This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Herstein Solutions

Chapters 1 and 2

Throughout, G is a group and p is a prime integer unless otherwise stated. “A ≤ B” denotes that A is a

subgroup of B while “AB” denotes that A is a normal subgroup of B.

H 1.3.14* (Fermat’s Little Theorem) – Prove that if a ∈ Z then a

p

≡ a mod p.

Proceed by induction on (positive) integer a. The theorem holds for a = 1 because 1

p

= 1 ≡ 1 mod p.

Suppose that k

p

≡ k mod p and then compute, by the binomial theorem,

(k + 1)

p

=

p

i=0

p

i

k

i

1

p−i

= k

p

+ 1 +p(. . .) ≡ k + 1 mod p.

In the last step, we used the induction hypothesis. This proves the result for positive integer a. The expansion

(k + 1)

p

= k

p

+ 1 +p(. . .) is justiﬁed by lemma 2 (below) which states that p [

p

n

for n ∈ ¦1, . . . , p −1¦.

The case a = 0 is trivial: 0

p

= 0 ≡ 0 mod p. Let a ∈ Z

+

as before. As was just proven, there exists c ∈ Z

such that a

p

−a = cp. Now, if p > 2 (odd), we have (−a)

p

−(−a) = −a

p

+a = (−c)p so (−a)

p

≡ −a mod p.

On the other hand, if p = 2, we just need to see that “modulo 2” picks out even/odd parity. Regardless of

being positive or negative, an even integer squared is even and an odd integer squared is odd. Therefore

a

2

≡ a mod 2 and the theorem is proven in its entirety.

Lemma 1 – Let n ∈ Z

+

and r ∈ ¦0, . . . , n¦. The binomial coeﬃcient

n

r

=

n!

r!(n−r)!

is an integer.

Proof: Proceed by induction on n. For n = 1,

1

0

= 1 and

1

1

**= 1 are both integers, as claimed. Suppose
**

that

n−1

r

is an integer for all r ∈ ¦0, . . . , n −2¦. Now

n −1

r

+

n −1

r −1

=

(n −1)!

r!(n −r −1)!

+

(n −1)!

(r −1)!(n −r)!

= (n −1)!

(n −r) +r

r!(n −r)!

=

n

r

.

Hence, when the above computation goes through,

n

r

**is a sum of integers and thus is, itself, an integer.
**

However, the computation fails from the outset for r = 0 and r = n (we’re interested in things like (r −1)!

and (n −r −1)!), so those cases must be considered independently. We have

n

0

=

n!

0!n!

= 1

n

n

=

n!

n!0!

= 1

and the claim is proven.

Lemma 2 – Let n ∈ ¦1, . . . , p −1¦. Then p [

p

n

.

Proof: Intuitively, this lemma is true because the numerator has a factor of p and the denominator has no

factors that cancel it (relying crucially on the primality of p). By the fundamental theorem of arithmetic (Z

is a UFD), we can write the denominator as n!(p − n)! =

q

a

i

i

with q

i

the unique ascending list of prime

divisors of n!(p−n)! and a

i

their respective powers. As every factor of n(n−1) 21(p−n)(p−n−1) 21

is smaller than p (this fails if n = 0 or n = p), p divides none of them and hence, as a prime, does not divide

their product. Then none of the q

i

is p. The factor of p in the numerator is then preserved upon taking the

quotient, and p [

p

n

. Note that it makes no sense to talk about p dividing

p

n

unless

p

n

∈ Z (lemma 1).

H 1.3.15 – Let m, n, a, b ∈ Z with (m, n) = 1. Prove there exists x with x ≡ a mod m and x ≡ b mod n.

As m and n are coprime, there exist integers c, d such that cm + dn = 1. We see that (ac)m + (ad)n = a,

so that adn = a − acm ≡ a mod m. Similarly, (bc)m + (bd)n = b, so bcm = b − bdn ≡ b mod n. Set

x = adn +bcm. Then we have

x ≡ adn mod m ≡ a mod m x ≡ bcm mod n ≡ b mod n.

H 2.3.3 – Let (ab)

2

= a

2

b

2

for all a, b ∈ G. Prove that G is abelian.

The statement is that, for all a, b ∈ G, we have abab = a

2

b

2

. Multiply both sides of the equation on the left

by a

−1

and on the right by b

−1

. Then we have ba = ab and hence G is abelian.

H 2.3.4* – Let G be such that, for three consecutive integers i, (ab)

i

= a

i

b

i

for all a, b ∈ G. Prove that G

is abelian.

Let N be the smallest of the three consecutive integers. Then we have that (ab)

N

= a

N

b

N

, (ab)

N+1

=

a

N+1

b

N+1

and (ab)

N+2

= a

N+2

b

N+2

for all a, b ∈ G. Inverting the ﬁrst equation and right multiplying it to

the second equation implies

ab = a

N+1

b

N+1

b

−N

a

−N

= a

N+1

ba

−N

hence ba

N

= a

N

b.

Inverting the second equation and right multiplying it to the third equation gives

ab = a

N+2

b

N+2

b

−(N+1)

a

−(N+1)

= a

N+2

ba

−(N+1)

hence ba

N+1

= a

N+1

b.

Therefore a

N+1

b = ba

N+1

= ba

N

a = a

N

ba and left multiplying by a

−N

yields ab = ba for arbitrary a, b ∈ G.

Hence G is abelian.

H 2.3.8 – Let G be ﬁnite. Prove the existence of an N ∈ Z such that a

N

= e for all a ∈ G.

Let a ∈ G. As G is ﬁnite and closed under multiplication, the set ¦a

0

, a

1

, a

2

, . . .¦ is ﬁnite. Hence there exist

m, n ∈ ¦0, 1, . . .¦ such that a

m

= a

n

(without loss of generality, take m > n). By the division algorithm, we

can write m = kn+r with k, r ∈ Z and 0 ≤ r < n. Now we have the statement a

kn+r

= a

n

or a

(k−1)n+r

= e.

Enumerate G as ¦a

1

, . . . , a

n

¦. For each a

i

, there exists an N

i

= (k

i

− 1)n

i

+ r

i

, computed by the above

method, such that a

N

i

i

= e. Let N =

N

i

. Then a

N

i

= (a

N

i

i

)

N/N

i

= e

N/N

i

= e for each a

i

∈ G.

H 2.3.9a – Let G have three elements. Prove that G is abelian.

Let G = ¦e, a, b¦. In order to show that G is abelian, we only need to show that ab = ba because the identity

commutes with everything. Suppose ab ,= ba. We have only three choices: ab = e, ab = a or ab = b.

(1) If ab = e, then a = b

−1

so ba = e = ab, which is a contradiction. Hence ab ,= e.

(2) If ab = a, then b = e so ba = a = ab, which is a contradiction. Hence ab ,= a.

(3) If ab = b, then a = e so ba = b = ab, which is a contradiction. Hence ab ,= b.

Therefore ab = ba necessarily, and hence G is abelian.

H 2.3.10 – Let G be such that every element is its own inverse. Prove that G is abelian.

Let a, b ∈ G. Then ab = a

−1

b

−1

= (ba)

−1

= ba, so G is abelian.

H 2.3.11 – Let G have even order. Prove there exists a non-identity element a ∈ G with a

2

= e.

If an element a of a group doesn’t satisfy a

2

= e, then there exists a unique inverse element a

−1

,= a in the

group. Elements of this type can be counted in pairs ¦a, a

−1

¦. There are therefore an even number 2k of

elements with a

2

,= e. The identity satisﬁes e

2

= e, so there are [G[ − 2k − 1 ≥ 0 non-identity elements a

satisfying a

2

= e. If [G[ is even, then [G[ −2k −1 is non-zero and hence there exists a non-identity element

a ∈ G with a

2

= e.

H 2.3.12 – Let G be a non-empty set closed under an associative product with an e ∈ G such that ae = a

for all a ∈ G as well as the property that, for each a ∈ G, there exists y(a) ∈ G with ay(a) = e. Prove that

G is a group under this product.

In order for this set to be a group, right inverses must also be left inverses and it must hold that ea = a for all

a ∈ G. Multiply the equation ay(a) = e by y(y(a)), the right inverse of y(a), on the right: by associativity,

y(y(a)) = [ay(a)]y(y(a)) = a[y(a)y(y(a))] = a.

Hence y(y(a)) = a is the right inverse of y(a). Now we see that, in addition to ay(a) = e, we have y(a)a = e

so that y(a) is the inverse (both left and right) of a. Now we can trivially show the property ea = a. Multiply

the equation ae = a on the left by y(a) and on the right by a (notice that y(a)aa = [y(a)a]a = a):

a = y(a)[ae]a = [y(a)a]ea = ea.

Therefore G is a group.

H 2.5.1 – Let H and K be subgroups of the group G. Prove that H ∩ K ≤ G.

H ∩ K is closed: let a, b ∈ H ∩ K. Then a, b ∈ H, K so ab ∈ H, K because both are subgroups. Hence

ab ∈ H ∩K. H ∩K is closed under inverses: let a ∈ H ∩K. Then a

−1

∈ H, K, and hence a

−1

∈ H ∩K. By

lemma 2.3, H ∩ K ≤ G.

H 2.5.2 – Let G have a subgroup H. Deﬁne a left coset of H by aH = ¦ah [ h ∈ H¦. Show there is a

bijection between left and right cosets of H in G.

Deﬁne f : ¦aH [ a ∈ G¦ → ¦Ha [ a ∈ G¦ by f(aH) = Ha

−1

. This map is well-deﬁned: suppose a

1

, a

2

∈ G

are such that a

1

H = a

2

H. Then there exists h ∈ H such that a

1

= a

2

h and hence f(a

1

H) = Ha

−1

1

=

Hh

−1

a

−1

2

= Ha

−1

2

= f(a

2

H). The map is trivially surjective: for any a ∈ G, Ha is the image of a

−1

H. The

map is injective: suppose a

1

H, a

2

H are such that f(a

1

H) = f(a

2

H). Then Ha

−1

1

= Ha

−1

2

which implies the

existence of h ∈ H such that a

−1

1

= ha

−1

2

. Inverting, we ﬁnd that a

1

= a

2

h

−1

, i.e. that a

1

H = a

2

H which

proves injectivity.

H 2.5.3 – Let G have no proper subgroups. Prove that [G[ is prime.

Let g ∈ G with g ,= e. ¸g) is a subgroup of G. Because g ,= e, ¸g) is not the trivial subgroup ¦e¦. Hence,

because G has no proper subgroups, it must be that ¸g) = G which gives [g[ = [G[. Suppose [G[ = mn with

m, n > 1 (so m, n < [G[). Then (g

m

)

n

= e which implies that [g

m

[ = n < [G[. The subgroup ¸g

m

) is proper,

with 1 < n < [G[ elements, which is a contradiction. Therefore [G[ must be prime.

H 2.5.6* – Let H, K ≤ G have ﬁnite indices in G. Give an upper bound for the index of H ∩ K.

Missing.

H 2.5.7 – With a, b ∈ R, let τ

ab

: R → R be given by τ

ab

= ax +b. Let G = ¦τ

ab

[ a ,= 0¦. Prove that G is a

group under composition. What is τ

ab

◦ τ

cd

?

(τ

ab

◦ τ

cd

)(x) = a(cx +d) +b = acx +ad +b = τ

ac,ad+b

(x). As R is a ﬁeld and a, c ,= 0, τ

ac,ad+b

∈ G so that

G is closed under composition. The operation is associative:

(τ

ab

◦ τ

cd

) ◦ τ

ef

= τ

ac,ad+b

◦ τ

ef

= τ

ace,acf+ad+b

= τ

ab

◦ τ

ce,cf+d

= τ

ab

◦ (τ

cd

◦ τ

ef

).

The set is closed under inverses: τ

−1

ab

= τ 1

a

,−

b

a

∈ G. Finally, there is an identity element e = τ

1,0

. Therefore

G is a group. Note that G is non-abelian because τ

ab

◦ τ

cd

= τ

ac,ad+b

,= τ

ac,cb+d

= τ

cd

◦ τ

ab

.

H 2.5.8 – Taking the group of 2.5.7, let H = ¦τ

ab

∈ G [ a ∈ Q¦. Prove that H ≤ G and list the right cosets

of H in G.

Because Q is a ﬁeld, we have that, for σ

ab

, σ

cd

∈ H, σ

ab

◦ σ

cd

= σ

ac,ad+b

∈ H and σ

−1

ab

= σ1

a

,−

b

a

∈ H. By

lemma 2.3, H ≤ G.

Now let τ

ab

, τ

cd

∈ G be such that Hτ

ab

= Hτ

cd

. Then τ

ab

◦ τ

−1

cd

= τa

c

,b−

ad

c

∈ H. Therefore

a

c

∈ Q is the

condition on this situation. In particular, τ

ab

and τ

ac

are in the same right coset regardless of b and c, which

tells us that the right cosets are indexed by just one real parameter.

¦Hτ

ab

¦ = ¦¦τ

cd

∈ G [ c = qa for some q ∈ Q¸¦0¦¦ [ a ∈ R¸¦0¦¦ .

H 2.5.9 – (a) In the context of 2.5.8, prove that every left coset of H in G is also a right coset of H in G.

(b) Give an example of a group G and a subgroup H of G such that the above is not true.

(a) Let τ

ab

, τ

cd

∈ G be such that τ

ab

H = τ

cd

H. Then τ

−1

ab

◦ τ

cd

= τ c

a

,

d−b

a

∈ H. Again, this is the statement

that

c

a

∈ Q, so two elements of G are equivalent left-modulo H if the ratio of their ﬁrst parameters is rational.

Therefore consider the cosets τ

ab

H and Hτ

ab

. If τ

cd

∈ τ

ab

H then

c

a

∈ Q. Hence

a

c

∈ Q which gives that

τ

cd

∈ Hτ

ab

. Therefore τ

ab

H ⊂ Hτ

ab

. The reverse inclusion is identical, so τ

ab

H = Hτ

ab

.

(b) Consider G = S

3

= ¦e, (12), (13), (23), (123), (213)¦ and the subgroup H = ¦e, (12)¦. The left cosets are:

eH = ¦e, (12)¦ (213)H = ¦(213), (213)(12) = (23)¦ (123)H = ¦(123), (123)(12) = (13)¦.

On the other hand, the right cosets are:

He = ¦e, (12)¦ H(213) = ¦(213), (12)(213) = (13)¦ H(123) = ¦(123), (12)(123) = (23)¦.

For this choice of G and H, there exist left cosets that are not right cosets and vice versa.

H 2.5.11 – Let G have subgroups of orders n and m. Prove that G has a subgroup of order lcm(m, n).

Missing.

H 2.5.12 – Let a ∈ G. Prove that N(a) = ¦g ∈ G [ ga = ag¦ is a subgroup of G. (N(a) is the “normalizer

of a in G”)

Let g, h ∈ N(a). Then (gh)a = gha = gah = agh = a(gh), so gh ∈ N(a). Additionally, multiply the

equation ga = ag on the left and right by g

−1

to ﬁnd that g

−1

gag

−1

= g

−1

agg

−1

, so ag

−1

= g

−1

a. Hence

g

−1

∈ N(a). By lemma 2.3, N(a) ≤ G.

H 2.5.13 – Prove that Z(G) = ¦g ∈ G [ gx = xg for all x ∈ G¦ ≤ G. (Z is the “center of G”)

The proof is identical to that of 2.5.12. Alternately, notice that Z(G) =

a∈G

N(a) ≤ G.

H 2.5.14 – Let G = ¸g) be cyclic and let H ≤ G. Prove that H is cyclic.

If H is trivial, the result holds. Therefore let H be non-trivial. Then there exists a smallest positive n

0

such

that g

n

0

∈ H (remember H is closed under inverses, so it can’t have just negative powers of g). The claim is

that H = ¸g

n

0

). It is clear, because H is a group containing g

n

0

, that ¸g

n

0

) ≤ H. Let g

k

∈ H be arbitrary.

By the division algorithm, we can write k = qn

0

+r with q ∈ Z and r ∈ ¦0, 1, . . . , n

0

−1¦. Now, by closure,

g

k

g

−qn

0

= g

r

∈ H. By our assumption that n

0

is the smallest positive exponent in H, we must conclude

that r = 0. Therefore n

0

[ k and we see that every element of H is a power of g

n

0

, whence H ≤ ¸g

n

0

). This

proves the claim, so H = ¸g

n

0

) is cyclic and the result is shown.

H 2.5.15 – Let G be cyclic with [G[ = n. How many generators does G have?

Let g be a generator of G, i.e. G = ¸g). The claim is that g

m

is also a generator if and only if m is

relatively prime to n. If m is relatively prime to n, then there exist a, b ∈ Z such that am + bn = 1. Now

g = g

am+bn

= (g

m

)

a

(g

n

)

b

= (g

m

)

a

which tells us that g ∈ ¸g

m

) so G = ¸g) ≤ ¸g

m

) ≤ G. Hence m, n

relatively prime implies that g

m

generates G. On the other hand, if G = ¸g

m

), then g ∈ ¸g

m

), so that for

some a ∈ Z we have (g

m

)

a

= g. This is impossible if am + bn > 1 for all a, b ∈ Z, as would be the case if

m and n were not relatively prime. Hence G = ¸g

m

) implies that m is coprime to n. This proves the claim,

and therefore the number of generators of G is φ(n), with φ the Euler totient function.

H 2.5.16 – Let a ∈ G. If a

m

= e, prove that [a[ divides m.

By the division algorithm, we may write m = q[a[ + r with q ∈ Z and r ∈ ¦0, 1, . . . , [a[ − 1¦. Now

e = a

m

= a

q|a|+r

= (a

|a|

)

q

a

r

= a

r

. As r < [a[ and [a[ is the minimal exponent taking a to the identity, we

must conclude that r = 0 and hence [a[ [ m.

H 2.5.17 – Let a, b ∈ G be such that a

5

= e and aba

−1

= b

2

. What is [b[?

We have that a

2

ba

−2

= a(aba

−1

)a

−1

= ab

2

a

−1

. It follows by induction that a

n

ba

−n

= b

2

n

: suppose this is

true for n and compute

a

n+1

ba

−(n+1)

= a(a

n

ba

−n

)a

−1

= ab

2

n

a

−1

= b

2

n+1

.

The last equality follows from raising the condition aba

−1

= b

2

to powers: (aba

−1

)

k

= ab

k

a

−1

= b

2k

.

Therefore a

5

ba

−5

= b

32

, but, because a

5

= a

−5

= e, the left hand side is simply b. We have, ﬁnally, b = b

32

,

or b

31

= e. By 2.5.16, the order of b divides 31, so [b[ = 1 or [b[ = 31.

H 2.5.18* – Let G be ﬁnite, abelian and such that x

n

= e has at most n solutions for every n ∈ Z

+

. Prove

that G is cyclic.

Missing.

H 2.6.1* – Let H ≤ G be such that the product (Ha)(Hb) is again a right coset of H for a, b ∈ G. Prove

that H G.

Consider the product (Ha)(Ha

−1

) for arbitrary a ∈ G. As sets, it is true that (Ha)(Ha

−1

) = H(aHa

−1

):

(h

1

a)(h

2

a

−1

) ∈ (Ha)(Ha

−1

) is h

1

(ah

2

a

−1

) ∈ H(aHa

−1

) so (Ha)(Ha

−1

) ⊂ H(aHa

−1

); conversely,

h

1

(ah

2

a

−1

) ∈ H(aHa

−1

) is (h

1

a)(h

2

a

−1

) ∈ (Ha)(Ha

−1

) so H(aHa

−1

) ⊂ (Ha)(Ha

−1

). Then, by the con-

dition of the problem, (Ha)(Ha

−1

) = H(aHa

−1

) is a right coset of H. The set aHa

−1

contains e = aea

−1

,

so in fact H(aHa

−1

) = He = H which implies that aHa

−1

⊂ H, i.e. that H G.

H 2.6.2 – Let H ≤ G have index 2. Prove that H G.

Let g ∈ G¸H. The right cosets of H in G may be enumerated as ¦H, Hg¦. Because distinct cosets are

disjoint, Hg is exactly the set G¸H of elements in G not belonging to H. It is trivial that H = He = eH is

a left coset in addition to being a right coset. Furthermore, gH is again G¸H (The only alternative would

be gH = H, but that isn’t the case: ge = g ,∈ H while ge ∈ gH.), so that gH = Hg. By lemma 2.10, H G

because every one of its right cosets in G is also a left coset in G.

H 2.6.3 – Let H ≤ G and N G. Prove that NH ≤ G.

Let n

1

, n

2

∈ N and h

1

, h

2

∈ H. Compute (n

1

h

1

)(n

2

h

2

) = n

1

h

1

n

2

h

−1

1

h

1

h

2

= n

1

(h

1

n

2

h

−1

1

)h

1

h

2

. Because N

is normal, there exists n

3

∈ N such that h

1

n

2

h

−1

1

= n

3

. Then we have (n

1

h

1

)(n

2

h

2

) = (n

1

n

3

)(h

1

h

2

) ∈ NH

so NH is closed under the group product. Furthermore, NH is closed under inverses: Let n ∈ N and h ∈ H.

We have (nh)

−1

= h

−1

n

−1

= h

−1

n

−1

hh

−1

= n

h

−1

∈ NH, again using the existence of n

∈ N such that

n

= h

−1

n

−1

h. Therefore, by lemma 2.3, NH is a group.

H 2.6.4 – Let M, N G. Prove that M ∩ N G.

Let x ∈ M ∩ N (so x ∈ M, x ∈ N) and g ∈ G. Because M and N are normal, we see that gxg

−1

∈ M and

gxg

−1

∈ N so that gxg

−1

∈ M ∩ N. Therefore g(M ∩ N)g

−1

⊂ M ∩ N and hence M ∩ N G.

H 2.6.5 – Let H ≤ G and N G. Prove that H ∩ N H.

Let x ∈ H ∩ N and h ∈ H. We have hxh

−1

∈ H because it is a product of three elements of H. We also

have that hxh

−1

∈ N because N is normal and x ∈ N. Therefore hxh

−1

∈ H ∩ N so H ∩ N H.

H 2.6.6 – Let G be abelian. Prove that every subgroup of G is normal.

Let H ≤ G and let h ∈ H, g ∈ G. Then ghg

−1

= gg

−1

h = h ∈ H, so H G.

H 2.6.7* – If every subgroup of a group G is normal, is G necessarily abelian?

No. Consider the order 8 quaternion group Q

8

= ¦±1, ±i ± j ± k¦ with (−1)

2

= 1, −1 commuting with

everything, and i

2

= j

2

= k

2

= ijk = −1. First observe that Q

8

is non-abelian: ij = (ij)(−k

2

) = (−ijk)k =

k while ji = j

−1

i

−1

= (ij)

−1

= k

−1

= −k.

We can enumerate all the subgroups of Q

8

by considering subgroups generated by combinations of elements.

First of all, we have the trivial subgroups ¸1) = ¦1¦ and ¸i, j, k) = Q

8

of orders 1 and 8 respectively. Both are

trivially normal. Next, the subgroup ¸−1) = ¦−1, 1¦ is of order 2. Finally, the subgroups ¸i), ¸j), ¸k) of order

4 round out the list. We can see that to be the case by noting that −1 is redundant as a generator if we include

any of ¦i, j, k¦ because each already squares to −1. Furthermore, any subgroup generated by 2 or more of

¦i, j, k¦ is all of Q

8

: for instance, ¸i, j) = ¦1 = i

4

, −1 = i

2

, i, −i = i

3

, j, −j = j

3

, k = ij, −k = ij

3

¦ = Q

8

.

It is easy to see that ¸−1) is normal because its elements commute with everything: i¸−1) = ¦i, −i¦ = ¸−1)i,

and so forth (in fact, it’s the center of Q

8

. See 2.5.13). The rest of the subgroups are of order 4, so of index

2. By 2.6.2, ¸i), ¸j), ¸k) are all normal. Therefore all subgroups of Q

8

are normal, but, as displayed above,

Q

8

is non-abelian.

H 2.6.8 – Let H ≤ G. For g ∈ G, prove that gHg

−1

≤ G.

Let h

1

, h

2

∈ H. We have gh

1

g

−1

gh

2

g

−1

= gh

1

h

2

g

−1

∈ gHg

−1

because h

1

h

2

∈ H. Furthermore,

(gh

1

g

−1

)

−1

= gh

−1

1

g

−1

∈ gHg

−1

because h

−1

∈ H. By lemma 2.3, gHg

−1

≤ G.

H 2.6.9 – Let G be ﬁnite and let H ≤ G be the only subgroup of G of order [H[. Prove that H G.

The map f : H → gHg

−1

given by f(h) = ghg

−1

is a bijection. Injectivity: f(h

1

) = f(h

2

) implies

gh

1

g

−1

= gh

2

g

−1

so h

1

= h

2

. Surjectivity: any ghg

−1

∈ gHg

−1

is the image of h under f. Therefore

[gHg

−1

[ = [H[. Now conjugation brings H into another subgroup, according to 2.6.8, and that subgroup

has the same cardinality as H, by assumption. If H is the only subgroup of order [H[, then conjugation ﬁxes

H, i.e. gHg

−1

= H for all g ∈ G. This is the condition that H G. The restriction to ﬁnite G is likely just

to allow Herstein’s use of the word “order”.

