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**THE FIRST LAW
**

APPLIED TO

STEADY FLOW PROCESSES

It is not the sun to overtake the moon, nor doth the night outstrip

the day. They ﬂoat each in an orbit.

− The Holy Qur-¯an

In many engineering applications, devices such as turbines, pumps, com-

pressors, heat exchangers and boilers are operated under steady ﬂow con-

ditions for long periods of time. A steady ﬂow process is a process in which

matter and energy ﬂow in and out of an open system at steady rates. More-

over, an open system undergoing a steady ﬂow process does not experience

any change in the mass and energy of the system. Application of the ﬁrst

law of thermodynamics to steady ﬂow processes is discussed in this chapter.

212 Chapter 10

10.1 What is Steady?

The term steady implies no change with time. We say that a person

is running at a steady speed of 5 km per hour, as shown in Figure 10.1, if

the speed does not change with time.

`

_¸

¸ ¸

, ,

E

5 km per hour

Figure 10.1 A person running at a steady speed of 5 km per hour.

10.2 What is a Steady Flow Process?

A steady ﬂow process is one in which matter and energy ﬂow steadily

in and out of an open system. In a steady ﬂow process, the properties of

the ﬂow remain unchanged with time, that is, the properties are frozen in

time. But, the properties need not be the same in all points of the ﬂow.

It is very common for a beginner to confuse the term steady with the

term equilibrium. But, they are not the same. When a system is at a

steady state, the properties at any point in the system are steady in time,

but may vary from one point to another point. The temperature at the inlet,

for example, may diﬀer from that at the outlet. But, each temperature,

whatever its value, remains constant in time in a steady ﬂow process.

When a system is at an equilibrium state, the properties are steady in

time and uniform in space. By properties being uniform in space, we mean

that a property, such as pressure, has the same value at each and every

point in the system.

An example of steady ﬂow of water through a pipe is shown in Figure

10.2. Pressure measurements taken along the pipe at two diﬀerent times

The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 213

of a day, shown in the ﬁgure, remain the same since the ﬂow is steady.

But, observe that the values of pressure vary along the pipe illustrating the

nonuniform nature of the steady ﬂow.

c c c

2.3 bar 2.0 bar 1.7 bar

E

water ﬂows at a

(b) measurements taken at 2.00 pm

steady rate of 0.3 kg/s

Figure 10.2 An example of steady ﬂow.

c

1.4 bar

c

1.1 bar

c c c

2.3 bar 2.0 bar 1.7 bar

E

water ﬂows at a

(a) measurements taken at 10.00 am

steady rate of 0.3 kg/s

c

1.4 bar

c

1.1 bar

10.3 Characteristics of a

Steady Flow Process

A steady ﬂow is one that remains unchanged with time, and therefore

a steady ﬂow has the following characteristics:

• Characteristic 1:

No property at any given location within the system boundary changes

with time. That also means, during an entire steady ﬂow process, the

total volume V

s

of the system remains a constant, the total mass m

s

214 Chapter 10

of the system remains a constant, and that the total energy content

E

s

of the system remains a constant.

• Characteristic 2:

Since the system remains unchanged with time during a steady ﬂow

process, the system boundary also remains the same.

• Characteristic 3:

No property at an inlet or at an exit to the open system changes

with time. That means that during a steady ﬂow process, the mass

ﬂow rate, the energy ﬂow rate, pressure, temperature, speciﬁc (or

molar) volume, speciﬁc (or molar) internal energy, speciﬁc (or molar)

enthalpy, and the velocity of ﬂow at an inlet or at an exit remain

constant.

• Characteristic 4:

Rates at which heat and work are transferred across the boundary of

the system remain unchanged.

10.4 Mass Balance for a

Steady Flow Process

Since a steady ﬂow process can be considered as a special process expe-

rienced by the open system discussed in Chapter 9, we may start from the

mass balance for open systems, which is given by (9.1). Characteristic 1 of

the steady ﬂow process is that the mass of the open system experiencing

a steady ﬂow process remains constant. This is achieved if the mass ﬂow

rate at the inlet equals the mass ﬂow rate at the exit. Therefore, (9.1)

reduces to

˙ m

i

= ˙ m

e

(10.1)

where the subscript i denotes the inlet and the subscript e denotes the exit.

The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 215

10.5 Energy Balance for a

Steady Flow Process

Since a steady ﬂow process can be considered as a special process ex-

perienced by the open system discussed in Chapter 9, let us start with

(9.8) which is the energy balance applicable to open systems. According

to Characteristic 1 of the steady ﬂow process, the total energy content E

s

of the system remains constant during the process. Therefore

dE

s

dt

= 0

According to Characteristic 2 of the steady ﬂow process, the boundary

remains unchanged with time, so that no boundary work is done during a

steady ﬂow process, and therefore

(

˙

W

boundary

)

in

= 0

According to Characteristic 3, all properties at the inlet and the exit

of the system remain unchanged with time. Therefore, h, c and z are

constants.

Applying all the above characteristics of a steady ﬂow process to (9.8),

we get

˙

Q

in

+ (

˙

W

shaft

)

in

+

_

˙ mh + ˙ m

c

2

2

+ ˙ mgz

_

i

−

_

˙ mh + ˙ m

c

2

2

+ ˙ mgz

_

e

= 0

which may be organised as

˙

Q

in

+ (

˙

W

s

)

in

= ˙ m

e

_

h

e

+

c

2

e

2

+ gz

e

_

. ¸¸ .

for exit

− ˙ m

i

_

h

i

+

c

2

i

2

+ gz

i

_

. ¸¸ .

for inlet

(10.2)

where W

s

is shaft work, and the subscripts i and e denotes the inlet and

exit, respectively.

216 Chapter 10

It is important to note that each of the rates in (10.2) is a constant for

a steady ﬂow process as pointed out in Characteristics 3 and 4 of steady

ﬂow processes.

Equation (10.1) states that ˙ m

i

is the same as ˙ m

e

. Let us represent

these two equal mass ﬂow rates by the symbol ˙ m, which can be considered

as the constant mass ﬂow rate through the steady ﬂow process. Using the

above in (10.2), we get the energy balance, that is the ﬁrst law of thermo-

dynamics applied to a steady ﬂow process with a single inlet and a single

exit, as

˙

Q

in

+ (

˙

W

s

)

in

= ˙ m

_

h

e

−h

i

+

c

2

e

−c

2

i

2

+ g (z

e

−z

i

]

_

(10.3)

which is the steady ﬂow energy equation (abbreviated to SFEE) ap-

plicable to a single-stream steady ﬂow process. The rate at which heat

enters the system is constant at

˙

Q

in

. The rate at which shaft work enters

the system is constant at (

˙

W

s

)

in

. The mass ﬂow rates of the single stream

entering and leaving the system are constant at ˙ m. The speciﬁc enthalpy

of the stream at the inlet, the velocity of the stream at the inlet and the

elevation of the inlet are constant at h

i

, c

i

, and z

i

, respectively, and those

at the exit are constant at h

e

, c

e

, and z

e

, respectively. The acceleration

due to gravity is denoted by g.

For a multiple-stream steady ﬂow process, that is a system with several

inlets and exits for mass to ﬂow, the steady ﬂow energy equation (SFEE)

becomes

˙

Q

in

+ (

˙

W

s

)

in

=

_

˙ m

e1

_

h

e1

+

c

2

e1

2

+ gz

e1

__

+

_

˙ m

e2

_

h

e2

+

c

2

e2

2

+ gz

e2

__

+· · ·

−

_

˙ m

i1

_

h

i1

+

c

2

i1

2

+ gz

i1

__

−

_

˙ m

i2

_

h

i2

+

c

2

i2

2

+ gz

i2

__

−· · ·(10.4)

The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 217

which is solved together with the mass balance for a multiple-stream steady

ﬂow process,

˙ m

e1

+ ˙ m

e1

+· · · = ˙ m

i1

+ ˙ m

i2

+· · · (10.5)

where the subscripts e1, e2, · · · denote exit 1, exit 2, and so on, respec-

tively, and the subscripts i1, i2, · · · denote inlet 1, inlet 2, and so on,

respectively.

10.6 Steady Flow Engineering Devices

Many engineering devices operate essentially under unchanged condi-

tions for long periods. For example, the industrial appliances such as tur-

bines, compressors, heat exchangers and pumps may operate nonstop at

steady state for months before they are shut down for maintenance. In this

section, we will deal with devices such as nozzles, turbines, compressors,

heat exchangers, boilers, and condensers. The emphasis will, however, be

on the overall functions of the devices, and the steady ﬂow energy equation

will be applied to these devices treating them more or less like black boxes.

Nozzles & Diﬀusers

Nozzles and diﬀusers are properly shaped ducts which are used to in-

crease or decrease the speed of the ﬂuid ﬂowing through it. Schematics of

a typical nozzle and a typical diﬀuser are shown in Figure 10.3. Nozzles are

used for various applications such as to increase the speed of water through

a garden hose, and to increase the speed of the gases leaving the jet engine

or rocket. Diﬀusers are used to slow down a ﬂuid ﬂowing at high speeds,

such as at the entrance of a jet engine.

Since no shaft work is involved in a nozzle or a diﬀuser, and since the

potential energy diﬀerence across a nozzle or a diﬀuser is usually negligible,

the steady ﬂow energy equation (10.3) for ﬂow through a nozzle or a diﬀuser

becomes

˙

Q

in

= ˙ m

_

h

e

−h

i

+

c

2

e

−c

2

i

2

_

(10.6)

218 Chapter 10

E E

nozzle

Figure 10.3 Schematics of a nozzle and a diﬀuser.

i e

E E

diﬀuser

i e

The ﬂow through nozzles and diﬀusers are often considered adiabatic,

so that the rate of heat transfer is neglected. Therefore (10.6) reduces to

c

2

e

−c

2

i

2

= h

i

−h

e

(10.7)

for adiabatic nozzles and diﬀusers. It can be clearly seen in (10.7) that

an increase in the speed of the ﬂow is accompanied by a decrease in its

enthalpy, as in the case of ﬂow through an adiabatic nozzle. And, a decrease

in the speed of the ﬂow is accompanied by an increase in its enthalpy, as

in the case of ﬂow through an adiabatic diﬀuser.

Turbines

A turbine is a device with rows of blades mounted on a shaft which

could be rotated about its axis (see Figure 1.1). In some water turbines

used in hydroelectric power stations, water at high velocity is directed at

the blades of the turbine to set the turbine shaft in rotation. The work

delivered by the rotating shaft drives an electric generator to produce elec-

trical energy. In steam turbines, steam at high pressure and temperature

enters a turbine, sets the turbine shaft in rotation, and leaves at low pres-

sure and temperature. In gas turbines, gaseous products of combustion

at high pressure and temperature set the turbine shaft in rotation. The

rotating shaft of a turbine is not always used for electric power generation.

It is also an essential part of a jet engine in an aircraft which generates the

thrust required to propel the aircraft. The schematic of a turbine is shown

in Figure 10.4.

The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 219

E

E

Figure 10.4 Schematic of a turbine.

i

e

Since the ﬂuid ﬂowing through a turbine usually experiences negligible

change in elevation, the potential energy term is neglected. Work always

leaves the turbine, and therefore the (

˙

W

s

)

in

term in (10.3) is negative. The

steady ﬂow energy equation for ﬂow through a turbine may therefore be

written as

˙

Q

in

−(

˙

W

s

)

out

= ˙ m

_

h

e

−h

i

+

c

2

e

−c

2

i

2

_

(10.8)

The ﬂuid velocities encountered in most turbines are large, and the

ﬂuid experiences a signiﬁcant change in its kinetic energy. However, if this

change is small compared to the change in enthalpy then the change in

kinetic energy may be neglected. If the ﬂuid ﬂowing through the turbine

undergoes an adiabatic process, which is usually the case, then

˙

Q

in

= 0.

Under such conditions, (10.8) reduces to

(

˙

W

s

)

out

= ˙ m(h

i

−h

e

) (10.9)

which clearly shows that the shaft work delivered by an adiabatic turbine is

derived from the enthalpy loss by the ﬂuid ﬂowing through the turbine.

Compressors

A compressor is a device used to increase the pressure of a gas ﬂowing

through it. The rotating type compressor functions in a manner opposite

to a turbine. To rotate the shaft of a compressor, work must be supplied

from an external source such as a rotating turbine shaft. The blades that

are mounted on the shaft of the compressor are so shaped that, when

the compressor shaft rotates, the pressure of the ﬂuid ﬂowing through the

220 Chapter 10

compressor increases. The rotating type compressors are used to raise the

pressure of the air ﬂowing through it in the electricity generation plants and

in the jet engines. In a reciprocating type compressor, a piston moves within

the cylinder, and the work needed to move the piston is generally supplied

by the electricity obtained from a wall socket. Household refrigerators use

the reciprocating type of compressors to raise the pressure of the refrigerant

ﬂowing through them. A schematic of a compressor is shown in Figure 10.5.

E

E

Figure 10.5 Schematic of a compressor.

i

e

The potential energy diﬀerence across a compressor is usually neglected,

and the steady ﬂow energy equation for ﬂow through it becomes

˙

Q

in

+ (

˙

W

s

)

in

= ˙ m

_

h

e

−h

i

+

c

2

e

−c

2

i

2

_

(10.10)

A pump works like a compressor except that it handles liquids instead

of gases. Fans and blowers are compressors which impart a very small rise

in the pressure of the ﬂuid ﬂowing through them, and are used mainly to

circulate air. Equation (10.10) may be used to describe the ﬂows through

pumps, fans and blowers.

The velocities involved in these devices are usually small to cause a

signiﬁcant change in kinetic energy, and often the change in kinetic energy

term is neglected. If the compressor, pump, fan or blower is operated under

adiabatic conditions, then

˙

Q

in

= 0.

Under such conditions, (10.10) reduces to

(

˙

W

s

)

in

= ˙ m(h

e

−h

i

) (10.11)

which clearly shows that the shaft work provided to an adiabatic compressor,

pump, fan or blower is used to increase the enthalpy of the ﬂuid ﬂowing

through.

