PROJECT MANAGEMENT OF TELECOM PROJECT

INTRODUCTION India is a vibrant market from communications point of view. The subscriber base in the wireless market in India, the world’s fastest growing telecom market reached another milestone when it surpassed 200 million subscribers in Aug 2007. The country’s mobile services market is forecast to grow by a compound annual rate of 28.3% in next five years. At present there are around 54000 cell sites operated by different GSM/CDMA operators. This number would further go up to 80.000 in next couple of years. To reach the target the approximate capital expenditure required in telecom infrastructure alone is expected to be approximately $20 billion in next three years. GSM/CDMA project is spread over large areas with work sites located wide apart, are situated in wilderness with minimal approaches or on roof tops in thick of urban areas with restricted working space. Thus project management in general and construction management in particular plays a major role in cost effective and efficient execution of telecommunication projects. It is needless to mention that the objective is to ensure that the project does not suffer in terms of quality, time and cost overruns. For ease of comprehension, study on the development of passive infrastructure has been designed to first present the theoretical concepts and then correlating them to actual applications in the field by applying them into examples. Topics include scope of work, project planning, contractual terms of conditions, monitoring and controlling of project, quality control, risk management, warehouse management, operation and maintenance. Cell Site A cell site is a term used primarily for a site where antennas and electronic communications equipment are placed to create a cell in a mobile phone network (cellular network). A cell site is composed of a tower or other elevated structure regular and backup electrical power sources, and sheltering. A synonym for "cell site" is "cell tower. However, In GSM networks, the technically correct term is Base Transceiver Station (BTS), and colloquial British English as "base station". The term "base station site" might better reflect the increasing co-location of multiple mobile operators, and therefore multiple base stations, at a single site. Depending on an operator's technology, even a site hosting just a single mobile operator may house multiple base stations, each to serve a different air interface technology (CDMA or GSM, for example).

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Typical layout of a ground based site is attached at Annexure 1 The working range of a cell site - the range within which mobile devices can connect to it reliably is not a fixed figure. It will depend on a number of factors, including
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The type of signal in use (i.e. the underlying technology), similar to the fact that AM radio waves reach further than FM radio waves. The transmitter's rated power. The transmitter's size. The array setup of panels may cause the transmitter to be directional or omnidirectional. It may also be limited by local geographical or regulatory factors and weather conditions.

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carriers have been adding cell sites in rural areas as well in an attempt to provide ubiquitous coverage (an unobtainable goal for at least 5 years). To provide coverage for those people traveling between these particular urban/suburban areas. Urban and suburban areas have the highest concentration of cellular sites and towers. that purpose are to increase the number of minutes that people talk or receive/send data on their phones.TOWER SITE SELECTION Cellular tower locations are the result of an engineering field called Radio Frequency Engineering or RF. Most carriers have wireless plans that provide cheap or free "off time" rates. for short. state roads. Cellular sites must meet one or more of the three goals listed above. The industry refers to this as “Minutes of Use” or MOUs. highways. Capacity: The tower site provides additional capacity for the carrier to handle more calls in areas where existing towers are overloaded. RF engineers work closely with the marketing departments to determine areas where the placement of a new tower will accomplish one (or more) of three goals: Expansion: The tower site provides coverage over areas that do not currently have coverage. so the emphasis is daytime calling minutes which are typically the most expensive. Sites are located near a major roadway. In either case. Lately. and higher traffic local roads are covered by towers as well. The main way of increasing MOUs is by placing cell towers or sites in locations that have high daytime working populations. Need less to mention that daytime rates are highest in areas where people either travel a lot or where they work. Placement of towers at strategic intersections of major roads is often preferred. the tower must serve a specific purpose. the marketing departments and RF engineering departments work together to prioritize those sites that they believe will provide the most benefit to the company in terms of MOUs or quality of service. The marketing departments of the wireless carriers are constantly reviewing potential and uncovered areas to determine where to place new towers. The majority of the times. Because carriers have capital budgets. Building a tower to cover rural farmland where no people live does not serve any of these goals. Quality: The tower fills in a hole or an area where customer calls are frequently dropped or call service is poor. 3 . Rarely do wireless carriers build towers in the middle of nowhere.