H 2.6.11 – Let M, N G. Prove that NM G.

By 2.6.3, NM is a subgroup. Let g ∈ G and compute gNMg

−1

= gNg

−1

gMg

−1

= NM. Hence NM G.

H 2.6.12* – Let M, N G be such that M ∩ N = ¦e¦. Prove that mn = nm for all m ∈ M and n ∈ N.

Consider the commutator [n, m] = nmn

−1

m

−1

. As M G and n ∈ G, there exists m

∈ M such that

m

= nmn

−1

. Hence nmn

−1

m

−1

= m

m

−1

∈ M. On the other hand, because N G and m ∈ G,

there exists n

∈ N such that n

= mn

−1

m

−1

. Then nmn

−1

m

−1

= nn

**∈ N. Now we must have that
**

nmn

−1

m

−1

∈ M ∩N which is assumed to be trivial. Hence nmn

−1

m

−1

= e or, multiplying on the right by

m and then n, nm = mn.

H 2.6.13 – Let T G be cyclic. Prove that every subgroup of T is normal in G.

Say T = ¸t). By 2.5.14, a subgroup S of T is again cyclic, so let S = ¸t

m

). Because T is normal, there

exists a k

such that gt

k

g

−1

= t

k

∈ T (k

**depends on k and g). Then consider an element (t
**

m

)

k

of S.

g(t

m

)

k

g

−1

= (gt

k

g

−1

)

m

= (t

k

)

m

= (t

m

)

k

∈ S. Therefore gSg

−1

= S and S G.

H 2.6.14* – Give an example of groups E ≤ F ≤ G with E F and F G but E not normal in G.

Missing.

H 2.6.15 – Let N G. For a ∈ G, prove that [Na[ in G/N divides [a[ in G.

We have (Na)

|a|

= N(a

|a|

) = Ne = N, the identity in G/N. By 2.5.16, [Na[ divides [a[.

H 2.6.16 – Let G be ﬁnite and let N G be such that [G : N] and [N[ are coprime. Prove that any element

x ∈ G satisfying x

|N|

= e must be in N.

First notice that x

[G:N]

∈ N because the order of G/N is [G : N] so N = (Nx)

[G:N]

= Nx

[G:N]

. There exist

a, b ∈ Z such that a[G : N] +b[N[ = 1. Let x ∈ G be such that x

|N|

= e. Now

x = x

a[G:N]+b|N|

= (x

[G:N]

)

a

(x

|N|

)

b

= (x

[G:N]

)

a

∈ N.

H 2.7.1 – Are the following maps homomorphisms? If yes, what are their kernels? (a) G = R¸¦0¦ under

multiplication, φ : G → G given by φ(x) = x

2

. (b) G as in (a), φ : G → G given by φ(x) = 2

x

. (c) G = R

under addition, φ : G → G given by φ(x) = x + 1. (d) G as in (c), φ : G → G given by φ(x) = 13x. (e) G

any abelian group, φ : G → G given by φ(x) = x

5

.

(a) Yes: φ(xy) = (xy)

2

= x

2

y

2

= φ(x)φ(y). The identity in G is 1, so the kernel is the set of those x ∈ G

such that φ(x) = x

2

= 1. Hence ker φ = ¦−1, 1¦.

(b) No: φ(2 3) = 2

6

= 64 while φ(2)φ(3) = 2

2

2

3

= 32.

(c) No: φ(x +y) = x +y + 1 while φ(x) +φ(y) = (x + 1) + (y + 1) = x +y + 2.

(d) Yes: φ(x +y) = 13(x +y) = 13x + 13y = φ(x) +φ(y). The identity in G is 0, so the kernel is the set of

those x ∈ G such that φ(x) = 13x = 0. Hence ker φ = ¦0¦.

(e) Yes: φ(xy) = (xy)

5

= x

5

y

5

= φ(x)φ(y). ker φ = ¦x ∈ G [ x

5

= e¦.

H 2.7.2 – Let φ : G → G be given by φ(x) = gxg

−1

for ﬁxed g ∈ G. Prove φ is an isomorphism.

φ is a homomorphism: φ(xy) = gxyg

−1

= gx(g

−1

g)yg

−1

= φ(x)φ(y). The kernel of φ is trivial: if x ∈ G is

such that gxg

−1

= e, then x = e. Hence ker φ = ¦e¦ and therefore φ is an isomorphism.

H 2.7.3 – Let G be ﬁnite and let n ∈ Z be relatively prime to [G[. Prove that every x ∈ G may be written

as g = x

n

with x ∈ G.

There exist a, b ∈ Z such that an +b[G[ = 1. For g ∈ G, we have g = g

an+b|G|

= (g

a

)

n

.

Herstein assumes, additionally, that G is abelian and hints to consider the map φ : G → G given by

φ(y) = y

n

. This map is a homomorphism when G is abelian, but is not in general. The map, however, is

always surjective, as shown above (g = φ(g

a

)). Therefore φ, the n-th power map, is a bijection for any ﬁnite

G and choice of n coprime to [G[. In that context, it makes sense to talk about a well-deﬁned, unique nth

root of a group element.

H 2.7.4 – Let U ⊂ G. Let ¸U) ≤ G be the smallest subgroup of G containing U. (a) Prove that such a ¸U)

exists. (b) If gug

−1

∈ U for all g ∈ G and u ∈ U, prove that ¸U) G.

(a) Let / be the collection of all subgroups V of G which contain U. G ∈ /, so / is not empty. ¸U) =

V ∈A

V

is a subgroup of Gwhich contains U and is a subset of every element of /. Hence any subgroup of Gcontaining

U also contains ¸U). In this sense, ¸U) ﬁts the criterion.

(b) By lemma 3 (below), ¸U) is exactly the set of all ﬁnite products of elements of U and their inverses.

Note that if gug

−1

= u

**∈ U then taking the inverse gives gu
**

−1

g

−1

= u

−1

∈ ¸U). Now an arbitrary element

of ¸U) may be written as u

k

1

1

u

k

n

n

(with n ≥ 0 and k

i

= ±1) so conjugation gives

gu

k

1

1

u

k

n

n

g

−1

= gu

k

1

1

g

−1

g g

−1

gu

k

n

n

g

−1

= u

k

1

1

u

k

n

n

∈ ¸U),

where u

i

= gu

i

g

−1

. Therefore ¸U) G.

Lemma 3 – Deﬁne V = ¦u

k

1

1

u

k

2

2

u

k

n

n

∈ G [ n ∈ ¦0, 1, ¦, u

i

∈ U, k

i

= ±1¦, the set of all ﬁnite (or

empty, in which case the result is e) products of elements from U or their inverses. Then V = ¸U).

Proof: As ¸U) is a subgroup containing U, it also contains all inverses of elements of U. Furthermore,

it is closed under multiplication, so V ⊂ ¸U) immediately. Notice that V is both trivially closed under

multiplication and non-empty (because when n = 0 we see that e ∈ V ). Furthermore, the inverse of

u

k

1

1

u

k

n

n

is u

−k

n

n

u

−k

1

1

which is again in V . By lemma 2.3, V ≤ G. Now U ⊂ V , so, by (a), ¸U) ≤ V .

Therefore V = ¸U) and the claim is proven.

H 2.7.5 – Let U = ¦xyx

−1

y

−1

[ x, y ∈ G¦. Deﬁne G

**= ¸U) (the commutator subgroup of G). (a) Prove
**

that G

G. (b) Prove that G/G

is abelian. (c) If G/N is abelian, prove that G

≤ N. (d) Prove that, if

H ≤ G

then H G.

(a) Let g, x, y ∈ G and compute the conjugate of an element xyx

−1

y

−1

∈ U:

gxyx

−1

y

−1

g

−1

= gxg

−1

gyg

−1

gx

−1

g

−1

gy

−1

g

−1

= (gxg

−1

)(gyg

−1

)(gxg

−1

)

−1

(gyg

−1

)

−1

∈ U.

By 2.7.4b, G

= ¸U) G.

(b) We have, for x, y ∈ G, that (G

x)(G

y)(G

x

−1

)(G

y

−1

) = G

(xyx

−1

y

−1

) = G

**. Right multiplying the
**

equation by G

y and then by G

x gives that (G

x)(G

y) = (G

y)(G

x), so G/G

is abelian.

(c) If G/N is abelian, then, for x, y ∈ G we have (Nx)(Ny)(Nx

−1

)(Ny

−1

) = (Nx)(Nx

−1

)(Ny)(Ny

−1

) =

N(xx

−1

yy

−1

) = N. Hence xyx

−1

y

−1

∈ N. Then U ⊂ N and therefore G

**≤ N by virtue of being the
**

smallest subgroup containing U.

(d) Let g ∈ G and h ∈ H. Because G

**≤ H, we have that ghg
**

−1

h

−1

∈ H. Therefore ghg

−1

∈ H, so H G.

H 2.7.6 – Let M, N G. Prove that NM/M

∼

= N/(N ∩ M).

By 2.6.5, N ∩ M N. It is trivial that M NM because M G and NM ≤ G. Therefore, with the

knowledge that all quantities are meaningful, deﬁne φ : NM/M → N/(N ∩ M) by φ(nmM) = n(N ∩ M)

for n ∈ N, m ∈ M. The map is well-deﬁned: suppose n

1

m

1

M = n

2

m

2

M for n

1

, n

2

∈ N and m

1

, m

2

∈ M.

In fact, this also means that n

1

M = n

2

M, so that n

1

= n

2

m

3

for some m

3

∈ M. However, also notice

that m

3

= n

−1

2

n

1

∈ N, so m

3

∈ M ∩ N. Then n

1

(N ∩ M) = n

2

m

3

(N ∩ M) = n

2

(N ∩ M) and the map is

well-deﬁned as claimed.

φ is a homomorphism: let n

1

, n

2

∈ N and m

1

, m

2

∈ M. Then φ((n

1

m

1

M)(n

2

m

2

M)) = φ(n

1

Mn

2

M) =

φ(n

1

n

2

M) = n

1

n

2

(N ∩ M) = n

1

(N ∩ M)n

2

(N ∩ M) = φ(n

1

m

1

M)φ(n

2

m

2

M). Finally, the kernel of φ is

trivial: suppose φ(nmM) = N ∩ M for n ∈ N and m ∈ M. This means that n ∈ N ∩ M ≤ M, i.e. we have

nmM = M. Therefore φ is an isomorphism and the result is proven.

H 2.7.7 – For a, b ∈ R, let τ

ab

: R → R be given by τ

ab

(x) = ax +b. Let G = ¦τ

ab

[ a, b ∈ R, a ,= 0¦ and let

N = ¦τ

1b

∈ G¦. Prove that N G and that G/N

∼

= R¸¦0¦ under multiplication.

By 2.5.7, G is a group under composition, τ

ab

◦ τ

cd

= τ

ac,ad+b

and τ

−1

ab

= τ 1

a

,−

b

a

. Then, with τ

ab

∈ G,

τ

ab

τ

1c

τ

−1

ab

= τ

a,ac+b

τ 1

a

,−

b

a

= τ

1,ac

∈ N

so that N G. Deﬁne φ : G/N → R¸¦0¦ by φ(τ

ab

N) = a. φ is well-deﬁned: suppose τ

ab

N = τ

cd

N so that

τ

cd

= τ

ab

τ

1e

for some e ∈ R. Then τ

cd

= τ

a,ae+b

so that c = a and φ(τ

cd

N) = c = a as required. φ is a

homomorphism: φ(τ

ab

Nτ

cd

N) = φ(τ

ab

τ

cd

N) = φ(τ

ac,ad+b

N) = ac = φ(τ

ab

)φ(τ

cd

). The kernel of φ is trivial:

if φ(τ

ab

N) = 1, then a = 1 so that τ

ab

∈ N, i.e. τ

ab

N = N. Therefore φ is an isomorphism and the result is

proven.

H 2.7.8 – Let D

2n

be the dihedral group with generators x, y such that x

2

= y

n

= e and xy = y

−1

x. (a)

Prove that ¸y) D

2n

. (b) Prove that D

2n

/¸y)

∼

= Z

2

.

(a) ¸y) has order n, and D

2n

has order 2n, so ¸y) has index 2n/n = 2 in D

2n

. By 2.6.2, ¸y) D

2n

.

(b) The order of D

2n

/¸y) is 2, and the unique group of order 2, up to isomorphism, is Z

2

. More constructively,

φ : D

2n

/¸y) → Z

2

given by φ(x

i

y

j

¸Y )) = i is an isomorphism.

H 2.7.9 – Prove that Z(G) G. (see 2.5.13)

For g ∈ G, z ∈ Z(G), we have gzg

−1

= zgg

−1

= z ∈ Z(G), so Z(G) G.

H 2.7.10 – Prove that a group of order 9 is necessarily abelian.

Missing.

H 2.7.11 – Let G be non-abelian with order 6. Prove that G

∼

= S

3

.

The non-identity elements of G have order 2, 3 or 6 by Lagrange’s theorem. If G contained an element of

order 6, then G would be cyclic and hence abelian. Therefore if G is non-abelian, its non-identity elements

have orders 2 and/or 3. Let’s recall S

3

= ¦e, (12), (13), (23), (123), (213)¦. It contains 2 elements of order 3

and 3 elements of order 2. Its multiplication table is:

S

3

e (123) (213) (12) (13) (23)

e e (123) (213) (12) (13) (23)

(123) (123) (213) e (13) (23) (12)

(213) (213) e (123) (23) (12) (13)

(12) (12) (23) (13) e (213) (123)

(13) (13) (12) (23) (123) e (213)

(23) (23) (13) (12) (213) (123) e

Suppose G has no elements of order 3. Then all of its elements have order 2, but this forces G to be abelian

by 2.3.10. Therefore there must exist an element a ∈ G with order 3. Let b ∈ G be distinct from ¦e, a, a

2

¦.

If the order of b is 3, then ¦e, a, a

2

, b, b

2

¦ contains no duplicates: if b

2

= a

2

then multiplying on the left by

a and on the right by b gives a = b, which is a contradiction; if b

2

= a then squaring gives a

2

= b

4

= b,

which is a contradiction. Hence we have 5 elements of the group in the case that b has order 3. Consider

ab: the cases ab = e, ab = a, ab = a

2

, ab = b and ab = b

2

all yield immediate contradictions, so we must

conclude that ab is the sixth element of the group. Furthermore, the same argument has us conclude that

ba is none of ¦e, a, a

2

, b, b

2

¦, so ab = ba. For elements u, v of an arbitrary group, uv = vu easily implies that

u

m

v

n

= v

n

u

m

. In our case, the fact that ab = ba gives us that G is abelian, so this is not the desired group.

Therefore a and a

2

are the only elements of order 3, and the remaining elements of G all have order 2:

G = ¦e, a, a

2

, b, c, d¦ with b

2

= c

2

= d

2

= e. Consider the product ab. Each of the possibilities ab = e,

ab = a, ab = a

2

, and ab = b gives an immediate contradiction, so ab ∈ ¦c, d¦, and, by a similar argument,

ac ∈ ¦b, d¦ and ad ∈ ¦b, c¦. There are two distinct situations possible: ¦ab = c, ac = d, ad = b¦ and

¦ab = d, ac = b, ad = c¦. From those conﬁgurations, it’s easy to construct the entire multiplication table for

the two Gs:

G

1

e a a

2

b c d

e e a a

2

b c d

a a a

2

e c d b

a

2

a

2

e a d b c

b b d c e a

2

a

c c b d a e a

2

d d c b a

2

a e

G

2

e a a

2

b c d

e e a a

2

b c d

a a a

2

e d b c

a

2

a

2

e a c d b

b b c d e a a

2

c c d b a

2

e a

d d b c a a

2

e

Comparing to the group table for S

3

, we see that φ : G

1

→ S

3

given by φ(e) = e, φ(a) = (123), φ(a

2

) = (213),

φ(b) = (12), φ(c) = (13), φ(d) = (23) is a homomorphism. It is also a bijection, so φ is an isomorphism,

proving the equivalence of G

1

to S

3

. On the other hand, ψ : G

2

→ S

3

given by ψ(e) = e, ψ(a) = (213),

ψ(a

2

) = (123), ψ(b) = (12), ψ(c) = (13), ψ(d) = (23) is again a bijective homomorphism, giving the

equivalence of G

2

to S

3

. These were the only two possible non-abelian groups of order 6, and both are

isomorphic to S

3

, so the claim is proven.

H 2.7.12 – Let G be abelian and let N ≤ G. Prove that G/N is abelian.

Because G is abelian, N is normal in G and G/N is a group. Let g

1

, g

2

∈ G. Then (g

1

N)(g

2

N) = (g

1

g

2

)N =

(g

2

g

1

)N = (g

2

N)(g

1

N) so that G/N is abelian.

H 2.8.1 – Are the following maps automorphisms? (a) G = Z under addition, T : x → −x. (b) G = R

+

under multiplication, T : x → x

2

. (c) G cyclic of order 12, T : x → x

3

. (d) G = S

3

, T : x → x

−1

.

(a) Yes. Let a, b ∈ Z. T is a homomorphism: we have T(a+b) = −(a+b) = (−a) +(−b) = T(a) +T(b). T is

injective: if T(a) = T(b), then −a = −b so a = b. T is surjective: a = T(−a). Hence T is an automorphism.

(b) Yes. Let x, y ∈ R

+

. T is a homomorphism: we have T(xy) = (xy)

2

= x

2

y

2

= T(x)T(y). T is injective: if

T(x) = T(y), then x

2

= y

2

so x = y because we restrict to positive reals. T is surjective: x = T(

√

x) where

√

x is the unique, positive square root which exists for all positive x.

(c) No. Say G = ¸g). Then g

4

,= e, but T(g

4

) = g

12

= e, so the kernel of T is non-trivial. Hence T is not

injective and thus not an isomorphism.

(d) No. T[(12)(13)] = T[(213)] = (123), while T[(12)]T[(13)] = (12)(13) = (213).

H 2.8.2 – Let H ≤ G, and let T be an automorphism of G. Prove T(H) ≤ G.

For h

1

, h

2

∈ H, we have T(h

1

)T(h

2

) = T(h

1

h

2

) ∈ T(H) and T(h

1

)

−1

= T(h

−1

1

) ∈ T(H). By lemma 2.3,

T(H) ≤ G.

H 2.8.3 – Let N G, and let T be an automorphism of G. Prove T(N) G.

By 2.8.2, T(N) ≤ G. Let g ∈ G and n ∈ N. Then gT(n)g

−1

= T(T

−1

(g)nT

−1

(g

−1

)) = T(n

) ∈ T(N) for

some n

= T

−1

(g)nT

−1

(g

−1

) ∈ N because N is normal.

H 2.8.4 – Prove that Inn(S

3

)

∼

= S

3

.

The center of S

3

is trivial, as we can easily check: (12)(13) = (213) while (13)(12) = (123), so (12) ,∈ Z(S

3

)

and (13) ,∈ Z(S

3

). (23)(123) = (13) while (123)(23) = (12) so (13) ,∈ Z(S

3

) and (123) ,∈ Z(S

3

). Finally,

(12)(213) = (13) while (213)(12) = (23), so (213) ,∈ Z(S

3

). Therefore Z(S

3

) = ¦e¦ and, by lemma 2.19,

Inn(S

3

)

∼

= S

3

/Z(S

3

)

∼

= S

3

.

H 2.8.5 – Prove that Inn(G) Aut(G).

Let g ∈ G, T

w

: x → wxw

−1

∈ Inn(G) and φ ∈ Aut(G). Then (φT

w

φ

−1

)(g) = φ(T

w

(φ

−1

(g))) =

φ(wφ

−1

(g)w

−1

) = φ(w)gφ(w

−1

) = φ(w)gφ(w)

−1

= T

φ(w)

(g), where T

φ(w)

: x → φ(w)xφ(w)

−1

. Hence

φT

w

φ

−1

= T

φ(w)

∈ Inn(G), which proves that Inn(G) Aut(G).

H 2.8.6 – Let G = ¦e, a, b, ab¦ be a group of order 4 with a

2

= b

2

= e and ab = ba. Determine Aut(G).

An automorphism of G ﬁxes the identity, and permutes the three elements of order 2. Then it is clear that

Aut(G) is isomorphic to a subgroup of S

3

. Furthermore, we can exhibit elements of order 2 and 3 in Aut(G)

which proves that Aut(G)

∼

= S

3

in its entirety.

For example, φ : G → G given by φ(a) = b, φ(b) = a and φ(ab) = ab is an automorphism of order

2. To see that φ is a homomorphism, we just need to check that φ(ab) = ab = φ(b)φ(a) = φ(a)φ(b),

φ(aab) = a = bab = φ(a)φ(ab) and φ(bab) = b = aab = φ(b)φ(ab). All other possible products automatically

work because the group is abelian. Therefore φ is a homomorphism, and we see easily that φ

2

(a) = φ(b) = a

and φ

2

(b) = φ(a) = b, so φ

2

= id and hence φ is an order 2 automorphism.

Additionally, ψ : G → G given by ψ(a) = b, ψ(b) = ab and ψ(ab) = a is an automorphism of order 3. We

can check that ψ is a homomorphism: ψ(ab) = a = bab = ψ(a)ψ(b), ψ(aab) = ab = ψ(ab)ψ(a) = ψ(a)ψ(ab),

and ψ(bab) = b = aba = ψ(b)ψ(ab). To check the order of ψ, we raise it to powers: ψ

2

(a) = ψ(b) = ab,

ψ

2

(b) = ψ(ab) = a and ψ

2

(ab) = ψ(a) = b. Therefore ψ

2

,= id, but ψ

3

(a) = ψ(ab) = a, ψ

3

(b) = ψ(a) = b

and ψ

3

(ab) = ψ(b) = ab so, in fact, ψ

3

= id.

As a result, we know that Aut(G) must be isomorphic to a subgroup of S

3

which can accomodate elements

of orders 2 and 3. This forces the subgroup to have order at least 6 = lcm(2, 3), but that’s the order of S

3

itself. Hence Aut(G)

∼

= S

3

.

H 2.8.7 – Let C ≤ G. C is “characteristic” if φ(C) ⊂ C for all φ ∈ Aut(G). (a) Prove that a characteristic

subgroup is normal. (b) Prove that the converse of (a) is false.

(a) Suppose C is characteristic and let g ∈ G. gCg

−1

is the image of C under the inner automorphism

T

g

: x → gxg

−1

. Because T

g

∈ Aut(G), we have that gCg

−1

= T

g

(C) ⊂ C. This holds for arbitrary g ∈ G,

so C G.

(b) A normal subgroup, N G, is ﬁxed by all inner automorphisms, by deﬁnition. In order for the converse

to fail to hold, there need to be automorphisms outside of Inn(G) which don’t ﬁx N. Consider G = V

4

, the

Klein group of 2.8.6, and N = ¸a) = ¦e, a¦ which is normal because it is of index 2. Then take the order 2

automorphism φ of G, with φ(a) = b, φ(b) = a and φ(ab) = ab. We have φ(¸a)) = ¦e, b¦ , = ¸a). Hence N is

normal, but not characteristic because φ doesn’t ﬁx it.

H 2.8.8 – Prove that the commutator subgroup G

= ¸aba

−1

b

−1

[ a, b ∈ G) (see 2.7.5) is characteristic.

Let φ ∈ Aut(G) and let a

1

b

1

a

−1

1

b

−1

1

a

n

b

n

a

−1

n

b

−1

n

∈ G

**. Because φ is a homomorphism, we have
**

φ(a

1

b

1

a

−1

1

b

−1

1

a

n

b

n

a

−1

n

b

−1

n

) = φ(a

1

)φ(b

1

)φ(a

1

)

−1

φ(b

1

)

−1

φ(a

n

)φ(b

n

)φ(a

n

)

−1

φ(b

n

)

−1

∈ G

.

Therefore φ(G

) ⊂ G

, so G

is characteristic.

H 2.8.9 – Let N G and let M be a characteristic subgroup of N. Prove M G.

Every inner automorphism ﬁxes N but, a priori, could move M ≤ N around. Notice that if T

g

∈ Inn(G),

it restricts to an automorphism T

g

[

N

of N because T

g

(N) = N. Now M is characteristic in N, so we have

T

g

[

N

(M) = M. This is simply a restriction of a map to the domain N, so, in fact, T

g

(M) = M as well.

Hence M is ﬁxed by every inner automorphism, i.e. M G.

Some remarks: If N had not been normal, then inner automorphisms T

g

wouldn’t restrict to automorphisms

of N (because T

g

might throw some elements of N aﬁeld), and the argument breaks down. Also, if N were

normal but M merely normal (not characteristic) in N, the argument would also break down: T

g

restricts

to an automorphism of N which is not, in general, an inner automorphism of N (not unless g ∈ N, in fact).

Thus the restriction T

g

[

N

would not ﬁx M if it were only normal but not characteristic. Therefore this

exercise represents a strengthening of the conditions of 2.6.14, where we see that normality of subgroups is

not a transitive property.

H 2.8.10 – Let G be ﬁnite and let φ ∈ Aut(G) ﬁx only the identity. Prove that every g ∈ G may be written

as g = x

−1

φ(x) for some x ∈ G.

