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Derivations for Ballistics Modelling
Ian A. Johnston
Weapons Systems Division
Defence Science and Technology Organisation
Accurate modelling of gun interior ballistics promotes more e propelling charge design. propellant gas.
such models require a description of the thermodynamic behaviour of the e Noble-Abel equation provides a simple and reasonably
In order to simulate interior ballistic
cient gun and ow elds,
peratures experienced in guns. Most computational must be derived from the equation of state.
accurate equation of state for propellant gases at the high densities and tem-
listics models, however, require additional thermodynamic functions which is note presents the derivation
uid dynamics-based bal-
of such thermodynamic functions for Noble-Abel gases. Although the derivacode, the results are equally applicable to all computational highlighting the di equations. uid dynamics
tions are geared toward the functional requirements of the commercial Fluent solvers. Also presented is a brief numerical example for a typical propellant,
erent thermodynamics of the Noble-Abel and ideal gas
APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE
Published by Defence Science and T echnology Organisation PO Box Edinburgh, South Australia T elephone: Facsimile: ( ) , Australia
© Commonwealth of Australia AR No. November, -
APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE
the results are equally applicable to all computational solvers. Speed of sound. In order to simulate interior ballistic Accurate modelling of gun interior ballistics promotes more e ow elds. Most computational pelling charge design. e functional form of the speci c heats. Although the derivations are geared toward the functional requirements of the commeruid dynamics ( JA Also presented is a brief numerical example for a high-energy tank gun propellant ). c heats and gas constant. demonstrating the di state and two of the derived functions. e relationship between the speci e isentropic process. and Various partial derivatives of density and enthalpy . uid dynamics-based ballistics models. cial Fluent code. require addiis • • • • • • Entropy . erence between the Noble-Abel and ideal gas equations-of- iii . such models re- cient gun and pro- Abel equation provides a simple and reasonably accurate equation-of-state for propellant e Noble- note presents the derivation of a range of thermodynamic functions for Noble-Abel gases. ey include: tional thermodynamic functions which must be derived from the equation-of-state. gases at the high densities and temperatures experienced in guns. however.DSTO–TN–0670 e Noble-Abel Equation of State: for Ballistics Modelling ermodynamic Derivations EXECUTIVE SUMMARY quire a description of the thermodynamic behaviour of the propellant gas.
DSTO–TN–0670 iv .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DSTO–TN–0670 Contents Nomenclature ix Introduction ermodynamic Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partial Derivatives of State Variables Example v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e Isentropic Process Sound Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e Speci Entropy c Gas Constant . . . . . . Equation of State Speci c Heats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .DSTO–TN–0670 Figures Pressure as a function of density and temperature for JA . . . . vi . . . . . . Sound speed as a function of density and temperature for JA Entropy as a function of density and temperature for JA . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . vii .DSTO–TN–0670 Tables Properties of JA Propellant Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DSTO–TN–0670 viii .
DSTO–TN–0670 Nomenclature a b cp cv E e F h n ˆ P R s S t T u U v V α γ ρ Speed of Sound [m/s] Speci Co-volume [m /kg] Speci c Heat at Constant Pressure [ J/(kg K)] c Heat at Constant Volume [ J/(kg K)] Vector of Fluxes Enthalpy [ J/kg] Pressure [Pa] Internal Energy [ J/kg] Intensive Total Energy [ J/kg] Normal Unit Vector Speci c Gas Constant [ J/(kg K)] Temperature [K] Time [s] Surface Area [m ] Entropy [ J/(kg K)] Velocity Vector [m/s] Speci Coe Vector of Conserved Variables c Volume [m /kg] Volume [m ] Density [kg/m ] Ratio of Speci cient for Intermolecular A c Heats raction [m /(kg s )] ix .
