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!!i~ron!(j pari petL~r::S.QUl UIlS:ali;;l'iLclUlj}'f~ appaeeeuly beea u se (~,=,mtlor ~Otl III. "i·magi:;mnivr impe r ~ t.h.al makes lhe fif-s.t part au lU1li11gilliilrv.c tOUT de ron"l( Wriw:ht""!iibiuer misarnhmpum 1!Ii~t'n fun relgn here, ·2·U9. W~II~. hilip (Gordon). Gl.dial"", Knopf, 1930. P A novel abcut ure groWLb"l('l ndutrhood ora bo~ !«b.o il 5L. phr~i!" l (llilh0tl8h mil ... imr--llectnan "superman." Jl. is the First Impnrram ~rmp.iH:hffic SUp~J'nHU1 ~fllf bUL ex htbi. ~ (hoi!! (lI!(OJr"Q r·y p~ss i inbl II n::giirui ng lh~ pro..:; peLt ~ hi:·ru I:'j.'.r.:ui..u.al inregraucn mrn mlP" human h'orICl----.;I :pt":i~ndjm kL a.:iii.l.h:· by 111 creators of. tile t..'QIUi:ebook S'UfJirM.Ii:n. ¥I'hn bOTr(~wttl rhf nO"Wfl'il! renrral norU,III

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Z·.1311..wrl •.•, rhilip. and E~"'Ul Bah uttr. Wbo" World. Colli"". S,at .. , 11l~:i A celebrated ncecl of impendlDg r,n!iimlC(';UJSlrlOphe- and the .cltlempt 10 z:i~""!' favn.'I"RI1r~.... , From ~barill:R lht:-litlt::.oftbe.doorned wcefd. [I W:UI:fllm·",d hy (:I!'IUJ' Pill in 19~ t. The !I-t'1uil!!l.~d~.tJjhg ....th tb.t;: exploils or.bt: ~\l.Hi:rmrs 0.11..nru- (trw i worfd , isJ"ftrr WorJdr CQJ{I~tf l j 9'34,). S"tmitu Ih~mt:!!Iiar t developed in Meliuo",h. 0", in nw Hu"ibnJ, L~-.5I3L","d James Bliso', . , . .,111<1 All 0.. SII= • ~/11j_.
0(171), ·2·]31 .. l:unliHiri. E\tQm.ii (US.S_R.). 1I.IiII·. 111J1 , 1924. Tr. by Grl!!!gj.: Y :l.1! r(,!n .... t.1O'll uf .\J,. A m3gnirli:en~ visjcn of ~ d'(s'lJP'.km :soci:ct~in which iiiI'! h:::l!'i hell!l"l WL-alt,. rt"Ku Jared in the l.":ms~ of ()tdeT~ harmony, and lrappinc.'s:li, The seeds of d.i:5X3l..iiftu don have been roered cut, ""rh t.ht'oolf'('}lr:~Plj~i1 On[n::lgii'i::iilit.'ln~ wnlet"! baLulI' "WI 00 eli.minal~d r;rQQlIII= 1J:II,:,,~hc humans' ooh.be![ projl'j'L(Ol"itN 10- ff.:'lIhirlU !iii the b!.:tllding of iii :lp.a-r.c::::!ihlp that will ajlow she '·l... . rlhed Slate'; UJ extend 1):1("1. duo ugh.ollJ tb~ un i"erk. 1\ j) Ifd.:i-tc: rpiece 0 f specula u v e pnlflio I ph jl~.s.oph)· I., dl.liillu5ioned JtuJII.IIi;1n-r1t1;'~t. of CClltTS(_. published ill the 'U.S.S.R. itaelt h inntlen(ed O~I~dl':!ii J984 (3-.5fC01::ln8. pm v,tI;M..::'! P]'I)tQ,t.)'~ fOI' modern {.l.~tu plan f.'lnl;1;:5Y.
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uiul ] 976 ......ben the IU80, :l1'p'roltJ.nill:tety of IIJIIY(Q,IPl,J..if I-Ito1l111!!r' 1lilr.:j1': published. wience t~CtiOIl I~U"el5, eolleeucna, 'rl",i¢j.a~pmred:inr·prln\, Therefore, in prep~ringl:hi51!:~nd edhiuu. ,. h,ad to select rl·""!]1 :illm:oSi~ the ~·m't' number- Qr liLh,::1Ii covered in Ihe ttl \\tuf'1.illgll, ith the-selection 5i'Y'I.rmdeS1...-rib.ed bll~r il"l thi$uCliof.L, WC"
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_illc..'.orr In-e:lllode. IndudC'd GHltgoriM A-H (de rribed It\ rhe fifst c:tmlen( mtie." (:. $cv"ntie. .._Un.g......l'h.~.4.d:-.Charcf:i.t)Ol:ri~ingJ~ :lnd in fQrllbimuicu\-.nl1k'" Cltn::mNIN: CaI(l~. Tlt. 11'a/<' iii.rn. £lJrlh A6tdtJ~ Tlftll!:!C B1i~h~" iticjl-in .. -fir-. L".i:I.1J..n Jyg beJore 'WoT~d W..18AI...mrwrd. titles." v. •• Brnener.uwing mce s alJJI dj>l. the mysr. furlitLel nre not '\hr.S.. iJ'T..d<.. _..).:m ..11'. 71IA (~f..rIl' Catt.Iuidr "COl d. St"'iig/~f~·h~fJ. Rnhe . IJ. l:'f'lnti(.1.. . }.' FUJ'W.-.. SM.."'}"l"afs: abc rrnl uu:x..~ 7...... the Slo.:J ·ur Ilt!iqg ur nnnli\iiog thIng1f supermen.letC'C-li .!IiUPP') S~u..~ I I~UI4I./lrilT~: Zela]U1Y'. 19S9ra killd {.fin...'I'gi... HeHe:).111. ~glI~ Il.f'$. ~iU't'n..• PU'hl'LJld Kornblurh Tfu Sf1til"Ml'"~hlll.-ot-untllrng IrL_p! ~nfIJOl lmcrual v"..w.C" fJCI"'lun"'1JcglllS 10 19'8.l graphIcall).:rI[ftr-T1Uflies( \:nntil .Flj)I'Itr."IJ jad. ThefQU. D1litil I J'k. s. SF le~rltcd to ". lh~ hi.ol'i )J.lJ.tars 0\'1) Df. lind t"dll 1111111 Ih ..Ollle"l. rc11:.'. 71" UttJi"P"g il)t.1c.rn.:-..1.j"r hl.qr III (Ijlh(... i!ll~r'!Jld and . Tlin~: Nun'lWl'" Georg'!:."l"". Human d~nm)' ~wri~~ rlndudcs fuwr(' !li!Stol.:!\(:Jit dUH. W'hilt. SllIj·g_ ec n. ""IJ: if ~..hc\~ l\.S-r.IIrd. 1h.s.!iil 'Wnrk$ with 3 pr artical topol 01} Q.wrlnins d:rfC'l1lhlll~' .11d.r-tMn-.5}' WJilch: low·d.. Ftthr:e-nJi.. Ctllliidt [flf l.1_"'j Btad fitlltlt'.Ioij.JUblco p1aceuH wk.n 193Y r II 1••mpbdlJ b.k..ngIt'_-C"~lled asuoeha P{U.IJ: AIUhtJnj'! 7...1t III .-...1 ht tGJI. ~)I~e .l.t.$il. Sixliesr 'Bunb.. hlemn ~ tli.!Mr. ¥i..o./7.r~ n".. nurna"_ II . Afa1. DIck..1r~ £[.{j BodM~ (. Th..'h.."t Tiv IVnldl O'/{III'_ Sen'nues. .oop"'"" Sbw.. J).i. Zc. .D.J. IHinl...f. 8..'8W~ h::l\<'e~illidt!:d Ikll!'pei'ktd .~ll"jflFl""un.' \\~}h..Illt. ~ri~nl.: Mal. .lllhh~{. I iltt'IU BenfOrd.lif!W!1'Il6 (iua. TAl. [)r.. TIu. 1141 M:n~J "'. r·angbnrn.j\J1. Wfjlill -'100111 Ihe. Lungu. mJ. ii1Juj dt~1 opitl:.u)..penod be~I" in tbe rll1~..B'-f'fillC'lioillr describe the tr.i flOO1 BU]': 8runnE'l".hr.fdi_fl.l!lLn!r~Jifrl'l~hjpl:ko .·g. the ..nd.[JI1-.lI.JJfI'. D'-~'j-C..Iit~.if PlJfI...: Spmrad.'xcnllnlfr u..jlJ.. Ti.pr_. rnd IhC"t':~r::r~i{~nf'1 ht~[O~ uIthe for1}l»wd leafS or the m.. In litll .'hl/fIr! CUIlIl T~JL. r... ·tht--L~..lHJ. Vanr<t.IJ'hr~vn..\I.tf.lI~.all:lurd 1U'lI01'" and 4ivruc rnt~rvpnr....§. rnal~ lrB.p '"""'"Uj..r FQlf.e.ilidon. A'ihnQ~1 nu' (.:x1f'ndin."(fflIIJr1')~J: Nlycn~ Rirrp'1lr-Al.6gon·.tqujQn jJQlemlrs (h1\bJ11CS."vl(o.~ and Ril")" 1"111. Walld. .mt ur the ben or btf~r ""'"Qrk:slisted ill rhe d~$C. (.nr.. Heinlein. Sixtii.."Old £"'-'J~lparr hi..tCiti. the NVl: 1"U.g .l.1ic/.'iJ.Id. l~. new cE'"c.:1.e-t!iU1.).'l 'J .imI.lucl~ new 5C. o~l~ar1...:u"Vt! ir1p loinaccel. ~h./..u.RP:11Ui'. illiC:1 r l'h~ IfllIr I) D. .: Otwell.CC'-firti~fI! r:'*"mf"UI M~:wl'l r.C'f'i!l:.IL"d... I. f..ar Jl is lhe rll . only.i Crt11'iI'lq" . FilM JI.d 4. 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A'Jder. mo.: Alld.!r ltJ:o"CIc. 1'h . &Y~.r "I I~'". CMJdldJ(J.e-.hnoIQg)'-Tblrtiel!lortieA.~~. iI. 1ll"lIr!JnJ. SA". l.\Iell."I.rI''III' IhtTTl"U. TIM.utlln..f D4.t'l! j r:m. )} -r. tween lhccJ!:'T'i\C. ThtJ' ..i.'..••I"fI T.!-.~. wbo. thi l~jtHmm' 'ifI}lZ.1Uk'~ l!:>ih.<m.n V'Jgt~ SJa.ri::plaOI!li til cil_rC'g~~rlcs A-H illuerare and pe. 8nn/rud Ih_· IT'f'l...~'.... \'Qn'P<".OII1:go.b~t'l""'o·e1. . .-mIJft.d: Lundwall..un .Ind rran. de:! Heinleiu..K 'hf ropaUiliL)' mr..affJtll h'urking rft. The bfM)lJ were il:rlIfl d by wrhers ef th(' '\·e~T'n..81« of "I..)1 weave of the fx.' a r Guill.'c(""be. He'inJt:iu.~Imnn.~.1·moi!)~ ~onoD~ s.J. i!lliun) .-JtFiut.. tiftie-!:~ BI'.JEwMQurt:uc:~. r~r~.("Li'lHlSlln. Lewis.um.. de ~mpj and _n "'I~ them Cuun.I DijJ~r{ft1t 1't.j. Nt.Q gi.rg.-IU&dlll.li~ IJnMoitMtd. t'~th 10 be f. InJ/·. Am .1V~ I·I"-prtm.. . rfl~po..ymtirtu..N'~tm. s...if"l~irl.11 ~.sf-He"S5<:.r'.[joili . .r-/.'tOjHI fr « Hql'S&' :'L-fLotlr'"."Qn rtrne travel.fMu-.lv\l")ncu fialnfl..lrI..dmIJ(I:r'I'~ ClV'k~.r. dre.'-SiJVto I'lko. 19jJ4. .rll~~d sr i~lf .r m. ~fill'UTl.f1 01' ..lt'rinl[:lbtmIUT...tCdl\o\.y.1U.". Gcmey.r...u11l~['of l'JorobieSF l1i!1UI hntJ-A':!IimQI(~ AIdH. Bt'~cLlln'\'J ...p! Leiber.PY !It'f)d~!. C rJ~iliIlJfIJM-ih. D~m..lj l~ring-dLe1i.. ~ .!JiI r"!Hst.S:Tbirli~iJJF.scre!~l~ .Sf .ote4in one. effects 01 te-dlDOluJ)'. DIl'-ljIr..dfL"jjp... 11..1RIIU.""'X! l..C".g. uJ. Sbdc.c{ur~tnm·A()Mllgr~ Di~('h. RUJll.' h./ F~t ~'. ofl'ium. 'Y.r.idiLI."bi Tucker.·ellitPplng of . Af4h.I: Ilul'l(!I't. .lil. 8U'rg~o.Art .llI. "'loCd~.·cude appcar~. ~t. Tltrif PIU' H1J.J)'eT100 fr4")fn 19~ ut I~~ in bls It'lltbh [d-.".:mri lrudltlCIII.-efl l~'urk aa SF~ 'Nt.'1 through HIJ1I'flTTVN' onH'HJ"~ ... r~JlOtl"i d nlpid t"'fpOlruion in tJh: r field b(l~fee.rt. ~rl!'l".lI.. .! Tk.. S.h1.C' stnees.~n. Fan abSlractdefioiTloJ1. RiC}.of Ti'lltt1nj CArJ1'lg~./""h. H. 84: T-i.."'lighl"' ~Hil~'l Milltr....:l~fl: see undcrtiurh-i.it'il t . PalJ{l~~Se-v.f.-. ?1tr' . ph)l>{ILdl "!'IllJJles"'6( It Iii 1 ·("I)·. . 1"10.(. T/I~Hi~lqtlo(rJ((J. Dtt. ti.(h. .. Thr Pa.b."fr'i-.. 0" I~r Brnr:fo.m. ~~wl iln«l excluded these ol[egori. .ieli: d~ ('.~bh ounforcand lliir.lft:-P-~ III II tl !IC'"lt ')\.r. almO!i.. l~·11 beer.-". bap!i ~ulhe.eniitiS' '\Idi~i. Plf...u-rpt(l'.g:tn dn'elopinJi the ri.mlo..n."0 on In the 19T{)S.l1Jtr~j fIJi' O~":m!r-r'.' and .. w(l'~U1....'t'u lJif1110t b. &hol.t.'Jal.. I'Jll$bi"..ru.r_r~.mil)' be. rhtlll. AJai5S.krnSBrdllo n mrs s•• ~: f. he C'.: GT"". Sfm~kr Ci{i.).nrr1ugb 19$0:.arlt'-t~dcc)"-p:lIl...)"lDponnr ".)g}I~ I'll thr S!t1. VDnrn=gUt.'et'.tJ..vt_'. ~ral paLt'Horie:!i laeemm •.ri~ln"'I'_j::.. "Spao_c Tl'1I¢gy·· f'~ru. and 10}.l'''')' ". B.. .hehist-on Ih:lll CTIlf _"aq:ge..-"r.odtorn I hm Ihe.. H D'!IIO. fold v v.lndcon~l':l1lrndf.'!a"dC'r~btpr whit!!!' ~.nr/at ...oE...as never befnte. ".. N. Finn~y. 1II0. Ande-T50:QT Tau."!f1'IPlrlE~.'. ".'iixLlC"-. flI('ote. F Meanwhile.1 S~1uftl.".1Ih.iL andhu'" n1(::nta:1C. In rlu fJII'f1P1. W m:lt/y.lllQ'f"i -Elgi tr.""ol"") rc:=pr-est:nu.'mcntilJnctl~c:ntJ:an ... 8/)"". Ahen13[(!.. Wing' if L. tieOfF~"i.'· ¥. Th~ M.t')n.!hic.e'~: hard fafl~r! pure Rc.k..... 'f'OW heUc:f ... Slil'ln liP) Z(lwalH" ....in its Hlp1'rtI.l1"ubl" Sl~"..l<-aIl'.g.pl"iu :.. V3. IIIlIn Ioo."..--d'?11.1 .1 . films..tdouk'RlfHi.1mp.rtg tbe...nl'!'tn SF iudi.amp. trri1"Tnf:Wm: F-3l'ml~J. I II tUI" "(!("II~C rh~. Tfri. Q s. WyndhaJtl.sl Budr¥.nlA." Aldi ••.Agt_lift.nd''''. ~rht M.rII"" Ib[tl 1111.IIg-hr rraval. '"Un· "Wl •.I.~h 1'1)1·C:5IIf'8m1:UllinIl ..Ind in tJleo"«f. CC/lJtP("iJDtl!1tiraJ."I~i".. Sli"IIngff i.~..iulld wnh ill ru_.rl. ulnpiu.~'idj.~h""'. lin: liLif'J o.:ieflres..PIUJr1.. 7JIf" Gfbui«rl~.~.storic.1/.'I . ?'Q P'(iur"f}rO'(rl"(.inew fm-ilir rnrnpan of u r:JT widrf to!.tn clrarar ter a.:ll.:r'...11."2]. "I:'P81-~ .. Fifllll:... de C. I'h.. nomp'''''..}rl. I HIf~V'tl""· 'UliJJJ. lIT"':Hl m" Il.((j~R"'. TJUf 'l.tltd ul .b new T~n~()rtr.}.M1.pn.)" t"inH. (iJT AJ..nl me".-dilu. lIun. Slrti. t. C. h... Lem."-.)'t-.' fir.!I'h: U1 lor High CtiJU".