The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 221

Throttling Valves

A throttling valve is a device used to cause a pressure drop in a ﬂowing

ﬂuid. It does not involve any work. The drop in pressure is attained by

placing an obstacle such as a partially open valve, porous plug or a capillary

tube in the path of the ﬂowing ﬂuid. The pressure drop in the ﬂuid is usu-

ally accompanied by a drop in temperature, and for that reason throttling

devices are commonly used in refrigeration and air-conditioning applica-

tions where a drop in the temperature of the working ﬂuid is essential. A

schematic of a throttling valve is shown in Figure 10.6.

Figure 10.6 Schematic of a throttling valve.

i e

Throttling valves are compact devices, and the ﬂow through them is

eﬀectively adiabatic. There is no shaft work involved. The change in

potential energy is neglected. The steady ﬂow energy equation applied to

ﬂow through an adiabatic throttling valve becomes

h

e

+

c

2

e

2

= h

i

+

c

2

i

2

(10.12)

Since the kinetic energy in many cases is insigniﬁcant when compared

to the enthalpy, the kinetic energy terms are neglected. So that Equation

(10.12) becomes

h

e

≈ h

i

(10.13)

which shows the enthalpies at the inlet and the exit of a throttling valve

are nearly the same.

If the enthalpy terms in (10.13) are expanded using (u + Pv), we get

u

e

+ P

e

v

e

= u

i

+ P

i

v

i

which means that the summation of internal energy u and the ﬂow work

Pv remains constant in a ﬂow through a throttling valve.

If the ﬂow work, Pv, increases during throttling, then internal energy,

u, will decrease, which often means a decrease in temperature. On the

222 Chapter 10

contrary, if Pv decreases then u will increase, resulting in probable temper-

ature increase. It means that the properties such as P, T and v of the ﬂuid

ﬂowing through the throttling valve may change even though the enthalpy

remains unchanged during throttling.

However, if the behaviour of the working ﬂuid approximates that of an

ideal gas then no change in enthalpy means no change in temperature as

well.

Mixing Chambers

Mixing chamber refers to an arrangement where two or more ﬂuid

streams are mixed to form one single ﬂuid stream as shown in the schematic

in Figure 10.7. Mixing chambers are very common engineering applications

in process industries.

E

E

Figure 10.7 Schematic of a mixing chamber.

E

i1

i2

e

Since a mixing chamber has more than one inlet, we use the steady

ﬂow energy equation given by (10.4) to describe the ﬂow through a mixing

chamber. For the mixing chamber of Figure 10.7 with two inlets and one

exit, (10.4) becomes

˙

Q

in

= ˙ m

e

h

e

−( ˙ m

i1

h

i1

+ ˙ m

i2

h

i2

) (10.14)

Note that there is no shaft work in a mixing chamber, and the changes

in kinetic and potential energies of the streams are usually neglected.

For the conservation of mass across the mixing chamber of Figure 10.7,

we can write

˙ m

e

= ˙ m

i1

+ ˙ m

i2

The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 223

which transforms (10.14) to

˙

Q

in

= ˙ m

i1

(h

e

−h

i1

) + ˙ m

i2

(h

e

−h

i2

) (10.15)

Mixing chambers are usually well insulated, so that the process can be

treated as adiabatic. For an adiabatic mixing chamber, (10.15) reduces to

˙ m

i1

(h

e

−h

i1

) = ˙ m

i2

(h

i2

−h

e

) (10.16)

Heat Exchangers

In the industries, there is often a need to cool a hot ﬂuid stream before

it is let out into the environment. The heat removed from cooling of a hot

ﬂuid can be used to heat another ﬂuid that has to be heated up. This can

be achieved in a heat exchanger, which in general is a device where a hot

ﬂuid stream exchanges heat with a cold ﬂuid stream without mixing with

each other. The simplest type is the double-pipe heat exchanger which has

two concentric pipes of diﬀerent diameters. One ﬂuid ﬂows in the inner pipe

and the other in the annular space between the two pipes. The schematic

of a double-pipe heat exchanger is shown in Figure 10.8.

Figure 10.8 Schematic of a double-pipe heat exchanger.

' ' '

c

E

E

c

Bi Be

Ai

A

e

Since a heat exchanger has two inlets and two exits, we use (10.4).

There is no work transfer, and the changes in kinetic and potential energies

are neglected. Therefore, (10.4) reduces to

˙

Q

in

= [ ˙ m

Ae

h

Ae

+ ˙ m

Be

h

Be

] −[ ˙ m

Ai

h

Ai

+ ˙ m

Bi

h

Bi

] (10.17)

Since the mass ﬂow rate of ﬂuid A is the same at the inlet and at the

exit, ˙ m

Ae

= ˙ m

Ai

, which may be represented by ˙ m

A

. Since the mass ﬂow

224 Chapter 10

rate of ﬂuid B is the same at the inlet and at the exit, ˙ m

Be

= ˙ m

Bi

, which

may be represented by ˙ m

B

Thus, (10.17) becomes

˙

Q

in

= ˙ m

A

[h

Ae

−h

Ai

] + ˙ m

B

[h

Be

−h

Bi

] (10.18)

Where a heat exchanger is insulated, it is adiabatic and the heat transfer

term may be neglected. So that (10.18) reduces to

˙ m

fluid A

˙ m

fluid B

=

(h

e

−h

i

)

fluid B

(h

i

−h

e

)

fluid A

(10.19)

Boilers and Condensers

A liquid is converted into vapour in a boiler by supplying heat to it.

A boiler, for example, is used to heat water at room temperature to its

boiling temperature so that water may be converted into steam. Heat may

be supplied to the boiler by burning a fuel in the boiler. In a condenser, a

vapour is condensed to liquid by removing heat from it. Schematics of a

boiler and a condenser are shown in Figure 10.9.

_¸

heat in

vapour out

liquid in

T

E

boiler

Figure 10.9 Schematics of a boiler and a condenser.

_¸

heat out

vapour in

liquid out

c

'

condenser

There is no shaft work involved in a boiler or a condenser. The potential

and kinetic changes across these devices are negligible in comparison to

The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 225

the change in enthalpy. So that the steady ﬂow energy equation for ﬂow

through a boiler becomes

˙

Q

in

= ˙ m(h

e

−h

i

) (10.20)

and the steady ﬂow energy equation for ﬂow through a condenser be-

comes

˙

Q

out

= ˙ m(h

i

−h

e

) (10.21)

10.7 Worked Examples

Example 10.1

Gases produced during the combustion of a

fuel-air mixture, enter a nozzle at 200 kPa, 150

◦

C and 20 m/s and leave

the nozzle at 100 kPa and 100

◦

C. The exit area of the nozzle is 0.03 m

2

.

Assume that these gases behave like an ideal gas with C

p

= 1.15 kJ/kg · K

and γ = 1.3, and that the ﬂow of gases through the nozzle is steady and

adiabatic. Determine (i) the exit velocity and (ii) the mass ﬂow rate of the

gases.

Solution to Example 10.1

(i) Determination of the exit velocity

The given ﬂow may be satisfactorily described by (10.7). Since the behaviour

of the gases is approximated to that of an ideal gas with constant C

p

, (10.7)

can be rewritten as

c

2

e

−c

2

i

2

= C

p

(T

i

−T

e

) (10.22)

Substituting the values given in the problem statement in (10.22), we get

c

2

e

2

=

20

2

2

_

m

s

_

2

+

_

1.15

kJ

kg · K

_

× (423 K −373 K)

= 200

_

m

s

_

2

+ 57.5

_

kJ

kg

_

.

226 Chapter 10

We cannot add a quantity in kJ/kg to a quantity in (m/s)

2

. But, we can add

a quantity in J/kg to a quantity in (m/s)

2

since they are equivalent as shown

below:

J

kg

=

N· m

kg

=

kg · m

s

2

m

kg

=

_

m

s

_

2

Therefore,

c

e

=

¸

2 ×

_

200

_

m

s

_

2

+ 57.5 ×1000

_

J

kg

__

= 339.7 m/s

Note that the speed of the gases ﬂowing through the nozzle is increased

from 20 m/s to 339.7 m/s, which is achieved at the cost of the reduction in the

gas pressure from 200 kPa to 100 kPa.

(ii) Determination of the mass ﬂow rate of the gases

Assume that the gas ﬂows perpendicular to a cross sectional area A at a

uniform speed c and at a uniform density ρ. The mass ﬂow rate of the gases

through the given cross-section is then

˙ m = Aρ c = Ac/v (10.23)

where v is the speciﬁc volume.

Since we assume ideal gas behaviour, the ideal gas equation of state may be

used to express v as

v =

RT

P

Thus, the mass ﬂow rate of an ideal gas through the cross-sectional area A

can be written as

˙ m =

Ac P

RT

(10.24)

As we know the exit area, exit pressure, exit velocity and exit temperature,

and the gas constant R, calculated using R = (γ −1) C

p

/γ = 0.265 kJ/kg · K,

˙ m =

(0.03 m

2

) ×(339.7 m/s) ×(100 kPa)

(0.265 kJ/kg · K) ×(373 K)

= 10.31 kg/s

The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 227

Example 10.2

Rework Example 10.1 assuming that the

expansion of the gases ﬂowing through the nozzle from 200 kPa, 150

◦

C

and 20 m/s at the inlet to 100 kPa at the exit takes place quasistatically.

Solution to Example 10.2

(i) Determination of the exit velocity

Since the ﬂow through the nozzle is assumed to be a quasistatic adiabatic

ﬂow of an ideal gas, P and T of the ﬂow can be related using (7.31), which

gives

T

e

= T

i

_

P

e

P

i

_

(γ−1)/γ

= 423 K ×

_

100

200

_

(1.3−1)/1.3

= 360.5 K

Substituting the values of c

i

, T

i

and T

e

in (10.22), we get

c

e

=

¸

2 ×

_

200

_

m

s

_

2

+ 1.15 × (423 −360.5) ×1000

_

J

kg

__

= 379.7 m/s

Note that the speed of the gases ﬂowing through the nozzle, expanding from

200 kPa to 100 kPa, is increased from 20 m/s to 379.7 m/s when the ﬂow is

assumed to be quasistatic.

(ii) Determination of the mass ﬂow rate of the gases

The mass ﬂow rate of the gases through the nozzle is given by

˙ m =

(0.03 m

2

) ×(379.7 m/s) ×(100 kPa)

(0.265 kJ/kg · K) ×(360.5 K)

= 11.92 kg/s

Student: Teacher, for an expansion or a compression process to be quasistatic,

it must take place under fully restrained condition. Is that correct?

Teacher: Yes, that is correct.

228 Chapter 10

Student: It is stated in Example 10.2 that the expansion of the ﬂow through

the nozzle is assumed to be quasistatic. How could that be when there is

nothing to restrain the expansion of the gases ﬂowing through the nozzle?

Teacher: Yes, you are right about that. The ﬂow through a nozzle is far from

quasistatic. However, we assume the ﬂow to be quasistatic in order to

determine the maximum possible speed that could be attained by the

gases ﬂowing through the nozzle. Observe that the speed of the gases

at the exit is 379.7 m/s under quasistatic adiabatic condition, which sets

the maximum possible speed attainable by the gases ﬂowing through the

nozzle under the same inlet conditions and exit pressure.

Student: Oh... I see.

Teacher: It would be interesting to take look at the ratio between the actual

kinetic energy change per kg of ﬂow and the ideal kinetic energy change

per kg of ﬂow achievable with quasistatic adiabatic ﬂow under the same

pressure diﬀerence between the inlet and the outlet of the nozzle and the

same inlet temperature.

The required ratio =

[(c

2

e

−c

2

i

)/2]

actual

[(c

2

e

−c

2

i

)/2]

ideal

=

(339.7

2

−20

2

)

(379.7

2

−20

2

)

= 0.8

That is, the nozzle of Example 10.1 achieves only about 80% of the ki-

netic energy increase per kg of ﬂow achievable under ideal ﬂow conditions.

This way we determine the eﬃciency at which a nozzle operates.

Student: Okay, I see now why the ﬂow is assumed to be quasistatic in Ex-

ample 10.2. However, I have a question. How do you know that a

quasistatic ﬂow gives the maximum possible speed attainable by the gas

ﬂow through the nozzle?

Teacher: You are wrong. It is not the quasistatic ﬂow, but the quasistatic

adiabatic ﬂow that gives the maximum possible speed attainable by the

gas ﬂow through the nozzle?

Student: Okay, Teacher. I still have a question. How do you know that a

quasistatic adiabatic ﬂow gives the maximum possible speed attainable by

the gas ﬂow through the nozzle?

The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 229

Teacher: When learning the second law, you will see that it could be proved

that a quasistatic ﬂow sets the limit for the best performance that could

be expected of an engineering device operated under adiabatic conditions.

Example 10.3

Rework Example 10.1 with steam ﬂowing

through the nozzle.

Solution to Example 10.3

(i) The given ﬂow can be described by (10.7), of which h

i

and h

e

are the speciﬁc

enthalpies of the steam at the inlet (2 bar and 150

◦

C) and at the exit (1 bar

and 100

◦

C). From a Steam Table, we ﬁnd that h

i

= 2770 kJ/kg and h

e

= 2676

kJ/kg. Substituting these values in (10.7) along with c

i

= 20 m/s, we get

c

e

=

¸

2 ×

_

200

_

m

s

_

2

+ (2770 −2676) ×1000

_

J

kg

__

= 434 m/s

(ii) The mass ﬂow rate of the steam may be calculated using (10.23) of which

the speciﬁc volume v cannot be expressed as RT/P since the behaviour of

steam may not be approximated by the ideal gas behaviour. However, it is not

a problem because v for steam can be obtained from a Steam Table. We know

the cross-sectional area and the speed of steam at the exit. We can get v at the

exit at 1 bar and 100

◦

C from the Steam Table as 1.696 m

3

/kg. Substituting

these values in (10.23), we get

˙ m =

(0.03 m

2

) ×(434 m/s)

1.696 m

3

/kg

= 7.68 kg/s

230 Chapter 10

Example 10.4

Steam entering a nozzle at 7 bar and 250

◦

C

with a velocity of 10 m/s, leaves it at 3 bar 200

◦

C with a velocity of 262

m/s. Determine the heat lost by the steam ﬂowing through the nozzle.

If the mass ﬂow rate of the steam ﬂowing through the nozzle is 2.5 kg/s,

determine the inlet area of the nozzle.