DSTO–TN–0670 x .
multi-dimensional computational NGEN [ sive. ] code. and E represent density absolute static pressure. and intensive . Consider the Euler equations. the scalars ow quantities at points within the control ρ U = ρu . for Irrespective of which approach is used.DSTO–TN–0670 1 Introduction environment makes experimental instrumentation and measurement di tion domain. and pressure waves can be modwhich combines a one-dimensional elled using this class of tools. e ability to add or remove di periments. such as IB[ A particular pressure gradient between breech and projectile base is assumed ow (CFD) solvers. charge weight can be minimized erent physical phenomena at will. Physical phenomena such as inter-phase drag. tested. such as the ame spreading Two]. Although such a predictive utility can be partially achieved through targeted exts. all models require an accurate description of V the Euler equations can be wri ∂ ∂t volume. e extreme interior ballistic cult. where the dynamic ring process is represented by mean (lumped) state vari- within the propellant bed. Likewise. modelling can be used to predict e capability to accurately model gun interior ballistics (IB) promotes faster and is normally possible to determine all modelled physical quantities throughout a simulamodels to be used to identify the relative action of the various ballistic processes. P. ( ) U variable. ρ. uid dynamics ables. the vectors F is a vector of is a vector representing conserved uxes across the surface of the control volume. single-phase S refer to the volume and surface of the control volume respectively and . which may be are used by the CFD solvers to describe the ballistic a control volume thought of as a simpli ed version of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations that en in integral form as ow. the thermodynamics of the propellant gas. boundary layer formation. ρE primitive variables kinetic energy as Here. where U dV + V S F dS = 0 . Assuming no source terms. purchased or mods ed. ow. whereas it cheaper gun and propelling charge design. axial and radial delity IB simulations but are computationally expen- ]. models provide a range of additional bene i and assess a gun’ performance characteristics before it is built. provide higher- and applied to calculate projectile base pressure and its resulting acceleration. ˆ E = e + 1 |u|2 . allows by optimizing propellant grain geometry subject to muzzle velocity and maximum pressure constraints. For a single-species. Modelling also allows automated optimization. phase. HVG One of the simplest classes of IB models are lumped parameter models. For example. and F= ρ(u · n) ˆ ρu(u · n) + Pn . Of intermediate complexity are codes such as XKTC [ ow solver with a lumped-parameter model. n is a unit normal to the control volume surface. 2 ( ) . ˆ ˆ ρE(u · n) + P(u · n) ˆ ˆ t is the time U and F may be expressed as ( e V and ) u is the uid velocity vector and total energy respectively Total energy can be expressed in terms of internal energy and .
the bulk provement in accuracy for high density gases. in order to evaluate the Courant-Friedrich-Lewy criterion and maintain numerical stability. nothing furMost CFD models. requires eight thermodynamic functions that must be derived from (or are ]. Similarly partial derivatives of state variables may be re. ( ) ref an additional equation—relating the state variables of the contain six variables but provide only ve relations. and ( ) the average intermolecular spacing or mean ow regimes both of these assumptions Solid loading densities for gun pro- e ideal gas equa) inter- are true. lumped parameter and CFD IB models. P = ρRT. pelling charges are typically of the order – kg/m . e co-volume so-called Noble-Abel equation of state: the a molecular a of state. Equation can be used to describe the propellant gas with su ( ) namic functions corresponding to this equation of state. however. In ballistics applications. uid—must be provided. Note that in the case where the gas speci c volume ( ) v ≡ 1/ρ. the van der Waals equation of state provides an im] (P + α/v2 )(v − b) = RT. For lumped parameter modelling. For many practical free path of the gas is very large compared to the size of the gas molecules. Also presented is a numerical example for a typical propellant. ume occupied by the gas molecules. the high gas densities occurring in a gun chamber during combustion render the ideal gas equation of state inaccurate. require a range of additional thermody- cient accuracy for both quired quantities for certain implicit CFD schemes. where tion of state is accurate providing that ( ( ) R is the speci c gas constant. during the ballistic cycle may also approach this magnitude since. the results are equally applicable to all commercial and comparing thermodynamic quantities calculated under the Noble-Abel equation of state with those of an ideal gas. can be used to close the system. It is necessary to calculate sound speed. It is of the form [ While still an approximation. in most guns. for example. related to) the equation of state. e aim of this note is to present the derivation of such requirements of the Fluent code. molecular forces are weak. the high propellant gas temperature means that interraction term can be removed without signi raction energy is small in comparison to molecular kinetic energy [ cant loss of accuracy resulting in the . Although this note closely follows the research CFD solvers. to that for Noble-Abel gases. while the term traction forces. ]. To solve the system For gases at moderate to low density the ideal gas equation of state . e commercial Fluent CFD code [ for example. .DSTO–TN–0670 and internal energy can be calculated by integrating the constant-volume speci with respect to temperature: c heat e= Equations – T T cv dT. However. α = b = 0. Equation b compensates for the nite volα/v2 accounts for intermolecular atreverts to the ideal gas equation us P(v − b) = RT. thermodynamic functions for a Noble-Abel gas. the expression for speed of sound in an ideal gas is di erent ther is required. Peak gas densities produced 3 of propellant is burnt before the projectile has moved very far downbore.