Cell masts always reserve part of their available bandwidth for emergency calls. there is a finite number of calls that a mast can handle at once. This limitation is another factor affecting the spacing of cell mast sites. the maximum distance can vary from as little as 5 kms to 8 kilometres . in areas where there are enough cell sites to cover a wide area. When the terrain is hilly. making a GSM phone call while in a car or train). and most do NOT allow towers on residentially/ forest land or restricted areas Sites must not have conditions that would make constructing a tower unduly expensive. for those technologies that can handle it . Some technologies. to minimize interference problems with other sites.. possible hazardous waste on the property and high voltage power lines.The concept of "maximum" range is misleading. In practice. Just because you live on the tallest or second tallest hill in the area or county does not mean that your location is preferred from a wireless perspective. the range of each one will be set to: • • Ensure there is enough overlap for "handover" to/from other sites (moving the signal for a mobile device from one cell site to another. in a 4 .g.5-1 kms apart. masts may be as close as 0. Some areas allow towers on agriculturally zoned sites. with the most potential users. One thing to note is that. the parcel must be 200' x 200'. cell sites are grouped in areas of high population density. significant distance to the cell tower site from the main road. poor or rocky soil conditions. So if a tower is 100 ft tall. mast are commonly spaced 1." Generally. towers are only allowed on commercially or industrially zoned parcels. which is imposed by technical limitatio As a rough guide.Location of Cell Site Site should be large enough for a cell tower—normally (but not always) this is a parcel double the size of the height of the tower. unless the location is in a "Search Ring. Cell phone traffic through a single cell mast is limited by the mast's capacity. however. In many jurisdictions. Landowners must be willing to lease the site at rates acceptable to the wireless carrier. such as GSM.e. have a fixed maximum range of 40km (25 miles). Ensure that the overlap area is not too large. it is possible to get between 50 to 70 km (30-45 miles). the ground elevation is not the most important factor. Site must have easy and cheap access from a public road. In suburban areas. lots of trees. Site must be suitable from a zoning perspective. The maximum range of a mast (where it is not limited by interference with other masts nearby) depends on the same circumstances. based on a tall mast and flat terrain.5-3 kms apart and in dense urban areas. These conditions can include wetlands. contrary to public belief.

normally they do not share of electronic elements such as the radio access network or antennae. It is also important to note that these Search Rings are proprietary and are not available to the public or even to industry experts. the same radio channel gets reused on a cell mast only a few miles away. the carrier will then just lease space on the tower. To fulfill this requirement business of passive infrastructure provisioning and management is being outsourced to companies who operate and provide passive infrastructure comprising towers. They are not registered or provided to the local. A 15 m roof-to cite would cost around Rs 7 lacs. Further Service providers want to create new revenue streams and simplify existing infrastructure. Site Sharing The idea is to maximize revenues from the BPO facility by accommodating various clients at the same facility so that maximum seats can be utilized at 5 . A full scale ground based cell site of 60 m length costs around Rs 30-35 lakh. To overcome this limitation. and related site structures in ground based as well as roof top sites for co-locating active elements owned by different operators. and no new tower will be built. housekeeping and security functions allowing the client to focus on their core business. the range of this mast has to limited so that it covers an area small enough not to have to support more conversations than the available channels can carry. Wireless carriers prefer to locate on existing structures first before building a new tower. or federal governments. It also provides the operations and maintenance services.cellular network. At present. the signal of a cell mast is intentionally kept at low power and many cases tilting downward to limit its area. the ratio between the infrastructure components and electronic elements is 70:30. while rooftop cell sites comes in different denominations ranging from 24 m to 9 m. To do this. As they have an aggressive roll out plan. battery back-up etc. state. diesel generating sets. Just as a station on a car radio changes to a completely different local station when you travel to another city. drive or work near a particular mast. it is necessary to repeat and reuse the same channels. If there are suitable structures. They do this because many zoning jurisdictions require this due diligence and because it reduces development costs and time to market. shelter with ACs. The area sometimes needs to be limited when a large number of people live. the need of the day is to out source development of infrastructure so that the service providers are able to focus primarily on revenue generation. Cellular networks are designed to create a mass communication solution from a limited amount of channels (slices of radio frequency spectrum necessary to make one conversation) that are licensed to an operator of a cellular service. create a world-class ready-made infrastructure to provide highest level of standards to their agents to deal with customers and reduce costs. However.

The sharing of facility also allows accommodating clients involved in low-end as well as high-end services.the same time. It enables earning of higher margins from different clients based on their end activity and the criticality of the infrastructure support required. PROJECT MANAGEMENT 6 .

