratios and Joint Shear Capacity Check

Story ID Story level at which joint occurs.

Column Line Grid line.

Section ID Assigned section name.

Beam-Column Capacity Ratios

Major Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity.

Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment ca-

pacity to column capacity is based.

Minor Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity.

Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment ca-

pacity to column capacity is based.

Joint Shear Capacity Ratios

Major Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity.

Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus

allowed capacity is based.

Minor Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity.

Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus

allowed capacity is based.

Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Output Details

Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 24 - 3

Using the Print Design Tables Form

To print concrete frame design input data directly to a printer, use the File

menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the

check box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the OK button to send the

print to your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to

cancel the print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the

Setup>> button to change printers, if necessary.

To print concrete frame design input data to a file, click the Print to File check

box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the Filename>> button to change

the path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format

(e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Ta-

bles form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request.

Note:

The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out-

put that is printed to a text file.

The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and

filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print

Design Tables form. Data will be added to this file. Or use the Filename>>

button to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing Tables cau-

tion box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.

If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print

Tables > Concrete Frame Design command, the Selection Only check box

will be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.

ETABS

®

Integrated Building Design Software

Concrete Frame Design Manual

Computers and Structures, Inc. Berkeley, California, USA

Version 8 January 2002

csiberkeley. 1978-2002. Inc. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers and Structures.. is explicitly prohibited.com (for general questions) e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com Copyright Computers and Structures. Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Inc.. Inc. Inc. Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley. Unlicensed use of the program or reproduction of the documentation in any form. California 94704 USA Phone: (510) 845-2177 FAX: (510) 845-4096 e-mail: info@csiberkeley. Inc. Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated .Copyright The computer program ETABS and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from: Computers and Structures. The CSI Logo is a trademark of Computers and Structures. ETABS is a trademark of Computers and Structures. without prior written authorization from Computers and Structures.com (for technical support questions) web: www.

.

HOWEVER. .DISCLAIMER CONSIDERABLE TIME. THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THE PROGRAM. THE USER MUST THOROUGHLY READ THE MANUAL AND CLEARLY RECOGNIZE THE ASPECTS OF CONCRETE DESIGN THAT THE PROGRAM ALGORITHMS DO NOT ADDRESS. IN USING THE PROGRAM. THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE PROGRAM AND MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS. EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF ETABS. THE PROGRAM HAS BEEN THOROUGHLY TESTED AND USED. HOWEVER. THIS PROGRAM IS A VERY PRACTICAL TOOL FOR THE DESIGN/CHECK OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES.

.

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. BERKELEY. INC.. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN Contents General Concrete Frame Design Information 1 General Design Information Design Codes Units Overwriting the Frame Design Procedure for a Concrete Frame Design Load Combinations Design of Beams Design of Columns Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Second Order P-Delta Effects Element Unsupported Lengths Analysis Sections and Design Sections Concrete Frame Design Process Concrete Frame Design Procedure Interactive Concrete Frame Design General Concrete Design Information Form Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model Overview Using the Print Design Tables Form Design Input Design Output 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-4 1-6 1-7 2 2-1 3 3-1 3-1 4 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-2 i .

Concrete Frame Design Manual Concrete Frame Design Specific to UBC97 5 General and Notation Introduction to the UBC 97 Series of Technical Notes Notation Preferences General Using the Preferences Form Preferences Overwrites General Overwrites Making Changes in the Overwrites Form Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default Values Design Load Combinations Strength Reduction Factors Column Design Overview Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Determine Factored Moments and Forces Determine Moment Magnification Factors Determine Capacity Ratio Required Reinforcing Area Design Column Shear Reinforcement Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Reference Beam Design Overview Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Determine Factored Moments Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement 5-1 5-2 6 6-1 6-1 6-2 7 7-1 7-1 7-3 7-4 8 9 10 10-1 10-2 10-5 10-6 10-6 10-8 10-10 10-10 10-14 10-15 11 11-1 11-1 11-2 11-2 ii .

Contents Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 12 Joint Design Overview Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Determine the Effective Area of Joint Check Panel Zone Shear Stress Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Input Data Input data Using the Print Design Tables Form Output Details Using the Print Design Tables Form 11-10 12-1 12-1 12-5 12-5 12-6 13 13-1 13-3 14 14-3 Concrete Frame Design Specific to ACI-318-99 15 General and Notation Introduction to the ACI318-99 Series of Technical Notes Notation Preferences General Using the Preferences Form Preferences Overwrites General Overwrites Making Changes in the Overwrites Form Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default Values Design Load Combinations Strength Reduction Factors 15-1 15-2 16 16-1 16-1 16-2 17 17-1 17-1 17-3 17-4 18 19 iii .

Concrete Frame Design Manual 20 Column Design Overview Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Determine Factored Moments and Forces Determine Moment Magnification Factors Determine Capacity Ratio Required Reinforcing Area Design Column Shear Reinforcement Determine Section Forces Determine Concrete Shear Capacity Determine Required Shear Reinforcement References Beam Design Overview Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Determine Factored Moments Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement Design for T-Beam Minimum Tensile Reinforcement Special Consideration for Seismic Design Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Determine Shear Force and Moment Determine Concrete Shear Capacity Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Joint Design Overview Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Determine the Effective Area of Joint Check Panel Zone Shear Stress Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Input Data Input Data Using the Print Design Tables Form 20-1 20-2 20-5 20-6 20-6 20-9 20-10 20-10 20-11 20-12 20-13 20-15 21 21-1 21-1 21-2 21-2 21-5 21-8 21-8 21-9 21-11 21-12 21-13 22 22-1 22-1 22-4 22-4 22-6 23 23-1 23-3 iv .

Contents 24 Output Details Using the Print Design Tables Form 24-3 v .

.

1 . INC.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Design Codes Technical Note 1 . its default design procedure is Concrete Frame Design. design codes are based on one specific set of units. however. Overwriting the Frame Design Procedure for a Concrete Frame The two design procedures possible for concrete beam design are: Concrete frame design No design If a line object is assigned a frame section property that has a concrete material property.. Assign a concrete frame element the "None" design procedure if you do not want it designed by the Concrete Frame Design postprocessor. Typically. CALIFORNIA JANUARY 2002 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN Technical Note 1 General Design Information This Technical Note presents some basic information and concepts helpful when performing concrete frame design using this program. You cannot design some elements for one code and others for a different code in the same design run. BERKELEY. You can change the system of units at any time. You can choose to design for any one design code in any one design run. Design Codes The design code is set using the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design command. perform different design runs using different design codes without rerunning the analysis. Units For concrete frame design in this program. You can. A concrete frame element can be switched between the Concrete Frame Design and the "None" design procedure. any set of consistent units can be used for input.

2 Design Load Combinations . in general. the steps involve the determination of the maximum factored moments and the determination of the reinforcing steel. the program will not allow the change because a concrete element cannot be changed to a steel frame element.General Design Information Concrete Frame Design Change the default design procedure used for concrete frame elements by selecting the element(s) and clicking Design menu > Overwrite Frame Design Procedure. which are described in detail in Concrete Frame UBC97 Technical Note Beam Design 11 and Concrete Frame ACI 318-99 Technical Note 21 Beam Design. This change is only successful if the design procedure assigned to an element is valid for that element. shears. and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. the program calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments. each with its own scale factor. All the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. simply specify one or more load cases. load combination factors. Technical Note 1 . You can also modify or delete the program default load combinations. Design of Beams The program designs all concrete frame elements designated as beam sections in their Frame Section Properties as beams (see Define menu >Frame Sections command and click the Reinforcement button). To define a design load combination. You can add in your own design load combinations. For more information see Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combination and Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 18 Design Load Combination. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each output station along the beam span. minor direction bending. In the design of concrete beams. Design Load Combinations The program creates a number of default design load combinations for concrete frame design. and other criteria. if you select a concrete element and attempt to change the design procedure to Steel Frame Design. An unlimited number of design load combinations can be specified. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment at a particular section of a particular beam. Effects resulting from any axial forces. For example.

This step is also used to calculate the required reinforcement (if none was specified) that will produce a capacity ratio of 1. Check the capacity of each column for the factored axial force and bending moments obtained from each load combination at each end of the column. In such cases. See Concrete Frame UBC97 Technical Note 10 Design of Beams Technical Note 1 . The shear reinforcement design procedure for columns is very similar to that for beams. the determination of the shear force that can be resisted by concrete. and the determination of the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. the program calculates the required longitudinal steel.0. In such cases. In the design of the columns. If the beam section is not adequate. The design procedure for reinforced concrete columns involves the following steps: Generate axial force-biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model.Concrete Frame Design General Design Information The beam section is designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moment envelopes obtained from all of the load combinations. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. except that the effect of the axial force on the concrete shear capacity needs to be considered. Design of Columns The program designs all concrete frame elements designated as column sections in their Frame Section Properties as columns (see Define menu >Frame Sections command and click the Reinforcement button). the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. the beam may be designed as a rectangular. the column stress condition is reported in terms of a column capacity ratio.3 . the beam is first designed as a singly reinforced beam. the steps involve the determination of the factored shear force. the required compression reinforcement is calculated.or T-beam. Negative beam moments produce top steel. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular set of loading combinations at a particular station resulting from the beam major shear. The capacity ratio is a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. or if the longitudinal steel is specified. For the design of flexural reinforcement. Design the column shear reinforcement.

The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column below the joint. the program calculates the ratio of the sum of the beam moment capacities to the sum of the column moment capacities at a particular joint for a particular column direction. Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios When the ACI 318-99 or UBC97 code is selected. major or minor. The P-Delta effects come from two sources. The maximum capacity summations obtained from all of the load combinations is used for the beam/column capacity ratio. α. See Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios in Concrete Frame UBC97 Technical Note 12 Joint Design or in Concrete Frame ACI 318-99 Technical Note 22 Joint Design for more information. Technical Note 1 . The beam/column flexural capacity ratios are only reported for Special Moment-Resisting Frames involving seismic design load combinations. They are the global lateral translation of the frame and the local deformation of elements within the frame. the axial force. in each of the columns is calculated from the program analysis load combinations. The moment capacities of the two columns are added to give the capacity summation for the corresponding load combination. using the uniaxial column interaction diagram. For each load combination. The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength factor. The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are added to the summation.General Design Information Concrete Frame Design Column Design and Concrete Frame ACI 318-99 Technical Note 20 Column Design for more information. Second Order P-Delta Effects Typically. For each load combination. The beam capacities are calculated for reversed situations and the maximum summation obtained is used.4 Second Order P-Delta Effects . design codes require that second order P-Delta effects be considered when designing concrete frames. the moment capacity of each column under the influence of the corresponding axial load Pu is then determined separately for the major and minor directions of the column. and including ϕ factors. Pu.

in the model. The program has an option to consider P-Delta effects in the analysis. and the local deformation of the element. ∆. δ Figure 1: The Total Second Order P-Delta Effects on a Frame Element Caused by Both ∆ and δ Consider the frame element shown in Figure 1. 1. shown by dashed line δ Final deflected position of frame element that includes the global lateral translation. consideration of the second order P-Delta effects is generally achieved by computing the flexural design capacity using a formula similar to that shown in Equation. Controls for considering this effect are found using the Analyze menu > Set Analysis Options command and then clicking the Set P-Delta Parameters button. but it does not typically capture the effect of the δ deformation (unless. the frame element is broken into multiple pieces over its length). When you consider P-Delta effects in the analysis. MCAP where. which is extracted from a story level of a larger structure. The overall global translation of this frame element is indicated by ∆.5 . In design codes. ∆. The total second order P-Delta effects on this frame element are those caused by both ∆ and δ.Concrete Frame Design General Design Information ∆ Original position of frame element shown by vertical line Position of frame element as a result of global lateral translation. MCAP = Flexural design capacity = aMnt + bMlt Eqn. the program does a good job of capturing the effect due to the ∆ deformation shown in Figure 1. The local deformation of the element is shown as δ. 1 Second Order P-Delta Effects Technical Note 1 .

about the 3-3 axis). such as member connectivity. These are the lengths between support points of the element in the corresponding directions. you should consider P-Delta effects in the analysis before running the design. The program automatically determines these unsupported lengths. They are L33 and L22. associated with the δ deformation in Figure 1) Required flexural capacity of the member as a result of lateral translation of the frame only (i. if you are performing concrete frame design in this program. The length L22 is also used for lateral-torsional buckling caused by major direction bending (i.e. and L22 corresponds to instability about the 2-2 axis (minor axis). The length L33 corresponds to instability about the 3-3 axis (major axis). as shown in Figure 2. Element Unsupported Lengths The column unsupported lengths are required to account for column slenderness effects. in general. associated with the ∆ deformation in Figure 1) Unitless factor multiplying Mnt Unitless factor multiplying Mlt (assumed equal to 1 by the program. They can also be overwritten by the user on an element-by-element basis.General Design Information Concrete Frame Design Mnt = Required flexural capacity of the member assuming there is no translation of the frame (i. In determining the values for L22 and L33 of the elements. the program recognizes various aspects of the structure that have an effect on these lengths.e. it assumes that the factor b is equal to 1 and it uses code-specific formulas to calculate the factor a. The program automatically locates the element support points and evaluates the corresponding unsupported length. diaphragm constraints and support points. see below) Mlt = a b = = When the program performs concrete frame design. Thus.. using the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command.e. There are two unsupported lengths to consider. Technical Note 1 .6 Element Unsupported Lengths . if desired... as previously described. That b = 1 assumes that you have considered P-Delta effects in the analysis.

but not the other.7 . and its unsupported length in the other direction will exceed the story height. the column is assumed to be supported in one direction only at that story level. at a floor level. For example. The design section is whatever section has most currently been designed and thus designated the current design section. In this case. assume a column has a beam framing into it in one direction.Concrete Frame Design General Design Information Figure 2: Major and Minor Axes of Bending It is possible for the unsupported length of a frame element to be evaluated by the program as greater than the corresponding element length. Tip: It is important to understand the difference between analysis sections and design sections. Analysis Sections and Design Sections Technical Note 1 . Analysis Sections and Design Sections Analysis sections are those section properties used to analyze the model when you click the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command.

The program keeps track of the analysis section and the design section separately. In that case. Technical Note 1 . Using the Define menu > Load Combinations command to change a design load combination deletes the design results. The Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Verify Analysis vs Design Section command is useful for this task. but it does not delete or change the design section. but it does not delete or change the design section. but it does not delete or change the design section. Using the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Select Design Combo command to change a design load combination deletes the design results. Typically. Before you complete the design process. Note the following about analysis and design sections: Assigning a beam a frame section property using the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Frame Section command assigns the section as both the analysis section and the design section. Running an analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command (or its associated toolbar button) always sets the analysis section to be the same as the current design section. For example. you may have run your analysis using a W18X35 beam and then found in the design that a W16X31 beam worked. the last used analysis section is the W18X35 and the current design section is the W16X31.8 Analysis Sections and Design Sections . Deleting the static nonlinear analysis results also deletes the design results for any load combination that includes static nonlinear forces.General Design Information Concrete Frame Design It is possible for the last used analysis section and the current design section to be different. Unlocking a model deletes the design results. verify that the last used analysis section and the current design section are the same. Using the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design command to change any of the composite beam design preferences deletes the design results. but it does not delete or change the design section. Assigning an auto select list to a frame section using the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Frame Section command initially sets the design section to be the beam with the median weight in the auto select list.