( ) this also proves that (∂c p /∂ρ) T = 0. P) ∂ρ ∂T 2. ρ) T P T Equation of State e Noble-Abel equation of state has already been de ned in the introduction as P(v − b) = RT. ( ) . .1 c p (T.2 Speci c Heats c heat at constant pressure as a function of density and temperature. ρ) (T. and some additional relations. the gradient of with respect to pressure at constant temperature ∂c p ∂P = −T T ∂2 v ∂T 2 P . – . are derived in Sections e Fluent code requires de ρ(T. ]. ese functions. cp ≡ From Reference [ ∂h ∂T cp p and cv ≡ ∂e ∂T v . It is easy to recast the ( ) ρ = P/(RT + bP) to satisfy this requirement. P). ρ) (T. A similar proof is possible for speci ∂cv ∂v T =T ∂2 P ∂T 2 v =T ∂2 ∂T 2 RT v−b v = 0. equation as however Fluent requires an equation of state in the form ρ(T. ρ) ∂h ∂T s(T. ρ) P (T. ( ) can be related to the equation of state via ]. T) = c p (T) ( c heat at constant volume: ) for a Noble-Abel gas. ρ) ∂h ∂P (T. and hence c p (ρ. ρ) ∂ρ ∂P h(T. ρ) a(T. ( ) Evaluating the right hand side for the Noble-Abel equation of state yields ∂c p ∂P By Equation = −T T ∂2 ∂T 2 RT +b P P = 0.DSTO–TN–0670 2 ermodynamic Functions nitions for the thermodynamic functions listed below [ . ey are de Fluent also requires the speci ned as For completeness we will consider both speci c heats in this subsection. 2.
which is the same as that for ideal gases. be conveniently implemented in computer code as a curve temperature. we have ( ) ds = cv Equation R dT + dv.DSTO–TN–0670 and thus cv (ρ. the calori Results and show that.4 Entropy tion Entropy for a Noble-Abel gas may be derived starting from the thermodynamic rela- Tds = de + PdV. T v−b ( ) may be integrated to calculate the entropy di erence between two states: s2 − s1 = T2 T1 cv dT + T v2 v1 R dv. (v − b)2 ( ) Upon simplifying. ts). need to provide two separate tables (or curve if one speci c heat is known then the other may be calculated easily .3 e Speci and cv = constant. From Reference [ ] e previous section showed that both cp and cv could be expressed as functions of is obviates the c p − cv = −T ∂v ∂T 2 P ∂P ∂v T ( ) Evaluating the partial derivatives from the Noble-Abel equation of state yields c p − cv = T R P 2 RT . As an alternative to providing the speci t or look-up table in terms c heats as a function of c heat functions can cally perfect approximation could also be made: c p = constant 2. Substituting with Equations and . ( ) c Gas Constant temperature only We now proceed to show that these quantities can be related. the speci ( ) of temperature only . T) = cv (T). such that . ( ) 2. for a Noble-Abel gas. v−b ( ) . we get the convenient relationship c p − cv = R.