Action is taken as per revised plan by the project office. and lack of communications. Monitoring and control involves four steps Measuring: Tells us the status or the progress of work package during the construction. Reviewing: Measuring or progress leads the construction management to plan again and reschedule to make more efficient action plan Reporting: The progress report and revised action plan is reported to senior management for their approval and study. tools and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed customers/clients needs and expectations from the project. Almost all sites are unique with regard to building process. The planning function involves listing of all tasks essential in the completion of the project. Machinery and Material. unforeseen risks. time & cost Identified requirements (needs) and unidentified requirements (expectations) Specific to telecommunication projects. which is popularly known as management information system (MIS). Monitoring and control is the review and correction of difference between the schedule and actual work performance of the activity. remote area problems. This is the controlling lever of construction management. Manpower. vagaries of weather. monitoring and control. project management consists of management all the activities of a given project right from Site Survey to Site Integration.Project management can well be described as the application of knowledge. Also time and quality Controlling Tools • • Network analysis techniques monitors time Resource schedule charts gives information about logistics and machinery 7 . Action. skills. It controls four Ms i.e Money. Scheduling consists of sequencing of tasks according to their precedent time and expected times. The success or failure of project largely depends upon the extents of efficiency of MIS. A proper scientific method is adopted in reporting. This helps an Operator / Client in having optimum man-power and relaying on the Project Management in executing the project successfully in time. It entails basic function of planning. Meeting the need of the client invariably involves balancing competing demands among: • • Scope. scheduling.

Plan & scheduling of equipment and inform to warehouse & logistics department Monitoring all the activities on daily basis and reporting through a MIS (including critical area and critical activity analysis). works in consultation with technical and commercial teams Preparation of bill of quantities and bill of services.• • • Organization chart tells about requirement of manpower Specifications and drawings bounds the management to quality Financial planning about funding. Warehouse management Provision of Security at Site. Scope of Work : Scope of Work consists of following activities : • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • RF and site survey Site Lay-out & Marking Obtaining no objection certificate for setting up cell site Liaison with State Electricity Boards for obtaining required power Contracting and identifications of risks Soil Testing .structural design and layout of ground based sites Structural analysis of existing buildings and layout of roof top sites Finalization of specifications for equipment. Tower and other equipment installations Quality inspections and punch points Site RFI Co-ordination with all suppliers and Subcontractors for liquidation of punch points Documentation Final inspection & Handing over of site Bills verification and certification 8 . Preparation of schedules in co-ordination with all suppliers. Supervision of Civil. Electrical.

Quality: The tower fills in a hole or an area where customer calls are frequently dropped or call service is poor. 2. for short. Expansion: The tower site provides coverage over areas that do not currently have coverage. 3. Capacity: The tower site provides additional capacity for the carrier to handle more calls in areas where existing towers are overloaded. 9 .Organization Structure The Project Management Team is organized to cater for various activities covered in the scope of Project Management of Cell Sites as per the Customer requirements. The PMC general Organization Structure is as follows: RF & Site Survey Cellular tower locations are the result of an engineering field called Radio Frequency Engineering or RF. RF engineers at the various wireless companies such as work closely with their marketing departments to determine areas where the placement of a new tower will accomplish one (or more) of three goals: 1.

Based on rollout plan and requirements of respective companies. Proposing an action plan for solving the problems. Satisfied customers resulting in low churn • • Efficient network utilization resulting in reduced investment costs. RF Optimization services includes the following: • • • • Study of network performances through OMC Statistics. drive tests and customer feedback.RF Design RF design consists of the following: • Site survey of search areas. • Detailed RF site design including site configuration • Site parameter settings • Frequency planning • Continuing post. potential sites are located. Post-processing and analysis of the performance data to bench mark the network performance against the set quality of service targets and identify eventual problems. • Network quality resulting in higher speech quality index. selection of suitable site and evaluation. Site acquisition teams narrow down the best feasible locations through RF 10 . implementing the proposed action plan.launch optimization to ensure optimum level performance level The benefits of RF Optimization service are increased revenues and reduced costs. In close coordination with the customer. The proposed action plan may include parameter changes and/or network configuration changes and/or network Hardware elements changes. Performance Verification to ensure that the optimization process has resulted in network performance improvements such that it meets the set quality of service targets. • Site Build up Process The comprehensive site acquisition and installation process helps to deliver high quality and cost effective services to the customers.