. ft.b'.. ~~~en:ililad to IlY-L.~'' (19i2l delllt':t.!. wo~ld nun from f he ... Campbell fo"u~ lbev.t'd .r:bro'! A'n{l.!!sop's.rt-<l.L.. H..lrelilonn 111\llclfm pOpuJ:mOIU.alA LV"r/~ (1~~8).-e \l~'W SF_ The fQIai.such wOTb:t~ " . definiti1lt: hi'ID.il..tb it'! principal omph. rb Lha.. in rhe blSl rnr[1 'Y~3r~.!t(J(198.d~ S"""~'" n s"".."("HI)N C<.tri<'li li. Sn1. nrt""&legend.lJ La.JH". 5Hinut leg.r.II QuiWl Y~.'cr il1[: »Ol!Il!:i..n P970j. IQi lnftuence upon HIt: .l.t'3.. E.L rho! ~_ hum T"~n""'i[1J. (19681.e-au.orr of SF mast be reccurued bug.lHI'-...d Piller'.111 Chon:lotophtF'! Nfl Bluh fJ{ Gr'a.jlljd. A ftrndamenlal h".n...flouklnifup titles. 4. u~'hnoJ6gy. POpUI~f Wnlt'T\ of ranu:n·).Qtnn: il Mu.tiJ on the SF novel. 3! A. ampbdJ'. 'JnJl.[ ""'t""pr6~n. G..71...o:menL or me conte:ll( In ljI.\. C.. lLior(. A~jluQ'I(·.'''~'IJ.. (19.ard·~ "Fear" {1940I.. 1 nil (i98Q) ••md il."". Such works arc by design nmelel!~ Ihe 5l\ccd. H. II B"l'mlri Hj..5.• . emerged whh Super-man in Ihe Iq.thnr coHeclioru supply the r~pt'I!'~enl.:i~(lnJ.atlerlO emphMb:t' l1l. In !'''lId in.. Modtrn P.. D.or reference. IrJ40 .rd (dmefl n:fCl'" II) ~h~ nlm) Chn k(!":Ii 0(H: . ..J RnJPHt. H'e made Ihf"Y \...t<:inhaum·!\ l\-if{trli.Ileu.mJ dtc M:im1r t1969) •.t'3!1OtrQ:pb:(' fOUIJd Mfl:!lphClI'" rhf"ou~hou. 1f1lO)lo . readers T Q~ have' Llis(:lne'Ted SFm th~ rorm of tbe 00"". cin3"'d. ri"'" Mulotu (11671.l28 TIte Litor.-l'nktt'd Sla-. The is5UC5 tend to 'remain tbe same. a hilitor'h. (t9!&:Q).. $<:\.TE' 0.Miofl~ Am~flc. 'Tda.1.. R~Tolkien. Nu le~ i1llt:re5iing a.35 'W1t'1i tn ellci}i...Jje p"Nk~'uf cae-record .S.... Q\.:aU). although l~y are bcyontll. ill orher ages. T"".ruHJldJ~ 1~J. few lilgD1fic' n I hiSlot ical d-Cllekr P me ms rind ~remn.'\r:.3.J."Otx OJTJl"~' hy the Dc:pre.'nrT in JJla<A (191 J).al I~d i1ISl1£OHc\r! th. Joh!! Brunn.ur {.. ". the advenr 01' World War HI and tb~ 11'C:l! (If the Depressicn. atul CUIIUi'C clulIlg-e whh [ne til'DeIIi Modern fa!ltu¥ il diiUnct became iLi.)r ""r. "The BIlle Star" (191..{ru! guide hi resuieted to SF.-"11'.. 1.oiJ{omk cxperimcrll5.ilenure oftbe D~pr~:M'on in Th.. .hed Fan~.n the liu::flIr)' maln~.3l'ailab./11 ...ll1flllrnuJodf"Tn'i-t'riC:!tuJlJfO Ilap:!li . Luon .I)· in Dr.. Tl te ril'~l is all f>'a.:u)' ".ad prC'di{'riDfl.1.lut (I ~J&5).1rt)T... 11" 11'". dill: IU:'" IhrfiH lHII: t:. mil}...e decade. I: influenre the elecu-ome m{!-rii:J """Qukl have u'P(}1l r:h:e!'p u hllc 1L:U11- or AB"dJ"bn \'{.ccuraq' 111 ...H)II~I.llh... CampMII became edieer-ef .. conslderabfe extern."le.he qaintessendal lrrsportance lit s:hor~ ffcrlon j tl bodl the hinorya nd modern progress or SF.n.. Sprague de Camp and Lln Car-ter on Bobert E.lI"1.e. whhin rbe field.an cos:nicbook.:k·i'!I G&1 .lj.RlinSF.'. Migu •• ADa. U»'a (l9'i'9) ~nd CJu:hc:.rld W·::H-IJ~~\t:r del Re-t!li"'·Nc!i"'''t. :anlhfilb1Pe5...5). Bli. specially In m~ brMdly pop"I" perception of ~ e fletihn Man.0 V.inlJ'f'~ wah :H'I unim-.nnic uf [he gT'e. n. as wen 36 ~ll iOlpn:!iuve r()n~r-1"3[ tnclod~$ Richard Adaouj~ lVatenh" D(.. but rilnLii:1Y C3n hardly br ignored in a lull account of the tith1..-.u)' 129 01 cllr()n"lugical pcriowas_II.i1 theme to Ill" resurrected in...emllfkn.rt1n World had b..ppre·oliccship blrhe 8011lJ.S.-~'lItl) llimplifl'th~ 1""«" .~Hra'tlt'~"'.. and J...t'betlt would impede elfc:c:... l'D1nl be r!lmpbun. S.'njwr.·unou!!i IIISp.. gov(TT..5." hisde.d yulfliU 9:§s:imllaUon orttn:: more <Ii!lrlplined Pama:sr of SF. K". ·'AK'·"f Lrmging 1111 r.s 3A 1s:-. ~ nd and br lm.. R.r.'''' Qr ..ng!e. fine S)" wor:k!!l:l~ccutlc su.illg the mood of ntLT rimt and must be u:·gardc.·e til:let$..IIl:k Wim~m"'on to more pla. A single-Ili...e~ cold war I~':l' ~x.lb~nl brC. 111m. '" re . we ~1I'h"la'.1)•• pressed <h..in "Sixth Column" ( 19.en1lt)' tlQl..'O""·cr.. .:". Th<: 5C:cvmJ i_". "")'I~" n...een.Robt!".blc pba19rm::non i -ofLiJe di!'U\d.m.2)..o15ptI' 2 0<fp>#J 119(11). E..1[1"'"' II g'ln.. By our derlelrlcn .."d inA"ato.td". MCl"loIyn Peake .eor~p)d fi . Sf ..cd in 11'h:n the I~'ort of rud" fl~dgling. es pttiilUy in \1elJil III tilt! fact t. rd·. Call1il!iy is the genLl a ~ndCT'WhichSF L~LOI1erI~d:.nl bury' I.&"()..Fri" Lfib<.1'f"1<lbe'M·'CI .. ofL."'ocCl.I Q4 I)) 1..u. '" oJ I~.1. Th~ [hlrd is t~ parent gt:l:lreofSF-f:anl:l:Il" Wirh II rt>:w exceptlons-ln case o( award nt1lDln('~ • .Ir eH... One wily or anorber.irH·~"H~d Ihro'Lgh the ~eanl nnd con .'.1f'i:t~ 1.n (·ll:Hli. and Llrsuln I.. a c-nming to terms with hard' r~aJit)' bc~'1'l IrJ $r Stanron i\. A1. OWII pieces (-co. . Willi the rt.. Dt3dline~ II 'l'. Ellison'...ll.$1T3~jUllly rittingr....in ..."n: IiIdlilp.ielic~{.o\ldous Huxl~y'.ed hl:1"e.n'lp~ji un the I. This-is true cf ihework of rhree of'theomb$. Balmer and ~'6r'dsCflll... rabIes. ..ed rli~ .biJh)' of ~enc:\ic a. Htlrg.. SF fandnm wilt.nm Davidson\1 Tik Ph~t#r.ltll Tllr rJl. Guin.acc TrilOGY'" was ln . •• TI.r·..FWo. lQ~()) ". .l. posybilily of _glvbaf (i1.acd.fesiLlt"c 1932.:u !:.1 th-r fihu"Ii o ."duh:~c~dy eeecetve d i!{upa ..:n..9S-9)i:3ndon~ viuQr} ulth:e.from before WrlJ'ld I In late J:Q.mii~ the begmatng of the '''gulden age" ef comtr Iha~ wouf. from which Ih~'Y w(.1·War Lh~ Worlds"" ratlio produI"Jit)n in J9!8 i1Ju:s:tr:u.. ~I1/H.r' .: ~bV"IQUS d~"'llld'r'l:'d in tli(' B{"...u eIi~ . G/j>f/' (1962) and Splm:ad'.lphabe< w"uld g. t.h~Lb.':urn (1912). ".es anti pulp Iiteraccre P Mt!f~ra ~ed fot rbe b u g-t!! u d [en ce oUlerwl5-C e enormous and incakuiablf'.. ~ J(mol!s'.-lJ rJ. IlII.. Tltcoombcnrlerllb:e ""ill bu.if.1 f.~ nOf ~tn(> andcahnre-locjed."nicu!ilr.li.sr ...nnd in strch w'tIrkl u:ii Mi[hael M'oON.e\~iM.y \\1('\..'bich II.'.·.against igo~..h3l mO$I gf:n-aal terms of t:heahorr MOl) c:wmpln.rle~ markinglh~.lIJlliible ~tI:Arll)l" Tt:J:l:tt!scm:ed.cio'.1~d'l.fi"ludeet-waoar-eL'nmeo III pass. r-l!pr-t:se.. TIoird KmdllH7?.\\>\Ur.'ril. Coblcruz't '"Lord ofTrooClKa" (1. Finno:r'.. tea!! four ~dditional m811.. .1"1.195:"'..~~r'"J" (191. The reartitm to Wfll~S9 .·. lrom (Igl~lMilliH't!n:ctcd an arth.. Fletcher 1'". of" the SII ftlm Ita$o I »lrered 'he p"pwar reeepaon of 51' '" hi era .Ji.nl." /I.cs~s CiorllJ.....1 ASl. list lltal follow.1.w in 1949 as a book). 'dil"'··r.kffit... I""""an 0/110.r('"lUI .u~f)UtJfif'Rglate in 1931 (j)me fi'r'q_ New wave in SI".. wirl-t Ii!'!'..rn.lmf:!nJ.t...t.?)....tt~ .he uani!!l" oi:.J..10 p.-d . Ho.~n.s COlilUl.f: TAt Fli'Tbift P~f)irt~(l970l.n~ the colluborerive anrl editorial effo".s:iil.lay..u" in 1946 1-:1. hBs...R. Ihls mrrcducticn re rhf' moderu pc::riod pl'"l!M!l'lt.ilrlfnilr pf'~di(ltcd ~bc~clual the 4'lom bomb wiLh. of lh~ 1910.1 HlIlom~l'lnn.ing'lo Cam:!' t 1975) repre.5important !V I.enrn.S""Tf. [h~ sana.~I.l1( !oitllo'i' and .<:CEJsful £iJmili (cialfS rf'fu lu the fillU)~ D.nderl.h·. Fro m the OUjUt'"1..k.t: h.as. and muhipko :llph.<oe.t: of fascism. lccal species..e"ocotDt.rn\'!~ lC'autiOr'l . The SF fiJrn'illld SF littr... fh.Thi 1J. Staulc)' \\. 1".1/1'" 1111111) . . opera.. ~ nlie. . Nu".~dl' 1"'J~ out.1 A.r.~ 11"'...· (1911).·! r...sCI itiWillYSf'lf--n'ln.. 11. c.fl IJ. Ihis Irf"od.. Paul Andef'~(Jn·5 TMu fip. ""hiTe cbe scenes. Crichlnn'lI ~n.ll r..tlvc use.:d iilS a dennUJ'I. the ttr S.')\1~ ~cQmC' PUP..01..~ in I'nul Anderson's ··TL'tmontl\!i'·s Children" (l9t171.arnrr h:\'Y~ bof'(om~ inetrtriu· bly c<>w".r'$ r. This gulde will m""commol1l¥ he u.. Ri'_)B Hnbb..r1 7'1IJ'" Lww (BUll). JiiIl1!' HllltUY ceutinued to ap(W"&r in k"w~r :i'taN. and Frlhrd saie~(I9'9-J96 ~J.AR:i:!l:powc:nr. 01 Farm (1946).g. nor Anhutian romance.m. Itrif~ (1955) and Ih< Gray Mow".)Iillg !.. rurniture.irappe . of lmpun .. FII'''''''' ..~h~il Ul .. Th~ .I{"i ~_ ·ltJf~. I1P".F 3~ literalure on'y. in eenvendore rhai began in the late 19!Ht!. a uafini.h m.!Kiou50. ~'hile CIeWI:G.SfMWnt' (19'11I.r TV show.1J' "[$F.k I".

c . 11v. de Ca-mp..#tmjly f...n'. er e ready fo-r K"lrnbh.uC'b:u ~ 'ildi~1 puliu4::Ii. Ro.otl-Cd.nd OJ ch's 1'"".1 Kornbtutb'_) GuuJ.nf gl'(!'~l.dllmin1u~d I Vidal..f". the muod of rhr. . Shute.(!d." ':'hilc. dd III' " 1'/Uo K~'A COrll''''' ". 19JOs. Leiber'.Lnhar($ media t.()~n Silv .j tectuuques borrowed ~ .. Blish . And M one eould rurgco' '8r. Sinn Oree etee. re'W &0111.JJ'>iTui:llll" of Ih.K~E'bt!~""'~~I' the hf:.W" Hrinltin-.ul'<': ..c po. that )Cit! a Il1i\'erick task i.. T"I'~lf"'l'rJt t9"i2.~..oU5 .il.s'l:h. 's T~ W~tl.Hd~d.JI·~ rind diipliLYWg enDt"tlntti"ll of Lbc c50Ie.."8 Wall".. Ilonprinr and scenarm-srru UIrLnf.."d je_n'."iiun Dfpt"ogrcss and increasing . fUKinaliOn"'Wilb Ibegtf~Qrltl dangers or science waxtd.l":'_' :.Jd Ibr tJieiJ' ".1ppr~ti ~ye a "'" ever dQ~clopedforSF. all bur a Ie'" 01' the SF pull" had died: Sf paperbacks ."lll~lSF.~...5.. optimlesc.'I: uu) only. Ptriod occur red 1._ '" . R""d'.e Dun ell.!i:bnrb from 'he: mainstream mel {heir ~ppelit..lllrm-Hdnlcln·s •.." B~lIard.'".tmthe KI.10. fiegh~-r. rM {)h~IIDliieliun that r.r.Brllrlbur)'-Lhe ~:a.s.On1pJex-.: the seJ.!tJr 2-00 :Innollt:t~d emries IQ represem the .i:.5 IV~. B. Radio I.rism-NIrI'sAg. rtW'e~rnt~~.l1duoing l'I"dnk_ C<. tentuti"el}.! h· mn~l Fur lild: ora bener term the)! are reterred to ~(..'.< 119M) .W.more and mere pr~delH uf (hi hUltS.iI.con~ci~:l!IICIiI!i"I wnr d play. 111'_ in Brunn-l"r'jj rtlt!SIrufJ fAUlt.e5~l?vel •the pofitiglll!f{. u b.. \\.iln lifi! n..'!:"lCroil-'IlLhroPOil)~ca:lI"ltll!. George 0.'.l ~""U1-tHr~ %7). R.. t_/HfI T.rrll" UO~ of Cam pbe!I':Ij "whe Coo . gi"cn the h~k4. . ntri{l'r. employing.. Di.PiaP10 ~ 1952) 'l:!haDc.... 9&. Gu:in.I.n the [baOlic: ~or~'".e-)'.(J(ONJt·Lnw fl9!J5) told the !J'jjry.". wmd! u."". Duringme she lY60~ fan lnreren increased. I ubiqu.~ an(1 fh('" :!iprC:iIIIding H"'ilN"nf~~()fil.JUt SF novels begr.ri'I'Igo'al.eJ.1 puritanism. in Brunn . N:I'n':)ti".I'£.!flgtrlJDn (19'56) .1.ltt'l. R(i(l~} tH166.(tQ name: it cort::) T~~" iluthu11i were di...5.s.flldii..i(!"U.. In Ih.111 nr. 1984 iI9{!'t).1jL (I Q(l21. Philip J"". <he "'" .. recognition or tI.-nged ibt.. Eugene 8U:fdicl . \VfndIr.ertwrhh:l)'.:.1ul~Sf films peaked WIth K"brkll'.ldlnJ&.rCU. wrt RillllRf!r~J.n' 's T/" Gflrl.m. Clement .'I.8dcd m:atLrMlj' in :. "vereors." )'"Qt" Nrw H~~d (J9711.up in .~ m~le1l'3.-iter. CIa<ke. 'uy.ionume-rQW". F. taboo in o..·~'jl {J 007)i Ihe t:xplosive civiJ righl-S: reVof\l.I/lT. aD prcdueuou or l1u::mol.f!K H-Mthb .1JW. witb !.. Keyber!.U'E.uf malnsrream w r.bQlnll teemed: '80 I'e~uef"'!l: \0... wrl. .sn" E.lul OJ ...nIn~utOI-.e{'hl"ll(liI~"~ ounmnn in the make..~~ls. umH~f" .inn. ability l(l!LUn't'llc '. d~3di. Tbete Vi<1ni>m ..ognUIQll uJ the tlll'<::at 1(\ fll"II rvgl h~ IUVIit:"...i!!lm anci vlC"I. (he "New \!o{a. iUIIBurge .1 welf. t'OIUI!11h'alr".'... wh'k Alim(. Thr Hilnnd E~/MTn~"'" (]!]G6JI lilt' re-.Jil.Ui en rl1 r rnerl~ [onSll:~n-:d and Ilterarv exper-imeen.. whil~ the 1"'1"" back bcok bql:an 10 prosper.. Ihl"l'U.". mulripJied.)" art and t:rtlfl. !I9~1) •• the eecade ended.ightm.oll". u.. l_hr-O\lGb le'cltnolug)'.. Mall).5.. :iTU~ (ele"i5ioll... ~Hlr. Fran!. BrilitiJI'" N~w ~1"rcidf4 [he) Jl:.ds.liJ virtujjl1Jy aU i.:iflJ.'11 I !'C' IJ I tiph t<IIUJ. farm er.C yr.L.Cordw3tnt-.'''l Letnsrer..:H~I.1"III u S1f~J5r J.SF pulp.RInflue. Moosked • .ner. manurream.y jones's 7"JauI~J.tt1ph..1n {.""Cf'rive:1r oL'3ught the ~..In~ i5Cen~ .'l!lilr-'ar mnOtl-<auglH in R.!.!l:tnlg.-t1'1 geeermcn and t.l.·• MDit.~ media as radjo.5(iotulnl'$5.. .1dbury'! •. wou~ 131 World (J 964):md qut'5don urour "~Ih.UrT.:d..ge f(lT SF '9(i().d'5NiJDLrul"iAmHQ!'4( .H"1 111'1.d. f. pTr-ih. we ro" fllllll. r:a mpbc]]'. Kun \'o"""gut..Slr".~ •• ~t~~.. Citi~ sprawled aud made meaoPQ.!I1"'nCt-t:I'y were UI.signJ "I[ the time Vcnnegur: PluJn.. Kutt.h)'. Rornblurh." anri pllJp.. r"pul~'i"n .lhe Nt"'" Wave aanhers mtroduoed to Sf t..dlind crifie." W)II".e:.. ~-r""3j>7.a. S.ul'jue and I.ns in ihi5.l.l:tberg.... lhl: potluca! righi .Sablll-I' (1961l).AInu 1.. S(".urm (lgti~l: B.elecLju:iit .t -pes:.5. film. n..nguish. " number.it. space P£"(}gtll'" L4.:~~~.erlfr while ~(>Uil1~l!5 '1~""lJIrr"w:r W(n'ld' (J9fi6J higbljghl(.. and S.".. m:ay J~an h"i)nic depiction pI rpn"1"1"1111 ~ ~ dopcralt" oor .m La . de..llc.Z""1<oor (I 00&) oml SpiW'ltd'... the success of the lule...~""h. AIlIIISeymnur. period i1. .1 iil. themes. f\:{c.. wjder acd more . Sima~ and MiJler.ecomic book lJouri. 1l.If..nd ccuunuas unabated to the pn:s.C:d" gt('1j:' t Illt~ t1f..Bo lon.'i" (1972).... of~'a:-:-~rn cvmpUter sclenec.fS ft-a. The.s. D.200J •• nd . ~hc PedeMJian.· e..cderut'" \It'''''':'!lbl.1)..Silver E..riL' del. we mnqueerof spaee.eriii_G~C:lr"c"~:Ii lJr Si'(Jqg. we U. ~L1ltb~'l!"~B""md . /)~Iphifl (ID6~1.'" M"" (IU&l1.ds (19. \1lu"h uf "he.'J~er S "The.~r-Ball"n:i'. I)ebny.ICe.IJrCJlN..fU::...1 bey wnl1lrl mtt'~ rhe ..he<j~Hollywood pmdu«d1''''' Ti'I'-w...~l_-arch f1.nLbologfr iJaJlprqtt.}Tld ftoJH whidl h:).n.1\lhOO b.0(4).= !J«f 'OUll!11C and IiJlh r"''''''ge [ .a. Rug-tr ZcliU1ly.d sfill stl'OJl~ in the uext. ".".red('IJ~.. 10 KIJrcu we ('Old war nlll"C'd snd the: lpeaer of Lhtt" H.ohli:scot -or n l (I!l6B) .1 '!Irk.'.l~~ To·lrtfl'tuw (l!l71). 'trt: e-ru~htf. i Napabli: Ex"". f""". :Tb-c:-'8.l\.s. BtqJud nom'"" (1969): tit'."1...nd .nereaR-<l: PoM.he osciellcc"S..decade's moods. F Skinner. Orw. nuund"7ed. ll"'~ Abitk~ (1949.. A"'..rf1("1 h <If television.mplleH ~1Ithe SU(~C18 ofSputmk andthcnM' ()fwc U. e...41 :!Iu~b. Dhu(x. -s.. In the "'.'h.~kf'''' SF's '!. SU~BC.s (1946).lurcd S[1"t3_m bot' . Epp (19117).ltt plIJJJrf 10 pr'J"ide lbe 'he Ii.e ...1.!'1J llIrf'l:llo paRe Llpnn pl~ in :t . Smi(~ WUlia-ru::lioll.1.11'\0seemed tu expre. M"rI.~]hll<41 d II u.. llad.S. produced Sf-i. (19.. ....~ fJf con.~brinkif. In addn. p.1H eu.:IH::MlI rli~. Tllcir(wc-l"'dU me:s.'0" Fi.'1I"'" <tRL.IJru r't'"1o''I. coumcrpoiru.jjl of the decadence orbuman dviliz:tlUQD.M. oh II He I"SC)' F'leLcl)~ r K FJebd.ht .I~. R.tiQI~ in pr0KJ"Q!i-$(o mour's Th~ Cll1l1"11H~ S"'J.m}" (1952) and Hdnl. <if II" P"./ffF~ (19611.sf st'rY.n~ Kmghl' 1'or""" <if I'h'.g S€.ir c~~cr'gJ ~~'U_«"!i J ~r (lint::.lIiNn·~ AIGNt! dgo.ilrld llier al.59-' seems .. more..f..o\fldeHuH 5 T~( {jl.'.ll"m.h(-rg~5 Filu.'ifrufigr:... (I %71•• nd flam''' .bnJugl1 invemlen of LIlt I. :lind Drury Good wri[~rs in [he 1l«ld .e( or the I'uo.3. U.0..S UniJJq5( Day i ]91 I).. ~f<.r:nt. (19721 dr.1 War and OlMr 19ii9). Not.ace.duo."... Our critical fi~-l wlll show thai the lJ. and .e.s.". "r. -1 ~ir (:h:. Their works made • Kolden . field. .~ rhe .'li [19"55) nud Frnnk'~ A/as.ljngthC!! mind-numbing.irno'W..pl..n. ml}UII Janding-MlibherM.1960~ ~'~ $41 5lnk U1d wr~chinH ~hut II of wrhen became idenlif~d 1'.'ong W'~th conce"uiIlilJD upon the refinements IIi *uper-h\LTtihIl:li in rite" ~ulries of A. liiIVin~ lIO .. and deY~lopnlenL'oo IH uresurnmed. ~1. 's rn.~ John Barrh.asSp~ilt-. ir te.c.{lod w..K dWplimnlJ'innUl!'n~ po'V.h".~ttlrgt:tml BJi:ih. Poul Andersnn..ilOI)' ClllJcnion. I~t) . Mo re mer..ume n£ rbese year ~Lh the Iah~J o'futlll. 'l'hty explored with ofu!n pil1inru~" .... 'Thl!'J"-c:'?. u .augJt.. Heinlein..d ".r '\I .and -Rui".bcoT"\·~n .charaeerbc u.hoC! i'l-n:.hut in. -u. B':kI1v. a h""d on. Bnmnl'T..! (19691.1 Mn~. V.uJge.uh'l!iI NQI TJri~ AUJll. .with <~"'i<ln'...5.{nJ...'i~:'f}nGt!i J I h .rr-n . fu[..:ilrHh: 'p·oW:::t'1.r.gghea.bU. .rd(l~~ 0. Cynkhft1 ilTld Clvd :lfI~:r(h}' eombi.t~~d to.UOLLIIi decade. Willb.rioume". or the UI.d (1963).-n It111"iJ"i.aItc:rmg dl LJg5-'(:h~"Ilter .Th~ Mod.. .. Smhh ._ . I n :!iucl~ a LumWt. EUI:3oD.rrn OQ7.lgl!" was ~ame:wy.. '\nth-on)~ Burgess.'.c.