propagation. From Reference [ ]. ( ) or equivalently in the form required by Fluent. Noble-Abel gas. c volume (Equation ( ) yields ) Replacing the temperature terms by pressure and speci P2 (v2 − b) = P1 (v1 − b) and v1 − b v2 − b R/cv .6 Sound Speed e speed of sound in a gas. ( ) . however the cv is known. for an isentropic process in a calori the familiar ideal-gas expression = constant. ( ) changes occurring at constant entropy yields a result that will be of use in the following section. the consideration of state s1 = s2 . s2 − s1 = cv ln 2. this is a. s2 − s1 = cv ln T2 T1 T2 T1 + R ln v2 − b v1 − b 1/ρ2 − b 1/ρ1 − b . c heats is de ned as ( ) in the expression e ratio of speci γ ≡ c p /cv . ( ) We may expand the partial derivative using the chain rule ∂P ∂ρ = s ∂P ∂v ∂v ∂ρ s . which together with Equation results ( ) P(v − b)γ = constant Pv γ cally perfect. For the case of a calori rst term can only be analytically intecally perfect gas (Equation ).DSTO–TN–0670 grated if the form of integration yields e second term is easy to evaluate.5 e Isentropic Process + R ln . is de ned as the speed of reversible pressure wave a= ∂P ∂ρ 1/2 s . and for a calori T2 T1 =− R ln cv v2 − b v1 − b R/cv cally perfect gas Equation ln and thus ( ) T2 = T1 v1 − b v2 − b . For an isentropic process gives Although not directly important to ballistics modelling. ( ) P1 (v1 − b)(1+R/cv ) = P2 (v2 − b)(1+R/cv ) . . is is analagous to 2.
cient to correct for the e the form required by Fluent. we have ∂e ∂v = T RT − P = 0. v−b ( ) into Equation yields the speed of sound in a= v v−b γRT. ( ) premultiplying coe is expression may be thought of as the speed of sound in an ideal gas. ∂v Remembering that Equation gas. It is easily rewri γRT . a calori cally perfect Noble-Abel gas: and =− s Pγ . to speci γP 1 + (1/P)(∂e/∂v) T ρ 1 − ρ(∂h/∂P) T ( ) for the sound speed of non-ideal gases. In Reference [ also holds for the more general case of Noble-Abel ]. ( ) volume We now take the partial derivative of both sides of Equation with respect to speci c ∂ [P(v − b)γ ] = 0. Anderson derives the general a2 = imperfect gases.DSTO–TN–0670 and since speci c volume is just the reciprocal of density ∂P ∂ρ =− s ∂P ∂v s v2 . c volume at constant temperature can be related to the equation of state via e partial derivative of internal energy with respect can be evaluated using two ther- cally ∂e ∂v Upon substition of Equation T =T ∂P ∂T v − P. ( ) gases which are not calori expression cally perfect. we therefore have represented an isentropic process in a calori ( ) cally perfect ∂P ∂v Finally substitution of Equations . and thermally and calori modynamic relations given in [ e partial derivatives of Equation ]. ∂v ( ) and by the product rule ∂P (v − b)γ + Pγ(v − b)(γ−1) = 0. ect of co-volume. with a en in a= It can be shown that Equation 1 1 − bρ γRT. ( ) . reacting gases. v−b ( ) .
( ) ∂ρ ∂P =− T T . ρ 1 − bρ ( ) a= 1 1 − bρ γRT. P we have ( ) into Equation a2 = which can be simpli ed to give γP 1 . ( ) . Derivations of the non-trivial partial derivatives are now provided. ( ) ∂v ∂P =− T ( ) Substituting this into Equation and simplifying yields the result ∂ρ ∂P = T 1 RT v−b v 2 . this yields ∂h ∂P A er substitution of Equations and T = v− RT = b. starting with the chain rule First we the derive the partial derivative of density with respect to pressure at constant ∂ρ ∂P and thus = T ∂ρ ∂v ∂v ∂P 1 v2 ∂v ∂P T . cally perfect Noble-Abel gases 2.DSTO–TN–0670 Likewise. ( ) given by Equation is expression is identical to the sound speed for calori . ( ) For the Noble-Abel equation of state. P2 T . temperature. ( ) From the Noble-Abel equation of state ∂ ∂ (v − b) T = ∂P ∂P so RT P RT .7 Partial Derivatives of State V ariables e Fluent code additionally requires that various partial derivatives of state variables be supplied. the partial derivative of enthalpy with respect to pressure at constant temperature can be evaluated by the relation ∂h ∂P T = v−T ∂v ∂T P .
