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ENDING THE THIRD WORLD WAR
Dr Romesh Senewiratne ©2007
We must overcome violence and oppression without resorting to violence and
Martin Luther King 1963
AUSTRALIA'S NEW WAR WEAPONS
Today’s headline in The Age declares:
“No victory in Iraq: Nelson”
Brendan Nelson, trained as a doctor, previously head of the Australian Medical
Association (AMA) and now serving the Australian people as War Minister, was
giving a speech at a defence conference. He apparently said that “there is no such
thing as victory in Iraq”, defining ‘success’ as “essentially...that the elected Iraqi
Government, supported by its own Iraqi security forces, will be able to provide
economic and defence security to its own people for the foreseeable future”, but
that the country would be “characterised by degrees of sectarian and other
The Australian Prime Minister John Winston Howard appointed Nelson as his War
Minister, as the office was termed in the British Empire during the Second World
War, before the euphemistic term ‘Defence Minister’ was adopted. War Minister
is a better description of Nelson’s position, since Australia is a nation at war. One
of several nations involved in several fronts in World War Three, as they were in
World War Two, and the Cold War (which was the first major conflict of World
Australian ‘defence planning’, as evidenced by Dr Nelson’s recent acquisitions for
the Australian people (and their children and grandchildren) is not based on
legitimate defence needs, but on a so-called ‘forward strategy’ – one closely
integrated with the militaristic agenda of the USA, but with a close eye on
Australia’s economy. That is, the economy of the rich elite in Australia that sit on
the boards of major corporations and own shares in the likes of BHP and AWB –
and Metal Storm.
Metal Storm is a publicly listed weapons-manufacturing company based in
Brisbane, Queensland. It specialises in ‘electronically stacked projectiles’ –
massive large-bore guns that electronically fire multiple rounds of ammunition.
Originally established by Queensland inventor James Michael O’Dwyer, who
patented the company’s technology, and still its biggest shareholder, previous
Metal Storm directors include General Wayne A. Downing and Admiral William
Owens (both directors till 2004).
General Downing came out of retirement in 2001 to ‘detect, disrupt and destroy
global terrorist organizations and those who support them’ as National Director
and Deputy National Security Adviser for combating terrorism after the Bush
administration declared its ‘War on Terrorism’.
Admiral William Owens was appointed Vice-Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
by President Bill Clinton, a hero of “Operation Desert Storm” as Commander of
the US Sixth Fleet in 1990-92. He was senior military adviser for Dick Cheney and
Frank Carlucci when they acted as Secretaries of Defense.
At present the Executive Chairman of Metal Storm’s Board of Directors is James
O’Dwyer’s son, Terence James O’Dwyer, who is incongruously also the Chairman
of the Board of Brumby’s Bakeries (since 2003). Also on the Board is James Crunk,
who worked for many years in senior positions at Lockheed Martin, a major
weapons manufacturer for the US military.
Recently it was reported in the Murdoch and Fairfax newspapers (16.2.07), that
debate was raging amongst the enthusiasts of different American warplanes. All
are built by Lockheed Martin, proud manufacturers of the B52s that rained bombs
on Vietnam in the 1970s, and many other countries since.
Nelson, his prime minister John Howard and the new head of the Australian
Armed Forces, Angus Houston, and others support the purchase of 70 to 100 ‘JSF’
or ‘Joint Strike Fighter’ warplanes at an ‘early estimate’ of $77 million dollars
each. The Age reports that other experts preferred ‘F-22 Raptors’, at $177 million
each. The F-22 is ‘regarded as the best fighter in the world’, according to the
report, and is being sought by US allies Japan and Israel.
In a clear indication that the Cold War is not yet over, the ‘fighter in the region’ is
apparently the Russian-built ‘Sukhoi Flanker’ which is being bought by Indonesia,
Malaysia, Thailand, India and China. Critics of the JSF purchase believe that the
Russian Flankers will ‘outclass’ the Joint Strike Fighters, which will not be
operational in Australia till 2014. Brendan Nelson apparently wants the air power
‘gap’ to be filled with 24 Lockheed Martin F/A-18F Super Hornet fighter-bombers,
at $126 million each.
TRAINING FOR PERPETUAL WARFARE and CREATING TERROR
All training changes ones thinking. While this is obvious, it is not often looked at in
terms of damage that training can cause – except, perhaps, training with Al-Qaida
and other ‘terrorist organisations’.