Consider the map ψ : G → G given by ψ(x) = x

−1

φ(x). This map is injective: let x, y ∈ G be such that

ψ(x) = ψ(y). Then x

−1

φ(x) = y

−1

φ(y). Multiplying on the left by y, on the right by φ(x

−1

), and using

the fact that φ is a homomorphism, we have yx

−1

= φ(yx

−1

). By our assumption on φ, we must conclude

that yx

−1

= e, so that x = y. This proves injectivity. Because G is ﬁnite, ψ is also necessarily surjective

(however, ψ is not a homomorphism in general, and this is immaterial). Therefore for every g ∈ G, there

exists an x ∈ G such that g = ψ(x) = x

−1

φ(x).

H 2.8.11 – Let G be ﬁnite, and let φ ∈ Aut(G) ﬁx only the identity. Suppose additionally that φ

2

= id.

Prove that G is abelian.

Let g ∈ G. By 2.8.10, there exists x ∈ G such that g = x

−1

φ(x). Now φ(g) = φ(x

−1

)φ

2

(x) = φ(x)

−1

x =

(x

−1

φ(x))

−1

= g

−1

. Suppose G were not abelian, with a, b ∈ G such that ab ,= ba. Then φ(ab) = b

−1

a

−1

while φ(a)φ(b) = a

−1

b

−1

. If we were to have that φ(ab) = φ(a)φ(b), then inverting b

−1

a

−1

= a

−1

b

−1

would

produce the contradiction ab = ba. Therefore, because φ is assumed to be a homomorphism, G must be

abelian.

Remark: In fact, if G is a group then G is abelian if and only if ρ : g → g

−1

is an automorphism of G. ρ

is trivially a bijection (uniqueness of inverses gives injectivity, and g = ρ(g

−1

) gives surjectivity). If G is

abelian, then ρ is a homomorphism because ρ(gh) = h

−1

g

−1

= g

−1

h

−1

= ρ(g)ρ(h). If G is not abelian,

then ρ is not a homomorphism by the above argument. The restriction to ﬁnite G in the problem statement

enables us to use the obscure (in my opinion) result 2.8.10.

H 2.8.12* – Let G be ﬁnite, and let φ ∈ Aut(G) be such that φ(x) = x

−1

for at least three quarters of the

elements of G. Prove that φ(x) = x

−1

for all x in G and that G is abelian.

Missing.

H 2.8.13 – Give an example of a non-abelian ﬁnite group G with an automorphism that maps exactly three

quarters of the elements of G to their inverses.

Missing.

H 2.8.14* – Let G be ﬁnite with [G[ > 2. Prove Aut(G) is non-trivial.

If G is abelian, then inversion ρ : g → g

−1

is an automorphism (see 2.8.11). If ρ = id, then g = g

−1

for

all g ∈ G, i.e. all non-identity elements have order 2. In that case, construct the map φ : G → G which

transposes two non-identity elements and ﬁxes everything else. φ is an automorphism (this needs to be

checked!). Therefore, if G is abelian, either ρ or φ is a non-trivial automorphism of G.

If G is non-abelian, take an element a ,∈ Z(G). Then there exists g ∈ G with ag ,= ga, and therefore

aga

−1

,= g. Thus the inner automorphism T

a

: g → aga

−1

of conjugation by a does not ﬁx g, so T

a

,= id but

T

a

∈ Aut(G).

H 2.8.15* – Let G have even order 2n. Suppose that exactly half of the elements of G have order 2 and the

rest form a subgroup H of order n. Prove that [H[ is odd and that H is abelian.

If H were of even order, then by 2.3.11 or Cauchy’s theorem, it would contain an element of order 2. It is

assumed that H is the collection of elements with order diﬀerent from 2, so [H[ must be odd.

Let x ,∈ H. Then xh ,∈ H for any h ∈ H. Furthermore, xh has order 2, because it is outside of H. The map

φ : G → G given by φ(g) = xgx

−1

= xgx is an inner automorphism of G. Because H is normal (index 2), φ

ﬁxes H and hence restricts to an automorphism φ[

H

of H. Now we see that hφ(h) = hxhx = (hx)

2

= e, so

that φ[

H

(h) = h

−1

. Therefore inversion is an automorphism on H, and, as seen in 2.8.11, this gives that H

is abelian.

H 2.8.16* – Let φ(n) be the Euler φ-function. Let a ∈ Z, with a > 1. Prove that n [ φ(a

n

−1).

Consider Z

∗

a

n

−1

, the multiplicative (modulo a

n

− 1) group of integers coprime to (a

n

− 1). The number of

elements in Z

∗

a

n

−1

is φ(a

n

−1). Furthermore, a is coprime to a

n

−1 because (a

n−1

)a + (−1)(a

n

−1) = 1 so

that a ∈ Z

∗

a

n

−1

. The order of a is n because a

n

≡ 1 mod (a

n

− 1) while, for 1 < k < n, 1 < a

k

< a

n

− 1.

By Lagrange, this order must divide the order of the group, and therefore n [ φ(a

n

−1).

H 2.9.1 – Let g ∈ G. Deﬁne λ

g

: G → G by λ

g

(x) = gx. Prove that λ

g

is a bijection and that λ

g

λ

h

= λ

gh

.

λ

g

is surjective: if y ∈ G, then y = gg

−1

y = λ

g

(g

−1

y). λ

g

is injective: if x, y ∈ G, then λ

g

(x) = λ

g

(y) implies

that gx = gy so x = y. Finally, if g, h ∈ G, then λ

gh

(x) = ghx while λ

g

(λ

h

(x)) = λ

g

(hx) = ghx. Therefore

λ

gh

= λ

g

λ

h

. Hence each λ

g

is a permutation of G and the λ

g

form a subgroup (under composition) of the

set of bijections G → G.

H 2.9.2 – Let λ

g

be deﬁned as in 2.9.1. Deﬁne τ

g

: G → G by τ

g

(x) = xg. Prove that, for g, h ∈ G, we

have λ

g

τ

h

= τ

h

λ

g

.

Let x ∈ G. We have λ

g

(τ

h

(x)) = λ

g

(xh) = gxh while τ

h

(λ

g

(x)) = τ

h

(gx) = gxh. Hence λ

g

τ

h

= τ

h

λ

g

.

H 2.9.3 – Let λ

g

and τ

g

be deﬁned as in 2.9.2. If θ : G → G is a bijection such that λ

g

θ = θλ

g

for all

g ∈ G, prove that θ = τ

h

for some h ∈ G.

For x ∈ G, λ

g

(θ(x)) = gθ(x) while θ(λ

g

(x)) = θ(gx). Note that we don’t assume θ to be a homomorphism.

However, we see that θ(gx) = gθ(x) for all x, g ∈ G. If we pick g = x

−1

, then we ﬁnd that θ(e) = x

−1

θ(x) for

all x ∈ G. Solving for θ(x) yields θ(x) = xθ(e), which is the desired result. Speciﬁcally, we have θ = τ

θ(e)

.

H 2.9.4 – Let H ≤ G. (a) Show that gHg

−1

≤ G for every g ∈ G. (b) Prove that W =

g∈G

gHg

−1

is a

normal subgroup of G.

(a) Let h

1

, h

2

∈ H and let g ∈ G. We have gh

1

g

−1

gh

2

g

−1

= gh

1

h

2

g

−1

∈ gHg

−1

, so gHg

−1

is closed under

multiplication. Additionally, the inverse of gh

1

g

−1

is gh

−1

1

g

−1

∈ gHg

−1

. By lemma 2.3, gHg

−1

≤ G.

(b) W ≤ G because it is the intersection of subgroups. Suppose w ∈ W so that, for every g ∈ G, there exists

h ∈ H such that w = ghg

−1

. Let x ∈ G, and consider xwx

−1

. For any g ∈ G, there exists h ∈ H such

that w may be written as w = (x

−1

g)h(x

−1

g)

−1

= x

−1

ghg

−1

x. Consequently, xwx

−1

= xx

−1

ghg

−1

xx

−1

=

ghg

−1

∈ gHg

−1

. This can be done for arbitrary x, g ∈ G, so xwx

−1

∈ W and W G.

H 2.9.5 – Let [G[ = p

2

. Prove that G has a normal subgroup of order p.

Lemma 2.21 states that if G is a ﬁnite group, and H ≤ G is a proper subgroup such that [G[ [G : H]!, then

H must contain a non-trivial normal subgroup of G. The lemma is proven by considering the action of left

multiplication by G on the set G/H of left cosets of H in G.

As p

2

is not prime, we know by 2.5.3 that G has a proper subgroup H. By Lagrange, this subgroup must

have order p. By the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, [G[ = p

2

does not divide [G : H]! = p!, so the

conditions of lemma 2.21 are satisﬁed. Therefore H must contain a non-trivial normal subgroup K of G. By

Lagrange, this subgroup must have order p, i.e. K = H. Thus H G and [H[ = p.

H 2.9.6* – Let [G[ = p

2

and let H G with [H[ = p. Prove that H ≤ Z(G).

If G contains an element of order p

2

, then G is cyclic and hence abelian. In that case, Z(G) = G so

H ≤ Z(G). Otherwise, all non-identity elements of G have order p. Let x ∈ H. In fact, because H has

prime order, it is cyclic and H = ¸x). Let y ∈ G. By lemma 2.21 (as used in 2.9.5), ¸y) G. Lagrange’s

theorem applied to ¸x) ∩ ¸y) (as a subgroup of ¸x) or ¸y)) tells us that it has order 1 or p. In other words,

¸x) = ¸y) = ¸x) ∩ ¸y) or ¸x) ∩ ¸y) = ¦e¦. In the former case, ¸x) = ¸y) gives that x and y commute. In the

latter case, ¸x) ∩ ¸y) = ¦e¦ invites the application of 2.6.12, which again gives that xy = yx. As x ∈ H and

y ∈ G were arbitrary, this shows that H ≤ Z(G).

H 2.9.7* – Let [G[ = p

2

. Prove that G is abelian.

If G contains an element of order p

2

, then G is cyclic and hence abelian. Suppose G contains no element

of order p

2

. Then, by Lagrange, every element g ∈ G has order p. By lemma 2.21 (as used in 2.9.5), ¸g) is

normal and, by 2.9.6, ¸g) ⊂ Z(G). In particular, g ∈ Z(G). This argument applies to arbitrary g ∈ G, so

Z(G) = G, i.e. G is abelian.

H 2.9.8 – Let [G[ = 2p. Prove G has a subgroup H of order p and that H G.

If x ∈ G has order 2p, then x

2

has order p, so H = ¸x

2

) is a subgroup of order p. Otherwise, suppose there

is no element in G of order 2p. If x ∈ G has order p, then H = ¸x) is a subgroup of order p. Otherwise,

suppose G has no elements of order p or 2p. Then all non-identity elements of G have order 2. Therefore G

is abelian by 2.3.10, and we reach a contradiction: if G is abelian, then Cauchy’s theorem for abelian groups

implies the existence of an element x ∈ G of order p. Therefore G necessarily has a subgroup H of order p.

The index of H is 2, and so it is normal by 2.6.2.

H 2.9.9 – Let [G[ = pq, where p ,= q are both prime. Suppose H, K G with [H[ = p and [K[ = q. Prove

that G is cyclic.

Let H = ¸h) and K = ¸k) so h

p

= e and k

q

= e. If x ∈ ¸h) ∩ ¸k) then [x[ [ p and [x[ [ q, so [x[ = 1 and

consequently ¸h) ∩ ¸k) = ¦e¦. By 2.6.12, hk = kh. Now consider the element hk. Its order must be 1, p,

q or pq. As k ,∈ ¸h), we cannot have k = h

−1

, so hk ,= e. Compute (hk)

p

= h

p

k

p

= k

p

,= e because q p.

Similarly, (hk)

q

= h

q

k

q

= h

q

,= e because p q. Therefore [hk[ = pq, and G = ¸hk) is cyclic.

H 2.9.10* – Let [G[ = pq, where p > q are both prime. (a) Prove that G has a subgroup of order p and a

subgroup of order q. (b) Prove that if q (p −1) then G is cyclic. (c) Prove that, given two primes p, q with

q (p −1), there exists a non-abelian group of order pq. (d) Prove that any two non-abelian groups of order

pq are isomorphic.

Missing.

H 2.10.1, 2.10.2 – Decompose into products of disjoint cycles:

(a)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

2 3 4 5 1 6 7 9 8

(b)

1 2 3 4 5 6

6 5 4 3 1 2

(a) (12345)(6)(7)(89).

(b) (1625)(34).

H 2.10.3 – Express as products of disjoint cycles: (a) (15)(16789)(45)(123). (b) (12)(123)(12).

Herstein composes permutation from left to right, while I compose permutations from right to left. This

problem statement has been modiﬁed accordingly. Disjoint cycles commute, so this is often irrelevant.

(a) Consider the action of each cycle in order. Starting with 123456789, (123) sends this into 312456789.

(45) sends this into 312546789. (16789) sends this into 912543678. (15) sends this into 412593678. Hence

(15)(16789)(45)(123) = (123678954).

(b) Starting with 123, (12) sends this into 213. (123) sends this into 321. (12) sends this into 231. Therefore

(12)(123)(12) = (132).

H 2.10.4 – Prove that (12 n)

−1

= (n, n −1, n −2, . . . , 2, 1)

First note that a transposition (2-cycle) is its own inverse. It’s straightforward to check by hand Herstein’s

assertion, pg. 67, that (a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

m

) = (a

1

, a

m

)(a

1

, a

m−1

) (a

1

, a

2

). Therefore

(12 n)

−1

= [(1n)(1, n −1) (12)]

−1

= (12) (1n) = (1, n, n −1, . . . , 2) = (n, n −1, n −2, . . . , 2, 1).

H 2.10.5 – Find the cycle structure of all the powers of (12 8)

Let σ = (12 8). We’ll compute what σ

i

does to 12345678. The sequence goes

12345678

σ

−→ 81234567

σ

−→ 78123456

σ

−→ 67812345

σ

−→ 56781234

σ

−→ 45678123

σ

−→ 34567812

σ

−→ 23456781

Then we have σ = (12345678), σ

2

= (1357)(2468), σ

3

= (14725836), σ

4

= (15)(26)(37)(48), σ

5

= (16385274),

σ

6

= (1753)(2864), σ

7

= (18765432) and σ

8

= e.

H 2.10.6 – (a) What is the order of an n-cycle? (b) What is the order of the product of disjoint cycles of

lengths m

1

, m

2

, . . . , m

k

? (c) How do you ﬁnd the order of a given permutation?

(a) Let σ be an n-cycle. If σ

k

(i) = i for some k < n, then σ can be decomposed into smaller cycles because

i has an orbit which is a cardinality k subset of ¦1, 2, . . . , n¦. Furthermore, by the pigeonhole principle,

σ

n

(i) = i. Hence the order of an n-cycle is n.

(b) Let σ

1

, . . . , σ

k

be disjoint cycles. As disjoint cycles commute, (

i

σ

i

)

m

=

i

σ

m

i

. The order of

i

σ

i

is

therefore N = lcm

i

(m

i

), the least common multiple of the orders (lengths, by (a)) of all the σ

i

. It is clear

that (

i

σ

i

)

N

= e because m

i

[ N for all i. For any smaller exponent K, there is at least one σ

i

with m

i

K

so that (

i

σ

i

)

K

,= e.

(c) Decompose the permutation into disjoint cycles. The order of the permutation is the least common

multiple of the lengths of the disjoint cycles.

H 2.10.7 – Compute a

−1

ba where (a) a = (12)(135), b = (1579). (b) a = (579), b = (123).

(a) a = (1352) and a

−1

= a

3

= (1253). Compute a

−1

ba by applying each permutation in order.

a(123456789) = 251436789, b(251436789) = 951426387, and a

−1

(951426387) = 192456387. Therefore

a

−1

ba = (2379).

(b) a

−1

= a

2

= (597). a(123456789) = 123496587, b(123496587) = 312496587, and a

−1

(312496587) =

312456789. Therefore a

−1

ba = (123) = b. We could have seen this immediately because a and b are disjoint.

H 2.10.8 – (a) For x = (12)(34) and y = (56)(13), ﬁnd a permutation a such that a

−1

xa = y. (b) Prove

there is no a such that a

−1

(123)a = (13)(578). (c) Prove there is no a such that a

−1

(12)a = (15)(34)

(a) We must have xa = ay. Then x(a(1)) = a(y(1)) = a(3), x(a(3)) = a(y(3)) = a(1), x(a(2)) = a(y(2)) =

a(2), and so on. We see that a(2) and a(4) must be ﬁxed by x, so a(2), a(4) ∈ ¦5, 6¦. On the other hand,

x should transpose a(3) with a(1) and a(5) with a(6). There is freedom in creating a, but the following

choice works: a(1) = 1, a(3) = 2, a(5) = 3, a(6) = 4, a(2) = 5, and a(4) = 5. This may also be written as

a = (253)(46). This a works, though it is not unique. For example, a = (1263)(45) is another solution.

(b) Let x = (123) and y = (13)(578). Applying the same analysis as above, we see that x(x(a(1))) = a(1)

while x(a(1)) = a(3) ,= a(1). Hence a(1) must be brought on an orbit of length 2 by x, but it is clear that x

does this to no symbol. The cycles of x are all of length 1 or 3. Therefore no such a exists. A more direct

way to see this is that [a

−1

xa[ = [x[ = 3 while [y[ = 6 by 2.10.6.

(c) Let x = (12) and y = (15)(34). We have x(a(1)) = a(5), x(a(2)) = a(2), x(a(3)) = a(4), x(a(4)) = a(3),

and x(a(5)) = a(1). Only a(2) is ﬁxed here, but x must ﬁx three of its ﬁve inputs. This is a contradiction,

and so it is impossible to construct such an a.

H 2.10.9 – For what m is an m-cycle an even permutation?

The m-cycle σ = (a

1

a

m

) = (a

1

a

m

) (a

1

a

3

)(a

1

a

2

) may be written as the product of m− 1 transposi-

tions. While this decomposition into transpositions is not unique, the parity (even/odd) of the number of

transpositions is (see pg. 67). Then σ is an even permutation if and only if m−1 is even, i.e. if m is odd.

H 2.10.10 – What are the parities of the following permutations? (a) (12)(123). (b) (45)(123)(12345). (c)

(25)(14)(13)(12).

(a) (12)(123) = (12)(13)(12) is odd, as it is the product of three transpositions. Alternately, because sgn is

multiplicative, sgn((12)(123)) = (−1)(+1) = −1.

(b) (45)(123)(12345) = (45)(13)(12)(15)(14)(13)(12) is the product of seven transpositions, so it is odd.

Again, we can also compute sgn((45)(123)(12345)) = (−1)(+1)(+1) = −1.

(c) (25)(14)(13)(12) is the product of four transpositions, so it is even.

H 2.10.11 – Prove that S

n

= ¸(12 n), (12)).

Let σ = (12 n), τ = (12) and U = ¸σ, τ). The result of applying σ to n symbols is to rotate them all to

the right by one spot. Similarly, applying σ

−1

eﬀects a left rotation by one. Compute στσ

−1

by considering

its action on 12 n:

123 n

σ

−1

−→ 234 n1

τ

−→ 324 n1

σ

−→ 1324 n.

We see that στσ

−1

= (23). Computing σ

2

τσ

−2

, a pattern becomes clear which suggests that σ

k

τσ

−k

=

(k + 1, k + 2). The base case k = 1 was just shown, so assume this result to be true. Then σ

k+1

τσ

−(k+1)

=

σ(k + 1, k + 2)σ

−1

. Observe the action of this permutation:

1 2 3 k + 1 k + 2 k + 3 n −1 n

σ

−1

2 3 4 k + 2 k + 3 k + 4 n 1

(k + 1, k + 2) 2 3 4 k + 3 k + 2 k + 4 n 1

σ 1 2 3 k + 1 k + 3 k + 2 n −1 n

from which we see that σ(k + 1, k + 2)σ

−1

= (k + 2, k + 3). Therefore the claim is proven that σ

k

τσ

−k

=

(k + 1, k + 2). In particular, (k, k + 1) ∈ U for k ∈ ¦1, 2, . . . , n −1¦.

Let’s investigate the product (ab)(bc)(ab). This permutation sends abc → bac → bca → cba, so (ab)(bc)(ab) =

(ac). This is useful because we can write (1k) = (1, k −1)(k −1, k)(1, k −1) where we use the just-discovered

fact that (k−1, k) ∈ U. Iterating this procedure, starting with k = 3 (because (1, k−1) = (12) is given to be

in U), we ﬁnd that (1k) ∈ U for k ∈ ¦2, 3, . . . , n¦. For instance, (13) = (12)(23)(12) and (14) = (13)(34)(13).

Now the arbitrary transposition (ab) we see to be in U because (ab) = (1a)(1b)(1a). Therefore, as every

permutation may be decomposed into transpositions, every permutation is contained in U. Now S

n

≤ U ≤

S

n

, so this ﬁnalizes the proof that U = S

n

.

H 2.10.12* – Prove that, for n ≥ 3, the subgroup U

n

generated by the 3-cycles is A

n

.

Because (i) 3-cycles are even permutations, (ii) inverses of 3-cycles are again 3-cycles, and (iii) products of

even permutations are again even, we have that U

n

≤ A

n

. Every even permutation is the product of an

even number of transpositions. Let a, b, c, d ∈ ¦1, 2, . . . , n¦ be distinct. We have (ab)(cd) = (adc)(abc) and

(ab)(ad) = (adb). Every product of two transpositions is in one of these two forms (the ﬁrst case has no index

shared, the second case has one index shared), and both forms may be rewritten as a product of 3-cycles.

Hence any even permutation σ may be written as the product of 3-cycles, i.e. σ ∈ U

n

. Therefore A

n

⊂ U

n

,

and so A

n

= U

n

.

H 2.10.13* – Let N A

n

contain a 3-cycle. Prove that N = A

n

.

The spirit of this proof is to show that if N contains a 3-cycle then it contains all other 3-cycles. Then by

2.10.12, the result would be proven. Let (abc) ∈ N. Note that (abc)

2

= (abc)

−1

= (acb) ∈ N. Using the

normality of N, we can compute things like (cde)

−1

(abc)(cde) = (abe) ∈ N. This allows us to swap out an

index, with the ultimate goal of generating an arbitrary 3-cycle from our original (abc). Continuing in this

fashion, we see that, if a, b, c, d, e ∈ ¦1, 2, . . . , n¦ are distinct and f ∈ ¦1, 2, . . . , n¦¸¦a, b, d, e¦, then

(abf)

−1

(bcd)

−1

(cde)

−1

(abc)(cde)(bcd)(abf) = (def) ∈ N.

This conﬁguration of indices is only possible for n ≥ 5. Thankfully, smaller cases are almost trivial. A

1

and A

2

don’t accomodate 3-cycles, so they are irrelevant. A

3

= ¸(123)) has order 3 so it contains no non-

trivial subgroups. A

4

is actually susceptible to the above argument, although the long formula breaks down

because there aren’t 5 symbols to choose from. Instead, we see that to go from any one 3-cycle in A

4

to

another, the only steps which might be required are swapping up to two indices and squaring (as noted

above, (abc)

2

= (acb)). Swapping the indices is done by conjugation, e.g. (cde)

−1

(abc)(cde) = (abe), as

explored above. Therefore in A

4

it is also the case that a normal subgroup containing a 3-cycle must contain

every 3-cycle. By 2.10.12, A

n

≤ N, so N = A

n

.

H 2.10.14* – Prove that A

5

has no non-trivial normal subgroups. (i.e. it is “simple”)

Missing, although a proof may be found in 2.11.6c.

H 2.10.15 – Assume that A

5

is simple. Prove that if H ≤ A

5

is proper, then [H[ ≤ 12.

A

5

has order 60, so, by Lagrange’s theorem, [H[ ∈ ¦2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, 30¦. A subgroup of order

30 has index 2, so it would be normal by 2.6.2. Because A

5

is simple, this is disallowed, so [H[ , = 30.

Suppose [H[ = 20 so [A

5

: H] = 3. By lemma 2.21, because [A

5

[ = 60 3! = [A

5

: H]!, H contains a

non-trivial normal subgroup of A

5

. However, as A

5

contains no non-trivial normal subgroups, we come to a

contradiction. Therefore [H[ , = 20. The same argument rules out [H[ = 15 because 60 4!. Therefore [H[

must be 12 or smaller. Lemma 2.21 says nothing about an order 12 subgroup because 60 [ 5! = 60.

H 2.11.1 – (a) In S

n

, prove that there are

n!

r(n−r)!

distinct r-cycles. (b) Find the number of conjugates

of (12 r) in S

n

. (c) Prove that, if σ ∈ S

n

commutes with (12 r), then σ = τ(12 r)

i

with i ∈

¦0, 1, . . . , r −1¦ and τ ∈ S

n

leaving all of ¦1, 2, . . . , r¦ ﬁxed.

(a) An r-cycle permutes r out of n symbols, and there are

n

r

=

n!

r!(n−r)!

ways of choosing those symbols.