HVAC etc Check List for site survey is at Annexure 2 Survey Check List. It is utmost essential that the connection is taken expeditiously as operating the site on DG is nearly 30-35% costlier than on power through Electricity boards. advance. It will also include due diligence of property documents. references. internal technical department comprising planning. and existing cell site owners. including back up power through DG sets. soil & structural suitability and optimal site shares opportunities with other potential service providers. commercial negotiation are initiated with the property owner. field survey. After receiving NOC from the site owner. real estate agents. In addition to other terms NOC contains the following essential clauses • Owner is the legal heir of the property and the same has not been mortgaged or is under dispute • Agrees to give out on lease/rent as per mutually agreed terms and conditions • Will not sell the property during the duration of the agreement • The company is permitted to undertake and execute all activities required for development of cell site. escalation conditions and 24 hrs accesses to the site to carry out routine and emergency maintenance. security deposit etc. a suitability survey is again carried out by RF Transmission & Electrical teams to assess the suitability from the point of view of Line of Sight & Electrical Requirement. After the site is technically selected. period of lease/ rent. Obtaining the connection involves following activities: 11 . defense area. land for religious purpose. civil & acquisition team to assess the suitability in terms of radio coverage. all necessary clearance/ documentation are obtained from legal/ government authorities. Once all documents are in place. NOC is required to be collected from site owner to ensure that the he does not pose any resistance while integrating the cell sites. Thereafter. the site is handed over to the site development team to construct tower and all accessories including shelter. DG. Other risks like institutional land. Once commercial terms and conditions are finalized with the site owner and internal approval is obtained. Commercial negotiation includes cost/ rent.planning tools. Based on the clearance report from internal technical department.xls Electricity Power Connection Immediately after the site is handed over to the site development team action is initiated to obtain power connection from respective state electricity boards. land use rights etc will also be considered during the due diligence and a risk mitigation strategy will be appropriately developed.

Identification of Risks Risk management is a systematic process in which risk factors are identified. It results in loss in terms of time. committed. Risk can therefore be defined as” exposure to the possibility of economic and financial loss or gain. strikes. Risk will apply to price. • The client and contractor’s experience and expertise in executing such types of contracts are of paramount necessity. weather. evaluated and planned. 12 . Certain changes are generally found necessary. It includes identification and assessment of risks together with development of strategies to minimize them when they occur. which is abstract in nature and is difficult to measure with precision or accuracy. Thus the need to investigate the project in depth by reliable. machinery and other associated activities. cost and quality performance due to obstruction in project objectives on account of conflicting individual interests. • The project must offer a reasonable rate of return and the client guarantee proper business environment • There must be a proper mechanism to identify extra work done and to pay the cost of variations.• • • • Preparation and submission of applications Estimation by the state electricity boards Payment of the estimated amount including security deposit Release and provision of permanent connection Contracting and Identifications of Risks Specific to GSM/CDMA projects wherein the cell sites are spaced wide apart and located in various types of terrains under different climatic conditions it is imperative that the contract terms and conditions caters for the site and location specific conditions. manpower. Effective resolutions of variations arising out of variations during the execution of project has been an area of concern as significant number of projects suffer in terms of time. Undertaking GSM/CDMA project is fraught with risks and obstacles owning to the very nature and terrain of the project. additions and alterations. materials. It is formal approach to set out numerous varied uncertainties in order to identify critical issues and provide measures for tackling difficulties that occur. labor problem and other aspects of project. reworks. physical damage or injury or delays as a consequence of uncertainty associated with perusing particular course of action. inflation. mitigate adverse effect or take advantage of beneficial ones. financially strong and technically competent construction consortium. Risk is an unforeseen event. to resolve these variations before they manifest into disputes. The need is therefore. money. varying from the quality and nature of work from those agreed by the parties. This results in additional cost of remobilization.