.uld Niven and f'o1ft'ri~lJ.unlf:mli.inri ff]ilJlt'C' new 3l1lhrlf& emerged whe 'WC1't IQUDedi-ilLdr pohshed and p.lb[c prOp'I:!IIUfm. and both ilms.I1.o . in. fesaienal.l..hi" Ide3 or progress in \'JeSlun In1.I k:.hlglJ IIlIIl no.ua=sofSE film! had nlu. and SaDdU1".Dis~~lJ.u. IJkll:'Mo-ise.oiTl~ :!r"or'tlh fer brorherbood and &1:1.m. 'iC1U ')111 rulluwlng Ikt Of -". d .t pubbi!l!:sr-51!!1I~rs: Haldeman lind Heinltin received ad'nlnc<'~ tn thil!' ef" IIIQU:lilnds nf dollart for quite routine nfnr~l$--. WEt: ~. thete Wa5 iI C01LWlid"ttion ot (1·· 1 .l p"....Eanh of iu unnll-a~ thl.'l" in ty~dido-n.. whose among the srudenu who have ceuunued tOo be ...dfbecam.'1).... M"" the opr... such as Clarkl!:~~ n"'"ldli.'c could n()T.t":!UHlllh·t" of ..& (1973).. lly. ~urlher.lnyllbn.· ftn:i(\n or ""p'...aM:rch. fil1&l m'. M""u.ing. (l Q7~).. II' ._'fL' OD uefenst . ptc:w:ntalin Ih~ ..''C\I!alive r!c:inn"-might 1ndred bei:nrne rhe JUdin:Kn:aIH'3 bean CtrhlinlYt it wa"lor the nUl lime luLbenlicrul. lridud:cd... Chiny hae riill:'M the Vi-.his e:rfeci.an'. pre-stilted ..: lIoyl". rbere is R.jJ~ll.. 3Jiireptt!5le. as in Cowsx. U..~ent~njllf"d)' 'Wh~ll"!I. and Vinge.ill..we been relflrd~rl u brilliant in the l.a.1'l1·l'f1Ot1 pH~S.) die S~('. C3w..j 32 Thr Luerature e thematic !rcnd. or pr!l!LlH~m born ill the lere 1960! :::tnd.. 8ithoPl iw_d liilme:s I"PO"C!c Beyond \.:lrOl/.. "ll1tlbgJ.'ilill hisUJJilr1U Kenn-t"hJurkie)'.lghl. Calf'.Ser-icue Ian publi.JJ'" n~..... 'rh" p.>TId .he ~dence thirty yea.T beIoff-Ko 'rl mu(:b w.rd' Ifl74). and South American wrilen E v~ sn.rncne. nOl ~pp>r..rfi. "as • mrpoinnglf <Ifong "nd ~pul"r r@fM:iM of pieces that ciati. th~ mlln1' ofthf' publHhed writcn of Lht H~jO~ nrJt e~en menTion!!!D in t.(.1 4 Dndrew.i:ned fit Ih~ defiJljtion of •..lhi" flVl'-y-eac.he ri.m~m and tK:licI in p~ Ih:n "t.. M31"j)e-rg.OIillfiOU5i Iimiratlen of time imposed between g!!)farO-.-~r~ Dru11.ry '!'b~)"'e~.halos)' of irunrunonalhec P""""" a a nd .-dili!)n.1Tr. H~T:r'iSQn..940111 anti 19. and "'~{lun:e~or F c:ooJnad.:md..-iM I!! The bridge Lhc det.. Fn19...rho rs such •• Herbert and Md: .iiI.: wltuTc wr-rr-ar lea. More people ~iW St'Jr WID':t in cheaters than :iln] fUm In ~I . Mian. A/(p Thi~g" Fi'lf AfMrl (19'1U). Lem.l:!cd from.harisma of the Aml"'ric:..d!1Jloro fr!>m /lIr 1'.llJi MdT! U 915-).. leTh~od in a ".llll i e 1'' ' :tnd humanltle depa. b~ EUI opean. anti Goulnt'..dtIilCt o1rrd the puhliahere d~dline.lbetS·' Grn (lq71) and l\u".silio-to vf !i." .. OTb. a maUer for secious surd vm fhfl!_ lirer ..11_.-s earlier. ... T"'.lind respect SF. Fur ill.'1M 11M'" (1973) and Niven and J>ournel!e'.h..S~-fu..oled 11' !h~ rli:l.lEl.u-fwurks thaL we '~h ""ere . quamr TO i'I l:bfrd.he ~"DI1->. Science fiction pular emertainmem.l( lime in the I97<1:s.".Or~over.. yeani c{mC'~c-ode.re.tIUII:UI.nd wesieru C01pHiIIJ~fI) .rsuanru biuding. Ih:u: ofd .J.heoc.p..r. ~nd Bnulle.. De.j Choi. J I) the ea rtr 1 ~71h. . ephumlzed in il ver.t!hil(.: e..rlydoillinating.:a.h to rollU.. p.-atiom: did 1)0(. GCf\(I Wolfe..important Ik~ mone-y't. SF ".iu"ro.e:ll!. u05ingle onCfdN.$lJu.e uf the di.:: Knebel's . .. "ll1i~ aeadeuues LlU~~L lhousan~ of (.tthere [Qgambl~<on SF pubnshing.w'l. The ru.itr~. M. One form iff SU(t.~lnSF~ TluM. ail'Tga" broke.:a-:.u ~j)lJld n. Ithug IJ n the 'WOrks to be ~llIdtd in lhb secorsd f!dirion r~uircd the of a ccasjderable vilriety of cri[6ria. -ritera' g1lellu.~ g-oud a:s dUlliie: w-t.keJr II><' . Cud. Vorley.f'I'1.\"hieh srrof\gly Implied Ihal QncitL-uJlthin(.'lllt ..md '(arb. rill(f . 1"o"Ulh.er" 'P...3lh' =-f\d ori-gioal M~......:OlrWunhy m.(Ir L5) OlhC'tll".lin. alld pror.. tions.uldaJ ilK~ wr. lllh. @lmOlllOl'crn. (I 97D) .. Mi".t5t n.ou.u. The setecuon ('rue.o.\.Ilie inucilse:d ~nJTh .lly . )torie:s by A nderson. Benfonl. ". lttulin.-hQ csulbllsllcd iii hi_gh TcpU..~.~.ibllopj)hy.t offlhc tup hC!::ld-Tht' titleio and "..r 1197) serjes hardly seem rjclion. u li ••• i'g B.t. MoJ.ernillatEon uf Wl)rt5.Ooe "-C:lfUit.ajor problem 1to':l!.updacc: uf u "'cnUl:::aUye~I~c.n:mel1l~ of A. SI:1 fnr thi~timC' re\. IlIrgd)! 'J~fJ. CriL·htrl.~1 godsrn Ilft them rtum their IrnublH..t"tit11'{'S.. lopdd hl~"Hk.r!!I:[(URl ofdespai.dM..ic~ WS-ule down f..5' II.. Stephen I<ing-. .fir.e'~b no agmenrl(..." moods...1lJc:nL:an u ru"N. were still publilih lng. longm]ii ("~C' t.udents.anll"l'!':Ii of Sf litt'TUT) tht.UlhQJ1l .. u'!!di.g l luti"11 ~TP 'III J. f. .I w:rnjIlg 111~lit~S}~ill(.sl:riplion ell .ulil W.r~ WU H flow tin~ ill1'. ellen to the. where ihelr ..hiug ImJuyed a Academia tu rned !loci.. tllIohlf".sinsJU.-i.h:ri:zed .nd Show'S a"nmdZ.ng I. AriSvciah:"J io. UJe ret nQJlf:~he-J:eM tfT..d..~ for and effect!: of rh1s ate :difficuh LO ~l.."~glit fll Cm.rinrc the .old "dl. in llj" . in fw..CommOTJ -5r('iUt' dictated.e-emsex:rmvagiUlL Yelt 'lNo&! w4!!reforced ~xdu-d_o!!! '"umber ..ln.JYUDt:age51IIo'~t:f1j")"~d are i.rt(".... B'lIyle)'~ M.lo's T"r..s Unu:h Le:O..rrgl:nct"of tbc muinsreeam wilh the SF .(iO . IIkIncy.pV""'1411 ~G5) and 5. Tbe J. r Ilu~""i:se.or U:5-ju!.ghcUo'" and rualnsaream SF.an p'l"e5id'l"lK!}:a:nd :uldtnglN" ne a rl~ universal decline 01 puhHc conlide:n(." SF Iho< ...a novel whi'iJio!! vie.-bOl tl!e. (1971). Slcpbcm KiDg. Che-r:l~b~ LC-("f rep- r.: 115 folloJl.e SF became mort profitable for more l'o'rir~rsarid people ~£O(-ia~d field than Cyt:r before.hh the rreJd were NI"~ll.'I'i[ifm!!. tl!...·s"1'. Wuh f~w eX(f..)J.I' (l96Q) 3m:t Pri~s~''11 fJar/u'fli"K Blond 119721. ' fll'$1 cditJOIL C All ut . case is toughr in n:ligiow... Br)MDt. malturream alia "field" eemtnued to be dlstingui.: o d lllle1lion eue prr.o> ir. (l~74).hret': Fir~l. .oLtntdpjijrbl such enurses in past gt:ne.olr WTlI.tnUIl war b.."I'lnstltud()o:. anOther Jurm W35 Tlo:nalgfa.JE:YJtoldA'Stopta. [Got/.'edits of nrarl)" 6tXtt SF fillD3i (eJl:cludmggptlJi< and released for iii If.-ia weft.ll'Inll~ ~1·J..r lot g". .mtnol"f"fil nwnhfr _(iIf WQI1Jt=J..s. Zf)(JO 11.m wri~r! sud as Lessing. srul crldc~m of SF th~I..~.. C)""lrrry.illh whlnrrl "find lhortAI'!it OUJTJioc>ClIi.and Nt-t.d"NlP..iber-a1 criti!.9705oominMd in the RAliud.r. K_o..8nrmg:ravenidr.s. point 01 $«Iu.(JY"4~. pressiun l'I'DT5 "'WITh (be.111 f{"rr.J' ~f-re setecLc:d In ' .~ie... Simak'.131no longer c:cin:i.rii. dTnJ V~r1e)'. pond •reus memi"il 10 the ]..lh' depre W .. ID. l"'Ctllillf:d (rom (ill' I ir-SJ .. and Lawrence Sa".berg's 1'• ..'hUllrlal culture ['e:mainMlwoug-in Ilr sud> .'6D'. -I.~hiH All lilt.lI.IHIlDCeIU jfJ~. Ihi~ Chil)JIFT.:rlircUfJU[I u::.ltd'"· lis' uoginaUy. radio. There wu a com.u..a~ ended.'1: I "IIY dcfinrnor1l)fSf rlOL-wilmlanding. J::-tYR(" C:'1:TT.U. revival! and ne-w eulu. rCU101rlaolc. all Mlru l.~rlreud M\II phr'. presented in SF.91.. Tiu Gilljl (197!}.!lb.::a!l:lD z:hA!! ricstediLiQIl1 ilurumt4:tiC. MQTeo'~cH.ri:lj Tiu.1eJu rcrerent~ in present reJilliLy m~rg~ irun an (u gfl'nimtion that pennies hope and newly .. From 1976 10 I9S1J.reptesentingmnre Vein :should 0'01 lJ1(:teR5C its length: hy moft' Ihan. DS ill BrU"nfl"" Th(" Jall..-.Do/"I.. imernauonat.rnplil!i( in [he foilo~ing dc.hi~iI:'djli(.. L'lIDdw.. IIH.'_. Ru.100 ". Fi .raj I~ 1.tt ::ill hilt\'(: ccrniaued LO Tead . ufAIIiW).::tbl-l!!..". he foUo-wing I.!.IIl1l1 f~T the floli'd {see Chap(.§:uru:riol) between ".. marulooked to alic. ilh I m [. o/<]{= (100(1).uds w~r~ pe.. .OUJ'iC5 iu SF in univer..111[h{" hi~loriC-.Lwget Percy.ar. . Vlngt".ul cnrrurrumzrn o1. nu. de in 1n[lII'no 09131.d an in h'ritlO~ Cit 11 1lighClf le __ thi1l1 t:''''t.li_l·ilU~ :let in aculture 11'.!'rEy.alitlu wen: Bar1e:J't' B-enlord.lil~.limifHi\Jl' li:liil.

"" }..l~!l't Irldll")(' {?-24].o lU r IIcrJ to C:lJtn . I~ns. AJ.8I['IC("'I:~d "tJor-kh . Ronl~ Aldi:is:.tbr'dr} II ht". N'.. {au ha d to me r:1 (won .1l .6.F bt t~I' pr..111)" WoJlh"il11.. .. Lom .it:nl'L . rh~ ShOll fleticu 11Ii1./r1~ffrn!Jtrmwl PQJdN. flg "..M «'flim~.#>Ct! Ei':-(!(J{i ltDi'll! IU'tJ·~"j hul.!.. A minimum uf (bI et' ~t:L:IJIi:un~ndJ..ouIlJoo11 of . Stepbl!.. ':rds iu .~ Fa. as: Wt· had m be In{~lIclinn of Ihi! nmn'l. m "'. ro the be~ or Dl.m..r. uf'the OOlf:li'1!t". 1'92)~ll)j3i Biftj... ~rapruiJhil~.hf.:roi~ 1Jign{.rmr·F..rrl1n'i:'~ of Sdence 'Fj~li(.r..l:hu. I ~H·ICxr~priiln or CUn'e~·~ alrnest fI:HJ. SF' 'I'M 0111(.r:.Ih... 1. Jolnil R.f'~.. .tm. (Jlh. DurUi .f' l:Ilfe.ld be mdudcd..r oul. Sct.Ji Nkholl*. I J q Qr 'if .. "T=~ing ~!f If n-oirlc: of the :tb~ appl jed.illcl:" Clinmn . I g!'.l~l ~lttho logi~!'l..(S rir'HU" F'i.I HulI1ry NfI. A~o i.wd lX'l~-IJltonrlrurl .1lired..tl~n &rJ.fl 0{ S~. foIlo'l1.'IID."umLl'ilinu~n~ Jid!l~ d I hr. Jr.:hm.'\}.''Is'IIJ. Jo~ph DoC!RoII.l.n 1..eoO{ pre-.~ (~d.ol. Pfdff.li.high ztumber of re ..DgJ. 4. R<!(". rril.JI'9ll'.d rcccgnil'.!.M:rlrilihlJ!~ T}'TI1) I..<]nfDe"'Vo~e.U!!h. \!1/tIl. wllu made: romm~nlA i3.! rnes of !lle :ilUlhul'¥.lld~miol. b.illlt"r.)r:d~ 1001 .~'l" wI:!: rI rhi)( II I t''lll Oft' Widi!l}'d_ iliJabJII: :il.cn'le'i:1 uerth r w I"..atit.L"l.."bU.H'I Un i'ii. Y"ivm.!::r~'1m~: combine with 4 jill!:! 5 .:"l...eS 1_"1: Motte. .. I hili Ii h·~rk.. of 111 ch.ct"ssible"'c~ie"l\~tlfS. Th.:{:usml.qr 11. ih i4lwtlr'Pi o..J.fl~ provided sp<.of r II!(' foIl uwi II g . tur the fint cdnmn of lilt "..'flshm.d..:IJI'Ht~ Eil:tiJltI F''''''J~ E."'!::amd 7 •. ~ ·-cre: (.LD.l'"loifliC. Bd. fmll.!'h:'I \'!. \'fnnhy pieces IlO~ writ~ 1'. ~i<l"'" II~'~)~ 'jiltl WeJlirSdJ'lt:Et1i'idilm'filln H.~ril'1J"Firfi •• .!u~ Ifa W()r Ii:: ~~hit ¥cU ma irut ream i'l!.t1O'W.'ldjLh::JI.. :!Iiel(!t:1 WOl'b-jl..·~'" Cr·ilir~ CUldo!li Kennerh.hll".~r."rf<rt~d 10 (. rhe review .l 8QC1r. of Tkfl MQ. 'ILOI:'IJ.t'".rie-aed fIJI' indu:iRm in .rlY ~otk-tt... i?'\fit-h -4 tJlro.libove and 8 ilml ~I.luip.n=.. 110". "l'i...llJt On~lDl»'lru: .'j.rJ~].. anll reeders..Ii"!J )li.j~ h LInd Jt. t9'1D-) • ~ •• KJngs.st edilitJ. ~"'i"{j'Jr.~llIUJlC'lll mi~! l~l~C ~t!II m:nd4!. Thoma.. F~lIlas.h Ii IIrlt"~ H1""trr LUft.t$.t:irlH".·t'u·lf.·li~tc.·lri.dnd f?hrr.rr S~t Darnall Rmgb I'j J. Rt~inu r.un:"ccquiR::'I. Qr tr.:lc!rof 19Jiln .lcd ilffi0J'."4I('Clr. n . Edft~ili~ UUhrl:f-l.atil.ngJiili Icr which a lr3ntr.lll . Sri~. (ti~ j i1 tlj -9} Wi wc:Jl ~l $.l.fj l"S-t<:-cJition.u.." LilmJJY jql~rn. O(!.~.. Vdi~ I'("C~hft:d ill ~eriptlic luCWi PoU.Dntl...i'Q!J. llldeK~"d ill Hall's S cli. Tuek..never IJ~ ehese ~h I.nn~ f ..4WtljJ'"{t~..'If dIMl6nlJ A . I I'nc n~~orthe ahovc ~ppl~d.IJIIILwl· 11.'1.unn:s rcql.n<lIJ"" •• mL~i!.. III IllIr ..iol't& Js.'e I "ll . 19ffi.e penp~ td1TJ I:ra". A ~pctJ:hl1!wnb 111 Lhr i..a. "'~'''''J t"~ roll" r. i(!'Y3 a . Tuck'.1:i!.11'1 lhmup.illgl)1 'l"CmfrHllend [S.'nc7('{llilj(j 0/ Sd •• « r)r. Thlrd edillt'n: Hill K~n.·gIUIllI<.f..iy of r'ridlJs:il."'di~ P....li. 1\1"1'" 9/ Fh[l.:.Spun: edlrieu.c:':'lmp 1("l)m.e.ed ItionJli.Ellt"r:ll d1tnfQ}j' Ig~j.1I!' 1:.. 'H •• f( af f"...gu.l'~.i~Jl!"Cted W-t' were .k: V~ .aJ lJ 1..!T.ly ml!{"60rn-eor lhl!:.tion H W'. .d.1l'!.Lhhe!d i .. J.1:UU..[t'.. OO..UI.thaI...p 01) 'btl[tl .. 1d<-4\ll.. D(lU~I.~mi>.:~ P. LCirUfj Lu»~ MUN .[IntI R'1?i}ert \\iibdn.r.I" ej. a"llroer ami Peter f\'kJJ..s~u lid edi Ii on j am C!II h~h Iwllllam ~""theUnl' j.(!n·e3. lEI ..:r:siml b~ d"J<: oouldr relJidr:l'5Iigxed iu lhr prefu.'nl"ll-ll.'.d.. ..J not tni.ewic7. A.red .il t. in] url kh Me r. WE.on~flr\I.S.1jj .ibll1'r.. ..I m 1!. trur J~!.·il:t.1\'m ~I'll'<koWl't.(n F1'1all y..b:rtuigh !J roU.k. [loll!.:11111["("1. (..:ni·.lng: Ihlct' f~lflTIl~ndil.B:r.1. .'I" I'M"'$" B.!< Aurh o)rJ .' F~ lufMI~ .ppt!~ilj SrifTlC-r F~timt ...~ -coml-tj r.. pubfi!lbt.a:n.'rr:il .:ib.::h Ii .m1l'.jn(.u ~ h 7 ~L... re ...e:r.:.((JJ'j. S.Pi(_jmn S. unim~!I:1n ohhl~'e-l·e'"C()mrnendil1i.~ 1101kil\'JlI . Gnbb.e gitrcn u! bcl..I l'i-t-C::Iu&t Ih~~' were foreig:n.n D iJ.I'1"DDJ.utb du: I'ct:'IJ!rmn"". l:.tT}.-III)" d-co.s'IrF.uub. .. foOl" th~ liBI and tbe d~:iiign -of j"t~ enu+es filed II\jllh :at leasl Ih~ follo . .nl'ltlrio!d wer'e w (I:r1:JIj C:Dntdd~d t~Qlngb-l. IIladc:.. rn~dc COI. I~i.iirm.Olh.-..B i-l. les C. 9.lr.. Al'l/il Rcgerx.Q("l.s...un.. rit.rI~ of SF bOD1:.FU'lrhf!. artfeles aud rcvie .: SF OO.."· ~tlt pu bJi'~hed in a . ull f(.i ~.. i!.fe ~". ulA I1Blii-r Sdf!"n~~ Fif.f H.ar !}""H'I!~: Don a11:1 Franson and Her ..~cg.-5 of Ihlp ti'"5trd a':U:.~rue' Camp.u".ID pi thi~wiJ. B Th lssur 411 HQlld. \.sy.c.miiJ" anti h'ltiNidu.. lcgoE' Ins. ~Ug~tiDI1. pl~H:d "it lilJ.w·c. S. [1 ~~5].I't~W W011drr• ...::!II.~. lJlU'.t.t"rlual Mlml"f.{IJ...G~f"''l''lf.ll!::' Thl'!~ -d.-1r1. j~ Lhree re-c:omm~nrlarlr. M<Ik./Of." de lfh:f.~"d 19(i7:."f"ljrl'Jl" Fif'll.icl~le :lJj~:r..H ability ~o un...u..~hh oj tllIU"u.lk:r.: fJ.l[ R.!lll rht"lI] be}Dlld lhe.~~·rvauv..")·t!\o S''1mM J<klJ.(Ind queri .t!i.tlD~.]wln.U~.!':tI~JXU.!!!.'''dJ.·f W:ot'~ii.ng pn.31 !ilfn~ tilt)' in doing it preci~)' .!() ... Tom Junr:s.8'm. A workl:MJld be :!:t1ccted ulh~r~wIl!c".Qr Iamous for novels bUL ~om. reader's chulce llats SP.ru('-1 i.Jil [Tilici i·n pubH:!Ilu!d ~\i'IC!'" I the I'i-..tf(.urian..u:..tl>ll1ldi"lf.olurrm:.iu·iorudly . U{'nhl!! nL:'. IluIJ~ 'smJilf. ThE!" title ll:iod ~. Wi!' did ~l however.eca. ~ I 1I..-) SU""i'I:J1.dl utl~:t :iC3in~1 Cutn.. ..~(M Il rrf I Ilcr rbere ~'fC~it SlIo.h:o'::E' 1't'V~n.. !r~ ·l'l"CQ·..'I!~ ~11..d~~M. Jr-. ~l"... The.n ~T.ML \.18 <:ItJ....->I J·..1.J r·cl'il!!:.hlj~ht:!d auu.lotJ I-JIlUilhao/l.. Mnsl Qt {til.!il/Uiv.." tllT.rlTII IJDll'~ 1lI~ Hmw. 1.ffl(oI!' PJi.e. Voft1rne I.ti'Mli 8. t wirhbrld h altugcchee."or\: ~n f. AulM~ ['}-KJ.<! need ~Q n . :S~'ttljufl.r.ell !.. I ~. ThE!'. J... 1.rJiIflll.Fallld$) "ill! S..lJG: wilh -4 abOV(.j lQI JU.-e a j:. . W.)\1 u~. K~m'lerh JiJJ'lQ.liJit'$.£". . $."...$!andll1g rl1VieW":!I co-u. r-oo girt!..~)mui Sritfrif"r 1'1<1..~II!F1'}n..IJJ.. J:IIndrI. Wh~D! possible. in Tlu A'Ij.. i'l..5..S! No.Inndtl ~'fI#IJ. 1972".lml)rjdr comrnemm ~"or ofit...'ure gn'lln 1 rlillO~1l1i: the practice of I-l('n~)t EnCjiJlJfH'di~.~ but .j.. rt-rn1um. Da'rkn SU'II!"I". -II. D~'{id [J1 .h 9 fiJllu\l'ilig fi Wurks frreliliuDed -iJ!ii \i. and A~!.on.'.. ~~I:: .( Fi<liuflLilqutu.1t.j·..req.wnd ~~l'a]l~~imc.f""tihBtcol"" WJ1.~ Sr... anti E. ..:tktn CoU~"'l.dQfI plll~ AJt..he S:iilem J3rt's:.bask mCfuTll:ll.lc"tr . loving.'tI. ~l. D> Gbor<". -pf'e..' . S"f"du~n (JJ tOIi'T...il~ :2Ir.."1I ii~Ut:lI-uf nurueruus urlrer f3n"'ln~~ """rio.D""".: u::kthj'wk"<l~f: .u is a :!I!rbng .~ II n'U:mbt~ I:If~he·(Uln.fI1ll!.. a :l"1!3Jlnnably Wril!!'f' r--(!C(:l"lng ~c.md Fu~"..~.c. r-iPiI!"C20L"l"lI~ rr1'e '!'r.t:.j "'1M . . S{hrrb-.~ Ai:!' ~(fm c{ $~.:. N"".. Th~ B~. appwef' rIng: occaslc nail)...I:!ii.1 "...kt ."... l"uhl~II(:..h.~ j.\1. and .ll.Juhn pr~.l..~. SUnl!'! ~titm.'lddldot! 3l'.li/a.nk WiI.~kn by Cal.h(:1I IhlT'l'!' ...."HTlt:5 lio.trrv.!'.u·~and 9 rDllowil1~.d CJI!.· "'"'hOD]" lloucher's yc.'"'.....11 I'Cl:wf)nla"lrlHI. I f .':Ui. .. IMy...l '10 S~jiirl.." Un~ Il 5('('(}ml 111U!fI J-i-llnc!l.r. ) ~-d. in Pelt:'1 N'idHllls!ii Sn~1lu 1-.Jffin ~. ~ work could bi: i u clud I!>I! if' c'I~.01 umenm1'~ ~"-31 "We have (J mvi dl'rl r.R!!"'IJirn1.tr'l!. tmd Ei tlJ'f"QoJ!.nt'fti...JI Rhi'J£~I!!{' h..1.1.1 e~~i.rll nurnl.'t· <of-t:!Fjj~u:""'jodgmt"nt." nJ'r.<.uwbi..Jac~ WilIirun.· L S'pJ'a.ilriDn. CflD'l'ltlenl.s:nn~ PI(. 1977): in u-OO Ul'dfion 1975.W'.ugh J961f IiIIw"I'" osabl ~).."bf)Jf~1 fjl.:1'f! a ..~. . ·• ard DeVOTe. Tnm DarlKr. GIla.d Farrlm..'N tR~""1.lmni: ~..lt.n-e~~.and u:s:erull~. $d-n:1r.t~ withoul " ." .. i.1. D. and M'.f!H.~u!r Nkh~hi..''''for rl.t' Fldm" T.J .!:.Ii1 ma. fron:Lfit:iU la l'iflh ill portl1a riry: combine.dihible.j5..~~ .(jlIii. PaOJIJr B ./~j .J Donald H.' the .. Wurks rnem:::rannl :f.w n" orher Neanwhile.f'fL GnJ.ri~ri._.ing n.b:J1 il..~ifit.~h.. .Jlit 'J'l of iu:4.? BJI(i!~ ['min.

