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Forced Vortex

Aim
To obtain the surface profile and the total head distribution in a forced vortex flow and compare it with the theoretical values.

Apparatus
Cylindrical tank Power supply for motor: Single Phase, 220 volts, 50 Hz, 5 Amp with earth. Pointer to measure the coordinates of the profile.

Theory

Forced Vortex Forced vortex can be created by rotating the body containing the fluid or by paddling in fluid. Streamlines for such a flow will be concentric circles and the total energy is constant along a streamline. However the energy varies from streamline to streamline. The main characteristic of the forced vortex flow is that angular velocity () remains constant even for two different streamlines. We know that, = 2 = Where, and = acceleration in radial and z direction = acceleration due to gravity = angular velocity r = radius ME-313, IIT Gandhinagar, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Page 1

Also, Equation 1. Integrating above equation gives Equation 2. Where, = height from the bottom surface of the Forced vortex =
2 2 2

= = =

Equation 3.
Where, N = RPM of the motor Equation 4. Where, H = Total Head

2 60

2 2

Procedure
Fill half of the cylindrical tank with water. Rotate the cylindrical tank with constant fast speed. Let the surface take steady parabolic shape. Measure the speed of rotation. In steady state, take the surface profile readings with the help of a pointer. at = 0 is taken as the datum for all these readings. Repeat the procedure for different RPM values.

ME-313, IIT Gandhinagar, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

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Observation
RPM=139 rev/min Radius(cm) 0 1.97 2.51 5.36 7.88

Zactual(cm) 0 0.72 1.23 4.23 7.24

Ztheoretical(cm) 0 0.419105 0.680358 3.102558 6.705679

Total Head, H(cm) 0 0.83821 1.360717 6.205116 13.41136

RPM=162 rev/min Radius(cm) 0 2.37 3.41 4.71 6.93

Zactual(cm) 0 1.39 2.35 3.95 7.5

Ztheoretical(cm) 0 0.823925 1.705688 3.254112 7.044614

Total Head, H(cm) 0 1.647849 3.411375 6.508225 14.08923

RPM=180 rev/min Radius(cm) 0 1.74 3.25 5.26 8.63

Zactual(cm) 0 0.63 2.16 5.1 11.75

Ztheoretical(cm) 0 0.548282 1.912813 5.010456 13.48737

Total Head, H(cm) 0 1.096565 3.825625 10.02091 26.97474

ME-313, IIT Gandhinagar, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

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Profiles
RPM=139 rev/min
16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Experimental Z Theoretica Z Total Head

-10

-5

10

RPM=162 rev/min
16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 experimental Z theoretical Z Total Head

-10

-5

10

RPM=180 rev/min
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -10 -5 0 5 10 Experimental Z theoretical Z Total Head

ME-313, IIT Gandhinagar, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

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Error
Human errors in measuring the profile readings. Centre of Forced vortex was manually judged.

Conclusion
Surface profile and total head distribution profile for Forced vortex at various RPM have been observed and compared with theoretical values.

-Vrushiket Patil(09003044) Mechanical Btech 2009

ME-313, IIT Gandhinagar, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

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