Use the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Frame Nonlinear Hinges command to add or delete hinges. Analysis Sections and Design Sections Technical Note 1 .Concrete Frame Design General Design Information static nonlinear analysis and design results are deleted when one of the following actions is taken: Use the Define menu > Frame Nonlinear Hinge Properties command to redefine existing or define new hinges. Use the Define menu > Static Nonlinear/Pushover Cases command to redefine existing or define new static nonlinear load cases.9 . Again. note that these actions delete only results for load combinations that include static nonlinear forces.

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including the distinction between analysis sections and design sections (see Analysis Sections and Design Sections in Concrete Frame Design Technical Note 1 General Design Information). Use the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design command to choose the concrete frame design code and to review other concrete frame design preferences and revise them if necessary. The concrete frame design postprocessor can design or check concrete columns and can design concrete beams. Note that when using this command. Other Technical Notes in the Concrete Frame Design series provide additional information. BERKELEY. depending on how its frame section property was designated when it was defined using the Define menu > Frame Sections command.1 . Note that default values are provided for all concrete frame design preferences. Although the exact steps you follow may vary.. the basic process probably will be essentially the same. Concrete Frame Design Procedure The following sequence describes a typical concrete frame design process for a new building. the basic design process should be similar to that described herein. INC. Important note: A concrete frame element is designed as a beam or a column. 1. after you have specified that a section has a concrete material property. so it is unnecessary to define any preferences unless you want to change some of the default values. you can click on the Reinforcement button and specify whether it is a beam or a column. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN Technical Note 2 Concrete Frame Design Process This Technical Note describes a basic concrete frame design process using this program. See Concrete Frame Design ACI UBC97 Technical Notes 6 Preferences and Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Notes 16 Preferences for more information. Note that although the sequence of steps you follow may vary. Concrete Frame Design Procedure Technical Note 2 .©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.

To use any design load combinations other than the defaults created by the program for your concrete frame design. Note that you must select frame elements before using this command. 5. Assign concrete frame overwrites. Right click on a frame element while the design results are displayed on it to enter the interactive design mode and interactively design the frame element. 6. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combinations and Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 18 Design Load Combinations for more information. Review the concrete frame design results by doing one of the following: a.Concrete Frame Design Process Concrete Frame Design 2. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 7 Overwrites and Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 17 Overwrites for more information. See Concrete Frame Design Technical Note 4 Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model for more information. 4. Also note that default values are provided for all concrete frame design overwrites. See Concrete Frame Design Technical Note 3 Interactive Concrete Frame Design for more information.2 Concrete Frame Design Procedure . Create the building model. using the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. 3. b. Note that you must have already created your own design combos by clicking the Define menu > Load Combinations command. click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Select Design Combo command. Technical Note 2 . if needed. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to run the concrete frame design. Note that while you are in this mode. 7. so it is unnecessary to define any overwrites unless you want to change some of the default values. you can revise overwrites and immediately see the results of the new design. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info command to display design input and output information on the model. Note that the overwrites can be assigned before or after the analysis is run. Run the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command.

Concrete Frame Design Concrete Frame Design Process If design results are not currently displayed (and the design has been run). Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to rerun the concrete frame design with the new section properties. Concrete Frame Design Procedure Technical Note 2 . Note that the section properties used for the analysis are the last specified design section properties. 11 and 12 as many times as necessary. 11. 14. if necessary. 9.3 . Repeat the processes in steps 10. 10. 15. Use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command to print concrete frame design data. 13. Review the results using the procedures described in Item 7. data is printed only for the selected elements. If you select frame elements before using this command. 8. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to rerun the concrete frame design with the new analysis results and new section properties. click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Interactive Concrete Frame Design command and then right click a frame element to enter the interactive design mode for that element. Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Change Design Section command to change the design section properties for selected frame elements. Rerun the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command. Review the results using the procedures described above. 12. Rerun the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command. Note that the section properties used for the analysis are the last specified design section properties. Again use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Change Design Section command to change the design section properties for selected frame elements. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output Details and Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 24 Output Details for more information.

Review the results using the procedures described in Item 7. 18. It is important to note that design is an iterative process. Always run the building analysis using the final frame section sizes and then run a design check using the forces obtained from that analysis.4 Concrete Frame Design Procedure .Concrete Frame Design Process Concrete Frame Design Note: Concrete frame design is an iterative process. Use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command to print selected concrete frame design results. Technical Note 2 . the analysis and design will be rerun multiple times to complete a design. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to rerun the concrete frame design with the new section properties. if desired. Typically. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Verify Analysis vs Design Section command to verify that all of the final design sections are the same as the last used analysis sections. Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Verify Analysis vs Design Section command to verify that the design sections are the same as the analysis sections. The sections used in the original analysis are not typically the same as those obtained at the end of the design process. 16. 17.

Concrete Design Information Form Table 1 describe the features that are included in the Concrete Design Information form. click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command. Important note: A concrete frame element is designed as a beam or a column. depending on how its frame section property was designated when it was defined using the Define menu > Frame Sections command and the Reinforcement button. General Note that a design must have been run for the interactive design mode to be available. BERKELEY. If design results are not currently displayed (and a design has been run)..©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN Technical Note 3 Interactive Concrete Frame Design This Technical Note describes interactive concrete frame design and review. Right click on a frame element while the design results are displayed on it to enter the interactive design mode and interactively design the element in the Concrete Design Information form. click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Interactive Concrete Frame Design command and then right click a frame element to enter the interactive design mode for that element.1 . INC. To run a design. which is a powerful mode that allows the user to review the design results for any concrete frame design and interactively revise the design assumptions and immediately review the revised results. General Technical Note 3 . which is only available if it is a concrete section.

This item applies to columns only. Technical Note 3 . This is the label associated with a frame element that has been assigned a concrete frame section property that is designated as a beam. It also only applies to columns for which the program designs the longitudinal reinforcing. It also only applies to columns for which you have specified the location and size of reinforcing bars and thus the program checks the design. the item with the largest capacity ratio is initially highlighted. See the important note previously in this Technical Note for more information. Following are the possible headings in the table: Combo ID Station location Longitudinal reinforcement Capacity ratio This is the name of the design load combination considered. measured from the i-end of the frame element. Column Section Name Reinforcement Information The reinforcement information table on the Concrete Design Information form shows the output information obtained for each design load combination at each output station along the frame element. This is the location of the station considered. This item applies to columns only. For columns that are designed by this program. This item is the capacity ratio.Interactive Concrete Frame Design Concrete Frame Design Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form Item Story Beam DESCRIPTION This is the story level ID associated with the frame element. the item with the largest required amount of bottom steel is initially highlighted. For beams. See the important note previously in this Technical Note for more information. This is the label associated with a frame element that has been assigned a concrete frame section property that is designated as a column. This is the label associated with a frame element that has been assigned a concrete frame section property. the item with the largest required amount of longitudinal reinforcing is initially highlighted. For columns that are checked by this program. It is the total required area of longitudinal reinforcing steel.2 Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form .

Concrete Frame Design Interactive Concrete Frame Design Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form Item DESCRIPTION The capacity ratio is determined by first extending a line from the origin of the PMM interaction surface to the point representing the P. This item applies to columns only. If you then exit the Concrete Design Information form by clicking the Cancel button the changes you made to the concrete frame overwrites are considered temporary only and are not permanently saved. Assume the length of this line from the origin to the interaction surface is designated L2. Next. Overwrites Button Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form Technical Note 3 . If you modify some overwrites in this mode and you exit both the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form and the Concrete Design Information form by clicking their respective OK buttons. The capacity ratio is equal to L1/L2. Permanent saving of the overwrites does not actually occur until you click the OK button in the Concrete Design Information form as well as the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form. This item applies to beams only. Assume the length of this first line is designated L1. Major shear reinforcement Minor shear reinforcement Top steel Bottom steel Shear steel This item applies to columns only. When you exit the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form by clicking the OK button the changes are temporarily saved. M2 and M3 values for the designated load combination. It is the total required area of longitudinal bottom steel at the specified station. the changes to the overwrites are saved permanently. It is the total required area of longitudinal top steel at the specified station. Click this button to access and make revisions to the concrete frame overwrites and then immediately see the new design results. It is the total required area of shear reinforcing per unit length for shear acting in the column major direction. This item applies to beams only. a second line is extended from the origin of the PMM interaction surface through the point representing the P. It is the total required area of shear reinforcing per unit length for shear acting in the column minor direction. M2 and M3 values for the designated load combination until it intersects the interaction surface. This item applies to beams only. It is the total required area of shear reinforcing per unit length at the specified station for loads acting in the local 2-axis direction of the beam.3 .

Clicking this button displays the biaxial interaction curve for the concrete section at the location in the element that is highlighted in the table. Interaction Button Technical Note 3 .Interactive Concrete Frame Design Concrete Frame Design Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form Item Details Button DESCRIPTION Clicking this button displays design details for the frame element. Print this information by selecting Print from the File menu that appears at the top of the window displaying the design details.4 Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form .

the screen graphics can then be printed using the File menu > Print Graphics command..©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.. BERKELEY. click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables form.1 . INC. Data will be added to this file. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e. . Click the Filename>> button to change the path or filename. . Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request.doc). if necessary. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers. The on-screen display data presents input and output data. use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the check box on the Print Design Tables form. To print the concrete frame input summary to a file. Using the Print Design Tables Form To print the concrete frame input summary directly to a printer. The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables form.xls. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN Technical Note 4 Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model This Technical Note describes the input and output data that can be plotted directly on the model. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print.g. If desired. Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file. . Click the OK button to send the print to your printer.txt. Overview Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info command to display on-screen output plotted directly on the program model. Or use the Filename Overview Technical Note 4 .

The print will be for the selected steel frame element(s) only. Display this form by selecting he Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info command. the Selection Only check box will be checked. Design Output The following types of data can be displayed directly on the model by selecting the data type (shown in bold type) from the drop-down list on the Display Design Results form. click Yes to replace the existing file. Design Sections Design Type Live Load Red Factors Unbraced L_Ratios Eff Length K-Factors Cm Factors DNS Factors DS Factors Each of these items is described in the code-specific Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 13 Input Data and Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 23 Input Data. If you select a specific concrete frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > concrete Frame Design command. Display this form by selecting he Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info command.2 Design Input .Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model Concrete Frame Design button to locate another file. and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears. Technical Note 4 . Design Input The following types of data can be displayed directly on the model by selecting the data type (shown in bold type) from the drop-down list on the Display Design Results form.

3 .Concrete Frame Design Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model Longitudinal Reinforcing Shear Reinforcing Column Capacity Ratios Joint Shear Capacity Ratios Beam/Column Capacity Ratios Each of these items is described in the code-specific Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 24 Output Details and Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output Details. Design Output Technical Note 4 .

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When using the UBC 97 option. BERKELEY. 1921): Ordinary Moment-Resisting Frame (OMF) General and Notation Technical Note 5 . However.. a frame is assigned to one of the following five Seismic Zones (UBC 2213. 2214): Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 By default the Seismic Zone is taken as Zone 4 in the program.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. The various notations used in this series are listed herein. the Seismic Zone can be overwritten in the Preference form to change the default. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 5 General and Notation Introduction to the UBC97 Series of Technical Notes The Concrete Frame Design UBC97 series of Technical Notes describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by this program when the user selects the UBC97 Design Code (ICBO 1997). When using the UBC 97 option. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 6 Preferences for more information.1 . See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combinations for more information. INC. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. the following Framing Systems are recognized and designed according to the UBC design provisions (UBC 1627.

sq-in Gross area of concrete. all equations and descriptions presented in this Technical Note correspond to Inch-Pound-Second units unless otherwise noted. Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 10 Column Design. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 7 Overwrites for more information. the change of the Seismic Zone in the Preferences will not modify the frame type of an individual member that has been assigned a frame type. The Special Moment-Resisting Frame (SMRF) is appropriate in high seismic risk areas. sq-in Area of tension reinforcement. For simplicity. and as SMRF in Seismic Zone 3 and 4. as IMRF in Seismic Zone 2. Notation Acv Ag As Area of concrete used to determine shear stress. and Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 12 Joint Design. The details of the design criteria used for the different framing systems are described in Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 9 Strength Reduction Factors. especially in Seismic Zones 0 and 1. which are described in Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 13 Input Data and Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output Details.General and Notation Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Intermediate Moment-Resisting Frame (IMRF) Special Moment-Resisting Frame (SMRF) The Ordinary Moment-Resisting Frame (OMF) is appropriate in minimal seismic risk areas. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. specially in Seismic Zones 3 and 4. If any member is assigned with a frame type. sq-in Technical Note 5 . The UBC seismic design provisions are considered in the program.2 General and Notation . The code is based on Inch-Pound-Second units. the frame type can be overwritten in the Overwrites form on a member-by-member basis. By default the frame type is taken in the program as OMRF in Seismic Zone 0 and 1. The Intermediate Moment-Resisting Frame (IMRF) is appropriate in moderate seismic risk areas. However. specially in Seismic Zone 2. The program also provides input and output data summaries. Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 11 Beam Design.

3 . sq-in Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement. lb-in Sway component of factored end moment. sq-in Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. in4 Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of member cross section. lb-in Factored moment at section about Y-axis. lb-in Factored moment at section. neglecting reinforcement. dependent upon column curvature. in4 Clear unsupported length. in Smaller factored end moment in a column. sq-in Area of shear reinforcement. sq-in Coefficient. lb As(required) Ast Av Cm D' Ec Es Ig Ise L M1 M2 Mc Mns Ms Mu Mux Muy Pb General and Notation Technical Note 5 .Concrete Frame Design UBC97 General and Notation ' As Area of compression reinforcement. psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. assumed as 29. lb-in Factored moment to be used in design.2) Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis. lb-in Larger factored end moment in a column.000.5.000 psi (UBC 1980. in Modulus of elasticity of concrete. lb-in Nonsway component of factored end moment. lb-in Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions. used to calculate moment magnification factor Diameter of hoop. lb-in Factored moment at section about X-axis.

in Specified compressive strength of concrete.4 General and Notation . lb Factored shear force at a section.000 psi (UBC 1909. lb Acial load capacity at zero eccentricity. in Depth to neutral axis. lb Depth of compression block. in Effective width of flange (T-Beam section). lb Maximum axial load strength allowed. lb Shear force caused by earthquake loads. lb Shear force from span loading.General and Notation Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Pc Pmax P0 Pu Vc VE VD+L Vu Vp a ab b bf bw c cb d d' ds f c' fy Critical buckling strength of column. lb Shear resisted by concrete. lb Shear force computed from probable moment capacity. in Depth of compression block at balanced condition. in Concrete cover to center of reinforcing. psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. psi fy ≤ 80. in Width of web (T-Beam section). in Width of member. in Thickness of slab (T-Beam section). in Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions. in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement.4) Technical Note 5 . lb Factored axial load at section.

in Reinforcing steel overstrength factor Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to maximum factored axial total load Moment magnification factor for sway moments Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Strength reduction factor α β1 βd δs δns εc εs ϕ General and Notation Technical Note 5 .5 .Concrete Frame Design UBC97 General and Notation fys h k r Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. psi Dimension of column. in Effective length factor Radius of gyration of column section.