Solution to Example 10.4

The given ﬂow can be described by (10.6), of which h

i

and h

e

are the speciﬁc

enthalpies of the steam at the inlet (7 bar and 250

◦

C) and at the exit (3 bar

and 200

◦

C). From a Steam Table, we ﬁnd that h

i

= 2955 kJ/kg and h

e

= 2866

kJ/kg. Substituting these values in (10.6) along with c

i

= 10 m/s and c

e

= 262

m/s, we get

˙

Q

in

= 2.5

kg

s

×

_

(2866 −2955) ×1000

_

J

kg

_

+

262

2

−10

2

2

_

m

s

_

2

_

= −136.8 kJ

The heat lost by the steam ﬂowing through the nozzle is 136.8 kJ.

The inlet area of the nozzle can be calculated using (10.23) as follows:

A

i

=

˙ mv

i

c

i

where ˙ m = 2.5 kg/s, c

i

= 10 m/s and v

i

= v at 7 bar and 250

◦

C = 0.3364

m

3

/kg. The inlet area of the nozzle is therefore 0.0841 m

2

.

Example 10.5

Air (C

p

= 1.005 kJ/kg · K; γ = 1.4) enters

an adiabatic diﬀuser at 85 kPa and 250 K at a steady speed of 265 m/s and

leaves it at 15 m/s. Assuming ideal gas behaviour for air with constant

speciﬁc heats, determine the pressure and temperature of the air at the

diﬀuser exit.

The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 231

Solution to Example 10.5

Equation (10.7) applied to the air ﬂow through the adiabatic diﬀuser assum-

ing ideal gas behaviour gives (10.22). Substituting the given numerical values

known from the problem statement in (10.22), we get

T

e

= 250 K −

_

15

2

−265

2

2 ×1005

_

(m/s)

2

J/kg · K

= 284.8 K (10.25)

which gives the temperature of air at the diﬀuser exit.

To determine the pressure at the exit, there is not enough data provided.

However, if we assume quasistatic ﬂow through the diﬀuser then, since the ﬂow

is adiabatic and since ideal gas behaviour is assumed, P and T of the ﬂow can

be related using (7.31), which gives

P

e

= P

i

_

T

e

T

i

_

γ/(γ−1)

= 85 kPa ×

_

284.8

250

_

1.4/(1.4−1)

= 134 kPa

which gives the pressure of air at the diﬀuser exit under ideal conditions.

That is, under quasistatic adiabatic ﬂow conditions, the air ﬂowing through

the diﬀuser is compressed from 85 kPa to 134 kPa, which is achieved at the cost

of the reduction in the air speed from 265 m/s to 15 m/s.

Example 10.6

A mixture of gases enter a nozzle at 2.5 bar

and 237

◦

C with a speed of 20 m/s. The inlet diameter of the nozzle is

0.45 m. We are required to achieve an exit velocity of 340 m/s. Assuming

quasistatic ﬂow conditions through the nozzle, determine (i) the pressure

that should be maintained at the nozzle exit and (ii) the exit diameter.

Take C

p

= 1.15 kJ/kg · K and γ = 1.3 for the gases. Assume ideal gas

behaviour and steady adiabatic ﬂow through the nozzle.

Solution to Example 10.6

(i) Since the ﬂow is assumed to be a quasistatic adiabatic ﬂow of an ideal gas

232 Chapter 10

(7.31) could be used to determine the pressure at the nozzle exit as follows:

P

e

= 2.5 bar ×

_

T

e

510

_

1.3/(1.3−1)

(10.26)

where the exit temperature T

e

is unknown.

For the ﬂow of gases, assumed to behave as an ideal gas, through an adiabatic

nozzle, (10.7) is applicable. Substituting the values known from the problem

statement in (10.7), we get

1.15

_

kJ

kg · K

_

(T

e

−510 K) +

_

340

2

−20

2

2

_

_

m

s

_

2

= 0

which gives T

e

= 460 K.

Substituting this value of T

e

in (10.26) we get P

e

= 1.6 bar. That is, an

exit pressure of about 1.6 bar should be maintained for the combustion gases to

be able to reach the speed of 340 m/s

2

at the exit.

(ii) To determine the exit area, we use (10.24) as follows:

˙ m =

_

Ac P

RT

_

inlet

=

_

Ac P

RT

_

exit

which gives

A

e

= A

i

_

P

i

P

e

__

c

i

c

e

__

T

e

T

i

_

= A

i

_

2.5

1.6

__

20

340

__

460

510

_

= 0.083A

i

Since A

i

= (π/4)(0.45 m)

2

= 0.159 m

2

, the exit area of the nozzle is about

0.013 m

2

, and the exit diameter of the nozzle is about 0.13 m.

Example 10.7

A gas turbine is operated with gases (C

p

=

0.992 kJ/kg · K and γ = 1.29) entering it at 10 bar and 1025

◦

C, and

leaving it at 1 bar and 550

◦

C. Assuming adiabatic ﬂow through the turbine,

calculate the power output of the turbine (in MW) for each kg per second

of gases ﬂowing through the turbine.

If 120 MW of power is to be produced by the turbine, determine the

mass ﬂow rate of gases ﬂowing through the turbine.

The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 233

Solution to Example 10.7

Equation (10.9) can be used to describe the behaviour of the gases ﬂowing

through the adiabatic turbine for which

˙

Q

in

= 0. Since ideal gas behaviour is

assumed (10.9) becomes

(

˙

W

s

)

out

= ˙ mC

p

(T

i

−T

e

)

Substituting the known numerical values in the above equation, we get

(

˙

W

s

)

out

= ˙ m × 0.992

kJ

kg · K

×(1025 −550) K = ˙ m × 471.2 kJ/kg

which gives

(

˙

W

s

)

out

˙ m

= 471.2

kJ

kg

= 471.2

kJ/s

kg/s

= 471.2

kW

kg/s

= 0.4712

MW

kg/s

The power output of the turbine is therefore 0.4712 MW for each kg per

second of gases ﬂowing through the turbine.

Mass ﬂow rate of gases required to produce 120 MW of power is calculated

as follows:

˙ m =

120 MW

0.4712 MW/kg/s

= 254.7 kg/s

Example 10.8

Rework Example 10.7 under quasistatic

adiabatic conditions, where the gases are supplied to the turbine at 10

bar and 1025

◦

C, and they leave it at 1 bar.

Solution to Example 10.8

Ideal gas ﬂow through the turbine under quasistatic adiabatic condition can

be described by (7.31) so that

T

e

= (1025 + 273) K ×

_

1

10

_

(1.29−1)/1.29

= 773.5 K = 500.5

◦

C

234 Chapter 10

Therefore

(

˙

W

s

)

out

˙ m

= 0.992

kJ

kg · K

× (1025 −500.5) K

= 520.3 kJ/kg

which gives that the power produced by the turbine under quasistatic adiabatic

ﬂow condition is 0.5203 MW for each kg per second of gases ﬂowing through

the turbine.

Mass ﬂow rate of gases required to produce 120 MW of power is calculated

as follows:

˙ m =

120 MW

0.5203 MW/kg/s

= 230.6 kg/s

Observe that the turbine operating under quasistatic adiabatic condition

produces more power, as in Example 10.8, which is 0.5203 MW, than the

power produced by the turbine working under adiabatic but non-quasistatic

condition, as in Example 10.7, for the same inlet condition and the exit

pressure. The eﬃciency of the turbine in Example 10.7, can therefore

be calculated as 0.4712/0.5203 = 90.6%.

Also, observe that the mass ﬂow rate of the gas required to produce the

same power output from the turbine operating under the same inlet condi-

tion and the exit pressure is less for the quasistatic adiabatic ﬂow through

the turbine, as in Example 10.8, than for the non-quasistatic adiabatic

ﬂow through the turbine, as in Example 10.7.

Example 10.9

A steam turbine producing 55 MW power is

fed with steam at 70 bar and 500

◦

C. Steam leaves the turbine at 0.08 bar

with a dryness fraction of 0.90. Determine the mass ﬂow rate of steam

through the adiabatic turbine.

The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 235

Solution to Example 10.9

Equation (10.9) can be used to describe the behaviour of steam ﬂowing

through the adiabatic turbine, where (

˙

W

s

)

out

= 55 MW, and h

i

is the enthalpy

at 70 bar and 500

◦

C and h

e

is the enthalpy at 0.08 bar for a dryness fraction of

0.90. From a Superheated Steam Table, we ﬁnd that h

i

= 3410 kJ/kg. From a

Saturated Water and Steam Table, we ﬁnd that

h

i

= h

f

+x (h

g

−h

f

) at 0.08 bar and x = 0.90

= 174 kJ/kg + 0.90 (2576 −174) kJ/kg = 2336 kJ/kg

Substituting the known numerical values in (10.9), we get

55 ×10

3

kJ

s

= ˙ m × (3410 −2336)

kJ

kg

which gives ˙ m, which is the mass ﬂow rate of steam through the adiabatic

turbine, as 51.2 kg/s.

Example 10.10

A steam turbine is fed with 53 kg/s of high

pressure steam at 70 bar and 500

◦

C and with 10 kg/s of low pressure

steam at 6 bar and 250

◦

C. The steam leaving the turbine is at 0.07 bar

with the dryness fraction of 0.92. Determine the power produced by the

steam turbine considering the fact that the heat loses from the turbine is

equivalent to 2% of the power production.

Solution to Example 10.10

The schematic of the steam turbine given is shown in Figure 10.10. Since the

turbine has two inlets and one exit, we must use the steady ﬂow energy equation

applied for a multiple-stream steady ﬂow process given by (10.4). Neglecting

the changes in potential and kinetic energies reduces (10.4) applied to the given

system to

(

˙

Q)

in

+ (

˙

W

s

)

in

= ˙ m

e

h

e

− ˙ m

i1

h

i1

− ˙ m

i2

h

i2

236 Chapter 10

Since the power output is positive for a turbine and since heat is lost to the

surroundings, the above equation can be rewritten as

(

˙

Q)

out

+ (

˙

W

s

)

out

= ˙ m

i1

h

i1

+ ˙ m

i2

h

i2

− ˙ m

e

h

e

(10.27)

where (

˙

Q)

out

is given as 2% of (

˙

W

s

)

out

.

E

Figure 10.10 Schematic of the turbine of Example 10.10.

e

E

i2

i1

i2 is low pressure steam at 6 bar and 250

◦

C

i1 is high pressure steam at 70 bar and 500

◦

C

e is steam at 0.07 bar and x = 0.92

E

From a Superheated Steam Table, we can ﬁnd that the enthalpy of the high

pressure steam h

i1

= 3410 kJ/kg and the enthalpy of the low pressure steam

h

i2

= 2958 kJ/kg. From a Saturated Water and Steam Table, we can ﬁnd that

the enthalpy of the steam leaving the turbine h

e

= 163 kJ/kg + 0.92 × 2409

kJ/kg = 2379 kJ/kg. The mass ﬂow rates are given as ˙ m

i1

= 53 kg/s and ˙ m

i2

= 10 kg/s.

The mass balance applied for a multiple-stream steady ﬂow process is given

by (10.5), which for the given system becomes

˙ m

e

= ˙ m

i1

+ ˙ m

i2

= (53 + 10) kg/s = 63 kg/s

Substituting the known numerical values in (10.27), we get

0.02 × (

˙

W)

out

+ (

˙

W

s

)

out

= (53 × 3410 + 10 × 2958 −63 × 2379) kJ/s

= 60433 kW

which gives

(

˙

W)

out

=

60433 kW

1.02

= 59248 kW = 59.25 MW

That is, the steam turbine power output is 59.25 MW, and the heat lost to

the surroundings is about 1.18 MJ/s.

The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 237

Example 10.11

Air at 100 kPa and 300 K with a mass ﬂow

rate of 0.05 kg/s is to be compressed to 800 kPa using any one of the

following methods:

Method 1: Quasistatic adiabatic compression from 100 kPa to 800 kPa

in a single compressor.

Method 2: Quasistatic adiabatic compression from 100 kPa to 250 kPa

in one compressor followed by quasistatic adiabatic compression from

250 kPa to 800 kPa in a second compressor.

Method 3: Quasistatic adiabatic compression from 100 kPa to 250 kPa

in one compressor followed by constant pressure cooling to 300 K at

250 kPa, and then quasistatic adiabatic compression from 250 kPa

to 800 kPa in a second compressor.

Determine the method in which the total power requirement is the lowest.

Solution to Example 10.11

Method 1:

Applying (10.11) to the ﬁrst compressor operated adiabatically, assuming

that air behaves as an ideal gas, we get

(

˙

W

s

)

in

= ˙ mC

p

(T

e

−T

i

) (10.28)

Substituting the numerical data in the problem and the properties of air from

Table 5.2 in (10.28), we get

(

˙

W

s

)

in

=

_

0.05

kg

s

__

1.005

kJ

kg · K

_

(T

e

−300) K

where T

e

is unknown. Since the ﬂow is taken to be quasistatic adiabatic, we

can use (7.31) to determine T

e

as follows:

T

e

= T

i

_

P

e

P

i

_

(γ−1)/γ

= 300 K ×

_

800

100

_

(1.4−1)/1.4

= 543.4 K

Therefore,

(

˙

W

s

)

in

= 12.23 kJ/s = 12.23 kW

That is, the power requirement of a single compressor to adiabatically and

quasistatically compress air at 100 kPa and 300 K to 800 kPa is 12.23 kW.

238 Chapter 10

Method 2:

Here, air is compressed to 250 kPa in one compressor, and the hot air

leaving it is compressed in a second compressor to 800 kPa. Both compressions

are quasistatic adiabatic. The power requirement of the ﬁrst compressor can be

worked out in a manner similar to that is described under Method 1, except for

the fact that the exit pressure is now 250 kPa, not 800 kPa. Therefore, we get

the exit temperature as

T

e

= T

i

_

P

e

P

i

_

(γ−1)/γ

= 300 K ×

_

250

100

_

(1.4−1)/1.4

= 389.8 K

Substituting the numerical value of T

e

in (10.28), we get (

˙

W

s

)

in

= 4.51 kW.