Al-Qaida is an organisation that uses terrorism in the pursuit of political/religious
objectives. This does make it a ‘terrorist organisation’, but not any more than are
the governments of the United States or United Kingdom. In fact, the deliberate
creation of terror in civilian populations (and soldiers) has been a key strategy in
warfare for thousands of years – and was consciously adopted as a military
strategy by Winston Churchill, as it was by the Germans the Allies were fighting.
At the beginning of the current war in Iraq in 2001, we were witness to the ‘Shock
and Awe’ strategy, as it was called by the US Military itself, being the
‘demonstration of overwhelming military superiority’ by dramatically bombing
Baghdad in the early hours of the morning and televising the spectacle to a
hungry audience of Fox television. This was terrorism. It was also, no doubt, part
of a carefully calculated military strategy based on supposedly sound
psychological warfare principles and practice. It was supposed to frighten the
Iraqi soldiers into surrender and the Iraqi public into abandoning whatever
support they might have had for Saddam Hussein and the Baath Party.
The same strategists, and the political masters they serve, were apparently
labouring under the delusion that once they ‘toppled Saddam’ (or even his statue,
as it turned out) that the streets of Baghdad and Basra would be lined with
cheering Iraqis, welcoming the American tanks rolling in from Kuwait to liberate
them from the Sunni monster, Saddam, who had genocided Kurds and instituted
The police team had been sent by the Queensland Government of Peter Beattie. as it has turned out there was much more to the history. These men were subsequently exonerated. to prevent disorder/restore order. to the fury of the young man's friends and family.they call them. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE BULLY MEN After the recent supposed 'riot' on Palm Island. working together with British Military Intelligence and the Israeli Secret Service (MOSSAD). in response to their burning a police station in which an innocent young man was said to have been recently bludgeoned to death by local (white) police officers. as there always is. the same strategy is employed for suicidal prisoners in Australian privately-run detention centres.4 a reign of terror over the majority Shia population. There was the important matter of oil. If this results in suicidality. and carried an arsenal of weapons including their horrible new Taser guns. the organization that leads the world in such torture is the Central Intelligence Agency of the USA. The 'special response group' smashed down the doors of houses at 4. Ironically. These have read manuals and texts on how to bully successfully . and was trying to develop nuclear weapons with which to threaten ‘its neighbours’ – notably the nuclear-armed state of Israel. But.to deliberately cause a sense of hopelessness and despondency. as was revealed by the ABC Four Corners report on Woomera Detention Centre a few years ago. 'up ego' and 'down ego' techniques. terrorising the residents. The 'bully men' are trained by experts at bullying. It is ironic because of the use of the word . who have themselves been trained by bullies. The monster who was stockpiling chemical and biological weapons. a 7-year old boy talked about the terror imposed on the indigenous community by the 'bully men'. off the Queensland coast.00am. the prisoner is placed under 24-hour guard. The men were dressed in full riot gear. Down Ego means carefully calculated and considered humiliation designed to 'break the spirit' .
especially the pharmaceutical industries all play a role. 'national interests' and 'national pride'. of course. The most obvious connection between the military and the economy lies in the fact that arms sales underpin the 'world's largest economy' .that of the USA. and how is it enforced? Police and law enforcement agencies enforcing laws. who enforces it. I have heard right wingers dismiss this as a 'myth'. ENFORCEMENT OF THE DOMINANT PARADIGM What is the dominant paradigm. the media and the medical industries. Key concepts and catchwords used by the Dominant Paradigm are 'national security'. UK. let alone drug companies on the global stockmarkets. many years ago. These nations. China. given the dominant role of mining. that the 5 permanent members of the UN Security Council produced 80% of the world's conventional weapons. the USA. automotive and oil companies. the educational system. including the manufacturing and technology industries. The biggest budget in history for Intelligence is annually increased in response to the 'War on Terrorism' . The second largest arms producer is the UK.nor are they the only nations to export weapons and military hardware to one or both (or several) sides of armed conflicts in so-called 'Third World' nations. but there can be little doubt that the history of the military is deeply intertwined with that of industry. Russia and France are all active protagonists in the Third World War. Those in the know have spoken for many decades about a 'military-industrial complex'. and that this alliance is a key driver of the economy.that of the Central Intelligence Agency. All are liable to corruption in . along with major corporations and the governments that represent their interests.5 'intelligence'. and the incongruity has been pointed out. but they are not. the legal system. the banking and accountancy industries. the only ones .