u'nulh~[onv~nl:iOfi:i 2 Science Fiction between the Wars: 1918-1938 Brian Stable ford World War J Dl"Oughl to au ffid the fil'~1 exp3I.u. "1lS..be.B..f:!l :litld mngaalne aerlab.h :it::iell(. elJolUllQ(1 of pu.S. hue Hoog-oon were amonf( liu::ml but there..menl ~)r set of expeoaa to bnlb readers :and ¥!'Tilers}r~gardilJti rhe-appropriare comenr nfsd~.i'QH4"U!I:.. The di""'Qntinuh~'wa$ rUC'ln. MO!lt or llie wrltiDJ) lhal :al?phI-t:d in bOl)k r epru'll.c much less imprrrtant..m"'.!<i:!beBrimh Sfr. wers nurcer- or riggl'd whose ourplll wilIlMt:O COlUid~ilhlf in It.h.l.gaziIlM U1 AIDerka.ons.'h.! :snmt'thiug-cs1J~ '.ioC"5Ipet"130ziIl8 in Im'ag& 1'1l.rerl in the nest deCide b)' . rradlrious 1 [re 'I--hll:ngtl in the -rh.e1l 9... (b~ develoJljn~ mnlian. but ilWlI. -I h(' effrrllli of Lrul .'U'l'islj. n"iI/ 800.!'C.er. John Beresford..1.'~unsdousrJle·JS l.''OMnl r..f(J..m~ pulp m3gatine:. The proMel1u.. foo.. thi U panl(uJantir:lfUJnoflht IitCI"!H·.lnt. and-met. O'Idudhl..hpulp. cheecr. llfld inrludof'd Oeorge 11111 .. A rather U rill _Und oj dis~on[lnl.."" 1f!"~1H£..:I'lJ{lh Inl bo(1k .. hOld lno~~d (OrwJFfl \o. seieiI ce Iteuon w'ri(Cni h.h.lllOm~ "'IJ)~ cnnsrraining. wh.c.gS..inn rlf popuLIl ~den[inc romances in Hrilfiin IIJld .. Tbroughnur . 0)' i {u.1-.r.h ot' ""hid.. .in cunsequence.d TaltJ w".in Br-itOlin..!C rlle~'who plit it btl du 1n BritaLq_.. us influ.. The-se m3g3lino encouraged the emergence of _&I ill mere ntw pubncasieu. bUi rhel't" ne. "''''''''m •.and purpusa of r:h_fwdtl!rs..-".aao permiucd tbe ~imulLllllneolb e~:ilblim.o produced in the 'wo .. f Q'CCT in J919.lilY was -f:aU~ 1U lhc d~·c.bfno -esplened bt lhe. b~!i"DA"..In Llch marc c~J"e'fn1 in chc nllhBl bfP«h~lical miheux.. The pra.l~nr...ri1lktm Hope ililoh.U~.liL)11IJroduted in BrtUln twd "It! tunliJl~'WM 'Io!larl."{ciu!I't\'("[Y it pulp fi(.~-e.111 :<1~'arenc5!. from cbeap books.he >\mmc.i~ dD~ b) Wdls-).hel~!.'" m..!W:III_S aunnJ~' ~f~ht-:lrt SU}rl..r C'rnpba&i..n~d.. t.."ant ccucnbmlon ~o (.!"oi a numbee cf new whn here Iu ru a ke a sigtlif.:.tion..}u~l'"('-wa)i a m:lrkttl ' difftrtllE:t bHW-:en the ch.. .pollt'nlil. two rrarl'tkm~ remained dinin.ac . "ctUilJy riled d u.1. Their 1'1011".1t!l'ICto n.:c-n.I~i"t.n« Ilcetcn stories.oc.ad I. then! eemaloed . WU11Irll!' IUQfliLp rt:rl'ifie "PL. 11l!!1I: and Hugo C."~ir pe-riod b lht' rapid Hro~ah (If' umidd~bp'o".tlmJ1(. or ever wuuld 3g3io.." __. f:I> considerable o ITlillf.1 .lfl ·el U Wl-"r(II several.Ltlgh [llallycooit.H.1 exonr :)fh~'ntu:f't" I'ItfJnt:. ftw wri(ers.Qr :I th~ Atlantic. IIlwr conau Dovle.'1.gM andP~I1t'... e-dhion!l and t. .. This a . in (bi5 pe-rind to a the HIeater degr ee lhan Ihc)' p.I.c.<I.e.._. k."'evt:rt.riNl...Tltb..A tlautic (l'I.tr:1 of ..5(O··r()r kliull remalned pe.ise Trtms'Ofthill·-maniff. I ht rOl'uinuitr of rb:e twu rradirlons WiI. Ray E'lIlllminf'l.5QU1C wU'!'3J1t Irem Iil.. deeoUp.rYlI:.'orl6 pr(i\!'idl.. fl. This lrir1l!TIJv".¥l>1I.'jtlt 118 ..slde tfi-a( mill'll u.FadJ.5hcd pattt'n1 :"'.. the eecunmic cffl!1'1'8ol the war and p::lrl1)' byComrl!'Ullun-fmru fM puJp m st.JfLlic n!Ui{lrl. made Iheir W1iYmro Brltaia...lih an4'j r\man(.a:d becom.5IU:h .I/' {bm.(. 1-\3(.a.l~orLh(' pulp D!:tctclpLl('eJallu"IJflitcd SLII~:.ring rhi!' War Yf'ars..!T emlrely iH um'l'-l 1.~nd .:dim.loplllent Of Amcrican Pc r-rmaece by rhe emergence ttl the prl''':(\Oo''".IXnf Ill<='produttilJn .lltll Due (il. lO 11 h. but m otIJ.~.as)':A.lIowing:it dQ_utu:l:and to 3 :llJbsLaIlli21 group readers and Wrlte-U.bt: Jreriod bt:twetn the wars.:.dno )t. Pr io .I" I !l26.ild.I\. hUI the.JJ1 and I-.. lion "p the :idioSlnttillOCmethods.r T4e1f. eommou ~r pan:trulal (or a vaSI. t. lurms lhiH science rl('UQO look on citbtr side of tbe .nl-:a:JI cf im:lude~ William 4Qll.S 8.5it ~ignificanl' of r.flf'\d"~I:IIt\r:'m ot:i l'iip("i. Wa.-t1aJ "CTOj!i 10 draw OQ{:alth"'-.. brl .lp Il~ tit..".J_z.agil'lfli~ve 1II ..m.l1d 1111.-rgtlf rirlee.thl.iJCe I ictiQn mapnneio. MUHay Leinstee.. lt'1' of rbe 'fhiu.dl1'm3fl.renniallt L"UDUO''eTSi-a1. twn ofwhl~h Iwd qu3ftedy •• "r. i[ b~ a me and remained almn5' oI.S.• . t .ulln3 {·~. By 1930 ee monrhl ~i1.. .uar.q. U ..ertbek-. 'Memu.hJUunJ..range ofh. ahhcugh Jad: 1 HI "lid V.$. Wcll!l. and Hom~rEoflFJlnLaUTti. wr-itten almtl.Ilr. il ~s lilitra-tinS--t'ipcWlI) in bru tlte:de'Yelnpmern uf a !:tlof5-tory tn_n'le\l.lche~b1i. general ficUQOmal!"d""nery t.. -E-L G. including mag.. '"Ihil~ in Britain it re~:uilJlM Yndi{ft"reDtb.I1:h en~1 ~5 ind.I!:aTly pulp WTir:rrs.J o-r~ firC-iil war on Tht. clence flcu~Jn't1 end [_Mt wOSG IO\.v. .{~d on Ih e eeher I'fd e of the .:pm~nl 5t.· pha:!i~if) the dl!'~el(..".:OSlOf!ti~d:Oli:tt ."".dual b enunes :wd are mucb more ..~~no:dimihUlhcd part'rb).. _fLc.or.j.'lIi C01... be.•..ilill .rf~ted b) varin\lS radon.n~{ofld jn the pn.pothc!:tIUlI ttl.Il:fTCnur. P Lo\'c:crnrr..htllltlr:h.'''lJ/... however..reVlnllsl)' bad.c.U':l(.Uon genre.jjd1:'u. ~t1joyed.CJrddbut. ... M p_ Sho.. f course.g ~ I lin.. Tbere atlt: ce:rt:'ijLily innll~na:s to I~ seen in the science ficti. . Mh'll 1)1\ 1111-". fnn .· mll:rkelphr.Amil!rica hEldi beeu .. rll4!!..and WiIJw.IH.filved wilh 'it lind nfUleratyfDi'!h-.. ln .hell .A.A"lI~tic-d..iuD nft~r5 slrikin.

dl whu-b U! a: Ifl:lllerial1s(s "i!ifr.:nornIOll.mond'.::rlOnkfbe Wilrk pfSir Arthur<. and .m . r (1~rioo euhe:r ~lnpfW"d p.erpendnf tbeir I:a.. Tbe ~quel.si\.bo:tlt social i~l~.colil1 hf:lpli 10 c~pliiilill The fuct IhnUiomanyofihc imPOTlilJIi Bril~h !Cpe11-ulrni"t" Wl"itr."p'h <. Tb» R<f1 NojJ"I.is rs ('!Ih-.Lmade mntf: e~dting :wd apectarular by the :a. wllcre.. P_ Shiel in Y'rll•• ..ne'A. hardly lQu(.sl".en~.and PJ[I~fi Gibbon.rf~lI e had been made manifest.i ofwr ne". include Hedur BlWOltcrrs Thl" C'TII{Il.~ and \t'.J.'i-pecWatL\ot 1I. fol. cnnflned.:il {Ha.eel.u.. idle' whh~tI 'fu.".klusLer mf~t~ry hovel! for Ih~ rematndcr uf'hb rareer. The./..12 J 17L pre'l .. Uniff!d SUne!l."(.. S1tljj. l-f.. II-17B:l.nati.fmlnij r.<:.ner.II."l'cd!Joy . bUl i.ccpt..s ar woo IIUnarlt to IlllludeJ.'~y worb that have thr: UI)TIQ... fhb rnmt"s ~UOD P.l'hrlJ~even r-"'om the most ':iupcrrirJ:':t:1 iO:!o.._1111cene ~nu s mach l'l"Iol'e -unlfltty.R.• l m tdr:-..lllhr I ".aon U'f Lht' ""lury of Jl.....L:.U.ll!!li lO Tcatil~ hO\i QHper3'U! l:betr' nnlemp6~r~ l. nl~U\l..mlJ.LL '!!ffW Ii! J (on(iuwng ' .. aDd .noJ~gkal progrei~ became rnm:-h 1]101(..thingt"~mQld~ tun'''''1 \!o hi\t"any .Iag!.lT) ~tCl1llriti! 1T1 r"UI1 H 'lIn jt!).. uul oti:ll Adl"ht'li Itlin("~ VtHlHlIo "'t~m'l '19-2''''-19~ri~. ho> COlllr:li~l! Lhe'Wl itiog nf irnil8i..wr~ thr fnnUle of hurn. a medium 01: entkJ..om.... i!!li the . (a$U~rlr r (h~ul. P8nf'-~ J.:hederulyf' break to lheP_1tLt*1f1 uIBnJ"lSh seience-ftcrkm. P.l t.!" IUllhcln.. and . k. ".( Itn. 'Th1Jl!ie ienc~ lkliun. (I fQ[:JJ)bl .· hllpm'13nt earll' coruribu:ugns to rbe gt'lll'.hlc~ h.J man')' of t hc new I'tolhiU:U ex-cITin:w: and c~lltrftll nnrr-:u]Vc.lhlbtt> ro the BYage:5 oflhc war rt'~. 50"-" ~ -1 hisdnmg~Jn c:uor. h' "L--1mOf'fiction work-Tht: TIn'(JT rf Ikc Air 119"10)-bef'j~ r~~""lng InarluuiuJIOfJ. and Jilhn CI('1~g.llifir .[batovr. illglh"~"'lhof ba son. as mighl.! M.u 11~1~~'.aht-C' E~ampl"'iJl ilf' lhis CuT'J(H~ 5ubspenll!$." (:UI1i1nrnJP h\rllo".onan J)brl~\I..lI r'U'U1~f't. L Fnwler I ~II II .ic 'I'QI k~ 01 c'h:..sfnrd hilh Jt'hqd)CNlW.. 11j course.. I 'oIjtl.II 'liiorterfe:1I Il'Im h hJl"thrl H"IUIIlI rl hum Ihl.--d ill l\1nt'f"i~ o.stnrid he wrcre as erueeealnaierus K in lh~ 1'h.iOl~"'P_. a ruedium fer.lrr ~wlhl lh.eU... . 1i_I.oovrc S~'"'lrl Illl~210 p.iCil_ I he Sritish . ('. b} t 1\li1(1.p~cuu_n Ili!j41 ")Il1. I wiib 1. di.!Ied TIll' on pread oI:01:'tJ~n. Kpara1ing these liu:e\'Oi'ork.c.e rttfe . . Hnd 1n Hr. hU!V("VN. IV".h~rI IJ)' tili'§: I..:if J91fJ U~j UJ.nul .'1 !.:t W2" tnur-h Ie):.lf ~l\l..$l~ ~huUI~ I t'Qa. 'M rilb~ucb novels n f. H 10 .~' Iroen Amrrtmn shorei.U.:l1l'1o'as. f.·oIoplnga:Dinlt"nse illtcl"l..KJrnf) hit man.eux~!'il f7lt'a. 10 nre eonlenlplatiOfl uf thl" _po~ibil.UM Staree during this pC!riou c)thllJil r~ same (omtJimtr..t)' of Will 1JS. rathe-r than foul tc:an.:hjp~.. hm~cvcl'.JQu u! a1:l:rmif.wC"I_llIO (On5'plt"D(jU_!.'I''''''P'''' n."fe»o...ling behind Th. nla..bJ).-...i. ulhc:r" . rathe-I llruJ. Johll C:loag" ~.tl' bn_.wrll:~~pccubLi't.lbnC"HI'rv octQr~t'jj (HHQ.dqcUln(in:t..tle le-alllY or mod rn wa. and rh-e baWnl't' orhJlI)n ill l'iLdun pr'Jdu ed rn tht' 1I111r~.idt: of aneter .iH The a~.. f u UU11~Htlhlt" 1i"'1 LI~'J. a .IDleT'planeUirr 1"Q.g~fI'" [2-1181 a""'''1! e u.f!. Ilitli ~tt .ge. m:trkt!d. although Ih~ seeds nf doubt hart t elliiliniy fleer. l1a~ (Jos War"o/' 1941J (2-70J.u'~ (. 'If MI.dlli: '-"'d).\c.bandenmem of screece fkliuD who rt::11I8l.~rc.IhQ. rur the I. n !!lav4.r'! Pm .llO" 11--S3] . Once [he WilT 'h:U1 come 3J1d g_i:ir.(.IIl.um.D):tnce ofrnl! H1111(h" \-'. 11941) end Slil<'!l willi T1i. cxmk rQU1D. in]"h.\.h1l.t:t:i!'ff du~ 'rer)" IU8el~' to [hI! i II r' 1.j] t~n rll"Jllt w ..raditiQflUtu had Iunat ~rB'll1lelillilu\'rand more pC~'ji.1'th the 1'nrit:ty Iht' W'QI k inC"t-aSing by !!l.'Tilen of lh~ IX'riod-S.19tJl Ralph Milrlc Farlef5 ~diu Man V:"Il.j.. in Thr Ur1liJiUl.cul:-arl)l ..ll{i."1r biJIdd:-Jnhn a Be-tdrurd and M.t1l and . "rile future-war stories p"odu(-cd In lJlt Un... . lr!lgicaIl)" tb!mor"~ed hy CQl}tpurDofi \io"Ot -WIlli lw rar1it-1 :dt [hr.un.ilizariun ul.. Thr COIr"PH of Snplr".I. U-:t!11 .dCe.-~eor thf! h~~\' inyenmenl of u.'ill"".h-llulspeculanen :..lnoi< Ill> pteasur ern rhe coni"".rMnt-a.r UlflllJ.a'Wn~d d"iJgh(.!ilm to the pr"Sl_pE:Gt o Flarg'e-ecale (lIflni...'J(~-3i..iU"i!licll mnc<:rnlD£ lh~ dl~lrr~Jt'il!ll: PO\I''I!I of eenrempurary tC.llid rlfJL ('nil' JiU hUII"irl(ul iutc.. The l'U"nc..nW!"lnll~lt.orh l2-77]. ".nd i! frequent! c-w!?ltt_i.hm -We.ngcd fh~ pi. M~b /(~f' f. ~on.Ed~"3td 5hiink.. them. Ole ""'"1''''''''' of tbe Am~ric.'c r.. h.irnm~m.Ib.r-Jl.n~ Th. Dot Qnna:t~[" a JI • never recovered rJ. je Du III pQJnnicalwor1t. bm g("nc'faUr of a.s ~ IK!W 11I1(! hil!l'o DUll' ken made th~ appearances Tb:r-e n."d J<»"ph Q'N"ill'j D~y oj W.IUef-ti.war hatl been fought IJ kl-l1g 'Wi._ef' (Io)l A vasr 1I('....UI1&mllUUn of soctaHsl t'l-orld ~I .ilrlOr-ic.scientific..~ut-Irl~ tlflUl'Il. ilml n~Hh~1 dill R •• llllil.bh}()d_dtiT.l1Ce_. in Ilrill.tl~'· IIlh 11.d (928).. blS pt'll{l'war '~'or" i. dill" III..speeutauve riClion. {I 930) Md S'.4 U~ri":" rttf'P'" .U~n{!l"tht!' \~ar-.h:o iho.1 \P"I ilolli""-l ficllOIl {btl' would rd" hea'Vil~ un ~Jlterplan~~I1~ III(' mill!:!' !oIL.".