The second compressor works in a way very similar to the ﬁrst, except for

that the inlet pressure is 250 kPa, the inlet temperature is 389.8 K, and the

exit pressure is 800 kPa. Therefore, we get the exit temperature of the second

compressor as

T

e

= 389.8 K ×

_

800

250

_

(1.4−1)/1.4

= 543.5 K

The power requirement of the second compressor, evaluated using (10.28),

is (

˙

W

s

)

in

= 7.72 kJ/s = 7.72 kW.

The total power requirement of the two compressors is obtained by adding

4.51 kW to 7.72 kW, which is 12.23 kW.

Method 3:

The ﬁrst compressor here is similar to the ﬁrst compressor in Method 2, and

it’s power requirement is 4.51 kW. The second compressor here has an inlet

temperature of 300 K, and

T

e

= 300 K ×

_

800

250

_

(1.4−1)/1.4

= 418.3 K

and the power consumption, evaluated using (10.28), is 5.94 kW.

The total power requirement of the two compressors is obtained by adding

4.51 kW to 5.94 kW, which is therefore 10.45 kW.

The total power consumptions are the same for Method 1 and for Method

2. The total power consumption is the lowest for Method 3, in which the hot

air exiting the ﬁrst compressor is cooled to 300 K before it is fed to the second

compressor. Method 3 uses the practice known as multi-stage compression

with intercooling in order to decrease the work required to compress the gas

between two speciﬁed pressures.

The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 239

Example 10.12

An ideal gas is compressed by an adiabatic

compressor in a steady-ﬂow process, and cooled to its initial temperature.

The potential and kinetic energy changes are negligible. Compare the heat

removed from the gas in the cooler with the work done on the gas by the

compressor.

Solution to Example 10.12

The schematic of the given system is shown in Figure 10.11.

cooler

T

1

T

2

T

1

Figure 10.11 Schematic for Example 10.12.

`

_¸

(

˙

W

s

)

in

˙

Q

out

Equation (10.11) applied to the ideal gas ﬂow through the adiabatic com-

pressor becomes

(

˙

W

s

)

in

= ˙ mC

p

(T

2

−T

1

) (10.29)

where T

1

and T

2

are the respective inlet and exit temperatures of the gas ﬂowing

through the compressor, as shown in Figure 10.11.

The term (

˙

W

s

)

in

is a positive quantity since work is always done on the gas

by the compressor. Consequently, the gas temperature T

2

at the compressor

exit is always larger than the temperature T

1

at the inlet. The gas leaving the

compressor at T

2

is cooled to its initial temperature T

1

in a cooler. The steady

ﬂow energy equation (10.3), when applied to the cooler becomes

˙

Q

in

= ˙ m(h

e

−h

i

)

since there is no work exchange and since the potential and kinetic energy

changes are neglected.

For an ideal gas, the above equation becomes

˙

Q

in

= ˙ mC

p

(T

1

−T

2

). Since

the cooler exit temperature T

1

is less than the inlet temperature T

2

, the above

240 Chapter 10

equation can be rewritten as

˙

Q

out

= ˙ mC

p

(T

2

−T

1

) (10.30)

which is a positive quantity.

Combining (10.29) and (10.30), we get (

˙

W

s

)

in

=

˙

Q

out

. That is, the work

done on the gas by the compressor equals the heat removed from the gas in the

cooler under the conditions stated in the problem.

Example 10.13

A pump is used to increase the pressure of

25 kg/s of saturated water at 0.07 bar entering the pump to 100 bar and

40

◦

C. Determine the power input to the pump assuming adiabatic ﬂow

through the pump.

Solution to Example 10.13

Neglecting the potential and kinetic energy changes, the power input to

the adiabatic pump can be determined using (10.11), where h

i

is the speciﬁc

enthalpy of saturated water at 0.07 bar and h

e

is the speciﬁc enthalpy at 50

bar and 40

◦

C. From a Saturated Water and Steam Table, we ﬁnd h

i

= 163

kJ/kg. The water leaving the pump is at compressed state at 100 bar. From a

Compressed Water Table

∗

, we ﬁnd h

e

= 176 kJ/kg. Substituting the numerical

values known in (10.11), the power input of the pump can be calculated as

˙

W

in

= 25 × (176 −163) kJ/s = 325 kW.

Example 10.14

Wet steam at 7 bar is throttled adiabatically

to 1 bar and 110

◦

C. Determine the dryness fraction of the wet steam at 7

bar.

∗

Table A-7 of ¸ Cengel, Y.A. & Boles, M.A. 1998 Thermodynamics: an engineering

approach, 3

rd

Edition, McGraw-Hill International Editions.

The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 241

Solution to Example 10.14

Steam ﬂow through the adiabatic throttling valve can be expressed by (10.13)

which states that the speciﬁc enthalpies at the inlet h

i

and at the exit h

e

are

nearly the same. The value of h

e

at 1 bar and 110

◦

C can be obtained from a

Superheated Steam Table as 2696 kJ/kg. According to (10.13), the value of h

i

at 7 bar is the same as 2696 kJ/kg. At 7 bar, a Saturated Water and Steam

Table gives h

f

= 697 kJ/kg and h

g

= 2764 kJ/kg. Therefore, the dryness

fraction of the wet steam at 7 bar can be calculated as

x =

h

e

−h

f

h

g

−h

f

=

2696 −697

2764 −697

= 0.967 = 96.7%

Example 10.15

Water ﬂowing at 5 bar and 120

◦

C is mixed

with superheated steam ﬂowing at 10 bar and 200

◦

C in an adiabatic mixing

chamber to produce saturated water at 8 bar. Determine the ratio of the

mass ﬂow rates of water and the superheated steam, neglecting the changes

in kinetic and potential energies.

Solution to Example 10.15

The steady ﬂow energy equation applied to the adiabatic mixing chamber

shown in Figure 10.7, neglecting the changes in potential and kinetic energies, is

given by (10.16), where i1 denotes the water entering the mixing chamber at 5

bar and 120

◦

C, i2 denotes the superheated steam entering the mixing chamber

at 10 bar and 200

◦

C, and e denotes the saturated steam leaving the mixing

chamber at 8 bar.

The water at 5 bar and 120

◦

C is at compressed state. Since the pressure is

5 bar, we use the approximate method discussed in the Solution to Example

(6.8) to determine h

i1

. In this method, we approximate h

i1

to the saturated

water speciﬁc enthalpy at 120

◦

C, which is 504 kJ/kg as read from a Saturated

Water and Steam Table.

The superheated steam speciﬁc enthalpy h

i2

is directly read from a Super-

heated Steam Table as 2829 kJ/kg at 10 bar and 200

◦

C. The saturated water

242 Chapter 10

speciﬁc enthalpy h

e

is directly read from a Saturated Water and Steam Table as

721 kJ/kg at 8 bar.

Substituting the known numerical values in (10.16), we can determine the

ratio of the mass ﬂow rate of water to the mass ﬂow rate of superheated steam

as

m

i1

m

i2

=

h

i2

−h

e

h

e

−h

i1

=

2829 −721

721 −504

= 9.7

Example 10.16

A gas (γ = 1.3) fed to a turbine at 10

bar and 370

◦

C, is assumed to expand quasistatically and adiabatically to 4

bar as it ﬂows through the turbine. The gas stream exiting the turbine is

mixed with a second stream of the same gas ﬂowing at 4 bar and 38

◦

C, in

an adiabatic mixing chamber. The mass ﬂow rate of the gas through the

turbine is 4 times the mass ﬂow rate of the second gas stream. Determine

the temperature of the gas leaving the mixing chamber at 4 bar, neglecting

the changes in kinetic and potential energies and assuming that the gas

concerned behaves as an ideal gas.

Solution to Example 10.16

The schematic of the given system is shown in Figure 10.12. The tem-

perature of the gas leaving the mixing chamber is to be found, which is the

temperature of the gas stream labeled 4 in Figure 10.12.

2 4

1

2 2

2 2

2 2

Figure 10.12 Schematic of the system given in Example 10.16.

3

3

`

_¸

ff¢¢

3 gas at 10 bar & 643 K

gas at 4 bar & 311 K

The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 243

The steady ﬂow energy equation applied to the gas ﬂow through an adiabatic

mixing chamber with negligible changes in the potential and kinetic energies,

given by (10.16), becomes

˙ m

2

(h

4

−h

2

) = ˙ m

3

(h

3

−h

4

)

which is written in accordance with the stream labels shown on Figure 10.12.

Since the gas is assumed to behave as an ideal gas, the above equation

becomes

˙ m

2

C

p

(T

4

−T

2

) = ˙ m

3

C

p

(T

3

−T

4

)

which yields

T

4

=

˙ m

2

T

2

+ ˙ m

3

T

3

˙ m

2

+ ˙ m

3

(10.31)

To ﬁnd T

4

, we need the value of each and every term on the right-hand side

of (10.31).

First of all note that ˙ m

2

is the mass ﬂow rate through the turbine, and that

˙ m

3

is the mass ﬂow rate of the second gas stream. It is given that the mass

ﬂow rate of the gas stream through the turbine is 4 times the mass ﬂow rate of

the second gas stream. Therefore, ˙ m

2

= 4 ˙ m

3

, which reduces (10.31) to

T

4

=

4 T

2

+T

3

5

=

4 T

2

+ 311 K

5

(10.32)

since T

3

= 311 K.

We need to ﬁnd T

2

, which is the temperature of the exit gas stream from the

turbine. The ﬂow through the turbine is assumed to be quasistatic adiabatic,

and therefore (7.31) can be used to ﬁnd T

2

as follows:

T

2

= T

1

_

P

2

P

1

_

(γ−1)/γ

= 643 K ×

_

4

10

_

(1.3−1)/1.3

= 520.5 K = 247.5

◦

C

Substituting T

2

= 520.5 K in (10.32), we get T

4

= 478.6 K = 205.6

◦

C.

Note that the second gas stream is heated from 38

◦

C to 205.6

◦

C by mixing

it with the turbine exit at 247.5

◦

C.

Example 10.17

Air (C

p

= 1.005 kJ/kg · K and γ = 1.4) is

heated as it ﬂows steadily through a pipe of uniform cross-sectional area

150 cm

2

. It enters at 300 kPa and 345 K with a velocity of 25 m/s and

244 Chapter 10

leaves at 200 kPa and 800 K, and may be assumed to behave as an ideal

gas. Determine the amount of heat added per kilogram of air.

If this amount of heat is supplied to 1 kg of air in a closed rigid container

at 300 kPa and 345 K, what will be the ﬁnal temperature and pressure of

air in the container?

Solution to Example 10.17

The steady ﬂow energy equation (10.3) applied to the pipe ﬂow yields

˙

Q

in

= ˙ m

_

h

e

−h

i

+

c

2

e

−c

2

i

2

_

since there is no work exchange or potential energy change.

Substituting the given numerical values in the above equation with the as-

sumption that air behaves as an ideal gas, we get

˙

Q

in

˙ m

=

_

1005

J

kg · K

×(800 −345) K +

c

2

e

−25

2

2

_

m

s

_

2

_

(10.33)

where the exit velocity c

e

is unknown.

To determine the exit velocity, let us use the fact that the ﬂow is steady, and

therefore the mass ﬂow rate is the same at the inlet and the exit. Thus (10.24)

gives

c

e

=

_

A

i

A

e

__

P

i

P

e

__

T

e

T

i

_

c

i

=

_

150

150

__

300

200

__

800

345

_

25 m/s = 87 m/s

Substituting c

e

= 87 m/s in (10.33), we get

˙

Q

in

= 460.75 kJ per kg of air

ﬂowing through the pipe.

The second part of the problem states that 460.75 kJ/kg of heat is supplied

to air in a closed rigid container at 300 kPa and 345 K. Suppose the mass of air

in the close container is m, then Q

in

= 460.75 m kJ. Therefore, the ﬁrst law

applied to the given closed system yields,

460.75 m = ΔU

since no work is supplied to the air in the closed rigid container. Since air is

taken as an ideal gas, we get

ΔU = mC

v

(T

f

−T

i

)

The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 245

Therefore,

460.75 m = m0.718 (T

f

−345)

which gives T

f

= 986.7 K.

The pressure in the closed container can be obtained using the ideal gas

equation of state for the given closed system as follows:

m =

P

f

V

f

RT

f

=

P

i

V

i

RT

i

Since V

f

= V

i

for the closed rigid container, we get

P

f

= P

i

_

T

f

T

i

_

= 300 kPa

_

986.7

345

_

= 858 kPa

Note that when the same amount of heat is provided, the temperature and

pressure increases in the closed system are far greater than those in the open

system. You may try to ﬁgure out why it is so as an exercise.

Example 10.18

Compressed air is preheated in a shell-and-

tube heat exchanger, shown in Figure 10.13, before it enters the combustion

chamber.

Figure 10.13 Schematic of a heat exchanger of Example 10.18.

air at T

e

◦

C

air at 200

◦

C

gases at 550

◦

C

gases at 250

◦

C

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

c

T

T

c

It enters the heat exchanger at 9 bar and 200

◦

C with a mass ﬂow rate of

16 kg/s. It gains heat from the exhaust gases leaving a turbine. Exhaust

246 Chapter 10

gases enter the heat exchanger at 1.4 bar and 550

◦

C and leave at 1.2 bar

and 250

◦

C at a mass ﬂow rate of 17 kg/s. Assume that C

p

for the exhaust

gases are the same as that for air and that the heat exchanger operates

under adiabatic conditions. Determine the exit temperature of the air and

the amount of heat transferred from the exhaust gases to the air.

Solution to Example 10.18

For an adiabatic heat exchanger with two ﬂuid streams, (10.19) can be used.

Taking the exhaust gases as A and the compressed air as B and assuming ideal

gas behaviour, (10.19) can be rewritten as

˙ m

exhaust gases

˙ m

air

=

(h

e

−h

i

)

air

(h

i

−h

e

)

exhaust gases

=

(T

e

−T

i

)

air

(T

i

−T

e

)

exhaust gases

since C

p

for the exhaust gases is assumed to be the same as that for the air.

Substituting the numerical values known in the above equation, we get

17

16

=

T

e

−200

550 −250

(10.34)

which gives the exit temperature of air T

e

as 519

◦

C.

To determine the heat transferred from the exhaust gases to the air, let us

apply the steady ﬂow energy equation (10.3) to one of the streams. For air,

˙

Q

in

= ˙ mC

p

(T

e

−T

i

) = 16 × 1.005 × (519 −200) kJ/s = 5.13 MJ/s

Example 10.19

Rework Example 10.18 with a mass ﬂow

rate of air taken as of 14 kg/s, and comment on your results.