Beyond this choice, there are (r −1)! ways of permuting all but one of the symbols in the r-cycle. Thus, for

instance, we count the distinct 3-cycles (123) and (132) but, ignoring movement of the rth symbol, we don’t

overcount (312) = (123) as unique. Thus the number of distinct r-cycles in S

n

is (r −1)!

n

r

=

n!

r(n−r)!

.

(b) All permutations of the same cycle decomposition are conjugate to one another. In particular, all r-cycles

in S

n

have the same cycle decomposition ¦1, 1, . . . , 1, r¦, with n − r ones. Hence (12 r) is conjugate to

every one of the

n!

r(n−r)!

r-cycles in S

n

.

(c) It is clear that (12 r) commutes with its powers as well as with τ, which is disjoint from it. Therefore

if A = ¦τ(12 r)

i

[ i ∈ ¦0, 1, . . . , r −1¦, τ ﬁxing ¦1, 2, . . . , r¦¦ is the set of interest, then A ⊂ N((12 r)),

where N(a) is the normalizer of a, i.e. the set of elements commuting with a. The cardinality of A is

r(n − r)! because there are (n − r)! ways of permuting the n − r elements ¦r + 1, r + 2, . . . , n¦. We also

know that the normalizer satisﬁes (# conjugates of a) = [S

n

[/[N(a)[. In the case of a = (12 r), this gives

n!

r(n−r)!

= n!/[N(a)[, so [N(a)[ = r(n −r)!. Therefore A = N(a).

H 2.11.2 – (a) Find the number of conjugates of (12)(34) in S

n

for n ≥ 4. (b) Determine N((12)(34)).

(a) For σ ∈ S

n

, we have σ(12)(34)σ

−1

= (σ(1)σ(2))(σ(3)σ(4)). If σ were to commute with (12)(34), then we

would need (σ(1)σ(2)) = (12), (σ(3)σ(4)) = (34) or (σ(1)σ(2)) = (34), (σ(3)σ(4)) = (12). The action of σ on

the n−4 other symbols is irrelevant. Enumerate these σ by considering ﬁrst σ(1) ∈ ¦1, 2, 3, 4¦ with 4 choices.

Once σ(1) is picked, σ(2) is immediately determined and two choices remain for σ(3). After picking σ(3),

σ(4) is also determined. Hence there are 4 2 (n −4)! = 8(n −4)! distinct σ which commute with (12)(34).

Then the number of conjugates of (12)(34) is [S

n

[/[N((12)(34))[ = n!/(8(n−4)!) =

1

8

n(n−1)(n−2)(n−3).

Alternately, count in the following way: the conjugates of (12)(34) are those permutations with the same

cycle structure (ab)(cd). We need to pick 2 elements from n to constitute a, b, and 2 elements from n −2 to

constitute c, d. Then we will have overcounted by a factor of 2, getting, for instance, (12)(34) and (34)(12)

which are equal. Therefore the number of conjugates is

n

2

n−2

2

/2 =

1

8

n(n −1)(n −2)(n −3).

(b) All commuting elements σ are described in (a).

H 2.11.3 – Prove that S

p

contains (p −1)! + 1 elements satisfying x

p

= e.

The identity element satisﬁes e

p

= e. By 2.11.1, the number of p-cycles in S

p

is p!/(p 0!) = (p −1)! which,

by 2.10.6a, have order p. Therefore we have exhibited (p − 1)! + 1 elements satisfying x

p

= e. Are there

others? No. Consider a non-identity element σ ∈ S

p

. The order of σ is equal to the least common multiple

of the lengths of the cycles in its disjoint cycle decomposition by 2.10.6b. If it were the case that σ

p

= e,

then the order of σ must be p because p is prime, so that the cycles in its decomposition must have length 1

or p. Because there are only p symbols to choose from in S

p

, one p-cycle already exhausts them all and we

therefore exclude possibilities such as σ being the product of two or more p-cycles. Thus for σ

p

= e to hold,

we must have that σ is a p-cycle, and so our original count is acceptable.

H 2.11.4 – Let G be ﬁnite and let a ∈ G have exactly two conjugates. Prove that G is not simple.

We have that [G[/[N(a)[ = (# conjugates of a) = 2, so that N(a) has index 2. By 2.6.2, N(a) is normal.

The only oddball case to consider is if N(a) = ¦e¦, so that G is of order 2 and is therefore abelian. If this

were the case, then N(a) = G, which is a contradiction.

H 2.11.5 – (a) Find α, β ∈ A

5

such that α and β are conjugate in S

5

but not in A

5

. (b) Find all conjugacy

classes in A

5

and the cardinalities of each.

(a) Let α = (12345) and β = (21345). They are both in A

5

because they are 5-cycles which, by 2.10.9, are

even permutations. Furthermore, we easily see that (12)α(12) = β so that conjugation by (12) ,∈ A

5

brings

α into β. Now suppose σ, τ are such that both σασ

−1

= β and τατ

−1

= β. Then we have τ

−1

σασ

−1

τ = α,

i.e. that τ

−1

σ ∈ N(α). For this particular α = (12345), we are very familiar with its normalizer. From

2.11.1c, we see that N(α) = ¦(12345)

i

[ i ∈ ¦0, 1, 2, 3, 4¦¦. Notice that N(α) ≤ A

5

. Now put σ = (12) and

let τ ∈ S

5

be any other solution to τατ

−1

= β. We have that τ

−1

(12) ∈ A

5

. If τ ∈ A

5

, then we would have

(12) ∈ A

5

, a contradiction. Therefore τ ,∈ A

5

so we have proved that this α and β are conjugate in S

5

but

not in A

5

.

Notice that the same can’t be done for 3-cycles. That is, all 3-cycles are conjugate in A

5

. Take, for example,

α = (123) and β = (234). We have (1234)(123)(4321) = (234), but if σ is another element of N((123)),

then, by the above comments, σ

−1

(1234) = (123)

i

(45)

j

with i ∈ ¦0, 1, 2¦ and j ∈ ¦0, 1¦. Solving for σ

yields σ = (1234)(123)

i

(45)

j

= (14)(13)(12)(123)

i

(45)

j

which may be in A

5

if i = 0 and j = 1. Then we

have σ = (14)(13)(12)(45) = (12345) ∈ A

5

. Indeed, (12345)(123)(54321) = (234), so the two 3-cycles are

conjugate in A

5

. More generally, α = (abc) is conjugate to β = (bcd) by (abcdf) ∈ A

5

and α = (abc) is

conjugate to β = (cdf) by (acfbd) ∈ A

5

. In summary, all 3-cycles are conjugate in A

5

, with

e(abc)e

−1

= (abc) (abcdf)(abc)(abcdf)

−1

= (bcd) (acfbd)(abc)(acfbd)

−1

= (cdf).

(b) The possible cycle structures for elements of A

5

are ¦1, 1, 1, 1, 1¦, ¦1, 2, 2¦, ¦1, 1, 3¦, and ¦5¦. The ﬁrst

cycle structure has only one element: the identity. The conjugacy class of the identity is trivially C(e) = ¦e¦

with only one member.

Pick the element (12)(34) with structure ¦1, 2, 2¦. Let’s investigate its conjugacy class: in 2.11.2a, we

considered the elements which commute with (12)(34), however we now restrict our attention to those

commuting elements which live in A

5

. The full normalizer in S

5

can be seen by the remarks of 2.11.2a to

be N

S

5

((12)(34)) = ¦e, (12), (34), (12)(34), (13)(24), (14)(23), (1324), (1423)¦. Half of these elements are odd

permutations, so the normalizer of interest is N

A

5

((12)(34)) = ¦e, (12)(34), (13)(24), (14)(23)¦. Now the

conjugacy class of (12)(34) has 60/4 = 15 elements, i.e. [C

A

5

((12)(34))[ = 15. At this point, it’s natural

to wonder if all elements of structure ¦1, 2, 2¦ share this conjugacy class. In S

5

, they certainly do, but here

we only allow conjugation by even permutations. As seen in (a), this is a nontrivial restriction. In fact, it

is true that all elements of structure ¦1, 2, 2¦ are conjugate to one another under A

5

. This may be proven

by a direct argument of the type given for 3-cycles at the end of the discussion of (a). However, we will

momentarily prove it indirectly by ignoring the issue for now.

Elements with structure ¦1, 1, 3¦ are 3-cycles. As per 2.11.1c, N

S

5

((123)) = ¦(123)

i

(45)

j

[ i ∈ ¦0, 1, 2¦, j ∈

¦0, 1¦¦. We only consider N

A

5

= N

S

5

∩ A

5

= ¦(123)

i

[ i ∈ ¦0, 1, 2¦¦. From this we see that [C((123))[ =

[A

5

[/[N

A

5

((123))[ = 60/3 = 20 is the size of the conjugacy class of (123). Furthermore, by the discussion at

the end of (a), we know that, for any 3-cycle σ ∈ S

5

, C

A

5

(σ) = C

A

5

((123)) because all 3-cycles are conjugate

in A

5

.

The only remaining cycle structure is ¦5¦, the 5-cycles. We saw above that (12345) and (21345) are not

conjugate in A

5

, so they spawn distinct conjugacy classes. Speciﬁcally, N

A

5

((12345)) = ¦(12345)

i

[ i ∈

¦0, 1, 2, 3, 4¦¦ and N

A

5

((21345)) = ¦(21345)

i

[ i ∈ ¦0, 1, 2, 3, 4¦¦ as discussed in (a), so that [C

A

5

((12345))[ =

[C

A

5

((21345))[ = 60/5 = 12.

Now we have demonstrated 5 distinct conjugacy classes of total size 1 + 15 + 20 + 12 + 12 = 60 = [A

5

[.

Therefore this constitutes a complete collection of conjugacy classes. As promised, this indirectly proves

that all permutations of cycle type ¦1, 2, 2¦ are conjugate to one another in A

5

.

H 2.11.6 – Let N G. (a) Let a ∈ N and prove that every conjugate of a in G is also in N. (b) Prove that

[N[ =

**[G : N(a)] for some choices of a ∈ N. (c) Prove that A
**

5

is simple.

(a) Let g ∈ G. Then gag

−1

∈ N because N is normal.

(b) For a, b ∈ N, a ∼ b if a = gbg

−1

for some g ∈ G is trivially an equivalence relation. These equivalence

classes (“conjugacy classes”) partition N. The conjugacy class of element a ∈ N has order [G : N(a)] by

theorem 2.h, where N(a) still refers to the normalizer of a with respect to G. If we take a single representative

a from each conjugacy class and add up [G : N(a)], we will ﬁnd [N[.

Alternately, consider the conjugacy classes C(a) = ¦gag

−1

[ g ∈ G¦ of G. If C(a) ∩ N ,= ¦e¦, then there

exist g ∈ G and n ∈ N such that gag

−1

= n ∈ N. Now a = g

−1

ng ∈ N, so in fact gag

−1

∈ N for all g ∈ G

because N is normal. Therefore C(a) ⊂ N or C(a) ∩ N = ¦e¦. Apply the class equation to G∩ N = N to

ﬁnd [N[ =

a

[C(a) ∩N[. Those a producing C(a) disjoint from N may be excluded from the sum because

they contribute 0.

(c) Let NA

5

be non-trivial. The order of N must be one of ¦2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, 30¦. The ﬁve distinct

conjugacy classes of A

5

have sizes 1, 12, 12, 15, 20 as per 2.11.5b. By (b), the possible orders under 30 for

N are then ¦1, 13, 16, 21, 25, 28¦ (notice that N must contain the identity, so the conjugacy class of size 1

must always be included). This list does not intersect with the list of orders allowed by Lagrange’s theorem.

Therefore A

5

has no non-trivial normal subgroups.

H 2.11.7 – Let n ∈ Z

+

. Prove that if [G[ = p

n

then G has a subgroup of order m for all 0 ≤ m < n.

This statement is trivial for n = 1. Assume the result to be true for n −1. Because G is a p-group, it has a

non-trivial center Z. Therefore p [ [Z[ so, by Cauchy’s theorem, there exists an element a ∈ Z with order p.

The subgroup A = ¸a) is normal in G because it is a subgroup of the center, so consider the quotient group

¯

G = G/¸a) of order p

n−1

. By induction,

¯

G contains a subgroup

¯

H of order p

n−2

.

Deﬁne the quotient map φ : G →

¯

Gby φ(g) = g¸A) and let g

1

, g

2

∈ G. φ is well-deﬁned: if g

1

¸A) = g

2

¸A) then

g

−1

2

g

1

∈ A, so φ(g

1

) = g

1

¸A) = g

2

g

−1

2

g

1

¸A) = g

2

¸A) = φ(g

2

). φ is a homomorphism: φ(g

1

g

2

) = g

1

g

2

¸A) =

(g

1

¸A))(g

2

¸A)) = φ(g

1

)φ(g

2

). Now deﬁne H = ¦g ∈ G [ φ(g) ∈

¯

H¦. Because φ is a homomorphism, H is a

subgroup of G. φ restricts to a homomorphism ψ = φ[

H

: H →

¯

G. We see that ker(ψ) = A and im(ψ) =

¯

H,

so by theorem 2.d,

¯

H

∼

= H/A. Now it is clear that [H[ = [

¯

H[ [A[ = p

n−1

so that G has a subgroup of

order p

n−1

. By induction, this subgroup contains subgroups of orders p

m

for all 0 ≤ m < n, so the result is

proven.

As a tangential result to be used in 2.11.8, we can prove that H G, i.e. that a group of order p

n

has a

normal subgroup of order p

n−1

. We will proceed again by inducting on n. We can use n = 1 as the trivial

base case (though 2.9.5 shows explicitly that the claim holds for n = 2). Assume the result for n−1 and again

consider the subgroup H = ¦g ∈ G [ φ(g) ∈

¯

H¦. Let g ∈ G and h ∈ H. Then φ(ghg

−1

) = φ(g)φ(h)φ(g)

−1

is

in

¯

H by induction (because

¯

H is a normal subgroup of order n −2 in order n −1

¯

G)

Lemma 4 – Let G be ﬁnite and let p be the smallest prime dividing [G[. Let H ≤ G be of index p. Prove

that H G.

Suppose that H is not normal, so that N(H) ,= G. We still have H ≤ N(H), so we must have N(H) = H

by order considerations. Let G act by conjugation on G/H, i.e. deﬁne φ : G → S(G/H) by (φ(g))(γH) =

gγg

−1

H for γ ∈ G. φ is a homomorphism: (φ(g)φ(h))(γH) = ghγh

−1

g

−1

H = φ(gh). Consider its kernel:

ker φ = ¦k ∈ G [ kγk

−1

H = γH for all γ ∈ G¦. We see that if k ∈ ker φ then kγk

−1

γ

−1

∈ H for all γ ∈ G.

Then let γ ∈ H and it must be that kγk

−1

∈ H, so k ∈ N(H). However, we assumed that N(H) = H, so

this implies that k ∈ H. Therefore ker φ ≤ H.

Theorem 2.d tells us that im(φ)

∼

= G/ ker φ so that [G : ker φ] = [im(φ)[ divides p! because im(φ) is a subgroup

of S(G/H), a group of order p!. Counting in another way, we have that [G : ker φ] [ ker φ[ = [G[, which is the

statement that [G : ker φ] [ [G[. Now there exist a, b, c, d ∈ Z such that a[G : ker φ] = p!, b[G : ker φ] = [G[

and cp!+d[G[ = (p!, [G[). Plugging the ﬁrst two into the third yields (ac+bd)[G : ker φ] = (p!, [G[). Therefore

[G : ker φ] [ (p!, [G[). Because p[p! and p[[G[, and no smaller (non-unit) integer divides [G[, it must be that

(p!, [G[) = p. Finally, we can conclude our argument: we have that [G : ker φ] [ p, and, because ker φ ≤ H,

[G : ker φ] = [G : H][H : ker φ] = p[H : ker φ]. Then [G : ker φ] = 1 is clearly forbidden, while [G : ker φ] = p

implies that H = ker φ which is normal as it is the kernel of a homomorphism. This is a contradiction of

our assumption that H isn’t normal. Thus it must be the case that H is normal.

H 2.11.8 – Let n ∈ Z

+

. Prove that if [G[ = p

n

then there exists r ∈ Z and subgroups N

i

, i ∈ ¦0, 1, . . . , r¦

such that ¦e¦ = N

0

≤ N

1

≤ ≤ N

r−1

≤ N

r

= G where N

i

N

i+1

and N

i+1

/N

i

is abelian. (i.e. p-groups

are “solvable”)

Put r = n. By 2.11.7, N

n

= G has a subgroup N

n−1

of order p

n−1

. As this subgroup has index p, lemma 4

gives that it is normal. Furthermore, N

n

/N

n−1

has order p, so it is cyclic and therefore abelian. Iterating,

we construct N

i−1

from N

i

by taking a normal subgroup of order p

i−1

from the order p

i

group N

i

. This

generates the desired tower of subgroups. Note that this is not the only such tower.

H 2.11.9 – Let n ∈ Z

+

. Let [G[ = p

n

and let H ≤ G be proper. Prove that N(H) ,= H.

As H ≤ N(H), this is the statement that a proper subgroup of a p-group is properly contained in its

normalizer. Induct on the exponent n. For n = 1, the result holds because the only non-trivial subgroup is

¦e¦, which is normalized by all of G. Therefore assume that, in group of orders p

m

, m < n, all subgroups

are properly contained in their normalizers.

In the group G of order p

n

, consider a proper subgroup H and let Z = Z(G) be the center of G, which is

non-trivial because G is a p-group. If Z is not a subgroup of H, then, because Z ≤ N(H) (regardless of

H), we have H < ¸Z, H) properly while ¸Z, H) ≤ N(H). Therefore we may restrict our attention to the

case that Z ≤ H. As the center is always a normal subgroup, consider the map φ : G → G/Z given by

φ(g) = gZ. This map is a well-deﬁned homomorphism (see 2.11.7, for instance). Because [Z[ > 1, the group

G/Z is a p-group of order strictly less than p

n

. Note that φ(H) < G/H properly, for if gZ = hZ for some

h ∈ H, g ∈ G, then gh

−1

∈ Z ≤ H implies that g ∈ H. Therefore gZ ,∈ φ(H) for any g ∈ G¸H. By

induction, φ(H) is properly contained in its normalizer N(φ(H)) ≤ G/Z. Therefore there exists x ∈ G¸H

such that (xZ)(hZ)(xZ)

−1

∈ φ(H) for all h ∈ H. But then for each h ∈ H there exists h

1

∈ H such that

xhx

−1

Z = h

1

Z, implying that xhx

−1

h

−1

1

∈ Z ≤ H, i.e. that xhx

−1

∈ H. Thus we have an x ∈ N(H) while

x ,∈ H, so the claim is proven.

H 2.11.10 – Let n ∈ Z

+

. Let [G[ = p

n

and let H ≤ G have order p

n−1

. Prove that H G.

H has index p, so by lemma 4, H G.

H 2.11.11* – Let n ∈ Z

+

. Let N G be non-trivial. Prove that N ∩ Z ,= ¦e¦.

Let a

1

, . . . , a

k

be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G, ordered such that a

1

, . . . , a

m

∈ N and

a

m+1

, . . . , a

k

,∈ N. Recall, as was argued in 2.11.6b, that the conjugacy classes C(a

i

) have either C(a

i

) ⊂ N

or C(a

i

) ∩ N = ¦e¦. First arrange the ¦a

1

, . . . , a

m

¦ so that the ﬁrst r represent conjugacy classes of size 1

(i.e. elements in N ∩ Z) and the latter m−r represent classes of size larger than 1. Then we can write the

class equation for G∩ N = N as

[N[ =

m

i=1

[C(a

i

) ∩ N[ = [N ∩ Z[ +

m

i=r

[C(a

i

)[ = [N ∩ Z[ +

m

i=r

[G[

[N(a

i

)[

.

As [N[ < p

n

, every term in the sum is divisible by p, hence [N ∩ Z[ = [N[ −

|G|

|N(a

i

)|

is divisible by p,

implying that N ∩ Z is non-trivial, as desired.

As an aside, the equivalence [C(a)[ = [G[/[N(a)[ may be proven by considering the map f : G/N(a) → C(a)

given by f(xN(a)) = xax

−1

. f is well-deﬁned: if xN(a) = yN(a) for x, y ∈ G, then x

−1

y ∈ N(a) whence

x

−1

yay

−1

x = a. This gives that yay

−1

= xax

−1

, so f(xN(a)) = f(yN(a)). f is injective: by almost the

same argument, if f(xN(a)) = f(yN(a)) for x, y ∈ G then xax

−1

= yay

−1

so that x

−1

yay

−1

x = a, or

xN(a) = yN(a). Because f is a map between ﬁnite sets, this proves that f is a bijection, so [C(a)[ =

[G[/[N(a)[.

H 2.11.12 – If G/Z is cyclic, prove that G is abelian.

By lemma 2.19, G/Z

∼

= Inn(G). Say Inn(G) = ¸φ

x

) where φ

x

(g) = xgx

−1

. Now let a, b ∈ G. For

some r, s ∈ Z, we have φ

a

= φ

r

x

and φ

b

= φ

s

x

. Consider the commutator aba

−1

b

−1

. We can cast this as

φ

a

(b)b

−1

= φ

r

x

(b)b

−1

= x

r

bx

−r

b

−1

. Once again, rewrite this as x

r

φ

b

(x

−r

) = x

r

φ

s

x

(x

−r

) = x

r

x

s

x

−r

x

−s

= e.

Therefore aba

−1

b

−1

= e for arbitrary a, b ∈ G so G is abelian.

Alternately, let G/Z = ¸xZ) and let a, b ∈ G. Then there exist r, s ∈ Z with aZ = x

r

Z and bZ = x

s

Z.

Therefore a = x

r

z

1

and b = x

s

z

2

for some z

1

, z

2

∈ Z. Now ab = x

r

z

1

x

s

z

2

= x

(r+s)

z

1

z

2

while ba =

x

s

z

2

x

r

z

1

= x

(r+s)

z

1

z

2

by virtue of z

1

and z

2

being in the center. Therefore ab = ba for arbitrary a, b ∈ G,

so G is abelian.

H 2.11.13 – If [G[ = 15, prove that G is cyclic.

By Cauchy’s theorem, there exists f ∈ G with order 5. By lemma 4, N = ¸f) G because [G : N] = 3 is

the smallest prime dividing 15. Consider the action of G on N by conjugation, ψ : G → Aut(N) given by

ψ(g) = σ

g

where σ

g

(x) = gxg

−1

. Notice that N must be normal so that G may act on it by conjugation. ψ

is a homomorphism: ψ(gh)(x) = σ

gh

= ghxh

−1

g

−1

= (ψ(g) ◦ ψ(h))(x). Because N is cyclic, we can easily

count the order of Aut(N). If N = ¸x) for some x ∈ N, then every automorphism η ∈ Aut(N) sends x

to another generator, and that choice of η(x) uniquely determines the entire map because η(x

n

) = η(x)

n

suﬃces to compute the image of any other element x

n

∈ N. By 2.5.15, there are φ(5) = 4 (Euler totient

function) generators of N, so 4 choices of where to send x and hence [Aut(N)[ = 4.

Now, by Lagrange’s theorem, [ψ(G)[ divides [Aut(N)[ = 4. Also, by theorem 2.d, [ψ(G)[ divides [G[ = 15 (in

particular, [ψ(G)[ [ ker ψ[ = [G[). Therefore [ψ(G)[ = 1, i.e. ker ψ = G so that the inner automorphism for

every g ∈ G ﬁxes every element of N. Let t ∈ G be an element of order 3 (guaranteed to exist by Cauchy’s

theorem). Then tft

−1

= f because ψ(t) = id, so tf = ft. Now we see that tf has order lcm(3, 5) = 15, so,

in fact, G = ¸tf) is cyclic.

H 2.11.14 – If [G[ = 28, prove that G has a normal subgroup of order 7.

By Cauchy’s theorem, there exists x ∈ G with order 7. By lemma 2.21, a subgroup of order 7 in G must be

normal because [G[ = 28 24 = 4!. Therefore ¸x) is a normal subgroup of G with order 7.

H 2.11.15 – If [G[ = 28 and G contains a normal subgroup F of order 4, prove that G is abelian.

By 2.11.14, there exists S G with [S[ = 7. By Lagrange’s theorem, S ∩ F = ¦e¦, so SF has order

[S[[F[/[S ∩ F[ = 28 and therefore SF = G. Because F is normal by assumption, 2.6.12 gives that sf = fs

for all s ∈ S, f ∈ F. Furthermore, groups of order 4 and 7 are both necessarily abelian. Then consider

g

1

= s

1

f

1

∈ G and g

2

= s

2

f

2

∈ G. We have g

1

g

2

= s

1

f

1

s

2

f

2

= s

2

f

2

s

1

f

1

= g

2

g

1

and hence G is abelian.

H 2.12.1 – Let G = S

4

. Exhibit a 2-Sylow subgroup and a 3-Sylow subgroup of G.

[G[ = 24 = 2

3

3, so a 3-Sylow subgroup has order 3 while a 2-Sylow subgroup has order 8. A 3-Sylow

subgroup is ¸(123)) = ¦e, (123), (213)¦. A 2-Sylow subgroup is ¸(1234), (14)(23))

∼

= D

4

. As deﬁned in 2.7.8,

a presentation of D

4

is ¸x, y [ x

2

= y

4

= e and xy = y

−1

x). We see that ((14)(23))

2

= (1234)

4

= e and

(14)(23)(1234) = (123) = (4321)(14)(23) so that x = (14)(23) and y = (1234) does provide a set of generators

for an order 8 subgroup of S

4

isomorphic to D

4

.