and against the Third World. that we are experiencing the Third World War.famous demonstrators of simple conditioning in pigeons and dogs. in considerable anguish. psychology is reduced to the study of behaviour. reacted in different ways. largely as observed in the 'scientific tradition' of John Watson in the USA and Ivan Pavlov in Russia . In theory and in practice. if the so-called 'Cold War' is regarded as a 'real' war. Back in 2001. . In the lexicon of the dominant paradigm. Psychological warfare is. I read that the Third World War was recognised. was being fought in. I read recently that the American writer Thomas Friedman wrote. directed at minds. Many do not regard this to be the case .rather a period of prolonged peace brought about by the threat of 'mutually assured destruction'. Those I spoke to. or the most insidious form of warfare in widespread use . he said. in 1997. RECOGNISING THE THIRD WORLD WAR Though I had not then read this insightful analysis that recognises economic warfare as a key aspect of modern war strategy and practice. Some agreed that there had been global warfare since the end of the Second World War.psychological warfare. This war. by a delegate of the Government of Singapore at an international forum. by definition. in 2001 after the September 11th attack on the World Trade Center in New York. I myself recognised that the Third World War had begun ten years ago. to have begun back in the 1970s.6 belief and action. These do not adequately account for the impact of economic warfare. including the many forms and uses of propaganda.
how it could be spent to improve the security of the people of the United States of America. in the capitalist and communist worlds. especially in the past year. termed by its instigators as the 'War on Terrorism'. and MacDonalds to add inches.000. queens.000. Then consider how it is likely to be spent by the Pentagon of the next couple of years . the current global conflict. At the time of writing the administration of George W Bush is 'surging' an extra 21 thousand troops with the objective. screaming "get down on the floor!". . The commoners.$1.7 PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE The experts in psychological warfare. has clearly escalated since 2001. WAR ON OR BY TERRORISM? Regardless of what we call it. But the ruling elite always claimed to be ruling for the good of the 'ordinary people'. those of us who watch international news on TV. also.000. often in the early hours of the morning when the inhabitants are least expecting it. were keen to employ these scientific discoveries to rid their respective societies of troublemakers. and more broadly by the armed forces in urban warfare. Just like the movies. Since the much trumpeted establishment of 'democracy' in 'Western' nations previously ruled by kings. Consider a budget of a trillion dollars . rather than the bane of peace-loving folk around the world. popes and emperors. we are told. Heavily armed and armoured men smash down the door.unless enough voices are raised to change the current plans. The old imperial claim to be 'pacifying the natives' springs to mind. with the basic strategy employed by those trained in 'tracking down terrorists'. Consider. We are all familiar. But these have access to wealth unheard of in the olden days. when the soldiers and police have grown up on a diet of Hollywood movies and Fox news washed down with Coke to add life. those who in common language 'rule' today are called 'Prime Ministers' and 'Presidents'. dissidents and opponents of the ruling elite. but this also happens in real life. of 'pacifying' Baghdad.000.
as the term has been used by imperialists. but rather about creating obedience . by a friend. 'enemy combatants' or civilians. Over the years I spent in general practice I looked after many men who fought in the Second World War.when to use it. than the old veterans from WWI and WWII. drug abuse and suicide amongst Vietnam veterans is well documented. as others have written. The bottom line is that threatening to kill people. despite possible misgivings.but then 'pacification'. to be regarded as adequately trained. a fascinating ‘field manual’ written by psychiatrists at the University of Queensland for doctors working on the frontline and in repatriation hospitals for the treatment of soldiers traumatised by fighting in the Second World War. and the incidence of alcohol.8 The paradigm in which soldiers train.often described euphemistically as 'compliance'. or attack them. and when not to use it. Many were depressed. most will obey. and when it is not. To refrain from killing other people – something ingrained in the human psyche. according to the text. Soldiers (and police officers) are also trained to follow orders. the soldier. and sometimes physically. injured or triumphant. is the reception that soldiers received at home when they returned. if given the order to do so. One key point is made in the introduction – that the training of a soldier requires him to suppress (and disregard) a profound sense in ‘normal’ people to preserve human life. THE TRAINING OF THE TRAINERS A few years ago I was given. and how . None spoke readily about the war. but it was soon clear to me that those who fought (and lost) in Vietnam were generally in a far worse condition. from WWI and WWII. mentally. has never been about creating contentment. must be prepared to kill. A key factor. and when those orders are to kill either other soldiers. it was published in 1942. on tranquillisers and/or antidepressants. when it is acceptable/legal. Titled The Nervous Soldier. now infecting the police force to a greater degree as both unite against the 'threat of terrorism' is centred on the use of 'lethal' and 'non-lethal' force . or harm them. and a smaller number who fought in Vietnam or Korea. is not an effective way of creating peace . Instead.
