T 703 Modern Communication Systems

Module 4 Mobile Communication Introduction
Cellular Telephone’s key concepts were evolved from Bell Lab in 1947. It was found that by sub dividing a large geographical market area called coverage zone into smaller sections called cells , the concept frequency re use could be employed to increase the mobile telephone channel. Cellular systems allow large number of servers to share a common usage channels available in a region. In addition to IC technologies , micro controllers and micro processor chips enabled complex radio and logic circuits to be used in electronic switching machines to store programs that provide faster and efficient call processing. Each area is divided into hexagonal shaped cells that fit together to form honey comb patterns. Hexagon shape provides most effective transmission by approximating a cellular pattern which eliminates inherently present dark regions between adjacent circles. A cell is defined by its physical size and by and by the size of its population and traffic patterns. Each geographical area is allocated a fixed number of cellular voice channels. Physical size of cell varies depending on the user density. There are macro cells(1-25miles,1-20watts) and micro cells (1- 100’s of feet , 0.1 watt) . Micro cells are used in cities and due to their low effective working radius , exhibit milder propagation impairments such as reflections and signal delays. Macro cells may overlay micro cells. Frequency reuse Frequency reuse is a process in which same set of frequencies can be allocated to more than one cell , provided cells are at a certain distance apart. Each cell is allocated a group of channel frequencies which are different from neighboring cells and the base station antennas are chosen to achieve a desired coverage pattern within the cell. Frequency reuse can be mathematically illustrated by considering with a number of Frequency division channels available . Each geographic area is allocated a groups of channels which is divided into n cells in a unique and disjoint channel grouping when each cell has same number of channels.

Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems F=GN Where N- number of cells in a cluster G- number of channels in a cell F- number of FD channels available in a cluster. G<F . Cells that collectively use a complete set of available channel frequencies are called clusters. When a cluster is duplicated ‘m’ times within a system , total number of full duplex channels are C= mGN C- Channel capacity m- number of clusters N- cluster size(3,7,12) Frequency reuse factor is inversely proportional to number of cells in a cluster.(1/ N).So each cell within a cluster is assigned 1/N ‘th of total available channels in the cluster.

Interference
The major kinds of interference produced within cellular telephone system are namely co-channel interference and , adjacent channel interference. Co- channel interference Due to frequency reuse of several cells within a given coverage area use the same frequencies. Two cells using same frequency are called co-channel cells and the interference between them is termed co-channel interference. Quite unlike thermal noise , co – channel interference cannot be reduced by increasing transmit power since increasing the cell’s transmission interfering with the transmission of another cell. To reduce this , co – channels must be separated by a certain minimum distance. Interference between the cells is proportional to the ratio of distances to the cell’s radius. Since cell’s radius is proportional to the transmit power , more radio channels can be added to a system simply by decreasing transmission power per cell by making the cell smaller and filling the vacated coverage area with new cells. If cells are of same size , co-channel interference is dependent on radius of cells( R ) , and distance to nearest co- channel cell ( D) . Increasing D/R ratio ( co-channel reuse ratio) increases spatial separation between co – channel cells relative to coverage distance. For hexagonal geometry

Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems

Q = D/ R = √3N Where Q- Co channel reuse ratio D- distance to center of nearest co channel cell(Km) R- cell radius (Km) N-Cluster size (number of cells) Smaller the value of Q, larger the channel capacity since cluster size is also small. Hence large values of Q improve co-channel interference and thus over all transmission quality. The trade off opts an optimal way. Adjacent channel interference Adjacent channel interference occurs when transmission from adjacent channels interfere with each other. The results from imperfect filters in receivers that allow near by frequencies to enter the receiver. This is usually prevalent when adjacent channels are transmitting very close to mobile unit receiver simultaneously trying to receive transmission on adjacent frequency. This is called near- far –effect and is most prevalent when a mobile unit receiving a week signal from the base station. This can be minimized by using precise filtering in receiver and making careful channel assignments. It can also be reduced by maintaining a reasonable frequency separation between channels in a given cell. For this re use factor should be large enough to maintain adequate adjacent channel interference level. Different ways of cell splitting segmentization and dualisation are discussed in the lecture. Purpose of cell splitting is to increase the channel capacity and improve available reliability of cell telephone network. Cell splitting provides for orderly growth of cellular system. Resizing or redistribution of cell area is called cell splitting . Cell splitting occurs when traffic levels in a cell is reach a point where channel availability is jeoprdised.

Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems

With cell splitting a larger number of low power transmitters takes over an area previously served by a single high power transmitter. Area of circle is proportional to its radius square. So when radius of all cells is divided by 2 as many as four smaller cells would be needed to provide service same coverage area. A=∏ r2 . r = r/2 on squaring area becomes four times the former area. Macro cells divided into mini cells which are further divided into mini cells , which are further divided into micro cells as traffic gets increased. Each time the cell is

Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems split , its transmit power is reduced . By increasing channel density cell splitting increases the channel capacity of the system.