cancellation. Non-Availability of Sites: Non-availability of sites. It directly affects the payment terms and thus the cash flow. The need is to investigate the project in dept at pre tender stage in order to avoid changes as repeated changes result in dismantling of existing facilities and executing the new works causing delay and additional cost both direct and indirect. However during the course of construction priorities or/and the requirement of the service providers change resulting rescheduling the project or delay in renting out the cell site. Any delay in supply of material not only delays the project but also results in idle labor and increase in both direct and indirect costs. and acceptance and certification procedures needs no emphasis. flexible executable on ground. the format. standardized as far as possible and should cater for site and location specific constraints and requirements. Change in Specifications. Remobilization of teams and machinery is not only time consuming but also results in avoidable expenditure. Some of the features which are recommended to be considered within the frame work of site constraints are given below: • Standardized the dimensions of beam and columns thereby reducing the number of set of forms and ease of construction 13 . Tenancy: During the preliminary survey certain sites are selected based on the anticipated traffic and location. Many a timework has stopped after the major portion has been completed.Documentation: The need to specify the type of documents. Due to the very nature of the project changes in specifications occur. To avoid this it is important that prequalification of vendors are done after in depth verification of their capabilities and financial worthiness. especially in pro active sites. Soil Testing To under take field and laboratory investigations to assess the nature of sub-soil. sites on hold and disputed sites has adverse affect on the roll out plan. The contractor should have reserve funds to tide over the financial crunch so as to manage working capital cash flow. The commitments and decisions during design phase have a very high level of influence on the project cost as any alterations results in avoidable reworks and disruption of work. Integration of supply of material: Diverse kinds of material and equipment are supplied by respective agencies and their delivery is coordinated with the progress at respective sites. GSM/CDMA projects demand considerable outlay of funds and therefore it is imperative that the revenue generation is expeditious and procedure for releasing the payment is documented before commencement of the project. strata and to evaluate the bearing capacity and other parameters suitable for construction of foundations at cell sites Design Design should be simple.

• As far as possible avoid structure with RBC roof slab as exposing the reinforcement of the slab will affect the strength of the slab • Separate approach to the cell site should be or made available • The existing reinforcement of columns. Avoid wordy and redundant specifications. Testing of materials for quality level Layout of GBT site is at Annexure 1 Structural Analysis of Existing Building It is of utmost importance that the structural analysis of the existing structure is assessed prior to its consideration for installation of tower and allied equipment • Framed structure should be preferred over structure on walls • In multistory building the suitability should be assessed after analyzing the structural suitability of each floor. executable at site with realistic tolerance. Reduce the number of various sizes of rebars.• • • • • • • • • • Reduce number of bars in a given concrete placement to avoid dense congestion of reinforcement by either using larger bar sizes or increasing the cross sectional area at critical sections. Procurement of material and equipment in GSM/CDMA project spans across 85-90% of the overall cost and duration. Logistics The progress of cell site at optimal cost requires judicious allocation of available resources including material and equipment. It should be practical. beams and/or slabs should be exposed to check their respective sizes. Avoidance of duplication of specifications and drawings so as to ensure that there is no conflict between specifications and notes on drawings. Specify specific clause in the code rather than entire code. The quality and progress of constructional activities depend upon providing matching resource at every stage of activity. the specifications and drawings are to guide the physical construction of projects and therefore there should be no inconsistencies between drawings and specifications Specify approved material and components. seeking liability avoidance through inclusion of excessive requirement and unnecessary standards. Late delivery of material and equipment merge as the most 14 . This will reduce the chances of errors in erection of reinforcement. Specify clearly the desired standards of quality and performance required at site Provide quick response to requests for clarification or changes in design details. It will reduce cost. availability time and expedite inspection of material. • The design and layout should cater for the restricted availability of space so as to avoid dense reinforcement and for ease of laying of form work.