Solution to Example 10.19

Replacing 16 in (10.34) by 14, we get

17

14

=

T

e

−200

550 −250

(10.35)

The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 247

which gives the exit air temperature T

e

as 564

◦

C.

The exit air temperature of 564

◦

C is greater than the temperature of the

exhaust gases entering the heat exchanger, which is 550

◦

C. Since the air leaving

the heat exchanger is receiving heat from the exhaust gases entering the heat

exchanger, the exhaust gas temperature must always be greater than the air

temperature. Therefore, the answer we got is unrealistic. Thus, we conclude

that the mass ﬂow rate of air should not be as low as 14 kg/s.

10.8 Summary

• A steady ﬂow process with a single-stream ﬂowing through the system is

described by

˙ m

i

= ˙ m

e

(10.1)

and by

˙

Q

in

+ (

˙

W

s

)

in

= ˙ m

_

h

e

−h

i

+

c

2

e

−c

2

i

2

+g (z

e

−z

i

]

_

(10.3)

which is the steady ﬂow energy equation (abbreviated to SFEE) for a

single-stream process.

• For a multiple-stream steady ﬂow process, that is, a system with many

inlets and many exits for mass to ﬂow in and out of the system, the steady

ﬂow energy equation (SFEE) becomes

˙

Q

in

+ (

˙

W

s

)

in

=

_

˙ m

e1

_

h

e1

+

c

2

e1

2

+gz

e1

__

+

_

˙ m

e2

_

h

e2

+

c

2

e2

2

+gz

e2

__

+· · ·

−

_

˙ m

i1

_

h

i1

+

c

2

i1

2

+gz

i1

__

−

_

˙ m

i2

_

h

i2

+

c

2

i2

2

+gz

i2

__

−· · · (10.4)

which is solved together with the mass balance for a multiple-stream

steady ﬂow process,

˙ m

e1

+ ˙ m

e1

+· · · = ˙ m

i1

+ ˙ m

i2

+· · · (10.5)

248 Chapter 10

where the subscripts e1, e2, · · · denote exit 1, exit 2, and so on, respec-

tively, and the subscripts i1, i2, · · · denote inlet 1, inlet 2, and so on,

respectively.

• We can add a quantity in J/kg to a quantity in (m/s)

2

since they are

equivalent as shown below:

J

kg

=

N· m

kg

=

kg · m

s

2

m

kg

=

_

m

s

_

2

• Assume that a ﬂuid ﬂows perpendicular to a cross section with a cross-

sectional area A, at a uniform speed c and at a uniform density ρ. The

mass ﬂow rate of the ﬂuid through the cross-sectional area A is then

˙ m = Aρ c =

Ac

v

(10.23)

where v is the speciﬁc volume.

If the ﬂuid were steam or a mixture of water and steam, v could be found

from the Steam Table.

If the ﬂuid were assumed to behave as an ideal gas, then the ideal gas

equation of state would give v = RT/P. Therefore, the mass ﬂow rate

of an ideal gas through the cross-sectional area A is

˙ m =

Ac P

RT

(10.24)

212 Chapter 10

**10.1 What is Steady?
**

The term steady implies no change with time. We say that a person is running at a steady speed of 5 km per hour, as shown in Figure 10.1, if the speed does not change with time.

e e r r

5 km per hour E Figure 10.1 A person running at a steady speed of 5 km per hour.

**10.2 What is a Steady Flow Process?
**

A steady ﬂow process is one in which matter and energy ﬂow steadily in and out of an open system. In a steady ﬂow process, the properties of the ﬂow remain unchanged with time, that is, the properties are frozen in time. But, the properties need not be the same in all points of the ﬂow. It is very common for a beginner to confuse the term steady with the term equilibrium. But, they are not the same. When a system is at a steady state, the properties at any point in the system are steady in time, but may vary from one point to another point. The temperature at the inlet, for example, may diﬀer from that at the outlet. But, each temperature, whatever its value, remains constant in time in a steady ﬂow process. When a system is at an equilibrium state, the properties are steady in time and uniform in space. By properties being uniform in space, we mean that a property, such as pressure, has the same value at each and every point in the system. An example of steady ﬂow of water through a pipe is shown in Figure 10.2. Pressure measurements taken along the pipe at two diﬀerent times

The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 213 of a day, shown in the ﬁgure, remain the same since the ﬂow is steady. But, observe that the values of pressure vary along the pipe illustrating the nonuniform nature of the steady ﬂow.

**2.3 bar 2.0 bar 1.7 bar 1.4 bar 1.1 bar water ﬂows at a E c steady rate of 0.3 kg/s
**

c c c c

(a) measurements taken at 10.00 am

**2.3 bar 2.0 bar 1.7 bar 1.4 bar 1.1 bar water ﬂows at a E c steady rate of 0.3 kg/s
**

c c c c

(b) measurements taken at 2.00 pm

Figure 10.2 An example of steady ﬂow.

**10.3 Characteristics of a Steady Flow Process
**

A steady ﬂow is one that remains unchanged with time, and therefore a steady ﬂow has the following characteristics: •

Characteristic 1:

No property at any given location within the system boundary changes with time. That also means, during an entire steady ﬂow process, the total volume Vs of the system remains a constant, the total mass ms

4 Mass Balance for a Steady Flow Process Since a steady ﬂow process can be considered as a special process experienced by the open system discussed in Chapter 9. the system boundary also remains the same. That means that during a steady ﬂow process.214 Chapter 10 of the system remains a constant. which is given by (9. pressure. Therefore. • Characteristic 4: Rates at which heat and work are transferred across the boundary of the system remain unchanged. (9.1) reduces to ˙ (10. 10. Characteristic 1 of the steady ﬂow process is that the mass of the open system experiencing a steady ﬂow process remains constant. • Characteristic 3: No property at an inlet or at an exit to the open system changes with time. speciﬁc (or molar) volume. we may start from the mass balance for open systems.1). • Characteristic 2: Since the system remains unchanged with time during a steady ﬂow process. speciﬁc (or molar) internal energy. the mass ﬂow rate.1) mi = me ˙ where the subscript i denotes the inlet and the subscript e denotes the exit. the energy ﬂow rate. This is achieved if the mass ﬂow rate at the inlet equals the mass ﬂow rate at the exit. temperature. and the velocity of ﬂow at an inlet or at an exit remain constant. . speciﬁc (or molar) enthalpy. and that the total energy content Es of the system remains a constant.

The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 215 10. we get ˙ ˙ Qin + (Wshaf t )in + mh + m ˙ ˙ c2 + m gz ˙ 2 i − mh + m ˙ ˙ which may be organised as ˙ ˙ Qin + (Ws )in = me ˙ he + c2 + m gz ˙ 2 = 0 e c2 e + gze 2 c2 i + gzi 2 for exit − mi ˙ hi + (10.8). c and z are constants. let us start with (9. Therefore. Applying all the above characteristics of a steady ﬂow process to (9. the boundary remains unchanged with time. and the subscripts i and e denotes the inlet and exit.8) which is the energy balance applicable to open systems.5 Energy Balance for a Steady Flow Process Since a steady ﬂow process can be considered as a special process experienced by the open system discussed in Chapter 9. so that no boundary work is done during a steady ﬂow process. Therefore dEs =0 dt According to Characteristic 2 of the steady ﬂow process. . According to Characteristic 1 of the steady ﬂow process.2) for inlet where Ws is shaft work. all properties at the inlet and the exit of the system remain unchanged with time. the total energy content Es of the system remains constant during the process. respectively. h. and therefore ˙ (Wboundary )in = 0 According to Characteristic 3.

and zi .1) states that mi is the same as me .2) is a constant for a steady ﬂow process as pointed out in Characteristics 3 and 4 of steady ﬂow processes. The rate at which heat ˙ enters the system is constant at Qin .2). Using the above in (10. Let us represent ˙ these two equal mass ﬂow rates by the symbol m. as ˙ ˙ Qin + (Ws )in = m he − hi + ˙ c2 − c2 e i + g (ze − zi ] 2 (10. respectively. the velocity of the stream at the inlet and the elevation of the inlet are constant at hi . The speciﬁc enthalpy ˙ of the stream at the inlet. that is the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics applied to a steady ﬂow process with a single inlet and a single exit.4) − mi2 hi2 + i2 + gzi2 ˙ 2 . ci . The mass ﬂow rates of the single stream the system is constant at (W entering and leaving the system are constant at m. The acceleration due to gravity is denoted by g. the steady ﬂow energy equation (SFEE) becomes ˙ ˙ Qin + (Ws )in = c2 me1 he1 + e1 + gze1 ˙ 2 c2 + ··· + me2 he2 + e2 + gze2 ˙ 2 c2 − mi1 hi1 + i1 + gzi1 ˙ 2 c2 − · · ·(10. we get the energy balance. and ze . For a multiple-stream steady ﬂow process. ˙ Equation (10. which can be considered ˙ as the constant mass ﬂow rate through the steady ﬂow process. that is a system with several inlets and exits for mass to ﬂow.216 Chapter 10 It is important to note that each of the rates in (10. The rate at which shaft work enters ˙ s )in . ce . respectively. and those at the exit are constant at he .3) which is the steady ﬂow energy equation (abbreviated to SFEE) applicable to a single-stream steady ﬂow process.

however. and to increase the speed of the gases leaving the jet engine or rocket. we will deal with devices such as nozzles. The emphasis will. i2. exit 2.5) where the subscripts e1. and so on. and the steady ﬂow energy equation will be applied to these devices treating them more or less like black boxes. inlet 2. · · · denote inlet 1. respectively. heat exchangers. the industrial appliances such as turbines.6) Qin = m he − hi + e 2 . Diﬀusers are used to slow down a ﬂuid ﬂowing at high speeds. e2. and condensers.The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 217 which is solved together with the mass balance for a multiple-stream steady ﬂow process. and since the potential energy diﬀerence across a nozzle or a diﬀuser is usually negligible. respectively. be on the overall functions of the devices. Nozzles & Diﬀusers Nozzles and diﬀusers are properly shaped ducts which are used to increase or decrease the speed of the ﬂuid ﬂowing through it.3. In this section.6 Steady Flow Engineering Devices Many engineering devices operate essentially under unchanged conditions for long periods. compressors. For example. and the subscripts i1. such as at the entrance of a jet engine.3) for ﬂow through a nozzle or a diﬀuser becomes c2 − c2 i ˙ ˙ (10. and so on. Since no shaft work is involved in a nozzle or a diﬀuser. boilers. Schematics of a typical nozzle and a typical diﬀuser are shown in Figure 10. compressors. Nozzles are used for various applications such as to increase the speed of water through a garden hose. me1 + me1 + · · · = mi1 + mi2 + · · · ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ (10. · · · denote exit 1. turbines. heat exchangers and pumps may operate nonstop at steady state for months before they are shut down for maintenance. 10. the steady ﬂow energy equation (10.

water at high velocity is directed at the blades of the turbine to set the turbine shaft in rotation.1). and leaves at low pressure and temperature. And. It is also an essential part of a jet engine in an aircraft which generates the thrust required to propel the aircraft. The rotating shaft of a turbine is not always used for electric power generation. Therefore (10. steam at high pressure and temperature enters a turbine. It can be clearly seen in (10. .4. In steam turbines. gaseous products of combustion at high pressure and temperature set the turbine shaft in rotation. as in the case of ﬂow through an adiabatic nozzle. The work delivered by the rotating shaft drives an electric generator to produce electrical energy.3 Schematics of a nozzle and a diﬀuser. so that the rate of heat transfer is neglected. a decrease in the speed of the ﬂow is accompanied by an increase in its enthalpy. sets the turbine shaft in rotation. The schematic of a turbine is shown in Figure 10.7) that an increase in the speed of the ﬂow is accompanied by a decrease in its enthalpy. as in the case of ﬂow through an adiabatic diﬀuser.7) for adiabatic nozzles and diﬀusers. Turbines A turbine is a device with rows of blades mounted on a shaft which could be rotated about its axis (see Figure 1.6) reduces to c2 − c2 e i = hi − he 2 (10. The ﬂow through nozzles and diﬀusers are often considered adiabatic. In gas turbines.218 Chapter 10 iE e E iE eE nozzle diﬀuser Figure 10. In some water turbines used in hydroelectric power stations.

The blades that are mounted on the shaft of the compressor are so shaped that. The steady ﬂow energy equation for ﬂow through a turbine may therefore be written as c2 − c2 i ˙ ˙ Qin − (Ws )out = m he − hi + e ˙ (10. Since the ﬂuid ﬂowing through a turbine usually experiences negligible change in elevation. Under such conditions. Compressors A compressor is a device used to increase the pressure of a gas ﬂowing through it.8) reduces to ˙ ˙ (Ws )out = m (hi − he ) (10. To rotate the shaft of a compressor. and therefore the (Ws )in term in (10. The rotating type compressor functions in a manner opposite to a turbine.9) which clearly shows that the shaft work delivered by an adiabatic turbine is derived from the enthalpy loss by the ﬂuid ﬂowing through the turbine. (10. when the compressor shaft rotates.The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 219 i E e E Figure 10.3) is negative.4 Schematic of a turbine. if this change is small compared to the change in enthalpy then the change in kinetic energy may be neglected. However. and the ﬂuid experiences a signiﬁcant change in its kinetic energy. then Qin = 0.8) 2 The ﬂuid velocities encountered in most turbines are large. the potential energy term is neglected. Work always ˙ leaves the turbine. the pressure of the ﬂuid ﬂowing through the . work must be supplied from an external source such as a rotating turbine shaft. which is usually the case. If the ﬂuid ﬂowing through the turbine ˙ undergoes an adiabatic process.