Newspaper columnists obligingly refer to the USA doing the ‘heavy lifting’ in Afghanistan. It may even confront its addiction to war and acknowledge the limits of its power. writes: “Washington’s defeat isn’t all bad news. .2. a senior lecturer in international relations at Deakin University. wisdom and power may no longer be strangers in Washington’s diplomacy. the occupation of their homeland by the armies of ‘Christian’ nations (including the USA. In a recent Opinion page of The Age (23. yet again. rather than decrease. In terms of the current ‘fronts’ in the ‘War on Terror’.9 they were treated when they returned in 1973. be viewed as the current phase of a Third World War. UK and Australia) is likely to unite Shiite and Sunni Moslems against the invaders. because of public opposition to the war. If anything. and Iraqi Shiites actively fought against Iranian Shiites during the Iran-Iraq war of the 1980s) training Iraqis in American-style warfare (even if it called ‘defence’) is likely to increase. Dr Birchill argues that “Iraqi forces cannot be ‘trained’ to place loyalty to the state before their religious convictions”. They were despised when they were not ignored. I believe. A chastened US might not act so recklessly in the future. and found much difficulty integrating back into civilian society. placed loyalty to the state ahead of their religious convictions at times of war. the carnage in their country. If the US recognises there are no military solutions to the political and economic challenges it faces around the world. in many countries. The history of the Crusades is deeply imprinted in the consciousness of Moslems in the Middle-East. the Australian and USA governments claim that a key aspect of their military’s role is ‘training Iraqi troops’ and ‘stepping down as the Iraqis stand up’.07) Scott Birchill.” Describing Howard’s decision to send ‘70 additional military advisers’ as ‘strange’ and ‘irrelevant’. as is a repugnance towards being colonised. which can. While this may not be true (Protestants and Catholics have.
a completely new paradigm is developed that is intrinsically peaceful and harmonious. scientifically. the earth has not had polar ice caps – and the sea level has consequently been 100-150 metres higher than the present . that humanity (and other life) is threatened by the next ice age – to be expected in several thousand years time.10 Training young men and women to fight wars. The fossil record indicates that ice ages are times of stress for all life. as understood by modern geologists and palaeontologists. It is considered heretical in some circles to doubt the seriousness of this problem. geologically speaking. A strong case could be made for eradicating the species of mosquitoes that carry malaria and yellow fever. equips them poorly for creating peace. and this will end quite soon. GLOBAL WARMING IS NOT AS DANGEROUS AS MILITARISM It is widely accepted. It is also true. in an ‘interglacial period’. The qualification of ‘valuable’ life is important. Unless. in fact. We are. though some with longer memories (or lifespan) may remember the fear. from the planet. since ancient times. often simplistically reduced to ‘the threat of Global Warming’. This is hardly surprising. has included the strategic use of fear – indeed terror – it is painfully obvious why the US-declared ‘War on Terror’ is doomed to failure. in geological time frames (of millions of years). which is what military training is centred on. Such a paradigm would train soldiers to be protectors of humanity – and of the planet as a whole (and the valuable life on it). viruses and other microbes that cause epidemic disease. that the biggest problem facing humanity (apart from terrorism) is environmental destruction. that for most of the earth’s history. since few could sensibly argue that we should not try to eradicate. in the 1960s and 70s that we were heading for ‘another ice age’. given the basic physiology of cellular life (which thrives on warmth) – and the obvious difference between biomass in the tropics versus the polar regions. while the periods of global warmth have been times of natural abundance. Given that military training. It is true. rather than one centred on violence as a means of stopping violence. of course.