including its speci . A reference entropy ( has been used. At a typical IB gas density of %. since the ideal and Noble-Abel equations of state can be related by a substitution in terms of speci Figure is v ↔ (v − b). are shown in Table Figure c heats at the propellant calculated using the Noble-Abel and ideal gas equations is represented by the coloured is contours. predictions will be signi is is consistent with the results of Figure . RT ( ) stant pressure. Likewise. T e rst. ) corresponding to a state of e gas is assumed calori K and kg/m cally perfect. . peak gun chamber pressure – %) when the Noble-Abel equation . = P bρ2 − ρ . the di shows sound speed as a function of density and temperature for JA similar magnitude to those already observed for pressure. are represented by coloured contours and depend on density only . will be used as the subject. erence between the Noble-Abel and ideal-gas values e di erences are of cally perfect and obeys the Noble-Abel equation of pro- Equation Abel equation of state. ( ) Finally two partial derivatives of enthalpy are required by Fluent.DSTO–TN–0670 which can be rewri en in the required form as ∂ρ ∂P = T (1 − ρb)2 . shows pressure as a function of density and temperature for JA e variation between pressure propel- erence is to be expected. . In the case of JA guns can be expected to di er by around – %. A derivation similar to the above gives Fluent also needs the partial derivative of density with respect to temperature at con- ∂ρ ∂T is by de nition equal to ). to demonstrate the di A high perforame temperature. e di erences in pressure are observed to be independent of temperature. b (Equation cp (Equation ). and the operating regime. ect of the equation of state on predicted ballistic performance is dependent propellant. the pressure di lant gas. muzzle velocity predictions for typical high performance medium-calibre cantly higher (around is used instead of the ideal gas equation. e second. state (Equation pellant gas. according to the Noble-Abel equation of state. A brief example is now presented. propellant gas. Entropy as a function of density and temperature. for example. e e gure in terms of absolute on the particular gun and propellant properties. JA namic properties of JA Abel and ideal gas equations of state and two of the derived functions. is shown in Figure . assuming that it is calori ). (∂h/∂P) T is equal to the co-volume (∂h/∂T) P 3 Example erence between the Noblee approximate thermody- mance tank gun propellant. e di for the Nobleerence s 1 in between the Noble-Abel and ideal-gas entropy is shown in the entropy values. c volume (or density) only: kg/m . Again.
225 1484 J/(kg K) 1818 J/(kg K) 0. Coloured contours indicate the di Noble-Abel gas results. c v (T f ) Speci c Heat at Constant Pressure. 1500 D ifference [% ] 46 42 38 34 30 26 22 18 14 10 6 2 1000 P [MP a] 500 0 400 3000 4000 ρ [kg / 3 m ] 200 0 1000 2000 ] T [K the Noble-Abel equation of state. c p (T f ) Co-volume. Figure : Pressure as a function of density and temperature for JA erence between ideal gas and propellant gas. T f c Heat at Constant Volume. b Flame Temperature of Solid Propellant.001 m /kg 3410 K c Heat Ratio. according to . Speci Speci R γ 334 J/(kg K) 1.DSTO–TN–0670 Table : Properties of JA Propellant Gas Gas Constant.
according erence between ideal gas 4000 D ifference [J / (kg K )] 210 190 170 150 130 s [J / (kg K )] 2000 110 90 70 50 30 10 0 . Figure : Entropy as a function of density and temperature for JA erence between ideal gas and propellant gas. Coloured contours indicate the di Noble-Abel gas calculations.DSTO–TN–0670 D ifference [% ] 46 2000 42 38 34 30 26 22 18 14 10 6 2 1000 a [m/ s] 0 400 3000 4000 ρ [kg / 3 m ] 200 0 1000 2000 ] T [K Figure to the Noble-Abel equation of state. : Sound speed as a function of density and temperature for JA propellant gas.2000 400 ρ [kg / 3 m ] 200 0 1000 2000 ] T [K 3000 4000 the Noble-Abel equation of state. Coloured contours indicate the di and Noble-Abel gas results. according to .