Sectoring Another way of increasing channel capacity is by decreasing D/R ratio while maintaining same cell radius. By reducing the number of cells in a cluster , channel capacity improves. Co channel interference can be reduced by replacing single directional antenna with several directional antennas , each radiating within a specific area. They are called sectors and decreasing co channel interference while increasing capacity by using directional antennas is called sectoring. Degree of reduction of co channel interference depend o n amount of sectoring used . A cell can be partitioned either into 120 degrees or 60 degrees sectors. Sectoring improves signal interference ratio and thus increases the capacity. Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems Segmentation and Dualisation These are techniques used when additional cells are acquired within reuse distance . Segmentation divides a group of channels into smaller groupings or segments of mutually exclusive frequencies and cell sites within the re use distance are assigned their own segment of channel group. Segmentation reduce interference but also lower the capacity of the cell . Dualisation avoid full cell splitting where entire area would otherwise will have to be segmentized into smaller cells. When you want a new cell from an existing cell which is not sufficiently far off , the busy part of first cell is converted to a primary cell same channel frequency can be assigned to the new competing cell. Problem with dualisation is that it needs extra base station in the middle of the original cell which gives rise to two base stations in it, a high powered one and a low powered one.

Call system lay out

Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems A radio net work connects different personal handsets in a cell communication network. Radio network is defined by a set of radio trancievers located at physical centre of each network. Base stations are distributed over the area of system coverage and controlled by MTSO. MTSO is Mobile Telephone Switching Office. A base station consists of low power radio tranciever, power amplifier, a control unit, and other hard ware units. Six primary components of cell telephone system are Electronic switching center, cell site controller, radio tranciever, system inter connections , mobile telephone units, common communication protocol. Electronic switching centre is a the heart of the system. It performs control switching between public network and cell sites and also process data received from cell sites. Cell site controller – operates under the directions of switching center. Radio tranciever- are the mobile units or hand sets for full duplex communication. Communication protocol- Different protocols exist in different countries for the communication link. Handoff feature Ability to transfer calls that are already in process from one cell site controller to another as mobile units move from cell to cell within cellular telephone network is called hand off. Computers at cell site controller stations handle hand off without disturbance and degradation. Hand off algorithm exist by considering various system parameters. Call processing

Wire line to mobile calls Cell systems switching cetre receive a call from wire line party through a dedicated interconnected line from public switching network. The switch translates the received dialing digits and find out whether the destined mobile unit is busy. If it is available , the switch pages the mobile subscriber . Following a page response from the mobile unit switch assigns an idle channel and instructs the unit to tune to that channel. Mobile unit confirms channel tuning via controller in the site and sends call process tone to subscriber’s telephone causing it to ring. The switch terminates the cell program when it receives the indication that subscriber has answered and conversation begins.

Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems

Mobile to wire line Mobile subscriber first enter the called number using touch pad and presses the send key which transmits the number as well as caller’s identification to switch. If identification is valid switch routes the call through a leased connection to wire line party.. Switch assigns the mobile a non busy channel instructs it to tune to that. After the verification by switch that mobile is tuned to assigned channel , mobile unit receives a call process tone . from switch. After called party picks up the phone switch terminates call progress tone and conversation can Mobile to Mobile call The calling party enter the number using a touch pad and presses the send key. Switch receives the called number and find if called unit is free. The switch then send qa page to called site controller and called party receives the page. Following a positive page , switch assigns each party a channel to tune . Then the caller party’s unit rings when system receive notice that called party has answered. And switch stops the call processing tone and conversation between the parties can begin. If subscriber initiate a call and channels are busy, switch sends retry command to reattempt the call. If calling party is off called party get a busy signal. If called number is invalid system reads a reorder message and announce call cannot proceed.

Block diagram of a typical tranciever. Block diagram shows a typical tranciever. Since cell must be capable of FD communication it is designed to be both transmitter and receiver. It uses –side injection and local oscillator ckt. The first IF is sufficiently high image frequency well beyond pass band of preamble filter and second IF is low enough to be sufficiently amplified to drive FM detector. In the transmitter a modulator signal applied directly to transmit VCO to produce a low index low frequency direct FM carrier signal that is multiplied and amplified significantly before reaching transmit antenna. Micro processor has control lines to major functional blocks. It determine the frequencies frequencies at o/p of synthesizer. It also monitors o/p from FM detector to set received signal quality and to set up information transmitter and and control gain of final power amplifier.

Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

T 703 Modern Communication Systems

Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET

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