As an aside, coming up with the 3-Sylow subgroup is somewhat non-trivial. Some things worth noticing at

the outset are that S

4

has no elements of order 8, so we’ll need a non-cyclic group generated by at least 2

elements, and that 8 12 = [A

4

[, so the 3-Sylow subgroup must contain an odd permutation. There is a very

limited list of possibilities for a group of order 8, and the dihedral group has come up in Herstein’s problems

already. Then trying to ﬁnd generators for D

4

is fairly easy. An order 4 pick for y might as well be (1234),

and then one looks for an order 2 (i.e. transposition or product of two disjoint transpositions) x such that

xyx = y

−1

= (4321). Because this is conjugation by x, we immediately see that x has to be (14)(23) for this

choice of y. Other choices of x and y can be made.

H 2.12.2 – If [G[ = 108 = 2

2

3

3

, prove that G has a normal subgroup of order 9 or 27.

By Sylow’s theorem, G contains a 3-Sylow subgroup H of order 27. Let G act by left multiplication on

G/H, with φ : G → S(G/H) given by (φ(g))(aH) = gaH. This map is a homomorphism into S(G/H)

∼

= S

4

:

(φ(g

1

g

2

))(aH) = g

1

g

2

aH = g

1

(g

2

aH) = (φ(g

1

) ◦ φ(g

2

))(aH) so φ(g

1

g

2

) = φ(g

1

)φ(g

2

). We must have, then,

that [φ(G)[ divides 24 = [S

4

[ by Lagrange and that [φ(G)[ divides 108 = [G[ by theorem 2.d (φ(G)

∼

=

G/ ker φ). Therefore [φ(G)[ divides their greatest common divisor (24, 108) = 12.

Consider the kernel of the action φ. By virtue of being a kernel, we have ker φ G. Additionally, we see

that ker φ ≤ H, because if k ∈ ker φ then kaH = aH for all a ∈ G. If we put a ∈ H, then we see that

kH = H, which is the statement that k ∈ H. Now return to the speciﬁcs of this problem. We may compute

[ ker φ[ = [G[/[φ(G)[ by theorem 2.d. Now, as the only possible values of [φ(G)[ are ¦1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12¦, the

only possible values of [ ker φ[ are ¦108, 54, 36, 27, 18, 9¦. Recalling that ker φ ≤ H, we must have that [ ker φ[

divides 27 = [H[. Therefore the only acceptable cases are [ ker φ[ = 27 and [ ker φ[ = 9. These subgroups will

always be normal in G, so the result is proven.

Supplementary Problems

H 2.S.1 – Let G be ﬁnite and abelian with G = ¦g

1

, . . . , g

n

¦. (a) Prove that g

1

g

2

g

n

has order 1 or 2.

(c) If G has exactly one element y of order 2, prove that y = g

1

g

2

g

n

. (d) If p ∈ Z is prime, prove that

(p −1)! ≡ −1 mod p. (Wilson’s theorem)

(a) Number the group elements so that, for 1 ≤ i ≤ r, they satisfy g

−1

i

= g

i

, and, for r < i ≤ n, g

−1

i

,= g

i

.

Because e

−1

= e, r ≥ 1, and we are free to always put g

1

= e. Now for every element g

i

with r < i ≤ n, its

inverse g

−1

i

is another g

j

with r < j ≤ n. Hence the product g

r+1

g

n

reduces to the identity e. Now we

have

g

1

g

r

g

r+1

g

n

= (g

1

g

r

)(g

r+1

g

n

) = g

1

g

r

and (g

1

g

n

)

2

= (g

1

g

r

)

2

= e because, for each 1 ≤ i ≤ r, we have g

2

i

= e. Therefore g

1

g

n

has order

1 or 2.

(c) If G contains one element g

2

= y of order 2, then g

1

g

n

= ey(g

3

g

n

) = y, where every one of g

i

(3 ≤ i ≤ n) is paired oﬀ with its inverse.

(d) Consider the multiplicative group Z

×

p

modulo p. We note that this is a ﬁnite, abelian group and the

product of all of its elements is 1 2 (p −1) = (p −1)!. Then we seek elements of order 2, that is, a ∈ Z

×

p

such that a

2

≡ 1 mod p. Equivalently, there must exist k ∈ Z such that a

2

− 1 = (a + 1)(a − 1) = kp. As

p is a prime dividing the right hand side, it must divide at least one factor of the left hand side. Because a

is restricted to the range 1 ≤ a ≤ p −1, we see that this can only be satisﬁed if a + 1 = p, i.e. if a = p −1.

Therefore a = p − 1 is the unique element in Z

×

p

of order 2. By (c), it follows that (p − 1)! ≡ (p − 1)

mod p ≡ −1 mod p.

H 2.S.2 – Let p ∈ Z be an odd prime such that 1 +

1

2

+

1

3

+ +

1

p−1

= a/b with a, b ∈ Z. Prove that p [ a.

If p > 3, prove that p

2

[ a.

Missing.

divisors of n!(p−n)! and ai their respective powers. As every factor of n(n−1) · · · 2·1·(p−n)(p−n−1) · · · 2·1 is smaller than p (this fails if n = 0 or n = p), p divides none of them and hence, as a prime, does not divide their product. Then none of the qi is p. The factor of p in the numerator is then preserved upon taking the quotient, and p |

p n

. Note that it makes no sense to talk about p dividing

p n

unless

p n

∈ Z (lemma 1).

H 1.3.15 – Let m, n, a, b ∈ Z with (m, n) = 1. Prove there exists x with x ≡ a mod m and x ≡ b mod n. As m and n are coprime, there exist integers c, d such that cm + dn = 1. We see that (ac)m + (ad)n = a, so that adn = a − acm ≡ a mod m. Similarly, (bc)m + (bd)n = b, so bcm = b − bdn ≡ b mod n. Set x = adn + bcm. Then we have x ≡ adn mod m ≡ a mod m x ≡ bcm mod n ≡ b mod n.

H 2.3.3 – Let (ab)2 = a2 b2 for all a, b ∈ G. Prove that G is abelian. The statement is that, for all a, b ∈ G, we have abab = a2 b2 . Multiply both sides of the equation on the left by a−1 and on the right by b−1 . Then we have ba = ab and hence G is abelian.

H 2.3.4* – Let G be such that, for three consecutive integers i, (ab)i = ai bi for all a, b ∈ G. Prove that G is abelian. Let N be the smallest of the three consecutive integers. Then we have that (ab)N = aN bN , (ab)N +1 = aN +1 bN +1 and (ab)N +2 = aN +2 bN +2 for all a, b ∈ G. Inverting the ﬁrst equation and right multiplying it to the second equation implies ab = aN +1 bN +1 b−N a−N = aN +1 ba−N hence baN = aN b.

Inverting the second equation and right multiplying it to the third equation gives ab = aN +2 bN +2 b−(N +1) a−(N +1) = aN +2 ba−(N +1) hence baN +1 = aN +1 b.

Therefore aN +1 b = baN +1 = baN a = aN ba and left multiplying by a−N yields ab = ba for arbitrary a, b ∈ G. Hence G is abelian.

H 2.3.8 – Let G be ﬁnite. Prove the existence of an N ∈ Z such that aN = e for all a ∈ G. Let a ∈ G. As G is ﬁnite and closed under multiplication, the set {a0 , a1 , a2 , . . .} is ﬁnite. Hence there exist m, n ∈ {0, 1, . . .} such that am = an (without loss of generality, take m > n). By the division algorithm, we

can write m = kn + r with k, r ∈ Z and 0 ≤ r < n. Now we have the statement akn+r = an or a(k−1)n+r = e. Enumerate G as {a1 , . . . , an }. For each ai , there exists an Ni = (ki − 1)ni + ri , computed by the above method, such that aNi = e. Let N = i Ni . Then aN = (aNi )N/Ni = eN/Ni = e for each ai ∈ G. i i

H 2.3.9a – Let G have three elements. Prove that G is abelian. Let G = {e, a, b}. In order to show that G is abelian, we only need to show that ab = ba because the identity commutes with everything. Suppose ab = ba. We have only three choices: ab = e, ab = a or ab = b. (1) If ab = e, then a = b−1 so ba = e = ab, which is a contradiction. Hence ab = e. (2) If ab = a, then b = e so ba = a = ab, which is a contradiction. Hence ab = a. (3) If ab = b, then a = e so ba = b = ab, which is a contradiction. Hence ab = b. Therefore ab = ba necessarily, and hence G is abelian.

H 2.3.10 – Let G be such that every element is its own inverse. Prove that G is abelian. Let a, b ∈ G. Then ab = a−1 b−1 = (ba)−1 = ba, so G is abelian.

H 2.3.11 – Let G have even order. Prove there exists a non-identity element a ∈ G with a2 = e. If an element a of a group doesn’t satisfy a2 = e, then there exists a unique inverse element a−1 = a in the group. Elements of this type can be counted in pairs {a, a−1 }. There are therefore an even number 2k of elements with a2 = e. The identity satisﬁes e2 = e, so there are |G| − 2k − 1 ≥ 0 non-identity elements a satisfying a2 = e. If |G| is even, then |G| − 2k − 1 is non-zero and hence there exists a non-identity element a ∈ G with a2 = e.

H 2.3.12 – Let G be a non-empty set closed under an associative product with an e ∈ G such that ae = a for all a ∈ G as well as the property that, for each a ∈ G, there exists y(a) ∈ G with ay(a) = e. Prove that G is a group under this product. In order for this set to be a group, right inverses must also be left inverses and it must hold that ea = a for all a ∈ G. Multiply the equation ay(a) = e by y(y(a)), the right inverse of y(a), on the right: by associativity, y(y(a)) = [ay(a)]y(y(a)) = a[y(a)y(y(a))] = a. Hence y(y(a)) = a is the right inverse of y(a). Now we see that, in addition to ay(a) = e, we have y(a)a = e

The map is trivially surjective: for any a ∈ G. H 2. The subgroup g m is proper. K so ab ∈ H. H ∩ K is closed: let a. H 2.2 – Let G have a subgroup H.5. Prove that G is a group under composition.7 – With a. Inverting. Give an upper bound for the index of H ∩ K.3. By lemma 2. This map is well-deﬁned: suppose a1 .5. H 2.5.5. Then Ha−1 = Ha−1 which implies the 1 2 existence of h ∈ H such that a−1 = ha−1 . H 2. Therefore G is a group. Because g = e. Therefore |G| must be prime.5. b ∈ H ∩ K. The 2 2 map is injective: suppose a1 H.6* – Let H. because G has no proper subgroups. Then (g m )n = e which implies that |g m | = n < |G|.1 – Let H and K be subgroups of the group G. Prove that H ∩ K ≤ G. b ∈ R. g is a subgroup of G. that a1 H = a2 H which 1 2 proves injectivity. and hence a−1 ∈ H ∩ K. K ≤ G have ﬁnite indices in G. Prove that |G| is prime. H ∩ K is closed under inverses: let a ∈ H ∩ K. i. Now we can trivially show the property ea = a. Missing.e. n < |G|). which is a contradiction. we ﬁnd that a1 = a2 h−1 . Suppose |G| = mn with m.so that y(a) is the inverse (both left and right) of a. Ha is the image of a−1 H. K because both are subgroups. Deﬁne a left coset of H by aH = {ah | h ∈ H}. g is not the trivial subgroup {e}. a2 H are such that f (a1 H) = f (a2 H). H 2. Then a. n > 1 (so m. H ∩ K ≤ G. Let G = {τab | a = 0}. Then a−1 ∈ H. Let g ∈ G with g = e. with 1 < n < |G| elements.3 – Let G have no proper subgroups. it must be that g = G which gives |g| = |G|. Hence. Deﬁne f : {aH | a ∈ G} → {Ha | a ∈ G} by f (aH) = Ha−1 . K. let τab : R → R be given by τab = ax + b. Then there exists h ∈ H such that a1 = a2 h and hence f (a1 H) = Ha−1 = 1 Hh−1 a−1 = Ha−1 = f (a2 H). Hence ab ∈ H ∩ K. b ∈ H. What is τab ◦ τcd ? . Multiply the equation ae = a on the left by y(a) and on the right by a (notice that y(a)aa = [y(a)a]a = a): a = y(a)[ae]a = [y(a)a]ea = ea. Show there is a bijection between left and right cosets of H in G. a2 ∈ G are such that a1 H = a2 H.

ad+b ∈ G so that G is closed under composition.b− ad ∈ H.− b ∈ H. The left cosets are: eH = {e. there is an identity element e = τ1.5. The operation is associative: (τab ◦ τcd ) ◦ τef = τac. let H = {τab ∈ G | a ∈ Q}. n). For this choice of G and H. Then τab ◦ τcd = τ a . (213)(12) = (23)} (123)H = {(123). σab ◦ σcd = σac.5. −1 Now let τab . we have that. Therefore c c a c ∈ Q is the condition on this situation. (12)(123) = (23)}. Note that G is non-abelian because τab ◦ τcd = τac. τcd ∈ G be such that Hτab = Hτcd . σcd ∈ H. Finally. c a Therefore consider the cosets τab H and Hτab . Therefore τab H ⊂ Hτab .3. {Hτab } = {{τcd ∈ G | c = qa for some q ∈ Q\{0}} | a ∈ R\{0}} . (12)} H(213) = {(213).cf +d = τab ◦ (τcd ◦ τef ). so τab H = Hτab . By a a lemma 2.ad+b ◦ τef = τace. c = 0. τac.cb+d = τcd ◦ τab . (12)}. As R is a ﬁeld and a.0 . (b) Consider G = S3 = {e. Hence a c ∈ Q which gives that τcd ∈ Hτab . which tells us that the right cosets are indexed by just one real parameter. Therefore a a G is a group. (13).11 – Let G have subgroups of orders n and m. If τcd ∈ τab H then ∈ Q.(τab ◦ τcd )(x) = a(cx + d) + b = acx + ad + b = τac. (b) Give an example of a group G and a subgroup H of G such that the above is not true. (123)(12) = (13)}.7. H 2. (12)} (213)H = {(213). (213)} and the subgroup H = {e. The reverse inclusion is identical. −1 (a) Let τab .8 – Taking the group of 2. −1 Because Q is a ﬁeld. there exist left cosets that are not right cosets and vice versa. Prove that G has a subgroup of order lcm(m. (12)(213) = (13)} H(123) = {(123).ad+b (x). prove that every left coset of H in G is also a right coset of H in G. this is the statement a a that c a ∈ Q. the right cosets are: He = {e.5. On the other hand. H 2. Again.5.ad+b ∈ H and σab = σ 1 . τab and τac are in the same right coset regardless of b and c. Prove that H ≤ G and list the right cosets of H in G.acf +ad+b = τab ◦ τce.8. d−b ∈ H. τcd ∈ G be such that τab H = τcd H.ad+b = τac.− b ∈ G. (12). (123). H ≤ G. . H 2. In particular. −1 The set is closed under inverses: τab = τ 1 .5. (23). so two elements of G are equivalent left-modulo H if the ratio of their ﬁrst parameters is rational. for σab .9 – (a) In the context of 2. Then τab ◦ τcd = τ c .

5. Prove that H is cyclic. b ∈ Z such that am + bn = 1.5.5. we can write k = qn0 + r with q ∈ Z and r ∈ {0. 1. prove that |a| divides m. h ∈ N (a). By lemma 2. so H = g n0 is cyclic and the result is shown. we may write m = q|a| + r with q ∈ Z and r ∈ {0. If m is relatively prime to n. multiply the equation ga = ag on the left and right by g −1 to ﬁnd that g −1 gag −1 = g −1 agg −1 . (N (a) is the “normalizer of a in G”) Let g. whence H ≤ g n0 . Therefore n0 | k and we see that every element of H is a power of g n0 . H 2. that g n0 ≤ H. (Z is the “center of G”) The proof is identical to that of 2.5. . By the division algorithm. Additionally. then there exist a. The claim is that g m is also a generator if and only if m is relatively prime to n. g k g −qn0 = g r ∈ H. if G = g m . . notice that Z(G) = a∈G N (a) ≤ G. Now. . we must conclude that r = 0. with φ the Euler totient function. . H 2. H 2. so that for some a ∈ Z we have (g m )a = g. .Missing. H 2. Let g k ∈ H be arbitrary. N (a) ≤ G. Alternately.15 – Let G be cyclic with |G| = n.16 – Let a ∈ G. by closure. Now g = g am+bn = (g m )a (g n )b = (g m )a which tells us that g ∈ g m so G = g ≤ g m ≤ G. If am = e. . b ∈ Z. . |a| − 1}. Hence m. H 2.14 – Let G = g be cyclic and let H ≤ G. Prove that N (a) = {g ∈ G | ga = ag} is a subgroup of G.12.5.e.13 – Prove that Z(G) = {g ∈ G | gx = xg for all x ∈ G} ≤ G. By our assumption that n0 is the smallest positive exponent in H. By the division algorithm. as would be the case if m and n were not relatively prime. n relatively prime implies that g m generates G. Now . i. The claim is that H = g n0 . G = g .12 – Let a ∈ G.3. so ag −1 = g −1 a. n0 − 1}.5. This is impossible if am + bn > 1 for all a. the result holds. then g ∈ g m . If H is trivial. It is clear. Hence G = g m implies that m is coprime to n. so it can’t have just negative powers of g). Then there exists a smallest positive n0 such that g n0 ∈ H (remember H is closed under inverses. This proves the claim. 1. and therefore the number of generators of G is φ(n). This proves the claim. Hence g −1 ∈ N (a). Then (gh)a = gha = gah = agh = a(gh). On the other hand. so gh ∈ N (a). because H is a group containing g n0 . . How many generators does G have? Let g be a generator of G. Therefore let H be non-trivial.

so |b| = 1 or |b| = 31.17 – Let a. H 2. (Ha)(Ha−1 ) = H(aHa−1 ) is a right coset of H. Let g ∈ G\H. Missing. we must conclude that r = 0 and hence |a| | m.6. H 2. by the condition of the problem. H 2. it is true that (Ha)(Ha−1 ) = H(aHa−1 ): (h1 a)(h2 a−1 ) ∈ (Ha)(Ha−1 ) is h1 (ah2 a−1 ) ∈ H(aHa−1 ) so (Ha)(Ha−1 ) ⊂ H(aHa−1 ). Consider the product (Ha)(Ha−1 ) for arbitrary a ∈ G. As r < |a| and |a| is the minimal exponent taking a to the identity. H 2. abelian and such that xn = e has at most n solutions for every n ∈ Z+ .3 – Let H ≤ G and N G. . What is |b|? We have that a2 ba−2 = a(aba−1 )a−1 = ab2 a−1 . b ∈ G be such that a5 = e and aba−1 = b2 . or b31 = e. Prove that G is cyclic. so that gH = Hg. It is trivial that H = He = eH is a left coset in addition to being a right coset. the order of b divides 31. Prove that H G. b = b32 .5. so in fact H(aHa−1 ) = He = H which implies that aHa−1 ⊂ H. By lemma 2. Furthermore. b ∈ G. The set aHa−1 contains e = aea−1 . i.).10. ﬁnally. Therefore a5 ba−5 = b32 .e. Hg}. H because every one of its right cosets in G is also a left coset in G. Because distinct cosets are disjoint. conversely.5. The right cosets of H in G may be enumerated as {H.6. the left hand side is simply b. Hg is exactly the set G\H of elements in G not belonging to H. Prove that N H ≤ G. gH is again G\H (The only alternative would be gH = H.5. As sets. The last equality follows from raising the condition aba−1 = b2 to powers: (aba−1 )k = abk a−1 = b2k . By 2.6. but that isn’t the case: ge = g ∈ H while ge ∈ gH. h1 (ah2 a−1 ) ∈ H(aHa−1 ) is (h1 a)(h2 a−1 ) ∈ (Ha)(Ha−1 ) so H(aHa−1 ) ⊂ (Ha)(Ha−1 ). Prove that H G. that H G.18* – Let G be ﬁnite. We have. but.16. because a5 = a−5 = e. Then. It follows by induction that an ba−n = b2 : suppose this is true for n and compute an+1 ba−(n+1) = a(an ba−n )a−1 = ab2 a−1 = b2 n n+1 n .2 – Let H ≤ G have index 2. G H 2.e = am = aq|a|+r = (a|a| )q ar = ar .1* – Let H ≤ G be such that the product (Ha)(Hb) is again a right coset of H for a.

k = Q8 of orders 1 and 8 respectively. j . j. H 2.5 – Let H ≤ G and N G.7* – If every subgroup of a group G is normal. k} because each already squares to −1. so H G. again using the existence of n ∈ N such that n = h−1 n−1 h. k = ij. We can enumerate all the subgroups of Q8 by considering subgroups generated by combinations of elements.6.4 – Let M. 1} is of order 2. Because N 1 1 is normal. as displayed above.6. the subgroup −1 = {−1. First of all. Consider the order 8 quaternion group Q8 = {±1. the subgroups i . We can see that to be the case by noting that −1 is redundant as a generator if we include any of {i. Furthermore.6. j. g ∈ G. k} is all of Q8 : for instance. k are all normal. H 2. n2 ∈ N and h1 . Q8 is non-abelian. but. Therefore g(M ∩ N )g −1 ⊂ M ∩ N and hence M ∩ N G. i. Therefore all subgroups of Q8 are normal. −1 commuting with everything. The rest of the subgroups are of order 4. Finally. Let x ∈ H ∩ N and h ∈ H. any subgroup generated by 2 or more of {i. and so forth (in fact. Furthermore. and i2 = j 2 = k 2 = ijk = −1. Prove that H ∩ N H. Prove that M ∩ N G. −j = j 3 . so of index 2. Compute (n1 h1 )(n2 h2 ) = n1 h1 n2 h−1 h1 h2 = n1 (h1 n2 h−1 )h1 h2 .3.6. N H is a group. we see that gxg −1 ∈ M and gxg −1 ∈ N so that gxg −1 ∈ M ∩ N . it’s the center of Q8 . First observe that Q8 is non-abelian: ij = (ij)(−k 2 ) = (−ijk)k = k while ji = j −1 i−1 = (ij)−1 = k −1 = −k. j. k of order 4 round out the list. By 2. Prove that every subgroup of G is normal. See 2. N G.5. we have the trivial subgroups 1 = {1} and i.6 – Let G be abelian. H 2. Therefore hxh−1 ∈ H ∩ N so H ∩ N H.Let n1 . Therefore. −1 = i2 . We have (nh)−1 = h−1 n−1 = h−1 n−1 hh−1 = n h−1 ∈ N H.13). −k = ij 3 } = Q8 . N H is closed under inverses: Let n ∈ N and h ∈ H. Let H ≤ G and let h ∈ H. ±i ± j ± k} with (−1)2 = 1.2. Both are trivially normal.6. H 2. j . i . by lemma 2. j. We also have that hxh−1 ∈ N because N is normal and x ∈ N . Because M and N are normal. −i = i3 . j = {1 = i4 . Next. It is easy to see that −1 is normal because its elements commute with everything: i −1 = {i. h2 ∈ H. −i} = −1 i. i. Let x ∈ M ∩ N (so x ∈ M . Then we have (n1 h1 )(n2 h2 ) = (n1 n3 )(h1 h2 ) ∈ N H 1 so N H is closed under the group product. there exists n3 ∈ N such that h1 n2 h−1 = n3 . . is G necessarily abelian? No. Then ghg −1 = gg −1 h = h ∈ H. We have hxh−1 ∈ H because it is a product of three elements of H. x ∈ N ) and g ∈ G.

By 2. H 2. This is the condition that H to allow Herstein’s use of the word “order”. gHg −1 ≤ G.6.H 2.6. because N there exists n ∈ N such that n = mn−1 m−1 . Now we must have that nmn−1 m−1 ∈ M ∩ N which is assumed to be trivial. Prove that H G.e.3. Therefore gSg −1 = S and S G. ∈ gHg −1 because h−1 ∈ H. Say T = t . Now conjugation brings H into another subgroup. and that subgroup has the same cardinality as H. there exists a k such that gtk g −1 = tk ∈ T (k depends on k and g). Then consider an element (tm )k of S.9 – Let G be ﬁnite and let H ≤ G be the only subgroup of G of order |H|.6. Furthermore. Surjectivity: any ghg −1 ∈ gHg −1 is the image of h under f . Hence nmn−1 m−1 = e or.6. By lemma 2. then conjugation ﬁxes H. G. multiplying on the right by m and then n. there exists m ∈ M such that G and m ∈ G. G and n ∈ G. On the other hand. F and F G but E not normal in G. Let g ∈ G and compute gN M g −1 = gN g −1 gM g −1 = N M . If H is the only subgroup of order |H|. Hence nmn −1 m −1 = mm −1 ∈ M . G. N G be such that M ∩ N = {e}. so let S = tm .8 – Let H ≤ G. Let h1 . prove that gHg −1 ≤ G.6. Therefore |gHg −1 | = |H|.13 – Let T G be cyclic. The restriction to ﬁnite G is likely just H 2.8. H 2. N G. gHg −1 = H for all g ∈ G.6.14* – Give an example of groups E ≤ F ≤ G with E Missing.14. Injectivity: f (h1 ) = f (h2 ) implies gh1 g −1 = gh2 g −1 so h1 = h2 .3. g(tm )k g −1 = (gtk g −1 )m = (tk )m = (tm )k ∈ S. Then nmn−1 m−1 = nn ∈ N .6.12* – Let M. a subgroup S of T is again cyclic. by assumption. nm = mn. Hence N M H 2. Prove that every subgroup of T is normal in G. Consider the commutator [n. For g ∈ G. The map f : H → gHg −1 given by f (h) = ghg −1 is a bijection. Because T is normal.5. (gh1 g −1 )−1 = We have gh1 g −1 gh2 g −1 = gh1 h2 g −1 ∈ gHg −1 because h1 h2 ∈ H.6. N M is a subgroup. according to 2.11 – Let M. h2 ∈ H. gh−1 g −1 1 H 2. By 2. Prove that N M G. i. m] = nmn−1 m−1 . Prove that mn = nm for all m ∈ M and n ∈ N . . As M m = nmn −1 .