what would be the effect? Assuming. and wastage of non-renewable natural resources must be addressed – especially wastage of fossil fuels and minerals (including radioactive minerals such as uranium and thorium). The very term. Other problems such as soil salinity. It stands to reason that a rise in sea level. that is. in the Indian and Pacific Oceans would. too. but will not be so in terms of human days. ‘greenhouse effect’ says it all – the earth will be more humid and warm than at present. caused. weeks and years. This may not be a disaster at all. Belgium and the Netherlands. dry land for the needs. of course. just as there is now. be able to adapt to the rising sea-level in most countries. as indeed it will at some stage (and would have. it may even delay the next ice age and result in a greener planet than we enjoy at present. There will remain plenty of room on safe. for humanity to ignore the incontrovertible evidence of serious environmental damage. given the slow rate at which the oceans will rise in terms of human lifespan. may flourish in that time. The . loss of biodiversity and deforestation and desertification as direct and indirect effects of human activity. in the extreme. especially in lowlying countries.11 day. with plenty of room for human habitation. of tens of billions of human beings. Current newspaper articles inform the unwary that the ‘greenhouse effect’. Many islands. most of the earth’s continental masses would remain above water. before falling again. without human existence or activity) the rise may be sudden in geological time. not less. currently squandered by hunger and oppression. If the sea level does rise. At the same time it is foolishness. Venice would be largely underwater. will cause greater extremes of temperature and climate. Architects and builders will. if the sea level rose 10 metres over 100 years – a far bigger estimate than current predictions. Nevertheless. that this was accompanied by changes in rainfall and an increase in average global temperature. by ‘carbon emissions’ and increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. we are told. no doubt. For example. including atmospheric (and soil and water) pollution. like Bangladesh. though not the greed. coupled with increasing global temperature will result in more rain. There would be widespread flooding. And a lot of ingenuity.
including grasses (which assist with the widespread problem of desalination) and help trap soil and prevent erosion. eking a precarious existence by subsistence . leafy plants. the process by which soil loses its fertility’. we are told. since all plants absorb carbon-dioxide and produce oxygen. A report in The Age tells us that Australia’s ‘major energy companies’ have shifted their position and are calling on the Federal Government ‘to back national emissions trading as a way to put a price on greenhouse pollution and help reduce Australia’s contribution to climate change’. there are well known risks from radioactive waste and accidents and dangers of the technology being used to produce more weapons (including ‘depleted uranium’). But there is a better solution. as any year 8 high school student should be able to tell you. which is a uniquely resilient and valuable plant that has been subjected to a disastrous eradication campaign by the government of the USA and its allies for the past half century. Politicians around the ‘developed’ world are also moving in the direction of nuclear power – claiming that nuclear power produces less ‘greenhouse gases’ than coal. the threat to humanity is too much carbon dioxide (and carbon monoxide) in the air the obvious solution is to grow fast-growing.12 solution. While this may be true. indeed. If. which use up oxygen and produce carbon dioxide in their respiration. and hemp. is something called ‘carbon trading’ and ‘carbon credits’. adding that it’s the opposite in animals. The ‘simple method’ of the farmers. Reporter Lydia Polgreen attributes 3 million newly tree-covered hectares to ‘better conservation and improved rainfall’ – ‘thanks in part to poor farmers whose simple methods cost little or nothing at all’. THE GOOD EXAMPLE OF THE FARMERS OF NIGER On February 17 The Age carried a report from the New York Times titled ‘Niger turns back the desert with trees’. This was achieved ‘largely without relying on the large-scale planting of trees or other expensive methods often advocated by African politicians and aid groups for halting desertification.
sorghum. This large-scale tree-planting was not expensive. of Dr Wangari Maathai and the Green Belt Movement was a crucial reason for the ending of the drought in Niger. though millions of trees were planted across Kenya and its neighbouring nations since the 1970s.13 agriculture on the edge of the vast Sahara desert. People could own trees. For the last twenty years they have been carefully planting their millet. and this meant they were more valuable alive than dead. Importantly. churches and community organisations. But increased rainfall in the last few years – not explained in this article – has turned the tide. Poignantly. it was the women of Kenya who led the recovery of mother nature . nurturing the trees that provide extra income by selling their fruit. from schools. that made all trees the property of the state. was famine. Instead of expanding. bark and branches. The expected fate of the 13 million people living in a country where only 12 percent of the land could be cultivated. Although ‘large-scale planting of trees (and) other expensive measures advocated by African politicians and aid groups’ are denigrated as ‘the process by which soil loses its fertility’ in this New York Times article. it is worth serious consideration that the massive tree-planting activities. the government of Niger abandoned a law from colonial times. was to abandon their old method of pulling out saplings before planting the new crops. The conscious aim was to repair the terrible damage done to the continent during the long centuries of European rule. over the past thirty years. the desert has been shrinking – and the vegetation is densest in some of the most densely populated parts of the country. followed by that of institutions – including those of the United Nations Organisation. peanuts and beans around the saplings. such as the World Bank and International Monetary Fund – that were established by Europeans for the postWWII exploitation of Africa. which had led many to believe the southward expansion of the Sahara desert was inevitable and unstoppable. It was done by thousands of volunteers. Aiding the greening of the Niger was the end of a prolonged drought in the 1970s and 80s.