\l....ce ~:rt~nru.1..enrnO..sul.'s. J)e.. Whl::t'IC hI'lUllti1J4'ting' hefo ~n\~ifJ'r'ls j unlc:'lil[.llnol(tgt !'lo'ai fI(..' us.SOI1ic..!!1t.ncd aClw-e rom.r thr~iI(ened IU de'!lll'Q)' c:". fli~..unng tbe period be:nll'e<:11 the -l!nd !If • lid til.s ~1. 80lh rerurued ee lifllhlillear tho. v.-~SLate~ remained mQIC" upl. bm he lhougbl even ~ I hrn i wa r mrJ.~·$ Th~PI'r>plfqfthi lI.".1 rof Ihlhil' I". a guud..no.:J :!I~r{ldnw 11t'1 weee the new \\orilen who I3meTgC'ti in Brll:-'1n and those II if I Anle.!. GralUim'.f~rl)< ExEilmpJtt~ind!ldc.' wrih:r-£dgar ..s:'IIl1 unmhlglll~d-4!!vi1l. G(illi"fing-l2-9Uj--bul in rhrre was 3 ~pofulorc than f"W&UL)' feaT:."d~cade SJit'W.1tt in laking IhameJ\.. uuhIWing_.s who had jm.v~ fiction Md liken " •• ~ dltTNent ~ropha.!"t~ri(".Iht he.~ara.. tlt·ltt h~ ~t('\rlnr". IVOTU Sli F'r~ (I 914). 'u 'hilltd SUlle!.r.:a~j_~tiQ-n 11::'J marked flnli~b prewar !W'I'Ielll. W".. i><-ro. thlo~ i It oc-uld rtear ¥W3) the old toa.1Jbnll~lh} Hj.dY-t:IIL of ail :. . ratbe.IQ:Ii-"'I'.r.bur 1l(... mm Lhe 19505. rU\lOdingt'lf J"HI~lnrSlil"~ •• "lind 1I..lt"-.rrj novel .'\lIlerl(a'S: inl'ohremt:ot 1!51c(i ci-gh1t"C1l rnonrh .rnph.g Mt1~ Ar..Sl diFficu.Mytu mik~ . snbmartnes.tbO-lIl' war lbl! advance 01 te"hnnlnRY t'ni~h~ ave-a delcterlcus I!rf~f.'. {2-l11!J. ".1u.._II6. !2-~ 11. 'rh.nJy b«.11 idv lfiri\. 511ill:l.[eFI'Iortheir' thinking rf['am.s "lUre pole-tHuJ (n '3. (19114).bI-' expeered. "Lm I.I~r . Avlo<rn'l 'If Mr_ Por"" .. The d. or. iind be wrore nnly one more tu Lompr~bt:'lId. E~mpl(!"i.rOlTlltnr:-I!'I!i:.· g-endlll Ild lean W IbecFfe. s. •• .Vrt.llu .ha.f.t ..H~m Ilflr. III le(. r 1 .fthe more pn. ~(.'rllcI'5 lOQ): thefT phl'l:z in.lI urd~r and m.]."!U tn~pirn-uahllm and "fM ar. r. d~"".Up. iter'!!' 1 had rh:3roll:cllITized tlls pn:\\dt" k.rurllr) IllP R(r"lflpol.rougnout . heweve-. !2"-22J. Ilagll<lnJi... G.-oi5uc. however.b('I-ped . more directly an'ribl. all era of disillualonmeru ser in.ll r.he 'lua1h r of hrt were rnmmonly ~PII~'..sl~plcdml. F'." [2-231 is nh..11)1I ur • hI!' Frurts.f-~ 'h.tic311~ \\Iclb conrinu~d l(J.p1alivntl' b u g~ fi~ res. I l.he ~~d. A.·ptK.mb~!lpc:oplC'" Uil ""ilT(" of thr.Rk(l IhIJ"Mug-IiIlo.oo'. EVCD thQ5C writf!'t.. I ill lIosiunn Th.v.n as LtQlJ.K'~ mW nlill n I 'I rr~QP.h..i)'(I 111 -1!>2JJ* Homet Eun Pi . P""11"T IIS9S)-oeemed 10 relish H.\.aa:r 5ulIipiciun in Amenl"'.{._ u..:pij.lIifj 12 J 16j Ullrl Th.fi. in .r~ I)f' (hI! pr~ .e II ~tlgl.tl thai even \of.'fAIhill. ":ted w..:iilil... L'w. iUII..k -GI-ffJJlh ill T~."cq LIII . il.r u. mrl more deseruenve weapnnr:y..

ln. p"nllel.tIorn~ eJII.mJOD. dlld fa. <1wkw-ard JiL~rary u)'le by rile ...ua"a.....but Weiilb. w.lMyl~".opt.~ m:l.r. bu..u-l. gul[.D ?"bli~bc:tI io till: pnplililT magalin~ bertH c the: Wilr-We-Il!!i·s$d."~:rbp ber ."".~ bll!l .-ui. P. kiud of fiction and .1 hl~ kind yf pu.lon.oand . Au. illle:mpt.h ]t"!js diliO'iminadon in tht United SUn.ing Ih. f:l.cUfJn m.orll\\rriler 'I!o'h~ lanrasles were c\:en mare g1Iudyand exouc th3nlh~e oC:Bnrrnugh&-A Merriu. rl..sidcdng the wa)'s ilJ whkh Ihithli and Antlerican ~cknct' t'kdun e'l"ol\·(.nce fi(.c romance..err' wa~ 'Ollle' obvwut'h' serious ~OT perhaps.'(lihibit...wndd I'i. Onc.."S.~tb.o".d) bnant behmd ir Crt-be 3Ulhfin.D.k '3sked-rleveloping IUlJri~ ~ m Do" A..lrd tu pmmole.".ilhf'l.YWlSBJlCtiCiC'd by filc. (1020) ~.ing .. l m~w?e ""f.t.1t ill BntJ!lh init'llecluiitl drd~ . However t:bcovtlrf100'w oflhiolJ lrtJ:I.s to ~rD.KII few of Ge1l1sbaCk'a.il. AhhouSh r.lp n:nualu:ee.-:iw:::c-tI that bridge iD 'l'Wlljl:..ere :. wM ".illlllil ill 1!Jl:4 !'ll I'lL.>. m(LS:tubviuWJlyJa£.!tif:nr~ fiction caregcrr and the :mdiil!'fu:e [01 tb~ putc'n kincLs (iF bn':i~t.~ u solllethinJ!: or:ll gulf bf. co".nlc.~ Earl QrBirk-rnh('ad':& Th~ W(ln"1l JIJ A.eni'(II IifMlh ~etriu wa5l-cmt! orGecm:boJ('t-~ Iavcrite aUIMNo.tea1:{JU rllr lhi:s Lb~ faa Ih.Iul Amerlt"3ns.!U...e (he f. \. ~ho ~GI.l\'KCUIIliIJKC.-pla. .&.. I 93"Os of t.. and I\~·. whn w:'~ ~ •• x~ICir h in psyrbjlllhc medicine.n wurlds and the .i:c'Ul.n.lnes PTI'. voC'q fctn Werr un unu:bc.n .d H.R.. alu:nlaU:l'r.Irl) pu..: man ""-1110 would \II elt have ~Ill(!l their one It WWi ("_'}n'I~IL bewever."rorr ~ i 'illt~1'pI3n~u .cd Sooe.sum!.ivl!' rh~u~lll.l'.l~ &: 1'ijn'rO:r.ibioU$ ~bOUf [htuly I... thi:$ fC'Kl.uofl. IllWn IIUpPlll!WI 01 brigin ...OlUidered to bnrig...~ emel'gencl"'nf spare travel as-a theme in It!I.mo~~ !)QUI ~cienct--::'11 bd\"a.i:i rulearn.iog wJJ.llln... Ad'l'oc...rhe 'heady . mher m\CTOCO!'.~e.. omy oors" ""'.(uw..j!!: -tQiD'l:wh:u.oon.nd Gu... n Tame).1ur::J or a.ruer Wrt:i ~()I. .th notin~. S'''''''J.lo['"rC'1$-UHJl the pon .Took that o.. nf G<~" liter .1wck' lj eois one fuTth('oTfllner IJ~j!'Dl!edtto be mtntioll~d \i!hl'n (o1l.·ho.'tpan opera" by 5UctJ writers 3Ii" Edmond Edward E.p Kiel1l:c fi.i!lrllCiuD In Ihe III microcosm. W.".§ betwt!En fU·Jion inlended fUI luvenilr r~:ul(i.~ .. and Ja<l WiHlam.ey humor-cdied k It5~ WufI l'i. for lh.". n'primj~tjC-lh.1l iouiWJle fOT PJPi!F! unlE's:5 Lb.ne.b~rm()r-t than oil kmptH"uf ahll"l"t3tion. 'Wit'W thar :I~H::nCie. idc:a..t:weeJ1 thiJ. been n hlrgt--l"'. w>.t:gina1. holds the inddence qf t~P')t..-alur~ .hal auends to book publilihcd in the .be....)l>o W.:I.'~~~..!lhUlgc<n~gor)'e\<c-r stoee. A~ ft'ralL ill ...: IUlI"'t or C. and :r~lisric form ofirn.ic rcsuance..hr. dlC :liiame wnolt!"ht:..1\.n and !.alfS.h an ~arnt!!n nrbe.g .iI se veral ~f Ih~e-a['"t)' .:tuilllr had the ad v:alnag~ or k. 0". who weru on to ha\'l" try fal the mml Fff"ul' en tbe: 8enrc ~edn:oFbf AJlIrr. Lit.ct rh.".llld.pul'l~d jlll.h 1£"29..).s mildly surpri. also kno . ~Tli'1. rherelor e.ulrl .:of the fj[lio..lI~. and lilc rupld development Qf ". (1930) and A...Iif ..-een t.lll.of-:<! dj':jliudil!e spt"des~I pulp ~Itnte rtction from the mnre Ililiad lie:ld ofexotlt romance.)' !ltoT)"l1I1d 00 e:ll:(}Ii.~:~': :~.. ar all evidtf\1 In lliitish 111l1l8inati~f' fit1.htil Stori~5.~nti:fic rO..i:C"d LhrClUKhout iht UJ2t)jand 19'05 i\.ry device rnr laking characters ime an ~~odc envrroumem. fM In"3nce-"''' .ad Qf ~x:truc ad ."pr.n on.'ijOu QI:ildr. .!i: rlliulf h)' .~ thaL became pupulHr w:I!ll.s ua .anlt--ILp.-:effi:li lobav~ be('rl muc.dul in mpu1"IIlg the imaJl:wtiol'l and wax ..<d fimlly ""rho""" within the e'lablished pulp akhough they appeared !lImoS! e..5. G!l'I~krl tf~(Jm [:2-J9).r.Burroughl n)m:unce.n..lI. '!flit.'.xt:dlenl !lhot I ..r.. the slow hlu ~tl:adr accurnularkns of:! group nf wbc were carable of d".bc Unj1~ci ·St~~c. ffl~ career Ai!"1 .roIQRt . iiJbc:l1J1. rOII\. th.an :funl[3llle\. "'~:ii MaTI .B.coy Blok. tb~ ~<' rbeory thou. donal f3f1f:t... d~p1t. proollCoo r:!if I~~'ii for-Ihi .hom ~hc fulUf'1! ~'1l running h.m Ih~ Iwo.1 OldLl"ril. i'ilor>'_ Hl:ofdt:atb rnbl).\ 'd:~re imll3[C'd It.Ht Grorn5:ba\.~ntiEi..ct..'1 InHg'AzhIeA to be a eesutt of tho:: gloum and df-"lpllndi:r:lC)' pf tnt: UC'Pn:rSSlfln '. lm-who had bam litl!'!nq i1bHTIY u '~.&ccUn_g.c:re . b-al TC1IUun~cl v·r..:. but-lio :!I-cicna=Cicna. JL 18 ~fi..an (hat Burroughs hln.l'anicu.rf.HUlt'cS :and .. W.)5.xdtl':Sin~lr in the.mlli.!iloriu [tbe lliurr \lndtl Ike >I) nOl-abl~ .e ':IIpartillel Wl.Num~rou~eS!iays :1f1pe-ared in whkh aulh .ift ficlio:n &eque:ncl).r C..he Und rhar GenlJbar.RJo:yrd 'itA b¢'yday:-and. "".. e h rercnrr.no Bntl$h illt'!.·tdLa be r3l..:e'fl l !~O ~nd 11'-111. KdIet..1 tJ~tiCj: oJ . ~~1~n9\'ely in the ~·ur):.j Or..n ~. Notable...r .tlry m:ortts l~1 e..·.p r lndude MerriU'i Th~ MMn. edut':ati(lnaJ.lr.liou lIIal9'1'in~ in Ihf' yeaJ". ~~nLillilk r'UUlilm:..IS Ihl:' f-a. KeITer.DUge' shared by ill! tf.. Campbell • . Sl.rtcd exulll::l~m ill dn Bur roo III :lo'st-.:ilnd jt..dbv. [)!-211..r scie. recruns U~rh~ SF lilinhC':matichm Erl(' Temple BtU (WllO wrote under rhil! dir.l)i. S.. and he iI)flut'tlC(.tnd ~L~lj)t!j: baJ.. M~k remain..on. M."ua\..HIafter.u. l b.B.. and SI.s reprimcd in rh~ Uflh.l tbit ki. we can idt!!nlify two main 1t"l!.wo."0 .o!!!lU1t'ptldl'l. enteM.' <ecm highl) t:h.:onlributmn in i. ""riter .I't.t: rega·r. .un:d..ag&('nltc ...so.ong-lhe to e..k Wilh ..ntenor of the I.nuC!rll1lJt-..S. tQQ.ry nll. Tilt IIliM Spot r2-~7).ed rlre S'F t..he . i~ In Britain. bul he did publuh !. ~~ fu ...I("(.l m::lil¥lf • did the pulp" th emaelves-in .I . Another mlh..a:!if In rna science fl'l:~u.igb.a.!i:.ghtt'en III Jus ~ir~l seienee fio(Lio. Akhnugh he never wrote beue fide sd. 1'iI~'I!'m!i[0 h:.... whieh had ~IU'igexf acd in lnd\ . r ~ll...a(l.. l"w'. 5atiTic.J<.. Smi(h.~. Ihr puhllr. M<lk. '1l11: . in Hall'.!I . fimf.f progr~1IS p\lrticuJ. !..11 lJ~t:inflIJt:n(eof:ltpecuk'tiv~nunli~li~n.o Tbt{ea.. bct W(1.rec.Till' LOll World [1-63l. br lJ.Ild..lru.{inlngb)end ufVc::mia. lI'I'eU~I! a low . rlCtion wrher-30 oughl 1(1 be dt.c (IJJB51. ur:arnings".Ihi.!he "' .! In Ih.f.k ln~d h. w~ll Str ee ' eJ'.1 m>mift"lln WIIl'Ii'lmplt rhut I hr:~ be'Ran ro dL'"ntt I!lure tiull u . .11:." . J.llio known sdeace. bv m!lnynt Ilt~nI ~o G't.ie lit fewhniLnion h Tan.~~.'ardcGd.'self 1I p.u:hd p~m"urthc pubii.nd S.HU}ir."uhor in Eltil."'hOIle lonei5.cibetwtcn and 111. W .92 Th. in tf1lMm.>ce·Qf"hl.rld <ifTQ"'.i. There U.eli. .i.UBil'.tc:riallnln 1:he...adop[~d by Gel Tlsbackts science f1tt:'on .mlC ['(~milncu hardware featured in I.<Ii..>$" 'ery pu pul. rj:on~erin~ venuree 1"1:J4 Girl in Iii .uum.nrisht ra~beT Uum as ii device.uI . IL i.naglilZio(!!!: as a C'bnvl!:..CiLI" 1».hc "UuWen~ .1) 19~5 gnd 193~r lht'r~ ~as :50lIlCdHng of"3 boom in WhOilL l!icwo.rn(: Lit .""'Q' [(951) ir~ AIdinal t!:Io::::nttpk~many of Ihesc: aD}.p..IiI k~ .1IIhHlI" '-dll"d thof' Tudi. actunJly (:I)hrOrmca mO$( closely w Ge-tn~backl nouon (.gn~Ii·. PM' l~-fi91 3M Hall and flint".!I)'t'I puLibh('-d h)l t\~liLn Paw. Th.h. Ahhough mere are seyerat prcdie.l.SF plllp5_ s~~ quidl~r' became a rh:uO::T of int~t"Ij:~Lin iUHlIwn righL raeher-rhan iru:lud. .lar-l.e').[fice. aud i~tlnd.'_l\lf' re. wtudl "'3. .. In. 1'''''"1.'rl).!. ~tQr:i(. uf cour~. .ritaio Ihet~ w~u tand .1l(.') Qsteu~ibly prophetic..::llliN!i).n around me s~ uf a SL.o"QIu.!.l'Illonai . cnmpeusare fnr ..e'Ux-l:Q..hat f\)t adult audiencl"Pi In . a.'3~ LO'mdderably 1al plaudble 111~n ButTuugh!'j. Trend..he.tDV:lgan( and a number of e. of [be.K:[lOR \3 eS$encially a h:anl-head~ r r3rtonal.!I_b3d'4(~U$e!..ot"d thlt! (hang~ thai the ftI!!'~r [ulure would blin:8" A good d~1 phh.enmre stHry is nor.Blu.II!':r.Svch lWriu::r...rtl\! u·('! rather more su.j I{.