A schematic of a compressor is shown in Figure 10. Equation (10. Household refrigerators use the reciprocating type of compressors to raise the pressure of the refrigerant ﬂowing through them. fans and blowers. The potential energy diﬀerence across a compressor is usually neglected. fan or blower is used to increase the enthalpy of the ﬂuid ﬂowing through.11) which clearly shows that the shaft work provided to an adiabatic compressor.10) A pump works like a compressor except that it handles liquids instead of gases. The rotating type compressors are used to raise the pressure of the air ﬂowing through it in the electricity generation plants and in the jet engines.220 Chapter 10 compressor increases. pump. and often the change in kinetic energy term is neglected.5 Schematic of a compressor. fan or blower is operated under ˙ adiabatic conditions. In a reciprocating type compressor. If the compressor.10) may be used to describe the ﬂows through pumps. a piston moves within the cylinder. and are used mainly to circulate air.10) reduces to ˙ ˙ (Ws )in = m (he − hi ) (10. The velocities involved in these devices are usually small to cause a signiﬁcant change in kinetic energy. Fans and blowers are compressors which impart a very small rise in the pressure of the ﬂuid ﬂowing through them. (10. pump. then Qin = 0.5. Under such conditions. and the work needed to move the piston is generally supplied by the electricity obtained from a wall socket. and the steady ﬂow energy equation for ﬂow through it becomes c2 − c2 i ˙ ˙ ˙ Qin + (Ws )in = m he − hi + e 2 (10. i E e E Figure 10. .

So that Equation (10. On the . It does not involve any work. porous plug or a capillary tube in the path of the ﬂowing ﬂuid. we get ue + Pe ve = ui + Pi vi which means that the summation of internal energy u and the ﬂow work P v remains constant in a ﬂow through a throttling valve.6.12) Since the kinetic energy in many cases is insigniﬁcant when compared to the enthalpy. the kinetic energy terms are neglected. then internal energy. u. A schematic of a throttling valve is shown in Figure 10. P v. i e Figure 10. The drop in pressure is attained by placing an obstacle such as a partially open valve.13) are expanded using (u + P v). If the ﬂow work. The pressure drop in the ﬂuid is usually accompanied by a drop in temperature. will decrease. and the ﬂow through them is eﬀectively adiabatic. increases during throttling.13) which shows the enthalpies at the inlet and the exit of a throttling valve are nearly the same. The steady ﬂow energy equation applied to ﬂow through an adiabatic throttling valve becomes he + c2 c2 e = hi + i 2 2 (10.12) becomes he ≈ hi (10. If the enthalpy terms in (10. which often means a decrease in temperature. The change in potential energy is neglected.The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 221 Throttling Valves A throttling valve is a device used to cause a pressure drop in a ﬂowing ﬂuid. There is no shaft work involved. and for that reason throttling devices are commonly used in refrigeration and air-conditioning applications where a drop in the temperature of the working ﬂuid is essential. Throttling valves are compact devices.6 Schematic of a throttling valve.

7.222 Chapter 10 contrary. T and v of the ﬂuid ﬂowing through the throttling valve may change even though the enthalpy remains unchanged during throttling. if the behaviour of the working ﬂuid approximates that of an ideal gas then no change in enthalpy means no change in temperature as well.4) to describe the ﬂow through a mixing chamber. i1E i2E e E Figure 10. It means that the properties such as P .7. if P v decreases then u will increase.7 with two inlets and one exit.4) becomes ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Qin = me he − (mi1 hi1 + mi2 hi2 ) (10. Mixing chambers are very common engineering applications in process industries. and the changes in kinetic and potential energies of the streams are usually neglected.14) Note that there is no shaft work in a mixing chamber. For the mixing chamber of Figure 10. Since a mixing chamber has more than one inlet. Mixing Chambers Mixing chamber refers to an arrangement where two or more ﬂuid streams are mixed to form one single ﬂuid stream as shown in the schematic in Figure 10. we use the steady ﬂow energy equation given by (10. However. For the conservation of mass across the mixing chamber of Figure 10. we can write me = mi1 + mi2 ˙ ˙ ˙ . resulting in probable temperature increase. (10.7 Schematic of a mixing chamber.

Therefore. For an adiabatic mixing chamber.8. which in general is a device where a hot ﬂuid stream exchanges heat with a cold ﬂuid stream without mixing with each other. This can be achieved in a heat exchanger.8 Schematic of a double-pipe heat exchanger. One ﬂuid ﬂows in the inner pipe and the other in the annular space between the two pipes.4). which may be represented by mA . The schematic of a double-pipe heat exchanger is shown in Figure 10. The simplest type is the double-pipe heat exchanger which has two concentric pipes of diﬀerent diameters.16) Heat Exchangers In the industries. Ai Be ' c E ' E ' c Bi Ae Figure 10. mAe = mAi . There is no work transfer.15) Mixing chambers are usually well insulated.The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 223 which transforms (10. so that the process can be treated as adiabatic.17) Since the mass ﬂow rate of ﬂuid A is the same at the inlet and at the ˙ ˙ exit. and the changes in kinetic and potential energies are neglected. (10. The heat removed from cooling of a hot ﬂuid can be used to heat another ﬂuid that has to be heated up. Since a heat exchanger has two inlets and two exits. Since the mass ﬂow ˙ . (10.14) to ˙ ˙ ˙ Qin = mi1 (he − hi1 ) + mi2 (he − hi2 ) (10.15) reduces to mi1 (he − hi1 ) = mi2 (hi2 − he ) ˙ ˙ (10. we use (10.4) reduces to ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Qin = [mAe hAe + mBe hBe ] − [mAi hAi + mBi hBi ] (10. there is often a need to cool a hot ﬂuid stream before it is let out into the environment.

There is no shaft work involved in a boiler or a condenser. (10. A boiler.9. which ˙ may be represented by mB Thus.17) becomes ˙ ˙ Qin = mA [hAe − hAi ] + mB [hBe − hBi ] ˙ ˙ (10. The potential and kinetic changes across these devices are negligible in comparison to .18) reduces to mf luid A ˙ (he − hi )f luid B = mf luid B ˙ (hi − he )f luid A (10. is used to heat water at room temperature to its boiling temperature so that water may be converted into steam. for example. it is adiabatic and the heat transfer term may be neglected. In a condenser.9 Schematics of a boiler and a condenser. Schematics of a boiler and a condenser are shown in Figure 10.18) Where a heat exchanger is insulated.224 Chapter 10 ˙ rate of ﬂuid B is the same at the inlet and at the exit. So that (10. mBe = mBi . Heat may be supplied to the boiler by burning a fuel in the boiler.19) Boilers and Condensers A liquid is converted into vapour in a boiler by supplying heat to it. vapour out T liquid in E liquid out ' c vapour in heat in boiler heat out condenser Figure 10. a vapour is condensed to liquid by removing heat from it.

Since the behaviour of the gases is approximated to that of an ideal gas with constant Cp . kg × (423 K − 373 K) .5 = 200 kJ kg · K kJ .7). we get c2 e 2 = 202 2 m s m s 2 2 + 1.21) Qout = m (hi − he ) 10.22) 2 Substituting the values given in the problem statement in (10. Determine (i) the exit velocity and (ii) the mass ﬂow rate of the gases.20) and the steady ﬂow energy equation for ﬂow through a condenser becomes ˙ ˙ (10. Solution to Example 10.3. and that the ﬂow of gases through the nozzle is steady and adiabatic.15 kJ/kg · K and γ = 1. Assume that these gases behave like an ideal gas with Cp = 1.1 (i) Determination of the exit velocity The given ﬂow may be satisfactorily described by (10. (10.7 Worked Examples Example 10. 150◦ C and 20 m/s and leave the nozzle at 100 kPa and 100◦ C.The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 225 the change in enthalpy.15 + 57.03 m2 . The exit area of the nozzle is 0.1 Gases produced during the combustion of a fuel-air mixture. So that the steady ﬂow energy equation for ﬂow through a boiler becomes ˙ Qin = m (he − hi ) ˙ (10. enter a nozzle at 200 kPa.7) can be rewritten as c2 − c 2 e i = Cp (Ti − Te ) (10.22).

7 m/s Note that the speed of the gases ﬂowing through the nozzle is increased from 20 m/s to 339. m= ˙ (0. and the gas constant R. Since we assume ideal gas behaviour.7 m/s. But.24) RT As we know the exit area. ce = 2 × 200 m s 2 + 57. exit pressure.7 m/s) × (100 kPa) = 10.5 × 1000 J kg = 339.23) where v is the speciﬁc volume.226 Chapter 10 We cannot add a quantity in kJ/kg to a quantity in (m/s)2 .265 kJ/kg · K) × (373 K) . the ideal gas equation of state may be used to express v as RT v= P Thus. the mass ﬂow rate of an ideal gas through the cross-sectional area A can be written as AcP m= ˙ (10.265 kJ/kg · K.31 kg/s (0. exit velocity and exit temperature. which is achieved at the cost of the reduction in the gas pressure from 200 kPa to 100 kPa.03 m2 ) × (339. calculated using R = (γ − 1) Cp /γ = 0. we can add a quantity in J/kg to a quantity in (m/s)2 since they are equivalent as shown below: J N·m kg · m m m 2 = = = kg kg s2 kg s Therefore. (ii) Determination of the mass ﬂow rate of the gases Assume that the gas ﬂows perpendicular to a cross sectional area A at a uniform speed c and at a uniform density ρ. The mass ﬂow rate of the gases through the given cross-section is then m = A ρ c = A c/v ˙ (10.

Solution to Example 10.03 m2 ) × (379.3−1)/1.7 m/s when the ﬂow is assumed to be quasistatic.5) × 1000 J kg = 379.The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 227 Example 10.265 kJ/kg · K) × (360. we get ce = 2 × 200 m s 2 + 1. is increased from 20 m/s to 379.7 m/s Note that the speed of the gases ﬂowing through the nozzle. Ti and Te in (10.22).3 = 360.2 Rework Example 10. expanding from 200 kPa to 100 kPa. . it must take place under fully restrained condition.1 assuming that the expansion of the gases ﬂowing through the nozzle from 200 kPa.15 × (423 − 360.5 K Substituting the values of ci . 150◦ C and 20 m/s at the inlet to 100 kPa at the exit takes place quasistatically. for an expansion or a compression process to be quasistatic.92 kg/s (0.2 (i) Determination of the exit velocity Since the ﬂow through the nozzle is assumed to be a quasistatic adiabatic ﬂow of an ideal gas.31). that is correct. which gives Te = Ti Pe Pi (γ−1)/γ = 423 K × 100 200 (1. P and T of the ﬂow can be related using (7. Is that correct? Teacher: Yes. (ii) Determination of the mass ﬂow rate of the gases The mass ﬂow rate of the gases through the nozzle is given by m= ˙ (0.5 K) Student: Teacher.7 m/s) × (100 kPa) = 11.

you are right about that. which sets the maximum possible speed attainable by the gases ﬂowing through the nozzle under the same inlet conditions and exit pressure.7 m/s under quasistatic adiabatic condition.72 − 202 ) = 0. the nozzle of Example 10. I see now why the ﬂow is assumed to be quasistatic in Example 10. However. However. Student: Oh. I have a question. Observe that the speed of the gases at the exit is 379.1 achieves only about 80% of the kinetic energy increase per kg of ﬂow achievable under ideal ﬂow conditions. we assume the ﬂow to be quasistatic in order to determine the maximum possible speed that could be attained by the gases ﬂowing through the nozzle.2. I see.228 Chapter 10 Student: It is stated in Example 10. I still have a question. How could that be when there is nothing to restrain the expansion of the gases ﬂowing through the nozzle? Teacher: Yes. This way we determine the eﬃciency at which a nozzle operates. How do you know that a quasistatic adiabatic ﬂow gives the maximum possible speed attainable by the gas ﬂow through the nozzle? .. It is not the quasistatic ﬂow. Teacher. The ﬂow through a nozzle is far from quasistatic.8 That is.2 that the expansion of the ﬂow through the nozzle is assumed to be quasistatic. Student: Okay.. but the quasistatic adiabatic ﬂow that gives the maximum possible speed attainable by the gas ﬂow through the nozzle? Student: Okay. Teacher: It would be interesting to take look at the ratio between the actual kinetic energy change per kg of ﬂow and the ideal kinetic energy change per kg of ﬂow achievable with quasistatic adiabatic ﬂow under the same pressure diﬀerence between the inlet and the outlet of the nozzle and the same inlet temperature.72 − 202 ) (379. How do you know that a quasistatic ﬂow gives the maximum possible speed attainable by the gas ﬂow through the nozzle? Teacher: You are wrong. The required ratio = = [(c2 − c2 )/2]actual e i [(c2 − c2 )/2]ideal e i (339.

it is not a problem because v for steam can be obtained from a Steam Table. Example 10. We know the cross-sectional area and the speed of steam at the exit.3 (i) The given ﬂow can be described by (10.23). we get ce = 2 × 200 m s 2 + (2770 − 2676) × 1000 J kg = 434 m/s (ii) The mass ﬂow rate of the steam may be calculated using (10.3 Rework Example 10. From a Steam Table. you will see that it could be proved that a quasistatic ﬂow sets the limit for the best performance that could be expected of an engineering device operated under adiabatic conditions. of which hi and he are the speciﬁc enthalpies of the steam at the inlet (2 bar and 150◦ C) and at the exit (1 bar and 100◦ C).68 kg/s 1. We can get v at the exit at 1 bar and 100◦ C from the Steam Table as 1. Substituting these values in (10.7). However. we get m= ˙ (0.03 m2 ) × (434 m/s) = 7.696 m3 /kg . Substituting these values in (10.696 m3 /kg.23) of which the speciﬁc volume v cannot be expressed as RT /P since the behaviour of steam may not be approximated by the ideal gas behaviour. we ﬁnd that hi = 2770 kJ/kg and he = 2676 kJ/kg.The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 229 Teacher: When learning the second law. Solution to Example 10.7) along with ci = 20 m/s.1 with steam ﬂowing through the nozzle.