Further the quality of civil work play a major role in the stability of the structures. past experience. reinforcement. developing separate networks for each cell site is time consuming. documented site wise requirement. excavations. Tracking Sheet for Civil Works: Civil works is the critical activity in the completion of cell site as erection of tower.xls Bill of Material: Based on technical requirement. EB connection. Item Wise Inventory controlPjt. if any. It requires complete break down of the tasks into its component jobs and preparation of network showing the sequence as well as the inter-relation ship between the various operations. capabilities of vendors and to cater for reserves against unforeseen contingency. This gives a very fair idea of the scope of work to the vendor and also to the client in monitoring and controlling the cost. shelter and DG depend on its timely completion. planned progress at site.important factor contributing to the delays in project implementation. Keeping this in view project planning schedule customized to the specific requirement of GSM/CDMA projects was designed and developed and is attached at Annexure 4. Networking Network analysis is a generic term used to signify techniques that use networks and basic critical path concepts for planning and scheduling and are graphical numeric in nature. site wise requirement of equipment and material. terrain and activities. The scenario in India is further complicated by the fact that most vendors over trade themselves and book orders much beyond their capability and capacity A sample MIS for inventory control to correlate the invoices with delivery of material site wise is enclosed at Annexure 3 which is of immense value in monitoring the cost. This depends basically upon graphical portrayal of work plan in the form of network and then their numerical analysis to yield information. availability and cost of material bill of material is prepared which lays down the quantity of each item. and take immediate corrective measures. consisting of voluminous paperwork and difficult to decipher quickly and objectively. This schedule lays down the planned duration of each activity and the delivery of the material was integrated with the planned progress. bolt casting. Planning Schedule xls Daily Progress Reports (DPR). Scheduling of delivery of material and equipment: Delivery schedule of material and equipment is prepared based on the roll out plan. quantity and quality of equipment and material. wastage. shelter delivery and installation DG installation & commissioning. AC commissioning. However. Electrical works. identify the problems. planned and actual completion of site layout. Generally it consists of name/ID of site. DPR is customized by individual clients based on essential information required. boundary wall and security room. tower delivery and erection. The systems are most effective as at a glance the management is able to assess the progress of each activity at respective sites. With this in view 15 . concreting. The warehouse and logistic department is informed accordingly for procurement and storage.

the tracking of civil work is of paramount importance and accordingly tracking sheet was designed and developed which lays down the planned and actual duration of completion of each activity. The sample tracking sheet is attached at Annexure 5 Civil Works Tracking Sheet. o Vendor details o Commissioning reports of AC and DG o Warranty certificates o Electrical configuration o Check lists. delivery of the material re-scheduled if required. site staff and contractors to create commonality of views and communication between them. Verification by security Material register: Details of receipt and dispatch of material to other site/warehouse etc Visitors register: Incorporates details of visits by site engineers. quality teams and others QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 16 . methods and specification for future projects. techniques. quantity of diesel in tank and filled. earthing grid and equipment layout in shelter.xls Documentation Documentation helps in standardization of work methods to attain consistency in operations. Accurate. The major types of records to be maintained are: • Site Folders: o Drawings of the location & key plan. It serves as reference to management. Verified by respective site engineers Diesel Consumption Register:: Giving hour and energy meter readings. electrical. structural and as built drawings. The progress is monitored. complete and detailed records can be invaluable in time of accidents or structure failures. pour certificates o Acceptance testing report o Cube test results o Punch points Register • • • • Security guard attendance registers. It helps in providing feed back for improvement in practices.

Customer satisfaction is of prime importance and it should be a continuous process rather than one time endeavor. materials. cost. Few of the salient requirements in respect of major equipment are as under: Tower • Galvanizing of fabricated steel as per IS 2595 with a minimum thickness of 85 microns • Welding by electrodes conforming to AWS:E6013 • All members provided with marking for ease of construction • Bolts and nuts as per IS 1363 and washers IS 5369 • Incase of new customer prototype of tower be got approved before dispatch to site 17 . cover. identification and meeting/exceeding the customer requirements is fundamental basing point of effective quality control. • • • • • • Achieve the highest standard and expertise through continuously. time or any other activity. Quality Plans and Standards Specific to GSM/CDMA projects the plan should include the standard for each activity. The need for structured and formal systems of construction management to address the aspects of performance. greater care and attention to standards of performance and quality at design and construction stages. What is considered quality today may not be good enough to be considered quality tomorrow. Instead of quoting the IS code the relevant features of the code should be included and the focus should be on practicality and constructivity. concreting. reinforcement amongst others. It is ever changing. Human resource development Stringent quality standards for pre-qualification of vendors. construction. These deficiencies cost the industry a huge amount of money and many might be alleviated through training. For example incase of civil works instead of quoting IS 456. workmanship and quality has arisen as a direct result of deficiencies and problems in design.In recent years industry has increasingly aware of rising construction cost and perception of increased quality problems and the way to increase profit is to reduce the cost of poor quality rather than to increase sales. form work. Explicit as possible. developing and improving the quality plans and standards. and maintenance operations. Documenting punch points and corrective measures undertaken. add the clauses and standards on water cement ratio. Meeting commitments Monitoring the quality plan in respect of performance vis-à-vis laid down quality parameters.