rIgl1:!'ih/[\.r. Ik. bur rOI the mOst pan h prid rerath'ely liu:]f'aLtemron to ripna.i:ti'UlI (entirely tOT' I he b.. 'Were Maurk'l.mi.a:l[bough rrct ::-JWiI)"'li---llPII'I'r. bm !iOlue WUI"':k. ronu ihutol s whe iJ."lligrn. T!lr FlJ/utf' (1/ SnC1it:i'.:rilCdI [2-8'6J-ilhd hi~ In~1 imJ}"nllllllK'~[ L.i~l!!i and literar..her-l -r~elin8 th:u r.Jlt:'f'ilIC a simib:r Ilb'\Oi' v orjdeas imo aiaown wmers.-=-llcc\IJ.:It·~. how e vee ...Ii-a :M1(c:hdL '" M. ""Tit£I'S we're rt".b till im.m ~'iI:lI LQpnmlpt a rEp'" fi-n m the philosopher B:8nrand RlI-"i!II.l~ included Srl". ufOhr Lbi_IIi low oride.mnJ~ it ~ bc:.('~n~):llfIg~nr.tcvoEn if he hul.\J~II«(!: .&. f1'antt"ul:n'ly $i~'inC'dnt. so rhm their modeoforg~lIiliillioDOOuld beC:l)nlTD1itcG .lfi/in.ia Pailkhunt.:m wrore !'ipeof"lIlal ~". but the)! laid the j iru u-aih. . e.'3ft·6tC"lI1sh'eh rt..""ublio..~I1JIr:d-TI'f Cir'.UI w~hAmerican science n. the.'eri.~I-c:'.iit..t..Illlrr Norrne' in 1h~ LJIUI~tr'-.entitled /"1J11J..-.Jjur .f' D"a..-ef'.1JO.rmjIJy r...llilit h. Hugo Cem..d1 a M:mu. TC:.:"IUmbL':'T 01 I .("O climllu: ...all')' c1Ipahl".t: w..rtwctl lm~[)Ja Ilto..'iaJl plll!l:1 .ruil. [2-67] ao<lthe r/" "Ahr RfflIIi.ll h~A Ihi I mU'li....a~tu:' lha' hi:. d figu*.. bwhf"O'luld notd ~f)---.n in I3ngu3igt'_!1 ornu th.~ (0 JJnnllllJC'u.. tUTD of l.he! .IJt rJ. _fterw. nlU'fci... ::iH11~IC'dvn~ WI.... '. of the buman rau::. lVa-rld. .Ml d\3 ~ I i'.~bji~bnd the geure ia rhe lAM:!!_\'e:rnediedm 1111wo of his mo'. Wi."Ick. D. Witl'lht-beJt 1'>111 ~he iel WOl"d....r Ip4.. SUCl'Ict! IPId f-kFIf.t ric•.111 ofb lolcgical i!I..NH pioneers out inro im~ginatillt' teeUl:.~ ()f'l\r[w.IInd J:un-ms jeans. ~ niu~ s work.1i(' plow'jT. a l~.tiQ"~ ilgw. the nu.JiJ A'N..'IIK"J IJlb1..$htI3. l. Onty onE! Dr hisworlui.!! ru.../w Hamh (~-~61._'" rhe Wi)) ""hI'] .I. of dU:I iJU l..~x I~Ion mher vor-lds. E. rr is diffin1h Lo itn.aly due. Ir.1tftiJglllftlr'Jo' d~ f'JRj'Ull t~87]. IJu! Ft~..hhQUlfh mainh' in a 1It. ofi. ~vef'..... nn doukt ~'oLrld dc~'t I O.}II!Y di!1.... ddJ (Ojrilcl'~ whQ~(: 4. The: debase was pn..of v+n:-WlUy e"eq Auman fir!tI en dedVIJT illl1d man)' .lfi:HdllL·d lit 'FIe[d'l~~ Pratt:u TJ..m and or 11 eerl31n urg~1(} fluion did nOf h.d b(:}'Orrd recog n.:alli 1 11I'r.1 Judgrtu~nt:' t(l. ~ the Wl ilf'f'> Jl.. an ect ua I prf'lj~1".bCl witll J..! and Ru)sd I. H.. Th.F--. verve und emhu ill: HI th~ • 11ttn ~nd rrnr('II'!ll)flU ::t\(kwud nai'l. c.e·gcr:llIiLU~ hlln'J.Ii"l'f'.e olh.tHtc~ ."'oolabJf'" 1.It.~'U('hvi:!!ion:::'Jry wo.l ~"lillldSl1lpledon'~Sl4rl\-fam 1:2-10 l ].lnt \imrk a ~r 11. Rubert Gn.for rhe developmem 01 t1rrl".a.ll.~l..CJ.~ .an i!'.-inuc:. b><kh.ir :iH~CmpU lu unlil~'t..a3 Irom LUUlfOIQ2ieal [ SP'f\.u.lltl'Uli(illh~ ~ of Kminv.!!d~n. "{.ll:o. lhe IlW~l Q:yuablc I" A.tl hl .In general.h~ remury. 'OIl .lrtlp 1'e.:..ImagmmiQIl . ~:t.-t~ r wi:lrAldQUfi I-fu:-:~e(~ Bj'o'Ju N<u' WOrM !~-I41.h value till LiJ31 ~mcnd_"iIIl n 'J neonrrast Ameriean .61..1_\.tiOiI hetped '0' • and between them I. (II course.tYl-nrpt:r1I.lbllilld 11II. uf hs cwn.. rt\king dd\aruagl:'ofi.l~jllf"tud1JlR:Lt..c'(1t13ri\-~ nGfinn wa_..IS s.wanned . I WClIIlLh uf uPPurtuniq'. I r'lf LII.h.blind -us to Lhe fact that pulp rlll... an(l fn:qllcmJy "'l)b~l~ in ~hcli developmil'nl nl Id~.!''I'~rt'I.u v H aldil no "s colleeuon of t'"!l.K. t-laldoIDl.vhu ~~'.$ one-time c"(Jlt"I'ichm..Jj[ ..t}l'J«'rn fo:r lhe fUlUr~p·toS~lS.e 1011ge81-:9I 3..si'O'ely Fail •. f."d t.1tld WilT I was .ltLlO::.5....nl@'!!i.be pu':.'n~ • . -.n.Ellgll!h. Bdtidl wruers were roo in. •• Ulpl ~\ linn· •• Amelitilll xienc~ dirn.gnu.991 art p. ~IlC UJ.lI~ Pjl(r11'l I ht" Inllu"~i h' 'II H:). in which thar b) (he end uf the cernurr secial lrfe w culd be ahr.I...Tomor-row t""'~'Y. Hdrl.~lJr.sertes included m..onhI)I"'uh Ihrbr .to hl:suwiLal ps).!: III ~ 1l\. Thl" l!irtllt'': QftbC' lxost "P~cuJaLl..l1 ur sc•.:k.ldane' Da~bu proved 10 be l.lfi had .-~m h. La In (If~~} I b~' S S...An urfttmf " u "'nrli'... itt.~ JK!om..rd nt) ggru.svdal i.~th."..(: un Un:: .u Iht: r~..'!JJ!S.'t' fl•. cmhled DIU..:sCt'".-Callullt'..... !lhoukl not.n Lhe ~.Hllhnl c\U{ht....-. rested in e dI" "-lirltt tOp:ty much httd 10 others.H~ thd! ruu am.nrd by others • .-I.ndme I£:DtnHJitro.and thel.t Ln . I hi" ". anrJ rnrlhr ~lf.. t'm.. by giving gre3r~T (K)Wf'r [o.ooo lhing~"oti.d-Jl)sepb~Henri (lJICJ4.I I h.eYilting pOWP!"gn'up~..d ~ht' I "rv..-~cn lhl.." s~ Haldan rl" h.r~ rl re..Sf pulfl~' bUi ml:lstw th~~m .wl!! II'i:e Ix-ncH! I}f su.. [iuion prnd~ e lh Britain k:t\. ~UI J- S.-lwml!:.s\' &. M Ju-dIl.l'riQUJ hnef cpunde from ~n irntlgloflr) fuwrr lu~oT')' ~I'l'"'" hiK. ree .ll'ld ~..~n pMhl~m~.J lilerary mrril ill Rrtll5h Or 'E~&peuJi itl 01 isin.gM&." 1Var5 iIIn~ 0l.K!:t~ i(II(. .I. s.J . ill .. S.' "1rJ~ .311ife .big.Wllr extended the serie5 m include more dum 100 piilrnphleh.l'e(.m:l'~Imdf.mOO to be (he very he.etlC~fi(:II~ln. u" . ..and put \li~ the Rl.urlJ. ~ n:av1r1 IJnd~~)I'!L _A 'Vl.'L "111e"..D\"3df':d [h~ imellec~I:J . h<)r ~rgu.. G.J"QHld ere likely r esulr in the annihila\l m 11.[. ill France. (~r~ld I-li!'OIrd.\-".. ~~It<:r~ Jute.....('I0:: 1..t.llh.u-.t:'1. ArhWl ~p. h:lrl It)..xl.I} 11"l11uenlitllin. u"i~'< mlogy ""WI" "irh 0..e-allhuu8h it :tiilt)U2 Wifb Jlro. rr:m::ains unknown omide FranC<!. I or 111.! w as. Vernon Lee..fr IWO :1re ".uhl1J(u1 iutu liIp<:Cul'lli'of \0 rnelutaiu rhe iruellectual seeinu .iMJW.:' ~ "o·•• dkLltluIlI! .. Morid u ]a.the: Will ~~an.:nli~'i.Um(! rRGGJ51Ci..aa'l...."Tbe L'\_1'.... Th. tht" origioOll C'(')111l"lhuron.n"iO-"fI ill:m:t1lr-.h :lCi.~lIjlii)lh": t..c :((J1I\"rlC'.sci~Tl.! hardl}" began [0 ~xptoil this..-~'I dirt-hull'" if:.k'llI\{IPul. The Irnmed ~Dt('erf«.:C.01 1Il-mo:ll. j.lecl Ihe \toonQrOll Man. .. PouiJJli' II"Qrl& II9""l ry_ One of rbose ol"!Ji$i)"s.f~tcnl. 'hho wrOle Jo~eral pnhl!. nr.Ve-8~john Clo3g.. by cemr •• I..:n wtdin-and nl11d~ ~ C(HlLributinf! to---aJl jntcllecIDaldHmlll''\\'hf'-!''~(..t.I. a..HI) lecture-v)' u".. the dlffeeem .~ . Bernat·s T od. a~ Wl.. w nUm~I(IIU hl\(..r..bc~ -I\'en!' on to a j!.. Pulp F mid .1 d "" ancen '(.I'M) Ietuh.. and.jonhrunl!Verenrirrir uvet eiI From it.:!limporlilntPllltemptJruri.-C' fiuit...l"rnQugh III !lee: Tbe "Oyel~ are M:'riau5 ill inn:mtambidoml in me. Whlch -aT~ed that sciemifil advancement. (0 I he..llbl.'" U".t1fic romnoreF. Ct ~r'\"i .11 lhd f.J"1'ut"r.--caU"..$: or. Ib-. hi"" 12"{.11 ..ter~ilJ ~-\n'leri:ca .ki u.. 'n 'he pulp>. lu II 111fin nlil1!-h 11f I. d 19:'!lb . A more WIl&O"Ut=U e Jnf]!I~nrt "'. it~1 I 'I'I. h.bi~:PfnDd unfa\.n5h specula-live. d 11ltu the 192'O.c:rbillogin of (h~ hr period roU. flull ~ di(.lldJ'e \o¥ho wmf~ Vl._.. _ ..~I..m. dl~best is proh3bl. Tp.--le I. or tryiug to Ctin~n(l h~[1(.I.i Cloag.gl-.hmlllj III . J L:.f' J.. Ilire.. b3:ll Nulnd3-pmdUr-. hOWt:~~l.. Tht'~ h'C'J'..JUIIt ""'1'~II"I'if!"L'r..Il"C' .and the publh.1r~ minor. Ihilo ~ .le.li.\.dd .d~n r. LQ'I'II.. oj'IU' Si{"'l J'IWi~1 rfl. FluJriley.~rl" liu:raUv limillf"5...'mg ~id~ .. H~ Rmnf'H~ne. .n QFbfl."umiiluJI!d hiA..thing lUtes end Brililill.rl1.'Inorn'lO\l!..mn. (I. Conmhu!nr!.l it can.-und Claude. d subruhur(! 5!pedficll1Jy Ih 8f1N~nt"J 1IIi~... .Endal mat. for cld!!: r.and.tUMC'."IW!ole.e:fkllono£l.."'HiiH.· .'f:lit~ I1l3 (bal mig hl P la n..: rflriP1t . 1 rinks in wbkh the . IKIfU .UU ra all m .. (Tcllnu_.lJr :':00('1 ~ hlul Sl:dpJo<lpn.. Ir rne pulp wrllPf!I who ILlf'nerl Ih~ uruwar!.. t~t31 Fr.. Wnghrr <!l'S.~ .s by LI1. \'ill!! 1(. bur there-is a sern . Then: ~ ""'all.llrerC (ellal to BaTJCOucl." "t's~ )ir.J.. but imagining cpace IJ·a.... tilf'~ngl!' ~OClt'tUj~ -wn~fteqli~nl ~V . hut'spccul:ndnfl iibf~ur rht' rmwl:' .-. Vif('U~ItJ ull tbe :licier~ fiuioD produCtrl bt-l¥.0'-)."lI. The subculture t~t formed -arounif S"~ pulr~ or Ibr: 1~'2n.lIut the: betterment.f1rtlUllliJl t or "llIprrl} tran.! in which u m:llt:lU). we ce minorrests...'rJ. 'rl'llt!"~ w-r~ "". erninetu fl..ll C" loyed lD e.ntl ~ /). I Ft .. fur ")l:irl~ In time..~r .ron. Vera fimnm..k HUM fQ.l impre...f'jcrion~ however.Cd.. II IJJnile:l.nll.. "'~ an impor-tant i!'1nU'l:I'\.I~H: ~~:O::Jys)·~'" ndl'"f M .g.'14 Tb» I.""ch no.

. whCI L' m:3~zmellU iL 'pp""".M Waf' I wu ["~poDsibll.id 1»1<" (".r z::I'.'[.winner Johanl1C... The una~ ora ~h.r r(.al-d HoUywood.I •• l8. muc11 mnl'ot' inU~:t. {:ttpc1_C'olllra:su: shiupl.. .1I(er.Eflr/A [2-(1)9] D!JI lung ailJ!-Y r.¢ impoltm..u. rulul~ti.·<>T'Jo. itl:. bur fln. Clthtr "".frncltl pioneer Haman Obert'h~ Otto '''''iIIi G3il'..~:tOI ~ see In.gildl~S).ad prcduerd ~r lhc...1n.n of 1'.e r. P.l.npt h..eo~i"callbw..uulan ~V(lruti('fi )917..fj~urc!jjf.al 1!«.~nd.l~ J.nucnltic f ulnpia '1)''''0 preealem in Gc.une.ht"~ Ihi.fone QChis 11I1\1c1:s ever appeared ln IngHsh.b(.38].S. in... insprre 1M YQu(h of Americ:.!:fll ~ b r k:r su:rV(' of LhOC' Ibt-tt)~s and _prM(cup:mtjn~ I m the sdencc Hcrton of IYI8-1g.d '0 1950 as A''1I.uropclW P"O""frs.rlJj.li~Fld WIU Hans Dqml. lo ru n.ot'hc pet1(1d III ha' e a less enq(loPJ.[CIIJ'} in 1926.(io penlod ..H~. we man Whh tr. film vers.an!'C'J' :ltlriptingmoruileTUlOl"ia.ohd.on5pi(uo~ litera ry nJ~dt.he:rTburin 19l5...I:.h•. The Gerrmm (inorr..l. Very hrrJ~ German ~tnceflC1ir. notable ::.. con1.l"rh.'<I'V3. however.(.ak.. and that.. bec3me the taTget Dr ".!l"l:. Gunn'..~l'ko'l.K.0 from the SGi'pdin.\. including Of~~ b~ ..1 hismrical 'W'ork.mt. lb!.'dlb'bpiJ.:.n. 'W~~ AlrR~ Tohn". is aJ"" nor"bI~.Umicl' Bcliil. •.{ 1idrl A!cH. m. Jflt:' I.."dbricaJ dp. und b< mil1.f31JI and ~mh.. whme major Jf. • lllilIUt.'gnlCiw[ll .f UJN.vev.::WlI. 'tNho d.. 191Oand Paul Sc..dntcd Karl M:ar:o:·sCopttal iiltn Itwsi..rial pnhiitjjbcd tho war.... oflhe peril)d ~'ho wrote 'in l~nguOlg~s.aMion underW(:lrIIL 3: more Cri." rUT iI ~ignifiC. and Les'~rdcJ lI.:.iml<l> in rt!... mtJetial. Drprrw .S. TboJ $hq( miD InfUiIf:1 [2-29] IUilk. (Ill~!».he 11'120.inn m~.~e.t"dHlid asseciated \4.' t :i.K.ilion to the 1111 ~r Namm ~~( t"1~1Jr~ him me same fate as hl\ brOlhe-rJo~J:..l prtlf.J p era II.IIL:Hi"c ~udt!lo .. members uf a Sodery fo.. "Iu Wi.ru.t..M~cd ." ":W"~' "<'''~IL ~" .tion of ulupian ideals TA.-iil thelr ewolvemenc with Eruz L'fng's film 0.l~":"'I.auaadant subculture eend lO their.WIll!:.au(JR . IJnl~ th~~ nB'lionlii.ry . De:!ip1r.larg1d)' due to rbe innucncec.ir:!i S.h•• LUrl. Henri Barbusse' pauoremic presentadnu uf human hl:u.uir.M.eT than the di\:"tIrric~l • .n.neh' lh~ bt>$1of "iI th:(' hi5rari-t'31 ~1\H.. whtl'ft be ertiOyed a Ionc(:. ~Jnl}cmil:' 'P('I.Qa boJd <lU." of ..".1''''0 ..'.. .: rranstormatluu i:Ui a resun of tbeCrt.-.Jcn. l1961j. The'main i:ngredirnt gf'he Iucurmlc ficdon b't"8.(jJ~hehI Ihi'S: ptrlud.h~ before-Hhler'e Invasion.3t m e'~ mOfe dNlllruuil' hr4!'~k OClurrcd iD caSl«tl .red or • 1/" jJ".Clil~illc.n.German IiImJ wriler> add ourdoes 110"Briu.qory :urd il!..ru [2'-5-J ~ I:SQ .th~!Ii rUUlri. l'''_'o RUj. lVilrlJ in H!21.[.O:. whhcut france.t hi~Lu'1' of pulp SF in the Uni.~R lS not gre.ek feamred far mo'" w(..k:nC<l fiu. nal Hi..ent:ujun .sk}'. 111Bl"ilaill~ i.· jl(l..J NlJl R. D".~~. Iii hii'l.r~ {1g~)~r and rhe 'U<'Ce. abaudons dl. pl~I.he-01r'rr!<ponding- r"..imercsc m che Icapjllg fknUl.tn Clu. lranM"".:Ul3o i'th~(:a~r~ hili! net much \.J~I~ 11'f"ooket.d ~Bi.h p .lJ.{!.. -and Gc~ hllm)'J bill It i~ arguilble Lh.rI]...'~ cncuul-ag~d !':iy th~ nt.Kllb~\ltbeen published in ~~ngh!lih. In Akx-andr Mo. .ia~m.. b'I. inPilfJ"""I/t<MII'I tB-Sl i..ts:· .a. ¥ :\IdI!IollIhUCimfinc:d hi)! ill~Duon to we bdiDg. tllc CoinlRuJlj.hr U.ider..m[ed by .e .:aL. ."ian WrinmI <.rdQm [2-73) lmer-pi. Iran.l.Jin.tCliOIl ccrweee Lhll wan..'..dan eeuemee seems to ban: been Tilt: . I' ~ I\'l'Iul$...S..li:iEuJwrhu oflhi.rlltld 11'0'111 .F.u SfJ't'M [8-IJ) or . lheff Own country bt:UilUK Lh~~ I1Il'idl')' bcam~ disenl'hllrurd will.tik.rldJ [8-811. Chc ..]f The-ht'sl of Ihp llIUdi .b..!(rT~Il'''' 1''''''"17.0 e~3'JI)' $cadung arrack.aCI'JI k...".(1. and l.kly ft'1J from I'..T)' [ra Htl.l'l.(m lJdlion Y".ehy butei:leclit: £:uvco11!:Jo.l'h' world tf{Sc"""t'ir/i<m [8-!HJ. otJ.!Iv-nibble 111.il Bul!.ndary stories aLoo: featured in German . Om:oClhe hi..mol.1I the aneedoral ndt.'eU UlI'nffl in hu native land..md Wonrir-J. one man ~landA OIJI-~ Cu('h K3it"1 <./>l..nl)) prehi~lol)'~ No .i.fosttd In rrt'!nru :~nd coruac li!I but.jIn'ilDI ril J t..R. OLfrid 'Vnn..':.1t W.· W".aFk..rnr") 1J 'by Nnhl"lpri1.1uding .-S.hI!..unique brand or f:rulb:!llicbbu::l:cumeds.led In eeteen.f/.UlOlli.(!Ilhf'[ iban however. 1 DO.:Hor i."f\.l1l1 hilliurica! brr:d:.m:lU?~lion r.:' ~Ie!" th·.'i V. n to appear in sume prof:l... l'Y.. dll'dt'1i IC'eDof!) fr. tf' "~\.wc flcion.:d.b . .rrf1Jwil1$2-J Ill...d.-Ith rhe earl) SF J. Boil.-kwardne'!l~ 01 Russili: in terrn!t of its link uf indrn. His championship ur dCIHUCI'lU-Y and uppm.ude Ane(s La Fi..K:iliut: lriIditllHlf.Spare Tl1i\ld founded hr Ob~rth and ntheJ'!: po:pulonz.'\l regime. and he (Ompl~lcd liu Yoernezlilie J:"':Hnanc~ H~nd l/le P{O"n. g n.)'. CI. .(t his.tu-ri~n::. rhemaricunaJrlli&. L":ittiQnpllbl..<...hol"'riod.tlmn he ."re hYd br~n fjI(jme ledwldolJgicn..)'n tht! 'JII~r. admired a9' pla)"l" igb'bt SI.ent[!.al>pc:a:red in W{rrlawSlurixs.eat ilctivitid .o'. by the I""ding figure.R~ ['2-13).itA an important lacwr in goKlitlg CurlSiodmal[o".he r~\loluuon. In 111_C' othlt=:r_ E. nc:x( d~C"-ilrI-t. ne . ""~..ful'~ .~f. of $~cul...o!:t:npt to achieve technical realism.ory.. .""..h. !I:.'> .Idis!o. the p1ay that 'ave 'he wonl rnboi lu ::Iic'Vt:f'dl three Fine noycJ:r-n"". nern<b.itziII .. .1tb in".These hjs..lla "Tbe fOlal <:gg:>" r2-'J1. 10.min raiQlkQ\tsky Wl.tIJ ('(lntexf to '"'hlch (he! ~Q\"h ~.'1011'" fp~' IiClIla.'or'k.y awrirer l~s .j Jt~ p"".oflg.n ion..f . "!!he\l'.=.IYM ilf).uro-n ~rte-r rhe war "\Ira:! teehnccratic a nism Qf ~UI C&'tr.. whose prl mary Inter est is rile III Ihf' puhU!ih!ng mlir..'ond...es or umplan ntl'l'tls publi:B_heli in the lalt: ninoflM-nlb (_C'nu..' in .H~'r' I~d him 100 i.ed •• HI «nil oJ.~.! SlO'"." fl'llJOyed great S\ln!c:-ss'in rhl!: U. IlIrhjn.einr b fj"C' 01 W~ft!W:! novels .R. OO\llC ver ~and in h i.:ulon in \.. d'a....nt W~ (2.~k ldwn{rues~ of lhl!! m:1Hl'. tUM8("lf \~th T~rding J~r~ imIDTC ""... The p rehrstu ric aecnons of TJu iDn& QlJ.ill.. 1'2-]2].3 ad b r.EUfOjJC lUi It rP:liult of.:raq n8\JT'I::~q( fllftjor impon.~bed in [h~I'-C!:'. heloo .. whiclJ bore !31 4trr'rlg (and nor unnaruraf resemblance to the :kIhd of flcr:h''m thm GefD3Ib~c'"wa...~r wTiling Wf" brlJJt"-1I.. .i..l~.lrkr m 'PiJJ J~(11II'f'1t t..lueri 10 publi. of milking num~rmnj InretHgem poillu 1. .tl 'U.d. pan be sald 10 have had ldemiftablc dOIr.!:t ofE'llrope tinTing Ihl~P'f"'rlnd...gl..~JnC ls rrue Qf lI'<lt..i Qlll. S~lm .hued fur Air W01tli!"CSf4lrieJ by Iiraru:Js COTner.i.«:~l'ic.eivc:n Hi lhc period in W~ H G.. dcach carne three Int. i]'t (Qrue-qllenct.. I rt~~mtlll nPCT'f'_ !. d'un .. ..fiITrafj"..i) ""I(T~ Uh.lmg "irh maunal publiShed befo1'e I he pat..r~n popular li(eraruTf' of the day chae u. O.ib in hill I bfU ulopi.(Jlg~ ["2-111 '/(nJM. .:ip(!(:uliilU'I'ot:. •• d ()929).~t' o~bis dlf~ IJr pr(\g:r~" .-at W:ar rhan GennllllY.and 19JO.'lJlj~ Q'U-OTU'rO\btginning S ' WllhE'~c. lMI (Jnl~ four natil1ns-Url~in France.aul Csrtu'$f of rf. F. [2-92J ".ld~'n:.l..o.e biu.duubu.:...I)b£mt the hiN!OnCBl C011Icx-Lf u ... 1 "'~1I"Ij It ({·. fi("tlMf'L L I... GN'rnalW..an('t< 'W-etC' Plllphc.lfl'ilorr~! [8-] 41.0.1 '6th.o(' gi'c:noe-I"confidence ffl ~:.nor the peri UtI l':wd 'i!lof f.ed Lh...0.:n:l). w".2 _.. is: concerned is P. ilhoUI honor 11.95 T~Lilmrture q.j.\' " •• grtil.u-~.' with the.antI!. of lb... ThemO$t $ut. and. and both the k:tulillg German 5P~fu lative writers nf me Pl-ew-i1iJ period djed in (be second tI«3dr of the a:ntlll:y-Kurd La~$".rite I ~ wll~~ :!Ip!!t.tl (fPC. I b~ Ri.3.$'' [8-6) is pOl hap' u.~..~Jt is pr()b:aB~.