H 2. Hence ker φ = {0}. (b) G as in (a). φ : G → G given by φ(x) = x5 . φ : G → G given by φ(x) = 13x. The identity in G is 1. |N a| divides |a|.7. Hence ker φ = {−1. Prove that any element = e must be in N . (c) G = R under addition.5.H 2. (b) No: φ(2 · 3) = 26 = 64 while φ(2)φ(3) = 22 · 23 = 32. The identity in G is 0.3 – Let G be ﬁnite and let n ∈ Z be relatively prime to |G|. what are their kernels? (a) G = R\{0} under multiplication. then x = e. so the kernel is the set of those x ∈ G such that φ(x) = 13x = 0. φ : G → G given by φ(x) = x + 1. b ∈ Z such that an + b|G| = 1. (a) Yes: φ(xy) = (xy)2 = x2 y 2 = φ(x)φ(y). .1 – Are the following maps homomorphisms? If yes. (e) G any abelian group.6.16. Let x ∈ G be such that x|N | = e.15 – Let N G. H 2. b ∈ Z such that a[G : N ] + b|N | = 1. ker φ = {x ∈ G | x5 = e}. We have (N a)|a| = N (a|a| ) = N e = N .16 – Let G be ﬁnite and let N x ∈ G satisfying x |N | G be such that [G : N ] and |N | are coprime. (c) No: φ(x + y) = x + y + 1 while φ(x) + φ(y) = (x + 1) + (y + 1) = x + y + 2. The kernel of φ is trivial: if x ∈ G is such that gxg −1 = e. (e) Yes: φ(xy) = (xy)5 = x5 y 5 = φ(x)φ(y). 1}. φ is a homomorphism: φ(xy) = gxyg −1 = gx(g −1 g)yg −1 = φ(x)φ(y). (d) G as in (c).7. so the kernel is the set of those x ∈ G such that φ(x) = x2 = 1. There exist a. By 2. Now x = xa[G:N ]+b|N | = (x[G:N ] )a (x|N | )b = (x[G:N ] )a ∈ N. Hence ker φ = {e} and therefore φ is an isomorphism. For g ∈ G. φ : G → G given by φ(x) = 2x . φ : G → G given by φ(x) = x2 . For a ∈ G. (d) Yes: φ(x + y) = 13(x + y) = 13x + 13y = φ(x) + φ(y).7. H 2. Prove φ is an isomorphism. Prove that every x ∈ G may be written as g = xn with x ∈ G. we have g = g an+b|G| = (g a )n . H 2. There exist a. prove that |N a| in G/N divides |a| in G. the identity in G/N .6.2 – Let φ : G → G be given by φ(x) = gxg −1 for ﬁxed g ∈ G. First notice that x[G:N ] ∈ N because the order of G/N is [G : N ] so N = (N x)[G:N ] = N x[G:N ] .

n n 1 1 where ui = gui g −1 . prove that G ≤ N . (a) Prove that such a U exists. so V ⊂ U immediately. the n-th power map. x. Furthermore. it also contains all inverses of elements of U . (a) Prove that G G. however. y ∈ G and compute the conjugate of an element xyx−1 y −1 ∈ U : gxyx−1 y −1 g −1 = gxg −1 gyg −1 gx−1 g −1 gy −1 g −1 = (gxg −1 )(gyg −1 )(gxg −1 )−1 (gyg −1 )−1 ∈ U. if G. Now an arbitrary element of U may be written as uk1 · · · ukn (with n ≥ 0 and ki = ±1) so conjugation gives n 1 k guk1 · · · ukn g −1 = guk1 g −1 g · · · g −1 gukn g −1 = u1k1 · · · un n ∈ U . Therefore U G. that G is abelian and hints to consider the map φ : G → G given by φ(y) = y n . prove that U G. Furthermore. n n 1 1 Therefore V = U and the claim is proven. the set of all ﬁnite (or n 1 2 empty. Hence any subgroup of G containing U also contains U . · · · }. so A is not empty. (c) If G/N is abelian. unique nth root of a group element. as shown above (g = φ(g a )).7. the inverse of uk1 · · · ukn is u−kn · · · u−k1 which is again in V .3. is always surjective. G = U G. ui ∈ U. it makes sense to talk about a well-deﬁned. . Therefore φ. in which case the result is e) products of elements from U or their inverses. (b) If gug −1 ∈ U for all g ∈ G and u ∈ U . V ≤ G.4b.Herstein assumes. but is not in general.4 – Let U ⊂ G. 1. Note that if gug −1 = u ∈ U then taking the inverse gives gu−1 g −1 = u −1 ∈ U . By lemma 2. Proof: As U is a subgroup containing U . is a bijection for any ﬁnite G and choice of n coprime to |G|. additionally.7. U = is a subgroup of G which contains U and is a subset of every element of A. H 2. so. Lemma 3 – Deﬁne V = {uk1 uk2 · · · ukn ∈ G | n ∈ {0. U ﬁts the criterion. Deﬁne G = U (the commutator subgroup of G). (d) Prove that. Notice that V is both trivially closed under multiplication and non-empty (because when n = 0 we see that e ∈ V ). V V ∈A (a) Let A be the collection of all subgroups V of G which contain U . U ≤ V . G ∈ A. Let U ≤ G be the smallest subgroup of G containing U .5 – Let U = {xyx−1 y −1 | x. y ∈ G}.7. (b) By lemma 3 (below). it is closed under multiplication. by (a). The map. By 2. In this sense. U is exactly the set of all ﬁnite products of elements of U and their inverses. (b) Prove that G/G is abelian. Now U ⊂ V . H ≤ G then H (a) Let g. ki = ±1}. Then V = U . H 2. This map is a homomorphism when G is abelian. In that context.

5. Then. b ∈ R. N By 2.6 – Let M. Because G ≤ H.ad+b N ) = ac = φ(τab )φ(τcd ). τab N = N . H 2. φ is a homomorphism: φ(τab N τcd N ) = φ(τab τcd N ) = φ(τac. we have nmM = M . a = 0} and let N = {τ1b ∈ G}. y ∈ G we have (N x)(N y)(N x−1 )(N y −1 ) = (N x)(N x−1 )(N y)(N y −1 ) = N (xx−1 yy −1 ) = N . φ is a homomorphism: let n1 . the kernel of φ is trivial: suppose φ(nmM ) = N ∩ M for n ∈ N and m ∈ M . a a −1 τab τ1c τab = τa. G is a group under composition. = N . Then n1 (N ∩ M ) = n2 m3 (N ∩ M ) = n2 (N ∩ M ) and the map is 2 well-deﬁned as claimed.ac+b τ 1 .(b) We have.− b = τ1. = −1 By 2. then. this also means that n1 M = n2 M . Finally. i. However. Therefore ghg −1 ∈ H. that (G x)(G y)(G x−1 )(G y −1 ) = G (xyx−1 y −1 ) = G . for x.e. Hence xyx−1 y −1 ∈ N . Prove that N M/M ∼ N/(N ∩ M ). = . (c) If G/N is abelian. i. then a = 1 so that τab ∈ N . (d) Let g ∈ G and h ∈ H. m2 ∈ M . n2 ∈ N and m1 . Therefore φ is an isomorphism and the result is proven. N ∩ M G.ac ∈ N a a so that N G. we have that ghg −1 h−1 ∈ H. The map is well-deﬁned: suppose n1 m1 M = n2 m2 M for n1 . This means that n ∈ N ∩ M ≤ M . φ is well-deﬁned: suppose τab N = τcd N so that τcd = τab τ1e for some e ∈ R.7 – For a.5.6. with the knowledge that all quantities are meaningful. It is trivial that M N M because M G and N M ≤ G.7.7. (b) Prove that D2n / y ∼ Z2 . for x. Prove that N G and that G/N ∼ R\{0} under multiplication. also notice that m3 = n−1 n1 ∈ N . y ∈ G. m ∈ M . n2 ∈ N and m1 . m2 ∈ M . so H G. τab ◦ τcd = τac. The kernel of φ is trivial: if φ(τab N ) = 1. Therefore φ is an isomorphism and the result is proven.ae+b so that c = a and φ(τcd N ) = c = a as required. so G/G is abelian. deﬁne φ : N M/M → N/(N ∩ M ) by φ(nmM ) = n(N ∩ M ) for n ∈ N .8 – Let D2n be the dihedral group with generators x. Then U ⊂ N and therefore G ≤ N by virtue of being the smallest subgroup containing U . Then φ((n1 m1 M )(n2 m2 M )) = φ(n1 M n2 M ) = φ(n1 n2 M ) = n1 n2 (N ∩ M ) = n1 (N ∩ M )n2 (N ∩ M ) = φ(n1 m1 M )φ(n2 m2 M ). In fact.7. b ∈ R.− b . H 2. (a) Prove that y D2n . Therefore. H 2. y such that x2 = y n = e and xy = y −1 x.7.e. Right multiplying the equation by G y and then by G x gives that (G x)(G y) = (G y)(G x). so that n1 = n2 m3 for some m3 ∈ M . Deﬁne φ : G/N → R\{0} by φ(τab N ) = a. with τab ∈ G. Let G = {τab | a.ad+b and τab = τ 1 . Then τcd = τa. so m3 ∈ M ∩ N . let τab : R → R be given by τab (x) = ax + b.

(213)}. so Z(G) H 2. but this forces G to be abelian by 2. a2 }. y D2n . H 2. 3 or 6 by Lagrange’s theorem. φ : D2n / y → Z2 given by φ(xi y j Y ) = i is an isomorphism. so y has index 2n/n = 2 in D2n . and D2n has order 2n. (12). Let b ∈ G be distinct from {e. a. z ∈ Z(G). ab = a2 . a. For g ∈ G. Then all of its elements have order 2. Therefore there must exist an element a ∈ G with order 3. ab = a. . so we must conclude that ab is the sixth element of the group.7.10. v of an arbitrary group. up to isomorphism. (13).6. More constructively. b. (123).11 – Let G be non-abelian with order 6. (b) The order of D2n / y is 2. Missing. In our case. Let’s recall S3 = {e. a. b.10 – Prove that a group of order 9 is necessarily abelian. which is a contradiction. (23). then G would be cyclic and hence abelian. and the unique group of order 2. is Z2 . Therefore if G is non-abelian. It contains 2 elements of order 3 and 3 elements of order 2. If the order of b is 3. b2 }. which is a contradiction. uv = vu easily implies that um v n = v n um . b2 } contains no duplicates: if b2 = a2 then multiplying on the left by a and on the right by b gives a = b.5. (see 2. a2 .9 – Prove that Z(G) G. By 2. the fact that ab = ba gives us that G is abelian. a2 . so ab = ba. if b2 = a then squaring gives a2 = b4 = b.7.13) G.2. Its multiplication table is: S3 e (123) (213) (12) (13) (23) e e (123) (213) (12) (13) (23) (123) (123) (213) e (23) (12) (13) (213) (213) e (123) (13) (23) (12) (12) (12) (13) (23) e (123) (213) (13) (13) (23) (12) (213) e (123) (23) (23) (12) (13) (123) (213) e Suppose G has no elements of order 3. Furthermore. the same argument has us conclude that ba is none of {e. If G contained an element of order 6. so this is not the desired group. H 2. Consider ab: the cases ab = e.7. Hence we have 5 elements of the group in the case that b has order 3.3. For elements u. we have gzg −1 = zgg −1 = z ∈ Z(G). its non-identity elements have orders 2 and/or 3. then {e.(a) y has order n. Prove that G ∼ S3 . = The non-identity elements of G have order 2. ab = b and ab = b2 all yield immediate contradictions.

12 – Let G be abelian and let N ≤ G. T : x → x2 . T is a homomorphism: we have T (a + b) = −(a + b) = (−a) + (−b) = T (a) + T (b). Because G is abelian. (c) G cyclic of order 12. φ(b) = (12). we see that φ : G1 → S3 given by φ(e) = e. T is surjective: x = T ( x) where √ x is the unique. proving the equivalence of G1 to S3 . . T : x → x3 . then x2 = y 2 so x = y because we restrict to positive reals. ab = a2 . ψ : G2 → S3 given by ψ(e) = e. ad = b} and {ab = d. ab = a. ad = c}. b. and the remaining elements of G all have order 2: G = {e. c}. ac = b. ψ(a2 ) = (123). Each of the possibilities ab = e. positive square root which exists for all positive x. but T (g 4 ) = g 12 = e. so the kernel of T is non-trivial.7. ac = d. so ab ∈ {c. Hence T is an automorphism. It is also a bijection. d} and ad ∈ {b. so φ is an isomorphism. Let x. H 2. it’s easy to construct the entire multiplication table for the two Gs: G1 e a a2 b c d e e a a2 b c d a a a 2 a2 a2 e a c d b b b c d e a a2 c c d b a 2 d d b c a a2 e G2 e a a2 b c d e e a a2 b c d a a a 2 a2 a2 e a d b c b b d c e a2 a c c b d a e a2 d d c b a2 a e e d b c e c d b e a Comparing to the group table for S3 . T is surjective: a = T (−a). Prove that G/N is abelian. H 2. Let a. T : x → x−1 . T : x → −x. Consider the product ab. y ∈ R+ . ψ(b) = (12). Say G = g . N is normal in G and G/N is a group. and both are isomorphic to S3 . T is a homomorphism: we have T (xy) = (xy)2 = x2 y 2 = T (x)T (y). From those conﬁgurations. These were the only two possible non-abelian groups of order 6.1 – Are the following maps automorphisms? (a) G = Z under addition. Let g1 . Then g 4 = e. by a similar argument. d} with b2 = c2 = d2 = e. (b) Yes. a2 . (a) Yes.8. φ(a2 ) = (213). so the claim is proven. d}. (b) G = R+ under multiplication. Then (g1 N )(g2 N ) = (g1 g2 )N = (g2 g1 )N = (g2 N )(g1 N ) so that G/N is abelian. There are two distinct situations possible: {ab = c. T is injective: if T (a) = T (b). b ∈ Z. giving the equivalence of G2 to S3 . ac ∈ {b. Hence T is not injective and thus not an isomorphism. (c) No. ψ(a) = (213). and. φ(c) = (13). T is injective: if √ T (x) = T (y). (d) G = S3 . On the other hand. a. ψ(d) = (23) is again a bijective homomorphism. φ(d) = (23) is a homomorphism. then −a = −b so a = b.Therefore a and a2 are the only elements of order 3. ψ(c) = (13). g2 ∈ G. φ(a) = (123). c. and ab = b gives an immediate contradiction.

(d) No. H 2.8. 1 T (H) ≤ G.8. Let g ∈ G and n ∈ N . (12)(213) = (13) while (213)(12) = (23).2 – Let H ≤ G. we can exhibit elements of order 2 and 3 in Aut(G) which proves that Aut(G) ∼ S3 in its entirety. Prove T (H) ≤ G. = For example. Hence φTw φ−1 = Tφ(w) ∈ Inn(G).8. By 2. and we see easily that φ2 (a) = φ(b) = a and φ2 (b) = φ(a) = b. = = H 2. For h1 .4 – Prove that Inn(S3 ) ∼ S3 .8. Therefore Z(S3 ) = {e} and. = The center of S3 is trivial.3. H 2. ab} be a group of order 4 with a2 = b2 = e and ab = ba. (23)(123) = (13) while (123)(23) = (12) so (13) ∈ Z(S3 ) and (123) ∈ Z(S3 ). By lemma 2. so (12) ∈ Z(S3 ) and (13) ∈ Z(S3 ). Determine Aut(G). φ(b) = a and φ(ab) = ab is an automorphism of order 2. a. To see that φ is a homomorphism. we just need to check that φ(ab) = ab = φ(b)φ(a) = φ(a)φ(b).19. φ : G → G given by φ(a) = b. and permutes the three elements of order 2. H 2. T (N ) ≤ G. Finally.8. An automorphism of G ﬁxes the identity. we have T (h1 )T (h2 ) = T (h1 h2 ) ∈ T (H) and T (h1 )−1 = T (h−1 ) ∈ T (H).2.8. φ(aab) = a = bab = φ(a)φ(ab) and φ(bab) = b = aab = φ(b)φ(ab). where Tφ(w) : x → φ(w)xφ(w)−1 . which proves that Inn(G) Aut(G). T [(12)(13)] = T [(213)] = (123). and let T be an automorphism of G. while T [(12)]T [(13)] = (12)(13) = (213). as we can easily check: (12)(13) = (213) while (13)(12) = (123). Tw : x → wxw−1 ∈ Inn(G) and φ ∈ Aut(G). so (213) ∈ Z(S3 ). Then (φTw φ−1 )(g) = φ(Tw (φ−1 (g))) = φ(wφ−1 (g)w−1 ) = φ(w)gφ(w−1 ) = φ(w)gφ(w)−1 = Tφ(w) (g). Let g ∈ G. Inn(S3 ) ∼ S3 /Z(S3 ) ∼ S3 . . Then gT (n)g −1 = T (T −1 (g)nT −1 (g −1 )) = T (n ) ∈ T (N ) for some n = T −1 (g)nT −1 (g −1 ) ∈ N because N is normal. Therefore φ is a homomorphism. Prove T (N ) G.5 – Prove that Inn(G) Aut(G).6 – Let G = {e. b. H 2. Then it is clear that Aut(G) is isomorphic to a subgroup of S3 . and let T be an automorphism of G. h2 ∈ H. so φ2 = id and hence φ is an order 2 automorphism.3 – Let N G. All other possible products automatically work because the group is abelian. Furthermore. by lemma 2.

(a) Suppose C is characteristic and let g ∈ G. so we have Tg |N (M ) = M . This is simply a restriction of a map to the domain N . with φ(a) = b. in fact. we know that Aut(G) must be isomorphic to a subgroup of S3 which can accomodate elements of orders 2 and 3.7. ψ 3 (b) = ψ(a) = b and ψ 3 (ab) = ψ(b) = ab so. 3). Notice that if Tg ∈ Inn(G). To check the order of ψ. H 2.8 – Prove that the commutator subgroup G = aba−1 b−1 | a.6. In order for the converse (b) A normal subgroup. then inner automorphisms Tg wouldn’t restrict to automorphisms . b ∈ G (see 2. could move M ≤ N around. a} which is normal because it is of index 2.8. H 2. Then take the order 2 automorphism φ of G. it restricts to an automorphism Tg |N of N because Tg (N ) = N . Let φ ∈ Aut(G) and let a1 b1 a−1 b−1 · · · an bn a−1 b−1 ∈ G .9 – Let N G and let M be a characteristic subgroup of N . in fact. i. ψ(aab) = ab = ψ(ab)ψ(a) = ψ(a)ψ(ab). Hence Aut(G) ∼ S3 . but ψ 3 (a) = ψ(ab) = a. Some remarks: If N had not been normal. Prove M G. by deﬁnition.8. the Klein group of 2. N to fail to hold. This holds for arbitrary g ∈ G. we have n n 1 1 φ(a1 b1 a−1 b−1 · · · an bn a−1 b−1 ) = φ(a1 )φ(b1 )φ(a1 )−1 φ(b1 )−1 · · · φ(an )φ(bn )φ(an )−1 φ(bn )−1 ∈ G . we raise it to powers: ψ 2 (a) = ψ(b) = ab. but not characteristic because φ doesn’t ﬁx it. ψ : G → G given by ψ(a) = b. M G. there need to be automorphisms outside of Inn(G) which don’t ﬁx N . gCg −1 is the image of C under the inner automorphism Tg : x → gxg −1 . G. As a result. ψ 3 = id.8. (b) Prove that the converse of (a) is false. We can check that ψ is a homomorphism: ψ(ab) = a = bab = ψ(a)ψ(b). so C G. b} = a . we have that gCg −1 = Tg (C) ⊂ C. Hence M is ﬁxed by every inner automorphism. ψ(b) = ab and ψ(ab) = a is an automorphism of order 3.Additionally. = H 2. Because φ is a homomorphism. Consider G = V4 . is ﬁxed by all inner automorphisms. (a) Prove that a characteristic subgroup is normal. Therefore ψ 2 = id. Every inner automorphism ﬁxes N but. and ψ(bab) = b = aba = ψ(b)ψ(ab). Now M is characteristic in N . φ(b) = a and φ(ab) = ab. so G is characteristic. Because Tg ∈ Aut(G). n n 1 1 Therefore φ(G ) ⊂ G . ψ 2 (b) = ψ(ab) = a and ψ 2 (ab) = ψ(a) = b. C is “characteristic” if φ(C) ⊂ C for all φ ∈ Aut(G). so.8. This forces the subgroup to have order at least 6 = lcm(2. a priori.7 – Let C ≤ G. and N = a = {e.5) is characteristic. Tg (M ) = M as well. We have φ( a ) = {e. Hence N is normal.e. but that’s the order of S3 itself.

Prove that φ(x) = x−1 for all x in G and that G is abelian. and this is immaterial).6. Thus the restriction Tg |N would not ﬁx M if it were only normal but not characteristic.8. we have yx−1 = φ(yx−1 ).10 – Let G be ﬁnite and let φ ∈ Aut(G) ﬁx only the identity. Then φ(ab) = b−1 a−1 while φ(a)φ(b) = a−1 b−1 . The restriction to ﬁnite G in the problem statement enables us to use the obscure (in my opinion) result 2. so that x = y. then ρ is not a homomorphism by the above argument.8.11 – Let G be ﬁnite. H 2. b ∈ G such that ab = ba. This proves injectivity. Missing. Suppose additionally that φ2 = id. Prove that G is abelian. and let φ ∈ Aut(G) be such that φ(x) = x−1 for at least three quarters of the elements of G. ψ is not a homomorphism in general. Therefore for every g ∈ G. This map is injective: let x. and let φ ∈ Aut(G) ﬁx only the identity.8. H 2. in fact). If G is not abelian. Therefore. ρ is trivially a bijection (uniqueness of inverses gives injectivity. G must be abelian. there exists x ∈ G such that g = x−1 φ(x). an inner automorphism of N (not unless g ∈ N . because φ is assumed to be a homomorphism. with a. Therefore this exercise represents a strengthening of the conditions of 2. If G is abelian. Then x−1 φ(x) = y −1 φ(y). and g = ρ(g −1 ) gives surjectivity).8. y ∈ G be such that ψ(x) = ψ(y).14. Prove that every g ∈ G may be written as g = x−1 φ(x) for some x ∈ G. ψ is also necessarily surjective (however.12* – Let G be ﬁnite.10. then inverting b−1 a−1 = a−1 b−1 would produce the contradiction ab = ba. . if G is a group then G is abelian if and only if ρ : g → g −1 is an automorphism of G. H 2. on the right by φ(x−1 ). there exists an x ∈ G such that g = ψ(x) = x−1 φ(x). Because G is ﬁnite. By 2. where we see that normality of subgroups is not a transitive property. if N were normal but M merely normal (not characteristic) in N . Consider the map ψ : G → G given by ψ(x) = x−1 φ(x).8. we must conclude that yx−1 = e. Remark: In fact. Let g ∈ G. If we were to have that φ(ab) = φ(a)φ(b). Now φ(g) = φ(x−1 )φ2 (x) = φ(x)−1 x = (x−1 φ(x))−1 = g −1 . By our assumption on φ. then ρ is a homomorphism because ρ(gh) = h−1 g −1 = g −1 h−1 = ρ(g)ρ(h). Also. and the argument breaks down. Multiplying on the left by y.10. in general. Suppose G were not abelian.of N (because Tg might throw some elements of N aﬁeld). the argument would also break down: Tg restricts to an automorphism of N which is not. and using the fact that φ is a homomorphism.

then y = gg −1 y = λg (g −1 y). In that case. for 1 < k < n.11. Missing. this gives that H is abelian. It is assumed that H is the collection of elements with order diﬀerent from 2. Prove Aut(G) is non-trivial. so |H| must be odd. with a > 1. Then xh ∈ H for any h ∈ H.8. then g = g −1 for all g ∈ G. Therefore inversion is an automorphism on H. H 2.9. either ρ or φ is a non-trivial automorphism of G. The map φ : G → G given by φ(g) = xgx−1 = xgx is an inner automorphism of G. φ is an automorphism (this needs to be checked!). construct the map φ : G → G which transposes two non-identity elements and ﬁxes everything else.8.13 – Give an example of a non-abelian ﬁnite group G with an automorphism that maps exactly three quarters of the elements of G to their inverses. so that φ|H (h) = h−1 . H 2. If H were of even order. if G is abelian.1 – Let g ∈ G. H 2. this order must divide the order of the group. Therefore. and therefore n | φ(an − 1).8. the multiplicative (modulo an − 1) group of integers coprime to (an − 1). φ ﬁxes H and hence restricts to an automorphism φ|H of H. Deﬁne λg : G → G by λg (x) = gx. Because H is normal (index 2). a is coprime to an − 1 because (an−1 )a + (−1)(an − 1) = 1 so a that a ∈ Z∗n −1 .3. so Ta = id but Ta ∈ Aut(G).15* – Let G have even order 2n. Now we see that hφ(h) = hxhx = (hx)2 = e. 1 < ak < an − 1. If ρ = id. Then there exists g ∈ G with ag = ga. Suppose that exactly half of the elements of G have order 2 and the rest form a subgroup H of order n. Thus the inner automorphism Ta : g → aga−1 of conjugation by a does not ﬁx g. all non-identity elements have order 2. Furthermore. λg is injective: if x. it would contain an element of order 2. Prove that λg is a bijection and that λg λh = λgh . then by 2.e. a By Lagrange. If G is non-abelian. y ∈ G. xh has order 2. i. as seen in 2. If G is abelian. then inversion ρ : g → g −1 is an automorphism (see 2. then λg (x) = λg (y) implies . λg is surjective: if y ∈ G.8. H 2.H 2. The order of a is n because an ≡ 1 mod (an − 1) while. Let a ∈ Z. Consider Z∗n −1 .14* – Let G be ﬁnite with |G| > 2. because it is outside of H. and.11). Furthermore.11 or Cauchy’s theorem.8. Prove that n | φ(an − 1).8. and therefore aga−1 = g. Let x ∈ H. The number of a elements in Z∗n −1 is φ(an − 1). take an element a ∈ Z(G).16* – Let φ(n) be the Euler φ-function. Prove that |H| is odd and that H is abelian.