No bricks/ wooden pieces will be used • Water cement ratio to be maintained • Center to center distances and level of columns to be ensured.Erection • Verticality of the tower to be ensured and tightening of bolts after proper alignment and verticality of tower is ensured • Check nuts must be provided as in addition to assistance in achieving verticality of tower it also provides additional support to the bolts. especially below bus bars • Proper crimping of joints and provision of clamps • Proper routing of cables • Use of approved makes and brands Civil Works • Layout as per drawing and jointly verified by client. feed connection to engine amongst other accessories. roofs. • Check date of manufacture and quality cement before use • Bending and laying of steel as per drawing and bar bending schedule • Provision of cover blocks. Failure to meet commitments is due 18 . • Compaction of earth work ensured • Cube tests for compressive strength to be undertaken and documented. AVM pads of poly pond make Locking arrangements for canopy Residential silence Alarm systems Neutral for earthing Shelter • No breakages in walls. • Painting of tower with one coat of primer and two coats of approved enamel paint • Erector to comply with safe erection practices and guard against hazardous and unsafe working conditions. Meeting of Commitments In order to gain the confidence of clients it is of paramount importance that commitments are met within the mutually acceptable time frame. doors of the shelter • No depression in floors • Proper anti static flooring • Locking arrangements for door Electrical • Earth pits as per drawings • Earth value not exceeding • Provision of insulators. • Provision of sincom below base plate DG • • • • • • Fuel tank with level indicator. filler cap with lock. steel and bricks to be used. vendor and owner • Approved makes of cement.

The quality needs to be checked during the design phase and thereafter during and after construction at site. practical and concrete behaviours and techniques. Selection of appropriate vendor is very important in achieving quality performance failing which multiple problems will be encountered in the project. For example electrical contractor with knowledge of electrification of buildings will not be effective in executing electrical works at cell sites. cost and orders in hand. techniques and awareness of human resource. methods.contractors Monitoring of Quality Laying down detailed plans and preparation of check lists are of no value incase these are not implemented on ground. Training plays an important role in developing the knowledge. Pre qualification of Vendors Vendor pre-qualification analysis is defined as a process used to determine his competence to meet specific requirement for performance of specific task. Commitment should be made after analyzing the following: • Financial resource including capability to raise funds through banks or/ and financial institutions • Availability of experienced and qualified human resource • Order book • Availability of teams • Availability of sub. Expertise: The selection of vendor for particular work will depend upon his expertise in a particular sector of operation and business segments. Paramount features of technique are: • Consist of project specific requirement • Project management techniques and methods • Tools and techniques to improve quality and project delivery performance • Identification of risks and remedial measures to overcome them • Changes and trends in customer requirements. The curriculum should be need based and correlated to the engineering operations in the field. business management systems and practices • Continual improvements in preventive and corrective actions. Human Resource Development Human resource development is one of the most essential ingredients of developing customer’s confidence and meeting commitments made to the customer.to unrealistic assessment of time. Training method as a change replaces the old view with new tangible. In addition to quality checks it is important that the site staff is trained at site on the quality measures to be adopted and on immediate corrective actions. 19 . • Realistic and specific case studies which in addition highlight lessons learnt.

need is to analyze the order book of the vendor with its available resources. payment to vendors may become erratic. punch points. It indicates its attitude towards commitment to complete the work as per schedule achieving customer satisfaction Order Book of the Vendor: The vendors have the tendency to book orders beyond their capability and resources. Dispute with Clients: Few vendors have a history of raising claims. person who has carried out the inspection and name of cluster head/site engineer. Such vendors be avoided.Financial Stability: Depending upon the liquidity situation in the economy. quality standard required and resource available to him. To avoid facing problems during the execution of project. Corrective action taken and removal of each point is recorded against respective punch points. responsibilities and authority. Supervision at site The main objective of site supervision is to ensure that requirement as defined in contract documents are correctly interpreted and problems are satisfactorily resolved. The vendor should have reserve funds to tide over the financial stringency. enter into disputes and go into arbitration instead of mutually resolving the issues. Supervisors possess requisite knowledge Regular quality and performance checks by managers 20 . Salient features are: • • • • • • Define responsibility so that there is no overlapping of activities and responsibilities Define specific functions of personnel and extent of delegation of powers. Avoid passing of responsibilities especially incase of failures Supervisors are thoroughly conversant regarding the scope of work. This results in delay and poor quality. Documentation of Punch Points After under taking quality inspections the punch points need to be documented indicating the name of site. Liquidated Damages: Analysis of the vendor’s exposure to penalties and liquidated damages is essential.