li:!iJ' fictioll..QJrt it lU 1 .~~t..i« fI-177] ".. nrell~r·~ P. oowever.s rnuif'l wnhin it. if crucial dt!Ier10r31ion in lite t"ou(mtt ofhi!li polemic." parbcwarpoliTiGtl phi1Q<suphi~~. works o£ the p~l'iQd are. r:hto.1i.oH...nive r.tlunb or mad sclemlscs.lit)·. til\Ul~ n.'·~rs~.ainll:'d imporli.j]ta Of 1C:)1f.n and F~lJd.Qukl.l~ b:t need me" m05lt:ItITi11lag:am relief from IU lmptirauons.IM pa"-... nor is il ~UI pi iaing thae science flrtlon aud ril:rll:3S~ h:Hl'iI!':1! C(m.el"Y grlkl dr~pt'tTEind broader. [2-131) .3}' ffll "lid.iid131t1 Adeu')_M(m'J MOrlll'ItJ{2'-l). 1·~IJklt!-wJ(h.{[orm.lfI"ICllli.c: ~'hb nve..l!.tlj1H "I.PaUen'.lalnrloni!r.·.odwoed .l Hi. the:: luU . an.ll m rtadlmo [II: flJnd~ nu:nta. He cllibur II "denatura .assertion m. W. n'.98 Tilt L1t. 111. .Opia.lnl~{ of hUln:itl1l . Urtlr'lnul .be 1)1l1~' tlhscnlcrwifh rfl'l!lp~r-r In rhJ:! new wie. fimJ.ariL p.Lt~1'I'I Vf:'ry m~h in tune..h uf H:chnology (onljnued.8"". Wi in Milc.1"hi5 mflli\l'~ r~m. of ~Mturc llut becom~e ~:III~')bUsh.. ·. tlc:..]1 C..'I.5 b.:..h~. ..'1 Ja..)rI~Ii<y••• in CI<>ag'.g~r'5 TIlt QII<>li""Mil. ~._" It !Va.lion . however. Ihl~T"'t Wlld Goou Chasl t 19$1)~ Th.ilnti-fasri" p<Olemla.-lr-rUl.lhip.A1~u gh Ihe.'.-rclmd Int.t:'riu· e: iii'" rll4. be :!In)'1 h..cr:11 evoludou uf specu I<llivt fl(. lilt\! ".I..ljlU" a_ad J. of n:oveift .i.!.-.lt 1.~ mighllurn':ilgiliIl!U eur "~:ry selves..L u.wlrca.. Hr'''o'Cj:Ab:I. l'ollu'W8 sen.. and 5~ sre the vanoU:) tala of bt-1. unimpf('~~ ... rolnlS tif rnnlfi5y: and we elll observe rhe pruliferauon of Cxu'3\13g3nt advennne sturics in whl....a£. .hddllllh lln'-! {U'IIm)!·I.I~rE'aJibtf. lion" tJfLbe ul.. There were !I'-Ill and.t: o.f D:trwln .h '"1...:n'Pisaged in OI~o!!rOruun!-/.11i iuhi".~lJgJcmellJ.. with thtl nt"dn of d~"!ll()pm:ll nr:ovel!'i In Ihr 1"'''-.drt ..in-! me)!!. gain. World (I 26) by Churlotte.I.. fowler.lO. :lin d biurte yu:ionll •hat ca lithe v.gy nfpr08lc51 can be fnllnto:ed flom 1890 right.p:Ku}l.iln~ bu..!-7]. WOlldcT"nj llu wMlhtr1be adYiUJL-e:meul of IKbD('i!ogyI"C'aIl)' .wtlll in 111tYp(Io!Iwaf )'e<lr~as mto IinJ.ra . beld to be ..e "".mp1y fail t9 ilq.l'Qyd fl-181. ..iellce:: Cictkin. th~ retlrcnjem of w. (lpthllhtn ebbed a. mptes Include Mur. a hili 'Khat is most DUli«abfu abour Ihf' ~'riod is Inl>." H". s SmdWr L.and perbnps the r~"u IW...".(!. It ~~ tf\. db:tum about l. Smith 12-125] .".k.s ihlll h J!t 1J1 lbis pe-riod Ihill futwinic f1f.....W'~t1tfL~(ohr2~9J by George Bet'l'13rtl Shaw who reeoanced 1l.gil'n:!!LILn ~rm) (11tI""ublL"l~ . hOiwt:\!~r.ch h11TiUIl5 ~nlu::riL the -reif'ied tln.hlr:d in vuin for lhe profit Tfu: nlarc..tll argumeui (Dflt:crnlng tht! :!IIndal fLU'lctiOII of images or(_h~ fuurre.. it ruightio SOllle:: :!!fllall hl!' ju~tifi. of -all p .l bm hmninenL SUl:h I'lnv~h: :'1: Ed""..pping rea·d:er.'forI covered In bis ele~ll..r u'adiucn ofmadl!rn :s.":lopi~n I1:"t9dding 10 the. or course.-n im3gtofthe future ..llt"e in CJ.k.~till pu5:iible 10 hoJl'f" rbal..!S Cnmo.v.ndenl champion uf sc~n[lIi(' p'l"'Ogrd~..IIt'/I mc .~-'pT1lgre.. al... (lY'!opio:" imog£' had b(en p.Vntr. basi(assuIILplions forbid u [{If LUr11 it."n " :I . ps j n ccrurol of p31"cho ITOpiC dru gs-. ahhongb the pC'ciur.lll. d Hu~ley~' It. as ill S.an me previidcnce. (II ls.nco..hearted "r them are 1.JI..ig'P:tfiwdy dis~nehamed unj'ljlt:l"IIC . 3:8 8M"" New IV.rgencc 01 the: bitter Mt.u""n [2-'Ai." ..1:tt g:rOil!. nill. in u.liun be! ween t be Wlir..s tAem...phYr ral~ ~ ih~ FllWJ:(/ l7-5J.-.3I1r1JCiS. it wlIS nm 10 bot. it ~1.si.t!'..Read's TAr! Gl'u.:-£" (..h Die UlOVia. Th~ d~i.. fJIf1Jfu'..and penfnenrefrom fu("f what iu..l. bUl . derives R.legitilimlingJargon In dtsguise: th t: "ildcil impJ"obabBilifo$. 'There-are abo iTonic utopias.(tIII th~ ~'ake nr DIIlI"'W. ~llcb ti Herbert . bUf it \01'30.&.of of coyne. v.ioD. . .bJ Df IV.. .J~.J ii could pl'l"'p:'tY'f' tb~ . Irom Ceorge M~trio nald llJ j _ It..s rntdd declare t hai.."..o ~n~fjitt" hell The'..J'3 ved" in t'oo'hi.s:.. pI"Opnt"!. IIl"~d!j: hl.5J..a(.'lilicub:.illflin1 Ihoughlfulf1...reed).uW' r2-'.lTf{lJ'm:nl invsrt..<n W have been enmpleeed b):' I9l4-. r~kulllr ideol<lg.he (. n Gloag'.. cnn~iikred Ill.ip.own Ilh<ll :!IIIW Ihe wORrapid del.fI':1U}ltn:.) In thq'''Mtld fmm I!i18~19~S.s.0:'1" th~ W"dT .).hi'c :limgltj!lfJeou!l~ pushing the in~ginjtjjun ill its limir-l'. Befort wcrid \Val I.)fl.i(..!jlo. .<10(1Freud) alfllf~1 in"'OUll1hll hetrt Ion l:'I(' r.. im.~.1.ht try to keep it-Lord Aa.-~ conveniem sUirling poilu Ier con:sicierauatl uf the 1~u. ul"iu--!\...1n.·. [2-44].s'fJ. utopian Tf~(~nnU''lVttjl)n . champion~-Ge'rns.rn disencharued [he wnrjd. m •• •wId SU<.y Sot Hoi Llx appm::m nir.-t.~'ilh the Xilgcis.u. even the tbt: IInl1:hine.. H~y. lend Lll be (u81:dvc h hi. but di5ellcbautmem Wlm. wMI. iare que&Ulln.re .. .. we-can ebe fiM' <!1\'I.'ely.ridernbl~ u\1C1'I:. Pul .e most rlgorous or all utupian IlILhu. (2-46] rle Farrere's UIIlou 1i~~M 12~261. H... ~nbin-g-copr promotmgth-r jrl~.ng ... hilld been popular before the 'Po'arto irnx81DII!'t:h..' ~ff"lCicnl1y powerfial CQ 'q \Hi.rwI'JJI:and IrtJD [:..~.a1. WM.rro~· (19311) nd Ay" Rind' •. w.eu ('-'&0be SeeD m ~ ~.ur ":Ii 'Or I\. i(ud be.ll<l:... Dr 'he gif' of jmm...t"t"[l)~ (il.. U.mldLhe !I ur (a(:t"1lJ f p..U \Iila\ tr'IIIII(.. tnn Ihf' suspicion exlcn.'!.1 l2-'OJ~ J'bere . S(. and ..hi I Ii nrl n. '..c"c:..n:. for rloing are.i'l.. .i iii mooHarel).. t\s meG:re... :.::heople . b-U.!Ci<::!i WI!' p·eridd.at m:ar:hin-ls mighr. · ::u-ruunl nt h'lmnn nill. corner of dlibinus plausfbUilt.raru re [8-19\.0< hI" utopian 'If W. nm h.dedi 0 e o[ the ml'Ihnlr.JL-d to who had powE'r and mis..'l""hKihbecolU!~r6l0 be a ~~ ')lluplTJom of uur r:~mF~mp(ll'aI1' bi:'ltoncal malz.. erefore. on ~ht' ocher hand.. ch ror r beuer world conv~~ i2 mcs~g_c in it.ltI~··i!Ii Loo/mtg n(lt. -f'b(: ....l t ill:'.born T."ereoe.u \'VItI entered its finai ph.1.lll in Ih-e_ liull ~ul:b anu-SMldbt poleniiol Cuuli': B.d.'ur:eh'es a.!mg--llko HUlon" Shalfgri. Tbe e..l1. i~~ Pol~Ik.eph O'J"teilJ1s ~:"gI""'1 {2 c7'11 arc cXlil1lples. Lc.a.. Hold"".at the mrracies Or~dt:'illre be low-ned .U-rrupring u~m"d l211Jchm(" re inl_port.'Ii..s.Tilt. ken i1"I!-d g-roup..t.h•• ~m.and eugen ic prog fa ms.1l C1.k.!leIVt$ nl'ig..:auld be OOUfII("rl iI. ".suITt .OJ-in SOl'"".ild [2-S21~ fir's surreal allegory of che ~ . Nlnrl~ruh-ctllturf rujon31o..~ nQt l"fI... or course.l .".* (ifi ~11f.w. wa enn l~t1tl\e~o..II.ddr MO'S'lkow:iIO...'.~ t1 Iglll.lr.5: blld till eauonaflun.Qf COLI 1'"1!Iil!' .'!lgin':U..Inrtd .allotd~. foU'ign ".1\.of pnlirkal tt![hnlllrtgu~al ilUll"I. ~ ~-enerau. Icr the u!!I..L:.. ~liserJCbalileti world enrouraged the lW~fltiC:lh-cEn[Ury lrnaginaIj.. the wa-J':!Ii lbi5..Ernrnee fkl10n ls bri)OCl'ilkal iuthis regard.5Ccl_help In nt:Ui" hett\!t'Oon [:anh. II1~lsrin. 1iJ IIJmh.! disclplIn.b.dy provt"tn thiU 'hc~ I. th'f:}' cannot c m. not eerprtslng IlHU.ltlic MH£h .buIlJ.m inlO}i new rushl/7om rationaliem.".akes.h~ of the utopias imagined In thi!': ~riod~ . ..f)r d{'liolnJulr)n III ~llh Ih(! IUCulUhi ~r.UHID.:! utllcr.oilt tlie nanne gF the gnod life ilnd me em.\:I'adern f~rll..I.h.iogt.d it difkrt!1l1 . in the most r.I.n-winis'm the" :nmplol! f~ith th~l hU. [2-561 or "hI es·s TfM S"'71lh .hnQst l-nriTely in ordeT.' he::u'u:lm:u cUh"I' wiTh !I('phhdL<.ie... i..}nll3-x. eire.rei...1.tm! i')lbl.Wng-hl's husband was :Rrir. Wur/J [2-4~1.uk._l:ol'l.a.rtd fir ~''tT ir I K""dillf..'i ..pace ekher in lmagtnauve vigor '" Ih('ran qtl3li[>...1~"" J"10l{mj UI9...sid~r.. but in lhe J~"''' Q . .in~ We -N.KInstead that iu pr".1 .. J1:6'ruini.~. AI!&xtt.. .. r. H. IILlt .... through 11l1ht" p(~~nt da}."l" dcgTC"C in a Il{nn .llre ~isiuns.lIU once iL h'a~ ~ible h) intllg'IrQi'. tPl r.md WrU_'I.~ if re'lt'P'Uh'fi1bl" u. t!'"j~'llpnnflhr rnuionot hum. To lli ron.u~. i:lwasrhr period berveen ihc.uli'€ mig}.t..-'orld I'ciJurn.J-women4"{u.t!. by li'Jr~jgn wa.s 71JJrN~w P 1o)as1H~[2-S3J."'. qujt~ diffUlent rJark'C"s uuercn in Lh~J()r"jI~I)t"f)t~ the Qenrc of of fu[Uriuic fiction. t m\lcb of ies po\l. llt-rNun I me . Their rI!a::iOD.~bI.lb1r Iklort'U"tI on ~..-ard B~lhl.rIL"· . wMcll i the hallm..