Vol. User’s Guide. G. M. York. & Sonntag. Powell.. chapter Anderson. pp. Ab- erdeen Proving Ground. ( . Inc. BRL-CR- . Aberdeen Proving Ground. L.. United States. New eld. Fluent. J. ) ) Multiphase CFD Simulations of Solid Propellant . . e XNOVAKTC Code. & Conroy P J. E. Maryland. ( Interior Ballistics of Guns. Summer – . . ) Modern Compressible Flow With Historical Perspective. D. ) Equations of State and of Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics. Krier & M. ( ) IBHVG — A User ’ Guide. D. . Combustion in Gun Systems. K. BRL-TRs . ermo- . E. ) Fluent . & Fickie. G. United States. nd edn. P S. AIAA. J. ( . AIAA Paper Gough. Maryland. ( dynamic Data for Interior Ballistics Calculations. New York. John Wiley & Sons. Haar. Anderson. McGraw Hill. D. ) Fundamentals of Classical ermodynamics. rd Van Wylen. . . in H. & Klein.DSTO–TN–0670 References . R. . Wilmot. ( edn. M. J. eds. Nusca. . G. R. ( .
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Most computational Accurate modelling of gun interior ballistics promotes more e ow accurate equation of state for propellant gases at the high densities and temperatures experienced in e Noble-Abel equation provides a simple and reasonably elds. CITATION IN OTHER DOCUMENTS No Limitations 18. DOCUMENT DATE 2005/1076178 9. AR NUMBER 013-525 LRR 05/056 6c. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION namic Derivations for Ballistics Modelling e Noble-Abel Equation of State: ermody- Document Title Abstract (U) (U) (U) 4. uid dynamics-based ballistics models. TYPE OF REPORT Technical Note 12 November.pdf Chief. SECONDARY RELEASE STATEMENT OF THIS DOCUMENT Approved For Public Release OVERSEAS ENQUIRIES OUTSIDE STATED LIMITATIONS SHOULD BE REFERRED THROUGH DOCUMENT EXCHANGE. ABSTRACT ermodynamic properties Gases Guns Propellants sign. Australia DSTO–TN–0670 8. 2005 7 7. SOUTH AUSTRALIA 5111 16. highlighting the di erent thermodynamics of the Noble-Abel and ideal gas equations. CORPORATE AUTHOR Ian A. South Australia 5111. however. URL OF ELECTRONIC VERSION 14.dsto. Page classi cation: UNCLASSIFIED tion of such thermodynamic functions for Noble-Abel gases.au/corporate/ reports/DSTO–TN–0670. In order to simulate interior ballistic dynamic behaviour of the propellant gas. PO BOX 1500. Johnston Defence Science and Technology Organisation PO Box 1500 Edinburgh.Page classi cation: UNCLASSIFIED 1. EDINBURGH. DSTO RESEARCH LIBRARY THESAURUS Interior ballistics Equations of state 19. the results are equally applicable to propellant. Although the derivations are geared touid dynamics solvers. Weapons Systems Division 15. require additional ther- all computational ward the functional requirements of the commercial Fluent code. FILE NUMBER 6a.gov . guns. No OF REFS 13. DELIBERATE ANNOUNCEMENT No Limitations 17. CA VEAT/PRIV ACY MARKING DEFENCE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANISATION DOCUMENT CONTROL DATA 2. SPONSOR DSTO 11. RELEASE AUTHORITY h p://www. DSTO NUMBER 6b. Also presented is a brief numerical example for a typical is note presents the deriva- . such models require a description of the thermo- cient gun and propelling charge de- modynamic functions which must be derived from the equation of state. TASK NUMBER 10.defence. AUTHORS 5. No OF PAGES 12. TITLE 3.
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