The same held for the empires of the Spanish and Portuguese. notoriously remarked: “I do not understand this squeamishness about the use of gas. Men like Winston Churchill. . but then.14 from the horrendous wounds caused by ruling men from various European nations. rising to high political office. according to the agents of the notorious King Leopold II (who had claimed all of the Congo as his personal possession). to drive them deeper and deeper into the forest in search of rubber.” Men like Churchill and Cecil Rhodes in Southern Africa. They were free to become paid soldiers. though 10 times the size of Belgium. and most of all. wild animals for zoos. as a source of precious minerals – metal ores. the terrorisation of the villagers. wild rubber. especially in countries like ours that are said to be members of the ‘free world’. In time. regarded trees as timber. This was viewed as a source of ‘natural timber’ – rainforest ‘hardwoods’. But that was hundreds of years later – hundreds of years of vigorous struggle by the brave champions of emancipation and true freedom. and to participate in the economy – the free market – as consumers and ‘workers’. to vote for a choice of two white men to lead the country. was confined to ‘Belgian Free Congo’ – later known as Zaire. some became professionals. the slaves were ‘liberated’. procured and sold as ‘black gold’ to labour in the mines and plantations in the newly discovered American continents. the French and the Dutch. The ‘natives’ in the ‘great game of empire’ were also resources – once they were openly captured. with much fanfare. FREEDOM IN A PEACEFUL PARADIGM Freedom is talked about a lot these days. I am strongly in favour of using poisoned gas against uncivilised tribes. whose colonial ‘empire’. whose exploitation required. and precious stones. speaking of the Kurds in Iraq as British Colonial Secretary. who in 1922. research and hunting trophies. It especially held for the Belgians. as did colonists and their rulers all over the British Empire.
the planet we all call home.15 This is a throwback from the dubious cold war paradigm of ‘free world’ (Capitalist/West) versus ‘Communist’/’East’. p. . the Second World (Russia. in the Australian Institute of International Affairs publication Australia in the New World Order: foreign policy in the 1970s (1976). 1976. sub-Dean of Melbourne’s Monash University argued. Japan and Israel none of which was regarded as a Third World country). for a further division of the poor 'Third World' into a 'Third' and an even poorer 'Fourth World': “The so-called group of 77 developing countries. and for this reason it is now common to refer to the better-off states as the ‘Third World’ and the worse-off states as the ‘Fourth World’. in one world . and interdependent web of life. They now number about 100 nations in all. Or we risk a Fourth World War. led by the good example of the farmers of Niger and the thousands involved in the tree-planting Green Belt Movement needs to recognise that we all live in one. Andrew Farran. actually includes practically every nation in Africa (excepting South Africa).115) A new harmonious paradigm.undoubtedly the resource-rich developing states are now in a much better and more hopeful economic position than almost all of the others. the Middle East (excepting Israel). and the Third World (all the poor countries of Asia... Earth. Let's make the Third World War the final world war. or for those who wished to be more politically correct ‘industrialised’ versus ‘non-industrialised’ nations. twenty-five countries command between 80 and 90 per cent of the natural resources imported from these regions by the industrialised countries. South America and Africa) – with telling exceptions (white South Africa. Latin America and Asia (except Japan). in UN parlance. Other familiar terms were ‘developed’ and ‘underdeveloped’ or ‘developing’ nations.” (Farran. interconnected. Australian academics in the 1970s and 80s saw things in terms of the First World (to which they figured they belonged). There must not be a fourth world or a third or second. Of these. China and other ‘Communist’ countries).