i'.ngi. een the exrreraea ur Baij 1.1i iI kind ormrtAologflJult is UI w PU!-'uhtlC' LhRi.r 6[ Smw.124J b H". Ihe.ednuo eVil tI('~d.h15 fictlnJ1..hr-n. and me di. t::".reqlJ~nll~ Wit ro be ajbed ""i~l) (he dark sid. A nitwikkrnc:.a..(tn enterprise.Jon in much the same light. I.. Slt~.r..rt:ujon31 and uuemcrienal euperhumans ~ re common. such as NOt-Ila: B.!h~d for lheir bubN If Lhc:ir Kicoufic di.C'.p"I(.old IIdl Wright aud {ohn Lebar.p> mon etoquendr of all ill E.rion l2--i3] byG.tOlitlliirS or IhnrlluKla. ft~SoJ1. iJ4xt.'nrk.''Iil$ and malo.rdn«r Buruing.. Tilt: balml.s b~ lhdr e:x.. I r-~.pc~" iKtlou \\Orlui .gs ~oph: .~ J ""." and "III! rrughl '-"ot'll whole of!idem~ fic..ilnillJ:l. Ul Voluk's t'{Jn~""flljAD I h:l( rht mn. Po'u.'(orE:.n.~h:c:.:11 I'''' d11!scheme oflhlQ. look fOT :g paltV'h in thor' .}<hvlok)" a..nt.'!I.lll h~1d Th ..jh-i.anceml!'m: or gf!(ltogbI and 3!· 50C"OC'\'!:. "~'" g¢ E1"bc"d·.. however.I{. mduding- [$ ille fiea I ihr !thOTI we David Kolle."(..e in many of me m~mph)'. mer <~ or Ih~ in<y""hiliry of bULh a1o. .lU~ ~ Ul Thr W.'I!''' Lhough there I!.r('IpI. in uie erul. and Charks WilllamS'j :mlhr.trrticu.ial"lDl [~-gBJ~ and !!I.v.1 1I1i11li flppn_ .. md . ..'erofrl"S1IOn.]rg~~1I!! ace Dol meant iu lu:iQW~md ".1 Ih~ ":a~f m:. >oM [2-65).81 took iiI..7r'n'lo of Q~'&lopl:a deserve [hei.pethurnall!ii.ht" ..:nivl' v. M-mil writers.<li"l!. and iI~k what p"1!'l!ilhilir~ edsu thoU we tnil)' overcume them..~1n in U" . II i. majorlly of . 19~~I.ilternatives ili~of course. ~"d AU'IJ'~t..$ s.HlII C1ll11iIlitl~&i" ·h.A.h..Man)' d~'slOpian f:mla..ejl::mre.s of I.. ."ie!ll uf HI'=.'!nt~.play cf e hnloeary fktl. there js."" ~Jou'm<J.~n. Sf pulp!. ..)' .1fttluIOn-.l'r hf MlID. much 'cf the malcrial published i:n.illg (UClD2I.JJ...he I".hl!.Wodd War I fhat a t:.h . Mi"tt 3'5 all "essay In mjth creation.u.Lli'j. ire iMII'.e-f'f.s~ur space has: been I eveated b) lhi" ad'V.Sl:cr·~IHo.roD.rum orwo.sib&!I!! .u .~·. eetem of our I..'L:~$i""c<::dicaLiO-II u" d rilliol'taljZi.1f'fl t":)I. ""Pfnll .. aILa. 12-107J..allea:il all cchu of Uu.ui.rl ~n T 'IA'hwh . II !l31l).n: ::itrlllgbrluT'wa-:rdIJ !rCilCm.J1ht ef h~p . AuolD'" 119331 by . 1 ilJu.nd Th.:U f..!.TJtf"r.of the: ~ns ul' ~eno.f opinion w...Lii" CMm.of lh~ pulp wrl1et'1i Itorfll.. hiebn. 5-eq ur.hill mtl)' l)eas~lI~tl9::Ii inrrin5lcln tb~ ft. A~ W'~Il.y.nare par-Ahl....(.mic zu:ume.·. 5 ••pledun LQ$l atl.re.lnf' rhii'> :3ppHt . [2-H'11 by AndTfo _\I<II1.<: c p1 ian:l dUI L ure mlg.'l:ordingltl ~II-e n{..foJ'U and dect!iofl! nf men and wnmen.A..his o:mnr". nd p".. n. empheais 011 alteruatlves arcse l1=:alu. The pCI i~d prQducaJ twuof the mose ImporGuu wruers in n.lh.lun8 ml:llJlm11r·op)' II)! ::I number ~f ¥. llic pOSU1l'~ louie: Ill' fiiil1 ro b(" " . the period lmpLy thai rhe a::il.Q.oIH~mpu~afy humal'l umdiliotl. and seaenee Imlna ean be. .I" or ii is ..rUtgl of po~ibilky and the ul$len(e 'Of maur ahemadve Iurures that be created b..· Howr!\'cl'.rlFi''ji Mtn {2~98J.'lrlC"rllli'lot nUl 1I'ft:1 h.I:o!:oUlJ".l'li".aa'J~·e:lt ID.c: ip'~t. IIdupted as it war-rant for .hc. it . that ihe weighr .of the bUI how could It be m.md VUiDP:! h'orks..-"..f['l-41] ..-t'31re:.paCc=l!nd r .o 1>.Irrherenr besli-alit)' jn hD C:Urio\l5 evclntlonary parable 71ir(t 01) 8a(~ [2'-71J There is no doubt.)jpin I.t:rct:k illld Paul EJdJidsel:i My Fi7J' T~i~ Y(fJU (19~8l iJl]dil~i5t:qu-!ls.liml1-lr .. is: wh:illLKic:ncc fi.!]" [2-IlJ.e .od the elder imu.'!1: ofopi:nioll had upped in ftl'ftlr n:f dt'\ilJ:u:!li:nnm~nl 'Whh r-tg~rri Ifl human 1'lO'!.. Illlcr~$llhgl)' enough [hJl force for gO(id is lI!. Intl~. thu V.. p.•n ••ndEdmuThl S"elr.atliliullble..11 of opponu:ni.sc::al. "r o.iu.t51 'U~ f'tnurt!...!oTde:r• m. .ul.'11 be lind Kutdellnf8 fo.:! a nUITlbt:l uI UIU. . a(.Difll. Thi.1i~\"e:l"ic'§'I'3k~ lhfIIl [0(1filr iDU) pfOM'rib~ r.p.pi:l:n Im3gf of Lhl..t out of the sheer profusion ofiroajtesofthe furure a Irom [he . and ehe r4!'trll!:11 ~n(o n"Il1JTI~d contenrrneru ..-b in whim wruers wunder about the real . H'II"fMI] 12.'rtiu l2-j5J. D. and ehe trul) bl~d"llfd1iug. bur il willS n(J1.:.101.rhtla I~-Hl hJ Jnb" B"... but If j'lt.. part end parcel of the wbele If'! be r ur write u btga..ed. p..-h.gc a tht./. a ud p<. and Lh~ pO'sIha.uyl .~'§.H""'-':ght.fll ..5m:uJag~d 10 conjure out of defeatof evil "S'u. a:mlF.pU iluill UT t=olutKmiilllenJ.'I..."'¢ rol'lm.:11IaUtI'Io\ a. ecree ut rhe oI":O'I'I!'II~ion rhar I!I!I...mpl. : might be r1UId~ 01 Ceorge Vi..> opened a new "'ond...:!i peci WI' and BJ'ffW l"n'lVorld i5lhdraJ]~iltion lhi. 2bund. Talne's Til<TOn.'.tQO~ both cufl~dou'Sr)1 .urujl after.ll.rxic:nlifi ..by ...':.. Tlld.lril'lfln Au:j.:lion <.ll-r fjCILQn:l.u'Id It R.f.ilXlI du:.lc'Ii"a:Mldmn.T:! ~om.. NUT is the posiLjvc clement contained in rutting! that even the m05tDnllio\B wri(et.cQndu([ b~ the-Ul"ul tlrden.t .dA=t'" a buq~t!!VD. F.lud< TIoLPi". Wmold Ri/..s:en.:mud. Bd .uiibt.tU::·po.h..-...3 tntthoto.u <ituli. This.aeea 3.ml F .~f':rlhrle$'!i'('{)nl'l"illf!tO. mUI II of tLih rkfilln jj in'J in~rnlJ)l ll'lIgif t. This conffier between imagl! of rttl!': hu man imp.waydH..i.1. tbe!ot n o~el~ :'Ind ~tQr!.T1Ie:t"!I.ol thr pot'ritld'1i: ~"':fhoni$li( in tot1.Jn!iider.)l..hetol leal !lulhon.. in C.(I tu Cl'!iploT'C' Ih~ ELIII ra ngc u f po.' hum~n "iI-t. mueh ef" the ape i\l ue.. Thi~ auirudc h ~l lts InCJSl:(::llr'Cltlt:'in tb!: wurk I'. "" hu:bprnvl~f" . i\l tr''I:li!'.111100 p:ainfl1JI>' 2W:U. or coun~. n'wl'tHJr Tren. enough out of the of ..OTYilll.i"al of predextmadnn '. c of uwnn:IlC3!i or . Thli!!:H'O!.h~l'I1aTl rti«!...!iclf'nli'l(~ 3rt.".h@real hnportance or ~\l(h wor~ Otll~'1 M4".dnru..ts OQ Iht" IHhrr &ad(- 3I'td ir was in this perlcd p:al'tkulllrl~ \'h~l LI:H:··th. bur em ~L.'If.3'1'1dy c1c~:r (n.jllt'll dispr.onned:ian 10 be nmdc 'be\W~l Lhc .nd ill Gu) [)(!IH'.rig. V..!Uve'l.~'uilnUlle~l we h ad previou~ll granted (whether in rOI*' '" G..:t: uf burrrau nature because or ill presumed .hat lh-trc wn~ a15Q il po:uU\ I !ldc 1O 1.~n !hf).r-r.-tfZI{}I!'~ 12-llfJJ i'\J'1d Qfh~r .. III lCTI'I'li of the "'lily iI w'iI:II and "'. F~ I...IQO..-insi-t: or OTh. p. {hal WI WAod(!l'ful dT(!amwnrld....P".!'fULUIl' iufTel ed ..:·u(.IJf1.YUon 12i .c1iOlllOTphic imHg4:0rmim"~ .diDs rhe l•jee.~ true lhilt much or imprH.ealm~ fif ach:U!:"'t'1l1~11' N!"". Odh:'.\lun Who" .-t it ima~i..lA £litRe!' dmn as she po.JoTir.. Fabln anackmg amor.of heroes and Thr-.o'. .'frt'l~ur:"i\· III WI" wo·rk. If [2-21].51e~ Ihi\t 'ITlPOTl mysticliinl11tIJ specutauve fi(ti . lfI2-21 J. authorofli Jlfi')'I1$Jo U!:11(lIffllJ L2-59] and ocher Wut~.wou~ ~ pt. wUd~J'tH.NI(fiI ..s.. flol ~ ror~~ thepl"fldtstin~rl ourse hi~lOty.lk Ihen:'\j ijln e:~H(..UOII wilh lIlt!' 1.('Ol'$ ami TAf nf':m-I'J ".uall)' coosuued in 1." 1~-41. the l.1X? Il(!f)nd th(' ~rar.lu1t T~..b:u.. . crUJljl1u.I'r"..[l ilrt. TTnly Ihe: Icreeer un. World JJllow [11'-128].ani:! i.ly (!:n<lIlKh in WeLl~'1 t'UIl)wgPIYt..1I"f.1rrtlal t. tivGJ1'p in llit C•.mJ}.~ Ibat lhere-au! lhiti.~1 1'1-9Gl. however e .i11j'II\.onJlj" for "the ~y un~ ...Ii..r£tCII~ content 'Wllh thrir lo t.(.: angel too-a viewpoinr PUL forward l!'-:<plLdl.!Ill".C'im.able .lir>iI b~ eoruemp u l"kq bi.suppon.'ltrage.bir'l~!\ thaI .b~ maTllQ.a bOi_lm in p"mora.. ~ fOrf'Un:Uf brh"'J. rhe.lllJl'ed ill Sk!lpi~dul1·~J.':uur:t.'lJnor:di1y.. ~e~n in Ol~r Sl~plo:<loo" Odd]""n £2-99) and Claude .. M .Inti Til . lace..ol(1"gy. f2-52l Laurence Man"inlf> Th.f Fi"SI.r II~in<l"'I..Khl.quve \'01cc is [0 be round in the cemmued li!!mptlam r.t the VillIi.f S_ Fnwler Wri. M"...~lI'"h."5."rl LirLds.r.'UTC:3rt(] 5118pidoll .gl' w{I:h m~n:l'ah ."'1)1'1. "I in t.iI.hc~ wiJl be: pllni.•..1y.It" the pel iod bt..5t j.. of fururesoresemed by 'Writt!n "Ctbe p(:tiod arcc~1I1rillgc:n1.'Dlogical ~uppo. ord K Thul"'.. fUlUI cs.m: rnq. i..~(3t f.ll chc rilr...ul')' r'l."'...rr"".ii-upe.orilJfi'litelil. iflll.. .ni~ f.td'fl.

'IIi.cly IiolDa'U I.' hi"'.h.nd Farnl liar ever W be !:oUJ pn:r. I_~.llllt:l.u..11:w! • r 1I..bel that t." (.::_Mooll b}' llu 1'i~'rr~~rrCf"1 tnl !nk-l~ ~f..unot 1. I hl~ r-=ndil:!nl!'!'f!Qw. Ilu~'cl .lOulii nonOI'I. Uy (flh'lp:i rblor.blt" . heal me-s-i m:ldgin:al."\!o umn.:Hion of it n:::b.~Iv l if. C(j>oQfK!!r~.lf)V(t's 11-ll·II .b:J rttU) !Dany }. in whidl !rloril..'Unt~'lj.Li\-dy ~'-l"Il~d kind.. flJ~memal.colrn:iwe fic'lion produced between 191 B .Sl.rt!!.:' (.inyrhing the reverse i.."" d..'5 Stu_rile.1(hin terms ofn'!"dkl!C.Ciw·dIL .1b:i."d job" W. L-ul i..rlil<. I hat .J~[I H~ till''' t?ni.. alit u I"'r<l~~r~ orsp~«" by p.01"".II!:l'T b)" • Wt'uiliJlum'~1 and l'~rr. 1'92~~ .. jiIDmfinT1C iii. h.i. to g~t611I.:d.mll. rnnfin ed bi".).. 'e 11r. nO\'l.]JlI.lB.rllh~. lI.it~..pidon that Iht gll(j.£ tm.i..~ m I..~ ~el .ure..It"II-!191.. .lu~ PlJlresrt of his lOry haa L-nL'Ourag.!l..a:(ls n I.. !J'ubli.i6io-f~'tI'r.. 1111:.. Bib.h:tlLt' fiLLiol1oflOday 3nd the !I.d" w~~ n.iIIIu.tJC.. iOU s :. '"_1irr~lmt>lIIUU\[1II ..) ~'~UC.. -ila:omplisb 1I111..and J-aSS.. 1. ~ 11or1lh..·jghl.(un.tI W}I. ~'II.lhe flJ:ndl.:1pPr itt"m.a'<.":.I( punwl in the Unill::d SLate:.i1Ji. .I' Ih~ iJS W(l pen1Ji:1..c..nnn..31.·lt ts rvdll i:'ifit'lp'eral:aulhDAi Ll:Jallh~~' (Iirl nut:O... ~ '.!PlI a.IlI.!' Fiction..'f I tpul.k .QJk!f..lj.h:I1 ClJe~rtlf for".or in~ 1!::lfLlwi.!H!'lIrth of r l!rqllu-:dmHII..ld HumilW'II.o rorlL ...LI}' (l ntJi... MidlOl!:!1 (U. .sd~e(e fli..3. "~.iin".'i.. I\HlN. ~nd_ "Faraske PI-ll..hot" r l)l Gr'.h .li-c IHl:dlli." dmibr In dr..J!:I1:ii I!C:I-juninl""~ e WeU~il"l'!'d in II!'..uim~ l:I ~pl:l.!' It nf .h.f"rnt (if sorne tOl'nplt:iri:iry.&.'lin bdYt:oten r. ·"5 prodUI:c:cl cluing the tP~h'J be .dl 'ot"( ii:ldn~ ~11("f"t~'I>. tbc universe itidfr This is '21: reeurscm Lht"m~ ~:arlf pulp science fkxicn.:uTL ~Ige.-whh Ih!: infinite and the eternal. o .. t'. U:-lilli . I~I :suniL' eXlelU 111ol...cl)niCii flr I~~ .Qt~~me I'l"tlllIn n~lf'd of "'r-ed~o.. Yezad.ll. bUI rh..:rnd "The ACCtmit:d ·~b:!ty·· hy Edm .imcv.'.5djoJ'..')1 h t·. in f·ul. MI~nt~"i' UI l rtf oil A.IJ"I..111 r j~llll) l m i~ll(>cr_u.1 In sr.r [0 ...<k Ox.ur 9\1!1hll'~ nl-An\'-dlllIICrr.:mc lh.r' [1-:1101 .:(lJ!!"nc~fittiull r.he¥ hav:c become .ny. I rt l.\'Tj t~in.Qpk·' and "Awlo nf U~_f.I(.t..-<lI r'!U ecntraet.ltmd ~n(l S(. Jr . and nVI l .. E..:: recem.li.m. uh: 3ip""'u urn of 'ipe...2 \f~!f. .. ~nd fiUll-ID la . n g-:I beuer 'd'~(ld: ~lI.. d i::lIlI~J expressed il!!i... hill .xpl:i:linIIlG whit! it felt IiI«: to be a Ild~nl:f" I Ul the ~~50!i: -r:J:JeContents i.1S' rgSl-Hl~?..i:c-<lliro 11(:'1 .Ihf· 'I(~d lu 1.(.I'l["-:e IhJ:m 11'1('0irnaginadve !'1J'II!I·i:lrdit:~.d in Bn-c. e pilmry ~I enee fit: uca rha L Is wnncu L p:rc1.ictiUi I 'iWh~e auen ti on.IlJl".:. WeinbalJm began Ihl! 'Work. eneouruers 'h1ill..'.. -" \'.i.:!iU:::r''\ r~[lU..ti was nee .tJoI:I.llg ill ··With llrt fOl."Jprl~ _t Ui~:i _ M...TO(.l!"h t:Q~lIrul.(iiiIHW l'om:_jTltf {H~nJ'y fr~"!ii "He Wlm Shrank" ~h~r-k':I'I:"SnbMII.lII:t"!lenjoyed m"si'cl~[.g~.iI1f!lllgrr.!. O"ld.o1o n.}.a~m'Pb.anl'(I: Mort!lHty. hJu-it was leM!ti bur wb:i:U was..C.:Inl & Li. !{'10m!.I'r. II'L_-nrilil..u-i9t(.r-atna~t in ~ rL.:nr. he t:. oJ ~i~n...mas.. ".e w.yuf P'Q~ble wcnlds. MiJllrlhll11J.l1 l1li.::. The space E~"~Ani E.ry Lciu.nnrljtIL·.InlL'rbf Immr.)JJleJl(al tssues il{"r:$lffIdnGI1IClmll"T~ 1..f I \l'l II"! ur.. bC'lougiilg ~ l.ittIh. U1 tl...Ul!n..~f~ i~ nhinu.I.)1Thl"~ ".ftll the eonu 011".r~~\."...gt:d lU :5oU .N j9JS-l~.Jtow Ihi.or:nonl!'l fn!m the 5]'.A'J if! Ihe I hiu]n ilxll."[rec'uJ:a:non of allf 1_irHl 'Wft::.ok ~)lrl "ill1blul_ b~' Raymond G~.(110 0"'1.!'1 wbkh it . of .. io the ikli uri prod u()t'o b"C'-1 weerr Ihl:' Wirni~ ..ll.nbo'Wn. Heinemann.do.. .--.M prenccuparicn whh Ihll"il· L'l~~ human naeure..f-ihf from the ~m!' ~ ~lvmG thing!!: to be found on E.. en 1t:Je...t~rJI. COlllpflrl!" . g~ru!r:iUr popuror IUIlI h ~I ~'('~it.'J'.::tlI).. nf deiigolilg elien ct"O. 1'" "P""" . .:s. G<r(".J"7'3..m~ ·1[h ~~~~J b)' M)-J[g. ~ ua .]p~don m~ua. hUI no-r l.~I.:"f.:roro!llmip..:!"! l'un." (1!Il!41 by Don..ti..ld" 11!Il!~ br CIH~ Ashton Smith 00<1 "(:. h ...50 ail accounl of lOC .K_~_ M...ul:n.ng :'Ift.. f".lhLtumJra:al.(Jidljlt'1tlfnP.seem [0 damage uur Pl'Q!opocts ofbuildi."oo ('.E" of ~flt plJ!p :)(0-.&.n.Iii . lt". ::md..ilrK.i. \I£ry linle in t. Thfo gTr.hcrs 1925 G.n AmL'Tit.! A :Rom~1It 1!I'l2.rnC'h::Ulr:cd univcl":rt! ".. ~hNU rnu...'~II: T("m:!indere. "ll-I I fOl:mUll!!: i by Kiph... .id~1 the ..u ~J1~ii~K~ 'I 'bt'" h...as ioTh~ Et~rl1 .-ernplt"d [omiJk~ the uueretellae guJrsimagin<iUlIfiy navlp:blr.. Lhe. (»(~.r. nouhl~. ~ ncl Tkf! Clru:&w!Jn .'tlrl r-r~.I1J flll~i~hnDo!ii j ..lllll rtana c f science f.alitf of lilaJl)' or thtl4!' in'lo:efILio. U .ld Ilt!R:!!l rtf l'.pc:aabl~ :rn Ot lD f'Ilt..Tr hn~ li .'frequ .z..'!I.Ihpul~~ h~.w) ]..A.Ii.'...Il..' t/lf ~Mr fhtl.l'.. SlDi.:I!'(Irge.can hf: seen re she...:::'mpbt-lillid~:lndeed..in!'LiJ"flat.. -.WCl'~ (hll. II' ( I 1Ii'l.rcju'·fJnllted ~ :it"'.... -" I1j~"'I. t.hl! hohJrr rm-eEi. lI. pt:liod~ "h' •• rli'U'ld In Jqe i'l] Lcrc!!lll or .j~mlh-aLLI'publi:!jhl:d Wcliiil" in corupar i~lI[l wuh En!!!' ameum W. {j't~dF-ir~" M ~Ji. 197>L illliholog .. ed. ."~t' i~ull unt~aijnU!\.I.:1I these 1_~r reptecem ~hc litc["iiU'Y [l'Illnwnt-nts ".of air pol. I'her flt'lltnjli:i-1 fh~ material wriutrl fDl'the puJps..phy Arll::l'rl.: iincmp. e h hu wrrndy bec'~~ noted ttl..1h.« m~y p-riWl!! be a Pandora's bo" W'h(.d .'IO'IO".~I Ii'T I..I.fillJlicuulitHI rro['n JJ ['hit' I Inlt"LltrlUIiI drck:!l. .-t'" Wtuld War 11 Md cndcd.! C. Icn.ha'nI~:S ill empb. rl.1:deIlt. Gtlmpul: TJ.111 W"".'UIj. lm." lb.1 f'ugiliw among iii cluud of fT~y.l'lnJI ~19l8) f)~ ·"I"f]rl. but irwe to)l!.r'i'I'Ih':'mpn~ ~r- l-lcJ'Iri lFr=uae-) ~in.iOrl.'SInd tll"Lh.CIcm~f]_('. which fndudt.iiI. eomancea and such srories. .....b. 81.\'Illt ... .V-tln hlllll!lln ...192!.ull.!"l' between lIle' l21r. ilh(!ut tr.lty {)~ ..:re-il'. r u ~'~lb the dere I l:aibed.'l!' (I~lG-J ~?7J. nf 11.gnt'''Jillr1il_Ilt!'' I" lihin ~rth~ Sun·< ~'!11~m:so~ ..nlf.'1>n..IILilftl.F. iJ -IIt.h . .(K-:iIl\i'Cnte~ htbcl have no difTicllll)' in rJnding mnLril..]v~gll1l "tfll)u.it~d el.elf-<!knfid~m.bq..p..cL.JI. du_t-ing thls period.Jl't)..~.\'J'!lr:J.§~i!in a PUPl..!i!rug):[h' u.ot WI.!. "1~ Warld B .uf p menV of Ibe.h.h~ U.. 11.'. 311successful !ha~ tn ~Ih!.2iid ... uh_h. dlHerl ufI..J'jI.fl[ in iJln urgll!' ro burat."'(. bit m ~f!h if! in r hr lllit "'·LI~'1.l rn~oc. "'~:H:§l~ . Fr.lmt:'J'n:te!(Ion~1 P·ubliii. MHier.1.c. wrirees such iI. ~II i'!iit'll?r.liognI. .'11:(!umR"... l..WOI laol MIj LLlDlc:mpor:LIrili::i.~.rrt'd .J n·....nLly (. 1'llit.Killolii-.. The nT~lhof.. II" Knigha.ar-huurf' ~pem:II.ht" rHo. Juy S''''rnn's L""'"~"riJ.Jt.[) her II. the bounds oliu.1' rl.T!.o ....r FlfHQ7T till' "rlh.. If .l?ot: ditb~~[.olu8~.!('i~ qUlf!eil t ct.Im~ i~J·l b) Alimo" ..l!t I..}there ha III been fnnovaricns.l'jng rheconcems 0' lJ'lIlp fll"'I!-~~j:ine celcnce flctioo (U1~ f'1!-f1ni"'.1.nd "A. 'I'.iL~~T(... of wj{b aCL :a1l~.. ~I Iil: ~ng.1 w". t.:n[ Uti r IJnl:e:liTorif '_~£i!Ilh An ldiID)'IIU'i11ljc: rualnn o.'\IMiml" lImn. !I.:s and fr.UlI). ~1ibjted Ii) several mi'..It"u.do.....udLl~ spm::e--op1'Tn (Mun-.I""" irn1Jglu...~ ['ttb~ ~ms m I·LCCml7l£:rlUlun(t-QI Te. o..aILbough ratber rl4lr .iIrlk"'rht: :truc measure err rbe myihli: (ju..-tlilimt~d.ho'.on ofdu:'''JJ"rc~aaJllpbelltano perjod.Q1 t!ihhough SUH ..-.. plloill Ocrm a.h)..£irli1t. Sllrn~ drtnt· .gI~ mClhGd...].s.ry(iI. iJi !!IIIIIIJ~" the osht"el" Gl'i11'Jl__jHt ot.ltdrjfr..UI tt!: t.