(b) Prove that W = g∈G gHg −1 is a normal subgroup of G. Hence each λg is a permutation of G and the λg form a subgroup (under composition) of the set of bijections G → G. K = H. However. there exists h ∈ H such that w = ghg −1 . so gHg −1 is closed under multiplication. then we ﬁnd that θ(e) = x−1 θ(x) for all x ∈ G. Suppose w ∈ W so that.9.5. Hence λg τh = τh λg .9. the inverse of gh1 g −1 is gh−1 g −1 ∈ gHg −1 .9. (a) Let h1 . h2 ∈ H and let g ∈ G. g ∈ G.5 – Let |G| = p2 . Finally. If we pick g = x−1 . Note that we don’t assume θ to be a homomorphism. Therefore λgh = λg λh .1. this subgroup must have order p. Let x ∈ G. (a) Show that gHg −1 ≤ G for every g ∈ G.2. H 2. We have λg (τh (x)) = λg (xh) = gxh while τh (λg (x)) = τh (gx) = gxh. This can be done for arbitrary x. Consequently. then λgh (x) = ghx while λg (λh (x)) = λg (hx) = ghx. Additionally. By the fundamental theorem of arithmetic. so the conditions of lemma 2.2 – Let λg be deﬁned as in 2. For x ∈ G. we know by 2. H 2. By Lagrange. Lemma 2. h ∈ G.9.9. Thus H G and |H| = p. Let x ∈ G.21 are satisﬁed. this subgroup must have order p. we have λg τh = τh λg . which is the desired result.4 – Let H ≤ G. |G| = p2 does not divide [G : H]! = p!.3. We have gh1 g −1 gh2 g −1 = gh1 h2 g −1 ∈ gHg −1 . h ∈ G. H 2. xwx−1 = xx−1 ghg −1 xx−1 = ghg −1 ∈ gHg −1 . then H must contain a non-trivial normal subgroup of G. gHg −1 ≤ G. if g. for g. so xwx−1 ∈ W and W G. 1 (b) W ≤ G because it is the intersection of subgroups. λg (θ(x)) = gθ(x) while θ(λg (x)) = θ(gx). By Lagrange. If θ : G → G is a bijection such that λg θ = θλg for all g ∈ G. Prove that G has a normal subgroup of order p.3 – Let λg and τg be deﬁned as in 2. and H ≤ G is a proper subgroup such that |G| [G : H]!. we have θ = τθ(e) . Prove that.e. Deﬁne τg : G → G by τg (x) = xg. for every g ∈ G. i.3 that G has a proper subgroup H. By lemma 2. g ∈ G. The lemma is proven by considering the action of left multiplication by G on the set G/H of left cosets of H in G. H 2. Therefore H must contain a non-trivial normal subgroup K of G. . we see that θ(gx) = gθ(x) for all x. there exists h ∈ H such that w may be written as w = (x−1 g)h(x−1 g)−1 = x−1 ghg −1 x. Speciﬁcally.21 states that if G is a ﬁnite group. For any g ∈ G. and consider xwx−1 . As p2 is not prime.that gx = gy so x = y. prove that θ = τh for some h ∈ G. Solving for θ(x) yields θ(x) = xθ(e).9.

Lagrange’s theorem applied to x ∩ y (as a subgroup of x or y ) tells us that it has order 1 or p. In other words. and so it is normal by 2. it is cyclic and H = x .6* – Let |G| = p2 and let H G with |H| = p.9.9.12. suppose there is no element in G of order 2p. Therefore G necessarily has a subgroup H of order p. so |x| = 1 and consequently h ∩ k = {e}. we cannot have k = h−1 .e. every element g ∈ G has order p.21 (as used in 2.3.10* – Let |G| = pq. q or pq. because H has prime order. Prove that H ≤ Z(G). so H = x2 is a subgroup of order p. If G contains an element of order p2 . In fact. G is abelian.6. suppose G has no elements of order p or 2p. This argument applies to arbitrary g ∈ G.9. y G. If x ∈ h ∩ k then |x| | p and |x| | q.9 – Let |G| = pq. Now consider the element hk. As x ∈ H and y ∈ G were arbitrary.9. Let x ∈ H. p. so hk = e. all non-identity elements of G have order p.9. Otherwise. Z(G) = G so H ≤ Z(G). If x ∈ G has order p.10.6. then G is cyclic and hence abelian. then Cauchy’s theorem for abelian groups implies the existence of an element x ∈ G of order p.21 (as used in 2.5). If x ∈ G has order 2p. If G contains an element of order p2 .9. g is normal and. (b) Prove that if q (p − 1) then G is cyclic. Similarly. By lemma 2.6. G with |H| = p and |K| = q. Then. x = y = x ∩ y or x ∩ y = {e}. g ∈ Z(G). Otherwise.9. Let y ∈ G. g ⊂ Z(G). H 2. i. Therefore |hk| = pq. which again gives that xy = yx.H 2. H 2. In that case. (a) Prove that G has a subgroup of order p and a subgroup of order q.7* – Let |G| = p2 . then G is cyclic and hence abelian.6. and we reach a contradiction: if G is abelian. H 2. Then all non-identity elements of G have order 2. then x2 has order p.5). Prove G has a subgroup H of order p and that H G. In particular. where p = q are both prime.8 – Let |G| = 2p. Otherwise. so Z(G) = G. By 2. Therefore G is abelian by 2. and G = hk is cyclic. In the former case. By lemma 2. Compute (hk)p = hp k p = k p = e because q p. Prove Let H = h and K = k so hp = e and k q = e. this shows that H ≤ Z(G). given two primes p. by 2. Its order must be 1. (c) Prove that. As k ∈ h . The index of H is 2. In the latter case. Prove that G is abelian.9. H 2. Suppose H. K that G is cyclic. then H = x is a subgroup of order p. by Lagrange. x ∩ y = {e} invites the application of 2. Suppose G contains no element of order p2 . q with .12. where p > q are both prime. x = y gives that x and y commute. hk = kh.2. (hk)q = hq k q = hq = e because p q.

that (a1 . (d) Prove that any two non-abelian groups of order pq are isomorphic. (b) (1625)(34). Herstein composes permutation from left to right. n. .10.1. 1). This problem statement has been modiﬁed accordingly. . am )(a1 .4 – Prove that (12 · · · n)−1 = (n. (a) Consider the action of each cycle in order. Starting with 123456789. (45) sends this into 312546789. am ) = (a1 .5 – Find the cycle structure of all the powers of (12 · · · 8) Let σ = (12 · · · 8). 1) First note that a transposition (2-cycle) is its own inverse. . a2 . It’s straightforward to check by hand Herstein’s assertion.10.3 – Express as products of disjoint cycles: (a) (15)(16789)(45)(123). Missing. n − 1. .q (p − 1). . a2 ). Therefore (12 · · · n)−1 = [(1n)(1. 67. H 2. while I compose permutations from right to left. n − 2.2 – Decompose into products of disjoint cycles: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 (a) (b) 2 3 4 5 1 6 7 9 8 6 (a) (12345)(6)(7)(89). We’ll compute what σ i does to 12345678. am−1 ) · · · (a1 . n − 1. pg. 2. . . . 2. . (12) sends this into 231. H 2. . . (123) sends this into 312456789. n − 1) · · · (12)] −1 = (12) · · · (1n) = (1. (16789) sends this into 912543678. (15) sends this into 412593678. . (123) sends this into 321. (12) sends this into 213. so this is often irrelevant. (b) (12)(123)(12). there exists a non-abelian group of order pq. Therefore (12)(123)(12) = (132). n − 2. n − 1. Disjoint cycles commute. H 2. 2 5 3 4 4 3 5 1 6 2 H 2. . The sequence goes 12345678 −→ 81234567 −→ 78123456 −→ 67812345 −→ 56781234 −→ 45678123 −→ 34567812 −→ 23456781 σ σ σ σ σ σ σ .10. 2) = (n.10. . . (b) Starting with 123. . 2. Hence (15)(16789)(45)(123) = (123678954).10.

. a−1 ba = (2379). σ 2 = (1357)(2468).10. n}. (b) a = (579). If σ k (i) = i for some k < n. The order of the permutation is the least common multiple of the lengths of the disjoint cycles. H 2. Compute a−1 ba by applying each permutation in order. Furthermore. b = (1579). σ 6 = (1753)(2864). . ( that ( i σi ) m = i m σi . and a−1 (312496587) = 312456789. by the pigeonhole principle. The order of i σi is therefore N = lcmi (mi ). σ n (i) = i. (b) Let σ1 . σ 4 = (15)(26)(37)(48). It is clear i σi )N = e because mi | N for all i. (b) Prove there is no a such that a−1 (123)a = (13)(578). a(3) = 2. a(2) = 5. then σ can be decomposed into smaller cycles because i has an orbit which is a cardinality k subset of {1. We see that a(2) and a(4) must be ﬁxed by x. ﬁnd a permutation a such that a−1 xa = y. 6}. by (a)) of all the σi . .6 – (a) What is the order of an n-cycle? (b) What is the order of the product of disjoint cycles of lengths m1 . For example. (b) a−1 = a2 = (597). a(4) ∈ {5. .Then we have σ = (12345678). σ 5 = (16385274). This a works. On the other hand. For any smaller exponent K. b(123496587) = 312496587. Therefore H 2. and a−1 (951426387) = 192456387. a(6) = 4. σ 7 = (18765432) and σ 8 = e. the least common multiple of the orders (lengths. Applying the same analysis as above. σk be disjoint cycles. (a) a = (1352) and a−1 = a3 = (1253). . We could have seen this immediately because a and b are disjoint. and so on. Hence the order of an n-cycle is n.10. x(a(2)) = a(y(2)) = a(2). As disjoint cycles commute. though it is not unique. . 2. Therefore a−1 ba = (123) = b. b = (123). (c) Prove there is no a such that a−1 (12)a = (15)(34) (a) We must have xa = ay.10. a = (1263)(45) is another solution. This may also be written as a = (253)(46).8 – (a) For x = (12)(34) and y = (56)(13). . but the following choice works: a(1) = 1. a(123456789) = 123496587. we see that x(x(a(1))) = a(1) . b(251436789) = 951426387. x should transpose a(3) with a(1) and a(5) with a(6). . m2 .7 – Compute a−1 ba where (a) a = (12)(135). . and a(4) = 5. a(5) = 3. . . There is freedom in creating a. a(123456789) = 251436789. (b) Let x = (123) and y = (13)(578). σ 3 = (14725836). mk ? (c) How do you ﬁnd the order of a given permutation? (a) Let σ be an n-cycle. Then x(a(1)) = a(y(1)) = a(3). x(a(3)) = a(y(3)) = a(1). (c) Decompose the permutation into disjoint cycles. H 2. so a(2). . there is at least one σi with mi K i so that ( σi )K = e.

Let σ = (12 · · · n). (a) (12)(123) = (12)(13)(12) is odd. We have x(a(1)) = a(5). but x must ﬁx three of its ﬁve inputs. (c) (25)(14)(13)(12). A more direct way to see this is that |a−1 xa| = |x| = 3 while |y| = 6 by 2. so assume this result to be true.11 – Prove that Sn = (12 · · · n). we can also compute sgn((45)(123)(12345)) = (−1)(+1)(+1) = −1. τ . the parity (even/odd) of the number of transpositions is (see pg. (c) (25)(14)(13)(12) is the product of four transpositions. sgn((12)(123)) = (−1)(+1) = −1. The result of applying σ to n symbols is to rotate them all to the right by one spot. H 2. k + 2). but it is clear that x does this to no symbol.while x(a(1)) = a(3) = a(1). Alternately. Then σ k+1 τ σ −(k+1) = σ −1 τ σ . Then σ is an even permutation if and only if m − 1 is even. if m is odd.e. We see that στ σ −1 = (23). H 2. (b) (45)(123)(12345). While this decomposition into transpositions is not unique. The cycles of x are all of length 1 or 3.10. Only a(2) is ﬁxed here. x(a(3)) = a(4). as it is the product of three transpositions. Compute στ σ −1 by considering its action on 12 · · · n: 123 · · · n −→ 234 · · · n1 −→ 324 · · · n1 −→ 1324 · · · n. x(a(4)) = a(3). H 2.9 – For what m is an m-cycle an even permutation? The m-cycle σ = (a1 · · · am ) = (a1 am ) · · · (a1 a3 )(a1 a2 ) may be written as the product of m − 1 transpositions. and so it is impossible to construct such an a.10. a pattern becomes clear which suggests that σ k τ σ −k = (k + 1. Again. i. τ = (12) and U = σ.10.10 – What are the parities of the following permutations? (a) (12)(123). x(a(2)) = a(2). (12) . Therefore no such a exists. applying σ −1 eﬀects a left rotation by one. (c) Let x = (12) and y = (15)(34). 67).6. so it is odd. (b) (45)(123)(12345) = (45)(13)(12)(15)(14)(13)(12) is the product of seven transpositions. because sgn is multiplicative. Similarly. Computing σ 2 τ σ −2 . The base case k = 1 was just shown.10. This is a contradiction. Hence a(1) must be brought on an orbit of length 2 by x. and x(a(5)) = a(1). so it is even.

d. n}\{a. e ∈ {1. k + 2)σ −1 . Every even permutation is the product of an even number of transpositions. . . c. c. . the second case has one index shared). k + 3). 2. we can compute things like (cde)−1 (abc)(cde) = (abe) ∈ N . e}. so this ﬁnalizes the proof that U = Sn . . (k. so (ab)(bc)(ab) = (ac). Because (i) 3-cycles are even permutations. k + 2).12. k − 1) = (12) is given to be in U ). (13) = (12)(23)(12) and (14) = (13)(34)(13).10. . This conﬁguration of indices is only possible for n ≥ 5. . we have that Un ≤ An . n} be distinct. . . This allows us to swap out an index. Let a. b. 3. we ﬁnd that (1k) ∈ U for k ∈ {2. For instance. Now the arbitrary transposition (ab) we see to be in U because (ab) = (1a)(1b)(1a). 2. b. and (iii) products of even permutations are again even. and both forms may be rewritten as a product of 3-cycles. A1 . Therefore. starting with k = 3 (because (1. the result would be proven. k − 1) where we use the just-discovered fact that (k − 1. k − 1)(k − 1. Then by 2. In particular.σ(k + 1. n − 1}. we see that. Let’s investigate the product (ab)(bc)(ab).e. Hence any even permutation σ may be written as the product of 3-cycles. k + 2) σ 2 2 1 2 3 3 2 3 4 4 3 ··· ··· ··· ··· k+1 k+2 k+3 k+1 k+2 k+3 k+2 k+3 k+3 k+4 k+4 k+2 ··· ··· ··· ··· n−1 n n n−1 n 1 1 n from which we see that σ(k + 1. . Note that (abc)2 = (abc)−1 = (acb) ∈ N . Let (abc) ∈ N . then (abf )−1 (bcd)−1 (cde)−1 (abc)(cde)(bcd)(abf ) = (def ) ∈ N. We have (ab)(cd) = (adc)(abc) and (ab)(ad) = (adb). Thankfully. k)(1. k) ∈ U . .13* – Let N An contain a 3-cycle. . . as every permutation may be decomposed into transpositions. k + 1) ∈ U for k ∈ {1.12* – Prove that. H 2. . Therefore the claim is proven that σ k τ σ −k = (k + 1. This permutation sends abc → bac → bca → cba. . Every product of two transpositions is in one of these two forms (the ﬁrst case has no index shared. with the ultimate goal of generating an arbitrary 3-cycle from our original (abc). n}. 2. Iterating this procedure. Continuing in this fashion. the subgroup Un generated by the 3-cycles is An . . every permutation is contained in U . (ii) inverses of 3-cycles are again 3-cycles. smaller cases are almost trivial. d. This is useful because we can write (1k) = (1. . for n ≥ 3. and so An = Un . Prove that N = An . σ ∈ Un . H 2. k + 2)σ −1 = (k + 2. d ∈ {1. n} are distinct and f ∈ {1. b. i. . if a.10. Observe the action of this permutation: 1 σ −1 (k + 1. 2. . Now Sn ≤ U ≤ Sn . . Using the normality of N . .10. Therefore An ⊂ Un . The spirit of this proof is to show that if N contains a 3-cycle then it contains all other 3-cycles.

Hence (12 · · · r) is conjugate to every one of the n! r(n−r)! r-cycles in Sn . 6. A5 has order 60. (i. we see that to go from any one 3-cycle in A4 to another. H 2. .6c. 4. as A5 contains no non-trivial normal subgroups. H contains a non-trivial normal subgroup of A5 . By lemma 2. i. 12. . H 2. which is disjoint from it. A subgroup of order 30 has index 2. 15.and A2 don’t accomodate 3-cycles. (b) All permutations of the same cycle decomposition are conjugate to one another. ignoring movement of the rth symbol. Thus. A4 is actually susceptible to the above argument. Prove that if H ≤ A5 is proper. there are (r − 1)! ways of permuting all but one of the symbols in the r-cycle. . 30}. Instead. 1. .2. all r-cycles in Sn have the same cycle decomposition {1. Therefore in A4 it is also the case that a normal subgroup containing a 3-cycle must contain every 3-cycle. by Lagrange’s theorem. so. r}} is the set of interest. . r − 1} and τ ∈ Sn leaving all of {1. .e. 5. .g. so |H| = 30. A3 = (123) has order 3 so it contains no nontrivial subgroups. An ≤ N . 2. . By 2. . it is “simple”) Missing. because |A5 | = 60 3! = [A5 : H]!. (c) Prove that.12. and there are n r = n! r!(n−r)! ways of choosing those symbols.10. e. 2. so N = An .6.e. . . . where N (a) is the normalizer of a. although the long formula breaks down because there aren’t 5 symbols to choose from. then |H| ≤ 12.14* – Prove that A5 has no non-trivial normal subgroups. (cde)−1 (abc)(cde) = (abe). . Beyond this choice.10. .11. . for instance. Lemma 2. r}. this is disallowed. we don’t overcount (312) = (123) as unique. . Therefore if A = {τ (12 · · · r)i | i ∈ {0. (b) Find the number of conjugates of (12 · · · r) in Sn . (abc)2 = (acb)). 1. prove that there are n! r(n−r)! distinct r-cycles. we come to a contradiction. (c) It is clear that (12 · · · r) commutes with its powers as well as with τ . H 2.10. However. In particular. . 1. as explored above. The cardinality of A is . Swapping the indices is done by conjugation. we count the distinct 3-cycles (123) and (132) but. so they are irrelevant. then σ = τ (12 · · · r)i with i ∈ {0. (a) An r-cycle permutes r out of n symbols. Therefore |H| must be 12 or smaller. The same argument rules out |H| = 15 because 60 4!.1 – (a) In Sn . . Therefore |H| = 20. 1. Thus the number of distinct r-cycles in Sn is (r − 1)! n r = n! r(n−r)! . 10. . Suppose |H| = 20 so [A5 : H] = 3. so it would be normal by 2. if σ ∈ Sn commutes with (12 · · · r). 20.11.21 says nothing about an order 12 subgroup because 60 | 5! = 60. Because A5 is simple. the only steps which might be required are swapping up to two indices and squaring (as noted above. then A ⊂ N ((12 · · · r)).15 – Assume that A5 is simple. |H| ∈ {2. . 3. r − 1}. τ ﬁxing {1. r} ﬁxed. with n − r ones.21. although a proof may be found in 2. the set of elements commuting with a.

. Therefore we have exhibited (p − 1)! + 1 elements satisfying xp = e.2 – (a) Find the number of conjugates of (12)(34) in Sn for n ≥ 4. . then the order of σ must be p because p is prime. b. We also know that the normalizer satisﬁes (# conjugates of a) = |Sn |/|N (a)|. Are there others? No. then N (a) = G. r + 2. this gives n! r(n−r)! = n!/|N (a)|. so |N (a)| = r(n − r)!. (σ(3)σ(4)) = (12). count in the following way: the conjugates of (12)(34) are those permutations with the same cycle structure (ab)(cd). The action of σ on the n−4 other symbols is irrelevant. Consider a non-identity element σ ∈ Sp .11. If σ were to commute with (12)(34). Therefore A = N (a).1. (σ(3)σ(4)) = (34) or (σ(1)σ(2)) = (34).10. by 2. the number of p-cycles in Sp is p!/(p · 0!) = (p − 1)! which. In the case of a = (12 · · · r). we have σ(12)(34)σ −1 = (σ(1)σ(2))(σ(3)σ(4)). After picking σ(3). we must have that σ is a p-cycle. Alternately. and 2 elements from n − 2 to constitute c. Thus for σ p = e to hold. Because there are only p symbols to choose from in Sp . so that the cycles in its decomposition must have length 1 or p. The identity element satisﬁes ep = e.3 – Prove that Sp contains (p − 1)! + 1 elements satisfying xp = e. If it were the case that σ p = e. so that G is of order 2 and is therefore abelian. The order of σ is equal to the least common multiple of the lengths of the cycles in its disjoint cycle decomposition by 2.6a. H 2. one p-cycle already exhausts them all and we therefore exclude possibilities such as σ being the product of two or more p-cycles. Therefore the number of conjugates is (b) All commuting elements σ are described in (a). Then we will have overcounted by a factor of 2.4 – Let G be ﬁnite and let a ∈ G have exactly two conjugates. have order p. n}. (a) For σ ∈ Sn . 4} with 4 choices. 1 Then the number of conjugates of (12)(34) is |Sn |/|N ((12)(34))| = n!/(8(n − 4)!) = 8 n(n − 1)(n − 2)(n − 3). We have that |G|/|N (a)| = (# conjugates of a) = 2. By 2.6b. H 2. Enumerate these σ by considering ﬁrst σ(1) ∈ {1. H 2.6.10. Prove that G is not simple. σ(4) is also determined.2. Hence there are 4 · 2 · (n − 4)! = 8(n − 4)! distinct σ which commute with (12)(34).r(n − r)! because there are (n − r)! ways of permuting the n − r elements {r + 1. getting.11. 3. . N (a) is normal. and so our original count is acceptable. then we would need (σ(1)σ(2)) = (12).11. d. which is a contradiction. (b) Determine N ((12)(34)). By 2. Once σ(1) is picked. We need to pick 2 elements from n to constitute a. (12)(34) and (34)(12) which are equal. 2. n 2 n−2 2 1 /2 = 8 n(n − 1)(n − 2)(n − 3). . If this were the case.11. The only oddball case to consider is if N (a) = {e}. σ(2) is immediately determined and two choices remain for σ(3). . for instance. so that N (a) has index 2.