leaves it at 3 bar 200◦ C with a velocity of 262 m/s.3364 ˙ m3 /kg.4 Steam entering a nozzle at 7 bar and 250◦ C with a velocity of 10 m/s. Example 10.230 Chapter 10 Example 10. of which hi and he are the speciﬁc enthalpies of the steam at the inlet (7 bar and 250◦ C) and at the exit (3 bar and 200◦ C). Determine the heat lost by the steam ﬂowing through the nozzle. determine the pressure and temperature of the air at the diﬀuser exit.4 The given ﬂow can be described by (10. γ = 1.5 kg/s.23) as follows: Ai = m vi ˙ ci where m = 2.8 kJ. The inlet area of the nozzle is therefore 0. Assuming ideal gas behaviour for air with constant speciﬁc heats.5 kg/s.005 kJ/kg · K.6).0841 m2 .4) enters an adiabatic diﬀuser at 85 kPa and 250 K at a steady speed of 265 m/s and leaves it at 15 m/s. Substituting these values in (10. ci = 10 m/s and vi = v at 7 bar and 250◦ C = 0.8 kJ J kg + 2622 − 102 2 m s 2 The heat lost by the steam ﬂowing through the nozzle is 136. From a Steam Table. we get kg ˙ × (2866 − 2955) × 1000 Qin = 2.5 s = −136. . The inlet area of the nozzle can be calculated using (10.6) along with ci = 10 m/s and ce = 262 m/s. Solution to Example 10. we ﬁnd that hi = 2955 kJ/kg and he = 2866 kJ/kg. If the mass ﬂow rate of the steam ﬂowing through the nozzle is 2. determine the inlet area of the nozzle.5 Air (Cp = 1.

which is achieved at the cost of the reduction in the air speed from 265 m/s to 15 m/s.6 A mixture of gases enter a nozzle at 2. under quasistatic adiabatic ﬂow conditions. Assume ideal gas behaviour and steady adiabatic ﬂow through the nozzle. The inlet diameter of the nozzle is 0.22). determine (i) the pressure that should be maintained at the nozzle exit and (ii) the exit diameter. P and T of the ﬂow can be related using (7.4−1) = 134 kPa which gives the pressure of air at the diﬀuser exit under ideal conditions.6 (i) Since the ﬂow is assumed to be a quasistatic adiabatic ﬂow of an ideal gas . Solution to Example 10.15 kJ/kg · K and γ = 1. Substituting the given numerical values known from the problem statement in (10.5 bar and 237◦ C with a speed of 20 m/s. we get Te = 250 K − 152 − 2652 2 × 1005 (m/s)2 = 284.45 m. Example 10.4/(1. Assuming quasistatic ﬂow conditions through the nozzle. Take Cp = 1.22). there is not enough data provided.The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 231 Solution to Example 10.31).7) applied to the air ﬂow through the adiabatic diﬀuser assuming ideal gas behaviour gives (10. the air ﬂowing through the diﬀuser is compressed from 85 kPa to 134 kPa.25) which gives the temperature of air at the diﬀuser exit. That is.8 250 1. which gives Pe = Pi Te Ti γ/(γ−1) = 85 kPa × 284.5 Equation (10. To determine the pressure at the exit.3 for the gases.8 K J/kg · K (10. since the ﬂow is adiabatic and since ideal gas behaviour is assumed. if we assume quasistatic ﬂow through the diﬀuser then. However. We are required to achieve an exit velocity of 340 m/s.

7) is applicable. If 120 MW of power is to be produced by the turbine.7 A gas turbine is operated with gases (Cp = 0. Substituting this value of Te in (10. For the ﬂow of gases. determine the mass ﬂow rate of gases ﬂowing through the turbine.013 m2 . and leaving it at 1 bar and 550◦ C.5 bar × Te 510 1. calculate the power output of the turbine (in MW) for each kg per second of gases ﬂowing through the turbine.26) we get Pe = 1.5 1.6 bar.24) as follows: m= ˙ which gives Ae = Ai Pi Pe ci ce Te Ti = Ai 2. assumed to behave as an ideal gas. Example 10.992 kJ/kg · K and γ = 1. (ii) To determine the exit area. Substituting the values known from the problem statement in (10. the exit area of the nozzle is about 0.26) where the exit temperature Te is unknown. Assuming adiabatic ﬂow through the turbine.29) entering it at 10 bar and 1025◦ C.13 m. and the exit diameter of the nozzle is about 0.15 kJ kg · K (Te − 510 K) + 3402 − 202 2 m s 2 =0 which gives Te = 460 K.3−1) (10.083Ai AcP RT = inlet AcP RT exit Since Ai = (π/4)(0.159 m2 .45 m)2 = 0. we use (10. we get 1. through an adiabatic nozzle.6 20 340 460 510 = 0.31) could be used to determine the pressure at the nozzle exit as follows: Pe = 2.6 bar should be maintained for the combustion gases to be able to reach the speed of 340 m/s2 at the exit.232 Chapter 10 (7.7).3/(1. an exit pressure of about 1. That is. (10. .

9) becomes ˙ (Ws )out = m Cp (Ti − Te ) ˙ Substituting the known numerical values in the above equation. Mass ﬂow rate of gases required to produce 120 MW of power is calculated as follows: 120 MW = 254.992 which gives ˙ (Ws )out kJ kJ/s kW MW = 471.2 = 0.9) can be used to describe the behaviour of the gases ﬂowing ˙ through the adiabatic turbine for which Qin = 0.4712 MW/kg/s kJ × (1025 − 550) K = m × 471.4712 MW for each kg per second of gases ﬂowing through the turbine. Solution to Example 10. Since ideal gas behaviour is assumed (10.5◦ C .2 kJ/kg ˙ kg · K Example 10.2 = 471. and they leave it at 1 bar.4712 m ˙ kg kg/s kg/s kg/s The power output of the turbine is therefore 0. where the gases are supplied to the turbine at 10 bar and 1025◦ C. we get ˙ ˙ (Ws )out = m × 0.7 kg/s m= ˙ 0.The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 233 Solution to Example 10.29−1)/1.7 under quasistatic adiabatic conditions.5 K = 500.8 Ideal gas ﬂow through the turbine under quasistatic adiabatic condition can be described by (7.29 = 773.31) so that Te = (1025 + 273) K × 1 10 (1.2 = 471.8 Rework Example 10.7 Equation (10.

5203 = 90.08 bar with a dryness fraction of 0. observe that the mass ﬂow rate of the gas required to produce the same power output from the turbine operating under the same inlet condition and the exit pressure is less for the quasistatic adiabatic ﬂow through the turbine.992 kJ × (1025 − 500. which is 0. can therefore be calculated as 0.9 A steam turbine producing 55 MW power is fed with steam at 70 bar and 500◦ C. as in Example 10. Also.5203 MW for each kg per second of gases ﬂowing through the turbine.7.6 kg/s m= ˙ 0. as in Example 10. . Example 10. than for the non-quasistatic adiabatic ﬂow through the turbine. as in Example 10.5203 MW. Mass ﬂow rate of gases required to produce 120 MW of power is calculated as follows: 120 MW = 230.5) K kg · K = 520.3 kJ/kg which gives that the power produced by the turbine under quasistatic adiabatic ﬂow condition is 0.8. Steam leaves the turbine at 0.7.6%.4712/0.90. as in Example 10.7.5203 MW/kg/s Observe that the turbine operating under quasistatic adiabatic condition produces more power. for the same inlet condition and the exit pressure. than the power produced by the turbine working under adiabatic but non-quasistatic condition.8.234 Chapter 10 Therefore ˙ (Ws )out m ˙ = 0. The eﬃciency of the turbine in Example 10. Determine the mass ﬂow rate of steam through the adiabatic turbine.

Neglecting the changes in potential and kinetic energies reduces (10. Determine the power produced by the steam turbine considering the fact that the heat loses from the turbine is equivalent to 2% of the power production. as 51. we ﬁnd that hi = hf + x (hg − hf ) at 0. where (Ws )out = 55 MW.07 bar with the dryness fraction of 0.90 (2576 − 174) kJ/kg = 2336 kJ/kg Substituting the known numerical values in (10.90 = 174 kJ/kg + 0. we get 55 × 103 kJ kJ = m × (3410 − 2336) ˙ s kg which gives m.92. Example 10.9) can be used to describe the behaviour of steam ﬂowing ˙ through the adiabatic turbine. we ﬁnd that hi = 3410 kJ/kg. we must use the steady ﬂow energy equation applied for a multiple-stream steady ﬂow process given by (10. which is the mass ﬂow rate of steam through the adiabatic ˙ turbine.08 bar and x = 0.4).10 A steam turbine is fed with 53 kg/s of high pressure steam at 70 bar and 500◦ C and with 10 kg/s of low pressure steam at 6 bar and 250◦ C.08 bar for a dryness fraction of at 70 bar and 500 e 0. Solution to Example 10. The steam leaving the turbine is at 0.90. From a Saturated Water and Steam Table.2 kg/s.10.9 Equation (10. From a Superheated Steam Table.9).The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 235 Solution to Example 10. and hi is the enthalpy ◦ C and h is the enthalpy at 0.10 The schematic of the steam turbine given is shown in Figure 10. Since the turbine has two inlets and one exit.4) applied to the given system to ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ (Q)in + (Ws )in = me he − mi1 hi1 − mi2 hi2 .

18 MJ/s. we can ﬁnd that the enthalpy of the steam leaving the turbine he = 163 kJ/kg + 0. the above equation can be rewritten as ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ (Q)out + (Ws )out = mi1 hi1 + mi2 hi2 − me he ˙ ˙ where (Q)out is given as 2% of (Ws )out . the steam turbine power output is 59.92 × 2409 ˙ kJ/kg = 2379 kJ/kg. The mass balance applied for a multiple-stream steady ﬂow process is given by (10.25 MW (W )out = 1.10. and the heat lost to the surroundings is about 1. From a Saturated Water and Steam Table. The mass ﬂow rates are given as mi1 = 53 kg/s and mi2 ˙ = 10 kg/s.5). which for the given system becomes ˙ ˙ me = mi1 + mi2 = (53 + 10) kg/s = 63 kg/s ˙ Substituting the known numerical values in (10.10 Schematic of the turbine of Example 10.27) Figure 10.02 × (W )out + (Ws )out = (53 × 3410 + 10 × 2958 − 63 × 2379) kJ/s = 60433 kW which gives 60433 kW ˙ = 59248 kW = 59. we get ˙ ˙ 0.25 MW.02 That is. we can ﬁnd that the enthalpy of the high pressure steam hi1 = 3410 kJ/kg and the enthalpy of the low pressure steam hi2 = 2958 kJ/kg. .07 bar and x = 0.92 (10.27).236 Chapter 10 Since the power output is positive for a turbine and since heat is lost to the surroundings. From a Superheated Steam Table. i2 E i1 E eE i1 is high pressure steam at 70 bar and 500◦ C i2 is low pressure steam at 6 bar and 250◦ C e is steam at 0.

28) Substituting the numerical data in the problem and the properties of air from Table 5. Pe Pi (γ−1)/γ = 300 K × 800 100 (1.23 kW That is.11 Air at 100 kPa and 300 K with a mass ﬂow rate of 0.005 kJ kg · K (Te − 300) K where Te is unknown.4 = 543.11 Method 1: Applying (10.4−1)/1.23 kW.28). Determine the method in which the total power requirement is the lowest.31) to determine Te as follows: Te = Ti Therefore. we get ˙ (Ws )in = 0.2 in (10. we can use (7.23 kJ/s = 12. Since the ﬂow is taken to be quasistatic adiabatic.05 kg/s is to be compressed to 800 kPa using any one of the following methods: Method 1: Quasistatic adiabatic compression from 100 kPa to 800 kPa in a single compressor.05 kg s 1.11) to the ﬁrst compressor operated adiabatically. Method 3: Quasistatic adiabatic compression from 100 kPa to 250 kPa in one compressor followed by constant pressure cooling to 300 K at 250 kPa. assuming that air behaves as an ideal gas. Solution to Example 10. the power requirement of a single compressor to adiabatically and quasistatically compress air at 100 kPa and 300 K to 800 kPa is 12.4 K .The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 237 Example 10. ˙ (Ws )in = 12. Method 2: Quasistatic adiabatic compression from 100 kPa to 250 kPa in one compressor followed by quasistatic adiabatic compression from 250 kPa to 800 kPa in a second compressor. and then quasistatic adiabatic compression from 250 kPa to 800 kPa in a second compressor. we get ˙ ˙ (Ws )in = m Cp (Te − Ti ) (10.

4−1)/1.28). we get the exit temperature as Te = Ti Pe Pi (γ−1)/γ = 300 K × 250 100 (1.238 Chapter 10 Method 2: Here.72 kJ/s = 7. is 5.28).94 kW.4−1)/1. and the hot air leaving it is compressed in a second compressor to 800 kPa.51 kW.4 = 418. not 800 kPa.3 K and the power consumption. . which is 12.8 K ˙ Substituting the numerical value of Te in (10. except for the fact that the exit pressure is now 250 kPa. which is therefore 10. The total power consumption is the lowest for Method 3. The second compressor here has an inlet temperature of 300 K. Both compressions are quasistatic adiabatic.51 kW to 5. except for that the inlet pressure is 250 kPa. and Te = 300 K × 800 250 (1. we get the exit temperature of the second compressor as Te = 389.72 kW.5 K The power requirement of the second compressor. evaluated using (10. and the exit pressure is 800 kPa. Therefore.45 kW. The power requirement of the ﬁrst compressor can be worked out in a manner similar to that is described under Method 1.51 kW. air is compressed to 250 kPa in one compressor. Method 3: The ﬁrst compressor here is similar to the ﬁrst compressor in Method 2.4−1)/1. Therefore. evaluated using (10.23 kW. ˙ is (Ws )in = 7. and it’s power requirement is 4. Method 3 uses the practice known as multi-stage compression with intercooling in order to decrease the work required to compress the gas between two speciﬁed pressures.4 = 543.8 K × 800 250 (1. The total power requirement of the two compressors is obtained by adding 4.4 = 389.51 kW to 7. The total power consumptions are the same for Method 1 and for Method 2. the inlet temperature is 389.94 kW. in which the hot air exiting the ﬁrst compressor is cooled to 300 K before it is fed to the second compressor.28). The second compressor works in a way very similar to the ﬁrst.8 K. we get (Ws )in = 4. The total power requirement of the two compressors is obtained by adding 4.72 kW.

the above . The steady ﬂow energy equation (10.11.29) (Ws )in = m Cp (T2 − T1 ) where T1 and T2 are the respective inlet and exit temperatures of the gas ﬂowing through the compressor. The potential and kinetic energy changes are negligible. ˙ The term (Ws )in is a positive quantity since work is always done on the gas by the compressor. T1 ˙ (Ws )in T2 ˙ Qout T 1 cooler Figure 10.3).11. the gas temperature T2 at the compressor exit is always larger than the temperature T1 at the inlet. the above equation becomes Qin = m Cp (T1 − T2 ). when applied to the cooler becomes ˙ ˙ Qin = m (he − hi ) since there is no work exchange and since the potential and kinetic energy changes are neglected. ˙ For an ideal gas. as shown in Figure 10. Equation (10.11) applied to the ideal gas ﬂow through the adiabatic compressor becomes ˙ ˙ (10. The gas leaving the compressor at T2 is cooled to its initial temperature T1 in a cooler.The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 239 Example 10. Solution to Example 10.12.12 An ideal gas is compressed by an adiabatic compressor in a steady-ﬂow process. Compare the heat removed from the gas in the cooler with the work done on the gas by the compressor. and cooled to its initial temperature.12 The schematic of the given system is shown in Figure 10.11 Schematic for Example 10. Consequently. Since ˙ the cooler exit temperature T1 is less than the inlet temperature T2 .