financial control and cash flow to monitor expenditure. It is no less for telecommunication projects. payment released taxes etc Monitor the release of payment Avoids double payment for the site o Billing Status: Attached at Annexure 8 Vendor & Site wise Expdr .FINANCIAL AND WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT Financial Management Financial management of construction industry in general and telecommunications in particular are unique as well as complex. o o o o In telecommunication projects comprising of diverse types and numbers of items it is likely that few items are not invoiced.xls o o o Correlates the expenditure between sites and respective vendors Compiles over all expenditure of sites. o Template of Operations Attached at Annexure 6 acted as a base for Template of operations xls o Invoices for all items raised to the customer o Invoices of all materials and services raised by vendors o Assists in compiling the estimated cost of respective sites. which involves execution of diverse tasks in a tight frame through involvement of many agencies. amount.xls o o o Gives details of PO. especially when terms of payments specify invoicing in phases. vendors and person. At a glance indicates the vendors work load 21 . o Vendors invoices Account Attached at Annexure 7 Vendors Billing Statement. In order to meet the above requirements the following systems cater for the specific customized need of capitalization of expenditure site wise. Ensure that double payment is not released to the vendor At a glance indicate the respective vendors work load Indicate the overall expenditure per site. The system should be transparent and meet the specific requirement of the project. Unique because they are both different from manufacturing industry and complex because there are many areas where financing is required A good accounting system is a sine-qua-non for success of any project.

issue and balance material Site wise distribution of material and equipment Correlate the distribution of material to sites with respective invoices. Configuration of equipment: Gives details of vendors. customer’s requirement and the quantity and types of materials and equipment handled. preferably on the last day of the month and the variations. location. o Monitor the unused material in good or non serviceable condition. customers/project requirement o Incase of emergency the material may be received or/and issued other than specified timings with specific permission of circle head or project manager. Generally the following are required: o Ware House Manger One o Executive/Supervisor One o Helpers Two o Security guards 3 on 8 hourly basis Timings o Suitable timings for receipt and issue of materials/equipment are fixed depending upon terrain. develop the operating and accounting system of all telecom and passive infrastructure items o Round the clock security and up keep of warehouse o Provide adequate fire fighting equipment o Stock verification every month o Keep the management informed on the stock position o Monitor the stock position of equipment and material critical to the project. Stock Reconciliation It is of paramount importance that reconciliation of stock is carried out every month.Warehouse Management Scope o Design. 22 . serial numbers and capacity Warranty and commissioning dates of each equipment Work Plan o Staff: It will depend upon the work load. are resolved at the earliest. MIS o o o o o Stock position indicating the receipt . if any. make.

driving time and transportation system o Availability of vendors. Lay down response time for repairs and rectification in coordination of vendors and clients.OPERATION AND MANAGEMENT Scope • • • • • • To coordinate the entire O&M activities required for as well as warranty support as per the provision in respective agreements with the vendors and customers Coordinate with State Electricity Boards with regard to supply and consumption of power Filling and accounting of diesel for DG sets Assessing the requirements of running and major spares based on the past experience Ensure implementation of repairs and replacement parts covered under respective warranty clauses. Equipment Generally the following major types of equipment/services are required to be maintained: o 15/25 KVA DG sets o 2x1.5 Ton/2x2ton Air conditioners o 400/330/360 Battery bank 23 . compile the likely faults and the urgency of repairs. o The terrain. type and availability of skilled labour and facilities o Analysis of running spares and repairs. Parameters While designing the system the following to be considered: o Keeping in view the experienced gained from similar projects.

o o o o o o o SMPS ACDB/Power Interface Unit Commercial mains supply(including energy meter. power cables etc) Fire detection system Prefab shelter Tower/ mast. • Details of equipment installed giving the vendor. completion. complaints.xls • Details indicating site wise date and time of receipt and description of complaint. capacity and serial numbers of each equipment. 24 . GSM antennas if in scope) Alarm system Documentation • Site wise details of commissioning reports of all equipment on sites • Warranty certificates and clauses. (MW. Sample at Annexure 9 Electric Configuration. spares used duly verified by the customer/site engineer.

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