3}. (14)(23). 3. 2. 2} are conjugate to one another under A5 . However. Then we have τ −1 σασ −1 τ = α. this is a nontrivial restriction. (b) Find all conjugacy classes in A5 and the cardinalities of each. |CA5 ((12)(34))| = 15. In fact. Therefore τ ∈ A5 so we have proved that this α and β are conjugate in S5 but not in A5 .2a. they certainly do. 1. Now suppose σ. with e(abc)e−1 = (abc) (abcdf )(abc)(abcdf )−1 = (bcd) (acf bd)(abc)(acf bd)−1 = (cdf ). by the above comments. 2}. α = (abc) is conjugate to β = (bcd) by (abcdf ) ∈ A5 and α = (abc) is conjugate to β = (cdf ) by (acf bd) ∈ A5 . we considered the elements which commute with (12)(34). 3} are 3-cycles. 2. We have that τ −1 (12) ∈ A5 . it’s natural to wonder if all elements of structure {1. 2.1c. Half of these elements are odd permutations.11. (12345)(123)(54321) = (234).11. If τ ∈ A5 . 1. More generally. α = (123) and β = (234). we see that N (α) = {(12345)i | i ∈ {0. Notice that N (α) ≤ A5 . (14)(23)}. Pick the element (12)(34) with structure {1. 1. but if σ is another element of N ((123)). Notice that the same can’t be done for 3-cycles. Let’s investigate its conjugacy class: in 2. In S5 . (12). In summary.1c. Now the conjugacy class of (12)(34) has 60/4 = 15 elements. by 2. we easily see that (12)α(12) = β so that conjugation by (12) ∈ A5 brings α into β. for example. At this point. 2} and j ∈ {0.9. (34). all 3-cycles are conjugate in A5 . then. i. We have (1234)(123)(4321) = (234). 4}}. 1. that τ −1 σ ∈ N (α).11. The conjugacy class of the identity is trivially C(e) = {e} with only one member. however we now restrict our attention to those commuting elements which live in A5 . 2. Solving for σ yields σ = (1234)(123)i (45)j = (14)(13)(12)(123)i (45)j which may be in A5 if i = 0 and j = 1. a contradiction. For this particular α = (12345). we will momentarily prove it indirectly by ignoring the issue for now. so the two 3-cycles are conjugate in A5 . β ∈ A5 such that α and β are conjugate in S5 but not in A5 . 1.10. That is. As per 2. 2}. {1. {1.e.2a to be NS5 ((12)(34)) = {e. we are very familiar with its normalizer. 2}. all 3-cycles are conjugate in A5 .H 2. 2} share this conjugacy class. and {5}. it is true that all elements of structure {1. As seen in (a). 2. The full normalizer in S5 can be seen by the remarks of 2. Then we have σ = (14)(13)(12)(45) = (12345) ∈ A5 . (b) The possible cycle structures for elements of A5 are {1. They are both in A5 because they are 5-cycles which. (13)(24). j ∈ . τ are such that both σασ −1 = β and τ ατ −1 = β. This may be proven by a direct argument of the type given for 3-cycles at the end of the discussion of (a).11. then we would have (12) ∈ A5 .5 – (a) Find α. i. are even permutations. (1324). (12)(34).e.11. Indeed. (13)(24). so the normalizer of interest is NA5 ((12)(34)) = {e. Furthermore. NS5 ((123)) = {(123)i (45)j | i ∈ {0. but here we only allow conjugation by even permutations. The ﬁrst cycle structure has only one element: the identity. 1. (a) Let α = (12345) and β = (21345). 1. 1. (12)(34). Now put σ = (12) and let τ ∈ S5 be any other solution to τ ατ −1 = β. Take. Elements with structure {1. 1}. From 2. 1}. σ −1 (1234) = (123)i (45)j with i ∈ {0. (1423)}.

(a) Let g ∈ G. 1. 3. Alternately. Then gag −1 ∈ N because N is normal. The ﬁve distinct conjugacy classes of A5 have sizes 1. (a) Let a ∈ N and prove that every conjugate of a in G is also in N . by the discussion at the end of (a). Therefore A5 has no non-trivial normal subgroups. (c) Prove that A5 is simple. for any 3-cycle σ ∈ S5 . (b) Prove that [G : N (a)] for some choices of a ∈ N . From this we see that |C((123))| = |A5 |/|NA5 ((123))| = 60/3 = 20 is the size of the conjugacy class of (123). 12. These equivalence classes (“conjugacy classes”) partition N . 3. Prove that if |G| = pn then G has a subgroup of order m for all 0 ≤ m < n. If C(a) ∩ N = {e}. Therefore C(a) ⊂ N or C(a) ∩ N = {e}. This list does not intersect with the list of orders allowed by Lagrange’s theorem. 12. 2. 2. H 2. so that |CA5 ((12345))| = |CA5 ((21345))| = 60/5 = 12. we will ﬁnd |N |. it has a .6 – Let N |N | = G. then there exist g ∈ G and n ∈ N such that gag −1 = n ∈ N . 2}}. 20 as per 2.11. This statement is trivial for n = 1. NA5 ((12345)) = {(12345)i | i ∈ {0. 12. 6. 16.11. (c) Let N A5 be non-trivial. so in fact gag −1 ∈ N for all g ∈ G because N is normal. Those a producing C(a) disjoint from N may be excluded from the sum because they contribute 0. Therefore this constitutes a complete collection of conjugacy classes.h. Assume the result to be true for n − 1. 30}.7 – Let n ∈ Z+ . 28} (notice that N must contain the identity. If we take a single representative a from each conjugacy class and add up [G : N (a)]. 1}}. where N (a) still refers to the normalizer of a with respect to G. 10. consider the conjugacy classes C(a) = {gag −1 | g ∈ G} of G. so the conjugacy class of size 1 must always be included). As promised. 20. 2. Apply the class equation to G ∩ N = N to ﬁnd |N | = a |C(a) ∩ N |. 4}} as discussed in (a).11. (b) For a. the 5-cycles.5b. the possible orders under 30 for N are then {1.{0. Now a = g −1 ng ∈ N . 15. 1. Speciﬁcally. The only remaining cycle structure is {5}. CA5 (σ) = CA5 ((123)) because all 3-cycles are conjugate in A5 . 15. H 2. 25. The order of N must be one of {2. By (b). we know that. 13. We saw above that (12345) and (21345) are not conjugate in A5 . Now we have demonstrated 5 distinct conjugacy classes of total size 1 + 15 + 20 + 12 + 12 = 60 = |A5 |. 3. a ∼ b if a = gbg −1 for some g ∈ G is trivially an equivalence relation. 5. so they spawn distinct conjugacy classes. Furthermore. 4}} and NA5 ((21345)) = {(21345)i | i ∈ {0. 4. this indirectly proves that all permutations of cycle type {1. We only consider NA5 = NS5 ∩ A5 = {(123)i | i ∈ {0. 21. 2} are conjugate to one another in A5 . The conjugacy class of element a ∈ N has order [G : N (a)] by theorem 2. 1. b ∈ N . Because G is a p-group.

By induction. g2 ∈ G. Now deﬁne H = {g ∈ G | φ(g) ∈ H}. a group of order p!. Then φ(ghg −1 ) = φ(g)φ(h)φ(g)−1 is ¯ ¯ ¯ in H by induction (because H is a normal subgroup of order n − 2 in order n − 1 G) Lemma 4 – Let G be ﬁnite and let p be the smallest prime dividing |G|. so consider the quotient group ¯ ¯ ¯ G = G/ a of order pn−1 . Plugging the ﬁrst two into the third yields (ac+bd)[G : ker φ] = (p!.e. Finally. Because φ is a homomorphism. because ker φ ≤ H. so φ(g1 ) = g1 A = g2 g2 g1 A = g2 A = φ(g2 ). Then let γ ∈ H and it must be that kγk −1 ∈ H. We will proceed again by inducting on n. The subgroup A = a is normal in G because it is a subgroup of the center. φ restricts to a homomorphism ψ = φ|H : H → G.5 shows explicitly that the claim holds for n = 2). |G|). This is a contradiction of our assumption that H isn’t normal. Let H ≤ G be of index p. |G|). Let g ∈ G and h ∈ H. ¯ = ¯ so by theorem 2. Prove that H G. By induction. and no smaller (non-unit) integer divides |G|. so we must have N (H) = H by order considerations.d. deﬁne φ : G → S(G/H) by (φ(g))(γH) = gγg −1 H for γ ∈ G. . [G : ker φ] = [G : H][H : ker φ] = p[H : ker φ]. we assumed that N (H) = H. Theorem 2. Assume the result for n−1 and again ¯ consider the subgroup H = {g ∈ G | φ(g) ∈ H}. Thus it must be the case that H is normal. Counting in another way. Now there exist a. H is a ¯ ¯ subgroup of G. We see that if k ∈ ker φ then kγk −1 γ −1 ∈ H for all γ ∈ G. we can conclude our argument: we have that [G : ker φ] | p. Therefore p | |Z| so. that a group of order pn has a normal subgroup of order pn−1 .11. so this implies that k ∈ H. which is the statement that [G : ker φ] | |G|. G contains a subgroup H of order pn−2 . Because p|p! and p||G|. We still have H ≤ N (H). we have that [G : ker φ] · | ker φ| = |G|. As a tangential result to be used in 2.9.d tells us that im(φ) ∼ G/ ker φ so that [G : ker φ] = |im(φ)| divides p! because im(φ) is a subgroup = of S(G/H). Therefore ker φ ≤ H. H ∼ H/A. and. However. ¯ Deﬁne the quotient map φ : G → G by φ(g) = g A and let g1 .non-trivial center Z. Therefore [G : ker φ] | (p!. Consider its kernel: ker φ = {k ∈ G | kγk −1 H = γH for all γ ∈ G}. i. d ∈ Z such that a[G : ker φ] = p!. Let G act by conjugation on G/H. this subgroup contains subgroups of orders pm for all 0 ≤ m < n. i. |G|) = p. We can use n = 1 as the trivial base case (though 2. it must be that (p!. φ is well-deﬁned: if g1 A = g2 A then −1 −1 g2 g1 ∈ A. b[G : ker φ] = |G| and cp!+d|G| = (p!. Then [G : ker φ] = 1 is clearly forbidden. |G|).e. there exists an element a ∈ Z with order p. Now it is clear that |H| = |H| · |A| = pn−1 so that G has a subgroup of order pn−1 . Suppose that H is not normal. we can prove that H G. while [G : ker φ] = p implies that H = ker φ which is normal as it is the kernel of a homomorphism. b. by Cauchy’s theorem. so that N (H) = G. φ is a homomorphism: (φ(g)φ(h))(γH) = ghγh−1 g −1 H = φ(gh). φ is a homomorphism: φ(g1 g2 ) = g1 g2 A = ¯ (g1 A )(g2 A ) = φ(g1 )φ(g2 ).8. so the result is proven. c. We see that ker(ψ) = A and im(ψ) = H. so k ∈ N (H).

. .11. g ∈ G. . i ∈ {0. 1. (i. . Therefore we may restrict our attention to the case that Z ≤ H. First arrange the {a1 . p-groups H 2. .11. Note that this is not the only such tower. . . am ∈ N and am+1 . so by lemma 4. that xhx−1 ∈ H. implying that xhx−1 h−1 ∈ Z ≤ H. This generates the desired tower of subgroups. For n = 1. Recall. . because Z ≤ N (H) (regardless of H). Therefore gZ ∈ φ(H) for any g ∈ G\H.11. r} such that {e} = N0 ≤ N1 ≤ · · · ≤ Nr−1 ≤ Nr = G where Ni are “solvable”) Put r = n. for if gZ = hZ for some h ∈ H. By induction.e. H 2. Prove that H H has index p. G. so it is cyclic and therefore abelian. .8 – Let n ∈ Z+ . for instance). lemma 4 gives that it is normal.11. Let |G| = pn and let H ≤ G be proper. Prove that N ∩ Z = {e}.e. Let N G be non-trivial. By 2. ak be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. Nn /Nn−1 has order p. we have H < Z. H G. i. . so the claim is proven. H ≤ N (H). . consider a proper subgroup H and let Z = Z(G) be the center of G. Induct on the exponent n. in group of orders pm . the result holds because the only non-trivial subgroup is {e}. then. Nn = G has a subgroup Nn−1 of order pn−1 . Therefore there exists x ∈ G\H such that (xZ)(hZ)(xZ)−1 ∈ φ(H) for all h ∈ H. . As this subgroup has index p. Let |G| = pn and let H ≤ G have order pn−1 .H 2. H 2.11. But then for each h ∈ H there exists h1 ∈ H such that xhx−1 Z = h1 Z. which is normalized by all of G. φ(H) is properly contained in its normalizer N (φ(H)) ≤ G/Z. Note that φ(H) < G/H properly. this is the statement that a proper subgroup of a p-group is properly contained in its normalizer. that the conjugacy classes C(ai ) have either C(ai ) ⊂ N or C(ai ) ∩ N = {e}.7. the group G/Z is a p-group of order strictly less than pn .9 – Let n ∈ Z+ . Therefore assume that. which is non-trivial because G is a p-group. consider the map φ : G → G/Z given by φ(g) = gZ. As H ≤ N (H). . Prove that N (H) = H. .11.11* – Let n ∈ Z+ . ak ∈ N . then gh−1 ∈ Z ≤ H implies that g ∈ H. .6b. . . H properly while Z. As the center is always a normal subgroup.11. ordered such that a1 . Because |Z| > 1. . . we construct Ni−1 from Ni by taking a normal subgroup of order pi−1 from the order pi group Ni . This map is a well-deﬁned homomorphism (see 2. .7. m < n. In the group G of order pn . Let a1 . as was argued in 2. am } so that the ﬁrst r represent conjugacy classes of size 1 . Furthermore. Ni+1 and Ni+1 /Ni is abelian. Thus we have an x ∈ N (H) while 1 x ∈ H.10 – Let n ∈ Z+ . If Z is not a subgroup of H. all subgroups are properly contained in their normalizers. Prove that if |G| = pn then there exists r ∈ Z and subgroups Ni . Iterating.

b ∈ G. y ∈ G then xax−1 = yay −1 so that x−1 yay −1 x = a. this proves that f is a bijection. every term in the sum is divisible by p. Consider the action of G on N by conjugation. Consider the commutator aba−1 b−1 . s ∈ Z. s ∈ Z with aZ = xr Z and bZ = xs Z. f is injective: by almost the same argument. Say Inn(G) = φx where φx (g) = xgx−1 .11. then x−1 y ∈ N (a) whence x−1 yay −1 x = a. We can cast this as x x φa (b)b−1 = φr (b)b−1 = xr bx−r b−1 . Therefore ab = ba for arbitrary a.e. so |C(a)| = |G|/|N (a)|. Then there exist r. ψ : G → Aut(N ) given by ψ(g) = σg where σg (x) = gxg −1 .13 – If |G| = 15. |ψ(G)| divides |Aut(N )| = 4. Once again. N = f G because [G : N ] = 3 is the smallest prime dividing 15. Therefore a = xr z1 and b = xs z2 for some z1 . the equivalence |C(a)| = |G|/|N (a)| may be proven by considering the map f : G/N (a) → C(a) given by f (xN (a)) = xax−1 . Alternately. f is well-deﬁned: if xN (a) = yN (a) for x. ψ is a homomorphism: ψ(gh)(x) = σgh = ghxh−1 g −1 = (ψ(g) ◦ ψ(h))(x). G/Z ∼ Inn(G). If N = x for some x ∈ N . prove that G is cyclic. Also. prove that G is abelian. |N (ai )| |G| |N (ai )| As |N | < pn . there exists f ∈ G with order 5.19. y ∈ G. so 4 choices of where to send x and hence |Aut(N )| = 4. Now.d. z2 ∈ Z.15. Because N is cyclic. Now ab = xr z1 xs z2 = x(r+s) z1 z2 while ba = xs z2 xr z1 = x(r+s) z1 z2 by virtue of z1 and z2 being in the center. by theorem 2. so f (xN (a)) = f (yN (a)). By lemma 2. This gives that yay −1 = xax−1 . we can easily count the order of Aut(N ). By 2. we have φa = φr and φb = φs . H 2. rewrite this as xr φb (x−r ) = xr φs (x−r ) = xr xs x−r x−s = e. so G is abelian. as desired. b ∈ G. b ∈ G. Notice that N must be normal so that G may act on it by conjugation. let G/Z = xZ and let a. if f (xN (a)) = f (yN (a)) for x. x x Therefore aba−1 b−1 = e for arbitrary a. and that choice of η(x) uniquely determines the entire map because η(xn ) = η(x)n suﬃces to compute the image of any other element xn ∈ N . b ∈ G so G is abelian. |ψ(G)| divides |G| = 15 (in . For = some r. By Cauchy’s theorem. As an aside. then every automorphism η ∈ Aut(N ) sends x to another generator. by Lagrange’s theorem. By lemma 4.(i.5. Then we can write the class equation for G ∩ N = N as m m m |N | = i=1 |C(ai ) ∩ N | = |N ∩ Z| + i=r |C(ai )| = |N ∩ Z| + i=r |G| . or xN (a) = yN (a). Now let a. elements in N ∩ Z) and the latter m − r represent classes of size larger than 1. Because f is a map between ﬁnite sets. hence |N ∩ Z| = |N | − implying that N ∩ Z is non-trivial. H 2. is divisible by p. there are φ(5) = 4 (Euler totient function) generators of N .12 – If G/Z is cyclic.11.

By 2. H 2. Therefore |ψ(G)| = 1. and the dihedral group has come up in Herstein’s problems already. By Lagrange’s theorem.7. groups of order 4 and 7 are both necessarily abelian.21. By Cauchy’s theorem. so tf = f t. prove that G is abelian.11.15 – If |G| = 28 and G contains a normal subgroup F of order 4. so. We see that ((14)(23))2 = (1234)4 = e and (14)(23)(1234) = (123) = (4321)(14)(23) so that x = (14)(23) and y = (1234) does provide a set of generators for an order 8 subgroup of S4 isomorphic to D4 .8. (123). f ∈ F . and then one looks for an order 2 (i. G contains a 3-Sylow subgroup H of order 27.6. so we’ll need a non-cyclic group generated by at least 2 elements. Because this is conjugation by x. a subgroup of order 7 in G must be normal because |G| = 28 24 = 4!. prove that G has a normal subgroup of order 7. transposition or product of two disjoint transpositions) x such that xyx = y −1 = (4321). and that 8 12 = |A4 |. There is a very limited list of possibilities for a group of order 8. As an aside. Let t ∈ G be an element of order 3 (guaranteed to exist by Cauchy’s theorem). 5) = 15. so SF has order |S||F |/|S ∩ F | = 28 and therefore SF = G.12. prove that G has a normal subgroup of order 9 or 27.12 gives that sf = f s for all s ∈ S.2 – If |G| = 108 = 22 · 33 .1 – Let G = S4 . y | x2 = y 4 = e and xy = y −1 x .11. G = tf is cyclic. Then consider g1 = s1 f1 ∈ G and g2 = s2 f2 ∈ G. H 2.14 – If |G| = 28.particular. Then tf t−1 = f because ψ(t) = id. H 2. As deﬁned in 2. Then trying to ﬁnd generators for D4 is fairly easy. so a 3-Sylow subgroup has order 3 while a 2-Sylow subgroup has order 8. Therefore x is a normal subgroup of G with order 7. Furthermore. coming up with the 3-Sylow subgroup is somewhat non-trivial. (213)}. By lemma 2. A 3-Sylow ∼ subgroup is (123) = {e.14. |ψ(G)| · | ker ψ| = |G|). A 2-Sylow subgroup is (1234). |G| = 24 = 23 · 3. By Sylow’s theorem. 2. Other choices of x and y can be made. so the 3-Sylow subgroup must contain an odd permutation. Some things worth noticing at the outset are that S4 has no elements of order 8. S ∩ F = {e}.11. Exhibit a 2-Sylow subgroup and a 3-Sylow subgroup of G. An order 4 pick for y might as well be (1234). we immediately see that x has to be (14)(23) for this choice of y. a presentation of D4 is x.e.e.12. Now we see that tf has order lcm(3. Let G act by left multiplication on . We have g1 g2 = s1 f1 s2 f2 = s2 f2 s1 f1 = g2 g1 and hence G is abelian. i. Because F is normal by assumption. in fact. (14)(23) = D4 . there exists x ∈ G with order 7. there exists S G with |S| = 7. H 2. ker ψ = G so that the inner automorphism for every g ∈ G ﬁxes every element of N .

1 – Let G be ﬁnite and abelian with G = {g1 . We must have. where every one of gi (3 ≤ i ≤ n) is paired oﬀ with its inverse. 108) = 12.d. Additionally. If we put a ∈ H. then g1 · · · gn = ey(g3 · · · gn ) = y. (d) Consider the multiplicative group Z× modulo p. for each 1 ≤ i ≤ r. Hence the product gr+1 · · · gn reduces to the identity e. for 1 ≤ i ≤ r. (c) If G has exactly one element y of order 2. 12}. we see that this can only be satisﬁed if a + 1 = p. By virtue of being a kernel. it follows that (p − 1)! ≡ (p − 1) p mod p ≡ −1 mod p.S. then. Now we have g1 · · · gr gr+1 · · · gn = (g1 · · · gr )(gr+1 · · · gn ) = g1 · · · gr 2 and (g1 · · · gn )2 = (g1 · · · gr )2 = e because. for r < i ≤ n. 36. 4. as the only possible values of |φ(G)| are {1. prove that (p − 1)! ≡ −1 mod p. (c) If G contains one element g2 = y of order 2. we must have that | ker φ| divides 27 = |H|. we have ker φ G. (d) If p ∈ Z is prime. 54. that is. so the result is proven.d (φ(G) = G/ ker φ). and we are free to always put g1 = e. gn }. (a) Prove that g1 g2 · · · gn has order 1 or 2. r ≥ 1. Equivalently. we see that ker φ ≤ H. it must divide at least one factor of the left hand side. Therefore |φ(G)| divides their greatest common divisor (24. As p is a prime dividing the right hand side. (Wilson’s theorem) −1 −1 (a) Number the group elements so that. . then we see that kH = H. . abelian group and the p product of all of its elements is 1 · 2 · · · (p − 1) = (p − 1)!. Now for every element gi with r < i ≤ n. there must exist k ∈ Z such that a2 − 1 = (a + 1)(a − 1) = kp. Then we seek elements of order 2. if a = p − 1. Because e−1 = e. 6. 9}. . 18.G/H. Therefore a = p − 1 is the unique element in Z× of order 2. Consider the kernel of the action φ. Therefore g1 · · · gn has order 1 or 2. These subgroups will always be normal in G. Therefore the only acceptable cases are | ker φ| = 27 and | ker φ| = 9. 3. Recalling that ker φ ≤ H. gi = gi . 2. they satisfy gi = gi . Because a is restricted to the range 1 ≤ a ≤ p − 1. with φ : G → S(G/H) given by (φ(g))(aH) = gaH. we have gi = e. ∼ that |φ(G)| divides 24 = |S4 | by Lagrange and that |φ(G)| divides 108 = |G| by theorem 2. its −1 inverse gi is another gj with r < j ≤ n. the only possible values of | ker φ| are {108. and. prove that y = g1 g2 · · · gn . By (c). This map is a homomorphism into S(G/H) ∼ S4 : = (φ(g1 g2 ))(aH) = g1 g2 aH = g1 (g2 aH) = (φ(g1 ) ◦ φ(g2 ))(aH) so φ(g1 g2 ) = φ(g1 )φ(g2 ). Now. We note that this is a ﬁnite. which is the statement that k ∈ H. Supplementary Problems H 2. 27. Now return to the speciﬁcs of this problem. . because if k ∈ ker φ then kaH = aH for all a ∈ G. a ∈ Z× p such that a2 ≡ 1 mod p. We may compute | ker φ| = |G|/|φ(G)| by theorem 2. .e. i.

2 1 2 + 1 3 +···+ 1 p−1 = a/b with a. Missing. prove that p | a. . Prove that p | a. b ∈ Z.H 2.2 – Let p ∈ Z be an odd prime such that 1 + If p > 3.S.

- Topics_in_Algebra--Herstein
- Topics in Algebra, I N Herstein - Ginn and Co[1]
- group_theory Herstein Sol.pdf
- [I. N. Herstein] Topics in Algebra, 2nd Edition (1(Bookos.org)
- Herstein Abstract Algebra Student's Solution Manual
- Abstract Algebra (Herstein 3rd Ed)
- Abstract Algebra I. N. Herstein (Solution).
- Abstract Algebra I. N. Herstein p265
- Her Stein
- Grupos Answer 1
- Herstein Sols
- Solution's Manual Abstract Algebra Rotman
- Abstract Algebra Solutions
- Dummit Solutions
- Problems and Solutions to Abstract Algebra (Beachy, Blair)
- Solutions to Abstract Algebra - Chapter 1 (Dummit and Foote, 3e)
- Spivak Calculus of Manifolds Solutions
- Solutions to Modern Algebra (Durbin, 5E)
- Artin Algebra
- Solutions to Abstract Algebra - Chapter 2 (Dummit and Foote, 3e)
- Royden Real Analysis Solutions
- Solucionario Herstein.pdf
- rudin w ,solution manual of principles of mathematical analysis
- Exercício 24 - Arnaldo García e Yves Lequain
- Solutions to Rudin Principles of Mathematical Analysis
- J.rotman. .a.first.course.in.Abstract.algebra
- Learning Modern Algebra
- Dummit and Foote - Abstract Algebra
- solutions-simmons-introduction-to-topology
- herstein_topics_solns

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd