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) and chest compression in a lifesaving procedure performed when a person has stopped breathing or a person's heart has stopped beating. Purpose When performed quickly enough, CPR can save lives in such emergencies as loss of consciousness, heart attacks or heart "arrests," electric shock, drowning, excessive bleeding, drug overdose, and other conditions in which there is no breathing or no pulse. The purpose of CPR is to bring oxygen to the victim's lungs and to keep blood circulating so oxygen gets to every part of the body. When a person is deprived of oxygen, permanent brain damage can begin in as little as four minutes and death can follow only minutes later. Description There are three physical symptoms that indicate a need for CPR to be performed immediately and for emergency medical support to be called: unconsciousness, not breathing, and no pulse detected.
which is also called apnea.CPR in basic life support. lift neck. It requires immediate medical attention. is the lack of spontaneous breathing. the cause may be dehydration (lack of body fluids). this can lead quickly to cardiac arrest in which the heart stops beating. An unconscious person will not respond to noise or shaking. begin artificial circulation by depressing sternum. or low blood sugar. or gentle shaking. or turn blue. Figure D: Check for carotid pulse. a bit of fruit juice may revive the person once they have regained consciousness. Unconsciousness Unconsciousness is when the victim seems to be asleep but has lost all awareness and is not able to respond to questions or to touch or gentle shaking. In children. This is a temporary condition. If the victim is known to have diabetes. . A sleeping person will usually respond to a loud noise. If the person has fainted. The victim may become limp and lifeless. which can block the windpipe and cause suffocation and death. Prolonged apnea is called respiratory arrest. Figure A: The victim should be flat on his back and his mouth should be checked for debris. People with a major illness or injury or who have had recent surgery are at risk for losing consciousness. symptoms may include: • • • • • lack of response to voice or touch disorientation or stupor light-headedness headache sleepiness Not breathing Not breathing. cardiac arrest usually happens first and then respiratory arrest. Figure E: If pulse is absent. shouting. Figure C: If victim is not breathing. low blood pressure. Just before a person loses consciousness. Figure F: Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation of an infant. In adults. begin artificial breathing with four quick full breaths. open airway. have a seizure. The common causes of apnea in adults are obstructive sleep apnea (something blocks the airway during sleep). which is brief unconsciousness. When unconscious. Figure B: If the victim is unconscious. a person can not cough or clear the throat. and tilt head back.
bronchial disturbances or pneumonia. Ideally. emergency help must be called and CPR begun immediately. drug overdose. holding the breath. If more than one person is available to help. or piece of clothing under the neck. head injury. If a sudden. If a critically ill patient or post-operative patient is being cared for at home. small towel. The steps usually followed in CPR are as follows: • • If the victim appears to be unconscious with either no breathing or no pulse. and what other symptoms are present. meningitis. In children the causes may be different. asking if he or she is OK. Local medical personnel. or metabolic disorders. regurgitating food. The rescuer may need to explain to a doctor or medical professional where on the victim's body the pulse was measured. A local emergency number should be called immediately. or shock or cardiac arrest in the victim. or asthma attacks. fibrillation) or cardiac arrest. near-drowning. or the American Heart Association teaches special accredited CPR courses. nervous system disorders. such as prematurity. seizures. If there is no response. one can call 911 or a local emergency medical service. No pulse detected If the rescuer is unable to detect a pulse or has difficulty in feeling a pulse it can be an indication of the use of improper technique by the rescuer. a hospital. Time is critical. The victim's back should be in a straight line with the head and neck supported slightly by a rolled up cloth.choking. heart irregularities (arrhythmia. while the other person begins CPR. it is a good idea for a family member to take a CPR course to be better prepared to help in case of an emergency. someone CPR certified performs the procedure. severe decrease occurs in pulse quality (such as pulse weakness) or pulse rate (how many beats in a minute) when other symptoms are also present. Medical help and CPR are needed immediately if any of these symptoms is found. A pillow should not be . The victim is spoken to loudly. The victim is placed on his or her back on a level surface such as the ground or the floor. the person should be shaken or tapped gently to check for any movement. if the pulse is weak or absent altogether. life-threatening shock is suspected. airway blockage or choking on a foreign object.
The victim's clothing should be loosened to expose the chest. The other hand will be placed over the heel of the first hand. he or she can be placed in the recovery position until medical assistance arrives. The far leg should be pulled up over the victim's body with the hip and knee bent. Keeping the elbows straight. and has perhaps fainted. keeping the hands firmly on the victim's chest. making sure it does not block the opening to the windpipe. The victim's head should be repositioned as often as necessary during the procedure. and the other arm across the chest. tilts the victim's head back. When the chest begins to rise. If chest compressions are needed to restart breathing. and watches the chest for movement. the pulse will be checked before resuming resuscitation. and covering the victim's mouth with the rescuer's mouth. If the victim is not breathing. or the victim begins to breathe on his or her own. This allows the victim's body to be rolled onto its side.• • • • • used to support the head. the rescuer looks for signs of circulation. The head should be tilted back slightly to keep the windpipe open. the rescuer will place the heel of a hand above the lowest part of the victim's ribcage where it meets the middle-abdomen. The victim's mouth must be kept open at all times. Two slow breaths. and moves the tongue forward or to the side. lifts the jaw forward. The rescuer kneels next to the victim. with fingers interlocked. The head should not be propped up. This is repeated until the chest begins to rise. about two seconds each. are breathed into the victim's mouth with a pause in between. such as coughing or movement. reopening as necessary. rescue breathing begins. . closing the victim's nostrils between a thumb and index finger. the rescuer will lean his or her shoulders over the hands and press down firmly about 15 times. If a healthcare professional has arrived by this time. It is best to develop an up-and-down rhythm. This is done by straightening the victim's legs and pulling the closest arm out away from the body with the elbow at a right angle or 3 o'clock position. If the victim is found to be breathing. The rescuer listens close to the victim's mouth for any sign of breathing. The mouth must remain open and the tongue kept away from the windpipe.
Normal results Successful CPR will restore breathing and circulation in the victim. Precautions There are certain important precautions for rescuers to remember in order to protect the victim and get the best result from CPR. Do not give chest compressions if the victim has a pulse. or throw water on the face. The person should be left as found if breathing freely. Avoid moving the victim's head or neck if spinal injury is a possibility. Do not place a pillow under the victim's head. people at risk can follow these general guidelines: • People with known conditions or diseases. To avoid loss of consciousness and protect themselves from emergency situations.• After the compressions. Do not slap the victim's face. Prevention Loss of consciousness is an emergency that is potentially life threatening. The description above is not a substitute for CPR training and is not intended to be followed as a procedure. such as diabetes or epilepsy. Medical attention is required immediately even if successful CPR has been performed and the victim is breathing freely. to try and revive the person. . Chest compression when there is normal circulation could cause the heart to stop beating. These include: • • • • • • Do not leave the victim alone. To check for breathing when spinal injury is suspected. the rescuer will give the victim two long breaths. Do not give the victim anything to eat or drink. should wear a medical alert tag or bracelet. The sequence of 15 compressions and two breaths will be repeated until there are signs of spontaneous breathing and circulation or until professional medical help arrives. the rescuer should only listen for breath by the victim's mouth and watch the chest for movement.
Illegal recreational drugs should be avoided. and reduce stress. can lie down or sit with their head lowered between their knees. or have ever fainted. or recovery from illness. Using seat belts and driving carefully can help avoid accidental injury. People can reduce risks if they stop smoking. lower blood pressure and cholesterol. lose weight. People who feel weak. should avoid standing in one place too long without moving. People who feel faint. Risk factors that contribute to heart disease should be reduced or eliminated. . Seeing a doctor regularly and being aware of any disease conditions or risk factors can help prevent or complicate illness. as can seeking and following the doctor's advice about diet and exercise. become dizzy or light-headed. injury. People with poor eyesight or those who have difficulty walking because of disability.• • • • • • • • People with diabetes should avoid situations that will lower their blood sugar level. can use a cane or other assistance device to help them avoid falls and injury.