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If the cell is highlighted. BERKELEY. The preference value will update accordingly. You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. Default values are provided for all concrete frame design preference items. General The concrete frame design preferences in this program are basic assignments that apply to all concrete frame elements. Use the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design command to access the Preferences form where you can view and revise the concrete frame design preferences. To change a preference item. it is not required that you specify or change any of the preferences. click the OK button to close the form.1 . however. This activates a drop-down box or highlights the current preference value. You should. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 6 Preferences This Technical Note describes the items in the Preferences form.. Thus. select a new value. INC. select the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Using the Preferences Form To view preferences. at least review the default values for the preference items to make sure they are acceptable to you. You cannot overwrite values in the dropdown boxes. type in the desired value. The preference options are displayed in a two-column spreadsheet. left click the desired preference item in either the left or right column of the spreadsheet. When you have finished making changes to the concrete frame preferences. The left column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item name. If the drop-down box appears. The right column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item value. The Preferences form will display. If you click the Cancel button to exit General Technical Note 6 .

Description: A description of the associated preference item.75 0. Unitless strength reduction factor per UBC 1909.Preferences Concrete Frame Design UBC97 the form.2 Preferences . Preferences For purposes of explanation in this Technical Note. Unitless strength reduction factor per UBC 1909. Default Value: The built-in default value that the program assumes for the associated preference item.0 Default Value UBC97 Description Design code used for design of concrete frame elements. Phi Bending Tension Phi Compression Tied Phi Compression Spiral Phi Shear Number Interaction Curves 0. any changes made to the preferences are ignored and the form is closed. We recommend that you use 24 for this item.7 0. the preference items are presented in Table 1. Number of equally spaced interaction curves used to create a full 360-degree interaction surface (this item should be a multiple of four). Unitless strength reduction factor per UBC 1909.9 0. Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences Item Design Code Possible Values Any code in the program >0 >0 >0 >0 ≥4. Unitless strength reduction factor per UBC 1909. Possible Values: The possible values that the associated preference item can have.85 24 Technical Note 6 . The column headings in the table are described as follows: Item: The name of the preference item as it appears in the cells at the left side of the Preferences form.

Number Inter. or designed step-by-step for the entire time history.0 Time History Design Envelopes or Step-by-Step Envelopes Preferences Technical Note 6 .3 . Toggle for design load combinations that include a time history designed for the envelope of the time history. that design load combination is designed for the envelopes of the time histories.Any odd value action Points ≥1. regardless of what is specified here.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Preferences Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences Item Possible Values Default Value 11 Description Number of points used for defining a single curve in a concrete frame interaction surface (this item should be odd). If a single design load combination has more than one time history case in it.

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An explanation of how to change an overwrite is provided at the end of this Technical Note. To save space in the formes. Overwrites For explanation purposes in this Technical Note. Default values are provided for all overwrite items. When changes are made to overwrite items. INC. BERKELEY. at least review the default values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. the overwrites are presented in Table 1.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Item: The name of the overwrite item as it appears in the program. However. select an element and click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. the program applies the changes only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned. To access the overwrites. these names are generally short. Overwrites Technical Note 7 . Possible Values: The possible values that the associated overwrite item can have. The column headings in the table are described as follows. Thus. Description: A description of the associated overwrite item. Default Value: The default value that the program assumes for the associated overwrite item. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 7 Overwrites General The concrete frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to those elements to which they are assigned. you do not need to specify or change any of the overwrites. that is. to the elements that are selected when the overwrites are changed. This Technical Note describes concrete frame design overwrites for UBC97..1 .

Used to reduce the live load contribution to the factored loading.0 >0 ≤1. 1 See UBC 1910.11 to 1910.3.0 >0 ≤1. see UBC 1910. Sway Intermediate.12.0 >0 ≤1.12.13.0 1.0 >0 ≤1. 1.0 1.2 Overwrites . See UBC 1910.12. Possible Values Default Value Description Element Type Live Load Reduction Factor Horizontal Earthquake Factor Unbraced Length Ratio (Major) Unbraced Length Ratio (Minor) Effective Length Factor (K Major) Effective Length Factor (K Minor) Moment Coefficient (Cm Major) Moment Coefficient (Cm Minor) NonSway Moment Factor (Dns Major) Technical Note 7 .12.0 1 1 1 See UBC 1910.3.1 relates actual moment diagram to an equivalent uniform moment diagram.0 >0 ≤1.12. Sway Ordinary NonSway >0 ≤1. 1.0 >0 ≤1.1 relates actual moment diagram to an equivalent uniform moment diagram. 1 See UBC 1910.Overwrites Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites Item Element Section Sway Special.1. Sway Special Frame type.0 >0 ≤1.0 >0 ≤1.1. See UBC 1910.

If the drop-down box appears. The overwrites are displayed in the form with a column of check boxes and a two-column spreadsheet. Then left click in either column of the spreadsheet to activate a drop-down box or highlight the contents in the cell in the right column of the spreadsheet. no values show for the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet. The names of the overwrite items are displayed in the first column of the spreadsheet. If multiple elements were selected. 1 See UBC 1910. Initially.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Overwrites Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites Item NonSway Moment Factor (Dns Minor) Sway Moment Factor (Ds Major) Sway Moment Factor (Ds Minor) Possible Values Default Value 1 Description See UBC 1910. check the box to the left of an overwrite item to change it. The right column of the spreadsheet contains the overwrites values. The left column of the spreadsheet contains the name of the overwrite item. 1 See UBC 1910. After selecting one or multiple elements.12. select an element and click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. Making Changes in the Overwrites Form To access the concrete frame overwrites. the check boxes in the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form are all unchecked and all of the cells in the spreadsheet have a gray background to indicate that they are inactive and the items in the cells cannot be changed. The values of the overwrite items are visible in the second column of the spreadsheet if only one element was selected before the overwrites form was accessed.3 .12.12. select a value from Overwrites Technical Note 7 .

click the OK button to close the form. Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default Values Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Reset All Overwrites command to reset all of the steel frame overwrites. All current design results will be deleted when this command is executed. If you click the Cancel button to exit the form. any changes made to the overwrites are ignored and the form is closed. You cannot change the values of the dropdown boxes. You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. The program then changes all of the overwrite items whose associated check boxes are checked for the selected members. The concrete frame overwrite values that were in a . When you reset overwrites. When changes to the overwrites have been completed. Important note about resetting overwrites: The program defaults for the overwrite items are built into the program. the program resets the overwrite values to its built-in values.edb file used to initialize the model.edb file that you used to initialize your model may be different from the built-in program default values. not to the values that were in the . type in the desired value.4 Overwrites . The overwrite will reflect the change. Technical Note 7 .Overwrites Concrete Frame Design UBC97 the box. If the cell contents is highlighted.

1) (UBC 1909. the following load combinations may need to be considered (UBC 1909. 1612.2.3 WL 0.2. the stress check may need only one load combination. if the structure is subjected to wind (WL) and earthquake (EL) loads. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load condition on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.75 (1. INC. 1.2.0 EL 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only.4 DL + 1.9 DL ± 1.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.1) (UBC 1909.7 WL) 0.2) (UBC 1909.4 DL + 1.1) These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever the UBC97 code is used.4 DL + 1.7 LL ± 1.7 LL (UBC 1909.4 DL 1.7 LL 0.2) (UBC 1909.3.1).2.2. 1612. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed load cases for which the structure needs to be checked.2 DL + 0.5 LL ± 1.9 DL ± 1.2).3. However.2. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 7 Overwrites for more information.0 EL) (UBC 1909. For the UBC 97 code. in addition to the dead and live loads.2..1) (UBC 1909. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.1 . namely 1. Design Load Combinations Technical Note 8 .2.2. BERKELEY.

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2.3. and axial compression and flexure (spirally reinforced column) (UBC 1909.2. INC.90 for axial tension = 0.90 for axial tension and flexure (UBC 1909.75 for axial compression.2.2.2) = 0.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.2) (UBC 1909.3.1 . and torsion are as follows: ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ = 0.3. ϕ.3) ϕ ϕ ϕ Strength Reduction Factors Technical Note 9 ..2) = 0.90 for flexure = 0.1) (UBC 1909. axial force. shear.3) (UBC 1909.3.2.2) = 0. The ϕ factors for flexure.2.2.60 for shear and torsion (UBC 1909. are applied on the nominal strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member.85 for shear and torsion (non-seismic design) = 0.3.70 for axial compression.3. and axial compression and flexure (tied column) (UBC 1909.3. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 9 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors. BERKELEY.

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the program can calculate the amount of reinforcing required to design the column.9. BERKELEY. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 10 Column Design This Technical Note describes how the program checks column capacity or designs reinforced concrete columns when the UBC97 code is selected. Design the column shear reinforcement. The following four subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process.3. Alternatively. If you define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section. the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Intermediate moment resisting frames (UBC 1910. Overview Technical Note 10 .©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. A typical biaxial interaction surface is shown in Figure 1. When the steel is undefined.. Overview The program can be used to check column capacity or to design columns. The target capacity ratio is taken as 1 when calculating the required reinforcing area. the program will check the column capacity.1).4.1 .1) and 1 to 6 percent for Special moment resisting frames (UBC 1921. Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each station of the column. INC.

Column Design

Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Figure 1 A Typical Column Interaction Surface

**Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces
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The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure surface. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending, the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations. A typical interaction diagram is shown in Figure 1.

Technical Note 10 - 2

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces

Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Column Design

The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in three dimensions on the section of the column. See Figure 2. The linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain, εc, at the extremity of the section, to 0.003 (UBC 1910.2.3). The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate strength design (UBC 1910.3), and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular, square, or circular column section. The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity, εsEs, and is limited to the yield stress of the steel, fy (UBC 1910.2.4). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any further simplifications with respect to distributing the area of steel over the cross section of the column, such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder. See Figure 3. The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a stress value of 0.85 f c' (UBC 1910.2.7.1). See Figure 3. The interaction algorithm provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone. The effects of the strength reduction factor, ϕ, are included in the generation of the interaction surfaces. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to ϕPn(max), where ϕPn(max) = 0.85ϕ[0.85 f c' (Ag-Ast)+fyAst] (spiral) ϕPn(max) = 0.85ϕ[0.85 f c' (Ag-Ast)+fyAst] (tied) ϕ ϕ = 0.70 for tied columns = 0.75 for spirally reinforced columns (UBC 1910.3.5.1) (UBC 1910.3.5.2) (UBC 1909.3.2.2) (UBC 1909.3.2.2)

The value of ϕ used in the interaction diagram varies from ϕmin to 0.9 based on the axial load. For low values of axial load, ϕ is increased linearly from ϕmin to 0.9 as the nominal capacity ϕPn decreases from the smaller of ϕPb or 0.1 f c' Ag to zero, where Pb is the axial force at the balanced condition. In cases involving axial tension, ϕ is always 0.9 (UBC 1909.3.2.2).

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces

Technical Note 10 - 3

Column Design

Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Figure 2 Idealized Strain Distribution for Generation of Interaction Surfaces

Technical Note 10 - 4

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces

lies within the interaction volume. and Muy. Mux. Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments. The factored moments and corresponding magnification factors depend on the identification of the individual column as either “sway” or “non-sway.5 . The following steps are involved in calculating the capacity ratio of a particular column for a particular loading combination at a particular location: Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and the specified load combination factors to give Pu. defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial moment set. Determine whether the point.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design Figure 3 Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section Calculate Column Capacity Ratio The column capacity ratio is calculated for each loading combination at each output station of each column.” Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 10 . Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored moments.

Determine Factored Moments and Forces The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the corresponding load factors to all the load cases. if required.50 live load)/ϕ if seismic load governs. For individual columns or column-members in a floor.75 (UBC 1910.3.Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process. (UBC 1910. δns. For the P-delta analysis.2).13.75 (1. The moment magnification factors for sway moments.03h) inches.10. or (1. and are related to the cause of side-sway. δs.3) The factor δs is the moment magnification factor for moments causing side sway.2 dead load + 0. and for non-sway (individual column stability effect). The sway moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads. therefore. The program assumes that it performs a P-delta analysis and. which is taken as 0.2).6 + 0.6 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio . the magnified moments about two axes at any station of a column can be obtained as M = Mns + δsMs. to obtain minimum eccentricities of (0.12. δs. See also White and Hajjar (1991).7 live load)/ϕ if wind load governs.” Technical Note 10 .4 dead load + 1. Mux. and Muy. the load should correspond to a load combination of 0. The factored moments are further increased for non-sway columns.3). is taken as 1 because the component moments Ms and Mns are obtained from a “second order elastic (P-delta) analysis. The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the sway (Ms) and the non-sway (Ms) components. giving Pu. Determine Moment Magnification Factors The moment magnification factors are calculated separately for sway (overall stability effect). where ϕ is the understrength factor for stability. The sway components are identified by the “s” subscripts. The non-sway components which are identified by “ns” subscripts are predominantly caused by gravity load. moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken as unity (UBC 1910. where h is the dimension of the column in the corresponding direction (UBC 1910.12. Also the moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are in general different.

12. where (UBC 1910.3) βd = maximum factored axial total load Cm = 0. The non-sway moment magnification factor.3. δns.4E c I g 1 + βd . as follows: Mc = δnsM2 . the program allows the user to override this value. If transverse load is present on the span. where Mc is the factored moment to be used in design.12.12. and M2 is the larger factored and amplified end moment. 1910.3) δns = Cm ≥ 1.75Pc π 2 EI (kl u )2 . Ma / Mb is positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending. The above expression of Cm is valid if there is no transverse load applied between the supports.0. associated with the major or minor direction of the column is given by (UBC 1910.12. Pu 1− 0. Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 10 .12.3) k is conservatively taken as 1.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design The computed moments are further amplified for individual column stability effect (UBC 1910.13.3. Cm = 1.4. and Mb is numerically larger than Ma.5) by the nonsway moment magnification factor.3) Pc = (UBC 1910.12. δns.3) (UBC 1910. or the length is overwritten.12.3) (UBC 1910.1) Ma and Mb are the moments at the ends of the column. however. Cm can be overwritten by the user on an element-by-element basis.6 + 0. Mb maximum factored axial dead load and (UBC 1910.7 .4 Ma ≥ 0. EI is associated with a particular column direction given by: EI = 0. (UBC 1910.12.