From a Saturated Water and Steam Table. the power input of the pump can be calculated as ˙ Win = 25 × (176 − 163) kJ/s = 325 kW. McGraw-Hill International Editions. M.30) which is a positive quantity. Example 10. where hi is the speciﬁc enthalpy of saturated water at 0.13 Neglecting the potential and kinetic energy changes. Determine the power input to the pump assuming adiabatic ﬂow through the pump.29) and (10. ◦ Table A-7 of Cengel. From a Compressed Water Table∗ . & Boles. we ﬁnd he = 176 kJ/kg.240 Chapter 10 equation can be rewritten as ˙ Qout = m Cp (T2 − T1 ) ˙ (10.11).14 Wet steam at 7 bar is throttled adiabatically to 1 bar and 110 C. Solution to Example 10. the work done on the gas by the compressor equals the heat removed from the gas in the cooler under the conditions stated in the problem.30). ∗ .A. ˙ ˙ Combining (10. Y.A. the power input to the adiabatic pump can be determined using (10. The water leaving the pump is at compressed state at 100 bar. Determine the dryness fraction of the wet steam at 7 bar. Example 10.13 A pump is used to increase the pressure of 25 kg/s of saturated water at 0. Substituting the numerical values known in (10. 3rd Edition. That is. we ﬁnd hi = 163 kJ/kg. 1998 Thermodynamics: an engineering ¸ approach. we get (Ws )in = Qout .11).07 bar entering the pump to 100 bar and 40◦ C.07 bar and he is the speciﬁc enthalpy at 50 bar and 40◦ C.

967 = 96. the dryness fraction of the wet steam at 7 bar can be calculated as x= he − hf 2696 − 697 = 0.13) which states that the speciﬁc enthalpies at the inlet hi and at the exit he are nearly the same. The value of he at 1 bar and 110◦ C can be obtained from a Superheated Steam Table as 2696 kJ/kg.8) to determine hi1 .The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 241 Solution to Example 10. is given by (10.7% = hg − hf 2764 − 697 Example 10. In this method. Since the pressure is 5 bar. we approximate hi1 to the saturated water speciﬁc enthalpy at 120◦ C. neglecting the changes in potential and kinetic energies. i2 denotes the superheated steam entering the mixing chamber at 10 bar and 200◦ C. we use the approximate method discussed in the Solution to Example (6.16).13). neglecting the changes in kinetic and potential energies.7.14 Steam ﬂow through the adiabatic throttling valve can be expressed by (10. The superheated steam speciﬁc enthalpy hi2 is directly read from a Superheated Steam Table as 2829 kJ/kg at 10 bar and 200◦ C. and e denotes the saturated steam leaving the mixing chamber at 8 bar. Solution to Example 10. The water at 5 bar and 120◦ C is at compressed state.15 Water ﬂowing at 5 bar and 120◦ C is mixed with superheated steam ﬂowing at 10 bar and 200◦ C in an adiabatic mixing chamber to produce saturated water at 8 bar. At 7 bar.15 The steady ﬂow energy equation applied to the adiabatic mixing chamber shown in Figure 10. The saturated water . which is 504 kJ/kg as read from a Saturated Water and Steam Table. Determine the ratio of the mass ﬂow rates of water and the superheated steam. a Saturated Water and Steam Table gives hf = 697 kJ/kg and hg = 2764 kJ/kg. Therefore. According to (10. where i1 denotes the water entering the mixing chamber at 5 bar and 120◦ C. the value of hi at 7 bar is the same as 2696 kJ/kg.

12.16.3) fed to a turbine at 10 bar and 370 C. . The mass ﬂow rate of the gas through the turbine is 4 times the mass ﬂow rate of the second gas stream. gas at 4 bar & 311 K gas at 10 bar & 643 K 1 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 f¢ 3 4 2 2 Figure 10.16). ◦ Solution to Example 10. Substituting the known numerical values in (10. we can determine the ratio of the mass ﬂow rate of water to the mass ﬂow rate of superheated steam as hi2 − he 2829 − 721 mi1 = 9. in an adiabatic mixing chamber. The gas stream exiting the turbine is mixed with a second stream of the same gas ﬂowing at 4 bar and 38◦ C.7 = = mi2 he − hi1 721 − 504 Example 10. The temperature of the gas leaving the mixing chamber is to be found. Determine the temperature of the gas leaving the mixing chamber at 4 bar.12. neglecting the changes in kinetic and potential energies and assuming that the gas concerned behaves as an ideal gas.242 Chapter 10 speciﬁc enthalpy he is directly read from a Saturated Water and Steam Table as 721 kJ/kg at 8 bar.12 Schematic of the system given in Example 10.16 The schematic of the given system is shown in Figure 10. which is the temperature of the gas stream labeled 4 in Figure 10.16 A gas (γ = 1. is assumed to expand quasistatically and adiabatically to 4 bar as it ﬂows through the turbine.

m2 = 4 m3 .3 = 520. the above equation becomes ˙ m2 Cp (T4 − T2 ) = m3 Cp (T3 − T4 ) ˙ which yields T4 = m2 T2 + m3 T3 ˙ ˙ m2 + m3 ˙ ˙ (10. It is given that the mass ˙ ﬂow rate of the gas stream through the turbine is 4 times the mass ﬂow rate of ˙ the second gas stream. which is the temperature of the exit gas stream from the turbine.31) to ˙ T4 = 4 T2 + 311 K 4 T2 + T3 = 5 5 (10. First of all note that m2 is the mass ﬂow rate through the turbine.31) can be used to ﬁnd T2 as follows: T2 = T1 P2 P1 (γ−1)/γ = 643 K × 4 10 (1.5 K in (10.3−1)/1.The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 243 The steady ﬂow energy equation applied to the gas ﬂow through an adiabatic mixing chamber with negligible changes in the potential and kinetic energies.5 K = 247.17 Air (Cp = 1. becomes ˙ m2 (h4 − h2 ) = m3 (h3 − h4 ) ˙ which is written in accordance with the stream labels shown on Figure 10. Example 10.12. we need the value of each and every term on the right-hand side of (10. Note that the second gas stream is heated from 38◦ C to 205.4) is heated as it ﬂows steadily through a pipe of uniform cross-sectional area 150 cm2 . we get T4 = 478. and therefore (7. Therefore.16).31) To ﬁnd T4 .6◦ C. which reduces (10.6 K = 205.5◦ C.005 kJ/kg · K and γ = 1.32) since T3 = 311 K. The ﬂow through the turbine is assumed to be quasistatic adiabatic. Since the gas is assumed to behave as an ideal gas.5◦ C Substituting T2 = 520.31). and that ˙ m3 is the mass ﬂow rate of the second gas stream. It enters at 300 kPa and 345 K with a velocity of 25 m/s and .6◦ C by mixing it with the turbine exit at 247. given by (10. We need to ﬁnd T2 .32).

The second part of the problem states that 460.75 kJ per kg of air ﬂowing through the pipe. Determine the amount of heat added per kilogram of air. the ﬁrst law applied to the given closed system yields. what will be the ﬁnal temperature and pressure of air in the container? Solution to Example 10. we get Qin = 460. If this amount of heat is supplied to 1 kg of air in a closed rigid container at 300 kPa and 345 K.75 m = ΔU since no work is supplied to the air in the closed rigid container.3) applied to the pipe ﬂow yields c2 − c 2 i ˙ ˙ Qin = m he − hi + e 2 since there is no work exchange or potential energy change. Since air is taken as an ideal gas. let us use the fact that the ﬂow is steady.75 m kJ. To determine the exit velocity.17 The steady ﬂow energy equation (10. Suppose the mass of air in the close container is m. we get ˙ J c2 − 252 Qin = 1005 × (800 − 345) K + e m ˙ kg · K 2 m s 2 (10.244 Chapter 10 leaves at 200 kPa and 800 K.75 kJ/kg of heat is supplied to air in a closed rigid container at 300 kPa and 345 K.33) where the exit velocity ce is unknown. Thus (10. Therefore.24) gives ce = Ai Ae Pi Pe Te Ti ci = 150 150 300 200 800 345 25 m/s = 87 m/s ˙ Substituting ce = 87 m/s in (10.33). we get ΔU = m Cv (Tf − Ti ) . Substituting the given numerical values in the above equation with the assumption that air behaves as an ideal gas. 460. and therefore the mass ﬂow rate is the same at the inlet and the exit. then Qin = 460. and may be assumed to behave as an ideal gas.

18 Compressed air is preheated in a shell-andtube heat exchanger. Exhaust . gases at 550◦ C c E E E E T at Te ◦ C air E E E E T air at 200◦ C c gases at 250◦ C Figure 10. The pressure in the closed container can be obtained using the ideal gas equation of state for the given closed system as follows: m= Pf Vf Pi Vi = R Tf R Ti Since Vf = Vi for the closed rigid container. shown in Figure 10.13 Schematic of a heat exchanger of Example 10.18.13.7 345 = 858 kPa Note that when the same amount of heat is provided. 460.7 K.718 (Tf − 345) which gives Tf = 986.75 m = m 0.The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 245 Therefore. It enters the heat exchanger at 9 bar and 200◦ C with a mass ﬂow rate of 16 kg/s. You may try to ﬁgure out why it is so as an exercise. before it enters the combustion chamber. the temperature and pressure increases in the closed system are far greater than those in the open system. we get Pf = Pi Tf Ti = 300 kPa 986. Example 10. It gains heat from the exhaust gases leaving a turbine.

19) can be used. let us apply the steady ﬂow energy equation (10.35) . Solution to Example 10. ˙ ˙ Qin = m Cp (Te − Ti ) = 16 × 1. Solution to Example 10. To determine the heat transferred from the exhaust gases to the air. (10.246 Chapter 10 gases enter the heat exchanger at 1.34) which gives the exit temperature of air Te as 519◦ C. and comment on your results. Taking the exhaust gases as A and the compressed air as B and assuming ideal gas behaviour.3) to one of the streams. Assume that Cp for the exhaust gases are the same as that for air and that the heat exchanger operates under adiabatic conditions.34) by 14. we get Te − 200 17 = 16 550 − 250 (10. Substituting the numerical values known in the above equation.2 bar and 250◦ C at a mass ﬂow rate of 17 kg/s. we get Te − 200 17 = 14 550 − 250 (10. Determine the exit temperature of the air and the amount of heat transferred from the exhaust gases to the air. For air.18 with a mass ﬂow rate of air taken as of 14 kg/s.005 × (519 − 200) kJ/s = 5.18 For an adiabatic heat exchanger with two ﬂuid streams.4 bar and 550◦ C and leave at 1.19) can be rewritten as mexhaust gases ˙ (he − hi )air (Te − Ti )air = = mair ˙ (hi − he )exhaust gases (Ti − Te )exhaust gases since Cp for the exhaust gases is assumed to be the same as that for the air.19 Rework Example 10.13 MJ/s Example 10. (10.19 Replacing 16 in (10.

which is 550◦ C. Since the air leaving the heat exchanger is receiving heat from the exhaust gases entering the heat exchanger. The exit air temperature of 564◦ C is greater than the temperature of the exhaust gases entering the heat exchanger. that is.1) mi = me ˙ and by c2 − c 2 i ˙ ˙ Qin + (Ws )in = m he − hi + e + g (ze − zi ] ˙ 2 (10. Therefore. me1 + me1 + · · · = mi1 + mi2 + · · · ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ (10. 10. we conclude that the mass ﬂow rate of air should not be as low as 14 kg/s.The First Law applied to Steady Flow Processes 247 which gives the exit air temperature Te as 564◦ C. Thus. the steady ﬂow energy equation (SFEE) becomes ˙ ˙ Qin + (Ws )in = me1 he1 + ˙ c2 e1 + gze1 2 c2 + me2 he2 + e2 + gze2 ˙ + ··· 2 c2 − mi1 hi1 + i1 + gzi1 ˙ 2 c2 − · · (10. a system with many inlets and many exits for mass to ﬂow in and out of the system.5) .8 Summary • A steady ﬂow process with a single-stream ﬂowing through the system is described by ˙ (10. the exhaust gas temperature must always be greater than the air temperature. • For a multiple-stream steady ﬂow process.3) which is the steady ﬂow energy equation (abbreviated to SFEE) for a single-stream process.4) · − mi2 hi2 + i2 + gzi2 ˙ 2 which is solved together with the mass balance for a multiple-stream steady ﬂow process. the answer we got is unrealistic.

i2.23) . v could be found from the Steam Table. then the ideal gas equation of state would give v = R T /P . The mass ﬂow rate of the ﬂuid through the cross-sectional area A is then m = Aρc = ˙ where v is the speciﬁc volume. Therefore.248 Chapter 10 where the subscripts e1. If the ﬂuid were steam or a mixture of water and steam. · · · denote exit 1. respectively. the mass ﬂow rate of an ideal gas through the cross-sectional area A is ˙ m= AcP RT (10. e2. If the ﬂuid were assumed to behave as an ideal gas. at a uniform speed c and at a uniform density ρ. and so on. • We can add a quantity in J/kg to a quantity in (m/s)2 since they are equivalent as shown below: N·m kg · m m m J = = = kg kg s2 kg s 2 • Assume that a ﬂuid ﬂows perpendicular to a cross section with a crosssectional area A. and so on. · · · denote inlet 1. respectively. inlet 2.24) Ac v (10. exit 2. and the subscripts i1.

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