δns. corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of the element. The above calculations use the unsupported length of the column. See Figure 4.8 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio . These are the lengths between the support points of the element in the corresponding directions.75Pc. the user can explicitly specify values of δs and δns. respectively. must be a positive number and greater than 1.Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 The magnification factor. Figure 4 Axes of Bending and Unsupported Length If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member. The two unsupported lengths are l22 and l33. Pu must be less than 0. If Pu is found to be greater than or equal to 0. Therefore. a failure condition is declared. The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication Technical Note 10 . Determine Capacity Ratio The program calculates a capacity ratio as a measure of the stress condition of the column.75Pc.

if the point lies outside the interaction volume. Mux. The point (Pu. and Muy.) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in Figure 5. the column is overstressed.9 . Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity. If the point lies within the interaction volume. Figure 5 Geometric Representation of Column Capacity Ratios This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C. the column capacity is adequate. however. the moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain Pu.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. Mux. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. Muy. This point is determined by three-dimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 10 .

OC If OL = OC (or CR=1). The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column. Mux." Design Column Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and minor directions of the column.10 Required Reinforcing Area . Required Reinforcing Area If the reinforcing area is not defined. Note that Pu is needed for the calculation of Vc. If OL > OC (or CR>1). along with the controlling Pu. the program computes the reinforcement that will give a column capacity ratio of one. the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is stressed to capacity. that can be resisted by concrete alone. The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular load combination caused by shear forces in a particular direction: Determine the factored forces acting on the section. Determine the shear force. For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (Ductile frames). calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Calculate Column Capacity Ratio. Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. respectively. the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate. in addition to the factored Technical Note 10 .Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 failure surface. the shear design of the columns is also based on the probable and nominal moment capacities of the members. Vc. See Figure 5. is given by the ratio OL . The capacity ratio. Pu and Vu. and Muy set and associated load combination number. the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed. CR. If OL < OC (or CR<1).

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design moments. Vu. seismic design) the column is checked for capacity-shear in addition to the requirement for the Ordinary moment resisting frames. is calculated. namely.5. The capacity-shear force in a column.4. of the column in a particular direction under the influence of the axial force Pu is calculated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction. Vp is the capacity-shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting in two opposite directions. where VP1 = VP2 = − + MI + M J . In the shear design of Special moment resisting frames (i.5. and the column shear force. For each load combination. The design shear force. + − the positive and negative moment capacities. Mu and Mu .4..e. Effects of the axial forces on the column moment capacities are included in the formulation. Pu. Then. in a particular direction are obtained by factoring the program analysis load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. Determine Section Forces In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame. Pu. the forces for a particular load combination.11 . the factored axial load.1) where. in a particular direction is calculated from the probable moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial force acting on the column. the column axial force. is then given by (UBC 1921.1) Vu = Vp + VD+L (UBC 1921. and L + − MI + M J . The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process. Vp is the maximum of VP1 and VP2 . Vu. Vp. where L Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 10 . Therefore.

Vc. except the earthquake load factors are doubled (UBC 1921. i. in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. = Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the column using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1. 1921.Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 + − M I . the shear capacity of the column is also checked for the capacity-shear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads. M I . f c' ≤ 100 psi.0) moment capacity and factored shear force.1.8. (UBC 1911.2) Acv .25 (UBC 1921. except that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.0). α is taken as 1.. and (UBC 1911. For most of the columns.8. Determine Concrete Shear Capacity Given the design force set Pu and Vu.0). = Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the column using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1. The factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors.12 Design Column Shear Reinforcement . it is zero.0). The procedure for calculating nominal moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for special moment resisting frames. is calculated as follows: If the column is subjected to axial compression.3). and L = Clear span of column.2) Technical Note 10 .000 Ag where.3).3.25 (UBC 1921.0. M J . the shear force carried by the concrete. For Special moment resisting frames. VD+L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads. The design shear force is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal (ϕ = 1. Pu Vc = 2 f c' 1 + 2. Pu is positive. + − M J .e. For Intermediate moment resisting frames.1.

13 .2). Acv is not taken to be greater than 0.5. (UBC 1911.6.2. Acv Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 10 . For circular columns.8 times the gross area (UBC 1911. Acv is the effective shear area which is Ag shown shaded in Figure 6.3.2) The term Pu must have psi units. Figure 6 Shear Stress Area.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design Vc ≤ 3.5 f c' 1 + Pu 500 Ag Acv .

for circular columns f ys D' π (UBC 1911. (Vu / ϕ-Vc) ≤ 8 f c' Acv (UBC 1911. Here ϕ.2.6. the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or ties within a spacing. 1. and 2 (UBC 1909. along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination label. 1911. Vc is set to zero if the factored axial compressive force.5.3. Pu.2. is more than half of the total factored maximum shear force over the length of the member Vu(VE ≥ 0.3) Pu Vc = 2 f c' 1 + 500 Ag Acv ≥ 0 (UBC 1911.2.6.3.3) For Special moment resisting concrete frame design.1. is 0.1).3. is given for rectangular and circular columns by the following: Av = (Vu / ϕ − Vc )s . (UBC 1911.1. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing considerations or transverse reinforcement volumet- Technical Note 10 . including the earthquake effect is small (Pu < f c' Ag / 20) and if the shear force contribution from earthquake.3) and is 0.2) Vu is limited by the following relationship.5.4. for rectangular columns f ys d 2 (Vu / ϕ − Vc )s . Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given Vu and Vc. s.5Vu) (UBC 1921. VE. The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on shear strength consideration. the strength reduction factor.2). The maximum of all the calculated values obtained from each load combination are reported for the major and minor directions of the column.5.2) Av = (UBC 1911.Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 If the column is subjected to axial tension.5.6.14 Design Column Shear Reinforcement .5.4.5. Pu is negative.60 for seismic design in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 1909.6.3.6.85 for nonseismic design or for seismic design in Seismic Zones 0.8) Otherwise redimensioning of the concrete section is required. 1911.

Inc. 4.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design ric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Reference White.15 . Vol... Engineering Journal. 28. 1991.F. and J. No. Reference Technical Note 10 . Hajjar. American Institute of Steel Construction. W. Application of Second-Order Elastic Analysis in LRFD: Research in Practice. D.

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All beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. load combination factors and other criteria described herein. and other criteria described below. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user-defined number of check/design stations along the beam span. Effects caused by axial forces. The program calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments. shears. BERKELEY. load combination factors. and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 11 Beam Design This Technical Note describes how this program completes beam design when the UBC97 code is selected. The following steps are involved in designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment for a particular beam for a particular section: Determine the maximum factored moments Determine the reinforcing steel Overview Technical Note 11 . The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design beam flexural reinforcement Design beam shear reinforcement Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at check/design stations along the beam span. INC.1 . the program calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments. shears. Overview In the design of concrete beams.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. minor direction bending..

the width. + The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive M u and maxi− mum negative M u factored moments obtained from all of the load combina- tions.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of Special. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. Negative beam moments produce top steel. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. all the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.1 f c' Ag (UBC 1910. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.3. It is assumed that the compression carried by concrete is less than 0.3). hence. In such cases. Intermediate. or the grade of concrete.3. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this designed balanced condition. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.or a T-beam. In such cases. the beam is always designed as a rectangular section.3). Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed 0.2 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement .2). The design procedure used by the program for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. the beam may be designed as a Rectangular. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. Technical Note 11 .and T-beams) is summarized below.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (UBC 1910. or Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame beams. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown in Figure 1 (UBC 1910.

90 (UBC 1909.3.2. Mu (i. 1910.85.05 c 1.. d = ε c E s + fy 87.2.7. β1 = 0.85f c' ϕb .3) (UBC 1910.4) Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 .Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design Figure 1 Design of a Rectangular Beam Section Design for Rectangular Beam In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.0.000 cb = εc E s 87.3 .85 .1) in the above and the following equations.000 . the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 1). where the value of ϕ is 0. designing top or bottom steel). a=dd2 − 2 Mu 0. (UBC 1910.e.000 d.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0. Also β1 and cb are calculated as follows: f ' − 4.2.000 + f y 0.2. where.3.

− So the required compression steel is given by ' As = M us f s' (d − d' )ϕ .2.7.Muc.1) the moment resisted by concrete compression and tensile steel is a Muc = C d − max 2 − ϕ.4) The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is Technical Note 11 .3. where c − d' f s' = 0.4 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement .3) If a ≤ amax.3) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by C = 0. (UBC 1910.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by amax = 0.2. or at the top if Mu is negative. c − (UBC 1910.75β1cb. If a > amax.85 f c' bamax.003Es .2.1. the area of tensile steel reinforcement is given by As = Mu a ϕf y d − 2 . compression reinforcement is required (UBC 1910. 1910.3.7. and (UBC 1910. This steel is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive. Therefore the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is Mus = Mu .

See Figure 2.. i. the width of the compression flange is taken as the width of the beam for analysis.d2 − 2M u 0. However. The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by amax = 0. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.85 f c' (bf .2.85f c' ϕbf . Compression reinforcement is required if a > amax. f y (d − d' )ϕ − Therefore.7.. Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 . the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular section design. Cw.bw) ds. If Mu > 0.5 . As = As1 + As2. (UBC 1910. Mu (i. and vice versa if Mu is negative. the total tensile reinforcement. Design for T-Beam In designing for a factored negative moment. as shown in Figure 2. no T-Beam data is to be used. calculation for As is performed in two parts.1) If a ≤ ds.75β1cb. and the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is given by As2 = M us .Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design As1 = Muc a f y d − max ϕ 2 . and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. Cf is given by Cf = 0.e. in this case. Cf. the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above. designing top steel). the depth of the compression block is given by a = d . and total com' ' pression reinforcement is As . As is to be placed at bottom and As is to be placed at top if Mu is positive. If a > ds.e.

The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d. Mu to be carried by the web is given by Muw = Mu . If a1 ≤ amax. Cf fy and the portion of Mu that is resisted by the flange is Again.85f c' ϕbw . the value for ϕ is 0. the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by Technical Note 11 . for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as a1 = d d2 − 2M uw 0.Muf.90.6 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . Therefore.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Figure 2 Design of a T-Beam Section Therefore. As1 = given by d Muf = Cf d − s 2 ϕ . the balance of the moment.

7 . − Therefore.1) − Therefore the moment resisted by concrete web and tensile steel is a Muc = C d − max 2 ϕ.3.3) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force in web concrete alone is given by C = 0. This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the T-beam. and the tensile steel for balancing compression in steel is Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 . compression reinforcement is required (UBC 1910.4) The tensile steel for balancing compression in web concrete is As2 = M uc a f y d − max 2 ϕ .2.85 f c' bamax. where c − d' f s' = 0.Muc. (UBC 1910. the compression steel is computed as ' As = M us f s' (d − d' )ϕ .7.003Es . and As = As1 + As2.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design As2 = M uw a ϕf y d − 1 2 .2. c − (UBC 1910. and the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is Mus = Muw . If a1 > amax.

1. Minimum Tensile Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an Ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two following limits: 3 f ' 200 c As ≥ max bw d and bw d or fy fy As ≥ 4 As(required) 3 (UBC 1910.3.25 bwd.1) (UBC 1910.3.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 As3 = Mus .3) Special Consideration for Seismic Design For Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design). Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less than As(min) (UBC 1921.2. 1921.5. the beam design satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table 1 for comprehensive listing): The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both the top and bottom.1) Technical Note 11 .5.2.3. 3 (UBC 1910.5. and total compres' ' sion reinforcement is As .2. (UBC 1921.8 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . As = As1 + As2 + As3.1).3. 3 f ' 200 c As(min) ≥ max bw d and bw d or fy fy As(min) ≥ 4 As(required).2.1) (UBC 1910. As is to be placed at bottom and As is to be placed at top. 1921.3.5. f y (d − d')ϕ − The total tensile reinforcement.1) The beam flexural steel is limited to a maximum given by As ≤ 0.

Moment Override Check + M uEND ≥ No Requirement + M uSPAN − M uSPAN 1 − M uEND 3 1 + − ≥ max M u .0 and ϕ = 1.ρ ≥ 200 fy NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 8% Modified NLDa Combinations (earthquake loads doubled) Column Capacity ϕ = 1.0 1% < ρ < 6% NLDa Combinations and Column shear capacity ϕ = 1.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design Table 1 Design Criteria Table Type of Check/ Design Column Check (interaction) Column Design (interaction) Column Shears Ordinary Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic Zones 0&1) NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 8% Intermediate Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic Zone 2) NLDa Combinations Special Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic Zones 3 & 4) NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations α = 1. Mu 4 { { } } END END Beam Design Shear Joint Design Beam/ Column Capacity Ratio NLDa Combinations Modified NLDa Combinations (earthquake loads doubled) Beam Capacity Shear (Vp) with α = 1.0 NLDa Combinations Beam Design Flexure NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations Beam Min.0 plus VD+L No Requirement NLDa Combinations Beam Capacity Shear (Vp) with α = 1.0 and α = 1.25 and ϕ = 1. M u 5 { } END 1 + − max Mu .9 . M u 5 + MuEND ≥ { } 1 − MuEND 2 END + MuSPAN ≥ − MuSPAN ≥ 1 + − max M u .0 and α = 1.025 ρ≥ 3 f c' fy .25 NLDa Combinations ρ ≤ 0.0 plus VD+L Vc = 0 Checked for shear No Requirement No Requirement No Requirement Reported in output file NLDa = Number of specified loading Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 . Mu 4 1 − − ≥ max Mu .

Vu. Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at a userdefined number of stations along the beam span.. Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (UBC 1921.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 At any end (support) of the beam. Determine the shear force. For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (Ductile frames). Technical Note 11 . associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than 1/2 of the beam negative moment capacity (i.2..e.2).4.2). respectively. Determine the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.1).10 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement . The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular load combination at a particular station resulting from the beam major shear: Determine the factored shear force. the shear design of the beams is also based on the probable and nominal moment capacities of the members. in addition to the factored load design.4. that can be resisted by the concrete. For Intermediate moment resisting concrete frames (i. associated with the top steel) at that end (UBC 1921.8.3.1).8. Vc.3. seismic design).2.e..e. the beam positive moment capacity (i. Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (UBC 1921. the beam positive moment capacity would not be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end (UBC 1921. the beam design would satisfy the following conditions: At any support of the beam.

See also Table 1 for details. the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the capacity-shear associated with the probable moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity load. In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames (i.. Therefore. The capacity-shear force. The procedure for calculating the design shear force in a beam from probable moment capacity is the same as that described for a column in section “Design Column Shear Reinforcement” in Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 10 Column Design.3. where VP1 = VP2 = − MI − + MI + M J . The design shear force Vu is then given by (UBC 1921.11 .0). and L + − MI + M J . with top steel in tension.4.1) Vu = Vp + VD+L (UBC 1921.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process. where L = Moment capacity at end I. Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 11 . Vp. is calculated from the probable moment capacities of each end of the beam and the gravity shear forces.1) where Vp is the capacity shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting in opposite directions. the shear forces and moments for a particular load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding load combination factors. seismic design).3.4. This check is performed in addition to the design check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. Vp is the maximum of VP1 and VP2 .e. Determine Shear Force and Moment In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame. using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.

Also see Table 1 for details. except the earthquake load factors are doubled (UBC 1921. The factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors. − MJ = Moment capacity at end J. The computation of the design shear force in a beam of an Intermediate moment resisting frame is also the same as that for columns. Vc is set to zero if both the factored axial compressive force.8.0). including the earthquake effect Pu. which is described in Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 10 Column Design.3.0. For Special moment resisting frames. the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads. using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.25 (UBC 1921. is less than f c' Ag/20 and the shear force contribution from earthquake VE is Technical Note 11 . with bottom steel in tension. with bottom steel in tension.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 + MJ = Moment capacity at end J.0).1.0). with top steel in tension. and L = Clear span of beam.0) moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for Special moment resisting frames. VD+L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads.12 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement .3).0). For Intermediate moment resisting frames.25 (UBC 1921. using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.1) For Special moment resisting frame concrete design. except that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1. α is taken as 1.3). Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The allowable concrete shear capacity is given by Vc = 2 f c' bwd. + MI = Moment capacity at end I. using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1. The procedure for calculating nominal (ϕ = 1. in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design shear force in beams is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal moment capacity and factored shear force.8. 1921. (UBC 1911.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97

Beam Design

more than half of the total maximum shear force over the length of the member Vu (i.e., VE ≥ 0.5Vu) (UBC 1921.3.4.2).

**Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

Given Vu and Vc, the required shear reinforcement in area/unit length is calculated as Av = (Vu / ϕ − Vc )s . f ys d (UBC 1911.5.6.1, 1911.5.6.2)

The shear force resisted by steel is limited by (Vu/ϕ - Vc) ≤ 8 f c' bd. (UBC 1911.5.6.8)

Otherwise, redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here ϕ, the strength reduction factor, is 0.85 for nonseismic design or for seismic design in Seismic Zones 0, 1, and 2 (UBC 1909.3.2.3) and is 0.60 for seismic design in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 1909.3.4.1). The maximum of all the calculated Av values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number. The beam shear reinforcement requirements displayed by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement

Technical Note 11 - 13

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97

**Technical Note 12 Joint Design
**

This Technical Note explains how the program performs a rational analysis of the beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are generated in a joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength.

Overview

To ensure that the beam-column joint of special moment resisting frames possesses adequate shear strength, the program performs a rational analysis of the beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are generated in the joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength. Only joints having a column below the joint are designed. The material properties of the joint are assumed to be the same as those of the column below the joint. The joint analysis is completed in the major and the minor directions of the column. The joint design procedure involves the following steps: • • • Determine the panel zone design shear force,Vuh Determine the effective area of the joint Check panel zone shear stress

The algorithms associated with these three steps are described in detail in the following three sections.

**Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force
**

Figure 1 illustrates the free body stress condition of a typical beam-column intersection for a column direction, major or minor.

Overview

Technical Note 12 - 1

2 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force .Joint Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Figure1 Beam-Column Joint Analysis Technical Note 12 .

1. The C and T forces are based on these moment capacities.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Joint Design The force Vuh is the horizontal panel zone shear force that is to be calculated. α. thereby contributing force components to the analysis. The magnitude of C or T forces is conservatively determined using basic principles of ultimate strength theory. Vu.1). Cmax.3 . the evaluation of the design shear force is based on the moment capacities (with reinforcing steel overstrength factor. from the column framing into the top of the joint. The program calculates the column shear force Vu from the beam moment capacities. Noting that TL = CL and TR = CR.85f c' bd Mmax = C max d 2 Then the program conservatively determines C and T forces as follows: abs( M ) C = T = C max 1 − 1 − M max The program resolves the moments and the C and T forces from beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor directions of the column along the direction that is being investigated. The forces Pu and Vu are axial force and shear force. The program first calculates the maximum compression. the program calculates the C and T for the positive and negative moments. The moments MuL and MuR are obtained from the beams framing into the joint. as follows: Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Technical Note 12 .5. and no ϕ factors) of the beams framing into the joint (UBC 1921. In the design of special moment resisting concrete frames. The program calculates the joint shear force Vuh by resolving the moments into C and T forces. respectively. that can be carried by the beam. The forces that act on the joint are Pu. Vuh = TL + TR . and the maximum moment. Mmax. Also. considering the fact that the concrete cover may be different for the direction of moment. C max = 0. MuL and MuR. ignoring compression reinforcement as follows.Vu The location of C or T forces is determined by the direction of the moment.

4 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force .Joint Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Vu = Mu + Mu H L R See Figure 2. the shear force from the top of the column is taken as zero. It should be noted that the points of inflection shown on Figure 2 are taken as midway between actual lateral support points for the columns. If there is no column at the top of the joint. Figure 2 Column Shear Force Vu Technical Note 12 .

(UBC 1909. The joint area for joint shear along the major and minor directions is calculated separately (ACI R21.85 (by default). as illustrated in Case 1 and Case 2 of Figure 1.3): v = { 20ϕ 15ϕ 12ϕ f 'c f 'c f 'c for joints confined on all four sides for joints confined on three faces or on two opposite faces for all other joints where ϕ = 0.4.5 . Determine the Effective Area of Joint Technical Note 12 .3.2.1909. are investigated and the design is based on the maximum of the joint shears obtained from the two cases. Check Panel Zone Shear Stress The panel zone shear stress is evaluated by dividing the shear force Vuh by the effective area of the joint and comparing it with the following design shear strengths (UBC 1921.5.1).5.1) A beam that frames into a face of a column at the joint is considered in this program to provide confinement to the joint if at least three-quarters of the face of the joint is covered by the framing member (UBC 1921. Determine the Effective Area of Joint The joint area that resists the shear forces is assumed always to be rectangular in plan view. The dimensions of the rectangle correspond to the major and minor dimensions of the column below the joint. The area of the joint is assumed not to exceed the area of the column below.3.5. except if the beam framing into the joint is very narrow.3.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Joint Design The effects of load reversals. It should be noted that if the beam frames into the joint eccentrically.3. The effective width of the joint area to be used in the calculation is limited to the width of the beam plus the depth of the column.3). the above assumptions may be unconservative and the user should investigate the acceptability of the particular joint.

using the uniaxial column interaction diagram. the following UBC provision needs to be satisfied (UBC 1921. The maximum capacity summations obtained from all of the load combinations is used for the beam/column capacity ratio. major or minor. the moment capacity of each column under the influence of the corresponding axial load Pu is then determined separately for the major and minor directions of the column. the program will calculate the ratio of the sum of the beam moment capacities to the sum of the column moment capacities.6 Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios .2. ∑Me ≥ 6 ∑Mg 5 (UBC 1921.2. the allowable joint shear stress and a capacity ratio. Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios At a particular joint for a particular column direction. in each of the columns is calculated from the program analysis load combinations.3. α. The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column below the joint.2) The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength factor. the axial force. Technical Note 12 .Joint Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 For light-weight aggregate concrete. The beam capacities are calculated for reversed situations (Cases 1 and 2) as illustrated in Figure 1 and the maximum summation obtained is used. Pu. factor f ' c . the joint shear stress. and including ϕ factors.4. see Figure 3. The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are added to the summation. the program reports the joint shear. For each load combination. the design shear strength of the joint is reduced in the program to at least three-quarters of that of the normal weight concrete by replacing the minf cs.2) For joint design. For Special Moment-Resisting Frames. For each load combination.3 / 4 f c' f c' with (UBC 1921. The moment capacities of the two columns are added to give the capacity summation for the corresponding load combination.4.2).5.

Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Joint Design The beam/column flexural capacity ratios are only reported for Special Moment-Resisting Frames involving seismic design load combinations.7 . If this ratio is greater than 5/6. a warning message is printed in the output file. Figure 3 Moment Capacity Mu at a Given Axial Load Pu Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Technical Note 12 .

.

CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 13 Input Data This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design input data for UBC97.. earthquake. Name of load case. Shear strength reduction factor. The column headings for input data and a description of what is included in the columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note. Load combination scale factor. superimposed dead. A printout of the input data provides the user with the opportunity to carefully review the parameters that have been input into the program and upon which program design is based. snow. The input can be printed to a printer or to a text file when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. INC. wind. BERKELEY. See Technical Note 8. Compressive strength reduction factor for tied columns. Tensile strength reduction factor. Compressive strength reduction factor for reinforced columns. Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING Combo Type Case Factor DESCRIPTION Design load combination. Load type: dead. Further information about using the Print Design Tables form is presented at the end of this Technical Note.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Input Data The program provides the printout of the input data in a series of tables. Load Combination Multipliers Code Preferences Phi_bending Phi_tension Phi_compression (Tied) Phi_compression (Spiral) Phi_shear Input Data Technical Note 13 . live.1 . other. Bending strength reduction factor. reduced live load.

Used to calculate self-weight of structure. other. Concrete. Shear strength reduction factor for light weight concrete. Shear reinforcing steel yield strength. default = 1. Concrete. Material Property Mass and Weight Material Name Mass Per Unit Vol Weight Per Unit Vol Material Name Lightweight Concrete Concrete FC Rebar FY Rebar FYS Lightwt Reduc Fact Concrete compressive strength. other.Input Data Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Concrete. Used to calculate self-mass of structure. Isotropic or orthotropic. Technical Note 13 . steel. Minimum clear concrete cover. steel. Material label. Material Property Data Material Name Material Type Design Type Modulus of Elasticity Poisson's Ratio Thermal Coeff Shear Modulus Coefficient of thermal expansion. Bending reinforcing steel yield strength. Material Design Data for Concrete Materials Concrete Column Property Data Section Label Mat Label Column Depth Column Width Rebar Pattern Concrete Cover Bar Area Layout of main flexural reinforcing steel. Area of individual reinforcing bar to be used.0.2 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data . other. steel. Label applied to section.

default = 1. Click the Filename>> button to change the Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 13 . Unbraced length about major axis. Section number assigned to beam. default = 1. Unbraced length about minor axis. Unbraced length about minor axis. To print steel frame design input data to a file. Name of section assigned to column. Effective length factor. Lateral or gravity.0. Effective length factor. Concrete Column Design Element Information Concrete Beam Design Element Information Using the Print Design Tables Form To print steel frame design input data directly to a printer. click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables form. use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the check box on the Print Design Tables form. Story level at which beam occurs.0. if necessary. Lateral or gravity. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print. Click the OK button to send the print to your printer. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Input Data Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING Story ID Column Line Section ID Framing Type RLLF Factor L_Ratio Major L_Ratio Minor K Major K Minor Story ID Bay ID Section ID Framing type RLLF Factor L_Ratio Major L_Ratio Minor Unbraced length about major axis. DESCRIPTION Column assigned to story level at top of column. Grid lines locating beam. Grid line.3 .

click Yes to replace the existing file. .Input Data Concrete Frame Design UBC97 path or filename. Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request. and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears.4 Using the Print Design Tables Form .txt. If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command.xls. The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables form. Technical Note 13 ..g. Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file. the Selection Only check box will be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e. The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. . Data will be added to this file.doc). Or use the Filename>> button to locate another file. .

Grid lines. Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output COLUMN HEADING Story ID Column Line Section ID Station ID DESCRIPTION Column assigned to story level at top of column.1 . Name of section assigned to column. Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output Technical Note 14 . CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output Details This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design output for UBC97 that can be printed to a printer or to a text file. Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.. The column headings for output data and a description of what is included in the columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note. Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed. Shear reinforcing required. INC. The design output is printed when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and select Output Summary of the Print Design Tables dialog box. Shear reinforcing required. The program provides the output data in a series of tables. Biaxial P-M Interaction and Shear Design of Column-Type Elements Required Reinforcing Longitudinal Combo Shear22 Combo Shear33 Area of longitudinal reinforcing required. Further information about using the Print Design Tables dialog box is presented at the end of this Technical Note. BERKELEY.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.

Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity.2 Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output . Assigned section name. Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity is based. Minor Combo Joint Shear Capacity Ratios Major Combo Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity. Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity is based. Beam-Column Capacity Ratios Major Combo Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity. Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Beam to Column Capacity Ratios and Joint Shear Capacity Check Story ID Column Line Section ID Story level at which joint occurs. Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity is based. Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity is based. Grid line. Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity. Minor Combo Technical Note 14 .Output Details Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output COLUMN HEADING Combo DESCRIPTION Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.

. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print. Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file. Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 14 .txt. To print concrete frame design input data to a file. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e. The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file.xls. . click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables dialog box. If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the check box on the Print Design Tables dialog box. Or use the Filename>> button to locate another file. . Click the Filename>> button to change the path or filename. click Yes to replace the existing file. and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only. The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables dialog box. Data will be added to this file.. if necessary. Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables dialog box and the Print Design Tables dialog box to complete the request. Click the OK button to send the print to your printer.3 .Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Output Details Using the Print Design Tables Form To print concrete frame design input data directly to a printer. the Selection Only check box will be checked.g.doc).

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But the code is based on Inch-Pound-Second units. which are described in Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 23 Input Data and Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 24 Output Details. The various notations used in this series are listed herein. INC.1 . English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. and Earthquake resisting frames. For simplicity.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. The program provides options to design or check Earthquake resisting frames. It also provides input and output data summaries.. The program uses preferences and overwrites. BERKELEY. Earthquake resisting frames. Introduction to the ACI318-99 Series of Technical Notes Technical Note 15 . See Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 18 Design Load Combination for more information. and Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 22 Joint Design. Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 20 Column Design. Intermediate (moderate seismic risk areas). The details of the design criteria used for the different framing systems are described in Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 19 Strength Reduction Factors. Ordinary. Special (high seismic risk areas) moment resisting frames as required for seismic design provisions. which are described in Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 16 Preferences and Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 17 Overwrites. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99 Technical Note 15 General and Notation Introduction to the ACI318-99 Series of Technical Notes The ACI-318-99 Concrete Frame Design series of Technical Notes describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by this program when the user selects the ACI-318-99 Design Code (ACI 1999). The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Technical Note 21 Beam Design. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Inch-Pound-Second units unless otherwise noted.

dependent upon column curvature.5. lb-in Sway component of factored end moment. sq-in Area of compression reinforcement. sq-in Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement.General and Notation Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Notation Acv Ag As ' As Area of concrete used to determine shear stress. lb-in Larger factored end moment in a column. sq-in Coefficient. in4 Clear unsupported length. sq-in Area of shear reinforcement. lb-in As(required) Ast Av Cm Ec Es Ig Ise L M1 M2 Mc Mns Ms Technical Note 15 .2) Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis. in4 Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of member cross section. psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. sq-in Area of tension reinforcement. sq-in Gross area of concrete.000. lb-in Factored moment to be used in design. sq-in Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. in Smaller factored end moment in a column. neglecting reinforcement. used to calculate moment magnification factor Modulus of elasticity of concrete.2 Notation . assumed as 29. lb-in Nonsway component of factored end moment.000 psi (ACI 8.

3 . in Effective width of flange (T-Beam section). lb Factored shear force at a section. in Depth to neutral axis.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 General and Notation Mu Mux Muy Pb Pc Pmax P0 Pu Vc VE VD+L Vu Vp a ab b bf bw c cb d d' Factored moment at section. lb-in Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions. lb-in Factored moment at section about Y-axis. lb Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity. in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. in Concrete cover to center of reinforcing. in Width of web (T-Beam section). lb Maximum axial load strength allowed. lb Factored axial load at section. lb-in Factored moment at section about X-axis. lb Shear resisted by concrete. in Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions. lb Shear force computed from probable moment capacity. lb Shear force caused by earthquake loads. lb Depth of compression block. in Width of member. in Depth of compression block at balanced condition. lb Critical buckling strength of column. lb Shear force from span loading. in Notation Technical Note 15 .

in Reinforcing steel overstrength factor Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to maximum factored axial total load Absolute value of ratio or maximum factored axial dead load to maximum factored axial total load Moment magnification factor for sway moments Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Strength reduction factor fys h k r α β1 βd δs δns εc εs ϕ Technical Note 15 .4) Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement.General and Notation Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 ds f c' fy Thickness of slab (T-Beam section). in Effective length factor Radius of gyration of column section. psi fy ≤ 80.4 Notation . psi Dimension of column.000 psi (ACI 9. in Specified compressive strength of concrete. psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement.

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99

**Technical Note 16 Preferences
**

This Technical Note describes the items in the Preferences form.

General

The concrete frame design preferences in this program are basic assignments that apply to all concrete frame elements. Use the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design command to access the Preferences form where you can view and revise the concrete frame design preferences. Default values are provided for all concrete frame design preference items. Thus, it is not required that you specify or change any of the preferences. You should, however, at least review the default values for the preference items to make sure they are acceptable to you.

**Using the Preferences Form
**

To view preferences, select the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design. The Preferences form will display. The preference options are displayed in a two-column spreadsheet. The left column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item name. The right column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item value. To change a preference item, left click the desired preference item in either the left or right column of the spreadsheet. This activates a drop-down box or highlights the current preference value. If the drop-down box appears, select a new value. If the cell is highlighted, type in the desired value. The preference value will update accordingly. You cannot overwrite values in the dropdown boxes. When you have finished making changes to the composite beam preferences, click the OK button to close the form. You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the Cancel button to exit

General

Technical Note 16 - 1

Preferences

Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

the form, any changes made to the preferences are ignored and the form is closed.

Preferences

For purposes of explanation in this Technical Note, the preference items are presented in Table. The column headings in the table are described as follows: Item: The name of the preference item as it appears in the cells at the left side of the Preferences form. Possible Values: The possible values that the associated preference item can have. Default Value: The built-in default value that the program assumes for the associated preference item. Description: A description of the associated preference item.

**Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences
**

Item Design Code Possible Values Any code in the program >0 >0 >0 >0 ≥4.0 Default Value ACI 318-99 Description Design code used for design of concrete frame elements. Unitless strength reduction factor per ACI 9.3. Unitless strength reduction factor per ACI 9.3. Unitless strength reduction factor per ACI 9.3. Unitless strength reduction factor per ACI 9.3. Number of equally spaced interaction curves used to create a full 360-degree interaction surface (this item should be a multiple of four). We recommend that you use 24 for this item.

Phi Bending Tension Phi Compression Tied Phi Compression Spiral Phi Shear Number Interaction Curves

0.9 0.7 0.75 0.85 24

Technical Note 16 - 2

Preferences

Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99

Preferences

**Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences
**

Item Possible Values Default Value 11 Description Number of points used for defining a single curve in a concrete frame interaction surface (this item should be odd). Toggle for design load combinations that include a time history designed for the envelope of the time history, or designed step-by-step for the entire time history. If a single design load combination has more than one time history case in it, that design load combination is designed for the envelopes of the time histories, regardless of what is specified here.

Number Inter- Any odd value action Points ≥4.0 Time History Design Envelopes or Step-by-Step

Envelopes

Preferences

Technical Note 16 - 3

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Overwrites For explanation purposes in this Technical Note. the program applies the changes only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned. To access the overwrites. at least review the default values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. To save space in the formes. Item: The name of the overwrite item as it appears in the program. Default Value: The default value that the program assumes for the associated overwrite item. However. Overwrites Technical Note 17 . This Technical Note describes concrete frame design overwrites for ACI318-99.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Description: A description of the associated overwrite item. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99 Technical Note 17 Overwrites General The concrete frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to those elements to which they are assigned. Default values are provided for all overwrite items. An explanation of how to change an overwrite is provided at the end of this Technical Note. Thus. you do not need to specify or change any of the overwrites. INC..1 . select an element and click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. The column headings in the table are described as follows. that is. Possible Values: The possible values that the associated overwrite item can have. When changes are made to overwrite items. these names are generally short. to the elements that are selected when the overwrites are changed. BERKELEY. the overwrites are presented in Table 1.

See ACI 10. 10.Overwrites Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites Item Element Section Sway Special. Sway Intermediate. See ACI 10. Factor relating actual moment diagram to an equivalent uniform moment diagram.0 1 1 1 1 1 See ACI 10.13 and Figure R10. Used to reduce the live load contribution to the factored loading.0 >0 ≤1.0 >0 ≤1.1.12.13 and Figure R10.12.12. See ACI 10.0 >0 ≤1.0 >0 ≤1.0 >0 ≤1.2 Overwrites .0 >0 ≤1.0 1 1. Factor relating actual moment diagram to an equivalent uniform moment diagram. 1. Sway Ordinary NonSway >0 ≤1.3.12.0 1.1.1. 10. See ACI 10.12.0 >0 ≤1.12. Sway Special Frame type per moment frame definition given in ACI 21.0 >0 ≤1.3.12. Possible Values Default Value Description Element Type Live Load Reduction Factor Horizontal Earthquake Factor Unbraced Length Ratio (Major) Unbraced Length Ratio (Minor) Effective Length Factor (K Major) Effective Length Factor (K Minor) Moment Coefficient (Cm Major) Moment Coefficient (Cm Minor) NonSway Moment Factor (Dns Major) Technical Note 17 .

The left column of the spreadsheet contains the name of the overwrite item.Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Overwrites Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites Item NonSway Moment Factor (Dns Minor) Sway Moment Factor (Ds Major) Sway Moment Factor (Ds Minor) Possible Values Default Value 1 Description See ACI 10. The overwrites are displayed in the form with a column of check boxes and a two-column spreadsheet. select a value from Overwrites Technical Note 17 . Making Changes in the Overwrites Form To access the concrete frame overwrites. The names of the overwrite items are displayed in the first column of the spreadsheet. The right column of the spreadsheet contains the overwrites values.13.13. 1 See ACI 10.13. select an element and click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. If multiple elements were selected. the check boxes in the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form are all unchecked and all of the cells in the spreadsheet have a gray background to indicate that they are inactive and the items in the cells cannot be changed. Then left click in either column of the spreadsheet to activate a drop-down box or highlight the contents in the cell in the right column of the spreadsheet. no values show for the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet. After selecting one or multiple elements. 1 See ACI 10. If the drop-down box appears. Initially. The values of the overwrite items are visible in the second column of the spreadsheet if only one element was selected before the overwrites form was accessed.3 . check the box to the left of an overwrite item to change it.

edb file used to initialize the model. All current design results will be deleted when this command is executed. any changes made to the overwrites are ignored and the form is closed. If the cell contents is highlighted.edb file that you used to initialize your model may be different from the built-in program default values. Important note about resetting overwrites: The program defaults for the overwrite items are built into the program. When you reset overwrites. click the OK button to close the form. You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. Technical Note 17 . not to the values that were in the . Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default Values Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Reset All Overwrites command to reset all of the steel frame overwrites. When changes to the overwrites have been completed. type in the desired value.Overwrites Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 the box. The concrete frame overwrite values that were in a . If you click the Cancel button to exit the form. the program resets the overwrite values to its built-in values. You cannot change the values of the dropdown boxes.4 Overwrites . The program then changes all of the overwrite items whose associated check boxes are checked for the selected members. The overwrite will reflect the change.

3) These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever the ACI 318-99 code is used.2.1 EL 0.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only.2.3 WL 0. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load condition on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.2).4 DL + 1. See Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-99 Technical Note 17 Overwrites for more information. the following load combinations should be considered (ACI 9.2) (ACI 9.7 * 1.2.1 . the stress check may need only one load combination.75 (1.4 DL + 1.2.3 * 1.1 EL) (ACI 9.7 LL ± 1.3). namely 1. 1. For the ACI 318-99 code.2.. BERKELEY. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99 Technical Note 18 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed load cases for which the structure needs to be checked.7 LL ± 1.4 DL + 1.1) (ACI 9.7 LL (ACI 9. However.7 WL) 0.75 (1.7 LL 0.9 DL ± 1. INC.9 DL ± 1. if the structure is subjected to wind (WL) and earthquake (EL) loads and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible. Design Load Combinations Technical Note 18 .1). Different load factors may apply with strength-level seismic forces (ACI R9.4 DL + 1. The user is warned that the above load combinations involving seismic loads consider service-level seismic forces. in addition to the dead and live loads.4 DL 1.

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©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.2.2) (ACI 9. ϕ.2) = 0. The ϕ factors for flexure.2.2.75 for axial compression.85 for shear and torsion (ACI 9.3.90 for axial tension = 0.. shear. are applied on the nominal strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member.3.2.3.2.3) ϕ ϕ Strength Reduction Factors Technical Note 19 . BERKELEY. and axial compression and flexure (tied column) (ACI 9.2. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99 Technical Note 19 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.70 for axial compression. INC.3.90 for axial tension and flexure (ACI 9.90 for flexure = 0. axial force.1 . and axial compression and flexure (spirally reinforced column) (ACI 9. and torsion are as follows: ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ = 0.2) = 0.2) = 0.3.1) (ACI 9.3.

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9. Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each station of the column. Overview The program can be used to check column capacity or to design columns. The following four sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process.3. Alternatively. The target capacity ratio is taken as one when calculating the required reinforcing area. If you define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section.1) and 1 to 6 percent for Special moment resisting frames (ACI 21. Overview Technical Note 20 . the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement 1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ACI 10.1 .4. Design the column shear reinforcement. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99 Technical Note 20 Column Design This Technical Note describes how the program checks column capacity or designs reinforced concrete columns when the ACI-318-99 code is selected. A typical biaxial interaction surface is shown in Figure 1.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. BERKELEY. When the steel is undefined. INC.1). the program will check the column capacity.. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model. the program can calculate the amount of reinforcing required to design the column.

2 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces . See Figure 2. A typical interaction diagram is shown in Figure 1. The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in three dimensions on the section of the column. The Technical Note 20 . the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations.Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Figure 1 A Typical Column Interaction Surface Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure surface. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending.

2). to 0.3).3).2.3.2) (ACI 9.7. ϕ is always ϕ(flexure).2) (ACI 9.003 (ACI 10.5. The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any further simplifications with respect to distributing the area of steel over the cross section of the column. The effects of the strength reduction factor. See Figure 3.3 . are included in the generation of the interaction surfaces.85 f c' (Ag-Ast)+fyAst] tied column. and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular. with a stress value of 0.2.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain. fy (ACI 10.5. εsEs. The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular. which is 0.85ϕ[0.1).2. ϕ.80ϕ[0. square. The ϕ factor used in calculating ϕPn and ϕPb is the ϕ(compression).2. at the extremity of the section. (ACI 10.85 f c' (ACI 10. such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder. and 0. ϕ ϕ = = 0. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to ϕPn(max). ϕ is increased linearly from ϕ(compression) to ϕ(flexure) as the ϕPn decreases from the smaller of ϕPb or 0. where ϕPn(max) = 0.2) The value of ϕ used in the interaction diagram varies from ϕ(compression) to ϕ(flexure) based on the axial load.70 for tied columns. See Figure 3. εc. ϕPn(max) = 0.4).3. The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity. For low values of axial load. and is limited to the yield stress of the steel. In cases involving axial tension.85 f c' (Ag-Ast)+fyAst] spiral column. Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces Technical Note 20 . The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate strength design (ACI 10.2.1 f c' Ag to zero. or circular column section.3. The interaction algorithm provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone.3.1) (ACI 10.9 by default (ACI 9.2.3. where ϕPb is the axial force at the balanced condition.75 for spirally reinforced columns.

Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Figure 2 Idealized Strain Distribution for Generation of Interaction Source Technical Note 20 .4 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces .

” The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process. Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored moments. Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments. lies within the interaction volume. The factored moments and corresponding magnification factors depend on the identification of the individual column as either “sway” or “non-sway. The following steps are involved in calculating the capacity ratio of a particular column for a particular load combination at a particular location: Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and the specified load combination factors to give Pu. Determine whether the point. Mux. defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial moment set.5 .Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design Figure 3 Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section Calculate Column Capacity Ratio The column capacity ratio is calculated for each load combination at each output station of each column. Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 20 . and Muy.

therefore.6 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio . are predominantly caused by gravity load. the moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are in general different (ACI 10. Determine Moment Magnification Factors The moment magnification factors are calculated separately for sway (overall stability effect). (ACI 10.1).11).10. R10.1).03h) inches.10.10.4 dead load + 1. is taken as 1 because the component moments Ms and Mns are obtained from a “second order elastic (P-delta) analysis” (ACI R10. R10.13. and are related to the cause of side sway. δs and for non-sway (individual column stability effect).0.11.1.3. giving Pu. The factored moments are further increased for non-sway columns.12.3) The factor δs is the moment magnification factor for moments causing side sway. R10. The sway components are identified by the “s” subscripts. 10.3. the load should correspond to a load combination of 1. This βd for sway frame in second-order analysis is different from the one that is defined later for non-sway moment magnification (ACI 10. The moment magnification factors for sway moments.6). The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the sway (Ms) and the non-sway (Mns) components. Also.4.2). to obtain minimum eccentricities of (0. Mux.4.13. where h is the dimension of the column in the corresponding direction (ACI 10.13. moment magnification factor δs for moments causing side-sway is taken as unity (ACI 10. the magnified moments about two axes at any station of a column can be obtained as M = Mns + δsMs. δns.0. The non-sway components. and Muy. 10. For individual columns or column-members in a floor. The program assumes that it performs a P-delta analysis and. The moment of inertia reduction for sustained lateral load involves a factor βd (ACI 10.12.13.2). See also White and Hajjar (1991). which are identified by “ns” subscripts.Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Determine Factored Moments and Forces The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the corresponding load factors to all the load cases.6+0. The default moment of inertia factor in this program is 1.13. R10.7 live load (ACI 10. The user should use reduction factors for the moment of inertias in the program as specified in ACI 10. Technical Note 20 . For the P-delta analysis. δs.13). if required. The sway moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads.

10.3.12. If transverse load is present on the span. Cm=1. Mb (ACI 10.3) k is conservatively taken as 1.5) by the nonsway moment magnification factor. Pc = π 2 EI (kl u )2 .4 (ACI 10.4.12.3.13. The two unsupported lengths are l22 and l33. See Figure 4. respectively.1) Ma and Mb are the moments at the ends of the column.12. δns.12.12. δns.7 . as follows: Mc = δnsM. The non-sway moment magnification factor. The above expression of Cm is valid if there is no transverse load applied between the supports. where (ACI 10. lu is the unsupported length of the column for the direction of bending considered.3) δns = Cm ≤ 1. associated with the major or minor direction of the column is given by (ACI 10. where Pu 1− 0.0. and Mb is numerically larger than Ma.6 +0.3) Cm = 0. Ma / Mb is positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending. or the length is overwritten. however.75Pc Ma ≥ 0.3) Mc is the factored moment to be used in design.1). corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of the element. These are the lengths Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 20 .12.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design The computed moments are further amplified for individual column stability effect (ACI 10. The user can overwrite Cm on an element-byelement basis. where (ACI 10. the program allows the user to override this value (ACI 10.12.

Therefore. a failure condition is declared. Pu must be less than 0.3) The magnification factor. where (ACI 10.Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Figure 4 Axes of Bending and Unsupported Length between the support points of the element in the corresponding directions.4E c I g 1 + βd . Technical Note 20 .R10. δns.3) βd = maximum factored axial sustained (dead) load maximum factored axial total load (ACI 10.8 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio . must be a positive number and greater than one.12.75Pc. If Pu is found to be greater than or equal to 0.75Pc.0. EI is associated with a particular column direction: EI = 0.12.

The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling Pu. If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member. If OL > OC (or CR>1). Mux. Mux. This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design The above calculations are performed for major and minor directions separately. EI. if the point lies outside the interaction volume. and Pc assume different values for major and minor directions of bending. Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 20 . Determine Capacity Ratio As a measure of the stress condition of the column. The point (Pu. OC If OL = OC (or CR=1). This point is determined by three-dimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failOL ure surface. k. the column is overstressed. the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed.9 . and Muy. however. If OL < OC (or CR<1). the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate. and Muy set and associated load combination number. The capacity ratio. Cm. the column capacity is adequate. Mux. If the point lies within the interaction volume. a capacity ratio is calculated. the user can explicitly specify values of δs and δns. Muy) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in Figure 5. lu. That means that δs. Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity. the moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain Pu. CR. δns. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is stressed to capacity. is given by the ratio . The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. See Figure 5.

The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular load combination resulting from shear forces in a particular direction: Technical Note 20 ." Design Column Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination in the major and minor directions of the column.Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Figure 5 Geometric Representation of Column Capacity Ratio Required Reinforcing Area If the reinforcing area is not defined. the program computes the reinforcement that will give a column capacity ratio of one. calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Calculate Column Capacity Ratio.10 Required Reinforcing Area .

11 . in a particular direction is calculated from the probable moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial force acting on the column.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design Determine the factored forces acting on the section. Determine the shear force. the factored axial load. and the column shear force. is calculated. Vp is the capacity shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 20 . Note that Pu is needed for the calculation of Vc. Vp. the shear design of the columns is also based on the Probable moment and nominal moment capacities of the members. namely. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process. For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (Ductile frames). Vc. the forces for a particular load combination.5. The design shear force.e. respectively.4. The capacity shear force in a column. seismic design). that can be resisted by concrete alone. Vu.1) where. in addition to the factored moments. the column is checked for capacity shear in addition to the requirement for the Ordinary moment resisting frames. Mu and Mu . is then given by (ACI 21. Pu and Vu.. Vu.1) Vu = Vp + VD+L (ACI 21. Pu. Then. Effects of the axial forces on the column moment capacities are included in the formulation. Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. In the shear design of Special moment resisting frames (i. Determine Section Forces In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame. Pu.4. For each load combination.5. in a particular direction are obtained by factoring the program analysis load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. + − the positive and negative moment capacities. the column axial force. of the column in a particular direction under the influence of the axial force Pu is calculated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction.

Vp is the maximum of VP1 and VP2 .a.25 (ACI 10. Determine Concrete Shear Capacity Given the design force set Pu and Vu.10. = Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the column using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1. R21. MJ .12 Design Column Shear Reinforcement .b). + − MJ .0). Vc. it is zero. For most of the columns. in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. the shear force carried by the concrete. Therefore. The design shear force is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal (ϕ = 1. For Special moment resisting frames α is taken as 1.4. and L = Clear span of column. VD+L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads. = Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the column using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0. where L + − MI . is calculated as follows: Technical Note 20 . For Intermediate moment resisting frames. the shear capacity of the column is also checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads.25 (ACI 21.0).0) moment capacity and modified factored shear force. and L + − MI + M J . The procedure for calculating nominal moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for special moment resisting frames. The modified factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors. MI .5.10. where VP1 = VP2 = − + MI + M J .1).3.3. except the earthquake load factors are doubled (ACI 21.Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 in two opposite directions. R21. except that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.10).

is small (Pu < f c' Ag / 20) and if the shear force contribution from earthquake.1. including the earthquake effect.5 f c' 1 + Pu 500 Ag Acv.5.2) (ACI 11.6. Vc is set to zero if the factored axial compressive force.3) Vu is limited by the following relationship. for rectangular columns and f ys d (Vu / ϕ − Vc )s . 11. If the column is subjected to axial tension.13 . i.3.2) (ACI 11.3.3) For Special moment resisting concrete frame design.3.1. For circular columns. Acv is taken to be equal to the gross area of the section (ACI 11. s. which is shown shaded in Figure 6.6. where (ACI 11.3.5. Pu..1.2.5.2) The term Pu / Ag must have psi units. the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or ties within a spacing. VE.3. Pu Vc = 2 f c' 1 + 2.5.2. 11.3). is more than half of the total factored maximum shear force over the length of the member Vu (VE ≥ 0. is given for rectangular and circular columns by Av = (Vu / ϕ − Vc )s .5.3. Acv.2) Av = (ACI 11. Acv is the effective shear area.6. f ys (0. R11.e.9) Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 20 .8D) (ACI 11.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design If the column is subjected to axial compression. (Vu / ϕ-Vc) ≤ 8 f c' Acv (ACI 11.5Vu) (ACI 21. and Vc ≤ 3.4.3.2). for circular columns.000 Ag f c' ≤ 100 psi. Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given Vu and Vc.3.6. Pu is negative Vc = 2 f c' 1 + Pu 500 Ag Acv ≥ 0 (ACI 11. Pu is positive.

the strength reduction factor. redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here ϕ.14 Design Column Shear Reinforcement .85 (ACI 9.3). along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination label. The maximum of all the calculated Av values obtained from each load combination are reported for the major and minor directions of the column. Technical Note 20 . The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on shear strength consideration. Acv Otherwise.3. is 0. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing considerations or transverse reinforcement volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.2.Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Figure 6 Shear Stress Area.

D. Reference Technical Note 20 .W. Vol. Engineering Journal. and J. Inc. Application of Second-Order Elastic Analysis in LRFD: Research to Practice.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Column Design Reference White. American Institute of Steel Construction. 28. Hajjar. 4. 1991.15 .F. No.

.

the program calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user-defined number of check/design stations along the beam span. shears. All beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. INC.1 . BERKELEY. Effects resulting from any axial forces. load combination factors. The program calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments. minor direction bending. load combination factors and other criteria described herein. The following steps are involved in designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment for a particular beam for a particular section: Determine the maximum factored moments Determine the reinforcing steel Overview Technical Note 21 . The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design beam flexural reinforcement Design beam shear reinforcement Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at check/design stations along the beam span. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI-318-99 Technical Note 21 Beam Design This Technical Note describes how this program completes beam design when the ACI 318-99 code is selected.. shears. and other criteria described below. Overview In the design of concrete beams.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.

the width. all the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.2 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . or the grade of concrete. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. Negative beam moments produce top steel. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown in Figure 1 (ACI 10. Intermediate. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.2). When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this designed balanced condition.3). hence.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (ACI 10. In such cases. In such cases. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement.3.1 f c' Ag (ACI 10. Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. the beam may be designed as a Rectangular.and T-beams) is summarized below. Technical Note 21 . or Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame beams. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel.3). The design procedure used by this program for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. + The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive M u and maxi− mum negative M u factored moments obtained from all of the load combina- tions. It is assumed that the compression carried by concrete is less than 0. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed 0. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of Special.3.or a T-beam.

2.7.000 cb = εc Es 87. (ACI 10.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.2. β1 = 0. Also β1 and cb are calculated as follows: f ' − 4..85f c ϕb .05 c 1.000 + f y ε c E s + fy (ACI 10.1) where. 0.7.85. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 1).3) (ACI 10. designing top or bottom steel).4) Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 21 .3. 87.e. 10.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design Figure 1 Design of Rectangular Beam Section Design for Rectangular Beam In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.85-0.2. a=dd2 − 2 Mu 1 0.1) in the above and the following equations. Mu (i.3 .2.000 d = d. the value of ϕ is 0.90 (ACI 9.3.2. where.000 .

− So the required compression steel is given by ' As = M us f s' (d − d' )ϕ .3) If a ≤ amax.2. and (ACI 10.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by amax = 0.4 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement .75β1cb.Muc. If a > amax.2. or at the top if Mu is negative.003Es .3) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by C = 0.7. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10. 10.2.3. c − (ACI 10. the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by As = Mu a ϕf y d − 2 . (ACI 10. where c − d' f s' = 0.7.3.1. Therefore the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is Mus = Mu .1) the moment resisted by concrete compression and tensile steel is a Muc = C d − max 2 − ϕ.4) The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is Technical Note 21 .85 f c' bamax. This steel is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive.

e. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular section design..1. Cf. designing top steel). • Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 21 . the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. f y (d − d' )ϕ − Therefore. 10.2.3. no T-Beam data is to be used. Design for T-Beam In designing for a factored negative moment.5 . Cf is given by Cf = 0. i.e. The maximum allowed depth of compression block is given by amax = 0. and the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is given by As2 = M us .85 f c' (bf . If Mu > 0.7. If a > ds. (ACI 10. calculation for As is performed in two parts. the depth of the compression block is given by a=dd2 − 2Mu 0. However. As = As1 + As2.. As is to be placed at bottom and As is to be placed at top if Mu is positive.85f c' ϕbf .75β1cb. and vice versa if Mu is negative. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. Cw. Mu (i. and total ' ' compression reinforcement is As .bw)ds. See Figure 2. as shown in Figure 2.3) • If a ≤ ds. Compression reinforcement is required if a > amax.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design As1 = M uc a f y d − max ϕ 2 . in this case the width of the compression flange is taken as the width of the beam for analysis. the total tensile reinforcement.

the balance of the moment.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Figure 2 Design of a T-Beam Section Therefore. Therefore.85f ci ϕbw . 2 Again.90 by default. As1 = given by d Muf = Cf d − s ϕ.Muf. the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by As2 = Muw a ϕf y d − 1 2 . and Technical Note 21 . which is 0. the value for ϕ is ϕ(flexure). for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as a1 = d d2 − 2Muw 0. The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d. Mu to be carried by the web is given by Muw = Mu .6 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . Cf fy and the portion of Mu that is resisted by the flange is If a1 ≤ amax.

where c − d' f s' = 0. the compression steel is computed as ' As = Mus f s' (d − d' )ϕ . f y (d − d' )ϕ Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 21 .3) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force in web concrete alone is given by C = 0. This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the T-beam.85 f c' bamax. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.003Es . the moment resisted by concrete web and tensile steel is a Muc = C d − max ϕ . If a1 > amax. and 2 the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is Mus = Muw . (ACI 10.7.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design As = As1 + As2.2. and amax )ϕ f y (d − 2 the tensile steel for balancing compression in steel is As3 = Mus . − Therefore. c − (ACI 10.1) − Therefore.Muc.2.3.4) The tensile steel for balancing compression in web concrete is As2 = Muc .7 .

5.e. Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the Technical Note 21 . (ACI 21.1) At any end (support) of the beam.e. As is to be placed at bottom and ' As is to be placed at top. (ACI 10.. As = As1 + As2 + As3.2). the beam design satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table 1): The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both the top and bottom.3. and total ' compression reinforcement is As .025 bwd. associated with the top steel) at that end (ACI 21.2.5. associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than 1/2 of the beam negative moment capacity (i.2.3) Special Consideration for Seismic Design For Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design).8 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement .1). Minimum Tensile Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an Ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two following limits: 3 f ' 200 c As ≥ max bw d and bw d or fy fy As ≥ (4/3)As(required).3) The beam flexural steel is limited to a maximum given by As ≤ 0. 3 (ACI 10.1) (ACI 10. the beam positive moment capacity (i.3.5..1) (ACI 10.2.5. Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less than As(min) (ACI 21. 3 f ' 200 c As(min) ≥ max bw d and bw d or fy fy As(min) ≥ 4 As(required).Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 − The total tensile reinforcement.3.

1).1). in addition to the factored load design. Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (ACI 21.. Determine the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.10. Vc.2). For Intermediate moment resisting concrete frames (i. that can be resisted by the concrete.e. Vu.9 . respectively. Determine the shear force. Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at a user defined number of stations along the beam span. The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular load combination at a particular station due to the beam major shear: • • • Determine the factored shear force. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process.3.Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (ACI 21. the beam positive moment capacity would not be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end (ACI 21.4. Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 21 . For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ductile frames).2. the shear design of the beams is also based upon the probable and nominal moment capacities of the members.4.10. the beam design would satisfy the following conditions: At any support of the beam. seismic design).

0 plus VD+L No Requirement NLDa Combinations Beam Capacity Shear (Vp) with α = 1. M } M 4 − u 1 − M u END 2 1 + − ≥ max Mu . M u 5 + M uEND ≥ + − u .25 and ϕ = 1.0 and α = 1. Moment Override Check + M uEND ≥ No Requirement + MuSPAN − M uSPAN { 1 ≥ max{ M 5 1 − M u END 3 1 + − ≥ max M u .Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Table 1 Design Criteria Table Type of Check/ Design Column Check (interaction) Column Design (interaction) Ordinary Moment Resisting Frames (non-Seismic) NLDa Combinations Intermediate Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic) NLDa Combinations Special Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic) NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 8% NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 8% Modified NLDa Combinations (earthquake loads doubled) Column capacity ϕ = 1.025 ρ≥ 3 f c' fy Column Shears NLDa Combinations Beam Design Flexure NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations .25 NLDa Combinations ρ ≤ 0.0 1% < ρ < 6% NLDa Combinations Column shear capacity ϕ = 1.0 NLDa Combinations α = 1.10 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement . Mu 4 END − u END Beam Design Shear NLDa Combinations Modified NLDa Combinations (earthquake loads doubled) Beam Capacity Shear (Vp) with α = 1.0 and ϕ = 1. ρ ≥ 200 fy Beam Min. M u END } } END + MuSPAN − MuSPAN { } 1 ≥ max{ .0 plus VD+L Vc = 0 Checked for shear Joint Design Beam/Column Capacity Ratio No Requirement No Requirement No Requirement Reported in output file NLDa = Number of specified loading Technical Note 21 .0 and α = 1.

Vp is the maximum of VP1 and VP2 . This check is performed in addition to the design check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. See also Table 1 for details. The design shear force Vu is then given by (ACI 21. Therefore. the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the capacity shear resulting from the probable moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity load. where VP1 VP2 − MI = − + MI + MJ . + MJ = Moment capacity at end J.11 .0). In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames (i.3. the shear forces and moments for a particular load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding load combination factors. The capacity shear force. using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1. using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.e.1) • where Vp is the capacity shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting in two opposite directions. The procedure for calculating the design shear force in a beam from probable moment capacity is the same as that described for a column in section “Design Column Shear Reinforcement” of Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Technical Note 20 Column Design. where L = = Moment capacity at end I. is calculated from the probable moment capacities of each end of the beam and the gravity shear forces.1) Vu = Vp + VD+L (ACI 21. with bottom steel in tension. with top steel in tension.. and L + − MI + MJ . Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 21 .4. Vp. seismic design).Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99 Beam Design Determine Shear Force and Moment • In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame.0).4.3.

Beam Design

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

+ MI

= Moment capacity at end I, with bottom steel in tension, using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),

− MJ

**= Moment capacity at end J, with top steel in tension, using a
**

steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0), and = Clear span of beam.

L

For Special moment resisting frames α is taken as 1.25 (ACI 21.0, R21.3.4.1). VD+L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads.

•

For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads, in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design shear force in beams is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal moment capacity and modified factored shear force. The procedure for calculating nominal (ϕ = 1.0) moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for Special moment resisting frames, except that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25 (ACI 21.10.3.a, R21.10). The modified factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors, except the earthquake load factors are doubled (ACI 21.10.3.b). The computation of the design shear force in a beam of an Intermediate moment resisting frame is the same as described for columns in section “Determine Section Forces” of Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Technical Note 20 Column Design. See also Table 1 for details.

**Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
**

The allowable concrete shear capacity is given by Vc = 2 f c' bwd. (ACI 11.3.1.1)

For Special moment resisting frame concrete design, Vc is set to zero if both the factored axial compressive force, including the earthquake effect Pu, is less than f c' Ag/20 and the shear force contribution from earthquake VE is more than half of the total maximum shear force over the length of the member Vu (i.e., VE ≥ 0.5Vu) (ACI 21.3.4.2).

Technical Note 21 - 12

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement

Concrete Frame Design ACI-318-99

Beam Design

**Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

Given Vu and Vc, the required shear reinforcement in area/unit length is calculated as Av = (Vu / ϕ − Vc )s . f ys d (ACI 11.5.6.1, 11.5.6.2)

The shear force resisted by steel is limited by (Vu / ϕ - Vc) ≤ 8 f c' bd. (ACI 11.5.6.9)

Otherwise, redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here, ϕ, the strength reduction factor for shear, is 0.85 by default (ACI 9.3.2.3). The maximum of all the calculated Av values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number. The beam shear reinforcement requirements displayed by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement

Technical Note 21 - 13

INC. Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Figure 1 illustrates the free body stress condition of a typical beam-column intersection for a column direction. The material properties of the joint are assumed to be the same as those of the column below the joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99 Technical Note 22 Joint Design This Technical Note explains how the program performs a rational analysis of the beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are generated in a joint. The joint design procedure involves the following steps: Determine the panel zone design shear force. Overview To ensure that the beam-column joint of special moment resisting frames possesses adequate shear strength. The joint analysis is completed in the major and the minor directions of the column.1 . Overview Technical Note 22 . the program performs a rational analysis of the beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are generated in the joint. major or minor..©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. BERKELEY. Vuh Determine the effective area of the joint Check panel zone shear stress The algorithms associated with these three steps are described in detail in the following three sections. The program then checks this against design shear strength. Only joints having a column below the joint are designed.

2 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force .Joint Design Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Figure 1 Beam-Column Joint Analysis Technical Note 22 .

from the column framing into the top of the joint.1). Vuh = TL + TR .3 . that can be carried by the beam.85f ' c bd Mmax = C max d 2 Then the program conservatively determines C and T forces as follows: abs( M ) C = T = C max 1 − 1 − M max The program resolves the moments and the C and T forces from beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor directions of the column along the direction that is being investigated. considering the fact that the concrete cover may be different for the direction of moment.Vu The location of C or T forces is determined by the direction of the moment.5. and no ϕ factors) of the beams framing into the joint (ACI 21. The program calculates the joint shear force Vuh by resolving the moments into C and T forces. The program calculates the column shear force Vu from the beam moment capacities. as follows: Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Technical Note 22 . The program first calculates the maximum compression. C max = 0. MuL and MuR. In the design of special moment resisting concrete frames. The forces Pu and Vu are axial force and shear force. the evaluation of the design shear force is based on the moment capacities (with reinforcing steel overstrength factor. thereby contributing force components to the analysis. α. the program calculates the C and T for the positive and negative moments. ignoring compression reinforcement as follows. respectively. Noting that TL = CL and TR = CR.1. Cmax. Mmax. The magnitude of C or T forces is conservatively determined using basic principles of ultimate strength theory. The moments MuL and MuR are obtained from the beams framing into the joint. and the maximum moment.1.1.Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Joint Design The force Vuh is the horizontal panel zone shear force that is to be calculated. Also. Vu. UBC 1921. The forces that act on the joint are Pu.5. The C and T force are based on these moment capacities.

The joint area for joint shear along the major and minor directions is calculated separately (ACI R21. It should be noted that if the beam frames into the joint eccentrically.4 Determine the Effective Area of Joint .Joint Design Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Vu = Mu + Mu H L R See Figure 2. UBC 1921.3): v = { 20ϕ 15ϕ 12ϕ f 'c f 'c f 'c for joints confirmed on all four sides for joints confirmed on three faces or on two opposite faces for all other joints Technical Note 22 .5. The area of the joint is assumed not to exceed the area of the column below. except if the beam framing into the joint is very narrow. as illustrated in Case 1 and Case 2 of Figure 1. Determine the Effective Area of Joint The joint area that resists the shear forces is assumed always to be rectangular in plan view.3. the above assumptions may be unconservative and the user should investigate the acceptability of the particular joint. It should be noted that the points of inflection shown on Figure 2 are taken as midway between actual lateral support points for the columns. The effects of load reversals. The dimensions of the rectangle correspond to the major and minor dimensions of the column below the joint. Check Panel Zone Shear Stress The panel zone shear stress is evaluated by dividing the shear force Vuh by the effective area of the joint and comparing it with the following design shear strengths (ACI 21. The effective width of the joint area to be used in the calculation is limited to the width of the beam plus the depth of the column. are investigated and the design is based on the maximum of the joint shears obtained from the two cases.5. the shear force from the top of the column is taken as zero.5.3). If there is no column at the top of the joint.

85 (by default).1).3.1909.3.3.1.4. (ACI 9.3.3.2.3. UBC 1909.5.3.5 . UBC 1921.1) A beam that frames into a face of a column at the joint is considered in this program to provide confinement to the joint if at least three-quarters of the face of the joint is covered by the framing member (ACI 21.2.Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Joint Design Figure 2 Column Shear Force Vu where ϕ = 0. Determine the Effective Area of Joint Technical Note 22 .5.

∑Me ≥ 6 ∑Mg 5 (ACI 21.5.4. and including ϕ factors. Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios At a particular joint for a particular column direction.3 / 4 f c' For joint design. the moment capacity of each column under the influence of the corresponding axial load Pu is then determined separately for the major and minor directions of the column. in each of the columns is calculated from the program analysis load combinations. the joint shear stress.2) The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength factor. major or minor. The maximum capacity summations obtained from all of the load combinations is used for the beam/column capacity ratio.4. α . the axial force. the program will calculate the ratio of the sum of the beam moment capacities to the sum of the column moment capacities (ACI 21. For each load combination.3.2). the design shear strength of the joint is reduced in the program to at least three-quarters of that of the normal weight concrete by replacing the f c' with (ACI 21. UBC 1921. The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column below the joint. The moment capacities of the two columns are added to give the capacity summation for the corresponding load combination.6 Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios .2) minf cs. using the uniaxial column interaction diagram. The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are added to the summation. Technical Note 22 .5.2. the program reports the joint shear. see Figure 3.2. For each load combination.3.2. factor f c' . The beam capacities are calculated for reversed situations (Cases 1 and 2) as illustrated in Figure 1 and the maximum summation obtained is used.Joint Design Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 For light-weight aggregate concrete. Pu. the allowable joint shear stress and a capacity ratio.

Figure 3 Moment Capacity Mu at a Given Axial Load Pu Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Technical Note 22 .7 . a warning message is printed in the output file.Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Joint Design The beam/column flexural capacity ratios are only reported for Special Moment-Resisting Frames involving seismic design load combinations. If this ratio is greater than 5/6.

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Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING Combo Type Case Factor DESCRIPTION Design load combination. Load combination scale factor. The column headings for input data and a description of what is included in the columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note. The input can be printed to a printer or to a text file when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99 Technical Note 23 Input Data This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design input data for ACI318-99. other. Compressive strength reduction factor for tied columns. earthquake. Input Data The program provides the printout of the input data in a series of tables. superimposed dead. See Technical Note 8. Bending strength reduction factor. wind. Tensile strength reduction factor. Compressive strength reduction factor for reinforced columns. Load Combination Multipliers Code Preferences Phi_bending Phi_tension Phi_compression (Tied) Phi_compression (Spiral) Phi_shear Input Data Technical Note 23 .©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. A printout of the input data provides the user with the opportunity to carefully review the parameters that have been input into the program and upon which program design is based.1 . Name of load case. snow. Load type: dead. reduced live load. BERKELEY. live. Shear strength reduction factor. INC.. Further information about using the Print Design Tables form is presented at the end of this Technical Note.

Shear reinforcing steel yield strength. other. Isotropic or orthotropic.0. steel. steel. Material Property Mass and Weight Material Name Mass Per Unit Vol Weight Per Unit Vol Material Name Lightweight Concrete Concrete FC Rebar FY Rebar FYS Lightwt Reduc Fact Concrete compressive strength. Technical Note 23 . Minimum clear concrete cover. Material Design Data for Concrete Materials Concrete Column Property Data Section Label Mat Label Column Depth Column Width Rebar Pattern Concrete Cover Bar Area Layout of main flexural reinforcing steel. Label applied to section.2 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data . Used to calculate self-weight of structure. other. Concrete.Input Data Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Concrete. Material label. other. Concrete. Area of individual reinforcing bar to be used. Material Property Data Material Name Material Type Design Type Modulus of Elasticity Poisson's Ratio Thermal Coeff Shear Modulus Coefficient of thermal expansion. default = 1. steel. Bending reinforcing steel yield strength. Used to calculate self-mass of structure. Shear strength reduction factor for light weight concrete.

click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables form. Unbraced length about minor axis. default = 1.0. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers.Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Input Data Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING Story ID Column Line Section ID Framing Type RLLF Factor L_Ratio Major L_Ratio Minor K Major K Minor Story ID Bay ID Section ID Framing type RLLF Factor L_Ratio Major L_Ratio Minor Unbraced length about major axis. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print. Unbraced length about minor axis. Effective length factor.0. Click the Filename>> button to change Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 23 .3 . Grid line. Effective length factor. Section number assigned to beam. Concrete Column Design Element Information Concrete Beam Design Element Information Using the Print Design Tables Form To print concrete frame design input data directly to a printer. Unbraced length about major axis. use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the check box on the Print Design Tables form. Story level at which beam occurs. Lateral or gravity. Grid lines locating beam. default = 1. if necessary. DESCRIPTION Column assigned to story level at top of column. Lateral or gravity. Name of section assigned to column. Click the OK button to send the print to your printer. To print concrete frame design input data to a file.

Input Data Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 the path or filename. If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. Or use the Filename>> button to locate another file. . The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.doc). The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables form. the Selection Only check box will be checked.4 Using the Print Design Tables Form . Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file.xls. and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears. Data will be added to this file. Technical Note 23 .. Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request. The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. . click Yes to replace the existing file.g. . Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e.txt.

CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI318-99 Technical Note 24 Output Details This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design output for ACI318-99 that can be printed to a printer or to a text file. Grid lines.1 . Biaxial P-M Interaction and Shear Design of Column-Type Elements Required Reinforcing Longitudinal Combo Shear22 Combo Shear33 Area of longitudinal reinforcing required. Name of section assigned to column. The column headings for output data and a description of what is included in the columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.. The program provides the output data in a series of tables. Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output COLUMN HEADING Story ID Column Line Section ID Station ID DESCRIPTION Column assigned to story level at top of column. Shear reinforcing required. INC.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output Technical Note 24 . Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed. The design output is printed when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and select Output Summary on the Print Design Tables form. Shear reinforcing required. BERKELEY. Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed. Further information about using the Print Design Tables form is presented at the end of this Technical Note.

Output Details Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output COLUMN HEADING Combo DESCRIPTION Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed. Minor Combo Technical Note 24 . Beam-Column Capacity Ratios Major Combo Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity. Grid line. Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity is based. Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Beam to Column Capacity Ratios and Joint Shear Capacity Check Story ID Column Line Section ID Story level at which joint occurs. Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity is based. Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity is based. Assigned section name. Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity is based.2 Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output . Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity. Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity. Minor Combo Joint Shear Capacity Ratios Major Combo Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity.

3 . .. .xls. use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the check box on the Print Design Tables form. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers. Click the Filename>> button to change the path or filename. To print concrete frame design input data to a file. Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request. Data will be added to this file. Or use the Filename>> button to locate another file. click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables form. The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 24 . If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. Click the OK button to send the print to your printer.g.txt. and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears. Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e. click Yes to replace the existing file. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print.Concrete Frame Design ACI318-99 Output Details Using the Print Design Tables Form To print concrete frame design input data directly to a printer. the Selection Only check box will be checked. The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables form. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only. if necessary. .doc).